Elastic Foundations

Elastically supported beams and contact stress problems are discussed. Analysis of symmetric bending of cylindrical shells is introduced.


In this chapter we consider three topics that can be loosely grouped under the heading' 'elastic foundations." They are (I) straight beams supported by several springs or by an elastic medium; (2) a cylindrical shell, where each imaginary longitudinal strip is elastically supported by the remainder of the shell; and (3) cylindrical and/or spherical bearings pressed together so that each deforms and provides elastic support for the other.

Beams on an elastic foundation are considered first. The original analysi;by Winkler, in l867-was prompted by a need to analyze railroad track.j'Ihe roadbed resists deformation, and the resisting force is transmitted through ''ties to the rail. In effect, ties are springs that support the rail. The deflected shape of a loaded rail is a damped sine wave. If there are roughly four or more springs per half wave, there is negligible error if the problem is simplified by "smearing" the springs to produce a continuous elastic foundation.

As shown in the following, many problems of practical interest are easy to solve if the foundation is continuous rather than discrete. In beam problems we discuss, the intent is to model the effect of the foundation on the beam; it is not




to study stresses in the foundation itself. That is why simple models can be used for complicated foundation media.

The simplest analytical model of a continuous elastic foundation is the Winkler model. It presumes a linear force-deflection relationship, so that if a deflection w is imposed on the foundation, it resists with a pressure kow, where k; is the foundation modulus. When analyzing beams, we will use k = kob instead of ko, where b is the width of the beam in contact with the foundation. Thus deflection w of a beam causes the foundation to resist by applying a distributed load kw to the beam, where kw is measured in N/m. The units of k; and k are N/m2/m and N/m/m, respectively. Values of ko for soil are often in the range 20(10)6 N/m2/m to 200(10)6 N/m2/m. High values are best; clearly, if k; were infinite there would be no deflection and hence no flexural stress in the beam.

A Winkler foundation model deflects only where there is load. Adjacent material is utterly unaffected (Fig. 5.1.1). One might expect that an elastic solid would be a more accurate foundation model for soil. This does not seem to be so because soil tends to exhibit a nonlinear response. Of the two models, the Winkler model is far easier to analyze. Experience has shown the Winkler model to be adequate for various problems: the railroad rail, piers supported by piling and loaded by horizontal force, networks of beams in floor systems, highway slabs, and structures that float.

In problems of elastic foundations and contact stress, deformations die out quickly with increasing distance from the load. For example, a static load on a railroad track creates a local '{alley that is symmetric about the point of load. /A moving load creates an asymmetric valley such that the load must be continually driven uphill by an energy input, even when there is no damping pres~!lt_

[5.1)'. (This effect was noticed on an English railroad in 1830. The line fan across a bog. A passing train was seen to be accompanied by a wave.) When; damping is small, there is a critical velocity at which deflections and bending ~. This suggests that very high or very low speeds may be best for skating on thin ice! When creep is considered, the better choice would appear to be very high speed.

This chapter is restricted to static conditions. We emphasize the Winkler model and simple problems. More complicated problems-short beams, beams with varying stiffness, two or more foundation moduli, and so on--can be solved with tabulated information [5.2, 5.3] or with numerical procedures such as the finite-element method. Numerical methods are attractive for beam problems because of the simplicity of data preparation. Discrete springs can be treated numerically as easily as the Winkler model. Other foundation models, more sophisticated than the Winkler model yet relatively simple, have been proposed [5.4].

Winkler foundation

Elastic solid foundation

FIGURE 5.1.1. Deflections of foundation models under uniform pressure. No beam is present.



An important restriction of subsequent analysis of beams on Winkler foundations should be noted: We assume that contact is never broken between beam and foundation. Thus, where a beam deflects upward, a negative (downward) pressure is assumed to exist. If negative pressure cannot in fact be sustained, the beam's response becomes a nonlinear function of the applied load because the extent of the contact zone depends on the beam deflection. Nonlinear problems of this type are not considered in our treatment.


Figure 5.2.1 shows forces that act on a beam supportedby a Winkler foundation. Loads Po, Mo, and q are shown in their positive sense. In subsequent sections we consider particular cases of loading and boundary conditions. The positive direction for external loads and deflection w is downward. The coordinate system is left-handed, but this will cause no consternation because we have no transformations or vector operations to contend with.

As is usual in beam theory, we begin by summing forces and moments on a differential element, Fig. 5.2.Ic. The two equilibrium equations obtained, and the result of combining them, are

dV }

dx = kw - q d2M


dM dx:

- = V



The moment-curvature relation, from elementary small-deflection beam theory, IS


where the negative sign is needed because positive M is associated with negative curvature. Combination of Eq. 5.2.2 and dM/dx = V yields, for constant EI,

(a) (b) (c)

FIGURE 5.2.1. (a) Arbitrary loading on an elastically supported beam. (b) Reaction kw of a Winkler foundation. The curve w = w(x) is the deflected shape of the beam. (c) Forces that act on a differential element of the beam.



V = -EI -, (5.2.3)


Combination of Eqs. 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 yields the governing equation for a uniform beam on a Winkler foundation:


If the elastic foundation were absent, we could find deflection w by solving Eq. 5.2.2, because bending moment M would be independent of wand known a priori (for statically determinate beams). But with the foundation present, we must solve Eq. 5.2.4.

The following notation is convenient.

Q = [4EkI] 1/4

'" (5.2.5)

Hence arguments of differential equation theory show that the solution of Eq. 5.2.4 is, for constant k and constant 13,

w = e{:lx(C1 sin f3x + C2 cos f3x) + e-f3X(C3 sin f3x + C4 cos f3x) + w(q) (5.2.6)

where C1 through C4 are constants of integration. The term w(q) is a particular solution, associated with load q, that disappears if q = O.

For analysis, one prescribes the elastic properties of beam and foundation, the support conditions, and the loading. The response is required. A specific problem can be solved as follows. Evaluate constants of integration in Eq. 5.2.6 by use of boundary conditions. Thus the deflection w = w(x) is known. Hence V and M can be computed from Eqs. 5.2.2 and 5.2.3. Flexural stress is then computed by the flexure formula (T = Me/I, as usual. Slope, if needed, is (J = dw / dx, Examples of this procedure are given subsequently.

In subsequent discussion it will be found convenient to use the symbols here defined:

Af3x = e-f3X(cos f3x + sin f3x) Cf3x = e-f3X(cos f3x - sin f3x) These quantities are related as follows.

Bf3x Df3x

e-f3x sin f3x e-f3x cos f3x


_!_ dD {3x = _1_ d 2C {3x 1 d3B
A{:lx = -~
13 dx 2132 dx' 2133 dx'
_!_ dA(3x = _1_ d2D(3X 1 d3C
Bf3x --~
213 dx 2132 dx: 4133 dx3 (5.2.8)
c; _!_ dB{3x = __ 1_ d2A(3x = _1_ d3D(3X
13 dx 2132 dx: 2133 dx3
D{:lx _!_ dC{3,x __ 1_ d2B (3x = _1_ d3A(3X
213 dx 2132 dx' 4133 dx3 6.2 EBUATIONS FOR BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATIONS 149
TABLE 5.2.1 Selected Values of Terms Defined by Eqs. 5.2.7.
fJx A/h B/h C/h D/h
0 I 0 I I
0.02 0.9996 0.0196 0.9604 0.9800
0.04 0.9984 0.0384 0.9216 0.9600
0.10 0.9907 0.0903 0.8100 0.9003
0.20 0.9651 0.1627 0.6398 0.8024
0.30 0.9267 0.2189 0.4888 0.7077
0.40 0.8784 0.2610 0.3564 0.6174
0.50 0.8231 0.2908 0.2415 0.5323
0.60 0.7628 0.3099 0.1431 0.4530
0.70 0.6997 0.3199 0.0599 0.3798
1T/4 0.6448 0.3224 0 0.3224
0.80 0.6354 0.3223 -0.0093 0.3131
0.90 0.5712 0.3185 -0.0657 0.2527
1.00 0.5083 0.3096 -0.1108 0.1988
1.10 0.4476 0.2967 -0.1457 0.1510
1.20 0.3899 0.2807 -0.1716 0.1091
1.30 0.3355 0.2626 -0.1897 0.0729
1.40 0.2849 0.2430 -0.2011 0.0419
1.50 0.2384 0.2226 -0.2068 0.0158
1T/2 0.2079 0.2079 -0.2079 0
1.60 0.1959 0.2018 -0.2077 -0.0059
1.70 0.1576 0.1812 -0.2047 -0.0235
1.80 0.1234 0.1610 -0.1985 -0.0376
1.90 0.0932 0.1415 -0.1899 -0.0484
2.00 0.0667 0.1231 -0.1794 -0.0563
2.20 0.0244 0.0896 -0.1548 -0.0652
3'TT/4 0 0.0670 -0.1340 -0.0670
2.40 -0.0056 0.0613 -0.1282 -0.0669
2.60 -0.0254 0.0383 -0.1019 -0.0636
2.80 -0.0369 0.0204 -0.0777 -0.0573
3.00 -0.0423 0.0070 -0.0563 -0.0493
1T -0.0432 0 -0.0432 -0.0432
3.20 -0.0431 -0.0024 -0.0383 -0.0407
3.40 -0.0408 -0.0085 -0.0237 -0.0323
3.60 -0.0366 -0.0121 -0.0124 -0.0245
3.80 -0.0314 -0.0137 -0.0040 -0.0177
51T/4 -0.0279 -0.0139 0 -0.0139
4.00 -0.0258 -0.0139 0.0019 -0.0120
3'TT/2 -0.0090 -0.0090 0.0090 0
21T 0.0019 \ 0 0.0019 0.0019 150


Note that {3x is a dimensionless quantity; radians when used in sin {3x and cos (3x. An abbreviated list of these functions is presented in Table 5.2.1. Values not in the table can be found by interpolation or directly from Eqs. 5.2.7.

Two-Parameter Foundations. Here we assume that the foundation has a rotational modulus k, in addition to the usual translational modulus k. Thus the foundation exerts a force per unit length kw and a moment per unit length k,(dw/ dx). This is not a Winkler foundation. The governing equation, analogous to Eq. 5.2.4, is


Various two-parameter foundation models lead to this equation [5.4]. If 4kEI> ki, which is the practical case, then the solution of Eq. 5.2.9 is [5.5J

w = e</nJx(c, sin <pax + Cz cos <pax)

+ e--</>T)X(C3 sin <pax + C4 cos <pax) + w(q)


[;/)'/4 V4kEI - kZ 7T
<p= 8 arctan , 0<8<-
k, 2 (5.2.11)
8 8
a = sin - 11 = cos -
2 2 The similarity of Eqs. 5.2.6 and 5.2.10 shows that a two-parameter foundation is not much harder to treat than a Winkler foundation. Equation 5.2.10 reduces to Eq. 5.2.6 if k, = O.

Plates on Elastic Foundations. In a plate, deflection w is a function of x and y, which are coordinates in the plane of the plate. Again the governing differential equation is fourth order, but it involves partial derivatives. Derivation of the equation is straightforward, but its solution is far from simple [4.2]. Approximate analytical techniques are tedious and lack generality [5.3). Numerical methods are recommended.


We consider the beam shown in Fig. The beam lies on the positive x axis, from x = 0 to positive infinity. The loads, Po and Mo' act at the end x = O. The resulting deflection and slope at x = 0 are Wo and 80, both shown in the posi ti ve sense in Fig. 5.3. 1 b. Any of the loads and deflections may be negative in particular numerical cases. On occasion, we may wish, to prescribe w() rather than Po or 80 rather than Mo' We must find w, 8, M, and V in the beam as functions of x.

This problem is solved (in general terms) by Eq. 5.2.6, with w(q) = o.




z. w

z. w



FIGURE 5.3.1. (a) Concentrated loads Po and M" at the end of a semi-infinite beam on a Winkler foundation. (b) End deflection w" and end rotation 0" = (dw/dx)FO' both shown in the positive sense.

Because deflection w must vanish at x = 00, we must have C, = 0 and C2 = O. Two more conditions are needed to solve for C3 and C4. They are, from Eqs. 5.2.2 and 5.2.3,



Accordingly, from Eqs. 5.2.6,5.2.7,5.2.8, and 5.3.1, we find

C - 2f32Mo C = 2f3Po _ 2f32Mo

3- k 4 k k


Deflection, slope, bending moment, and shear in the beam of Fig. 5.3.1 are
2f3Po 2f32M (5.3.3)
w = -- D{3x ___ oC
k k {3x
dw 2f32p 4f33M
e = e __ 0 A + -s->» (5.3.4)
dx k {3x k {3x
d2w Po (5.3.5)
M -El- M - -B + MoA{3x
dx2 f3 {3x
d3w -PoC{3x - 2f3MoB{3x (5.3.6)
V= -EI- V =
dx3 As seen by consulting Eqs. 5.2.7 and 5.2.8, the quantities w, e, M, and V are damped sine and cosine waves. All disappear for large x. Accordingly, a finite beam may be long enough to be treated as if it were infinite.

If desired, we can prescribe Wo and eo in Fig. 5.3.1b and solve Eqs. 5.3.3 and 5.3.4 for the necessary values of Po and M; (Problem 5.8). Indeed, aunique problem is set up when any two of the four end quantities in Fig. 5.3.1 are prescribed.

Example 5.3.1. A semi-infinite steel bar (E = 200 OPa) has a square cross section 80 mm on a side and rests on a Winkler foundation of modulus ko = 0.25 Nyrnrrr'zmrn. A downward force of 50 kN is applied to the end.



Find the maximum and minimum deflections and their locations. Also find the maximum flexural stress and its location.

Necessary constants are

804 } [ k ] 1/4

EI = 200,00012 = 6.827(10)" N'mm? f3 = 4EI


k = 80 ka = 20 N/mm/mm - 0.001645/mm

Equation 5.3.3 becomes W = 2f3P .D f3x1 k and yields the maximum deflection at x = 0, where D{3x = 1.

w = w = 2f3Po = 2(0.001645)50,000 = 8.225 mm (5 3 8)

max a k 20 ..

The minimum deflection occurs at the smallest x for which () = O. From Eq. 5.3.4, this is where A{3x = O. Scanning Table 5.2.1, we find that Af3x = 0 at f3x = 37T/4, or x = 1432 mm. Here D{3x = -0.0670, a value that could have been obtained by simply scanning the table for the largest negative value of Df3x.


Wmin = -k- (-0.0670) = -0.0670wmax= -0.551 mm (5.3.9)

This upward deflection reminds us that our solution assumes that beam and foundation do not part company. If separation does occur, our solution may yet be a good approximation because IWminl « IWmaxl.

Bending moment is M = - P j3 (3x/ f3. We scan the table and find that B{3x has largest magnitude at f3x = 7T/4, which is a quarter-wavelength. Here B{3x = 0.3224.

M. = - (50,000)(0.3224) = 9.80(10)6 N· m

rrun 0.001645 m


Me 9.80(10)6(40)

(T = - = = 115 MPa

I 804/12

This stress appears on top of the beam at x = 7T/4f3 = 477 mm from the end.


Concentrated Force. A uniform beam, Fig. 5.4.1a, extends to infinity in both directions. The loading is a force Po at x = 0 (the case of a moment loading will be treated separately). Deflections are symmetric with respect to the z axis, and each half of the beam carries half of the total load Po. The solution for w, 8, M, and V can be obtained from equations in Section 5.3. The right half of the infinite beam acts like the semi-infinite beam of Fig. 5.3.1, but with Po












-==--M __..."..........-=-:=-------""~ '37~+ ::=::'----=--= ~~---==- I x

4~ ~------1


V ~2


FIGURE 5.4.1. (a) Concentrated load Po at x = 0 on a uniform infinite beam that rests on a Winkler foundation. (b-e) Curves for deflection, rotation, bending moment, and transverse shear force in the beam. These curves are proportional to A'l" BII" ell" and D {lx' respectively.




replaced by r.j: and M; such that e = 0 at x 5.3.4,

O. Accordingly, from Eq.

Po M=-

() 4f3

(5.4. I)

Substituting Poi2 and M; = Poi4f3 in Eq. 5.3.3 and using Eqs. 5.2.7 and 5.2.8, we obtain

f3Po (5.4.2)
w --A
- 2k {3x
dw f32p (5.4.3)
e = e _ -_oB
dx k {3x
d2w Po (5.4.4)
M -El- M -c
dx2 4f3 (3x d~ ~ .

V= -EI-3 V = --2 D{3x ~J5.4.5)

dx :.~

as the equations that apply to an infinite beam that carries a concentratedjiownward load Po atx = O. In these equations, x must be zero or positive. Conditions in the left half (x < 0) must be obtained from calculations in the right half (x > 0) and the following conditions of symmetry and antisymmetry.



w(x) = w( -X) M(x) = M( -X)

O(x) Vex)

- O( -X)

- V( - X)


If k or EI changes abruptly at X = 0, the foregoing symmetry conditions do not prevail when a load Po is applied at X = O. One can then regard the problem as consisting of two semi-infinite beams joined at X = O. A shear force Vo and a moment M; appear at the juncture, applied by each semi-infinite beam to the other. One must find Vo and M; from the conditions that the two semi-infinite beams have the same deflection wand the same rotation 0 where they meet. Problems of this type are considered in Section 6.9, in the context of shells of revolution.

Concentrated Moment. A uniform infinite beam loaded by a concentrated moment M; at x = 0 is shown in Fig. 5.4.2. Deflections are antisymmetric with respect to the origin. Bending moment at x = 0 is MoI2, positive on the right and negative on the left. Again the solution can be obtained from equations in Section 5.3. The right half of the infinite beam acts like the semi-infinite beam of Fig. 5.3.1, but with M; replaced by Mol2 and Po such that w = 0 at x = O. Accordingly, from Eq. 5.3.3,

o = 2f3Po _ 2f32(MoI2)

k k



o 2


Substituting Po Mof312 and MoI2 in Eq. 5.3.3 and using Eqs. 5.2.7 and

5.2.8, we obtain

(d) ~~ x
M + Mol2
(e) ......_ ___. ~ __. x
V f-- ~~ --1---- \

FIGURE 5.4.2. (a) Concentrated moment M; at x = 0 on a uniform infinite beam

that rests on a Winkler foundation. (b-e) Curves for deflection, rotation, bending moment, and transverse shear force in the beam. These curves are proportional to B~" C~" D~" and A~" respectively.



dw e = - dx




M = 2" Df3x

V = - {3Mo A

2 /3x



as the equations that apply to an infinite beam that carries a concentrated clockwise moment M; at x = O. Conditions in the left half (x < 0) must be obtained from calculations in the right half (x > 0) and the following conditions of symmetry and antisymmetry:

w(x) = -w( -x) M(x) = -M( -x)

e( - x) V( -x)


e(x) V(x)

Example 5.4.1. An infinite beam rests on equally spaced linear coil springs, located every 1.10 m along the beam. A concentrated load of 18 kN is applied to the beam, directly over one of the springs. Stiffnesses are EI = 441(10)9 N'rnrrr' for the beam and K = 275 N/mm for each spring. Compute the largest spring force and the largest bending moment in the beam.

Force applied to the beam by a spring with deflection w is Kw. If the spring spacing is L, we can associate force Kw with a span L. The hypothetical distributed force is therefore Kw/L. If distributed force kw of a Winkler foundation is to be the same, then

K k=L

Hence, from Eq. 5.2.5, with k = 275/1100 = 0.25 N/mm/mm,

[ k ] 1/4 [0.25 ] 1/4

{3 = 4EI = 4(441)109 = 6.136(1O)-4/mm



Now we can decide if it is really acceptable to "smear" the springs into a Winkler foundation. A half-wave is {3x = 7T or x = 5.12 m. There are then 5.12/1.10 = 4.65 springs per half-wave. This is more than the recommended minimum of four springs per half-wave, so the smearing is considered acceptable.

From Eq. 5.4.2, at x = 0,

{3Po 6.136(10)-4(18,000)

wmax = 2k A/3X,= 2(0.25) (1.0) = 22.1 mm (5.4.15)

This is the maximum deflection, so the maximum spring force is Fmax = Kwmax = 275(22.1) = 6075 N




According to Fig. 5.4.1, the maximum bending moment is at x O.

From Eq. 5.4.4,


Po Mmax = 4f3 c ;

4(0.0006136) (1.0)

7.33kN·m (5.4.17)

The foregoing example problem has been solved in a different way in [5.6].

There the problem is altered by making the length of the beam finite so that it is 6.6 m long and spans only seven springs. Elastic foundation theory is not used; instead, five of the seven springs are considered redundants in an analysis by statically indeterminate beam theory. Results show F max to be 5.8 % larger than given by Eq. 5.4.16 and Mmax to be 6.3% smaller than given by Eq. 5.4.17. These differences are not large. At the third spring from the load, where x = 3.3 m, Eq. 5.4.2 yields W = 1.34 mm, while the indeterminate beam solution yields W = - 2.48 mm. Here percentage error is large, but deflections themselves are small, having mostly died out this far from the load.

Finally, note that springs need not be coil springs; they may simply be discrete elastic supports. Stiffness K is by definition the ratio of load to deflection. Thus, if the discrete support is an axially loaded elastic bar of length Land crosssectional area A, then K = AE/L. Or if the discrete support is a tip-loaded cantilever beam, then K = 3EI/L3.

Example 5.4.2. An infinite beam on a Winkler foundation has the following properties.

EI = 441(10)9 N'rnm? f3 = 6.136(10)-4/mm

Two loads, 18 kN each and 2.6 m apart, are applied to the beam (Fig. 5.4.3). Compute the maximum deflection and maximum bending moment.

Quantities wmax and Mmax for a single load were computed in Example 5.4.1 (Eqs. 5.4.15 and 5.4.17). Single-load results must be superposed as shown in Fig. 5.4.3. Data in this example are such that the resultant moment is smaller and the resultant deflection is larger than for a single load, as the following calculations show.

We first compute wand M directly under a load, say at point C in Fig. 5.4.3d. For this, parts (e) and (f) of Fig. 5.4.3 must be superposed. Results for part (e) are given by Eqs. 5.4.15 and 5.4.17 as WI = 22.1 mm and MI = 7.33 kN·m at XI = O. In part (f), point C has coordinate X2 = 2.6 m, so that f3X2 = 1.595. Hence, from Eqs. 5.4.2 and 5.4.4, at x2 = 2.6 m,

k = 0.25 N/mm/mm


Wz - f3Po A 6.136(10)-4(18,000) 0 8 4.4 mm (5.4.19)
- 2k f3x 2(0.25) ( .197 )
Mz Po 4(6\8;~~~0-4 (-0.2078) -1.52 kN·m (5.4.20)




--- I -

-........... .......-

...... ...... .....

...... ....... / ,,-

<, »: ",-/

....... -c :»: ............. <.:>





Z. wI
Po = 18kN! S
(f) 5 X2
AI B c
z, w2 FIGURE 5.4.3. (a) Equal concentrated loads on an elastically supported beam. (b,c) Resulting deflection and bending moment. Dashed lines represent results of individual loads. Solid lines are superposed results. (d-f) Coordinate systems used to solve the problem by superposition.

Superposing parts (e) and (f), we find at point C

We = WI + W2 = 22.1 + 4.4 = 26.5 mm

Me = MI + M2 = 7.33 - 1.52 = 5.81 kN'm The same results prevail at point A because of symmetry about point B. Note that results at point A cannot be computed in Fig. 5.4.3e because negative values of x cannot be used in the formulas.

At point B we can exploit symmetry by doubling the effects of a single load. In Fig. 5.4.3f, point B has coordinate x2 = 1.3 m so that (3x2 = 0.798. Hence, using Eqs. 5.4.2 and 5.4.4, we have


2 (0.6369)

O. 5

2(6.\8~~~~0-4 ( - 0.0078) = - 0.11 kr+rn

MB = 2 Po C 4{3 f3x


28.1 mm



The negative value of M B shows that the beam is concave down at B. This indicates that there are points of zero slope, and maximum deflection, on either side of point B. However, since MB is small and WB = We, we conclude that the beam is almost flat in the neighborhood of point B. As a practical matter it is probably not necessary to know wmax exactly. Accordingly, for two equal or unequal loads on a rail, we might accept the largest of WA, wB, and we as a satisfactory estimate of Wmax'





A situation that is easy to analyze is shown in Fig. 5.5.1a. The structure is the same as that of Fig. 5.3.1; a uniformly distributed load qo has been added. We begin with the general solution, Eq. 5.2.6. Conditions at x = 0 are felt only locally. At large x the beam does not bend. There the load is carried entirely by the foundation with deflection qjk. Accordingly, in Eq. 5.2.6 we have C] = C2 = 0 and w(q) = qjk, so that

w = C3Bf3x + C4D{3x + ~ It is clear that the boundary conditions, Eqs. 5.3.1, will again lead to Eqs. 5.3.2. Equations 5.3.3 through 5.3.6 are changed only by the addition of qolk to the right side of Eq. 5.3.3.

In a similar problem, Fig. 5.5.1b, the support reaction at x = 0 is required.

Here M; is absent, qo remains, andP, (in the opposite sense) is the reaction supplied by the simple support. Boundary conditions are M; = Wo = 0 at x =

o so that Eq. 5.3.3 (augmented by qolk) yields qo/2{3 as the support reaction.

Other specific problems of semi-infinite beams with uniform loading along the entire beam are easily solved. End conditions are prescribed values of Mo' 80, Po, or Wo (any two of these four). Problems of semi-infinite beams in which load q covers a finite span are discussed at the end of the present section.

Consider next an infinite beam with a uniform load qo that covers a span L, Fig. 5.5.2. It is required to find expressions for deflection and bending moment at an arbitrary point Q that lies within span L. The simplest way to solve this problem is to superpose results for infinitely many concentrated loads qo dx, From Eq. 5.4.2, the deflection at point Q due to load qo dx at point 0 is



The next contribution to dWQ at point Q is obtained by conceptually moving point 0 an infinitesimal distance dx to the left. Equation 5.5.2 again applies



===== T 5 z , w

z, w



FIGURE 5.5.1. (a) Semi-infinite beam on a Winkler foundation, loaded by end force Po, end moment Mo, and a uniformly distributed load q" over the entire beam. (b) Deflected shape of the beam if simply supported and loaded by qo only.


z, w

FIGURE 5.5.2. Uniformly distributed load q" over a length L = a + b of an infinite beam on a Winkler foundation.

because A/3x is a function of x, the arbitrary distance. Summing contributions as point 0 is moved across the entire span L, and using Eqs. 5.2.8, we obtain

wQ = ~io [J: Apx dx + J: A/3x dX] = - ~~ [Dpx I~ + D/3xI:J


as the deflection at point Q in Fig. 5.5.2. In the integration we have imagined that x is positive to the left when point 0 is to the right of point Q because our formulas require that x be positive. By the same integration process we find from Eq. 5.4.4

MQ = 4~2 (Bpa + Bpb) as the bending moment at point Q in Fig. 5.5.2. Similarly, expressions for rotation and shear are



Derivation of these fJQ and V Q expressions is left to the reader as an exercise.

It is helpful to identify three cases of an infinite beam under load qo over a length L, as follows.

1. Imagine that {3L is small (which means that L is small, or the foundation is soft, or the beam is very stiff). Then the situation is little different from that of a concentrated load on the beam, in the sense that deflection and bending moment are greatest at the middle of span L (Fig. 5.5.3a). These maximum values of wQ and MQ are computed from Eqs. 5.5.3 and 5.5.4 with a = b = L/2. By scanning values of B px in Table 5.2.1, we find that, for all values of a less than L,

2BPL/2 S Bpa + Bp(L-a)

if {3L ~ 7T




Accordingly, {3L ~ 1T is our definition of "small {3L," for which Eq. 5.5.4 gives a maximum bending moment at a = b = L/2.

2. If {3L is large. the response is depicted by Fig. 5.5.3b. Deflection is the constant value w = qolk in the central portion, and bending moment is zero except in the neighborhood of the ends of the loaded zone. Magnitudes of Mmax and Mmin are the same. This can be seen by imagining that span L is temporarily disconnected from the rest of the beam. Then w is discontinuous and M is everywhere zero. To reconnect, shear forces Pv must be applied to adjacent disconnected ends so that each end moves a distance qol2k, one end up and the other end down. Each portion is effectively a semi-infinite beam loaded by an end force. Thus, from Eq. 5.3.3, P; = qj4{3, and substituting this in Eq. 5.3.5, we find

IMmaxl = IMminl = 4~2 (Bf3 .. )max = 0.0806 ~~ The same result is gIven by Eq. 5.5.4 if we let b become very large and set a = 1T/4{3 (or let a become large and set b = 1T/4(3).

3. Intermediate values of {3L, Fig. 5.5. 3c, are {3L values greater than 1T but not large enough that Fig. 5.5.3b applies. As shown by Fig. 5.5.3c, Mmax is not at the middle. Indeed, values of M outside the loaded portion may have greatest magnitude, but there Eq. 5.5.4 is not valid. Boresi [5.6] suggests that it is sufficiently accurate to work within span L and estimate Mmax from Eq. 5.5.4 by setting a = 1T/4{3 and b = L - a.


Example 5.5.1. An infinitely long wooden beam carries a uniformly distributed load qo = 35 N/mm over a length L = 3.61 m. The data for beam and foundation are E = 10.0 GPa, I = 66.67(10)6 mm", and k =

~L small

~L large

~L intenmediate


(a) (b) (c)

FIGURE 5.5.3. Deflection and bending moment in uniform and uniformly loaded infinite beams on a Winkler foundation.


4.0 N/mm/mm so that f3 = 0.001107/mm and f3L = 4.00. Compute the maximum deflection and the largest bending moment.

Since f3L is slightly greater than 1T, we say that the intermediate case prevails (Fig. 5.5.3c). Deflection is greatest at the center of span L, and is, from Eq. 5.5.3 with a = b = L/2,

qo 35

= - (1 - D{3L/2) = - (1 + 0.0563) = 9.243 mm

k 4.0



The bending moment at the center is, from Eq. 5.5.4 with a = b = L/2,


2(0.001107)20.1231 = 1.758(10)6 N'rnrn (5.5.9)

However, ML/2 is not the largest bending moment. Within span L we use Eq. 5.5.4, with b = L - a and a < 3.61 m, and scan Table 5.2.1 to find the largest value of B{3(L-a) + B{3a' We estimate the largest value to be at a = 0.78 m (or at a = 3.61 - 0.78 = 2.83 m). This location is close to the approximate maximum point suggested [5.6], which is at a = 1T/4f3 = 0.71 m. A computer solution shows that the bending moment of largest magnitude appears 0.70 m outside span L, where qo = O. In summary, the magnitudes of various bending moments are as follows. Beneath load qo' from Eq. 5.5.4,


MO.78m = 4(0.001107)2 (0.3205 + 0.0004) 2.291(10)6 N'rnm


35 2 (0.3224 - 0.0028)


2.282(10)6 N'rnm (5.5.11)


Outside the loaded zone, from the computer solution, MO.70m = - 2.363(10)6 N'rnm


Problems of semi-infinite beams under distributed loading over a short span can be solved by superposition. As an example consider the beam of Fig. 5.5.1a. Let the end be free so that Po = M; = O. The only load is qo acting over a finite span, from x = 0 to x = L. Analysis begins with the problem of Fig. 5.5.2. Let a = 0, b = L, and use Eqs. 5.5.4 and 5.5.5 to solve for MQ and VQ in the infinite beam at the left end of span L. These values of MQ and VQ are reversed and used as M; and Po in Eq. 5.3.3. Upon superposing w from Eqs. 5.3.3 and 5.5.3, the left end of span L becomes free of bending moment and transverse shear force, as required. Thus we obtain the solution within the span from x = 0 to x = L, with end x = 0 free. For example, bending moment at an arbitrary point Q beneath the load is given by adding MQ from Eq. 5.5.4 and M from Eq. 5.3.5, with x = a in the latter equation. If a support is added, the superposition approach becomes sufficiently tedious that a computer solution may be preferred.



In principle there is nothing difficult in the analysis of a beam of finite length. If, for example, ends are free as in Fig., the shear force and bending moment must vanish at each end. This gives four conditions, enough to solve for constants C, through C4 in Eq. 5.2.6. The algebra is considerable and the resulting formulas are lengthy. Nevertheless, results are known and tabulated for several cases [5.2, 5.3].

The case depicted in Fig. is among the simplest. At the center of the beam, directly beneath load Po [5.2], deflection and bending moment are

{3P a 2 + cosh {3L + cos {3L

w =-

a 2k sinh {3L + sin {3L


M = Po _co_s_h_:{3_L __ c_o_s _,_{3_L

a 4{3 sinh {3L + sin {3L


The ratio of end deflection to center deflection Wo is

4 cosh ({3L/2) cos ({3L/2) 2 + cosh {3L + cos {3L


This ratio is plotted in Fig. Also plotted in Fig. is the ratio of center deflection of a finite beam to deflection of the load on a beam of the same cross section but infinitel y long. Figure 5.6. I suggests the following grouping.

I. Short beams, for which {3L < 7T/4.

2. Intermediate beams, for which 7T/4 < {3L < 7T.

3. Long beams, for which {3L > 7T.

In group I, bending deformation of the beam can be neglected. The beam is regarded as rigid, and deflections and foundation pressures can be determined from the equilibrium equations of statics. In group 2, conditions at one end have an effect on the other that cannot be ignored. Equations such as 5.6.1 and 5.6.2






Wo finite C Woinfinile

- ---------


z, W



FIGURE 5.6.1. (a) Centrally loaded beam of finite length on a Winkler foundation. (b) End deflection wend at x = ±L/2, as a fraction of center deflection Wo' versus {3L. Also, the ratio of Wo for a finite beam to Wo for an infinitely long beam.



are used for beams in this group. For a beam in group 3, ends are so far apart that conditions at one end are scarcely felt at the other, so the beam can be analyzed as if it were infinitely long. Clearly, the error is small for beams in group 3: The deflection ratio is 1.016 for f3L = 6 (dashed curve in Fig. 5.6. 1 b). The arbitrarily chosen dividing values of 7T/4 and 7T can be changed for greater or less accuracy in the results.


A circular cylindrical shell, of constant thickness and axially symmetric in geometry and loading, may seem quite unrelated to a beam on a Winkler elastic foundation. However, governing differential equations of the two problems have the same form. This means that solutions of one problem become solutions of the other problem by a simple change of constants. Thus the considerable library of solutions for beams on elastic foundations [5.2, 5.3] can be applied to analogous problems of cylindrical shells.

Physical action in a cylindrical shell can be understood from Fig. 5.7.1. As an external pressure q is applied, material beneath the load moves inward, and compressive circumferential forces Nfl are generated. On a differential element, these forces exert an outward component because they include an angle dO between them. Forces Nfl and their outward component are directly proportional to deflection w of the shell. This is exactly the action produced by a Winkler foundation.

~~ ~
M, FIGURE 5.7.1 (a) Pressure q acts on a thin elastic cylindrical shell (R > > t). Dashed lines show the deflected shape, greatly exaggerated. (b)

Forces and moments per unit lengtp that act on a Qx + dQx

differential element of the shell. (The sign conven-

tion conforms to preceding sections of this chapter,

but w is usually chosen as positive outward in

books about shells.)

Mx + dM,




stresses, as would happen if stresses were tensile. More often, bearings are replaced when bearing surfaces have become pitted so that operation becomes noisy, rough, or loose.

Plastic action plays a role in the pitting of bearings. Static overload can dent balls and races. Or high contact stresses during operation can cause surface layers to have a residual stress in compression, which in tum generates tensile stress in a subsurface layer where fatigue cracks begin. Cracks propagate along the tensile layer until a flake of material breaks off. This action is called spalling.

Unfortunately, equations of Section 5.8 do not account for many practical circumstances [1.9]. Plastic action changes geometry, creates residual stresses, .s and locally alters material properties. Loads often act tangent as well as normal

to contacting surfaces, as in gears and cams. These frictional forces generate stresses. They also generate heat, causing thermal stresses and necessitating a lubricant. A lubricant film alters the distribution of contact pressure. Because

of these complications, the maximum contact pressure Po is often used as an index of loading severity in empirical design formulas. For example, the number

of cycles of loading needed to produce significant fatigue damage in ball bearings (by spalling or excessive deformation) has been found to be inversely proportional to the ninth power of Po' For roller bearings it is the eighth power [5.3].


5.1 G. W. HOUSNER and T. VREELAND, The Analysis of Stress and Deformation, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1966.

5.2 M. HETENYI, Beams on Elastic Foundation, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1946.

5.3 R. J. ROARK and W. C. YOUNG, Formulas for Stress and Strain, 5th ed., McGrawHill Book Company, New York, 1975.

5.4 A. D. KERR, "Elastic and Viscoelastic Foundation Models," Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 31, No.3, 1964, pp. 491--498.

5.5 FENG ZHAOHUA and R. D. COOK, "Beam Elements on Two-Parameter Elastic Foundations," Journal of Engineering Mechanics (Proc. ASCE) , Vol. 109, No. 6, 1983, pp. 1390--1402.

5.6 A. P. BORESI, O. M. SIDEBOTTOM, F. B. SEELY, and J. O. SMITH, Advanced Mechanics of Materials, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1978.


Section 5.1

5.1 Consider a flat plate whose specific gravity is slightly greater than unity. Explain why the plate may float on still water if a load is placed near its center.

5.2 A beam that is very stiff and short is pressed against an elastic foundation by a force at its center. Without calculation, sketch the qualitative distribution of foundation pressure against the beam if the foundation is

* An asterisk before a problem number indicates that a full or partial answer is given in the back of the book.



(a) A Winkler model. (b) An elastic solid.

*5.3 A uniform straight pipe has mass p per unit length. It is hung from a horizontal support by several vertical cables of equal length I. Imagine that loads normal to the pipe axis may act in a horizontal plane. What is the effective Winkler foundation modulus for small lateral displacements?

Section 5.2

5.4 Derive Eq. 5.2.9.

*5.5 A long cable rests on a Winkler foundation. The cable undergoes only small displacements so that its axial tension T can be taken as constant. The cable has no bending stiffness El. Find an expression for the deflected shape if the point at x = 0 (far from fixed supports) is pushed down an amount Wo'

*5.6 A semi-infinite prismatic shaft is embedded in a Winkler-type elastic medium.

That is, the medium applies a torque of magnitude ke dx when a length dx of the shaft rotates through an angle e. A torque To is applied to the end of the shaft. Formulate the theory of this problem, and obtain equations analogous to Eqs. 5.3.3 through 5.3.6.

Section 5.3

5.7 (a) Substitute C1 = C2 = w(q) = 0 in Eq. 5.2.6. Also substitute C3 and C4

from Eqs. 5.3.2. Hence verify Eqs. 5.3.3 through 5.3.6.

(b) The second of Eqs. 5.3.1 can be replaced by another condition that states the equilibrium of vertical forces. What is this condition? Use this condition and Eqs. 5.2.8 to obtain an equation that relates C3 and C4•

(c) Hence verify Eqs. 5.3.2.

*5.8 (a) End deflection Wo and end rotation eo of a semi-infinite beam on a Winkler

foundation are prescribed. Determine the necessary values of end force and end moment in terms of wo' eo, k, and {3.

(b) Hence write expressions for w, e, M, and Vas functions of x.

5.9 A semi-infinite beam on a Winkler foundation is simply supported and is loaded by a moment M; at its end, as shown. Find expressions for w, e, M, and Vas functions of x. Qualitatively sketch the deflected shape.

~)ji/d I



z, w




*5.10 A semi-infinite beam rests on a Winkler foundation. An angle bracket is attached to the end, as shown. Load F is then placed on the bracket.

(a) What should be length L if the end of the beam is not to rotate?


(b) Where are the points of greatest tensile and compressive stress on the upper surface of the beam?

*5.11 A semi-infinite beam, supported only by a Winkler foundation, is subjected to a moment M; at its end.

(a) Find the ratio of the greatest upward and greatest downward deflections. (b) Find the ratio of the maximum and minimum bending moments.

(c) Compute the total upward force of the foundation (where w > 0) and the total downward force of the foundation (where w < 0). Consider the range o ;"2 f3x ;"2 57r/4. Explain any discrepancy.

*5.12 A long wooden plank has specific gravity 0.5, elastic modulus E = 13 GPa, and a cross section 200 mm by 40 mm. The plank floats on still fresh water. How large a weight can be placed at mid width on one end if the upper surface is to stay dry?

5.13 In Example 5.3.1, how much force is applied to the beam by the portion of the foundation that deflects upward? Express your answer as a fraction of Po.

Section 5.4

5.14 (a) Verify that Eqs. 5.4.3 through 5.4.5 follow from Eqs. 5.4.2 and 5.2.S. (b) Verify that Eqs. 5.4.9 through 5.4.11 follow from Eqs. 5.4.S and 5.2.S.

5.15 In Section 5.4, results from Section 5.3 are used to solve the problems of Figs. 5.4.1 and 5.4.2. In this exercise work the other way; derive Eq. 5.3.3 from the analogous formulas for infinite beams in Section 5.4.

5.16 Imagine that an infinite beam on a Winkler foundation is loaded by two forces P, one up and the other down, a small distance Llx apart. Let the product P Llx be constant. Use this concept to derive Eq. 5.4.S from Eq. 5.4.2.

*5.17 An infinite beam is fabricated with a cusp, as shown in part (a) of the sketch.

Use the properties given in Eq. 5.4.IS. Assume that the Winkler foundation was initially flat and is everywhere attached to the beam. Deflections are measured with reference to the undisturbed foundation.

(a) Compute deflection and bending moment at the cusp, part (b) of the sketch.

Note: The deflected shape is an influence line for bending moment at the cusp produced by a concentrated force that moves slowly across the beam. (b) What load Po at the cusp will reduce deflection at the cusp to zero?


0.02 fad

(a) Beam alone


(b) Beam on foundation

5.18 In Example 5.4.2, what should be the distance between the two loads if the deflection midway between them is to be the same as the deflection under each load?

*5.19 An infinite beam, of elastic modulus E = 200 GPa, I = 2S.4( 10)6 mm", and depth 2c = ISO rnrn, rests on a Winkler foundation of modulus k = 10.0 N/mm/mm.

(a) Determine the maximum deflection and flexural stress under a single load of 100 kN.

(b) Let there be three loads, each 100 kN and l. 7 m apart. Determine the maximum deflection and maximum flexural stress in the beam.

*5.20 In Example 5.4.2, imagine that the load at point A is 6 kN and the load at point Cis 12 kN. Leave other data unchanged. Compute

(a) The maximum deflection and its location.

(b) The maximum bending moment and its location.

*5.21 As shown by the sketch, a long beam is fixed at end A, free at end B., and supported by several identical and equally spaced cross-beams, which are simply supported at their ends. All beams are steel (E = 200 GPa), with depth 2c = 180 mm and moment of inertia I = 25(10)6 mrn". A load of 70 kN is applied to the long beam at a distance of 4.25 m from end A. Find the largest flexural stress in the long beam and in the cross-beams.


0.51ll~0.5m ~ 105m

I---- IH (u 0.5 III = ').0 m-==r-



5.22 Imagine that a concentrated force of 100 kN moves slowly along the 9-m beam of Problem 5.21, from A to B. What is the greatest flexural stress that ever appears in the long beam, and where is force P when this stress appears?

*5.23 Estimate the maximum tensile stress in the sandwich construction shown in the sketch.

230 N


E=200GPa--~======================~ E = 1.6 MPa ___j v = 0.45 in core )

E = 200 GPa ____:t::==========::;:::==========j


230 N





7 mm --l I- 4 mm

5.24 A long rail is loaded near its center by a concentrated force. What is the effect on maximum deflection and on stress of overestimating the Winkler foundation modulus k by 50%?

*5.25 A Winkler foundation has modulus ko = 25 N/mm2/mm. A long steel beam (E = 200 GPa), twice as deep as it is wide, is to rest on the foundation and carry a 50-kN load at its center. What should be the dimensions of the beam cross section if the flexural stress is not to exceed 300 MPa?


*5.26 An infinite rail on a Winkler foundation is to carry two equal wheel loads: How far apart should the wheels be if the bending moment is to be a minimum? Express your answer in terms of {3.

*5.27 The railroad rail shown can be considered infinitely long. Each of the many ties beneath the rail has a spring constant of 5 kN/mm.

(a) Load P is directly over a tie. What is the deflection of the rail and the bending moment in the rail directly beneath load P?

(b) What are the deflection and bending moment in the rail at a position two ties away from the load P?

(c) During a test, a special tie replaces one of the regular ties. It has a spring constant equal to six times the regular tie, or 30 kN/mm. If load P is directly over the special tie, what is the deflection under the load?

(d) If load P is two ties away from the special tie, what is the deflection under the load P? What and where is the bending moment of largest magnitude in the rail?




P=IOkN ~

E = 200 CPa

hE2l='/;:;:::~ ==;:;:0;:;:> ==:;:;:lZd::;::;//==:::;:t:;:/,.;::::~l2d:;:;'//:;=:::;lZJ;:::;~;::;:~=. ;:::,;:.;:;::/ ~ 1= 108 mm''

500 mm___,Ir-----·II-· ---If-- 500 mrn


A semi-infinite beam carries a concentrated load P a distance s from its end, as shown. Explain how formulas in Sections 5.3 and 5.4 can be used to find analogous formulas for this problem.

A long rail rests on a Winkler foundation. A known load P is applied near its center. A long straight bar that is nearly rigid is then laid on top of the rail. A gap of g units is observed between the bar and the loaded point on the rail. Find an expression for foundation modulus k in terms of P, g, and bending stiffness EI of the rail.

Find an expression for the rotation of the point where moment M; is applied (see the sketch). The bending stiffness EI is the same for both the vertical beam and the horizontal beam on the Winkler foundation. Assume that there is horizontal restraint so that the loaded point does not move parallel to the foundation.





5.31 A long beam rests on a set of identical linear springs, each a distance d from its nearest neighbors. Downward loads, each of magnitude P and equal in num-



ber to the springs, are applied to the beam midway between the spring locations. Write expressions for the greatest deflection and the greatest bending moment.

Section 5.5

*5.32 (a) Find the equation w = w(x) of the deflected shape in Fig. 5.5.1 b, in terms

of «: k, and Df3x'

(b) Find the maximum bending moment in part (a).

(c) Imagine that the left end of the beam in Fig. 5.5.1 b is completely fixed rather than simply supported. Find the equation w = w(x) of the deflected shape in terms of q.; k, and Af3x'

(d) Find the maximum and minimum bending moments in part (c).

5.33 Sketch diagrams for rotation (J and shear V for the beams of Fig. 5.5.3.

5.34 (a) A certain beam is supported entirely by an elastic foundation. Is Eq. 5.5.3

reasonable for the special cases {3 ~ 0 and {3 ~ co'] Explain.

(b) Derive Eqs. 5.5.5.

(c) Show that if point Q in Fig. 5.5.2 is b units to the right of the loaded portion so that a = b + L, then the bending moment at point Q is M = (qj4{32)(B{3a - Bf3b).

*5.35 In Fig. 5.5.3, let k = 0.10 N/mm/mm, EI = 3240 N·m2, and L = 3000 mm.

Determine the following bending moments, in terms of qo: (a) M at the center of span L.

(b) M at the ends of the loaded portion.

(c) M within the loaded portion, a distance 1T/4{3 from either end. (d) Mmax within the loaded portion.

(e) Mmin outside the loaded portion (see Problem 5.34).

*5.36 A semi-infinite beam on a Winkler foundation carries a uniform load qo over a length L, as shown. Apply superposition concepts and formulas in Sections 5.3 and 5.5 to develop expressions for wand M at an arbitrary point Q within the span L. Also find expressions for wand M at end O.

z, w


Section 5.6

5.37 The beam shown rests on a Winkler foundation and can be considered short.

Find expressions for deflection wand foundation pressure p in terms of k, b, L, P, a, and x.






Z, w b = width of beam


A beam that may be considered short rests on a Winkler foundation and carries a concentrated load P. How far from the center of the beam can the load be positioned if negative foundation pressure is to be avoided?

A beam is entirely supported by a Winkler foundation. The foundation is so soft that the beam may be considered short. Find an expression for the energy that must be expended by a small self-propelled cart of weight W in traveling from one end of the beam to its center. Assume that negative foundation pressure is possible.

The surface of a railroad wheel is not cylindrical; rather, it is conical, but with only a slight taper. The wheel exerts a horizontal component of force on the rail, even if the flange of the wheel does not contact the rail.

(a) Qualitatively describe an analysis for the effect of the horizontal force. That is, what stiffnesses resist deformation, and what actions contribute to stress? (b) Why is the wheel conical? (The answer relates to kinematics, not stress analysis.)

Section 5.7

5.41 A long pipe carries a uniform line load P N/m around the circumference near the middle of the pipe. Find expressions for O'x and O'e on the inside of the pipe at the location of the load in terms of P, {3, Il, R, and t.

*5.42 Let the temperature of a long cylindrical shell vary linearly through the thickness, from T, at the inside surface to T2 at the outside surface. Temperature does not vary with () or with x. Find expressions for stresses a, and O'e at inner and outer surfaces of the shell

(a) Near the middle of the shell.

(b) At either end of the shell. The ends are unrestrained.

Section 5.8

5.43 If the flat end of a cylinder is pressed against a flat surface, contact pressure will be highest at the edge of the circular contact area. But if the end were only slightly rounded, Hertz theory indicates a contact pressure distribution that is zero at the edge of the contact area. How do you explain such a marked change

in pressure distribution for such a small change in shape?

A ball 40 mm in diameter is pressed into a spherical seat of diameter 44 mm by a force of 8 kN. The material is steel (E = 200 GPa, Il = 0.3). Find