Sei sulla pagina 1di 17

Noli Me Tangere Summary

Noli Me Tangere (novel)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the novel. For the phrase, see Noli me tangere.

Noli Me Tangere

original cover

Author José Rizal

Country Philippines (first printing in Berlin)

Language Spanish

Genre(s) novel

Publisher Setzerinnenschule des Lette-


Publication date 1887

Media type Print

Followed by El filibusterismo

Noli Me Tangere (commonly referred to by its shortened name Noli) is a novel written
in Spanish by Filipino writer and national hero José Rizal, first published in 1887 in
Berlin, Germany. Early English translations used titles like An Eagle Flight and The
Social Cancer, but more recent translations have been published using the original Latin

Though written in originally in Spanish, it is more commonly published and read in the
Philippines in either English or Filipino. Together with its sequel (El Filibusterismo), the
reading of Noli is obligatory for High School Students all throughout the archipelago.

In 2006, Penguin Classics published a new translation of the Noli Me Tangere, translated
by Harold Augenbraum. This makes Noli the first Philippine Classic to be circulated by
the company.


• 1 References for the novel

• 2 Summary
• 3 Publication history
• 4 Reaction and legacy
• 5 Major characters in Noli Me Tangere
o 5.1 Ibarra
o 5.2 María Clara
o 5.3 Capitán Tiago
o 5.4 Padre Dámaso
o 5.5 Filosofo Tacio
o 5.6 Elías
o 5.7 Doña Victorina
• 6 Other characters
• 7 Famous Translations
o 7.1 English
o 7.2 Filipino
• 8 Adaptations
• 9 References

• 10 External links
[edit] References for the novel
José Rizal, a Filipino nationalist and medical doctor, conceived the idea of writing a
nationalistic novel after reading Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. He
preferred that the prospective novel would express the way Spanish authorities and
aristocrats oppress local Filipinos termed as indios under the Spanish rule in the
Philippines. He was then a student of medicine in the Universidad Central de Madrid.

In a reunion of Filipinos at the house of his friend Pedro A. Paterno in Madrid on 2

January 1884, Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines written by a
group of Filipinos. His proposal was unanimously approved by the Filipinos present at
the party, among whom were Pedro, Maximino and Antonio Paterno, Graciano López
Jaena, Evaristo Aguirre, Eduardo de Lete, Julio Llorente and Valentin Ventura. However,
this project did not materialize. The people who agreed to help Rizal with the novel did
not write anything. Initially, the novel was planned to cover and describe all phases of
Filipino life, but almost everybody wanted to write about women. Rizal even saw his
companions spend more time gambling and flirting with Spanish women. Because of this,
he pulled out of the plan of co-writing with others and decided to draft the novel alone.

[edit] Summary
Having completed his studies in Europe, young Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin came
back to the Philippines after a 7-year absence. In his honor, Don Santiago de los Santos, a
family friend also known as Captain Tiago, threw a get-together party, which was
attended by friars and other prominent figures. One of the guests, former San Diego
curate Father Dámaso Vardolagas belittled and slandered Ibarra. Ibarra brushed off the
insults and took no offense; he instead politely excused himself and left the party because
of an allegedly important task.

The next day, Ibarra visits María Clara, his betrothed, the beautiful daughter of Captain
Tiago and affluent resident of Binondo, Manila. Their long-standing love was clearly
manifested in this meeting, and María Clara cannot help but reread the letters her
sweetheart had written her before he went to Europe. Before Ibarra left for San Diego,
Lieutenant Guevara, a guardia civil, reveals to him the incidents preceding the death of
his father, Don Rafael Ibarra, a rich hacendero of the town.

According to Guevara, Don Rafael was unjustly accused of being a heretic, in addition to
being a filibuster — an allegation brought forth by Father Dámaso because of Don
Rafael's non-participation in the Sacraments, such as Confession and Mass. Father
Dámaso's animosity against Ibarra's father is aggravated by another incident when Don
Rafael helped out on a fight between a tax collector and a child fighting, and the former's
death was blamed on him, although it was not deliberate. Suddenly, all of those who
thought ill of him surfaced with additional complaints. He was imprisoned, and just when
the matter was almost settled, he got sick and died in jail. Still not content with what he
had done, Dámaso arranged for Don Rafael's corpse to be dug up from the Catholic
church and brought to a Chinese cemetery, because he thought it inappropriate to allow a
heretic a Catholic burial ground. Unfortunately, it was raining and because of the
bothersome weight of the cadaver, the undertakers decided to throw the corpse into a
nearby lake.[1]

Revenge was not in Ibarra's plans; instead he carried through his father's plan of putting
up a school, since he believed that education would pave the way to his country's
progress (all over the novel the author refers to both Spain and the Philippines as two
different countries, which form part of a same nation or family, being Spain the mother
and the Philippines the daughter). During the inauguration of the school, Ibarra would
have been killed in a sabotage had Elías — a mysterious man who had warned Ibarra
earlier of a plot to assassinate him — not saved him. Instead the hired killer met an
unfortunate incident and died. The sequence of events proved to be too traumatic for
María Clara who got seriously ill but was luckily cured by the medicine Ibarra sent.

After the inauguration, Ibarra hosted a luncheon during which Father Dámaso, gate-
crashing the luncheon, again insulted him. Ibarra ignored the priest's insolence, but when
the latter slandered the memory of his dead father, he was no longer able to restrain
himself and lunged at Dámaso, prepared to stab him for his impudence. As a
consequence, Dámaso excommunicated Ibarra, taking this opportunity to persuade the
already-hesitant father of María Clara to forbid his daughter from marrying Ibarra. The
friar wished María Clara to marry a Peninsular named Linares who had just arrived from

With the help of the Captain-General, Ibarra's excommunication was nullified and the
Archbishop decided to accept him as a member of the Church once again. But, as fate
would have it, some incident of which Ibarra had known nothing about was blamed on
him, and he is wrongly arrested and imprisoned. The accusation against him was then
overruled because during the litigation that followed, nobody could testify that he was
indeed involved. Unfortunately, his letter to María Clara somehow got into the hands of
the jury and is manipulated such that it then became evidence against him by the parish
priest, Father Salvi. While frail in appearance, Father Salvi was revealed to be the most
cunning character in the novel. With Machiavellian precision, Father Salve framed Ibarra
and ruined his life just so he could stop him from marrying Maria Clara and making the
latter his concubine.

Meanwhile, in Capitan Tiago's residence, a party was being held to announce the
upcoming wedding of María Clara and Linares. Ibarra, with the help of Elías, took this
opportunity to escape from prison. Before leaving, Ibarra spoke to María Clara and
accused her of betraying him, thinking that she gave the letter he wrote her to the jury.
María Clara explained that she would never conspire against him, but that she was forced
to surrender Ibarra's letter to Father Salvi, in exchange for the letters written by her
mother even before she, María Clara, was born. The letters were from her mother, Pía
Alba, to Dámaso alluding to their unborn child; and that María Clara was therefore not
Captain Tiago's biological daughter, but Dámaso's.
Afterwards, Ibarra and Elías boarded a boat and fled the place. Elías instructed Ibarra to
lie down and the former covered the latter with grass to conceal his presence. As luck
would have it, they were spotted by their enemies. Elías, thinking he could outsmart
them, jumped into the water. The guards rained shots on him, all the while not knowing
that they were aiming at the wrong man.

María Clara, thinking that Ibarra had been killed in the shooting incident, was greatly
overcome with grief. Robbed of hope and severely disillusioned, she asked Father
Dámaso to confine her into a nunnery. Dámaso reluctantly agreed when she threatened to
take her own life, demanding, "the nunnery or death!"[2] Unbeknownst to her, Ibarra was
still alive and able to escape. It was Elías who had taken the shots.

It was Christmas Eve when Elias woke up in the forest fatally wounded, as it is here
where he instructed Ibarra to meet him. Instead, Elias found the altar boy Basilio cradling
his already-dead mother, Sisa. The latter lost her mind when she learned that her two
sons, Crispin and Basilio, were chased out of the convent by the sacristan mayor on
suspicions of stealing sacred objects. (The truth is that, it was the sacristan mayor who
stole the objects and only pinned the blame on the two boys. The said sacristan mayor
actually killed Crispin while interrogating him on the supposed location of the sacred
objects. It was implied that the body was never found and the incident was covered-up by
the parish priest, Father Salvi).

Elias helped Basilio bury his mother and while he lay dying, he instructed Basilio to
continue dreaming about freedom for his motherland with the words: "I shall die without
seeing the dawn break upon my homeland. You, who shall see it, salute it! Do not forget
those who have fallen during the night." He died thereafter.

In the epilogue, it was explained that Kapitan Tiago became addicted to opium and was
seen to frequent the opium house in Binondo to satiate his addiction. Maria Clara became
a nun where Father Salvi, who has lusted over Maria Clara from the beginning of the
novel, regularly used her to fulfill his lust. One stormy evening, a beautiful crazy woman
was seen at the top of the convent crying and cursing the heavens for the fate it has
handed her. While the woman was never identified, it is is suggested that the said woman
was Maria Clara.

[edit] Publication history

Rizal finished the novel on December 1886. At first, according to one of Rizal's
biographers, Rizal feared the novel might not be printed, and that it would remain unread.
He had been struggling financial constraints that time and thought it would be hard to
pursue printing the novel. A financial aid came from a friend named Máximo Viola. Rizal
at first, however, hesitated but Viola insisted and ended up lending Rizal P300 for 2,000
copies; Noli was eventually printed in Berlin, Germany. The printing was finished earlier
than the estimated five months. Viola arrived in Berlin in December 1886, and by March
21, 1887, Rizal had sent a copy of the novel to his friend Blumentritt.[3]
On August 21, 2007, a 480-page then-latest English version of Noli Me Tangere was
released to major Australian book stores. The Australian edition of the novel was
published by Penguin Books Classics, to represent the publication's "commitment to
publish the major literary classics of the world".[4] American writer Harold Augenbraum,
who first read the Noli in 1992, translated the novel. A writer well-acquainted with
translating other Latin literary works, Augenbraum proposed to translating the novel after
being asked for his next assignment in the publishing company. Intrigued by the novel
and having been known more about it, Penguin nixed their plan of adapting existing
English versions of the novel, and instead translate on their own.[4]

[edit] Reaction and legacy

Noli Me Tangere was Rizal's first novel. He was 26 years old at the time of its
publication. The work was has been historically significant and was instrumental in the
establishing of the Filipino sense of national identity. The book indirectly influenced a
revolution although the author actually advocated direct representation to the Spanish
government and larger role of the Philippines within Spain's political affairs. The novel
was written in Spanish, the official language of the colony that was understood by just
about everyone thanks to the free public education system established by the Spanish
government more than two decades before.

The novel created so much controversy that only a few days after his arrival, Governor-
General Emilio Terrero summoned Rizal to the Malacañang Palace and told him of the
charges saying that Noli Me Tangere contained subversive statements. After a discussion,
the liberal[citation needed] Governor General was appeased, but mentioned that he was unable
to offer resistance against the pressure of the Church to take action against the book. The
persecution can be discerned from Rizal's letter to Leitmeritz: "My book made a lot of
noise; everywhere, I am asked about it. They wanted to anathematize me ['to
excommunicate me'] because of it ... I am considered a German spy, an agent of
Bismarck, they say I am a Protestant, a freemason, a sorcerer, a damned soul and evil. It
is whispered that I want to draw plans, that I have a foreign passport and that I wander
through the streets by night ..."

Rizal depiction of nationality by emphasizing the qualities of Filipinos: devotion of a

Filipina and her influence to a man's life, the deep sense of gratitude, and the solid
common sense of the Filipinos under the Spanish regime.

This novel and its sequel, El Filibusterismo (nicknamed El Fili), were banned in some
parts of the Philippines because of their portrayal of corruption and abuse by the
country's Spanish government and clergy. A character which has become a classic in the
Philippines is Maria Clara who has become a personification of the ideal Filipina woman,
loving and unwavering in her loyalty to her spouse. Another classic character is the priest
"Father Dámaso" which reflects the covert fathering of illegitimate children by members
of the Spanish clergy. In the story, Father Dámaso impregnates a woman. Copies were
smuggled in nevertheless, and when Rizal returned to the Philippines after completing
medical studies, he quickly ran afoul of the local government. First exiled to Dapitan, he
was later arrested for "inciting rebellion" based largely on his writings. Rizal was
executed in Manila on December 30, 1896 at the age of thirty-five.

The book was instrumental in creating a unified Filipino national identity and
consciousness, as many Filipinos previously identified with their respective regions to the
advantage of the Spanish authorities. It lampooned, caricatured and exposed various
elements in colonial society.

In the 21st century, Noli me Tangere and its sequel, El Filibusterismo, is studied by Third
Year and Fourth Year secondary school students in the Philippines as part of the
curriculum, usually as part of their Filipino subject. The novel is also often among the
topics of the required course on the study of Rizal's life in tertiary education in the
country. Textbooks designed for students were made by various publishers, and the text
itself is often condensed or abridged for student use...

[edit] Major characters in Noli Me Tangere

[edit] Ibarra

Juan Crisóstomo Magsalin Eibarramendia, commonly referred to the novel as Ibarra

or Crisóstomo, is the protagonist in the story. Son of a Filipino business man, Don
Rafael Ibarra, he studied in Europe for seven years.[5] Ibarra is also María Clara's fiancé.
Several sources claim that Ibarra is also Rizal's reflection: both studied for Europe and
both person invest the same idea. Upon his return, Ibarra requested the local government
of San Diego to construct a public school to promote education in the town.[6]

In the sequel of Noli, El filibusterismo, Ibarra returned with different character and name:
he called himself as Simoun, the English mestizo.

[edit] María Clara

A crayon sketch of Leonor Rivera–Kipping by Rizal.

María Clara de los Santos y Alba, commonly referred to as María Clara, is Ibarra's
fiancée. She was raised by Capitán Tiago, San Diego's cabeza de barangay and is the
most beautiful and widely celebrated girl in San Diego.[7] In the later parts of the novel,
María Clara's identity was revealed as an illegitimate daughter of Father Dámaso, former
parish curate of the town, and Doña Pía Alba, wife of Capitán Tiago.[8] In the end she
entered local covenant for nuns Beaterio de Santa Clara. In the epilogue dealing with the
fate of the characters, Rizal stated that it is unknown if María Clara is still living within
the walls of the covenant or she is already dead.[9]

The character of María Clara was patterned after Leonor Rivera née Kipping, Rizal's first
cousin and childhood sweetheart.[10]

[edit] Capitán Tiago

Don Santiago de los Santos, known by his nickname Tiago and political title Capitán
Tiago is a Filipino businessman and the cabeza de barangay or head of barangay of the
town of San Diego. He is also the known father of María Clara.[7]

In the novel, it is said that Capitán Tiago is the richest man in the region of Binondo and
he possessed real properties in Pampanga and Laguna de Bay. He is also said to be a
good Catholic, friend of the Spanish government and was considered as a Spanish by
colonialists. Capitán Tiago never attended school, so he became a domestic helper of a
Dominican friar who taught him informal education. He married Pía Alba from Santa

[edit] Padre Dámaso

Dámaso Verdolagas, or Padre Dámaso is a Franciscan friar and former parish curate of
San Diego. He is best known as a notorious character that speaks with harsh words and
has been a cruel priest during his stay in the town.[11] He is the real father of María Clara
and an enemy of Crisóstomo's father, Rafael Ibarra.[8] Later on, he and María Clara had
bitter arguments whether she marry Alfonso Linares or go to covenant.[12] At the end of
the novel, he again re-assigned into a distant town and was found dead one day.[9]

In popular culture, when a priest was said to be like Padre Dámaso, it means that he is a
cruel but respectable individual. When one says a child is "anak ni Padre Damaso" (child
of Padre Dámaso), it means that the child's father's identity is unknown.

[edit] Filosofo Tacio

Filosofo Tacio, known by his Filipinized name Pilosopo Tasyo is another major
character in the story. Seeking for reforms from the government, he expresses his ideals
in paper written in a cryptographic alphabet similar from hieroglyphs and Coptic
figures[13] hoping "that the future generations may be able to decipher it" and realized the
abuse and oppression done by the conquerors. [14]

His full name is only known as Don Anastacio. The educated inhabitants of San Diego
labeled him as Filosofo Tacio (Tacio the Philosopher) while others called him as Tacio el
Loco (Insane Tacio) due to his exceptional talent for reasoning.

[edit] Elías

Elías, is an important character in the story and was once Ibarra's mysterious friend. Elías
made his first appearance as a pilot during a picnic of Ibarra and María Clara and her
friends.[15] He wants to revolutionize the country and to be freed from Spanish oppression.

The 50th chapter of the novel explores the past of Elías and history of his family. In the
past, Ibarra's grandfather condemned Elías' grandfather of burning a warehouse which
lead into the misfortune of Elías' family. His father was refused to be married by his
mother because his father's past and family lineage was discovered by his mother's
family. In the long run, Elías and his twin sister was raised by their maternal grandfather.
When they were teenagers, their distant relatives called them hijo de bastardo or
illegitimate children. One day, his sister disappeared which led him to search for her. His
search led him into different places, and finally, he became a fugitive and anti-

[edit] Doña Victorina

Doña Victorina de Espadaña, commonly known as Doña Victorina, is an ambitious

Filipino woman who classifies herself as a Spanish and mimicking Spanish ladies by
putting on heavy make-ups.[11] The novel narrates Doña Victorina's younger days: she had
lots of admirers but she never choose one of them because nobody was a Spaniard. Later
on, she met Don Tiburcio de Espadaña, an official to the customs bureau, which is about
ten years junior than her.[18] Even though she got married, they never had a child.

Her husband assumes the title as medical doctor even though Tiburcio never attended
medical school. Using fake documents and certificates, Tiburcio is practicing illegal
medicine. The usage of Tiburcio of the title Dr. also made Victorina to assume the title
Dra. (doctora, female doctor).[18] Apparently, she uses the whole name Doña Victorina
de los Reyes de de Espadaña, with double de to emphasize her marriage surname.[18]

[edit] Other characters

There are a number of secondary and minor characters in Noli Me Tangere. Items
indicated inside the parenthesis are the standard Filipinization of the Spanish names in
the novel.
• Padre Hernando de la Sibyla (Padre Sibyla) – a Dominican friar. He is
described as short and has fair skin. He is instructed by an old priest in his order
to watch Crisóstomo Ibarra.
• Padre Bernardo Salví (Padre Salvi) – the present curate of San Diego,a secret
admirer of María Clara. He is described to be very thin and sickly.
• Narcisa (Sisa) – the mother of the two sacristans Basilio and Crispín, who went
insane after losing them.
• The Alférez – chief of the Guardia Civil. Mortal enemy of the priests for power
in San Diego and husband of Dona Consalacion.
• Basilio – Sisa's 10-year-old son. A belfry boy, he faced the dread of losing his
younger brother and falling of his mother into insanity. At the end of the novel,
Elías wished Basilio to bury him by burning in exchange of chest of gold located
on his death ground.
• Crispín (Crispin) – Sisa's 7-year-old son. An altar boy, he was unjustly accused
of stealing money from the church. After failing to force Crispín to return the
money he allegedly stole, Father Salví and the head sacristan killed him.
• Doña Consolacíon (Donya Consolacion) – wife of the alférez, a former
laundrywoman who passes herself as a Peninsular; best remembered for her
abusive treatment of Sisa.
• Don Tiburcio de Espadaña (Don Tiburcio) – Spanish husband of Doña
Victorina who is limp and submissive to his wife; he also pretends to be a doctor.
• Teniente Guevara (Sp. - lieutenant, Tinyente Guevara) - a close friend of Don
Rafael Ibarra. He reveals to Crisóstomo how Don Rafael Ibarra's death came
• Alfonso Linares (Linares) – A distant nephew of Tiburcio de Espanada, the
would-be fiancé of María Clara.
• Tía Isabel (Tiya Isabel) - Capitán Tiago's cousin, who raised Maria Clara.
• Gobernador General (Gobernador Heneral) – Unnamed person in the novel, he
is the most powerful official in the Philippines, a hater of secular priests and
corrupt officials, and Ibarra's sympathizer.
• Don Filipo Lino (Don Filipo) – vice mayor of the town of San Diego, who is the
leader of the liberals.
• Padre Manuel Martín (Padre Martin) - he is the linguistic curate of a nearby
town, who says the sermon during San Diego's fiesta.
• Don Rafael Ibarra (Don Rafael) - father of Crisóstomo Ibarra. Though he is the
richest man in San Diego, he is also the most virtuous and generous.
• Dona Pía Alba (Donya Pia) - wife of Capitan Tiago and mother of María Clara.
She died giving birth to her. In reality, she was raped by Dámaso so she could
bear a child.

Non-recurring characters:

• Don Pedro Ibarramendia - the great-grandfather of Crisóstomo Ibarra who came

from the Basque area of Spain.
• Don Saturnino Ibarra - the son of Don Pedro, father of Don Rafael and
grandfather of Crisóstomo Ibarra. He was the one who developed the town of San
Diego, and also the very person who caused the misfortunes of Elias' family.
• Salomé - Elías' sweetheart. She lives in a little house by the lake, and though
Elías would like to marry her, he tells her that it would do her or their children no
good to be related to a fugitive like himself. In the original publication of Noli, the
chapter that explores the identity of Elías and Salomé was omitted, classifying her
as a total non-existing character. This chapter, entitled Elías y Salomé was
probably the 25th chapter of the novel. However, recent editions and translations
of Noli provides the inclusion of this chapter, either on the appendix or renamed
as Chapter X (Ex).
• Sinang - Maria Clara's friend. Because Crisóstomo Ibarra offered half of the
school he was building to Sinang, he gained Capitan Basilio's support.
• Iday, Andeng and Victoria - Maria Clara's other friends.
• Capitán Basilio - Sinang's father, leader of the conservatives.
• Pedro – the abusive husband of Sisa who loves cockfighting.
• Tandang Pablo – The leader of the tulisanes (bandits), whose family was
destroyed because of the Spaniards.
• El hombre amarillo (apparently means "yellowish person", named as Taong
Madilaw) - One of those who tried to kill Crisostomo Ibarra.
• Lucas - the brother of the taong madilaw who tried to kill Crisostomo Ibarra.
• Bruno and Tarsilo – a pair of brothers whose father was killed by the Spaniards.
• Ñor Juan (Ñol Juan) - appointed to govern the school to be built by Ibarra
• Capitana Tika - Sinang's mother and wife of Capitan Basilio.
• Albino - was a former seminar taker of being a friar, a young man who joined the
picnic with Ibarra and María Clara.
• Capitana Maria Elena - a nationalist woman who defends Ibarra of the memory
of his father.
• Capitán Tinong and Capitán Valentín - other known people from the town of
San Diego.
• Sacristán Mayor - The one who governs the altar boys and killed Crispin for his

[edit] Famous Translations

[edit] English

1. The Social Cancer has Unit - Charles Derbyshire (1912)

2. Touch Me Not - Leon Ma. Guerrero (1961)
3. Noli Me Tangere - Ma. Soledad Lacson vda. de Locsin (1996)

[edit] Filipino

1. Noli Me Tangere - Virgilio Almario

[edit] Adaptations
The Noli has been adapted for literature, theater, television, and film.

• 1951: National Artist for Cinema Gerardo de León directed a motion picture titled
Sisa, starring Anita Linda in the role of the titular character.
• 1961: Noli Me Tangere, a faithful film adaptation of the novel, was directed by
Gerardo de León for Bayanihan-Arriva Productions, featuring Eddie del Mar in
the role of Crisostomo Ibarra.[19] Released for the birth centenary of José Rizal, the
motion picture was awarded the Best Picture in the 10th FAMAS Awards.
• 1992: Noli Me Tangere, a 13-episode TV series by Eddie S. Romero. This
adaptation features Joel Torre in the role of Crisóstomo Ibarra, Monique Wilson
as María Clara, and Tetchie Agbayani as Sisa.
• 1994: Noli Me Tangere, a musical adaptation of the novel.
• Several excerpts from Noli Me Tangere were dramatized in the 1998 film José
Rizal, with Joel Torre as Crisóstomo Ibarra, and Monique Wilson as Maria Clara.
• 1999: Sisa, a remake of the 1951 film of the same name. Written and directed by
Mario O'Hara.[20]
• 2005: Noli Me Tangere 2, a modern literary adaptation of the novel written by
Roger Olivares.[21]
• 2008-2009: Noli at Fili: Dekada 2000, a stage adaptation of Noli Me Tangere and
El Filibusterismo by the Philippine Educational Theater Association, set in the
present day. Written by Nicanor G. Tiongson and directed by Soxie Topacio.[22]

[edit] References
1. ^ "The Social Cancer by Jose Rizal". pp. 3. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
2. ^ (Spanish) Father Dámaso Explains
3. ^ "Noli Me Tangere". Jose Rizal University.
Retrieved 2008-10-22.
4. ^ a b Ubalde, Mark J. (2007-08-22). "Rizal's Noli hits major Aussie book shelves".
GMA News.
book-shelves. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
5. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "II: Crisostomo Ibarra" (in English). The Social
Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14
July 2010.
6. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XIX: A Schoolmaster's Difficulties" (in English).
The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14
July 2010.
7. ^ a b c Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "VI: Capitan Tiago" (in English). The Social
Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14
July 2010.
8. ^ a b Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "LXII: Padre Damaso Explains" (in English).
The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14
July 2010.
9. ^ a b Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "Epilogue" (in English). The Social Cancer. New
York: World Book Company.
h.htm#d0e11056. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
10. ^ "Rizal the Romantic". Jose Rizal University.
Retrieved 15 July 2010.
11. ^ a b Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "I: A Social Gathering" (in English). The Social
Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14
July 2010.
12. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "LX: Maria Clara Weds" (in English). The Social
Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14
July 2010.
13. ^ In Chpater 25, Filosofo Tacio insisted to Ibarra that he cannot understand
hieroglyphs or Coptic. Instead, he writes using an invented form of alphabet that
is based on Tagalog language. Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXV: In the House
of the Sage" (in English). The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 15
July 2010.
14. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXV: In the House of the Sage" (in English). The
Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 15
July 2010.
15. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXII: Fishing" (in English). The Social Cancer.
New York: World Book Company.
h/6737-h.htm#d0e4047. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
16. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXIV: In the Wood" (in English). The Social
Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14
July 2010.
17. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "L: Elias" (in English). The Social Cancer. New
York: World Book Company.
h.htm#d0e8608. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
18. ^ a b c Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XLVII: The Espadañas" (in English). The
Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14
July 2010.
19. ^ "Noli me Tangere (1961)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
20. ^ "Sisa (1999)". Internet Movie Database.
Retrieved 2009-11-13.
21. ^ "At Last After 118 yrs.. A sequel to Jose Rizal's classic". Roger Olivares. Retrieved 2009-11-13.
22. ^ "Experience Theater. Experience PETA.". Philippine Educational Theater
Association. Retrieved 2009-11-13.

[edit] External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Noli Me Tangere
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Noli Me Tangere (novel)
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Noli me Tangere

• Full Text English translation

• Complete text: HTML, images, OCR (Spanish)
• Charles Derbyshire English translation
• Pascual Poblete Tagalog translation
• Rizal's Little Odyssey
• Noli Me Tangere 13-episode television series from the Cultural Center of the
• Tribute to Jose Rizal, Noli me tangere, cancer of the eyelids
• Caiñgat Cayo!
• Fan Language, an article by Ambeth R. Ocampo regarding romantic practices and
sensual undertones which can be found in the unabridged version of Noli Me
Tangere, from his Looking Back column on the pages of the Philippine Daily
Inquirer on February 2, 2005, page 13,

Philippine Revolution (1896–1898)

Prelude: Gomburza · Cry of Pugad Lawin · Katagalugan

(Bonifacio) · Tejeros Convention · Republic of Biak-na-Bato · Biak-
na-Bato Elections · Pact of Biak-na-Bato · Spanish-American War ·
Declaration of Independence · Malolos Congress · República
Events Filipina · Negros Revolution · Treaty of Paris · Philippine–American
War · Katagalugan (Sacay) · Moro Rebellion ·
Epilogue: Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916 · Philippine
Independence Act · Commonwealth of the Philippines · Treaty of
Manila · Republic of the Philippines
American Anti-Imperialist League · Aglipayan Church · Katipunan ·
La Liga Filipina · La Solidaridad · Magdalo faction · Magdiwang
faction · Philippine Constabulary · Philippine Revolutionary Army ·
Pulajanes · Propaganda Movement · Republic of Negros

El filibusterismo · Flags of the Philippine Revolution · Kartilya ng

Objects Katipunan · Lupang Hinirang · Malolos Constitution · Mi último
adiós · Noli Me Tangere · Flag of the Philippines · Spoliarium

Juan Abad · Gregorio Aglipay · Baldomero Aguinaldo · Emilio

Aguinaldo · Melchora Aquino · Juan Araneta · Andrés Bonifacio ·
Josephine Bracken · Dios Buhawi · Francisco Carreón · Ladislao
Diwa · Gregoria de Jesús · Gregorio del Pilar · Marcelo H. del Pilar ·
George Dewey · Papa Isio · Emilio Jacinto · Antonio Ledesma
Jayme · León Kilat · Aniceto Lacson · Graciano López Jaena ·
Vicente Lukbán · Antonio Luna · Juan Luna · Apolinario Mabini ·
Sultan of Maguindanao · Miguel Malvar · Arcadio Maxilom ·
William McKinley · Patricio Montojo · Simeón Ola · José Palma ·
Pedro Paterno · Mariano Ponce · Artemio Ricarte · José Rizal ·
Paciano Rizal · Macario Sakay · Sultan of Sulu · Martin Teofilo
Delgado · Manuel Tinio · Mariano Trías · Trece Martires

Summary of Rizal

Jose Rizal is the national hero of the Philippines, one of the Southeast Asian countries.
His full name was Jose Protacio Mercado Rizal y Alonzo Realonda. He was born on
June 19, 1861 as the 7th child of the eleven children in the family of Francisco Mercado
Rizal and Teodora Alonzo Realonda. He was internationally known for his two novels
that made the Filipinos aware of Spanish injustices and eventually fought for and
achieved independence after a bloody revolution which was triggered by his death on
December 30, 1896. The first novel, "Noli Me Tangere" was analytically considered as
the "work of the heart" that made the Filipino readers at that time, felt the social
injustices or social cancer; and the second novel, "El Filibusterismo", the continuation of
the first, was considered as the "work of the head" as it was a political novel.Jose Rizal
was not really against Spain or the Catholic Church during that time. He was fighting
using his writing prowess against bad friars and abusive government officials. He even
enrolled on November 3, 1883 and finished his Doctorate Courses of Medicine on June
21, 1884 and Philosophy and Letters at the Central University of Madrid, Spain on June
19, 1885, After graduation, he proceeded to specialize in Ophthalmology in Europe.
While staying in Europe, he wrote and fiinally published on March 29, 1887 his first novel
wherein copies were sent and circulated in the Philippines. He arrived home in the
Philippines on August 6, 1887. After helping the people in the agrarian trouble of his
hometown and curing the blindness of his mother's eyes, he was forced to go abroad
again on February 3, 1888 in order not to jeopardize the safety and happiness of his
family and friends with his presence due to the anger of people who were doing
injustices who were hurt of truth Rizal revealed through his novel.He passed through
Hongkong, Japan, and America in going again to Europe where he stayed from May
1888 to October 1891 and continued the writing of his second novel that was finally
published and came out the press on September 18, 1891. Just like the first novel, it had
great effects on the Filipino readers and thus, increased more the anger of those
involved in injustices and abuses.When he went home in the Philippines for the second
time on June 26, 1892 after passing through and staying in Hongkong from November
1891 to June 1892, he organized Liga Filipina on July 3, 1892 to nationally unify the
Filipinos. But he was arrested and deported in Northern Mindanao, particularly Dapitan
where he lived for four years and twenty four days - from July 7, 1892 to July 31, 1896.
In Dapitan, he lived a useful and peaceful life serving and improving the community as a
physician, an engineer, an educator, an artist, a farmer, a businessman, and an inventor.
There, he finally met the Irish girl, Josephine Bracken, who became his wife.One
September 2, 1896, he left Manila for Spain hoping to contribute his medical skill to
combat the yellow fever epidemic in Cuba which was his destination. But he was
arrested before reaching Spain and jailed in Barcelona, shipped back in the Philippines
on November 3, 1896 and imprisoned at Fort Bonifacio, Manila. After a trial, which was a
farce due to the hatred of abusive officials and bad friars, he was proven guilty of
rebellion, sedition, and illegal association which twisted the truth. The verdict given was
death by firing squad which was approved by Governor Camilo G. de Polavieja who
ordered his execution on December 30, 1896.The death of Jose Rizal at Bagumbayan
on the said date was so remarkable as he was not afraid to die for his country. His love
for the Philippines was indeed shown in his last poem which was later titled by Rizalists
as "Mi Ultimo Adios".