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[Vnmath.com]Tim So Hang Tong Quat Cua Day So Bang Pp Sai Phan

[Vnmath.com]Tim So Hang Tong Quat Cua Day So Bang Pp Sai Phan

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03/08/2013

Chuang 2

PHUONG TRINH V A HE PHUONG TRINH TRONG DAy s6

2.1. Phuong trinh sai phiin. tuyen tinh vui h~ s6' hdng

2.2. H~ ph.uang trinh sai phiin. tuyen tinh vui h~ s6' hdng 2.3. Phuong trinh sai pluin. tuyen tinh vui h~ s6' bien thien.

2.4. Phuang trinh sai phiin. dang phtin. tuyen. tinh vui h~ s6' hdng 2.5. Tuyen. tinh hoa m9t s6' phlidTtg, trinh sai phiin.

2.6. Phuong trinh sal pluiti chtia tham bien

2.7. M6t s6' dang phuang trinh sai phtin. phi tuyen diic biet

2.8. Day s6' chuyln d6?i cdc phep tinh s6' hoc ..

2.9. Day s6' chuyi'n d6?i cdc dqi lliflng trung binli

2.10. Phuong trinh trong day s6' vui ciJp bien tu do

2.11. M9t s6' bid totin. lien quan den dqng truy h6i diJc bi~t

2.1. Phuong trinh sai phan tuyen tinh v6i he s6 hang

Duoi day ta trinh bay mot so phirong trinh, he phuong trinh sai ph an co ban va phuong phap giai chung (khong neu each chtrng minh).

2.1.1. Phuong trinh sai phan tuyen tinh cap mot

Phiamg trinh sai ph/in. tuyeri tinh dip mQt la phuong trinh sai phan dang

trong do a, b, e(la cac hang so, a =1= 0 va in la bieu thirc cua n cho tnroc.

D~ng 1.

Tim Un thoa man dieu kien

Ul = c , aUn+l + bUn = 0, a, b, cI cho tnroc , n E N*.

121

Cdc phep totin. treri day s6'

Phuong pluip gidi. f I

Giai phirong trinh dac tnrng a). + b = 0 d~ tim ).. Kh. i do Un= q).n (q la

hang so), trong do q diroc xac dinh khi biet Ul = o .

Bai toan 1. Xac dinh s6 hang tong quat cua cap s6 nhan, biet rang s6 hang dau tien bang 1 va cong boi bang 2.

{tC:;1

each giai. Ta co

'lI-2.~o IUn+l=2Un, Ul=1.\ b.:; 2.

Phuong trinh dac trungVco nghiern ). = 2. V~y Un = c2n. Til U1 - 1 suy n c = ~. Do do Un = 2n-1

2

Dang 2.

Tim Un thoa man dieu kien

trong do in la da thuc thea n.

Phuong p h.tip giai.

Giai phuong trinh dac tnrng 0,). + b = 0 ta tim diroc ).. Ta co Un = Un + U trong do Un la nghiern tong quat cua phircng trinh thuan nhat o,.Un+l + b.un = va U~ la nghiem rieng tuy y cua phuong trinh khong thuan nhat o,Un+l +bun = j V~y Un = q).n, q la hang s6 se diroc xac dinh sau.

Ta xac dinh u~ nhu sau :

a) Neu ). =I 1 thi u~ la da thirc cling bac voi in.

b) Neu ). = 1 thi 'U~ = n.9n val 9n la da thirc cling bac voi in.

Thay U~ VaG phirong trinh, dong nhat cac he s6, ta tinh duoc cac he s6 c

U~.

Bai to an 2. Tim Un thoa man dieu kien

'III = 2, Un+l = Un +12n,} n E N*.

122

Cdc phep todn. tren day se)'

Cach. gicii. Phuong trlnh dac tnrng A-I = 0 co nghiemX = I., Ta co Un = Un + u~, trong do Un = c.I" = c, u~ = n(an + b). Thay u~ vito phirong trinh, ta diroc

(n + l)[a(n + 1) + b] = n(an + b) + 2n.

Vffi n = 1, ta diroc 3a + b = 2. V6"i n = 2, ta duoc 5a + b - 4. SUY.ra a=l,b=-1.

Do do u.; = n(n - 1).

Ta co Un = Un + u~ = c + n(n - 1). Vi Ul = 2 nen 2 = c + 1(1 - 1) {:} c = 2. V~y u.; = 2 + n(n - 1), hay Un ;" n2 - n + 2.

D~ng 3.

Tun u., thoa man dieu kien

Phuong pluip gicii.

Giai phtrong trinh dac tnrng a); + b = 0 d~ tlm A. Ta co u.; = Un + u~, trong do Un = CAn, C la hang 56 chua diroc xac dinh, u~ diroc xac dinh nhir sau :

a) Neu A =I- J1 thl u~ = AJln.

b) Neu A = 11, thl u~ = AnJLn.

Thay u~ vao phuong trlnh, dong nhat cac he 56 tinh diroc cac he 56 cua u~. Biet Ub tit he thirc Un = Un + U~, tinh dtroc c.

Bai toan 3. Tim Un thoa man dieu kien

Caeb. gicii. Phuong trinh dac tnmg ), - 3 = 0 co nghiern ), - 3. Ta co Un = Un + u~, trong do Un = c.3n va u~ = a.2n.

Thay u~ = a.2n vao phuong trinh, ta thu dtroc

a.2n+1 = 3a.2n + 2n {:} 2a = 3a + 1 {:} a = -1.

Su ..... y~~a Un _2n. Do do Un = c.3n - 2n. Vi Ul = 1 nen c -

Un = 3n - 2n.

'-,._ --

1. V~y

123

Cdc phep todti tren. day sf)'

Dang d,

Tim u« thoa man dieu kien

trong do fIn la da thirc thea n va hn = VJ1n.

Phuong pluip giai.

Ta co Un = Un + u~ + u~*, trong do Un la nghiern t6ng quat cua plnroi trlnh thuan nhat aUn+l + bUn = 0 , u~ la mot nghiern rieng cua phirong tru khong thuan nhat aUn+I + lnu; = [i«. U~* la nghiem rieng bat ky cua phiroi trlnh khong thuan nhat aUn+I + bun = [z«.

Bai toan 4. Tim Un, biet

Ctich. giai. Phuong trinh dac tnrng .\ - 2 = 0 co nghiem .\ = 2. Ta (

.~ + * + ** do ~ 2n * 2 + b + ** A ')n

Un = u.; Un Un' trong 0 Un = C. 'Un = an n c, un = n.z:',

Thay U~ vao phuong trinh Un+I = 2un + n2, ta duoc

a(n + 1)2 + b(n + 1) + C = 2an2 + 2bn + 2c + n2. .

Cho ti = 1, ta diroc 20, - C = 1. Cho n = 2, ta dtroc a - b - C = 4. a n. = 3, ta diroc 20, + 2b + C = -9. Suy ra a = -1, b = -2, C = -3. Vi u* = -n2 - 2n - 3.

n

Thay u~* vao phirong trlnh Un+l = 2un + 2.2n, ta dtroc

3 A(n + 1)2n+l = 2An.2n + 2.2n {:} 2A(n + 1) = 2An + 3 {:} A = 2'

V~y

U~* = ~n2n = 3n2n-l.

Do do u.; = c.271+{=n2=2n-3)+3n.2n-1. Ta co Ul = 1 nen 1 = 2c- 2+3 = C -0.

t~n3n.2n-l - n' - 2n:J

-~ .. -.,.".- ... -.-- .. -.--- .. -- ...• - .. , ..... ~-.-- •...... "",_,.-._

124

Cdc phep totui tren. day 56'

2.1.2. Phuong trlnh sai phan tuyen tinh cap hai

Phuong trinh sai pluin. tuye'n tinh. dip hai la phirong trinh sai phan dang

trong do a, b, c, 1/, fJ, la cac hang so, a i= ° va 9n la bi~ll thuc chua n cho tnroc.

Dang 1.

Phuang pluip giai.

Giai phirong trlnh dac tnrng aA2 + b). + C = 0, tim A.

a) Nell Al va A2 la hai nghiem thirc khac nhau thl Un = AAI + BA2\ trong

do A va B duoc xac dinh khi biet Ul va U2. -.

b) Nell Al va A2 la nghiern thuc kep, Al = A2 = A thi u« = (A + B.n)An, trong do A va B diroc xac dinh khi biet Ul va U2.

c) Nell A la nghiern phirc, A = x + iy, thi ta d~t

y (-n n)

r = I A I = vi x2 + y2, tg t.p = ;;' ip E 2' 2" .

Liic do A = r( cos ip + i sin t.p) va u.; = rn(A cos rup + B sin nt.p), trong do A va B dtroc xac dinh khi biet Ul va U2.

BAi toan 1. Tim Un, biet

Ul = 0, U2 _: 0, Un+l - Un + Un-l = 0, n E N*.

each giai. PhU<1I1g trlnh d~c trung A2 - A + 1 = ° co cac nghiern phuc

A _ 1 ± iv'3

1,2 - 2 .

125

Cdc phep totin. tren day s6'

Ta eo

r = IAI = r.: = 1, tgcp = ~ : ~ = V3, ip E (-271", %) =} cp = i.

V~y

\ 7r. . 7r

/\ = cos "3 + 'I. sin "3'

Suy ra

n71" n71"

Un = Acos3 + Bsin3·

Ta eo

, 71" 71" A B~ ~

Ul = 1 =} A cos "3 + B sin "3 = 1 =} "2 + -2- = 1 =} A + By 3 = 2, (1

271" 271" -A By'3 ~

U2 = 0 =} A cos 3 + B sin 3 = 0 =} 2 + -2- = 0 =} -A + By 3 = O.

(2

Ket hop (1) va (2) ta duoc he phirong trlnh eo nghiem

V~y

n71" ~. n71"

u.; = cos 3 + 3sm3'

Dang z.

Tim Un, biet rang

trong do a. # 0, in la_da thue theo n eho truae.

Phuong ph;ap gicii.

Giai phircng trinh d~e tnrng aA2 + b); + C = 0 de tim A. Ta eo Un = Un + u; trong do Un la nghiern tong quat cua phirong trlnh thuan nhat aUn+l + bUn' CU~-l = 0 va u~ la mot nghiern rieng tuy y cua phirong trlnh khong thuan nh:

126

Cdc phep totin tren day s6'

Theo Dang 1 ta tim diroc Un, trong do he s6 A va B chua diroc xac dinh, u~

diroc xac dinh nhtr sau :

a) Neu ,,\ =I 1 thi u~ la da thirc cling bac voi in.

b) Neu ,,\ = 1 la nghiem don thi U~ = ngn, gn la da tlurc cling b~c voi in.

c) Neu ,,\ = Lla nghiem kep thl U~ = n2.gn , gn la da thirc cung bac voi in.

Thay U~ vao phuong trinh, dong nhat cac he s6, tinh duoc cac M s6 cua u~. Biet UI, U2, tit he thtrc u.; = Un + U~ tinh diroc A, B.

Bai toan 2. Xac dinh U~" biet rang

UI = 1, U2 = 0, Un+l - 2un + Un-I = n + 1, n 2:: 2.

Ctich. giai. Phuong trinh d~c trung ,,\2 - 2,,\ + 1 = 0 co nghiem kep ,,\ = 1. Ta co u.; = Un + U~ , trong do Un = (A + Bn) . In = A + Bn va U~ = ti 2 (an + b). Thayu', vao phuong trinh, ta diroc

(n + 1)2[a(n + 1) + b] - 2n2(an + b) + (n - 1)2[a(n - 1) + b] = n + 1.

Cho n = 1, ta duoc

4(2a + b) - 2(a + b) = 2 ¢:} 3a + b = 1.

(3)

Cho n = 2, ta diroc

9(3a + b) - 8(2a + b) + (a + b) = 3 ¢:} 12a + 2b = 3. (4)

Ket hop (3) va (4), ta duoc he phuong trinh co nghiern

1 1

a = - b =-.

6' 2

V~y

* 2 (n 1)

un = n "6 + 2" .

Dodo

~ * A B 2 (n 1)

Un =Un + Un = + n + n "6 + 2" .

Ta co

1 l' 1

UI = 1 ~ A + B + 6" + 2" = 1 ~ A + B = 3'

(1 1) -10

U2 = 0 ~ A + 2B + 4. "3 + 2" = 0 ~ A + 2B = -3-'

(5)

(6)

127

Cdc phep to an tren. day s6'

Giai he (5) va (6), ta diroc

-11 A = 4, B = -3-.

V~y

11 2(n 1)

U = 4 - -n + n - + - .

n 3 6 2

D~ng 3.

Tim Un, biet rang

Phuang ph.ap giai.

Giai phuong trinh d~c tnrng 0,)..2 + b)" + c = 0, tim )...

, Ta co Un = Un + u~, trong do Un duoc tim nhir dang 1, he s6 A va B chua due;:I (.:, xac dinh, u~ diroc xac dinh nhu sau :

b) Neu nghiem don ).. = Ii, thi u~ = krui":

c) Neu nghiem kep ).. = Ii, thi u~ = kn2 fin .

Thay U~ vao phuong trinh, dung phuong phap dong nhat cac he s6 se tinh dire he s6 k.

Biet Ul. U2, tir he thirc Un = Un + U~ tinh duoc A, B.

Bai toan 3. Tim Un. bier rang

each gitii: Phuong trlnh d~c tnrng )..2 - 2)" + 1 = 0 co nghiern kep ).. = 1. Ta co Un = Un + U~ , trong do Un = (A + Bn)ln = A + Bn va u~ = k.Z":

Thay u~ vao phuong trinh, ta diroc

ur= - 2k.2n + k.2n-l = 2.2n {:} k = 6.

128

Cdc phep toari tren day s6'

V~y u;, = 6.2n = 2.2n+l.

Do d6 Un = Un.+ U~ = A + Bn + 2.2n+l Ta c6

Ul = 1 ~ 1 = A + B + 12 U2 = 0 ~ 0 = A + 2B + 24 Tit d6, ta diroc A = 2 , B = -13. V~y

u.; = 2 - 13n + 2.2n+l.

Dang 4.

Tim Un, biet

trong d6 a =1= 0 , In la da thirc thea n va 9n = l/ u",

Pliuang phsip gidi.

Ta e6 u.: = Un + u; + u~* trong d6 Un la nghiem tong quat cua phuong trinh thuan nhat aUn+l + bu.; + CUn-l = 0, u~ la nghiern rieng tuy y cua phirong trinh khong thuan nhat aUn+l + bUn + CUn-l = In, U;* la nghiern rieng tuy y cua phuong trinh khong thuan nhat aUn+l + bun + CUn-l = 9n.

Bai toan 4. Tim Un, biet rang

Cach. gidi. Giai phuong trinh dac tnrng A2 - 2A - 3 = 0, ta diroc Al -1, A2 = 3. Ta eo

trong d6

Un = A.( -It + B.3n, u~ = an + b, u** = k.2n.

Thay U~ va U~* vao phuong trinh Un+l - 2un - 3Un-l = n; ta diroc

a(n + 1) + b - 2(an + b) - 3[a(n - 1) + b] = ti ¢:} (40. + l)n - 4(0. - b) = O.

V~y

1

0.= b = --.

4

129

Cdc phep totin. tren. day s{/

Do do

U~ = -~(n + 1).

Thay u~.* vao phuong trinh Un+1 - 2un - 3Un-1 = 2n, ta diroc

Do do

A * ** A ( l)n B 3n 1 ( 1) 1 2n+1

Un = Un + Un + Un = . - + . - 4 n + - "3. .

Ta co

1 4 17

U1 = 1 =? 1 = -A + 3B - - - - =? - 4 + 3B = -

2 3· 6 '

3 8 4C.

U2 = 0 =? 0 = A + 9 B - - - - =? 4 -+- 9 B = -.

4 3 ., 12

Giai he phirong trinh (7) va (8), ta diroc

A = _ 61 B = 25.

48' 48

Dang 5.

Tim Un, biet rang

U1 = a, U2 = (3, o.Un+1 + bu.; + CUn-1 = lIcosn + lJ.sinn (a. # 0), n. 2:'

Phuong phsip gicii.

Giai phuong trlnh dac tnrng OA2 + bA + C = 0, tim A.

no

Cdc phep totin. treri day s6'

Ta c6 Un = tLn + U~ , trong d6 tLn la nghiem tong quat cua phirong trinh thuan nhat, xac dinh nhu 6 dang 1, cac he so A. va B chua diroc xac dinh, U* = k cos n+ l sin n.

n.

Thayu; vao phuong trinh, dong nhat cac he so, tfnh diroc k , l.

Tir he thirc Un = Un + u~ va Ul, U2, ta tinh diroc A. va B.

Bai toan 5. Tun Un, biet rang

Ul = 1, U2 = 0, Un+l - 2un + Un-l = sinn, 17, ~ 2.

Cach. giai. Giai phirong trinh dac tnrng ),2 - 2), + 1 = 0, ta duoc nghiern kep ), = 1.

Ta c6 u., = tLn + U~, trong d6

tLn = (A. + Bn)· In = A. + Bn, U~ = kcosn + lsinn.

Thay U~ vao phirong trinh Un+l - 2un + Un-l = sin n, ta thu diroc

k cos( n+ 1) +] sin(n+ 1) - 2(k cos n+L sin 17,) +k cos(n -1) +l sin( n-l) = sin 17,

{:}k[cos(n + 1) + cos(n - 1)] + l[sin(n + 1) + sin(n - 1)] - 2kcosn - 2l sin 17,

=smn

{:}2k cos n cos 1 - 2k cos 17, + 2l sin n cos 1 - 2l sin n = sin 17, {:} 2 k cos 17, (cos 1 - 1) + 2l sin 17, ( cos 1 - 1) = sin 17,

{:}2k(cos 1 - 1) cosn + [2l(cos 1 - 1) - 1] sinn = O.

,n 1 1 .: 0 A k 0' l 1 VA * sin n

v 1 cos - r nen s = va = ( ). ay Un = ( ).

2 cos 1 - 1 2 cos 1 - 1

, A , * sin n

Do do Un = Un+ Un = A. + Bn + ( ) .

2 cos 1 - 1

Ta c6

sin 1

Ul = 1 ~ 1 = A. + B + ( . ) ,

2 cos 1 - 1

sin 2

U2 = 0 ~ 0 = A. + 2B + ( ) .

2 cos 1 - 1

(9)

(10)

Giai M phuong trinh (9) va (10), ta duoc

A. = 2 sin 1 - 4 cos 1 - sin 2 - 4 2(1 - cos 1)

131

Cdc phep totui treri day s6'

B = - sin 1 + 2 cos 1 + sin 1 - 2

2(1 - cos 1) .

Vay nen

2 sin 1 - 4 cos 1 - sin 2 - 4 + ( - sin 1 + 2 cos 1 + sin 2 - 2) ti - sin ti

Un =----------------------~----~------------~-------

. 2(1 - cos 1)

2.1.3. Phuong trmh sai phan tuyen tinh dip ba

Phuong trinh. sai phtin. tuye'n tinh dip ba la phuong trinh sai phan dang

trong do a, b, c, d, 0:, (3, / la cac hang so, a =1= 0 va in la bieu thirc ella ti c tnroc.

Phtrong trlnh sai phan tuyen tinh dip ba luon giai diroc vi phirong trinh b ba luon giai diroc. Nghiem tong quat cua phuong trinh sai phan tuyen tinh c ba co dang u-; = Un + U~, trong do U~ la nghiern rieng ella phuong trinh tuy tinh khong thuan nhat, Un la nghiem t6ng quat cua phuong trinh tuyen tinh thu nhat.

---'

Phuong phtip giiii.

a) Xet phirong trinh di;tc tnrng

aA3 + bA2 + CA + d = O.

(i) Neu (2) eo ba nghiem thirc )'1, A2, A3 phan bier thi

(ii) Neu (2) c6 mot nghiern thuc boi 2 va mot nghiem don (AI = A2 =I- ; thl

Un = ((31 + (32.n)A~ + (33.A~.

(iii) Neu (2) co mot nghiern thuc boi 3 (AI = A2 = A3) thi

Un = ((31 + (32·n + (33.n2»\~.

132

Cdc phep totui treri day s6'

B = - sin 1 + 2 cos 1 + sin Z - 2

2(1 - cos 1) .

V~y nen

2 sin 1 - 4 cos 1 - sin 2 - 4 + ( - sin 1 + 2 cos 1 + sin 2 - 2)71, - sin 71,

U = ----------------------~------------------~-------

n. 2(1 - cos 1)

2.1.3. Phuong trinh sai phan tuyen tinh cap ba

Phuong trinh. sai ph/in. tuye'n tinh dip ba la plnrong trinh sai phan dang

trong do a, b, c, d, 0:, (3, '"Y la cac hang so, a =1= 0 va in la bieu thirc cua 71, e tnroc.

Phuong trinh sai ph an tuyen tinh cap ba luon giai diroc vi phtrong trinh b ba luon giai diroc. Nghiem tong quat cua phirong trinh sai ph an tuyen tinh c ba co dang u.; = Un + U~, trong do u~ la nghiern rieng cua phuong trinh tuy tinh khong thuan nhat, Un la nghiern t6ng quat eua phuong trinh tuyen tinh thu ~~. .

_____I.

Phuong phap gitii.

a) Xet phirong trinh dac tnrng

o,A3 + bA2 + CA + d = O.

(ii) Neu (2) co mot nghiem thuc boi 2 va mot nghiern don (AI = A2 -=I '

thi

Un = ((31 + (32.71,)A~ + (33.A~.

(iii) Neu (2) co mot nghiern thirc boi 3 (AI = A2 = A3) thi

Un = ((31 + (32·71, + (33.71,2)A~.

132

Cdc phep todn. treti day Sf)'

(iv) Neu (2) co mot nghiem thuc Al va hai nghiem phirc lien hop

A2,3 = r(cosc.p ± i sin c.p)

thi

b) G9i u~ la mot nghiern rieng cua (1). "Xet in la da thirc cua n. Ta co

- Neu A =I- 1 thi u~ la da tlurc cung bac voi in.

- Neu A = 1 (nghiem don) thi u~ = n.9n. 9n la da thuc cung b~c v6i in.

- Neu A = 1 (boi 2) thi u~ = n2.9n. 9n la da thirc cung bac voi in.

- Neu A = 1 (boi 3) thi u~ = n3.9n. 9n Ia da thirc cung bac voi in.

*Xet in = vJ.ln (ham mil). Ta co - Neu A =I- jl, thi u~ = k.n.p",

- Neu nghiern don A = J.l thiu~ = k.p":

- Neu nghiern boi A = It (boi s) thi u~ = k.ns.pn.

Bai toan 6, Tim Xn biet rang

Ctich. gicii. Xet phuong trlnh d?c tnrng A3 - 7A2 + llA - 5 = O. hay

Phuong trmh nay co ba nghiem thirc

V~y Xn = CI + C2.n + c3.5n•

Cho n = 1, n = 2, n = 3 va giai he phuong trinh tao thanh, ta diroc

V~y

1 3 ( ) 1 n-l

Xn = - 16 + 4: n - 1 + 16.5 ,

133

Cdc phep totui tren day s6'

hay

1 (n-1 ) 3 ( )

x=-5 -l+-n-l.

n 16 . 4'

Bai toan 7. Cho day s6 nguyen {an} thoa man dieu kien

Chirng minh rang ton tai cac hang s6 nguyen M sao cho cac s6 M + 4an+1an deu Ia nhtrng s6 chfnh phirong.

each giiii. D~t

Khi d6, tir dieu kien bai ra ta c6 he thirc u.; = Un-1 + 2an. Do d6

U~ = (Un-1 + 2an)2 = U~_l + 4anUn-1 + 4a~ = U;_l + 4(o.n+1 - an - an-don + 4a~

= U~_l + 40no.n+1 - 4anan-1'

Suy ra

U; - 40n+1an = U~_l - 4anan_1, Vn E _N*.

Vay u~ - 40n-H an = A1 va khi d6 hien nhien rang

M + 4an+1an = u;.

2.2. H¢ phtrong trmh sai phan tuyen tinh v6i he so hang

Trong muc nay ta chu yeu xet he phuong trinh sai phan dang

{.7:71.+1 : px.; + qYn, Yn+1 - rXn + SYn,

Xl = a,

Y1 = b.

0:

Ph.uang phtip gicii.

Trong (1), thay n ben n + 1, ta nhan diroc

Xn+2 = PXn+1 + qYn+1

= PXn+1 + q(rxn + sYn) = PXn+1 + qrx.; + s( qYn) = pXn+l + qrxn + S(Xn+1 - PXn).

134

Cdc phep totin tren. day s6'

Suy ra

Xn+2 - (p + S)Xn+1 + (ps - qr)xn = 0, trong do Xl = a.

Til (1), ta lai co X2 = PXI + qYI = pa + qb. Nhir vay ta diroc phuong trinh sai phan tuyen tfnh cap hai thuan nhat

Xl = a, X2 = pa + qb, Xn+l - (p + s)xn + (ps - qr)xn_l = 0, n 2:: 2.

GhH phUC1I1g trinh nay ta tlm diroc Xn. Thay Xn vao 0), ta tim diroc Yn'

Bai toan 1. Tim Xn, Yn, biet

(2)

Cacb giai. Trong (2), thay n bci n + 1, ta co

Xn+2 = 4Xn+1 - 2Yn+1 = 4Xn+1 - 2(xn + Yn)

= 4Xn+1 - 2xn - 2Yn = 4Xn+1 - 2xn + Xn+l - 4.Tn·

Suy ra \

Xn+2 - 5Xn+1 + 6xn = O. ) Til (2), ta co X2 = 4XI - 2YI = 4.1 - 2.1 = 2.

Ta thu diroc phuong trlnh bac hai thuan nhat

Giai phirong trlnh nay, ta diroc nghiern x« = 2n-l. Thay Xn vao phirong trlnh thu nhat cua (2), ta co

135

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