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Piping Guide

Piping Guide

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D PIPING GUIDED

FOR 'THE DESIGN AND DRAFTING OF INDUSTRIAL PIPING SYSTEMS

David R. Sherwood

Member, A.,.riclln Sodaty 01 MIdIanIc:.t Enginettrl Membet,lntllituIion of Production E~ (UK)

Dennis J. Whlstance BS, MS

Copyrlghl1913. O .... 1d R. Shwwood and o.nnl. J, wtllst.nce Second Edition. Copyright 1991, Srenlek Books Company. Inc.

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Printed In the Unlt~ States 01 America

Published and distributed by:

Syentek Inc, PO Bo)( 26588

San Francisco. CA 94126 USA

ISBN 0.914-08219-1

o is.tr itM.I ted outside the USA and c.nad. by:

E." F.N.Spon Chlpm.n Ind Hall 2/6 Bound..-y Row

fJ\ london SE18HN, UK

~ ISBN 0 .... ,9- 16860-5

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The contribution of the companies, deiigners and engineers who assisted in the development of the Piping Guide is gratefully acknowledged. Apart from source material and assistance with production, acknowledged elsewhere, indlviwal acknowledgments are not made, because neither contributors nor the authon or publisher assume liability Of responsibility fOt designs using information presented herein, The user is responsible for complying with the various codes, standards and regulations, National, Federal, State and Municipal, and other legal obUgations which may pertain to the construction and safe operation of plants, industrial installations, etc .• Including modifications to existing facilities.

Due to economic conditions, demand. manufacturing philosophy. busi ness mergers and acquiSitions, the avai labil Ity of items from manufacturers may change, and components obtained from domestic suppliel'1 may not be of domestic origin. Discussion of products does not neceSQrily imply endorsement.

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CONTENTS:

PIPING: Uses. and Plant Construction ... _ ........•.....••.•••......•.•..•••...........•.. 1

PIPE. FITTINGS, FLANGES, RE INFORCEMENTS: In-line Equipment and Support Equipment 2

VALVES, PUMPS. COMPRESSORS, and Types of Process Equipment _ _ .•...• _ 3

a RG AN I ZA T ION OF WaR K: Job Res pons ibi I ities, Drawing-Office Equipment and Procedu res .••. _ 4

DRAFTING: PROCESS AND PIPING DRAWINGS including Drawing Symbols,

Showing Dimensions. Showing Instrumentation. and Bills of Material _ .. _ .......••. 5

DESIGN OF PIPING SYSTEMS: Including ArrBntIBment, Supporting, Insulation,

Healing, Venting 8nd Draining of Pipmg. Vessels and Equipment .. _ .•.•.... _ .. _ ....• __ .. 6

STANDARDS AND CODES: for Piping Systems, Pipe, Pipe Supports, Flanges,

Gaskets, Fittings, Valves, Traps. Pumps, Vessels,

Heat E"changers, Symbols 8nd Screwthreads _ ...................•....•.•.. 7

ABBREVIATIONS: for Piping Drawings and Industrial Chemicals _ ..•.•.....•............•... B

INDEX/G lOSSARY IACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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Sections. figures. charts and tables in Part I are referred to numerically. and are located by the margin index. Charts and tables in Part II are identified by letter.

The text refers to standards and codes. using designations such as ANSI 831.1. ASTM A·63. ISA 56.1. etc. Full titles of these standards and codes will be found in tables 7.3 thru 7.14.

FOR TERMS NOT EXPLAINED IN THE TEXT, REfER TO THE INDEX.

ABBREVIATIONS ARE GIVEN IN CHAPTER 8.

• ;ref, 11" et' i" ., ...... _o_~'. ,."..........-.:_... _ 0 _~.....-__ .e Co ,

• Directoreading metric conversion tables tor dimensiOn$

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The 'PIPING GUIDE' .. 0 0 0 0 .... Discusses in deten the design and drafting of piping systems

• Derribes pipe, piping components most commonly used, valves, and equipment

• Presents charts, tables, and examples for daily reference

• Provides a design reference for companies and consultants

• Supplements existing company standards, information, and methods

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• Serves as an instructional aid

PART I e TEXT: explain....... •••• TechniqUes of piping destgn

• Assembling of piping from components, and methods for connecting to equipment

• Office organization, and methods to translate concepts into finished designs from which plants are built

• Terms and abbreviations concerned with piping

PART II 0 TABLES: provide •••••• Frequentlv needed data and information, arranged for quick reference

• Factors for establishing widths of pipeways

• Spacing between pipes, with and without flanges, and for 'jumpovers' and 'rununders'

• Principal dimensions and weights for pipe fittings, flanges, valves, structural steel, etc.

• Conversion for customary and metric units

and.. A metric supplement with principal dimensional data in millimeter.;

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Cover by A.W. Ryder

.. .m ....... oIIIIIfilllllrililn" ...... ··t.;· .... HIO.- •• -,:,:·'i'I!";JIIei;li"~" •• ".11 •• '.7 a' •• SIS" •• blk, d't1lllii· .. ·'-Jil.Iii.· "*"* ........ IMIllIr~'iI;·"f . tenta os! u~o.:._,.",,,,,,,· -.J'._IIE .7i1i1iFIISIII' .. 'SI?' .. , ...... '." .. ..... iIII.lI!o..;11"l1li' 'iII'._'.r.E_7~t._ ..... r"7.· ...... ' .. , ... 9' ...... _: ~_,

PIPIN6: uses, and Planl ConSlrucUon

USES OF PIPING

1.1

Piping is used lur industrial (process). marine, uansoortation, civil engineer. inq. find lur 'cnmmercial' (plumbing) pllrposes.

This book is prirnarily cuncerned with industrial piping for processing and s?!rviC(l syslmns, Proem piping is used 10 transporl flu ids bet'N8en storage tnnks end PHlcl!SSing units, Service piping is used 10 convey stsam. air, W~IN, etc" lor r:rocessin!l_ Piping here defined as 'service' piping is somelin"15 refurred to ~S 'utility' piping. but. in the Guide, Ihe perm 'ulihly pi piflg' is reserved fur maj Of I ines supply ing water, fuel gases, and fuel oil llhat is, tor tun:ffiodities usually purchased ffom uti Ii ties compen iss and ou Ik suppliers).

"'Min, piping 101 ships is olten ex tensivu, Much 01 it is fabr icsted from welded and strlJWl!d carbon-sleel pipinq, usi!'!g pipe and fillings described in this book,

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T,.nJ/lOfr,rion piping is normally lar!Jl!,diameter piping used to convey liquids, slurries and gases, sometlrnes over hundreds of miles, Crude oils, patruleum products, wate:, and solid materials such M cool (citified by water) arr. ! ra nsporlerl PI HII II iIlPlin(!S, 0 ilferent liQuids C9n he transp nrt ad consecu lively HI the same uipelinu, and brane hing alia ngemen IS are used to divan flows to di Heren! dest inat ions,

Ci~il piping is used 10 disuibuts public utilities lwaler. fuel gases). and to catletl rainwaper, sewage, and industrial wasle waters. Most piping of this type is placed underground,

Plumbing (commm:iM piping) is piping installed in c:ommelcia! buildings, schuo ts, h oSP! 1& I S, resi d ances, II tc, I or di Sf ribu ling water an diu II I 158S8S, lor collecting waste water, and for other purposes.

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When a manufacturer decides to build 11 new plant, or to e~pand an existing one, I he manu'actu rer will either employ an engineering company to underta ko dl!'S'gn "lid CUllS1r ucl ion, 01, if the company's own enginP.el ing depar Iment is t;) rqf! enol r!jll, they will do tile oesiqn WOf k, manage thl' project. end 9mploy unn or mure coutrnctors to du the ccnsnucrlcn work.

COMMISSIONING, DESIGNING, &: BUILDING A PLANT

1.2

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In either procedure. the manulacturer stJpplies information concl!fning the purp0S8S 01 bull d iogs. processes, p rodu ct i on fet es, design cd te r is 1m speci I ie fequir~!$, detaUs 01 8xisling plm!. and site surveys. it aov.

Chart U shows the pdncipals inyolved. and the flaw 01 i nl ormai ion ami material,

SCHEMATIC fOR "LANT CONSTRUCTION

CHART t.1

FINISHED P'LANT

ORDER FOR PLANT, ar DATA FOR PLANT

REOUESTS FOR EQUIPMENT, HARDWARE. ""ATERI .... LS

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OUTSlO£ COfoISUL T AN1'5

'UP'!"\.llUtl

[CHART iu

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The designing and building 01 an indu5trial plan! is a complex undertakmg. Except for the larger induslrial concerns, who may maintain their own design SI8 lis. lhe desi!l nand constructi on of p I a n IS and relet ed 'scili ties is usual I V underteken bV specialist companies.

The Guide describes in 4.1 lhe organization and responsibilities 01 desi!P1 engineering, with special rellfence to the duties of individuals engaged in the development of piping designs far plants.

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PIPE, FIlIlNHS, FLANHES, REINFORCEMENTS, In·line EqUipment and Support EQuipment

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PROCESS PIPE

2.1

PIPE. TUBE

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Tubular products are termed 'tube' or 'pipe'. Tube is customarilv specified by us outside diameter and wall thid:.ness, e){pressed either in BWG (Birmin!lham wire gage) or in thousandths of an inch. Pipe is customarily irleuulind by 'nominal pipe si/e', with Willi thickness defined by 'schedule IIUmUl!r', 'API dasiqnatiun', ur 'weight', as explained in 2.1.3, Non·standard pl[10 is spec il ied by naminai size With wa II thickness stated.

The pri neipal uses I [If I uba are in heat eltchan!ll!rs, instrument lines, and small interconnections on equiprnern such as compressors, boilers, and re Iri!jera to rs.

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SIZES 10 LENGTHS COMMONLY USED FOR STEEL PIPE

2.1.2

ANSI standard B36.l0M ostablisbes walilhicknesses 101 pipe ranging from lIS tu no inth 1I(,min~t" d,liill!)!1H l'nnrninel pipe siza'). Pipe sites normally stocked illr:!lIrlr. 117.3/11. I, 1%,1'1" r. 21'" 3,3'1,.4.5, G, B, 10,12,14, 16, lB. 20 ~lld /4. SI/e!i 1 'I •. 2%. 3'1" and ~ inch ilrl! seldom used ~ unusual SizBS are sumet lInes rsu u ired for connect: ng 10 equipment, but p ipi ng is normally 11111 in ttl!~ ne~ I IOI!lI!l" stock sile alter connection has been madel. lIB, 1/4, 3/B and 1/2 -inch pipe is usually rest fie ted to instru ment Ii nes or to service <111[1 0 I hut I inns which hil~e III Illil te with equi pmeru. 112·inch pi pe is I!~tcnsively used 10/ steam tracing and for auxiliary piping at pumps, etc.

St!a'!Jht pipp. is supplied in 'random' lenqths (17 10 2f, HI, and sometimes ·tlnuhle random' lengths (38 to 48 It), if prelerred. The ends 01 those lengths arc 1101lTl<llly either plain IPE l. bevslad lor 'MIlding (BE), or threaded and supplied with one coupling per length ['threadad lind coupled', or 'T&C'). II pilIP. is urdared '1 &C', the rating 01 the coupling is specified-see chart 2.3. 01 hr!! tvpes 01 ends, such as groovtld lor special couplit1\JS, can be obtained 10 Older.

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DIAMETERS" WALL THICKNESSES OF PIPE

2.1.3

TIM' si 'I' II I ill! !lillfl is i,!t!fI\i1 ind hy tim nnrninal pinn ~i!(l, abbreviated 'NPS', whi~h IS SI!hlulII nquat III the true bOle ~inlert)ill diameter) 01 the pipe-the dill~fence in some instances is large.- .NPS i4 andl;ii"ger pipe has outside diemater equal to Ihe nominal pipe size.

Pipe in the variOll$ sizes is mede in several wall thicknesses 101 each size, wh ich have been established by three different sources:-

I1J Tha American National Standards Institute, thru 'schedule numberS'

12l The American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Society lor Testing and Materials, thru the designations 'STD' Inand· oldl, 'XS' iextra-strongl, and 'XXS' Idoubhtutra-strong), dnwvn hom dimensions established bv rnanulacturers.. lit "" Guidi, thl. d'si~ wtrons ." termed 'msnufsctufBl"S' Mights'

(3) The American Petroleum Instilute, Ihroulti ilS standard 5l, for 'lire pipe'. Dimensions in this standard have no relerences lor individual sizes and wall thic knesses

'Manulacturers' weights' lsecond source) were intended, as long ago as 1939, to be superseded by schedule numbers. HOwevllf, demand for these wall thicl:nesses has caused Iheir manufacture 10 continue, Certain fittings afe available only in manufacturers' weights.

Pipe dimensions from the sl!I;ond and third sources are incorporated in American N ationa! Standard 836.10M. Tables P·l list dimensions 101 welded and seamless stge1 pipe in this standard, and give derived data.

IRON PIPE SIZES v.ere initially established for wrought·iron pipe, with wall thicknesses designated by the terrrn 'uandard (weight)', 'e)(tra-sttong', and 'double-elltra-strong'. Before the schedule number scheme for steel pipe W~ first published by the Amllrican Standards Association in 1935, 1M iron pipe sizas vwre modified for steel pipe by slightly tEcreasing the wan thicknesses lleoying the outside diameters conslant) so that the weights per foot IIbfh) equalled the iron pipe weights.

Wrought·iron pipe (no longer made) hIlS been completely supplanted by steel pipe, but schedule numbers, intended to supplant irOfl pipe designations did net. Users continued 10 specify pipe in iron pipe terms, and as the mills responti!d, those lerms are included in ANSI standard B36.1 OM for steel pipe, Schedule numbers were introduced 10 establish pipe y,ell thicknesses by formula, but as wall thicknesses in common uso continued 10 depart hem th(Jl)8 proposed by lhe scheme, schedule numOOrS now identily wall thicknesses of pipe in the different nominal Siles as ANSI B36.10M states "as a convenient designation system for use in ordering",

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STAINL.ESS·STEfL sizes American National Standard 836.19 established

:{ ~·.,~~-;:.ir'<':'·'.2a range of thin-walled SilOS for slalOle~~Hleel pipe, indantifiad by schedules

a:' 'J.~~~:-."". 55 and lOS

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'.;'F~~~'fr~:'"'MATERIALS FOR PIPE U.

$TEEL PIPE Normally reters 10 carbon-steel pipe. Seam·welded steel pipe is made from plate. Seamtass pipe is made using dies. Common finishes are . : r . - .,c_:::~~:;-.: e : '.'blackTplain' or 'mill" linish) and galYaniled.

~~~\I-.~~;.~~:-,,{__;CU rrec II~ sp..loc tud sleel ptue I)t ters the stre~rllh .u~rI du ra~ili Iy I~qui r ~ Iu f

"','" "c'- :c~:C-.'- -," the applrcatlOn. and the ductility and mochrnability required to 1010 rl end

r' to rrn i I into pi pi ng l'speots' ". see 5.2 _9!. The selec I ed pipe must wirhstand

, the conditions 01 use, especially nressure. temperature and conosiun conoi lions. These requirements are met by selecting pipe made 10 an appropriate standard, in almost all irstarces an ASTM or API standard (me 2.1.3 and table 7_51.

The most-used steel pipe for process linll$, and for welding. bending, end ,made to ASTM A·53 or AST"" A-I 06, principally in wall thicknesses schedules 40,80, and manulaclurels' weights, STO and XS. Both end ASTM A-106 pipe is fabricated seamless or seamed, by au~nlc,,' resistarEe welding. in G r itdos A and B. G IOOes B have the higher onglh. Three grades of A-l06 are available-Grades A, B, and C, in of increasing tensile strength,

TIre Hlost willf!ly stocked p ipp. is In AST M A·120 which C O\ICIS weld/!IJ and seamless pille for normal U$El in steam, waler, and gas (including ail) service, AST M A·120 is not intend ed f Of bending, coiling 0 r high t ernperamrs service, It is nOI specified for hydrocarbon nrocess lines.

In the oil and natural gas industries, steel pipe used to convey oil and gas is manufactured to the American Petroleum lnnituts's standard API 5L. which IIppli es lighter control of cornposi lion and more lest ing than AST M ·120.

Steel specifications in omer countries may correspond with USA specifications. Some corresponding european standards 101 carbon steels and st 8 in less st eels are listed in ta b Ie 2, I.

tRON pipe is made hom csst-iron and ductile-iron, The principal uses are Ior waler, gas, and sewage lines.

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OTHER METALS & ALLOYS Pipe 01 lube made Irom copper, lead,

nickel, brass. aluminum and various stainless steels can be r6ildilv obtainso.

-- ~ These materials are relatiyely expensive and are selected usu~lly either because of their particular corrosion resislance to tl1ft process chemical, the.i 'good heat transfer, Of for thair tensile strength at highterripenllliliS. CoppsreM copper alloys 81e uaditional lor instrument lines, food processing, and heat uanslel equipment, but stainl8S$ $lllills ~re in~rltitjil1gly being u$lld for these

purposes. "'<-'- --~:~.:;:<: _ .

PLASTICS Pipe made hom plastiCS may be usee to con'ley a(.;IIIItlIY ~lII(U~I\l1! fluids. and is espel:ially uselul 101 handling corrosive or hazardous gases and dilute minelal acids, Plaslics ale employed in three ways: as all·plastic pipe. as 'Iilled' plastic mateoels (glass·fibe,-rllinfolcOO, carbon-tilled, etc.) and as lining Dr coaling materials. Plastic PIIII! is made hum polyplOpyiene, poly· ethylene (PE). polybut ylene I PB I. pulyvinyl chloride I PVC), acrytOI1 i II ile· butadiene-stvrene (ABSI. cellulose ecetate-butvrate leABl, polyolefins, and polyesters. Pipe made hom polyester and epolly rssins is h!Quenlly qlassfiber·reinforced ('FAP') and commercial products 01 this IVpe hiM! good resistance 1 II wmJr ~lOd dlflmic~1 all <lck.

COMPARABLE USA & EUROPEAN SPECIFICATIONS FOR STEEL PIPE

ASTII"," .... , O"'NI
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-= AllMAlli 1$)111 DIIIUI
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;.. oUTMAI'ii ISlIP
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... '_2 ~C
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lit. l. III !.I .~, "J
-e (~Ih II "" I~ ~.I ·V·I
... • C ~~I \,..,/ J I
li(LliL' t·Io/IiI.H. .... ·".1.';4
n· .• ~, ~l' '1/ L
~l II! ~;t ~ J I {
API k II_I Qlllrm
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1.pI.I,.Io·tJ"'".M.4j t_~ ~; I' f .. [ L r-~ " ~ ... ,11
."k 1$_1 Olll'Ui
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(,1111["- It I flft I FIVfN 1 IUtlli I 4 '.1 t'l 1 .~1Ii.I \~., ./1 ~("~ ~'~~~'''ioIlf,

~)I~ li' IAI '~I ~~IS 1"·!I")~

·.a·.I_'t.t ... , '.".1"""'1111

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ISHII Olltl.,.

i'M'"J"J BIoi" :'1j,1 .... ~ ..... *

'~d!o '1'''''-_'' '~tl1 API 5' 60 .. ' f."","_"" IGt""",,_

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... Il'tI"J4 f ...... - .. H .Ihl )I 4.rj ..... IMlt '.".~ t ~In'
e U· ... I4U ..... IIII.·nl1
::; lol-i ....... 1 (.II, ... • .... J'I " ... , )I'l.th.IMI'1 ~.I~. "J f!-.J L t)'
t .... tUj ~ ..... 8U!.. .. " ~ 1~ {_IN.~ I~ /fJ ~I~ ~Jlbl.ol
j:: lP nfl GI_~'" '"-401/ .x !)ON.~ U, U) SI'\ I '''W2
'" '"-430.
§ If J" .... ","'41'->11
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7. 111' ~Il f".I4"oIIk! "~fj.
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t; I. (I,,, fir,.jll., 811 t.
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1" J4/u (~'".,I:Il .... The American Nllianal Standards Institute has introduced S8Yt1'al schedules lor pip. made from ¥lit lou, p lestics. T hsse A NS I standi rds snd others for plastic pipe are lisled in table 7.6.

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GLASS AII.glass piping is used 101 its chemical resistance, cleanliness Bnd transparency, Grass pipe is not subject to 'craling' often found in glass.lined pipe and vessels subject to repeated thermal stresses. Pipe, fittings, and hard. WIIre ale available both 101 PIOCess piping and lor dlainage. Corning Glass War ks of I ers a PytU ·C onicai' system for p recess lines in I, I Y2, 2, 3, 4 and 6·inch sues 1101 with 450 F as The maximum operating temperatura, and pressure rlln!Jl:!S 0-6r:. PSIA 11 in. thru 3 in.], 0-50 PSIA (4 in.] and 0-35 PSIA (6 in.l, Glass cocks. strainers and thelmowells are available. Pipe fill ings and equipment Ble joined by Ilange assemblies which bear on the thitl:ened conical ends of pipe lengths ilnd fillings. Corning also offers a Pyrex Acid·Wasle Drainline sy1tem in 1%, 2.3,4 lind a·inch sizes (IDI with beaded ends joined by hflon·gasketed nylon compression couplings. Both COining systems ale made from the same borosilicate glass.

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LININGS &. COATINGS lining or coating carbon-steel pipe with a materNrI able to wi Ihstand chemical attack osrmits i IS use to carry corrosive fluids. lengths of lined pipe and fittings are joined by flanges. and elbows. lees, ete., are available already flanged. linings (rubber, for examplel can be applied afler labricating the piping, but pipe is often pre-lin~1. and manulacturers give instruttions for milking joints. Lini ngs of various rubbers, plastics. metals and vitreous (glassy) materials are available. Polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and copolymers are the most common coating materials. Carbon,sleel pipe linc-coated by immersion iutn molten line (hot·dip galvaniledl is used for conOICying dr inking water. inst IUment air and vsrtous u ther lIu ids. A ubber lini fig is often used to handle ablasive fluids.

TEMPERATURE S. PRESSURE LIMITS

2.1.5

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Carbon steels lose stmnglh at high temperatures, E lecl ric·resistance.welded pipe is no t considered satislactorv lor service above 750 F. and furnace-bu 11. welded pipe above aboul 650 F, F or higher temperatures. pipe made hom st a inless steels 01 ot her alloys shou ld be considered.

Pressure ratings for steel pipe at dillerent tempetalures are calculated according to tha ANSI 931 Code 101 Pressure Piping (detailed in table 7.2), ANSI 931 gives stress/temperature values for the val ious S 1I'lels 'Jam which pipe is I abncatad,

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METHODS FOR JOINING PIPE

2.2

The joi nts used for most cmhrn 1'$1001 itlld stainlllS$·stool pipe Ble:

8UTT,WELOED SOCKET-WUDED . SCREWED •.. BOLTED FLANGE.

DOLTED OUICK COUPU~GS

SEE 2.3

· • . • • BEE 2.4

• •••. SEE 2.5 SEE 2.3.1, 2."" 1 .. 2.5.' · . . . . SEE 2.8.2

WELDED It SCREWED JOINTS

2.2.1

Unes ttPS 2 and larger 8rl usually butt-welded, this being thl mest economic leakproof WIJV' of joining larger·diameter piping, Usually such I ioes are subcon Irac led to a pip ing fa br icator 101 P refa brica I i on in sact; ons telmed 'SJlook', then trall$polted to the sile. lines tiPS 1% and smaller are usually eithtr screwed or SOCkDI-welded. and are normally field·run by the piping contractor Irom drawill!P. Field·run and shop·fabricated piping are discussed in 5.2.9.

SOCKET -WELDED JOINTS

2.2.2

Uka screwed piping, socket welding is used for lines 01 smaller siZIIS, but has the advantage that absence of laak ing is assured: this is a valuable factor when flammable. toxic, or radiOllctive fluids are being conveyed-the use of socket·welded joint! is not restricted to such fluids, however .

BOL TED·FLANGE JOINTS

2..2.3

Flanges are ex jlI!fISive lind lor the most part are used to mate with flanged vessels. equipment. valvas. and fOI process tines which may requi II periodic cleaning.

Flanged jo ints are made by bolting together two flanges with a gasket between them 10 provide a seal. Aeler to 2.6 for standard lorged-stee) flaogas and gaskets.

FITTtNGS

2.2.4

Fittings permit a change in direction of piping. a chilllgll in diameter of pipe. 01 a branch 10. be made from Ihe main run of pipe. They <Ire lormed 110m plats 01 pipe. machined from forged blanks, cast. or molded from plastic$.

Chell 2.1 shows the ratings of bUII·welding fittings used with pipe of various schedule numbers and m.nulacturen' 'Mlights. For dimensions 01 butt. wei ding Ii tt i ngs <In d II angos. see tlbles 0, 1 Ih ru 0·6, and tables F· 1 th ru F ·7. Orafting symbols are given in charts 5.a thru 5.5.

Threaded lillings have PrBSllJre Class designations 01: 2000. 3000 and 6000, Socket·welding littings have Pr~re Class designations of: 3000, 6000 and 9000. How these Pressure ClfIss desigllBtions lelate to schedule numben and manufacturers' weigh IS 101 pipe is shown in table 2.2.

CORflEU. TtDN DF CL .... 01' THREADED • lOCK ET.wI!LDING FmINGS

WITH tcHEDULU/WI!IGHTS DF PI"

TA8I..E2.2

PIPE DESIGNATION SCH/MFR'S
,._., .. 2000 3000 6000 9000
Th"ed" fjltinp BO/XS 160 xxs
SIIC"ted hltinp 80/XS 160 XXS :TAl3lES).112.1

; r

I! I

, ;

i'

Sections 2.1.3 I hill 2.2.4 have showo Ihal Ihero is a wide valiely uf differentlv·rated pipe, fittings and metelials from which to make a choice. Chans 2.1 thru 2.3 show how various weights of pipe, fittings and valll85 can be combined in a pipillll system.

COMPONENTS FOA BUTT·WELDED PIPING SYSTEMS

2.3

WHERE USED: For most process, utility and serllice piping ADVANTAGE OF JOINT: Most practicable way of joining larger pipes and fillings which offers reliable, leakproof joints

. l . ,

DISADVANTAGE

OF .K)INT: Intruding weld metal may affect flow

HOW JOllljT IS MADE: The end of the pipe is beveled as shown in chart 2.1. Fittings are similarly bEMiled by Ihe manufactural. The two parts ale aligned, ploperly gapped, tad welded. and than a centinuous weld is made to complete tha joinl

Chart 2.1 shows the ratings of pipe. fittings and valvB:i thai are commonly combined or may be used together. II is a guide only, and not a substitute for a project specilication.

FITTINGS, BENDS, MITEAS • FLANGES FOR Bun·WELDED SYSTEMS

2.3.1

Refer to tables D, F and W·l 101 dimensions and weights 01 littings and flanges.

ELBOWS or 'ELLS' make 90. or 45·degretl changes ill direction 01 the run

of pipe. The elbows normally used are 'long radi us' I LR) with centerline radius of curvature equal to 1¥J times the nominal pipe size for NPS 3/4 and larger sizes. 'Short radius' (SR) elbows with centerline radius 01 curvature equal 10 the nominal pipe size ant also B\lailable. go.degree LR elbows with a straight e~tension at one erld ('long tangent') era still allailable in STD wei gil I, if required.

AEDUCIf~G ELBOW makes 8 9().degrea change in directitln with change in line size. RedUCing elbows halle cantarline radius of cUMlUre lY, times the nominal sile of the pipe to be attached to tha larger and.

RETUR"" challgel direction of flow thru 180 degrees. and is used to cerstruet heeling coils, vellts on tanks, atc,

BENDS are made from strwllli pipe. Common bending radii alB J and 5 limet the pipe sile (3R and 5R bends. where R '" nominal pipe sizen0I111,,-, diameter, not radiusl. 3R bends ara ~aihtble from stock. larger

radius bends can be custom made, pmferably by hot ~ndinD. Only seamless ,

0'-' ekc7>~-;" "rec;7~'Toi-.;:;'~ 'we·,J' pi Pe. .·s sui01bfe. ~O~ bCl'ld rnq.

BUTT-WELDED PIPING CHART 2.1"
[ ClI80!4·STEEL PIPE & FORGED·SIEEL Flnl_S I
M11__.
.....
END PREPARATION Of PIPE. 10 MUHOD Of ) 1'1001 c....... \.....-{.\ .. n
JOINING TO IE VE ~·ENOtO PIPi. FllTING. 1II~!l {"llfO
f~I'I"GE. VI'ILVE. OR fOUlI'lIIEIIIT 1<011. I IT!" SUett"~
I'IfI.~"lVf .
I) « ~W~If'M{ql.
"Pf ~! vi L
"1"'_ UN~ SIH NOAMl'Ill V 1<1'51
aulTW~lDUJ
fOR 'Irs ~ 'If'!iij
WE IGIIT Of rlPf .. f ITlI...roS NGI'IMAU" NOr.tI,.", ... IIIII ... 'YI"
I .. i[.iIIIl"'~~ .. r,
USED CHOIC~ Of orttUI M"TERIAlS all PIPE 'II'S 6 ..... t. 'H~[I!; .. II._
HEAVIER V«1(iHT "PE a. flTTIf'tGS WI~l Silt. ~ IIi .... c:Q.Oot
OiPENO ON PRE SSURE. UW{RATU fiE .101'1
HIE CO fI 1105 I ON AllO¥lll'llllCt flUl U! I'll 0 . SCHF.OIJ[E SCIl20
NI'S 2 10/110 lAJ«;EII PLPf IS USUALLY OA. NlJo.IB(1'I SCH40 ...
DE ~Eu TO .... 51M A 53. 'i, ..... 8 Sf E 21. 1>1;11 JO
UNOEIl'STHlS'
o.IfHS· ~H' -----
WfLl;IIT
I VAlVES I
fall NPS 2 "NO !!iO. 300, GOO, IlOO 1'1" 0 .. IG H E 1'1
L"RGER V"lyeS IIoCCOIiOIIt(i TO SVSlEloI PR ESSU A£
PRESSURE
"'ATING FOR IIIPS I." AND SEE C .... RTS 2.2 "NO 1.3
CLASS SMAllE II IIAl VE S
FOI'I COtlTI'IOl ~"l vss IJSUALLV JOOMINIMUM ISH 31101 • So. 5.3.5 """" ·0 '''''"siooi''i .........

I" ........... i"!l·-lOnWIi tor_ . ·ohiU ""i.- .... ~ ... i-"od bt_ ... y b"n·",.ldi"l! jo<nt

poriof 10 _leIi"ll. P, , .. _ ......... ond ",ill .. (·icid .. ·! 01 ~d ..... AI I" .... Im",,"i .

II>t pip< duoi .... eldinw. ",,",'" 0''''' _ ...... ~.....,t .id. NDI'moily "'" I", '"'

blot _lei bt conoido,od lor till'" ouch., libr .... , ...... no.ioM. _. _ ;.:.<101 <0.1<1

.-. jn "","';"1 oolite ..... ! join!> _ chalo jAg I....... s.. 2. II

BACKING AING

FIGUAE 2.1

FLAT TVPE

ioLBCWS; 5 Rio I UNN!>

e ,

...,,, LONQ.R""DlUS EL80W

I

,I

REOUCING [LeOW

I"'. NPS

.1

FIGUHE a.a

M" SI-IQRT·RRDlUS ELBOW

LONG'RADIUS RETURN

l.NPS

$HORT·RAOIUS RETURN

REDUCER 101' INCREASER I ioins II lal~l!r pipe to a smaller one. The two iNaiiable types, concentric and eccentric, are shown. The eccentric reducer is used when it is necessary to keep either the top or the bottom of the line level-ollsel equals Y.. K (larger 10 minus smallel 10).

REDUCERS

CONCENTRIC

r

'.

l

FIGURE 2.3

ECCENTRIC

SWAGE 1& empluyed tu connect bull·weldad plptnQ 10 smeller screwed Of socket·welded piping. In butt-welded lines, meet IS an ahlrnltivl to the reducer when greater rtduclions in Ilnll size 1ft requi red, Ragu lit twagII!I in contentric or eccenlfic form give abruPI change of line size, _ do reducers. The 'venturi' swage allaws smoother flow. Refer to tlb. 2.3 tor specifying SWIjlIIS for joining to COC1tet .... lding items,. and to tabla 2.4 tor spacifying swages lor joining to screwed piping. For offset. taa 'Reduce,'.

SWAOEI,Of SWAGED NI"'LEI

"QUIll! 2.4

CONCENTI'UC

ECCENTRIC

VENTVRI TVPE

MITERED ELBOWS ere fabricated IS required from pipa-they are not liltings. The use of mitelS to make chlnges in dira:tion is prllCtically restricted to 10000ressure lines lO-ioch end larger if the pressure drop is unimporllnl; lor these uses regulal elbows would ba costlier. A 2-piecll. 9O-degrell miter has four to six times the hydraulic resistance of the corresponding r8!J-I1eF long. radius elbow, and should be used with caution. A J.piece 90·degree miter has about double the resistanca 10 flow of the regular longfadi U5 elbow-refer to labIa F·' O. Constructions lor 3-, 4-. and &-p ieee m iten arB shown in tables M·2.

U.ICI • 2.J1'ECE MrTERS

'IOURE 2.1

3.ptect: MITER

2.pIECE UITEFI

1'h TI""ES M"S

THE 2-PIE:CE MtTIEFI HAS HI~

!'LOW RESISTANCE ISH TABLE "·101

171

I he lollowi ng 1 iva flange types Ire used tor butt-welded ures, I ne dlnerenl I lange lacings lV8i lab Ie are dillCUSSld in 2.6.

WELDING-NECK 'FLANGE, REGULAR. LONG R,.n. twldint/'Mtk n.n,. ". ,,- with butt-Mlditttl fjttkJfp. lO"ll weldillO"l'I8ck 118f198$ I"" primarily used lor veaal and equipment MZZIes. rarely lor pipe. Suitable ~'!_'!_~f!TMI___!!._~p'e~~~. ~rl_~'!lJ~! ~~_!~~9['J It raJ !n ~~~~larity of [he bora is maintained. Ref. to IabllS F for bore diameters 01 1 nese I langes.

_LDlMG-NECIt "L .... OE

FIOUtlE a.t

ILIP.oN FLANOE is prop!'_ty_ .. ~~ __ t'1_ ~!'i! pipe. Slip-on f181l111S can be used with 10nt"teng8nf ilOOWi, reducers. end SWIg8S 1 not u .. al prlCtiCII). The Internel weld is slillhtly more subjlCt to corrosion then the bun wald. The flanga nas poor resistance to $hock .,d vibration. II introduces irregu larity in the bore. II is cheaper to buy than the wulding-llBck flange, but is costlier to assemble. It is easier to alilln than the welding-neck flanga. Celculated strengths undar internel pressu re are about 01'18 third that 01 tht cOfr8$poodin g welding-neck flanges. The pipe or fitling is set back from the fBce of the flar'lglJa distance equal 10 the Mil thickness -0" + 1/16",

f

ILII"-ON PLANGI

AOURI a.l

REDUCING fLANGI:. ~UllaDIe lUI CI\i;IIlglIll,lllllll 51ill, UUI ~IUUIU ItUl uti used if abrupt transition would create undesirable IUrbulence, as at pump conntctions. Awilabla to order in welding·neck and eccentric IVPes, and uSJally from stock in &lip-on Iyp&. Specify by nominal pipe Siles. Slating lhe size of the largar pipe first. Elample: a slip-on reducing .Ian!lll 10 coonect It NPS 4 pipe 10 a Class. 150 NPS 6 I ine-sizs flange is specil ied:

REO F LG NPS 6 x 4 Class 150 SO

For It Miding-nlll:k reducine flangB, tOfilct bOla is obtained by givinll the pipe schedule number or manufaclurers' weight of the pJv<, to be wulded on.

REDUCINQ ",I,-ON "LANOE

fIQURE. 1..

EXPANDER FLANGE Application as tor we1chng·neck flange-sea aboVil. Inc IlIIIIIS p ips Ii l8 10 firn 0 r sac ond larger 5i li. Altar n alive 10 usi nil red u ear and weiding-nlll:k flange. Uselul for conn&r::ting to valva, compressors and pumps. Pr_ure fatings and dimensions ara in accord wi th ANSI B 16.5.

III

FIGURE a..

- - ~--- __ ._-------

-:-,. .-----------------.---

LAP.JOINT. Of 'VAN STONE', FLANGE Economical if costly pi,. such II stainless steel is used. a the flanga can be 01 Clrbon Il8eI and onty thll~ joint $Iub ind need be of the line material. A stub end mUlt be used in a lap joint. and the cost of the two items mUSI be considered. If both Slub and Uange are 01 the same material they will be more expensive than a weldingneck flange. Useful where alignment 01 boll holes is difficult. as with spools 10 ba II tached to f 18fltI8d n ollies 0 I ve;sels.

LAP.JOINT fLANQI W ............ I

fiGURE. l. 10

STU8 END

, . ,

'~-- -!~~ -- .. -~~.

:

I

L

BUTT -WELDING Tn.s, STRAIGHT or REDUCING, Bla Bmploved to rnaka go·degree branches from the main run of pipe. Straight tees, with branch the same SilB as the run, are leadily available. Reducing teas have branch smaller than the run. Bullhead lees have branch larger Ihen the run, and are very seldom used but can be made to speciel order. None of these lees reQuires reinforcement_ Aeducing tees are 01 dered 8$ follows:-

8UTT.wELDING FITTINGS FOR BRANCHING FROM BUTT ·WELDED SYSTEMS

2.3.2

STUB-IN Term for a branch pipe welded directly into the side of the main pipe run-it is not a fitting. This i$ Ihe commonest and teast expensivlI method 01 welding a full-size or leducing branch lor pipe 2·inch and larger. A Siull-in can be rein 10lced bV means set out in 2.11.

STUB-IN

FIGURI2.t1

r

I

l

- ". ~ -
' .. -,
r«M TO -.c,., Tin. MIII"Ln itI.w Oim.if ....... ~I
llioutlfrtl) 6tt I .. ANCM 6" 6" ,," MDTU • •• .. ~ aun-WlLDING TEO

STRAIGHT 8UTT·WELDING TEl!:

REDUCING euTT.WELI>INO TEE

_. ~ -.J.

;'1·.

The next four branching fittings arB made by Donne'll Forge. These fittings offer an alternate meaRS of connecting into the rna .

do not require reinforcement. They ere preshaped to the curvature 1'i-1i(j,~liiI]~ pipe.

WELDOLET makes a 9O-degree branch. full-siZ9 01 reducing, on luaigllt pipe. Claar manifoldi nU is possible titan with I89S.. Flat·based waldolets are evai lab Ie f 01 con necti ng to pipe caps and vassel heads.

WlLDOLET

'IQU •• Z.1S

.' I

'._

191

r

I

Burr -WELDING ELBOLET makes II reducing tangant branch DIl lootradius .. d shon-f'lldius Ilbows,

ELmLIT AOU"l2.14

IWTTWELDINO LAT"OLlT FIGURE :l1.

BUTT·WELDING LA THOL ET mllkes e 4fH1egree reducing breoch on Slreillht pipe,

SWEEPOLIEiT makn a 9O-degree reducing bnloch from the main run of pipe. Primarily daveloped for high'yiald pipe U$IId in oil end gas transmission linl$, Proyidas good flow pattern. and optimum &trm distribution.

, r

, i

FIGURE :lol.

The nellt thJ8B fini,.. ara usually used for special designs:

CROSS. STRAIGHT CIt REDUCI NG Straight crosses ara uSlJally stocl:. items. R.dueing Cl"0SISI may not be readily availabla. For economv.lflailability and to minimize the numblr of ilems in inventory. it il preferred to usa tees. etc •• tn4nol er .... 'leapt where "*' ... ,..ritted. _ in marine piping Of ..... vemp' WOfK. Reinforcement is not needed.

BUTT -WELDING CROll

FIQU"E :z.n

LATERAL. STRAIQHT ... REDUCING. permits odd-angled entry into the pipe run whare low resmance to How is important. SIr.ight laterals with branch bora aquslto run bars are avElilabls in STO Ifld XS weights. Reducing 181arals and lelerals at ,""I. othar than 45 dagraas are usuallv allailabl8 only to special order, Reinforcement is requin~d where it is necessarV 10 restollt the strength 01 the joint to the full 5trEIfIgth of Ihe pipe. Reducing laterals are ordoreO similarly 10 butt-walding lees. except thet Iha angle be~en b raoeh and ru n is also stat eel.

LATIiRAL

FIGURE :l18

SHAPED NIPPLE Now rare Iv used, but ClIO be obtained from slack in 90· and 45-degrea engles. and in any size and angle, including offset, to special order. The run is lield-cut, using the nipple as template. Nead5 reinlorC8ment if il is necessary to bring the strength of the joint up to the full strength of the pipe.

SHAPED NII'I'LIE

FIOURE 2.18

-- !

COMPONENTS FOR SOCKET·WELDED PIPING SYSTEMS

2.4

CLOSURES

2.3.3

CAP is used 10 seal the end 01 pipe. (See figure 2.20(al.)

FLAT CLOSURES Flat plates are normally cut especiallv from platestock bv Ille labficalor Of erector. (See fiIJ.tle 2.20 (bl and (~;.I

THAEE WELDED CLOSU"ES

FIQURI! 2.20

I.) UU"I" T·WlO LO'N<) c .. P

Ibl FLAT CI.OSUAE Ie) FL .. T CLOSURE

-rBD-B

ELLIPSOIDAL, Of DISHED, HEADS are used to close pipes 01 lariJ'l diameter, and ale sirn ilal to those IJ5ed 10 r constructing vesselS.

. f

For lines conveying flammable, toxic. or IIlpensive matsrial, wllere no leakage can be permitted. For steam: 300 t0600 PSI, und SOfTIe limes 150 PSI steam. For corrosive conditions, sell I nde~ under 'CoHosion'

WHERE USED:

-r ·1

HOW JOINT IS MADE:

The end of the pipe is linished flat, as· sllown in chart 2.2_ It is located in the titting, valvt!, flange, att., and a conti nu nus fillet weld is made sround the circumference

ADVANTAGES OF JOINT:

(1) Easier alignment on smell lines than butt welding. T 8ck welding is unnecessalV

(2) No weld metal tan enter bore

13) Joint will not leak, when properly made

DISADVANTAGES OF JOINT: III The 1116·inch recess in ioint (see chsrt 1_2) pockets liquid

12) Usc not lIermilied by ANSI 8JI I . 1989 il severe lIitJlalion or crevice tnr IDS ion is ant ic ipa! ed

SOCKET.WIELDED ... 'INO

CHART 2.2

Chart 2.2 shows ttIa ratings of pipe. fittings and valves that Ire commonly combined, or may be used together. The chart is a guide only, and not I substi lute for a project spec:ificalion.

SOCKET -WELDED PIPING CHART 2.2:
I CARIOM·SIm PfE & FOIGED·STUt nmlas I
-,r 1/16
U'AIGOft
WflO_ I.,.p.
~ .. O '~£P"'f!"ll0101 Of PIPE ... Ito I .. ·,,'w=}",
MElHO!) OF JOI .. ING TO FI"ING.
fl"'NG~. .. ... l liE. Of! EQUIPMENT
PII'!. """ ~""
~
/
L~c~n V'DUllt!" SUCH.I,S
COlAlI<ti. HIU,PI,IHll. VAlVE.h:.
101 ..... MUM II "IE SIZE NO flM .. Ll V NPS .v.
SOCKH WELDED itoWS 1" ,N ..... 11 .... "~'~I
AVAll""'LIlV Of FOMG(o·SlHl N'S 118 10 Nf>S •
SOCOO:ET WELDING fI"IMGS
SCHU'UU S[;HIID 5tH 1110 --
'" _IE 1'1
..
WE IGHTS OF PII'£ ;: hlfl'lS·
xs -- IliKS
4NO ",E$SU~E "tiGHT
ClASses Of
F IHINGS WHICH FITTING JOOIJ 6000 IOOD
ARt COMPA' 18 l~. i CL"'o;s
§ FITnOl"
Il101'1(0 SCM '0 SCtlll10 leKS
TO:

MOST COMMON COM81"' ... TIOH· CHOICE OF MA1ER1M. OM
I-<EAVIEfI·WEIGHl PIPE ... ,.,0 FITlING WILL O£'ENO ON
PRE$SURE. tEMPER"'"I"UIIE ... N01OI1 CORROOION "'LlOW-
... NU IIEOUI REO. PWE NPS IV. AND SMALLEfI IS USU ... Ll v
OROt REO TO ... STU SPEClf!CAT I()frj .... lOll G .... I. IIEHII
TO 214.lIt.IOER -SUHS·

I 'ALVES
CONTROL VAL vrs VSUJO,LL ¥ 300 ISH J_ I. HII
MI,.,IMlI'" tUSU"'LLY H"'NGtOI
PRESSUflE
IR ... lIHG) VALVUOlllEfI TH ... N IIOOt"'WSI!
CLASS CONUOI.. VM.VU .", , .... 11 • ANS I 816.11 • ..,ommono!. a 1 (i61"·!ncll guo to " ....... 1 w.l~ I,om c,&<:.lng "nd.,

thkrnal II rfIH

, S",,""' .. ndtod lItt1n91 It. now 0 ...... mOdO In cI __ 3000 1000 aNI 9000 I ..... SI IUti.HI

"""~~I .. nl ~ 1te'U' ", ...... 3So1
""" .. ·1" ...... 3'1 .. - 'fIOq .. , .... - U .. '''WI }fJ, YI.1:J Ifll II V
... ..-11"1. Me IIIu'PI- 1 .... :105 - MS
3Sd-118 ~ )( tOMS WUIMS 3"1" 00 9NU..LI.:I MI
38d ~ 111 ~.t OMS WHIMS I'IUIMS
w::nwws IlIl WiOUY1
ONIMYYG NO UON 1' .. WW)(J
-ONINlor 110.:1 JOWMS j !_,(

InOYMS ONIa'_' ,U>II:M)S .:10 HSINI.:I ON1. 12110 .. 1-'.:11:111111

': SMOIlOj SI 118 pB!l!JOOS aq Atw ~etll suoq1lU!WIEll pUI IU818U!P B41 10 S81dweq '(00 HJS) I SdN I( (Op HJSf l SdN 'aldwel(a 10::1 'paulO! IQ 01 sadld alU 10 SUO!lllUIi!SOp 11.l6!aM alii IIIIS 'BI]IIM5 II fiu!JapJO ua4M ',ddlN ~MS, 10 ,aMS, 5e sflU!MI!Jp UO pElle!MlJqqe l,a6paMS, paounouoJdl ,IIfieMS. II 58 01 p1JJ8lBJ 05111 $1 91dd!u p8611MS 'tI 'W91! papUII'lapos I OIU! UO!uasU! 101 (3Sd) U!lld poe 1I!lIIWS IKll puR (318) paiS -IIBq PUI lllhelllIl SIIIl 8ldd!u pa6eMS 10 ad,\J S!41-IlU!ll!lIO &d!d 6U1PIM\'lInq laDJIIJ 101 Will! Papua'lr..t:lOS "I (ll 'spue IB:'tOOS ClUj UO!U9SU! 'OJ (3Bd) U!Bld SpUS 4UIQ $1111 Dldd!u pIlIiIIMS JO adA! S!41-S1l!S I U9J8J1!P )0 SWII! pllpUQ 'IB:'tOOS (I) :IlU!U!o! MOnl 8$8lj1 '91:1111 01 6u!pJO»"I S31ddiN 03DVMS

I

I •

, ·1

I •

I r

1,_,

_J

'Ins '4111) lIu!dlSM Il!W!U1W 01 'pap 10M ala spu, 141 IJOllq 11.lfl!1 !)8MIJ:lS til PloolII uolun ',uo!un JJ8P1811.l1, JElPUn UIA!I sesn jO l'9"Z U! UO!)8UIIld .:.g aes 'sUJIIsAs lIu!d!d pePIWo\-~30S 1I1!M asn JOj pauII!SIJl IU!O! paMaJ)S IS! S!1I1 wsodmd UO!I'lItlSU! poe B:)UIU8lU!1W 10:1 AIPIW!Jd pesn S! HOINn

l

I-{

I~II

'.1."WI .~lIWM)

S ... WO .. lIilliIHJ.

.1111 ""'iI.O

'lIDN..,., 'DNIUI.I

a~Na- .Lil14:K>S

·qutlq paDJOj PJlpUIlS Dupoq IIq UO!llnpeJ Aull U! apllW eq Uill SlJIISU! J8:)f1PIJ pepUa-l8:t30S 'lIu!UIJ 18&J8I II 01 &d!d II8WS II1u!ltI8UUO~ .10. pasn 6u!1I!J IluT:mpaJ V 1Y1SNI .. 33no'l:!

, (

, ~ .

IIJ:tnOJ ..

f

e I

DNI1.II'1OO-'1n .. ':lUI 'a6ws '8ldd!u 8 D1 JO "~did 01 ad!d IU!O! IDNnMlOO. pew.aa) DNndOO3""nlf

'g '::I nJ1l1 1-:1 Pug S'O I8lqel U! ue"!5 IJI du,U poe s6u!lI!j )0 su0!SWW!(J

J. • ...-z

SWilSAS O!011M" J.3)1:)OS 1:1~ 839HY1:f • SONllll:l

ELBOWS make 9U· or 4!l·dll!J11lI! I:h~nQl!S 01 dlrecllun in the run of pipe.

lOCKET ·WElD! NG TEE

FIGURE 2.21

1.211' ..•. 1 ~4.2

lOCKET ·WELDINO ELBOWS

Floo,,£ 2..

LATERAL makes fun-sizB 45-degree brooch from the main (lin of pipe.

SOCKET-WELDING FLANGE RellUlar tVPB is Bvailable Irom stock. Reduc· ing type is available to order, F 01 example, a reducing flange to connect a NPS 1 pipe to II Class 150 NPS m line-size flange is specified:

SOCKET·WELDING LATERAL

FIGURE 2.21

REO FLG NPS lY2 x 1 Class 150 SW

IOCKET.WELDINO FLANOE

FIGURE 2.27

I ~

if
\
1
t
I..
!
t CROSS Remarks for butt"NBlding cross apply-see 2.3.2. Reducing crosses are custom-fabricated by boring standard 'oryed blanks.

FIGURE 2.30

SOCICET ,wELDING CROSS

FITTINGS FOR BRANCHING FROM SOCKET·WELDED SYSTEMS

2.4.2

.·FtGLiRE 2.21-2.3

BRANCH FROM SOCKET·WElDED RUN

• -11- ..

TEE, STRAIGHT 01' REDUCING. makes 9[}'degee blanch 110m the main run of pipe. fleducin!l lees afe custom- fabricated bV boring standard forged blanks.

SPECIFYING SIZE OF aocKET·WELDING TEES

..... to Sf'fCIf ¥ nu· .. \.MOl '''Uil ~\.MOI ... TLU I~"""" l~"_lt
IIlDUCl1t!I (JIll IIliANCH H~ 1 I" r ,HOU': 1· .. ·' •• "1,.,·· ... t··
2
._._--_. __ ---
Rt DUC'1fIli (JIll RIJH 1 r~ r H" '~'.;II r·. 1~··
IS'I'( .. I"L """llt.A1~O"'LYI M([)IH TABi....E 2.3

IIlI

FITTINGS FOR SOCKET·WELDED BRANCH FROM VESSEL OR Bun·WELDED MAIN RUN

2.4.3

HAL F.couPLI NO Te. lull-coupling is not used lor b'Wlching or for V8$al f;Oflnec:1ions, lIS the hIIf-coupling it the Ame Iaogth and is strongsr. The halfoQ)Upling ptfmits 9O-dagrea antry into I II .. r pipa or Y8SIItI well. The socko"t is mort practicable lIS shaping is necessarV with thl coup1ing.

flOUR I 2.31

The nixi four filtings Irlmlde bv Bonney Forga and offlr II! altlmlte method 01 enlefi~ the main pipe run. They haw Ina advantagt thai thl beveled walding ends a19 sh8pad to the CUMltU'1 of the run pipe. Reinforcement for the butt·welded pipiog or vassal is nOI required.

SOQKOLET makes: a9().dIgrae branch. full·sill or reducing, on strai!#l1 pipe. Fllt·baed sockolelJ art available for branch connectiofl$ on pipe caps and Ind VfI:IS8I haads.

lOCKOUT

FIGUIIE :1.33

SOCKET·WELDING ELBOLET makes a reducing tangsnt branch on longradius and short·raciius elbows.

L

IOCKiT .wELDINCi ILlCH.iT

flGUIIE 2.31

-l

SOCKET-wELDINI,J LATROLET makes a 45-degree reducing branch 00 straigh t pi PI.

1

lOCK" .wILDlNQ LA TIIOUT

ftOUfiE 1.34

'l1li .---

NWOLET A Yeriant 01 the sockolet, haYing integftl phsin nipple. PrimarilV d .... elopad for small 'IIIlvad connaclions-see f~'8 6.47.

NII'Ol.t:T

'IOUIII2..

STUB-IN See comments in 2.3.2. Not preferred for lines under 2·inch due to risk of Mid malll antering lina and rem-icling flow.

CLOSURE

.---2. ... 4

SOCKET·WELDINQ CAP seals plain-endlld pipq.

IOCKE.T .wELDING C.... flQURIl 2..

r

-

-

r-":" ------.

COMPONENTS FOR SCREWED PIPING SYSTEMS

2.5

WHERE USED:

Fa, Hnes conlleYi ng servites, and for smaller process piping

t 1) Easily mada 110m pipe lind fitti ng5 on sila

(21 Minimizes fire hazard when installing piping in areas where flammable gasas or liquids are presant

ADVANTAGES:

. (

DISADVANTAGES: I W Use nOI pormilled by ANSI 931.1·1989, if severe erosion, tlBVicll corrosion, shock, or v ibral ion is anlic: ipatad, no r at temperatures over 925 F. (Also see Iootrota table F-9)

(2) Possible leakage of i oint

(3)· Seal weldimJ may be required-see footnota to chart 2.3

(4) Strength of the pipe is reduced, as forming the Sl:rewthread reduces the wall thickness

. r

FITTINGS a. fLANQES FOR SCREWED SYSTEMS

2.5.1

·1

Strewed piping is piping assembled hom threaded pipe and fittings.

Threaded malleeble-iron and cestiron fittings ilre cllensively used for plumb· 109 in buildings. In industria! applications, Class 150 and 300 galvanized malleable·ilon fillings end similarly retad valves ale used for dlinking water and air lines_ Dimensions 01 malleable·iron fillings are given in table 0-1'.

.[

In process piping. forged·steel fittin!)S are preferred over cast-iron and malleaDle-iron fittings (81thou~ their pressure/temperature ratings may ba suitable), for their greater mechanical strength. To simplify material 5pacificalions. dralting, chetking, purchasing and warehoosinll. the (lVelali BConomics are in favor of utilili ng as lew dilleren ttypes 01 threaded littings as p ouiblB. Dimensions 01 lorj}ed·steel threaded Htt ing$ are given in tabla 0·9.

~

FULL-COUPLING hermed 'COUPLING') joins pipe or items with threaded ends.

FULL-COUPUNG

FIGURE l.37

CHART 2.3

Chatt 2.3 shows the ratings of pipe, fittings and valves that lie commonly combined, or may be used together. The thart is II guide onty, and not 8 substitute for a project specification.

CHART 2.3

SCREWED PIPING

CII18M·STEEl PtE & FOISlD·STEEL fmlllS

UUJ '5.ul~l M \.'~lvt COl~Pl.""li !UU'~\lE"'1 fie

~NO 'RE'ARATION OF PIPE. "'MO ""EHIOD Of' JO'NI'«l TO fiTTUtG. FL ... MGE, VAlvt 011 EOUIPMEIIT

MOST tOMIMlf'I COMe I HATION : THE M IHIMUIili CUIoSS fOR FIlTINGS P~E FERrIED IN IoIOSf INSTANCES ~ MICHAHICll.L STREfo,IGTH IS JOOO CHOIce O~ "''''URIAL 011 HEAV'EII·WEtGHT "PE • fITTING WILL OEMiNO ON PRESSURE. TEIIo'PERATURE AIIO lOR CO~ROSIOIi A L lO'o''''HCE RE OU'" EO_ PIPE N'S 1% '" "'0 ""jI,LL~ M ,S usu.--LLV OROUEO TO AST'" SP'EC1JIc;ATIOOI ... 1011 G._ s_ ~(HR TO 214. LtNOE~ "Sf EE ~S'

~~e Lz.31-2.~

VALYES

CO"lTIIOL "ALVU IUSUALLV FLANGED)

usu.o.U Y JOO !5U 31. 101

1oI1"1IMU'" ~RESSURE IAATING) CLASS

VALVES OTHE" THAN CONTROL VjI,tvES

..... NSI 131.1.0 _ .. _ ... _"" Ntl _ bo ".,...;oIond hr COI>lri!looW '" .". .......... 0' .he join!

On-pIo1: On ell 1<'1" __ ......... I",." bo" ..... li"'i.~ ... ilt> "" •• _.ion .. 1 plp.,..-"'"" •• , ... ..- inor1lf"l. _ w"1t

Off-plot!, On","- liMo Ioth1tdr"" .. _ ..... octI_I ... tl ... cortnVint~., "'.iI: . .,....,_

"' ... ..-fluido

115)

I,

I: j!

r"I:

"

! Ii

f

REDUCING COUPLING, Of REDUCER, joins threaded pipes of diffarent sizes. Can be made in any reduction bv boring and tapping standard forged blanks.

"EDUClNQ COW'UNQ

FIOURE 2.31

NIPPLES join unions, valves.- strainers, fillings, etc. Basicallv a short IBflgth of pipe either fully threaded ftllnll nipple) ur threaded both 8flds (TOE), or plain one end and Ihre&ded one Ind !POE- TOE}. Available in various lengths -fefer to tibia 0·11. Nipples cen be obtained with a Victluric groove at one end.

NII'PLEI FOR THREADi:D ITEMI

fiGURE 2..

(AI a..OSE 1111",'-1:

[I" L.OI\IG or SHORT ""PPL.E {TlIE}

'(' N,PPI.E iPOE-TOE,

... } TAIIIK ""'Pf'L.E

_'of .... _

GA_

,/ L.uclcn .. '

____ .

~I<" .. t I" ...... fN"-L.}_ N""

I

IIIPT

---.

0··

TAN~ ,.,'PPLE is used lor making a screwed connaction to a non-pnmUrEl W$$IH or tank in Iow--pres:sura $8fYice. Overall length is lISJaliv 13 inches with • 'lin4"d taper pipe thread at _h end. On one tIld onlv. the 1I98l" pipe thread runs into I ANSI lock-out thres[t

UNION makes a joint which permits easy installation, removal or replacement of lengths of pipe, valves or vossllls in screwtld piping $YStems. bamples: 10 remova a valve it must have at least one adjac .. t union, and to remove piping from I vessel wilh threaded connecl iOO$, each outlet hom the ve:sseI should have Doe union between valve and vessal. Ground·faced joints are preferred, although other faci ngs are avail able.

THR&AOIID UNION

,IGURE2.40

PIPE·TO-TUBE CONNECTOR For joining threaded pipe 10 lUbe. Figura 2.41 shows a connector filled to speciallv·flared tube. 0 ther types are lI'I'8ilable.

PI"E-TO·TUlE CONNECTOR

FIQURE 2.41

HEXAGON BUSHING A redUCing litting usad 10f connecting a smaller pipe into a larger threaded fitting or nozzle, Has many applications to instrument conneetlors. Reducing liltinga can be made in any reduction by boring and tapping staoderd forged blanks. Normally not used for hiij-l·pressure service.

HEXAGON IUlHlNG

,II'

'IGURf. :2..42

\ " \,

11

SWAGED NIPfllE This is a reducing filling, used for joining larger diametar 10 smellar diameter pipe. Also ref all ad 108$ 8 'swage (pronounced't'MIdgIJ'l and abbreviated as 'SWG' or 'SWG NIPP' on drawings. When ordering II swalJl!, state the weight desi!lllillions of 11M! pipes to be joined: fot eumple, N PS 2 iSC II 401 x NI'S usc 11001, A SWitlJ!.lI1~ly Ill! used t UI juining: i I) Sclewed piping to screwed pi ping. (2) Screwetl piping 10 butt·welded pip ing. (3) Bun·welded piping loa threaded nOHle on eQuipment.It is necessary to spacify on the piping drawing the terminations reQuired_

r

SPEcrF"I'IHO SIZE II. EHD FINISH OF THREADED SWAGES

TABU 2.4

.j

SWAGE fOR JOINING--
URGER SMALLER EXAMPLE NOTE 0frII ORAWING
to
THRD ITEM THAD ITEM SWGm .. t TBE
BW ITEM or PIPE THRDITEM SWG2 " 1 BlE-TSE
THRD ITEM" BW ITEM" SWG3 ,,2 TlE-BSE
BW ~ Butt welding TlE ~ Tlm.de<lllrgI! end
,~III' k I: 1'/ 'II If I,""S .. THAD ~ Threaded TOE .. Threaded one end
TeE ~ Threaded both endt BLE ~ Beveled large end
TSE ~ Threilded small end BSE ~ Beveled small end , !

'A lal!!'" fhrud",1 ifum is seldom joined to i Imallo, butl"o ... ldin!l item. Hvwever, Ihe conneelion 01 a buttw81d11!d linll! to • threaded nozate on a ¥l'uel is an example.

SWAGED NIPPLES, T8E IIICI8LE-TSE

FIGURE a.43

I
- .1
I
·r
'-1
-, !
~[
r
, .1
-·l
L. )1 i

-"--

ELBOWS make 90· or 45-deglee changes in direction of the run 01 pipe. Street elb OM having fI integral nipple at onl! end (see table D·l1), are available

THREADE D E L80W$, rt.S IIId 90 DEGREE

FIGURE 2.44

THREADED FUNGU are used to connect threaded pipe to t1anged items. Regular and reducing types are available from stock. For lumple, • reducing flange to conntlct a NPS 1 pipe to a Class 150 NPS m line-size flanga is specilied:

REO FLG NPS 1%)( 1 Class 150 THAD

THREADED FLANGE

FIGURE U&

FITTINGS FOR BRANCHING FROM SCR EWED SYSTEMS

2.5.2

BRANCH FROM SCREWED MAIN RUN

TEE, STRAIGHT Of REDUCING, makes a 90·degree branch from the tun 01 pipe. Reducing tees ale made bV boring and topping standard fO/ged blanks.

SPEClfYIHG SIZE 01'" THREADED RECM.K:INO TEU

..". TO II'IC'FV lUt, _'NUT IIUII GUlli' IIIIN«:H U_Lf
IIlOlJCHllO ...... .u.tM H" H" r ~ID lEI('~ .. 1..,., .,
-.-~ -----~~ ..... - --
liE IIlICIHCJ ... IIUN H" r n" IIEDtU ,~ " , .,.,.
... e.Al AJIIfIUC. f~<*I Ott .. 'W1 THREAot:O TEES, STRAIGHT .... REOUCING

fIGURE !.A6

ST!lAIQMT TI!I!

!lI!DUCINQ TEl'

fFGf...iRE! iU.-2 ....

TABLE iZA

"'-_ .~- .. -,-.-

LATERAL makes tull·Sili 45-deOf8B branch from tha main run 01 pip ..

FlGURl2.47

! '

i r

,

i

CROSS Remarks lor butt-walding cross eppty - $88 2.3.2. Reducing crosses ar. made by borl nu and tepplng standlrd forged bl.nks.

THIUlAOlD CflOSI

FIGURE 2.41

flnlNGS FOR SCREWED BRANCH

FROM VESSEL OR BUTT -WELDED MAIN RUN

2.6.3

HALF~OUPLING can be used to make !lJ..degl'88 threaded connections to p ipas fo r instru m8l'lts, or '()f vessel nozzles. Will d ill9 h8llt may cause embrittlalTl9nt of Ihe threads of this short fining. Requires shaping,

THREADID HALP'.cOUt\.INGi • I'ULL<COUI"LlNO

FLOURI :U8

1

e

.

,

FULL.coWLINQ Suparior to half~OIIpling. Also IIQUil'l$ shaping for can. necting to pipe.

T~k "1"'-1 See 2.5.1, figure 2.39(d).

The nexl four fittings for branching ilre made by Bonnv Forge. These fil1in!fS otler a meam; of joining scrBWId piping to I WIIdid fun, and 101 ITIIking instrument conneclions. The advanlages Ir, thBt the welding WId does not require minlorcementand thai the ends III shaped 10 the CUMture of the run pipa.

. '" ',!

~!- -

\.

,. ,

fiOURE2.IO

THREDOLET makllS a go·degree branch, lull Of reducing. on straight pipe. Hat-based thredolets are available 10/ bnnch connections on pipit caps and vessel heads,

THRI!OOLET

: . ~ ~

THREADED ELBOLET makes l!!ducing tangent branch on long'radius and short ladius elbows.

THRIEADID ELIOLU

FLGURE 2.51

THREADED LATROUT

THREADED LATROlfT makes a 45·dugrea .adur:ing brenchon a straight pi pe.

,It,

·1

CAP seals the threaded end 01 pipe.

THREADED NIPOlET A variant 01 the Ihledotet with inteqrlll thre&ded nipple. Primarily dwopetl lUI small valved connectiuns-S89 ligure 6.41.

THR(ADE D NII'OLET

FIGURE 2.0

.J

STUB·IN See comments in 2.3.2. Not preferred lor branching Irom pipe smaller than NPS 2 as weld metal may restrict flow.

CLOSURES

THREADED CAP

l

2.5."

FIGURE 2.54

BARSTOCK PLUG seals the threaded end of if litling. Also termedroundhead plug'.

BARSTOCk PLUG UN TUI

FIG UR E Z ••

PIPE THREADS

2:.lU

Standard ANSII ASME B 1.20.1 del ines !JE!netal purpose pipe threads: tapered and straight threads for pipe (and fittings, ate.l. For the same nominal pipe size, the numDer of Ihraeds per inch is the same fal straight Ind tapered threads. Most pipe joints Bra made using the tapered Ihrtad lorm.

Tapered and streight threads will mete. Taper/tapar and taper/straight (both types) joints are self sealing with the use of pipe dope II compound !plead on the thteiJds which lubritltes end seals the joint on assembly!. or plastic tape l1ellon). Tape is wrapped aloUlid the eltarnal thread before the joint is assembled. A strai~t/straight screwed joint requires locknuts and gaskets to ensure sealing· see Jig. 2.39 (d).

Standard ANSI B 1.20.3 defines 'dryseal' threads. o rysaa I threads seal against line pressure without the use of pipe dope or iape. The seal is obtained by using a modified thread form of sharp crest and ftat root. Thjs causes inter· ference [matal-tc-metal contact) between the engaged threads. and prevents Ill8kage through the spiral cavity of m81irJg threads.

Symbols used lor specifying threads:

N s American National Standard Thread Form, P = Pipe, T .. Taper, C = Coupling. F = Fuel & Oil, H" Hose coupling. I = Intermediate. l " locknut, ... % ~ethencal. R" Railing littings. S = Straight

ANSI B 1.2O.1! PIPE THREADS, GENERA L PURPOSE

Taper Pipe Thread

• Rigid mec~aniC81 jOint for Railings Straight Pipe Thread:

- Internel, in Pipe Couplings

· Free-fitting, Mechanical Joints for F i. lures

· loose-filting, Mechanical Joints with locknuts

· loose-Filting, Uechanical Joints 10f Hose Coupling$

NPT NPTR

NPSC NPSM NPSl NPSH

ANSI 81.20.3; DRVSEAL PIPE THR EADS

Taper Pipe Thread:

• Orysaal Standard NPTF · Dryal SAE Shari (NPTF type, shortened by 0119 thread) PTF-sAE SHORT Straight Pipe Thrsad {internal only):

· O,vsaal. Fuellfor use in solt/du ctile materials)

· Drvseet, Intermediate (lor use in hard/brittle materials)

F1Gl..II=ES

i. 2.4!-:~~~~ .

NPSF NPSt

(NPTF is the only type that en!lUes saaling against line prtsJre. If thera is no objection to its me, pipe dope may be used with all threads to imprave sealing, &nd lessen gaUl n9 nt tha thrseds.l

Specify pipe threads by: NPS - Threads per inch· Thread type

Example: J. S NPT

Bolt holes in flangas If a equally spaced. Specifying the number 01 holes, diametel 01 the boll cirtle and hole size sets the bolting configuration. Number of bolt holes per flange is given in tables F.

The RAISED FACE is IllS-inch high lor CllISSEIS 1&0 and 300 flanges, and Flanges era positioned so thai bolts straddle vertical and horizOfItBI center-

1/4.inch-h:igh'D( all bthar~cla ....... CIass-250-east-i«Hrfle~ fla~. _~.~~~i~.IJ.P_Lmal p':!!itiQI' pilloit holes 011 all flanged items.

I itt iogs 11$0 hava thl 1 liS-inch Ilisad Ieee.

2.1.1

Many lacings lor fJantal are oftared by flange manu lacturlls , including various 'tOfllPJa and gloove' types which mIJSt be used in puirs. HOwevlf, only 10111 tVJ)1IS 01 IlCing are widely used, and thBIII Ire shown in fIIP·HI 2.56.

r

The raised facl is used lor about 80% of all nanyes. Tha ring-joint facing. employed with Bither an ovel-$8Clion 01 octagon-section gasket. is ulifld mainly in Ihe petrochemical industry.

flQURE ue

RAISED-FACE

FLAT·FACE

AINo. JOINT

I.AP JOII'IT

• i:

SuppJ;"I' Cltllogr gM 'ltngth thIU hub' di""",iOlll whic/J inc/ur/r rhf O.Ol-;ndI nilld nu 011' fII",u in C"_' 150 IIId 300. but IJldudt the 0.25·inch '6n.d 1«8 aR "Mlfft in CInfn fO(J thru 2500. Tabla f intIudB ,,,, rBi$ld 1st, 10' ,U '."fIB Crn..

ft,AT fACE MoSl common uses ara for mating with non·steel flengBS on bodi. of pumps.ltc. and fa r mating with Class 125 cast-i ron '1111 ..... and fittings. F lat-faced fl8111;18$ Ire used with a gasket whOlll outer diameter equals that 01 1he flange - Ihis reduces me d8n~r of crackinlll C8!t·iron. bronze or plaslic f IaIl1Jlt when the 81i!81T1b1 V is t igh tantd.

fltd in CQllt8Ct wi th thl gasket a Ie I8CB5SfId U 52 0 I I aci ngi 0 f I hi\ I, pe rr, iff incr_ 8S hollow melal O-lings gain accaptance tor process cllemlcal seals.

lAP-JOtNT Fl ..... GE is sh8Plld to accommodate Ihe stub end. The combin· Ilion 01 flange and stub end plesenls similal geomelly to the raised·ldee II Bngll Ind C<ln IJu used ¥'IIho! 0 SIlVelO Imlnl illl1 s I lassos wi II not or:: cur. A dvan I· avas 01 this lIalllJ! 81e staled ill 2.3.1.

~

The term 'finish' relels to the type 01 sll/Ioce produced by machining the flange face which contacts the gasket. Two principal types 01 finish are produced, the 'senated' and 'smooth'.

F orged-steel lIa n!J!~ wi Ih I aiserl-face are usually machined 10 give a 'serratedconcentric' groove, 01 a 'senated-spiral' groove finish 10 the raised·face of Ihe flange. The serrated·spiral finish is Ihe moro common and may be !8ImOO the 'stock' or 'standard finish' available from Sl;Jppliel$.

The pilch 01 the groove and t he surface finish vary dep8llding on tha Sill! ami class 01 the flange. FOllai$8d·foce stllBlllan!ll!$, Ihe pitch varies from 24 10 40 per inch. It is made using a culling 1001 havi n9 a minimum radius at the I ip of o .06·inch. The mu imum roughness of surface finish is 125-500 m icroinches.

'Smooth' finish is usually specially-ordered. and is availabla in IwO qualities. (f) A fine machill9d finish lsavill!! no definile 1001 mar k.s. (2) A 'mirror -finish', primarily intended for use without gaskels .

SOL T HOLES IN FLANGES

2.6.2

BOLTS FOR FLANGES

2.'.3

Two types of bolting are available: the studbolt using two nuts, and tha machine bolt using one nut. Both boltings al8 illustfated in ligure 2.57. Studbult thread lenyths Ilid diameters afO givnn in tables F.

Studbolts have largaly displaced regular bolls for bolting flanged piping joints. T hre advantaglri of using nudbolts are:

( 1 ) The stu1bolt is more easily removed il cor faded

(2) Contusion with other bous al the site is avoided

(3) Studbolts in the IBss frequently used SilBS and materials can be f8lldily made hom round stock

·.IiI'.m '<IlslII.? .... ~.,....,--,

_~ __ : ....... _.....l ..... _ .. -C"

. _+,," .. f • ......-... _ ... ~0.4: __ r_ ... __ ~ ~ ... ~~. __ '-._._ .. r._ .. _ .. _._~~_.~_ ...... _

r

UNIFIED INCH SCREW THREADS IUN AND UNR THREAD FORM) UNR indicates munden root contour, and applies to axtarnalthreads only, Flat. Dr rllluH1ed rom is optional with the UN lhrllall, Thela lin! loUl Uniliad ScrWl' Threads' Umlied Coarse (UNCI UNCRL UrliHed Fine {UNF/UNF RI. Unified f ;.. t Iii liM (UN [F !UN E FA I and U ni f ied Selet ted IU NS/u N SA I, with three clU~SI!!l 01 f;, \ A. 'l (I, Blld 3A 1III UX 11!l11 ~I 1 h rll;1I15, 1 11, 21l, 111111 311 II If in 1 Cf!laI lh rl)~r1s. f C~1SS 3 110IS tim least c ICil rene ~-1 T he standard is ANS I B 1_ 1 _ which incmpnrates a metric I ranstat ion,

MACHINE IOU .. NUT, _STUDIOLT III Nun

'IOURE 2,ST

5QU ... 'U .... ~AtI MACH.NI. 80LT

STUDBOL.T

H€)C NUT

HE:otNUT

HE)C NUT

r

(J

9, ,

UNC (C1<1ss 1 medium fit hull and nul) is used lor bolts and studbolts in pi!IIII!i, and Sflecihed in the follnwinq order

o imnllte! ' Threads ppr inch- Thlearl ' C lass of fit,

BOtT, NUT,

'!. - 13 UNC 2A '/. ·13 UNC 2B

GASKETS

:U.4

Gaskets are used to make a lIuir1·resistant seal between two surfaces, The common gasket patterus If)! piun Hannes 811l the 'tllI·lace and Ii n!l types. for U~11 with !I;'lfil!:I~.t ;!IlII li,isl!rll;)u! Ilim!.-!S rr~III~I:llvdy, R(!Ip.I If! li'~IIp. 256. WIIII)iy II~ ill 111;11111 hils I III IFI~k'~I~; ilU~ r:lllrlflt ~~~III! IJslH!:;r us (111 u i.":h t Ilid) and asbestos-I i lied metal ('spi ral-wound·. 0,17 5-inth thick). The I iiled meta I Qilskp.t is especiaUy useful il mainlmJallce requires Jepooled uncoupling of lla ngc$, <1S tim gasbl separates cleanly an d is often reusable.

Choice ul !jilskot is docired bv.

(II T empm ill U Ie, PIUSSUII! ill,,1 r.m I nsivu natu III 01 the CI)IM!ynd flu id (2) Whpr hOI mai ntenant<) UI Ilpllmt i 011 re'lllifli~ repeal ed uncnu pi iog

(3) Cmleiellvironmenlal r9Quiremrmts thai may apply

(4) Cos:

Garlor.~ lncn.pnrated's publicillillil 'Engimlllled gaskeling products' provides in 10 r mal ion on the suit;thi! i Iy {II gaskfll mal erials lor diller ant applical inns. Tables 2,5 gives some character is! irs of gaskets, 10 aid sel~lion.

It may be required that adjacent parts of <1 line ale electrically insulated from one all 0 I her, and til is m iJV be ell IlC I ed Uy illserling a Ii ange d ioi n t Ii lied wtlh an inslllalil1g !Jl:ISkP.1 SCI tmlwmm thn parts, A gasket electfically irsuI a lCS Ihll IIdtl\}l! laces, 11 nd ,lI!t!vI)S and washers insula Ie I he bolts trorn one

'·0 ~ .••• I. ~ t I.'J"~" -~.' at~ t .. tf-lf:ljf~ i,. r.'f1IrfU .-) r.~~

-------~-~- ---_,-_ .. -

O .... IIiET CHAIIACTII"ITICI

TMU2.a

.... _· ... rru:T" ,._.-

"''"tIII

.,,""' .... nHClIIUI 1IIItII1 ..

~:":"";'~~i""h w .... ,....:HtI .~,ooo

-------.------,_------~-------+- ------~--------~

Solidi T.,flgn c .......... , sao t~.t)J(J

c_ ....... _"' .. "" 150 2Ml,mD '1641'~1.-'6.'·!

----------+------+---_._--- - ---------- --------

C-_ "eo! :::t:"..... J50 ',IiCJJ,OOO

I-- -+- -+---~ ~ ~~~--.- ::.~~=t'o

:t::::. 1m:! ',000,000 ....., It

lluldl

~ ... _ w_ ...... ~

-_, .. ---,--1--.-,---- --------

""""'" t.... a. 2!0

'...,.1l1li

1131, !llUID_tiB_114

--------

111;.1,11.11.1111, -":10'"

1--------+-------- -.--- --- ---. - --'-_-._-- -- -'1-.:-- .---- -- - .--

Sp" ... ~: $SIT@( ..... <:51"_", SSlA!ltll'!INJ1 SStCIWIIIlII(,.

$00 ,~

'700 1900

FIGUIIE U'

INSULATING GASKET SET

MGM·iIJ'!iitdM'lIi[."'f'Id,!I tg,r IIIfHr .. *IaIo'l41 .... ".'51,0"& An,fnlll.j.,n.q,i-Uel 1~Ir,..n"' () 11~

OOUBLE INSULATING SET t

r SINGLE INSULATING SET

TEMPORARY CLOSURES FOR LINES

IN·LlNE CLOSURES

2.7

2_7,1

A campletelv leak-proof means of stopping flow in lines is necmarv in piping systems when: II) A change in prncess malerial 10 flow in Ihe line is to he made and Cfoss-tonlamination is 10 be avoided. (2) Periodic maintenance is to he carried out, and a hezsrd would be presented by flammable andfGr 10llie malerial passing a ValliS,

The valves described ill 3.1 may nnt ollar complete security against leakage, and one 01 the following methods of lempmary closure call be, used: tioeblind vallie, line blind (iocluding special typ8S·lor use wilh ring-joint flanges). spectacle plate {so·called from its shapef. 'double block and bleed'. and blind Jlanges replacing a removable spout. T he last lhree closures ale i!iusllaterl in lir-mRS ,",59 thru 2,61.

~-

5 pe:co.cu 'LoAT:: r ' >,if !lUND ~CTAr..!b

fL Art

fiGURE I.H

11 1d .. no1."

1 I)Iooke ........ 1II'

.... II1~ __

_ .. 110M

FIOURE2.1O

~:~~g~V"

.~ ~.: ~,. :.... .-=;;.~ .«

-. -=:.. ...... -' .•

-~~.y~ :,.

. : ~~ -. -':" ...

_. -

; ". :

.. EMQV .... U .ooL

FIGURE 2.1,1

·r

If ,line is 10 be temporarily ~Iosed down with dllllbla.block·anij·blllfld. both veIyas 111 ckllad. end ~ flui~l!i~ ~~~u_ff ~'" th@ bleed valve. The bleed VIIve " 1tlen leh open to IOOWWhQthl!O!t~!hIr_~ ore tightly shut.

F igun 2.60 shows tha blaed ring connacted to a blaed valve-see 3.1. 11_ The use 01 a lapped valve rathar than I bleed ring should be considarad, as il is a more economic 1IT1II'\g8In8fl1 , lind usually teo be specifiBd mer,ly bv adding 8 suffix to the val .... ordering number. ,

A I in&- ttl i nd valve is not ill u st rated lIS cons true I ion va r ies. This tvp a 0 f valva incorporata a SJl8Ctatle plaia sandwiched bltwIBI two flanges which may be expanded or tightened lbV some easy means), allowiov the :spectacle plate to be reversed. COll$t8llHengih line-blind Vllves afa also wlJilable, mads to ANSI dimensions fOl run IlIIlQth.

Table 2.6 compara the advantages of too tour in-liM lemporary closures:

TMLE 2.1

\ ClO$UAE UNE lUND SPECTACLE COUILE
'LATE, .. ILOCK, ... "1"'OV"I~i
CRIT£RION \ VALVE LINE 11.IffO ILltD sr001.
IIELATIVE LEAS!' ME DIUM (Xf'fN5f.,
OVEIlALL DEnlllDlPfG 0111 fAEOUEltCy MOST
COST ( X"-NIIIVE OF CHAfllGEOIolEil EXI'ENSlloIl
MANHOORS
FOROOUILE NEGLIGIIU 1",3 NEGUGIILI , 10'
CMANGEOVlII
INITI"'L FAIRLY lOW YEAY HIGH
COST HIGH HIGH
CEIIT A IPtTY COWLETE COMPLETE DOUITfUL
Of' SHUT -Off COM'lETE
VISUAL YES YES YES,IUT
INDICATION? SUSPECT YiS
WHO PLANT "1'EfITT EA 'LANT
Of'lA"'TE$l OPEAATOII OI'EA"'TOA "'(fITTlR CLOSURES FOR PIPE ENDS II VESSEL OPENINGS

2.7.2

TempDrary bollld closures include 01 ind flanges usi ng lIat gaskets or ring joints. T·boll closures, welded·on closures with hinged doors - including the boltlB$S manhole CO~ IAolMl1t Jenkins. England) and clOSUles primarilv in· tended for Yessels, such as the Lanape range IBonnev Forge) which may also be used with pipe of large diameter, The blind flange is mosllv used with a view to future ~)I pansion of the piping system, or for cleaning. inspection, etc. Hinged closures are otten instilled on lIessals; infrequently on pipe.

QUICK CONNECTORS It COUPLINGS QUICK CONNECTORS

2.8 2.1.1

Two forms of ConneclOf specifically daigned for temporary use are:

(1) Lever tvPl with double lever clamping, such as Everlil8 'Standald' and Victaulic 'Snap Joint'. (2) Scraw tyPB with captiva nut - 'hOSB connector'.

Typical use is for connecting temporarily to t8flk. C8ri, trucks or process ves· sels. -Inter·trades agreements permit plant operators to attach and uncoupl a these bolt less connectors. C,rlain temporary connectors have builHn valves. Elllrtita tnIIlufacwre& I dOllble·ahut·gfl connector fOf liquids. loci Scltrldw

- awlwcl cOOOlCtQr for air lira -

BOl TED OUICKoCOUPlINGS

2.8.2

Connections of Ihis type may be suitable for either permanent or temporary use, depending on lhe joint and gasket, and service conditiOns. Piping can be built rapidly with them, Bnd they are especially uselul for making repairs to lines, lor constructing shoft·run process installations such as pilot plants, and for process mlHlificltiOn.

COUPLINGS FOR GROOVED COMPONENTS !t PtPE

Couplings of this type lIe manufactured by the Victaulic Company of America f()r use with steel. cast·ilon, FRP or plastic pipe. either having grooved ends, or with Vict.utic collars welded or cemented to the pipe ends.

The following special fillings with grooved ends ale lI'Iaileble: elbow, tea (all types). lateral, ClOSS, reducar, nipple. and cap. Groove-ended valves and valve adep tors are alS(l available. Advantages: (1) Quick litti ng and removal . (2) Joint can take up some deflection and e~pension. (3) Suitable for many uses, with correct gaskets.

The manufacturer stales (hat the biggest uses are for permanent plant elr, water (drinking, service. process. wasta) and lubricant lines.

r > I

Figures 2.63 Ihru 2.66 show methods of accommodating movement in piping due to templ!rature changes, if such movement cannot be taken up by:

• i.

I

. i

COMPRESSION SLEEVE COUPLINGS all! ellt9l1sivaly used for air, water, oil and gas. Well·known ITIIInufacturers include Victaulic. Dresser and SmithBlair. Advantages: (1) Quick fitling and removal. (2) Joint may take up some deflection and axpansion, (3) End preparation of pipe is not needed .

. f

YICTAULIC CClM'RIUION SLEEVE COUPLING

FIGURE2.U

. r

, [

EXPANSION JOINTS 8. FLEXIBLE PIPING

2.9

EXPANSION JOINTS

2.9.1

····1

(1) At-routing or llI-spacing the line. 121 Expansion loops-SIt figulll 6.1. 13) Calculated pllC8ment of anchors. (4) C()ld springina-sea 8.1. Bellows·type ellpemion joints of the type shown in figure 2.63 are also u$8d to absorb vibration.

.. MPt.E .EllOWS

fIGUAI2.U

ARTICULATED .ELlOWS

FIQUAE 2.14

ARTICULATIO TWlN-IIELlOWl .... 1!M8l Y

FIGURE 2_

2 .1.1 .9.1

I&.IDINCI"LEEIIE-AND-ANCHQR SUI'fORT

FIQUI'IE ZJMI

2.10.3

, .;

r

I

fLEXIBLE PIPING

2.9.2

F or fi iii ng and em plying ra ik:ars, tan ken, etc., th ru I igid pi pu. it is n EICBSSIIry to design articulated piping, using 'swjwling' joints, or 'ball' joints (the latter is a 'universal' ioint). Flexible hose has many uses especiallv v.flere there is a need for temporary connections, or where vibration or mOll8ment occurt. Chemical·resiNnt and/or armored holIeS are available in reguler or jacketed forms (RIEl fjgure 6.39).

SEPARATORS. STRAINERS. SCREENS&. DR IPLEGS 2.10

COLLECTING UNWANTED MATERIAL FROM THE fLOW 2.10.1

OWic:ts ere included in procass and .Nice lines to separate and collect undesirable solid or liquid materiel. Pipe scale, loose \WId metal, unreactad or decomposed process material, precipitata. lubricants. oils. or 'Nater may harm either aquipmem 01 the process.

Common forms 01 line-installed separator 11'8 illustrated in figures 2.67 and 2.68. Other more elaborate separltors menlioned in 3.3.3 are lI'Iailable, but these fall more into the catll1lory 01 process equipment. oormally selected by the process engineer.

Air and some oth" gases in liquid-bearing lines ara normally self-collecting at piping high points and at the ramole ends of headars, and are vented by discharge wives - see 3.1.9.

SEPARATORS

2.10.2

Theile permanent devices are anad to collect dropleli from a gaseous $l1"8lllfl, for extffiple. 10 l:oll«:t oil dropiel$ from complassed air, or condensate drop· lets flom wet steem. Figure 2.67 ,howl a saparetor in which droplets in the '""'" collect in Chevloned 1r00Yl$ in the barrier and drain to the small well. CoIlecled liquid is discharged via e trap-see 3. 1.9 and 6.10.7.

STRAINERS

Inserted in lines immediatelv upstream of sensitive equipment. $Irainel1 collect solid particles in the epproximate sile range 0.02-0.5 inch, which can be separated by passing the fluid be9fing them thru the strainer's SCIl!lln. Typical locations for strainers are before a control valve, pump, turbine, or traps 00 steam Syitems. 2O-mesh strainers are used for steam, water, and heavy Of medium oils. 4fl.mesIl is suitabkllol steam, air, attlel gases, end light oils.

The commonest strainer is the itiustnted Wfa type where the screen is cylinelfic and retains the particles within. This type of strainer is 88Sily dismant· led. Soma stlainers can be fitted wilt! a vailla to locilitata blowing out collect· ed material without shutting the line down-see tigura 6.9, 101 a.ample. Jacketed strainer!" are available.

SEPARATOI'I

f1GURfl.l7

WET STEAM

DlIIllE~5TfAM

'TRAINER

FIQUR.2."

. "

---------------...---.,....... _-----. ,.~ ·:--,---~.:.r .... )_......,·"~'"7f'.-~·· ............ .-. 4$ e Atili ,._. po

. r

I

Often made lrnm pipe and filtinqs. the driJl~eg is an ine~pensi ... e means of collecting condense!e. Figure 2.70 shows B dripleg filled 10 3 horizontal pipe. Rl!fIloval of condensate hom steam limn is discussed in 6.10. Rer.ommended sizes for driplegs are given in table 6.10.

SCREENS

2.10.4

Simple temporary strainers made from perforated sheet metal and/or wire mesh are used tor startup operations on the suction side of pumps Bod comppressors. especially where Ihere is a long run of piping before the unit Ihat may contain weld spatter or material inadvertently lett in the pipe. Alter startup, Ihe screen usually is removed.

II may be nec!lSSarv to alrBnlll! for a small removable spool to accommodate the screen. It is important that the !low in suction lines should not be restricted. Cone-shaped screens are therafor preferred, with cylindric tvoes as second choice. F lal se teens ale bette I reserved fOi tow-sucti on heads.

SCREEN BETWEEN fLANGes

FIQURE2."

. !

USUAL DIAf:ClION O~ FLOW T ... Au TH£ sc !tEEN

-, r

ORIPUG CONSTRUCTION

FIGURE 2.7"

--. [

___ T AI'\.P PIPING I=-~.t\--j-- CONN~":TlON

__ SLOWDOWN

.---- CONN£CTION

. -l

DRIPLEGS

2.10.6

·1

REINFORCEMENTS

2.11

BRANCH CONNECTIONS

'Reinforcement' is the addilion of edn metal at a bf8nch connection made hom a pipe or vessel wan. The added metal compensates lor the structural 'MIakening due to the hofe.

Stub-ins may be reinforced with regufar or wraparound saddles, as shown in ligUle 2.71. Rings made Irom platestock a re used 10 reinforce branches made with welded laterals and bull·welded connecliofl$ 10 vessels. Small weldlld connections may be reinforced by adding extra weld metal to the joint.

Reiniorcinq pieces are usually provided wilh 8 small hole 10 vent !JIS9S produced by welding; these gases would otherwiso ba Irapped. A VlHlt hole also !i8IVeS to indicate any leakage from the joint.

STRAIGHT PIPE

If a butt 'MIld joining Iwo sactions 01 slfaigilt pipe is subject 10 uousual external stress, it may be reinlurced bV the addihon of a 'sleeve' (formed from two units, each resembling the fUWllf member in figure 2.71 [bl).

The code applicable to the piping should be consulted lor reinforcement requirements. Backing rings are not considered to be reinforooments-see the lootnote to chert 2.1.

REINFORCING .... DOLES

'IOU"£171

(til WRAPAROUND SADDLE

+ .. VENT
_J T., l\. (In "'01
'" . ~.
'\ ~.~ .
l ,. '\
'f
)
r/7"l HOLES 01.0,,1 ... ,

~

2 ~,1 .11

.FIGLFES 2..11-2.11

fLAT "'" -
IN, I ~~'
~- [~Hlal
__ HNIGII'I
- -. -
- • IIDII_
I
I'L' -IlC11Of111 PIPE SUPPORTS

HANGERS

-

I

'Ol

I

l_

l

FIGURE 2.?2A

SUPPORTS

CHAIONEL,

.. "l'.'l" .. T tliCllOll-......

~'"OO

cr!'~AlI

~ I

PIPE SUPPORTS

SUPPORTING PIPE CLOSE TO STRUCTURAL STEEl

, ,

; ,

id

·1I:1ICJI;IfII1F ' ...... '1 .. -

"_ ~.-

t. CONSTANT LOAD TYPf.

Z. VARIAILE LOAO TYPE

/), T

t

FIGURE 2.728

SUPPORTS ALLOWING FREE MOVEMEIT Of PIPE

2 .12

FIGUAES L12MB

HARDWARE FOR SUPPORTI NG PIPING

2.12

Symbols for dlalting wlioul types 01 StIppOII are shown in chait 5.1. For desioning suppor' systems, sea 6.2.

PIPE SUPPORTS

2.12.1

Pipe $UPPOltl $h,)uld be as limple as conditions allow. Stock. items are usad where practicable, especially lor piping held hom above. To support piping from below, supports alB usually made to suit from pil'l1BStock, pipe, and pieces Q I It ructura I steel.

A selection olavaillble hardware tor supporting is illustrated in figures 2.72A and B.

TERMS FOR SUPPORTS

2.12.2

i I

l J l ;

SUPPORT The weight of piping is usually carried on supports made from structurel steel, or steel and concrete. (The term 'support' is also used in reference to hangers.)

HANGER Owice which suspends piping (usually a single line) from struelural steel, concrete or wood. Hangers are usually ediustable for height.

ANCHOR A rigid support which prevents transmission 01 movement (thermal, yibratolY, etc.) along piping. Construction may be from $teel plate, brackets, lIangBl5, rods, etc. Anachment of an anchor 10 pipe should prefelably encircle tha pipe Bnd be welded ell around IS this gives a better distribution of stress in the pipe 'N8I1.

TIE An arrangement 01 one or more rods. bars, etc, to restrain movement of piping.

DUMMY LEG An extension pm lof pipe or rolled :st9B1 S8ctionl wahlet1 to an elbow in order to support the line-see figure 2.12A and table 6.3.

The followin!! hardwara is used where mechanicalaflll10r thermal movement is a problem:.

GUlpE A means of allowing 8 pipe to move along its length, but not sideways.

SHOE A metal piece attached to the undef1ide 01 a pipe which rests on supporti~ steal. Primarily used to reduce wear from sliding for lines subject to movement. Permib insulation to be applied to pipe.

SADDLE A wetded a!lachment tOf pipe requiring insulation, and subjacl to longitudinal Of rOllinll movement (rasulting Irom temperatura changes other than eHrnallc). Saddt. mav be uatd with VUidel as ahown in 6.2.8.

SLtDE PLATE A slide plate support is illustrated in li!PJre 2.72A. Figl.lle 2.72B shows applicatiollS of 'uear' graphita $Iide paates which BIB olfered by Union Carbide Inc. The two plates used in a IUpport are made tram or faced with a material of low friction able 10 withstand meclwlnical $118$$ end temperetull changes. PIII8$ ara olten made from If..,hita blocks. Stell plates with a tallon facing Ble availablEr and may be welded to sleeL

Spring hangers or SUppOrlS allow variations in the length 01 pipe due to changes in tempetature, ami are allen usad lor vertical lines. Relel to 6.2.5 figure 6.16. There are tWO types of sprifl!l han",1 or support:

'.

'CONSTANT LOAD' HANGER This device consists of a coil spring and lavar mechanism in III housing. MOY6mcnt 01 tho piping, within limit$, will not change the $pring force holding up the piping; thus, no additionBllorces will be introduced to the piping sySiem.

'VARIABLE SPRING' HANGER,.nII SUPPORT These dl!Yices consist all coil spring in a housing. The weight 01 the piping rests on the spring in compression. The spring permits a limited amount of thermal movement. A wriabla spring hanger holdi ng up a vel1iclllline will reduce its I ihing Iorca as lhe line eMpands toward it. A variable spring suppon would increase its litl' ing farce as the line expands toward it. Bolh place a load on the pipinll SYitam. Where this is unde$irable. a constant·load hanger can be used instead.

HYDRAULtC DAWENER, SHOCK, SNUBBER. Of SWAY SUPPRESSOR One and of the unit is Ittach9d to piping and the othar to structural steel 01 concrete. The unit expands or contractS to absorb slow moyoment of piping, but is rillid to rapid movement.

SMAY BRACE, or SWAY ARRESTOR, is 8$$IIntiaily a helical spring in a housing which is fitted betlMlfln piping and a rigid structure. Its function is to buffer vibration and !WIlY.

WELDING TO PIPE

2.12.3

If the appliCable coda pBfmilS, lugs may be welded to pipe. Figure 2.72A illu$l.:8t8$ some common arrangBlTlInts using welded lugs, roilErd steel sections and pipe, lor:-

(1) Fixing hangers to structural steel. etc. (2) Attaching to pipe

(3) Supportin!l pipa

Walding supporls to prillined pipe will usually spoil Ihe lining. and theretor lugs, ate., must be welded to pipe and fittings befora 1M lining is appliad. Welding of supports and lugs to pipes end Y8S$81i to ba ~tr8$S-relieved should be done befof8 heat treatment

'-I

V:J I~e 11)<t!IU lilCl urers' cal ijluys ul ler :J ~!I~I!I illyly clILlless Yil,icty ul construetions, Classitication is possible, however, by considering the basic parts that mil~e I,P a valve

VALVES, PUMPS, COMPRESSORS,

and TypeS 01 Process Equipment

VALVES

3.1

FUNCTIONS OF VALVES

3,1.1

·1

Table 3.1 gives a Oasis 10f classifying valves according to lunction:

USES OF VALVES

TABLE 11

J VALVE ACTION 1 EXPLANATION II SEE SECTION: 1
ON/OFF STOPPING OR 3.1.4 ... dJ.l.6
STARTING FLOW
REGULATING VARYING THE 3.1.5, 3.1.6 end 3.1.10
RATE OF FLOW
PERMITTING HOW
CHECKING IN ONE DIRECTION 3,1.1
ONLY
SWITCHING FLOW
SWITCHING ALONG DIFFERENT 3.1.8
ROUTES
DISCHARGING DISCHARGING FLUID 3.1.9
F ROM A. SYSTEM ,

. l

T vpes 01 valye suitable lor on(oll and fl!9U1i'l1in 9 functions are I isted in chart 3.2. The suilability 01 a valve lor a required purpose depends on its cons! ruction, discussed in 3.1.3.

PARTS OF VALVES

3.1.2

:[

(1) (2)

TM ·disc' and ·seat' thai directly affecl the lIow

The 'stem' that moves the disc - in some valves, fluid under pressure does the worl: of a stem

The 'body' and 'bonnet' Ihat house the stam

The 'operator' that moves the stem (or pressurlres fluid lor squeele va Ivss, Btt.)

(31 (4)

Figures 3.1 thru 3.3 shaw three common types 01 valve with their parts labeled.

DISC. SEAT, a PORT

Chart 3.1 illustrates various types of disc and port allsogements, and mechanisms used for stopping or regulating !low. The mOIling part dinH:tly allecting the flow is termed the 'disc' regardless 01 its shaDD. and the non·moving part il bears on is termed the '$fIal'. The 'POri' is the maxlmum in to mal open· ing fOI flow (that is. when the valve is fully open). Oiscs may be actuated by the conveyed fluid or be moved by a stem having a linear, rotary or helical movement. The stem can be moved manually or be driven hydraulically, pneumatically or electrically. under remQte or automatic eontrot, or mIlCh· Bnically by weighted lever, spring. etc.

The siza €II a valve is determined by the sile of its ends which connect to the pipe, etc. The port sile may be smaller.

STEM

There are two categories 01 screwed stem: The risin!l stem shown in ligures 3.1 and 3.2, and the nQn·rising stem shown in li""re 3.3.

Rising stem (gate and globe) \'alves are miiOe either wilh ·inside Strew' (lS1 or 'outside screw' (OS). The OS tYPIl has a yoke on lhe bonnet and the assembly is relened 10 as '()u1sid~ scrllW and yoke'. abbrl!Yiated io 'OS&Y'. The handwheel can either rise with the stem, or the stem can rise thru the

. handwheel.

TABLE 3.1

· -- .. ~-_ ,.~~.~~.......-;-r~~-~ .. _ .. __ ~._ ... __ .... __ . __

BASIC VALVE MECHANISMS fLUID CONTROL ELEMENTS (DISCS]

CHART 3.1

IN THI5E 5CHEMATIC DIAGIAMS, THE DISC IS SHOWN WHITE, THE SlAT IN SOLID COLOR, & THI CONVEYID FLUID SHADED.

OPERATED VALVES

REGULATING

SELF·OPERA lED VALVES

GATE

""-1T·.lDGE GATE

GLOBE

ROTARY

DIAPHRAGM

CHECK

OLOIIE

DI~AGIII (SAUNDERS TYPll

IiWMIID C"EC II.

"'HaIRE REGULATOR

ANGU.8LOM

I'IUCIJI CHiC.

eufTERFI.Y

pn.

,

"

"

'.

-. !

• i

:-.j

,!

. I

. 1

Non·rising stem valves are 01 the ;ate type. ThfI handwheel and stem are in ,ne sarna position whether the valve is open 01 closed. The screw is inside the bonnet Ind in contact with the conveyed fluid.

A 'Iloor stand' is • slem extension lor USlt with both types of stem, where it is necessary to operate a valve thru 8 11001 01 plarlurrn. Alternately, rods fitted with universal ioints may be used to bring a valve handwhee\ within an operator's IBach.

Depending on the size 01 the required valve and availabilities. selection of stem type tan he based on:

BONNEl

Thela are Ihree basic types of attachment for vel ... bonnets: IClswed (including union). bolted. Ind btoechlock.

A screwed bonnet may occasionally stick and turn when a valve is opaned. Although sticking is lass of 8 problem with the union type bonnet. "llves with screwed bonnets are bast reserved for services presenting no Mzard to personnel. Union bonnets 118 more suitable lor small valves requiring frequent dismantling than the simple screwed type.

The balled bonnet has l8fgaly displaced screwed and union bonnet valves in hvdlOcarbon applications. A U-bolt Dr clamp·tYPl;llounnet is ollllred on somu small gate valvBS for moderate pressures, to facilitate freQuent cleanintj and

.. _i~tio~""""'__ . __ ...A._ <

The 'pressur~ seal' is a variation of the bolted b;;"~ru~tD-~hiih-:preSsure valves. usually combined with O$&Y COllStructinn. 11 RI"kn~ USI! (1f lioo pressure tu tighten and SIlOI all illttlmal IIIlIlal I iny UI !Jl1S~lIt agJiml Um tmdy.

The breechtock is a heavi8f infrequently-used and more IIKpensive ccnsnuetion. also for high·pressure use, and involves seal-welding at the bonnet with the body.

(I) Whether it is undesi lable lor the conveyed flu id to be in contact wi Ih the threaded bearing surfaces

(21 Whether an axpesed screw is liable to bII dlItnaued1ty'a~atm~ -

spheric dust .

(3) Whether il is necessary 10 see if the valve is open 01 closed

In addition to the preceding types of stem used with gate and globe valves, most other valves have e simple rolary stem. Rotary·bali. plug and butterlly valves hM a rotary stem which is moved by a permanent lever, Dr tool applied to a SQuar e boss at the and 01 the stem.

.... ,~ ....... - -

FiQURE 3.1

~l'OII.'~"" ., ..,101.<.If.ln:m

·r_··_··

... ~--- ..

F::l·~-l!i.!! !<'

~iilliI'ni.r---~ .·.4r .... I1, ... · I';" r...~r..ikt .• n i:I~-.- ... --

"i ",_M" •• -- ~

U-(.o t~ilejl -.J

.41 al!lt _ .

....... t~

U. .

•• 1C 1""" ....... t

I. k""'u:I.I!.t .. I'll ,,:rhI'-C -_ . ...... iIf1M.i."'- -~.iiUli4li1iil"-

u ·Wi.i._-~~~

n-·IItf1£-~ " ...... -.

FIGURE .L2

ClLOliE VAl. 'IE 10000Y, baIuII bcInfI« •• 111"1 -I

"'QURE ",

GATE VAL YE tlS.lIol ....... , .......mInI_I

3 ,t.2

- ... , ........ , . .-.: __ ~

Q-iART 3.1

FIGURE:S 11-3.3

A critical factor for valvllS used tor prOC8S$ chemicals is the lubrication of the stam. Care has to be taken in the selection of packing. gland design, iIfld choice and application of lubricen1. As 8n option lhe bonnel may include a "solem ring' which 18MIS two purposes - either to act as a collection point to drain olf any hazardous seepages, or as a point whare lubrican'l can be injected.

LANTI"" RING

BODY

Select ion of me tar ia I to tabr icat e the intari 0 r 0' th a va Iva bo dy is im porta n t with a valve used for procass chemicals. There is ohen 8 choice with r~rd to tha body and trim, and some wives may be obtained with the entire interior of the body lined with corrosion·resiSiant male rial.

VaNes are connected 10 pipe, fittings or ~essels by tOOlr body ends. which may be lIanged, 5C18¥W!d, butt- 01 socket-wolding. or finished for how, Victaul ic coupling, etc, Jacl:ated valves are also available-see 6.8,2.

SEAL

In most stem-operated valves. whether the S1em has rOlary or lineal mOVBmem, packing 01 seals are used betW8lln stem and bonnel (Dr body). If high vatuum or c'ollosive. flammable or tOllie fluid is to be handled, the disc or $tem may be sealed by a metal bellows, or by altexible diaphragm (the taller is tar mad 'pack less' consuuctionl. A gasket is used as a seal between a bolted bonnet and valve body.

IlI.LOM4IIAL VALVI

.,ACKU" VALVE

Flanged valves use gaskets to seal against the line flanges. Butteilly wives may extend the resil iBllI seat to also serve as I iJle gas kets. The pressu re·seal bon net joint utilizes the pressure of Ihe conveyed fluids to tiyhtan the 'Seal - see 'Pressure seal' under 'Boonel', this secnon,

l

MANUAL OPERATORS

HANDLEVER is used 10 actuate the stamsol small bunarlly and rotaly·ban valves. and smal. cocks. Wrench operation is used tor cocks and small plug valves,

HANDLEVERSotrIIMALL VALVES

COCK

WAE.NCHUSE.O ASOf'E"ATOR ON COCK

WRENCH

t "',.f'

HANDWHEEL is the most common means for rotating the stem on the majOfity of popular smaller valves such as the gate, globe and diaphragm types. Additional operating torque for gale and globe valves is offered by 'hammerblow' or 'impact' handwheels which rnay be substituted for normal handwheels if ea5ier operation is needed but where gearin!l is unnecessary.

~ER~LOW HANOWHIEL

HAMMER ACTION IS I'ROVIDEO IV TWO LUGS CAST ON UNDER· Sloe OF HANOWHE E L. WHICH HIT ANVIL 'ROJECTING 8ETVnEIII

CHAIN operator is used where a handwhee! would be out of reach. The stem is fitted with a chainwheel or wrench (to/ laver·operated valves) and the loop of the chain is brought within J It of working floor level. Universal·type chainwheels which attach to the regular handwhllfll have been blamed fOI accidents: in COHosive atmospheres where an inlrequenlIY'(]pIIraled ~lIlvB has stuck. tha attaching holts hillli been known to fail. This problem d08$ nOI arise with the chainwheel thai replace~ the regular val~e hand whee I.

GEAR operator is used to reduCll tha operating torque. For manual opar8ti()ll. cOlllislS of a hand\\tleel-operatBd gIIIr 1 rain aetuati ng the valve stern, As a guide, gsar operators should be considered for valves 011he following SillS and classa: 125. 150, and 300, 14-inch and lar!J8f; 400 and 600, 8-inth Ind latgetj 900 and 1500, 6-inch and Ilrger; 2500, 4·inch Ind IlfOltf'.

i

SPUR.CJEAR OPERATOR

B£VEt.4lA.R OPERATOR

POWERED OPERATORS

Electric, pneuma t it Of hvdr aulic opereti on is used', (11 Where a ~alve is remote from the main wOlking area. (2) II the required frequency 01 operation would need unreasonable human ellolt. (3) 1f rapid opening and/or closing 01 a valve is required,

ELECTRIC MOTOR The ~alve stem is moved by Ihe eletlric motor. Ihru reducing gears.

SOLENOID may be used with fast-8cting chetk valvllS, and with onloff valves in light· duty instrumentation applicalions.

ELECT RIC MOTOR OPERATOR

PH EUMA TIC OPE AA TOR

. 1

PNEUMATIC 81 HVDRAULIC otERATORS m~y be used where flammable vapor is likely to be present. They tlke the following forms: 0) Cylinder with doutJle-acting pistull driven by air, waler. oil. or other liquid which usu<lUy actuates Ih!! stem dimctlv. (2) Air mrnor which actuates the stem thru

. .!

.. )

pring-those .mot~.~"A!l;c.~m.mo,!ty~ pirton-Ind-cyli nder radial types. (3) A double-fltling'VIIM with 6iiiitad 'mary- mlWernent in a SllCtor casing. actu8ling the stem directly. 14) Squeeze type (reier to 'Squeeze velva').

~QUICK~TtNG oPERATORS FOR NON·ROTARY VALVES IMM'IlIilty.aptmecl v.lva)

Quick'Bcting operators are used with gate and globe valves. Two stern movements are employed:-

(1) Rotating stem. rotated by a lever

12) Sliding stem, in wnich Ihrl sl('~11 is HliSl~ ilOd I D'Mlred by ILover

OOICIC-ACTIHO LEVERS ON VALVEI

"_. ~i _. :~t .

Steam and air whistles are examples 01 the use 01 sliding·stem Quick·acling"_~",_-"""",,, opuralors with globe valYilS.

SELECTING pNIOFF II REGULATtNG VALVES

The suitabilitv af a valve lor Ip8rt;ClIlar servica is decided by ;Is rn"I'lII".~~ cOllSuuttion in reletion ttl the conveyed IIuid os well as its Refelring to the descriptions in 3.1.2, the steps in selection are to choose: (I) Material(s) of construction. 121 The disc type. (3) Stem type. (4) Melns of operating the stem - the 'operatcr', 15) Bonnet type. (6) Body ends - welding, flan9l!d. etc. (7) Delivery time, IB) Price. (9) Warranty of perlmmance fOI severe conditions.

Chart 3.2 is a guide to valve selection, and indicates valves which may be chosen for a !liven service. The chart should be lead from left to ri~t. First. ascertain whethel a liquid, gas or powder is to be handled by the valve. Nelt • consider the nature 01 the !luid-whether it is loodstutls 01 dru!ls to bll handled hygienically. chemicals that are cOllosive. or .wtw:lther the fluid is substantially neutral or non·corrosive.

.. ~~ ... "

Ne~t consider the function of the vatve - simple open-or-closed operation . . :.> ...

(·on/of!'). or regulating for control or for dosing. These 'actors decided.the.:::~,,-, ,~1,,~; .. ,

chart will then indicete types III valves which shoold perlo~m satislactorily in.:~~~;/ .',:tl,:::I{'",~; ··"~4

the required service. !,>;.« .. , .• ,_{:~

,,' ..... ~~~4.1""':ff;-· \R.~:n·;.~

If the punlicatiun is available. lei erence 5h ould also be made to the Crane # ~ . - ~ \'.". ~ ,;"

Company's 'Choosing the right ~alve·."·· ..

"fUn,," IW"TlII. OIl.. IKI

~l

,..

ICEY TO VALVE SELECTION GUIDE CHART :J,.2

_., ~"'_~"""'l""' _ _ I. j"'-'_ .... _ ........ 1 NCJII.I[. I~ 1Ar ...... .-va-

G.O.Tf

1IOf ..... ., ."ll PLUG m_UoGM Mlnuny PLU(HlA1E

IlN.'Off

111 Oe1efmine type of conveyed fh.Jid-liqukl. gas slurry, Of pcwder

~21 Determine nature 01 fluid.

• Substantially neutral-not noticeably acid or alklline. such as various oils, drinking watef, nitrogen. gas. air .etc,

• Corrosive-markedly acid, alkaline. Of otherwise chumi· cally reactive

• 'Hygienit'-mal~ial$ tor the food, drug. cosmetic or other industries

• Slurry - $U ~ >Cfl S im 1 0 I !.()h. I 11M I ic les in a liqu id r.1Ifl have an abrasive effe<:l on valves. C1C;. Non·allf;tSive slurr ias $t.lch as wood· pulp ~Iurries can choke valve mechanisms

(3) Dele-mine operation

• 'Onfolf'-fully open or fully closed

• Regulating-including clcse regulalion Hhrolilingi

(4) Look inlo other factors affocting choice.

• Pressure and temperature of OOI1veyed Iluid

• Method of operating stem -oonsid~ closing time

• COSI

• Ayailability

• Spocial inslallal iOfl prOUlel"5-such as welding valYe5 into

lines. Welding heat will !ioOtnet;mes distOft the body

aod affect the sealing of slTlilli yalyel.

RlGUlAlUtG

GLOM IUTTlRfl..Y 'lUG G.O.Tt 01"""_ "UII.I

ro""mlw .Alllli;, ...... H". AC'O.h<·1

ONIDH

GAll

I'1.UG GAll ROTARY ...... ~ , .. .til

o ......... -.n ... ~TTUf~¥

RlGUlATING

LIQUID

OIIIOFF

IUGULJo II JIG

.UTTERfL¥ DI_~AG"" SOUUlf "NCH

.. YG.e, .. c 1I(IIIR.r.GEI. .000 .... DNUGM

0fIIDI'

ROTARY '''LL .UH"~fL¥

P'''''''''''''GY 'LUG

"!Ie" Sl)Un~l

$INGL E !iLl. r, ItN I FE·I DGlO D'SC. NOTCtI(D -.; D'SC _I

_.,

IIONE

::~.~_"""l

_E.,"-- I

SINGLl HAl

"Nl' COR_YI" "Nl.-COR IIOSIY(' AN1'I-COUOSW(' AlrlTI.(;OftI'lOSlYf·

....Tt.cQIIIlOl.Yf •

.... TI.cQIIRDlIVi· .IPSio"¥1

.... TI.aJllllOIIIII·. 1Sor>fII_ """I ~nCORAOI'"E '

IIUtTfI .. L
IA'~. rTf ..... U<.I
RtGUI.A TI HG
GAS I)IIIOff
COR ROS'" I
'''''to VoU'DAS.
CMLPRlfll. E ... I
RfGUl.."llftG
YAtoo"" ONIOI'f
.... RASlYI 0NIDf' •
I'OOfII)ffl
I$IL't;A, f".) RtIiUL .. llltG
SOliD LUltfllCA TlNG
PO_III OIIIOfF •
.G" ..... n. I'IEGIILJoTIOlCl
'AlC. lId G.O.TE

!;Loaf ROlAR¥ .... LL .... 'lIRFLY

-

SlNGll SlA'

ICE .. l R"l HAll _I

" ~"'=." ....... -=: :t..::-:."'::" ';::':'T.'...:.~r: "':' of - - 10 • -- -. " _ ..

, , "..-=..,.. .. ~. WI"" btIIIIIl .". , _'II .. , 1I&h. , ......... ~ W'1h ' IK

1IiIII' fIIIoIII ........... hJtI· ............ .,.. __ meMIi"liI ftIDII 0II'lIII ..... tiIMr 'IIi _ QIIII ~"....~,

#

r

DOUBLE~ISC PARALLEL.SEATS GATE VALVE has two parallel discs which are 100ced, on closLlre, againsl parallel seals by a 'spreader'. Used lor liquids lind gases at nornlill tempelillurflS. Unsuitable lor regulation. To plevent jamming. installation is usually vertical wilh handwheel up.

DOUB LE .DISC ISPLIT -WEDGE IWEDG E GATE VAL V E Discs wedge against inclined seals without use 01 II spreader. Remarks 101 double-disc parallel seals !JiIte vallie apply. but smaller valves are made tor steam service_ OIum, construction allows the discs 10 JU tate, distlibliting wear.

SINGLE.DISC SINGLE-SEAT GATE VALVE, or SLIDE VALVE, is used lor handling paper pulp slurry and other fibrous suspensions. and lor lowpff!SStJfe gases.. Will nnt f une 1 ion properly with inflow on the seat side. SUitable for regulaling llnw it li~hl closure is not required.

VALYESMAINLY FOA ON/OFf SERYleE

3.1.4

In industJial piping. onloff cootrol of now is most commonly efletted with !}Ite valves. Mosl types 01 gata valve are unsuitable for regulating: erosion 01 the seat and disc occurs in the IhlOllling position due 10 vibration of the disc ("chancring"'. With some fluids, it may be desirable to use globe valves tor onloll seN ice, as they offer tighter closure. However, as the principal function of globe wives is regulat ion, they are described in 3.1.5.

so LID WEDGE GATE VALYE has either a solid Of flex ib Ie wedge disc. In ad dil i on 10 0I1{0" serv ice, these valves can be used I 01 regol at i ng, u$Uel! y in sizes 6·inch end larger, but will chatter unless disc is tully guided throughout trwe!. Suitable for most fluids including stllBm, water, oil, air and gas. The Ile.ibls wedge ¥IllS developed to overcome sticking on cooling in highlemperature service, and to minimize operating torque. The IIslCible wedge is nOI illustrated-it can be lik.ened to two ...meals set on II V1!ry shari axle.

SOLID _oel: o ... n. VALVE

. (

1.

._ L

-- I

t

SINGU-OISC PAAAlL.EL..sEATS GATE VALVE Unlike the single-seat slida valve, this vejVa affords: clOSUle with flow in either direction. SIr_ on stem and bondet are lower than with wedge-g8te valves. Primarily used lor liquid hydrocarbons end gIJS8S.

3.~ .1.4 .1.t5

"NOLf.DIIe P ...... LLEL· II.ATI OATt: ""L.YIi

PLUG QATI VAL.VI

PLUG GATE VALVE This valve has a round tapered disc lNhich moves up and down. Suitable 101 throttling and fuil-llow use, but only wailable in the smaller sizes,

PLUG VALVE Mechanism is shown in chart 3.1, but Ihe disc may be cylindric as welt as tapered. Advantages. afe compactness, and rotary 9O-deglee stem movement. The tapered plug tends to jam and requires a high operating torque: this is overcome 10 some axtant by the use of a Iuw-iriction (teflon, etc.) seat, or by lubrication {with the drawback thai the conveyed 11uid is conlaminlltedl. The friction problam is also met by mechanisms raising the disc from the seat before rotalin! it, or by using the 'eccentric' design (see rotary·ball valve). PrinCipal uses lire lor Mter, oils, slurries, Ind gases.

LINE -BLIND VALVE This is a positive shutoff daviee which basically consists of 8 lIan!l8d assembly sandwiching 8 spectacte-plale or blind. This valve is described 8Ild compared with other clOl5ures in 2.1.1.

a-w=tT U

i· I

VAL.VESMAINLY FOR REGULATING SERVICE

3.1.5

GLOBE VALYE. STRAIGHT. ANGLE TYPE These are the valves fTIO$t used tor reguillting. For line sizes ova, &inch, choice ot a valve for flOW" control tends to 110 to suitable gate or butterfly valves. For more S81isfacto~ service, the direction ot now thru valve recommended by manutacturl!l"!i is Irom stem to seat, to assist closure and to prlMlnt the disc chatteri ng against the seat in the throttling position. Flow should be from seat to stemsida m it thera is , hazard presentad by the disc detaching from the slem thus dosing Ihe valve, or (2) if a composition disc is used, as this direction of ftow the n gives less WIla r .

- . .

Ihit usa of II 9O-degree elbow. However, the IIOgles of piping are allen $ubjet!

to higher stresses than ~lraighl runs. which must ba considered with this tv P II of valve.

GLCI8E VALVES

REGULAR.o,SC GLOBE VALVE Unsuitabte for close regulation as disc and seal have narrow (almost lioel cootaet.

PLUG-TYPE DISC GLOBE VALVE Used lor severe regulaling seNice with gritty liquids, such as boiler feedwater, and for blow-off service. Less subjeci to wear under close (egulltior. than the regular·seated "alve.

WVE-80DY GLOBE VALVE has in·line ports and stem emerging at about 45 (leg"'; hence the "(', Prelsrred for erosive fluids due to smoothsr flow panern.

WYE .. OPY GLOBE VALVE II_,...._ ... ~" iii"

f

COMPOSITION.oISC GLOBE VALVE Suitable for coarse regulation and light shutoff. Replaceable composition-disc construction is similar to that 01 a feucet Grit will imbed in the so11 disc prawnting seal darTla!)e and ensuring good closure. Cloy regulating will rapidlv damage the sest.

DOU8LE..otSC GLOBE VALVE features two discs bearing on separate seals spaced apart on II single shaft, which Irees tile operator hom stresses set up by the conveyed lIuid pressing into the valve. Principle is used on control "alves IiIOd pressure regulators for s!flam IIld other gases. Tillht shutoff is not ensured.

liqu ids and gases. Resistance to flow is precisely conu oiled by a relatively large seat area and the adjustment allorded by fille Ihreading of the stem.

1

NEEDLE VALVE

SQUEEZE VALVE is well·suited to rf¥Jlating the flow 01 dillicul1 liquids, slurries and powders. Malimum closore is about SO%. which limits the range of regulation, unless the vafialion of Ihts type of valve with a central core (seat) is used, aU e,i ng lu II cl osu re.

PINCH VALVE Also suited to regulating flow 01 difficult liquids, slurries and powders. Complete closure is possible but tends to rapidlv wear the llallible tubl!, un I ess 01 sp etial desi gn.

VALVES FOR BOTH REGULATING III ON/OfF SERVICE

3.1.8

ROTARV.eAlL VALVE Advantages are luw operating torque, lIVailabihty in large Sizes, compactness, rotary 90·degree slem moveml!flt, and 'in-tine' replaceability of all wearing parts in some designs. Possible disadvantages are thai fluid is trapped within the bodv land wilhin the disc on closure), and that compensation for wear is effected only by resilient material behind the S6IUS: the latter problem is avoided in thu siu!I\I].Sllal 'eecenuic' "8rsion, whith has the ban slightly offset so Ih~t it presses imo the seal, on clasu ra Pr inci pa I uses are lor water, oi Is, 51 u rri lIS, gases an d V8C u u m. Valve is INa i lable with a bell hwing a shaped port lorregulBtion.

ROTARV ....... L VALVE

·_, ' _ __ _5 _....., h_-= ~'i*_4"'. "..: ••• " _ ••• "" _.,.:.4 __ ""' ,.......,..-r-..,.,.".., .. -. - u (_ X u··· ""F"'"'"'!"' ·.T~ .. ~~f":"~. PN.'.. dCtA" l.c<pt i atlAil#.DU .~.

·-..,~~,'~I·.'''lI:t~!liIlOIIA· ..... za_.a.ss.U"i_ •• _.2.2 JJ

-- [

TILT I NG DISC VAL V E Suitable wherp. hequl!nl flow reversal occurs. Valve closes rapidly with better closure and less slamming than the swing cheet valve, which i I somewhat reoomlJles. 11 has highel prassu re drop with large

BUTTERFLY VALVE oilers Ihe alivanlages 01 rotary stem movament (90 degrees or less). r.ompaclness. and absence 01 pocteting. 11 is lNailable in all SilBS. and can be produced in chamical-resiSllnt and hygienic forms. The valves ,lie used lor gases. liquids. slurries, powders and vacuum. The usual resilient plastic $El8t has a lemperatull! limitation, bul lighl closure at high lemperalUre5 is avtItlable Mlh a version having 8 metal ling seal around Ihe disc. 11 the valve is l1anged, it may be hald betwaen flanges of any type. Slip,ull and screwed tianges do not lorm a proper seal with some wafer tonus 01 the valve, in which Ihe raslliam seat is BKlended 10 serve also as Ii ne gask.els.

BUTTERFLV"ALVE tw.t.r tnMIl

.1

.-: I

VALVES FOR CHECKING BACKFLOW

3.1.7

.1

All valws in this category are designed to permit !low of liquid or gas in one direc liM and close if !!ow reverses .

. J

SWING CHECK VALVE The regular swing checl yaille is nol suitable illhere is frequent flow reversal as pounding and wearing of disc occurs. For gritly liquids it composition disc is advisable 10 reduce damage to the seat. Mav be mounted vertically wilh flow upward, 01 horizontally. Vertically·mounted valve has a tendency to remain open if Ihe stream velacity cttan!}8S slowly. An optional lever and outside weight may be oUered either 10 assist closing {]I to CUIJ n lerbatance the disc in par I. and allow opening by low·p ressurn 11uid.

SWING CHECK VALvt:.S

o " .. Ide L........ .. II1II.' 91>1 10< .... '" c~ .. k y.".

\.

. r

l

\

flow velocities and 10Wllr·pressure drop with small velocities than 8 compar· able swing·check. valve. Nay be illStaned vll1lieally with flow upward. Of horizontally. Disc movement can be controlled by an integral dashpot or snub bel.

3 .1.5

.1.7

LIfT -CHECK VALVE resembles the pislon-check valve. The disc is guided, but the dashpol feature is absenl. Spring-loaded types can opIr8te at any orientation, but unsprung valves have to be arranged so Illat the disc will close by glavity. Composilion·disc valves ale 8\Iailable for gritty liquids.

PISTON-CHECK VA.LVE Suitable where frequent change of direction of Ilow occurs as these valves ale much less subiect 10 pounding with pulsating llow dua to the in tagra I dash·pot. Sp ri 1'19., oader:I ty pes C8I1 operate at any orientation. Unsprung valves have to be orientated lor gravity closure. Not sui table lor gri tty liqu ids.

STOP CHECK VALVE

PISTON-CH£CIlt VALVE

STOP.CHECK VALVE Principal eKample of use is in steam generation by multiple boilers. where a valve is inserted botw!!l," each boiler and the main steam header. Basically. a check yalve Ihat optionally can be kept closed anomatically or manually.

BALL-CHECk VALVE is suitable tor mosl seIVka. The valve can handle gases, vapors and liquids, including Ihose lorming gummy deposiU. The ball seals bV gravily and/or back pressure. and is hee to rotate, wflich distributes wear and aids in keep: ng contacting surf8f.f!S clean.

WAFER CHECK VALYE eltacts elnsuru by two semicircular 'duors', both hinged to a central post in a ring·shaped body which is installed between flanges. Frequently used lor nonIoulinq liquids, as it is compact and 01 relatively low cost. A single disc tvpe is also available .

FOOT VALVE TypicM use is 10 maintain a head 01 water on the suction side 01 a sump pump. The valve is basically a lilt--check valye with 8 strainer

integrated.

VALVIl fOR .WITCHINQ fLOW

J.l.B

MUL TIPORT VALVE Used largely on hydraul it and pneumatic conuol circuits and sometimes used directly in process piping. these valV8ili have rotary· ball Of p1uo-type discs wilh one or mora ports arr.-.gad to switch flow.

DIVEftTlNG VALVE Two types of 'diverting' WM ere made. Both switch flow from a line into one of two outlets. One type is of ViVe pattern with a hinged disc at Ihe junction which closes one of Ihe lwo outlllls, and is used to hindi. powders and otller IOlid5. The second Ivpe handles liquid only, and has no moving parts-!low is switched by too pneumatic eontrcl lines. It is available in sizes 10 6·inch.

VALVES FOR DISCHARGING

3.1.9

!

(

I

These valves allow removal 01 lIuid from within a piping system either to atmosphae, to a drain, or to another piping system or vessel at a lower prezure. Operation is oftan automatic. Relie! and safety wives, steam traps, an diu plule discs ara i ocl u dad in this set t ion. PIe$SUIe-relievi n 9 val ves are usually spling IGilded, as thosa wolked by lever and weight can be easily rendered inoperative bv persomet, The first thlee valves ala operaled by system pressure, and ara usually mounted direclly onto the piping or vessel 10 be protected. in a vertical. upright position. Aefer to the governing code for the applicalion of these valves. including the need tor an 'external lifting device thandlevar. etc.),

. I

~

SAfETY VALVI A rIPid·opening (poppIng IClioo) full·flow v81ve 101 air 8n d 01 he r gII_.

RELIEF VALVE IntendeQ to reliwe excess pressure in liquids. in situations whera lull·now discharge is not required, when release of 8 small volume of liquid would rapidly lower pt'lIS$IJre. Mounting is shown in figure 6.4 .

i!

.... fETYVALV£

REUEFVALVE

I.

SAfETY·RELIEF VALVE Relieves e:III:_ pr9S$tlra of either gas or liquid ,.,mch mav suddenty develop. ¥spor phese due to lIpid IIOd uncootrolled t.1I~ from chemical reaction In liquid-laden vessels. Refer 10 'i!J.II' 6A.

BAL L f LOA T VALVE t hU~1I au lun 1<1111; Vijl~lr.i IIIU II~U. III I\~ ilil II ijl'~ to rBmove waler Irom ail ""stems. (21 To remove air hom liqu iei systems and act IS vacuum breakers or bleather valvlS. (3) To control liquid level in tanks. ThEFt' 81e not imended to remove condensate.

BALL fLOAT VALVE If or flnt _ ..... 1

BLOWOf f VALVE

FROM DRIPL£Cl

WATER RELEA~ED

BLOWOFF VALVE A IIIIriety of globe valve coo!orming with boiler code requilements and especially designed for boiler blowol! service. Sometimes suitable also lor blowdown service. Wye-pauern and allgle wpes ohen used. Used 10 remOY'e air and other gases hom boilers, BtC. Manually·operaled.

FLUSH-BOTTOM TANK VALVE Usually a globe type, designad to mini· mize pocketing, primarily fOI conveniently di5charoing liquid Irom the low point 01 a tank.

.LtJlH-aoTTOM TANK VALVE IOLOBE TVPlI

SlCTIONAl. VIEW

RUPTU RE DISC A safety device designed to burst at a certain excess pressure and rapidly discharQII !)as or liquid from a system. Uwally made in the form of a '&placeable metal disc held between flanges. Disc may also be 01 graphite Dr, lor lowest burstino pressures, plastic film.

SAMPLING VALVE A valve, usually of needle or globe pattern, placed in a branch lioe for the purpose of dlBWing off samples of process material thru the branch. Sampling from very high pressure lines is best done thru a double val"ol8d collecting vessel. A cooling arrangement may be needed fOI sampling from high·temperatura lines.

11~1

r:

I

PRESSURE REGULATOR Control valve 01 globe type which adjusts downstream pressure 01 liquid or gas (intluding steam or vapors} to a l(MI!!r desi red vallie rset pressure')

BACK-PRESSURE REGULATOR Control valve used 10 maintain upstream pressure in a system.

TRAP An aulomatic valve lor: III Discharging condensate, air and gases Irom Sleam lines wilhwt releasing steam, (21 Discharging waler from air lines without releasing air-see 'Ball IIDilt valve', this section.

INViiATED4UCKET TR .....

11···~~

STEAM AND J!frjl-' I.U {

CONDEN!>ATE • - J

FRO"" ORIPLEO .~- 'm.

PERIODIC OISCf'AROE OF CONOENSATE

f

CONTROL VALVES II PRESSURE REGULATORS

3.1.10

. I

CONTROL VALVES

C ont 101 valvp.s au lomalically rcgu la te pressure and/u r flow rate, fIfld are <Ivai 1- rrhlf! 1 nr any p rsssu ra If di Herenl plal11 systems ooer ale up to, and at pressu rei Wmprrature combinations that require CI<lSS 300 valves, sometimes (v.trere I hi! (":~ifJn j}l!fmi IS), ill I t untrul v<llvl!S ell USI:!11 wi II be Class 300 101 in Ie !Change· "hi I ill', riuwr.vr.r, i [ 110M nl the sysl£!ms nxceeds the ratings; for Class 150 valves. tlus is n ()I necessav The conuol valve is usually chosen 10 be smaller than line site 10 avoid thlOltling and consequent rapid wear of the seat.

G lobe-ua Item vakiL'S are nor mAlty used for control. and thei r ends ara usually lianged lor ease 01 maintenance. The disc is moved by a hvdraulic, pneumatic, ellltt r icat, or mechanical oper~tlll.

F~lJre 3.4 shows schematically how a control vaillfl can be used to control rate 01 Iinw in a linf!. Flow rata is related to the pressure drop across the 'seusiuq f!it:I!I(!n\' fan urilice !,I~rfl ill this instance 'SIll! r._7 -to) Tbc 'cnntmner' 1P.C{!i ... 1!S thl! IIII!SSLJIU sl!Jnals. cumparns them with the pressure drop for the de~imd flow and, if Ihe oclunt fI(Jw is tlilferonl, adjusls the control valve to increase 01 decreasa the flow.

Comparable afrlmyem(lllts 10 ligulI! 3.4 can be devised to control any ut numelOus III UCL'SS ... ali ;wlcs . II~llllel a lu Ill, pressu re, level and !low laIC ale the most common controlled variables_

Cnn trol valves miIY bP. :rolf· operati n!l. and not requi re the addition 01 a controller. sensing element, etc, PrCSWle re!lulatols are a common example of this tvpe 01 lIalve, and chart 3_1 shows the principles 01 operation of a pressure rEllJu1atoL

I

• I

. j

ICHEMATIC 'OR A CONTROL VAL VI A"MHOIMINT

'lOUR' SA

jjf:~'~~' -

SIGNAL

I .. J

< •• "

AUTOMATIC CONTROLLER

CONTROL ....- ...

SIGNAL 1I111.f1Ir to _",·JI

CONT~OL VALVE

SENSING ELEMENT l"'rm •• '."' .... ntl

UNCLASSIFIED VALVES &: TERMS

3.t.11

With few UC8plioIlS, the fallowing are not spocial lIal'll! Iypes dilfsrent from those previously discussed, but are lerms used to describe valves by service or function,

BARSTOCK VALVE Any valve having a body machined from solid metal (berstock]. Usually needle Of globe type.

BIBB A small vallie with turned·down end, like a faucet. BLEED VALVE Small valve provided to. drawing off fluid.

BLOCK VALVE All onloll valve, nearly always a gate vallie. placed in lines at battery limils.

BLOWDOWN VALVE Usually rslars 10 a plug-type disc globe valve used 10f remOlling sludge and sedimentary matter from the bottom 01 boiler drums, vessels, driplegs, etc.

BREATHER VALYE A special self·acting vallie installed on storage tBllls, etc .• 10 relaaSl! vapor or gas on slight increase 01 intQfnal pressure (in the I ogiul1 () I y, to 3 flU !lCOS P 8r squal e inch).

BYPASS VALVE /1.11'11 valV!! placed in II bypass allanqed around another valve or equipment-see B.1.3 under 'If there is no P&IO .. : end figures 6.B tbru 6.11.

[)IAPHRAGM VALVE Examples of true diaphragm valves, where the diaphragm closes off the Ilow, are shown in charI 3. 1. T hese fDlms of diaphragm valVfl are popular fOf regulating the flow 01 slurries and corfOsive fluids and for vacuum. The tefm 'diaphragm valve' is also &pplied 10 ... elves which hilve a diaphragm seat between stem and body, but tltese are better referred 10 as 'diaphragm seal' 01 'packless' 'Ialves---see 3.1.2, undef 'Seal'.

DRAIN VALVE A valve used fOI the pUipose 01 draining liquids hom a line or vessel. Selection of a drain valva, and Ihe method 01 attachment. is i nllu e nced by th8--lJ ndesira bil i tv CI I poe k et in g the material bei ng dra i nedthis is important with slunias and liquids which 818 subject to; O} Solidili· cation on cooling or polymerilation. (2) DecompOSitiDn.

DRIP VALVE A drain valve filled to the bottom 01 a dripleg to permit blowtlown.

FiGi...FiE 3,'

, ·r-

fLAP VALVE A nonreunn valve having a hinged disc or rubber Of leather flap, used lor low·pl1lSSUre linllS.

HEADER VALVE An isolating wive installed in a branch whore it joins a header.

HOSE VALVE A gate or globe valve having one of its ends eKternally threaded to one of the hose thread standards in use in tha USA. These valves are used for vehicular alld firewater connections.

ISOLATING VALVE An on/off valV1! isolating B piece of equipment or 8 process !rom piping.

KNifE-EDGE VALVE A single-disc single-saat I)8le valve (slide gate) with a It ni fe-edged d ist.

MIXING VALVE regulates lhe proportions of two inflows to produce a controlled outflow.

NON· RETURN VALVE Any type of stop-check valve-see 3.1.7. PAPER..sTOCK VALVE A singla-disc: single-seat gate va .... e (slide gate) with tnife-tdgad or notched disc used 10 regula" flDYI of paper slu fry or other fibrous sl urrv.

PRIMARV VALVE See 'Root valve', lhis section. REGULATING VALVE Anv vilive used 10 adjust flaw.

ROOT VALVE II) A valve used to isolate II pressure element or instrument from a line or vessel. m A valw placed at the beginning 01 a branch from a header.

SAMPLING VALVE Small valve provided for drawing off fluid. See 3.1.9. SHUTOff VALVE An onloll valve placed in lines to or Irom equipment, fOI Ihe purpose of stopping and starting flow.

SLURRY VALVE A knife..edge valve used to control flow of noo·abrasive siuuie5.

$PIRA~-$OCK VALYE A vallie used to control flaw of powders by means of it twistable lab ric tu be 0 r sock.

STIlf'VALVE Ao onloll valve, usuatlv a globe valve.

THROTTLING VALVE Anv valve used to c10sehi regulate flaw in the just-open position.

VACUUM BREAKER A special sell·acting \lalva, or any valve suitable lor vacuum service, operate<! rnanually or automatically, installed 10 admit gas !usually atmospheric airl into a vacuum or low-pressure spBce. Such valves are installed on hilJ!1 points 01 piping or wssels to pelmit draining, and sometimes to prevent Siphoning.

UNLOADtNG YALVE See 3.2.2, under 'Unloading', and ligure 6.23. QUICtc;·ACTING VALY E Any onlolf valve rapidly operable, either by manual 1l1li81, spring, or by piston, solenoid or lever with heat-fusible link releasing I weight which in falting operates the valve. Quick·acting valves ure desi rable in 1inesconveying flammable liquids. Unsui1able for water or lor liquid service in general without a cushioning device Ihydraulic accumulator, 'pulsation pet' or 'mlldpip,') to Plotl!Ct piping from shock. See 3.1.2, undo, 'au ick·acting operators lor non-rotary valves'.

r

~

I

I.

PUMPS & COMPRESSORS

3,2

• i

i

PUMPS

3.2.1

DRIVERS

Elettric mntnrs .. ,e tha most IrllQuently used drivelS. lerger pumps may be driven bV stearn-, gas--, Of diesel·enginas, or by turbines.

'HEADS· tpR£S5UREStIN ,UMP PIPING

FIGURE 1.1>

VESSEL, E1I:.

D

s

CHIURlII'IE Of PUMP

NOTES

The 1111011 hod. H • ..ni<h mud be P'O\Iidtd ..... III, pump in II"Ie .'--' .... _, iI;-

H' ~d- •• ' H" • 1& .... h"l • ".-",1

H.1dI m.,. Iro ...... _ 1Ii"'-' oil ill _ un.,. III .11 in ~ ill, .... 1 not in m'oot(! .... iu. 1 ....

~I'iou. tllllllerm. in 1M _ •• ion .'< ";I~ , 10 .... ill .. d _:-

~" • 10111 dilCh.'90 h ....

II, - 101 .. ",,<Iion_

H.. • ,\at;': "' .. (dill ... ntloll • D - S

... • l.jeli ... ".111 I"" in dlKtl .. IIO pipi ludi .. ui. 1_ I. liquid d .... _ i ..... _I. .1<.1

__ It ""'_~«I .. pump 1 .. '·

".. • I''',ian_'_ in .... , ..... pipI"IIo ircIOIdi.., ..,If_. _I_liQuid "" ... 1;",1,,,..,, tII_.

• l_ lon .. '-' _ .. """'" in •

,," - p, ". 1>0 .. ....,.,. liquid in dio<h .. 1I' GO ""_

". • III"",," _ -. liquid 1 in ""'Iian Irudor Dr_I

NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD INfSHI

'NPS!l' "dofintdO\"- t - ... • ". -' ...........

"wp • ~ _ liquid .. ,-_," 01 liquid "' """i ... _ • .u. V....,.. 11 __

........ in UIIi"

·T..,.. '.10 .. _ .• ,' 1_ ..... 1_ "_ , ..... ....,. "I , __ ....... I< .... ~

iro ... ;. _

r

~GPM lip) 1714

.tHlIll .U: ~"'''D ' ...... ICJf'~

U,lIItla.l'"

M1't AIIIfI'W,"""'_'

-= III .. tl"l: 1114. 'I. "

.h I.~1t(!IIIII

Ujl'P"lOIlllI(}loll11

I
.J
, j
* j
-j
-J
-_or
'~(
j
L
L ~
I
.. l
4 I
'~l L ~1(nlllI .. n ,II.

(DII.,. ... 1IItT " ... ~1. .... 'tilll

'1 .... ll LlIIJ&j" I(II"',,,~ III,h 11'-lltJlNI .Ill' WIllI. '1/&111.,. .... _ 1,IfiIo~IDIIIIIII'" (:.IMtlo.,,' '''.'IjIJ :liP.'!:." P\Il~'I""~""l,-~f~ ...... _ M".L"QIIII~OIIIIII
ll"'T~I_t.P1.1'11111 Lowtn ... 1GIII ~'O" tl;) .... OI'Ulll ....... lOIIIIPt(I HI'Q;tI .. _ UJIiIIftl .... ~ H_10111 ..... '0"I"1j}1q~ "'"
• • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • •
• • II • • • • • • • • •
• • >C II )( II )( )( II • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • ..
• )( >C • • )( • • >C )( .. •
.. )I )I • )I )( .. )I )( )I • )(
)( )( )( ~ )I )I )I )( )( " • II
•• ~n"l II(CR"" J[- "(CH~' 11f1t: .. UIIIIIJIIJ ..... 0'11 tD1" ,. ... J' ... lIIIln TVPES Of PUMP

A pump is a device 101 llluvin!1 a Iluid hom oflfllilace 10 altuthel thiu piPfls Of thann!!1 s, Chan 3.3, a SIllec I ion ntlitle hM pumps, puis Val ious lypP.S 01 pump used illduSlrlally mtu Ilv!) cntil!lOl Ir!S, basad rill opellll in!IPtinciplr:_ In common tel!~tlln[p., the terms cAnt!llllllal, IlIlillY. SCII!W, find rocipror:alill!1 are usad. Char 1 3.3 is nOI COII1PI ehellslvr. pumps II I ihl iflg 01 hel pr illciples ille m liSC. AboUI nin~ our 0' t~n pumps used in industry are of the uinlri· fugallype.

The 111\1 uwinq 1111 ullna! lUll i~ qllll!11 10 !!l1ilhtl! ilIl esl illlill(~ III he miull.! ul If !ilui II ~rI '!lI.1I hi ~au, PII 111\1 ~II e, ~;II 1<11: II y , 'Iml til 11 ~r'1111W!!I h II Iliallfli n! I pu r poses. Uata III Ihe Guidn pcr rnil usurna Ii nIl purllp I (!i11l!1 erm!", s 'or waf!!'r J'ystl!!'ms.

VELOCITY HEAD

Usuallv the liquid being pumped Is stationary before entering the suction piping, end some power is absorbed in accelerating it to the suction line wlociW. This causes a small 'velocity head' loss (usually about 1 h) and may be found from table 3,2, which is applicable to liquid of any densilV, if the velocity head is read as feel 01 the liquid ccmcafned.

VELOCITY. VELOCITY HI!AD

TAaLE 1.2

~ 6 1 8 9 to 12 I~

vnoen'!' MUD (ft.1

o,:n; 0.311 0.66 0.16 0,99 1. 28 , ~5 2_2_ 3.!III

PUMP 'TOTAL HEAD'

A pump imparts enmgy In thl! pumpel1liQuid, This Elnl!l!W is able 10 faise Ihe liquid to a hl!lqhl, or 'head'. T hI! 'I ulill I m~d' 01 a pu mfJ ~ in II) is 1 he enellJV (m 11-lbI Impal\m~ hy Ihe [lump In rmch pound III liquid. In nmnd svst!!m~, Pillt 01 thu tutal heilU IS used 1(1 IIV'I!ICOIlle tricllon in the pipillj. which results III iI prBssule dlOp IOf 'headluss').

FOI a cenlrifugal pump, Ihe same total head can be impaned 10 all liQuids of comparebte viscO'""';v, and is illdependenl of Ihe liqUid's density the required dd\ling power increases with densilY. Fi!llIre 3.3 relates the IOtal head provid· eel bv Ihe pump 10 Ihe headlussos in rhe pumped syslem_

Flow rate, liquid velocity and cross-sectional area (at right angles to flowl ale related by the lormulas:

Flow rille in cubic feet per secOfld "

Flow rate in US gallons per minute ..

I vI{. )/1144) (3.1169)( v )~ , I

where:

v liquid velocity in feet per second

• '" cross-sectional area in square inches (lable P·I)

POWER CALCULATIONS

PRESSURE AI 'HEAD'

111 US ClISlomary units, pmssum (p) in PSt is rclilled III head ( h ) in It: p [PS11 "" (dl(h)/( 1014) ~ IS.G.Hh)/12.31I, whmp. d i~ liquill dllOSi1v in Ill/II J, ;11111 SG. is ~Plitilll: 11111\11111- fllmnSllhl!llt: 1111'SSUfi) lit ;Wl 111',1111 1$ 11qtlitl In 14.7 PSIA. Ihe presSUte qI!Ilcraled Ily iI 34 It height ul waler.

II S.G. '" spl!Cilic gravilY 01 Ihe pumped liquid, H " total head in leet of the pumped I iQuid, and p " pressure drop in PSI, , hell:

Hydraulic horsepower " (GPM)(H)lS.G.1 3960

CHART U

FIGLFiE .3.6

, ---~.~-~~

TABLE 3,2.

r:

il i I 'I

i

The mechanical efficiency. I. 01 B pump is deli ned as the hydraulic horsepo~r (power transferred to the pumped liquidl divided by the brake hersepower (powsr ~pliad to the driving shah of Ihe pump).

If the pump is driven by an electric moto. which hils a mechanical effi· ciencv 'm. the electricitv demand is:

Kil t1 (KWI" I GPM)(H)(S.G.) = (GPNJlp)

I)WB (53I0)~)(Im) (2299)")~m)

11

.1 I ! j.

;1 :j

Otten, estimates of blake horsepower, elecuicity demand, etc., must tie made writhout proper knowledge of the efficiencies. To obtain estimatBS, the rneehanical efficiency 01 a cenllifu!J!Il pump may ba awmed to be 60%, and that of an electric motor 8~

COMPRESIORI, aLOWi RS .. FANS

3.2.2

RlFEfiENCEI

'Compressed 8il and !las data'. Editor Gibbs CW. (Ingersoll·Rand)

'Ai. receivers,'. Section 1910.169 of the Code of fBderai Regulations; CFR Ocwpali0!'l81 Safety and Health A.dministration (OSHA)

~

Compressol$ are used to supply high-pressure air for plant use, to pressurize refrigerant 'l8pon for cooling systems, to liquefy gases, etc. Tiley Bre rated by their mBlIimum output pressure end the number of cubic feet per minute of a gas hand leij al a specil ied speed or pOv.1t r, $I ated at 'sta n dal d con d it ions' , 60 F and 14.7 PSIA (001 at compressed volume). 60 F is accapted as standard temperalure by the gas industry,

The term 'compressor' is U$Ually reserved lor machines developing high press· ures in closed svstems, end the terms 'blower' and 'fao' for machines Walking allow pl8S$Ur8S in open-ended systems.

[

T .... U :1.3

, ,

MaCHINE DISCHARGE PRESSURE RANGE
COMPRESSOR 15 tnru 20,000 PSIG, tnd h9'wr
BLOWER 111110 15 PSIG
FAN Up to 1 PSIG !ebout 30 in. Wlurl L

COMPRESSING IN STAGES

G8$IlS (including air) can be compressed in one or more operations termed 'stages'. Each stage can handle a pnlCticable inCra8$8 in p.assura-before temperature increase due to the compression neceS$itates cooling lhe gas. Coolinll between stages is affacted bv paaing the gas thru an intercooler. Staging Ptfmill high prllSltll" end 1000r dischargB temperatur .. with reduced $\' .... 00 the compr~r.

TVPES Of COW'RESSOft

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR Air or othel gas is pressurized in cylinders by reciprocating pistons. II the compressor is ILlbricated, the outflow may be contaminated by oil. 11 an nil-tree outflow is lequired, Ihe pistons may be filted with graphite or teflon piston lings. Flow is pulsating.

ROTARY SCREW COMPRESSOR Air or other gas entels pockets fOllned between maling .otors 8nd a casing Willi. The pockets rotata away from tha inlel, taking Ihe gas tOWilrd the discharge end. The rotors do not touch ear.:h other or the C8$ing wall. Outllow is uncontaminated in the 'dfy type' of machine. in which po .... r is applied to both rOlors thlu axternal liming gears. In the 'wet type', power is applied to one rotor. and both rotors are separaled by an oil film. which contaminales the discharge. Flow is unilorm.

ROTARY VANE COMPRESSOR resembles the rotary van8 pump shown in chart 3.3. Vlli'lion in the voI-ume tiflClosed by adjacent vanes as tnay lotal8 produces comprllS5ion. Ample lubrication is required, wtlich may inlroduce comamiraticn, Flow is unilo.m.

ROT MV LOBE COMPRESSOR consists of two synchronized lobed rotors turning wilhin a casing, in the same way as the pump shown in chart 3.3 (under 'spurgear" tYpe). The ro1U1"S do net touch each other or the casing. No lubrication is used within Ihe casing, and the outflow is nOI contaminated. Flow is uniform. This machine is often referred to as a 'blower'.

DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS resemble glS turbines acting in reverse. Both axial·flow machines and centrifugal machines Iwith radial flow) are available.. Crmllilugal compresscrs commonly have either one or two stages. Allial compressors ;"18118 et lant two stages, but seldom more than 16 stages. The au Iflow is not contaminated. F low is uniform.

LIQUID RING COMPRESSOR Tnis type of compressor consists of a single multi·bladed rotor which turns within a casing of approximately elliplic cross section. A controlled volume at l'flUid in the casing is thrown to Ihe casing wall with rotatlon of the vanes. This liqurd SBfV8S both 10 compress and 10 seal. lnlat and outiet ports tccatsd in the hub communicate with the pockets formed between the VirIBS and the liquid lin~. These compressors have special ildvanlages: wet gases and liquid C8ffVover including hydroca.-born which are troubl8$Ome with other compressors are easily handled. Additional cooling is seldom required. Condensible vapor can be recovered by uSinllliquid similar 10 th81 in the ring. Flow 1$ uniform.

EQUIPMENT FOR COMPRESSORS

INTERCOOLER A heat eKchanger used for cooling compressed gas between stages. Air must not be cooled below Ihe dew point (allhe higher pressure) as moisture will interfere with lubrication Ind cause WII. in the nexi slage.

AFTERCOOlE R A heat eKchanger used tor oooling gas after com prnsion is completed. If air is being compres:sed. chilling permits removal of much of the mclsuna

DAMPENER Of SNUBBER; VOLUME BOTTLE Of SURGE DRUM Aecip' rotatin~ COO1lf8$SOfS create pulsations in lhe air or gas which mav cause the

. 1

SUCTION LINE Suction lil1es and manilolds should be large enough to prevnn I ~xcp.ssi~e no ise oml slafvat i nn 'II the II ir supply. It the first compression ~t iryr: is r ecillHltil1 inri, lIlt! sue I iJlJl I i JI~ should atluw il 10 I u 23 I Usee I low: ,I a single·slage rec iprocat ing cornpressnr is used, tire i 111ake flaw shaul d not be laster than 20 It/~c. Oynami~ comp ressors carl op€fale with taster intake velocities, but 40 It/sec is suggest~d as a maximum. The illle! reducer lor a dynamiC compressor sh auld be p laced close to the inlet nOllle.

01 SCH A RG E (SUPfI'l V I LIN ES am siled lor 150 10 175% 01 averagE! flow, depending on the number ul outlets in use at an..,. time. The pressure loss in a branch should be limited to 3 PSI. The pressure drop in a hose should not exceed 5 PSI. The pressure drop in distribution piping, hom the compressor to the most remota part 01 the system, should not be greater than 5 PSI (not including hoses).

These suggested pressure drops may be used 10 select line si zes with the aid a I table 3.5. From I he required SI: F M flow in too I ine to be sized, lind the next hiqher flow in the table. Multiply Ihe allowed pressure drop (PSI) in the Ii ne by 100 and di~ide by t he length of the I ine in feet to obtain th e PSI drop per 100 It-lind the nell t tower figure to this in the table, and read required line sue.

[quipm~nt drawing air at a high filte lor iI short period is best 5tlrvlld by a receiver close 10 the paint 01 maximum use-lines can then be 5i/ed on average demand. A minimum receiver SilC 01 double the SCF used in intermittent demand should limil the pressure drop at the end 01 the period of use to about 20% in the worst instances and ~eep it under 10% in most others.

discharge andlor suction piping to lesonate and damaga Ihe compressor or lts valves. A dampener, or snu bber, is 8 baffled vessel 'Atiich smooths pulsations in flow, A ~olume bottle or surge drum has the same purpose, but lacks baffles. These devites are nol normally part 01 tha compressor package. and are often bought separatelv !with the compressor m8~&r'S recommendationsl. large compressors may require an arrangement 01 'cho~e tubes'lresiritiions) and 'botues' (VI!SSI!Is), conlorming til a theoretical design and located near the cnmpressnr's outlet, upstream ollhe attereooler,

The I neat ion 01 the loll owing tour i terns of equipment is shOWfl in ligure 6.23:

SEPARATOR Il"IOI"nwlly ",sed only with Ilr col1l9r_,.) A water separator is otten pro~ided 10 lIowi fig I he a!imcCJolm, and, sometimes, also BI the intBk e to B compressor having" tong suction linc, if watsr is likety 10 collect in the line. Each separator is provided with a drain 10 allow eontinuous removell uf water .

RECEIVER Refer \0 'Oischarge {supply) lines' and 'Storing compressed air', I his section.

SilENCER is used to suppress objectionable sound which may radiate fram an air inta!:e.

FilTER is provided in the suction line to an ail compressor to collect pa rticut ate matter.

, I

Th6 following in(Of~tion is giverr 1$' guide for lnginHting purposn

LINE StZES FOR AIR SUCTION 80 DISTRIBUTION

i

.[

',1

,.I

",f

COMPRUIOR CH"RACTERllflCl

T .... LE :1.4

IIADMIIII tOIl, .... tifL" (Cli_IIA11IIl
.. " .. , .'IIM! o.iIe.CfM)
COWRUIOIIY'I'H PIII"""E II"n.
U'III' IU,""
DAt A ftl I. PIli aytFLn
R ECIP ROCA TI NG
Ll,lbic:.ted 35,000 Oil .. to 7 10.000
NQfI·11,I brielted 100 NONE
DVNAMIC
Centrilupl ",000 NONE 4 500 10 110000
"'Kill 90 NONE 4Yo 5,000 to 1:i,OOO,OOIl
ROTARY VANE 125 Oil 4 150 to 6,000
ROTARY LOBE 30 NONE 50,000
ROTARY SCREW 125 NONE( 4 30 to 150
_ ... LU8l! Oi\..U8ll'O OIL
LIQUID RING 7Sa WATER 1.6 to 2.2 20 toS,OOO
or other FLOW 01' COMPRESSED AlA, PRESSURE DROPS OYER 100 Ft PIPE, WITH AIR ENTERING AT UIOI'IIO·

I~ from dlta publiIhMI ~ ' ........ ·ReRCII

'AIU 3.11

fllEE AlII NOIIIlilAlPl'E .ZE (lflCHU) -ICtIEOUU" PI'"
INfLOW
tSCfMI " , I'll Z Z'A 3 4 6
40 1.24 0.31 ~
70 3.11 1.05 0.12 ,.,_ drIlp $""./1" rbn
90 6.00 1.69 0.19 r/IMIO. /I'SI II#' llJ(J (r
100 1,•53 2.09 0.24 0.13
400 ,E2_ 3.59 0.98 0.41
100 10.8 2.92 Lt9 0.38 '"Ii:io
900 11.9 ".18 1.91 0.62 0.15
1,000 22.0 5.~_~"~ 0.16 0.19 0.35
",000 uu, 2.90
1,000 8.11 1.06
9,000 Pt'_11 drop ~ 14.6 1.75
10,000 ,,_ 351'Sf _ tOO (t uss, 2.13
'10,000 33.8 POWER CONSUMPTION

The power consumption of the differenl compressor types is characteristic. Table 3.4 gives the horsepower needed at an output pressure of 100 PSI G. Power consumption per CFM rises with rising output pressure. Air cooling adds 3-!)% to !lower cOflSumptiDn (including fan drive). 'FAO' power consumption figures for compressors of 'everage' power consumption are given. 'FAO' denotes 'free air delivBred cOllesponding to siandard cubic ft per minute (SCFM) or liters per minute measured as Silt out in ASME PTC9, 8S 1571 or 0 IN 1945.'

TABLES 3.3-3.6

SPECIFIC POMR CONSUMPTION (FADI

UNLOADING (POSITIVE·DISPLACEMENT COMPR ESSORSI

., ,

!

PliO IG JI I. 12'1
..... 1.CAI ""'LOll I .I'IGLE.r.t.G1 ,. '8 22 24
I TWCI-STACH 13 18 18 21 COOLING-WA TER REQUIR EMENTS

Cooling-water demand is normally shuwn on the vendor's PlItl D or dala sheet. Most af tha water demand is for the attalcooler (and intercooler, witn a twostllgll compressor). JlICkBts and lube oil may also require &OOli(lO. As a guide, S US gallons per hour are needed for each horsepower SlJpplied to the compressol. If the final compression is loa PSIG, the water demand will usually be about 2 US GPH per each SCFM inflow. These approximate demands Iflt basad on an 40 F tamperatule increase of the cooling walel. Demand for cooling water increases slightly with relative humidity of the incoming air.

I

~I

QUANTITIES OF MOtSTURE CONDENSED FROM COMPRESSED AIR

The fan awing calculation haken hom the referenced Atlas Copco manual! is fOI a two·stage compressor, and is based on mosnna content gi'l8ll in the table bEllow:

DATA: Capacity ot the complessor '" 2225 SCFM TemperBlure of the incoming air" 86 F Aelative humidity of the incoming air = 75%

1 Outlet tempelatura;. B6 F

I ntercoolar Air pressure = 25.3 PSI G, or 40 PSIA

Watel separation efficioocy = BO%

1 Outlellir temperatura = B6 F

Altercootel Air plessura '" 100 PSIG, or 115 PSIA

Water separation efficieocy = 90%· CALCULATlOIII:

(1) From the table, waight of water vapOI in 2225 SCFM ail III 86 F and 75'1 AH '" (0.00189)(2225110.75) .. 3.151b/min.

(2) Rete 01 remaval 01 condansed Wlter from intercooler, thru trap " (0.8) {3.16 - (0.00189)(2225)114. 711[4011 '" 1.28 lb/min., or 11.261(60)/(8.33) • 9.2 us GPH

(3) Rate of ramoval of condellSlild watel Irom Ih8(cooler, thru trap

.. (0.9) 13.15 -1.28 - (0.001 89H222511 14.71/( 115)1 = 1.20 Ib/min., 01 (1.20)(60)/(8.33) '" 8.6 US GPH

(4) T alai rate at which waler is removed from both coolers = 9.2 + 8.6 = 17.8 US GPH

MOISTURE c:GN'raNT Of AIR AT 10D110 Nt

nWlRATURI 14 32 50 88 88 104- 122
t""'_'1
1II01ITURE 1.3& 3.02 6.87 10.9 18.11 3U 61.3
(11.4.,..1, 'Unloading' is ths lemoval 01 the compression load 110m Ihe running cornpressor. Compressors ale unloaded at startup and fOI short periods when demand fill yas falls 011. Damage 10 the compressor's drive motol can result if lull comeression dutias are applied suddenly.

If the vendor uoes not prwide means of unloading the comprassor, II manual or aulomalit bypass line should be provided ootween suchan and discharga (on the compressor's side 01 any isolating valvesl-see figure 6.23.

Provision should be made so that the dlschal!jO pressure eannot rise above II value which would damage the cornpressn r or its drivel. Automatic unloading will ensure this. and the con I rol actions ale I isted in tabla 3.6.

AUTOMATIC UNLOADING ACTIONS FOR COMPRESSORS

TABU 3.&

COM'RESSOR DISC"AR6E AUTOMATIC COIIITROL
.RESSURE ACTION
Not running L __ .... Sl8O'tI e ...... ,_ uniDMIed.
~._v..ru. .,., ..... , .. 10 nor ..... 'PN'I.
and bri,. on Iwd
Running H#:;. __ Un_. __ lor.
h' _ ... r ... p._I_1od
low-'_"" R.INdI compr_
'-'-'="
t.fon ling
lotin, poI'fiodl1_
MMlillm-idl::t S .... itclw 041 comp _
_ led...... DrtI
.. ~pr_,...
ilrwcr.d STORtNG COMPRESSED AIR

A. limited amount of compressed ail or othel gas cen be srored in receivers. One or rnare receivers provided in the compressor's dischilfgB piping also seNe to suppress !Of,," (which can be dUB to demand, as well as supply) to assist cooling, and to collect moisture. Receivers $loring air or other gas ora classed as pressure WSSIIiIls-refer 10 6.5.1.

RECEIVER CONSTRUCTION Usual construction is a long vertical cylinder with dished heads, supported On a pad. Walar will collect in the baSI, and therlfor a wlvttd drein must be provided for manual blowdown. Collected water may freezs in cold climates. Feeding the warm air or gas at Ihe base at tha receivar may prevent freezing, but the inlet must be designed so that i1 cannol be closed by waler if it does hSltls.

CAPACITY NEEDED A. simple lule to decide the total receiver volume is 10 divide the compressor rating in SCF M by ten 10 gat Ihe volume in cubit feat lor tha leceiver. FOI e!tampls, if the compressor is designed to taka 5500 cubic fBet per minute, a receivar voluma of ehout 550 cubic feet is adaQuala. This rule is considered suitable fOI outflow Plessures up to about 125 PSIG Ind where the cootinuousiy lunning compressor is unloaded by automatic YlIlva-see 'Unloading' above. An e!ttell$we piping systOOl for dislributing compressed a;·· or othar gas may have a capacity sufficiently large in itself to serve as I receive I.

IHI

-. !

EQUIPMEltT .... 'O'SESM1XED
/U;tl A 1011 '" 1.1 ' L
IIt[/liDER ITUMtlUH lYPll ::>. ::>. S ' L
EOUCTOR l • t. L • G. G + G
MI xER IR1880/ll. SCROLL.
OR OH-I(R TYPE) 5' S. S • l
PROPORTIONING f>UMP L' L
PROPOR T IONING VAL liE L' L
IIi (i,A.S L. ll(,)'IHU.S 5(Jllf)f PROCESS EQUIPMENT

3.3

Process equipment is a term used to cover the many types of equipment used 10 perform one or more 01 these basic operations on the process materiill:

111 CHEMICAL REACTION

121 MUUNG

131 SEPARATION

I~I CHANGE OF PARTICLE SIZE

151 HEAT tRANSFER

E qu ipmenl rna flU I acturers giV1! all i nf ormati on necesserv ior ins talla lion and piping.

TIl is SC~ I, lJU I:; " ljuiCk rcl~rel\Ce 10 Ihe I u net i 011 0 f soma items 01 equipmen t Ilsed in process wmk. In lahlu 3_7. the liJn~I;OIl 01 the equipment is e~pressed ill terms 01 the phase (solid. liquid or 9ilsl of the process materials mixed. E ~flmDles (I I A blender can mix two powders, and its function is tabulated 3S "S+S" (2) An agitalur can be used to stir a liquid into another liquid=this l\ln~tiol1 is ta!Jlllated "L -I-L", Another large and varied group of equipment d(hievl:s separatinns. and a similar metbod of tabulatinq hmctlon is used in t~lJle 3.~,

CHEMICAL REACTION

3.3.1

Cl1elnir.iJI rVilcliuns all! canind out in a wide YaJiely 01 speciali7l!rle(luipment, 11'1 tIOl~ I WilU 1lI~. a\Jtllclil~I!!;. IUfIli\UlS. 1:1 L flllilCt inns il1vul~ill!1 I i11llids. sus- 1)I:IISiII1l5. ;)UU sUllie I unes IFJSCS. all! 01 ten pud ormed i 11 'react iun vessels'. 1 he vesSI:1 uud i Is c Oil t~l1ls t lI~lIu~f1lly have 10 he heated ur co uled, and pip ing to a IlIdl~l III intnmat w~wm 01 coils has to be arranqad. It reaction takes place Ilflil!)f pr(!ssllf(:. the vnssHI mav f1f!1:o to cornnly willi Ihe ASME Boiler and PresS1]ffl V!~ss(:1 C{)lle, RI:I.:r alsl) lu 6.S, 1, under 'PWSSUIC vessels', and to the SliNU~JI ds I i$h~1 ill I ahli: 1. 1(},

MlxtNG

3.3.2

,\ ~alie1V of equipment is made tur mi~ing operations. The principal types 01 !!quipment are listoo in lanle 3.7

MIXING EQUIPMENT

TABLE 3.7

. -I

. \

. !

1

SEPARATION

3.3.3

Equipment for sepe,a1ion is tMIO mora varied. ~quipmenllllPl ... tino Solita on the basis of particle si28 or specific gravity alone lie In general termed classifiers. The broader range of separation equipment separates phaseS (solid, liquid, gas) and some of the types used ale listed in the table below:

SEPARATION EoutNENT

EOUI~lNT nED flUAlltlD ClUfF""'"
MAUl"." MAflllnA" MAlIIUAl.
CENTRIFUGE SOL S L
CONT INUOUS CENTRIFUG E LI1I" ll21 N_ L(11, un, ,
CYCLONE !pG N_ G. S t
D(AERATOR LtG l G
OEFOAMER L'G L G
DISTILLATION COLUMN It 11 + LI21 LIII L(21'
ORYER S" L S l'
ORY SCREEN Sill + sm 5m 5(11
EVAPORATOR L+5 L+5 L'
L(1) + LI21 L!II L12) •
FI L TE R PRESS S+l S L
FLOTATION TANK S" L S L
FRACTIONATION COLUMN LIII + tt21 N_ uu, Li21.
+ lill .. etc. LllI, nco t
SCRUBBER S+G S G
SETTUNG TANK S'L S L
STAIPPEA Ull'LUI LnI LI21
1 s.lN',.t. flows .. A.ITt ...... ' ........
tG ~ OAS. l • LlG .... O, S 1 $(JUD.!1iI U. S12l. U11, L.UI. t'rC: • PI" E:RUtT 50"'10$ O. llOUtOSI CHANGE OF PARTtcl.E SIZE

3.3.4

Aeduction 01 particle size is II common operalion, and can be termed 'attrition'. Equipment used (ndudes crushers, rod-, ball· and hammer-milts, and-re achieve the finest reduction5-energy mills, which run on compressed air. Emolsions rClearns' or 'milks'), which are liquid·in·liQuid di$lJersiOf'lS, are stabilized by homogenizers, typically used on milk to reduce the size of the lOll globules and ltws prevent CIII&m from separating,

O!;casionatly, particle or lump $ize of the product is increased. Equipment for agglomerating, pellalizing, atc., is used Examples: tablets, sugar cubes, pow· dered beverage and lood products.

PROCESS HEAT TRANSFEFI

3.3.5

Adding and removing heal is a significant part of chemical processil'lg. Heating or coolil19 01 process matefial is accomplished wilh heal ellchangers, iacketed vessels, or other heat translel equipment. The project and piping glllups specify the duty and mechanical arrangement, bUI the deteil design is nOlmally left to the manufacturar.

fAB.:ES-- 3.1-11

r

i .~

The term 'heat BIChan9B" in chemical processing retef$ to an unfired vessel exchanging heat bal'Ml8n two fluids vlJich are kept S8J1arBted.The commooest form of heet ax changer is the 'shell· .. d·tube' axchanger, consisting of a bundle of tubes h!IId intide e 'shell' (the wsset partl. One fluid p_ inside the tuba, the other thru the JPIC8 betv.een thl tubes end shell. Exchanged heat has to flow thru the tube walls. Refer to 6.8 ('Keeping praces:s material II the right tempennure1 end to 6.6 for piping shell-end·tube heal exchlngel1.

HIIIt exchange with process gutrial can take piece in a wriety of other equipment, such 8$ condanser1, 8118poratof$, heaters. chillers. etc.

..

MULTIFUNCTION EQUIPMENT

3.3.8

Sometimes. items of equipment ara designed to perform more than one of lhe funcltons listed lithe beginning of 3.3.

Mixing and heating (Of cooling) may be simultaneously carried out in mixers ha\ling blades provided with internal channels to carry hot (or cold) fluid.

Separation and Inrilion may be achieved in a single mill. designed to output particles of 1 he requ ired deg r88 of fi neness and reeyc Ie and rtlgf i nd part ic Ies w.ich are still lao coarse.

. ~ r

i

i

I I

!

I i

!

1 i I

i

i

, ,

. i

i

,

I

I

\

J

Jr

tt

I

~ "r ,

I ~

_.,

i .

IM·1

• t en' .trt'i1'.~~., _......_";",._....,,..._.~.r.

ORGAHIIA liON OF WORK: Job ResPonSlbllltloS,

Drawing·OUice Equipment and Procedures

THE PIPING GROUP

4.1

Planl dl!~illo is divi lied 1010 sr.vUlal areas. each Ihe lesponsi bilily of a 'des; [11'1 III Utili' r;t"H I U (a) snows tf,u m~i n groups of people cooperating on the pt.lut Ilr.sillll, illid the tvpas of drawings lor which Ihey are responsible. Other IIr()ups, ill~lllvl!d with illStrum~nli1tiun, stress an(llysis, pipesupport, etc .• cnnlrih\ltl~ It) the d~sign at appFoplial~ slagl!S.

The IU!FSlJrlFII!1 resu unsihl e lnr [bll piping desilJn may be part 01 an engioeering I Ii '(i;ITIUII!111 's 1(1I:c! 1,!llk,11 111~illli 'i'llUP, ur Ihey lIIi1y ")I1(;lillll as a sr.pm nte ~~'III"'1 nr i\"Ii.H 1I111!1I1 f IH sunuhcu v. I his d\.osi!jll 9r [)1I p is lei erred to ns the '1111)il111 IllImp', ilml Its leI.!lionship with lhe Of!lanilation and basic attivities dm IlHliL<ltnl in chart 1\_ !Iii).

Ch,1f I 4.1 \e) snuws Ihe struciure of a desigfl 9 I oup,

RESPONSIBlllllES OF THE PIPING GROUP

4.1.1

lite pipinll IlfUU~ produces desigfls in Ihe lorm 01 dlawings and modellsl. showing IJIluilllllrml and pipi fly.

The following are plovided bv Ihe piping group as its contrlbution to the ~ lam design:-

til AN EOUINE NT ARR ..... GEMENT DRAWING. USUAlL'" TERMED THE ·PLOT PLAN·

121 PIPING DESIGN (DRAWINOS OR MODEll

131 PI PING Of. TAILS FOR FABRICATION ANO CONSTRUCTION

(41 REOUISITIONS FOR PURCHASE OF PIPING MATERIEL

J08 FUNCTIONS

4.1.2

01' IUfr""1) 11 IIp.siqn oilier. it is unpurtanl Ihal Ihe np.w member should know what 11I1l' 01 311111mily e~isl!. Flus is 1!$f)l!t:ially imporlant when inlormation .s "''1llill'll ;11111 it S<lVf!S lilt! W!lJIlI') pf!nplr. Irom beifl!) interrupted. CharI 1\.2 sll( 11\'> 1'0'111 I VI_Ilr.ill II nl!S 01 au lhnr II~' Ifl if 1m ent companies will have diffefent

., , \

JOB

FUNCTIONS

DESIGN SUPERVISOR

IU"ONSI.I.E FO" "'LL PE RSONNE LIN GROV'S INCI.UDlNO tllRINO

COOI'IOIN"'TlNG WITtI OT ... EII GROUPS lAND THE CI.IENT)

~~~n~.il.:D~:""'NG ""'.0 SUPERYISINO TtlE

LIAISON WITtI PROJECT ENGINEERIS)

(2) 131

CHECKER

SUPEIIIVISINO DESION • DRAFTING IN AREAIS) AI.1.0CATED IV DESll;iN SUPERVISOR

A5smNINOWORK TO Ot:SIGN£RS .. OnAFT[I>S RESPON5IUl.E fOR PLOT 'loANS. I'LANT DE SIGNS 110 PP.tSENTAnoN 110 COMPLETtNESS OF

FINISHED DRAWINGS

COORDINATES MECHANIC"'I.. 5TRUO:;TURAL. ELEO:; T R 10:;"'1., AND 0:;1'1111. DE TAl 1.5 FROM OTHE R

GI'IOUPS

CHECKING. IIII","'I(ING VENOO"S· DR .... WINGSOlll .. ININO IN FORMATION FOR ME MIlE R5 OF TI-IE o.ROU"

ESTABI.ISHINO THE NUM.ER OF DR ... WINGS REOulRED 1'011. E .... CH JOB 10Jlt ... WING COHTIIOL

OR IIIEOISTI.RI-S"E INoue

ASSIONING TITLES 'OR "ACtl DIIIAWINQ AND "'AINTAININO UP·TO-DATIli Of'lAWING CONTIIIOL OR "EOISTER OF 0111 AWI..a5, CHAIITS. oR""HS, AND SKETCHES FOA E ... CtI CUIIIAI.NT PROJI!.CT

EST .... LIStlINO ... OI.SIGN OI'lOU' FILING SVS· T"M FOR ALL INCOItolINO • OUTOolNG ..... PER· WOI'I1':

KEEPING A CURRENT SCHEDUI.E AND RECORD OF !-lOURS WORKE_O

RI.OUISITIONINO VIA PURCtlAllNO I)E'."T. MI!.NT ... LL PIPING "''''TI!.AIAU

111 CHECKINO OI!.SIGNEI'IS· "NO DIIIAFTEII.S' [)ISSIGHS "'ND DETAILS FOR DIMENSIONAl. Ao:;cu "AC V AND CON F OIllIlllITY WITtI sPECI!' 1- CATIONS. '&10',. VINOOI'IS' ORAWIN05. ETC.

Iz) I F AGREE 0 >;VITH TtlE DESIONE" 6/0R GfiliOUP I.E"OE". t.lAV MAKE IMPROVEMENTS AND ALTERATIONS TO TtlE OESIGN

GROUP LEADER t1)

131

I~l

\51 I.,

41)

C81

CI(I)

UII

DESIGNER

(I) P"OOUCINO STVDIES ANO LAYOUTS OF EOUIP· MENT ANO 'IPING WHICH MuST SE ECONOMIC. SAFE, OPERABLE AND EA511.1I MAINTAINEO

(2) MIO.KIHG ANV NECESSARV ADDITIONAl. <;"I.C· V ..... nONS FQR THE DESIGN

i3) SU'EAVISING DRAFTERS

DRAFTER

MINIMuM fUSPONSI BII.IT I E S ARE,-

III PADDUC)"IG DET .... ,LED DAA~I"'GS Filla'" ~.

SIGfoIERS' 01'1 GROIJ' LEADERS· ·STuaIE5 OR SKETCHES

(2) SECONOA"V OESIGN waAK

(3) FAMII.IARIZATION WIT'" THE I'IECORDS, FII.ES.

INFORMATION SHEETS AND COMPANY PRAto nCES RELATING TO THE PROJECT

. 4- -\!- ~ ; .-- ---

. I

_JL .. ,.2 __

OFFICE ORGANIZATION

CHART 4.1

(a) PAOJECT IAUNIlAnON

11(11'1' 11111"114" 'l." lIft ..... m.

UM' 1I1I1.MUll AlIT_TV

.. ....... 1 ... IIICIU,I"tl '1'''-'. 0111' ."''11,.. .... 111. CDIIH' .... III''t

CUlMT

.... O'U"TIOIfI4.II'OIII .......... 'Dl.IJGI'II.

lIIi ... flE.MIitfll.,. .",..__

1~1II1 "_ ...

l.II ... f ........ U,ll

'0 ,_.~1..£II.

...~CHI TlCTUIl"', I>U'Ii .. (; A OUl'

CIVIl.£frtGlfII£i.fllf!tG OI:SUiN GMlMJP

I 5

to I ~

.

i

Ib)

j 'ROJECT !;NGINUR 1
I _,",
......... alllllODl:'-
_'.
CALDA.A'-..
_.. ............ '¥ ...
,....,,"' .. ICIIUIIIIIIIHIT ..... 1IIIIfTI
.._
... 1' ...... .IIi'ftlOlll!
-
......
'NOC~ (CH~"(CA~t ~O
• NSTI'IUMlNT ... lION (JoG IHE ~ R INIi
I f-to "fC .. ..,.1 CAL. PI, JNG DfSl<lN GA 00... !---It
i A"CtllffCTUR"'L I)If:&lGN <l ROUP r----t
ii I--t- CI 'Ill OUI GN G ~OUP' r----t
4 fLfC'U 1 CAL 0 f SIGfj G ftClUI' _.
STMlCTU""'l OUIGf'f GROUP r----t

, ,r RECORDS I
Ie)

OU 1Gf'f SUPE II ", 50 R

DESIGN GROUP

PROJECT

& DESIGN· GROUPS

SHOWING LINES Of AUTHORITY

SHQWING FLOW OJ INfORMATION

• ., P I

DESIGN INFORMATION TO PIPING GROUP

C.2

Tile tollowing inlormaliun is required bv the piping group:-

tH 'JOB scoPE' oOCUMENT, VfI'iICH DEFINES
PflOC~ DUllES TO liE USED IN "1'I£'''IIINO
OESION 5KETCtUS "NO OlAOR"M5
121 PIPI"IG & INSTRUMENT .... TION OIAGfI .... '"
IPlioi 0·- SE E ~.2 .• J
III LIST OF MAJOI'I EQUIPMENT (EQUII"MENT
INOElI', SPECIAL EOUIPMENT AND MAT·
,.AOM THE ERIALS Of FA8RICATION
,.) LINE DESIGNATION SHEE TS OR TABlES,
,""OJECT (I flOUf' INClUDING "S'IGNATION OF liNE NUM.
BERS-SEE ._2.l .. NO 5.2.fi'
151 srECIFIC"TlONS FOil MATERI"I.S USED
IN PIPI'IO SYSTEMS-SEE .,2.1
I UII SCHEDULE OF COM'I.ETION D"'TES (uP·
I O .. TEO ON FEO-I"C":: INFORMATION'
• ! m CONTROLS (METHODS OF WOflKING,ETC.)
TO ElE ADOPTED FOR E)(I"EOITllolG THE
JOEl
· : FROM OTHER OI'tOUPI II' DHAWINGS 5E" r..2.1
fROM SUl't'liEAS (9) VENDOIIS' PRINTS-SEE s.z.r • i

These consist of separate $peciliwtiuns tor plant lavoul. piping materials, supporting, fabrication. insulation, welding. erection, painting and testing, The piping designer is mostly corx;elllHd with plant layout and materiel specifications, which detail the design requuernents and materials for pipe, !laJl9!s, I i !lings, Yalves, atc., to be used tor I he part icular p! oject.

The pipi ng materials spec'i Ikatiun usually has an index to Ihe various ser ... ices or processes, The part of the speci llcation OBil1ing with a pan icular service 1:'"1 til! ilh~n lili nd irmll th!! Ilil,il\,t firawi(lIIUIll) (lIHIIIM!r IIr PM n line nllllllllllsee £,,2.4 under 'F I uw lines'. Ailiripill!l splll:i I it:utiuns must he strictl ... arlherell to as the'll are compiled from intormaticn supplied by the proiect group, Although the fittings, atc., described in the Guide are those most Irequently used, Ihev will-net necessarily be seen in !l\ffiry piping specification.

.J

SPECI FICA nONS

4.2.1

.1

. I

· \

Orl SUI "I! Ilruj!JCis (sudl us '11~ ... alll!l' wOlk I w\((!1Il thUle is lit] S\wci licatinn, the desiyoer may be resarflnsib II) f [II selfICting materials and hardware, and i I is important to give sufficient information to specily the hardware in all essential detai ls. Non-stand ard i terns at a ohen listed by the 'item number andlor model spedf i calion lor ordering taken from the calalog 01 the particular manulacturer,

LIST OF EOUIPMENT. or EOUIPMENT INDEX

4.2.2

'·1

Th is shows, lor each item 0 I equipment, the equip n lent number, equ ipment tiUe. and status-that is whether Ihr, it~rll has been opproved, ordered, and whether c~rlili!~tl v r.lldlir'S prints h,we been received,

LINE DESIGNATION SHEETS. Of TABLES

•. 2.3

4:: .2 i_j,2A._

lhese sheets cootain tabulated data showing nominal pip. size, mate'ial specification, design and operating tonditi OIlS. Una numbers Ire assigned in 5equ90ca 01 flow, and a separate sheet is prep8l1ld lor aath conveyed fluid -see S.2.5.

DRAWING CONTROL (REGISTER!

4.14

A drawing number relates the drawing to the project, and may be coded 10 show such inlormation as plOjacl (or 'job') number. area of plant, and originating group (\\41ich mlllf be indicated 'M' for mechanical, m,l. Figure 5.15 shows a number identifying part 01 8 piping system.

The dfllwing control shows the drawing number. title. end prolirttSS toward eumplation.The status 01 revision and issues is shown-see 5.4.3. The drawing control is kept op-te-data by the groop leader.

DESION G llQUP- TWO TvprCAl L.INU OF AUTHORITV CHAlliT •. 2

Exam,*, 1 E.....,.,.. 2

eKAODf_. M.UWIlll

..

C1!1" 'trIO_lUi

unlONU_"11i '"

QIIOVP ~l_JlI"

U .. O 0"'111'1(11111 .. U:_IOIl_UIII

,.91

_I{;Y. IIUt(TION

.~oc~ou"u, 5T ... flIHO,

.. OMINln ..... ' IOtO

......... HINn, ~IP'IIHYr.,I1lN. UtMIIJN

CDO"UI ... l ......

HIUI""INl .... 1I'tIl lUQUTS. <;.t.~CIJ,.nDNs fflDlO '.105

'''OD<lCE DETAILED DESIGNlO

IIUIGNI; 10$' • .' INSTIIUCTIOIO$

~ l4.1_~4.z_

_II, CMlt' E!IO"IUJI ..

I)E ..... 1I11II.1C1' MUD

U:UIDftU __ ..

GIlOIIf' • EAIII." IJl

UADOI_1l1II ..

... 1OIl DEIIIIIIlIlIII

FILING DRAWINGS

4,3

CHART 4.3

r

:1

J

There are two types of drll'Nings to file-Ihose produced by the group and those leceiwd bV the group. The renner are filed in numerical order under plant Dr unit number in the drawing office on a 'stick file' or in a drawersae 4.4.10. Tile filing of the laller, 'foreign', prints is olten poorly done, causing time to be wasted end information to be lost. These prints ere commonly fil&d by equipment indu nllmber. placing all information connacled with that item of equipment in the one file.

A suggested method IOf filing these incoming prints is illustrated in chart 4.3, which cross-references pr ocess, function. or .81 with the group origi nating the drawing. and with associated vessels. equipment, BtC. All correspondence Delween the project and design groups, client, vendors, and fiel d woul d be liled under 'zero', as sIlown.

-,

t

MATERIALS II TOOLS FOR THE DRAFTING ROOM 4.4

I1r

1

PAPER

4.4,1

Vellum paper and mylar film are used for drawings_ Drawing sheets must be translucen Ito the light used in copying machines. Mylar wilh a coated drawi ng surface is more c)(pensive than vellum, but is preferable where durability and tJ iml!flsional stability are important. Sheels can be supplied p r in led with border and I!t!o block and with a 'fad&-out' ruled glid on the rlNerse side. 'Isomatric' sheets with fade·out 3D-degree grid ale available for drawing isns.

A NSf 14.1 deli nes Ihe lollowing flat d rawing-sheel sizes (in inches): !M BY,x 1 1. (B) 1 1x 17, (C) 17)(12.10) 22)(34, IE) 34)(44.

Inlalnational dlltWing shQ81 sizes 01 epprO)(imBlely the same dimensions are deli ned I in inches} as: (A41 B.27 .11.69, (A3) 11.69)( 16.54, (Al) 16.54)(23.39, (A II 23.39 )(33.11, (AO) 33.11 )(46.81 .

PAPERS FOR COPYING MACHINES Photosensitive paper is used for making prints tor chocking, issuing and filing purposes. 'Sepia' photocopying paper (Ozalid Company, etc.) gives brown positive prints which may be amended with pencil or ink, and the revision used as an originel for photo· copying in 8 diaru machine. Sepias may also be used to give a faint back· ground print fOf drawing other work Oller, such 115 ducting or pipe supp orts, The quality 01 sepia prints is not good. Positive photocopies of superiOl quality are made on clear plastic film, which may have either continuous emulsion to give heavy copies, or screened emulsion 10 yield laint background prints (emulsion should preferably be ~ler·remOllabla).

LEADS. PENCILS

4.4,2

Pencil leads uS&d in the drawing office are available in lila following grados, beginning with Iha soltest : B (used for shading), H(I (usually used for writing only). F (usually softest grado usad lor drafting), H (grade most ohen used for drafting), 2H (used fOI drawing thinner linas such 8$ dimension lines), 3H and 4H luSld for faint lines tor layOU1 Dr backUfoondl. Softer penciling is prone

FlUNG IiV5TEM

• I

I

HEA ... SYSIIM 1---+---

VfNtlt ... 1I0N - Off Ins (----1----

VENTll ... HON - PAOCI S~ ARIA

,

lQ

,...__. cU.It ... _dl lO • IY'IQt of 1h. type _, be ..... 1 ... i". 1m ..

I'dIiNt lin ... '11<111< f1U _ ..... 1 .._ :_

to smearing on handling, Grades harder than 3H tend 10 cui paper making hnes difficull 10 erase. Conventional leads are 2 mm in diameter and require frequent repoinling. 0.5 mm and 0~3 mm leads speso work, as they need no repainting. Conventional leads are not suitable lor use 011 plastic lilms as Ihey smoar and are d iflicult to erase. 'F jim' le~ ds and pencils are ava i lable in the same sizes as conventi onal leads, and in di II ilrel1 I grades 0 I har uoess.

Clulch pencils (lead holders) suitable for use wilh eilhef Iype 01 the smaller d iam 81 er leeds h iN B a push- bu 11 on advance.

SCALES

4.4.3

The archi teet's scale is used lor p ipi ng dralNi ngs, a nd is divided i nt II Iraet ions of an inch to one tOOl-for example, 3/8 men per toot. The engineer's scale is used to draw site plans. etc" and i$ divided into one inch per sta tad nurnber of teet, SUch 8$ 1 inch per 30 leel.

ERASERS. ERASING SHIELDS

4A.4

Seve r a I I ypes 0 I ellIS!! I and e rssi "II me (h 0 ds ale availa hi e .. use 01 each is given in lable 4. I: Rubber in variuus haHlfll'SSCS hom pure gunl rubhl!f (art!lum) f Of $0 It ne n ti II i ng and c I eao! ng load smea rs, 10 hard rub ber 101 hill d penC1!11 i og and ink; 'plastic' is cleamlr 10 use, as il has less tendency to absorb g!aphile: 'magic rub' 101 erasing pencil Irom plastic films. Most types 01 eraser are available 10f use wilh electric erasing machines.

An erasing shield is a Ihin ITlelalplBle with holes 01 various shapes and sizes so that paris of Ihe dlawing nullo Ue erased may lie prolocled.

ERASING GUIDE

TABLE t.t

~ son ItllRO I 1010 I II.N 'M0100l'l _.Hle
purCIL HNCIL 110111 .... CIIGROUNO
lR .. UNG SRE. or HRE • ..,r IHRE
PAHR.o' ~.-
lINEM arlgum SRE
5£'1.1,
iO{oI.LiDI. SRE HRE.OI' SI.de. or BleKh •
o. '"oroco .... SRE IHRE
.AHR
""Olon .. T I
_.
PI Ullt We' PE We~ PE WeI 'E. o. Wei PE, O.
fiLM elM 81QCh'
KEY' E • "_" SR • .,,11 .uhbP,. HR ~ h"d ,ubbo •. I • ink. P • plnlie.
C hem inl bleoch r", 'f ma. i ng bleclo. phClIogr '!>hie si Iwe.. dfpCKit CLEANING POWDER

4.4.5

Fine rubber granules are supplied in 'salt-shak.er' drums. Sprinkled on a drawing, these granules reduce smearing 01 pencil lioes during working. Th~ usc flf cleaning po ..... der is especially helpful when using a teesquare. The puwder is brushed 011 alter use.

LETTERING AIDS

4.4.6

Title blocks, notes, and subti lies on drawi ngs or sections should be in r:apilals. r: 111111 ills, !!i 1 hm UP! ig h 1 nr sill pf!fl, 111 n pm , ~fll!rI. Prll1ciUI!!1 In It er i ng is n 0"0011 y used. WllCfe i 11k. work is IIHluimd on urawings for photography. charts, reports, etc., ink stylus pens IT ecbnos, A apido!Jrapn, etc.) are available for stencil laltarinq {and for line drawing in place 01 ruling pans]. The leroy e(luipmenl is a lso used 101 in ked lettering. Skeleton lei tering templates are used fOI lettcrin\l section keys. The parallellinc spacer is a sma\1, inexpensive 1001 useful for luling guide lines lor leltering.

. \

As altclnati v es to hend-inked letll!fil1lJ, machines such as Kray which print unto adhesiw·backed transparent film which is I ater positioned on the rJlawinQ Adhesive or Iranslerable letters and [lumbers ara available in sheets, and spocial patterns and panels can be sunpl ied 10 Older for (iUe blocks or delailin g, symbolism, abbreviati ens, special notes. etc. Printed adhesive tapes

are limited in appl ication, but are useful for mak ing drawings lor phOIO\lraphic reproduction, slICh IS panel bOlrds, charls, and specia' reports-see 4.4.13, IJnder 'Photographic layouts',

TEMPLATES

4.4.1

Templates having circular and rectan~ular openings are common. Orthogonal and isometric drafting templates are available lor making process piping drawings and flow diagrams. These piping templates give the outlines tOI ANSI valves, flanges, fittings and pipe diameters to 3/B inch per foot, or '/4·inch par 1001.

MACHINES

4.4.8

The first Iwo machines are usually used in drawing offices in place 01 the slower teesquars:

DRAFTING MACHINE allows palaUei mOwm8nt of a pair 01 rules set at right angles, The rIJI as are 581 on a protractor, and their Ingle on the hoard may be altered. The protreetnr usually has 15-degree clickstaps and wlnier scale.

PARALLEL RULE, or SLlDER, permits drawing of long horizontal lines only, and is used with a filled or adjustable tlianglll.

PLANIMETER A portable machine lor measuring areas. When set 10 the scale 01 Ihe drawing. Ihe planimeter will measure areas of any shape.

PANTOGRAPH System of articulated rods permitting reduction or enlarge. ment of a drawing by hand. Application is limited.

LIGHT BOX

4.4,9

A light bOI has a translucent glass or plastic working surface fitted underneath with electric lights. The drawing to be traced is placed on the illumina· ted su rf ace.

FILING METHODS

•. 4.10

Ori!linal drawings are best filed flal in shallow drawers. Prints filed in thl! dlawing office are usuallv retained on a 'stick.', which is a clamp for holding SlMral sheets. Sticks Bra housed in a special rack or cabinet.

Original drawings will evenlually create a storage pfoblem, 85 it is inadvisable to scrap them. If these dfawings are not sent to 8n 8fchillfl, af~r a peri_ad 01 about three years they ale p:hotographed to a reduced scafe for filing, and only the film is retained. EQuipment is avai lab Ie for reilding such Ii lms, or large photographic prints can be made.

CI-tAFITi •. 3

COPYING PROCESSES

4.4.11

'Diazo' or 'dyelina' pracmes reproduce to the same scale as the original (!(awing as a pO$itive copy or print. Bruning and DIal id machines are often employed. The drawing lhat is to be copied must be on tracing paper, linen or film, and the copy is made on light-seositive papers 01 films. The Dicier rlMl!S8d·tone 'bIUl'print' is no longer in use.

SCALED PLANT MODELS

4.4.12

i

I

1 i i

f!

i •

Plant modeh are often used in designin!l larga installations involvillQ much piping. When desi~ of the plant is completed, the model is sent to the site as the basis of construction io the place of orthograp hic drawings. Some engineering companies strongly advocate their use, which necessitates mainlaining 8 model shop and retaining trained personnel, Scaled model piping components are availabla in a wide range 01 sizes, Tha following color coding may be used on models:-

""'ING , , . EQUU'MENT INSTRUMENTS ELECTRICAL

YILLOW. RED .. BLUI • OREY ORANGE GREEN

r

.! ';

[--

ADVANTAGES

, Available routes for piping are easily SIIIR1

• Inter tere neas ar a e asi IV avoi dad

• Piping plan and elevation drawings can be eliminated; only the model. plot plan, P&IO's, and piping fabricolion drawings (isos) are required

• The modal can ba photographed - see 4.4.13,

• ProvideS a superior visual aid lor conferenus, lot construction crews

and for tra in i ng p I an I person ne I

DISADV ANlAGES

• Duplicatioo of Ihe modal is expensive

• The model is not easily portable and is liable to damage dwing transportericn

• Changes are not reea rdsd in Ihe rn odel ilsell

PHOTOGftAJ'HIC AIDS

4.4.13

'DRAWINGS' FROM THE MODEL

Tha lack of portability of I sceled plant model can ba partially overcome by photographing it. To do this il must be designed so thai il can be takan apart mily. Photographs can be made to correspond closely to the regular plan, elevation and isometric prOjections by photographing the model from 40 It Or more nwy with loog fOClI length lalll8l-'wni$hinll points' (converging Ii",,) ift the p ictu ra are ef fBtl iytly eliminated,

The nagative is projected through a contact S(IBeO and a print made on 'reproducible' lilm. 0 imansiens, nUHlS. mc., are added 10 100 IfplOduci ble IiIm which can be priflled by a lIiillO prucess-see 4.4.11. These PI ints are used as working drawings, and d islributed to those needmg inlormation.

-

REV-'MP WORK fOR EXISTING PLANTS

A Polaroid (or vidaol camera can be used to supply vi~ 01 Iha plant and unrecorded changes. Filed drawings of a plam do not always include alterations, (II deviation hom ori!li na1 dasign.

-.~

Photographs of secti ens of a plant can be combined wi th drawings to facili tale installation of new equipmenl, or to make further changes to the existing plant, To do this, photographs are take" 01 Ihe required views, using a camera fitted with a wide-angle lens (IO obtain a wider ~ie....).

The nag8tiws ulll ai ned aln pi intud LlI11U screened pasi tive films wtli[h Dill attached tr Iha back 01 a clear plastic drawing sheat, Allenllinns to the pip. ing syslem are then drawn on the irunt lace 01 this shea I, linkin!llhe photographs as desired. Reproductions of the composite drawing are mads ill the usu81 way by diazo process,

Alternately. positives rnay 00 marked directly lor minor changes or insrruetions to the treld.

PHOTOGRAPHIC LAYOUTS

The following lechniqoo produces equipment layout 'drawings', and is espeCially uselul for arellS where method study or invllSligalional reports are raquired.

F irst, equipment outlines are produced to stale on photographic Ii 1m, ei Iher in the regular way or bv xarography. Next, a drawiny.sized sheet at clear lilm is laid on a while backing sheet having a cnrroclly·staled grid marked on it.

The buildin!l ou II ioe and 0 ther teatures can ba put ont 0 the 1 ilm using the variety of printed I ransosrem tapes and decal s available. The pieces ol hIm with equipment outlires may then be positioned wilh clear tape, and any other parts of the 'drawin!l' completed. Alterations to tho layout may be rapidly made with this technique, which J1hotographs well for reports, and allO\oYS prints to be made io the usual ways tor malting and comment. The film layout should be covered with an acetate or other protective sheel belore insertion in a copying machine.

REDUCTION BY PHOTOGRAPHY

It is hequenth/ required to include reproduClions of diagrams and drawings in reports, etc. rhotographic reduction to less Ihan half.si18 (on lengths) is not recom mended because nerrnal-sizad printing and details may not ba IltGible, A gJaphic QIe should be included on drawings 10 be reduced -1Iff chari 5. B.

r5l)

I

• I

In Dresenting piping 'single line' on piping drawings, only the centerline 01 Ihe pipe is drawn, using a solid line ($a! chart 5.1), and the line size is wrt t ten. F I<lnges are shown as 1 hick linllS drawn I (] the scaled outside d iametar ut Ihe IInnge. Valves drt! shnwn hv special svmbols dltiwn 10 scaltl. Pumps all~ S~1Uwn bv drawinq the j1a<ls 011 which they rest, and their lIonle5: tigure 1i,21 itlusua II!!: 1 hi s simpl; I i I!d [I'!!sr.nt,'1 I 1111. F (IUillnUlnt and vesstlls mr. shown hy rlr;rwinllthf'lr nllllll!S, 1lIlllinrs. ;,1111 "'[IIlIutillil paris.

DRAFlIN&: PROCESS AND PIPING DRAWINGS

inClUding Drawing SymbOlS, ShOwing DImensions, Showing Instrumentation, and Bills 01 Materiel

,

I

~

·1

PIPING SYMBOLS

5.1

SHOWING PIPE I!r JOINTS

5.1. I

Hami-d rawn pi p iog layouls r1e pict "i pe by single lines lor clar ity and economy. Pipe <lull Ilnnges am sometimes drawn pmtially 'double tina' 10 displav clear· antes. Computer drawn layouts can show piping in plan, elevational and isollIetlK: Views in single line, or (without a(lditional etlllft ur expense] ill double \rne, Ouuble line r!j(lresenlatinn is best reserved for three-dimensional views, such as isus.

~--

In dOllhln-liol! drawing, val~p.s im slllJwn hy thn 5'(lIIhol5 in chart 5.6 (refer to thu panel 'Drafling valves'). DUlIule·line representation is not used' or entlfe piping arrangements. as it is ~crv tirne-conSlHning, dill ieuh to read, and nut justil ied Il!chnically.

~ M ')UtU.1 .1.'..... ..,. Ni(H r , tNr

P'RE~ENTA.l.0N 1·,.u.~LN I A •• uN

-r.

It there i 5 a p ipi og speci fica lion, i I is no I reeessa r V to intii ca Ie weIde d or screl'V{l(j joints, ucept 10 remove arnbiguitMl5~lor ekemple, to dillerentiate between 3 tea and II stub-in_ In most current practice, the $Vmbols for screwed ioints md socket welds are nOlmaliv om ilted, aI though butt welds arB often shown,

The ways 01 showing joints set out in tim standard ANSI Y32.2.3 are not typical 01 current industrial practice_ The standard's symbol lor a bun·weld as shown in table 5.1 is commonly ussd 10 indicate a butt-weld to be made 'in the tield' (field weldt.

SHOWING NON·FLANGED IClrNT$ AT ELBOWS

BUTT WELD SOCKET WELD SCREWED .IOINT
SIMPLIFIED r r- r-
PRACTICE·
CON'IIENTtONAL r rr- -r-
PRACTICE
ANSI V32.2.3 t + t
t Not C\I.rtnl
practicel TA~ 5.'

• ! ... IL}''''. iyn'lbt."ll It~" be tpd 4 r .he "'1" L'" :lUlllt ,!I. l'1+!1"ll1IlInt'l'I 1J'f ,. iM"'m,, IDt't t'~ _.t1Ull'l .• t ... ~...,

lll-rif"l11tt 1 1-' "'11' .,.. It..'Il h.t "If' nlbPl h) m ....... tfH!' 1,,1 ~ 1'" L um1 r 1l1li:."'" .. ·1, It lor.... ....... I.e _tlt""I'"

I .... I .... ~.',. tll!lot"4I''Io;1 .. '!;ILlh'J1

LINE SYMBOLS WHICH MAY BE USED ON ALL DRAWINGS

5.1.2

Chart 3.1 shows commonly eccepted ways of drawing various lines. Many ather line symbols have been devised but most of these are not readily recogniled, and it is better to slate in words the function of special lines, particularly on process flow diagrams and P&ID's. The designer or draftsman should use his current employer's symbols.

il

I r

I

I

1

II '1

I:

........:...._ ........ I'I •• '-- .............. ~ "TOIL'"

OW'UNIl1 "" 1lII1..PWQI ..... 11. fit. CIII1II u.'- ....

......... t " ...........

~ ift.I'ItOIflliGllClUllO.1OfII ~IIIlD n IOU ...... T. 'IM'-".I1'C

'U1'\IIIII~

..... 0l0I;_

'uW ... 1 lCIl.IIIfiIIIIlIII' 11I:.1r*G1:Q"I ...... n

.. 1CII'l ... f~.'L_IMAGlllJ_

,. ...... " ~I., Mattlltl 0lIl Uh"t1T. ~"QII~O tf"C.'OIIDIIIAl" f1IIIXI •. _1hlCf 0lIl: Vfllltn

"iI;Of'II.,. ...... PIIOCIK. ,. II 'tIl(.t 0- UTtU 1 'f _ ..... ~ ... GIIIIOlIND

•••

------

__ :;;.::z... __

- --!''!.....!!'I:::I.. - -

_ _~::::z.. __ --~!~ .. --

------

~L i NIMIi.'t ........

1 .. 'fII .JII w .. nc: .. ~u

... ' H LIQUIO ,.~ ... 1(; I4OJiIIllt.1

' .. KTIIUC

1 .. (Cf .. CItiIIF ...... 'JI(:· Of! ~c: "'T"""'Nl ~,,,.y Tu.ttG

II ........ tl(M'lll l.IG ... ,. ...... u. "'010""I.n(:.

L:

L:

L

VALVE. EQUIPMENT SYMBOLS FOR '.10".

'ROCESS FLOW DIAQRAMS .

Practice in showing ~ipment is not uniform. Chart 5.2 is ba51ld on ANSI Y32.1', and applies to P&IO's and proteSl flow dilgralTlS.

REPftESE~TING PIPING ON PIPING DRAWINGS

6.1.3

6.1A

Chilli 5.3-6 IhO'lll symbol, used in bun-welded, scr&wed Bnd socket-welded WSlems. The various aspects 01 the lilting, vllw,lI1c., are giViln. These symbols Ire based 01"1 conventional practica rather than tha ANSI standard Z32'.2.3, titled 'Graphic: symbols for pipa fittings, valves and piping'.

ftEPRES!NTING VALVI!i!$ ON PlPINO DR"",INGS 6.1.5 Chan 5.6 shows WI'f$ of denoting wives, includirtg stems. haodwheels and other operata". The symbols ;sre based on ANSI Z32.2.3, but mare valva tyP .. '" eovered and U. presentation i$ up-Oatf!d. ValYi handwheltls should to De drlWll to scale with wive stem shown fully extended.

MISCELLANEOUSSVM60LS FOR PIPING DRAWINGS

5.1.6

s'ymllols [hat are shQWII in a similal way in i:l1I systems are collecled in chart 5.7.

GENERAL ENGINEERING SYMBOLS

5.1.7

Chart 5.B gives soma symbols, signs, etc., which BrB used IIIlnellllv and are likely TO be found 01 needed on piping drawings.

1!l41

[.....<. .. ~~_.~- .. ~- ....

.1

·r

.. ~ _~ :.-: ... , __ .: ': ~_ .-, .:: ~ __ ~,.~ 'w .~ .. ~"".!"":-," . .:::'="" ~_

ODD

5

In)

I I"MIlJtI.I"w!.':!i'Jlltlr,U
-~"'.Q ~ 0 ~ .....
......
..
I
!HIU SIID1. IUD u'_"'U1;IfIlI,.a.t
COOl. Ii 0 0U1 f .. O'*
... 1 L" • , .... tot:UI' 1-*"14&JrtQ11III .... 11 1II..cDO\ 10 COIfIIj{H; .... 1III .M.E:Uflil) Idl 1 .. 1 COOL .... l"(MIl ...
.... .,.1 f II; UJ{RI C} ~'(.IIl IIi,'I,;.HII""':'1: II V

I

Q

A"·""

v-1t'

, ..... ~

nu.l

.... All

LJ D

'CHARTS S.11'.1"

"~ISSIJIII.nD

--

• .-11 WII.t

[5---

0 ... 0 1I"tI00a..tt:f

._ .. _._

.... 11.11. ... .,.·· ... 111

0"'0 PIIII'I:JII!I'IX1

... , ~ .

. .

..... "" [J::::::::]-

• ' •• II1II ClOft, tDOCI(IIR .. UR'U}.

, I

, I

1 1

j

: I

: !

~ ;

i

i ,

: I

i .

~ \

~ .. E) -- EJ- M r

.. a~."_._ ... ~,,~_. jj

Il.WNW.r.ooTOfl

"_·-·,'u 8

,

---- ,'> ."-'.- .. , -" •• - ~

~.-.1!

TU .... NI_ .....

~

I_II.ICT__ __Utcml"' __

m_~_J I

{J v,m~~".

:111: .. ,. AI" ''''tON .... IV ...

CHART 5.28

AIc:tlvlA .0 ..

AMl _ OTHlEfli Q.I4

tll:Nf;fIIM ...... lO.-.olO Q.~AJlQUl .IIOHTID

nM... '''" )"1',.1 T't"

v

T",,, *,,_t ~ , ...... >001 H'_Ltc 011

_ ...... ltc 1oCCI*U ,0IIS. uuo '0 -.o'~ '''''

_..,,_ DUn!. _ .._._ .... ~._.

DIll TO I.C'1 AI "II( .. VOIRI '0" " ...... ...,U DIMAfCIi.

f\I/\/\\l\J

I !

j

.":.

i.

.. -. ....

....... -

C) (~

!

I

• !

5

IN CItAR TS ~., THIIU ~5. TH e SYMtIOl IS SHOWI'i IN Hl"'V¥ II N l llGHUR lllOU SHoW CONN ~C '( D "f'E, AND ""'IE NO' ... ' ... AT Of TH~ S ~ Meal,

NOTE

NAME OF ITEM Ell VIEW SIIE IIEW Ell VIEW

I&IIE OF IlllI

Ell fiE. SIIE liE. Ell VIEW

lIME OF ITEM Ell VIEW SIIE WlEW EI.IIEW

I )

@ -1~ ©

LA' JOIN I fLA ..... e .SIlJ8

RETURN

~ .y

'UTTMlO

l ... tU,""l

SOCI[DLET

SHOW,""S"WHOOLET' T1USCHART

u-

o

@

Sl"~ Fu.rtGE

I

• I I

o

0-

L ... TAOI.H

9 q

COlJl'llNIl.

fUll Of H"'Lf·

Stull IN

MlTU~

sn E'<'HIF lH IS CllAAl

111. VIEW {:::::--

{:::::-- ~

SWAGE.

NIPOLET

D-IAFITS 5.2B & 5.3

ECCENTRIC

S''''l WfllIHlR If)/' DR '(Jrr0f4l$ ',. .. ,.

HIOfII. rd', LII

·1

I

SWEEI'OLlT

".VIEW ---0- 0

-D---D--61

-~

HIIO'fII, 1Id'. S~

THAlDOLE!

SftOW ... t 'Wit \J(Jlt T' ""S to.A""

ECCENtRIC

H~ ff ...", 1m H 't1f" IIHR~I/(JMIIIIM'

UE

.1

@ -il--

@

wnOINO·NECI!; flAHGt

ELBOUT

e .12_-

9 ''''''''''''"'/ '} ~

@

Wlf,.DOUT

EX .... N-DfA JUNGE

--~---

F1ElD WELD

IIEINfOIl.CUlIlNlS SADOLE

. l

M~

I

3-"IC! MilER

• h •••• ~.,.~.~.,,~ _.~ _ •• ~~ _, ••

f

\

I'

I

I

1

SYMBOLS FOR SCREWED SYSTEMS

o

E--

$HOI! fOil ,"liNCH CONNiCl,ONS ONLYalE ~ .... ' IN a<"~l &.l

--II-

e .

o :J--

...

,..uo

IIEl\IIIR

~- --

... _ _hI

===--

$HOIiIIt' .... HOlING 'SU .• WlLlY

lEeclNTIIIC

nAn _£"""1. Q_ III Tr,* ""IAr

SYMBOLS FOR SOCKET-WELDED SYSTEMS

".IIUI

o

!;-

o

SHOW f Oil If! IINC>I CONNIECTI QNS ""l ... - SIiE 'CO\WUHG' It! C>t"'lll ~

Il8OW.fII>

ElKIW ... •

IIlJloUCEII.

+

©

IInUIIN

Il1O .$OOI:ll·Wft.UUt(i· fORGi D- tTl E .. "1T'MrK:ii II ,,_''' • ...,..L.f. tF Jr.. lJO.Dlliil\U .. nu .... -tS IlUSClUIAID. IT """' ..... 1 MAO. ~1iIIG It. IUlf. • LPn. lUlU "N. Ofll ..-..0 1(IC.dT .-lUUNG l\..'IOWIWlTtI ..... U 1'.-''''

·.CCINTII;IC

S1,1.Tf IIIIIHIIIIf"" 011 HrrfJIIIlf 'f! A r

DRAfTING VALVES

C"","",' '.1 G.vU IHlllol5tl; sY"lKh.S fOR ........ vES T>lUI _ sYlOIOU ..... t U$l.D 0fI IIOO#I~P AS ,000LOfII,

P • I D'.

uti' Ttl, liE LEVANT V ill Vl sv-x, TO Il1<0,, THE ,..." Of II iii- VE. DfIMIr MOST S'l'1OIOI.$ II..... UIN(l. kOoHU.t.I. IWEII" rOIl. III1E MOl SItDWN_

PIPING DRAWINGS

OPIIl;ATDIII'~'fIMPOll'lINl 11111c:1I1_0VIILVU

UIi lItllAllC VALVE "''''101.. 01111" THllEJtQTtI Of THli IIIILVITO lClli-t.

If THE _ct HAS II 'IPING "lCIfICATlON.IIR fH E IAIIC V ALVI IYMIOL. .f HOl, AtOW lOX Ul 1_ TO THI "",,,lllli,:

I "All" ... , __ ..... _ ::-:___.;::

DII_ TWl LENGtH Of litE '''SIC IIIILVt ' ..... lOl ro SCALI Dill" IDCIlU lNDI_

III flloMllU V ..... IIU

UK THE llASlC IIIILVE $\'MlDL. fliT" Of'lIl;AlDR. AltO IIIOW ,...,T,NO fU.NCIU ..... DU .... UD .now,

SINOLE·LltE 1 OOUILE-lINE

.... - .... - ..... ~""'- .........

." 0. ''- OIl '" .....

tel 0, .,._ ...... Qt_ III t:htI fItngt.f .... 1&-

r "'" .. w;;tnMt I.Q ....... t.:: .... ..,.,....,. ,.

tt"lII ""_

2, Di •• noninl non.' ..... rd "I .. , lWw"I.U._~ .. _,

~ttll

Oil oil

!PI - _'--11 ...... 01_

,.;,,-, _ "'" ,._ ... ...._ "" ...

• .,...,_ • 1IhcMn_ ,..,.,. ~.,..,. he 1'1 Tho ''''''''''_'0'''' __ '''''''_ t1l Tho _ ... __ I bo , .... ......., ,. 01_ t ..

..... -

t

I

. f

. !

(

I

1

.1 ( ,

-I

. ! f

SYMBOLS FOR VALVES AND VALVE OPERATORS

... ll.1IIID1 ... .,

attc._1OQI

1

~ ~ ~~ 6"n.".'~ .... t8J (~~

__ ~ [><J _. t@J

1~

v

.5,

Q-iARts 5,4-1.8

.. _.. .._ -.- _ .. _- -_ _._ --- -_ .. __ ._ ~.-. -y-~ .. --.~.~

'I I

t

---t:t-

~ · rp

~- .. --

__ '_k

- > II <

@ I - )1<

..,____----It--~-_t:::;_;::J_--=-------! ~Z)-:__ -¢>-U-<C>-

~ Y , - --o)-f--«>-

..

II

j I ~ :

I ; ( • I

U

...

,--~- ,.~,-

i

-

-

-::.i' _ .. _.

_INGH_U

fLOOII.......,.'

'UXIIIUCOUPLIJIa I 1 ~

~ __ -+-_' _' i IQCIlET.IfIIILOIHII

i

i f~

X'

-..u,TION

_G

H •

s •

SH _.

.ss

r

r

r I

'I

-f

·1

.J

GENERAL SYMBOLS FOR ENGINEERING DRAWINGS

SYMBOL

.. !

'flrTlNG ...... orE UI" sYM8Ot-

INor PlIlFfRIIUl- SfE U_l. UNDER 'flnlNGMAKEIr)

DESCRIPTION

P4- ("ft(

.. . "",_ ...

..

.. :.

III fDA PL ... NS "'''0 E lEVAlIQN$

III FOil 'SOIoInn,c DA"'W'NGS

GA"'~"'C ~"'Lf "lOUIII!" 0 .. """'WINGS \ II<, I Y To) III C""NG! IJ 'N SIH 'I<oru hH .. P~.j(: .... lI. ..... "Of' HU'O."'S, .. h:.

SVMatll LOC"'''NG ,",XU OF RHEIIENCE; ".nASlC"ON Of OA01N ... TH ICooIIOIN, ... n POl"'ll

.... -

I

---~---

I

or

h__A

I ~flC"L SECTION INOI C'" 10115, LEn EllS '1' .u<1} "0' SI<OVLO MOl III! U!!D TO "'vow CONFUSIO .. WIT" NUMEIII.l$ " .... ND '0', If MORE m ..... 2. SU;TlONS "'U NtEND. USE CO" ~I"'" T IONS Of LUTE II S "'110 "\.1M. E lIill5. SHOW NUM lIE II Of TN E OR ",,,,'IOG ON _,C .. SlCTlON WILL "'P!'E"'II

---Et_--

01 .. 1"';\" .. u .. E SYMBOL USED TO SI<OW il DIME "';10 .. 1001 10 SC"'"l

*

1 NSl AUME"T S"'l LOO... usu ... u ~ 0 A ... _ 1I\5101C1< OI ...... E lEA ON PlIO', ..... 0 ""I'IG 0" ...... ,toGS ITO JJII , ... PE II fl ~"'Ll 1

SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION

1:OtIST1IU.!C1 ION HalO' ...... "k 'NG. " SUI'. F U:'I1iNT I,"",OIlM .. TID.. IS 1<101 il V "'lULIE TO f ,/tAli n 'A!If Of TME OESIGN. THIE 'tIOlD' ..... 11 ~ It.lG IS IJ!I,E 0 10 !NST IIUCT THE eo .. H'AtTOII TO ...... AIT "'l ... nll IIlVlSION OJ' TI<l OI .... w'NG eli F OU Sf ... lIlI NG TN I IIl'OlIk IN OUUllON

(1)[8] (2)0 or 0

(l1J

(2) ]

(~)I

_-

or

~ :C:::::::J)

III VISION TII''''NGlE.TI<E lUlU REVISION I+~f ~ <J/f Till '111 .... ,1+" ,S SHOWN w'T" , .. Tl<t lMl ..... (JlI WI"eli IS ~ N(;IltCllD ON TI<I R~"'I'I 0' 'I<l SHHT. ""l RtvlSION T "''''toG lE S Rlllj""", 0 .. 1" e Oil"''''! lOG. BUT EIfCIRClING Of TOle PRI"'DlJS 'RI ..... GlE ISU...sED

orETOINGS,

(II OPf"'J«)WI<'CH lU!V IE CO ... IAIO, (AIICK . ... NO I<.V DRAW'NGS)

t:lI HOU.''''IICH.I

STIIUCTUII~L Sri R nCTIONS:

!II ANGLI. '21 CH~MNll. (ll ',BE"''''

tlIV"TIQfI' SYMtOLS ~OIlIl~L11fG

DISCONTI .. UIO Y IEWS:

111 "PI.IICIt.INDSItAfT ..... I~ SL ..... SOUAIII ''''A, Ok. 131 \II SSf:L. );QIJIPM llol T • _

(AIoo _10 ... _ "' ......

SC R El'(IHRl.t.O S'I"'.OI-$

C ..... , .. 5YlIlOl

SHADINGS

~------

c>-lARTS ,U&S.I

society)

WELDING SYMBOLS (American

CHARI 5.9

--" 1/ .• [> ,

.. .

r--===··

.. ""-

.'~ ..

.... ,

~ L_~ __

_ ... -........".

_w.~ Mk~~- /

............... 11' .. ,...

/ .. ®,....._

j." ...

..... '-.... .............

;:~=-

_ ... _! "<; _

r-' .... ..:: .... ::...ILlC~_

I f I ! I ! '

i

I

/ A

~-_,. ...

!I.IfiI:'W'L ...

,"" ~, w..t J,~~,.

---

from AItS - AZ.4 .. 86: SYII'IbOlf'for Welding. Brez1ng ana Nonclestruct1ve ElI4m1net1on. by of the American wel01ng Society. A ca.plete COpy of AZ.4-86 ~y be obtaineO from the - ~1i!t_r r: 550, !rJ.II(. LeJeune Rcu.ld. M11l111 Flor1C111 33126. Telephone (305) 44l~93S3.

,,. .... ,

... i

SYMBOLS FOR WELDING DETAILS

&.1.1

Standard welding symbols are published by the AlTI8ficen Woliding Society. These symbols should be used as netessary on details of altaehments. vessels, piping supports, etc. The practice of writing on drawings instructions such as 'TO BE WELDED THROUGHQUT', or 'TO 8E CQMPLETEl Y WELDED' ulnslers the design responsibility for all attachments and connections frOm the designer to the welder, which tha Society considers to be a dan!)ltrous end uneconomic practice.

The 'Mlding symbol" devised by the Amarican Welding Socie1Y has eight elements. Not III 01 these elements are necessarily needed by piping desiWlBIS. lila assembled W9lding symbol which gives the welder all the necessary in-struction, and locations nf its elemanls, is shown in chert 5.9. The elements ore:

• RIU£RlMCE LINE

• ARROW

• BAlIC WELD IYMaQLS

• DIMENSIONS .. OTHER OATA

• SUl'f"UMENT ARY SYMBOLS

• FINISH SYMBOLS

• TAIL

• "ECIFICATIONS. 'ROCES .. OTHER REFEF-'ENCE

The following is a Quick guide to the stheme. Full datails will be found in lhe current revision 01 'Standald Welding Svrnbols' available tron Ihe American Welding Society.

t !

ASS£M8L1NG THE WElDtNG SYMBOL

Rtferance line and arrow: The symbol begins wi th a reference line end arrow pointing to lhe joint whare lha wold is to be made. The rllference line has IWO 'sides': 'other side' [above the linel end 'arrow side' (below the line)-refer 10 the following examples and 10 chart 5.9.

BASlCWELDINQ ARReM

FIGURE'.'

Olh"'I~ - o.

Auo.,I ...

BASICWEUHNG IIYMIIOt... .. In. ... .,. ....

I

• !

... un .. co •• ...... a.M =- - 1111 _.
... - ,,-- ,.-
..... ~
"I "-" L.J 0 ~ 1r 11 I' ~ 1·-1\---"" - --.~.......--'- -"" ......... - --h: -I;~ j ~ \

EXAMPLE USE OF TH E FILLET WE LD SYMBOL If I conlinuous fillet weld is naedell,like this:

the fillet weld symbol is placed on the 'allow sida' 01 the reference line, th us:

If the weld is I"1Iquirlld on the far side from the arrow, thus:

~

tha weld symbol is shawn on the 'othlll sida' 01 the refll· encalioe:

If a continuous lillet wald is needed on both sidas 01 the joint,

tha fillet weld symbol i$ placed on both sides of the reference line:

EXAMPLE USE Of nl E BEVEL GROOVE SYMBOL I f 8 beIIel glOO'III is fequ ired, Ii ke I his:

The 'grOO'l9' symbol for a

. beYel is shown, with the fillet weld symbol, and. break is made in the allow toward the

member to be bevelad, thus:

Only the bevel and 'J' groove symbols rsquire a break in the arrow -see chart 5.9.

DtMENSIONtNG THE WELD CROSS SECTION

Suppose the weld is required 10 be '{4 inch in sile, IIOd the bevel is 10 be 3/16 ioch deep:

n+h 1ilir

Thase dimensions ere shown ~

to the left 01 the weld sym· . 4}

bol:

Altamatively, the bevel can be altpressed in dagrlJBS of ere:

and be indicated thus on the symbol:

If a ro ot gap is requ i red, thus:

the symbol is:

5~ .1.'

~ -

... • • ~
like this: or 'ika this:
the 'MIld symbol
may be drawn:

~
'l'

altamalaly: ~
it is shown in this way: --1
... H j'j

. '

I!

'\ ~ ~

I'

If II !)

i 'k~

! 1 I

I' ·

!

DeMENBIONING THE LENGTH OF THE WELD

Going blCk to _tha filial weld joint without. bevel, if the Wild ~ In be 1/4-inch in siza and 6 inchas long. like this:

II a saries of 8-imh long welds is required with S.inch gaps between them ( t hat ii, the pitch of the wei lis is 12 i nchas), thus:

tho symbol;, ~

,

.\

alternately :

If these welds are required ltaggBred on bath sidas-

SUpPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS

These symbols give instructions for making the weld and define the required countour:

...... --
- ..,,,.,, - .. _
.. - c _ _ yl
~ ~ ~ ...... ~
/ ~ Going back to tha uampl8 0' a simple fillet wald, it the weld is r8quifad all 'lOund iii member,

If this same 'aU around' weld has to be made in the field, it is shown thus:

The contour of the weld is shown bv 8 contour symbol on thll weld symbol:

FLUSH CONTOUA

CONVEX CONTOIJA CONCA. v E CONTOUA

like this: ~ like this: ~

or:

The method of finishing the weld contour is indicated by adding 8 finish n olation lattar, th us,

v.flera M '" machining, G • grinding, and C " chipping.

fULL WELDING SVMBOL

Occasionally)! is neansary 10 gi'f8 other instructions in the \WIding symbol. The symbol can be alaborated for Ihis 8llhown in 'Location of ulafll8nh of a welding symbol' in chart 5.9 .

Chert 5.9, reproduced by parmisaion 01 the Amtricln Welding Society. $Ummlfiz8S end amplifies the npl8Oltions of this _tioll..

U:·41

DRAWINGS

6.2

All information for constructing piping systllflls is oontainad in drawings. ap8lt from the specilications, and the possible use of 8 model and photo· ,raphs.

THE MAIN PURPOSE OF A DRAWiNG IS 10 COMMUNtCATE INFORMATION IN A SIMPLE AND EXPUCITWAY.

PROCESS 6 PIPI NG DRAWl NGS G ROW FROM 5.2. t

, THE SCHEMATIC DIA.GRAM

To design process piping, Ihree types 01 drawing are daveloped in sequence hom Ine schematic diagram (or 'schematic) prepared by tha process enginee!.

These three types of drawing are, in order of development:-

.j

Figure 5.2 shows a simple uample of B 'schematic'. A solvent recovery system is used as an exemple. Based on the schematic diagram of ligure 5.2, a developed prouts flow diagram is 5hown in figure 5.3. From this flow diagram, the P&ID lfigure 5.4) iSl!'lolvad.

As far as practicable. the flow of material{s) should be from left to right. Incoming lIoYlS should be IfID'MId and described down the lelt·hand edge of the drawing. and exitling Ilows arrowed and described at the right of the drawing, without intruding into the space over the tille block .

'nformat ion normally included on the process drawings is detailed in sections 5,2.2 thru 5.2.4. Flow diagrams and P&IO's each have their own lunctions and should show only that information relevant to their functions. as set out in 5.2.3 and 5.2.4. Extraneous information such as piping, muctural and mechanical notes should not be included, unless essential to the proem.

111 FLOW DrAG RAM (PROCEI&, or IERVlCE)

121 PIPING ANO INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM, or "11'0'

Il) .... ING DRAWING

EXAMPLE DIAGRAMS

. !

SECURITY

·f

A rllal Of supposed need lor industrial or national security may restfict infnrrnatlon appearing on dfllWing5. Instead of naming chBmicals. indeterminate {]I IradilionaltllrrnS suw as 'sweet water', 'brine', 'Ieach acid', 'cbsmical a', may be used. Oata important to the reactions such as temperatures. prmures and flow rates may be withheld. Sometimes certain key dr8Wings are locked aw~ when not in use.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

6.2.2

5;: .1.8 . i' .2.3

Commonly referred to as a 'schematic', this diagram shows paths of flow bV sing Ie lil\95, and ope rat iOIl$ or process equi pment are represen ted by simp Ie ligures such as rectangles and circles. Notes on the process win otten be included.

The diagram is not to scala. but relationships batween equipment and piping with regard to the proc9$S ara shown. Tha desired spatial arrangamanI of equipment and piping may be broadly indicated. Usually, the schematic is not used after the initial planning stage, but serves to develop the process now diagram which then Oecornes Ihe primary reference.

FLOW DIAGRAM

5.2.3

This is an unsealed drawil1Q describing the process. It is also referred to as a 'flow sheet'.

It should state thl materials to be conv&yed by the piping. conveyors, etc., and specify (heir rates of flow and other information such as temperature and pressure, where of i"tarest. This i nf 0 rma u on may be 'flll9II'Hi' t on Ii nas) within the diagram or be tabulated on a separate penel-such a panel is shown at the bottom lelt of figure 5.3.

LAYOUT OF THE FLOW DIAGRAM

Whether l' lIow diagram is 10 be in elevation 01 plan viM should depend on how thll P&IO is 10 be presented. To easily relate the two drawings, both should be presented in the same view. Ell!'lations are suitable tor simple systems arranged vertically. Installations covering large horizontal areas 8re best shown in plan view.

Normally, a separate How diagram is prepared for each plant process. If a single sheet would be 100 crowded, two or more sheets may be used. For simple processes, more than one may be shown on a sheet. Process lin95 should MIIf! the rate and direction of flow, and other required data, noled. Main process Ilows should preferably be shown going from the left of the sheet to the right. line sizes are normally not shown on a flow diagram. Critical interl18l perts of vessels and other items essential to the p meess should be indicated.

All factoll considered, it is advisable to WI ite equipment titles ,it'" ,..., 'M top or """ thf bottom of thf shill, either directly above or below the lKfJipment symbol. Sometimes it mlly be directed that all pumps be drawn at II common level neal the bottom of the sheet, although this practice may lead to a complex· looking drawing. Particularly with flow diagrams, simplicity in presentation is of prime importance.

~

i

\

I

11" , I

!

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

FICURE 5.2

SOlVENT VAI'Ol
OliN wn !OI.VlNT ~ t SUAM
Sf DIME NT I ! I SOLVENT I HEll TtO SOL YENT a.:{ SOLVENTVMOt:IZOJ r I
I $"" .... 101 I I I'UHEAIEI J C Of'C)! NSA U
~
~ I SLUDGE
--...
COOliNG WATfi . I --.:-1 """'Ttl st:'AU.TOJ I UaAlWO SOLYENT .
50LYlNT STaA,Gf ''''HI(
~ COOt.ING wAnl H'~N I cooc.u r w ... n. .
-,. DllAiN ,

i

1 .

j I

! f I .

) r

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

nUOCE OWG NO

51' ....... '01 Silt, OUTY !Q1.J" NO __

SOlVENT "(HEATEI SIZE, 0lIIY (QU.,NO_ __

SOlVENT VAPORIZe:. Sin, OI.ITY

EQUI'NO _

STIEAM NO ll/HW

PSIG SG OfG f

1--

, ............. __ lNl_iII If PIIIIUlAl.OII .LW-A ."Klil _ .. nit H .... ll'"' " IIKU. _ •• 'D ..... f1III

FlCURE 5.3

RECLAIMEO SOLVI!NT DWG NO

CONOENSAT£ OWGNO

SOLYlNT COOlU SIZ£, DUTY

EQUI,NO _

WAUl SI ........ 'OI SIZE, OUTV

EQUIP NO _

SOlYENT .eTlaN !'lIM' SIZE, DUlY

EOOIPNO _

I6lil

! ..

SHOWING VALVES ON THE fLOW DIAGRAM

fLOW LINES

Dilet:lions 01 'low within the diagllm are shown by solid arrowheads. The use of errowheadli at all juncrions and eorrers aids the rapid reading of the diagram. The number of crossings can be minimi18d by good aHangemenl. Suilable line thicknesses are shown at full size in chert 5.1. For photographic reduction, lines should be $paced not closer than 3/S inch.

r I

Process end service streams entering or laavingthe flow diagram are shown by large hollow arrO¥lteads, with the conveyed IkJid wlitten over end the continuation sheet numbel within the arrowhead, as in ligure 5.3.

ARROWS ON fLOW DIAOAAMI

. l

STANDBY &. PARALLELED EOUIPMENT

Standby equipment is not normallv drawn. II identical units of equipmenl all! provided 10f paralleled operation (that is, all units on streaml, only one unit 1le1ld no rmallv be drawn, Paralleled or standby uni IS should be indicated by noti ng the equipment number and the service function ('STAN OBY' or 'PARAlLE l on

InstrumenHOf\lrolied and manual valvltS which are neC8$S8ry to the prOtest are shown. The following valves ale shown il required by a governing code or legu lalion, 01 i I they are essent ial 10 Ihe process: isolating, bVP!JSSing, venting, dlaining, sampl ing, and vBIVlIS used fo r IlU I ging, steamout, etc., for relievi ng excess pressure 01 ga~ or hquids (including rupture discsl, brealhllf valves and vacuum breakers.

SHOW ONL Y SPECIAL FITTINGS

Pip i ng fi t ti ngs, strei ners, and llama arrest 0 I s shou I d not be sh own unless 01 sp e ci 81 i m po rtBllcs to tha proem.

ESSENTIAL INSTRUMENTATION

Only i nsnumentation essenti,1 to process control should be shown. Simp lified representation is suitable. For axample, onlv il'lstlUments such as controUers and indicators need be shown: items not esse.ntial to the drawing [transmitters, for example) may be omilled.

EQUIPMENT DATA

Capacilies of eQuipment should be shown. Equipment ~':~ruld be drllWll schematically, using equipment symbols, and where feasible should be drBWn in proportion to the actual sims of the items. Equipment symbols should neither dominate the drawing. nor be too small for clear understanding.

It is advisable to dlaw equipment that is opera led cyclically. For example, wilh liltar presses operettd in parallel, DI'II may be shown on-strell1l, and the second press 101 alternate operation.

PROCESS OAT A FOR EQUIPMENT

The basic process information required for designing and operating major items of equipmant sflould be shown. This inlormation is best placed immediately below the title altha equipment.

tDENTIFYING EQUIPMENT

Different types 01 equipment may be referred to by a classification letter (or lette,,). Thera is no generally accepled coding - each company has its own scheme il any standardization is made at all. EQuipment classed under a certain letter is numbared in SBQU8nce hom 'I' upwald. 118 new imtallation is made in an existing plant, the method of numbering may follow prlNious practice lor the plant.

A.lso, it is usef ul to di vide the pi an t a nd open pa r t a f the 5i te as necessary into 81eas, giving each e code number. An 8I8a number can be mode the first pert of an equipment number. Fur example, if a heat exchanger is the 53rd item of equipment listed under the classificati on letter' E', located in area '1', {see 'Key plan' in 5.2.71 the 8xchanger's equipment number can be I·E-53.

Each ilem of equipment should bear the same number on aU drawings, di3" grlms and listings. Standby or identical equipment, il in the same service, may be identiliad by adding the letters, A, B, C, and so on, to tt. same equipment identification letter and number. For eKample, a heat8Xchanger and ih standby may be designated 1.E.53A. and l-E-53B.

SERVICES ON PROCESS fLOW DIAGRAMS

Systems 101 providing services should not be shown. However, the type 01 SBNice, flow rates, temparalul8S and pressures should be notad at consump· non rates corresponding to tha material balance-usually shown by a 'flag' 10 the linB-S8I! ligure 5.3.

,FIGI.....RES l 1.2 a 5.3

DISPOSAL OF WASTES

The routes of disposal lor all waste streams should be indiClted. For eKemple, arrows 01 drain symbols may be labelled with destination, such IS 'chemical sewer' or 'drips recovery system'. In some instances the disposal or Mdt&neatment system may IJe detailed on one or more sepalat! sheets. See 6.13 whelll 'effluent' is discussed.

MATERIAL BALANCE

T he process material balance can be tabulated on separate 8Yl II. !I·inch sheets. 01 along the bottom of lhe process flow diagram.

"'''NO • INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM

&,2.4

FLOW LINES ON P.ID',

This drawing is commonly refarred to • the ·P&IO'. Its object is to indicate all PfOl:8Ai and service Ii ..... instruments and controls, equipment, and data f18CIISIry for the design .roups. The procea flow diagram is the primary source of information for developing the P8tID. Symbok wi table lor P8tIO's are givan in charts 5.1 thru 5.7.

The P&IO should define pipiOll, &quipman' WId instrumentation well enough fot cost astimation and for subsequent design, consuuction. op8lBtion and modification of the process. Material balaoce data, flow rates, temperatures. p ..... rllS. etc.. and piping fining dIIlBils are not shown, and purely mechanical piping de1aits such. elbows. jointl and unions are inapproprialB to PetlO's.

r J

INTERCONNECTING P.ID

, !

This drawing shows process and sef\lice lines between buildings and units, etc .• and serves to link the P&I D', fOI the iBdividuai processes. units or buildings. like .,y P&IO. the drlWing is not to scale. It r9S8mbla thelayoo! of tha site plan, which anables line sizes and branching poinlS from hllars to be anablished. al\d usists in planning pipeways.

,alDLAVOUT

T ha layout of th e P& 10 sh ou Id IIISIIIlI ble as fl( as p rae!ica bl e that of the procas flo« diagram. The 'process relationship of equipment shoold correspond eaactly. Often it is useful to dfaw &quipmant in proportion verti· cally. but to reduce horizontal dimensions to seve $p8CB and allow roam for flow lines between equipment Crowding inform.lion is a common drafting tau II - it is desirab la to SPICe genera usly, as. mOl8 often than not. r8lo'isi oos add information. On In elMtional P.!tID, a base lillll indicating grade or first-floor lewl can be shown. Critical elevations ere noted.

t

For revision purposes, a P&IO is best made on 8 drawing sheet having a grid 5y1tem-this is. sheet haling lettars along one border and numbers alon!l the adjacent border. Thul, references such II 'AS', '05', etc .• can be given 10 an at. where I thangs has been midI!. (A grid system is applicabla to P&IO's mort complicated than the simple example of figure 5.4.1

DRAFTING GUIDELINES FOR '.ID'.

• Suitable line thickn_ n shown !!II full siz8 in chart 5.1

• CrOlling linas must not touch-braak lina going in 01\8 direction only.

Oreak instrumant lilllS crOSlliing PfOC8S$ and service lin8$

• Kaap parallel lines at least 318 inch IIPllt

, Preferably draw all valves the sama size-1J4·inch long is AI itllble-as this retlins legibility for photographic reduction, Instrument iwlatiog Y8M1s and drain valves can be drawn smaller. if desired

, DrM instrument identification balloons 7I16th-inch diameler-saa 5.5

, Oraw trap symbols 3IBtll-inch sqUIll

AU flow lines and interconnections Iiloold be shown on P&lO'l. EvIllY line should show dirp"'tion of flow, and be labeled to ltIow the area 01 project. corweyed fluid, line Sill, piping material or $pecification tode number (company code>. and oomber of the line. This inlormation is shown in tha 'lillB number'.

EXAMPLE LINE NUMBER: (14]azl.]·U2]23) may denote thB 23rd line in at. 74. a 6-inch pipe to compeny specification 412. 'az' identifim the conveyed fluid.

This type 01 full designation for e flow lilll need not be used, provided identification is adequate.

Piping drawings use the line numbering 01 the P&1D. and the following points apply to piping drawings as well as P&IO's.

.

!

.. ?

-, ,

• For a system of lines conveying the same fluid, allocate sequemial numbers to lines, beginning with T 101 6ach sysr,m

• For a continuous line. retain the same number ot line Isuch as 23 in the eumple, as the line goes thru valves, strainers. small filters, traps. vanturi$, orifice flanges and small equipment generally -unless the line changes in size

• Terminate the number of 8 line at a major item of eqllipment such as a tank. pressure vessel. mixer. or any equipment carrying an individual equipment number

• Allocate new numbers to branches

~ with the process flow diagram. dintctions 01 flow within the drawing are shown by solid arrows placed at 8\l8ry junction, and all corners except whera changes of direction occur closely together. Corners mOlild be square. The number of crossings should be kept minimal by good errangement.

PrOC8iS and service streams MItering or leaving the II roC8S$ are noted by hollow arrows with the nlme 01 the convllyed fluid written 0'181 the arrowhead and thl continuation sheet number within it. No process !low data will normally be shown on a P&I D.

F\.OW \.INU ON ".10'.

.---~.~-t~---------z) __ ~>

NOTES FOR LINES

Special points for des;" and operating plocadur8$ 818 noted--ItJch as lines which nead 10 be sloped for gfllllity flow. lines which need c8leful c .... iOll before startup, etc.

· ,

[_

(:OOllNGW"H'

~HO)-------------------------------------- ------- ---~.

SlE.o.M

~~------------------------------- ------ -----~~

PB.IDSHDWS Al.l. EQUIPMENT. SPECIAl. ITEMS

The P&IO should show all major equipment MId information that is relevant 10 the process, .. ch IS equipment names, equipment ruJmbers, the sizes, ratings, t8Pacilias, andlor duties 01 equipment, and instrumentation,

Standby and paralleled equipment is shown, including IIU connected lines. Equipment numbers and service functions t'ST "NOBY' or 'PARALLEL OP') are noted.

'Future' equipment, together v.;th the eQUipment thet will service it, is shown in broken outline, and labeled. Blind·flanga terminations to aceommodate lutulB piping sh(MJld be indicated on headers and branches. 'Future' additions are usually not anticipated beyond a 5-year period.

Pressurl! rltings lor equipml!nt are noted if the fBting is dilf8lBnl from the pipinll system. A 'typical' note may be used to describe multiple pieces of identical equipment in the seme service, but all equipment numbers ere written.

CLOSURES

Temporary closures for process operation or personnel protection are shown.

PIPINC AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM

IHOI'I'RIT" ...... IOI' ~IM ON "'U ""IIU1!f!fT""lON lVMIID~' (MIEII TO .. lUr

_ lilt"'" "'U .... Rl R "1I0Il 0' eONTI\OL V"'l vU, AIIO 1I1OE OF "'LlonIIIlVAlVEI

"/4IJ/'lO

SEP .... ""()f;

~~.,~-

EQUIP NO

,OlVlNI "'l""'ln SOLVENT V"'l'OII.lll~

lOUIP NO EOUIP NO

SEPARATORS, SCREENS 10 STRAINERS

These items should be shO'Ml upstrtam of equipmant and processes needing p rOllCti on. and 8re diset.tlsed 1 n 2.10.

STEAM TRAPS ON THE '.10

I f the locations of traps ara knGWn they alB indicated. For e.ample, the trsp required upstream of 8 pressure-reducing station feeding a steam turbiOl! should be shown.

Steam traps on steam piping arl not otharwise indicatad, as these trap posi· tions are determined when making the piping drawingl. Tiley can be added later to the PI!!ID if desired, after the piping drawings h8Y8 been completed.

DRIPl.EGS

Oriplegs are nol shown.

VENTS a. DRAINS

Vents and drains on high and low points of lines respectivelv, to be used lor hydlOstatic testing, IIrl not shown, as they ar' established on tM piping arrangement drawings. Process vents and drains are shown.

HeURE 5.4

TO "'1M

.f C\.AWIE II SOl. Vf. NT OWGNO

LV

CON Dl N$A.U IIWG NO

SOlvtNT COOU~ EQUIP NO

WA1'U !.EP.MA.ICll tQUI' NO

SOLVEtH unAN PUMt lOUIPNO

5;~ .2.r1

~ I ;

, . ..}.~--- ..

.FIGl..FI:E :&,4

VALVES Of( THE '.10

LINE DESIGNATION SHEETS OR TABLES

&.2.5

• Show ald tag process and service valves with size and identifying nurn· bef il applicable. Give pressu 18 rat ing il different from line specification

• Inditlll any velws that have to ba locked open or IQl:ked clllSlld

• Inditlte powered operatol$

SHOWING INSTRUMENTATION ON THE P.ID

Signal-*d drifting svmbols shown in chart 5.1 may be used. ifld 1hII ISA schema for designating instrumentation is described in 5.5. Datails 01 instrument piping end conduit ara usually shown on SIIparata instrument installation drawings.

• Shaw all instlumentation on the P&IO, lor and including these items: ellment or SIOsor. sipllead. olifice flange _mbly. Iransmintr, controner, YlCUum breaker ,lIlme arrestor, lwei gage, sight glass, flow iodicetor, relief valve. rupture disc, safety YaM. The last three items may be "IaIIQIId with sat p rII$SU relsl also

• Indicate local· or board-mounting of instruments by the symbol-ralel to the labeling scheme in 5.5.4

; 1

,

I

INSULATION. TRACING

Insulation on piping and equipment is shown, together with ttle thickness requiled. Tlacing requilemenu are indicated. Aeler to 6.B.

CONTROL STATIONS

Controlmtiol\$ Ire discussed in 6.1.4. Controllllllws ere indicated by plllSSur, flting. iO$trumenl identifying numbal and size-see figJre 5.15. for ax· emple.

P6.ID SHOWS HOW WASTES AR E HANDLED

Drains. funnels, Itlief ..... Iva tnd oth. equipment handling MsttS 81t stlown on the P&IO. If an extensive system Of v.tIst.UllIItment facility is involved, it should be shown on a separate P&ID. Wastes and elfluents ere discuSSBd in 6.13.

,ERVICE SYSTEMS MAY HAVE THEtR OWN '610

P,0C8S5 tquipment may be provided with verious services. such as steam fOI bllllting, 'Mlef or relrigerant tal cooling, 01 air far allidiz ing. Plant or equipment providing th818 t8fVK:,s is usually described on seplrate 'service P&I D's'. A service lin. such el I steam line enttring 8 plOCess P&ID is given a 'hollow Irrow' line designation tak., from th. service P&.ID. Returning service lines 411 designated in the same way. Refer to figura 5,4.

UTt urv ST AllONS

Stations pfOYiding Itaem, compf1ill8d 111, end water, 8ra mown. Refer to 6.1.5.

These sheets Ire tabulated lists of lines and information about them, The nu m bers of the lines are usual I y I isled at the right of th e sheet. 0 th el columns I is! line size, matariBl of construction (using compalrf's specification code. if th a Ie is ono), conveyed fl u id, pres:su IB, temperBtura, II ow rate, test p rBSal reo i fiSJ laU on or jlC keting lif requ ired I. and coora:ted I in as III'dl ietl will usually be blaochos).

The sheets are compiled and kepi up-Io-data by the projec: group. taking all the informetioo from the P&ID. Copies are supplied to the piping group tor reference.

On small projects i!Wolving only a lew lines lifll! designation shaats may not be used. It is useful to tdd t nota on the P&ID Slating me numbers of the last I i 1M! and I ast valve used.

VIEWS USED FOR '1 PING DRAWINGS

&.2.1

Two types of view ara used:

111 ORTHOOAAI'HIC - 'LA"" AND ELEVATIONS

121 PICTORIAL - ISOMETRIC VIEW A.MO OILiQUE .RU£NTA.TION

Figure 5. 5 sttov...; how 8 building would appear iflthese difftrant views.

PIIIESENTATIONS UlED IN "'PINI) O ..... WINOS

FIGURE I.'

L...-----I\ 0

ILlV ... TIONI

'LANS. ELEVATIONS

Plan views are m ore common ttlan elevati onal views. Piping layout is developed in plan view, and ellMltional views and seclion details are lidded for clarity whare necassary.

PICTORIAL VIEWS

In complex piping systems, wtlert orthograptlic views may not easily ilfustrate the dasign. pictorial presentation can be u$tld for clarity. In eithar iIometric: or oblique Pftl8lltations. Ii ..... not horizontal Of vtrtical on the drawing are usually drawn at 30 dellrees to the horilootll.

. \

. 1

• 1

·,1

J

·1

Oblique p rasanlation has the advantage that it CM be distorted or expanded to show areas of a plant, alc. mort cle.tv than an isometric "iew. It is not commonly used, but tan be useful for diegram8tic work.

Figure S.B illuslJates how circular shapes viewad at different angles are ap· proximated by meens 01 8 35-degree ellipse template. Isometric templates for wives, ate.. are available and neat drawings tall ba rapidly produced wilh them. Orthographic and isometric templates can be used to produce an oblique presentation.

rmMeTf .. c I'JIllENTAnON OF elllCuLA" seCTIONS

FIGURE'"

PIPiNG ARRANGEMENT IN DIFFERENT PRESENTATIONS

PLAN

I,

ELEVATION

PLAN, ELEVATION, ISOMETRIC' OBLIQUE PRESENTATIONS Of A ,IPING SYSTEM

Figure S.7 is usad to show the presentations used in dralling. Isometric and oblique drawings both cte8l1y show the piping arrangement, but the plan view loils to show the bypass loop and valva, and lhe supplementary elevation is needed.

PIPING DRAWINGS ARE BASED ON OTHER DRAWINGS 6.2.1

The purpose 01 piping drawings is 10 supply detailed information to enabla a plant to be built. Prior to making piping drawin{t!l, the site plan and equipment arrangement drawings are prepared, and Irom these two drawings the plot plan is d9fived. These three dfawings ara used as the basis for developing the piping drawings.

SITE PLAN

Tha piping group produces a 'lite plan' to 8 small scale (1 inch 10 30 or 100 It for exampla). It shows the whole site including the boundaries. roads. railroad spurs, pavement. buildings, proCHS plant areas, large structures, storage areas, effluant ponds, waste disposal, shipping and loading a 188$. 'True' (geographic) and 'assumed' or 'plant' no,th are marked and their angular separation shown-see figura S.l'.

ISOMETRIC

FIOURll.7

OBuaUE

5 .2."

.2.1

I'

,I

KEY PLAN

A 'key plan' is produced by adapting the site plan, dividing the area of the site into smalier areas identified by key letters or number1. A small simplified inset of the kay plan is added to plot plans, and may be added to piping and other d rawing:s for rllfarentl pu r pOSlS. The su bjact ar811 0 t the parti cu II r drawing is hatched or shedad, IS shown in figura 5.8.

f1QUilEU

KEY PLAN

.N~'N ••• 'N~ C.III,.ANI'

"ATCHLINE A .. EA·:t

"PING PLAN, AM"','

OWG No. ••••••••• _

i \I

EQUtPMl'NT ARRANGEMENT DRAWING

Under project group suparvi1ion, the piping group uSlJally makes several viable anangaments of equipment, _king an optimal design thet satisfies process requirements. allen, preliminary piping nudies are necessary in order to establish equiprn8flt coordinates.

A design aid tor positioning equipment is to cut out scaled outlines of equipment hom niff paper. which can be moved about on a plan view of the ar. involved. II f multiple units of the same I'I'pe II re to be used, liMO _ing the equipment outlines is faster J Another method ~ich is useful for areas ~ere mathod study 01 investigational reporu are needed is described in 4.4.13 under 'Photographic layou1S'.

PLOT PLA~

When the equipment arrangement drawings are apprOVtd, they Ire developed into 'plot plans' by the addition of dimensions and coordinates ttl locate all major items of equipment and $Iructures.

North and a_t coordinates of the elltremities of buildings. and centerlines of _"",ork or athilr architectural constructiona shouki be shown on the plot plio, pretlr.bty It the wast Ind $Duth ends of the installation. Both 'plant nerth' and true north shQllld be shOWl-t81 Ii", nl 5.11.

,.'

,I

-'

Equipment coordinates are usually given to the centellines. Coordinates lor pumps are gllen 10 the centerline of the pump shah and either to the faca of the pump foundation. or to the centerline of the discharge pOft.

Up-dated copies of the above drawings ale tent to the civil, structural and electrical or other groups involved in lhe design. 10 inform them of requirements as the design develops.

VESSEL DRAWINGS

When tha equipmlnt arrangement has been approvad and the piping arran~ ment determined, small dimensioned drawings of process vessels are made (on sheets 8Y~ II: 11 01 II II 11 inches) in order to fix nozzles and their orientations, menholes, ladders. etc. These draINing!: ere men sent to Iha vendor who makes the shop datail drawings, which are u.amined by the project engillfl8r and sent to the piping !rOUP lor check.ing and approval Vessel drawings need not ba to scale. (Figure 5.14 is an example vessel drawing.)

DRAWINGS fROM OTHER SOURCES

Piping drawings should be correlated with the followinll dfllwings from other design IIroups and from vendors. Points to be checked all listed:

ATchitfCttJ'" dfllWm,,:

• Outlines 01 waHs or sidings. indicating thickness

• Flom peiiatrations fOI stairways, lilts, elawtors, ducts. drains, etc.

• Positions of doors and windows

Civl1 mgil*rintl rbwi",,,:

• Foundations. underground piping, drains, ate.

SrrucwflJ.ltHl dnlwin9s:

• Positions of steel columns supportinll ne., high. floor IlNel

• Supporting structures $uch as overhead cranes, monorails, plat10rms

or beams

• Well blacing, vIlere pipes may be taken thru 'MIlls

Hut;"" .."ti"t;"'& ,ir-conditionitlf (HVAC} w.w;1tF

a Paths of ducting and rising ducts., Ian room, plenums. spece h.ters, atc.

Efllctriul rIr.wngs:

• Positions 01 motor control centers, switchgear, junction bolles and

cantrol panels

a Major conduit or wiring runs (including buried runs)

I Positioos of lights

InstfUmt"r.,ion dlfwinp:

• Instrument panel and console locations

VMJdM'drIlWi • .p:

• Dimensions of equ ipment

• Positions of nozzles, lIange type end pIBSSUIIi rating, instruments, etc.

""nk:.J dmWtIfS:

a Positions and dimensions 01 mechanical equipment $lJch IS conY8Vors, chu tes, etc.

• Pipad services needed fOI mtchanical equipment.

I'''',

if I

1

ELE'I' .... TIOk

"PING DRAWINGS

5.11

Process equipment and piping systems hava priority. Drawings listed on the pracedino pallB must ba rIYiewed lor compatibility with the dev.loping piping desi ....

Pertinent background details (drawn faintly) frem these drawings help to a ... oid interierances. Omission of such detail from the piping drawing often leeds to- the sobS8Qllent di$Cowry that pipe has been routed thru e brace. steilWlY. doorway. loundation, duct, methanical equipment, motor control center, Iile-lighting equipment, ate,

Completed pipinG drawings will also show spool numben, il this part 01 the job is not 5ubcontracted - see 5.2.9. Electrical and irl$trument cables are not shOW! on piping drawings, but trays to hold the cables are indicated -lor ex ample, see figure 6.3, point (8).

It is not always pOS$ib1e for the piping drawing to follow exactlJ the logical arrangement of the P&IO. Sometimes lines must be routed with different junction sequence, and line numbels may be changed. DUling the plBliminary piping studies. economies end prlCticable improvementsmavbatound, and the P&IO mav b. modi1ied to tal:e these i010 account However, it ;$ not the piping designer's job to seek. ways to change the P&IO.

SCALE

Piping is atrlnged in plan view, u$tJllly to 3/8 in.ltt scale.

ALLOCATING SPACE ON THE SHEET

• Obtain the drawing number and fill in the title hloek at the bottom right comer of the sheet

ALLOCATI..a .ACE ON" DRAwtNO SHUT

FIGURE I.'

r- - ,

r--------,

, ,

I I

I I

L J

E lEV .... T 10 ...

--1

I I I ,

, ,

................... u ...... _ ~

: ~u • .,..tt- ~

i ..., ".. ... I

• lIOII"at.,., ~ I

i .. ~I I

,

,

,

.... '

.. , r------- ----,

.:L' I I

t'j: I I

ti, I I

"" I I

0, l I

.. , I I

!,

:i'l L ..J

C I 'l .... N

::I,

X,

~,

~~

-,

!.,

, ,

I

L • J

r--- ~ -------,

I I

I I

I ,

L .J

TITlE BlOCK

DWU No ..•... , ••....... __ ....•

• On non-standerd sheets, !eM a 1%-'0 2·inth m'rvin .t the left edga of th8 sheet, to 811aN filing 00 I 'stick'. Standard drawing sheets UlUllIy haw'e this mllgin

• On dluwings showing a plan 'l'iBw, ph.::e a nonh auow at the top left corn8r of the &heet to indicate plant horth-see filJlIB 5.' 1

• Do not draw in tna alta IbM the title block, as this spatS is allocated to thl bill of material, or 10 generel notal, brief descriptions of changes. and the titles lind numbers of reterellC8 drawings

• If plans and 81avations are small enough to go on the same sheet, dr8W tna plan at the upper lefl sida 01 the sheet and elevations to the right and bottom of it, as sh(Ml'l in figure 5.9

8ACKGROUND DETAIL

• Show back!lround detail as discussed in 5.2.8 under 'Piping drawings'.

It is sometimes convenient to draw outlines on the reverse side of tha drawing sheet

• After background details hMl been determined, it ;s best to m8ke a print on which noulm on "'_5, pumps, ate., to be piped can be marked in fed pencil. Utility stations tIIn atso btl estlbllsf1lld. This will indicats areas 01 maiol USII!JB and tha most convenient locations for the headsrs. Obviously, at times there will bB a number of alternate routes off1lring comparable advantages

PROCESS. SIRVICE LINES ON '''INa DRAWINGS

• Take lina numbers from the P&IO. ReIer to 5.2.4 under 'flow lines on P&lO's' for information on numbering lines, Include line numbers 00 all views, and arrowheads showing direction of flow

• Draw all pipe 'single line' unless special instructions have been given for drawing 'double line'. CherI 5.1 gives line thicknesses (full size)

Line numbers are shawn llgiinst lires, thus:

LINE NU"'BER

T81:.e lines continued on anotner sheet 10 a matthline, lind there code with line numbers only. Show the continuation sheet numbers on matchlines-sea figule 5.B

Show where changes in line materiel specification occur. The change is ustJallv indicated immediately downstream of a flange ot a ",'ve or equipment

• SPEC '_' ~ ~ SPEC 'e' ~ .

""'LVE, .te.·

• Show a definite break in a line crossing behind another line-see 'Rolled

- -- .J -~-~.: ..... _, '''';iI!' Rlt"lin"

.FIGl.JFES ..... .1

• It pipe sllllMlS &nI required thru floors ,Indicate when! they art neaded and inform the group leader lor nansmitling this iolorlT!8tion to lhe group!s) concerned

• Indicate inSulation, and show whether lines arB 8IBctricaily or steam tf8Cld-S88 chart 5.7

FITT1NGS, FLANGES, VALVES. PUMPS ON PIPING DRAWINGS

• The fallowing items should be labeled in or,e view only: tEIIIS and ells rolled at 45 degreeS (_ enmple, this ~), shon·radius el~ reducing all, eccentric reducer and eccentric swallll (note on plan views ¥lhether 'top flat' or 'bot1om nat'" contllfltric reducer, concentric swaga, non-standiud or companion flange, reducing tl8, special items of urwSUlI materiel. at pressure rating different from that of the system, etc.. Refer to cherts 5.3. 5.4 and 5.5 tor symbol usage

• Draw the outsida diameter1 olllanlllS to scale

• Show valve identification number from P&'IO

, lllMll con lro! valves to III OW': sizl, p rellUf8 rati 1'19, dimension owr l1i11r gel. and vllve instrument oomber. hom the P&IO ...... ligure 5.15

• Oraw VIM hendwhaab to scale with valve 118m tullv e~tendad

• If a velve is chein-operated, nota distance of chain hom operating floor, which for safetv should be appro_imately 3ft

, For pumps. show outline of foundation and nozzles

,i . I

I

( ,

'1'1

,

DR IPLEOS • STEAWI TRAPS

Drip legs are indical8d on re!want piping drewing plan views. Unless identical. a separate detail is drlWfl for each dripleg. The trep is indiCited on the drip· leg piping by a symbol, and referred to I separate trep deteil or data $heat. The trap detail drawing $hould sI10w all necessary valves, strainer1" unions, ate., requirad a.11lI trap-SIIII flgu res 6.43 end 6.44.

1he piping shown on the dripleg details should indicate whether condensate is to be taken to a Madar for re-US8, or run 10 wIlSIe. The design notes in 6.10.5 discuss dripleg deuils for stEI8ITI lines in which condensate form$ oontinuously. Aeler to 6.10.9 elso.

INSTRUME~TS • CONNECTIONS ON PIPING DRAWINGS

• Show location for each instrument connection with encircled i nstrument number taken from the P&iO. Aefer to 5.5.3 and chart 6.2

• Show similar isolating valve arrangemanl$ on instrument connBCtioO$ as 'typical' dateil, unless cowred by standard company detail_t

V5NTS • DR""NS

Reftr to 6.11 and figure 6.47.

''''. IUPPOAl1i

Refer to 6.2.2, and chert 5.7. for symbDls.

PLAN VtEW PIPING DRAWINGS

• Draw plln views tor each floor of the plar.t Thew vill'M should show what the layout will look like bilt'MIen adjacent Iloors, viewed from abwe, or at thl! elevation thru which 1M plan view is cut

a II the plan view will not lit on one sheet, present it on two or more sheets. using matchlill8$ to link the drawinus. Sea ligule 5.8

• Note the elevation below which a plan view is shown-for I.ample, 'PlAN BElOW ELEVATION 15'-{I"' ', For clarity, both elevations can be stated: 'PLAN 8ETWEEN ELEVATIONS 3O'_ON & 15'-0" ,

, II a taa or elbow is 'rolled' at 45 drqees. note as shown in the view Mler. the fitting is rollad out of lhe plan, 01 the drawing sheet

'IIOLLIID' ELL

'ROLLED' TEl

~1-1l

ROLL ELL __./ AT 4SD

, .

• Figure 5.10 shows how lines can be br oken 10 give sufficiant informati Oil without drawing other views

• Indic.le required field MId$;

ELEVATIONS tSECTtONS) tit DETAILS

a Draw alevations and details to claJify complex piping Of pipiog hidden in the p.n view

• 00 not draw detail that can be described by I nota

• Show only as many sections 8$ necessary. A section does not have to be a comple18 cross secti on of the plan

a Draw to a large scale any part needing fullir detai1. Enlarged deLails are preferably drawn in available space on elevation!1 drawings, and should be cross-referenced by the applicable detail and drawing RUmbeds)

• Identitv sections indicated on plan views by letters (_ chart 5.8) end details by numbers. letters I end 0 are not used as Ihi$ can I88d to confusion with numerals. If more then 1W8Iltyfour wetlOns are needed the letter identification can be broken dawn toot: A 1-A 1. A2-A2, B4-84, ..... " and so on

• 00 not section plan views looking tOWllrd the bottom 01 the drawing sheet

The prefabricated parts 01 the piping system all! termed 'spools', described under 'Spools', this section. The piping group eilner produces isos showing the required spools, or marks the piping to be spooled 00 plans and elevations, dcpendifllj on whether or not a model is used las shown in chart 5.10). From these drawingS, the subcontractor makes detail drawings termed 'spool sheets'. F igule 5.17 is an example spool sheet.

Figure 5.10 shows how to break lines to gi....-e sufficient information whiisl avoiding drawing another view or section

SHOWrNG 'HIDDEN' LINE. ON PIPINCI DRAWINGS

fiGURE e.lo

.___--- IDENTIFY BV LINE NUMIlR

P l .. N lor ELEVATIONI

\ \ \ \ IDe NTtfY BY LINE NUM!U.

--~~,~~ ~~~t--

Cor.............,. E l Ii VA T ION (orPlAN!

PIPING FABRICATION DRAWtNGS-'ISOS' &; 'SPOOLS'

5,2.9

. The twu most common methods for producing piping designs for a plant are by making either plan and elevation drawin!lS, or by constructing a scaled model For Iflhrir.ating ......r.tdml pipinq, plans alld eillVatiul1S Ale sent directly to a sulH.;untlactor, usually I ch:llt=d I u as a 'shUll talJrila\lJr'" i I a model is used, isomeu ie Ilr awi ngs (I elerred to as 'isos' I are Sf!nl instead.

lsometric views are commonly used in prefabricating parts of bUH·welded piping systems. Isos showing the piping to be prefabricated are sent 10 the shop lab' ica lor. Figure 5.15 is an P. xample 01 such an iso.

f

,

,

OIlT"OG~"~"'C .. ,otG D"_,troS '~l"'c.r.~
.... .. ""ACC .. - ~l'
.......... ""'*GbfIIAWliIIIQIa 'Of!! ' ...... lICAt.m. flU.
l_I_
'U"""IU SI>OOI S><U lS \ I Hoi! RIC" T[ a
rOR "a:o~O' ..., r ...... lul.. ""NO ISI'OO"51 !IOfllnl
]- COIII""ClIRI I $C"'UO MOOE l Of 'L ..... '
!$OS a~ ""I"" F ~Ol",,'oon 'Oflllf:lltltftPflt
1.0 ..... "'.,- mIt
..... u ....
"'.O"ICE ""11I1'll
sPool SHU1$ r I f ... BRICAno
fOR RECO!lO' .or ,AIUtA". " ..... 0 IPooLSI
I _.1 C"'.it'll" I t ~ OII~ II!.M ,."AM .,. .,.~( """IlliG L':OII'IIIII.("OII"CI_ 1l1li ~1M"1," 011' 1 •• III('oIII"t~ 1I'\,1OI!i 1Il10 ....... fIIIIl''''''PIDt'

"'7'1 ~flllll". ~1I-.CiJ 1'10 4 1(:1III'il.III ..... m l.IlILTltICl DtlIU~·h. '11,_ 1101..'11 ".,..,.b..,... '''''''_II.'- .......... .tIi~,'!- ""''''I~II~

'''''1:lii0i .... dIIII·""OG ~'""'-Io DII,.. .. -cM

ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS, or 'ISOS'

An iso usually show.: a complete line horn one piece of equipment to another -see fillure 5.15. It lIives all i nformat ion necessary lor fabr ica tio II and erection 01 piping.

lsos are usually drawn freehand. but the various runs 01 pipe, fiuings and valve$ should be roughly ill proportion lor easy understanding. AllY one line (that is, all the piping with the !l8me line number) should be drawn on the minimum number of iso sheets. If continuation sheets Ire needed, b leak the line B I natu rsl b rea k poi n ts su c h as II Inges (e x cept Of i I ice fl angesl, welds al fittillgs, or field welds required for instellatioo.

Items and information 10 be shown on an iso include:

• North allow (plant north)

• [} I OJ ells ions B nd an gtP.$

• Reference number 01 plan drawing !rum which ISO is made (unfess model is used), line numlH!r, direction of lIow, insulation and tracing

• Equipment numbers and locations 01 equipment (by cenlerlilles)

• Identify all items by use of all understood symbol, and amplify by a descr ip t io n. as necessa ry

Give details 01 any flanged Iloales on equipment to vdlich piping has to be connected. if the !lange is d illeren! from the specification for the connected piping

Size and type of every valve

Size, pressure ratinq and instrument number of control valves Number, localion and orientation 101 each insnumeit connection

CHART 5.1.

FIGCAE 5.11

• Shop and field welds. Indicate limits 01 shop and field tabrication

• Iso sheel continuation numbers

• Unions required lor installation 8fld maintllnanca purposes

• On screwed' and sockit·welded 8$I8I'llblies. wive handwheel positions I19Bd not bill shown

• Malariab of construction

lCl(;alions 01 venlS. drains, and traps

Locations 01 supports. identilied bV pipllsupport number

The following information may also bll gMln:

• Requirements for S1r9S5 reliaving, 5181 walding, pickling, lining, coating, Of oth Ir speel al I rBIJ tmant 0 I th I ll 011

Drawing style to be followed is shown in the example isu, figule 5.15, which displays some of the above points, and gives nthers as shaded notes. An iso may show mOle than one spool.

"

'('"' ..

I

SPOOLS

A spool is In assembly of fittings, flanges and pipe that may be pralabricated. It does nOI include bolts, gaskals, valves or instruments. Straight mill-run lengths of pipe over 20 h are usuallv not iocluded in a spool, as such lengths may be welded in the syslem on erection Ian the iso, this is indicated by noting the length, and stating 'BY FiElD').

The size of a spool is limiled by lha fabricator's awilabla means of lfampcrtaucn, and a $pool is usually contained within a spate 01 dimansions 40 tt x 10 ft x 8 It. The maximum permissible dimensions may be obtained from the fabricator.

I

1i

!

FIELD·fABRICA TED SPOOLS

Some StaleS in the USA have a lIades agreemoot that 2·inch and smaller carbon-steel piping must ba fabricated at the site. This rule is sometimes eltended to piping larger than 2·ioch.

. t

SHOP-fAIR leA TED SPOOLS

All elloyspools, arn::l spoob with J or more ..... Ids made from J-inch (occasion· ally 4·inch) and 18rgar carbon.neel pipe are normally 'shop-fabricated'. This is, labricated in Ihe shop fabricator's workshop, either at his plant or at the site, Spools with fewer welds are usuelly made in the fiald.

Large-diameter piping, being more difficult to handle, often Nlces:sitates the use of jigs and templates, and is more economically produced in a workshop.

SPOOL StiEETS

A spool sheet is an orthographic drawing 01 • spool made by the piping contractor either from plans and etem:ions, or from an iso-tlB chart 5.1 D.

taCh SPOOl SHeel snows omy UIl!! IVII!! UI ~UUI ... 11 u. -

!1l I nstructs the welder for fabricating Ihe spool

(2) Lisb the cu t lengths of pipe, ti tli n 91 and Ila ngas, etc. nae ded to ma k e the spool

(3) Gives materials 01 construction, and Illy special treatment 01 the finished piping

(4) Indicates haw many spools of the same tYPI are requiled

NUMBERING ISOS, SPOOL SHEETS, • SPOOLS

Spool numl:iers are allocated by the piping group, and appear on all piping drawings. V8fious mathods of numbering tan be used as long illS identification is ellSi1y made. A suggested melhod loflows:-

lso sheets can be identified by the line number of the sectioo 01 line thai is shown, followed by a sequential number_ For ell8mple, the fourth iso sheet showing II spool 10 be palt of a line numbered 7418 ZI6J.412123 could be ideotified: 74/BZi61412123-4.

--,I

Both the spool and the spool shest can be identified by ntJmber or lettel using the ISO sheet number as II prelill. For elample, the numbedng 01 spool sheets relating 10 iso sheet 74{BZl6/412I2J-4 could be

or

74/BZl6/412f23~4 -I, 74/Bl/6/412/23-4 -A,

74/8Z 16/4 I 2/23-4- 2, IIC ••

74/B Z/6/4 1 2/23-4-8, etc.

The lull line number need not be used if a shorter form would suffice lor identiftcalion.

Spool numbers are also referred 10 as 'mark numbers'. Thay are shown on isos and on the 1 ollowing:-

(1) Spool sheets-as the sheet number

(2) The labricated spool-so it can be related to drawings or isos (3) Piping drewings-plans and elovations

DIMENSIONING

6,3

5.3.1

DIMENSIONING FROM REfERENCE POINTS HORllO"TAL REFERENCE

When a pi {' ,lOse d plant 5i Ie is SlINey ed, II geogra ph ic ref Of ence po int is utililed from Y'IIhich measurements to boundaries, roads, buildings, tanks, etc .. can be made. The geographic reference paint chosen is usually an olficial1y·established one.

The lines 01 latitude and fongitude which define the geographic reference point are not used, lIS a 'plant north' (see figure 5.11) is established, parallel to structural steelwork. The direction closest to trua north is chosen lor the 'p4lnt north'_

1JI''' ••• ilJllli., •• a''Olls""".,, __ .S .. I.ih .. 2"111Wi11111«11.,, •• 1I2$"'3$ .. '.1.: .2i.a.s .. s.a.a.a."III="_!I4Nf:rtm(;9;~~'t'iT«'!'!.'J~~rr'*!!l'- ~_:mr-:"_I!~:,.;;!I'U!'f.''F!''~]-_-:C: -~ , ,t(;' ., .. ~~,~"i)@W!'jk;:- .--". ~.t~:a~~.tiii'- -..£ ... &22 4~ I

I -'I

The geoglaphic positions of these ~tations can he obtained from the Director, us Cum and Geodetic Survey. Rockville, Maryland 20852.

, I

T he coo rd i natllS 0 I I he sou thwes t corner of the p lent in f igore 5. II, as referred to 'pllnt north', ere N 110.00 end E 200.00.

Sometimes coordinates such 8S those above may be w,itten N 1+10 and E 2+00. The lirst cOOldinale is read 8S "one hundred plus 10 ft north" and the second as "two hundred plus zero ft east". This is a system used fOI trBVersEI SUMly, end is more correetlv applied 10 hi~ways, railroads, etc.

Coordinates are used to locate tanks, vessefs, major equipment and structural steel. In Ihe open, these ihlms .e located direclly with respect to I geographic reference point, but in buildings and Stluctures. CI!In be dimensioned Irom the building steel.

HORIZONTAL REFERENCE

FIO~E "11

J

CoOl dl.,.t., .r. U ...... tly gl •• n tu 1 til s.·w t.ur I~" .. , ~.'>!. eUlldl"" ."d It .. we t ... r ....

. j

,

1'1.. ... "" lAUE

"'OAT~~ r

\''''1 \ I

\1

--~\\ <:::::::.-::'

_-

1\

G[OGA ... ~.C

RH E Rf"'Ct "DI," I \

IMO 'ntMtNf) I

\

\

\

\\--

_-

\ \

I

. !

The US Depanment of Commerce's Coast and Geodetic Survey has estab· lished B large number 01 references lor latitude and longitude, and for elevations above sea level. These are termed 'geodetic control stations'.

1

Control stations lor honrontal ieleflmce (Iatilude and IOl1gilude) are referred tu as 'triangulat iOIl stations' or "raverse stations'. ele. Control sta tions tor vertical reference ale ref elled 10 as 'benchmarks'. latitude and longitude have not been establ ished Inr all benchmar h.

. !

. J

A geodetic control station is marked with a metal disc showing identity and date of establishment. To provide stable locations for the discs, they ale set into tops of 'monuments'. mounted in holes drilled in Dedrocl: 01 large firmly·imbedded boulders, or affi~ed to a solid structure, such as a huildinq, bridge. ere.

VERTICAL REFERENCE

Before Iny building or erecting begins, the sile is leveled l'graded'l with earth-moving equipment. The ground is made 85 lIat as practicable, and alter leveling is termed 'finished grade'.

The highesl graded point is termed the 'hiqh point of finished glade', I HPF G 1, and tile horizontal plane passing th ru it i$ made the veltical reference plane or 'datum' from v.trich plant elevations are given. Figure 5.12 shOWS that this horizontal plane is given a 'Ialss' or nominal elevation, usually 100 h, lind is not referred to mB8fl sealevel.

The 100 ft nominal elevetion ensures that foundations, basements, buried pipes and tanh, etc., will have positive eie<Jations. 'Minus' elevations, which would be e nuisance, ere thus BYoided.

largll plants may have severel areas, oach having its uwn high puint ul finiShed grade. Nominal grade elevation is meesured from II benchmell:., as illustrated in fillU Ie 5.12 .

VERTICAL REFERENCE

FIGURI! 11.12

DIMENSIONING PIPING DRAWINGS

5.3.2

DRAWING OIMENSIONS-&: TOLERANCES MAINTAINED IN ERECTED PIPING

FIGURES 5.n &5.12

On plot: Dimensions on piping drawings are nurmally maintained wilhin the limits ot plus Of minus 1/16th inch. How Ihis tolerance is met does not concern the designer. Any necessary allowances to ensure that dimensions are maintained are made by the fabricatOl and elector {contratlorl.

- 1

Off plot: Oimensjons ere maintained as tloselV as practicable by the eJector.

WHICH DIMENSIONS SHOULD BE SHOWN?

Sutlicient dimensions should be given for positioning equipment. for fabr;· ce ling sp 001 s and 101 erecti ng pi p in g. Du pI ita t ion of d imensi ons in d i fl8f8tl I views stlOulrl be avoided, as this may easilV lead to errnr if elterstions are made.

Buically the dimensions to show are:

(
J
, 4
:,1
~
I • IIU E" U"C;E II III E C,o.N IE UTHE fII .... N ClRDI N ... Tl I Ltld Of L ... TI TU DE Oil LDNGITUIl£l Oil ... C;ENHRLlttE OF aUllOlNG 5TUL

t IT IS NECESSIIII'I' TO stfOW THE$( DIfIIIitt5ION$ fOR ITEMS l ... CKING sr ...... DAIIO DlIoIENSI()NS (OEFINEO 1'1' ""''I' FlECOGNIZEO n,o.ND ... "O)

1

REFERENCE LINE- TO CENTERLINE

2

CENTERLINE TO CENTERLINE

LIP""

STIItIOAROV ... LVn

CENTERLINE TO Fl.ANGE FACE'

NQZZlE50N

I VESSELS ~ENT

3

FLANGE FACE TO FLANGE fACET

4

Figura 5,13 illustrates the use of 1hese types 01 dimensions,

PLAN VIEW DIMENSIONS

Plan views cOII\I8y most of the dimensional information, and may also snow dimensions for elevations in the absence 01 an el evatiooll view or section,

EXAMPLE DIMEN5lONl FOR PLAN VIEW

FIGURE 1i.1:1

~ • 2 t 3 =fl 3 f

- 1- ~ - :

·I·----~~------~------~

, I I

I

!. I

::II

i, 1

il '

=\ I~

-\-- 0-C7 ............. 1 ._~,ll

, I .

I i I It

,

I

VERTICAL VIEW ELEVATIONS. DIMENSIONS

On piping drflWings. ehNIIIOIl$ may be !liven as in tBble 5.2,

.. '.~,

SlNGU "PE·

sttOW CENlERLI-.f E LEVAT 101'1

SINGL!: PIH TO I'IOUU; Sl<OW ClIIT£RLtNl ELEVATION Of "I'( AT NOlZLE

'iEl

~

SE vi; R A LI'I PES $HA "I NG A COIIIMON SUPPORT, SHOW EllV'" HON O~ IIOTTOMS OF 'Ins

SEVEIIAL PIPES (IN'" 'IPE~IICK:

SHOW '101' OF SUPl'O~ l' E L~ Y'" T.OI'I

lOSH

-J~-!@@2 TO

IU~ IE 0 lIfilS LIN ... 'I'I(NC"I:

SHOW El i V U I0Il Of IIOTTOMS 0 F flPES

FOR'" INIMUM COYEII. liEU" TOP 01' PIPE TOGII.o.DE ELEYA11OM:

l~

~

DRAtNS!\HO S(WlEU;

$ttOw ·""VEIIT EUYAHO,.'Ull

-jII.l'II!allila..", .tnt UI'III~ ~ ~fIIADI _A.M5 tI'.lll CH.~ . ...,l fillll ufI6DE IIII' OIJIIIIO .. rlOtlil!i

"

flfl FLR El -r7 7 7;;4;7J 7 )

fO!JI'ID .... no .. , ~0'fI 'Tor 01' CONCllfll', INC~UDING IlI10UT

SHOE OIl"E~I()N"'$ 5HC- IN THE "P!"...cK 5K( TCH II IIO'Jf

VEIUICIIL NOZZLE:

StIOWtLEYATtONOF FL""GE FACE

HEL

8-

INSHWME NT 1'011'lT: '"OW Ii UVATIOII OF COflfl ECl ION CI .. llIIL 'flE, .... DIM l flSlOtt '110M NEAIIUT RUEYAHTILEV .... TIor.

~EL EL

l}-~' U8

I, ,

• 00 not omil a JignilitAnt dimension other than 'liUing makeup', even !llOu!)h it may be r.3sily Cilkulalrd _- 5Nl 'Ii IIi tlU nmkp,u~', Ihis section

GUIDELINES FOR DIMENSIONING ALL PIPING DRAWINr.S 6.3.3

• Show all key dimensions. includi ng elevations and coordinates

• Show dimensions outside 01 the drawn view unless uniJlloidable - do not clutter tha picture

• Drew dimension lines unbroken with a fine line. Write the dimension just above a horlzcntal line. Write the dimension of a vertical lin8 sideways, prelerably at the left. It is usual to terminate the line wilh anowheoos, and these are preferable for isos. Tho oblique dashes shown Ire quicker and are su ilable for pia ns and elevations, especially it the dimerlsions are crampud

..

. j

-ffi~----~--~4-~ I

I

... II D

" a serillS of dimensions is to be shown, string them logelher as shown in the sketch. (Do not dimell~ion from a common reference line as in machine drawing.) Show the ovtlrall dimension ut the slling 01 dimensions iilhis dimension will be of repeated interest

PIMENSIONS Of\! MACHINE DRAWINGS

Ot'" ~
-_._ .. -~-.-
r- DIM
0''''
01'"
! • \ T DIMENSIONS ON 'I!'INO ORAWINGS

t ::; ::; 2 9

L- ~~____.__J.-?'_!_-- __ J___~'_M 1_ u~

• Most piping onder 2-inch is scriMVd or soclo:et"N8lded and assembled at the site (flald run). Thmlfore. give onlV those dimensions netfISSIIrV to route Mlch piping eklllr of equipm&nt. other obstructions. end thru walls. and to locate only those items ~0S8 sefe positioning or ea:essaliBi tv is 1m p ortan t to the prlJC8SS

• Mast 1eng1ns Will be stated to the nearest liltleenth of an inch. Dimen· sions which cannot or need not be stated 10 this preeision Bre shown with a plus·or·minussign: S'-l"±, lS'-3"±, etc.

• Dimensions under two feet Bfl usually markad in inches, and those over two teet in leel and inchus. Some companies preler to mark an dimensions over one loot in feel and inches

• Attempt to round off non-critical dimensions to whole feet and inches.

Aaserve fractions of inches for dimensions requ iring this precision

5i: .3.2 : '.': .3.3

PLANS II ELEVATIONS-GENERAL DIMENSIONING POINTS

• Reserve horizonlal dimensions to, the plan view

• Underline all nut-ct-seala dimensions. or show es in chart S.8

II a cartain pipinll arrangement is repeated on lhe same drawing, it is sui· ficient to dimension the pipinll in onl instance and note the other all psalllfl ces lIS 'T Y P' hyp i cal) . This si tUl t ion occu rs where si mi !ar pumps are connec'l9d to a common header. For another example. see the pump base in figure 6_17

• 00 not duplicate dimensions. Do not repeat them in different viWlS

DIMENSIONING TO JOINTS

• 00 not terminate dimensions al a welded or sct8\Wd joint

• Unless necessary, do not dimension to unions, in·line couplings or any other ilams that are not critical to construction or operation of the

pipintl

• Where lIanges meet it is usual to show a small gap butween dimension lines to indic:ate the gasket. Gaskets should Do covered in the piping specification, with gasket type and Ihtckness staled. Refer to the panel 'Drafting vatvtlS', preceding chart 5.6_

~-. S.13

• As ncarly all thmglld juirrts IIIMl l}Isk.O\s. B limO-SHying prlJcedure is to note flanged joints without gask.ets (101 example. SIle 3.1.6 under 'Bunerfly valve'). The fabricator and elector can b8 alerted to the need for !}iISketselsewhere by a general note on all piping drawings:

"GASKETS AS SPECIFICATION EXCEPT AS NOTED"

TABLE S.2

FITTING MAKEUP

If a number of items of standard dimensions are grouped togethar it is unnecessary to dimension each item, as the fabricator knows the liles of standanS fittings and equipmefl1. It is nllC8SSllry, hOWlMlr, to indicate thllt thl ovelall dimension i5 'fitting makeup' by the special cross symbol, or preferably by writing the overall dimension_ Any non-s1andard item inserted between standard items should be dimensioned.

i i

q

- c ,

i .

FITTING MAlt! ... SYMBOL •

01101 ••

DIMENSIONING TO VALVES

, locate fllnged and waldinjttlnd ... alves with ANSI standard dimensio05 by dimensioning to their centers. Most gata and II10be valves ara standald~sea labia V-I

• Dimension non-standard flanged valves as shown in the panel opposile cha II 5.6. A It hough a $I a odar d 8)( iSIs for co ntro I Y8lves, tace- to- 1 ace dimensions EIIB usually given. as it is possible to obtain them in nonstan dar d siz as

• Standard flanged check valves need not De dimensioned, but illocation is important, dimension 10 the fl8nge !1ICe(S)

, Non·llanged valvlS an dimensioned 10 their centers or stems

DIMENSIONING TO NOZZLES ON VESSELS. EQUIPMENT

• I n plan view, a norz Ie is dimensioned 10 i IS face flam the center! ioe of lhe equipment it is on

, In elevalion, 8 nozzle's centerline is either given its own elevation or is dimensioned from another reference. In the absencs of an 8Ievllioolll view, nozzle elevations can be shown on tha plan view

DIMENSIONING I$OS

5.3.4

In order 10 clearly show all dimensions. tha best lISjloct 01 the piping must be determined. Freedom 10 eKtend lines and spread the piping without 19lJllrd to scale is B great help in show'ing isometric dimansioos. Tile basic dimensions set out in 5.3.2, 5.3.3, and the guideline:i in 5.2.9 apply.

Figure 5.15 illustrates the main requirements 01 an isometric drawing, and inincludes a dimensioned oftsat. F ilJU II 5.16 show; how other offsets are dimensioned.

• •

Dimension in the same way iIS plans and elevations

GivB sufficient dimensions fOJ the labricelor to maka the spool drawl ngs ~see ligure 5.17

EXAMPLE VESiEL OftAWING SHOWING DIMENSIONS REQUIRED BY YENDOR .. , ...... 1Ii.I.n

fiGURE 1Ii.14

,

'i

lAHGENT LlNE!"-~--

'.

r j

3 lEGS. EOUALl Y SP"'CEO. f 110M SCH 4D PIPE

pt_"'N

F,.US Of n .... G.o NOlllU SHAn .otOIlCT THE FOllOWING OliT .... as ftlOM IHTE _L SVIO FACE Of v ~S!iR. ..... LfSS OTHER .,Sf. &ftCIf' i D,-

~lLE$llE- ;"". _ ,1" ... ". '"'~

Pft()JE t" ON lD-

_""IN'_._LY• •• __ , _ ..... I"'..nD

_"UTO. ~_ .... '"._'"

___ W_IDt _

~y---'~'_ Ofn.Y ......

liNf;'NBlillll" .. f'6HP"NY

., oP,; ] F"lG U 1511"" r'5,
. , .... . flG to. ,!i) '" II" ..
oj -.. Ftr.n'"50 ..... rs
... , '-'U Ll DIll "..., f S
.., fIIIIiIIMl..[ "UO; -(JI[.,t£ TltLlIII.OCk

P.. ,aM ,.'11

5; .3.!! .3.4

FIGURE 5.15

'tSO'

EXAMPLE

I I

• i

10. II ,-UlI21 , .. "~..r" 1t-i'4II12,n· 1 • 1./81 .... '~:tJ-l ~ N!Uflr. 11 "'~JJ ... -tJ! "' .. t ..... ",U' t

·r

I

NOTES

IH _.u ~P;;US·" tm[;1I(.

121 INSUlA' ION ••• rHOC K

.I ~~ ~.-;
.. ._ ....... .... '-;"
\;.0'-"
" s
~"' t- l5ififJ
"
...;-. I
' .....
:= .... r' ,
~l.-./ \ l ...
,_ ...
........ - I
.... '- - FIGL.JFiES 5.'" 5.11

Isometric Orow; "9 Nt.. ... ber

ttOWTO SHOW OFfSETS ON ISO$

I(:h." 1<11-1 'I ..... formula lor colc"'all"9IM ~ompound .......

i

0,

I J-'

t,

~,~

, ,

UAM'U .ooL ..... 23-H; fllOM FIGU"E""

TH.. 11QIII1iT" Ie V lEW .. ItIOMt HE" E FOil EICI'LANA T IOJoI OfiiIL'I', AND .. NOT A 'ART Of THE

SPOOL DRAWING AT "IGHT

eo-uroo Offll'

Allowance for weld spacing [root gap) is "shop set-up problem and should not be considered in makil19 assembly drawings 01 detailed sketches. The Pipe Fabrication Institute recommonds that an ovara!! dimension i$ shoM) which is the sum of the nominal dimensions of Ihe component parts.

-."~--

A spool sheel deals with onlv one design 01 SJlool, and shDW.i complele dimensional detail. lists malerial lor makin9 the spool, and specifies how many spools of lhat type are required. Figure 5.17 shllWS how a spool from figure 5.15 would be dimensiorted.

-.~ ! i

EXAMPLE SPOOL SHEET

FIGURE 6.11

-- • "VI\. lItID 'OIl WI"DUtll .·.t..., I0OI. TIIOLn 10 ., IIADDLI ll5T 0' M"l~.IIL
- • 'HllUoOfO INO II'MlTlfIl CUITlIII. ... 1 UtiLi. MOnO
IT~ QV OI:SCNI" ION M .. Tt:II,.L
~ 011 .'0. NO
,_

, 1 _, • 1'-105"" !Ell '" • .s.
L 1 , or.; •• a'-n " ... 501 '" loS.
1 I .., .. II 3t~O 1/, .... SM" .. SlI
451"
2 .-.. I
~\ -0
'ITTIHOI
1 ~-3" _J • , 'w (I< _ I 110 "" .-lJO

@
- 0


'L ... NGU
S 1 !PIli CI. lIIO " .. .-t.OS
'" I 6 2 !PI, CI. ,SIt ~ .. .-IO!i
I
N
,..,..HPS , I
-r----- /N~ • OTttl:.

-. I , \ noot:(O.[T ~ 11. CI. l3CU a-10!i

Z .....

\!! IlNG. Nil ••• NG 1:0.
VEe IFICAnON, 411
------0 NUMBEIt ItEOlHftID, I -- .
~ 3 ItE:FEftENC£ PfiI ... lttGS JDIJ NO.. 15OME1RIC III!V
"lAIi ORAWIIiG NO. SHOWING SPOIIl) REfEIIOICI NO, 8'00LHQ, 110.
i 2
i 1 OIItIlWM, I CMI<:KW: ,OYED: Oo'TE:
0 ISSUE 0 fOA CO NSTIIN. 1""111141 UZl--1 Jl-l-i a I -I

Areas 01 a drawing awaitilllj iurthar inlormation or decision are ringed clearlv no the «NerSB side and labeled 'H 0 l 0' -reler to char t 5.8. {A black, red, or yellow china marker is suitable lor lilm with a slick finish on the reVi!lS9 sir1e.l

Changes or revisi ens a re imJicillcd OJI the !rrmls ut the sheets by a sma!! triangle in Ihe area of the revision_ The revision numher is marked inside the triangle, noted above the tille block {or in an allocaled panell with a descrlption of the revision, required Initials, and dale. The revision number may be part 01 Ihe dorwinl] number. or i1 nmy follow the drawing number [prelarrud method-see ligure 5.11). The drawing as iirsl issued is numbered the 'zero' lIl~ision.

A drawing is issued in three stages. The first issue is 'FDA APPROVAL', by mana!Jement or cI ient. The second issue ;5 'F OR CO NSTR UCTI ON BI 0', ....tIen ~endors itrl! invited to bid lor eQuipment and work contracts, The third issue is 'F 0 A CO NSTA UCT ION' following awarding of all pu rchase orders and conuacts. Orawinqs may be reissued at each stage if significant chan!les are made. Minor changes may be made after the third sta!le (by agreement on cost and extent of work) but major chang!!!: may involve all three stages of issue.

CHECKING &. ISSUING DRAWINGS

6,4

RESPONSIBILITIES

6.4.1

P&ID's, process flow diagrams and lino deliignation sheet'S: are checked by e , engineers in the project group.

hcept for spool drawings, all piping draw; ngs are checked by the pipi"!1 group. Orthographic spool drawings produced by the piping fabricator are not usually checked by the piping group, except for 'critical' spoolS. such lIS spoolS lor overseas shipment and lnuicata spools.

Usually an B:or.perienced designer within the piping group IS g:ven the task 01 checkin!l. Some companies employ persons specifically as design checkers.

The chacker's responsibilities are set ou t in 4.1.2.

CHECKING PIPING DRAWINGS

5.4.2

; I

·1

Prints 01 drawings are cllecked and corrected by marking with colored peocils. Areas to be corrected on tha drawing are usually marked in red on the print. COllect areas and dimensions are usually m~III:Bd in yellow.

Checked drawings to be challged should be returned 10 their originator whene.ler possible, for amendment A new print is supplied to the checker with Iha ori!linal 'mark.ed up' print for 'backchecking'.

tSSUtNG DRAWINGS

5.4.3

CHECKING PtPIN .... uRAWINI.iS

"LANS. ELE.VAfIONS, .. ~~~ .. _ .. ~'~'':--'--''''_

Poinls to ba checked on all piping drawings include iha following:

0.4.4

• Title of dnrNing

• Number of issue. and revision numb!!r

• Orientation: North arrow against plot plan

• Inclusion 01 graphic scale (if drawing is to be photographicilly reduced)

• Equipment numbers and their appearance on piping drawings

• That COllett identification appealS on all lines in all views

• Une material specificetion chan98S

• Agreement with ~8Cilications Wid agreement with other drawings

• That the drawing includes reference number's) and tltlahl to any other relevent drawiO!lS

• That all dimensions are correct

• Agreement with certified vendors' drawings for dimensions, noule orientation, manholes and ladders

• T hat face- to-f IJC8 di mensions and p r&SSOre rat iO!lS are sh own for all n on-standar d Ila"Igad items

• location and identification of instrument connections

• Provision of line vents, drains. traps. and tracing. Check that vents efe

at all high points and drains at an low points 01 lines for hydrostatic tBSl. Oriplegs should be indicated and deteiled. Traps should be identi· ... fied, and piping detailed

The following items should be labeled in one view only: tees end rolled 81 45 degrees (518 exemple in 6.2.81. short-radius eU, I ell, eccentric reducer and eccentric swage Inote on plan views 'top lIat' or 'bottDm flat1. concentric reducer, col\C8lluic· non-standard or companion flange. reducing tea, special itemS unusual material, of pressure rating different from that of the system, etc. Aefer to charts 5.3. 5.4 and 5.5 for symbol usage

That insulation has been shown as required bV the P&lO Pipe support locations with support numbers

That all anchors, dummy legs and welded supports ara shown That the stress group's raquifamenls hllle been met

That all field welds ere shown

I

• • • • •

Correctness of scale

Coord inates of equipment against plot plan Piping arrangement against P&IO requirements

Possi b lei nte rl erencBS

AdequilCY of clearances 01 piping from stee~Nork. doors, windows and braces, ductwork, equipment and major e5ettric apparatus, intluding control consoles, cables hom motor control cenlart (MCC's), and firefi!IJting equipment. Check accessibility for operation and maintenance

5· ,3.4 \ ji,U

. __ .

Accessibility tor operation and maintenance, and that adequate manhalas, hitches. covers, dropout and hoodling areas, etc. heve been prO'Jided

• Foundation drawings with 'leodars' eQuipment raquirements

• list 01 materiel, if any. lisled ilems should be identified once, either

on the plan or the elevation drawings

• That section leuars agree with the section markings on the plan yisw

• That drawings include necessary malchiine information

• Appearance of necessary continuation sheet numl:ler(s}

• That spool numbers Ippear correctly

• Presence of all required signaturlS

This further point should be dlecked on isas:

• Agreement with model

These further pOIOlS should be checked on spool sheels :

, That materiel i~ complelely listed and dascribed

• That tbe required number 01 spools 01 identital type is noted

INSTRUMENTATION (At shown on P&' D's)

6.5

This section brieflv describes lite purposes of instruments and explains how instrumentation may be fetid Irom P&IO's. Piping drawings will .ho show the conntction (coupling, etc.] to line or vessel. HOW8ller, piping drllWings should show only instrumeots connected to lor located inl piping and vessels. The only purpose in addi ng inst rumentat ion to a piping drawin!! is to identify the connection, orifice plate or equipment to be installed on or in the piping, and to correia Ie the piping drawing 10 lhe P&IO.

INSTRUMENT FUNCTION ONLY IS SHOWN

I nstrumentatien is shown on process diagrams and piping drawings by symbols. The functions of intruments are shown, nOI tha instruments. Onl'l the primary conoectlon to a "essel or line. or devices inSl.tled in a line lsuch 8$ orifice plates and control valves) ara indicated.

There is soma uniformity, among the larger &ompaniBS.tleast. in the way in which instrumentation is shown. There is 8 willin~85S to adopt Ihe racommendalions of the Instrument Society of America, but adherence is not always complete, ThelSA standard is 55.1, titled 'Instrumentation symbols 800 identiIi cati on' .

Compliance with the ISA scheme is to $Omellltent international. This is benefidal when drawings go from ana country to another, IS there is then no diffj. culty in undel1tandin, the instrumentation.

Although instrumeOls are used for many purposes, their Dlsic functions ara few in number:

"j

(1) To Sflnse a 'coodition' of the process material, most commonly us pressure, temperature.llow rate or lweI. Thei8 'cQflditions' are termed process variables. The piece 01 equipment that does the sensing is termed a 'primary element', 'sensor'. or 'detector',

(2) To trMI$IJIi, a mll8$Ure 01 the process variable from a primary element.

(31 To imlic.1I a measure of a process variable to the plant operatol, by shOWing the measured value bV a dial and poinler, pen and papelloll or digital display. Another form of indieetor is iIIlalalm which gives audible or visual warni fig when a process variab I e su ch as temperat u ra ap p roach lIS an unsafe 01 undesired value.

(41 To rftord the measure of a precess ~arillble. Most recorders are electrically·operated pen·80d·paper·roll types which retOld either the instantlJOllous vlllue 01 the average over 8 time period.

151 To cont:ol the process variable. An instrument initialing this furu:lion is tanned a 'contrail"'. A controller sustains or changes the value of the process variable by actualing a 'final euntrol element' IIhis Bleml!llt is uStially a V"dlve, in process II iping).

Many instruments combine two or more of Ihese live luncuons, and may also have mechanical parts integrated - the commonest eumple of this is the selt-comai ned conuol valve (see ~.1.1 0, under 'Pressu re regulator', and ch .. rt 3.1).

HOW INSTRUMENTATION IS IDENTtFIED

5.5.3

The most-used instruments '1' pressure and temperature gages I'indieaturs'l and are shown as in figure 5_18 fal and (b). An e .. ample 'instrumant id8Jlli f icatian numbar' (or 'tBg number') is shown in figure 5.18 (c). The balloon around the I1lImbBI is usually drawn 7/16-ioch diameter.

INST"lNENT IOENTIFtco\TION NUMIE'"

FIGURE 1.11

Ibl

.. 1 II.,ot,t·I ... IH~ ••

,I'11II..I ,.. till ~.._,.I t,,"~A4

1J'I'1~,'1'1111n.JII'_

hilT 1;,Iot .... ".1~

In ligura 5.18, 'P', T, Bnd 'F' denotB process variables pressure, temperature, and flow respectively. '1' and 'G' show tha Iypa of instrument; indicator and gaga respectively. Table 5.3 giws other letters danoting process valiable, type of inSirumenl. etc. The number '8', labeled 'loop number', is an example sequential number !al1ocated by an instrumentatiOfl engineer).

114)

r

,

i •

\ [

I

\ I:

I

1 i.

INSTRUMENT MOUNTING,

&. MUl TIPlE·FUNCTlON INSTRUMENTS

A horill)lll<ll line ill Ihl! ISA halloun shows thai 'hll instrument performing tlll~ lunctinn is 10 he 'beard mounted· ill a console, me, Absence of this line ~huws '11lt,,1 mounling', ill 01 near Ihe piping, ~el. etc,

BOARD MOUNTING

LOCAL MOUNTING

(1l:) \~

rTI\ ~

TIo4' I SA ~(;hl!1lI4! ~hllWS 1I1~! fIIllIl'ul lunCI i nns, no! ilisl ruments, HUWP.Vllf, a mull I!! h~ hllle Ilun inst (UI nen 1 ~an bn ; !Hhe ~wd bv d lawill[J the b,tllouns show· Inll I hI! 'iI: V;I I "t~ lu ncti 0 ns so t hal the ci rctes 'ouch.

SOllli'lllll!!S. <I multiple-Iunction instrument win be indicated by a single halluuu svmbnl, wilh a functiun identification, such as 'TRC' lor a temp" !!4 ,lllIlI: f(~tll rfli~r ·controller. This prac lice is nut prel N led- it is beuer 10 draw [in tlus !!xilll1plel s~pillulC 'T R' and 'TC' balloons, \uuehing.

INTE RCONNE CTEO I NSTR UMENTS 1'l.OOPS'I

5.5.5

The ISA stalidilH! usus thu term 'loop' 10 dest ribe an in terconneeled grou P lit instruments, willetl is nut netnssa r ii'll a el nsad-mop ar ra ngemen t: I hat is, i"511'JIII!'II1;!tI4Jn used in 11 it:miwcK (or letldlorward) iJi!illlqerncnt

It 'I:Vr.rdt instruments are .nlulcunnetletl. they may lie all ~lIocal{!d the same IlII nlhl~r rill 'ionn' idl!Ol i licill inn. F lilu rn 5, 19 shuws a process I ine served bv um! Ilfflllil of iriSH Hillen! s (lotll) number 73) 10 sense, t ransmi 1 and ind reate \"'III','r"\UII~, ;11'" ;1 ~I'I:HIHI \lUIIIII (101111 flllmhfil 701) If) s~n'I~. unnsmit, illlh· L;I\I'. wUII!l ,!IIi! (;1111\401 thaw filll!_

EXAMPLE INSTRUMENT 'LCOPS'

f I(lURE &.'1

~c@

~OJ 11tJn.l-M-,ad 'I. n'lbOt I, ",".t to u.." ~.1

® n~

ill) .>

@ ~

r

4

.

1

~ '<7 V

StGNAL LEADS

&.5.1

Elemenu. trlnsmitters. recorders, indicators and controllers communiclitewith each other by means of signal leads - which are represented by lines on the drawing. The signal C9rl be a voltage, the pressure of 8 fluid, etc. -theSe are the most common signals.

Symbols lor instrument Signal leads lire given in chart 5.1.

INSTRUMENTATIoN CODING: ISA CODING

TA.BL..E - 5.3

I

TYI'E 0 F IftITIUJMEJIT

ALARM" ......•.....•...... , A USER'SCHOICE ..•...•.. , •.... B CONTROLLER ...••......••... C CONTROL VALVE.. . . . . . . ••. CV

TRAP .•.•.•••.............. CV

SENSOR (P,lmiry Element) ..••.. E RUPTURE DISC •. ' , ...••. _ .. ,. E SIGHT Of GAGE GLASS ...• - .. , G TELEVISION MONITOR ..•..... G INDICATOR •........•..•...•. I CONTROL STATION ....••..••• K LIGHT l'IIotlOpetationl . . . . . • • .. L USER'SCHOICE ••.•....•...... N FLOW RESTRICTION ORIFICE •.. a TEST POINT IS-CJt- PolnU .... ,. P RECOAOER ..•...••...... ,.,. R

SWITCH ..•..•••.....•..•..... S

TRANSMITTER ......•.......• T MULTIFUNCTION ....•. , ..• , •. U VALVE/OAMPER ..•........ , .• V

WELL ...•.•.....•... , , .• W

UNCLASSIFIED , - X

REL .... V .......•.....••...... y

DRIVER .... , ......• _., •..•.. Z

ACTUA TOR . _ , , .. , , 1

ANALYSIS •.••....•••.•..••.. A BURNER IFI_) .•....••.•••. B COMBUSTION .........•••..•• B USER'S CHOICE .••...••.••.•. C USER'S CHorCE ..•••••..•.... 0 VOLTAGE ....•...•••.•...•.• E FLOW RATE .•..•....•. ·.···• F USER'SCHOICE ..•....•...... G

CURRENT {ElKlrkl I

POWER ..••...•....••....••• J

TIME In,... ControllCIockl .... _. K

LEVEL •.•..•.........•.••.•. L

USER'S CHOICE •.•••.•••••... M USER'S CHOICE .•....•..•..•• N USER'S CHOICE ...•.•.•••.•.• a

PRESSURE/VACUUM P

RADIATION •.••..•..... , R

SPEED 40r Frequenevl .........• S TEMPERATURE •............. T MULTIVARIABLE •........... U VIBRATlON ...•••...••.•.•.. V WEIGHT (or Forc,l .•..•.••.... W UNCLASSIFIED ........•..... X EVENT IRtsponll'! 10) ••.•....•• Y POSI nON. 01 MENSION ... , .... 1

Q UAUFYIJla unER .FUR THE 'fIIIOtE .. VARIABLE· LInER

rHE QUAliFYING urn« IS USEO;-

01 F FE RENTIAL. 0 WhIrl the dIffeqnce t.et- two "aNts ot
... ptOCIII valiUM It lrwoI"ed
TOTAL Q When me plOttSl ~"i.tJI, Is to" tummed
__ • period 0 I timtr. For !Ilart"Op It, It OW
I." un .. IUl"llmed tel aWl totll volume
RATIO . F WMn thI I1Itlo 01 tllW(l val_ 01 thl prDCMI
".iMlle Is '""olved
SAFETY ITEM 5 To 6mo1e ., ibm such • I .. ,II,f " ..... or
nlPtuni m.:
'HAND' H To dInote , hlnd-opIfltld or IoetJd.itImd
Ilem ,FtC3I..J=ES lUI a&,11

QIIAlIfYlIC unlR .. FUR Till 'T'fK OF IfllTflUMllr Unlifl

HIGH

H

To d4Inot, Inll""""" 8t; lion on 'hI ... ' .1 v." of INt PI- ~8I'11Ib1,

To denotII \nll' llCllon on 'inllnnedl·

It,' set "Blue 01 prOCllS Vllri.tJ.,

To denote j"nnnn,nt .elion on 'low' wt ... Iue of Ihe P'_ ... .,ieb!e

INTERMEDIATE.

lot

LOW

L

5.6

_> In the engineering construction industry, lt is usual for piping components

, '-'l- ~o be liven a code number ¥otlich IIppears in the piping spec:ificalion. In

, " ,--" ~'. companies nOI primarily engaged in plant construction. materiel is frequently list1td on drawings.

DIFFERENT FORMS OF LIST

5.6.1

This list is usually titled 1ist of malarial'. or preferebly, 'tisl of mlltDriel', as items of hardware arl rellffed to. 'PllltS lin' and 'am 01 mllt"iel' 818allllllllie h8ildings.

Either II Eparale list can be made tor m,teriel on several drawings, or each drawing sheet can include a list lor items: OIl the particular drawing. Lists on drawings. '" written in the $pace &bow the tilla block.. Column headings normally used fDr the list ara:

LilT 0' "'ATIItUL

II_MK. MQU'SITIOM N~".

Oft ~ANY (:01)1:

QUANTITY DlK'''PTION

$UGGESTEO LISTING SCHEME

&.6.2

Vassels. pumps. machinery Ind instruments 811 normally li~ted $8p8relely hom piping hardY'llre. However, It is not uncommon, on small projacts or rWlmp work, to list all material on 8 drawing.

CHART 1.11

CI.A$SIFICATION fO" ''' .... 0 CQMI'ONINTI

CLA., ,"nltOf.D DUlY Of "AIIOWA'" llUl.lIIPLI "AIID.Altt
"'TM II IIPl CT 10 FLU'D
I CONVEYANCE: To,.-'<lr. pt>Ih !>!pte. riningl. OfdinIrV " ...... ~
far p..iJ /1<>. - ........
FLOW CONTROL: !AI III~I .......... ria ~ ..... ,.,,'
'r" r'oJoo"y 4 Lo'I'" NorI-~
II
~'-I' ~. "" ... ,"' •. IBI Pump. ojlCUIf
... ,. ...... n· pi }loo;.1 ,_...
III SEPARATION: To ..... "" ... ~ $_ ..... ~ y ..... ..tHy
~ •• ulo.l;",J ........ I, .....• 10.. /Io.IJ Of nl'" \'lIoN, _ .......
HEATING OR COOLING, To
IV c"""..r.; u... "'''',...,~, ... of ,lo .. ".. id J.:kmod pi!" ._
b)' ,/i"l II. """""~II' Iw ••
MEASUREMENT: Til -_ ... " = (".I.::'"',~, 1,M
V _, ...... I ,ro. JPoid, ........ /1<> ... _' .......... "T.:;.. .. :~
...... I_"..,.,. ... , ,... ............ ;1)'. ......, end ohr .-ciII liUI"" IDr
"'wroi'.1, .. ..,.,,.. ~ ....,_ .
VI I«*E, Aooril4r1 ,..,.;;;;.<~:~ - ''In/IirII~ - - ttInI'Orc..Mnt. "'""'.
..ppott _._.,.""
.- :: Haphawd listing of items makes relerence troublesome. The schema sug· gested in chart 5.11 is based on the duly of the hardware and can be e_tended to listing equipment if desired. Items 01 higher pressure filing IIfId larger sile can be I istlld fint within each class.

LISTING SPECtflC ITEMS

6.6.3

Under the heading OEseR IPT ION. Dilen on drawings the Sill! 01 the item is staled I itsl. A t \'Pica I ordl! is: SIZ E tNPSI, RAT IN G (class. $jfhedu Ie nu mber. etc), NAME (of ileml. MATERIAL (ASTM OJ other material speciliutionl. and FEATURE tdesign 11I811Ife)_

Oescriptions are bast headed by thll NAM[ ul the item, followed lJy !ht! SllE, RATING. FEATURE(S), and MATERIAL. As material listings are commonly handled by data·processing Bquipment, beginning th8 d8l&ription 01 an item by name is of assistlloce in handling Ihe data. The description lor 'pipe' is dillailad.

'1

I

E~lEL~MGFOR.WE

I

NAME' SIZE:

RATING:

State 'PIPE'

Specily nominal pi pe size. See 2.1.3 and tables P·l Spec:ily wan thickness as eitlter II schedule number, a manufacturers' weight,etc. See tablas P·l. SCH' schedu Ie, STO= standard. XS= e_trHtrong. XX$= doubliHutra· strong. AP 1= American Pet roleum I nstitute.

-._.,

F EA TUA E: Spec ilv desiUn fBaturels) UIII95I covBled bv II pipe

$peeifiealion tor the pmjecl.

Pipe is available seamless or with a welded seameKarnp1es of designations ars: SMlS • S8IImless, FBW " turnace·bun-welded. ERW '" electriNesislance-welded GAL V = galvaniled. Specify ends: T&C = threaded and coupled. BE = bE!'le1ed eod, PE = plain end.

I MATERIAL: Carbon·steel pipe is oil en ordered to ASTM A53 or Al06, Grade A or 8. Other specific8li ons lire given in tables 7.5 and 2.1.

POtNTS TO CHECK WHEN MAKING TH£ LIST

6.8.4

• See that aU items in the list hllVll been giYBn a sequential item numbllr

label the items appearing on the pipiO!! drawings with the item number tram the I isl. Write the itam number in a circle with a fine line Dr ar row poinlinll to lhe item on the drawing. EilCh item in the list of materiel is indicated in this wrt once on the plan or elevational piping dlawings

Verity that ,II ~lIta on th, list 1Q!8e wi th:

(1) Requirements set out in piping drawings

(2) Available hardware in the manufacturers' catalogs

... ,;.... .......

DESI6H OF PIPIH6 SYSTEMS:

IncludIng Arrangement, Supporting, Insulanon, Heating, venting and Draining 01 Piping,

Vessels and EquiPment

.1

ARRANGING PIPING

6.1

GUIDELINES So NOTES

6.1.1

.)

Simple 8rrlrtgemM1tf ;mel 5/lor( lines minimize prmu" drops and lower pump;fI!J cost r.

nl!~ilJll in!] pill illil '>II I hat 11111 ilrranljllmen\ is '1I1l~ ible' I !!duces stresses due 111 11lI~: lI;m~ :al III 11")111",1 1111 Nr!II\I~II- Hilm to I iglll n li.1 atul '~I lfi!i!ll)S IHI

1)111 i!llf, IlIi~ Sl.~;t in 11 .

lnsidu buildings. pipinll is usuallv arranged pllrallel \0 building steelwork to simpli!y supporling and improyc appoarance.

Outside buildings. piping can be affanged: (1) On piperacks. (2) Near grade 011 slr.Cllcr~. (3) In trenches, (otl Vmlically against steelwork or hllge items 01 !)Qllipmen1.

. [

PIPING ARRANGEMENT

.1

• Use standard a\lai 1able items wherC\ie r possible

• 00 not use miters unless directed to do so

• Dn not run piping under Inundations. (Pipm may be run under grade lmamsl

. I

Piping m,IY have to go 111m cnnClctc lloors [If walls. Establish ttlflse pnints ul penetration as tr.Jlly as Ilussilrlr~ and ioilJll!1 !hll yUJUIJ concern- 1:11 ! <lrchill!f.tur al or c ivi\l \0 avoid ell tling e)(isti ng reintorci"lj bars

Prrfr.rahly lilY I,ipinq such as lif1p.s to outside storage. !ooding and receiving tacilitip.s. at grade nn pi pe sl(!epms Isee ligute 6.3) if there is no p nssibili ty of 'ulmp. roads or si te de\lulopmenl

6d.1

:. ii .1.1

.-,."_.-

Avoid burying steam tines that pocket. due 10 lhe difficulty of collecting condensate. Steam IlnBS may be run below grade in uenches p roy id!!d wi th e ave rs 0 r (lor shOlt ru nsl in slee'le5

• Unes that are usually buried include drains and lines bringing in water or gas. Where long cold winlers freeze the soil. bulYing lines below the lrost line may avoid lhe treeling 01 water and solutions. saving lh e ex pense of trac i ng long h oril onta I parts of Ihe Ii nes

I

ti-4ART-~ i

15•11

• Include removable flanged Sj)()()IS In aid maintenance, (!Spatially al pUlIlpS. tUlbinlls. end ut har Ilquilllllllni t hilt will h~\IC to be removed

tor overn8u\

• Take gas and vapor branth lines hom tops of headers where it is nec::essa rv to reduC8 t he chance of drawl ng 0" condensate (if present) or sediment which may damage Totaling equipment

• Avoid pocketing lines-arrange piping SQ that lines drain back into eQuipment or into lines that can be drained

• Vent an high points and drain aU low poinlS on lines - see figure 6.47.

Indicate vents and drains using symbols in cnart 5.7. Carefully-placed drains and valved vents permit lines to be BaailV drained or purged during shutdown periods: this is especially important in freezing c1 imates

and can leduce winterizing tosts

ARRANGE FOR SUPPORTING

• I

Group lines in pipBWBYS. where praeticebte

Support piping hom overhead. in profl!fence to underneath Run piping beneath platiOlms, IlIIher than over them

REMOVING EQUIPMENT III CLEANING LINES

• Provide union- end flanged joints 8S necessary. and in addition use crosses instead of elbows. to parmil removing material that may solidify

1811

CLEARANCES. ACCESS

• Route piping to obtain adequate clearance for maintainiAg and removing equipment

• locate within reach, or make IICcessible, all equipment subject TO periodic operation or inspection - with special reference 10 check valves, pressure relief valves. Iraps, S1rainers and instruments

• Tah care to not obstruct ICCess way; - doorwl'fS, 8SCept panels, truckways. walkways. liftiRg wells. etc.

Position equipment with adequate clearante for operation and maintenance. Clearances oHlin adopted are given in table 6.1. In some circumstances, these clearances may bl ina_elil-fol 8umple. with shell-and-tube heal elchangers. space must be provided to permit withdrawal 01 the tubes trom the shell

"N~CLIARANCEI
HDRIZDNfAL 0 ......... _. ,'jlll .. t 2ft ...
&LEAIfANCES: ~ If _ ...... __
~ (1) ItniIIII UICk Ih I.
(II' ......... th ....
....................... 3ft iii.
VERrlCAL 0- ........ ,..., ... " ......... It! Iia.
ClEARANCES: .... ....., 1ft ...
_ ................. ,....,:
tn_, ....... 11ft ...
m ...... r.....,. 10ft ...
- .. 0.. nIir ... tr....,., nil 22ft ...
Mil." HOltlZDNTM. OIMENSIOI'
.............. n ......... 3 .. ....
._ ........ IIIIIkMy ....... 2h ...
..... If ...... Ii......... S. ,,,,,,,-1. tlAi.
WIll" MY ..... tih .... Ih aiL
VERTICAl. DIMENIIONS
w ... ,., ........... _ ............ : I1Il_1111 1ft ...
121 U ..... fIiI 3ft 'iII.
' ........ _.... ....... 3ft IIiIt.
VIIIM: In ubIt U WId cUt, "·1.
'.QIot~ _. - _--., _._. - __ ",111_" _ ....... __
CIofcI< ........ ._ ............. _ ............ ___ .. I'll'" • ~ ..... :13
-- ... ""-~-- ......... • Ensure ¥Brv hot tines are not run adjacent 10 lines carrying temperature sansi I ive tt u ids, 0 r el S8Y\1her e, wiler a h I18t m igh 1 be undesirab Ie

, Establish sullieien! heitd room 'Of ductwork. mentiel electritel luns. and at least two elwations lor pipe run north-south 8fld 8ast-west (based 00 clearance of lalgest lines, steelwork, ductwork, atc.-see ligule 6.49)

• EleYalions 0' tines are usually changed when Changing norhoatal direction where lines are grouped logether or are in a congested area, so as not to block $pace where future lines may have to be louted

• Stagger flanges, with 12·inch minimum clearance !rom supporting steel

• Killp field welds and other joints at least 3 inches Irom supporting steel. building siding or other obstruction. Allow loom lor the joint 10 be made

• Allow room lor loops and other pipe arrangements to cope with eKpan· sian by eally coosultation wilh staff concerned with pipe stressing. Notify tM structural group of any additional sleal required to support such loops

l

i

THERMAL MOVEMENT

Muimum and minimum langths 01 a pipe run will conespond 10 the tempera· ture extremes to which it is subjected. The ~lJount 01 expansion or shrinkage in steel per degrea change in temperature ('coefficient of expansion') is aoplo~imalelv the same - the! is. the expansion from 40f 1041 f is about the same lIS hom 132 F to 133 F. or hom 119 F to 180 F, etc. Chart 6.1 !liYn changell in linD te"gth 101 cl1l111g&S ill tllmperBtuln.

1- I

EXPAHIION OF CARBON"TIilL "PE

CHART •. 1

800 -- c- Ar?
V
- - V ._- f---
700 - -- - - 0 .. - ... I---
1----- --- - - / .- >--- I---
V -
~llLECT If''IIIA'~fI~ .~_O~Il~.f~fI~_~V
600 f---- -- --
.- t--. .,--- - V ~ f-- I---
·w .- - .--
I
SOD V ... I~ I---
c
--. -- il f---- 1--- >---- 1-- I~
.... V ..
• ..
j~OO :::
~ c
- _ .. -- - _. - .. ~ .. - III
CI [7 , -_. ! ---
i)(N) , ....
/ I 0
..
t! I g
/ I
I ,
700 t
J I
7 t I
100 V ._ -
10- -- I
I rc
I: ..
I S
0 ..
-:10- 1 I ~
I/o 11 7 3 ~ , • 7
0·65 Expansion (inch., per 100 It)
rDR NiII N'I'tIQlUIUli ",_., _ "_fIA"RIfI1 OIfftll'l!CIA' LIFT -.."...
IICtIU I.,. ......... PIli ,. " Of "" A,. ~. faR ..-... A _. "*
• u.l;MfUfIIi MIUUt GMI ~"" _ PI" u..a. ... ~"
fIIIAOlMl P",* ". 10 PI f .... - .... aa __ 1 II"

! .

h'Ir-------'~t ~

... .,pan

1l1li 'WI'*'I. ... -. ...... ,...... t~ • ...,.._. ~""'''''''Ift''''''''''''~''''1ClII1. f • .. _ .......... ""' ... n..-.. .

o.. ........ ~ ... .. _

~.~WiIIM~ ........... ...,.ICII.II....,.,.,.

_1111 .....,. .. "......w .. or ~

..., ~ItIIII.._.l:I'IIIIttMfH' _

--.

fllWid ~ton. III"d .....

..... I!;OftII4iI:, .. ~t to .. ~I.=

~.~ r tII..., 1: ...........

t...,..,.,.u '0 __ prbUIIII QIt ,\0 ~.

~l~ T ..... ~pt.. ~l .... .-. .. """ ..... ell*" DfI ....... 'QUI""II(JIfII,*,,1Cf'II .. ,..... lIO.n'!tl

j

In h01fI.,~.hI ~ K ... _ to cee ....

• ..., II1II , 01 ......... 'hi 'iI4Ill"" .'.,.

~ t~ .. r (IrIII"IOII .... ~ ... pM ......

-....~tN .......

In~I""'" tfLoI'ttIttl ........,

"*~ ... ~tw .. ..,.~. T Ott.t..tM

................ 11......".

' .... ntr .. IhIW lIII ... ,IIIIIGf .,.~

..... .., ... "" ...... ",... t 1IroIIftctI

--

f

::.. ~ ':'::"1:" .. -:.:=-..: :iot .. ..:,

"" ... ...... __ ... ;0.

--- .. ----

1

STRESSES ON PIPING

THERMAL STRESSES Changes In temperature 01 piping. due eithlr to change in temperatura of the environment or 01 lhe conveyed fluid. tause changes in lenllth of the piping. This expansion or contraction in linn causes sllains in piping. supports and altsched equipment

SETTLEMENT STRAINS Foundations of large tanks and heavy equipment mav settla or tilt slightly in the ':01,1118 of time. Connected piping and equip~ meot not on 8 common loundation will be suassed by the displacl!manl unless the piping is anBnged in 8 confi!p.llation flexible enoogh to IICcommodllll! multiple-plane movement. This problem should not arise in new constructmn but could occur in a modification to a plant unit or process.

FLEXIBILITY IN PIPING

To reduce strains in piping caused by substaRtia\ thermal movement. fle.ible and e.pansion joiots may be used. However. the use 01 these joints may be mi nimized by arranging piping in a flexible manner. as iUuslratoo in figure S. 1. Pipe can fie. in B direction perpendicular to its length: thus, the longer an offset, or the deeper a loop. the more flellibility is gained.

COLD SPRING

Cold spriflging 01 lines should be avoided il an elterl'l3te method can be used. A line may ba cold sprung to reduce the amplitude 01 movement hom thermal ellpansion or contraction in order: (9) To reducs stress 00 conneetions, {bl To avoid an interference.

Figure 6.2 sch(!lTlatically iUusllates the use 01 cold springing lor both purposes! Cold springing in ellample {al consists 01 making the branch in the indicated cold position. which divides thermal movement between thl! cold and hot positions. In example {bl the cold spring is made equal to the thelmal mnvt!mcnt.

COLD SPflIMQING

FtGUftl. 8.2

OLD POSITION

COlD ~PlING

(~) TO AVOID "N INTI! 1'1 FERENCE

IT£;

!KIT I'OSITION3J1 COlD ?'OSITION

COl. D"(fNf. I

""""-------<9-1- C;;.;O;,;;LD_t;;,tNE __ -4

_UI: PANS 101>1 I HOT liNt'

.... --- ..... --;'O"'--C)-I!l---- ..... -""----4

--l ~

Anchor'" ..,.

COLD SrliNO

lnl

6 .1.1

CHA~T 6.1

FIGl...FIES '.1-1.2

'TABLE '.1

In the following example, cold springing is employed solely to reduce a stress:

A long pipe connected by a 90·degree elbow and flange to a nOllle may on heating e.pand so that it imposes a load on the nozzte in eKcess of th81 recommended. Assume that piping 10 tho noule has bEllln installed al ambiefll temperature, and lhal the pipe I!Kpands 0.75 inch when hot material f\ows lhlo it, polling a latelal (sideways' load of 600 Ib on the nozzle.

II the pipe had Q.315 inch QI its length removed before connection, the roamtemperatu re lateral load on the nOllle wou Id be about 300 Ib {instead ot zero], and the hot load would be reduced to about 300 Ib ,

The haction 01 the eKpallSion taken up can be varied. A cold spring 01 50% of the e.pansion between the temperature e~tremes gives the most benelil in reducing slress. Cold springing is not recommended il an alternate solution can be used. Reier \0 the Code lor Pressure Pipi ng AN S I 831 and 10 tabie 7.2,

RESISTANCE OF PIPING TO FLOW

All piping has resislance to flow. The smaller the flow cross section and the more abrupt IhB chan!Jll in direction 01 flow, the greater is tile resistance and loss 01 pressure. For II particular line sile ,the resistance is proportionai to the length 01 pipe, and the resistill\ce 01 fillings, v81~es, etc, may be expressed as a length 01 pipe having the same nrsislance to Ilow. Ia ble F -10 gives such eQUi~alent lengths 01 pipe lor finings, waives, etc.

"

).

Tab Ie H 1 gives pressurB drops 10/ water flowing th ru SC H 40 pipe at various rates, Charls 10 dBtermine Ihe economic SilB (NPS) of piping are given in the Chemical Engineer's Handbook and other sources,

SLiOE RULE FOR FLOW f'R08UMIi

Problems 01 resistance to flow can be quickly solved with Ihe aid 01 the slide· rule calculator obtainable from Tube Turns Di\j'ision of Chemetron Corporati on, PO Bo ~ 32160, Louisvi lie, K Y 40232.

PtPERACKS

6,',2

A 'pipBway' is the space allocated for rIMing several parallel adjacent lines, A 'pipelack' is a structure in Ihe pip8'MIY for carrying pipes and is usually labri· catad hom stefll, or concrete and steel, consisting 01 connected n·shfIfJp.d frames termed 'bents' on lap of which IIle pipes I est. The vert ical members 01 the bents are termed 'stanch ions', F i!)Jle 6.3 shows two piperacks using this form 01 construction, ona of which is 'double-decked'. Piperacks for only two 01 three pipes ale made from 'T'·shaped members, terrned 'lee-head supports',

Pipelacks aIEl expensivB, but are necessary for 8lfanging the main process and service lines around the plant site. Thev are made use of in secondary ways, princip<tlly to provide a protected location lor anciUary equipment.

Pumps, utility stations, manifolds, fir.fighting Bnd li,st-eid stations can be 1 ex: ated u Ilder the piparltC k. light i na and other I i limes e en be Ii ned 10 5t an· rhions. Ail-cooled heat e~chlln!ll!rs can be supported abnve Ihe piperack.

The smallest size of piPB run on I pipellck without additiunal suppurt IS Llwallv 2 inch. I t may De marl! econom ic 10 change proposed small I ines to 2-inch pipe, Of 10 suspBOd Ihem hom 4·inch 01 lalgel hnes, inSlead 01 pfO~iding additional suppOII.

Table S· \ and charts 5-2 gNe stress and suppor I data lor SPans 01 horilOnlal pipe,

t

J

-,

KEY FOR FIGURE 6.3

!II WKEN USIt«> A DOUBLE OECK. IT IS CONVENTIONAL TO PL ce UTlllTV

AIljO SERVICE 'I"'NC ON THE UPPER lE\j'll Of TKE PIPER CK

\21 00 NOT RUN PIPING OilER STA,NCKIONS AS THIS WILL PREVENT ... OOING ANOTHER DECK

131 PLACE L"RGE LlOUI D F I L LEO PIPES NEAR ST ANCHIOHS TO REDUCE STRESS ON HORIZONTAL MEMBERS OF BENTS, HEA",Y L IOUIO F I l LEO PIPES 112 in AND LARGER! ARE MORE ECONOMICALL '¥ RUN AT GRADE-SEE NOTE 1121

141 PRO\j'1 DE OISTRI BUno SPACE fOR F UTUIIE PIPES-APPAO~I Mil H L Y AN IIOOITIOHAL ~5 PERCENT ITHAT IS, ro PlRCENT OF FINAL WIDTH-SU TABLES A-I)

151 ttOT PIPES ARE USliALL'¥ INSULAT EO AND MOUNTED ON SHO£5

16) WAIIM 'I'ES MA'!' HAVE INSUL'" TION LOCALL'¥ REIliOveo AT SUPPORTS

m THE HEIGHT OF A AELIEF HEAOlR IS FIXED BY ITS POINT OF ORIGIN AND THE SLOPE REOU I RtO TO DR"IN THE LIlliE TO" T "NIC, E I~,

(I) ELECTRIC"L ..... O INSTRUMENT TAAY5 IFOA CON~UIT AND CAlLES) ARE BEST PLAC E 0 ON OUTRIGGERS OR BRACKETS AS SHOWN, TO PRE SENT THE L£I'.ST PROBLEM WITH PIPES LEAVING THE PIPEWAY, ALTERN"TUY. TR"'YS MAY BE ... TTACHEO TO THE STANCHIONS

191 ::r~ fti":::el"'" O~~~~lJro~FE~E~'l~\~MtHL~~EJ~ ~:o&~~~ \~SII

AVOIOS BLOCKING SPACE fOR FUTURE UHfS, QO.DEGREE CH"'NGES IN OIRECTION OF THE MiOlE PII'f.W"'Y OFFEA THE Of'f'DIlTUNITY TO CHANGE THE OROER Of LINES. A SINGLE DECK IS SHOWN ... T ... 111 INTER MEOI ... TE ELEv ... TION

11(1) SOMETlloIES INTERFACES ... RE ESTAeLf5HEO TO OEF INE eREAKPOINT$ FOil CONTRACTED WOIIK (WHERE ONE CONTRACTOR'S PIPING HAS TO JOIN WITH ... NOTHERS._ AN INTERF"'CE!S"'N IMAGIN"'R'!' PLANE ..... ICH MAY 8E ESTABLISHED FAR ENOUGH FROM ... WALL, SIDING, PROCESS UNIT, OR STOR ... GE UNIT TO ENAILE CONNECTIONS TO BE M"'OE

1111 PIPES SHOULD BE R ... CKED Oi'l A SINGLE DECK If SPACE PE RMITS

(121 PIPING SHOULD BE SUPPORT( 0 0111 SUE PUIS AT GR ... OE I F ROADS" WALK

~~I~~ ~':'''r' :~~b~?s1~~~fi~~I~:PN~~~ J~~'ci~~~¢~ ~,}tJ: OA TE.

\1]1 CURRENT PRACTICE IS TO SP ... CE BENTS 20-26 fEET ... , ... RT. THIS SPA.CING IS A COMPROMISE 8ETWUN -THE ... CCEPT ... BLE DEFLECTIONS OF TH~ SMALl 0:. .. PIPES ... 1010 THE MOST ECONOMIC eEAM SECTION OESIRED fOR THE PIHRACK. PlPER ... CKS ARE USU"'LlY NOT OVER ~s FEET IN WIDTH. IF MORE "OOM 15 NEEDED, THE .rPERACK IS DOUBL£· all TRIPlE,OECKEO

04) MINIMUM CLEAR"'NCE lIHOERi'I£"TH THE PlP£RACK IS DETEIIMINED BY A\j' ... ILABLE MOBilE LIFTING EOUIPMEIliT REOUIRING ACCESS UNDER THE PrPERACK, VERTICAL CLEAR ... NCES SHOULD IE AS SET OUT IN T"BLE 6_1, BUT CI'MNOT NECESSARILY IE ADHEflEO TO AS HEVATlOIIIS OF PIPES AT INTERFACES AilE 50METIMES fl~EO BY PLANT SUBCONTR ... CTORS, IF THIS SITU .. 1I0/l1 "RISES, THE PIPING GROUP SHOULD ESTABLISH MAR IMUM AND MINIMUM ElEVATIONS WHICH THE PIPING SU8COttTRACTORS MUST WORK TO-THIS HELPS TO "'VOIO PROBLEMS ... T A LATER DATE. CHECK THE MINIMUM HEIGHT REOUIREO FOR ACCESS WHERE THE PIPE· R"CK RUNS PAST A UNIT OR PJ. ... NT ENTRANCE

1151 WHEN SETTING ElEv"'TrONS FOR THE PIPERACIt TRY TO AVOID POCKETS IN THE PIPING. LINES SHOULO BE ABLE TO OR"IN INTO EOUIPMENT OR LINES TH"T C ... N BE OR"'INED

oel GROUP HOT LINES REOUIRING EXPANsrON LOOPS "'T ONE sros Of THE P"ER"'CK FOR E"'SE Of SUPfORT-SEE fiGURE 6.1

(111 LOCAn UTILITY STATIO~ .. CONTIIOL I\j'ALVEl ST"'TIONS, "'NO FIREHOSE POINTS ADJ"'CENT TO STA ..... HIQNS fOR SUPPORTING

1181 LE ...... E Sf ACE FOR DDWHCOMERS TQ PUMPS, [Ie., BETWHIII PIPE R"'CK ... 1110 M)JACE NT alJILDING OR STRIJCTUflt:

· ,

I I

r:

I I

FIGURE 6.3

PIPE RACKS : REFER TO KEY ON FACING PAGE

6'·1.1 .1.2

.. , .. ,,1'01".1, -. UNDIIII 'ILOHD

U ... DN'"IlAC ....

~

At.1'EIIN"'1'1 PQ111'1QN IF CLEAFIANCIEI ... IIE ADEOUATE. II THEIlE IS NO IfiIT£RFERENCE

It FT. MINIMUM·

~~

'-r-.r---,~ __ '1I"T.:. ~

: ... ;

~-.

,

ORADE !ElEVAT1ON) , .. :

,

;\

"

--- --- -- j

IIENT

Kl~ .oIICt t.IMDlA TtfE PI.EIIACIC. eLlA" .011 oIICClII. 011 UTI un. 'Of! PlM'I iIIIKlrIOII'I .ulC1t.LAIt'l" lllUlNlNT

* THUI DIMIJIIItONl .... 1 fOil GUlDANCI OM. Y ........ ' ..... 1 fOAMOft"ltlUMtNAllV DUIONI

VALVES IN PIPING DESIGN Valves are used for these purposes:

(I) Process cO,ntrD! during op&rB1ion

,(2) Controlling saNices and utUilies-steam, Wllter, air, gas end oil 13) Isolating equipment Dr i~ruments, for maintenance

(4) Discharging gas, vepor or liquid

(51 Draining piping end equipment on shutdown

(6) Emergency shutdown in the ev!flt of plent mishap or lire

6.1.3

TABLE '.2

..

WHICH SIZE VALVE TO USE 1

Neorlv all valves will be Ii ne sile - one excoptioA is control valves, which are usuel1v one Dr two sizes smaller than line size; never larger.

AI control stations ond pumps it h. been olmost traditional to use line-size isol111ng valves, HOVt'8¥"; some campania ara now using isolating valves at control stotions the same size IS the control valve, and el pumps are using 'pump sill' isolating vatves at suttion and discharge. The choice is usually an economic one made by a project enginear.

The siles of byp .. wives lor control stations are given in 6.1.4, under 'Control (velva) slatiufI$',

WHERE TO PLACE VALVES

See 6,3.1 lor Wiving pumps, under 'Pump emplacement & ccnoectiors'.

• Preferebly, place valves in lines !rom headers (on piperack.s) in norlzontal rather than varticel runs, so thai lines can drain when the valves are closed. (In cold climates, watsr held in lines may freeze and rupture the piping: such lines should be traced - see 6.B.2)

• To avoid spooling unnecessary lengths 01 pipe, mount valves directly onto flanged equipment, il the flange is correctly pressure-rated, See 6.5.1 under 'Nozzle loadin!l'

A relief valve that discharges into B header should be placed higher than the header in order to drain into it

Locate heavy valves neor suitable support peims, Flanges should be nat closer than 12 inches to the nearest support, so that installati on is

not hampered

For app&erance, it practicable, keep ceotellines of valves at the same height above floor, end in-lins Qfl plan view

,

OPERATING ACCESS TO VALVES

, Consider frequency of operation when locating manuelly·operated velves

Locate frequently-operated valves so they ale accessible to an operator from glllOa or plattorm, Above this heiQht and up 10 20 It,uSB chain ep""on or .1t1tNion 111m. OYer 20 ft, considlr I plltform or remote operatioll

VALVE OPERATINQ HEIOHTS •

-

... ',.._ nIV.'HlfrI OF "_Ill R ... FOR "~ lID .... lwn """__'

0II0l1I Of ITlIIlClilllTllIll1II: UIV.l~ ",UtA'IC' fIlA _,,_TAl. Villl.WII

I.

T-'- .. 4'-1'· J'-r "' .......

loll'

iIIIIC(1" ........ f"(JfiI , .. ,," AIIIIIP'SlUlu..l;.

"It"''\II11

6'-.- .. T-I"

~ au •• TD(::IiUIIAr ... ~ ... ".,IH ..

1 ~o IbJIII ... ~rl 111&.1"'0 lO rtft$QNllltl LJ "Ii "I'. "'.1 10 .. LCl:li111ll AI IIIIIIQtTI

WII1H u 'II l'nd ..... 0 ltll CMO<E'. "' v 1;t1 u- PCoIN: 'tIl.' uill10 U TS ..... 0 WO"'lli1fJllC.

,. 11:. ,tI.,. JO .... ,.,a; 'Ilo.l'Ytl. U,UR HJ ~ ... lA.", 11t "KMt CU . .M,-l'

, ..

• Inlrequenlly·used valves can be reached by a ladder -but consider alter' natives

, Do not locate valves on piperscks, unless unavoidable

• Group valves which wuuld be out of leach so that all can be operated by providing a platform, it automatic operators are not used

• 11 a chain is used on a horilonUIlY'mounteO valve, take the hallam of the loop to within 3 ft of floor level for safety, and provide a hook Mar· hy to hold the chain out 01 the way -sea 3.1.2, uQder 'C hain'

t Do not use chain operators on screwed valves, or on any valve n"Timhes and smaller

• With hnes handling dangerous materials il is bauer to place valwes at a sui tably low level above grade, floor, platform, ate.. so thai the operator does not have to reach above head height

ACCESS TO VALVES tN HAZARDOUS AREAS

, locate main isolating valves where they can be reached in an emergency such as an outbreak of fire OJ a plant mishap. Mak.e sure that personnel will be able to rBach valvas easily by walkway or automobile

• locale manually·operated valwes al the plant perimeter, or outside the halar d ou s ar ea

• Ensure that automatic operators and their control lines will be protected from the eff9Cu 01 fire

• Make use 01 brick Of concrete walls as possible lire shields lor valllll

stations

Imide a plant. place isolating valves in accessible positions to shul feed lines for equipment and prOC8il58$ hlN'ing 8 ti Ie I i$k

C onsidet the use of aulomatic valves in fire-lighting systems to release watBr, foam and other fire·fighting agents, responding to heat fusible

links, smoke deltctors,II1C., trillUllfed by fire or !,;ndue rise in temperature -advice may be obtained from the insurar and the local fira deCIlrtm&nt

I!I~I

.1

'Ri

~1 p:, »> OIHPSHIELD

"·I~ ....... ~

MAKE MAINTENANCE SIMPLE

• Provide BCClI$I5 lor mobile lifting equipment to handle heavy valves

• Consider providing tilling davits tor heavy valv8S~ifficult to move by otl ~tr means, if accen is rast r it Inri

• II possible. 3rranga valves so that !rupporls win not be on remo~able spools:

PREFERRED A1IIRAI'tOEMENT

A plug valve requiring lubrication must be easily accessible. ellen though it may nOI be heQuently operated

MAKE MAINTENANCE SAFE

Use line-blind valves, speclacle plales or the 'double block and bleed' where positive shutoff is requited eilher for maintenance or process needs - see 2.7

ORIENTATION OF VALVE STEMS

00 not poinl valve siems into walkways. t,uckways, ladder ~e. etc .

Unless necessary, do nol artsn!!e gate and globe valves wilh their stems poi Ilting dOWIlW<lfd (at any angle below the horizontal). as:-

(1) Sedimenl may collect in the gland packing and score Ihe stem. (2) A projectin~ stem may be a hazald to personnel.

If an inverted position is necessary, consider employing a dripshield:

'I ..

,

CLOSING OOWN LINES

Consider YlIlve .. dosing time in shuning down or throttlinQ large lines. Rapid closure 01 the valve requires rapid dissipation 01 the liquid's kinetic energy, wilh a rist: 01 rupturing the lin8. long-distlnce pipelines present 80 8IIampte 01 this problem.

A liquid line fitted with a last-closing valve should bit prO'Jided with a stand .. pipe upstream end close to the valve to absorb the kinetic enerty 01 tile liquid. A standpipe is a closad vertical branch on a line: ai, or olher gas is trapped in this branch to form e pneumatic ClJllhion,

IFTHEAE tSNOP6tD .......

• Provide valves et h.dalS. pumps, equipment. etc., 10 ensure that the system will be pressurfl-tigllt lor hydrostatic testing, and to allow iQuipment to be ramovad for maintenance without shuttinll down the system

• Provide isolating valvBS in all small lines branching from heade~-Ior

example, see figure 6.12 _.

• Provide isolating valves &t all instrument pressure points lor removal of ins t IU menu u mlsr opera ting cond i tions

Provide valved drains on all tanks. vessels, etc .. end olher equipment wIlich may contain or eollset liquids

Prol9ct SE!flsilive equipment by using 8 last .. closing check valve 10 stop bacl:flow before it can gather mnmsnturn

Consider butt-welding or ring-joint flanged valves 101 lines containing hazardous 01 'searching' fluids. Hydrogen is especially liable to leak

Consider seal welding screwed valvBS if used in hydrocarbon salVia! -see chart 2.3 \inset sketchl

Provide sufltcienl valves to [oolrol flows

Consider providing a concrete pit (usually about 4 It x 4 Itl lor I valve which is to bl located below grede

Coosider use of temporary closures for positive shutoff-see 2.7

Provide a bypass iI necessary lor equipment which may be laken out of

service

• ProvIde I byposs v81va eround contrul slations if continuouS How is required. See 6.1.4 and figure 6.S. The bypass should be at lellSt lIS large as the control valve, and is usually globe type, unless &inch or lalger, when e gate valve is normally used (see 3.1.4, under 'Gate valve"

• Provide an upstream isolating valve with a small valved bypass to equiprnent which ffil'( be subject to fracture if heat is too rapidly applied Oil opening the isolating valve. Typical USB is ill steam systems to lessell the risk of hacture 0' StIch things as castings, vlueous-lined vessels, etc.

• Consider providing large gete valvBS with a valved bypass to equalil!! pressure on either side of the disc to reduce effort needed to open the valve

lUI

6 .1.3

TABLE 12

PIPING SAFElY II RELIEF VALVES

Rafar to 3.1.9 for 11111\18 orientation

Exund safetY-vaM d .... gs riJen that dischlrgs to atmosphert at IaaIt 10 f1 above IhB roof lina Of plattorm for safety. Support the 'VInt pi PI so 8$ not to 11 rai n Ihi wl\l8 or the pip Ing to the waive. Pointing the discharga line upvoad Is- figura 6.4) imposes 18$1 stress when the valve discharges than doellhe horizontal arran!J8ment

The downstream side of a .fety valve should be unobstructed and involve the minimum of piping. The downstream side of a falil' 01 .faty-retief valve is piped to I relief headel or knockout drum-see 6.l1.3, under 'Venting (I8$8S', Ind 6.12, under 'RelilNing pressureliquids'

Pipe '.hauS1ing to a1mosphare is cut SQUall, not at a slant IS formelly done, as no raat acNantllll8 is gained lor the cost ilWolvtiI

Normally, do not instal a valYe upstraam 01 a pressure-relief valve protecting a vmsel or syS1em from excessive pressurl. Howwar, il an i$Olating valve is used to facilitata maintenance 01 a prassullHBlief V81ve. the isolating y~a is 'locked opeo' -sometimes tarmed 'cer sealed open' (CSO)

10 critical apill icalions. two pressur.reliaf valves provided with isolating valY9S een be used

,

Thl 1 ...... 1"_ 04 p_ """" __ .-.:I It. ... 01 ,,"11na ......,_ In

11_ to WId froIn M:h " ~ by dIt c-. for "_nil .. Ip .....

ANSI 831 _ "" A8ME 801'" III'Id P_ ... v .... Code.

INSTALLING BUTTERFLY VA.LVES

, Ensura that the disc has room to rotlte when the valva is installed. as the disc entBrs the piping in 1na open position

• Place bumrf1v valves with integral .skets betwearl welding-ll8Ck or socket-walding flangeJ __ 3.1.6, under 'Butterflv VIIlve'. The usual method of _ding a $lip-on flange (lei figure 2. n will not givt an IdlQuett .. I. unless thl pipe 1$ finished smooth with the face of the fl,oge

",oauRE·flELlEf·VALYE ' .. NO

fMruREIA

(1) REFER TO '.1.3 UNOEA 'PIPING SAFETY AND RELIEF VALVES' REGAI10lNG USE OF AN lSOLAnNG VALVE IN THiS I'O$ITION

t21 IF AN ISOLATING VALVE IS PROVIDiD. IT IS ALSO NECESURY TO PROVIDE A aUEO VALVE TO RELIEVE PRESSURE IETWEEN 11-IE ISOLATING VALVE "'lID THE PRESSURE MUfF VALVE IFOR "AINTENoIUtCE "URPOSES)

l:ij IF" SPOOL IETWIEN THE TWO V ..... vliS IS NOT USED. THE ILlEO V"LVi ..... V IE PLACED M SHOWN IF THE VAL VE'S IODY CAN IE T""'EP

10 fT MIN. ABOVE PERSONNEL AREA

VAPOR TO ATMOSPHERE ~ DIICU ........ E--ttr1-;;·..-:;'""1 .... fotliWnV

RELIEf V.\.LVE. SAFETY VALVE.

01 SAFETY·RELIEr

VALVE~

~

DllCttARSE

DtIC.AflSEfOR RUlE. VALVE OR IAFn'-REUEf VAL¥[

VAPOR AND/OR LlOUID ~ TO RELIEF LlNE---~

KEY

'"I

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