. MATHE~.~ rl~~

· · ·

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© Pearson Education SoUlh Asia Pte Ltd 1990, 1995

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First published 1990 Reprinted three times Sixth edition 1995 Fourteenth reprint 2007

Local ISBN 978-9·971-89657-7

Local ISBN 10 9971-89·657-5

978-0-582-26511-0 0-582·26511-8

Produced by Pearson Education SOUlh Asia Pte Ltd Printed in Malaysia




Coordinate Geometry


Areas of Rectilinear Figures (Optional)

GradicntorSlopc ofaStraight Line an~Je of slope


Midpoinl of Two Points DjstancehetweenTwopoj,ts

Perpendicular Lines

EguulionofuSlraighlLillc lincsparallcl to the .r- or c-axis

Gradient-intercept Form equmio'" of par~lld and perpemlicuiar line,




2 Simultaneous Equations

~ Rc.l'.isiolLExet:ciiC...l




Reht'0ns"!Ud Em!'ljnos

Domain and Range

Graphical Representation of Functions - common function, and their graphs; graphs oflransformedfunclions

The Modulus ofa Function Ixl

Modular Inequalities

The Inverse ofu Function Iunctions withno inverse; graphical

illustration of an inverse funcucn; composite functions



4 The Quadratic Function Solving Uuadratic EQuations

Graph of the Duadratic Func\ion fix) ax2+bx+c TvpcsofRootsofax'+bx+c-O

Ma~imum and Minimum Values of a Quadratic Function

Sketching the Graph ot a Ouadratic Function Range of a Quadratic Function Quadralicinegualilics



5 Binomial Expansions


The Bjnomjal Theorem



6 Radians, Arcs and Sectors



Length of an Arc ArnaofpSeclorofaCjrcle


Revision Fwercise6

7 Trigonometry


Trigonometric Functions for a General Angle

noteonspecialangles30'4S·60< Negative Angles

Basic Trigonometric Equations Other Trigonomelric Functions

Graphs of Trigonometric Functions sin9 and cos 6; tan 6

Multiple Angle Functions ModuJusofTrigonomelricFunctions


Eauationswith more than One Function


Revision Fwercise 7

B Vectors

Scalars.and.Yecrors RepresenlationofVectors Equality of Vectors Norm;onforvec'ors

MagniludeofaVe~tor zeroveclor;sCalarmU]tipleofavector

Addition Of Vectors Diagonals ofa Parallelogram ~

Components of a Vector. Unit Coordinate Vectors unit vectors

scalar l'mr]nct ofTwoVOCtorS



9 Calculus (1): Differentiation


neneral Method for the Gradient Ellnction

Notation - the Ov. Ox notation for the ~radient function: meaning of ¥


The Deriyatiyeofqr'

The Derivative of a Polynomial Compos;leFuIlCI;ons

The Second Differential Coefficient ~ ~


10 Calculus (2): Applications of Differentiation 2Q4

Increasillg alld Decreasillg Functions

Tangents and Normals

Stationarv Points: Maxima and Minima quadratic function


Velocity and Acceleration

Small Increments: Approximate Changes connected rates of change


Rev;sjnnExerdse ]0

11 Calculus (3): Integration 141


The Arbitrary Constant: Indefinite Integral notation: the integral (! dx

Applications of Integration area under a curve

DefiniteIntegrals further notes on areas

Solids of Revolution solid ofrcvolution created by a region between



Rev;sjooErercjse 11

Revision Papers 1 - 5


12 Remainder and Factor Theorems: Cubic Equations 191

The Rema;nderTIteQrem

13 Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions


Arithmetic Progres,ions arithmetic means' sum of an arithmetic


Geometric Progrcssion~ geometric means; Sum of a geometric progression; sum to infinity ofa geometric progression


Revision Fyercise 13

14 Further Trigonometry: Compound and Multiple AngleS: a CoS e + b sill e


TangenlS of Compound Angles A + B Muhip!eAngles

The Function a cos Be n sin B The Equation a cos 6 + b sin a = C Summary

Revision Exercise 14

15 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions


Exponential Ecuanons-c-rhe gl1lph of the exponential func tlon

The Logarithmic Function the graph of the logarithmic function;

rules for logarithms· two soociallogarithms; common logaritltms: logarithmic equations


Revision Exercise 15

16 Conversion to Linear Form



Revjsjo"FJCocjse 16

17 Calculus (4): Further Techniques: Trigonometric


Calculus: Further Techniques fractional indices; integration of powers

of thelinearflll1cnonax+b·differentiationof the product of two functions: differentiation of the quotient of two functions; differentiation of implicit functions; revision of calClIlusmethods

Trigonometric Functions differentiation of sin x: an important limit;

differentiation of cos .r: differentiation of tan ... • ueeeaucn cr trigonometric functions


RevisiunExercise 17


18 Calculus (5): eX and In x


In!cgTnlionof t .mde""·'


RevjsjonFrercise 18

19 Parametric Equations



Revision Papers 6" 10



20 Kinematics s-r Graphs

v-rGranhs areaundcrthcv-/graph

Straight Linc Motion with Constant AcceleratiOll Vertical MOlion under Gravity


Revision Exercise 20

21 Velocity and Relative Velocity


Composition ofVelocilies-resolution ot vetocines Relative Velocity



22 Projectiles



Velocity Components _ coordinates: greatest height: lime of flight: hcnizontalrange

~ ~

23 Force, Friction

Forces-unit of force

Types of Force weight"reaClion" tension" friction" thrust

Compositlon of2 Forces

Resolouon of e Force

Coplanar Forccs AClingon a Particle Equil"brium ofa Particle

Trillnglc of Forces ~

Polygon of Forces


Urhcber",chll;GhgeschOlLte MaIer;,,'

2' Newton's Laws of Motion 52'
Newton's Laws
Muss and Weight
Connected Particle~
Revision Exercise 24
25 Work, Energy, Power 547
Kinetic Energy (KE)
26 Momentum and Impulse 57.
Conservation of Momentum
Revision Exercise 26
Revision Papers 11 ~ 1 B 590
Answers ... UrheoorrcchtlichgesclriitLl,Ma\erial


Pure Mathematics

Coordinate Geometry



The POSilioll of a point in a plane can be given by an ordered pair of numbers. written as (x.},). These areca lied the Cartesian coordinates or the point. (The name comes from the French mathematician Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650)). The coordinates measure the displacement (+ or -) of the poim from two perpendicular axes, the y-axis (Oy) and the x_3xis(Ox),where,Ois Ihen'igin.

For example, in Fig.I.L the coordinates of point A arc (4,J) and the coordinates of point B are (3,4).4 is thcx-coordinatcofA and) is itsy-coordinatc. (The .r-ccordinate is sometimes called the ahrdssa and rne j-coordmarc the ordinate )



Thex-coordinatei,aiwaysslaledfirsLA'YOllcan,ee,(4.3) j,notthesamcl"'inlas (3,4). Now state the coordinates of the points C, 0, E, F OlIld G in Fig. 1.1.



On graph paper, plot the point\ A{2,3) ,md 8(8,7). Can you write down the coordinates of the midpoint of AS? Can you see how these arc related to the coordinates of A and B? (Remember that the midpoint is hujfo.'uy between A and B).

We ClIO find a formula for the midpoint of AB. We could use different letters for coordinates such as (a,hl, ( c. d), etc. but it is neater 10 m;c.<uffue.<altached toxandyfor specific points. So we write the coordinates of A as (x"y,l and B as (x,~v,).

Let lhc coordinates of the midpoint M be (x",,y,,) (Fig. 1.2). AC arid ME are parallel tcthe r-axts. MDandBCarep<lrllUellulhc y_axis,

Fig. r.z

Then AD = DC 5O~ .. -X, =..<,-x" and EC=BEsoy,,-Y, =Y,-Y"

From ru. 2r", =x, +x"alld from(ii),2Y",=Y,+h

Therefore.x,,'" .f,;", and y.,= _y,;v,.

(il (ii)

The coordinates of the midpoint are the averages of the swo r-cocrdma res and of the \woy-<;oordinalesoflhepoinls.


00(-2)= -3;.<,. Heneex.=-i. Similarlyy.=O.

Therefore the coordinates ofB are (-\.0).

Example 1

(a) Find Ihe midpoint rJj(i) (3,4) and (5.1) (ii) (-2.-1) and (4.-4;

(hi 11(-2,1) is Ihe midfl<);f11 of AB. where A .s (-J.1).find the <"oordi"aln of B

(a) (i) The midpoint is (¥ . 4;2) = (4J). (ii) The midpoint is (_2;4, -12-4) =(1,-21).

(b) If (x.,y.) are the ccordinares ofB.then-2 is the average of-3 and x.'

Exercise 1.1 (Allswers 011 page 606.)

t Stale ihe coordinates of the midpoints of:

(a) (0,4) and (3,-2) (b) (-4,-2) and (-2,6)

(c) (4,-2) and (--6,9) (d) (0.4) and (4,0)

(e) (-4.-1) and (-5,-2) (f) (5,-3) and (-5,3)

(g) (p,2p) and (3p,-4p) (h) (a + 2h,b-a) mId (a-2h,3a +b)

(i) (a,a-4)and(a+2,6+a) (j) (~.¥)and(~,~)

1 A(l,5) and 8{7.-9) are two points. AB is divided into fourequa\ parts er C, D and E Find ihe coordinates ofC, Dand E

3 A{3, It). B(-5,-3) and C(7,-2) are the vcnicesof uiangle ABC. Whul are the coordinates of M. the midpoint of BC and of Q, the midpoint of AM?

4 The midpoint ofPQ is (2,3).lflhe coordinates ofP are (-1,4), find the coordinates ofQ.

5 A is (a,3) and B is (4,b).lf the midpoint of AS is (3~'i), find the values of a and b 6 The points A and B are (a,-4) and (-3,b) rcspectively.Hthe midpoint of AS is (-2,3), findthcvaluesor<t"ndb.

, L is the point (-3,-2) and M is !he poim (5,4). N is the midpoint of LM. Slate the coordmeres ofN. Pis the midpoinTofNQ and the cooromares ot p are (2l.4) . Find the coordinares of Q

8 ABCD is a parallelogram. A is the poinl (2,5), B is the point (H,R) and the diagonals intersect at (3j,2l). WhataretllecQ(}TdinatesofCandD?

9 The coordinates of A and Bare (-9.3) and (-3,4) respectively. B is the midpoint of AC and C is the midpoint of AD. Find the coordinales of C ami of D.


10 A is the point (-1,4). B is the point (5. -2) and C is the point (4,-5). If D is tile midpoint of AB and E the midpoint nf DC, rDld the coordinates of D and E and show that AE is parallel to they-axis.

11 The coordinates of A and C are (-6,-3) and (-1,1) respecnvety. (a) H C is !he midpoint of AB, find the coordinates of B.

(b) BFis divided into three equal parts at D and E.lfthe coordinates of E are (6,-1), find the coordinates of D and F

12 The points (x,.)',). (x,oJl)' (x1,yl) and (x,oJ,), in thaI order form a para1lelogram ABCD.

Show that x, +X) =x1 + x. and y, + Y) = Y1 + Y •.

13 ABCD is a quadrilateral when: A is (1,7). B is (4,3).C is (-1,-3) and D is (-4,S}.ls ABCD a parallelogram? If not, state new coordinates for B so that ABCD will be a parallelogram.

14 The points A(-I ,4), 8(4,10), C(6,-5) and 0(-2,-8) form a quadrilateral ABCD. P. Q, Rand S are the midpoints of the sides AB. BC. CD and DA respectively. Prove thai PQRS isa parallelogram.


What is the length of AB in Fig.]'3?



If we draw AC parallel tothe .e-exts and C8 parallel 10 they-axis, then AC = 3 - (-I) = 4 units and BC = I - (-2) = 3 units

By Pythagoras' Theorem, A81 = ACI ... BCI = 16 + 9 = 25 unilsl. Hence the length of AB '" m = 5 units.

We can generalize this 10 f"md a formula for the distance between any two given points.


TakeA(x"y,) and B(_t,,)',) to be the two perms (Fig.I.4) Now AC = x, - x, anti BC = Y, - >\

Then AB' '" AC' + Be' '" (X,-x,)' + (Y, - ),,)' So Ihe fonnula for 'he dist~n~-e belween the poims(x"y,)and(x"y,)is

Distance= -.J(x, x,)' + (y, y,l'

Note: Take care with the subtracucns if either or bolh of the cooruinatesare negative.

Fig. 1.4

Example 2


distance",.JL3 2F+L4 (-3)F=~unitsasbcforc.

The coordinates can be subtracted in eirheF order as the results are the same alter squaring. Verify this for part (a).


The ventces oj" r~hm!ile ABC arc 1\(-15J. B/4.4) alld C(5.-2i. (aj Wilichislilelongeslside? (bj/.\·t"elriulIgleriglu·ulIgled·

(<:) WI"" (yp~ "i'rianllie i.< ABC.'

We need only find Ihc squares oflhe Icnglh'''flhe side'

AB'= 1-2-41'+ 15-4J1=37 "nilS' Be'", [4-5]'+[4-(-2))'=37 unit,' CA'= IS-(-211'+ 1-2-51'= 98 unils'

(a) AC is the longest side.

(b) AC' .. AB' + BC' so the triangle is not nght-unglcd. (e) AB' '" BC' so the triangle i, iwsecles


The midpoint of BC is (7,S).

Hence the tengui or rhe median from Ais~" (6i ",7.SunilS. Now find the lengths of the ether two medians.

You should find that Ihey are 7 units and {,jQunils


Example 4

The vertices of a triangle ABC are A( 1.3),8(5,11) and C(9.5). Find the lengths of Ihe medians.

You will recallthat a median is a line from a vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side.


so we find DE' and AC'.

D is (~Aland E is (l~.- ~). ThenDEl"d-l~)'+(4+ ~)'= 1 + ¥ '" ¥

AC' = (-2 - 0)' + (3 + 6)' = 85

Hence DE' = ! AC' which means thai DE " ~ AC


Example 5

The vertices of a triangle are A(-2.3), B(3.5) and C(O,-<i) (Fig,l 5), D is Ihe midpoint of AB and E is Ihe midpoint of 8e. Show that DE = 1 AC

it is simpler 10 work wilh squares of distances.

Fig 16 C(O,-6)


Exercise 1.2 (Answers on poge 606.)

1 Find the distance between the following pairs of point,. [Where necessary give your answer correct 10 2 significant figures.]

(a) (1,2),(4,6) (b) (-1,-3),(2,1)

(c) (-4,-5),(1,7) (d) (0,-3),(4,0)

(e) (-1,-3),(-2,-5) <0 (-2,1),(4,2)

(g) (-5,0).(-7.--4) oo (-5,-2).(0,-3)

(i) (a,O),(O,a) (j) (a.u+b),(u-b,b)

2 Acircleha..cen!reat(i,2).OnepointonilScircumferencei,(-3,-1) What is the radius crme cuctez

3 The venices uf a triangle are A(-4,-2), B(4,2) ami C(2,6). (a) Is the triangle right-angled?

(b) Jfa circle is drawn round this triangle, what are the coordinates of its centre? (c) Hence find me radius of this circle.

4 The vertices-of triangle ABC are A(-1,3), 8(2.7) and C(6,4). (a) Find the squares of the lengths of the sides.

(bl Hence stale completely what type of triangle ABC is. (c) Find lhe area of the triangle.

5 The vertices of triangle PQR are P(3,4). Q(5,8) and R(7,4). (a) wbat kind of triangle is PQR?

(hl Slate the coordinates nfthe midpoint S of side PR

(c) Find the length of QS and deduce the area of the triangle PQR.

6 The vertices ofiriangle ABC are A{--4,4), B(2,6) and C(O,-6). Find the lengths of the three medians of the triangle

7 A(-6.3}, B(2,5) and C(O.-5) fonn a triangle. D is the midpoint of BC. (a) Slate the coordinates of D.

(b) Find the values of AC', AB'. AD' and DC'. (c) Hence show thai AC' + AB' = 2(AD' + DC').

S The vertices of triangle ABC are A(2.3). B(4,5) and C(8.-2). P and Q are the midpoints of AB and BC respectively.

(a) Stale the coordinates of P and Q.

(h) Find the values of PO' and AC'.

(e) What Iracrinn of AC is PQ?

\I Circle C, bes cenee (-3.4) and r~dius 2 units. Circle C1 has centre (1,7) and radius 3 units.Findthedi~tancebctweenthetwOcenlresandhenceshowthatlhe circles touch

10 The cenrre or a circle is (-1.3) and ilSradius i~ 10 units. The centreofa sccondcirde is (2.7) and its radius is 5 units. Show thai {he Iwo circles touch each 01 her and make a sketch showing !he po,ition~oflhe circles


11 The vertices of triangle PQR are P(2,S), Q(4,3) amJ R(-2,-3).lfS is the midpoint of PR,showth31trianglcPSQ is isosceles.

12 A circle has its centre at the origin and ils radiusi, 3 unils. P(x,y) is any point on the circumference. State an equalion inxandy which is true for all po ssiblcpositions ofP.

13 A(-3.2) and B(4,3) are two fixed points. The point PIx,)') moves so that it is always equidistant from A and B (i.e. AP = PB).

(a) Describe the locus ofP.

(b) Show that (x + 3)' + (y - 2)' = (x- 4)' + (y - 3)',

(c) Stmpllfy this equation. (The result is called the equation of tile locus ofP)


A rectilinear figure has straight line sides. The following method will be found useful but it is not essential in this Syllabus. it gives a quick way of finding the mea of such a figure using the coordinates of the venices, wrillen in a cenain way. We will start with a triangle with one vertex at the origin o (Fig. 1.7). The other vcnicesare A{x"y,) and B{ArY,). Then the area of b, OAB = area of ,0, OBC + area of trapezium CDAB - area of ,0,ODA. Verify that this is

antidockwise. lfwe take them in the order 0- B - A. i.e. clockwise. the result would bc-9 (cllccktllis).Wc now extend this to ,0,ABC (Fig. I.H). Then the area of ,0,ABC = ,0,OAB - ,0,OAC - ,0,OCB

This result can be easily calculated by arranging the coordinate pairs as colum nsofa matrix. repeating the fir,t pair at the end'

Fig. 1.8



Y'~--"""____Y'-"" Y,--.. Y,-.....

X,Y, 9', ",Y.

Find the produ~ts shown. The area = +[Th" ,urn of the DOWNWARD' products -Ihe SU~ O~lhe ~P\vARD'" products]. •

ThIS gIves 2" [(x,Y, + -9\ +x,)',l-(x,}', + x,y, + x,Y,l]. Check that this is the fonnulagiven above.

For example, the area of the triangle shown in Fig. 1.6 will be

Area =~[(O +9 + 12) -(-18 -10 +O)j

= 24~ units'

This method can be extended to give the area of a polygon. provided the vern ces are taken m croer annctockwtsc.

For example, the area of the quadrilateral whose vertices are (4,3). (-2,-3), (-1,2) and (3,-1) is given hy

Draw a sketch to make sure the vertices are laken in order.

Write the pairs as before repeating the first one at the end. Then the area '" ![(8+3+2+91-(-3--4-9--411=21 unit,'

Optional Exercise

Find the areas ofthc figures whose vertices are

(a) (0.0), (3.7), (5,1) (b) (-1.-2),(-2,3).(4,-4)

(e) (-4.2), (0,-8).(5.11) (d) (5J), (2,5), (IO,-i). (-6,3)



The rest of this Chaplerdeals with the coordinate geometry of straight lines. An important COllccpt is the gradient or slope or a line. This ls a measure of the steep llfSS of the line relative to ihex-axis. tt corresponds to the s\ope ofa path OT Toad which we measure relative to the horizontal. Mathematically. if A and B are any two points on a line (Fig. 1.9) then thegradienr is the valu(' of the ratio

\eC:;:~~n~~ed\~;a~;) i.e. ~ in going from A to B


Fig. 1.9

The .r-step and the y-step must be taken parallel to the .e-axis and the )'-a~is respectively and either may be positive, negative or zero.

Then, as we shall see, a gradient can bezero,orapositiveoroegativenumbe e spectat case.Jt rnay bave no value.

Example 6

Fintf Ihe gradient of the line through (-2,-3) and (3.5) as shown in Fig. f.lO.

Gradient '" ~ '" ~. a positive gradient.

If the coordinates are taken in the reverse order, then the gradientis =;=~ =~ = ~. giving the same value. The gradient is usually left as a fraction

Example 7

IVhmiSlhegradiemO/lltelinethrO/lgltlhepoim., (-25) and (4,-2) (Fig. I 1IJ?

Gradienl = ~ '" d '" - ~ . a n~ative gradient.



Hence, if the coordinates of A and B are (.1',,)",) and (x,.)) respectively, as in Fig. 1.12. thcnthegradie"tofAB;,1L.::..h.oraltematively~

(The coordinates must be S~b~~~tcdi"lhesamcor~e-4i~" Bl~,.y,) f,-f, A(~,'f,)




Fig. 1.12

As the steepness or a straight line is clearly the same al all points on the line, we can take Ilnytwopointsonittoca1culatcitsgrndicnt.



-'-'-:;;:"',--' +--1_:;,,;:::,3) (a) (3.2)

SlOlelhegradientsoflhefol/owinglines' (a) ,hroullh(-2,J)and(5,3).

(hi Ihrough(J.-4/and(J,21

(a) Gradiem = 53_'(:2) '" ~ '" 0

As we see in Fig. 1.13, the line i~ parallel to thc r-axis.

Angle of Slope

In Fig. 1.14, the slope Or gradiem of the line AB is ~ = ~=tanLBAC.

But LBAC '" 9 where e is the angle between the line and the positlve .r-axis. So the gr~dienl = 1,111 e

9iscalledthellngleofslopeandO°5'95' 180° (Fig. 1.15).


Fig. 1.13







t .

6_0 zero gradient


6<90' posrnvegradient

If9=O", tan 9=0: gradient" O. The line isparal\eJ to Ihe .r-axis.

If 0°< 9<'9O",9is l1li acute IIIIgle; tan 9is positive end the gradient is positive. The line slopes upwards from left to right./

If9 = 90°, tan 9 and the gradient are undefined. The line is parallel to they-axis. If'}(}" -c 9< 180°, 9 is an obtuse angie; Ian 9 is negative and thegradienl is nega live. The ljneslopesdownwardsfromleflloright.~


In Fig. 1.16, the lines AB and CD are parallel. Then the angle of slope of each line is 9. Hence they have the same gradient.

PamlleJlincshavecqualgradicms Lines with equnl gradients are parallel.

Example 9

A(2,J), 8(5,7), C(O,-i) and D(-3,-5) are four points.

(a) Which of the lilies AB. Be, CA and DA OfC parallel? (b) What type of qumirilateral is ABeD?

(a) ThegrndienlSofAB,BC,CAandDAare l' ~ .2and ~ respectively. Hence BC is parallel to DA.

(b) As it has 2 parallel sides, ABCD is a trapezium


Exsmple 10

Two tines urI' drawn from A(-I.-3J. one 10 8(4.2) and Ihe o/ller 10 C(-4;2J. What are /heirong/esofslope?

Gradient of AD = ~ = 1 = tan 9, so 9 = 45°. Gradient of AC = ~ = tan 9. so 9 = 121°.


Do the poinl~ A(-3,-5l, B{O,-I) and C(3,3) lie in a straightline. i.e. an: they collinear? !flhey are, then the gradient of AB must be the SlIme as thai ofBC or AC, as these will be segments of the same line.

Gradient of AB = ~ and gradient of BC = ~. (Check gradient of AC).

Hence the three points are collinear.

Exsmple 11

IfC(p.q/ is a poim on Ihe line AD, where A is (-2,1/ and 8 is (3.2J,find a Te/a/ion"hip between p and q.

The three points are collinear.

Hence the gradient of AC = the gradient of AB.

Then ~ =~.

Now verify that this gives 5q-p= 7,which is the relatioruhip required.

Exercise 1.3 (Answers on page 606./

I Smtethe gradient of the line Ihrough the following pairs of poi Ills:

(a) (2,3),(1,5) (b) (0,3),(3,0) (c) (2,2),(5,5)

(d) (-3,-9),(1,-1) (e) (1.4),(-3,4) (f) (3,-4),(3,-1)

(g) (-1,-2),(-2,-4) (h) (-4,0),(3,-2) (il (a,Ol,(O,--a)

0) (a,b),(b,a) (k)(P,P'l,(q,q')

2 A(-4,-2), B(5,-2), qO,3) aI\d 0(1,0) are four points, Stale the gradients of (a) AB, (b) CD, (e) AC and (d) BD,

J Which of the lines through the folJowing pairs of points are parallel?

(a) (-1,3),(4,5) (b) (3,-2),(5,1) (c) (-4,-3),(1,-1)

(d) (-7,4),(2,4) (e) (0,-4),(2,-1) (0 (o,b-l), (o+5,b+ I)



4 Find the angle of slope of the line Lhrough the following pairs of points:

(a) (~2,-1).(3,4) (b) (-2,-1),(2,-5) (c) (1,3),(3,7)

5 Are the poinL~ (-7,5), (-5,8) and (1,17) collinear?

6 A(-6,-3), B(~2,8), C(O,5) and D(2,2) are four points (a) ShowthatB,CandDarecol!inear,

(b) p, Qand R ate Lhe midpoints of AB, AC and AD respectively, ShowLhat P,Qand R are also collinear

7 Irthepoint(a,b)liesonthelinejoining(~2,3)and(2,1),findarelalionshipbetween aandb.


, The coordinates of a point are given as (I - I, 21 + I). Show that the pomrs where ,,,0,1 and 2 are collinear.

10 (a) [fthelinejoiningthepoints(2.4)and(5,~2)isparalleltothclinejoining(-1.-2) anll(I',6) find the value ofp.

(b) The line joining (_1,--4) and (a,O) is parallel to the line joining (n.L) to (11,3).


11 (a) Show that thc poinlS (2,-4),(5,0) and (8,4) are conmcar.

(b) The point (d,d - 2) also lies on this line. Find the value of d

12 Iflhepoints(~3,-2),(-I,a 2) and (a. 7) are collinear. find the lwn possib)e valucs ofa.


The vertices of triangle ABC are A(--4. -2). B(4. 2) and C(2, 6). Verify that this triangle i, right-angled. Which two sides are perpendicular? Now state the gmdient, of the.<;c sides. If you multiply the two gradients.what result do you obtain?

The result is surprising su we investigate it further. Given the points A(-), --4), B(-2, 3) and C(-16, 9) show by using Pythagoras' theorem that AB and BC are perpendicular. Now find the product of their gradients. Weean show thm this result is true in general excluding undefined or zero gradienl~.

In Fig. t .17, AB is a line with grndient m, and CD a line with gradient 111,_ The lines intersect at right angles at T. The small triangle PQR shows that m, " ~




Now imagine thatline AB is rotated through 900 aboul T 10 lie along CD. Then triangle PQR takes a new posilion P'Q·R'.

This .,hows that m, = ~. as a and b are now both posmve.

Then m,~=- ~ x ~ =-1 and this will be true for any pair of perpendicular lines (except forlinesparalieltothex-orthe.J-ui./.

Ifm"m,arethegradienlS of two perpendicular lines. then m,~: -j cr "', = -~ (m," 0, "'," 0).

Conversely, um, and"" are the gradierss of twc lines("" .. 0,,,,, .. 0) and m,"',=-l,thenthelines are perpendicular.

Example 12

Th~ vfrtices o/Iriangle ABC are A(-2,-4/. 8(2,-1/ andC(5,-5/ (a) ShOWfholthelriangleisright·angled

(b) State the gradienl of the aitirude through B.

(a) This could be done using the Pythagoras' Theorem bUI here we use gradients.

The gr:a.dienlsof AB. BC and CA are~, - j and- t respectively.

As £ x (- ~ )=-1, AB is perpendieularto Be. Hence the triangle is right_angled lLB:9(lO).

(b) The altitude through B will be perpendicular to AC. Hence its gradiem =- + =7.

Exercise 1.4 (Answers all page 607.)

I Which of the lines through these pairs of points are perpendicolar?

(a) (-4,-2), (-1,0) (b) (0,-5), (4,-2) (e) (-2.1l. (15)

(d) (-I.-4J.{2.-8/ (e) (1,2).(5,-4) (0 (-2,3),(-2,7)



2 Stale the gradient of a lfne which is (al parallel. (bl perpeodicular, to AB where

(i) A is (3,-2), B is (0,4) (ii) A is (0,-1), B is (2,1)

(iii) A is (-3.-3). B is (2,4) (iv) A is (-4.1), B is (3,0)

J Is the triangle formed by ihe pcints (-3,2), (0,4) and (4,-2)rightcaogled?

4 Find the gradient of a line perpendicular to tile longe.\t ~ide of the triaogle formed by A(-J,4), B(5,2) and C(0,-3)

5 (al Show thatthe triangle formed by A(-2,-3), B(2,5) and C(IO,!) is right-angled and isosceles.

(b) STale the gradient' of the rhree altitedes.

6 Find the engle otslope of a line with gmdient ! and that ofanOlher[ineperpendicu· lar toit.

7 Find the gradient ofa hne perpendicu[arlO the line joining the points (a,3111 and (2a.--<J)

K CD is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining A(2,3) and B(5,7)

(al State (il the coordinates of the point where CD intersects AB and (iiI the gradient or co

(b) If the point (p,q) lies on CD, lind a relationship between p and q

9 tal Show that the point 0,1) lies on the perpendicular bisector of the line joining (2,4land(4,6),

(b) The point (aAl also lies on this bisector_ Find the vatue:~_.

10 A semicircle with centro 0 (The origin) and radius 5 units. meets Ox at A and Band tbepositivey·axisate.

(al Sl~le Ihe coordinates of A, Band e.

(b) If a point (x,y) lies on ihe semictrcle, show thatx"+y':25.

(e) VerifythalthepoinlP(-3.4)liesonthesemicin;lelUldshowbyusinggradiems lhat LAPB =90".

II A(-!.-2). Bib,l) and C(6,-3) are three poinL~ and AB is perpendicular 10 Be. (0) State, in terms ofh,the gradientsofAB and Be.

(b) Hence showrhet te « 1)(b-6l=-12.

(e) Now lind lhetwopossiblcvalucsofb



The point P(x.y) lies on the line through A(-2,3) and B(4,-1) (Fig. \.18). Can we find a relationship between x andy? (Note that we usc the ooordinates (x,y) as P i~ any point on the line).

Since the Three points arc collinear, the gradient of AP = gradient of AB

Then~ =~=-j




This relationshipi~ called the equation orlhe line through A and B.

Ifthccoordinates (x,y) ofa point are substirured in the equation and both s ides are equal,lhen the poinl lies on the line. We say the coordinates satisfy the equation. Conversely, if the point lies on the line, its coordinates must satisfy th e equauon.

For example. the poim (3.-5) lies on the line 2r + 3y = -9 because 2 x 3 + 3 x (-5) =-9. The coordinates (3,-5) satisfy the equation.

The point (2,3) does nollie on the line because 2 X 2 + 3 X 3 ~ -9. The coordinates (2,3) do not satisfy the equation

Such an equation is called a linear equation. as it is theequatioodfas traight Lioe. Its general form is ax + hy '" c where a. II and c are constants. For example, 2x - 3y = I. y= 3.<-5 are linear equations_ Note lhaty= 2 (nux term) or 2.1 + I =0 (no y term) are alsolinear equations

We now look at various fOnDS of a linear equation and how 10 find them. The position ofa line can be fired intwo ways.

J Gil'ellollepointA(x"y/)olllhelinealldirs/iradientm

IfP(x,y) is any point on the line (Fig. 1.19). then its gradient is:~j~" = m.




A!X,.r •• -;:, ~~=j--~


y ::~'I =~'I(X -x,) one-point, gradiem form



which simplifies 10 3y = 2x- 9 or 3y- 2x =-9.

Example 13

(aJ Whot is the equation of the line throuflh (3,-1 j with gradient j ? (bJ Does thepoinr (2J) lie on this line?

(e) Find the coordinates of the points where this line cuts the axes. (a) Using the one-point, gradient form, the equation of the line

isy-(-I)= i (x-3) i.e. 3(y+ 1)=2(x-3)

(b) Subslitutingintheequalion.3x3-2x2=5.ButS""-9sothecoordinate,do not satisfy me eqcanon and hence the point (2,3) does not lie on the line.

(c) 'rhe j-coordmere of any point 011 the r-axis isO. ·Subslitutey=O in the equation of the line.

Then 0 = 21: - 9 giving x = 4~. The line cuts the .r-axis at (4t,O).

Similarly, to find where the line cuts tbe y-axisc putx e Il in the equation. Verify that this gives the point (0.-3).

II Given two pomts A(x"y,) and B(x,.y,J

Let P(x,y) be uny poin' un 'he Ene (Fig. 1.20).

Fig. 1.20

Then by gradients. ~ =y,-y,

x-x, »c-»,

Rewriting this in a more symmetrical form. the ;<Illation of the line is

y-y, = x-x, y,_y, ",-X,


(note the order of the terms)



Example 14

Find the equation oJthe line through (2,-1) and (-1,4).

II does not mener which polnt is taken as (xI'YI)' Take (2,-3). Using the two-point form, the equation is ~ = :=;; = :1-:..22 t.e. )";3 =~.

lines Parallel to the x· or j-axts Equations for these llnes are speclal cases.

Now remove the fraction, 10 get -3(y + 3) = 7(x 2), which simplifies to 3y + 7x= 5.

Example 15


Find the equation oJthe line through (a) (-32)and'(52).

(b) (3,-1) and (3,5)

(a) If we use the two-pclm form, we get t~ = ~:; whichisnotdefined.Wecan see however that the line isparaHel to the r-axis (Fig. 1.21). Every po intoftheline will have coordinates of the form (..r.2) so its equation will be Y = 2 as Y is always =2, whatcverthevalueofx.



Fig. 1.21

(b) Similarly this line is parallel to they-axis. Every point will have coordinates of the foim (3,y). So the equation isx=3. Hence, ifk isaconSlaIll,then

ycok is the equauon or a line parallel 10 the .c-exrs x=kisthccqualionofalinepamllcllothcy·axis




Exercise 1,5 (Answersonpage607,)

1 Find, in its simplest fonn.jhe equarlcn orme line (a) lhrough{2,3)with,gradienti J

(h) through (-i,-i) wllhgradlcnt"

(e) through (1,3) with gradienl-~

(d) through (1,0) and (-2,3)

(e) tbruugh{O,i)and{-LJ)

(f) through{3,-2)and{7,-2)

(g) through (-2,4) parallel to the y-axls

(h) tilrough (1,2) and paraliei to a line wilh gradient 2

(i) Ih",ugh (-3,-1) and perpendicular to a line with graulem-. 5 (j) through (-1,2) and (-i.7)

(k) through(0,-3)alld(0,S)

2 Find me coordmares of the points where each of the linesin Question I cut the axes. 3 A line cuts the .r-axls at (3,0) and the y-axis at (0.-2). Find the equat ion of the line. 4 P{0.9) and 0(6.0) are two points. A line is drawn from the origin perpendicular to PQ.

Find the equ3tion of this line

5 Fintl thc equations of the Jines through (-1.-4) which are (a) parallel and (b)perpen· dicular to another line with gradient-to

(j The gradient of a line is 2 and il curs the y-3;o;;, at (0,3). Find ns equation and the coordinates of the poinl where it cuts the .r-axis.

7 Find the equations of the sidesoftri"ngle ABC where A i~ (-2.3), B is (0,5) and C is (3.-1).

II The points A(4,4), B{-2,0) and C(6.-2) form a tdengle. (a) Find Ihe equations of the medians of this mangle.

(b) If AD i. an atnrude of the mangle, find the equation nf AD

9 FrOlD the point (2,5},aperpendicularis drawn to the line joining (-I,-4l and (52) • Find theequalion of this perpendicular.

10 ABCI) is a parallelogram where A is (2,-i), B is (6,2) and C is (11.-2). (a) StatetheeoordinatesoflhemidpointnfAC.

(b) Hence find the cccrdfnarcs ot D

(c) Find the equations of the diagonals of the parallelogram

11 A(-1.2) and C(3,4) are opposite vertices of a rhombus ABCD. Find (a) the coordinates of the point where the diagonals intersect.

(b) the gradient of AC,

(c) the equation of the diagonal BD



1'0 do this we convert the equation 10 a form - the gradlent-lmerccpr form 1_22 shows <I line with gradient/II which y-axis ut C(O,c). c is calJed the y-intcrcCplOflhc!inc.LelP(.<.y)beanypoinl line. Then Ihe gradient of lh~ line"




Hence.If an equation is written in tbis form. lhegmdient is given by rbe coerrtctent otc and lhcy-inlercept by the constant term

To verify this, suppose the equation of line is y = 2x- 3 (grudicnt-intercepr fonD), This line cuts the y-axis whcrex= 0, so y = -3 (the comtanllerm). The points (2.1) and (5,7) lie On the line (check Ihis). The gradient is ~ = 2 which is the coefficient of_.

Example 16

Find the gradients oflhe lines (a) 2.<-3y = 5, (bl 2y + x =-4. (al Convert 10 the gradient-intercept form, y = !>IX + c:

-3y=-2x+5 'rnen v=


gradient y_intercept

Sothcgradie.ntis ~ (andtlleY-ime~ePtiS-1)'

(b) 2y+x=-4 I.c.2y=-x-4soy=-:;:x-2 ,!,he gradient is -~.

It is useful to practise this conversion, i.e. making j the subject 0 f the cquaticn. The gradient is then obtained quickly.


Equations of Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

Example 17

F;"d fhe equalioltS of the lines through fhe Im;tII (J ,2) which are (a} parallel, (b) pupendicular, tn the line 2.r -3y = 4

(a) Tbegradientofthelinelx-3y=4is j. So the gradient of any parallel line is also j. Hence its equation wiJIbey= jx.c.

To find c, we _,uhslilUle the coordinates 0,2) in the equation as (1,2) ues on the line."Then2=j+t·givingc=1·

Th.eequalionisy= jx+ 5 r.e. 3y=ZX+4

(h) TIle gradient of any perpendicular line will be -~ so its equation isy: -~x+ c.

Substitute (1,2) tn find c and verifylhallherequiredequationis2y=-3x+7

Exercise 1.6 (Answers on page 607.)

I State the gradients of the following lines:

(a) x+y=2 (b) x-y=-J

(d) 2x+y= I (el Jx+2y=6

(g) y=4 (b) x-2y=0

0) 2x-3y=4 (k) 4x=3y-2

(m)u-y=t (n) py+x=2p

2 Find the equation oflhe line which is

(a) parallel te r c-y e I and passes Ihrough (2,3)

(b) parallel 10 2x.y=3 and passe, Ihmugh{O,I) (e)pelpClldicularto2x+y=Oandpasscsthrough(-I,-2) (d) perpendicular to 3x+y=5 and passes Ihrough (-2,-1) (e) paralleltoy=4andpasseslhroogh(0,l)

(f) perpendiculartox-3y= I and passes through (-3,0) (g) perpendicullU" to x e 2 and passes Ihrough (-2,3)

(c)y-2x=3 (f)5x-2y=5 (i) 2x+3y= I (I) 5:t-2y= 10 (0) ax+by= I

J Find the equations oflhe lines parallel and perpenorcuter 10 (a) x+y= 3 passing Ihrnugh (-1,2)

(b) 2x-y=4passinglhrough(0,3)

(e) 4x+3y= I passing through (0,-2)

(d) x-3y= J passinglhrough(-l,-I)

4 A line is drawn through the point (-1,2) parallel to the line y + 5x=2. Find its equation and that of the perpendicular line through the same point.

5 The side BC of a mangle ABC lie!!. on the line 2x - 3y: 4. A is the poim (2.3). Find tbeequatiollofiheallitudelhroughA



At what point do the lines 2r - 3y = -1 and 3x + 8y = 2 intersect? This point lies on both these lines so its coordinates must satisfy both equations. Hence its coordinates will be the solution of the simultaneous equartons

2r-3y=-7 and 3x+8y=2

(il (ii)

These can be solved by any of the methods you have learnt previously. We use the elimination method here.

Multiply (i) by 3:

Multiply (iil by 2:

Subtract Substitute in (i):

The point is (-2,1).

fu-9y =-21

6x+ 16y=4 -25y=-25 soy= I h-3=-7sox=-2

Suppose the lines were 2r 3y = -7 and 4.1' - s» = 3. What happens in the solution? Explainthis.


Example 18

From Ihe point P(-l .3). a perpendicular PQ is drawn to Ihe line joining A(-4.-8) and B(4.4).Find

(a) rhe equaJion5 of AB and me perpendicular,

(b) the coordinates of the point where they intersect, (e) the di.tlunce vfP from the line AB.

A sketch diagram should always be drawn to help in such questions (Fig .1.23).

, 1-4,-6)

Fig. 1.23



(al The equation of AB is !..f!- : T i.e. 3x - 2y: 4'.

Now check !hat the equation of PQ is 2.>: + 3y: 7.

(b) Solvingtheequations3.x-2y:4aml2x+3y:7,weget(2,I)as!hecoortlinaII'S or o.

(c) The dislan<;c of P from AB is PQ.

PQ1-: (-I - 2)' + (3 - I)' : (-3)' + 2': 13 <;0 PQ = {i3

Example 19

ABeD;s a rectangle what' A is (-3,2), D is (2.5) and B lit's on Ihe y-axls. Find (a) rhl'l'qluJliono/AD,

(b) rheeqU<Jliono/AB,

(e) rheeoordindlesofB

(d) IhecoordindlesojC


Fig. 1.24 shows the facts given

(a) EquationofADis Y '" ~ Le. 3.< 5y:-19.

(b) AB is perpendicular to AD. The gradient of AD is ~ so the gradient of AB is - ~.

Knowing the gradient and the point A. Yerify thai the equation of AB is 3y:-5x-9

(c) AB meets they-axis where x: O. Heneey = -3. The coordinates of Bare (0,-3). (d) Let the diagonals meet at M. M is the midpoim of BD. so M is(I,I).

As M is also the midpoint of AC, therefore C is (5,0).


Rg. t.25


The tine b + 3y '" 6 meet., the y-atis at A and tht x.axis at B. C is Iht palm such that AB '" Be. CD is dra",n perpend;cula~ 10 AC 10 meet Ihe liTle through A parallel In 5x+y'" r as D

(a) FiM Ihe coordiMles of A. Band C.

(b) Stale Ihe eotunions of CD and AD. and hence fil1d Ihe coordil1ale.' of D (L') Calculale the area of lire Iriangle ACD



(a) The line meets the y-axis where X '" 0, y '" 2, SO A is (0,2) It meets the .r-axis where y '" 0, X '" 3, SO B is (3,0).

Since B is the midpoint of AC, then C must be (6,-2).

(b) CD is perpendicular w AC. Therefore its gradient is ~ and it passes through C.

Verify that the equation of CD is 11:- 2y '" 22.

AD is parallel to Sx-+y= 7. Therefore its gradient is-S and it passes through A. Verifythllt the equation of AD is S.t-+y= 2

Solvingtheselwoequationsglvesx=2andy=-8_SothecoordinatesofDare (2,-8).

(c) As ACDis a right-angled uiangle,

itslUall~ i xACxDC= i x -J52 x m=26units'

Exercise 1,7 (Answers 011 page 607.)

1 The line 4.1 - 3y '" 12 meets the axes at A and B. Find the length of AB.

2 Find the equation of the line through the point of intersection of2t+ 3y= 5 and 3x-y; 2, and whlch is parallel 10 4y-x= 14.



J Through A(2,3) two line~ are drawn witb gradients-l and 2. These lille~ meet the lim: x-2y=SaIB..ooC.Find

(a) theequationsofABandAC, (b) the coordinatesofBandC.

4 The lilies X + 3y = 1 and 2.t - 5y = -9 intersect at A. Find the equation of the lim: through A and the point (-1,-2).

5 A line Ihrougb A(5.2) meets the line 3x + 2y = 6 at righl angles at B. Find the coordinaresofB and calculate me length ofAB.

6 (a) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisecter cf tbe line joining A(-3,3) and B(I,-5)

(b) If this bisector meets the .r-axis at C. Iind the coordinates of C.

7 The side.. of a mangle lie on the linesy =-1, 2x + y = I and4x - 3y =-13. Find the coordinates ofllle venice~ and ~how lhalthe mangle is isosceles.

8 The imersections of me linesSx+6y=36,x-2y=4and7x+ 2y= 12 are the vertices ofatriangle

(a) Find the coordinales otmese vertices.

(b) Oblain the equanon or the alurude drawn to the longest side

9 OABC iSI parallelogram where 0 is the origin .1nd B is the point (5,7). C lies on the

line x - 2)' = OandA lies on the line 2.t- y=O. Calculate the coordinates of A and C.

10 The sides ofa triangle lie 00 the lioesy = !,x+ y = 6 and 3x- Y = 2. (a) Calculate the coordinates of the vernees of Ihe triangie.

(b) Findtbe equations of the lbree altitudes.

(c) Sllowthattbeseallitudesintern:ctalapoinl and findthecoordinatesof this point.

II A(3,1) and 8(0.6) are 1111'0 points. BC is perpendiculat'to AB and meets Ibex-axis at C. Find

(a) the equation ofBC, (b) thecoordinatesofC,

(c) the area of mangle ABC.

12 The diagonals of a rhombus meet at the point (-1,5) and one of them is paratlel rc the line2.<-5y=3.

(a) Find the equations ufthe diagonals.

(b) Iftwooftbe vertices oftherbombus are (-3,10) and (9,9), find the coordinates of the other two.

13 A is the point (-1.6). Lines are drawn through A with gradients 3 and -2, meeting the .r-axis at B and C respectively. BD is perpendicular 10 AB and CD is perpcndicularto AC.

(a) Findlhecoord1natesofB andC. (b) State the equalions of BD and CD (c) Ftnd tbe ccordtnates of D

(d) Calculate the ratio BD:CD



14 A(I,2) and C{5,4) are IWO vertices of the rectangle ABCD, AB and CD are parallel to theliney-x=5,

(a) Find the equations of AB and BC (b) Find the coordinates nfB and D,

(e) Hence find the area of the rectanglc,

15 ABCD is a rectangle where A is (1,3) and D is (5,5), AC lies on the line 3y = 4x + 5, Find

(a) the equation of Dr', (b) the cccrdmetes or C, (e) the coordlnates of B, (d) the area of ABCD

16 The point B(a,b) is the reflection of A(5,-2) in the line 2x - 3y '" 3 (a) Find the equation ofAB and show that 3a+ 2h= II,

(b) State the coordinates of the midpoint of AB in terms of a and b and show that Zu-3b=-IO,

(c) Hencefindthevaluesofaandb


• Midpointof(x,,y.)~nd(x,,y,)i'("';X, ~),

• Distance between (XL')") and (.I',.}',) is ~(x, x,)' + (Y, )',)'

• Gradient of lille througll (x,,»and (x,,)',) is ~:=;:

• Parnllellinesh:lveequa\gr,uJienls

• Three points A, Band C are collinear if the gradient of AB equals the gradient of Be.

• If"" and "',are the gradients of perpendicular lines, m,"', = I, If"" and m,(m, .. 0, m," OJ are the gradients of two lines and 11/,"', = I, then the lines are perpendicular,

• Equation of line through (XL'» with gradient 11/ is y - Y, = m(x - x,),

• Equation orHnc through (XL')") and (x,.y,l is ;,-:_>;:, :0 ;:-:_~, '

The form y = na + c gives the gradient (m) and the y-uucrcepr (el,


REVISION EXERCISE 1 (Answers 011 page 607.)

I Find the equation of the line

(a) through (-2,3) with gradien1-~.

(b) through the points (-3,2) and (:1,-5),

(c) through (-l,-I) perpendicular to thellne 3x 2y'" l.

2 A and B are the points (-2,-1) and (4,1) respectively. BC is perpendicular 10 AB (a) FiodtheequatiooofSe.

(b) If the gradient of AC is 1, find the c'lulltion of AC and the coordinates of C. (c) Hence find the area of triangle ABe.

3 A(-I,l) and B(3,4) are IWO vertices of triangle ABe. If the area of the triangle is )5 units', find the distan<"e ofC from AB

4 The Hne y e 2x + 3 intersects they-axis at A. The points Band C On this line are such that AS '" Be. The line through B perpendicular \() AC passes through the point D(-1,6).Find

(a) theequationofBD.

(b) the coordinates of B (c) rhe coordmates or C


5 (a) The line ~ - ~ '" 1 meers the axes at A and B. Find the coordinates of the midpoint of AB and the length of AS.

(b) Acircleisdrawnwithit~centreattheorigin.lfthepointP(4.3)liesonthiseircJe, findtheequationofthetangenttothecircleatP

6 Fig. 1.26 shuw, a "iangle ABC with A(l.l) ~nd B(-1.4). The gradients of AB. AC and BC are -3m, 3m and m respectively.

(a) Find the value ofm.

(b) Find thc coordinates of C.

(c) Show that AC '" 2AB. (C)




7 A(-3,4) and C(4,-1O) are opposite vertices of the parallelogram ABeD The gradients of the sides AB and BC are - ! and 3 respectively. Find (a) tbe equations ofAB and BC.

(b) theeoo,din~tesofBandD.

8 Three points have coordinates A(I.-3), 8(5,5) and C(5,9). Find the equation of the per]Jendkular bisector of (a) AB. (b) Be. Hence find the coordinates of the poim equidislantfrom A,Bande. (C)


I) (a) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector ofAB,given that A is (2.7) and B is (6.-1).

(b) The bisector meets the j-axis at e. Find the coordinates ofC and the area of triangle ABe

10 A(O,6), B(I,3) and C(4,6) are three points. D is the foot of the perpendicular from A e ec. Find

(a) thecoordinatesofD, (h) lhelengthofAD

Fig. 1.27

In Fig. 1.27. ABeD is a rectangle, and A and B are the points (4,2) and (2,8) respectively. Given that titeequ81ionofAC isy=x-2. find

(a) theequationofBC,

(b) IhecoordinatesofC,

(c) thecootdinatesofD,

(d) lhearea of the rectangle ABCD. (C)

12 Two poeus have coordinates A(I,3)andC(7,7). Find the equationoftbe perpendicular bisector ofAC.

B is me point on the y-axis equidistant from A andC and ABCD is a rhombus. Find the coordinatcsofB andD.


distance of A from Be. (C)




A(.'.5) y + 5~~2

ABCD is a parallelogram. lettered amiclcckwise. such that A and e are the points (-1.5) and (5,11 respcctively. Find the coordinates or me midpoint ofAe.

Given thatBD is parallel to the line whose equation isy+ 5x= 2, find the equario n or an

Given that BC is perpendicular 10 AC, find !he equation of Be. Calculate {ll the

coordinates of B. (ii) the coordinates of D. (iii) the area of ABeD. (el



14 A(-2,2) and C(4,-1) are opposite vertlcesof a pMlllelogram ABCD wnose sides III'C patallel totht'linesx=O and 3J=x,

(a) Fir>dthecoord.inat~orBandD,

(b) If P and Q are !he feet of the perpendicol~ from D and B respectively to AC. fiod the coordinates of P and Q and sho- .... that PQ = ~ AC.

IS Fig. 1,28 shows a quadrilateral ABCD in which A is (2,8)md B is (8,6). The point C lies 00 the perpendicular hisector of AB and the poim D lies on the y-axis. The equatiOllofBC is 3y=4x-14and angle DAB = 90". Find

(al the equation of AD,

(h) the coordinates ofD,

(el the equation of the perpendicular bise<:tor of AB,

(d) thecoordinatesofC. ShowthattbeareaoftriangleADCislOunits'andfiodtheareaofthequadrilaterai ABCD. (C)




161bclinex+ y=3 meets they-axis aa A and the .r-axis er B. ACisperpeodicularw AB and the equationofBC isy=3..--9.

(a) Fmd the equation of AC and the coordinates ofC. ADispMlllelwCBwheteD lies on the x-axis.

(b) Find thecoordinatcsofD

(cl Hence find the area of the trapezium ACBD.

17 Fig. 1.29 shows the quadrilatera1 OABC. The coordinates of A are (k,2k) where k>O,andthelengthofOAis ~ units

(a) Calculate thc value ofk.

AB is perpendicular to OA and B lies on the y-axis (b) Findlbeequationof ABandthec:oonlinatesofB.

The point C lies on the line through 0 parallel Wy + 3;t: 5 and also on the perpeodicularbiscctorofAB.

(c) Calculale the coordinates ofC.

CalculalCtheareaofthequadrilaterulOABC (C)




1& The vertices ora triangle are (-3,5), (4,-2) and (6,2).

(a) Findtheequationsortheperpel1dicularbisecto~ofthesides.

(b) Show thai they meet at the s.ame poinl and find lhecoordinates of this point. (el Find the radius of lhe circle passing through the vertices.

19 A and B are the points (2,4) and (4,0) respectivcly

(a) FindlheequationoftheperpendicularbisectorofAB.

(b) The bisector meets the line through B parallel to the y-uis at C. Find the coordinatesofC.

(c) Calculate the radius of the circle which passes through A and Touches the .r-exis at B

20 The sides AB, BC and CA lie on me lines 2)" '" x - 4, x + y = 5, and y = mx respectively. If the origin 0 is me midpoint of AC, find the value of m.

21 A(h,k) lies on the line y + 3x '" -10. B lies on me line x + y '" 4. If the origin is the midpointofAB,findlhevalueofh and ofk.

22 A(I,5) lies on thelinc y e Zx e 3. P lies on the perpendicular to Ihal line through A . (a) Show lhat the coordinates ofP can he wriuenas(II-2a,a).

(b) If OP = ..[34, where 0 is the origin, find the possible values of a.

23 A line with gradient m passes through the point P(3,2) and meets the y-axis at A. A Iineperpendiculartolhefi~taloopasseslhrough Pand meets the x-axis at B.

(a) Express the coordinates of A and B in terms of m

(b) IfAB = ..f6s,fmdthepossible valuesofm



24 P and Q are the points of intersection of the line ~ + j = I with the x- and y-axe, respoctively. The gradient of QR is ! and R is the point whose x-coordinatc is 2,. where I is positive. Express the y-cooniinate of R in terms of I and evaluate I given that the area of triangle PQR is 21 units' (C)

25 A line through (3, I) has gradient m (> t ). It meets the .r-axis at A and the y-axis at H. From A and H, perpendiculars to the line are drawn to meet the y-axis at C and the x-axis 81 D respectively. Show that the gradienlofCD is~.

26 A(x,.)',), H(x,S,), C(x"y,) and D(.t"y,) are the vertices of 3 patallclogralll ABCD. (a) Show that x, +x, "'x,+x. andy, +Y,,"'Y,+Y •.

(b) If ABCDis a rhombus show that (x, - x,l(x, -x.)+ (Y, -Y,,)(Y,- y) ",0. (c) If however ABCD is a rectangle show Ihal.<,x, + Y,}', '" xr• + Y,Y,.


Simultaneous Equations


Two linear equations, say 1.- + 4)' = -5 and 2x - 3y = 8, can be solved 10 find values of x andy which satisfy both equations simultaneously. As we have seen, this solution gives thecoordinaleS of the pointofimersection of the two lines represented by the equaeons

In this Chapter we consider two simultaneous equations where one of them is nOl a linear equation but is an equation of the second degree such as ry e 8orr+y'= lO,elc These are the equations OfCUTVU

Example 1

(i! (iii

Solve Ihejollowing equtJliotlJ x+y=9 .ty=8

Bquation (i)represen15 a suaigbr line bUI equation (ii) is the cqceuon or a hyperbola, a cerve with two branches (Fig.2_1)



The line meets the curve at two different points (A and B) so we expect 10 obtain tWII solutions, giving the coordinates of AandB

The usual method is to eliminate one of the variables, Make one variable the subjttl of the linear equation IIIId then subsnnnc mis in me other (non-linear) eq uaticn. This will lead to a quadratic equation, which C3n usually be wived by factortzat ion. From(i),x=9-y.

Then subsnruting for xin (ii),


i.e. Y_-9y+8:0or(y-8)(y-I)=O. Bence v e s or I.

Now findthecorn:sponding vatces ot r from (i). Wheny:8.x= I;

when y= l,x=8

So the solutions are r e I,y = 8 (coordinates of A) orx=8,y= I (coordinates of B)

Find the coo,dilUlles of the points where the line 2x+3y=-1

meeu the cwve x(x-y)=2

(i) (ii)

Example 2

We use the same method but the algebra will be more complicated as neither x nor y in (i) has 3 coefficient of I.

CItoosingyas the subject. we obtain from (i) y=-1;-2x

Tbeusubstituung for j jn (ii),

x(x- -1;-2>:) = 2 or xeH ~ +2.0) =2 which simplifies tox(5x + I) = 6 or 5x' + x- 6 = O. Hence(ix+6)(x-I)=Ogivingx=-~ or I. From(i),whenx=-~.- ¥ +3y=-1 so y = Ts:'

andwhenx= 1,2+3y=-1 soy=-J.

Hence rhe coordinaes of the rwo pctots are (-~.Ts:) and (1,-1).




tn (ii)

Example 3


X +21'''' 7


From (i), choosing .r as the subject for ~jmplicity, x = 7 - 2.1" Then substituting for x in (ii),

~!:;~~iE::~,?~:~~:~,:~:,,",oh",oh"'"~" y

J tangent to the curve lL ,ouches the curve which IS a (32)

CIrcle at the pmnt (32) as shown In FIg22

" .


,'+1 r_O

I':i:T =--y--=o

Example 4

A_<trail!hllinelhrou/lh(O,-l!meel-<rhecurve.r + Y-4.r-.?y +4 = Oatthe,",i", (J,I!, Findlhecoordinolesojlhesecondpoinr,,'huflhislinemeeISlhrcurvr.

F;T~1 we find the equation of the straight line:


Then substitute for .r in the equalionoftbe curve: (l";l'j+,v'_4(3\'2+3) -2.1'+4=0

i.e. 9," + ~H" + 9 +.i _ 6y _ 6 _ 2y + 4 '" 0,

Clearing the fraclion.

9y' + 18_y+ 9 +4_\~ -24y-24 _ 8y + 16=0 and so 13_1"- t4y+ J =Oor(13y-l)(y-l)=O.

Hcncey'" D: cry = 1 21

The corresponding vefucs of .r are then n or 3. Sothcs«ondpoil1lis(H·A-)·





Example 5

Ifille line lx-5y = 8 meets Ihe Cl<rve ~ - ~ =4atAandB.firuilhecoordinalesaf tile midpoinl af AB.

rll'Sl remove the fractions from the equation of the curve'

Fromthelinearequalion,x:¥. SubstilUtingforxin(i).


Clearingihefraclion. wehave9y-II-5y=4y(8+5y):32y+20y' or 20f~28y+8"'0,

i.e. 5/+ 7y+2=0 or (5y + 2)(y + 1)=0

Hencey=-! or-I

Then.r e Lor I.

Thecoordinatesrf A rdB are (2,- ~ )and(l,-I)andihecoordilllltesofthemidpoini are therefore (12'-TIi)




If Ihe sum of two numbers is 4 and tile ,<um of their sqU(Jres minus three limes Iheir product is 76,findtlle"um~rs.

Suppose the numbers are x and y

The ~um of the numbers is x + y.

The (sum of the squares) - (3 x the product) is r + 1 1ry

Theo r+I-3xy=76

We solve these equenons.

From (i), x=4-y


(4 - yf + r - 3y(4 - y) = 76 which is then expanded. 16-8y + r+ r -12y + 3f=76

5f-2Oy- 60=0

HeRCer - 4y- 12'" 0 which gives (y - 6}(y + 2) = 0 andy = 6 or-2. Then from (i). the corresponding values of X are-2. and 6

Therefore the two numbers are 6 and-2

Aritlunetieally, there is ooIy one soiuti(Hl. Geometrically, the iinex+ y =4 meets the eurvegivenbyequ.atioo(ii)inlW()poinlS(6,-2)and(-2,6).



Exercise 2.1 (Answer~ Q" page 608.)

1 Solve Ihe following pairs ofsimullanenus equations:

(a) x+Y'=S,xy=x+3 (b) x-y=2 . .l(y+2)=9

(el2x+y=S,r+y2:10 (d) x-2y:2.i'+xy=20

(e) b+3y=5.y(_y-x)=5 (f) 3x-2y=7,i'+r= iO

(g) 3x-y=7..~+XY-Y'= I (h) x+3y= 1,x'-xy+i:21

(i) 3x+4y=2,i'-3i= I Ul J.r+2y'" 13,lr+r=31

(k)1-}=1.~+~=~ (I) ~-~=1,¥+~=3

(m) 3x-2y= \1. (x- I}(y+ 3) =4

2 The line y = x + 2 meet" the curve y = 4(b + I) at A and B_ Find the coordinates of the midpoint of AB

3 Shnw that the line x +}''' 6 is a tangent to the curvei' + / = 18 and find the coordinatesofthepointofcnnl3ct.

4 A line through (2,1) meet~ the curve i' - b - y" 3 at A(-2,S) and at B. Find the coordinatesofB.

5 What is Ihc relationship of Ihc Iine3x-2y=4tothecurvey=x-~?

6 The perimeter of a rectangle is 22 em and its area is 28 cm-, Find its length and breadth.

7 The line through (1,6) perpendicular to the line x+ y = 5 meets the curve y = 2x + ~ again at P. Find the coordinates ofP

8 A(3,1) lies on the curve (x - I}(y + I) = 4. A line through A perpendicular to x + 2y = 7 meets the curve again at B. Find the coordinates of B

9 The difference between two numbers is 2 and the difference of their squares is 28 Findthenumbcrs.

H} Fencing is used to make 3 sidesofa rectangle: two pieces each of length am andonc pieceoflCllgthbm.ThetOlalleogthoffeocingusedis30mandtheareaeocloscdis 100m'. What are the vetoes ofa and b?

II The une x - y= 7 meet, the curver + /- -x = 21 al A and B_ Find the coordinates of the midpoint of AB

12 Thelinethrough(-3.8)para!1c!toy=2x-3meetsthecurve(x+3)(y-2)=8atA and B. Find the coordinates of the midpoint of AB




To solve simultaneous equations. OIlC linear, the other of the secon d degree: (a) make one of the variables thc subject of the linear equation,

(b) SUb81itulC in the second degree equation.

(e) simplify and then solve lhcquadr.lIic equation obtained, (d) find the corresponding values of the second variable

If tWQ equal solunons urc obtained, the line is a tangent to the curve given by rheseconc dcgrcc ccuauoo.

REVISION EXERCISE 2 (Answers on page 608.)

I Solve the simultaneous equations 4x - 3y = 11 and 16i' - 3/ = 61.

2 The line y - 2x - 8;; 0 meets the curve / + 8x '" 0 at A and B. Find the coordinates

of the midpoint ofAB. (C)

3 A straight line tltrough me point (0,-3) intersects the curve as +j'-27x+4! "Oat (2,3). Calculate the coordinales ofthepoinl at which the tine again mee rs thc curvc.


4 Catcujarerhe coordinates of the points of intersection of the straight ! ine2r+3y=!O

and the curve ~ + ~ =5. (C)

5 Solve the simultaneous equations 2x + 3y = 6 and (2x + I)' + 6(y - 2jl = 49. (C)

6·The perimeter of the shape shown in Fig.2.3 is 90 cm and the area enclosed is 300 em'. All comers are right-angled. Find the values ofx and y.

7 Tile point A(O.p) lies on the curve y '" (x - 2)1. A line through A perpendicular to y=x+3mcelsthecurveagainatB. Find


(b) thc coordinatcs of B.



8 Twoquanlities u and v are connected by the equation u e 2v=7, A third quantity P, is given by P = u(v - 3). Find the values of u and v when P "'-3

9 The hypotenuse of a righI-angled triangle is (2y - J) em long. The other IWO sides are xemand(y+5)em in length. lfthe perimeter of the triangle is 30 ern. find the possibJevaluesofxandy.

10 Solve the simultaneous equations 2x + 4y '" 9 and 4r + 16y' '" Z{k + 4y - 19. (C)

11 Solve the simullaneous equations 3x-Zy= 11 andr+xy+ r= 7

12 A(3,4) and 8(7.8) an: two points. P(a,b) is equidistant from A and B such that AP:: ill.

(a) Showthala+b= II.

(bl Flnd the values ofa and b

IJ In Fig.2.4, ABE is an isosceles triangle and BCDE is a rectangle. The total length round ABCDEA is 22 em and the area enclosed is 30 em'.

Ca) Sfate the disUlnCe of A from BEin terms ct x.

(b) Fmdthepossiblevaluesofxandy.



, ,

C 6x 0


14 Solve the simultaneous equallonsx+y=6and ~ "'? + ~

15 The poinl p(a,b) lies on !he line through A(-I,-2) and 8(3,0) and PA:: ills. Find !he values ofa and b.

Hi A circle lias centre (4,2) and radius V5 units. p(x,y) is any point on theeircumfe",nce (a) Showthatr+y'-1lt-4y+15=0.

(b) Find the coordinates of the ends of the diameter which, when extended, pD~seS through the origin.

(cl Find the coordinates of the ends of {he perpendicular diameter






A rdation links the member> of two sets together. Relations can be of many kinds. c.g. "is the father of', "is a divisor of", "is the same age as", "is the square of" etc. Fig. 3.1 illustrates the relation "is the father of" linking the set of men lAo S, C. DJ and the set of children {p.q.r.s. t.u, v). An arrow identifies the relation between a father and child The diagmm shows lhal A has two children (p and q). B has 1 child (I), C has 3 children (r, s and u) and D 1 child (v). So 2 arrows leave from A, 1 from B, 3 from C and I from D.


In OUT work the relation will usually be some mathematical operation. Fig. 3.2 shows therclation "Y'" I +X'" wherethe starting values (Ihcinputs) are chosen valucsofx. These are linked 10 the values ofy produced bylhe relation (the outputs), i.e. the set 1l,2,S,26]

Fig. 3.2

Note that only ONE arrow leaves each input, unlike the relation in Fig. 3.1. In Fig. 3.2 euchinputproduce<;uuniqueoutput. This is a speciul type ofreJution called a function, one of the most important concepts in Mathematics. The relation in Fig. 3.1 is NOT a function.


In Fig. 3.3, each member of set A is u/llar<'d to produce the set of outputs B.As each input


ha< a unique square, Fig. 3.3 illustrates a function L fis"square the i oput".So,ifxisthe input, the output is.r

A function is also called a mapping aod we say that x is mapped onto r by l/ie function r.we symbottze uns as

f: x !-----------. _\~

Read this as 'f'is the function which rnaps r ontor"

f operates 00 the ioputx to producer" so we write f(x) "X'. Hence theima geof2is f(2) =2' =4. The image of-3 is f(-3) " (-])'=9. The image of a is f(a) =a' and so on. What i. the image of 5? What is f(6), f(-x) and 1{2x)'! If f(xi = 49, what is the value of x? Now louk at the relution illustrated in Fig. 3.4(a).





[s this a functioo? As you can see, each input has/Wooutpul,(2 arrow s from each input), So this operatioo (taking the,;qllarerool,x!-----------. {X) is NOT a function. [I does nOI produce a unique image as x has 2 square roots +-./-; aod--.,f~.

However, if we defined,f 10 mean the positive root only, then f{x) '" + ..fXwould be a function(Fig,3.4(b»,



• a function f is a process or operation which takes an input x and map.~ it omo a unique output fIx). the image of.\~


• 10 define f, we write. for example, f(xl = x' or f(xl = +..,[; or f(x) " sin x etc

fand x are the usual letters for the function and the input respectively, but other len en; can be used e.g. F{x),g(x) orA{r),ele.

A fUrlClion need not be defined algebraically. I! may be stated in words, such as the function 'Y is the father of x', or given in the form ofa table such as a table of sines.

f(x)::x'-x+ I

Example 7

Afunctjonfugi~enbyf x,__ r-x+/,Find

(a) f(2), (b) f(-3), (e) Ihe imllge a/-2, (d).f(r), (e) f( j}.

(a) f(2)=2'-2+ I ,,3

(b) f(-3) = (-3)'-(-3)+ I" 13

(c) The image of -2 is f(-2l:: (_2)1_ (-2l + I = 7. (d) f(r)=i'-r+ I

(e) f(~)=(~)'-(~)+l= x'-!,+4

Example 2 Thefunctianhisgivenbyh(x)=~,x"l (a}h(2),(b)hr}),(c)h(x+l)

(a) h(l) = ;~: :: 3

(b) h(~):: I:: =-3

(c) h(x+ 1)= ~:\~: = x;2 ,x;tO

NOle: A funcnon may not produce an image for certain values of the input. In this example, x'" I. Ifx= I. h(l)= t=-t which is impossible as division by zero is undefined. Hence 1 has no image under this function.



Example 3

F(x) '" r + .r -l.l/F(xj = 5,filld the values of x.

F(xl = 5 is the equation r + x -I = 5 i.e. r + x - 6 = ° which we can solve for the vafues of x.



These are the two values of r which have an imageofS. Check by-finding F(-3land F(2).


There are special names for the sets of inputs and OUlpUIS. The set of inputs is called the domain and Ihe set of outputs Ihe range.

Fig. 3.5 shows the domain and range for the function f(xl = (I x)'. The domain is the set (-1,0,2,4) and the range is the set (1.4.9)


The domain can be any set of numbers which have images. It could be just a few selectednumber.;orallposilivenumbersorallrcalnumber.;,etc.lfitisnot~pecifiedit is taken to be all real numbers. However, as we saw in Example 2, some numbers may have no image and these must be stated. They are excluded from the domain.

Example 4

State the domain/or thefunctioll f(x) = ~.

Every real number will have an image under this function except x = O. So the domain will be (all real values ofx,x >' 0).

This is often briefly stated as f{xl = ~,.x ~ O.


Example 5

Sture the domain for ((x) '" Yx(posiliverool).

Every positive number and 0 will have a square root but negative numbers wilJ not. These must be excluded. Some domain is {all positive numbers and OJ or juqr 2:0

Example 6

Whal.-alu.esofx mw;1 be excluded from Ihe domain oflhefunction

fix) = "'::~2 ?

This function will always produce an image except when xl + x - 2 '" 0 or (.I"+2)(x-I)=Oi.e. whenx=-2orx= I

These values must be excluded from the domain.

Hence lhedomain is laH real valuesofx,x .. -2 or I)

Exercise 3.1 (Answers an page 608.)

1 Foreachoflliefollowingfunclions.findlheim"ge.of-3. 1.0. I. 2.4'

(a) f(x)",,t>-x-5 (b) g(x)=(x+l)'

(c) h(x)=~ (d) F(x)=(x+ l){x-2)

2 What value of x must be excluded from the domain of the function in Question 1 part (c)?

3 State the values ofx whicll mUSI be excluded from the domains of the following

functions: (a)f(x)=~

(c) h(x) = r'_~_2

4fislhefullClion'squan:xandadd2' (a) Write fin me form r(x) =

(b) Findf(l),f(-I),f(O)

(cl Iff(x)=27, find the values or r.

5 FislhefunctiOll·,.,jd2Iox3l1dtllensquan:· (a) Write F in the fonn F(x) '"

(b) Find stu F(-I). F(O).

(e) IfF(x)= 25,findthc velues ot x.

(d) Is'"this the same functionasfinQuestion4?

(b) g(x) = {x-_21 (d) F(x)=3-~

6 If f(x) '" 3x + 2, what i. thc value of.r which is mapped OntO 81

7 A function such asf(x)=5 is a cml5lanl function. State the values off(O),f(-I) and reS)



8lliefunelionE,whereE(x)=2"isanexponenlialfunelion. (a) Find the values of E(1),E(2) and E(5)

(b) IfE(x) = 16,stale the value ofx.


(a) Whal valueofx must be excluded from the domain of this function? (b) Find the positive value of x for which f(x) "x.

10 If f{x) = ~:~ , find me values of x for which f(.l:) = 2x to 2 decimal places. 11 Given that g(x) = x' - 4.x - 6 solve the equation g{x) =.x

12 Given that f{.x) =r-4x+ 1 solve the equations

(a) f{x)=x-3. (b) f(b) = 13.

13 For the linear functirnl fix) = ax + b, where <I and b are constants, f(-2) = 7 and f(2) =-1. Find the values of e andb

14 f(x) = ax' +bx+c, where <I, band c are constants. Iff(O) = 7, what is the value of c?

Givenalsolhatf(1J=6andf(-1)= 12. find the value ofa and ofu

IS For the function f(x)={lr+qx t r. where{l.q and r are constants, f(0)=4, f(-I) =

8 andf(-2J = 18. Findlhcvalucsofp,qandr

16 F(x) =x'-2x. What values ofx have an image of l5?

17 The function h is given by h(r) = 7/ 21'. Find the values of I whose image is 5. 18f(xJ=~

(a) Find f(2) and f(t). (b) Findxiff(x) =0.

(e) What values of x must be excluded from the domain'?

III The number of diagonals in a polygon with" sides is given by the function D(,,) -~

- , .

{al State the domain of this function.

(b) Findihenumberofdiagonal~in polygons wirh 4,5 aod 10 sides. (cl If D("l = 20, find the value of ".

ZO The domain for the function fix) = Zx2 -I- I is (-2, -I, 0. I. 2\ Find the range.

21 The domain of the function f(x) = -Z::tt is(0,2,41.

Find the range of the function.

22 If the-range for the function g(x) = x' - 2 is (-2, -1, 71. find the domain 23 The range of (he function f(x) =< I - ~ is (-I. 2, 4\. Find the domain

24 SisihefuoctionS:x t--sinx",OSx:S;180

(a) Rnd(corroctto2decimalplaces)S{30),S(50),S{120). (b) IfS{x") = 1. what is the value of x?

(c) Stale the renge ot S.



2S Functions fandg are given asf(x):r-xandg(x): 2x-3. (a) Find f(O),f(-I),g(O) and g(-I).

(b) Uf(x)+g(x)=3,findx.

(c) If f(P) + g(-p) = l,findp.

(d) If f{z)= g(z)+ Lfmd z.

26 Giventhatf(x)",x'-3x+6andthatg(xj=x+6,solvetheequations

(a) [(x)=2g(x). (b) f(x)=g(2.t), (e) f(h)=g{x)-3.

27 Iff(x) = .... ~:~ I ,find the value of k (other than k = I) such that f(k) = fO).

28 Given the function f(x) " r - 3x - 2, express f(la) - feu) in its simplest fonn in tenns of a,

29 f:x c---------- r-x+3

Find f{pl. f(-2p) and f{P - I) in their simplest fonns.

30 Iff(x)=3x+ l,findf(a),f(b)andf(a+b).

Isf(a+b)=f(u)+ f(b)?

31 If f(x) "r + x - 3. find f(x + h) where h is a constant.

Hence express I!x + h~ - fb) in its simplest fonn.

32 if fe-x) "f(x), f is called an even rurcuon, but if fe-x) ,,-f(x), f is called an odd function. Which of the following functions are even, which are odd and which are neither?

(a) 2.< (b)3i' (c) x'

(d) I -x (e) ~ (x;f. 0) (0 x - ~ (x .. 0)


A simple way ofillustrating a function graphically is to use two parallel number lines. one for values of the domain. the other for the range. Fig. 3.6 shows the function fIx) =x- 2,x" -I, 0, l , 2, 3, 4. An arrowed line joins .r in the domain to f(x) in the range.

Fig. 3.6

.r.> >




Fig. 3.7

Example 7

lIIuslrotefhejunctiofl [(x)=x2-x +2on (wo "umber/inelforrhedol1Ulifl (-2.-1,

Verify that the r4_oge is {2,4,8]. Fig. 3.7 shows the result.

1bis method is only sunable if the domain consists of a few values. If the domain was all real numbers for example, it would be impossible 10 show all the arrowed lines. Furtbermore,lhe panern of tne arrowed lines gives 00 idea oflhe type of function.

A tar better method is to Ulie a Cartesian graph, with which you are already familiar. Here we use two perpendicular lines. the .r-axis and the y-axis (Fig. 3.8). Values of the domain are placed on the x-axis and the Tange on the y-axis_ Then x and it, image fIx) give the coordinates (x,y)ofa point. If sufficient points are plotted and joined up. we have the graph of the runcnonv e f(x) is me Cartesian equation of the curve


Usinglhis method of rcprcscnling a funcncn. we find thai the graphs of various kinds offunctions have characteristic shapes. Hence functions can be recognized from their graphs.



Common Functions And Their Graphs

Fig. 3.9 shows the graphs of some common functions.

*' v,

0. ifC"",

(a) Linear furrc~on functions

" J..:... J~, ~""~

Fig. 3.9

(a) is a linear function ~uch asy:-3x+4

(b) shows two quadratic functions such as y = r - x + 4 (upper graph) and y:2-x-x'.

(c) is an erpeeential function such as 2'.

(d) is the graph ofy: sinx(see Chapler7).

Example 8

Whieh of /he I;raphs '" Fig. 3./0 'I /Ire graph of a fUlie/ion?

.$-' ~"





Fora function, each valueofxin the domain must give just one andonlyo ne,alueof y.lfthere is more than one value ofy for the same value of .rin the domain, the grnph does not repn"scnt a function

(a) is nOi the graph or a functioo, as there are 2 valuesofy tor each valueofx. (b) is the graph ofa function.

(el isthegraphofacon~tantfunclion)'=3.Thedomainistheselofallrealnumbers but the ronge i~ ju~t 3.

(d) is the graph ofa function providedx=O is excluded from the domain.

(e) isthegraphofafunctionforlhedomainl-J,-2,-I,O,1,2J.Tltegruphconsistsonly of the points marked. and these must not be joined up. The range is (2,1.0,-1).




Example 9


Fig. 3.11 shom' pari oj the graph of a fimctirm y '" f(x). Skelch IIII' corre.<pmulillg fHU/$ oflhefonclions (a) 1/ = -f(xl. (b) 11 = ((-xl, (e) YJ = 2 + fIx). (d) Y. = 3 - f(xl. (ejy, = f(x+ 1), (j)y, = ((x-2).

(a) For each value of x, y, =-y.So the graph ofofy, is the reflection ofy= f(x)in the .r-exis (Fig. 3.12(a))

Points where y = f(x) meets the x-axis are unchanged.




Y, ~-r(x)


(b) Whenx= <l,Y= f(<l) andy, = r(-<l).

Nowf(-<l) is the value Dry when x <;-<l. Fer-example whenx= 2, the value ofy, is the same as the value of y when x = -2.

So the graph ofy is reflected in the j-axis 10 produce lhegraph ofy, (Fig. 3 .12(b)).

Points where y = (x) meets the y-axis will be unchanged. -

/Y>~2+t(.oj /

/ r-t(.oj


(c) Here2isaddedtoeachvalueofy.

So the original graph is shifted upwardsthrough2l1l1its(Fig. 3.12(c)).



/ \.

Fig. 3. 12(c}


Urhei>crre<;htlichgcschutztes Mal",i~1

(d) Y,= 3-f( ... )=3 +(-y)=3+y,.

So the graph ofy, is shifted upwards through 3 units ic obtain the graph ofy, (Fig.3.12(d)).


(t) Suppose x = I. Then y, = f(1 + I) = f(2), which is the value of y when ... = 2.

Again when x = 3, y, = f(3 + I) = f(4). which is the value of y when _r '" 4

All the values ofy have been shifted I unit to the leftwoblainy, (Fig. 3.12(e».




(0 You will be able 10 work outrhary, is the original curve shifted 2 units 10 the right (Fig. 3_12(t)


II would be useful 10 summarinsucb transfonnations orme graph ofa function y=f(x).

• y = ~f(x) is the retlecuon in the .r-axis.

• y = f(~x) is the reflection in the y-axis

• }' '" a + rex) ,hift~ the graph tbrough a units upwards if a is positive, 3IJd dnwnwardsif uis negatlre.

• v= f(x+a)shiftstbegraph Ihrough a units to the len if a is pusitive. bUI to the rigbt if a is negatlve

Exercise 3.2 (Answers 011 page 609.)

I Wbicb OfU1C following are graphs of functions?

o 11


2 Each of the diagrams in Fig. 3.14 shows-part of the graph of afunction f(x). Copy each

diagram iU!d sketch the corresponding pans of -

(i) ,,=f(-x) (ii) y,=f(x-I)

(iji)y,"'f(x+ I) (iv)y,= 1 +f(x+ 1)

F"1g.3_14 (e)

3 On another copy of the diagram~

in Fig. 3.14. sketch the corresponding parts of

(i) ys=f(x-2)

(ii) Y6=2-f(x-2) (iii)Y,=f(l-x)

4 Fig. 3.15 shows part of rbe graph of y=f(.t)withthreegraphsdenved from it Stale Y" Y, and y, in terms of (x).




5 Thedomainofafunctionf(x)is-lto4inclusive. What would be thecnrrespnnding domain for the following?

(a) Y, =f(-x) (b) y,=f(x-2)

(c) y)",f(x+ I)

fi The range of the Iunction y e Itr) isOIO 5 inclusive. What is the corresponding ran ge for the following?

(a) y, "'-f(x) (b) Y,= I +f(x)

(c} y)=f(x-3) (d) y,=f(x)-3


If y =x, the values of y arc negative when .r is negative. They can be convened to positive values by using the modulus y '" Ixl. read as ) = mod x'. Ixl gives the numerical or absolute value ofx. For example 1-3.51 = 3.5. II does not allerO or any positive number: 101 =0, 121 =2etc.lxl ts never negaiive.

So we define the modulus ofx as

Similarly the modulus ofa function f(x) wrinen I f{x) I is the numerical valueoff(x)

Example 10

Siale Ihe values of II -x Ifor x = _3. 2. <I Whenx=-3, II-x I'" II +31 =4. Whenx=2,II-xl=II-21=1. Whenx=4, II-xl = 11-41 =3.

I f(x) I 4

Example 11

fix) = r -x - 6. Find Ihe values of /f(x) [for x = _I. 0, 2, 4

f(x) -4



ExBmple 12

WhaliJlh('/('o"'I'olu('()/x.//2x J/"'2x-J? 12x-3Iwillbcequalto2x-3if2x-3isOorgreaterthanO. Hence theleast vajue ofxwill be when 2x-J =0, i.e. when x = IJ.

Example 13

Draw/he graph l1/y '" /x-I//orlh(, uOI1l4in -2 ~x,.:;3and sI<JIe 1M rangl'o/y. -2 Sx S 3 means that x can lake any value between -2 and 3 (inclusive)

We make atablc for the integer values of x;

-2 -I

-3 -2 -I

Ploningthepoim'givenbyxandy,theg£3phisseenloconsistofthelwnline,AB and AC (Fig. 3.16). The range is 0 s Y s 3




However, if we extend BA to D (,hown dotled) where D is (-2, -3) we sec that the part AC is the reflection of AD in the .r-axis. So a quicker method of drawing the graph is tn draw y I for the given domain first and then reflect any negative part in tile

To draw a graph of the type}' = I f(x) 1. draw}' = f(x} first and then reflect any ncganvc pert in ther-exis.

Example 14

Draw the graph of}' = f 2 - .r I for Ihe domain -/ 5"; x 5"; 3 and state the range of y. Draw the line}, = 2 - x first (Fig. 3.17). (The negative pan is dotted).

Fig. 3.17

Then reflect the negative pan in the .r-axis. 11legraphconsists··oftwoJinc~meetingonthex-axiswhcrex=2. The range is o 5"; y:'; 3




On a number line we have

x must he on thc thick lined parts. o means tbis valueis excluded.

So It l.t I >kthen.t<-kor.t>k.

Ne:\t suppose I x I < 3. Then x < 3 or -x < 3 i.e. x > -3. Hence .r lies between -3 and 3 (notinc1usive)andwew:rite-3<x<3.

So If Ix I <ktben-k<.t<k.

These rules apply al~o to linear and quadratic functions.

Example 15

Find and show 011 a number bile. the range of values of x if (aj I_y + I I> 4, (b) 11-2x 15:5.

(a) From the above, if 1 x + I I > 4 then x + 1 < --4 or x + 1 > 4. Hence x<-50rx>3

(b) If I 1-2.>- I $5 then -5 s I - 2y 5: 5. Taking each part, -5 5: 1 - 2.>- gives ~ $-2.>- or 3 ~ x i.e. x $ 3; I - 2t s; 5 gives -2.>- $ 4 i.e. x 2: -2.

In this case the. means the value is included (due to the 5: sign)

Exercise 3.3 (An.<wers on page 610.)

1 State the values of

(a) I~I (b) I-~I

(el I Crn; ]2()" I (d) 13~ _ 61 I

2 By testing withx=-3,O,2 verify thallI-x I = Ix- II. 3 Whal i~ the least value of x for which 12.>- - I I = 2x - I?

4 For what domain willtbe graph of y e 13-x I be the same a!; the graph ofy=x-3? S Find and show on a number line the range of val uesofx which satisfy the in equalities:

(a) 12.>--31>5 (b)1~1$4

(e) 1¥1~2 (d) 11-11<3



6 For tile domain-3:ix::;4,draw tile graphs of

(a) Y'" I x I (b) v = I x+ 1 I

{dl r = 12x-l I (el v= 13-x 1

(el y=-I x-21

7 State lhe range for each orme functions in Question 6

8 Using the graph you have drawn for part (a) in Question 6, add Ihe graph of y = -I .r I 9 On the same piece of graph paper.craw tile graphs of y e 13x I andy= Ix 31 for

the domain -2::; x::; 3, Hence solve the equation 13x I '" I x - 31

10 By drawing twograplls, solve tile equalioll Ix-l I = Ilx-51, (Take O:ix:i 7 as domain).

11 The range of the functiony = I x - I I is 0 Sy S 3, Find a possible domain, What is the widest possible domain?

12 The domain of !he function y = 12x - 31 ends where x., 2, If the upper limit of the range is 7, what is the Least value of the domain'!

13 Draw the graph of)' = I .r - I I for the domain -1 :i x:i 2. NoW add the graph of ),=2-lx-11 for!hesamcdomain.S!3te!hcmngcof!hisfunclion


Fig. 3.18 shows the mapping of the domain (-3,0. 1,2J by the function f; x f---.- 3x- 2. Verify that the range is (-I L. -2, I, 4J.

, -----'------ v a

, ,



Is there a function ihat will map the range back 10 the domain?

The function fin Fig.3.18 mapped x orne y where)'= 3x -2. Now we wish to sian with yandretumtox.lf1x-2=y,lheu_,'= L:j-1

Sothis new function will mapyomo L:j-1.



Testingthiswitlly=-II,weget¥=-3whicllistlleoriginalvalueofx. Check the other values.

Such a function, if 'I exists. is called the inverse function of f and is wnuen es r-' (Read mts as 'inverse f".) It is usual to take x as the 'starung Ietrer so we have f-':x~~.


function f:x '___. 3x- 2 and inverse f"':x ~ !..j1. Itthenfo!lowsthaltheinverf;coff-'isf.

Example 16 --------l

",d""'"""I""''''''''" ~ Y fmaps x onto ywhere y= y.

Make r the subject of uus equation

y = j so r 3_2yandx=2y+3

Hencc f-tiyr-L-; .. 2y+3.

Changing 10 the usualleuer .r r-' .r r--- 2x + 3

Suppose -4 was a value in the original domain. Then f wi1l map this onto 3l. f-' will now map this value onto 2(-31) + 3 =-4, which is the original value. Repeat this check wuh orher values ot r. say o,t .. ndS

Example 17

Given /hr [uncuon f: X t----- ~ (x", 3). where p is a cons/ani. (a) find Ihe value ofp i[f(5) = H.

(h) findf-I in a slmdar form.

(c) slale the val~e of xfol" which r" is undefined

(a) f(5) = ~~ ~ = 1+


(b) From (a). fIx) = ;= ~ i.e. y = ;=~ oryx-3y=x-2.and.r(y-l)=3y-2. Hencex,",S·

Therefore f"':x'_______" J:_-12.

(e) r-' is undefined for .r = I. (This means Ihat there is no value ofx in the original domain which had an image of I. So I doesnotexi..tintherangeandlherefore cannor be used).


Example'S ~

Find the inverse oj i : x r----- 3-x.

f rnaps x oneo y wbere y e Lc-x

So .r ~ 3 - Y .and Ih. e inverse function will be. r ' '.'~ 1'------'. 3 - x, which is the same function as f.

Check Ihis by takingx= 3,-1 and 5. Suchafuncunnflscallcdself-inverse,i.e.ltis us own inverse.

Functions With No Inverse

Some functions do not have an inverse. Take the function f: .r 1 __ r (Fig. 3.19).


Two arrows arrive at I in the range. An inverse would have two paths 10 return from I 10 the domain and so could oot be a fuoction. Thereisnoin~crsefunction.

An inverse function can only exist if the original function is a one-to- one function (Fig. 3.20{a», i.e. there is only one arrow reaching each member orme rdoge. There will be no inverse if the function is a meny-to-one nmcuon (Fig. J.20(b)),i.e . more than one arrow reaches some members of the domain



• X • X

• X • X

• X • X

Fig. 3.20

The inverse function r-' exists only iffis one-to-one.


Graphical Illustration of an Inverse Function

Verify Iltal lhe inverse off:x 1---_ h-3isf-':x ~ _'-;3. Now draw the lines

}'=2x-3 }'"x;3

on graph paper (Fig. 3.21). Add the line}' =~ (shuwn dotted).

(i) (ii)

Fig. 321

How do the twolines (i) and (ii) appear in relation tome liney=.t?

Consider Ihe polol where x '" 4 (point A) on (i). The image of 4 from f is 5, so Ihe coordinalesofA arc (4,5).

Now if we take r e 5, hs image in r-' will be 4. This gives point A'(5,4) which lies 011 line (ii).

The gradient of AA' is -I so AA' is perpendicular to me hne y = .r and the midpoint of AA' (41,4!) lies on the line y "x. Hence A and A' are reflections of each otherin the liney ,,~.

We can repeal this for any other point. The coordinates will be inrercbanged by the inverse function, so lite IWO points are renecnons ot eacn other. Hencc lines (i) a od(il) are renecliuns "feach other in the line y =x. You can also lest this by folding ihe graph paperalonglheliney=x



Exercise 3.4 (Answers on page 611.)

I Find the inverses of the following functions in the same form:

(al f: .• c--- .r (D) f:x f-~ .l + 2

(el f:.r c--- lx-I (d) g:x,__. 3.\"+4

(e) r:.t'-T (f) r:x ,-~9-x

(g) f:x c--- 2(-5 (h) f:x __ .8-2x

Ii) f:x c--- j-I (j) h: .• ..--_~ (.1" .. 0)

(t) f:x c--- xh- (x -u (I) F: ... _~ +2{ ..... 0)

(m)f:x'__ ~~~ tx -2) (n) h:.\·"--_ Z::31 (x>'3)

2 Which of the functions in Question I are self-lnvcrxc?

3 Given ['"I : x ,__ 2r _ 3, find r in Ihe 'UIllC Conn. 4Iff·':x,_x;J.findfinlhcsamefonn

5 f: X ,__ U - .r. where 1/ is a constant. is a .<;clf·jnvcn;e funclion. Given that

r-'(4) = 3. find the value ofu.

6Givenlhefunetionh:.r_.:=~·(.r"4).findlhcvalueofh-'(-3) 7 Givenlhefunctiong:.[I-_ :::~(x .. -2),findg·'(-I).

8 Given lhe funclion f:.l r--_.:~~(.l"l) and thai f(2) " 5. find (a) the value of d. (b) t-'.

What can be said about this function?

9 f:.r'__ ;:: . where rand s are constants and fC41=6.f(-lj=-l Find (a) the values ofr and s.

(b) Ihe value ofx for which Lis undefined. (e) r-' in the same fonn,

(d) lhc value of.r for which 1'"' is undefined.

JO Fig. 3.22 shows part of the graph ot a functicn y e fl.r). Copy the diagram andskeich the graph or t-'.

Fig. 3.22



11 On graph paper. dmw thc graph or f:x ~3-.r.Conslrucllherenectionoflhis graph in y er. Explain your rcsuu.

12 (a) FindthciJ\vcr.;coff:xl-..-1''21,".

(b) On graph peper.oraw rhe graph or j-» 621<.

{el ConS{rUCllhereflec{ionofthegraph in part (b) ioy= .•. Show {hal {his is {he grapn of I".

13 The function f is defined a, r • X .....--- { ~:;' ;~~;\~ <°0 Skctch tbc gruphs of f and f-'

14 Copy Fig. 3.23 and sketch the inverse oflhc functiony= f(x).


15 (8) Iff(t) = 3 -~, solve the equu{ion f(x) (b) Draw (he graph off(.r) for'~ :5.r:5 2.

(e) Add a sketch of the graph ofC-'(x) for-I :5xS2.

Composite Functions

Consider the function f: x ~ 2t _ 3 (Fig. 3.24). 4 is mapped onto 5





Let g be anorher functicn such thar g c r >----------.x+ I.

We now usc g on f(4)toobtaing[f(411=6. 50 4 has been mapped nnlo6by ffollowcd by s (Fig. 3.25).

Pt--rTf\ ~


Fig. 3.25

Can wefinda~ingJefunctionhwhichcombjnes fandg? xismappedorltu2x-3by fand this is me starnng value forg. Sogmaps2x- 3 onlo(2:0:-3) + J = 2x-2. Hence h t r ..--- 2x-2. If x=4. the final result is 6 as we have seen. h is called the composite (or combint"d) function g[f(x») which we write


NOlCcarefullythat theJir_flfunction is wmten on therighl.

Nuwsuppusewedog firsl, followed by f. i.e.fg.

x ,_____!L..x+ I r---L-. 2(..- + 1)-3 = 2~- I

L_ ~______j

Th~ result is different. rg is not the same rUrlction a., gr. We say the combination of functions is not commutative, i.~. th~ order in which they are done is imponant and cannot (in general) be interchanged. However for some values of .e. fg may be equal to gf.

NB: Take care! fg does NOT mean f x g when dealing with functions.

Example 19

Iff:x r----- ~x-3.find(a) r-' and(b) r-'r.

(a) y=2x-3sox=y Therefore r-' : x ..--- qJ

(b) [-'[mean, that we do r nrsi. r-' second.

x r--L- 2x-3,~ Zz-t+3 =x 50f-'f:x,_x

i.e. (-'f(x)=x

Verify ihat ff-' gives the same result.



Part (b) above is an example of an important result

Thisfollowsfrornthedefinilionoftheinve[sefuIIClion.fmapsxontotherangegiving f(.~). t-' operates on f(.~) to return II) the original elemeru.e. 50 r'f(x) == x. Similarly. if we stan from themnge,ff-'(x) ==x

The combined funcliongfisi'-l. NOlethatfg"gf.

Example 20

Iff. x,...--i' andg:x r---x-l.{ind ir. a similar form, (a) fgarrd(b} gf. (aj Tgis g flrsr.f second.

x ,........g....x-l r--L-(x-l)'

50 the combined function fg is fg : X ...-- (x - I)'. (b)gfisffirst.gsecond.



Example 21


f:x,...-- xh andg:x,......._._lx-2.

Find (aj fg. (b}gf. (c) (fg)"""l. (d) (gf)"""' (e) Forwhmvulla(slofxilgf=fg?

(a) x~3x-21-4", (3%_22) ... ] = 1<:'1 Henccfg:x....-- L~,x .. j.

(bl:c........L-. -:th,.......A... 3("i"hl-2 = 6-:;,:r12 = ~~~

Hencegf:x...-- ~~~ ,x .. -1.

(c) (fgt' is the inverse of the combined function fg Now fg rnaps x omo j = 3.<:'1 from (a).

Le. 3xy==y+2givingx== 1..jf Hence(fgt'::c~ x;.2.x .. O.



(d) (gf)" is the inverse ofgf.

Verify thai en' : x,___ ::~, .r .. -2.

(e) If gf e fg.fhen ~~~" :t<~"x"-l,t.

So 2x + 2 = (]x -1)(4 - h)" --fu" + 14x - 4 or ful- lh + 6 = O. Then r - 2x + I ,,0 or (x - l)(x - I)" 0 giving X" l.

This is the only value ofx for which gf= fg.

Example 22

Using the jimelions f and g in Example 21, find r-' and g-'. Shaw /h", (fgt' " g-'f-L Suggesl and les/ a similar result Jar (gl)-'

Verifithntt':x~_ ~andg-':x~_ ~

From (c) in Example 21, (fg)-':x ,____. LJ;l.

g""'t'isgivenbYX~~r--£'_~+2=~ Hencc ttgj-' =g-'t'.

So the inverse offg is the inverse of ffollowed by the inverse ofg. Thissugge~tsthal (gl)-' :1'""'g-'. Shew that this Is correct using (gl)-' from Example2l.

The results of Example 22 are true in general

Example 23

Givenrlla/f:x r------- xh (x .. _2)./inJillo.,imi/or/orm(a)F,(b)f',(c)f'and deduce an expression for P

(a) Fmcan.ff, i.e. fdonc Iwicc in,ucc,,-<,ion

(b) f'meansF followed by f.

(e) f4(X) = f[f'(xl] " ,;;: 2 " lS .. x+ 16' x" -2. - ~. -f·-*



Studying the pauern.ue numerator is always .r. The denominators are 3x + 4, 7x + 8, 15x+ 16 solhe next denominator will be3lx+ 32.

['isx ~ 3bx+32.X~-2,-~,-~.-~,-#

Example 24

iff: .r r------- ax +b (a > 0) and F:x ,____ 9x-8.find (a! Ihe value5Qfa and h. (b) f',{c) r.


(a) We first find Fintermsofaandb.

x ~ ax+b r--L- a(ax+b) +b=a'x+ab+b BllItbisis9.r-H. Hencea'=9whichgivesa=3(sincea>Ojandba+b=-8sob=-2

(h) f'(x)=l1f(x)]=3(9x-II)-2:27x-26 (e) f'(x) = F{f'(x)j = 9(9x - 8) - 8 = 81x- 80 ,(d) ThepaUtm in Ibese results is'

f': 9x-8 =3'.>:-(3'- J) r-. 27x-26=3'.>:-(]3-1) r: 81.>:_80=3'x_(34_1)

so we can deduce that'r'= 3'.>:-(3'-1) = 243x-242.

[ Example 25

I Given f:x ;_ ... 2.r_5./indaful1cliongsuclililOl fg:x ;--------.6x-J. I Clearly g must be a linear function as no squares appear in fg ·Takega~xl_ax+b.

Then fg.r r----- .. 2(ax+b)-5=2ax+2h-5. But this must be idemicalto Sr e L

Then 2a=ti,givinga=3 and2b S=-l.givingb=2. Hence g :.r ,____ 3x + 2.




Expre.<,<in lerm.<o/Ihe/unclions f:x r- __ X + 3 ami g:x r-------- x', (a/x'+3.(b)x'+ 6x+ 9,(c)x+ 6. (d) x' +6x+ 12. (e)x'-6x + 9 (a) This is rs.

(b) Nore [ha[x'+6x+9= (x +3)'. fgives IX+ 3). g gives the ~uare. Sothisisgf. (c) Herc g Is not involved as there is no square. Try ff.

(d) Note that xl + Ox + 12 '" (x + 3)1 + 3, We gel (x + 3jl from gf.

If we now use I, we obtain the result. The answer is therefore Igf (first f. then g and lastly I again).

(elx'-6x+9=(x-31'_Nowfdocsnotproduee(x 3)butf":x,-x-3, Hence the answerts gf'"

Exercise 3.5 (Answers on page 613./

t Using ihe functions frr r--------x+2andg:x r--------x-3,findinthcs3ftlcform (aj tg, (b) gf, (c) ff (d) gg.

1 Sex r-------- sinx"andT:x r-------- 2xarctwofunctions.

Find (a) ST(W), (b) TS(20).

3 Taking f: x I-------->- x + 2 and g: x I-------->- 3x - I, find (a) fg, (h) gf (e) r-'. (d)s",(e)r'·(f}S·'f.

4 If[:x r-----X+ I, find (a) f',(b) r and deduce (e) r. (d) i" (c) f"

5 Taking the function r as fox r-------- ;:~ ,xc#--2, find (a) [-',(b} r. Ic) (f't'.ln each case, state the values of x which must be e~cluded from the domain

6lff:x 1-------->-x'-2andg:x I_X+ 3, find (a) fg. (b) gf For what value ofx is fg"'gf?

7 Given [hat g: x ..__ X + 2 and h : x ,-. x' - 3, find thc value of x for which gh e hg.

8 Forthefunctionsf:xl-------->-x-4nndg:xl-.3x-2,findsimilarly(a)f-l• (b)g-'.(e)fg-',(d)(fg)-'.

I) Functionsfandgarcdefincdbyx ..__2x+landx..__ l-3xrespeetively.

For wbat value ofr Is fg-' =f-'g?

IOPunclionsfandgaredefineda~r:x~¥andg:xr--------+~(x"'O) respeclively.Findsimilarly(a)fg, (blg-1f.(c)r'g-'-lneachca!;C,statcthevn[uc,of x which must be excluded from [he domain. (d) For what values of x i~ g-'f = f-'g-I?

II Thefunctionsfandgarcdefinedasf:x 1-------->-3x+2andg:x"__ ~ (.t",O).

Find similare~pression. for (a) Ig, (b) gf,{e) r'g, (d) gf-'.In each case, state the values ofx which must be excluded from the domain.

Find the value(s) ofx for which (e) fg = gf,(f} f-'g =gf·',



12 Give" f:x,____ 1-~. x~O. all(! g:x r--- ~,.I" ~1, Iind fg(x) and gf(x). Hence state the i"~ersesoffand g.

IJ fis the function that maps x onto ~~: (x~ I), (a) Show that fls self-mverse

(b) Find r

(c) Showthatf'=f.

14 r: X r--- ax + b (a, h coesrants) and g: X ..__ 2x + 3 are two functions. (a) Iffg = gf. find a relation between a and b.

(b) Given lhatf-'(7)=-1, find the valuesnfaandb.

15 If f meps x onto 5 - ~ and g maps x onto 2r + I, show that fg and gf are both selfmverse.

16 f:x t-----. ~~~ ,x#-1

(a) Fill(! r. Siale the value of x which must be excluded from the domain. (b) Iff'(x) =-1. fir>d the vetce cr x.

17 Iff(x) = :: i ,x ~-2, find f' and r. In each case. stale the values or x which must

be excluded from lhedomain. Solve the equation r(x) = I

18 f:.x r---1x+l,Findafunct;ongsothatgf:~' r---3x+l. 19 Iff:x r--- 2r+ 3, find a function gso thatfg:x ..__ lx-I.

20 fupressthefol1nwingintennsofthefuncliOllsg:x , x+2andh:x I lx.

(a) .x r---3x+2 (b) .r r---3x+6

(c) .x r---x+4 (el .x r--- 9x (g) x r---x-2

(d)x.-3x+12 (f) .<1--·_9x+2 (h) x r---3x-6

21 Given f:x "__.x+ 3 and g:.x "__X'-l, state the fcljowing In terms off ... ,. (a) x r---X'+2 (c) .x..__x+6 (e').l:r--X'-fu:+8

(b) .r r---X'+fu"+8 «(j) x "__x'+12K+35 (f) x f-- .. x'-4

22 Given L: X r-- {); (positive root) and g: x r---.x + 2, express the following in tetm$ off and g:

(a)x"__~ (b)xr----.Jx+2

(c) .r r-- x + 4 (d) .r r--- ,J;+4

(e) x r---~ If) X r--x'+4x,+4

(g) x r---X'-4x+4 (h) x f-- •. r+8.x+ 16

23 Iff:x _.x-3,whatisthcfuncliongwhichmakesgf:x ~X'-6.t+ 101 24 ;~~"__2+ ~.x~ Land grr r--x+4. Find the inverse offg in a similar

25 fisgivenbyf:x'_'_ ~(x*3). Find (a) f', (b) r.(c) r. Deduce I',

In each case, SUlle too values of .r rhar must be excluded fiom the domain.




• A function f maps an input x (domain) onto a unique image y (range) f:xt--.y=f(x)

• y= f(x) is the equation of the graph of the function },=-f(x) is the rcflection ofy = f(x) in [hex-axis. y=f(-x)istherel1ectionofy=f(x}inthey-axis.

y=<I + f(x) shifts the graph upwards through II units if a >0, and downwards if c c D.

y = f(x + a) ,hifls the gr~ph through a units to the left if a;;> 0, and to the riglttifo<O

• Modulus of .r : Ixl e r for r z U. =-xforx<O

• If I x I >k.thcnx<-korx>k: if I x I <k,then-k<x<k

To draw the grJph ofy= I f(x) I, first draw the graph ofy = [(x) and then reflect any negative pan in the .r-axis .

• lffisone-lo-ollc,lhcinvcrscfunc\ionf-1cxis\s

ff-'(x)= f-'f(x) =X

• lff=f-',fisself-inverse

• The graphs of y= [(x) andy: [-'{xl are reflections of each other in me line y =X

• Functions may becombined,but the order is irnportant gf:x........L-f(x)~g[f(x)1



• f'meansff.andsoon

• (fg)-'''' g-'r-'; (g!)-' = f-'g-'

REVISION EXERCISE 3 (Answers on page 6]4.)

I f:_. r---------. h-3. Find the domain ofxif-5:<> f(x):<> 3 2 fis a function given by f:x r---------. ~"~Jt. (x~ 3).

(a) Pind f'".

(b) Stajc the value ofx for which c_, isundcfined


3 (a) Solve these inequalities and show ute resuns cn e number line for each one: (i)14x-31;:':2 (ii)il-¥i,<4

(h) Given that 1 ax+b 1 55wherellandbareconstanlSalidthat-45x5.1,findthe value of <I lind ofb.

4 On the same diagram. sketch the graphs of (a) s= 1 x-21.

(b) )"=21.\-21.

(e) y=2-1 x-21 forthedOlIJain-25xS4

5 On graph paper. sketch tbe graphs of

(a) Y=lx+ II, (h) y=13-x I

Hence solverhe equanonlx e 11=13-xl.

Ii Fig. 3.26 shows part of the graph of y '" f(x). Copy the diagram and add tile graphs of (a) Y, ='f(-x),

(h) y,=f(x-I), (e) y,=f(l-x)


;' , ,

j r 'r . !;, :.;:', x

-2. _1 0; ,~ a

-\ : .

....•.•.. ~ ..••..•.

Fig, 3.26

7 Given the function f:.r ,___ 3x - l¥ . .r ~ O. find the value of f(2) and lhe values ofxwhose image underfis I.

8 g:.\.-------.. ~:i' .x~2. Show thatgg(.\) ec ror au values ofx except.r = 2.

9 For the functions f: x 1--_ i' - 4 and g : .r 1-'" 2.1' + 3. find in a similar form (a) fg, (b)gf.

(e) Find the values of r for which fg::gf.

10 The function R maps x onto the remainder when 16 is divided by r. If the domain is ( state the range. Does R-' exist?

II Afuoclionfisdefinetlasf:x t--- __ .;:i-r.X'F-l.Provethat

f' : x!--'" 2,~ .. ! •. r 'F -I. ~,Obtain a similar expression for f' and hence suggest a possible expression for P. (C)

12 Given Illal f: .r !-- ... x + 2 and gf: x !-- ... i' + 4x + 2, find the function g.

Hence express x .-------..i'-4x+2intem .. offandg.



13 (a) The function f: x .----:u + a is such ihat ff(6) " 10. Find the value of" and ofr'(4).

(b) Functions I and g are defined by

f;x ~ ~,x~3,g:x'----2I:-j (i) Find expressions fort',fg andgf.

(ii) Find the vejoe ot x for which fg(x) = gf{x).

(e) The function f: x'---- 21:- 5 is defined for the domain x ;:: 1. State the range

of f and the corresponding range of ff (Cl

14 Fig. 3.27 illuSlrale.,part Ilflhefunelillnf:xf--_y,wherey=ax+b.

Cajcujare the vatue ot e and ot p

Fig. 3.27

Find Ihe end-points of Ihe shortest arrow that can be drawn fOT this function

IS (a) Functions fandg are dermed by f:x.---- 3x - 2 and g:x r--- r:-4 (x~O).Findanupressionforthefunction(i)ff,(ii)fg,(iii)g-'.

(b) The function h : x r--- xl + ax + b is such lbal the equedon hex) = x has

solutionsofx=2andx=3.Findthevalueofaandofb. (e)

16 Thefunctions fand g are defined cveruie positive integersbyf: x r---6-2xand g:x r--- -},x~O.

Express in similar form (a) fg, (b) gf, (e) 1"', (d) g-'. (e) (fg)-' Find the value ofx for which ff(x) = gg(x).

17 Express in termsofthefunctioosf:x...-- {i ,x;::Oandg:x r---x+5

(al x ,__~,x;::-s. (b) X r---x-5

(c) x '__x+IO (d) x ....--..JX+IO,x;::O

(el x ...--r+5 (C)



18 Fig. 3.28shoW3part of thcmapping ofx10 yby thefunclionf:x r-- 9x-aand partofthcmappingofytozbythcfunctiong:y'____ -J::-, .y"12,

(a) Fmdthcvaluesofoandb

(b) Express in similar fonn the function which maps an element x to an element z. (~) Find thc e]emmlx whkb i3 unchanged wben mapped 10 Z.


'Hi' Y,',

s 5 5

. . .

a a

2 2 2

, , t

o 0 0

_1 1-1

-2 2 2

Fig. 3.28

19 Cliventhalf:x __ ~ (x .. 3)...t dwft4)_9,find (a) tbevalueofp,

(b) r'(-3),

(c) Obtain a foimilarexpreMiOll fOJ"f'.

(d). Find the value(s) ofx which have the same image under f' and t-'.

20 The function P maps x orne ,./! b' x .. - ~ .

(a) Given that P(3p 2 and P(-3) "'~. find the values of a and b. (b) Find the valueofx whose image under P is ~.

(e) Obtain a similar expression forP-'

21 (a) Given tbe functions Lrr j-e=-e- 2.t-5andg:x ,______ ~ (forx .. O),findin a similar form (i)fg,(ii)gf.

Hence solve the equation fg(x)"'g(X).

(b) Fuoctioo.1pandqaredeflOOdasp:x'_____ -;±---r ,x"-~, andq:x ,_____ :f.

Find in a similar form (i) p-tq and (ii) pq-'.

(e) Thefuoctionh is dcfirtedby h:x ,______ ~~: (x .. I).

Find the value of I for which the equation h{x) '" x has the solution .r '" 3.

22 Tbe funcncn fisdefineda<f:x'______ {~:o;~:~<o Sketch the graphs off and t-'

23 Iff(x) = 3 + ~ .x"O, sketch the graph off(x) for I SxS4, Now a.dd a sketch of the graph of r'(x) for 3lSxs S.



2.4 (a) Given that f: x ~ ~ (x ~ 2) find f'(x) and rex). Hence solve the equation f{x) + 2f"'(x) =5

(b) Tfg: x ~ ~ (x 0#. 2), find the values ofa ifg'(-I) + 2&·'(-1) :-3.

25 Forthedomain-3:<::x:<::3,sketchrhegraphofy",lrxll,where[x] meansthegrearest integer Jess than or equal to.r (for example, [3.4] '" 3, ]-3.4] '" -4 etc). State the range of this function for this domain.

26 Draw the graph ofy= 11- [2-x [I forthedomain-3:5x$5.

27 Fig. 3.29 illustrates the function y= f(x) over the domains -\ Sx:5 0 and 0 <x::; 3 The function is undefined foraH urhervalues ofx. Sketch the functions given by (a) y, = f(x) + I,

(b) y,,,,f(x+ I)


28 f, g and h are funclions defined by r:x r-- ,fX, g:x r-- 1 and h:x r-- x + I. Express in terms of f, g and h

(a)x,__j¥ (c)x~2(x+I)' 211 The functions f and g are defined by

f: x ,__ remainder when x' is divided by 7. g:x~remainderwhenx'isdividedby5.

(b)x,__ 1,;1)' (d)x~2rl+i

(a) Show that f(5) = g(3)

(b) If" is an inlcger, prove Ihal f(71l +x) = f(x) and state the corresponding result

~~ ~



30 The function T maps (x,y) onto (x + y, x ~ 2y).

(a) A is the point (2.1). T maps A onto Band BOlito C. Find the coordinates of B


(h) The point D is mapped onto E(1,7) by T. Find the coordinates of D.

(c) Another point F is mapped onto 0(0,9) by T'. Find the coordinates of F. (d) Express " in the same fonn as T

31 Given that the range of y = fO ~ x) ~ 1 is ~2 ~ Y ~ 3, find the range of (a) fix), (b)f(x+l)+1.



The Quadratic Function


You bave solved quadracic eqeedons such asx'-4x-S e uin previous work. In Ibis ChaplCrwesludylhcquadralk:fuDCtion

f:x'_ar+bx+c (0 .. 0)

First we review some essential techniques for solving quadratic equations. These will always give IWO solutions or 1"OOb, though sometimes they may be equal.


I Byjaclorizmion

This is the simplest method if it is possible. For cxampler' - 4 .. - 5 = 0 gives (x - 5) (x + I) = 0 sox = 5 or -I. However, certain quadrutic eqllations, like xl-4x-4 =Oforexample,cannot be factorized.

II is useful 10 remember lhatthe equation ",iUl rool~ a and p, is (.r-Il){.r-j}J=O.

/I Bycomp/efin8lhesqu<lre

To solve r- 4 .. - 4 = 0, we can complete the square Le. we make tile x' - 4 .. part into

Rewriter-4x as {.x-2)'-4. {Check by expanding Ihis.) 1ben ~2 -4 .. _ 4 = 0 becomes (x _ 2)' - 8 = 0 or (x - 2)' '" 8.

Now lake lhe square root of each side: x 2", ± 18 and x '" 2 ±..J8 giving x = 4.83 or --{l.83 (currecl 10 2 decimal pJaces).


III Byformula

Weean derive a formula for the roots of any equation as follows

ax"+bx+c"'O r + ~x+ £ '" 0

,. c r+ ;;_f"'-;;

Completing the square: (_t + fa)' -£1 =-~ So (x+fa)' = b'~~c andthenx+fa"'±~


where D = b" - 4ac. D is called the d;scr;m;nwlt. You will find OUI why later.

When using the formula note carefully that it begins with --b and that the denominator

Note: The formula is the prcfclTcd method but it is essential to know the technique of enmpletingthe square for later usc

Example 1

Soll'e2:i'-Jx-1 '" 0

Check that the left hand side does not factorizc. Using the fonnula, a '" 2, b '" -3, C =-1.

ThCn.f=-{3J+~ '" 3±4..fl'i givingx", I. 78or-Q.28 (2 decimal places).

But-23 has no (real) square root. Hence the equation has no real roots. We shall see the significance of this later. Such an equation is said to have compte x roots. We shall not however use complex numbers in our work.

Example 2

SO/I·e 2~~ - Jx + 4 '" 0

X= l±~ '" 1±j=D



As you will have noliced in drawing such graphs.jhe graph or a quadratic function, y=ar+bx+c.hasacharacteristicshape.ltisacurvecailedaparabola(Fig.4.1),

\ .,. I

\7 ... 'm,m

"'",m,m ~

/ e e o \


When (J >0, as jn 2r'-3x-l, The parabola has a minimum vajue atthe bortom of rhe

When a<O, as in l-x-2r', the graph has a maximum value allhe top of Ihe curve.

The posiliOfl of Ihe curve relative to the..--axis depends on the type of the IUOJls of the equation f(xl =0. lbese roots are the values ofx where the Curve meets the .r-axis.

TYPES OF ROOTS OF ax' + bx + C = 0

The roots. are given by x = -bi., {5 where D = 11-4ac.

J IfD is "egalive (0 <0 i.e. tr<4ac), then there is no value of{D. The equation has no real root:s and the curve does not meet the .r-axis (Fig.4.2),




Example 3

Whal Iype of roo 15 doe" the equation5r ~J:r+1 '" 0 hare? Using the formula. a '" 5-; b '" -3, c = I

Then D '" (-3Jl-4(5)(1) '" -I L

AsD<O, ue eqceuon has no real rool-'.

fllf D is posiuve (D > 0 i.e. b' > 401c), then {ij has two values. The equation has two different rea) reets and !he curve meets the x-axis attwo points (Fig.4.3).


For ..,/u,1 values of p will the ('quat;"" x' + p.r + 9 = 0 JriT>'ll twa real roots?

U.,ing the Funnula, a '" I." '" p, c = 9

Then D = p' - 36.

For rea! roots,Dmuslbe>O Sop'-3f'i >Oi.e.,r> 36.

II folluws thatp must be numerical1y greaser than 6. i.e.p > 6 or I' < --{). (We could al<;o write this as Ipl>6).

If D is a perfect square, {ii will be an integer. 1l>en !he roots will be rational numbers. i.e. fractions and whole numbers


Whal type of roo IS does the equation l.t' +3x D=3'-4(2)(-5)=49

AsDisposilive,!heequationhaslwodifferentrealrooIS. The roots an: -3:7 = I or-~.

The equation could have been solved by factorization


III I/D '" 0 (i.e. b' ",4a,·), thenre 1/;. This means that the roots lire equal (alsoealled repeated or coincident roots). Th~ curve umche., the .r-axis with the two roots merging into one (Fig.4.4).



Example 6


(bi (a) Onthex-3xis.y",0.Sulhcrootsofk.r'+(1 +k)x+k"'O must bc equal if the r-axis iswbeatangent.ll1cnh'=4acwherca=k.I>= 1 +kandc = L Thcrcforc Ll +k)'=4kk=4k'

So I +2k+k'=4k' or3k'-2k-l =0.

Solving tbis we gel (3k+ 1)(k-I);Ogivingk= I or-t

(b) Ifk; Lthe cquunonisrer't e Zv} I

Summarizing theeonditions for the various types of roots of the equation ax' + h .. + c=o:

IY < 4(1(" No real roots

b' ~4ac


iflY> 4tlc

if 11 = 4ac

As we have learnt. D i, called the discriminant: it crscrtmtmues between the type, of



Example 7

Tire equation pr - 21p +3/X +p -/ '" 0 Iras rl'al roots What is the rongl' ofl"(l/ul's ofp?

For real rool5,fl ?_4ac. Herea=p.b",-2(P+3)alldc"'p-l. Then [-2(P+3)]'24p(P-I) Simplifying,4fp'+6p+ 9) <':4p'-4p

Hence 7p'2-9 andp'2-~.

Find the range of vatues of p for which Ihe lint 2x - y '" p meeulheclln·e;q.r-y)=4.


Example 8


"The liRe may meet the curve a\ tWi' poi,,'s or touch the curve. The coordinatcs ot ttese points will be the ... lutionsoflhe simuhaneous equali"m (i) and (ii). From(i).y=2x-p.

Sub~tituting in (ii) • .«.I - 2x + p) = 4 which simplifies \0 xl - px + 4 = O.

The roots of this equation are tbe .r-coordinales uftbe poinl(s) where the line meets the curvc.1bese must be real. SoJl?_4ac wherea= l. h = -p and c=4

Then (-p)' '2 4(1)(4) or p'?_ 16 which givesp '2 4 or p:;;-4


(a) Findlhi' rrlation brrwan m and k ifth~ line y = nu +k isa langen! to the curve y=8x

(h) If m = ~. find the equalion of the tangent and the eoordtnates of it.t poinl of

(e) Find Ih, equations oflhe rwa tangents 10 Ihis ('un'" ..... hich passlhrough the poim (-3,-5).


Hence (x-8)'=O giving x = 8.

(a) As in Example 8, we ~olve the simultaneou~ equations, Substituting 1 = mx + ~' in the equation of the curve' (111.11'1:)'=8.1

Then,wr + 2m,h + k' - 8x == 0 i.e. m'r + (2mk- 8}.!' + 11.' == 0

Now this equation must have equal rOOIS as the line a a tangent.

Then b' '" 46c wbere a = m'. b = (2mll. -11) and c = k'. so (2ml:- 8f =4m'II.' or 4m',l? - 32mk + 64 = 4m',l? which gives m~ = 2. the relation required

(b) If m = ~. then k = 4. The equation of the tangem is therefore 1 = 1 + 4.

To findlhc coordinates of the point of conracc.wc sclvc this equation with th at of the curve

Then (~ + 4)' = 8., i.e. f + 4.< + 16 = !Ix or,~-lfu+64=O.

The corresponding value of1 is ~ +4 = II

Hence me coordinales of the point of contact are (8,8). (e) As mk = 2. the equation of any tangent is 1 = nll + k If(-3,-5lliesonthctangcnt,then-5=-3n,+i

which simplifies 10 3m' - 5m - 2 = O.

Solving this, (3m + 1 )(m - 2) = 0 giving m = 2 or - ~.

Hence the equations arey = 2>c+ I and),= - j -6;.c.x+3),=-18

Exercise 4.1 (AIl"wers Oil page 6/6.)

I Without solving these equations, statethe type of roots they have i.e_.real,reaiand "'Iua1 or not real (a) x'--lOx+25==O (e) x'==4.l+7 (el 3.r +x= 1 {g)±"'~=2 {il2r=px+p'

(b) ".o-6x+ 10=0 (d)2x'-x+2=O

(I) 4x'-2Ox+25=O

(h) ~+ t = ~~1-1 (j) ar-x=u(u>O)

2 Fmd the ~alues of II. if the equation x' + (II. - 2).1' + 10- Ie = 0 has equal roots. 3 What is the targesr vatue m can haveiftherootsof3x'-4x+m=Oarereal?

4 For what values ofp docs the equationx'-2p:x+ (p+2)=O have equal roots?

5 The equation xl - 2>c + I = p(:x- 3) has equal roots. Find the possible values of p, 6 Show thaI lIie equauon a'x'+Il.f+ 1 e Il can never have real rocts.

7 Find the values of II. if the line:x+ 1 = leis a tangent 10 the cirdex' + r= 8.



8 The equanon cr' + 2(k+a)x+k=ahasequal roots. Expressk in termsofa. Show that the line y =k(x-3) isatangenttothecurvey=k(x'-3x+ 1) for any value ofk exccpr O.

9 (a) Find the range or varues or ,» for which the liney = mx+ 5 meets the curve J' =.\~ + 9 in two distinct points

(b) Iflhislineistobeat3ngentlindthetwopossibleequ3tionsorlhetangemand the coordinates of the points of eon tact

10 The line y '" mx + 1 is a tangent to the curve 1 '" 2x - 3. Find the values of m

II The liney= 2x+p is a tangent to me s- y)+ 12 =0. Find the possible values ofp

12 (a) Find the relation between m and c if the line y '" mx + c is a tangent to the curve 1=2x·

(b) Hence find the equations of the two tangents to this curve which pa ss through the point (2,2!)

13 What is the range or values or,· if the liney=2r+ cis to meet the curve x' + 2/ = 8intwodistinetpoints'!

14 The equation (p + 3~r' + 2px + pool has real roots. Find the range of values of p 15 If the equation.\~-(p- 2}l + 1 =p(x- 2) is satisfied by only one value ofx. what are the possible values ofp?

16Ifthccquationx'-2kr+3k+4=Ohasequalroots,findlhepossiblevalues ofk and solve the two equations

17 Findlhevalucsofkforwhichlheiinex+y= kis3tangenttothccurve .I'(.\'~ y) + 2 = O.


The maximum or minimum values of the function fIx) = <U~ + hx + c arc the values of fIx) at the top or bouom of the curve. These are also called the lurning poinls of the

By conlpleting the square, we find that aX' + bx + C ",a(x+ *')' - ~ + c, where a> 0 Now the least or minimum value of this expression will be when the squared term

is ~~~~:~~:~':i:~:i:;(u~So~t~~t:e;,.~e:~: ::. ~:;:dO)~~.~. ~~~:Sh:t~~:~ '~;t~e~~rve.


Th:!' :a~ ~ t~;o:~:;\:g a~:~~l:ril~~; :r:~:ii~;S~J;~hde i~~:!~l~ec~~e) where l" ~t,



Fig. 4.5



i y ~ 3.<"- 4x+ 1


Example 10

What is til,> minimP.lm vatue 0/ 3.\~ - 4x + 1 and/or what value 0/ x does il u('(:"r:' f(x):3x'-4x+ l,a=3.b:-4.

~eu :i~'~:: :~~:u=mf(vi;u= ;fxfr_~c:rsl :h~~.X = -f; = -~ = ~.

This is illustrated in Fig.4.S. The line x = ~ through the turning point is called Ihe a",i~ of the curve and thecllrvcissymmctricalaboutthislin~


_j _Q_~__ x


Example 11

Express 5 -x-2x' in tne forma -b(x + c}' and hence or otherwise find us maximusn ,'uluermdl/,e v(llueojxwlle'"f'I/,isoccur ...

5 -x-2x' = 5 -2 (x'+ ~)

= 5 - 2[(x + D' - &,] by completing tbe square


Now the least value of (x + ~)' is 0 when x = - * ~o the ma",imllm value of the expression is S~ when x: -~.

Alternatively us the question allows us to use another method (otherwise) we can use the rule stated above. Herea:-2.b=-I_ Verify that the same result is obtained. "lltis is illustrated in Fig. 4.6. The equation of ;he a~js of sum me try is x = -~.


I -li:" \





To Iintl the maximum/minimum value of fix) = o_e + bx + c, ",write f(.r) as a( ~J + ¥ + ~) and complete the square on xl +!>t. f(xlislhenconve"edtoa[(x+ ;,,)'--£i, + £}

The turning poim of f(x) i.~ a =i:::::i~:: g and occurs where x"-i;; The ::valueisf(--1;;l-


To draw the graph, we need a table of values. For a sketch, we need only know (I) the shape of the curve:

(2) where it cutsihc y-axis. This is given by flO):

(3) tlie posilions of the rOQ\S (if any). Iff{x) fac\orize'. the root' are easily found: etherwise, approximate values will be sufficient;

(4) the position or the turning point. Remember 1ha1 the curve is symmetrical the axlsrhrcughmis pcsition

Example 12

Sketch thc graph o/f(x) =2x" 3x-4 (I) As a>O,the shape is u.



This is the poinl A (Fig.4.7).

(2) f(0)=-4.

(3) f(x)doesnolfaclorize.

Th~roolsoff(x)=Oarcgivenbyx= 3±4ffi ~ J!6 ~2.3and--O.8 (poIRIS B and C respeclively)

(4) f(x)=2{r- ~-2)

=z[(x-D' -ft -z] =2(x-D'-~·

So the minimum is at point D( ~,-~).

1be curve can now be skeicbed throegh these points.



Example 13

Fig. 4.8

Sketch /he CUI"\·e y = -2 +2.r .,~ (1) 0<0 so the shape is (\

(2) Whellx=0.y=-2

(poimA in Fig. 4.8).

(3) b'<4ac so the curve does not meet the .r-axis. (4) f(x)=~.I.~-2r+2) =-[(x-I)'-I +2J =~X_I)'_I

So the maximum is at (1,-1) (point BJ.

~ ;1" ,.,." \

Example 14

Sketch the graph affix) '" I.I.~ -x-2/.

To sketch this graph, we use the same method as before.

Firstsketch f(x) =.l.J_x_2 and then reflect the negative pan intbe r-axi s

x'-x-2 '" (x-2)(x+ I) so the graph meets the .r-axis at -I and 2 (Fig.4.9). It meets the .v_axis at -2 and the minimum is at (~. -2i)

Whenrenected,thesevaLuesbecome2and(~,2n respectively.

Fig. 4.9




Example 15


Find the range off(x) = or' -2x -3far rhe domain -2<;; x 5 j

At the end points, [(-2) = (_2)'_ 2(-2) - 3 '" 5 and f(5) = 5' - 2(5) - 3 = 12 Wemighlbelcmptedlosaythalthcrangcis5tol2,butdoesthecurveriseconlinuously from 5 to 12? 11 may go down!o the minimum and then rise.

Verify that the minimum is -4 at x '" I and sketch the curve (Fig.4.IOJ

The minimum lies within the domain.

So the actual range is-4 ~ f(x) 512

Hence for such questions it would be wise to makc a sketch. ta

Fig. 4.10

Example 16



f(xl ~ 1 ", .. -2)1

Example 17

Find the rallge 0/ the Junction fix) I.T/x 2) I/o. the domain ~ ~ .. ~ 2~ First skctch the graph tftg.a.D)

The minimum of x(~· - 2) is -1 at x = f which becomes a value of I when reflected.

Attheendpoints.f(!)= I~(-~)I = ~andf(2~)=I-~(~}I=~·

At x = 2 however, f(2) = O. HencetlletilngeisO~f(x)~ II.


Exercise 4.2 (Allswers all page 6J6.)

I Find the maximum or Illiniomn\ values of the following functions and the values of x where this occurs:

(a) r-6.t-1 (c) 1-4x-2x' (e)2x'-x-4 (g) 4.<'-3.>:-1 (i) (I -x)(x+2)

(b) ."'+2x-3 (d)J-x-2x' (f) .0'+3

(h) 5-2x-4r (j) x'+2bx+c

2 Sketch the graphs of the functions in Question I (except part (j)).

3 The graph or aquadrauc function meets the .r-axis where.e e J andx=k.lfthetoming

point of the function occurs where x w ~.findlhevalueofk.

4 Sketch the graph of f(.l) = lx' - 4x + 3 I and find the range for the domain 0 ~ x ~ 2. 5 Sketch (he graph of f(xl = I x(2 - xl I. State the range if the domain is -2 ~ x ~ 3. 6 Sketchthegraphofthefunctionf(xl=I.r1+x-2IandfinditsI"JngeforO:sx:S2 7 Find the moge of the funclion y = 13 + 2x - ~~ I for the domain O:S; x :s 2.



8 (a) A function V is given by V(I) = 2r- 81+ 30. Find the minimum valueofY and the valueofl where tjus cccurs.

(b) What is the range of this function forOSIS31


10 Find the range of the functions (a) 1 - 3x-.i' and (b) 2.i'-x- 3 for the domain -I :":x:":2.

11 Find the range of (a) 2x'-x-3 and of (b) 1-2x-.i'forthedomain-2SxS:2. 12 Convert y w t (x +4>' + (x-2>'1 to the fonny = (x+p)' + q and hence find the minimum value of y and the value of x where this OCCutS.

13 (a) Express 7 - x - 3x' in the fonn (1 - b(x + c)', showing the values of a, band c.

Hencestatetherangeofthefunctionf:x~7_x_3x'forallrealvalues ofx.

(b) If the mlnlmum value of x+e a.r +kis-7 find the value ofk.

14 The height (II m) of a ball above the ground is given by the function h(l) = 1St - Sf where' is the time in se«Jnds since the bell Iefl ground-level. Fmd the range of the height for I SIS3.

IS A spot of light is made [0 travel across a computer screen in a straight line so that, at I seconds aftcrstarting, its distance:: from the left hand edge (dcm) is given by the function dO) = 71 -" + 2. Fmd the furthest distance:: the spot traveb and how long it takestotravelthisdistance.

16 The function f(x) = I + bx + a.r" has a maximum value of 4 where x = _1. Find the


17 ~~ ~u~~~i~~n!(.~~e=v~:c v: :tb ha~~ao~~~imum value of -5~ where x = ~ and

18 A rectangular enclosure is made against a straight wall FIQ. 4.13 ".ingthreelcngthsOffencing,tWOOflengthxm(Fig.4.13)·U Thetotai length of fencing available is 5Om.

(a) Show that Ihe area enclosed is given by 5Ox-2r2. x x

(b) Hence find the maximum possible area which can be

enclosed and tbe value ofx for this &rea.


For D >0 anda > 0, the equation f(x) =ar+bx+ c = 0 willhave unequal roots. Call1hese a and P (where a< Pl. Then we see from the graph of such a function (Fig.4.l4) that for .r c c , f(x»O

for a<x<p, f(x)<O

for x>P, f(x)::?O




For D > 0 and a < 0, the signs of f(.x) will be reversed (Fig. 4.15), for .e c e, f(x) <0

for u c x c jl, f(x) >0

for .x>~, f(.x) <0

Keep the graphical illustrations in mind when dealing with such inequalities. If,oowever,D < o (Fig.4.16) then

f(x) is always positive ifa>O f(x) ts atwavs ncgauve ij e c n

(a) D<O.a>O


'.'" /\



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