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88 0 CHAPTER2 LIMITS 2.2 The Limit of a Function 41. Asx approaches 2, f() approaches 5. [Or, the values of f(z) can be made as close to 5 as we like by taking = sufficiently close to 2 (but.x # 2), Yes, the graph could have a hole at (2,5) and be defined such that f(2) = 3 2. As.x approaches 1 from the left, f(x) approaches 3; and as x approaches 1 from the right, f(r) approaches 7. No, the limit does not exist because the left- and right-hand limits are different. 3. (@) lim, f() = 00 means that the values of f(r) can be made arbitrarily large (as large as we please) by taking sufficiently close to —3 (but not equal to 3), (b) lima, f(2) = ~c0 means that the values of f(t) can be made arbitrarily large negative by taking 2 sufficiently close to 4 through values larger than 4. 4 @ lim fe) (©) tim f(e)=4 (©) lim, fle) =2 @ limy (2) does not exist because the limits in part (b) and part (e) are not equal fe) £3) =3 5. (a) {(e) approaches 2 as x approaches | from the left, so lim f(x) (b) Fe) approaches 3 as x approaches | from the right, so li nS (©) lim f() does not exist because the limits in part (a) and part (b) are not equal (@) f(@) approaches 4 as x approaches 5 from the left and from the right, o lim, f(z) (€) (5) is not defined, so it doesn’t exist. 6. (a) h(x) approaches 4 as x approaches ~3 from the left, so lim_ A(z) (b) h(x) approaches 4 as x approaches ~3 from the right, so lim h(x) = 4, (©) Tim, A(x) = 4 because the limits in part (a) and part (b) are equal (a) h{—3) is not defined, so it doesn’t exist (¢) h(x) approaches 1 as approaches 0) from the left, so. lim A(z) = 1 (©) A(z) approaches —1 as x approaches 0 from the right so. lim, (a (2) lim, h(v) does not exist because the limits in part (e) and part (F) are not equal (h) h(0) = 1 since the point (0,1) is on the graph of h. 10. 1. 2 SECTION22 THELIMTOFAFUNCTON S57 (Since lim_ A(z) = 2and lim, h(e) = 2, we have lim hf) = 2 Gi) A(2) is not defined, so it doesn’t exist (k) h(x) approaches 3 as « approaches 5 from the right, so elim, A(x) (0 h(x) doesnot approach any one number as approaches 5 from the lef, so lim. h(x) does nt exist @ Jim g(t) = 1 () Jim g(t) = -2 &) lim g(t) does not exist because the limits in part (a) and part (b) are not equal. (@ Jim 9) =2 ©) Jim g(t) =0 (£) fim g(t) does not exist because the limits in part (d) and part (e) are not equal () 92) (h) lim of) @) lim Ri: (b) lim R(x) = 20 0 (d) . tim. R(x (©) The equations of the vertical asymptotes are 2 = -3,« = 2 and «= 6. (@) Jim, (2) = -00 (0) Jim, f(e) = 00 (@ Jim f(e) = -20 (©) Jim, f(e) = 00 (£) The equations of the vertical asymptotes are x = —7,r = —3, x = 0, and. x = _tim_J() = 150 mgand tim, (0) = 300 mg, These limits show that there is an abrupt change inthe amount of drug in the patient's bloodstream at ¢ = 12 h. The left-hand limit represents the amount of the drug just before the Fourth injection. The right-hand limit represents the amount of the drug just after the fourth injection, (@) lim f(x) =1 (©) lim, f(z) =0 (©) lim, f(x) does not exist because the limits in part (a) and part (b) are not equal. Jinn f(2) exists for all a except a = 8 CHAPTER? LIMITS 13, -2, fd) 1, lim f(z) aan £0) =% tim, fe 14 tim fle) = 1, Tim, f(2) = ” lim f(@)=1, f(2) DY + £(0) is undefined a fla) =A, tim. f(0) = 2, im, F(2) 46, in fle) =3, im f(z) fa lim, f() = -3, 4 Fay 18, For f(x) = f(x) z f(a) | f@) 25 | 0.714286 1.9 | 0.655172 0 0 -2 2 21 | 0.677419 1.95 | 0.661017 -1 -15, 3 2.05 | 0.672131 1.99 | 0.665552 9 ll u 2.01 | 0.667774 1.995 | 0.666110 ~19 -101 | 101 2.005 | 0.667221 1.999 | 0.666556 —99 —1.001 | 1001 2.001 | 0.666778 —999 7 a -2r appears that lina 3 Weappears that im <> ——" does nor exist since ae om, aaa Se) + 004s 2+ —1" and f(2) ~ —o0 as 2 + ~1*. sing 49, For f(z) = AS = | f@) = | f@ a) 1 | 0.320038 a7 | 0.128106 15 | 0.427017 405 | 0.458209 165 | 0.124038, 15.5 | 0.125992 £02 | 0.493331 16.1 | 0.124805, 15.9 | 0.125196 40.1 | 0.498333 16.05 | 0.124902 15.95 | 0.125008 £0.05 | 0.499583 16.01 | 0.124980 15,99 | 0.125020 £0.01 | 0.499083 ve-4 ine 1 Ie appears that fim, “= —* = 0.125 = I nt _ sos} appears that fins Se tane 08 = 3