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He Thong Dinh Vi Toan Cau GPS

He Thong Dinh Vi Toan Cau GPS

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22

A ~ ,A

HE THONG DINH VI TOAN CAU GPS

. ..

22.1 Ca'u true h~ th6ng GPS

H~ th6ng NA YSTARlGPS, vitt clt til chii' Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging 1 Global Poistioning System, III M th6ng dung v~ tinh dao bang do khoang each va th(ji gian tao thanh M th6ng dinh vi toan duo Ngay nay giln nhu thanh th6i quen, toan the' gidi cong nMn va goi n6 Hi H~ thO'ng dinh vi toan eliu vitt t~t GPS.

H~ th6ng nay phat trien til " H~ thO'ng ve tinh hang Mi quan sl,l' My" ( American Military Satellite navigation) til' nam 1973. H~ th6ng c6 dO chinh xac VIl'Qt qua ta't ca cac M thong djnh vi khac tnrdc d6.

GPS dl1Qc sa dung de xac dinh vi tri bit eU' dau,

Hlnh 22.01 nhu tren pO, tren bi~n, trong khong trung va khong

gian, va~ ba't cU' hie nao (24/24) eho ta't ca cac hoat dOng dan su va quan sl,l' trong moi Iinh vue voi dO chinh xac cao.

GPS dung trong hang Mi thirong mai c6 dO chinh xac tren mi;t phdng khoang 100 met. DO chinh xac k.hi xac dinh chieu cao trong khong trung Ia 157 m. GPS dung trong linh vl,l'c qulin sl,l', vdi bO rna tuyet m~t, c6 dO chinh xac chung 3 met.

Trang llnh vl,l'e dan sl,l' ntu sa dung ky thu~t GPS vi phan (DGPS) thl e6 th~ nang cao dO chinh xac cua vi tri len viii met.

Ben canh viec xac dinh vi tri trong khong gian ba ehi~u (kinh, vi dO va dO cao tren mijt biin), GPS can eung ea'p cac thong tin ve t6e dO ngl1C1i quan sat va giCl tht gidi UTe.

Viec thitt l~p he thong GPS mang lai stf. bie'n d6i mang tinh thoi dai sau s~c trong lInh vtf.e dinh vi va dAn dl1C1ng tren ml].t da't ml].t bi~n khong trung va khong gian.

GPS hop thanh Mi 3 bQ pMn: b() phan khong gian, bQ pMn mijt da't va ngl1C1i quan sat (ngl1C1i sli'd\lng).

22.1.1 B4) phOn v~ tinb tren kh6ng gian

Philn tren khong gian cua GPS g6m 24 ve tinh, hlnh 22.01, baa phU kh~p b!u trCti (j dO eao g~n 20.200 km, Chu Icy cua ve tinh la 12 giCl tren quy dao vong quanh trai da't. Trang sO' 24 vi; tinh co 21 v~ tinh hoat dQng va 3 ve tinh du trtr, chung dl1Qe b6 tri tren 6 quy dao, m6i quy d~o chua 4 v~ tinh, Cac v~ tinh dl1<;1C s~p xe'p sao cho it nha't 4 trong so' 24 ve tinh ba't i eli' hie nao cling nhm trong cl.m nhm cua mOt ngliCti quan sat tren b~ mijt trai dat M~i v~ tinh d~u phat cac tin hieu vo tuyen tren hai cl.n so', trong d6 chua cac thong tin v~ thien e!u, vi

so TAY HANG HAl 877

tri ve tinh, du lieu hieu chlnh song vo tuyen, cac thong tin v€ thai sai, tlnh trang v~ tinh v.v ... GPS ap dung v~ tinh kieu Block II nhu hlnh 22.02, nang 774kg duong kinh 1,5 met, dung pin nang hrong m~t troi dai 5,33m, dien tich tie'p nMn anh sang 7,2m2. v~ tinh phat tin hieu tren s6ng L, (1 575,42MHz) va ~ (1 227,6MHz). Tren v~ tinh con c6 anten thong ta'n dung d~ lien lac vdi m~t da't tren bang song S (1783,74MHz).

Ve tinh mang thea d6ng h6 nguyen ta, cac thitt bi tao rna truy theo, thie't bi di€u che' tin hieu may thu va may phat ...

D6ng h5 nguyen ta caesium (Cs) cung dp thai gian voi sai s6 1 gifiy trong 3 trieu nam, May thu lien lac vdi m~t da't thong qua bangsong S, tie'p nhan tin hieu dao hang, lich vii tru, tham s6 hic$u chinh gW v~ tinh, cac loai tin hieu lc$nh di~u khie'n ti't m~t'da't. Tin hieu dao hang du<;lc tinh trtr vao bQ nhd, Tin hieu dao hang cung vci tin hieu rna do khoang each dU'c;1c di~u che' tren bang dn L, va ~ r5i phat v~ phla trai da't.

Hlnh 22.02

22.1;2 Bet ph~n di~u khU!n tren m~t da't

D~ cho cac v~ tinh tren b~u troi heat dQng chinh xac, tren m~t da't da: thie't l~p mOt tram di~u khi~n chinh d~t tai Colorado Spring (My), 5 tram giam sat va 3 tram d§n dQng. Ba tram d§n dOng d~t tai 3 can crt quan sg cua My: dao Ascension (Dai Tay Duong), Diego Garcia CAn DQ Duong), Kwajalein (Thai Blnh Duong). Nam tram giam sat: rnQt d~t tai vi tri tram di€ukhi~n chinh, mQt tai Hawaii va 3 tram tai vi tri cac tram d§n dOng. Cac tram n6i vdi nhau b~ng duong cap dien.

Br) phan di~u khi~n tren m~t dat mo til tren hlnh 22.03, cac tram giam sat khong din ngl1Cli trong coi, chiu 8V ki~m soat cua tram di€u khi~n chinh, e6 nhiern vu thu th~p thong tin ttl'vc% tinh, lien tuc ki8m soat vi trl vc% tinh, e~p nhat thai gian va cung cap lich sao cho vc% tinh dung d~ dam baa 8V d6ng be) thai gian vdi thCli gian chuffn va vi tri tren trai da't. Cac dtY lieu nay du'qc truyen v€ tram di€u khi~n chinh.

~ngtanS

Vt tlnh .

Hlnh 22.03

Tram di€u khi8n chinh ti6p nh~n, xU 19 cac thong tin , sai s6 dCi' lieu ... ttl' cac tram giam sat truyen v6 va e~p nh~t, bien t4p cac ban tin dao hang, cung eKp thai gian ehu~n> tinh toan cac

so TAY HANG HAl 878

thOng s6 v~ tinh, dua ra cac l~nh di~u khi8n... r6i truyen chung de'n cac tram dfin d~ng, dinh gio phat d6ncac v~ tinh .GPS.

22.1.3 May thu GPS nglim sd'dVng

Muc dich cu6i cung cua M th6ng la may thu GPS cua ngirci sli dung tren mat da't tie'p thu cac tin hieu nr v~ tinh d8 xac dinh vi tri, May thu GPS thu nhan tin hieu ta it nha't 4 vi$ tinh, may thu bao g6m may tinh dien tli tt! lua chon nh6m v~ tinh de tie'p nhan tin hieu, xU'19 va tinh toan vi tri ella tau g6m vi dQ, kinh dQ, thai gian, t6c d~, hu'dng di mot each chinh xac va hi8n thi len man hlnh.

May thu GPS dUc;fe thiSt kS thanh nhieu loai khac nhau: may thu GPS cho phirong tien eao t6e dung tren may bay va dan dao t6c dQ cao, may thu cho phuong tii$n trung t6c dung cho may bay dan dung t6c dQ dirdi 400kmlgiO va may thu dung cho phuong tic%n t6e dQ tha'p d8 xac dinh vi tri tau bi8n, oto, du Iich tren bQ ...

Hc% th6ng dinh vi toan du rmg dung rong riii tren da't li~n, bang khong, hang hai, trong cac Ilnh vue quan sl,l' va dan dung.

22.2 Nguyen Iy xac dinh vi trf b~ng GPS 22.2.1 Khai ni~m co ban

f)~ giiii thich mgt each don gian, thea nhu hlnh 22.04, dilu tien giii sa dil bie't vi tri cua hai v~ ti~h trang khong gian, cii hai v~ tinh va may thu ciia ngu'oi sa dung d~u trang bi cac d&ng h& d6ng bg vdi nhau. Khi v~ tinh phat ra mgt tin hieu VaG thci diem du'<;1e ghi lai tren d6ng hIS ngu'oi sa dung va ngUoi sa dung thu nhan dU'<;1C tin hi~u d6 sau Igiay, thOi hrong s6ng truyen Ian ta vc% tinh de'n ngu'oi sa dung Ia t, de hi8u ding khoang each gitra v~ tinh va may thu ngu'oi sa dung la ext (trong d6 e la t6c dg song radio trong khong gian bang 300.000kmls). Vi tri ella ngUCIi quan sat nhm tren mQt qua cilu tu'ang nrong co ban kinh R= ext , tam ciia qua du nay nhm dUng vi trl ella v~ tinh vao tMi di8m no phat tin hieu, Vi trf ngu'Cli quan sat vira n~m tren qua du tUdng nrong vita nhm tren trai da't, cho nen vi tri do chac ehAn n~m tren du'ong giao nhau ciia m~t qua du va m~t trai da't, do la du'Clng vi tri tM nha't A. Cung each nhu v~ y,. d6ng thol do khoang each d6n mOt v~

tinh khac ta c6 du'Cfng vi trf tha hai B. Hai du'Clng vi tri nay dt nhau tai hai di8m, trong do diem P 13. vi tri ciia ngU'Cli quan sat. Hai diem d6 thu'Clng each nhau r[t xa nen khong thE nhgm l!n du'c;1c.

Tr.lII1~1

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jI Vi Iff ngll1li quan sat

Hlnh 22.04

BAng each sa dung hai v~ tinh thi xac dinh du'c;1C hai d1l' li~u thoi gian ma tin hieu di ta v~ tinh dln trai d[t. Thoat tien, nMn tha'y rhng chi hai v~ tinh la du dt! xac dinh kinh d¢ va VI do m¢t diem tren trai da't (noi d<).t may thu). Tuy nhien, c~n phdi c6 m¢t du lil$u thtl' ba trong phircng trinh d6 la sai s6 cua ddng hd ngU'C1i quan sat so vdi ddng hd tren v~ tinh, VI v~y (fbi

so rAY HANG HAl 879

hOi phai do khoang each ciia ve tinh thrt' ba, M~t khac, tren tau thuy d(i cao tren muc mtdc bi~n Ia mot s6li~u dil bie't, nhirng vdi ngiroi quan sat tren may bay trong khong trung ho~c tren luc dia thl phai xac dinh dU<;1c do cao d6. Trong cac tnrong hop nhu vh, c~n thie't phai c6 16i thie'u 4 v~ tinh d6ng thoi mdi giai dU!;1c cac bai toan v~ kinh, vi do va dQ cao.

V, trf hlnh hoc cua cac ve tinh trong khong gian phdi dU!;1C s~p xe'p sao cho cac dUClng vj tri LOP rna chang tao ra luon cAt nhau 90° d~ dam bao dQ chinh xac cua vi trio

E>~ thl!c hien vi~c do khoang each, c6 3 vlln d~ dn ghli quye't:

1. Xac dinh m6i quan M gitra d6ng hd may thu GPS cua ngl1C1i dung vdi d6ng hd tren v~ tinh.

2. Phuong phap do thci gian vdi d() chinh xac cao, sai s6 thCli gian O,lJlS (10-7S) nrong dltdng vdi sai so' do khoang each Ia c x t=3 X 108 x 1O-7=30met.

3. Thong bao cho nguoi sil' dung thoi gian chinh xac rna ve tinh phat tin hieu.

Dudi day h1n llt!;1t trlnh bay each giai quyet cac va'n d~ nay. 22.2.2 Bdng h6

o tai tram di~u khi~n chinh cac tram giam sat va tren cac v~ tinh dU!;1C trang bi loai ddng hd c6 dQ6n dinh ra't cao, d6 la loai d6ng hd laser caesium hoac hydrogen. E>dng hd nguyen til' chi bao chu ky cua dao dQng dU!;1C tao ra Mi mot b(i dao dQng dil xac dinh thoi diem b~t d~u bi~u thi b~ng "0". V~ co bdn, dQ chinh xac cua bQ dao dQng quytt dinh dQ chinh xac eua viec do thOi gian cua lQ trtnh truyen Ian s6ng, do d6 eiing quytt dinh d() chinh xac eua viee xac dinh vi trio BQ dao dQng e6 dQ 6n dinh t~n s6 cue ky eao chi e6 sai s62xlO-n ehu kYlngay.

Thay VI do thoi gian bhg don vi giay theo each thong thltCfng, d6ng hd nguyen til' do thCli gian bhng don vi nane giay (1 nanoseconds = 1O.9s). NguCli quan sat e~n phdi bie't chinh xac dGng h6 ve tinh nhanh hon hay cham hon dOng hd nguC1i quan sat Ia bao nhieu. Tuy nhien khong th~ nao xac dinh con s6 nay b~ng tin hieu phat ti:t ve tinh bdi VI thoi gian cua IQ trlnh tin hieu ding nhu vi tri cua ngUCli quan sat d~u chua bie't.

DGng hd tram ehu va d6ng h6 cac tram giarn sat d~u dung thtli gian UTe goi la thCli gian GPS. Thoi gian GPS du'<;1C coi nhir la thOi gian chuffn eua he th6ng.

Thoi gian tren ddng hO ve tinh goi la thoigian Is" ( space vehicle time), thCli gian nay e6 th~ Iech so v(fi th<1i gian GPS, dQ lech nay tren m6i ve tinh Ia khac nhau. BOng hd d may thu eua ngl1t1i quan sat thong tlumng sil' dung dOng hO "quatz" dQ chinh xac kern hon dGng h6 v~ tinh.

22.2.3 Xac djnh vi tri cUa ve: tinh

Vdi b6n tram giam sal d~t tren trai dllt c6 vi tri da bie't, cac tram nay nh~n rllt<;1e tin hieu phat eli ttr mQt v~ tinh, ttr d6 c6 thi xac dinh vj tri cua v~ tinh. Bie't dl1<;1e vj tri cua v~ tinh va ll!e tac dung len n6 thl hoan loan c6 thi tinh toan dl1<;1e ehuyin dQng cua v~ tinh d cac quy dao ke'tie'p.

B6n tram giam sat khong thu dOng th<1i tin hi~u ti:t cac ve tinh rna n6 thu tin hieu cua m()t vi;: tinh ba't eli' Inc nao e6 th~. M5i mQt tram giam sat ghi nh~n th?1i di~m tin hi~u de'n eua ttt d cac v~ tinh theo th?1i gian GPS va chuy~n chung sang tram di~u khie'n chinh, Nh?1 vi tri cua b6n tram giam sat dil bie't va tMi diem dtn cua cac tin hieu ve tinh ttt cac tram giam sat dtta

so TAY HANG HAl 880

sang, tram di~u khign chinh khong nhUng xac dinh duCJc vi tri cua v~ tinh trong khong gian ba cbi~u rna con xac dinh dU<;1c thoi diim cac tin hieu d6 phat di tir v~ tinh, xac dinh dQ I~ch thi:Ji gian .6tsv cua titng v~ tinh d6i vdi thci gian chu~n GPS. Tit nhttng dO' li~u d6, vi tri dt! bao stp tdi cua v~ tinh ding nhu sai so' cua d6ng hd .6tsv dU'(jc bao trd Iai v~ tinh, chang dU'(jc luu trong bQ nhd ciia v~ tinh va phat thU'i:Jng xuyen v~ phia nglti:Ji sit dung,

22.2.4 Nguyen Iy do tbM giaD cua 10 trmh truy~n s6ng

Theo nhu hinh 22.05, d6ng h6 ve tinh phat tin hl~u thCfi gian tsv van thci gian t = 0 thea giCJ GPS, giO'a tsv va thci gian GPS c6 sai so' 1ft L1tsv• Cll m6i 1 nanosecond sai so' thl gay ra sai so' khoang each la c xlO-~ = 3 X 10-9 = 0,3m.

L1tsv dU<;1c xac dinh Mi tram di~u khiin chinh va phat di cho m6i vt$ tinh rieng biet va tich luy C1 d6, m6i v~ tinh phat trd lai cho may thu ngU'Cii sU' dung. May thu nguci sU' dung c6 thl cQng ho~c trir gia tri L1tsv vao giCi GPS tnrdc khi ti€p tQC xU'If tin bieu. f)g don giant tren hmh 22.05 coi nhu gii:J tsv da dtr(jc bic$u chinh .6tsv .

TI\lIi gian ta v~ tinh
AtSY I dtnm4.vthu GPS '"
tu+{Atu+ AtJJ~tsv I
I
I
tsv I t
0
~ --. t (thtJl
glan GPS)
I
I
It-o .u
I --- t(d6ng h6
Atu -I- AfA t tu ng~ sffdUng) Hlnh 22.05

May thu GPS ngU'CIi su dung xac dint. thCli gian ciia lQ trlnh s6ng vo tuyen truyen Ian tir vc$ tinh d6"n may.thu GPS bbg [tu+(L1tu+L1tN], trong d6 bao g6m ca sai so' cua ban than d6ng h6 may thu L11u va sai so' truyen Ian cua s6ng L1tA. Cac sai so' d6 d~u dU(je tram di~u khi~n chinh xac dinh va truyen d€n may thu. Bhng each tinh toan, so sanh, may thu GPS c6 thi tlm ra thai gian tMt cua IQ trlnh truyen s6ng, tir d6 ghli ra cac toa dQ vi tri va cac thong s6 dn thiet khac.

22.3 Mi ngiu nhien gia (Pseudo Random Noise - PRN) 22.3.1 I4i feb cua rna ngiu nhien gia

He th6ng Decca dung phuong phap so sanh pha, con hc$ th6ng Loran thl dung phuong phap hi~u so' thCJi gian clla xung d8 thie't I~p cac dU'Cing ding tri khoang each dang parabol giup cho vic$c xac dinh vi trio ea hai phuong phap d~u c6 nhtrng han ch€ VI khong giiH quye't dU<;1C thoa dang nhtrng mau thu~n gifi'a viec nang cao dQ chlnh xac voi vic$c rna rQng t~m xa hoat dQng ella he th6ng.

86 TAY HANG HAl 881

H~ th6ng din dliong vc$ tinh NNSS cling SIT dung each do hieu khoang each M xac dinh vi tri, Hieu khoang each do bhng each tinh s\i dich ehuy~n t~n so' Doppler cua song mang phat til' v~ tinh. Nhung NNSS kh6ng th~ dinh vi lien tuc, kMng thich ung dung cho loai phuong tien cao t6c, hon ntra dQ chinh xac cling kh6ng dap ling yeu c~u di_ie biet trong khoa hoac kh6ng gian, quan s\i ...

Cac M thong dinh vi noi tren khong the' dat dliQc nhtrng yeu cftu eao nhu M thelngGPS. VI GPS ap dung rnN Ioai tin hieu do khoang each dat cac yeu e~u sau day:

1. D~ tic$n cho may thu ngli<'Ji sii' dung, cac v~ tinh cua GPS phat s6ng tir dQ eao 20 200 km v~ phia rni_it da't. Tin hieu nay e6 cirong dO thap hen cac tin hieu cua cac hc$ th6ng xac dinh vi tri di_it tren luc dia,

Mat khac, de' kh6ng gay nhi~u de'n viec thu nhan tren mat df(t d~ng thoi dam bao ngudn dic$n rni_it troi dung eho vc$ tinh, Uy ban tu v11'n vo tuye'n di~n' qu6e te'va Lien minh di~n tin qu6c te' quy dinh t11't ca v~ tinh trong khong gian phat song, cuong dO ciia song khi de'n mat d11't khong dli<;lC virot qua -154dBW. MQt tin hieu nhir v~y la qua ye'u, bi Ifin trong tap am tren mi_it dtt. D6i vdi cac nhu du khac v~ quan su, khong gian, khi nrong ... , ngu'C1i ta sU' dung cac tram thu vc$ tinh bhng cac chao anten parabol du'ong kinh ldn tie'p nhan cac tin hieu vc$ tinh de hQi tu, nang cao cltong dQ tin hieu sau d6 mdi dira vao xii' ly. Nhung cuong dQ ciia tin hieu vc$ tinh GPS khi v~ de'n trai d11't chi til' -155dBW - -158dBW, khong the dbi hoi cac phirong tic$n sii' dung may thu GPS rnang thea cac chao anten parabol IOn. PMi tim mot phuong phap mdi d6' thu nh~n tin hieu GPS do khoang each va giai phap ky thu~t tuong irng giai quye't v11'n d~ do. Do la ky thuat thu "ur nrong quan", se giai thich d phh sau.

2. GPS do BQ qu6e phong My sang l~p dung cho muc dich quan sir, VI v~y tin hieu GPS phdi du'<;le dam bao tuyet m~t, n6 chi dUQc ap dung m9t phftn cong nang cho dan s\i vdi dQ chinh xac th11'p hen,

Qua qua trtnh nghien cuu lau dai, ngiroi ta da Om dU<;lC hlnh thtrc 19 tudng vira dam bao do khoang each de'n v~ tinh d~ng thoi bao m~t thong tin, d6 la ky thu~t rna ngiiu nhien gia (Pseudo Random Noise, vie't t~t la PRN).

Dung rna PRNdo khoang each dat de'n di;l chlnh xac 19 tuong, rna PRN d6 cling sa dung cho thong tin cling dat de'n rmrc bao m~t cao. Khi ph6ng phi thuyen APOLLO len mi_it trang My da dung rna PRN de thea d6i vi tri cua hoa ti~n. Hc$ th6ng GPS hien dang ap dung loai rna nay. V~y, PRN la gl?

22.3.2 Tin hi~u rna hoa

Tin hic$u rna hoa phat di tir vc$ tinh baa g~rn cac chu6i di~n ap (+) va (-) , goi la "chip", thoi gian keo dai ciia "chip" goi la chu ky chip (chip length hay chip period). Hlnh 22.06 rna ta mi;lt chu6i chip goi la tin hieu PRN. Cac ehu6i "chip" dic$n ap lien tuc do vc$ tinh phat di la gi6ng nhau. Cac chu6i nay do mach logich tao ra. M6i mach logich tren vc$ tinh co the' tao ra nhieu chu6i khac nhau. Tin hieu phat ti'f tram di€u khi~n chinh se phat If$nh chophep s-ii' dung chu6i nao thl vf$ tinh, nhan dUQe lc$nh se sa dung ehu6i do.

N6i chinh xac hon, rna PRN g~rn m(>t day cac chu s6 thea hc$ de'rn nhi phan (ttrong ling vdi cac gia tri "+" va "-" 0 hlnh 22.06) c6 cac d~c tinh nhu e6 the xac dinh tnroc, d6ng thai c6 the' l~p lai, va d~c biet co d~c tinh " 11)' nrong quan" (Auto-correlation) rtt t6t gi6ng nhu d~e tinh v6n e6 cua nhi~u tap am.

SOTAYHAijGHAI 882

M6i v~ tinh phat hai rna, rna CIA va rna P (hoij.c Y) nlnr hmh 22.06.

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MlI mal b!t dllu Us 0000 dilm ThO bay I Chu nhat b)

Hlnh 22.06

1. Ma CIA

Ma: CIA ( Coarse Aquisition Code) du<;fc sii' dung a" Dich vu xac dinh vi tri tieu chuan SPS (SPS - Standard Positioning Service).

Bay la Ioai rna ngln, t~n s6 "chip" cua rna CIA la 1,023 MHz ( s6 hrong chip trong mOt giay), chieu dai cua chip O,9875)ls, tuong dliang 293 met, chieu dai ciia mot chu6i rna (code length) lms =1000)1s. Vi v~y mbi mot chubi g6m c6 100010,9975 ::::11000 chip, Cll sau m6i ms thl chubi rna l~p lai mot I~n.

2. MaP

Ma P ( Pricision Code) dUQc sii' dung (1 "Dich vu xac dinh vi trl chinh xac PPS " ( PPS - Precise Positioning Service ).

T§n s6 "chip" cua rna PIA 10,23MHz, chic!u did cua chip 99,75ns, bhng 1110 chieu dai chip cua rna CIA. chubi rna P keo ra't dai, rn6i ve tinh phat rna P trong 7 ngay mot lan, cc vao gitra dem thU' bay 0000 gio thi bift d§u mot chudi rna mdi, trong rnai tuan Ie chubi khong 14p lai,

Ma P ap dung cho viec do hieu thoi gian bang "nr tuong quan", nhung chieu dai cua rna dai nhir v~y gay kh6 khan cho may thu GPS va dij.c bi~t tieu t6n thai gian dg do tim ph§n rna. Vl. Yay, cU' 6 giay mot l~n, may phat v~ tinh se phat thoi gian keo dai ella chu6i rna P k6 til'ldc b~t d~u chuai rna P, nho d6 giup cho may thu c6 th6 xac dinh dli<;1C nhanh chong cac phan rna P nrong ang. Thoi gian kinh qua tit khi Mt d~u phat chu6i dliQc tinh bang don vi 1,5s (goi la 1 zecond, Z). Trang noi dung ban tin phat til' v~ tinh cho may thu nguoi sii' dung c6 chi r5 s611i<;fng Z trong dO' lieu "HOW" ( Hand Over Word).

Ma P dliQc bao rn~t, dung cho quan su, chl co loai may thu chuyen dung vdi de) chinh ~ac

cao mdi dung rna P. .

3. Ban tin dao hang

Ban tin dao hangctlng dlicjc dieu che' bhng dn s6 LJ va ~ va dUQc phat lien tuc vdi t6c do 50 bit/s (bps). Cac di.'i' lieu trong ban tin dao hang bao g6m: Iich sao, thoi gian, sai s6 d6ng h6, lich thien van va thong bao trang thai hoat dong cua h~ thong,

so TAY HANG HAl 883

Hlnh 22.07 13. dinh dang ban tin dii' lieu dao hang, ban tin g6m cac kh6i (Frame) dii'lieu 1500 bit, 30 giay. Mlii kh6i g6m cac kh6i nho (Subframe) 300 bit, mlii kh6i nho phat trong 6 giay vdi t6c dQ 50 bit/so

BUBF,FMS If- ONS 8UIIF~I5";)Go BITS, 6,UCONDB ~

1 I TLM I HOW I SVCLOCK CORRECTION DATA I 'I

2 I TLM [HOW I BVEPHEMERIS DATA el) I :;A

" I TLM I HOW I BV EPHEMERIS DATA (II) I FRAME 2CI JiAPU elF BUBFRAMI5 4 ANDS" 12.11 MINUTES ..

4 I TLM [Howl OJl.1I5R.DATAjIONIJ, UTe, ETC) [ UIOOBITII, :==::==:==========~ 30 SECONI;IS

5 I TLM I HOW I ALMANAC, DATA FOR AU. SVS I J

If--- ONE WORD ·30 BITS, 24 DATA, 8 flARITY -ill

TELEM~Y WORD Is.e1T PREAMBLE I DATA [ PARITY I

H~D~~WORD Lt __ ~17~-B_IT_TI_M_E.O~F~WE~EK __ _JI~DA~n_··~I_p~AA~IIT~1

B!NH D~NG DD LI~U f)~O HANG GPS

Hlnh 22.07

Hai tit d!u tien trong m5i kh6i nM a TLM ( Telemetry Message- Ban tin dic!u khi~n ti'I xa) va HOW ( Hand Over Word). Cac nQi dung con lai trong cac kh6i nM g6m cac dcr lieu hi~u chinh d6ng h6, lich sao eho ve tinh, cac du lieu v~ t!ng ion khl quy~n, gib tM' gidi, lich thien van ... Tin hic$u dii'lieu d~o hang cung dU'<;IC di~u ch€ thea cln s6s6ng mang va dU'!JC vc; tinh phat di cung vdi rna CIA va P.

22.3.3 T4n s6' s6ng mang cua v~ tinh

NhU'rnfi tA tren hmh 22.08, mlii mQt ve tinh mang thea mQt bQ dao dQng tao t!n so' dao dQng 10,23 MHz dU'Qc 6n dinh bhng d6ng h6 nguyen til' caeeium, cln so' d6 thong qua mach hQi cln 154 d~ c6 cln s6L1= 1575,42MHz (A= 19 em) va mach bQi t!n 120 d~ c6 t!n s6M =

1227,6MHz (A = 24 ern), Hai cln s6 nay dieu eh€ hai loai rna PRN, d6 la rna P d~ phat tren 2 t!n s6 LJ va M va rna CIA chi phat tren t!n s6Lj•

Hai tin hieu rna CIA va P dU'c;1e phat d6ng tMi va lien tuc dung cung t~n s6 s6ng mang. Tren may thu GPS ap dung ley thu4t dien til' d~ tach rbi hai rna.

Cac tMng tin nhu am nhac, hmh anh va du lieu thong thU'ang dU'QC di~u cht b~ng ta'n s6 hoac bien dQ hoac pha tren s6ng mang cua may phat, con tin hieu GPS till dU'<;IC di~u ch€ pha thea rna P hoac rna CIA.

22.4 NguyBn Iy do khoang cach d~n v~ tinh, do t6c dO di chuyEn ella ngttm sit d\Ulg 22.4.1 Ky thu3t thu "ttl tttdng quan "

Tren may thu ngU'bi sli' dung e6 ta't d cac rna CIA cua cac ve tinh va dung n6 thitt l~p "tl! tirong quan" vdi tin hieu thu nh~n dU'Qc ti'I ve tinh d~ d€m thCli gian chfnh xac,

Phuong phap tl{ tuang quan dU'Qe ap dung de xac dinh thci gian dtn eua rna pha t tit ve tinh.

SO TAY HANG HAl 884

Hlnh 22.09 m6 phong mQt each don gian ky thu~t thu "tI! tlldng quan". Tl1Jc s61 bieu thi true th(ji gian g6m 15 pMn til' IJ..lS. Tl1Jc s62 bieu thi m9t chu6i 10 "chip" rna may thuGPS nh~n d11<;1C tir ve tinh, m6i chu6i tie"p theo deu t11dng tIf nhu chU6i tnrdc d6.

[ Ma. CIA l,Q23MHz )(1.023Mbits/s)
J\IWLInlUUUlTII - j

T'IO rna CIA Ma. P 10 23MHz l(10;23Mbits/s)
va rna P - 1IlVirlJUrinm... I
on IiGu Nsv/system ~S)
~ 50 Hz.r-L__llil...r
80 trOn
Song mang II t
Mach bOi tdo 1575.42MHz TIn
r- x 154 BOdiluch!l' I--
V4
oong h6 nguyiln n
tit vO tinh 10-0. ~
!dn s610.23MHz
SOng m;mQ l2
Mach bOitfn 1226;6MHZ Tf
_ .. BOdiAucM r-
'- )( 120 V
• ng
Ma dilliiju 50bps i-' BOtron
(BlnJincl'lo hang i-' H
va lenh cli'u khiSn) on li,uNavJSystem 1(50bltS/s)
50 Hz.J1......f1..f1 J
Ma P1D,23MHz (10,23Mblts/s) .
1WlIWIT1lJI.J1U. J Hlnh 22.08

1 2 1 I

66 7 8 910 1l12131415,,1 I I I I I I I I I I

I I I I I I I I , I

MOt chlllSi 10 chip 2 I--t-r-+--'- ....... Hr-I--+-+--I-~,_;...f.-I tbu til ve tinh

B~n sao, bdt d4u nit. ~ 0,

H-+-+++-HH-++-+-+-i~~ khflng tung pha VOl chuai 2, (lich chuyln limg bIP: 1 lIS.

Ban sao da dich clluyln Sus 4.._..__.. .............. -t-of-l-t-i--I-J..+--H-l_ dUn cung pha, vlvaV tu = 5ps

tumO

Mng h6 tu .. 6 ps

may thu GPS

Hlnh 22.09

iliOn L, may thu gWl sCrdung

ItmAy thu misCI dung

Tren true s63 lit chu6i han sao (Replica), gi6ng nhu chu6i phat tir v~ tinh, do ban than may thu t90 ra. Chu6i ban sao dich chuyen tir trai sang phdi theo tirng na'c Ius b~t d&u tir to = 0 thea s1,i kh6ng ehe' cua d6ng h6 may thu.

so TAY HANG HAl 885

d giai doan han d§:u ta nhan tM'y ehu6i ban sao va ehu6i "chip" thu nMn tu vi; tinh khong d6ng phavdi nhau, nhirng ehu6i ban sao dich chuyen (di~u khien bhng d6ng h6)cho dtn khi hai chu6i cung pha thl tin hieu tdng hop d()t hitn tang len thanh gia tri ct!e dai, Khi e6 dien ap tin hieu dat gia tri cue dai, thong qua rna phan h6i, ehu6i ban sao hi chan lai kh6ng dich chuyen nita.

Chi dn dem ph§:n tit Ius ttr khi ehu6i ban sao b~t d~u dich chuyen dtn khi xu!t hien di~n ap eire dai III xac dinh dUQe thni gian tr~ Lltp (ella khoang each gia) ella rna CIA. Trang vi du mo phong tren, ehu6i sao chep dich chuyen 5l!S, d6 chinh la thoi gian tre cua tin hieu rna til ve tinh den may thu GPS ngudi sU' dung. Hmh 22.10 la so d6 kh6i ella mach thu "tI! Wong quan", trong d6 d6ng ha may thu gilt vai tro di~u hoa mach t{LO ban sao, thong qua kY thu~t "tt! nrong quan" de l!y ra dit lieu xac dinh dC) tre thai gian Lltp chuyen eho may tinh M xiYly.

Ml philn h6i.

Hlnh 22.10

May thu GPS gam co cac linh kien, mach di~n tU' dung de thu, giai di~u ehe va xU'ly tin hieu thu dUQc tir v~ tinh. May tinh trong may thu da co san lich sao ella cac vi; tinh, cac dit li4$u lien quan dtn vi tri chinh xac ctia vi; tinh. Hlnh 22.111a so d6 kh6i ctia may thu GPS.

May thu thirc hien vic%e giai di~u ehe song mang, t~n s6 50Hz dUQC tach khoi song mang de chuyen thanh dit lieu.

Anten

Vi trl" ...,t6c dO. thtli gian

Hlnh 22.11.

M6i khi m(lt v~ tinh dUQc tham sat tht n6 se c~p nhat Hit ca vi tri ella cac vi; tinh khac sao cho c6 the tlnh toan dich chuyen doppler vir vi tri etia chung.

May thu GPS dn phai di~u hUdng theo st! dich chuyen t§:n s6 doppler de c6 the tiep thu dtt<;1C tin hi.~u tir ve tinh. SI,!' dich chuyen t~n s6 doppler n~m trong khoang 0-2400Hz.

May tinh trong may thu dUQc cai d~t M tinh toan X,Y, Z, t tir b6n ve tinh, chuyen cac dii'lic$u

so TAY HANG HAl 886

tinh toan sang kinh dQ va vI dQ va thoi gian GPS va chuyen d6i thanh gia the' gidi UTC. Do hi~u thai gian dl;'i vai mii P

Qua trlnh xac dinh thai gian de'n ciia ehu6i tin hieu rna P tren may thu GPS v€ co ban cting giong nhtt d6i vdi ehu6i tin hieu rna CIA, nhu'ng co hai khac biet:

Chieu dai cua rna P Ia mot tu~n Ie. M6i tuftn thay mQt rna mdi, vi v~y kh6ng bi can nhieu.

Chu ky ella "chip" rna P lOOns, bang 1110 ella ehu ky cua "chip" rna CIA, vi v~y dung ky thu~t "tlf nrong quan" dE do hieu thai gian c6 de. chinh xac eao hon nhieu.

14i leh cda vife ap dung kY thudt "tu tuang quan"

Vi~e ap dung ley thuat "1If urong quan'' dE xac dinh thai diEm de'n cua rna th~ hien cac UU diEm khai quat nhu sau:

a. Blnh thuong tin hi~u v~ tinh Iuon luon tha'p hen rmrc nhieu tap am, khong thE nao thu dUQc thea each thong thuong. Nhung b~ng ky thuat "tt;t nrong quan" co thE tao ra tin hieu di~n ap cao vuot len tren rmrc nhieu Him cho tin hieu diroc thu nhan kha de dang.

b. T~n s6 cua "chip" cao nen tao ra di~n ap dlnh ra't cao trong mach "tt! nrong quan" lam nang cao dQ chinh xac khi do thai diEm tin hieu v~ tinh de'n theo don vi ns.

c. Chi c6 thE sii' dung hc$ thong GPS khi may thu GPS ngiroi sii' dung co bin sao cua chu6i tin hieu rna rna no dUQc phat di, nho phirong phap "tir nrong quan" nha chuc trach (My) c6 tM han che' viec sii' dung h~ thcng GPS d6i vci rnQt so' tnrong hop nao d6.

d. Tin hieu rna v~ tinh luon a mire tha'p hon nhi€u tap am, n6 khong gay nhl€u, cho nen t§n so' su dung c6 thi khong d.n cac co quan qudn 19 cho phep,

22.4.2 Phuong trmh X3C dlnh vi tri

Vi rna P gianh cho quan su, cho nen khong dn ghH thich d day U'ng dung cua no. Dirdi day giai thich each xac dinh vi tri bAng rna CIA. Hlnh 22.12a rna ta m6i quan h~ gitra cac dai hrong thea cong thuc dudi day d ve tinh s6 1.

Hlnh 22.12b cho tha'y. cac tin hieu ve tinh dl1Qc may thu ngl1<'Ji su dungthu dl1QC a cac thoi diEm khac nhau tult tu2. tu3 ... va m6i tirong quan cua n6 vdi cac loai sai s6.

Nhu da noi, cl,l' ly gia du'Qc xac dinh bhg ky thu$t thu tl)' nrong quan. Mil CIA tren m6i v~ tinh la do d6ng h6 cua v~ tinh a'y kh6ng che', con rna CIA tren may thu GPS nglioi sir dung la do d6ng h6 may thu kh6ng che'. Khi thu tin hieu, bang leY thu~t tU'dng quan, th<'Jj gian tre la ham s6 ciia khodng each gid (Pseudo range) giua may thu GPS va mot v~ tinh nao do. Dij.t RI'I la khoang each gia , ta c6,

RI'I = RJ + C.i}.tAI + c.(i}.tu-i}.tsVl)

Trong do,

Rpl - Khoang each gia de'n v~ tinh s6 1

RI - Khoang each th~t ttt may thu GPS ngl1C1i dung de'n v~ tinh s61

i}. tsvl - DO lech giua thai gian d&ng h& v~ tinh s61 va thoi gian chudn GPS

i}.tu - DQ l~ch giua tMj gian d6ng h6 may thu ngU'<'Ji sii' dung va thai gian chufn GPS.

so TAY HANG HAl 887

.6..tAI - Sai s6 thCli gian truy~n s6ng va cac sai s6kbac cua v~ tinh s61 c - T6c de) anh sang

t

t

t

t

TIn hlOu mly lhu thu va

b)

tys t

GRJ ddng h6 mAy thu ngWi siS d~ng

Hlnn 22.12

H~ quy chieu toan cAu WGS-84 dU'c;lC SU dung lam M th6ng toa de) tham chieu chung cho M th6ng GPS. Khi dij,t h~ toa de) Be-cae vao tam trai d!t, mtt phAng x-y trung vd'i m~t pMng xich dao, true x nhm tren mijt phing kinh tuye'il Greenwich nhU' hlnh 22.13, toa de) ngu'Cli su dung (xu, Yu, Zu), toa de) cua v~ tinh 1 (x., Yh Zl) , thl khodng each tMt giii'a v~ tinh 1 va ngU'Cli su dung tfnh theo phuong trinh,

Rl = ~(XI - X)2 + (y, - yJ2 + (ZI - ZJ2 V~y khodng each gia de'n v~ tinh sO'l c6 the dien d~t nhu sau,

Rpl = ~(XI - X,J2 + (Yl - yJ2 + (z) - zu)2 + e . .6..tAI + c.(.6..tu-.6..tsvl)

so TAY HANG HAl 888

Trong phirong trlnh tren, cacdai Iu(jng vi tri v~ tinh (x., Yt. Zl) va .6.tsvl do may thu GPS ngutli s11' dung ti6p nh$n ttr bin tin d~o bang do vl$ tinh s61 pMt v~,

Sai 56 ~bigian truy~n s6ng va cac sai s6 khac cua vc$ tinh .6.tAl do may thu tinh toan dua tren thOng 56 hi~u chInh trong bin tin dao hang ti't vc$ tinh.

N6u may thu GPS xac dinh dU\1c thoi gian tr~ khoang each gia cua v~ tinh s6 1 Ia ,6.tp' thl, Rp' = c. ,6. tpl

Suy ra ta c6phudng trmh nhu sau,

I I 2 . 2 2

.: Alpl =-v(x,-xul +(YI-Yul +(z,-zJ

c

Trong .phUdng trinh nay c6 4 nghiem chua bie"t g6m vj tri ngubi s11' dung (Xu,Yu,Zu) va d() l~ch thbi gian d~ng h~ nguoi s11' dung Atu . Ne"u may thu GPS cua nguC1i sU' dung thu dU(jc tin hieu tir 4 ve tinh thl nMn dU'(jC 4 phuong trlnh ntdng 111, khOng kh6 khan g} d~ vi6t ra 3 phU'C1ng trlnh .6.tp2, Alp2, Alp] con lai, Giii he4 phU'dng trlnh nay c6 th~ tim dU<1C 4 nghiem s6 trong d6 c6 toa d() va d() Iech thC1i gian Atu cua may thu GPS ngu'Cli s11' dung. Trong hang Mi, khi da xac t1Pili dO cao cua ng11bi s11' dung thl. chi e~n tin hien eua 3 v~ tinh la duo

Cu6i cnng thl. mi"'y tinh se giAi phU'dng trlnh va tinh ra kinh, VI dQ ngudi sU' dung va cac thOng s6 khac cho hi~n thi tren man hinh .

z

y

Hlnh 22.13

. Qua pllan tieh tren eho tha'y, sai s6tu cua d~ng h~ may thu Ia mQt nghiern s6 nhan dU'Qc khi pi he 4. ph11dng trlnh tren may thu, cho nen khong dn sa dung d~ng M nguyen ttl chinh ,~ac. Tren ~y thu chlcdn s11' dung d~ng h~ quatz do hieu thCli gian trong khoang 0,01-0,02 ,5 theocOng th1.l'c e.(AtAl +Atu-A1svl) lil du, trong khi 1.16 d6ng h~ ve tinh do thC1i gian bhng . don vi nanosecond. Sai s6 0,01-0,02s tren d6ng h5 may thu nguC1i sa dung khong dn phdi

quantAm.

22.4.3 Nguyen It do t6c dO npm s.t dtplg

,

Tin 86 s6ng mang dU'(je 511' d1}ng d~ xac dinh t6e d() di chuy~n cua nguoi su dung bhng each do dich chuy~n 14n 56 theo hieu 1.l'ng I>opld.

V,eF~t6c dO./g6m hm1ng va t6c dQ di chuy~n, cua ve tinh CJ ba't elt thC1i diSm nao d~u c6 thS .Ifu.h toan tren maytinb trong may thu ng110i sii' dung, Vecto nay dUQc phan tieh lam .hai

~nh.pb4n. mOt thanh.pMn (a) cung himng vdi dich chuy~n cua nguC1i su dung va mOt thanh pMn (b) vuOng g6c vdi hU'dng dich chuyen d6. Thanh ph4n (b) khong dong vai tro gl trong vi~c xae dinh t6c d() dich chuy~n cua ng110i sit dung vlno khong gay dich chuySn tffn s6 thea

) hien 1.l'ng DOpld.

BiEt vi tri cda ng11~i s11' dung ddng thoi bitt vi tri va t6e d¢ cua v~ tinh, may tlnh trong may

so TAY HANG HAl 889

thu GPS ngtroi sa dung hoan toan co th~ tinh dli<;le vecto (a), may tinh can ell van dich chuyen t~n s6 ella chuyen dOng nrong d6i gitta vetinh va ngliC1i sti' dung d~ xac dinh ra t60 dO cua nguoi su dung dang di chuy~n v€ phia hay roi xa v~ tinh. NhC1 tin hieu thu tit 4 v~ tinh, co th~ I~p ra 4phU'dng trlnh g6m cac thong s6 t6e dO, t!n s5 chua dli<;le biet, may tinh tren may thu GPS ngiroi su dung d€ gidi ra t6e do di chuyen cua ngiroi su dung mot each chinh xac,

22.5 Dl) chinh xac ella M thc1ng GPS

£>0 chinh xac cua h~ thong dinh vi toan cau GPS quye] dinh d dQ ehinh xac do khoang each gia va vi tri hlnh hoc cua cac v~ tinh khi may thu lua chon de de dinh vi tri. Vi~e phan tieh dO chinh xac doi hoinhttng tinh toan plnrctap, 0 day chi dira ra cac het qua sai s6 d1t phan tich va tinh toan sKn.

Bang dudi day eho tha'y cac loai sai s6 cua khoang each gia do bang rna CIA xac dinh boi mOt may thu GPS cua tau.

£>0 khoang each phat sinhcac loai sai s6 sau day:

Philn 10(# sa; slf Nguyen nhfln Sa; s{itinh
blinxm
Thiet bi v~ tinh Sai s6 d6ng h6 v~ tinh 3,1
Sai s6lich sao 2,7
Tr6 a tanl? di~n lv 6,4
L(I trlnh truyen song Tr6 a t£ng Mi hru 0,4
Hieu (tnl!: da tUyen 3,1
May thu ngU'oi sa dung Tap am may thu va sai s61u'<;fng hod 2,44
Be. lech giua cac kenh thu 0,6
Sai s6 ddng hieu do khoang each 1 () ( sai s6 blnh phuong trung 8,5
blnh) 22.5.1 Sal s6~6ng h6 v~ tinh.va sai s6ijch sao

Sai l~ch giua vi tri tMt ella v~ tinh so voi cac du li~u nhu so' hieu chlnh d6ng h6, du li~u lich sao, eds6·ehuffn cua d6ng h6 lam phat sinh sai s6d6ng h6 v~ tinh va sai sO' lich sao. Sai 86 nay thuoc loai sai 86 hi; th6ng, tai cung mot thoi di~m, sai s6 nay gi6ng nhau tren ttt d cac may thu,

22.5.2 Sai 86 tr~ khi truy~n song

, .

Song vo tuyen truyen Ian qua khi quy6n lam phat sinh tr6 song a dng di~n ly va thg d6i lUll.

Thg di~n ly 0 dQ eao 46km-460km, khi song v6 tuyen truyen qua t~ng nay thl t6e do truyen Ian va du'C1ng truyen Ian bien d&i Iarndnh hUang den th<ti gian truyen s6ng. Mo hmh truyen Ian ella song trong t~ng di~nly ra't phUe tap, phu thuQe van tan 86 ciia song, hoat dOng 16 den cua m~t tffii.... Trong may thu GPS diin dung, sai s6 nay dU<;J'e hi~u ehinh bhng each ap dung 8 h~ 86 m6 hlnh toanhoc, lam cho sai s6lo~i nay giam xudng con inQt mta:

Tang d6i hru d each m~t da't 15 km cling gay tr! d6i vdi song vo tuycS'n, t6e do truyen Ian eua song trong tang d6i luu khac vdi t6e dl;i truyen Ian trong chan khong, t5c dt? nay con chiu anh

so TAY HANG HAl 890

huang ella nhiet dQ, ap su§t cua khi quy~n va goc tgm ella v~ tinh, khi goc tgm cua v~ tinh dirdi 10° thl sai s6 nay r§t IOn. Trong thuc te' kh6ng diroc chon v~ tinh g6e tim nM hon 5° va phai ap dung cac gidi phap hi~u ehinh khi goc tgm Ion hon SU.

N6i chung trong m9t khu vrfe khong rong, thl auh huong cua tfing di~n ly va tgng d6i luu d6i vdi cac may thu GPS g~n bang nhau.

22.5.3 Cac sai s6khae

Sai s6 hieu ung da tuyen: do anh hudng ella may thu cung mot lric thu tren tin hieu tli vai duong truyen Ian khac nhau. Cac tin hieu nay sau khi hop lai thl bie'n d6i dij.e tinh, phat sinh sai s6. Loai sai s6 nay e6 lien quan de'n vi tri cua anten may thu va di:j.e tinh cua m.i[lt phang phan xa W nhien ehungquanh.

Sai s6 do nhi~u may thu va sai s61UcJng hoa: cac linh kien thuoc ph&n cung va ph§.n mern dung trong may thu khi xU'19 tin hieu lam phat sinh tap am khien eho viec do tin hieu sinh ra sai s6. Sai s6lticJng hoa do viec xU' ly tin hieu 86 hoa sinh ra.

May thu thu tin hieu ella cac v~ tinh bang cac kenh khac nhau trong may thu, do cac linh kien trong tirng kenh khac nhau lam phat sinh dUang truyen kh6ng giong nhau sinh ra sai s6 khi xac dinh kboang each,

225.4 Hleu chinh h~ quy chieu

Do ap dung hc$ quykhong gi6ng nhau, khi.xac dinh vi tri bang GPS, c6 th€ lam phat sinh sai s6 kh6ng th~ bo qua, S1 quan hang hili dn hru 9 (da trmh bay trong Chuong 2 - Hang hai suy tinh va xac dinh vi tri).

Hien nay h§u he't cac may thu GPS sft dung tren tau d~u c6 thie't bi chuyen d6i t\( dQng cac M quy chieu khac sang hc% quy chie'u WGS-84, khi SIT dung may, S1 quan hang hiii nen tham khao M quy chie'i.l ap dung cho hili d6 de chon cung M quy chieu tren may thu GPS (xem Muc 1.1.4 Chuang 1- Trai dat, toa dQ ... ). Neu e6 di~u kien nen dung phuong phap xac dinh vi tri b~ng muc tieu luc d~a d~ d6i chieu,

22.6 H~ th6ng dinh vi toan dll vi phan DGPS 22.6.1 Chinh sach SA ella My

Khi thie't ke' h~ thong GPS , chinh phu My l~p ke' hoach eho hc$ thong nay co dQ chinh xac xac dinh vi tri ella rna CIA Hi 100m, ella rna Pia 1 m. Trong giai doan tM nghiern img dung v~ tinh, d9 chinh xac thuc te' vuot xa tinh toan ban d~u, dl) chinh xac eho rna CIA 14m, cho rna P 3m. Vi loi ich rieng ella My, chinh phu My quyet dinh ap dung chinh sach SA, goi la chinh sach su dung lua chon, dung hanh vi con nguoi can thiep VaG dQ chinh xac cua M th6ng b~ng each ap dij.t them sai s6 vao d6ng h6 v~ tinh va dfi' lieu lich sao, e6 y giam dQ chinh xac ella may thu GPS dan dung vdi dung y la de phong ngirdi dung sil' dung eho muc dich quan s11. Khi ap dung chinh sach SA thl dQ chinh xac xac dinh vi tri phang giam xuong con 100m, dQ chinh xac xac dinh dQ eao giam xufing can 157m. hang nam BQ qu6e phong My xern xet, can ell VaG tlnh hmh va nhu du co the tarn thai huy bo chinh sach SA cho m(H phan hoac toan bQ vi; tinh.

22.6.2 Nguyen ly dinh vi ella DGPS

B6la hc% tho'ng dinh vi dua tren cd sCI M thdng GPS, ap dung ky thu~t vi phan lam cho nguoi

so TAY HANG HAl 891

su dung M th6ng GPS c6 the nh~n dtt(jc dO chinh xac cao hen.

C6 the n6i nguyen 19 tdng quat cua DGPS la, nho mot tram chuffn do dac va xac dinh cac sai s6 chung, dung sai s6 chung d6 hi~u chinh Hit ca cac s6 do dac tren cac may thu ngiroi su dung trong mOt khu vl:/c nao d6 de nang cao dQ chinh xac xac dinh vi tri.

Co sCI 19 luan cua DGPS la trong cung mQt khu vl:/e, anh hu'CIng cua sai s6 h~ th6ng bie'n d6i eh~m, bao g6m sai s6 SA, d6i vdi mot tram chudn va may thu ngttoi sa dung g!n d6 la bang nhau hoac g!n bang nhau.

H~ th6ng DGPS d~t cac may thu GPS c6 dO chlnh xac cao tai mOt tram hoac mOt so' tram rna vi to cua n6 dli du'(jc xac dinh chinh xac. Cac tram nay hlnh thanh cac tram chutin, may thu GPS c6 dO chinh xac cao cua cac tram chufn nay thong qua tin hieu cac v~ tinh, can err van vi to dK bie't cua tram, tinh ra sai s6 chung, xac dinh s6 hieu chinh, l~p ra cac dinh dang tin hieu va dung cac tram phat phat di cho tirng khu vl:/c rieng biet,

Cac may thu DGPS ngu'oi su dung CllAn e~n tie'p nhan cac so' hieu chlnh til' tram chudn de hieu chinh di1lieu do dac cua GPS. Nhc d6 dQ chinh xac dinh vi du'(je nang cao va can thiep mOt each hieu qua chinh sach SA cua My, vE cd ban tri~t tieu sai s6lich sao, sai s6d6ng h6, giam nho sai so' tr~ do t'ng di~n ly va tr~ do tfing d6i hru, nang cao de. chinh xac de'n efi'p dO met.

H!u he't DGPS dan dung d~u ap dung ky thu~t vi phan khoang each gia, MQt uy ban chuyen men SC-I04 md rQng DGPS toan du do IMO thanh l~p d11 khuye'n khich vi~c ap dung ky thu~t nay.

22.6.3 Nguyen Iy vi phftn khoang each gia

May thu GPS, dij.t tai mQt tram chudn vdi vi to xac dinh, do khoang each gia cua tfi't ca cac v~ tinh nhm thlly va nh~n dtt(je khodng cacb gid R( (i bieu thi ve tinh thrr i) d6ng thai thu

th~p tift ca cac diY li~u c6 lien quan den lich sao. Tram chuffn dung til' li~u lich sao thu th~p du'(jc tinh toan toa dQ khong gian cua cac ve tinh. Nhu vay, m6i thoi diem, can cu vao toa dl) v~ tinh va vi to tram chuffn, may tinh c6 the xac dinh khodng each thuc R: den v~ tinh, nhu m6 ta CI hlnh 22.14.

Khoang each gia baa g6m cac loai sai so', khong gi6ng vdi khoang each thuc. V~y, tai tram ehu~n c6 the ttm ra so' hieu chinh eua timg ve tinh nhu sau,

Sp, =R: -R(

D6ng thoi c6 thi tim ra sufft bien thien eua so' hieu chinh, AO API uP,=-

At

°

Biet so' hieu chinh APi vao thai diim to va bien thien Ap I cila s6 hieu chinh thl e6 the tinh

ra s6hieu ehinh khoang each gia ~(t) CI bitt cO' th(ji dilm t nao,

.

11R,(t) = API + Ap,(t-to)

Ap, va Sp, e6 the ap dung cho cii mQt vung nhfft dinh. Dai chuffn e6 nhiem VlJ phat cac

sa TAY HANG HAl 892

dCi' lieu I':J.p; va I':J.p; de'n tfft cii cac may thu nguoi sa dung trong khu vue. May thu ngiroi sit

dung do khoang each gia u', cong khodng each gia nay vdi 1':J.R;(t) nh~n du'<;lc khoang each

I

gia sau hieu chlnh R; (t) ,

Ric (t) = R; + I':J.RI(t) = R; + I':J.Pi + I':J.Pi (t - til)

Cuai cung thl may tinh cua may thu can ell vao khoang each gia da hieu chinh RIc (I) de gidi bai toan vi tri,

) r! I May thu Ngutli sa dung

Hlnh 22.14

nGPS la mQt M thang dao hang t~m gh. tram ehuffn pMn IOn sa dung th s6 trung blnh M phat tin hieu vi phan, tac dung trong pharn vi tren dirdi 150 hai ly c6 dQ chinh xac cao. Trong qua trlnh thie't I~p he th6ng DGPS. khong it tram chuffn du<;lc xay dung tai cac tram phat tin hieu vo tuye'n ven bien tnrdc d~y. De dam bao cac tram thuoc he th6ng nGPS khong can nhieu Ian nhau, dam bao tinh thong dung cho nguoi dung dan su, t6 clnrc qu6e te" quy dinh tram chuffn dan dung dli xay dung hoac se xay dung phai tuan thu cac yeu cftu cua tieu chudn SC-104 (RTCM) de phat tin hieu vi phan va tuan tM quy dinh pham vi cua rna nhan dang cua cac qu6e gia.

May thu nGPS cua nguoi stl'dl,lng chi Iii mQt thie-t bi GPS ph6 thong l~p them mot anten, mQt' thie't bi thu t~n s6ttung blnh va ph~n m~m de thu nMn va xa Iy tin hieu vi phan theo dinh dang RTCM SC-104. Trong khu vl/.c khong phu s6ng nGPS, may thu nay du'<:1e sa dung nhu mot may thu GPS thong thtrong,

DGPS du<;le cacquec gia tren toan the' gidi t1ng dung thanh cong. Cac qu6e gia nhir My, Anh, Bl, Ha lan, Bac, Dan mach, Phffn lan, NMt ban va Trung quae d~u xay dung hc% thang DGPS.

22.7 H~ th6ng GLONASS

Hc% thong dinh vi toan cftu GPS do My che' tao va khong ehe', ml,lt he thong dao hang toan d.ll sa dung cho dan sl/. dl!a vao sl! kiem scat cua mQt qu6c gia khong phdi hoan toan Iy lu'Clng. Trong tlnh hlnh nhu v~y, Lien xCi cu cting dli che' tao ml,ll hc$ thang dinh vi Wong tt,t

86 TAY HANG HAl 893

nhu h~ th6ng GPS goi la GLONASS ( vie't tift cua tu Global Navigation Satellite System - GNSS ), sau khi Lien xo giai th~, M thdng nay thuQc v~ Nga. HI$ th6ng GLONASS oa thie't l~p o~y ou mang v~ tinh, v~n hanh vao thang 1 nam 1996 va rno ra cho ngu'Cli su dung dan sir toan cdu.

Glonass g6m co 24 v~ tinh khong gian phan b6 tren 3 rni].t quy dao a oQ cao 19 100 km, dQ nghieng cua quy 0<.10 64°,8, v~ tinh chuyen dQng mQt vong he't 11 gi015 phut.

GLONASS phat tin hieu vo tuyen dn s6 LJ = 1 602,5625MHz-l 615,,5MHz va ~ = 1 246,4375MHz-l 256,5MHz. Dung t~n s6Ll dicSu che' rna P va rna CIA va dung t6c 09 50bps d~ oi~u che'ma du lieu; t§n so' ~ chi dicSu che' rna P. Ma PIa rna bi mat chu ky Is. Ma CIA 1ft rna 00 tho chu ky lrns. Ma P va CIA o~u la rna ngliu nhien gia, chi khac h~ thdng GPS 0 chIS bien ~p·ma va phuong thirc di~u che'.

GLONASS su dung hl$ quy chieu SGS-90 (Soviet Geocentrric Coordinate System 1990) cua Lien xo cti,

GLONASS cong b6 sai so' do khoang each gia la 8m, tu'dng duong vdi dQ chinh xac cua M th6ng GPS khi chira ap dung chinh sach SA.

22.8 Thuc hanh sir dung may dinh vi G PS

Trong phdn nay xin gioi thieu each thao tac sa dung m6t IO<.1i MAy DJNH VJ FURUNO GP- 31 cua Nh~t.

22.8.1 GiOi thi~u chung

'A; • Djch chuyin con
.... ... ... 1m IrM mAn hlnh •
• Chon chac na.ng
I'T' trong MENU

l TM! Met MENU ~I- -+ [MENU) (Fm)+- --l NM dtllieu J
(Oanh mlJC tuy chOn) d3 nh$p

l ChQn ding J- -+~ EJ~ GQi Iii dllm i J
man hlnh .... t hen III IIi 16i

EJanh daiJ Vi trl .. (MARK]
khi cO nglili ho~c P" MOB
vat rm ~ng nllk.

• A,n va giD:

~ • 2t1MiI ngu6n
• 11 tIli ngay:
WR • Chlnh dO sang,
dOd3m n~t
man hlnh Hlnh 22.15

1. MQt so' di].c di8m cua may,

so TAY HANG HAl 894

• Bi) nhd 950 di~m.

• C6 man hmh kieu xa IQ hel trQ" eho vi~e diin tau.

• £)6 giai du'ong di ciia tau.

Dien ap ngudn 10,2 - 31,2 VDC

• Tieu thu nang hrong thap, khoang 3W.

2. Cac nut di~u khien tren may (Hmh 22.15). 22.8.2 Thao hie sd dung may

1. Md may.

1) An va giu nut c:J eho de'n khi nghe tie'ng bip bip thi ilia tay ra. May bi{td~u heat dQng.

2) Sau 20 giay may se xac dinh chinh xac vi tri tau. Ne'u may khong xac dinh dUQ"c vi tri tht chtt [NO FIX] xuit hien d trung Him man hlnh.

2. Tift may.

An va giu nut

IDiM"l

l..£W.B.J cho de'n khi man hlnh tift.

3. Chlnh dQ sang va dQ d~m nhat man hinh

1) An nut {1:J va thi\. ngay.

2) An nut 0 hoac 0 d~ di€u chlnh dl) sang man hlnh.

3) An nut G hoac G d~ di€u ehinh dl) nrong phan man hlnh.

4. Cac hlnh thtic hic5n thi man hlnh cua may.

• Man hmh bao vi tri.

• Man hinh bao di~n ap ngudn.

• Man hinh d6 gidi dirong di cua tau.

• Man hlnh xa 11).

• Man hlnh hanh hdi.

each chon dang man hinh:

An nut §] de chon dang man hlnh. 5. NMp diem hen van may.

May e6 tht nho du'<;1C 950 di~m hen, C6 3 dang di~m hen c6 thc5 nh~p van bl) nhd cua may. 1) NMp dic5m hen eiia tau khac vao may.

so TAY HANG HAl 895

(1) An nut ~ cho de'n khi xua't hien chu [MAIN MENU] tren man hlnh.

(2) An nut 0 hoac 0 d~ di chuydn 6 danh da'u de'n dong chtr [W AYPOINT].

(3) ~ ,fENTl1li< d-'! hd d l' ~ d- hA An nut ~ an e n u IT ieu a n ~p.

f7l r;l .

(4) An nut L:J hoac L.:.J d~ dich chuyen 6 danh da'u de'n chu [LIST]

, fENTl i<

(5) An nut ~ 1 Ian.

(6) An nut 0 0 G G di chuyen 6 danh da'u d~n chtr [NEW}

#. ' fENTl i<

(7) fin nut ~ 1 Ian.

(8) A' , t.l h - r;l d-'! h ' h dV ~ b" h- h A' n nut L:J oac LJ e e on cac at ten ang c u ay so.

(9) An nut G d~ di chuyen can tro de'n cot tie'p theo.

(10) L~p lai cac buoc (6 ) va (7) cho de'n khi d~t xong ten diem hen,

11) A' .~ fENTl 1 Ii< k'" h' 'A d- A

( n nut ~ an, et t uc viec <).t ten.

(12) An nut0 0 G G di chuyen 6 danh da'u den dong vi dQ.

~ ,fENTl i<

(13)1-\n nut~ 1 Ian.

(14) An nut0 hoac 0 M chon s6 nh~p vi dO. (15) An nut G di chuy6n con tra den cot tiep theo.

(16) L~p lai cac budc (14), (15) cho de'n khi nMp xong vi do di~m hen

~ ,fENTl i<

(17) An nut ~ 2 Ian.

(18) An nut0 boac 0 d~ chon s6 nh~p kinh do. (19) An nut G di chuyen can tro den cQt tiep thea.

(20) L~p lai cac biroc (18), (19) cho den khi nh~p xong kinh de> di~m hen,

~ , fENTl ~ (21) An nut ~ llano

(22) An nut 0 0 G G di chuy6n 6 danh da'u den chcr [EXIT] (23) An nut @D 1 I~n.

, { MENU) ,-'! 1<

(24) .Annut . 21an,de tra ve man blnh chu.

2) Nh~p vi tri hi~n tai tau chu VaG may.

so TAY HANG HAl 896

(I) An nut ~ I11n.

, ,rfNTl ~

(2) An nut ~ 1 Ian.

3) Nhap vi trl con tro vao bl) nhd cua may:

NMp vi tri con tro van bt) nhd cua may chi thirc hien tren dang man htnh ve vtt di ciia tau. (1) An nut ~ d€ chon man hmh ve ve't di ciia tau.

(2) An nut 0 [1] G G d~ md con tro l+l va dua can tro de'n vi tri mu6n nhap di€mnha.

, ,rfNTl ~

(3) An nut ~ 1 Ian.

(4) An nut 0 hoac [1] di chon chii' cai dat ten. (5) An nut G di ~hUy€n can tro ~en cQt tiep ·theo.

(6) L~p lai cac birdc (4), (5) cho den khi d~t xong ten vi tri can tro.

(7) An nut ~ 21~n d~ ke't thtic,

4) Nhap ngay vi tri khi co ngu'C1i hoac v~t roi xu6ng bien vao b(> nhd,

Chirc nang nay ra't hieu qua khi co ngu'oi hay v~t roi xu6ng nU'oc~Khi tau dff di qua di~m e6 ngU'C1i roi, may se chi hudng va khodng each de'n diem d6 d~ giup tbuyen tnrdng quay lai tlm va ctru. Cach thirc hien:

(1) An nut r=l111n.

(2) An nut G d~ dira 0 danh d«"u vao chtr [MOB].

, ,rfNTl ~

(3) An nut L.::..:.J 1 Ian.

(4) Tie'p theo e6 hai each:

A' rfNTll l~ d..'l .<: hi ba h A 'kh'? ich d'" di -2 6 ' . .

n ~ an e mdY c ao ngay U'ung va oang cac en rem c ngU'Ol rei.

An G d~ dira 0 danh Mu de'n chii' [NO] , sau d6 «"n nut ~ may se ghi diem nay vao b(> nhd,

6. G9i lai diem hen (nhd) de chay de-n,

1) An nut ~ l ldn.

2) An nut 0 hoac [1] de dua 0 danh da'u d6n chit [WPT-LIST]

, ,rfNTl ~

3) An nut ~ I Ian.

so TAr HANG HAl 897

, ,~r;l r::;1 r;l d'" h d'''' h ..r d..r

4) An nut L.:J LJ 0 0 e c on iem en muon en.

5) An nut ~ 1 lin, may se chi bao huang va khoang each di de'n di~m hen da chon.

Ne'u sau d6 khong mu6n de'n di~m hen thi thuc hien nhu sau:

( GOTO ) ,

1) An nut 1 Ian.

2) An nut 0 hoac [!] d~ dira 6 danh da'u de'n chu [OF]

~ fENrl;,

3) I1.n nut L:.::_J 1 Ian.

7. Di de'n m!}t di~m con tro chi.

Thuc hien tren man hmh d6 giai dU'C1ng di (PLOT).

1) An nut ~ 1 lin.

I.l rTl .

2) An nut L.:J hoac L.J d~ dua 0 danh dffu de'n chu [CURSOR]

3) An nut ~ 1 I~n.

4) in nut 0 [!] EJ G dU'a con tro l+l de'n di~m mu6n tdi.

5) An nut ~ 1 l~n, may se chi bao hU'dng va khoang each de'n di~m hen, dang thC1i xufft hien mot dU'C1ng khong li~n net n6i toi diem hen.

8. Xoa di~m nhd dii nh~p vao may.

1) An nut ~ cho den khi xua't hien chtr [MAIN MENU] tren man hmh.

2) An mit 0 [!] EJ G dua 6 danh dffu de'n chtt [ERASE]

3) An nut ~ I lin.

4) An nut 0 hoac [!] de dua 0 danh dffu de'n chu [W A YPOINTIMARK]

, ,fENrl ;,

5) An nut ~ 1 Ian.

6) An nut 0 [!] EJ G dU'a 6 danh da'u de'n chii' dn xoa.

, fENrl;,

7) An nut ~ llano

8) An nut G d~ dua 6 danh dffu de'n chtr [ERASE]

SO rAY HANG HAl 898

, , reNTl '" , '" di /! d'" h '" reNTl 2 lit )

9) An nut ~ 1 Ian. (Chu y; Muon xoa tern dang en t 1 an L.J an

10) An nut ~ 2 l~n.

CHU Y: Kh6ng dU'<;!'c xoa START, MOB, CURSOR.

9. Do khoang each va hirdng di gitra hai di~m ba'tkY.

1) An nut ~ cho de'n khi xuft hien chii' [MAIN MENU}.

2) An nut 0 0 G G dua (\ danh da'u de'n chtr [W A YPOINT]

, reNTl '"

3) An nut ~ 2 Ian.

4) An nut 0 hoac 0 de dtia (\ danh dtu de'n chtr [WAYPOINT]

5) A, , reNTl2 1'"

nnut~ an.

6) An nut 0 0 G G dua ten di6'm thll' nha't vao may.

7) An nut ~ 21~n.

8) An nut 0 0 G G du'a ten ditl'm tM hai vito may.

, , rENTl ~

9) An nut ~ 21an.

DQc ben du'di man hlnh:

RNG: Khoang each gitta hai ditl'm da: chon. BRG: Hirdng gifi'a hai di8m da: chon,

10) An nut ~ 21!n.

10. Bao dQng de'n diem hen,

1) An nut ~ cho den khi xutt hien chii' [MAIN MENU]

2) An nut 0 hoac 0 de chQn[ALARMS]

~ rENTl,

3) fin nut ~ 1 Ian.

4) An nut 0 hoac 0 dtl' du'a 6 danh dtu d&n hang chtr [ARV/ANC]

~ , rENTl ,

5) An nut ~ 1 Hin.

6) An nut 0 hoac 0 d8 dua 0 danh da'u de'n chtt [ARV]

~ rENTl '"

7) An nut ~ 1 Ian.

SO TAY HANG HAl 899

~ .< fENTl1IJ< - ,< hiA A A b h '<d~

8) fin nut ~ an ntra, xuat en u vuong ao quan con 80 au.

9) An nut 0 hoac 0 M thay d6i con s6 nrong ang trong (; vuong d~ chon ban kinh

bao d¢ng thieh hop,

10) An nut ( .... ] d~ chon gia tri cac s6 titp theo.

11) An, , fENTl11J< k'< hii 'A ).' d~

nut ~ an, et t uc VI~C car ~t.

, [ MENU] , ~ • ' '

12) An nut 2 Ian de tro ve man hlnh bmh tlnrong.

11. Bao dQng troi neo.

1) An nut ~ cho dtn khi xufft hien chii' [MAIN MENU]

2) An nut 0 hoac 0 chon [ALARSM]

, , fENTl

3) An nut ~

4) An nut 0 hoac 0 di chuyen 6 danh Mu v€ hang [ARV/ANC]

5) An nut @D

6) An nut 0 hoac 0 di chuyen (; danh dilu dtn [ARC]

7) An nut @D

8) An nut @D m(>t Iftn ntra d~ c6 (; vuong bao quanh con 86 dftu,

9) An nut 0 hoac 0 d~ thay d6i eon 86 nrong ang trong 0 vuong d~

each bao dQng thich hop,

10) An nut [ .... } d~ chon gia tri cac s6 tiep theo.

11) A' ,fENTll J< d#l k'< h' 'A x ; d-

n nut ~ Ian e et t ue VH(C cai ~t.

12) An nut ~ 2 1!n M tro vB man hlnh blnh thuong,

chon khoang

12. Bao dQug lech duang di den di~m hen,

1) An nut ~ eho den khi xufft hien chu [MAIN MENU]

2) An nut 0 hoac 0 chon [ALARSM]

3) An nut @D

4) An nut 0 hoac 0 di chuyen 6 danh dffu v6 hang [XTE]

so TAY HANG HAl 900

A' , fENTl

5) nnut ~

6) An nut 0 hoac 0 di chuyen 0 danh dtu de'n [OFF] hay [ON]

,_, , fENTl

7) fin nut ~

8) ff • fENTl A I» d,!l 6 A A b h ..!·d»

fin nut ~ mot an ntra e c 0 vuong ao quan con so au.

9) An nut 0 hoac 0 d6 thay d6i con s6 nrong U'ng trong 0 vuong d6

each bao dQng thich hop.

10) An nut G d6 chon gia tri cac s6tie'p theo.

II)'_' • fENTl11» d,!l k..! h' ·A ,. d-

fin nut ~ an e et t uc VI~C cal at.

12) An nut ~. 2 Iffn d6 trd v~ man hlnh blnh thucng.

13. Chlnh dinh lai may (RESET).

Khi nguCli S11 dung VI VO tmh gay nen true tr~c may lam cho may kMng b~t du<;lc tin hieu v~ tinh, chi bao sai vi tri rna khong tim ra nguyen nhan thl phai RESET lai may.

chon khoang

C6 3 each chlnh dinh, each lam nhu sau:

Cacti thu nh6t:

1) An nut ~ cho de'n khi xutt hi~n chtr [MAIN MENU]

, ~ rTl

2) An nut L.:J hoac LJ chon [ERASE]

3) An nut §]

.(71 Iyl

4) Kn nut L.:J hoac L.:J chon [GPS DATA]

5) Knnut §]

6) 6 danh diu nam a chtr [YES].

A' .fENTl,

7) nnut~

An tie'p mQt phim bit ky, c6 tie'ng "tit" keo dai c6 nghia la may dff thuc hien xong vi~c chinh dinh va tt)' dQng tro v~ man hinh blnh tlnrong.

Luc nay phan [GPS SET UP] gi6ng nhu may moi.

Cach thli hai:

1) An nut ~ cho de'n khi xuit hien chtr [MAIN MENU]

2) An nut 0 hoac 0 chon [ERASE]

so TAY HANG HAl 901

,rfNTl

3) Annut~

4) 4. An nut 0 hoac 0 chon [MENU SETING]

5) Annut~

6) 6 danh da'u nhm (1 chtr [YES].

~ ,rfNTl

7) J-\.nnut~

8) An tiep m()t phim ba't ky, c6 tie'ng "tit" k60 dai c6 nghla la may dff thuc hien xong viec

chinh dinh va t1/ d9ng trCl va man hlnh blnh thirdng,

9) Liic nay philn [MENU SETING] gi6ng nhu may mdi, each thll ba:

CM y: V6i each nay may se xoa he't cac diS-m va du'ong di co trong b9 nhd va cai diJt lai may.

1) An nut ~ eho de'n khi xua't hien chu [MAIN MENU]

, fA! r;l .

2) An nut L.:J hoac L:J chon [ERASE]

3) Annut~

4) 4. Annut 0 hoac 0 chon [ALL BACKUP DATA]

5) An nut ~

6) 6 danh da'u nhm d chu [YES].

7) Annut~

8) An tie'p met phim ba't kY, c6 tie'ng "tit" k60 dai e6 nghla Ia may dti tlnrc hien xong viec chlnh dinh va tI! d9ng trCl va man hinh blnh thirdng.

9) Luc nay de ta't cii cac philn gianh eho ngu'oi su dung gi6ng nhu may mdi,

SO TAY HANG HAl 902

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