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1) EXPOSURE

EEXPOSURE
EMT MTUBE CURRENT (Ma)
TTIME (SECONDS)

2) RECIPROCITY LAW
WHEN EXPOSURE 1  EXPOSURE 2

M1T1  M2  T2
C SOURCE ACTIVITY – CURIES
C1  T1  C2  T2

3. INVERSE SQUARE LAW


INTENSITY OF RADIATION FROM A SOURCE DIMIMISHES AS THE SQUARE OF
INCREASING DISTANCE

I 1 D 22 IINTENSITY
I 2 D 12 DDISTANCE

4. EXPOSURE VARIES DIRECTLY AS THE SQUARE OF THE DISTANCE

E 1 D 22 IINTENSITY
E 2 D 12 DDISTANCE

5. GEOMETRIC UNSHARPNESS

Ug F  T Ug  GEOMETRIC UNSHARPNESS
D F FOCAL SPOT SIZE
T MATERIAL THICKNESS
D SOURCE TO OBBECT THICKNESS

6. RADIOGRAPHIC SENSITIVITY

THINNIST VISIBLE WIRE  100  % SENSITIVITY


MATERIAL THICKNESS

FROM EN 462-1 : 1994


Dia in mm
W4 1.6 W10 0.40 W15 0.125
W5 1.25 W11 0.32 W16 0.100
W6 1.00 W12 0.25 W17 0.080
W7 0.80 W13 0.20 W18 0.063
W8 0.63 W14 0.16 W19 0.050
W9 0.50

7. SAFE WORKING DISTANCE (UNSHIELDED IN OPEN AIR)

SAFE DISTANCE  INTENSITY(mSv) at 1m 1000


7.5 (uSv)

8. INTENSITY AT 1m FROM 1GBq

IRIDIUM 192  130uSv/Hr 0.13 mSv


COBALT 60 350uSv/Hr  0.350 mSv
1 CURIE  37 GIGABECQUERELS

9. TENTH / HALF VALUE LAYERS (mm)

Steel Steel Lead Lead Concrete Concrete


1/10 1/2 1/10 1/2 1/10 1/2
IRIDIUM 192 51 16 17 5 158 49
COBALT 60 74 22 41 13 219 66
150 kvp 8 23
200 kvp 13 26
250 kvp 21 28

10. DENSITY CONVERTION CHART

1st density Density Required


achieved 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
0.50 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.0
0.75 2.6 3.9 4.9 6.0
1.00 1.7 2.5 3.3 4.0
1.50 1.0 1.4 1.9 2.4
2.00 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.6
2.50 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
2.75 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1
3.00 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0
3.50 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.9
3.75 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8
4.00 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.7