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Tuyen Tap de Thi Tuyen Sinh THPT Chuyen_DHKHTN Ha Noi

Tuyen Tap de Thi Tuyen Sinh THPT Chuyen_DHKHTN Ha Noi

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NGUY~N vO LUONG - NGUY~N VAN M~U - NGUY~N VAN XOA

TlJyENTA.P

BE TBI TUY:EN SIND TDPT ~DUYtN

MON: TOAN

(£)~I HQC oucc GIA HA NQI) (Tai ban ldn thft nhctt)

• De' thi tit nam hoc 1989 - 2006

• De' luy~n ttJ,p

• Huang ddn gidi chi tiel

(Dung cho hoc sinh ctic lup 7,8, 9)

NHA XUAT BAN GIAO Dt)C

KhO'i THPT Chuyen Toan (nay la Khoi ChuyenToan - Tin) cua Trttdng Dai hoc Khoa hoc T1;i nhien thuoc Dai hoc QuO'c gia Ha N9i ducc thanh lap d~u tien tit nam 1965 thea quyet dinh cua cO' Thu tudng Chinh phu Pharn Van Dong. Saud6, tit nam 1985, cac Khol Chuyen Ly, H6a, Sinh-Ian luot ra ddi. HQc sinh cac khfii chuyen cua Truong da dat duoc nhieu thanh tich dang k~ trong cac ki thi Olympic trong nude va quoc teo

Hang' nam, Truong Dai hQC Khoa hoc T1;i nhien Ha N9i deu t<5 chuc thi tuy~n d~ tuyen chon nhimg hoc sinh c6 nang khieu d moi mien dAt nude. Cac em d~u phai thi mon Toan (vong 1), rieng thi sinh thi VaG Chuyen 'I'oan - Tin phai thi them mon Toan (vong 2).

- D~ giup cac em hoc sinh hi~u them ve noi dung, chuong trinh cling nhu muc d9 kh6, d~ cua cac de thi, chung toi cho ra mat tuy~n t~p nay. Day cling Ia tai lieu giup cac em c6 kha nang tu hoc, t1;i on luyen nang cao kha nang tu duy, sang tao va nang luc gilii toano Ngoai cac de thi chinh thirc (ca vong 1 va vong 2) cua nhimg nam g~n day, tuy~n tap con dua them nhieu de tu luyen d~ cac em tham khao,

Phan de thi chinh thirc do tac gia suu tlim va tu giai nen khong th~ tranh khoi khiern khuyet. Cac tac gia rat mong nhan duc;Jc y kien d6ng g6p cua ban doc d~ llin tai ban sau cuon sach duoc hoan thien hen.

Cac tac gia

3

Pit AN I. DE 1HI cHiNH THU'C

A. DE BAI

a' thl nam 1989 • (Kh61 chuyOn Tocm va chuyOn Tin· Vong 1) Thbl gian lam bell : 180 phut

Bili 1. Cho da thee P(x) = ax2 + bx + c.

,

Biet rang vci moi gia tri nguyen cua x, gia tri cua da tlurc P(x) deu la

nhfrng s6 chinh phu~g (nghia Ia bang blnh phirong cua s6 nguyen). Chirng minh ding cac h¢ s6 a, b, c deu la nhCing s6 nguyen, va b Ia mot s6 chan.

Bili 2. Tim gia tri nho nhilt cua bieu thue :

a2 + ab + b2 - 3a - 3b + 1989

Gia tri nho nhat do dat duClc tai gia tri nao cua a va b ?

Bal J. Chung minh rang trong 52 s6 nguyen dirong bat ky luon luon co th~ tim duoc 2 s6 sao eho tOng hoac hieu cua 2 s6 do chia het cho 100.

Bal 4.

-

Cho tam giac ABC e , -u phia ngoai tam giac vi! cac goc BAx -

- .

CAy = 21°. Ha BE vuong goc vaiAx (E nam tren Ax). CF vuong goc

voi Ay (F nam tren Ay). M la trung di~m cua BC.

1. Cluing minh rang tam giac M SF 1il tam giac can.

2. Tlnh cac goc cua tam giac MEF.

5

Bai 5. C6· 9 hocsinh vira lap A vua . lap B xep thanh mot hang. dQC, dUng each deu. Cluing minh rAng co It nhat 1 hoc sinh dUng each 2 ban cung lap v6'i mlnh mot khoang each nhu nhau ..

De thl nam 1989 - (Khol chuyAn ToOn va chuy'n TIn - Vong 2) ThCJI glan lam bell : 180 phUt

Bai 1. Phan tfch bieu thirc :

a4 + b4 + c4 - 2a2b2 _ 2b2c2 _ 2c2a2

thanh b6n nhan tiro

Bai 2.

1. Cho biet 2 x - --32.

x +x+1

2

Hay tfnh gia tri ella bieu thue 4 x 2 •

. x +x +1

2. TIm gia tri Ian nhat cua bieu thuc :

x2

X4 +x2 + i

Gia tri Ian nhat d6 dat ducc tai gia tIi nao cua x ?

Bai 3. Cho bieu thtrc Pen) = an + bn + c, trong d6 a, b, c la nhiing s6 nguyen. Chung minh rAng neu v6'i moi gia tri nguyen duong ella n, P( n) luon chia het cho m (m Ia s6 nguyen dUC1Ilg e6 dinh), thl b2 phAi chia h!t ehom.

VOi vf du sau day hay chong to rAng khong the suy ra b ehia h~t chom:

Pen) = 3n + 2n + 3 (xet khi m = 4).

Bai 4. tho da giac 16i saucanh ABCDEF. M,I,L,K,N,H I~ hlgt la trung diem ella cac canh AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, FA. ChUng minh rAng cac trong tam cua hai tam giac M N L va HI K trung nhau.

6

Bal S. Gia sir trong mot tnrong e6 n 161>, taky hieu am lit s6 hQC sinh ella 161> thu m, dk la s6 161> trong d6 m6i 161> e6 it nh4t k hoc sinh, M III s6 hQC sinh ella 161> dOng nhat, Cluing minh rang :

1. al + a2 + ... + an = dl + d2 + ... + dM·

. .

2. a~+a~+·· .+a; =dl +3d2+5d3+·· ·+(2k-l)dk+·· ·+(2M -l)dM.

. .

Oe thl nam 1989 :' (Khal chuyin Ly)

Thbl glan lambol : 180 phUt

Rili 1. Tim tat ea nheng gia tri nguyen cua x de bieu thuc sau la s6 nguyen _2x2 + x +36

2x+3

Bal 2. Tim gia tri nhonh4t ella bieu thuc : -

a2 + ab + b2 .: 3a - 3b + 3.

Gia tri nho nhat d6 d~t dU<;1e tai gia tri nao ella a va b ?

Rid 3.

1. Chung minh rang vai moi m nguyen duong, bieu thdc m 2 + m + 1 kheng phai la s6 chfnh phuong (nghia la khong the bang blnh phirong "ella s6 nguyen).

2. Chung minh rAng vai moi m nguyen duong, m( m + 1) khOng the bang tich ella b6n s6 nguyen lien tiep,

Rili 4. Cho tam giae ABC vuong can, g6e A = 90°. C M la trung tuyen (M nAm tren AB). Tir Ave duong thang vuong g6e vai MC cat BC a H. T( h' ,BH

n ty s6 HC'

Rili S. C6 6 thanh phe, trong d6 cu 3 thanh ph6 b4t ky" thl e6 it nhat 2 thanh ph6 lien lac dU<;1e vai nhau. Chung minh rang trong 6 thanh phe n6i tren t6n tai 3 thanh ph6 "lien lac du<;1C vai nhau.

7

1>' thl nam 1991- (Kh61 chuyln Toan va chuyln nn;' Vong 1) Thai glan lam bOl: 180 phUt

Bai 1.

1. GiM va bien luan phuong trinh :

Va+X+..;a=x=Vb v'a+x-v'a-x

vm a, b la cacso duong da eho.·

2. Cho phtrong trinh x2 + ax + b + 1 = 0 (a, b E Z va b i- -1). ChUng minh rang neu phirong trlnh co hai nghiem d~u la nhiing s6 nguyen thl a2 + b2 la hop s6.

Bai 2. Cho a, b, c la cac s6 dOi m¢t khac nhau va khac O. GiM h~ :

{ a3x+a2y+az = 1 b3x + b2y + bz = 1 c3x + c2y + cz = 1

Bai 3.Tun nghiern nguyen, duong eua phuong trlnh : 7:& = 3.2Y + 1.

Bai 4.

1. Cho hlnh thang ABCD (AB//CD). GQi giao diem ella AD va BC la E, giao diem cua AC va BD la F. Chung minh rAng dUOng thing EF di qua trung diem eua hai day AB, CD.

2. Cho tam giac ABC. M, N, P lrut luqt:

Ia cac diem tren cac canh BCjCA,AB. N6iAM, BN, CP (hlnh ve). ChUng minh rAng neu dien tfch

A

B

8

c

9

cua b6n tam giac gach cheo bang nhau thl dien tfch cua ba tu giac khonggach cheo cung bang nhau.

Bal 5. Ton tai hay khong 1991 diem tren mat phang sao eho ba diem bat ky trong cluing la ba dinh cua mot tam giac co mot goc tu ?

f)' thl nam 1991 - (Kh6i chuyin Toan va chuyin TIn - Vc}ng 2) Thai gian lam bCli : 180 phut

Bai 1.

1. Rut gon bieu thuc:

A= ~ 2V3 - 4v'2. ~ 44 + 16J6.

2. Phan tfeh bieu thtrc sau thanh tlch cac nhan tii :

p = (x - y)5 + (y - z)5 + (z - x)5.

Bai 2.

1. Cho cac s6 a, b, c, o , {3" thoa man cac dieu kien :

{ a+b+c=O

0'.+13+,=0 0'.+~+1=0

a b. c

Hay tfnh gia tri cua bieu tlurc A = O'.a2 + {3b2 + ,c2•

2. Cho b6n s6 a, b, c, d; m6i s6 dtu khong am va nho hon hoac bang 1.

Clnrng minh rang :

o ~ a + b + c + d - ab - be ~ cd - da ~ 2.

Khi nao thl dau dAng thirc xay ra ?

Bai 3. Cho truac a va d la nhilng s6 nguyen duong. Xet t~t ca cac s6 co. dang :

a, a + d, a + 2d, ... ,a + nd, ...

Chung minh rang trong cac s6 <16 co. fl nhat m<)t s6 rna 4' chit s6 d~u

,

tien cua no la 1991.

Bai 4.

Trong met cuoc h¢i thao khoa hoc co. 100 ngum tham. du, Gia sir mOi ngiroi deu quen bi€t vffi it nhat 67 ngum. Chung minh rAng co. the tim dtroc mot nhom 4 ngiroi rna bat ky 2 nguoi trong nhom dO. deu quen biet nhau.

Bai S.

1. Cho hlnh vuOng ABCD. L~y diem M nam trong hlnh vuOng sao cho:

- - ,

MAB = MBA = 15°.

Chung minh rang tam giac M C D la tam giac deu.

2. Hay xay dung mot tap hopgom 8 diem co. tfnh ch~t : Duong trung tnrc cua doan n6i hai diem b~t ky luon di qua it nhar hai diem cua t~p hop diem dO..

04 thl nom 1992 - (Kh61 chuy6n Ly - Hoa) thaI glan lC!m bOl : 180 phUt

Bai 1.

e!) Giai he plnrong trlnh :

{ (x+y)2y=2

(x + y) (x2 - xy + y2) = 1 2. Cho z, y > 0; x + y = 1. ChUng minh rAng:

10

Bal 2. Giii sir m III mot tham so de phU<1I1g trinh :

(x - l)(x - 2)(x - 3)(x "::--4) = m

eo bon nghiern Xl, X2, X3,X4 d~u khac khong.

Hay tinh gia tri ella bieu thtrc sau day thea m :

1 1 1 1

p= - +-+ - +-.

Xl X2 X3 X4

Bili 3. Cho tam giac ABC eo BC = a, CA =b, AB ::;:: c, AD III dirong phan giac trong ella goc A.

1. Chung minh rang AD2 = AB.AC - DB.DC

2. Tfnh AD thea a, b,c.

Bal 4. Cho tam giac ABC eo AM, BN III cac duong trung tuyen xuat phat . . tir A va B; AD, BE Ia cac dirong phan giac xuat phat tu A va B.

Chung minh rang neu A > B thl :

1. AM < BN.

2. AD < BE.

Bai 5. Tim nghiern nguyen ella phuong trinh : 2xy + X + y - 83.

De thi nam 1992 - (Khol chuyen T06n va chuyen TIn - Yang 1) Thoi glon lam bell : 180 phUt

Ba.i 1.

1. GiM phuong trinh :

J X + 2 + 3J2x - 5 + J X - 2 - J2x -5 = 2v'2.

2. Giai h~ phirong trinh :

{ xy2 - 2y + 3x2 = 0

y2 + x2y + 2x = 0

..

11

BC AC AB

DH = DI + DK··

@; Tim tilt ca cac cap s6 nguyen khong am (m, n) dt phuong t~lnh : x2 - mnx + m + n = 0

co nghiern nguyen.

Bili 3. Cho tam giac ABC co dien tich S. Tren cac canh AB, BC, CA Ian luot lily C', A' ,B' nrong irng, sao cho :

BA' 1 CB' 1 AC' = C'B,

AIC = 2' ·B'A = 3'

Oia sir AA' cAt BB' tai M, BB' cdt CC' tai N, CC' cAt AA' tai P. Tfnh dien tfch tam giac M N P theo S.

Bili 4. Cho tam giac ABC noi tiep trong mot dirong tron, Lily mot ditm D tren cung BC (khong chua A) cua dirong tron d6. H~ DH vuong g6c voi BC, DI vuong goc v6i CA va DK vuong g6c voi AB. Chimg minh rang:

@}) Tim tilt ea cac cap s6 nguyen dirong (m, n) sao cho 2m + 1 chia het cho n va 2n + 1 chia het cho m.

De thl nam 1992 .. (Khol chuyen To~n va chuyen TIn .. Vong 2) Thai glan lam bell : 180 phUt

Bili 1.

1. Tim tilt ca cac s6 nguyen n dt n4 + 2n3 + 2n2 + n + 7 Ia s6 chfnh phirong.

2. Cho a, b, c > 0 va a + b + c ~ 1. Chung minh rang:

1 1 1

--=--- + . + ~ 9.

a2 + 2bc . b2 + 2ca c2 + 2ab

12

13

Bai 2. Cho a lil t6ng cac chit so cua so (29)1945, b la tong cac chu so cua so a. Tim t6ngcae chit s6 ella so b.

Bid 3. Cho tam giac ABC. Gia sii dirongphan giac trong va ngoai cua . goc A cAt dirong thang BC tai D, K nrong img. Chimg minh rang neu AD = AK thl AB2 + AC2 = 4R2, trong do R la ban kfnh dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC.

Bai 4.

Trong m~t phang ke 1992 dirong thang sao cho khong co 2 dirong nao song song va khong co ba dirong nao dong quy. Tam giac tao bci ba dirong thang trong s6 cac duang thang da cho goi Ia "tam giac xanh" neu no khong bi du~g thang nao trong so cac duong thang con lai cat,

1: Chung, minh rang so tam giac xanh khong it han 664.

2. Clnrng minh ket luan manh han : SO tam giac xanh khong it han 1328.

Bai S.

Co 41 thanh phc duoc noi vci nhau bang cac duong chi di diroc mot chieu. Bier rang tu mOi thanh pho co dung 16 dirong den cac thanh phc khac va dung 16 dirong tll cac thanh phe khac den no. Gitta hai thanh phc bat ky khong co qua mot con duong cua mang dirong noi tren. Chung minh rang tll mot thanh phc bat ky A deu co tM di den mot thanh phd bat ky B rna chi di qua nhieu nhat hai thanh ph6 trung gian.

f)' thl nain 1993 • (Chung ehe eee khol chuyen) ThCtI glen lam bell: 180 phut

Bai 1.

1. Giai phuong trlnh

2. Giai he phuong trlnh

{ x3 +.2 xy2 + 12y = 0 8y2 + x2 = 12

~ Tim giti tri 1&1 nhat va. be nhat cua bieu thee :

A = x2y( 4 - x - y)

khi x va y thay d6i thoa man di~u kien : x ~ 0, y ~ 0, x + y ::;; 6.

Bai 3. Cho hinh thoi ABCD. G9i R, r IAn hrot la ban kfnh cac dUOng tron ngoai tiep cac tam giac ABD, ABC va a Ia de) dai canh hinh thoi. Chung minh rang :

114

R2 +2'= 2' r a

Bai 4. Cho tam giac d~u ABC noi tiep dirong tron tam O· ban kfnh R. Quay 6ABC mot g6c 90° quanh tam 0 ta du<;1C 6AlBlCl. Tinh dien tich phan chung cua hai hinh tam giac ABC .va AlBl Cl theo R.

Bai S. Tim tat ca cac s6 nguyen dirong a, b, c doime)t khacnhau sao cho bieu thee :

1 1 1 1 1 1 A=-+-+-+-+-+-

abe ab ac be

nhan gia tri nguyen dirong.

1>' thl nam 1993 - (Kh61 chuyin Toan va chuyin nn) Th~i glanlam bell : 180 phUt

Bai I.

1. Cho ba s6 dirong a, b, c c6 t6ng bang 1. Chimg minh rang :

6(ab + be + ca) + a(b - e)2 + b(e - a)2 + c(a - b) 2. ::;; 2 .

2. Cho p = x3 - 3x2 + 5x, q ...:_ y3 - 3y2 + 5y

Biet rang p + q = 6. Hay tfnh x + y.

14

15

Oai 2 e . Cho 1993 s6 nguyen dirong, m6i s6 d~u nho hon hoac bang 1993 va khong phai tat ca cac s6 tren deu bang nhau. Biet rAng t6ng ella cluing iil 3986. ChUng minh rang tit cac s6 da cho luon chon duoc k s6 (k ~ 1) de: t6ng ella k s6 nay bang 1993.

Dal3. Ngiroi ta du dinh tat nen mot can phong hlnh chu nhat bang cac vien gach men hlnh thang can vcri cac kfch thllCJe : day nhe 7cm, day 16'11 2lem, canh ben 7 v'2em. S6 luong gach men khong han che. Hoi co. the hit kin diroc hay khong ? (Khong dtroc d~p va timg vien hay !at chong vien nay len vien kia). Giai thfch VI sao?

Did 4. Cho hlnh blnh hanh ABeD. Tren cac canh AB, AD ta lay nrong Ung cac diem M va N. Qua M va N tan lirot ke cac dirong thang song song vai cac canh AD, AB. Goi S la giao diem ella cac duMlg thang do. Chung rninh rang cac duong thang M D, N B va se d6ng quy,

Oai S. Trong mot giai bong da co tam dQi tham gia thi dau vong tron (MOi dQi da mot tr~n voi tat ca cac dQi con lai). Giai dirocchia thanh hai dot. Tim s6 tr~ndau nhieu nhat co the co 0 dQ"t dau sao cho vai badoi bat ky d~u co 1t nhat hai dQi chua thi dau voi nhau trong cac d<Jt dau.

f)6 thl nom 1994 - (Chung ehe c6c khai chuyen) ThCJI glan 10m bell : 180 phut

Bai 1. GiM cac phirong trlnh sau :

1. x4 - 2x3 - 6x2 + 16x- 8 = O.

2. x2 + 2x + 4 = 3Jx3 + 4x ..

8 Xet cac s6 x, y, z, t > 0 thoa man h¢ th~c :

xy + 4zt + 2yz + 2xt = 9.

11m . gia tri Ian nhat cua bieu thuc :

A = vxy + 2VZt.

Bal 3. 11m t~t ea cac sO nguyen x, y, z, t thoa man hephuong trlnh :

{ xy - 3zt = 1 xz + yt = 2

Bai 4. Cho tam giac can ABC eo.AB = AC va H la trungdiem cua canh BC. M¢t duong tron di qua A va tiep xuc voi canh BC tai B cal AC, AH liin Iuot tai D va E. Biet rang D latrung diem cua AC va ban kfnh dirong tron bang R. Tfnh d¢ dai cac day eung AE, AD theo R.

Bai 5.

Cho tam giac ABC co BC > AC. Mot dirong thang song song voi canh AB elit cac canh BC va AC Ian hrot tai cac diem M va N. Chung minh rang BN > AM.

C' thl nam 1994 -, (Kh61 chuy6n T06n va chuyen Tin) Thol glen lam bell : 180 phut

8 Giai he phuong trl~h :

·1 (x + y)(y + z) .. 4Xy.2Z (y + z)(z + x) = 4yz2x

(z + x)(x + y) = 4zx2y

Bai2. Tim t~t ca cac cap sO nguyen (x, y) thoa man phirong trlnh :

12x2 + 6xy + 3y2 = 28(x + y).

Bili 3. Xac dinh cac gia tri nguyen dirong n ( n ~ 3) sao eho sO A = 1.2.3 ... n (tfch cua n s6 nguyen dirong dau tien) chi a het eho sO B = 1'+ 2 + 3 + ... + n.

16

'ITDTMT 2A

17

Bal 4. Cho a, b, c ~ 1. Chimg minh rang :

1 1 1 1 1 1

--+--+--~ + + ...

l+a l+b l+c 1+~ 1+~ 1+~

Bai 5. Cho 6.ABG c6 AB = AG.

- ?

1. Chung minh rang neu BAG = ~OOthi luon tim diroc cac diem D va

K tren cac canh AB va AG sao cho AD = DK - KG = GB.

2. Nguoc lai, chirng minh rang neu t6n tai cac di~m D va K tren cac canh

-

AB va AG sao cho AD = DK = KG = GB thi BAG = 20°.

Oe thi nam 1995 - (Chung cho cec khoi chuyen) Thoi gian lam bCi : 180 phut

Bai 1. Giiii he phirong trinh :

{. 2x' - y' = 1 xy +x2 = 2.

Bai 2. GiM phuong trinh :

vT=X + V 4 + x = 3.

B~· 3 O··'? b l' ,. , d . h a + 1 b + 1 l' .

• 1. ia sir a, a eae s6 nguyen . uong sao co: -b- + --a- a mot

s6 nguyen. GQi d Iii uOc s6 cua a va b. Chimg minh rang : d ~ va + b.

8ai 4. Cho hai hlnh chit nhatco cung dien tfch. Hlnh chit nhat thu nhat e6 cac kfch thuoc a va b (a > b). Hlnh chit nhat thii hai co cac klch thuOc c va d (c > d). Chung minh rang : neu a >c thi chu vi cua hlnh chit nh~t thu nMt tan hon chu vi caa hlnh chu nhat thu hai.

Bai S. Cho ba diem co dinh A, B, C thang hang thea thirtu ay. GQi (0) la mot dirong trim qua B va C. Ke tir A cac tiep tuyen AE va AF den dirong tron (0) (E va F ia cac tiep diem). GQi 0 ia tam cua dirong tron (0), I ia trung diem cua BC, N ia trung diem cua EF.

1. Chirng minh rang : E va F nam tren mot dirong tron co dinh khi dtrong tron (0) thay d6i.

2. Duong thang F I cat dirong tron (0) tai E'. Chung minh rang E E' song song voi AB.

3. Chtrng minh rang tam dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ON I nam tren mot duong thang co dinh khi duong tron (0) thay d6i.

De thi nam 1995 .; (Khoi chuyen Toan va chuyen TIn) Thol glen lam bal : 180 phuf

Bai 1. Cho ,( x + Jx2 + 3) (Y + Jy2 + 3) = 3.

Hay tinh gia tri cua bieu thirc : E = x + y.

Bai 2. Giai he phirong trlnh :

I x + xy + y = 1

y + yz + z = 3 z + zx + x = 7.

Bal 3. Cho x, y ?: 0 va x2 + y2 = 1. Chirng minh rang :

133 J2:::;X +y:::;1.

Bai 4. Tim so nguyen co chin chit so A = ala2a3blb2b3ala2a3, trong do al =f 0 va bIb2b3 = 2.aIa2a3, dong thai A co th~ viet diroc diroi dang A = pip~p~p~ voi PI, P2, P3, P4 la bon so nguyen to khac nhau.

18

ITDTMT- 2B

Bili 5. Cho dirong tron ({}), ve hai day cung AB va CD cat nhau i:J 1 (l nam trong direng tron). GQi M la trungdiem cua BD. 1\11 keo dai cat AC i:J N. Clurng minh rang :

AN A12

NC = C12'

D' thl nam 1996 • (Chung cho cac khol chuyen). . ThCJI glan lam bal: 180 phut

. Bili 1. Cho x > 0, hay tim gia tri nh6 nhat cua bieuthuc

p=

Bili 2. Giai he phuong trlnh

Bili 3. Chung minh rang vai moi n nguyen dirong ta co :

n3 + 5n : 6.

Bili 4. Cho a, b, c > 0, cluing minh rang:

a3 b3 c3

~b + - + - ~ ab+bc+ca.

c a

Bili 5. Cho hlnh vuong ABC D canh bang a. GQi M, N, P, Q la cac diem bat ky Uin hrot narn tren cac canh AB, Be, CD, DA.

P = X(X2 + y) + y(y2 + x).

1. Chung minh rang :

2. Giil sir M Ut mot diem c6 dinh cho tnroc tren canh AB. Hay xac dinh vi trf cua cac diem N, P, Q Hin luot tren cac canh BC, CD, DA sao cho M N PQ la mot hlnh vuong.

De thi nam 1996 - (KhOi chuyen .Toan va chuyen TIn) Thai gian lam bai : 180 phut

Phan chung cho chuyen Toan va chuyen Tin

Bai 1. Giai 'plurong trlnh .:

(JX=1 + 1)3 + 2JX=1 = 2 - x.

Bai 2. Giai he phuong trlnh :

!"'-JY=l

y-JZ=l z-JX=l

8 Chox, y la nhfrng s6 nguyen dirong thay d6i thoa man dieu kien :

x + y = 201.

Hay tlm gia trilon ·nhat va gia tri nho nhat cua bi~u thirc :

Bai 4. Cho doan thang BC va duang thang (d) song song vai BC. Biet rang khoang each giiia dirong thang (d) va dirong thang di qua BC nho hem B2C. ou sir A la mot diem thay d6i tren dirong thang. (d).

1. Hay xac dinh vi trf cua diem A de ban kfnh duong tron ngoai tiep 6.ABC nho nhat.

20

2. Goi li«. hb' he la dQ dai cac dirong eao cua lsABC. Hay xac dinh V!

.

trf cua diem A d~ tfch ha.hb.he Ia 100 nhat,

Phan danh cho chuyen Toan

SehO x,y,z> 0 va x + y + z ~ ~. Chung minh rang':

~ +Jy2+ 1 +Jz2+ 1 ~~Vl7.

yx- ~ ~ y2 z2 2

Phan danh cho chuyen Tin .

Bai 5.

Chia mot hlnh tron thanh 14 hlnh quat-bang nhau. Trong moi hlnh quat d~t mot vien bi (xem hlnh ve). Goi T Ia phep bien d6i: U1Y hai hlnh quat bat ky co bi va chuyen ur moi hlnh quat do mot vien bi sang hinh quat lien k~ nhirng thea hai chien ngiroc nhau (vi du, neu vien bi 6 mot hlnh quat diroc chuyen thea chieu kim dong ho thi vien bi a hlnh quat kia duoc chuyen thea chieu ngiroc lai),

Hoi bang viec thuc hien phep bien d6i tren, sau mot so hiiu han biroc ta co th~ chuyen diroc tat ca cac vien bi vao mot hinhquat diroc khong ? Neu co, hay chi ra qua trlnh bien d6i. Neu khong, hay giai thich tai sao?

gO thl nom 1997 - (Chung cho cec khai chuyen) ThCJI glan lam bal: 180 phut

{/1O + 6V3(V3 -1)

x= .

V6+2V5 - V5

Tlnh P = (x3 - 4x + 1)1997.

6ai 1. Cho

,21

Bai 2. Giai phuong trlnh :

Bal 3. Giai he plurong trlnh :

{ 2xy =.X + y + 1 2yz = y + z +7

2xz = z + x + 2.

Bili 4. TIm tat ca cac s6 nr nhien n de 2n + 15 Ia s6 chfnh phirong.

Bal 5. Cho tam giacdeu ABC canh l. Ben trong tam giac ta d~t 2 dirong tron (0, R) va (0', R') tiep xuc ngoai voi nhau, sao eho mot trong hai dirong tron tiep xuc voi cac canh BC va BA; dirong tron kia tiep xiic voi cac eanh BC va CA.

. C' hil . h rt R R' V3 -1

1. irng rrun rang + ~ 2 .

2. Cac ban kfnh R va R' bang bao nhieu de tong dien tfch cac hlnh tron (0, R) va (0', R') nho nhat va tlnh gia tri nho nhat do.

Di thl nam 1997 - (Kh61 chuy6n Toan va chuy6n Tin) Thai glon lam bell: 180 ph"t

8ili 1. Giai h¢ phirong trlnh :

{ y3 + y2 X + 3x - 6y = 0 x2 + xy = 3.

Ba! 2. Co t6n tai hay khong cac s6 nguyen x, y thoa man di~u kien :

1992x1D93 + 1993y1994 = 1995.

22

23

Bai 3. SO 1997 viet diroc diroi dang tong n hop so, nhirng khong viet duoc

-

diroi dang tong n + 1 hop so. Hoi n bang bao nhieu ?

Bal 4. Cho tam giac ABC ngoai tiep dirong tron co ban kinh bang 1. G9i ha, hb' he Hin lirot Ia d¢ dai cac duong cao ha tu dinh A, B, C tOl cac canh doi dien. Hay tim gia tri Ian nhat cua bieu thirc :

11. 1

]v! = + + .

ha + 2hb hb + 2hc he + 2ha;

Bai 5. Tren dirong tron cho 16 diem va dung 3 mau xanh, do, Yang de to cac diem nay (moi diem to bang mot mau). Giira moi cap diem noi bang mot doan thang diroc to bang mau tim hoac mau nau.

Chung rninh rang voi moi each t6 mau tren cac di~m (chi dung 3 rnau: xanh, do, vang) va rnoi each t6 mau tren cac doan thang noi gifta cac cap diem (chi dung hai mau : tfm hoac nau) ta deu tlm diroc tren hlnh ve mot tam giac co dinh Ia cac diem da cho, rna cac dinh duoc to bang cung mot mau va cac canh cilng duoc to bang cung mot mau (di nhien la khac rnau to tren dinh),

I>e thl nam 1998 - (Chung cho cec khoi chuyen) Thoi glan lam bal: 180 phut

Bili 1.

1. Giai phuong trlnh :

)2 - x2 + ) x2 + 8 = 4.

2. Giai he plurong trlnh :

Bili 2. Cac s6a, b thoa man dieu kien :

{ a3 - 3ab' = 19

b3 - 3a2b = 98

Hay tfnh gia tri ella bieu thtrc : P = a2 + b2•

Bai 3. Cho cac s6 a, b, e E [0,1]. ChUng minh rang :

a + b2 + e3 - ab - be - ca ~ 1.

Dal 4. Cho duong tron (c) ban kfnh R. A va B la hai diem ~6 dinh tren dirong tron, (AB < 2R). Gia str MIa mot diem thay d6i tren eung Ian AB ella duemg tron.

1. Ke tir B dirong thang vuong g6e voi AM, duemg th~ng nay eAt AM tai I va eAt dirong tron (c) tai N. GQi

J lil trung diem ella M N. ChUng minh rang khi M thay d6i tren dtrong tron thl m6i diem I, J deu nam tren mot duong tron e6 dinh,

2. Xac dinh vi trl ella diem M de chu vi ella .6.AM B la Ian nhat.

Bili S.

1. TIm t~t ea cac s6 nguyen duong n sao eho m6i s6 n + 26 va n - 11 deu la lap phuong ella mot s6 nguyen duong,

2. Cho cac s6 x, y, z thay d6i thoa man dieu kien : x2 + y2 + z2 = 1.

Hay tim gia tri Ian nhat ella bieu thuc :

p = xy + yz + zx + ~[x2(y - z)2 + y2(z _ x)2 + z2(X _ y)2].

f)' thl ,"!cm 1998 - (Kh61 chuy6n 106n va chuy6n TIn) ThO! glon lam bOl : 180 phUt

Bai 1.

I, Giai h¢ phuong trinh :

L' \'1" '.

{. X + x2 + x3. + x4 = Y + y2 + y3 + 'y4

x2 + y2 = 1

2'4

2. V oi nhimg gia tri nao cua a thl phirong trinh sau day co nghiem :

Vl=X + VI + x = 11 - c] + 11 + c],

Bai 2. Tim nghiern nguyen cua phirong trlnh :

19x3 - 98y2 ' 1998.

Bai 3.

I. Cho a, b, c la cac so thoa man hai dieu kien sau :

i) 0 < a < b,

ii) Phirong trlnh ax2 + bx + c = 0 vO nghiem,

Chti . h' a + b + c 3

irng nun rang: b >.

-a

2. Cho x, y, z > o. Hay tim gia tri nho nhat cua bieu tlurc :

x2 y2 z2

p= + + .

x2 + 2yz y2 + 2zx z2 + 2xy

,.

Bai 4. Cho bang 0 vuong kich thuoc 1998 x 2000 (bang gem 1998 hang va

2000 cot),

Ky hieu (m, n) la 0 vuong n4m b giao cua hang thu m (tlnh tu tren

xuong duoi) va cot thu n (tfnh tu trai sang phai),

\

Cho cac so nguyen p, q voi ~ ~ p ~ 1993 va 1 ~ q ~ 1995.

TO mau cac 0 vuong con cua bang theo quy tAc : ~an thu nhat to mau nam 0 :. (p, q); (p + 1, q + 1); (p + 2, q + 2); (p + 3, q + 3); (p + 4, q + 4). Lan thu hai tro di, m6i tan to nam 0 chua co mau nam lien ti€p trong cung mot hang hoac cung mot cot.

Hoi bang each do ta co the to mau het tat ca cac () vuong con clla bang

hay khong ? Vi sao?

-

8ai 5. Cho tam giac deu ABC.

Trong 6.ABC, ve ba dirong tron e1, £2, £3 co ban kfnh bang nhau, tiep xuc ngoai IAn nhau va m6i duemg tron d~u ti€p xuc voi hai canh cua tam giac,

25

G9i C la duong tron tiep xuc ngoai vai ca ba dirong tron cl, c~, c3. Biet ban kinh ella dirong tron e la r, hay tinh d¢ dai canh ella 6ABC .

.

f>e thl nam 1999 • (Chung cho cec kh6i chuyen)

Thol gian lam bal: 180 phut

Bal 1. Cho cac 56 a, b, c thoa man dieu kien :

Hay tinh gia tri ella bieu .tlurc : P = 1 + a4 + b4 + c4•

Bai 2.

1. Giai phirong trlnh

../ x + 3 - ../7 - x = ../2x - 8.

2. Giai he phuong trlnh :

1 1 9

{x+y+-+...;..=x y 2

1 5 xy+-=-

xy 2

Bal 3. Tim tAt ca cac s6 nguyen dirong n sao eho : n 2 + 9n - 2 chi a het eho n + 11.

Ba] 4. Cho dirong tron (C) va diem 1 a trong dirong tron. Dung qua 1 hai day eung bat ky MIN va ElF. G9i M', N', E', F' la cac trung diem ella 1M, IN, IE, IF.

1. Chung minh rang ttl giac M' E' N' F' la tu giac noi tiep.

2. Gia sir 1 thay d6i, cac day eung MIN, ElF thay d6i. Chimg minh rang dirong tron ngoai tiep tu giac M' E' N' F' co ban kinh khong d6i.

26

3. Giii su I c6 dinh, cac day cung MIN, B! P thay d6i nhung luon luon vuong goc vai nhau. Tim vi tri ella cac day eung M I N va BI P sao eho tu giac NI' B' N' P' eo dien tich 100 nhat,

Bili 5. Cac s6 duong x va y thay d6i thoa man di~u kien : x + y = 1. Hay tim gia tri nho nhat ella bieu tlurc :

p = (x2 + :2) (y2 + :2)'

Cac thl sinh thi vao Khoi chuyen Sinh khong pha] lam bai 5.

f)i thl nom 1999 - (Khat chuyen loan va chuyen Tin) Thisi gian lam beli: 150 phut

Bid 1. Giai phuong trlnh :

.) v

+ 8 = 2x" + 2x - 1.

1

Bai 2. Cac s6 a1, a2, ... diroc xac dinh boi cong thuc :

voi moi k;::: 1.

Hay tfnh gia tri cua t6ng : 1 + a1 + a2 + ... + ag.

Bai 3. Chung minh rang t6n tai mot s6 chia het cho 1999 va tong cac chi! s6 cua s6 d6 bang 1999.

Bai 4. Cho dirong tron tam 0 banklnh R. Gia sir A va. B la hai diem c6 dinh tren duong tron voi AB = RJ3.

1. Giii sir M la mot diem thay d6i tren cung 100 AB cuaduong tron.

Duong tron noi tiep 6.M AB tiep xiic voi M A tai B va tiep xuc voi M B tai F. Chung minh rang duong th~ng EP luon tiep xuc vai mot duong tron c6 dinh khi NI thay d6i.

27

2. Tim tap hop t~:t ca cac di~m P sao cho dirong thang !:::, vuong goc vci

o P tai P dt doan thang AB.

Bal 5. Cho hlnh tron (C) ban kinh bang ·1. Gia sir AI, A2, ... , As la 8 di~m bat ky nam trong hlnh tron (k~ ca tren bien). Cluing minh rang trong cac diem dii cho luon t6n tai hai diem rna khoang each giita cluing nho hem 1.

g4 thl nam 2000 - (Chung eho c6c khol chuyin) .

Thol glan lam bal: 150 phut

Bai 1.

1. Tinh

1 1 1

S = 1.2 + 2.3 + ... + 1999.2000·

2. Giai h~ phuong trlnh

1 x

{ x2 +.2 +. - = 3

y y

1 x x+~+-=3 y y

Bai 2.

1. Giai phirong trlnh

2. Tim tat ca cac gia tri cua a (a l~ s6 thuc) d~ phuong trlnh 2x? - (4a + ¥ ) x + 4a2 + 7 = 0

c~ {t nh':~ w¢t ngpitm nguyen,

Bai 3. Cho duang tron tam 0 n¢i tiep trong hlnh thang ABC D (AB / / CD), tiep xuc vai canh AB tai E va voicanh CD tai F.

28

· 29

I. Chung minh rang :

BE DF

AE = CF'

2. Cho bier AB = a, CB - b (a < b), BE = 2AE. Tlnh dien tfch hlnh thang ABCD.

Hili 4. Cho x, y la hai so thuc bat ky khac khong. Chung minh rang :

Dau d~ng thirc xay ra khi nao ?

I>e thi nam 2000 - (Khoi chuyen T06n vachuyen TIn) Thai glen lam 001: 150 phut

Hili 1.

1. Tim tat cit cac cap so nguyen (x, y) thoa man dang thtrc

y(x - 1) = x2 + 2.

2.' Cho cap so (x, y) thoa man cacdieu kien

-1 :::;; x + y :::;; 1, -1:::;; xy + x + y :::;; 1.

Chung minh rang : Ixl :::;; 2, Iyl :::;; 2.

Hili 2.

I. Giai phirong trinh :

i + J x - .! = x + J 2x - ~.

xx . x

2. Cho f(x) = ax2 + bx + c c6 tinh chat: /(1),f(4) va f(9) la cac so hihI ty. Chung minh rang khi d6 a, b, e la cac so huu ty.

(y + 2)x2 + 1 = y2.

Hai 3.

1. Cho tu giac 16i ABCD. Chung minh rang neu cac goc B va D cua tu giac la vuong hoac til thl AC ~ BD.

2. Cho doan thang AC c6 dinh va diem B di dong, Hay tim t~p hop t~t

-

ca cac diem B de tam giac ABC la tam giac khong til va goc BAC

la goc nho nhat cua tam giac ABC.

Bai 4. Tren mat phang cho 6 diem sao cho khong co ba diem nao thang hang va khoang each giua cac cap diem la cac s6 khac nhau. Ta n6i mOi cap diem boi mot doan thang. Chung minh rang trong cac doan thang thu diroc co mot doan thang la canh nho nhat cua .mot tam giac co 3 dinh la 3 trong 6 diem da cho, dong thai la canh IOn nhat cua mot tam giac khac cling co 3 dinh la 3 trong 6 diem da cho.

f)' thi nam 2001 - (Chung cho c6c khoi chuy6n) Thoi glan lam bal : 150 phut

Hai 1. Tim cac gia tri nguyen x, y thoa man dAng thuc

Hai 2.

1. Giai phirong trlnh :

vx(3x + 1) - vx(x - 1) = 2Vx2.

2. Giai he phirong trlnh :

{ x.2 + xy + 2 = 3x + y x2 + y2 = 2

30

31

Hili 3. Cho nita duong tron dirong kinh AB = 2a. Tren doan AB lay di~m M. Trong nira mat phang bo AB chua nita vong tron, ta ke hai tia NIx va

--

M y sao eho A 1\.1 x = B My -::- 30°. Tia M x ertt nita dirong tron a E, tia

M y cat mra duong tron a F. Ke E E' , F F' vuong goc xuong AB.

a

1. Cho ANI = '2' tinh dien tich hlnh .thang vuong EE' F' F theo a.

2. Khi diem NI di dong tren AB. chung minh rang dirong thang EF luon tiep xuc voi mot dirong tron eO' dinh,

Bili 4. Gia su x, y, Z la cac sO' thuc khac.khong thoa man he dang thuc :

{ x(~ + ~) + y(~ +~) + z(~ + ~) = -2

x3 + y3 +z3 = 1.

Hay tinh gia tri cua bieu thirc :

1 1 1 P=-+-+-. x Y z

Bai 5. V6i x, y, z la nhii'ng sO' thuc duong, hay tim gia tri IOn nhat cua bieu thirc

1\.1 _ xyz .

(x + y)(y + z)(z + x)

De thi nam 2001 • (KhOi chuyen T06n va chuyen Tin) Thai gian lam bai : 150 phut

Bili 1.

1. Cho f(x) = ax2 + bx + ceo tinh chat : f(x) nhan gia tri nguyen khi x la sO' nguyen. Hoi cac he sO' a, b, c eo nhat thiet phai la cac sO' nguyen hay khong ? Tai sao ?

2. Tim cac sO' nguyen khong am x, y thoa man dAng thirc :

ax+by=3 ax2 + by2 = 5 ax3 + by3 = 9 . ax4 + by4 = 17.

Bili 2. Giai phuong trlnh :

4J x + 1 = x2 - 5x + 14.

Bai 3. Cho cac s6 thuc a, b, x, y thoa man M :

Hay tinh gia tri cua cac bieu thuc :

A = ax5 + by5

B = ax200l + by2001.

Bili 4.

Cho doan thang AB co trung di~m III O.GQi dl, d2 la cac dirong thang vuong goc vai AB nrong Ung tai A va B. M¢t g6c vuong dinh 0 co mor canh ceit d1 a M, con canh kia ceit da b N, Ke OH vuong g6c xu6ng MN. Vong tron ngoai tiep tam giac MHB ceit d1 a di~m thu hai E khac M, M B ceit N A a I. duemg thAng HI ceit EB a K. Cluing minh rang K nam tren m¢t- duong tron co dinh khi goc vuong quay xung quanh dinh O.

Oai 5.

Cho 200 1 dong tien, moi d6ng tien diroc san met m~t bang mau do va matkia bang mau xanh. Xep 2001 d6ng tien do thea mot vong tron sao cho t~t ca cac d6ng tien deu co mat xanh ngira len phfa tren. Cho phep m6i Hin dOi mat dong thai 5 dong tien lien tiep canh nhau. Hoi vai each lam nhu the. sau mot so hOU han Ian ta co tM lam cho t~t ca cac d6ng tien deu co mat do ngua len phfa tren duoc haykhong ? Tai sao ?

32

TIDTMT- 3A

33

Di thi nam 2002 • (Chung cho eee kh6i chuyen) ThiJl glon lam beli : 150 phUt

Bid 1.

1. Giai phuong trlnh: y's + -IX + y'5 - -IX = 5.

2. Giai h¢ plurong trlnh :

{(x + l)(y + 1) = s

x(x + 1) + y(y + 1) + xy = 17.

Bai 2. Cho a, b, e Hi d¢ dai ba canh cua mot tam giac, Chirng minh rang phuong trlnh x2 + (a + b + e)x + ab + be + ca = 0 v6 nghiem .

. @ Tim tat ca cac so nguyen n sao cho n2 + 2002 la mot so chfnh phuong.

Bal 4. Tim gia tri nho nhat cua bieu thuc :

111 P= + +-- 1 + xy 1 + yz 1 + zx

trong do x, y, z la cac so dirong thay d6i thoa man dieu kien x2 +y2 + z2 :::;:; 3.

Bai S. Cho hlnh vuong ABCD. M la diem thay d6i tren canh BC (M khong trung vcri B) v~ N la diem thay d6i tren canh CD (N khong trung voi D) saocho :

- --

MAN=MAB+NAD.

1. B D c&t AN va AM nrong (mg tai P va Q. Chung minh rang nam diem P, Q, M, C, N cung nam tren mot dirong tron.

2. Chung minh rang duong th~ng M N luon tiep xuc vci mot dirong tron co dinh khi M va N thay d6i.

3. Ky hieu dien tich cua tam giac APQ la SI va dien tlch cua tu giac

PQ M N la S2. Chung minh rang ti so ~~ khong d6i khi M va N thay d6i.

De thl nam 2002 - (Kh61 chuyin Toan va chuyin TIn) Thai glan lam bell : 150 phUt

Bili 1.

1". Giai phuong trlnh :

y' x2 - 3x + 2 + vi x + 3 = vi x - 2 + y' x2 + 2x - 3.

2. TIm nghiern nguyen cua phirong trlnh : x + xy +y =: 9.

Bal 2. Giai he phuong trlnh :

{ x2 + y2 + xy = 1

x3 + y3 = X + 3y.

Bai 3. Cho rruroi s6 nguyen dirong 1,2, ... ,10. sap xep rrnroi s6 do mot each tuy y thanh mot hang. Cong m6i s6 voi s6 thu tu cua no trong hang, ta diroc rmroi t6ng. Chirng minh rang trong rmroi t6ng do ton tai it nhat hai tong co chii' s6 tan cling gi6ng nhau.

Bai 4. TIm gia tri nho nhat cua bieu thuc :

p = 4a + 9b + 16c

b +,.c - a a + c - b a + b - c

trong do a, b, c la dQ dai ba canh cua mot tam giac ..

Bai 5.

Dtrong tron (C) tam I noi tiep tam giac ABC tiep xuc vci cac canh BC, C A, AB nrong img tai cac diem A', B', C'.

1. GQi cac giao diem cua dirong tron (C) vm cac doan I A, I B, I C Ian Itret la M, N, P. Chimg minh rang cac duang thang A'M, B' N, C' P dong quy.

2. Keo dai doan AI cat duong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC tai D

(kha A Chti . h ri IB.IC 2 d' l' b' ki h

ae). irng . ..mm rang J D = r, trong 0 r a an in

durmg tron (C). ~

34

lTDTMT 38

g6 thl nom 2003 - (Chung cho cac khat chuyin) Thai glan lam bal: 150 phUt

Bai 1. Giai phuong trinh :

(vx + 5 - vx + 2)(1 + ';x2 + 7x + 10 = 3.

Bal 2. Giii h¢ phudng trinh :

{ 2x3 +3x2y = 5 y3 + 6xy2 = 7.

Bai 3. Tim cac so nguyen x, y thoa man dAng thirc :

Bai 4. Cho nira duemg tron (0) duong kfnh AB = 2R (R la mot dQ dai eho tnroc), M, N 18 hai di~m tren nira duong tron (0) sao cho M thuoc eu~g AN va tOng cac khoang each tir A, B de'n duong thang MN bang RV3.

1. Tfnh dQ dai doan M N theo R.

2. GQi giao diem cua hai day ANvil BM lil I. giao diem ella cac duong thAng AM va BN til K. Chung minh rang bon diem M, N, I, K cung nam tren mot duong tron. Tfnh ban kfnh ella dirong tron d6 theo R.

3. Tim gia tr] Ian nhat cua dien tfch tam giac K AB theo R khi M, N thay dOi nhung van thoarnan ghi thietcua bai toan,

Bai 5. x, y, z la cac so thuc thoa man dieu kien :

x + y + z + xy + yz + zx = 6

Chung minh rang :x2 + y2 + z2 ;;;:: 3.

35

£)8 thl naM 2003 - (Khal chuyin Toanvcl_ chuy6n Tin) Thai glan lam bell: 150 phUt

Bili 1. Cho phirong trlnh :

TI~ gia,trLsua tham s6 m de phuong trinh co 4 nghiem PbAn biet Xl, X2, X3, X4 thoa man:

Bili 2. Giai he phirong trlnh:

{ 2x2 + xy - y2 - 5x + y + 2 = 0, x2 + y2 + X + y - 4 = o.

Bai 3. Tim cac s6 nguyen x, y thoa man dAng thuc :

Bili 4. Cho duong tron tam OnQi tiep tam giac ABC tiep xuc vm cac canh BC, CA, AB urong img tai cac diem D, E,F. Duang tron tam 0' bang

-

tiep tr~~g goc BAC ciia tam giac ABC tiep xuc vai canh BC va phan keo

dai eu~ cac canh AB, AC nrong Ung taicac di~m P, M,N.

1. Chimg minh rang"': B P = CD.

2. Tren duang thang MN ta lay cac diem IvaK saoehoCKj jAB,BIj JAC.

ChU'niminh rang cac tu giac BICE va BKCF la cac hlnhblnh hanh,

3. GQi (8) la duang trim di qua ba diem I, K, P. ChUng rninh rang (8) tiep xuc vai cac duemg thang Be, BI, CK.

Bai S~ 56 thl:fC x thay d6i va thoa man dieu ki¢n:r? + (3 - x)2 ~ 5. Tim giatri nh6 nhat cua bieu thee :

36

37

1)6 thinam 2004. - (Chung cho eec khoi chuyen) Thc)Lglan tam bar: 150 pl')ut

Bili 1.

1. Giai phuong trlnh :

Ix + 11 + Ix - 11 _:_ 1 + Ix2 - 11·

2.· Tim nghiern nguyen cua he :

{,2y2 - ~2 ~ xy +- 2y - 2x = 7 ·.x3 + y3 + X - Y = 8.

Bai 2. Cho cac s6 thuc dirong a va b thoa man :

Hay tfnh ghi tri cua bieu thtrc :

p'= a2004 + b2004.

Bal 3. Cho 6ABC co AB = 3cm, BC .:__ 4cm, C A = 5cm. Duong eao, dirong phan giac, dirong trung tuyen cua tam giac ke tir dinh B ehia tam giac thanh 4 phan, Hay tlnh dien tich moi phan,

Bai 4. Cho tu giac ABeD noi tiep trong dirong tron co hai dirong cheo AC va BD vuong goc vcri nhau tai H (H khong trung voi lam cua dirong tron), OQi M va N Ian hrot la chan cac dirong vuong g6e ha tir H xuong cac dirong thang AB va BC; P va Q Ian lirot la giao diem cua dirong thang M H va N H voi cac dirong thang CD va D A. Chung minh rang dirong thang PQ song song vci duang thAng AC va bon diem M, N, P, Q nam tren cung mot duong tron.

€>6 thl nam 2004 • (Kh61 chuyin Toan va chuY'n nn) Thc}1 glan lam bell: 150 phUt

Bili 1. Giai plurong trlnh :

t v'x + 3 + v'x=1." = 2.

Bal 2. Giai he phuong trlnh :

{(x + y) (x2 + y2) = 15

(x - y)(x2 - y2) = 3.

Bai 3. Tim gia tri nho nhat ella bieu thuc :

(x3 + y3) .; (x2 + y2)

P=..:.___.:;__;__...:.___.:,__;;,.

. (x - 1)(y - 1)

trong do x, y la nhtmg s6 thuc 1&1 hon 1.

Bili 4. Cho hlnh vuong ABGD va diem M nam trong hlnh vuong,

- --

1. Tim t4't ca cac vi trl ella diem MOsao cho MAB = MBG = MGD =

-

MDA.

2 Xet diem M nam tren dtrong cheo AG. GQi N la chan duemg vuong goc ha tu di~m M xu6ng canh AB va 0 la trung diem ella doan AM. Chung minh rang ti s6 ~!. co gia tri khong d6i khi M di chuyen tren dirong cheo AG.

3. Voi gia thie't M nam tren duemg cheo AG, xet cac duong tron (8I) va (82) co dirong kinh nrong Ung la AM va GN. Hai tiep tuyen chung ella (81) va (82) ti€p xuc vai (82) tai P va Q. Chung minh rang duemg thang PQ tiep xuc vai (81),

Bai 5. Voi s6 thuc a, ta dinh nghia phan nguyen ella s6 a Ia s6 nguyen Ian nhat khong virot qua a va ky hieu la raJ. Day cac s6 xo, Xl, :t2,' . ~ ,xn, ... duoc XaC dinh bai cong thirc :

Xn = [n;; 1] _ [~].

Hoi trong 200 s6 {xo, Xl, ... ,X199} co bao nhieuso khac O? (Cho biet 1,41 < v'2 < 1,42).

38

39

g, thl nam 2005 - (Chung cho eee khol chuyen) Thoi gian lam bell: 150 phUt

Bal 1. Gi,ii h¢ phirong trlnh :

{ x+y+xy = 3 x2 + y2 = 2.

Bal 2. Gi,H phuong trlnh :

x + 4v'x + 3 + 2v'3 - 2x = 11.

Bal 3. Tim nghiem nguyen cua phirong trinh :

x2 + 17y2 + 34xy + 51{x + y) = 1740.

Bili 4. Cho hai dirong tron (O), (O') nam ngoai nhau eo tarn nrong Ung la o va 0'. Mot tiep tuyen ehung ngoai cua hai dirong tron tiep xuc voi (O) tai A va (O') tai B. M¢t tiep tuyen ehung trong cua hai dirong tron cat AB tai I, tiep xuc vai (O) tai C va (O') tai D. Biet rang C nam giii'a I va D.

1. Hai dirong thAng OC, 0' BeAt nhau tai M. Chimg minh rang:

OM> O'M.

2; Ky hieu (8) la dirong tron di qua A, C, B va (8') la dUOng tron di qua A, D, B. Duong thang CD cAt (8) tai E khac Cva eat (8') tai F khac D. Cluing minh rang AF vuong goc voi BE.

Bal 5. Giii sir x, y, z la cac s6 dirong thay d6i va thoa man dieu kien xy2 z2 + x2 Z + y = 3z2. Hay tlm gia tri Ian nhat cua bieu thirc :

D' thl nom 2005 - (Kh6i chuyin loan. va chuyin Tin) ThOI glan lam bol: 150 phUt

Bili 1. Giai phirong trlnh :

J2=X + ../2 + x + V4 - x2 = 2.

Bili 2. Giai he phuong trlnh :

=1

= 4x+y.

Bai 3. Gia su x, y la nhiing s6 khongam thoa man dieu kien : x2 + y2 = 1.

1. Chirng minh rang : 1 ~ x + y ~ -12.

2. Tim gia tri 1&1 nhat va gia tri nho nhat cua bieu thitc :

P = ../1 + 2x + VI + 2y.

Bili 4. Cho hlnh vuong ABC D va diem P nam trong tam giac ABC.

1. Gia su goc 7iPC = 135°. Chung minh rang: 2PB2 + PC2= PA2.

2. Cac dirong thang AP va CP cat cac canh BC vil BA nrong irng tai cac diem M va N. GQi Q Ia diem d6i xirng vai B qua trung diem cua doan M N. Chung minh rang khi P thay d6i trong 6ABC, duang thang PQ luon di qua D.

Bai 5.

1. Cho da giac deu (H) eo 14 dinh. Chimg minh rang trong 6 dinh bat ky cua (H) luon eo 4 dinh Ia cac dinh cua mot hlnh thang.

2. Co bao nhieu phan s6 t6i gian m 1&1 han 1 (m, n Iil cacso nguyen n

duong) thoa man m. n = 13860.

40

I)' thl nom 2006 - (Chung cho eee kh61 ehuyOn) thai glan lam bell: 150 phUt

BAli. Gilli h¢ phirong trlnh :

{ x2 + xy + x + y = 4 (x + 1)(1 + xv) = 4

BM 2. V m nhiing gia tri cua x thoa man dieu kien x ~ - ~, hay tim gia tri 1&1 nhat cua bitu thtrc

f (x) = vi 2x2 + 5x + 2 + 2J x + 3 - 2x

Bal 3. TIm s6 tl! nhien gom b6n chit s6 thoa man d6ng thai hai tfnh chat

1. Khi chia s6 d6 cho 100 ta duqc s6 du III 6.

2. Khi chia s6 d6 cho 51 ta duqc s6 du III 17.

B8I·4. Cho hlnh vuOng ABCD c6 canh AB = a. Tren cac canh AB,BC, CD,DA lay l~n luqt cac ditm M,N,P,Q sao cho MN/IAC,PQI lAC

-

va AMQ = .300•

1. GQi A' III ditm d6i xirng voi A qua dUOng th!ng M Q, C' III diem d6i xung vm C qua dUOng th!ng N P. Gill su duong th!ng Q A' cit doan th!ng NP ~ E, duang thing PC' cit doan th!ng MQ tai F. ChUng minh rAng nam diem E, F, Q, D, P nAm tren cung mQt dUOng tron,

2. Biet AC = 3M N, tinh di¢n tfch hlnh thang M N PQ theo a.

Bal 5 •. ChUng minh rAng vm· mOi s6 dirong a cho trUO'c, da thuc

luon III tOng blnh phtrong cua hai da thuc bac hai.

41

De thl nam 2006 • (Kh6i chuyen Toan va chuyen nn) Thai glen lam bal: 150 phut

Oai 1. Chung minh rang:

(Vl+ v: + Vl- v:)

lit mot s6 nguyen.

Oai 2.0hii h¢ phirong trlnh

{ x2_y2=4x-2y-3

x2 + y2 = 5

Oai 3.

1. TIm nghiem nguyen cua phirong trlnh

8x2y2 + x2 + y2 = lOxy.

2. Ky hieu [xl lit phan nguyencua s6 x (s6 nguyen Ian nhat khong vugt qua x). ChUng minh rang vci rnoi s6 tJ! nhien n ta luon co

[?/72n + 1] . [?I9Ti + ?/9n + 1] = [?/72n + 7]

Oai 4. Cho 6.ABC noi tiep duOrtg tron (0) va I lit diem nam trong 6.ABC. Cae ducrng th~ng AI, BI, CI edt ducrng tron (0) 14n luqt tai A', B', C' (khac A, B, C). Day eung B' C' edt cac canh AB, AC nrong rmg tai cac diem M, N. Day eung C' A' edt cac canh AB, BC nrong Ung tai cac diem P, Q. Day eung A' B' cat cac canh BC, CA tuong Ung tai cac diem F,E.

1. Gia str AM ~ AN, BP = BQ, CE = CF xayra d6ng thoi. Chung minh rang I lit tam duong tron nei tiep 6.ABC.

2. Gia Slr AM = AN = BP = BQ = CE = CF. Chung minh rang sau diem M, N, P, Q, E, F cung nam tren mot dirong tron,

8Bi 5. Chung minh rang da giac 16i2n canh (n E N, n ~ 2) luon co it nhat n ducrng cheo khong song song vm bat ky canh nao cua da giac do.

42

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