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³The action of parasites, predators or pathogens in
maintaining another organism¶s density at a lower
average than would occur in their absence.
absence.´

‡u    


 in agriculture is a method of
controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and
plant diseases) that relies on predation, parasitism, or
other natural mechanisms.
 
     
‡Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as
biological control agents, include predators,
parasitoids, and pathogens.

‘ 

‡Predators, such as lady beetles and lacewings,


are mainly free-living species that consume a
large number of prey during their lifetime.

‘ 
‡An organism that lives intimately in, or on, a host
organism from which it derives nourishment.
Parasitoid
‡A
  is an organism that spends a
significant portion of its life history
attached to or within a single host organism
which it ultimately kills (and often
consumes) in the process.

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‡A
  ,     , or more
commonly germ, is a biological agent that
causes disease or illness to its host .
 
      
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‡Introduction or Importation
           
 

          

    
‡ Augmentation
   
        
          
   

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‡ Conservation
           

  
  
  
         



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‡Biopesticides are derived from animals, plants and micro-
organisms such as bacteria and viruses.

‡ The advantages are:


‡ They are inherently less harmful than chemical pesticides;
‡ They are more target specific than chemical pesticides affecting only the
target pests and their close relatives. In contrast, chemical pesticides often
destroy friendly insects, birds and mammals.
‡ They are often effective in small quantities. Also, they decompose
quickly and do not leave problematic residues.

The most commonly used biopesticides include u  


  (Bt),
Baculoviruses and neem. In addition to these, trichoderma, which is a
fungicide, is also used. Biocontrol agents, such as Trichogramma, are
parasites and predators of pests and their eggs.
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Forester Moth
Trichogramma Corcyra cephalonica j

  

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  is an order of
insect that includes moths
and butterflies. It is one of ÷    
the most speciose orders in @  c 
the class Insecta,
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encompassing moths and
the three superfamilies of  

butterflies, skipper   


butterflies, and moth-

    
butterflies. Members of the
order are referred to as     
  



     

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m 

 
COMMON NAME:- Rice moth (English)

‘÷ ÷  ÷
  
 

C. cephalonica is a major pest of stored grains of pearl millet (Pennisetum


glaucum) and sorghum. Considering the long storage period of pearl millet,
which may be several years.
÷‘ m

The caterpillar of Corcyra is up to 15 mm long and white or cream in colour.


The body is covered with fine hairs. The adult moth is grey, often with darker
patterns on the wings. The wingspan is 20-23 mm. The moth is usually seen in
large numbers on walls, poles or containers where grains are stored. Infested
grains are spun together in a tight web and white caterpillars and cocoons are
found in the grain.
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Trichogramma Use in Biocontrol

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‡Rearing Trichogramma requires first rearing an insect, typically a species of


moth, to produce eggs in which the wasps will develop. The Angoumois grain
moth, ÷
    , and the Mediterranean flour moth,  
    , are easily and inexpensively reared on wheat or other grains and
are commonly used to rear Trichogramma.

‡They are mass multiplied in captivity on surrogate host like Corcyra


cephalonica.
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Charging of culture boxes

Collection of adults of host of


Trichogramma (O    

Egg collection from adults

Preparation of trichocards from these eggs


UV treatment of eggs for 15 min

These cards are exposed to


trichogramma sp. for parasitization

The parasitized eggs turn black on 5th day

Trichocards stored for up to 10-15


days in refrigerator at 10 šC at pupa
stage
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‡For field release, the trichocards are cut into small


pieces and the pieces are stapled underneath the leaves.
This method is relatively easier and the distribution of
the parasitoid is uniform.

‡Trichogramma should preferably be released in the


evening hours

‡Thirty minutes after emergence, the parasitoids actively


search for their hosts.
   
‡Trichogramma is available in the form of cards
containing 20,000 parasitized eggs which have 90-96 %
hatching within 7-10 days of parasitization%

‡Trichocards are released @ 1 trichocard / acres.

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ËTrichogramma parasitizes the eggs, thus killing bollworms


and other lepidopterous pests before they could inflict
damage on the host plant.

ËThe use of trichogramma reduces chemical spraying and


preserves predators or natural enemies.

ËThey are host-specific, thus safe to use.

ËThey are cheap and can be mass-reared cheaply and


conveniently in the laboratory on unnatural hosts.
  
       
È]asps live longer when they have access to flower
nectar. Flowering plants in the field may enhance
parasitism levels.

ÈChoose insecticides carefully when you have to spray.


Broad spectrum chemical insecticides, including the
synthetic pyrethroids, are usually very toxic to
Trichogramma and should be avoided whenever
possible.

È Maintaining habitat diversity on-farm - This can be


achieved by growing a mixture of crops and avoiding
monocultures. Sorghum and maize are particularly good
nursery crops for Trichogramma because they often
contain high numbers of eggs.
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