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. MATHE~.~ rl~~
· · ·
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© Pearson Education SoUlh Asia Pte Ltd 1990, 1995
All righls reserved. No part 01 this publicalion maybe reproduced,storedin a retrieval syslem. or transmitted in any form or by any means. elec1ronic, mechanical, photocopying. recording, or otherwise. without the prior permission 01 the Copyright owner.
First published 1990 Reprinted three times Sixth edition 1995 Fourteenth reprint 2007
Local ISBN 9789·971896577
Local ISBN 10 997189·6575
9780582265110 0582·265118
Produced by Pearson Education SOUlh Asia Pte Ltd Printed in Malaysia
Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMaterial
Contents
PART I PURE MATHEMATICS
Coordinate Geometry
cm1cs;"lUCumljmte'
Areas of Rectilinear Figures (Optional)
GradicntorSlopc ofaStraight Line an~Je of slope
~
Midpoinl of Two Points DjstancehetweenTwopoj,ts
Perpendicular Lines
EguulionofuSlraighlLillc lincsparallcl to the .r or caxis
Gradientintercept Form equmio'" of par~lld and perpemlicuiar line,
[otersec!jQoo[[jnes
Sumnszx
RCV;,;"uF<er·',.l
2 Simultaneous Equations
~ Rc.l'.isiolLExet:ciiC...l
33
Functions
40
Reht'0ns"!Ud Em!'ljnos
Domain and Range
Graphical Representation of Functions  common function, and their graphs; graphs oflransformedfunclions
The Modulus ofa Function Ixl
Modular Inequalities
The Inverse ofu Function Iunctions withno inverse; graphical
illustration of an inverse funcucn; composite functions
~
RcyisionEu·cjsc3
4 The Quadratic Function Solving Uuadratic EQuations
Graph of the Duadratic Func\ion fix) ax2+bx+c TvpcsofRootsofax'+bx+cO
Ma~imum and Minimum Values of a Quadratic Function
Sketching the Graph ot a Ouadratic Function Range of a Quadratic Function Quadralicinegualilics
~
77
5 Binomial Expansions
99
The Bjnomjal Theorem
~
Revis;onExercise5
6 Radians, Arcs and Sectors
I!!
~
Length of an Arc ArnaofpSeclorofaCjrcle
~
Revision Fwercise6
7 Trigonometry
12J!
Trigonometric Functions for a General Angle
noteonspecialangles30'4S·60< Negative Angles
Basic Trigonometric Equations Other Trigonomelric Functions
Graphs of Trigonometric Functions sin9 and cos 6; tan 6
Multiple Angle Functions ModuJusofTrigonomelricFunctions
""""""
Eauationswith more than One Function
~
Revision Fwercise 7
B Vectors
Scalars.and.Yecrors RepresenlationofVectors Equality of Vectors Norm;onforvec'ors
MagniludeofaVe~tor zeroveclor;sCalarmU]tipleofavector
Addition Of Vectors Diagonals ofa Parallelogram ~
Components of a Vector. Unit Coordinate Vectors unit vectors
scalar l'mr]nct ofTwoVOCtorS
~
ReyjsjonE,ercise8
9 Calculus (1): Differentiation
185
neneral Method for the Gradient Ellnction
Notation  the Ov. Ox notation for the ~radient function: meaning of ¥
UrhcbcrmchtlichgcschlitztcsMatcrial
The Deriyatiyeofqr'
The Derivative of a Polynomial Compos;leFuIlCI;ons
The Second Differential Coefficient ~ ~
Rey's'onExerci'e9
10 Calculus (2): Applications of Differentiation 2Q4
Increasillg alld Decreasillg Functions
Tangents and Normals
Stationarv Points: Maxima and Minima quadratic function
Maximum.and.Minimum.Emblems
Velocity and Acceleration
Small Increments: Approximate Changes connected rates of change
~
Rev;sjnnExerdse ]0
11 Calculus (3): Integration 141
AIllbd.ifkrenJ.
The Arbitrary Constant: Indefinite Integral notation: the integral (! dx
Applications of Integration area under a curve
DefiniteIntegrals further notes on areas
Solids of Revolution solid ofrcvolution created by a region between

~
Rev;sjooErercjse 11
Revision Papers 1  5
PART II FURTHER PURE MATHEMATICS
12 Remainder and Factor Theorems: Cubic Equations 191
The Rema;nderTIteQrem
13 Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions
306
Arithmetic Progres,ions arithmetic means' sum of an arithmetic
progressIon
Geometric Progrcssion~ geometric means; Sum of a geometric progression; sum to infinity ofa geometric progression
~
Revision Fyercise 13
14 Further Trigonometry: Compound and Multiple AngleS: a CoS e + b sill e
331
TangenlS of Compound Angles A + B Muhip!eAngles
The Function a cos Be n sin B The Equation a cos 6 + b sin a = C Summary
Revision Exercise 14
15 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
350
Exponential Ecuanonscrhe gl1lph of the exponential func tlon
The Logarithmic Function the graph of the logarithmic function;
rules for logarithms· two soociallogarithms; common logaritltms: logarithmic equations
~
Revision Exercise 15
16 Conversion to Linear Form
370
~
Revjsjo"FJCocjse 16
17 Calculus (4): Further Techniques: Trigonometric
I'llilCIililiS
Calculus: Further Techniques fractional indices; integration of powers
of thelinearflll1cnonax+b·differentiationof the product of two functions: differentiation of the quotient of two functions; differentiation of implicit functions; revision of calClIlusmethods
Trigonometric Functions differentiation of sin x: an important limit;
differentiation of cos .r: differentiation of tan ... • ueeeaucn cr trigonometric functions
~
RevisiunExercise 17
384
18 Calculus (5): eX and In x
UrhebermchtlichgC5chlitztcsMa!eriol
In!cgTnlionof t .mde""·'
~
RevjsjonFrercise 18
19 Parametric Equations
42'
Summary
Revision Papers 6" 10
433
PART III PARTICLE MECHANICS
20 Kinematics sr Graphs
vrGranhs areaundcrthcv/graph
Straight Linc Motion with Constant AcceleratiOll Vertical MOlion under Gravity
Summary
Revision Exercise 20
21 Velocity and Relative Velocity
46.
Composition ofVelociliesresolution ot vetocines Relative Velocity
~
RcvjsjooEvrcjsr2l
22 Projectiles
"2
Projectiles
Velocity Components _ coordinates: greatest height: lime of flight: hcnizontalrange
~ ~
23 Force, Friction
Forcesunit of force
Types of Force weight"reaClion" tension" friction" thrust
Compositlon of2 Forces
Resolouon of e Force
Coplanar Forccs AClingon a Particle Equil"brium ofa Particle
Trillnglc of Forces ~
Polygon of Forces
Eri<Ii<m
Urhcber",chll;GhgeschOlLte MaIer;,,'
Summary
RevisionExerrise23
2' Newton's Laws of Motion 52'
Newton's Laws
Muss and Weight
Connected Particle~
Summary
Revision Exercise 24
25 Work, Energy, Power 547
Work
Kinetic Energy (KE)
PnteOlialEnergy{PE)
Power
Summary
RcvisionExercise25
26 Momentum and Impulse 57.
Conservation of Momentum
Summary
Revision Exercise 26
Revision Papers 11 ~ 1 B 590
Answers ... UrheoorrcchtlichgesclriitLl,Ma\erial
PART I
Pure Mathematics
Coordinate Geometry
CARTESIAN COORDINATES
1
The POSilioll of a point in a plane can be given by an ordered pair of numbers. written as (x.},). These areca lied the Cartesian coordinates or the point. (The name comes from the French mathematician Rene Descartes (1596  1650)). The coordinates measure the displacement (+ or ) of the poim from two perpendicular axes, the yaxis (Oy) and the x_3xis(Ox),where,Ois Ihen'igin.
For example, in Fig.I.L the coordinates of point A arc (4,J) and the coordinates of point B are (3,4).4 is thcxcoordinatcofA and) is itsycoordinatc. (The .rccordinate is sometimes called the ahrdssa and rne jcoordmarc the ordinate )
8(3,4)
Fig.l.l
Thexcoordinatei,aiwaysslaledfirsLA'YOllcan,ee,(4.3) j,notthesamcl"'inlas (3,4). Now state the coordinates of the points C, 0, E, F OlIld G in Fig. 1.1.
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MIDPOINT OF TWO POINTS
On graph paper, plot the point\ A{2,3) ,md 8(8,7). Can you write down the coordinates of the midpoint of AS? Can you see how these arc related to the coordinates of A and B? (Remember that the midpoint is hujfo.'uy between A and B).
We ClIO find a formula for the midpoint of AB. We could use different letters for coordinates such as (a,hl, ( c. d), etc. but it is neater 10 m;c.<uffue.<altached toxandyfor specific points. So we write the coordinates of A as (x"y,l and B as (x,~v,).
Let lhc coordinates of the midpoint M be (x",,y,,) (Fig. 1.2). AC arid ME are parallel tcthe raxts. MDandBCarep<lrllUellulhc y_axis,
Fig. r.z
Then AD = DC 5O~ .. X, =..<,x" and EC=BEsoy,,Y, =Y,Y"
From ru. 2r", =x, +x"alld from(ii),2Y",=Y,+h
Therefore.x,,'" .f,;", and y.,= _y,;v,.
(il (ii)
The coordinates of the midpoint are the averages of the swo rcocrdma res and of the \woy<;oordinalesoflhepoinls.
Urhcbcrre<;htlichgcschlitltcsMatcrial
00(2)= 3;.<,. Heneex.=i. Similarlyy.=O.
Therefore the coordinates ofB are (\.0).
Example 1
(a) Find Ihe midpoint rJj(i) (3,4) and (5.1) (ii) (2.1) and (4.4;
(hi 11(2,1) is Ihe midfl<);f11 of AB. where A .s (J.1).find the <"oordi"aln of B
(a) (i) The midpoint is (¥ . 4;2) = (4J). (ii) The midpoint is (_2;4, 124) =(1,21).
(b) If (x.,y.) are the ccordinares ofB.then2 is the average of3 and x.'
Exercise 1.1 (Allswers 011 page 606.)
t Stale ihe coordinates of the midpoints of:
(a) (0,4) and (3,2) (b) (4,2) and (2,6)
(c) (4,2) and (6,9) (d) (0.4) and (4,0)
(e) (4.1) and (5,2) (f) (5,3) and (5,3)
(g) (p,2p) and (3p,4p) (h) (a + 2h,ba) mId (a2h,3a +b)
(i) (a,a4)and(a+2,6+a) (j) (~.¥)and(~,~)
1 A(l,5) and 8{7.9) are two points. AB is divided into fourequa\ parts er C, D and E Find ihe coordinates ofC, Dand E
3 A{3, It). B(5,3) and C(7,2) are the vcnicesof uiangle ABC. Whul are the coordinates of M. the midpoint of BC and of Q, the midpoint of AM?
4 The midpoint ofPQ is (2,3).lflhe coordinates ofP are (1,4), find the coordinates ofQ.
5 A is (a,3) and B is (4,b).lf the midpoint of AS is (3~'i), find the values of a and b 6 The points A and B are (a,4) and (3,b) rcspectively.Hthe midpoint of AS is (2,3), findthcvaluesor<t"ndb.
, L is the point (3,2) and M is !he poim (5,4). N is the midpoint of LM. Slate the coordmeres ofN. Pis the midpoinTofNQ and the cooromares ot p are (2l.4) . Find the coordinares of Q
8 ABCD is a parallelogram. A is the poinl (2,5), B is the point (H,R) and the diagonals intersect at (3j,2l). WhataretllecQ(}TdinatesofCandD?
9 The coordinates of A and Bare (9.3) and (3,4) respectively. B is the midpoint of AC and C is the midpoint of AD. Find the coordinales of C ami of D.
Urheberre<;hllichgeschlilllesMateriol
10 A is the point (1,4). B is the point (5. 2) and C is the point (4,5). If D is tile midpoint of AB and E the midpoint nf DC, rDld the coordinates of D and E and show that AE is parallel to theyaxis.
11 The coordinates of A and C are (6,3) and (1,1) respecnvety. (a) H C is !he midpoint of AB, find the coordinates of B.
(b) BFis divided into three equal parts at D and E.lfthe coordinates of E are (6,1), find the coordinates of D and F
12 The points (x,.)',). (x,oJl)' (x1,yl) and (x,oJ,), in thaI order form a para1lelogram ABCD.
Show that x, +X) =x1 + x. and y, + Y) = Y1 + Y •.
13 ABCD is a quadrilateral when: A is (1,7). B is (4,3).C is (1,3) and D is (4,S}.ls ABCD a parallelogram? If not, state new coordinates for B so that ABCD will be a parallelogram.
14 The points A(I ,4), 8(4,10), C(6,5) and 0(2,8) form a quadrilateral ABCD. P. Q, Rand S are the midpoints of the sides AB. BC. CD and DA respectively. Prove thai PQRS isa parallelogram.
DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS
What is the length of AB in Fig.]'3?
8(3,1)
FIg.!.3
If we draw AC parallel tothe .eexts and C8 parallel 10 theyaxis, then AC = 3  (I) = 4 units and BC = I  (2) = 3 units
By Pythagoras' Theorem, A81 = ACI ... BCI = 16 + 9 = 25 unilsl. Hence the length of AB '" m = 5 units.
We can generalize this 10 f"md a formula for the distance between any two given points.
Urheberre<;htlichge5chlitltesMaleriol
TakeA(x"y,) and B(_t,,)',) to be the two perms (Fig.I.4) Now AC = x,  x, anti BC = Y,  >\
Then AB' '" AC' + Be' '" (X,x,)' + (Y,  ),,)' So Ihe fonnula for 'he dist~n~e belween the poims(x"y,)and(x"y,)is
Distance= .J(x, x,)' + (y, y,l'
Note: Take care with the subtracucns if either or bolh of the cooruinatesare negative.
Fig. 1.4
Example 2
NOlelhmthiscould~lsobcdonea,:
distance",.JL3 2F+L4 (3)F=~unitsasbcforc.
The coordinates can be subtracted in eirheF order as the results are the same alter squaring. Verify this for part (a).
Examp/e3
The ventces oj" r~hm!ile ABC arc 1\(15J. B/4.4) alld C(5.2i. (aj Wilichislilelongeslside? (bj/.\·t"elriulIgleriglu·ulIgled·
(<:) WI"" (yp~ "i'rianllie i.< ABC.'
We need only find Ihc squares oflhe Icnglh'''flhe side'
AB'= 1241'+ 154J1=37 "nilS' Be'", [45]'+[4(2))'=37 unit,' CA'= IS(211'+ 1251'= 98 unils'
(a) AC is the longest side.
(b) AC' .. AB' + BC' so the triangle is not nghtunglcd. (e) AB' '" BC' so the triangle i, iwsecles
Urhebcrre<;htlichge5chlilltesMaleriai
The midpoint of BC is (7,S).
Hence the tengui or rhe median from Ais~" (6i ",7.SunilS. Now find the lengths of the ether two medians.
You should find that Ihey are 7 units and {,jQunils
C(9,5)
Example 4
The vertices of a triangle ABC are A( 1.3),8(5,11) and C(9.5). Find the lengths of Ihe medians.
You will recallthat a median is a line from a vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side.
Fig/.S
so we find DE' and AC'.
D is (~Aland E is (l~. ~). ThenDEl"dl~)'+(4+ ~)'= 1 + ¥ '" ¥
AC' = (2  0)' + (3 + 6)' = 85
Hence DE' = ! AC' which means thai DE " ~ AC
8(3,5)
Example 5
The vertices of a triangle are A(2.3), B(3.5) and C(O,<i) (Fig,l 5), D is Ihe midpoint of AB and E is Ihe midpoint of 8e. Show that DE = 1 AC
it is simpler 10 work wilh squares of distances.
Fig 16 C(O,6)
Urheber=htlichgeschutztesMalerial
Exercise 1.2 (Answers on poge 606.)
1 Find the distance between the following pairs of point,. [Where necessary give your answer correct 10 2 significant figures.]
(a) (1,2),(4,6) (b) (1,3),(2,1)
(c) (4,5),(1,7) (d) (0,3),(4,0)
(e) (1,3),(2,5) <0 (2,1),(4,2)
(g) (5,0).(7.4) oo (5,2).(0,3)
(i) (a,O),(O,a) (j) (a.u+b),(ub,b)
2 Acircleha..cen!reat(i,2).OnepointonilScircumferencei,(3,1) What is the radius crme cuctez
3 The venices uf a triangle are A(4,2), B(4,2) ami C(2,6). (a) Is the triangle rightangled?
(b) Jfa circle is drawn round this triangle, what are the coordinates of its centre? (c) Hence find me radius of this circle.
4 The verticesof triangle ABC are A(1,3), 8(2.7) and C(6,4). (a) Find the squares of the lengths of the sides.
(bl Hence stale completely what type of triangle ABC is. (c) Find lhe area of the triangle.
5 The vertices of triangle PQR are P(3,4). Q(5,8) and R(7,4). (a) wbat kind of triangle is PQR?
(hl Slate the coordinates nfthe midpoint S of side PR
(c) Find the length of QS and deduce the area of the triangle PQR.
6 The vertices ofiriangle ABC are A{4,4), B(2,6) and C(O,6). Find the lengths of the three medians of the triangle
7 A(6.3}, B(2,5) and C(O.5) fonn a triangle. D is the midpoint of BC. (a) Slate the coordinates of D.
(b) Find the values of AC', AB'. AD' and DC'. (c) Hence show thai AC' + AB' = 2(AD' + DC').
S The vertices of triangle ABC are A(2.3). B(4,5) and C(8.2). P and Q are the midpoints of AB and BC respectively.
(a) Stale the coordinates of P and Q.
(h) Find the values of PO' and AC'.
(e) What Iracrinn of AC is PQ?
\I Circle C, bes cenee (3.4) and r~dius 2 units. Circle C1 has centre (1,7) and radius 3 units.Findthedi~tancebctweenthetwOcenlresandhenceshowthatlhe circles touch
10 The cenrre or a circle is (1.3) and ilSradius i~ 10 units. The centreofa sccondcirde is (2.7) and its radius is 5 units. Show thai {he Iwo circles touch each 01 her and make a sketch showing !he po,ition~oflhe circles
Urheberre<;htlichgeschutltesMaterial
11 The vertices of triangle PQR are P(2,S), Q(4,3) amJ R(2,3).lfS is the midpoint of PR,showth31trianglcPSQ is isosceles.
12 A circle has its centre at the origin and ils radiusi, 3 unils. P(x,y) is any point on the circumference. State an equalion inxandy which is true for all po ssiblcpositions ofP.
13 A(3.2) and B(4,3) are two fixed points. The point PIx,)') moves so that it is always equidistant from A and B (i.e. AP = PB).
(a) Describe the locus ofP.
(b) Show that (x + 3)' + (y  2)' = (x 4)' + (y  3)',
(c) Stmpllfy this equation. (The result is called the equation of tile locus ofP)
AREAS OF RECTILINEAR FIGURES (Optional)
A rectilinear figure has straight line sides. The following method will be found useful but it is not essential in this Syllabus. it gives a quick way of finding the mea of such a figure using the coordinates of the venices, wrillen in a cenain way. We will start with a triangle with one vertex at the origin o (Fig. 1.7). The other vcnicesare A{x"y,) and B{ArY,). Then the area of b, OAB = area of ,0, OBC + area of trapezium CDAB  area of ,0,ODA. Verify that this is
antidockwise. lfwe take them in the order 0 B  A. i.e. clockwise. the result would bc9 (cllccktllis).Wc now extend this to ,0,ABC (Fig. I.H). Then the area of ,0,ABC = ,0,OAB  ,0,OAC  ,0,OCB
This result can be easily calculated by arranging the coordinate pairs as colum nsofa matrix. repeating the fir,t pair at the end'
Fig. 1.8
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11"~'~"5<'_;"1
Y'~"""____Y'"" Y,.. Y,.....
X,Y, 9', ",Y.
Find the produ~ts shown. The area = +[Th" ,urn of the DOWNWARD' products Ihe SU~ O~lhe ~P\vARD'" products]. •
ThIS gIves 2" [(x,Y, + 9\ +x,)',l(x,}', + x,y, + x,Y,l]. Check that this is the fonnulagiven above.
For example, the area of the triangle shown in Fig. 1.6 will be
Area =~[(O +9 + 12) (18 10 +O)j
= 24~ units'
This method can be extended to give the area of a polygon. provided the vern ces are taken m croer annctockwtsc.
For example, the area of the quadrilateral whose vertices are (4,3). (2,3), (1,2) and (3,1) is given hy
Draw a sketch to make sure the vertices are laken in order.
Write the pairs as before repeating the first one at the end. Then the area '" ![(8+3+2+91(349411=21 unit,'
Optional Exercise
Find the areas ofthc figures whose vertices are
(a) (0.0), (3.7), (5,1) (b) (1.2),(2,3).(4,4)
(e) (4.2), (0,8).(5.11) (d) (5J), (2,5), (IO,i). (6,3)
(e)(2.~),(3,1),(I,5),(6,3)
GRADIENT OR SLOPE OF A STRAIGHT LINE
The rest of this Chaplerdeals with the coordinate geometry of straight lines. An important COllccpt is the gradient or slope or a line. This ls a measure of the steep llfSS of the line relative to ihexaxis. tt corresponds to the s\ope ofa path OT Toad which we measure relative to the horizontal. Mathematically. if A and B are any two points on a line (Fig. 1.9) then thegradienr is the valu(' of the ratio
\eC:;:~~n~~ed\~;a~;) i.e. ~ in going from A to B
Urheberre<;htlichge5chlitltesMateriai
Fig. 1.9
The .rstep and the ystep must be taken parallel to the .eaxis and the )'a~is respectively and either may be positive, negative or zero.
Then, as we shall see, a gradient can bezero,orapositiveoroegativenumbe r.tn e spectat case.Jt rnay bave no value.
Example 6
Fintf Ihe gradient of the line through (2,3) and (3.5) as shown in Fig. f.lO.
Gradient '" ~ '" ~. a positive gradient.
If the coordinates are taken in the reverse order, then the gradientis =;=~ =~ = ~. giving the same value. The gradient is usually left as a fraction
Example 7
IVhmiSlhegradiemO/lltelinethrO/lgltlhepoim., (25) and (4,2) (Fig. I 1IJ?
Gradienl = ~ '" d '"  ~ . a n~ative gradient.
iO
Urheberre<;hllichgeschlilllesMalerial
Hence, if the coordinates of A and B are (.1',,)",) and (x,.)) respectively, as in Fig. 1.12. thcnthegradie"tofAB;,1L.::..h.oraltematively~
(The coordinates must be S~b~~~tcdi"lhesamcor~e4i~" Bl~,.y,) f,f, A(~,'f,)
~,~,
GradienIOfl!,,~through,(_fl'YI)and(x,.y,)'b
~~,
Fig. 1.12
As the steepness or a straight line is clearly the same al all points on the line, we can take Ilnytwopointsonittoca1culatcitsgrndicnt.
I"~
ExampleS
'':;;:"',' +1_:;,,;:::,3) (a) (3.2)
SlOlelhegradientsoflhefol/owinglines' (a) ,hroullh(2,J)and(5,3).
(hi Ihrough(J.4/and(J,21
(a) Gradiem = 53_'(:2) '" ~ '" 0
As we see in Fig. 1.13, the line i~ parallel to thc raxis.
Angle of Slope
In Fig. 1.14, the slope Or gradiem of the line AB is ~ = ~=tanLBAC.
But LBAC '" 9 where e is the angle between the line and the positlve .raxis. So the gr~dienl = 1,111 e
9iscalledthellngleofslopeandO°5'95' 180° (Fig. 1.15).
(3.4)
Fig. 1.13
'~'
step
,
Fig.U4
Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMaterial
,
t .
6_0 zero gradient
FI{J.I.15
6<90' posrnvegradient
If9=O", tan 9=0: gradient" O. The line isparal\eJ to Ihe .raxis.
If 0°< 9<'9O",9is l1li acute IIIIgle; tan 9is positive end the gradient is positive. The line slopes upwards from left to right./
If9 = 90°, tan 9 and the gradient are undefined. The line is parallel to theyaxis. If'}(}" c 9< 180°, 9 is an obtuse angie; Ian 9 is negative and thegradienl is nega live. The ljneslopesdownwardsfromleflloright.~
PARALLEL LINES
In Fig. 1.16, the lines AB and CD are parallel. Then the angle of slope of each line is 9. Hence they have the same gradient.
PamlleJlincshavecqualgradicms Lines with equnl gradients are parallel.
Example 9
A(2,J), 8(5,7), C(O,i) and D(3,5) are four points.
(a) Which of the lilies AB. Be, CA and DA OfC parallel? (b) What type of qumirilateral is ABeD?
(a) ThegrndienlSofAB,BC,CAandDAare l' ~ .2and ~ respectively. Hence BC is parallel to DA.
(b) As it has 2 parallel sides, ABCD is a trapezium
Urheber=htlichgeschlitztesMa!erial
Exsmple 10
Two tines urI' drawn from A(I.3J. one 10 8(4.2) and Ihe o/ller 10 C(4;2J. What are /heirong/esofslope?
Gradient of AD = ~ = 1 = tan 9, so 9 = 45°. Gradient of AC = ~ = tan 9. so 9 = 121°.
COLLINEAR POINTS
Do the poinl~ A(3,5l, B{O,I) and C(3,3) lie in a straightline. i.e. an: they collinear? !flhey are, then the gradient of AB must be the SlIme as thai ofBC or AC, as these will be segments of the same line.
Gradient of AB = ~ and gradient of BC = ~. (Check gradient of AC).
Hence the three points are collinear.
Exsmple 11
IfC(p.q/ is a poim on Ihe line AD, where A is (2,1/ and 8 is (3.2J,find a Te/a/ion"hip between p and q.
The three points are collinear.
Hence the gradient of AC = the gradient of AB.
Then ~ =~.
Now verify that this gives 5qp= 7,which is the relatioruhip required.
Exercise 1.3 (Answers on page 606./
I Smtethe gradient of the line Ihrough the following pairs of poi Ills:
(a) (2,3),(1,5) (b) (0,3),(3,0) (c) (2,2),(5,5)
(d) (3,9),(1,1) (e) (1.4),(3,4) (f) (3,4),(3,1)
(g) (1,2),(2,4) (h) (4,0),(3,2) (il (a,Ol,(O,a)
0) (a,b),(b,a) (k)(P,P'l,(q,q')
2 A(4,2), B(5,2), qO,3) aI\d 0(1,0) are four points, Stale the gradients of (a) AB, (b) CD, (e) AC and (d) BD,
J Which of the lines through the folJowing pairs of points are parallel?
(a) (1,3),(4,5) (b) (3,2),(5,1) (c) (4,3),(1,1)
(d) (7,4),(2,4) (e) (0,4),(2,1) (0 (o,bl), (o+5,b+ I)
J3
Urheberre<;htlichgeschutltesMateriai
4 Find the angle of slope of the line Lhrough the following pairs of points:
(a) (~2,1).(3,4) (b) (2,1),(2,5) (c) (1,3),(3,7)
5 Are the poinL~ (7,5), (5,8) and (1,17) collinear?
6 A(6,3), B(~2,8), C(O,5) and D(2,2) are four points (a) ShowthatB,CandDarecol!inear,
(b) p, Qand R ate Lhe midpoints of AB, AC and AD respectively, ShowLhat P,Qand R are also collinear
7 Irthepoint(a,b)liesonthelinejoining(~2,3)and(2,1),findarelalionshipbetween aandb.
8IfLhepoints(2,3),(3,5)and(I3.p)arecollineaT,findthevalueofp.
, The coordinates of a point are given as (I  I, 21 + I). Show that the pomrs where ,,,0,1 and 2 are collinear.
10 (a) [fthelinejoiningthepoints(2.4)and(5,~2)isparalleltothclinejoining(1.2) anll(I',6) find the value ofp.
(b) The line joining (_1,4) and (a,O) is parallel to the line joining (n.L) to (11,3).
Findthevalucofa,
11 (a) Show that thc poinlS (2,4),(5,0) and (8,4) are conmcar.
(b) The point (d,d  2) also lies on this line. Find the value of d
12 Iflhepoints(~3,2),(I,a 2) and (a. 7) are collinear. find the lwn possib)e valucs ofa.
PERPENDICULAR LINES
The vertices of triangle ABC are A(4. 2). B(4. 2) and C(2, 6). Verify that this triangle i, rightangled. Which two sides are perpendicular? Now state the gmdient, of the.<;c sides. If you multiply the two gradients.what result do you obtain?
The result is surprising su we investigate it further. Given the points A(), 4), B(2, 3) and C(16, 9) show by using Pythagoras' theorem that AB and BC are perpendicular. Now find the product of their gradients. Weean show thm this result is true in general excluding undefined or zero gradienl~.
In Fig. t .17, AB is a line with grndient m, and CD a line with gradient 111,_ The lines intersect at right angles at T. The small triangle PQR shows that m, " ~
14
Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMateriol
Rg.I.ll
Now imagine thatline AB is rotated through 900 aboul T 10 lie along CD. Then triangle PQR takes a new posilion P'Q·R'.
This .,hows that m, = ~. as a and b are now both posmve.
Then m,~= ~ x ~ =1 and this will be true for any pair of perpendicular lines (except forlinesparalieltothexorthe.Jui./.
Ifm"m,arethegradienlS of two perpendicular lines. then m,~: j cr "', = ~ (m," 0, "'," 0).
Conversely, um, and"" are the gradierss of twc lines("" .. 0,,,,, .. 0) and m,"',=l,thenthelines are perpendicular.
Example 12
Th~ vfrtices o/Iriangle ABC are A(2,4/. 8(2,1/ andC(5,5/ (a) ShOWfholthelriangleisright·angled
(b) State the gradienl of the aitirude through B.
(a) This could be done using the Pythagoras' Theorem bUI here we use gradients.
The gr:a.dienlsof AB. BC and CA are~,  j and t respectively.
As £ x ( ~ )=1, AB is perpendieularto Be. Hence the triangle is right_angled lLB:9(lO).
(b) The altitude through B will be perpendicular to AC. Hence its gradiem = + =7.
Exercise 1.4 (Answers all page 607.)
I Which of the lines through these pairs of points are perpendicolar?
(a) (4,2), (1,0) (b) (0,5), (4,2) (e) (2.1l. (15)
(d) (I.4J.{2.8/ (e) (1,2).(5,4) (0 (2,3),(2,7)
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Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMateriol
2 Stale the gradient of a lfne which is (al parallel. (bl perpeodicular, to AB where
(i) A is (3,2), B is (0,4) (ii) A is (0,1), B is (2,1)
(iii) A is (3.3). B is (2,4) (iv) A is (4.1), B is (3,0)
J Is the triangle formed by ihe pcints (3,2), (0,4) and (4,2)rightcaogled?
4 Find the gradient of a line perpendicular to tile longe.\t ~ide of the triaogle formed by A(J,4), B(5,2) and C(0,3)
5 (al Show thatthe triangle formed by A(2,3), B(2,5) and C(IO,!) is rightangled and isosceles.
(b) STale the gradient' of the rhree altitedes.
6 Find the engle otslope of a line with gmdient ! and that ofanOlher[ineperpendicu· lar toit.
7 Find the gradient ofa hne perpendicu[arlO the line joining the points (a,3111 and (2a.<J)
K CD is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining A(2,3) and B(5,7)
(al State (il the coordinates of the point where CD intersects AB and (iiI the gradient or co
(b) If the point (p,q) lies on CD, lind a relationship between p and q
9 tal Show that the point 0,1) lies on the perpendicular bisector of the line joining (2,4land(4,6),
(b) The point (aAl also lies on this bisector_ Find the vatue:~_.
10 A semicircle with centro 0 (The origin) and radius 5 units. meets Ox at A and Band tbepositivey·axisate.
(al Sl~le Ihe coordinates of A, Band e.
(b) If a point (x,y) lies on ihe semictrcle, show thatx"+y':25.
(e) VerifythalthepoinlP(3.4)liesonthesemicin;lelUldshowbyusinggradiems lhat LAPB =90".
II A(!.2). Bib,l) and C(6,3) are three poinL~ and AB is perpendicular 10 Be. (0) State, in terms ofh,the gradientsofAB and Be.
(b) Hence showrhet te « 1)(b6l=12.
(e) Now lind lhetwopossiblcvalucsofb
EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE
Fig_LIB
The point P(x.y) lies on the line through A(2,3) and B(4,1) (Fig. \.18). Can we find a relationship between x andy? (Note that we usc the ooordinates (x,y) as P i~ any point on the line).
Since the Three points arc collinear, the gradient of AP = gradient of AB
Then~ =~=j
i.c.3(y3}"=2(x+2)or3y+2t=5.
8(4.11
Urheberre<;htlichgeschutltesMaterial
This relationshipi~ called the equation orlhe line through A and B.
Ifthccoordinates (x,y) ofa point are substirured in the equation and both s ides are equal,lhen the poinl lies on the line. We say the coordinates satisfy the equation. Conversely, if the point lies on the line, its coordinates must satisfy th e equauon.
For example. the poim (3.5) lies on the line 2r + 3y = 9 because 2 x 3 + 3 x (5) =9. The coordinates (3,5) satisfy the equation.
The point (2,3) does nollie on the line because 2 X 2 + 3 X 3 ~ 9. The coordinates (2,3) do not satisfy the equation
Such an equation is called a linear equation. as it is theequatioodfas traight Lioe. Its general form is ax + hy '" c where a. II and c are constants. For example, 2x  3y = I. y= 3.<5 are linear equations_ Note lhaty= 2 (nux term) or 2.1 + I =0 (no y term) are alsolinear equations
We now look at various fOnDS of a linear equation and how 10 find them. The position ofa line can be fired intwo ways.
J Gil'ellollepointA(x"y/)olllhelinealldirs/iradientm
IfP(x,y) is any point on the line (Fig. 1.19). then its gradient is:~j~" = m.
Fig,U9
gradienlm
P(x.y)
A!X,.r •• ;:, ~~=j~
SnU1eequalionoflhetineis
y ::~'I =~'I(X x,) onepoint, gradiem form
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Urheberre<;hllichgeschulltesMalerial
which simplifies 10 3y = 2x 9 or 3y 2x =9.
Example 13
(aJ Whot is the equation of the line throuflh (3,1 j with gradient j ? (bJ Does thepoinr (2J) lie on this line?
(e) Find the coordinates of the points where this line cuts the axes. (a) Using the onepoint, gradient form, the equation of the line
isy(I)= i (x3) i.e. 3(y+ 1)=2(x3)
(b) Subslitutingintheequalion.3x32x2=5.ButS""9sothecoordinate,do not satisfy me eqcanon and hence the point (2,3) does not lie on the line.
(c) 'rhe jcoordmere of any point 011 the raxis isO. ·Subslitutey=O in the equation of the line.
Then 0 = 21:  9 giving x = 4~. The line cuts the .raxis at (4t,O).
Similarly, to find where the line cuts tbe yaxisc putx e Il in the equation. Verify that this gives the point (0.3).
II Given two pomts A(x"y,) and B(x,.y,J
Let P(x,y) be uny poin' un 'he Ene (Fig. 1.20).
Fig. 1.20
Then by gradients. ~ =y,y,
xx, »c»,
Rewriting this in a more symmetrical form. the ;<Illation of the line is
yy, = xx, y,_y, ",X,
twopoinlform
(note the order of the terms)
IS
Urheber=htlichgeschlitztesMa!erial
Example 14
Find the equation oJthe line through (2,1) and (1,4).
II does not mener which polnt is taken as (xI'YI)' Take (2,3). Using the twopoint form, the equation is ~ = :=;; = :1:..22 t.e. )";3 =~.
lines Parallel to the x· or jaxts Equations for these llnes are speclal cases.
Now remove the fraction, 10 get 3(y + 3) = 7(x 2), which simplifies to 3y + 7x= 5.
Example 15
(5.2)
Find the equation oJthe line through (a) (32)and'(52).
(b) (3,1) and (3,5)
(a) If we use the twopclm form, we get t~ = ~:; whichisnotdefined.Wecan see however that the line isparaHel to the raxis (Fig. 1.21). Every po intoftheline will have coordinates of the form (..r.2) so its equation will be Y = 2 as Y is always =2, whatcverthevalueofx.
13.5)
(3.2)
Fig. 1.21
(b) Similarly this line is parallel to theyaxis. Every point will have coordinates of the foim (3,y). So the equation isx=3. Hence, ifk isaconSlaIll,then
ycok is the equauon or a line parallel 10 the .cexrs x=kisthccqualionofalinepamllcllothcy·axis
(3.1)
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UrhcbcrmchtlichgcschlitztcsMa!crial
Exercise 1,5 (Answersonpage607,)
1 Find, in its simplest fonn.jhe equarlcn orme line (a) lhrough{2,3)with,gradienti J
(h) through (i,i) wllhgradlcnt"
(e) through (1,3) with gradienl~
(d) through (1,0) and (2,3)
(e) tbruugh{O,i)and{LJ)
(f) through{3,2)and{7,2)
(g) through (2,4) parallel to the yaxls
(h) tilrough (1,2) and paraliei to a line wilh gradient 2
(i) Ih",ugh (3,1) and perpendicular to a line with graulem. 5 (j) through (1,2) and (i.7)
(k) through(0,3)alld(0,S)
2 Find me coordmares of the points where each of the linesin Question I cut the axes. 3 A line cuts the .raxls at (3,0) and the yaxis at (0.2). Find the equat ion of the line. 4 P{0.9) and 0(6.0) are two points. A line is drawn from the origin perpendicular to PQ.
Find the equ3tion of this line
5 Fintl thc equations of the Jines through (1.4) which are (a) parallel and (b)perpen· dicular to another line with gradientto
(j The gradient of a line is 2 and il curs the y3;o;;, at (0,3). Find ns equation and the coordinates of the poinl where it cuts the .raxis.
7 Find the equations of the sidesoftri"ngle ABC where A i~ (2.3), B is (0,5) and C is (3.1).
II The points A(4,4), B{2,0) and C(6.2) form a tdengle. (a) Find Ihe equations of the medians of this mangle.
(b) If AD i. an atnrude of the mangle, find the equation nf AD
9 FrOlD the point (2,5},aperpendicularis drawn to the line joining (I,4l and (52) • Find theequalion of this perpendicular.
10 ABCI) is a parallelogram where A is (2,i), B is (6,2) and C is (11.2). (a) StatetheeoordinatesoflhemidpointnfAC.
(b) Hence find the cccrdfnarcs ot D
(c) Find the equations of the diagonals of the parallelogram
11 A(1.2) and C(3,4) are opposite vertices of a rhombus ABCD. Find (a) the coordinates of the point where the diagonals intersect.
(b) the gradient of AC,
(c) the equation of the diagonal BD
Urhcbcrre<;htlichgcschlitltcsMatcriai
GRADIENTINTERCEPT FORM
1'0 do this we convert the equation 10 a form  the gradlentlmerccpr form 1_22 shows <I line with gradient/II which yaxis ut C(O,c). c is calJed the yintcrcCplOflhc!inc.LelP(.<.y)beanypoinl line. Then Ihe gradient of lh~ line"
P(x,yj
Fi9_1.22
gradientinterceptl<mn
Hence.If an equation is written in tbis form. lhegmdient is given by rbe coerrtctent otc and lhcyinlercept by the constant term
To verify this, suppose the equation of line is y = 2x 3 (grudicntintercepr fonD), This line cuts the yaxis whcrex= 0, so y = 3 (the comtanllerm). The points (2.1) and (5,7) lie On the line (check Ihis). The gradient is ~ = 2 which is the coefficient of_.
Example 16
Find the gradients oflhe lines (a) 2.<3y = 5, (bl 2y + x =4. (al Convert 10 the gradientintercept form, y = !>IX + c:
3y=2x+5 'rnen v=
(dividingby3)
gradient y_intercept
Sothcgradie.ntis ~ (andtlleYime~ePtiS1)'
(b) 2y+x=4 I.c.2y=x4soy=:;:x2 ,!,he gradient is ~.
It is useful to practise this conversion, i.e. making j the subject 0 f the cquaticn. The gradient is then obtained quickly.
Urheberre<;htlichge5chlit;:tesMa!eriol
Equations of Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
Example 17
F;"d fhe equalioltS of the lines through fhe Im;tII (J ,2) which are (a} parallel, (b) pupendicular, tn the line 2.r 3y = 4
(a) Tbegradientofthelinelx3y=4is j. So the gradient of any parallel line is also j. Hence its equation wiJIbey= jx.c.
To find c, we _,uhslilUle the coordinates 0,2) in the equation as (1,2) ues on the line."Then2=j+t·givingc=1·
Th.eequalionisy= jx+ 5 r.e. 3y=ZX+4
(h) TIle gradient of any perpendicular line will be ~ so its equation isy: ~x+ c.
Substitute (1,2) tn find c and verifylhallherequiredequationis2y=3x+7
Exercise 1.6 (Answers on page 607.)
I State the gradients of the following lines:
(a) x+y=2 (b) xy=J
(d) 2x+y= I (el Jx+2y=6
(g) y=4 (b) x2y=0
0) 2x3y=4 (k) 4x=3y2
(m)uy=t (n) py+x=2p
2 Find the equation oflhe line which is
(a) parallel te r cy e I and passes Ihrough (2,3)
(b) parallel 10 2x.y=3 and passe, Ihmugh{O,I) (e)pelpClldicularto2x+y=Oandpasscsthrough(I,2) (d) perpendicular to 3x+y=5 and passes Ihrough (2,1) (e) paralleltoy=4andpasseslhroogh(0,l)
(f) perpendiculartox3y= I and passes through (3,0) (g) perpendicullU" to x e 2 and passes Ihrough (2,3)
(c)y2x=3 (f)5x2y=5 (i) 2x+3y= I (I) 5:t2y= 10 (0) ax+by= I
J Find the equations oflhe lines parallel and perpenorcuter 10 (a) x+y= 3 passing Ihrnugh (1,2)
(b) 2xy=4passinglhrough(0,3)
(e) 4x+3y= I passing through (0,2)
(d) x3y= J passinglhrough(l,I)
4 A line is drawn through the point (1,2) parallel to the line y + 5x=2. Find its equation and that of the perpendicular line through the same point.
5 The side BC of a mangle ABC lie!!. on the line 2x  3y: 4. A is the poim (2.3). Find tbeequatiollofiheallitudelhroughA
Urheberre<;htlichge5chlitltesMaterial
INTERSECTION OF LINES
At what point do the lines 2r  3y = 1 and 3x + 8y = 2 intersect? This point lies on both these lines so its coordinates must satisfy both equations. Hence its coordinates will be the solution of the simultaneous equartons
2r3y=7 and 3x+8y=2
(il (ii)
These can be solved by any of the methods you have learnt previously. We use the elimination method here.
Multiply (i) by 3:
Multiply (iil by 2:
Subtract Substitute in (i):
The point is (2,1).
fu9y =21
6x+ 16y=4 25y=25 soy= I h3=7sox=2
Suppose the lines were 2r 3y = 7 and 4.1'  s» = 3. What happens in the solution? Explainthis.
814,4)
Example 18
From Ihe point P(l .3). a perpendicular PQ is drawn to Ihe line joining A(4.8) and B(4.4).Find
(a) rhe equaJion5 of AB and me perpendicular,
(b) the coordinates of the point where they intersect, (e) the di.tlunce vfP from the line AB.
A sketch diagram should always be drawn to help in such questions (Fig .1.23).
, 14,6)
Fig. 1.23
23
Urheber=htlichgeschlitztesMaterial
(al The equation of AB is !..f! : T i.e. 3x  2y: 4'.
Now check !hat the equation of PQ is 2.>: + 3y: 7.
(b) Solvingtheequations3.x2y:4aml2x+3y:7,weget(2,I)as!hecoortlinaII'S or o.
(c) The dislan<;c of P from AB is PQ.
PQ1: (I  2)' + (3  I)' : (3)' + 2': 13 <;0 PQ = {i3
Example 19
ABeD;s a rectangle what' A is (3,2), D is (2.5) and B lit's on Ihe yaxls. Find (a) rhl'l'qluJliono/AD,
(b) rheeqU<Jliono/AB,
(e) rheeoordindlesofB
(d) IhecoordindlesojC
FI{1_1.24
Fig. 1.24 shows the facts given
(a) EquationofADis Y '" ~ Le. 3.< 5y:19.
(b) AB is perpendicular to AD. The gradient of AD is ~ so the gradient of AB is  ~.
Knowing the gradient and the point A. Yerify thai the equation of AB is 3y:5x9
(c) AB meets theyaxis where x: O. Heneey = 3. The coordinates of Bare (0,3). (d) Let the diagonals meet at M. M is the midpoim of BD. so M is(I,I).
As M is also the midpoint of AC, therefore C is (5,0).
Urhcbcrr""htlichgcschlitllcsMalcriai
Rg. t.25
Exsmple20
The tine b + 3y '" 6 meet., the yatis at A and tht x.axis at B. C is Iht palm such that AB '" Be. CD is dra",n perpend;cula~ 10 AC 10 meet Ihe liTle through A parallel In 5x+y'" r as D
(a) FiM Ihe coordiMles of A. Band C.
(b) Stale Ihe eotunions of CD and AD. and hence fil1d Ihe coordil1ale.' of D (L') Calculale the area of lire Iriangle ACD
y
o
(a) The line meets the yaxis where X '" 0, y '" 2, SO A is (0,2) It meets the .raxis where y '" 0, X '" 3, SO B is (3,0).
Since B is the midpoint of AC, then C must be (6,2).
(b) CD is perpendicular w AC. Therefore its gradient is ~ and it passes through C.
Verify that the equation of CD is 11: 2y '" 22.
AD is parallel to Sx+y= 7. Therefore its gradient isS and it passes through A. Verifythllt the equation of AD is S.t+y= 2
Solvingtheselwoequationsglvesx=2andy=8_SothecoordinatesofDare (2,8).
(c) As ACDis a rightangled uiangle,
itslUall~ i xACxDC= i x J52 x m=26units'
Exercise 1,7 (Answers 011 page 607.)
1 The line 4.1  3y '" 12 meets the axes at A and B. Find the length of AB.
2 Find the equation of the line through the point of intersection of2t+ 3y= 5 and 3xy; 2, and whlch is parallel 10 4yx= 14.
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Urheberre<;htlichge5chlitltesMateriai
J Through A(2,3) two line~ are drawn witb gradientsl and 2. These lille~ meet the lim: x2y=SaIB..ooC.Find
(a) theequationsofABandAC, (b) the coordinatesofBandC.
4 The lilies X + 3y = 1 and 2.t  5y = 9 intersect at A. Find the equation of the lim: through A and the point (1,2).
5 A line Ihrougb A(5.2) meets the line 3x + 2y = 6 at righl angles at B. Find the coordinaresofB and calculate me length ofAB.
6 (a) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisecter cf tbe line joining A(3,3) and B(I,5)
(b) If this bisector meets the .raxis at C. Iind the coordinates of C.
7 The side.. of a mangle lie on the linesy =1, 2x + y = I and4x  3y =13. Find the coordinates ofllle venice~ and ~how lhalthe mangle is isosceles.
8 The imersections of me linesSx+6y=36,x2y=4and7x+ 2y= 12 are the vertices ofatriangle
(a) Find the coordinales otmese vertices.
(b) Oblain the equanon or the alurude drawn to the longest side
9 OABC iSI parallelogram where 0 is the origin .1nd B is the point (5,7). C lies on the
line x  2)' = OandA lies on the line 2.t y=O. Calculate the coordinates of A and C.
10 The sides ofa triangle lie 00 the lioesy = !,x+ y = 6 and 3x Y = 2. (a) Calculate the coordinates of the vernees of Ihe triangie.
(b) Findtbe equations of the lbree altitudes.
(c) Sllowthattbeseallitudesintern:ctalapoinl and findthecoordinatesof this point.
II A(3,1) and 8(0.6) are 1111'0 points. BC is perpendiculat'to AB and meets Ibexaxis at C. Find
(a) the equation ofBC, (b) thecoordinatesofC,
(c) the area of mangle ABC.
12 The diagonals of a rhombus meet at the point (1,5) and one of them is paratlel rc the line2.<5y=3.
(a) Find the equations ufthe diagonals.
(b) Iftwooftbe vertices oftherbombus are (3,10) and (9,9), find the coordinates of the other two.
13 A is the point (1.6). Lines are drawn through A with gradients 3 and 2, meeting the .raxis at B and C respectively. BD is perpendicular 10 AB and CD is perpcndicularto AC.
(a) Findlhecoord1natesofB andC. (b) State the equalions of BD and CD (c) Ftnd tbe ccordtnates of D
(d) Calculate the ratio BD:CD
26
Urheberre<;htlichgeschutltesMateriol
14 A(I,2) and C{5,4) are IWO vertices of the rectangle ABCD, AB and CD are parallel to thelineyx=5,
(a) Find the equations of AB and BC (b) Find the coordinates nfB and D,
(e) Hence find the area of the rectanglc,
15 ABCD is a rectangle where A is (1,3) and D is (5,5), AC lies on the line 3y = 4x + 5, Find
(a) the equation of Dr', (b) the cccrdmetes or C, (e) the coordlnates of B, (d) the area of ABCD
16 The point B(a,b) is the reflection of A(5,2) in the line 2x  3y '" 3 (a) Find the equation ofAB and show that 3a+ 2h= II,
(b) State the coordinates of the midpoint of AB in terms of a and b and show that Zu3b=IO,
(c) Hencefindthevaluesofaandb
SUMMARY
• Midpointof(x,,y.)~nd(x,,y,)i'("';X, ~),
• Distance between (XL')") and (.I',.}',) is ~(x, x,)' + (Y, )',)'
• Gradient of lille througll (x,,»and (x,,)',) is ~:=;:
• Parnllellinesh:lveequa\gr,uJienls
• Three points A, Band C are collinear if the gradient of AB equals the gradient of Be.
• If"" and "',are the gradients of perpendicular lines, m,"', = I, If"" and m,(m, .. 0, m," OJ are the gradients of two lines and 11/,"', = I, then the lines are perpendicular,
• Equation of line through (XL'» with gradient 11/ is y  Y, = m(x  x,),
• Equation orHnc through (XL')") and (x,.y,l is ;,:_>;:, :0 ;::_~, '
The form y = na + c gives the gradient (m) and the yuucrcepr (el,
UrheberrcchtlichgeschlitztesMa!erial
REVISION EXERCISE 1 (Answers 011 page 607.)
I Find the equation of the line
(a) through (2,3) with gradien1~.
(b) through the points (3,2) and (:1,5),
(c) through (l,I) perpendicular to thellne 3x 2y'" l.
2 A and B are the points (2,1) and (4,1) respectively. BC is perpendicular 10 AB (a) FiodtheequatiooofSe.
(b) If the gradient of AC is 1, find the c'lulltion of AC and the coordinates of C. (c) Hence find the area of triangle ABe.
3 A(I,l) and B(3,4) are IWO vertices of triangle ABe. If the area of the triangle is )5 units', find the distan<"e ofC from AB
4 The Hne y e 2x + 3 intersects theyaxis at A. The points Band C On this line are such that AS '" Be. The line through B perpendicular \() AC passes through the point D(1,6).Find
(a) theequationofBD.
(b) the coordinates of B (c) rhe coordmates or C
(C)
5 (a) The line ~  ~ '" 1 meers the axes at A and B. Find the coordinates of the midpoint of AB and the length of AS.
(b) Acircleisdrawnwithit~centreattheorigin.lfthepointP(4.3)liesonthiseircJe, findtheequationofthetangenttothecircleatP
6 Fig. 1.26 shuw, a "iangle ABC with A(l.l) ~nd B(1.4). The gradients of AB. AC and BC are 3m, 3m and m respectively.
(a) Find the value ofm.
(b) Find thc coordinates of C.
(c) Show that AC '" 2AB. (C)
e
(1.4)
Fig.f.26
7 A(3,4) and C(4,1O) are opposite vertices of the parallelogram ABeD The gradients of the sides AB and BC are  ! and 3 respectively. Find (a) tbe equations ofAB and BC.
(b) theeoo,din~tesofBandD.
8 Three points have coordinates A(I.3), 8(5,5) and C(5,9). Find the equation of the per]Jendkular bisector of (a) AB. (b) Be. Hence find the coordinates of the poim equidislantfrom A,Bande. (C)
Urheberre<;htlichgcschlitltcsMaterial
I) (a) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector ofAB,given that A is (2.7) and B is (6.1).
(b) The bisector meets the jaxis at e. Find the coordinates ofC and the area of triangle ABe
10 A(O,6), B(I,3) and C(4,6) are three points. D is the foot of the perpendicular from A e ec. Find
(a) thecoordinatesofD, (h) lhelengthofAD
Fig. 1.27
In Fig. 1.27. ABeD is a rectangle, and A and B are the points (4,2) and (2,8) respectively. Given that titeequ81ionofAC isy=x2. find
(a) theequationofBC,
(b) IhecoordinatesofC,
(c) thecootdinatesofD,
(d) lhearea of the rectangle ABCD. (C)
12 Two poeus have coordinates A(I,3)andC(7,7). Find the equationoftbe perpendicular bisector ofAC.
B is me point on the yaxis equidistant from A andC and ABCD is a rhombus. Find the coordinatcsofB andD.
Showtheareaoflilerhombusis52unilS'lIIldhencecalculalelbeperpcndicular
distance of A from Be. (C)
13
c~
<'7=+;:s
A(.'.5) y + 5~~2
ABCD is a parallelogram. lettered amiclcckwise. such that A and e are the points (1.5) and (5,11 respcctively. Find the coordinates or me midpoint ofAe.
Given thatBD is parallel to the line whose equation isy+ 5x= 2, find the equario n or an
Given that BC is perpendicular 10 AC, find !he equation of Be. Calculate {ll the
coordinates of B. (ii) the coordinates of D. (iii) the area of ABeD. (el
29
Urheberr""htlichgeschutltesMaleriai
14 A(2,2) and C(4,1) are opposite vertlcesof a pMlllelogram ABCD wnose sides III'C patallel totht'linesx=O and 3J=x,
(a) Fir>dthecoord.inat~orBandD,
(b) If P and Q are !he feet of the perpendicol~ from D and B respectively to AC. fiod the coordinates of P and Q and sho .... that PQ = ~ AC.
IS Fig. 1,28 shows a quadrilateral ABCD in which A is (2,8)md B is (8,6). The point C lies 00 the perpendicular hisector of AB and the poim D lies on the yaxis. The equatiOllofBC is 3y=4x14and angle DAB = 90". Find
(al the equation of AD,
(h) the coordinates ofD,
(el the equation of the perpendicular bise<:tor of AB,
(d) thecoordinatesofC. ShowthattbeareaoftriangleADCislOunits'andfiodtheareaofthequadrilaterai ABCD. (C)
A(2,6)
8(6.6)
Figl.2B
161bclinex+ y=3 meets theyaxis aa A and the .raxis er B. ACisperpeodicularw AB and the equationofBC isy=3..9.
(a) Fmd the equation of AC and the coordinates ofC. ADispMlllelwCBwheteD lies on the xaxis.
(b) Find thecoordinatcsofD
(cl Hence find the area of the trapezium ACBD.
17 Fig. 1.29 shows the quadrilatera1 OABC. The coordinates of A are (k,2k) where k>O,andthelengthofOAis ~ units
(a) Calculate thc value ofk.
AB is perpendicular to OA and B lies on the yaxis (b) Findlbeequationof ABandthec:oonlinatesofB.
The point C lies on the line through 0 parallel Wy + 3;t: 5 and also on the perpeodicularbiscctorofAB.
(c) Calculale the coordinates ofC.
CalculalCtheareaofthequadrilaterulOABC (C)
30
Urheberre<;htlichgcschutltcsMaterial
A(Ic.21<l
1& The vertices ora triangle are (3,5), (4,2) and (6,2).
(a) Findtheequationsortheperpel1dicularbisecto~ofthesides.
(b) Show thai they meet at the s.ame poinl and find lhecoordinates of this point. (el Find the radius of lhe circle passing through the vertices.
19 A and B are the points (2,4) and (4,0) respectivcly
(a) FindlheequationoftheperpendicularbisectorofAB.
(b) The bisector meets the line through B parallel to the yuis at C. Find the coordinatesofC.
(c) Calculate the radius of the circle which passes through A and Touches the .rexis at B
20 The sides AB, BC and CA lie on me lines 2)" '" x  4, x + y = 5, and y = mx respectively. If the origin 0 is me midpoint of AC, find the value of m.
21 A(h,k) lies on the line y + 3x '" 10. B lies on me line x + y '" 4. If the origin is the midpointofAB,findlhevalueofh and ofk.
22 A(I,5) lies on thelinc y e Zx e 3. P lies on the perpendicular to Ihal line through A . (a) Show lhat the coordinates ofP can he wriuenas(II2a,a).
(b) If OP = ..[34, where 0 is the origin, find the possible values of a.
23 A line with gradient m passes through the point P(3,2) and meets the yaxis at A. A Iineperpendiculartolhefi~taloopasseslhrough Pand meets the xaxis at B.
(a) Express the coordinates of A and B in terms of m
(b) IfAB = ..f6s,fmdthepossible valuesofm
31
Urheberr""htlichgC5chlitltcsMaleriai
24 P and Q are the points of intersection of the line ~ + j = I with the x and yaxe, respoctively. The gradient of QR is ! and R is the point whose xcoordinatc is 2,. where I is positive. Express the ycooniinate of R in terms of I and evaluate I given that the area of triangle PQR is 21 units' (C)
25 A line through (3, I) has gradient m (> t ). It meets the .raxis at A and the yaxis at H. From A and H, perpendiculars to the line are drawn to meet the yaxis at C and the xaxis 81 D respectively. Show that the gradienlofCD is~.
26 A(x,.)',), H(x,S,), C(x"y,) and D(.t"y,) are the vertices of 3 patallclogralll ABCD. (a) Show that x, +x, "'x,+x. andy, +Y,,"'Y,+Y •.
(b) If ABCDis a rhombus show that (x,  x,l(x, x.)+ (Y, Y,,)(Y, y) ",0. (c) If however ABCD is a rectangle show Ihal.<,x, + Y,}', '" xr• + Y,Y,.
Urheberre<;htlichgeschutltesMateriol
Simultaneous Equations
2
Two linear equations, say 1. + 4)' = 5 and 2x  3y = 8, can be solved 10 find values of x andy which satisfy both equations simultaneously. As we have seen, this solution gives thecoordinaleS of the pointofimersection of the two lines represented by the equaeons
In this Chapter we consider two simultaneous equations where one of them is nOl a linear equation but is an equation of the second degree such as ry e 8orr+y'= lO,elc These are the equations OfCUTVU
Example 1
(i! (iii
Solve Ihejollowing equtJliotlJ x+y=9 .ty=8
Bquation (i)represen15 a suaigbr line bUI equation (ii) is the cqceuon or a hyperbola, a cerve with two branches (Fig.2_1)
FIg.2.1
Urheberre<;htlichgcschlitltcsMateriol
The line meets the curve at two different points (A and B) so we expect 10 obtain tWII solutions, giving the coordinates of AandB
The usual method is to eliminate one of the variables, Make one variable the subjttl of the linear equation IIIId then subsnnnc mis in me other (nonlinear) eq uaticn. This will lead to a quadratic equation, which C3n usually be wived by factortzat ion. From(i),x=9y.
Then subsnruting for xin (ii),
(9y)y=8
i.e. Y_9y+8:0or(y8)(yI)=O. Bence v e s or I.
Now findthecorn:sponding vatces ot r from (i). Wheny:8.x= I;
when y= l,x=8
So the solutions are r e I,y = 8 (coordinates of A) orx=8,y= I (coordinates of B)
Find the coo,dilUlles of the points where the line 2x+3y=1
meeu the cwve x(xy)=2
(i) (ii)
Example 2
We use the same method but the algebra will be more complicated as neither x nor y in (i) has 3 coefficient of I.
CItoosingyas the subject. we obtain from (i) y=1;2x
Tbeusubstituung for j jn (ii),
x(x 1;2>:) = 2 or xeH ~ +2.0) =2 which simplifies tox(5x + I) = 6 or 5x' + x 6 = O. Hence(ix+6)(xI)=Ogivingx=~ or I. From(i),whenx=~. ¥ +3y=1 so y = Ts:'
andwhenx= 1,2+3y=1 soy=J.
Hence rhe coordinaes of the rwo pctots are (~.Ts:) and (1,1).
34
Urhcbcrre<;htlichgcschlitltcsMatcriai
_r'4,1+"''''}
tn (ii)
Example 3
,)o[vell,eequarions
X +21'''' 7
Whalisrh~l!eOlllelricalmeaningof}'ouran_''''er?
From (i), choosing .r as the subject for ~jmplicity, x = 7  2.1" Then substituting for x in (ii),
~!:;~~iE::~,?~:~~:~,:~:,,",oh",oh"'"~" y
J tangent to the curve lL ,ouches the curve which IS a (32)
CIrcle at the pmnt (32) as shown In FIg22
" .
Ftg22
,'+1 r_O
I':i:T =y=o
Example 4
A_<trail!hllinelhrou/lh(O,l!meel<rhecurve.r + Y4.r.?y +4 = Oatthe,",i", (J,I!, Findlhecoordinolesojlhesecondpoinr,,'huflhislinemeeISlhrcurvr.
F;T~1 we find the equation of the straight line:
whichgives2r=3_v+30r_x=~.
Then substitute for .r in the equalionoftbe curve: (l";l'j+,v'_4(3\'2+3) 2.1'+4=0
i.e. 9," + ~H" + 9 +.i _ 6y _ 6 _ 2y + 4 '" 0,
Clearing the fraclion.
9y' + 18_y+ 9 +4_\~ 24y24 _ 8y + 16=0 and so 13_1" t4y+ J =Oor(13yl)(yl)=O.
Hcncey'" D: cry = 1 21
The corresponding vefucs of .r are then n or 3. Sothcs«ondpoil1lis(H·A)·
35
Urheberr""htlichge5chlitltesMaleriai
3yx=4xy
(i)
Example 5
Ifille line lx5y = 8 meets Ihe Cl<rve ~  ~ =4atAandB.firuilhecoordinalesaf tile midpoinl af AB.
rll'Sl remove the fractions from the equation of the curve'
Fromthelinearequalion,x:¥. SubstilUtingforxin(i).
3y¥=4y(¥)
Clearingihefraclion. wehave9yII5y=4y(8+5y):32y+20y' or 20f~28y+8"'0,
i.e. 5/+ 7y+2=0 or (5y + 2)(y + 1)=0
Hencey=! orI
Then.r e Lor I.
Thecoordinatesrf A rdB are (2, ~ )and(l,I)andihecoordilllltesofthemidpoini are therefore (12'TIi)
x+y=4
{il
Exsmple6
If Ihe sum of two numbers is 4 and tile ,<um of their sqU(Jres minus three limes Iheir product is 76,findtlle"um~rs.
Suppose the numbers are x and y
The ~um of the numbers is x + y.
The (sum of the squares)  (3 x the product) is r + 1 1ry
Theo r+I3xy=76
We solve these equenons.
From (i), x=4y
Subslilulingin{ii):
(4  yf + r  3y(4  y) = 76 which is then expanded. 168y + r+ r 12y + 3f=76
5f2Oy 60=0
HeRCer  4y 12'" 0 which gives (y  6}(y + 2) = 0 andy = 6 or2. Then from (i). the corresponding values of X are2. and 6
Therefore the two numbers are 6 and2
Aritlunetieally, there is ooIy one soiuti(Hl. Geometrically, the iinex+ y =4 meets the eurvegivenbyequ.atioo(ii)inlW()poinlS(6,2)and(2,6).
(ill
Urheberre<;htlichgeschutltesMateriol
Exercise 2.1 (Answer~ Q" page 608.)
1 Solve Ihe following pairs ofsimullanenus equations:
(a) x+Y'=S,xy=x+3 (b) xy=2 . .l(y+2)=9
(el2x+y=S,r+y2:10 (d) x2y:2.i'+xy=20
(e) b+3y=5.y(_yx)=5 (f) 3x2y=7,i'+r= iO
(g) 3xy=7..~+XYY'= I (h) x+3y= 1,x'xy+i:21
(i) 3x+4y=2,i'3i= I Ul J.r+2y'" 13,lr+r=31
(k)1}=1.~+~=~ (I) ~~=1,¥+~=3
(m) 3x2y= \1. (x I}(y+ 3) =4
2 The line y = x + 2 meet" the curve y = 4(b + I) at A and B_ Find the coordinates of the midpoint of AB
3 Shnw that the line x +}''' 6 is a tangent to the curvei' + / = 18 and find the coordinatesofthepointofcnnl3ct.
4 A line through (2,1) meet~ the curve i'  b  y" 3 at A(2,S) and at B. Find the coordinatesofB.
5 What is Ihc relationship of Ihc Iine3x2y=4tothecurvey=x~?
6 The perimeter of a rectangle is 22 em and its area is 28 cm, Find its length and breadth.
7 The line through (1,6) perpendicular to the line x+ y = 5 meets the curve y = 2x + ~ again at P. Find the coordinates ofP
8 A(3,1) lies on the curve (x  I}(y + I) = 4. A line through A perpendicular to x + 2y = 7 meets the curve again at B. Find the coordinates of B
9 The difference between two numbers is 2 and the difference of their squares is 28 Findthenumbcrs.
H} Fencing is used to make 3 sidesofa rectangle: two pieces each of length am andonc pieceoflCllgthbm.ThetOlalleogthoffeocingusedis30mandtheareaeocloscdis 100m'. What are the vetoes ofa and b?
II The une x  y= 7 meet, the curver + / x = 21 al A and B_ Find the coordinates of the midpoint of AB
12 Thelinethrough(3.8)para!1c!toy=2x3meetsthecurve(x+3)(y2)=8atA and B. Find the coordinates of the midpoint of AB
31
Urheberre<;htlichge5chlitltesMateriai
SUMMARY
To solve simultaneous equations. OIlC linear, the other of the secon d degree: (a) make one of the variables thc subject of the linear equation,
(b) SUb81itulC in the second degree equation.
(e) simplify and then solve lhcquadr.lIic equation obtained, (d) find the corresponding values of the second variable
If tWQ equal solunons urc obtained, the line is a tangent to the curve given by rheseconc dcgrcc ccuauoo.
REVISION EXERCISE 2 (Answers on page 608.)
I Solve the simultaneous equations 4x  3y = 11 and 16i'  3/ = 61.
2 The line y  2x  8;; 0 meets the curve / + 8x '" 0 at A and B. Find the coordinates
of the midpoint ofAB. (C)
3 A straight line tltrough me point (0,3) intersects the curve as +j'27x+4! "Oat (2,3). Calculate the coordinales ofthepoinl at which the tine again mee rs thc curvc.
(C)
4 Catcujarerhe coordinates of the points of intersection of the straight ! ine2r+3y=!O
and the curve ~ + ~ =5. (C)
5 Solve the simultaneous equations 2x + 3y = 6 and (2x + I)' + 6(y  2jl = 49. (C)
6·The perimeter of the shape shown in Fig.2.3 is 90 cm and the area enclosed is 300 em'. All comers are rightangled. Find the values ofx and y.
7 Tile point A(O.p) lies on the curve y '" (x  2)1. A line through A perpendicular to y=x+3mcelsthecurveagainatB. Find
(a)thevalueofp,
(b) thc coordinatcs of B.
38
Urheber=htlichgcschlitztesMa!erial
8 Twoquanlities u and v are connected by the equation u e 2v=7, A third quantity P, is given by P = u(v  3). Find the values of u and v when P "'3
9 The hypotenuse of a righIangled triangle is (2y  J) em long. The other IWO sides are xemand(y+5)em in length. lfthe perimeter of the triangle is 30 ern. find the possibJevaluesofxandy.
10 Solve the simultaneous equations 2x + 4y '" 9 and 4r + 16y' '" Z{k + 4y  19. (C)
11 Solve the simullaneous equations 3xZy= 11 andr+xy+ r= 7
12 A(3,4) and 8(7.8) an: two points. P(a,b) is equidistant from A and B such that AP:: ill.
(a) Showthala+b= II.
(bl Flnd the values ofa and b
IJ In Fig.2.4, ABE is an isosceles triangle and BCDE is a rectangle. The total length round ABCDEA is 22 em and the area enclosed is 30 em'.
Ca) Sfate the disUlnCe of A from BEin terms ct x.
(b) Fmdthepossiblevaluesofxandy.
CJ'
B E
, ,
C 6x 0
Flg.2.4
14 Solve the simultaneous equallonsx+y=6and ~ "'? + ~
15 The poinl p(a,b) lies on !he line through A(I,2) and 8(3,0) and PA:: ills. Find !he values ofa and b.
Hi A circle lias centre (4,2) and radius V5 units. p(x,y) is any point on theeircumfe",nce (a) Showthatr+y'1lt4y+15=0.
(b) Find the coordinates of the ends of the diameter which, when extended, pD~seS through the origin.
(cl Find the coordinates of the ends of {he perpendicular diameter
39
Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMaterial
Functions
3
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
A rdation links the member> of two sets together. Relations can be of many kinds. c.g. "is the father of', "is a divisor of", "is the same age as", "is the square of" etc. Fig. 3.1 illustrates the relation "is the father of" linking the set of men lAo S, C. DJ and the set of children {p.q.r.s. t.u, v). An arrow identifies the relation between a father and child The diagmm shows lhal A has two children (p and q). B has 1 child (I), C has 3 children (r, s and u) and D 1 child (v). So 2 arrows leave from A, 1 from B, 3 from C and I from D.
Fig.3_t
In OUT work the relation will usually be some mathematical operation. Fig. 3.2 shows therclation "Y'" I +X'" wherethe starting values (Ihcinputs) are chosen valucsofx. These are linked 10 the values ofy produced bylhe relation (the outputs), i.e. the set 1l,2,S,26]
Fig. 3.2
Note that only ONE arrow leaves each input, unlike the relation in Fig. 3.1. In Fig. 3.2 euchinputproduce<;uuniqueoutput. This is a speciul type ofreJution called a function, one of the most important concepts in Mathematics. The relation in Fig. 3.1 is NOT a function.
UrheberrechtlichgC5chlitztcsMa!criol
In Fig. 3.3, each member of set A is u/llar<'d to produce the set of outputs B.As each input
Fig_:J_:J
ha< a unique square, Fig. 3.3 illustrates a function L fis"square the i oput".So,ifxisthe input, the output is.r
A function is also called a mapping aod we say that x is mapped onto r by l/ie function r.we symbottze uns as
f: x !. _\~
Read this as 'f'is the function which rnaps r ontor"
f operates 00 the ioputx to producer" so we write f(x) "X'. Hence theima geof2is f(2) =2' =4. The image of3 is f(3) " (])'=9. The image of a is f(a) =a' and so on. What i. the image of 5? What is f(6), f(x) and 1{2x)'! If f(xi = 49, what is the value of x? Now louk at the relution illustrated in Fig. 3.4(a).
FIg,3.4
(.,
xl+Vx
10'
[s this a functioo? As you can see, each input has/Wooutpul,(2 arrow s from each input), So this operatioo (taking the,;qllarerool,x!. {X) is NOT a function. [I does nOI produce a unique image as x has 2 square roots +./; aod.,f~.
However, if we defined,f 10 mean the positive root only, then f{x) '" + ..fXwould be a function(Fig,3.4(b»,
Urhcbcrre<;htlichgcschlitltcsMatcriol
Summarizing,
• a function f is a process or operation which takes an input x and map.~ it omo a unique output fIx). the image of.\~
·f:x~f(x);
• 10 define f, we write. for example, f(xl = x' or f(xl = +..,[; or f(x) " sin x etc
fand x are the usual letters for the function and the input respectively, but other len en; can be used e.g. F{x),g(x) orA{r),ele.
A fUrlClion need not be defined algebraically. I! may be stated in words, such as the function 'Y is the father of x', or given in the form ofa table such as a table of sines.
f(x)::x'x+ I
Example 7
Afunctjonfugi~enbyf x,__ rx+/,Find
(a) f(2), (b) f(3), (e) Ihe imllge a/2, (d).f(r), (e) f( j}.
(a) f(2)=2'2+ I ,,3
(b) f(3) = (3)'(3)+ I" 13
(c) The image of 2 is f(2l:: (_2)1_ (2l + I = 7. (d) f(r)=i'r+ I
(e) f(~)=(~)'(~)+l= x'!,+4
Example 2 Thefunctianhisgivenbyh(x)=~,x"l (a}h(2),(b)hr}),(c)h(x+l)
(a) h(l) = ;~: :: 3
(b) h(~):: I:: =3
(c) h(x+ 1)= ~:\~: = x;2 ,x;tO
NOle: A funcnon may not produce an image for certain values of the input. In this example, x'" I. Ifx= I. h(l)= t=t which is impossible as division by zero is undefined. Hence 1 has no image under this function.
Urheber=hllichQcschlilztcsMa!erial
Hencex=30rx=2.
Example 3
F(x) '" r + .r l.l/F(xj = 5,filld the values of x.
F(xl = 5 is the equation r + x I = 5 i.e. r + x  6 = ° which we can solve for the vafues of x.
r+x6=O
(x+3l(x2)=0
These are the two values of r which have an imageofS. Check byfinding F(3land F(2).
DOMAIN AND RANGE
There are special names for the sets of inputs and OUlpUIS. The set of inputs is called the domain and Ihe set of outputs Ihe range.
Fig. 3.5 shows the domain and range for the function f(xl = (I x)'. The domain is the set (1,0,2,4) and the range is the set (1.4.9)
Fig.3.S
The domain can be any set of numbers which have images. It could be just a few selectednumber.;orallposilivenumbersorallrcalnumber.;,etc.lfitisnot~pecifiedit is taken to be all real numbers. However, as we saw in Example 2, some numbers may have no image and these must be stated. They are excluded from the domain.
Example 4
State the domain/or thefunctioll f(x) = ~.
Every real number will have an image under this function except x = O. So the domain will be (all real values ofx,x >' 0).
This is often briefly stated as f{xl = ~,.x ~ O.
Urhcbcr=htlichQcschlitztcsMa!crial
Example 5
Sture the domain for ((x) '" Yx(posiliverool).
Every positive number and 0 will have a square root but negative numbers wilJ not. These must be excluded. Some domain is {all positive numbers and OJ or juqr 2:0
Example 6
Whal.alu.esofx mw;1 be excluded from Ihe domain oflhefunction
fix) = "'::~2 ?
This function will always produce an image except when xl + x  2 '" 0 or (.I"+2)(xI)=Oi.e. whenx=2orx= I
These values must be excluded from the domain.
Hence lhedomain is laH real valuesofx,x .. 2 or I)
Exercise 3.1 (Answers an page 608.)
1 Foreachoflliefollowingfunclions.findlheim"ge.of3. 1.0. I. 2.4'
(a) f(x)",,t>x5 (b) g(x)=(x+l)'
(c) h(x)=~ (d) F(x)=(x+ l){x2)
2 What value of x must be excluded from the domain of the function in Question 1 part (c)?
3 State the values ofx whicll mUSI be excluded from the domains of the following
functions: (a)f(x)=~
(c) h(x) = r'_~_2
4fislhefullClion'squan:xandadd2' (a) Write fin me form r(x) =
(b) Findf(l),f(I),f(O)
(cl Iff(x)=27, find the values or r.
5 FislhefunctiOll·,.,jd2Iox3l1dtllensquan:· (a) Write F in the fonn F(x) '"
(b) Find stu F(I). F(O).
(e) IfF(x)= 25,findthc velues ot x.
(d) Is'"this the same functionasfinQuestion4?
(b) g(x) = {x_21 (d) F(x)=3~
6 If f(x) '" 3x + 2, what i. thc value of.r which is mapped OntO 81
7 A function such asf(x)=5 is a cml5lanl function. State the values off(O),f(I) and reS)
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Urheberre<;htlichgeschutltesMaterial
8lliefunelionE,whereE(x)=2"isanexponenlialfunelion. (a) Find the values of E(1),E(2) and E(5)
(b) IfE(x) = 16,stale the value ofx.
9f(x)=~
(a) Whal valueofx must be excluded from the domain of this function? (b) Find the positive value of x for which f(x) "x.
10 If f{x) = ~:~ , find me values of x for which f(.l:) = 2x to 2 decimal places. 11 Given that g(x) = x'  4.x  6 solve the equation g{x) =.x
12 Given that f{.x) =r4x+ 1 solve the equations
(a) f{x)=x3. (b) f(b) = 13.
13 For the linear functirnl fix) = ax + b, where <I and b are constants, f(2) = 7 and f(2) =1. Find the values of e andb
14 f(x) = ax' +bx+c, where <I, band c are constants. Iff(O) = 7, what is the value of c?
Givenalsolhatf(1J=6andf(1)= 12. find the value ofa and ofu
IS For the function f(x)={lr+qx t r. where{l.q and r are constants, f(0)=4, f(I) =
8 andf(2J = 18. Findlhcvalucsofp,qandr
16 F(x) =x'2x. What values ofx have an image of l5?
17 The function h is given by h(r) = 7/ 21'. Find the values of I whose image is 5. 18f(xJ=~
(a) Find f(2) and f(t). (b) Findxiff(x) =0.
(e) What values of x must be excluded from the domain'?
III The number of diagonals in a polygon with" sides is given by the function D(,,) ~
 , .
{al State the domain of this function.
(b) Findihenumberofdiagonal~in polygons wirh 4,5 aod 10 sides. (cl If D("l = 20, find the value of ".
ZO The domain for the function fix) = Zx2 I I is (2, I, 0. I. 2\ Find the range.
21 The domain of the function f(x) = Z::tt is(0,2,41.
Find the range of the function.
22 If therange for the function g(x) = x'  2 is (2, 1, 71. find the domain 23 The range of (he function f(x) =< I  ~ is (I. 2, 4\. Find the domain
24 SisihefuoctionS:x tsinx",OSx:S;180
(a) Rnd(corroctto2decimalplaces)S{30),S(50),S{120). (b) IfS{x") = 1. what is the value of x?
(c) Stale the renge ot S.
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Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltcsMateriai
2S Functions fandg are given asf(x):rxandg(x): 2x3. (a) Find f(O),f(I),g(O) and g(I).
(b) Uf(x)+g(x)=3,findx.
(c) If f(P) + g(p) = l,findp.
(d) If f{z)= g(z)+ Lfmd z.
26 Giventhatf(x)",x'3x+6andthatg(xj=x+6,solvetheequations
(a) [(x)=2g(x). (b) f(x)=g(2.t), (e) f(h)=g{x)3.
27 Iff(x) = .... ~:~ I ,find the value of k (other than k = I) such that f(k) = fO).
28 Given the function f(x) " r  3x  2, express f(la)  feu) in its simplest fonn in tenns of a,
29 f:x c rx+3
Find f{pl. f(2p) and f{P  I) in their simplest fonns.
30 Iff(x)=3x+ l,findf(a),f(b)andf(a+b).
Isf(a+b)=f(u)+ f(b)?
31 If f(x) "r + x  3. find f(x + h) where h is a constant.
Hence express I!x + h~  fb) in its simplest fonn.
32 if fex) "f(x), f is called an even rurcuon, but if fex) ,,f(x), f is called an odd function. Which of the following functions are even, which are odd and which are neither?
(a) 2.< (b)3i' (c) x'
(d) I x (e) ~ (x;f. 0) (0 x  ~ (x .. 0)
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS
A simple way ofillustrating a function graphically is to use two parallel number lines. one for values of the domain. the other for the range. Fig. 3.6 shows the function fIx) =x 2,x" I, 0, l , 2, 3, 4. An arrowed line joins .r in the domain to f(x) in the range.
Fig. 3.6
.r.> >
:!,,'<~'~r'~~rangel(.o)
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UrhcbcrrcchtlichgcschlitztcsMa!crial
Fig. 3.7
Example 7
lIIuslrotefhejunctiofl [(x)=x2x +2on (wo "umber/inelforrhedol1Ulifl (2.1,0.1.2.3)
Verify that the r4_oge is {2,4,8]. Fig. 3.7 shows the result.
1bis method is only sunable if the domain consists of a few values. If the domain was all real numbers for example, it would be impossible 10 show all the arrowed lines. Furtbermore,lhe panern of tne arrowed lines gives 00 idea oflhe type of function.
A tar better method is to Ulie a Cartesian graph, with which you are already familiar. Here we use two perpendicular lines. the .raxis and the yaxis (Fig. 3.8). Values of the domain are placed on the xaxis and the Tange on the yaxis_ Then x and it, image fIx) give the coordinates (x,y)ofa point. If sufficient points are plotted and joined up. we have the graph of the runcnonv e f(x) is me Cartesian equation of the curve
Fig.3.B
Usinglhis method of rcprcscnling a funcncn. we find thai the graphs of various kinds offunctions have characteristic shapes. Hence functions can be recognized from their graphs.
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Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMateriol
Common Functions And Their Graphs
Fig. 3.9 shows the graphs of some common functions.
*' v,
0. ifC"",
(a) Linear furrc~on functions
" J..:... J~, ~""~
Fig. 3.9
(a) is a linear function ~uch asy:3x+4
(b) shows two quadratic functions such as y = r  x + 4 (upper graph) and y:2xx'.
(c) is an erpeeential function such as 2'.
(d) is the graph ofy: sinx(see Chapler7).
Example 8
Whieh of /he I;raphs '" Fig. 3./0 'I /Ire graph of a fUlie/ion?
.$' ~"
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Urhcbc"e<;htlichgcschlitltcsMatcriai
FIi).3.10
i"
Fora function, each valueofxin the domain must give just one andonlyo ne,alueof y.lfthere is more than one value ofy for the same value of .rin the domain, the grnph does not repn"scnt a function
(a) is nOi the graph or a functioo, as there are 2 valuesofy tor each valueofx. (b) is the graph ofa function.
(el isthegraphofacon~tantfunclion)'=3.Thedomainistheselofallrealnumbers but the ronge i~ ju~t 3.
(d) is the graph ofa function providedx=O is excluded from the domain.
(e) isthegraphofafunctionforlhedomainlJ,2,I,O,1,2J.Tltegruphconsistsonly of the points marked. and these must not be joined up. The range is (2,1.0,1).
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Urhcbcrre<;htlichgcschlitltcsMaterial
GRAPHS OF TRANSFORMED FUNCTIONS
Example 9
yI(.<)
Fig. 3.11 shom' pari oj the graph of a fimctirm y '" f(x). Skelch IIII' corre.<pmulillg fHU/$ oflhefonclions (a) 1/ = f(xl. (b) 11 = ((xl, (e) YJ = 2 + fIx). (d) Y. = 3  f(xl. (ejy, = f(x+ 1), (j)y, = ((x2).
(a) For each value of x, y, =y.So the graph ofofy, is the reflection ofy= f(x)in the .rexis (Fig. 3.12(a))
Points where y = f(x) meets the xaxis are unchanged.
FItJ·3.ff
Fig.3.12(a)
yI(.<)
Y, ~r(x)
Urheber=hllichgcschutztcsMa!erial
(b) Whenx= <l,Y= f(<l) andy, = r(<l).
Nowf(<l) is the value Dry when x <;<l. Ferexample whenx= 2, the value ofy, is the same as the value of y when x = 2.
So the graph ofy is reflected in the jaxis 10 produce lhegraph ofy, (Fig. 3 .12(b)).
Points where y = (x) meets the yaxis will be unchanged. 
/Y>~2+t(.oj /
/ rt(.oj
Flg.3.12(b)
(c) Here2isaddedtoeachvalueofy.
So the original graph is shifted upwardsthrough2l1l1its(Fig. 3.12(c)).
,J
i
/ \.
Fig. 3. 12(c}
"
Urhei>crre<;htlichgcschutztes Mal",i~1
(d) Y,= 3f( ... )=3 +(y)=3+y,.
So the graph ofy, is shifted upwards through 3 units ic obtain the graph ofy, (Fig.3.12(d)).
y.f(K)
(t) Suppose x = I. Then y, = f(1 + I) = f(2), which is the value of y when ... = 2.
Again when x = 3, y, = f(3 + I) = f(4). which is the value of y when _r '" 4
All the values ofy have been shifted I unit to the leftwoblainy, (Fig. 3.12(e».
I.
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Urhei>err""htlichgeschutltasMalCti.II
(0 You will be able 10 work outrhary, is the original curve shifted 2 units 10 the right (Fig. 3_12(t)
Fig,J,12(f)
II would be useful 10 summarinsucb transfonnations orme graph ofa function y=f(x).
• y = ~f(x) is the retlecuon in the .raxis.
• y = f(~x) is the reflection in the yaxis
• }' '" a + rex) ,hift~ the graph tbrough a units upwards if a is positive, 3IJd dnwnwardsif uis negatlre.
• v= f(x+a)shiftstbegraph Ihrough a units to the len if a is pusitive. bUI to the rigbt if a is negatlve
Exercise 3.2 (Answers 011 page 609.)
I Wbicb OfU1C following are graphs of functions?
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Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMateriai
2 Each of the diagrams in Fig. 3.14 showspart of the graph of afunction f(x). Copy each
diagram iU!d sketch the corresponding pans of 
(i) ,,=f(x) (ii) y,=f(xI)
(iji)y,"'f(x+ I) (iv)y,= 1 +f(x+ 1)
F"1g.3_14 (e)
3 On another copy of the diagram~
in Fig. 3.14. sketch the corresponding parts of
(i) ys=f(x2)
(ii) Y6=2f(x2) (iii)Y,=f(lx)
4 Fig. 3.15 shows part of rbe graph of y=f(.t)withthreegraphsdenved from it Stale Y" Y, and y, in terms of (x).
Rg_J,15
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Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMateriai
5 Thedomainofafunctionf(x)islto4inclusive. What would be thecnrrespnnding domain for the following?
(a) Y, =f(x) (b) y,=f(x2)
(c) y)",f(x+ I)
fi The range of the Iunction y e Itr) isOIO 5 inclusive. What is the corresponding ran ge for the following?
(a) y, "'f(x) (b) Y,= I +f(x)
(c} y)=f(x3) (d) y,=f(x)3
THE MODULUS OF A FUNCTION
If y =x, the values of y arc negative when .r is negative. They can be convened to positive values by using the modulus y '" Ixl. read as ) = mod x'. Ixl gives the numerical or absolute value ofx. For example 13.51 = 3.5. II does not allerO or any positive number: 101 =0, 121 =2etc.lxl ts never negaiive.
So we define the modulus ofx as
Similarly the modulus ofa function f(x) wrinen I f{x) I is the numerical valueoff(x)
Example 10
Siale Ihe values of II x Ifor x = _3. 2. <I Whenx=3, IIx I'" II +31 =4. Whenx=2,IIxl=II21=1. Whenx=4, IIxl = 1141 =3.
I f(x) I 4
Example 11
fix) = r x  6. Find Ihe values of /f(x) [for x = _I. 0, 2, 4
f(x) 4
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Urhcbcr=htlichQcschlitztcsMa!crial
ExBmple 12
WhaliJlh('/('o"'I'olu('()/x.//2x J/"'2xJ? 12x3Iwillbcequalto2x3if2x3isOorgreaterthanO. Hence theleast vajue ofxwill be when 2xJ =0, i.e. when x = IJ.
Example 13
Draw/he graph l1/y '" /xI//orlh(, uOI1l4in 2 ~x,.:;3and sI<JIe 1M rangl'o/y. 2 Sx S 3 means that x can lake any value between 2 and 3 (inclusive)
We make atablc for the integer values of x;
2 I
3 2 I
Ploningthepoim'givenbyxandy,theg£3phisseenloconsistofthelwnline,AB and AC (Fig. 3.16). The range is 0 s Y s 3
FI{J.3.15
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Urheberre<;htlichge5chlitltesMateriol
However, if we extend BA to D (,hown dotled) where D is (2, 3) we sec that the part AC is the reflection of AD in the .raxis. So a quicker method of drawing the graph is tn draw y I for the given domain first and then reflect any negative part in tile
To draw a graph of the type}' = I f(x) 1. draw}' = f(x} first and then reflect any ncganvc pert in therexis.
Example 14
Draw the graph of}' = f 2  .r I for Ihe domain / 5"; x 5"; 3 and state the range of y. Draw the line}, = 2  x first (Fig. 3.17). (The negative pan is dotted).
Fig. 3.17
Then reflect the negative pan in the .raxis. 11legraphconsists··oftwoJinc~meetingonthexaxiswhcrex=2. The range is o 5"; y:'; 3
MODULAR INEQUALITIES
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Urheberrechtlichge5chlit;:tesMa!eriol
On a number line we have
x must he on thc thick lined parts. o means tbis valueis excluded.
So It l.t I >kthen.t<kor.t>k.
Ne:\t suppose I x I < 3. Then x < 3 or x < 3 i.e. x > 3. Hence .r lies between 3 and 3 (notinc1usive)andwew:rite3<x<3.
So If Ix I <ktbenk<.t<k.
These rules apply al~o to linear and quadratic functions.
Example 15
Find and show 011 a number bile. the range of values of x if (aj I_y + I I> 4, (b) 112x 15:5.
(a) From the above, if 1 x + I I > 4 then x + 1 < 4 or x + 1 > 4. Hence x<50rx>3
(b) If I 12.> I $5 then 5 s I  2y 5: 5. Taking each part, 5 5: 1  2.> gives ~ $2.> or 3 ~ x i.e. x $ 3; I  2t s; 5 gives 2.> $ 4 i.e. x 2: 2.
In this case the. means the value is included (due to the 5: sign)
Exercise 3.3 (An.<wers on page 610.)
1 State the values of
(a) I~I (b) I~I
(el I Crn; ]2()" I (d) 13~ _ 61 I
2 By testing withx=3,O,2 verify thallIx I = Ix II. 3 Whal i~ the least value of x for which 12.>  I I = 2x  I?
4 For what domain willtbe graph of y e 13x I be the same a!; the graph ofy=x3? S Find and show on a number line the range of val uesofx which satisfy the in equalities:
(a) 12.>31>5 (b)1~1$4
(e) 1¥1~2 (d) 1111<3
ss
Urhcberre<;hllichgC5chlitltcsMateriol
6 For tile domain3:ix::;4,draw tile graphs of
(a) Y'" I x I (b) v = I x+ 1 I
{dl r = 12xl I (el v= 13x 1
(el y=I x21
7 State lhe range for each orme functions in Question 6
8 Using the graph you have drawn for part (a) in Question 6, add Ihe graph of y = I .r I 9 On the same piece of graph paper.craw tile graphs of y e 13x I andy= Ix 31 for
the domain 2::; x::; 3, Hence solve the equation 13x I '" I x  31
10 By drawing twograplls, solve tile equalioll Ixl I = Ilx51, (Take O:ix:i 7 as domain).
11 The range of the functiony = I x  I I is 0 Sy S 3, Find a possible domain, What is the widest possible domain?
12 The domain of !he function y = 12x  31 ends where x., 2, If the upper limit of the range is 7, what is the Least value of the domain'!
13 Draw the graph of)' = I .r  I I for the domain 1 :i x:i 2. NoW add the graph of ),=2lx11 for!hesamcdomain.S!3te!hcmngcof!hisfunclion
THE INVERSE OF A FUNCTION
Fig. 3.18 shows the mapping of the domain (3,0. 1,2J by the function f; x f. 3x 2. Verify that the range is (I L. 2, I, 4J.
, ' v a
, ,
Domain~Range
Fig.3_!8
Is there a function ihat will map the range back 10 the domain?
The function fin Fig.3.18 mapped x orne y where)'= 3x 2. Now we wish to sian with yandretumtox.lf1x2=y,lheu_,'= L:j1
Sothis new function will mapyomo L:j1.
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Urhcbcrre<;htlichgc5chlitltcsMatcriai
Testingthiswitlly=II,weget¥=3whicllistlleoriginalvalueofx. Check the other values.
Such a function, if 'I exists. is called the inverse function of f and is wnuen es r' (Read mts as 'inverse f".) It is usual to take x as the 'starung Ietrer so we have f':x~~.
Summarizing,
function f:x '___. 3x 2 and inverse f"':x ~ !..j1. Itthenfo!lowsthaltheinverf;coff'isf.
Example 16 l
",d""'"""I""''''''''" ~ Y fmaps x onto ywhere y= y.
Make r the subject of uus equation
y = j so r 3_2yandx=2y+3
Hencc ftiyrL; .. 2y+3.
Changing 10 the usualleuer .r r' .r r 2x + 3
Suppose 4 was a value in the original domain. Then f wi1l map this onto 3l. f' will now map this value onto 2(31) + 3 =4, which is the original value. Repeat this check wuh orher values ot r. say o,t .. ndS
Example 17
Given /hr [uncuon f: X t ~ (x", 3). where p is a cons/ani. (a) find Ihe value ofp i[f(5) = H.
(h) findfI in a slmdar form.
(c) slale the val~e of xfol" which r" is undefined
(a) f(5) = ~~ ~ = 1+
Then5+p=3andp=2
(b) From (a). fIx) = ;= ~ i.e. y = ;=~ oryx3y=x2.and.r(yl)=3y2. Hencex,",S·
Therefore f"':x'_______" J:_12.
(e) r' is undefined for .r = I. (This means Ihat there is no value ofx in the original domain which had an image of I. So I doesnotexi..tintherangeandlherefore cannor be used).
Urhcbcrre<;htlichgcschutltcsMatcriol
Example'S ~
Find the inverse oj i : x r 3x.
f rnaps x oneo y wbere y e Lcx
So .r ~ 3  Y .and Ih. e inverse function will be. r ' '.'~ 1''. 3  x, which is the same function as f.
Check Ihis by takingx= 3,1 and 5. Suchafuncunnflscallcdselfinverse,i.e.ltis us own inverse.
Functions With No Inverse
Some functions do not have an inverse. Take the function f: .r 1 __ r (Fig. 3.19).
Fig:3_19
Two arrows arrive at I in the range. An inverse would have two paths 10 return from I 10 the domain and so could oot be a fuoction. Thereisnoin~crsefunction.
An inverse function can only exist if the original function is a oneto one function (Fig. 3.20{a», i.e. there is only one arrow reaching each member orme rdoge. There will be no inverse if the function is a menytoone nmcuon (Fig. J.20(b)),i.e . more than one arrow reaches some members of the domain
many·toon.>
"'00"'00
• X • X
• X • X
• X • X
Fig. 3.20
The inverse function r' exists only iffis onetoone.
Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMateriol
Graphical Illustration of an Inverse Function
Verify Iltal lhe inverse off:x 1_ h3isf':x ~ _';3. Now draw the lines
}'=2x3 }'"x;3
on graph paper (Fig. 3.21). Add the line}' =~ (shuwn dotted).
(i) (ii)
Fig. 321
How do the twolines (i) and (ii) appear in relation tome liney=.t?
Consider Ihe polol where x '" 4 (point A) on (i). The image of 4 from f is 5, so Ihe coordinalesofA arc (4,5).
Now if we take r e 5, hs image in r' will be 4. This gives point A'(5,4) which lies 011 line (ii).
The gradient of AA' is I so AA' is perpendicular to me hne y = .r and the midpoint of AA' (41,4!) lies on the line y "x. Hence A and A' are reflections of each otherin the liney ,,~.
We can repeal this for any other point. The coordinates will be inrercbanged by the inverse function, so lite IWO points are renecnons ot eacn other. Hencc lines (i) a od(il) are renecliuns "feach other in the line y =x. You can also lest this by folding ihe graph paperalonglheliney=x
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Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMateriai
Exercise 3.4 (Answers on page 611.)
I Find the inverses of the following functions in the same form:
(al f: .• c .r (D) f:x f~ .l + 2
(el f:.r c lxI (d) g:x,__. 3.\"+4
(e) r:.t'T (f) r:x ,~9x
(g) f:x c 2(5 (h) f:x __ .82x
Ii) f:x c jI (j) h: .• .._~ (.1" .. 0)
(t) f:x c xh (x u (I) F: ... _~ +2{ ..... 0)
(m)f:x'__ ~~~ tx 2) (n) h:.\·"_ Z::31 (x>'3)
2 Which of the functions in Question I are selflnvcrxc?
3 Given ['"I : x ,__ 2r _ 3, find r in Ihe 'UIllC Conn. 4Iff·':x,_x;J.findfinlhcsamefonn
5 f: X ,__ U  .r. where 1/ is a constant. is a .<;clf·jnvcn;e funclion. Given that
r'(4) = 3. find the value ofu.
6Givenlhefunetionh:.r_.:=~·(.r"4).findlhcvalueofh'(3) 7 Givenlhefunctiong:.[I_ :::~(x .. 2),findg·'(I).
8 Given lhe funclion f:.l r_.:~~(.l"l) and thai f(2) " 5. find (a) the value of d. (b) t'.
What can be said about this function?
9 f:.r'__ ;:: . where rand s are constants and fC41=6.f(lj=l Find (a) the values ofr and s.
(b) Ihe value ofx for which Lis undefined. (e) r' in the same fonn,
(d) lhc value of.r for which 1'"' is undefined.
JO Fig. 3.22 shows part of the graph ot a functicn y e fl.r). Copy the diagram andskeich the graph or t'.
Fig. 3.22
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U,hel>erre<;htliGhgeschu\llesMalerial
11 On graph paper. dmw thc graph or f:x ~3.r.Conslrucllherenectionoflhis graph in y er. Explain your rcsuu.
12 (a) FindthciJ\vcr.;coff:xl..1''21,".
(b) On graph peper.oraw rhe graph or j» 621<.
{el ConS{rUCllhereflec{ionofthegraph in part (b) ioy= .•. Show {hal {his is {he grapn of I".
13 The function f is defined a, r • X ..... { ~:;' ;~~;\~ <°0 Skctch tbc gruphs of f and f'
14 Copy Fig. 3.23 and sketch the inverse oflhc functiony= f(x).
F/g.323
15 (8) Iff(t) = 3 ~, solve the equu{ion f(x) (b) Draw (he graph off(.r) for'~ :5.r:5 2.
(e) Add a sketch of the graph ofC'(x) forI :5xS2.
Composite Functions
Consider the function f: x ~ 2t _ 3 (Fig. 3.24). 4 is mapped onto 5
PrA
~)
F!g.3.24
Urhcberrechlli<:hgcSohu(z{osMa\crio'
Let g be anorher functicn such thar g c r >.x+ I.
We now usc g on f(4)toobtaing[f(411=6. 50 4 has been mapped nnlo6by ffollowcd by s (Fig. 3.25).
PtrTf\ ~
~
Fig. 3.25
Can wefinda~ingJefunctionhwhichcombjnes fandg? xismappedorltu2x3by fand this is me starnng value forg. Sogmaps2x 3 onlo(2:0:3) + J = 2x2. Hence h t r .. 2x2. If x=4. the final result is 6 as we have seen. h is called the composite (or combint"d) function g[f(x») which we write
brief1Y'::~d]Lfir>'
NOlCcarefullythat theJir_flfunction is wmten on therighl.
Nuwsuppusewedog firsl, followed by f. i.e.fg.
x ,_____!L..x+ I rL. 2(.. + 1)3 = 2~ I
L_ ~______j
Th~ result is different. rg is not the same rUrlction a., gr. We say the combination of functions is not commutative, i.~. th~ order in which they are done is imponant and cannot (in general) be interchanged. However for some values of .e. fg may be equal to gf.
NB: Take care! fg does NOT mean f x g when dealing with functions.
Example 19
Iff:x r ~x3.find(a) r' and(b) r'r.
(a) y=2x3sox=y Therefore r' : x .. qJ
(b) ['[mean, that we do r nrsi. r' second.
x rL 2x3,~ Zzt+3 =x 50f'f:x,_x
i.e. ('f(x)=x
Verify ihat ff' gives the same result.
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Urheberre<;htlichgcschutltcsMaterial
Part (b) above is an example of an important result
Thisfollowsfrornthedefinilionoftheinve[sefuIIClion.fmapsxontotherangegiving f(.~). t' operates on f(.~) to return II) the original elemeru.e. 50 r'f(x) == x. Similarly. if we stan from themnge,ff'(x) ==x
The combined funcliongfisi'l. NOlethatfg"gf.
Example 20
Iff. x,...i' andg:x rxl.{ind ir. a similar form, (a) fgarrd(b} gf. (aj Tgis g flrsr.f second.
x ,........g....xl rL(xl)'
50 the combined function fg is fg : X ... (x  I)'. (b)gfisffirst.gsecond.
x~rls.._rl
503xyy=2
Example 21
FunClionsfandgarede[inedi1$
f:x,... xh andg:x,......._._lx2.
Find (aj fg. (b}gf. (c) (fg)"""l. (d) (gf)"""' (e) Forwhmvulla(slofxilgf=fg?
(a) x~3x214", (3%_22) ... ] = 1<:'1 Henccfg:x.... L~,x .. j.
(bl:c........L. :th,.......A... 3("i"hl2 = 6:;,:r12 = ~~~
Hencegf:x... ~~~ ,x .. 1.
(c) (fgt' is the inverse of the combined function fg Now fg rnaps x omo j = 3.<:'1 from (a).
Le. 3xy==y+2givingx== 1..jf Hence(fgt'::c~ x;.2.x .. O.
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Urheberre<;htlichge5chlitltesMaleriol
(d) (gf)" is the inverse ofgf.
Verify thai en' : x,___ ::~, .r .. 2.
(e) If gf e fg.fhen ~~~" :t<~"x"l,t.
So 2x + 2 = (]x 1)(4  h)" fu" + 14x  4 or ful lh + 6 = O. Then r  2x + I ,,0 or (x  l)(x  I)" 0 giving X" l.
This is the only value ofx for which gf= fg.
Example 22
Using the jimelions f and g in Example 21, find r' and g'. Shaw /h", (fgt' " g'fL Suggesl and les/ a similar result Jar (gl)'
Verifithntt':x~_ ~andg':x~_ ~
From (c) in Example 21, (fg)':x ,____. LJ;l.
g""'t'isgivenbYX~~r£'_~+2=~ Hencc ttgj' =g't'.
So the inverse offg is the inverse of ffollowed by the inverse ofg. Thissugge~tsthal (gl)' :1'""'g'. Shew that this Is correct using (gl)' from Example2l.
The results of Example 22 are true in general
Example 23
Givenrlla/f:x r xh (x .. _2)./inJillo.,imi/or/orm(a)F,(b)f',(c)f'and deduce an expression for P
(a) Fmcan.ff, i.e. fdonc Iwicc in,ucc,,<,ion
(b) f'meansF followed by f.
(e) f4(X) = f[f'(xl] " ,;;: 2 " lS .. x+ 16' x" 2.  ~. f·*
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Studying the pauern.ue numerator is always .r. The denominators are 3x + 4, 7x + 8, 15x+ 16 solhe next denominator will be3lx+ 32.
['isx ~ 3bx+32.X~2,~,~.~,#
Example 24
iff: .r r ax +b (a > 0) and F:x ,____ 9x8.find (a! Ihe value5Qfa and h. (b) f',{c) r.
(d)Dedllcef'
(a) We first find Fintermsofaandb.
x ~ ax+b rL a(ax+b) +b=a'x+ab+b BllItbisis9.rH. Hencea'=9whichgivesa=3(sincea>Ojandba+b=8sob=2
(h) f'(x)=l1f(x)]=3(9xII)2:27x26 (e) f'(x) = F{f'(x)j = 9(9x  8)  8 = 81x 80 ,(d) ThepaUtm in Ibese results is'
f': 9x8 =3'.>:(3' J) r. 27x26=3'.>:(]31) r: 81.>:_80=3'x_(34_1)
so we can deduce that'r'= 3'.>:(3'1) = 243x242.
[ Example 25
I Given f:x ;_ ... 2.r_5./indaful1cliongsuclililOl fg:x ;.6xJ. I Clearly g must be a linear function as no squares appear in fg ·Takega~xl_ax+b.
Then fg.r r .. 2(ax+b)5=2ax+2h5. But this must be idemicalto Sr e L
Then 2a=ti,givinga=3 and2b S=l.givingb=2. Hence g :.r ,____ 3x + 2.
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EXBmple26
Expre.<,<in lerm.<o/Ihe/unclions f:x r __ X + 3 ami g:x r x', (a/x'+3.(b)x'+ 6x+ 9,(c)x+ 6. (d) x' +6x+ 12. (e)x'6x + 9 (a) This is rs.
(b) Nore [ha[x'+6x+9= (x +3)'. fgives IX+ 3). g gives the ~uare. Sothisisgf. (c) Herc g Is not involved as there is no square. Try ff.
(d) Note that xl + Ox + 12 '" (x + 3)1 + 3, We gel (x + 3jl from gf.
If we now use I, we obtain the result. The answer is therefore Igf (first f. then g and lastly I again).
(elx'6x+9=(x31'_Nowfdocsnotproduee(x 3)butf":x,x3, Hence the answerts gf'"
Exercise 3.5 (Answers on page 613./
t Using ihe functions frr rx+2andg:x rx3,findinthcs3ftlcform (aj tg, (b) gf, (c) ff (d) gg.
1 Sex r sinx"andT:x r 2xarctwofunctions.
Find (a) ST(W), (b) TS(20).
3 Taking f: x I> x + 2 and g: x I> 3x  I, find (a) fg, (h) gf (e) r'. (d)s",(e)r'·(f}S·'f.
4 If[:x rX+ I, find (a) f',(b) r and deduce (e) r. (d) i" (c) f"
5 Taking the function r as fox r ;:~ ,xc#2, find (a) [',(b} r. Ic) (f't'.ln each case, state the values of x which must be e~cluded from the domain
6lff:x 1>x'2andg:x I_X+ 3, find (a) fg. (b) gf For what value ofx is fg"'gf?
7 Given [hat g: x ..__ X + 2 and h : x ,. x'  3, find thc value of x for which gh e hg.
8 Forthefunctionsf:xl>x4nndg:xl.3x2,findsimilarly(a)fl• (b)g'.(e)fg',(d)(fg)'.
I) Functionsfandgarcdefincdbyx ..__2x+landx..__ l3xrespeetively.
For wbat value ofr Is fg' =f'g?
IOPunclionsfandgaredefineda~r:x~¥andg:xr+~(x"'O) respeclively.Findsimilarly(a)fg, (blg1f.(c)r'g'lneachca!;C,statcthevn[uc,of x which must be excluded from [he domain. (d) For what values of x i~ g'f = f'gI?
II Thefunctionsfandgarcdefinedasf:x 1>3x+2andg:x"__ ~ (.t",O).
Find similare~pression. for (a) Ig, (b) gf,{e) r'g, (d) gf'.In each case, state the values ofx which must be excluded from the domain.
Find the value(s) ofx for which (e) fg = gf,(f} f'g =gf·',
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Urheberre<;htlichge5chlitltesMaterial
12 Give" f:x,____ 1~. x~O. all(! g:x r ~,.I" ~1, Iind fg(x) and gf(x). Hence state the i"~ersesoffand g.
IJ fis the function that maps x onto ~~: (x~ I), (a) Show that fls selfmverse
(b) Find r
(c) Showthatf'=f.
14 r: X r ax + b (a, h coesrants) and g: X ..__ 2x + 3 are two functions. (a) Iffg = gf. find a relation between a and b.
(b) Given lhatf'(7)=1, find the valuesnfaandb.
15 If f meps x onto 5  ~ and g maps x onto 2r + I, show that fg and gf are both selfmverse.
16 f:x t. ~~~ ,x#1
(a) Fill(! r. Siale the value of x which must be excluded from the domain. (b) Iff'(x) =1. fir>d the vetce cr x.
17 Iff(x) = :: i ,x ~2, find f' and r. In each case. stale the values or x which must
be excluded from lhedomain. Solve the equation r(x) = I
18 f:.x r1x+l,Findafunct;ongsothatgf:~' r3x+l. 19 Iff:x r 2r+ 3, find a function gso thatfg:x ..__ lxI.
20 fupressthefol1nwingintennsofthefuncliOllsg:x , x+2andh:x I lx.
(a) .x r3x+2 (b) .r r3x+6
(c) .x rx+4 (el .x r 9x (g) x rx2
(d)x.3x+12 (f) .<1·_9x+2 (h) x r3x6
21 Given f:x "__.x+ 3 and g:.x "__X'l, state the fcljowing In terms off ... ,. (a) x rX'+2 (c) .x..__x+6 (e').l:rX'fu:+8
(b) .r rX'+fu"+8 «(j) x "__x'+12K+35 (f) x f .. x'4
22 Given L: X r {); (positive root) and g: x r.x + 2, express the following in tetm$ off and g:
(a)x"__~ (b)xr.Jx+2
(c) .r r x + 4 (d) .r r ,J;+4
(e) x r~ If) X rx'+4x,+4
(g) x rX'4x+4 (h) x f •. r+8.x+ 16
23 Iff:x _.x3,whatisthcfuncliongwhichmakesgf:x ~X'6.t+ 101 24 ;~~"__2+ ~.x~ Land grr rx+4. Find the inverse offg in a similar
25 fisgivenbyf:x'_'_ ~(x*3). Find (a) f', (b) r.(c) r. Deduce I',
In each case, SUlle too values of .r rhar must be excluded fiom the domain.
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SUMMARY
• A function f maps an input x (domain) onto a unique image y (range) f:xt.y=f(x)
• y= f(x) is the equation of the graph of the function },=f(x) is the rcflection ofy = f(x) in [hexaxis. y=f(x)istherel1ectionofy=f(x}intheyaxis.
y=<I + f(x) shifts the graph upwards through II units if a >0, and downwards if c c D.
y = f(x + a) ,hifls the gr~ph through a units to the left if a;;> 0, and to the riglttifo<O
• Modulus of .r : Ixl e r for r z U. =xforx<O
• If I x I >k.thcnx<korx>k: if I x I <k,thenk<x<k
To draw the grJph ofy= I f(x) I, first draw the graph ofy = [(x) and then reflect any negative pan in the .raxis .
• lffisoneloollc,lhcinvcrscfunc\ionf1cxis\s
ff'(x)= f'f(x) =X
• lff=f',fisselfinverse
• The graphs of y= [(x) andy: ['{xl are reflections of each other in me line y =X
• Functions may becombined,but the order is irnportant gf:x........Lf(x)~g[f(x)1
s<cond_jLr,rs,
fg:x~g{x)~f1g(x)l
• f'meansff.andsoon
• (fg)'''' g'r'; (g!)' = f'g'
REVISION EXERCISE 3 (Answers on page 6]4.)
I f:_. r. h3. Find the domain ofxif5:<> f(x):<> 3 2 fis a function given by f:x r. ~"~Jt. (x~ 3).
(a) Pind f'".
(b) Stajc the value ofx for which c_, isundcfined
71
3 (a) Solve these inequalities and show ute resuns cn e number line for each one: (i)14x31;:':2 (ii)il¥i,<4
(h) Given that 1 ax+b 1 55wherellandbareconstanlSalidthat45x5.1,findthe value of <I lind ofb.
4 On the same diagram. sketch the graphs of (a) s= 1 x21.
(b) )"=21.\21.
(e) y=21 x21 forthedOlIJain25xS4
5 On graph paper. sketch tbe graphs of
(a) Y=lx+ II, (h) y=13x I
Hence solverhe equanonlx e 11=13xl.
Ii Fig. 3.26 shows part of the graph of y '" f(x). Copy the diagram and add tile graphs of (a) Y, ='f(x),
(h) y,=f(xI), (e) y,=f(lx)
'./.~"~
;' , ,
j r 'r . !;, :.;:', x
2. _1 0; ,~ a
\ : .
....•.•.. ~ ..••..•.
Fig, 3.26
7 Given the function f:.r ,___ 3x  l¥ . .r ~ O. find the value of f(2) and lhe values ofxwhose image underfis I.
8 g:.\... ~:i' .x~2. Show thatgg(.\) ec ror au values ofx except.r = 2.
9 For the functions f: x 1_ i'  4 and g : .r 1'" 2.1' + 3. find in a similar form (a) fg, (b)gf.
(e) Find the values of r for which fg::gf.
10 The function R maps x onto the remainder when 16 is divided by r. If the domain is (2.3.5.71. state the range. Does R' exist?
II Afuoclionfisdefinetlasf:x t __ .;:ir.X'Fl.Provethat
f' : x!'" 2,~ .. ! •. r 'F I. ~,Obtain a similar expression for f' and hence suggest a possible expression for P. (C)
12 Given Illal f: .r ! ... x + 2 and gf: x ! ... i' + 4x + 2, find the function g.
Hence express x ...i'4x+2intem .. offandg.
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Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMa!erial
13 (a) The function f: x .:u + a is such ihat ff(6) " 10. Find the value of" and ofr'(4).
(b) Functions I and g are defined by
f;x ~ ~,x~3,g:x'2I:j (i) Find expressions fort',fg andgf.
(ii) Find the vejoe ot x for which fg(x) = gf{x).
(e) The function f: x' 21: 5 is defined for the domain x ;:: 1. State the range
of f and the corresponding range of ff (Cl
14 Fig. 3.27 illuSlrale.,part Ilflhefunelillnf:xf_y,wherey=ax+b.
Cajcujare the vatue ot e and ot p
Fig. 3.27
Find Ihe endpoints of Ihe shortest arrow that can be drawn fOT this function
IS (a) Functions fandg are dermed by f:x. 3x  2 and g:x r r:4 (x~O).Findanupressionforthefunction(i)ff,(ii)fg,(iii)g'.
(b) The function h : x r xl + ax + b is such lbal the equedon hex) = x has
solutionsofx=2andx=3.Findthevalueofaandofb. (e)
16 Thefunctions fand g are defined cveruie positive integersbyf: x r62xand g:x r },x~O.
Express in similar form (a) fg, (b) gf, (e) 1"', (d) g'. (e) (fg)' Find the value ofx for which ff(x) = gg(x).
17 Express in termsofthefunctioosf:x... {i ,x;::Oandg:x rx+5
(al x ,__~,x;::s. (b) X rx5
(c) x '__x+IO (d) x ......JX+IO,x;::O
(el x ...r+5 (C)
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Urheberre<;hllichgeschlilltesMaleriol
18 Fig. 3.28shoW3part of thcmapping ofx10 yby thefunclionf:x r 9xaand partofthcmappingofytozbythcfunctiong:y'____ J::, .y"12,
(a) Fmdthcvaluesofoandb
(b) Express in similar fonn the function which maps an element x to an element z. (~) Find thc e]emmlx whkb i3 unchanged wben mapped 10 Z.
(C)
'Hi' Y,',
s 5 5
. . .
a a
2 2 2
, , t
o 0 0
_1 11
2 2 2
Fig. 3.28
19 Cliventhalf:x __ ~ (x .. 3)...t dwft4)_9,find (a) tbevalueofp,
(b) r'(3),
(c) Obtain a foimilarexpreMiOll fOJ"f'.
(d). Find the value(s) ofx which have the same image under f' and t'.
20 The function P maps x orne ,./! b' x ..  ~ .
(a) Given that P(3p 2 and P(3) "'~. find the values of a and b. (b) Find the valueofx whose image under P is ~.
(e) Obtain a similar expression forP'
21 (a) Given tbe functions Lrr je=e 2.t5andg:x ,______ ~ (forx .. O),findin a similar form (i)fg,(ii)gf.
Hence solve the equation fg(x)"'g(X).
(b) Fuoctioo.1pandqaredeflOOdasp:x'_____ ;±r ,x"~, andq:x ,_____ :f.
Find in a similar form (i) ptq and (ii) pq'.
(e) Thefuoctionh is dcfirtedby h:x ,______ ~~: (x .. I).
Find the value of I for which the equation h{x) '" x has the solution .r '" 3.
22 Tbe funcncn fisdefineda<f:x'______ {~:o;~:~<o Sketch the graphs off and t'
23 Iff(x) = 3 + ~ .x"O, sketch the graph off(x) for I SxS4, Now a.dd a sketch of the graph of r'(x) for 3lSxs S.
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Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMaterial
2.4 (a) Given that f: x ~ ~ (x ~ 2) find f'(x) and rex). Hence solve the equation f{x) + 2f"'(x) =5
(b) Tfg: x ~ ~ (x 0#. 2), find the values ofa ifg'(I) + 2&·'(1) :3.
25 Forthedomain3:<::x:<::3,sketchrhegraphofy",lrxll,where[x] meansthegrearest integer Jess than or equal to.r (for example, [3.4] '" 3, ]3.4] '" 4 etc). State the range of this function for this domain.
26 Draw the graph ofy= 11 [2x [I forthedomain3:5x$5.
27 Fig. 3.29 illustrates the function y= f(x) over the domains \ Sx:5 0 and 0 <x::; 3 The function is undefined foraH urhervalues ofx. Sketch the functions given by (a) y, = f(x) + I,
(b) y,,,,f(x+ I)
Fig.3.29
28 f, g and h are funclions defined by r:x r ,fX, g:x r 1 and h:x r x + I. Express in terms of f, g and h
(a)x,__j¥ (c)x~2(x+I)' 211 The functions f and g are defined by
f: x ,__ remainder when x' is divided by 7. g:x~remainderwhenx'isdividedby5.
(b)x,__ 1,;1)' (d)x~2rl+i
(a) Show that f(5) = g(3)
(b) If" is an inlcger, prove Ihal f(71l +x) = f(x) and state the corresponding result
~~ ~
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Urheberre<;htlichgcschutltcsMateriol
30 The function T maps (x,y) onto (x + y, x ~ 2y).
(a) A is the point (2.1). T maps A onto Band BOlito C. Find the coordinates of B
andC.
(h) The point D is mapped onto E(1,7) by T. Find the coordinates of D.
(c) Another point F is mapped onto 0(0,9) by T'. Find the coordinates of F. (d) Express " in the same fonn as T
31 Given that the range of y = fO ~ x) ~ 1 is ~2 ~ Y ~ 3, find the range of (a) fix), (b)f(x+l)+1.
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Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMateriai
The Quadratic Function
4
You bave solved quadracic eqeedons such asx'4xS e uin previous work. In Ibis ChaplCrwesludylhcquadralk:fuDCtion
f:x'_ar+bx+c (0 .. 0)
First we review some essential techniques for solving quadratic equations. These will always give IWO solutions or 1"OOb, though sometimes they may be equal.
SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I Byjaclorizmion
This is the simplest method if it is possible. For cxampler'  4 ..  5 = 0 gives (x  5) (x + I) = 0 sox = 5 or I. However, certain quadrutic eqllations, like xl4x4 =Oforexample,cannot be factorized.
II is useful 10 remember lhatthe equation ",iUl rool~ a and p, is (.rIl){.rj}J=O.
/I Bycomp/efin8lhesqu<lre
To solve r 4 ..  4 = 0, we can complete the square Le. we make tile x'  4 .. part into
Rewriter4x as {.x2)'4. {Check by expanding Ihis.) 1ben ~2 4 .. _ 4 = 0 becomes (x _ 2)'  8 = 0 or (x  2)' '" 8.
Now lake lhe square root of each side: x 2", ± 18 and x '" 2 ±..J8 giving x = 4.83 or {l.83 (currecl 10 2 decimal pJaces).
Urheberre<;hllichgeschlitltesMateriol
III Byformula
Weean derive a formula for the roots of any equation as follows
ax"+bx+c"'O r + ~x+ £ '" 0
,. c r+ ;;_f"';;
Completing the square: (_t + fa)' £1 =~ So (x+fa)' = b'~~c andthenx+fa"'±~
glvmg
where D = b"  4ac. D is called the d;scr;m;nwlt. You will find OUI why later.
When using the formula note carefully that it begins with b and that the denominator
Note: The formula is the prcfclTcd method but it is essential to know the technique of enmpletingthe square for later usc
Example 1
Soll'e2:i'Jx1 '" 0
Check that the left hand side does not factorizc. Using the fonnula, a '" 2, b '" 3, C =1.
ThCn.f={3J+~ '" 3±4..fl'i givingx", I. 78orQ.28 (2 decimal places).
But23 has no (real) square root. Hence the equation has no real roots. We shall see the significance of this later. Such an equation is said to have compte x roots. We shall not however use complex numbers in our work.
Example 2
SO/I·e 2~~  Jx + 4 '" 0
X= l±~ '" 1±j=D
Urhcbcrrcchtlichgc5chlitztcsMa!crial
GRAPH OF THE QUADRATIC FUNCTION I(x) = ax' + bx + C
As you will have noliced in drawing such graphs.jhe graph or a quadratic function, y=ar+bx+c.hasacharacteristicshape.ltisacurvecailedaparabola(Fig.4.1),
\ .,. I
\7 ... 'm,m
"'",m,m ~
/ e e o \
FI(J.4.1
When (J >0, as jn 2r'3xl, The parabola has a minimum vajue atthe bortom of rhe
When a<O, as in lx2r', the graph has a maximum value allhe top of Ihe curve.
The posiliOfl of Ihe curve relative to the..axis depends on the type of the IUOJls of the equation f(xl =0. lbese roots are the values ofx where the Curve meets the .raxis.
TYPES OF ROOTS OF ax' + bx + C = 0
The roots. are given by x = bi., {5 where D = 114ac.
J IfD is "egalive (0 <0 i.e. tr<4ac), then there is no value of{D. The equation has no real root:s and the curve does not meet the .raxis (Fig.4.2),
A
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Urhebermchtlichgcschut;:tcsMa!erial
Example 3
Whal Iype of roo 15 doe" the equation5r ~J:r+1 '" 0 hare? Using the formula. a '" 5; b '" 3, c = I
Then D '" (3Jl4(5)(1) '" I L
AsD<O, ue eqceuon has no real rool'.
fllf D is posiuve (D > 0 i.e. b' > 401c), then {ij has two values. The equation has two different rea) reets and !he curve meets the xaxis attwo points (Fig.4.3).
EXBmple4
For ..,/u,1 values of p will the ('quat;"" x' + p.r + 9 = 0 JriT>'ll twa real roots?
U.,ing the Funnula, a '" I." '" p, c = 9
Then D = p'  36.
For rea! roots,Dmuslbe>O Sop'3f'i >Oi.e.,r> 36.
II folluws thatp must be numerical1y greaser than 6. i.e.p > 6 or I' < {). (We could al<;o write this as Ipl>6).
If D is a perfect square, {ii will be an integer. 1l>en !he roots will be rational numbers. i.e. fractions and whole numbers
ExampleS
Whal type of roo IS does the equation l.t' +3x D=3'4(2)(5)=49
AsDisposilive,!heequationhaslwodifferentrealrooIS. The roots an: 3:7 = I or~.
The equation could have been solved by factorization
Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMateriai
III I/D '" 0 (i.e. b' ",4a,·), thenre 1/;. This means that the roots lire equal (alsoealled repeated or coincident roots). Th~ curve umche., the .raxis with the two roots merging into one (Fig.4.4).
Fig.4.4
~.Ihccquationisy",~
Example 6
'"'
(bi (a) Onthex3xis.y",0.Sulhcrootsofk.r'+(1 +k)x+k"'O must bc equal if the raxis iswbeatangent.ll1cnh'=4acwherca=k.I>= 1 +kandc = L Thcrcforc Ll +k)'=4kk=4k'
So I +2k+k'=4k' or3k'2kl =0.
Solving tbis we gel (3k+ 1)(kI);Ogivingk= I ort
(b) Ifk; Lthe cquunonisrer't e Zv} I
Summarizing theeonditions for the various types of roots of the equation ax' + h .. + c=o:
IY < 4(1(" No real roots
b' ~4ac
Equal
iflY> 4tlc
if 11 = 4ac
As we have learnt. D i, called the discriminant: it crscrtmtmues between the type, of
Urhcbcrre<;htlichgcschutztcsMalcrial
6p+92p.
Example 7
Tire equation pr  21p +3/X +p / '" 0 Iras rl'al roots What is the rongl' ofl"(l/ul's ofp?
For real rool5,fl ?_4ac. Herea=p.b",2(P+3)alldc"'pl. Then [2(P+3)]'24p(PI) Simplifying,4fp'+6p+ 9) <':4p'4p
Hence 7p'29 andp'2~.
Find the range of vatues of p for which Ihe lint 2x  y '" p meeulheclln·e;q.ry)=4.
(i)
Example 8
(ii)
"The liRe may meet the curve a\ tWi' poi,,'s or touch the curve. The coordinatcs ot ttese points will be the ... lutionsoflhe simuhaneous equali"m (i) and (ii). From(i).y=2xp.
Sub~tituting in (ii) • .«.I  2x + p) = 4 which simplifies \0 xl  px + 4 = O.
The roots of this equation are tbe .rcoordinales uftbe poinl(s) where the line meets the curvc.1bese must be real. SoJl?_4ac wherea= l. h = p and c=4
Then (p)' '2 4(1)(4) or p'?_ 16 which givesp '2 4 or p:;;4
EXBmpJe9
(a) Findlhi' rrlation brrwan m and k ifth~ line y = nu +k isa langen! to the curve y=8x
(h) If m = ~. find the equalion of the tangent and the eoordtnates of it.t poinl of
(e) Find Ih, equations oflhe rwa tangents 10 Ihis ('un'" ..... hich passlhrough the poim (3,5).
Urheberre<;htlichgeschlitltesMateriai
Hence (x8)'=O giving x = 8.
(a) As in Example 8, we ~olve the simultaneou~ equations, Substituting 1 = mx + ~' in the equation of the curve' (111.11'1:)'=8.1
Then,wr + 2m,h + k'  8x == 0 i.e. m'r + (2mk 8}.!' + 11.' == 0
Now this equation must have equal rOOIS as the line a a tangent.
Then b' '" 46c wbere a = m'. b = (2mll. 11) and c = k'. so (2ml: 8f =4m'II.' or 4m',l?  32mk + 64 = 4m',l? which gives m~ = 2. the relation required
(b) If m = ~. then k = 4. The equation of the tangem is therefore 1 = 1 + 4.
To findlhc coordinates of the point of conracc.wc sclvc this equation with th at of the curve
Then (~ + 4)' = 8., i.e. f + 4.< + 16 = !Ix or,~lfu+64=O.
The corresponding value of1 is ~ +4 = II
Hence me coordinales of the point of contact are (8,8). (e) As mk = 2. the equation of any tangent is 1 = nll + k If(3,5lliesonthctangcnt,then5=3n,+i
which simplifies 10 3m'  5m  2 = O.
Solving this, (3m + 1 )(m  2) = 0 giving m = 2 or  ~.
Hence the equations arey = 2>c+ I and),=  j 6;.c.x+3),=18
Exercise 4.1 (AIl"wers Oil page 6/6.)
I Without solving these equations, statethe type of roots they have i.e_.real,reaiand "'Iua1 or not real (a) x'lOx+25==O (e) x'==4.l+7 (el 3.r +x= 1 {g)±"'~=2 {il2r=px+p'
(b) ".o6x+ 10=0 (d)2x'x+2=O
(I) 4x'2Ox+25=O
(h) ~+ t = ~~11 (j) arx=u(u>O)
2 Fmd the ~alues of II. if the equation x' + (II.  2).1' + 10 Ie = 0 has equal roots. 3 What is the targesr vatue m can haveiftherootsof3x'4x+m=Oarereal?
4 For what values ofp docs the equationx'2p:x+ (p+2)=O have equal roots?
5 The equation xl  2>c + I = p(:x 3) has equal roots. Find the possible values of p, 6 Show thaI lIie equauon a'x'+Il.f+ 1 e Il can never have real rocts.
7 Find the values of II. if the line:x+ 1 = leis a tangent 10 the cirdex' + r= 8.
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Urheberre<;htlichgcschutltcsMateriol
8 The equanon cr' + 2(k+a)x+k=ahasequal roots. Expressk in termsofa. Show that the line y =k(x3) isatangenttothecurvey=k(x'3x+ 1) for any value ofk exccpr O.
9 (a) Find the range or varues or ,» for which the liney = mx+ 5 meets the curve J' =.\~ + 9 in two distinct points
(b) Iflhislineistobeat3ngentlindthetwopossibleequ3tionsorlhetangemand the coordinates of the points of eon tact
10 The line y '" mx + 1 is a tangent to the curve 1 '" 2x  3. Find the values of m
II The liney= 2x+p is a tangent to me curve.nr s y)+ 12 =0. Find the possible values ofp
12 (a) Find the relation between m and c if the line y '" mx + c is a tangent to the curve 1=2x·
(b) Hence find the equations of the two tangents to this curve which pa ss through the point (2,2!)
13 What is the range or values or,· if the liney=2r+ cis to meet the curve x' + 2/ = 8intwodistinetpoints'!
14 The equation (p + 3~r' + 2px + pool has real roots. Find the range of values of p 15 If the equation.\~(p 2}l + 1 =p(x 2) is satisfied by only one value ofx. what are the possible values ofp?
16Ifthccquationx'2kr+3k+4=Ohasequalroots,findlhepossiblevalues ofk and solve the two equations
17 Findlhevalucsofkforwhichlheiinex+y= kis3tangenttothccurve .I'(.\'~ y) + 2 = O.
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM VALUES OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION
The maximum or minimum values of the function fIx) = <U~ + hx + c arc the values of fIx) at the top or bouom of the curve. These are also called the lurning poinls of the
By conlpleting the square, we find that aX' + bx + C ",a(x+ *')'  ~ + c, where a> 0 Now the least or minimum value of this expression will be when the squared term
is ~~~~:~~:~':i:~:i:;(u~So~t~~t:e;,.~e:~: ::. ~:;:dO)~~.~. ~~~:Sh:t~~:~ '~;t~e~~rve.
br(~f;;)
Th:!' :a~ ~ t~;o:~:;\:g a~:~~l:ril~~; :r:~:ii~;S~J;~hde i~~:!~l~ec~~e) where l" ~t,
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Urheberrechtlichge5chlitztesMa!eriol
Fig. 4.5
\
''''I
i y ~ 3.<" 4x+ 1
i~
Example 10
What is til,> minimP.lm vatue 0/ 3.\~  4x + 1 and/or what value 0/ x does il u('(:"r:' f(x):3x'4x+ l,a=3.b:4.
~eu :i~'~:: :~~:u=mf(vi;u= ;fxfr_~c:rsl :h~~.X = f; = ~ = ~.
This is illustrated in Fig.4.S. The line x = ~ through the turning point is called Ihe a",i~ of the curve and thecllrvcissymmctricalaboutthislin~
,
_j _Q_~__ x
I
Example 11
Express 5 x2x' in tne forma b(x + c}' and hence or otherwise find us maximusn ,'uluermdl/,e v(llueojxwlle'"f'I/,isoccur ...
5 x2x' = 5 2 (x'+ ~)
= 5  2[(x + D'  &,] by completing tbe square
=52(x+*)'+!=5!2(x+F·
Now the least value of (x + ~)' is 0 when x =  * ~o the ma",imllm value of the expression is S~ when x: ~.
Alternatively us the question allows us to use another method (otherwise) we can use the rule stated above. Herea:2.b=I_ Verify that the same result is obtained. "lltis is illustrated in Fig. 4.6. The equation of ;he a~js of sum me try is x = ~.
'71r\·,
I li:" \
Fig_46
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Urheberre<;hllichgeschlitltesMateriol
SUMMARY
To Iintl the maximum/minimum value of fix) = o_e + bx + c, ",write f(.r) as a( ~J + ¥ + ~) and complete the square on xl +!>t. f(xlislhenconve"edtoa[(x+ ;,,)'£i, + £}
The turning poim of f(x) i.~ a =i:::::i~:: g and occurs where x"i;; The ::valueisf(1;;l
SKETCHING THE GRAPH OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION
To draw the graph, we need a table of values. For a sketch, we need only know (I) the shape of the curve:
(2) where it cutsihc yaxis. This is given by flO):
(3) tlie posilions of the rOQ\S (if any). Iff{x) fac\orize'. the root' are easily found: etherwise, approximate values will be sufficient;
(4) the position or the turning point. Remember 1ha1 the curve is symmetrical aix.mt the axlsrhrcughmis pcsition
Example 12
Sketch thc graph o/f(x) =2x" 3x4 (I) As a>O,the shape is u.
fix)
Fig_4_7
This is the poinl A (Fig.4.7).
(2) f(0)=4.
(3) f(x)doesnolfaclorize.
Th~roolsoff(x)=Oarcgivenbyx= 3±4ffi ~ J!6 ~2.3andO.8 (poIRIS B and C respeclively)
(4) f(x)=2{r ~2)
=z[(xD' ft z] =2(xD'~·
So the minimum is at point D( ~,~).
1be curve can now be skeicbed throegh these points.
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Urheber=htlichgeschlitztesMa!erial
Example 13
Fig. 4.8
Sketch /he CUI"\·e y = 2 +2.r .,~ (1) 0<0 so the shape is (\
(2) Whellx=0.y=2
(poimA in Fig. 4.8).
(3) b'<4ac so the curve does not meet the .raxis. (4) f(x)=~.I.~2r+2) =[(xI)'I +2J =~X_I)'_I
So the maximum is at (1,1) (point BJ.
~ ;1" ,.,." \
Example 14
Sketch the graph affix) '" I.I.~ x2/.
To sketch this graph, we use the same method as before.
Firstsketch f(x) =.l.J_x_2 and then reflect the negative pan intbe raxi s
x'x2 '" (x2)(x+ I) so the graph meets the .raxis at I and 2 (Fig.4.9). It meets the .v_axis at 2 and the minimum is at (~. 2i)
Whenrenected,thesevaLuesbecome2and(~,2n respectively.
Fig. 4.9
!(x)
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Urheberre<;htlichge5chlit;:tesMa!eriol
Example 15
RANGE OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION
Find the range off(x) = or' 2x 3far rhe domain 2<;; x 5 j
At the end points, [(2) = (_2)'_ 2(2)  3 '" 5 and f(5) = 5'  2(5)  3 = 12 Wemighlbelcmptedlosaythalthcrangcis5tol2,butdoesthecurveriseconlinuously from 5 to 12? 11 may go down!o the minimum and then rise.
Verify that the minimum is 4 at x '" I and sketch the curve (Fig.4.IOJ
The minimum lies within the domain.
So the actual range is4 ~ f(x) 512
Hence for such questions it would be wise to makc a sketch. ta
Fig. 4.10
Example 16
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Urheberr""htlichgcschlitltcsMaleriai
f(xl ~ 1 ", .. 2)1
Example 17
Find the rallge 0/ the Junction fix) I.T/x 2) I/o. the domain ~ ~ .. ~ 2~ First skctch the graph tftg.a.D)
The minimum of x(~·  2) is 1 at x = f which becomes a value of I when reflected.
Attheendpoints.f(!)= I~(~)I = ~andf(2~)=I~(~}I=~·
At x = 2 however, f(2) = O. HencetlletilngeisO~f(x)~ II.
F"rg.4.12
Exercise 4.2 (Allswers all page 6J6.)
I Find the maximum or Illiniomn\ values of the following functions and the values of x where this occurs:
(a) r6.t1 (c) 14x2x' (e)2x'x4 (g) 4.<'3.>:1 (i) (I x)(x+2)
(b) ."'+2x3 (d)Jx2x' (f) .0'+3
(h) 52x4r (j) x'+2bx+c
2 Sketch the graphs of the functions in Question I (except part (j)).
3 The graph or aquadrauc function meets the .raxis where.e e J andx=k.lfthetoming
point of the function occurs where x w ~.findlhevalueofk.
4 Sketch the graph of f(.l) = lx'  4x + 3 I and find the range for the domain 0 ~ x ~ 2. 5 Sketch (he graph of f(xl = I x(2  xl I. State the range if the domain is 2 ~ x ~ 3. 6 Sketchthegraphofthefunctionf(xl=I.r1+x2IandfinditsI"JngeforO:sx:S2 7 Find the moge of the funclion y = 13 + 2x  ~~ I for the domain O:S; x :s 2.
89
Urhcbcrre<;htlichgc5chlitltcsMatcriai
8 (a) A function V is given by V(I) = 2r 81+ 30. Find the minimum valueofY and the valueofl where tjus cccurs.
(b) What is the range of this function forOSIS31
9Findtherangeofthefunctionf:x~2x2fulforrealvaluesofx.
10 Find the range of the functions (a) 1  3x.i' and (b) 2.i'x 3 for the domain I :":x:":2.
11 Find the range of (a) 2x'x3 and of (b) 12x.i'forthedomain2SxS:2. 12 Convert y w t (x +4>' + (x2>'1 to the fonny = (x+p)' + q and hence find the minimum value of y and the value of x where this OCCutS.
13 (a) Express 7  x  3x' in the fonn (1  b(x + c)', showing the values of a, band c.
Hencestatetherangeofthefunctionf:x~7_x_3x'forallrealvalues ofx.
(b) If the mlnlmum value of x+e a.r +kis7 find the value ofk.
14 The height (II m) of a ball above the ground is given by the function h(l) = 1St  Sf where' is the time in se«Jnds since the bell Iefl groundlevel. Fmd the range of the height for I SIS3.
IS A spot of light is made [0 travel across a computer screen in a straight line so that, at I seconds aftcrstarting, its distance:: from the left hand edge (dcm) is given by the function dO) = 71 " + 2. Fmd the furthest distance:: the spot traveb and how long it takestotravelthisdistance.
16 The function f(x) = I + bx + a.r" has a maximum value of 4 where x = _1. Find the
valucofaandofb
17 ~~ ~u~~~i~~n!(.~~e=v~:c v: :tb ha~~ao~~~imum value of 5~ where x = ~ and
18 A rectangular enclosure is made against a straight wall FIQ. 4.13 ".ingthreelcngthsOffencing,tWOOflengthxm(Fig.4.13)·U Thetotai length of fencing available is 5Om.
(a) Show that Ihe area enclosed is given by 5Ox2r2. x x
(b) Hence find the maximum possible area which can be
enclosed and tbe value ofx for this &rea.
QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES * ...
For D >0 anda > 0, the equation f(x) =ar+bx+ c = 0 willhave unequal roots. Call1hese a and P (where a< Pl. Then we see from the graph of such a function (Fig.4.l4) that for .r c c , f(x»O
for a<x<p, f(x)<O
for x>P, f(x)::?O
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Urhcbcr=htlichgc5chlitztcsMateriol
F/f1.4.14
For D > 0 and a < 0, the signs of f(.x) will be reversed (Fig. 4.15), for .e c e, f(x) <0
for u c x c jl, f(x) >0
for .x>~, f(.x) <0
Keep the graphical illustrations in mind when dealing with such inequalities. If,oowever,D < o (Fig.4.16) then
f(x) is always positive ifa>O f(x) ts atwavs ncgauve ij e c n
(a) D<O.a>O
v
'.'" /\
91
Urheber=htlichgeschlitztesMa!erial
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