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Giao Trinh Ki Thuat Dien

Giao Trinh Ki Thuat Dien

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VU TRUNG HOC CHUY£N NGHI~P - DAY NGH~

p,U, t

(Dng suat

SACH DUNG CHO cAc TRUONG BAo TAO H~ TRUNG HOC CHUYEN NGHI~P

NHA XUAT BAN GIAo ouc

PGS. TS. D~NG VAN aAo (chu biim) - PGS. TS.lE VAN DOANH

GIAo TRINH

KY THUAT £lIEN

• •

Stich dung cho cae truang dao tao h4 THeN

(Tai ban ian thit hai}

NHA XUAT BAN GIAO DlJC

V~e t5 ehuc bisn. so~n,va xu{i't ban m9t s(fgiOO trinhphuc Vl,t cho 000 tao cae ehuy€n nganh f)i~n - D~n tU', Ca khi - D9ng hIe 11 ciic truimg THCN - DN la m§t sl,t' ctf g&ng lan cua Vl,t Trung h9C ehuy€n nghi~p - D~y nghi va Nha xudt ban GiOO due nM.m timg buac thong nhdt n9i dung dt;ly va hoc a cdc truitng THCN tnn toan. quae.

N9i dung eUa gido trinh Wi dlJr!C xay dl!ng tren. ca sa ke'thita nhilng n,9i dung dltt;IC giang 4y a cdc truimg, k€t ht/P vm nhftng n§i dung mm nMm dap Ung y€u cdu nang eao chdt IUf!nlf diw tao phuo vl,t sl,t' nghiqp e6ng nghiqp han, hi~n ct{£i han. Dl cueing eua gU:io trinh 00 du(jC Vl,t Trung hge chuy€n nghiqp - D~y ngM tham khdo f kitn cua m{}t sf/ trltdng nhu : TruiJng Cao ctdng C{Jng nghi~p Ha N§i, Trudng TH V~t - Hung, Truitng TH C6ng nghiQp II, Truimg TH C6ng ngh~p III v.v ... va t1ii nMn du(jC nhilu f ki€n thitt tht,tc, giup cho ttic gid bi€n soq,n phil hf/p han.

Giao trinh do roc nka gi<io co· nhiiu kinh nghi~m giang dt;ly d cdc truimg Dq,i hoc, Cao ctdng, THCN bien so~n~ Giao trinh du(jC bi€n soq,n ngdn K9n, di hi€'u, b6 sung nhiiu kitn thue 1)lm va bien soq,n thea quan di€'m rna, nghia la, cU c~p nhftng n{ji dung ca bdn, eo~ yiu t!i' tily thea tinh chdt cua cae nganh nghi aao t{UJ rna nha trllitng tt,t diiu chinh eke thich h4P va kh6ng trdi vm quy dinh cua ehltdng trinhkhung ciao too THCN.

TUy cae roc gia dB co nhiiu etf gdng khi bien soq,n, nhling giao trinh eMc kMng trank kIWi nhi1n.g kkidm khuy(t. Vl,t Trung h9C chuyin ngh~p - D~y nghi cU nghj cae trltitng 8U' d",ng nhilng gi60 trinh. xuat bdn Zdn nay d€' b6 sung eho ngu&n giao trink clang rltt thilu hiqn nay, nhdm phuc vl,t cho viqe dt;ly. va hgc eua cae trltiJng 4t coot lUf!nlf cao han. Giao trinh nay cung reit b6 lch d6i vm ~i ngu ky thugt vien, c6ng nhan ky thug,t M ruing eao kiln thac va tay ngM' cho minh.

Hy v9ng nhg,n du(jC st,t gap f cua cae truemg va b~n d{Je dl nhilng giao trinh duf/C b"ien soan. tiip ho(ie ldn tdi ban sau co cMit lut;1ng tm han. M9i gap y xin gm vi NXB Gido due - 81 Trdn Hling fJ{UJ - Ha N9i.

VVUlCN-DN

3

, MiJddu

Giao trinh KY THU~T DI~N dlt(/C bien S/Xln theo dl cuang do v¥ THCN - DN, B9 Gicio due & DaD t(lO xay dl/ng va thOng qua. N(ji dung dU(jc bien. sO(ln theo linh th&n ~g&n gon, dl hilu. Ctic kitn thuc trong toan b(j gicio trinh co miti lien h~ Mgic ch?It che. Tuy V9.y, gicio trinh ciing chi la m(jt phd.n trong n(ji dungctia cjwy~n ngtmh. daD t(lO cho n~n nguin dt;ty, nguCti. h9c c&ntham khdo tMm cdc gido trinh co lien quan dOL vdi nganh. h9C dl vi~c szl d¥ng gicio trinh co hi~u qua Ium:

Khi bien. s0/itn gicio trinh; chung t6i do co gdng c9.p nh9.t nhftng kiln thuc mcti co lien quan d~'n mon h9C va: phu h(jp vdi dOL tlir;Jng sit d¥ng ciing nhu' co' gdng g&n nhftng n(ji dung li thuytt vm nhflng van 4lthl/c tt thliCtng g(ip trong san xuat, dCti song dl gicio trinh co tinh thliC tiin cao.

N(ji dung cua giao trinh duqc bien sO(ln vm dung llif!ng 60 tilt, go'm 8 chuctng :

Chuang '1. Mach di~n m{lt chigu ; Chuang 2. Di~n ttt ; Chuang 3. Dong di~n xoay chi~u hinh sin; Chuang 4. Mach di~n ba pha ; Chudng 5. Chinh luu va 6n ap ; Chuang 6. Cae thie't bj d6ng cAt va. bRo v~ mach di~n ; Chuang 7. Chie'u sang; Chuang 8. Tfnh toan mang di~n.

Trang qua trinh 8z! d(l.ng, tuy theo y~u edu Cll thi co the'dila chinh sti'titt trong m6i chuang. Trong giao trinh, chung tiJi kMng ,/d ra n(ji dung thl,lC t9.p cua tung chuang vi trang thi~'t bi ph(l.c ull cho thIlc t(ip cuacac trUCtng kMng do'ng nhtit. Vi vt;iy, can cll' vao trang thitt hi cUi co cua tling truang va khd nang t6 chuc cho hoc sinh thIlc tt;ip d cac xi nghiqp ben ngoai ma trudag xay dl/ng thoi IU(jng va n~U dung th1/c t(ip C(l. thi - ThCti. IU(Jng th1/c t(ip tOL thilu n6i chung cling khOng it han thili IUf/ng h9C li thuytt cua m6i man.

Giao trinh dU(jc bien sOlln cho dOL tlif!ng la h9C sinh THeN, Cong nhan lanh. nghl bt;ic 3/7 va no cling ia tai li~u tham khao bO'ich cho sinh uien CaD ddng kj thu9.t cling nhu Kj thu¢.t vi~n dang lam vifc d cac ca Sd kinh tt nhilu linh u1/c khcic nhau.

M(ic du dii c6 geing nhrtng chdc chdn kMng trtinh. khai hit khitm khuydt.

Rat mong nht;in dUf!cy ki(n dong gop cua nguCti. szl d",ng dlldn tai ban sau dur,lc hodn chink han. M9i gOp Y xin. dll{lc giti vl Nhd XBGD -81 Trdn Hrtng D{w, Ha Ngi.

TAc GIA

4

Chuang 1

1.1. NHUNG KHAI NltM CO BAN vf Mi).CH DI¢N M('>T CHI~U

DOng di~n mQt Chiill c6 tri s6 va chieu khOng d6i theo thai gian. 1. Ngu6n dl~n m()t chi~u

Cac loai ngudn dien met chieu :

a. Pin, acquy

Bien dOi hoa nmg thanh dien nang (hlnh 1.1).

Dien ap giti'a 2 di~n cue ciia met phan tli (pin. acquy) khong Ian. VI th~ de e6 di~n ap 160. ta n6i ti~p cac pMn tir v6':i nhau (hlnh 1.2a), de e6 dong dien 16n, ta n6i song song cac phan ta v6':i nhau (hinh 1.2b).

+-+-+-+-+-

a)

+

r- r--

-------- ------- ------

Hlnh 1.1. Ngu6n di¢n hoi hoc

-

Hlnh 1.2. N6i c4c pin. aequy

b)

5

b. Pin m(il trai

Pin mat troi lam viec dua vao hleu Ung quang dien, bien deli tI\1C tiep quang nang thanh dien nang.

Dum tic dung cua anh sang, hlnh thanh su phan b6 dien tich khac dau b lap tiep xuc giQa 2 chllt ban dan khac nhau se tao fa dien ap gitta 2 eire (hlnh 1.3).

c. Mdy phd! di~n m9! chi"u May phat dien bien dOi co nang dua vao tII,IC cua may thanh dien nang lilY fa b cac cue cua day quan (hlnh 1.4).

d. B9 nguon ~n Ii cong sudt Bt) ngu6n dien tit ceng suat khong tao fa dien nang rna chi bien doi dien ap xoay chieu (lilY til' ludi di¢n) thanh dien ap mc)t chieu lay fa b 2 cue (hlnh 1.5) ..•

AnhSAng

u

+ + + + + + + + + • +

Hinh 1.3. CAu 1(1.0 pin m*t Irai

r; . ~

·~~I)IYllrF'II;~£'c~

. "j -= . =- .~ ,;j ,1!lllllllilll:!III!liII· - - -

,- r ,i;11IU!IIIIIU1lIl!UWI!/IliIiI

Htnh 1.4. Hlnh dang cua mQI may ph3t di¢n

Hinh 1.5. BQ ngu6n bien'deli di~n lip xoay chic!u thfulh mQt chic!u

2. Phu tai

Phu tai (tai) lacac thiet bi dien tieu thu di¢n nang de bien deli thanh cac dang nang IUQ'Ilg khac nhu co nang (deng co .dien), ohiet nang (ban la dien, be'p dien), quangnang (dendi¢n) .. v.v ..

3. M~ch di~n

Mach dien lit t~p hop cac thi€t hi dien (nguon, tai. day dan) n6i voi nhau trong d6 dong dien c6 the chay qua (hlnh 1.6).

6

Mach dien phirc tap co nhi~u nhanh, nhieu mach vong va nhieu nut.

N luinh. Nhanh la

bi) phan ciia mach dien g6m c6 cac phan tu n6i tiep nhau trong do c6 cung dong dien chay qua.

Nut. Nut la chO g~p nhau cua cac nhanh (til 3 nhanh trO' len).

Mach yang. Mach vong la l6i di khep kin qua cac nhanh.

May phat (MF) cung cap dien eho dim (D) va dong co dien (DC) g6m c6 3 nhanh (1,2,3), 2 nut (A, B) va 3 mach vong (a, b, c).

dAn

A

c

B

Hinh 1.6. Ntlt va vong cua mach di¢n.

1.2. cAc Il~I t.troxc Il!C TRU'NG QuA TRINH NANG LUONG TRONG M~CH DI$N

1. Dong di~n

Dong di~n i c6 tri 86 bing t6e dQ bien thien cua dien hrong Q qua tie!t dien ngang ella v~t dAn.

. dQ

1=-

dt

don vi 1A ampe, A.

Ngiroi ta quy uae chieu cua dong dien chay trong v~t dan ngtrec voi chieu chuyen dOng cua dien til (hlnh 1.7).

2. I>i~n ap

Tai m6i dh~m trong mach dien e6 mot dien the' <po Hieu di¢n the! giila hai di~m goi Ia dien ap U, dC1l1 vi 18. von, V.

Di¢n ap giila 2 diem A va B (hlnh 1.8) 1a :

(1-1)

u

I

I

Hlnh1.7

fPAo.,Q .----1DI---Q'ge

UAB

Hlnh 1.8

UA8=<PA-<PB (1-2)

Chieu dien ap quy uaela chieu tit di~m c6 dien the! cao d!n diem c6 dien the thap.

7

Di¢n ap giihl 2 eire cua ngudn dien khi hcr mach ngoai (dong dien 1=0) dircc goi la sue dien dQng E.

3. Cong suat

COng sua"t cua nguon sue dien dong la :

P=EI Cong suat cua mach ngoai III :

P=UI Don vi ciia cong suat 18. oat, W.

(1-3)

(1-4)

1.3. MO HINH M~CH DI~N MOT CHI~U

Khi tfnh roan, mach dien thirc duqc thay the! bang mQt sa dO goi Itt rno hlnh mach dien, trong d6 cac phan tir thtrc duqc thay the! bang cac phan til ly urong E, J, R

l.Suc di~n d(.ug E

Suc dien dQng E 18. ph~ tir 19 nrong, c6 tri 56 bing dien ap U do diroc gitta 2 eire cua ngnon khi ha mach ngoai. Chieu ciia sUc dien d¢ng quy uae tiI dien th!" tha'p d€n dien the! eao (ctrc Am tai cue dirong) (hlnh 1.9).

+

Chic!u cua dien ap quy uO'c tit dien the! cao de!n dien the! thap, do d6 neu chieu vi! nhu hlnh 1.9 thl:

2. Ngu6n dong di~n J

Nguon dong dien J ia phan ti't 1:9 nnmg c6 tri s6 bang dong di¢n ngAn mach giua 2 eire cua nguon (hlnh 1.10).

3. I)i~n tra R

Dien tra R d~c trung cho mot v~t dAn v~ mat can tra dong dien chay qua. V~ hien nrong nang luong, dien tra R d~c tnrng cho tieu tan, bie!tt ddi dien nang tieu thu thanh cac dang nang hrong khac nhtr nhiet nang. Quang nang ... v.v .. (hlnh 1.11).

COng suat cua dien tra

P=RI1

U=E

(1-6)

8

(1-5)

Hlnh 1.9. Ky hieu ngu6n sue di¢n dong

Hinh MO. Ky hieu ngu6n dOng

Hinh 1.11 Kg hieu dien tro

- Cac ill nhu de)ng co di¢n me)t chieu, acquy f:J ch~ de) nap dien dtroc thay th~ bang SO' d6 g6m -sirc dien de)ng E n6i tiep v(ji di¢n tra trong R, (hlnh 1.14). trong do chieu E ngtroc voi chieu I.

Hinh 1.14

- Cac tai nhu ban lA dien, b~p dien, ,

b6ng den .. v.v .. dugc thay th~bAng dien tra R cua chting (hlnh 1.15).

4. Thi€t I$p mil hmh mach di~n a. Ngu6n difn

Sa d6 thay the" cua ngu6n di¢n g6m suc di¢n d¢ng E n6i ti~p voi dien trcr trong R, (hlnh 1.12).

Khi giai mach dien c6 cac phan tir tranzito, nhieu khi ngu6n di¢n c6 so d6 tbay the" Ul ngu6n dong dien

J =: mAc song song voi di¢n trcr R,

n

(hlnh 1.13).

b. SO' 46 thay the tdi

Vi dl,l 1: Ml)t ngu6n di¢n ml)t chien co sue dien dong E = IOOV, dien Ira trong R" = In cung ca"p dien cho tii c6 R,,= 24Q.

Thier l~p mO hinh mach d:i~n vA tinh dong dien tai I,.

Uri giai : MO hlnh mach di¢n theo E ve tren hlnh 1.16.

Dong di¢n tai ~:

E roo

I, =--. =--=4A

R.+R, 1+24

C6 the' giAi bai toan theo mO hlnh ngu6n dong dien nhu sau:

MO hlnh mach di¢n theo ngu6n dong di¢n :

J=~= 100 =IOOA

R. 1

ve tren hlnh 1.17.

DOng dien tAi: I ::: IOO._I_=4A

. I (1+24)·

I

I

Hinh 1.12. SCI dO Ihay Ih€nguOn E

Hinh 1.13. SCI do thay lhe bang nguOn dong

I

Hinh 1.15

Hinh 1.16

Hinh 1.17

9

1.4. cAc D1NH LU!T eVA M~CH DI~N

Cac dinh lu~t cua mach dien da hoc a v~t Iy, a day nhan manh ap dung va thuc hanh va v~n dung cac bieu thirc vao tfnh roan mach dien.

1. Iljnh lu*t Om

a. Nhdnh thuOn di~n trq R

Xet nhanh thuan dien tra (hlnh 1.18)

. .

R

~

Bieu thirc tfnh dien ap tren dien tra :

U=RI

Bieu thtrc tinh dong di¢n qua dien tra:

u

(1-7)

Hlnh US

1= U R

(1-8)

I R

--0---

U - tinh bang v 1- tinh Mng A R - tfnh bang n

Vi dl} 2 : Trong mach di~n hlnh 1.19. bitt I = 21OmA; R = lOon. Tinh di¢n ap tren di¢n rro u.

u

Hinhl.l9

Uri ghil ~

Dien !p tren di¢n Ira:

u = RI = 100 . 0.21 = 21 V h. Nhanh' c6 s«e di~n dtjng

E va di~n trq R

Xet nhanh c6 E, R (hlnh 1.20) Bieu thrrc tinh dien ap U :

V = U, + U, + U3 + U4 = R.I - E. + RzI + Ez

= (R. + Rz) I - (E. - Ez)

Vay: V = (l:R) I - l:E

Trong bieu thtrc (1-9), quy uac d~u nhu sau:

u

Hinhl.20

(1-9)

S1i'c dien d¢ng E va dong dien I c6 chieu trung voi chieu dien ap U se lA"y da:u duong, ngtroc lai se la:y d~u Am.

JO

Bien thirc tfnh dongdien :

I=U+I:E I:R

Trang bien thuc (1.10) quy uae d!l:n nhu sau :

Sue di~n dong ,E va dien ap U e6 chieu rrung voi chieu dong dien se l!l:y dau dirong, ngiroc lai se la'y d!l:u am.

(1-10)

Vi du 3 : Cho mach dien hlnh 1.21. Bitt EI = 100V; II = SA Tfnh dien ap U AD va

dong dien cac nhanh 12, 13.

LM. gial:

Tinh dien ap U AD :

UAR = EI - RJ II

=100· 2.S = 90V Dong di~n 12 :

Dong di~n I] :

Hinh 1.21

13 = U AB - E3 90 -115 = -25A

R3 I

Dong di~ I] < 0, chieu th\fC eua dong di~n 13 ngU'QC vm chieu d1i ve tren hlnh 1.21.

2. lljnh Iuat Ki~cshop Q. Dinh lu~ KiecshtJp 1

Dinh luat nay eho ta quan M gii'i'a cac dong dien tai mot nut, duqc phat bien nhu sau :

T 6ng dai so' nhilng dong di4n a mtjt nut bang khong,

Trong d6 qny uae dong dien di till nut lay dan dirong, dong dien rei khoi mit IA:y dau am (hinh 1.22).

o hlnh 1.22 thi :

II + (-12) + (-I]) = 0

(1·11)

Hinh 1.22. DOng di¢n nut

11

b. fJinh, lu~t Kiecshop 2

Dinh luat nay cho ta quan M giil'a suc dien d~ng. dong dien va dien tra trong mQt mach vong khep kin. drrqc phat bieu nhu sau :

Di thee met mach vong khep kin theo mot chieu tuy y chon, to'ng dq.i s6' nhiing sue d;~n d(Jng bang tdng da! ;{; eac d;~n dp roi tren cae difn trrJ ella mach vong.

ERl = EE

Quy rrac d~u : cac suc dien d()ng. dong di¢n co chieu trung chieu mach vong la:y da:u dirong, ngtroc lai hry dau am,

o mach yang hlnh 1.23 :

Rill - Rllz + R]13 = El + E, - E3

Hinh 1.23. Mach yang dong dien

Vi d~ 4 : Tfnh dong dien 13 va cac sii'c di¢n d¢ng EI, E3 trong mach di~n hlnh 1.24. Cho bitt 12 == lOA; II = 4A ; R] = Hl; R2 = 2.0. R] = SQ.

LM giai :

Ap dung dinh luar

Ki€csh6'p 1 tai nut A.

- II + 12 - IJ = 0 13=12-11 == 10-4==6A

Ap dung dinh Iuat

Kiecshcp 2 cho mach vong a :

EI = Rill + R2Iz

== 1.4 + 2.10 == 24V

mach vong b:

E3 = RJ3 + RzI2 = 5.6 + 2.10 = SOV

Hinh 1.24. M~ di~n cho VI dl,l4

1.5. cAc BltN D61 TUONG DUONG

Biln dOi nrong dirong nham muc dich dira mach dien phrrc tap v~ dang dan gian hon. Khi bien dOi nrong duong, dong dien, dien ap tai cac b~ phan khOng bi bien dOi vAn giit nguyen. Duai day dira ra mot s6 bien dOi nrong dirong thuong gap,

12

1. Cac di~n tro m'e n6i tiep

Dien tra tuong duong R'd cua cac dien tra RI, R2• R, mac n6i tiep (hlnh 1.25) lit:

Rid = RI + R2 + ... R, (1-13) 2. Cac di~n tro m'c song song Dien tra nrong duong R'd cua

cac di¢n tra RI, R2 ... R, mac song song (hinh 1.26) tfnh nhir sau :

_1_=_1 +_1 + .... _1 (1-14) Rid R. R2 a,

Khi chi c6 2 dien tro R 1> R2 mac song song di¢n tro nrong duang cua chung,

Rid = R •. R2 (1-15)

R. +R2

Vi dl.l 5 : TInh dong di~n I trong mach di~n hlnh 1.27.

Uri giid:

Truce he't tfnh di~n h'a nrong duang R23 cua 2 di~n tW R2 va R, n6i song song.

R - R1·R] - is.2 -IS ....

2], - - - , ~III!:;

R2+RJ 1S+2

Sau khi tfnh duqc R23 ta e6 mach thay tM don gian han (hlnh 1.27b).

Cac di~n trb RI• R23, R.. mac n6i tiip. di~n trb tLwng duong R.~ cua mach,

Htnn 1.25. Di¢n trOllICmg duang eua mach n6i liep

Hinh 1.26. Di~ tro nrong duo'ng efta mach song song

Hmh 1.27

E 110 I=-=-=lIA R. IO

Dong d'i~n I 18.:

Rib = R] + R2l + R. = 2,2 + 1,8 + 6 = IOn

E 110V

E 110V

an

a)

an b)

13

3. Bien cloi sao (Y) thanh tam giBe (.:::.\.) va nguqe hJi

a. Bien dli sao thanh tam gidc Y -+ Li

Gia thiet c6 3 dien trb RI, R2• R3 n6i hlnh sao. Bien dOi hlnh sao thanh cac dien tra da'u tam giac (hlnh 1.28).

Cong thee tinh cac dien tra n6i hlnh tam giac 18:

(1-16)

Khi hlnh sao d6i xtmg:

RI = R2 = R) = R thl ta c6 :

RI2 = R23 = R31 = 3R

b. BUn dli tam gidc thanh sao Li -+ Y

Gia tbi!t c6 3 di~n tra R 12. R23• R31 n6i hlnh tam giac, Biln doi hlnh tam giac thanh hlnh sao (hlnh 1.29).

di~n tra cac canh hlnh sao tfnh 18 :

Hinh 1.28. Bitn dOi Y ~6.

(1-17)

Hill" 1.29. Bitn dOi 6.~ Y

Vi dy. 6 :

Tfnh dong di~n I chay qua ngu6n ella mach eh hlnh 1.30. bit"t R, = 120. R3 = R2 = 60. R4 = 210. R, = 180. E = 240V, R" = 20 (blnh 1.30).

Uri giili :

Bie'n ddi tam giae ABC (Rl> Rz.~) thanh sao RA> RB• Rc (blob 1.31).

14

12.6

12 +6 +18

2n

A

3n

Di¢n tra nrong dirong ROD ella 2 nhanh song song:

R - (Rs + R3)·(Rc + R4)

00 -

Rs + R3 + Rc + R4

= (6+6),(3+21) _ 80

6+6+3+21

Di¢n trCt nrong duang toan mach

Rw = R.. + RA + ROD = 2 + 2 + 8 = 12 n DOng di¢n chay qua ngu6n

E 240 I=-.-=-=20A

Rid 12

4. Dlnh Iy Thevenin

E t

Mo!oNG2

NGuON

Hinh 1.30. M~h dien cho vi d~ 6

A

I

Hlnh 1.31

A A

MOt mang dien 2 cue phec t4P c6 ngudn co tM dU'«;yc thay the bang mc)t mach dien 2 cue dan gian gom SU'C dien dOng ~h n6i tit!p veri. dien trd R'h (hlnh 1.32), trong d6 ~ blng dien ap giua 2. c\l'c U AS khlhq

Hinh 1.32. MIlICh luuog dU'ang ella mang 2 qre c6 ngu6n mach ngoai, R'h l~ dien tra

Siila 2 C\fC A vl B cua mang 2 cue khicac sU'c dien dong cua mang bAng khOng.

B

Vi d., 7. Hiiy tfnh E1II va Rib (so d6 Thevenin) cua mang 2 C1,lC hlnh 1'.33. Uri giii :

E 20 R R

E ... =UAB=--R1 ",-.8",16V; R"",RAB= ! 1

R,+R1 2+8 Rl+Rl

Sa d6 Thevenin v! tren hlnh 1.34.

Ne'u mang 2 clJC n6i vm mQt tAi c6 di¢n t:rC1 R\ = 30,40:, dong di~n t!i ~ si!5 la:

I _ E",

,-

R ... +R,

16 _ O,5A

1,6+30,4

~=1,6n 2+8

15

Mot mang dien 2 cue phU'c tap c6 ngu6n c6 thi diroc thay th€ b~ng mach di~n don gian g6m nguen dong dien IN n6i song song vci di¢n trcr Rib (hlnh 1.35). trong d6 J N bang dong di¢n ngan mach giita 2 cue A va B, Rib 13 di~n tra gitra 2 C1!C A va B cua rnang 2 c~c khi cac sue dien dQng cua mang bAng khOng (nhudi xet i:J dinh It Thevenin).

Rinh 1.33

M\lch di~n cho vi d~ 7

5. Blnb Ii' Noctong

A

A
Rlh It
Eth RI
B
Hinhl.34
Sa do Thevenin B

A

A

~G2 cl,ICc6

B

B

Hinh 1.35. Set do Ibay 1M maag 2 cue c6 nguon

LM giii:

Vi du 8: Hay thay th! m{lni 2 Cl!C hlnh 1.33 bangso d6 NoctOng.

E 20

J == InG~1l macb AD == -=- = lOA

c. Rl 2

R :: RIR2 = 2.8 '" 1.60

th R} +R2 2+8

Sa d6 Nocteng vI! tren hlnh 1.36.

Neu mang n6i v6i teli c6 R. == 30,40, dong di~n tii se lA :

It "" IN·Rlh _ 10.1,6 =O,SA Rth+Rt 1,6+30,4

Hlnh 1.36. Sa dO Noetong

1.6. NGUY~N LV X:tP CiI6NG

DAy la tinh chat co ban cua mach dien tuyen tfnh,

Trong mach dien tuyen tfnh nhieu nguon, dong dien qua mOi nhanh bing tdng d~ so cac dong dien qua nhanh do me dung rieng re cua tang sU'c di¢n

16

d¢ng (hie d6 cac sl1'c dien d¢ng khac coi bang khOng). Nguyen 1:9' xep chong duoc ling dung nhieu de nghien CUu mach dien co nhieu ngu6n tac dung:

Tfnh bang phuong phap xep chong, thuc hien thea cac biroc sau:

Ducic 1 : Thiet.lap sa d6 di~n chi c6 mQt ngu6n tac dQng.

Dltcic 2 : Tinh dong dien va. di~n lip trong mach chi c6 mot ngu6n tac d¢ng.

Buac 3 : Thier l~p sa do mach dien cho ngu6n ti~p theo, l~p lai cac buoc 1 va 2 cho moi ngu6n tac d¢ng.

Buac 4 : Xep chong (cong dai s6) cac kt"t qua tfnh dong dien, dien ap cua m6i nhanh do cac ngu6n tac dung rieng reo

Vi dl,l 9 : Hay tlnh dong dien 12 trong nhanh 2 cua mach dien hlnh 1.37a.

a)

b)

Hinh 137. Ml.lCh di¢n cho vi du 9

c)

Liri giii :

Ta se rhuc hi¢n thea cac bu~c:

Buite J : Lap so dd chi c6 m¢t s\lc (ti~n d()ng EJ tic dung (hinh 1.37b) Buite 2: Giii set do hmh 1.37b chi c6 nguon EJ hie dQng

R -R R2·R3 -2 4.4 -4Q

~- 1+ - +----

R2+R3 4+4

Dong di¢n nhanh 1 do ngu6n EJ lac d¢ng :

El 40

III =~=-= lOA

Rtd 4

Dong di¢n nhanh 2 do ngucn EJ rae dOng:

I "" Ill·R3 _ 10.4 =SA 21 R2+R3 4+4

Buuc 3 : Thi~t lap so dO chi c6 mOt mlnh sue di¢n d¢ng E) tic d()ng (hlnh 1.37c).

2-Gaao trinh KTD

17

Ghii sa dO, hlnh 1.37c ta c6 :

R!d=R3+ R2·Rl =4+~=~n

R2+Rl 4+2 3

Dong dien nhanh 3 do ogu6n El [tic dQng :

E3 16 I33=-=-=3A Rtd 16/3

Dong di¢n nhanh 2 do ngu6n El tac dQng :

123'" 133.Rl =3._2_=IA

Rl +R2 2+4

Bltoc 4 : X(p chong ktt qui.

DOng di¢n nhanh 2 do ca 2 ngudn tac dQng ta: 12 = 121 + 123 = 5 + 1 = 6A

1.7. cAc PHUONG PHAp GIAI M~CH f)I~N PHU'C T~P

Giai mach di¢n is. tfnh dong dien, dien ap, cOog su~t cua cac nhanh, cac phan til. Dong di~n trong cac nhanh con chua bic!t. vi the! ta tuy y chon chieu dong di~n (gQi la chi~u duang) trong cac nhanh. K€t qua tfnh toan, nlu dong cii~n dtrong I > 0, chieu (thuc) dong di~n trong nhanh trung v6i chieu dirong da: chon, Neu I < 0 chieu dong dien ngiroc v6i chieu da: chon,

Chung ta xet 3 phtrong phap cC/ ban dum day:

1. Phuang phap dong di~n nhanh

An sO cua h~ phirong trmh 1a dong di~n eac nMnh.

Phuong phap nay U"ng dung tnrc tilp 2 dinh lu$,t Kiecshop 1 va 2. va thuc hien thee cac bucc sau:

Buac 1: Xac dinh s6 nut n = s6 nhanh m = S6 an

ciia h¢ phuong trlnh bang s6 nhanh m.

Duac 2: Tuy y ve chieu dong dien m6i nhanh,

Duac 3 :Vi~t phuong trinh Kiecshop 1 eho (n-I) nut cia chon,

Duac 4 : Vic!t phirong trlnh Kiecshop 2 cho (m-In-D) = (m - n +1) mach vong dQc lap.

Duae 5 : Gicii h~ th6ng m phuong trlnh da thi6t lap, ta co dong di¢n cac nhanh,

18

Vf dyl0: Ap dl,Ulg phuong phap dong dien nhanh, tinh dong di~ trong cac nhanh cua mach di~ hbih 1.38.

LM giil :.

Buac L: Mach di~n c6 2 nut A va B, 56 nut n = 2; mach c6 3 nhanh 1, 2. 3, 56 nhanh m = 3.

Hlnh 1.38. ~h di¢n dung phuong phap dong di¢n nbanh Buuc 2: Vi: chi~u dang di~n cac nhanh II' 12, I] nhir hlnh 1.38.

Bube 3: S6 nut cdn vitI phtrong trlnh Kiecshop 1 Ia n -1 = 2 - 1 == 1. Chon nut A.

Phuong' trlnh Kiecshop 1 vitI cho nut A. la:

II - 12 + I] = 0 Buite 4: Chon (rn - n +1) = 3 - 2 + 1 = 2 mach vong.

Chon 2 mach vang dOc l~p a, b nhu hlnh ve. Vilt phtrong trlnh Kiecshop 2 cho mach vong a Va h.

(1)

Phuong trlnh Kiecshop 2 cho mach vong a. 4711 + 22 12 = 10

Ml,lch vong b

(2)

22 12 + 6813 = 5

Rube 5: Giai h~ 3 phuong trlnh ta c6 dang di~n cac nhanh II = 138 rnA

12 = 160 rnA

13= 22 rnA

Phuong phap dong di¢n nbanh giai tr\lc ti~p dugc cac dong dien cac nhanh, song s6 phtrong trlnh bAng s6 nhanh rn, nrong d6i Ion. doi hoi nhieu thoi gian tinh roan giai M phirong trlnh,

(3)

Vi thl dum day dua ra cac phtrong phap sir dung cac 4n s6 trung gian Ia dong di~n mach vong, di¢n th~ nut, do d6 s6 phuong trlnh sf!! diroc giam bot, nho v$y tilt.ki¢rn thM gian tfnh toano

2. Phllang phap dOng di~n mach vong

o phuong phap nay. 4n s6 trong h¢ phuong trlnh khong phai Ia dong di¢n cac nhanh, rna la m¢t dong di¢n mach yang rnang y nghia vt toan hoc, vi neu biet duqc chung, co tM de dang tfnh dang dien cac nhanh,

19

Cac btrdc giaitheo phirong phap dong dien mach vong nhu sau :

BUlic 1: Xac dinh (m-n+l ) mach vong dl)c l~p va tuy y vi! chieu dong di¢n mach vong, thOng thuong nen chon chieu cac dong dien mach vong gi6ng nhau, thuan tien cho l~p h¢ phuong trlnh,

BUGe 2: Vit!'t phtrong trlnh Kiecshop 2 eho mOi mach vong thea cac dong di¢n mach vong da chon,

BUcJe 3 : Giai h¢ phuong trlnh vira thi~t l~p, ta c6 dang dien mach vong, Bu6'e 4 : Tinh dong di~n cac nhanh thea dong di¢n mach vong nhu sau: dong dien m6i nhanh bang t6ng d~i·s6 dong di¢n mach vong chay qua nhanh ily.

VI dl,lll : Ap dung phuong phap dong di~n mach vong giii mach di~n hlnh 1.39.

LOi giai :

Buac 1 : SO mach vong d()c l~p :

rn-n+l=3-2+1==2 mach vong.

Ve chieu dong c1i¢n mach vong I., I, nhir hlnh ve.

470

820

Hinh 1.39. M{tcb di¢n lip dung phutmg phap dong di~n mach vong

B,tae 2 : Vi!!'t phirong trlnh Kiecshop 2 cho cac mach vong,

Mach vong a (47 + 22) I. - 22 Ib = 10

Mach vong b

69 I. - 22 Ib == 10

- 221. -+ (22+ 82)Ib - = -5

(1)

(2)

Bittle 3 : Giiii M phirong trinh dii thit! Iq.p

{ 691. - 221b = 10

- 221. + 104 Ib = -5

Sit dung phirong phap rna tr~

10 -22

I := -5 104 '" (10).(104) - (-5).(-22) := O,139A a 69 -22 (69).104-(-22).(-22)

-22 104

69 10

Ib '" ~~2 -5 '" (69).(-5)-(-22).(10) ;-O,0187A -22 (69).104-(-22).(-22)

-22 104

20

Buitc 4: Tfnh dong di¢n nhanh

II == I. == 139 rnA 12 == I. -I, == 139 - (-18,7) == 158rnA

Il == I, == -18,7 ~A

Dong dien I, < 0, do d6 IJ e6 chieu nguoc lai v6i chieu da ve.

3. Phuong pbap di~n thE nut

Phuong phap nay sir dung an 86 trung gian lA dien th~ cac mit de thi~t l~p he phuong trtnh.

Biet dien the! cac nut, tade dang tfnh dong dien cac nhanh, Xet mach di¢n hlnh 1.40.

4700

ES 7y

Hlnh 1.40. M\lCh di~n de t1nh di¢n Ibe' nut

Tu$' '9 chon tro6c di¢n th! met diem coi la: biet tnroc. ThUCmg la:y dien the' diem Ify bAng khong,

o day chon di¢n th~ diem C bang khOng : <Pc = O. Dl,I'a vao dinh lu~t 6m ta c6 dong dien cac nhanh

1 - El -'PA(j)B

1- 14==-

RI R4.

I_CPA 2--

R2

I - <i>A -CPB 3-

R3

Dinh lu~t Kiecshop 1 tai nut A

I, - 11 - 13 == 0

21

El -CPA _ CPA _ CPA -CPB =0

Rl R2 R3

(_1 +_1 +_1 )CPA _(_1 )CPB =(_1 ).E1

Rl R2 R3 R3 Rl

Dinh luat Kiecshop 1 tai diem B

13 - 14 - I~ = 0

<PA -<PB <Ps _ Es +<PB =0

R3 R4 Rs

( __ 1 ).CPA.+(_I +_1 +_1 ).CPB =_(_1 ).Es

R3 R3 R4 Rs Rs

Ooi: 0A =(·_1_+_1_+_1_) - TOng dAn ella cac nMnh n6i voi nut A.

. Rl R2 R3

Os = (_1_ + _1_ + _1_) _ TOng dAn ella cac nhanh n6i vai nut B.

R3 R4 RS

o AB = ( ~ 3) - TOng dAn chung giira 2 nut A va B.

1

01 ". - - Di~n dAn nhanh I.

Rl

1

05 = - - Di~n dAn nhanh 5.

Rs

H¢ phuong trlnh di¢.n the' nut se la

GA<PA -GABcps = 0,E1 -GABCPA +GBCPB =-GsEs

GiAi M phuong trlnh ta se e6 di¢n the' cac nut, va til' d6 tfnh dl1Q'C dong

dien cac nhanh,

Cac bircc de giiii mach di¢n theo phirong phap dien the' nut la:

Bttae 1: Xac dinh s6 nut n.

Buoe 2: Chon m(>t nut bA"t ky c6 dien the' bilt tnroc,

Bttae 3: Tfnh tdng dAn cua cac nhanh n6i vOi mOi nut GA. Go". va tdng dAn chung cua cac nhanh.gitta 2 nut GAO ... va dien dAn cac nhanh c6 ngudn GI.G~.

22

Buae 4 : L~p h~ phirong trlnh dien the' nut,

BUGe 5 : Giai h¢ phuong trlnh ta co dien the' cua mOi nut. Buae 6 : Sir dung dinh lu~t Om tinh dong dien cac nhanh, Vi dl;l12 : Giii mach di¢n l:J hmh 1.40

0A '" (_I +_1_ +_1_) '" (j_+_I_ +_1_) = 0,00663

, RJ R2 R3 470 680 330

0B '" (_1 + _1_+ _1_) '" (_1_ +_1_+_1_) = 0,01403 R3 R4 RS330 1000 100

0AB '" (_1 ) = _1_ = 0 00303

R3 300 '

I 1

°1=-=-

RI 470

1 1

°S=-=RS 100

H¢ phirong trlnh di¢n the'mlt

o,00663q1A -O,OO303<pB '" ~~ -7

-O,00303qlA +O,OI40~:: 100

GUli h¢ phuong trlnh ta co:

<JlA --O,928V Th d6 tinh duqc dbng di¢n cae nh4nh

I E}-<JlA _ 4,S + 0,928 -0 OllSSA

} RI 470"

'PB =-S,19V

1 ",!A. '" -0,928 = -0 OO136A

2 R2 680 '

13 = 'PA -<JlB '" -0,928+5,19 =O,OI29IA

R2 330

14-!B. .. -5,19 =-O,OOSI9A

, R4 1000

IS '"E,+<JlB _7-5,19 =O,0l81A

RS 100

23

Phuong pnap di~n the" nut dl1'<1c su dung khi mach dien c6 nhi~u nhanh it nt D~c bier khi mach chi c6 2 nut (hlnh 1.41), ta d! dang tlnh di¢n the" cua nut.

Chon <PH: 0 • v~y chi con dien tM nut A Iil &n s6.

I I I

0A :·-+-+-:007892

47 22 82 '

°1 :(_1 )=...!...

.. RI 47

03 :(;3)= 812 GIEI + GlEl = 0,27374

V~y phuong trtnh di¢n the' nut Ala 0,07892cpA = 0,27374

Hinlt 1.41. M~h di~n e6 2 nut

GiAi fa ra c6:

<p .... = 3,468 V Dong di~n cac nhanh

I "" 81 -<PA :: 10-3,468 O,I39A

I RJ 47

12 ",..2A."'~:O I5BA

R2 22 '

I3",E3-<PA 5-3.468::00lB7A

R3 B2 '

cAu H6. ON T J,.p vA sAl T J,.p

1.1. Nguon dj~n Iii gl ? Tal la gl ? HAy cho cac vi dl,l vIS ngu6n dj~n va tai. 1.2. Ph. it bi&u dlnh lu~t Om.

1.3. Phst biAu dlnh "'Ui)t Ki6csMp.

1.4. Cac blldc gh~i mach df~n blrlng phlldng phap dong <fitn nhanh.

1.5. Cac btJbc giaf m~ch ditn b~ng phu'dng phap di!)n tM cac dil!m nut.

1.6. Cho E '" 100V ; R = 100 ; I '" SA. Tfnh di~n ap u trong 2 sCI d6 hinh B1.6a va 81.6b.

24

a)

b)

Hlnh 81.6

EJap s6: a) UAS = 150V b) UBA = 50V

1.7. Cho E = SOV'; R = 50; U = 40V. Trnh dOng d'i~n I trong 2 sc do hinh B1.7a v~ B1.7b.

E

u

u

a)

b)

Hlnh81.7

EJap s5 : a) I = 18A b) 1= 2A.

1.8. MQt tsi c6 di'~n tra R = 190 d'lIu vao nguon di~n met chi~u c6 E = 100V, (fitn tro trong R1r = 1Q. Tfnh dong dif}n I, di~n ap U va cOng sullt P cua tai.

£)ap s5: I = 5A ; U = 95V ; P = 475W,

1.9. Cho m¢t ngu6n t1itn mQt chieu c6 sac di~n d¢ng E = SOV ; dil}n tro trong RIr = 0,10. Nguon d1~n cung clip ditn cho tai c6 dit}n tra R. Biet cong su«t tiSn hao tro"g nguon dit)" 11l10W. Trnh dong dI~n I, di~n ap U gilta 2 eire cua "gu6n di~n, (fitn tra R vll cOng su«t P tai tiAu thu,

. .

£)(Jp s6: 1= 10 A; U = 49V; R = 4,9a; P = 490W."

1.10. ~¢t nguon di.n c6 s((c di~n d¢ng E v~ dif}n trb trong RIr = 0,50, cung c4"p dif}n chola; c6 di~n tro R. Bi6t dil}n ap cua tai U = 95V ; cOlig sullt tai ti&u tht) P = 9S0W. Tinh E, R.

eap s6; E = 100V; R = 9,Sfl.

25

1 .11. Bon di~n IrO R1, R2• R3• R4 mac n6i til!p d~u vao nguon di~n ap U 12V (<Jj~n Ira trong b~ng khOng). DOng c1ii;ln lrong mach I = 25mA. di~n a Iren cac m~n tra R1, R2• R3 18 2,5V ; 3V ; 4.5V.

Ve sa d6 each d«u dAy, each m~c ampe k~, vOn ke d~ do cac d'lli Iuqn trtm. Tfnh di~n ap U4 tr&n di~n tra R4. Tfnh di~n IrO' R1, R2• R3• R4.

-

Vap s6: U. = 2V; Rf= 100n; R2 = 1201}

R3 = 1801}; R~ = 80n

1.12. Bi6t s6 chi cua mQt s6 ampe k~

tr&n hinh

R1.12. Xac

djnh s6 chi cua ampe k6 Alva~.

£Jap s6:

1.13. £)g c6 di.n Irb (illang duang) 150 O. ngllOi ta d4"u song song hai

t11~n Irb Rl = 330 0 va R2•

Tfnh R2

f)sp s6: R2 = 275il.

1.14. Hai di~n IrO' Rl = 1000 va R2 = 470 c:r!u song song, biel dOng di.n b mach chfnh 1= 100mA. TCnh dOng di~n qua cac (Jj~n tra R1• R2•

DfJp s6: 11 = 32mA,' 12 = 68mA

1 ~ 15, Dung phep biEtn d6i tltOng dUdng, tfnh dOng di~n trong cac nhanh tr&n sa d6 hlnh B 1. 15. Tlnh cOng su«t ngu6n va cOng su!t Ir&n cac di~n trc1.Cho U = 80V ; R= 1,250; Rl = 60: R2 = 10(t

Dap s6:

If = 10A ; 12 = 6A ; 1= MA; p= UI= 1280W; PR = 320W;

..

1M = 3,5A; IA2 = 2,5A

26

Hlnh 81.12

R

Hlnh 81.15

PRf = 600W .. PR2 = 360 W

Ta thdy P = PR + PR1 + PR2

1.16. Tfnh dong di~n I va cOng su~t nguon trong so do hinh 81.16. Cho U = 120V ; R1= R2 =:= R3 = 2a ; R4 = R5 = Rs = so.

fJap s6: 1= 60A; P = 7,2kW

1.17. Cho mach diAn trAn Hlnh 81.16

so do h lnh B 1.17: Hay giai mach di~n trAn bAng 2 phlJong phap sau :

a) PhlJong phap dong di~n nhanh,

b) Phllong phapdl(m th~ cac nOt (chon di4m nOt B c6 dI~n th4" bAng khOng).

Cho El = 200V; Rl = 20; E2 = 170V; R2 =10a; R3 = 200.

8

Hlnh S1.17

f)ap 86: cnon chi~u dong di'n nhanh nhu hlnh S 1.17.

a) " = 10A ; 13 = 9A ; 12 = -1A (chi~u dong di,n 12 (nhtmh 2) nglf9c vOi chidu (1a vi).

b) L,p phuang trinh difn thl nUt A, glai fa ~A = 180V " Tit (16 c6 UAS = f'A - ~B I:;' 180 - 0 = 180V. Ap dvng djnh lu,t Om cno cac nnenn ta c6 :

I, = 10A " 12 = -1A " 13'= gA.

27

2·1. NHt1'NG KHAI NItM CO BAN V£ Ttr TRUONG

N am cham vinh ciru, nam cham dien, day dan mang dong dien tao ra xung quanh chting tit tnrong. Tit tnrOng duqc hieu dien bang cac dubng suc tir tnrong (duang cam aug til) di til cue hAc (N) tm Cl,TC nam (S) va. tra v~ C1!C bAc qua loi nam cham (blob 2.1a, b).

a)

b)

Hl"h 2.1. DIl~g sltc cua nam cham

a) Dam cham vinb Clm ; b) nam cham di~n

D6i v6'i day dan thing dai mang dien, chieu til trtrang dug<; xac dinh thea quy tac v~ nut chai: neu chieu dong dien trnng vm chien tien cua c6.i rna nut chai thl chi~u quay ella cai rna nut chai tic dinh cho ta chieu til truang a m6i diem (hlnh 2.2a).

Ta cung c6 tM sir dung quy tac ban tay ph3i (hlnh 2.2b) : ngon tay. cai hu6ng thea chieu dong dien, b6n ng6n tay con lai chi hlWng duang sue tir trubng.

28

a)

~)

Hlnh 2.2. Xac dinh chi~u dtrbng sac IU tnrong cua dAy dAn thAng mang dong di¢n

b)

D6i vf1i cuen dAy g6m· mQt s6 yang day c6 dong di~n ta ciing dung quy tac rna mit chai de xac dinh chieu dl1mtg sUe til tnrong: n~u chieu quay cua cali rna nut chai trung vm chi~u dong dien thl chieu ti!n ciia cai rna mit chai la chieu duimg strc tu tnrong (hinh 2:3).

St! c6 m~t cua tiI tnrong trong khOng gian d~c tnmg bAng cac bi~u hien sau :

1. LI!C tit glila eae . eJ!e eua Dam ehAm

Hai C\fC -Wc ten cUa 2 nam cham ~ g4n nhau, se hUt nhau (hinh 2.4). NgtR;JC lai 2 c1}C cung ten deg~ nhau se dly nhau (hlnh 2.5).

Htnh2.J. Xac dinh chieu duoog suc lu InKIng cua cuQn dAy c6 dong di¢n

Hinh 2.4. Lire hut giii'a 2 cue kbllc ten cua 2 nam cham

29

Luc tac dung len day dAn c6 dong di¢n d*"t trong til trueng hoac - d~pn tfch dang chuyen

c:lOrig trong til tnrong . • ; J

',.':,' ,: 3. Cam img di~n tit .' ~~. :

_: . Sq xulft hien strc dien

~g cam Ung vao m(Jt vOng day khi til trJ.Wng bien thien hoac thanh dan chuyen dong trong til tnrong .

2. Lue di~n tit

Hlnh 2.5. Luc dAy giita 2 CI!C cung len cua 2 nam cham

'2-2. CUONG D(} TtJcAM - CUONG D(} TtJTRUONG

-TUTH(}NG .

d tren dii thlfy, til tnrong phan b6 trong khong gian dugc bi(~'u dien bang cac dirong sue til trueng, 06 III ducmg eong khep kfn, tiep tuyen tai mOi diem trung v6i phirong cua til tnrong tai diem 6y, mat d(J dirong sec 160 hay nho cho ta bilt til truemg manh hay yen. Cach bi~u di~n bAng duong SUe eho ta thay mer each luang minh SI1 phan b6 ella til truang tuy nhien trong tfnh toan, nghien ew, de d~ tnrng cho n1 tnrong nguai ta dung khai niern vecto cuong

d(J til cam B.

1. Vecta CU(mg dq til' cam Ii

Til truOng duoc d~e trung bbi d~i hrong vat Iy III vecto cirong d¢ til cam Ii (goi tat 18 vecto til cam, vecto .cam Ung til). Tri s6 Bella vecto til cam Ii eho ta bi!t til truong manh hay ye'u. Chieu ella vecto til earn Ii III chieu ella til tnrong (chieu ella dirong sec til trtrOng).

Trong he dan vi qu6c te' (51), dan vi ella cuong d(J til cam III tesla, ky hieu la T. Trong cac may dien, eUOng d(J ttl cam B thirong khoipg ttl IT de'n 1.6T.

2. Vecta cllang d~ tit truCmg H

Trong chan khOng vecto til eam Ii dll de mO ta trang thai ella til tnrong.

Nhirng trong mOi truong v3t chat ta phai xet den ;lnh huang ella chang len til tnrong. De thll'y ro, chang ta hay quan sat duong sue til tnrong trong 2 tnrong hop a hinh 2.6.

30

a)

S6t

b)

Hlnh 2.6

Khi d~l v~t li¢u nhu gi~y, thoy tinh, gO, nhua vao trong tir tnrong cua mot nam cham, dirong sU'c tir khong bi bien dang (hlnh 2.6a), song khi ~t mot tarn sAt (dAn tir t6t) dirong suc tir t~p trung di vao sAt, tir tnrong bi bien dang (hlnh 2.6b). De: xet di!n inh huang nay cua moi mrong v$t chat, ngirci ta dung

vecto cirong dQ tir tnrong H d~c trung cho tir tnrong trong cac moi tnrong v~t eh~t.

Trong moi tnrong ding hu6ng (mOi tnreng c6 cac tinh chat v$t ly d6ng nhA't thea moi huong khac nhau), quan M giiIa vecto tir earn B va vecto cirong dQ tir tnrong if nhu sau: '

B = J.Lo(1 + lm).H = ~

(2-1)

Trong d6:

lm - D:') tMm. tir cua mOi trl.Wng,v'_t chat, ~ trung anh huang cua moi truOng. 1-'0 - H¢ s6 (dO) tir thAm cU(i chan khong.

I-' - M 's6 (dO) tir thAm cua moi tnrong v~t chat.

Don vi ciia h~ s6 tir thAm la henry tren met, ky hieu H . m

Don vi cua cuong dO tir trueng IA ampe tren met, ky hieu A . m

Trong thee tt! M s6 tir tham cua cac v$t li¢u dan tir 1&1 g~p hang nghln - Un cua chan khong, de so sanh ngum ta dua khai niem he s6 tir tham

nrong d6i I-'r

(2-2)

31

Trong ky th u~t dien, cac vat lieu sAt tll dan tir rA't t6t c6 f.1l' tit viii tram d€n vai van VI the' v~t Iieu sat tit dtroc sir dung M chI! t{LO cac mach tit cho cac thil!t bi dien,

Bien thrrc (2-1), ap dung vao cac b() phan cua cac thi€t hi dien ta c6:

Trong khe h& khong khf hoac b" ph~ khOng sAt tll:

B = f.1oH (2-3)

Trong do:

f.10 = 41t.1O-7

Trong phan thep

H

m

B = f.1H = f.10f.1rH

(2-4)

3. Tirthong 4>

Khi nghien cuu, thie't k6 cac thi6t hi. ngoai cac khai niem B, H, nguoi ta con sir dung khai niem tit thong.

Thong hrong cua vecto B xuyen qua mot M m~t S diroc goi lit tll thong cj) (hlnh 2.7).

Khi vecto B thing g6c voi M m~t S va co tri s6 bang nhau tren toan mat phing 4"y thl tit thong + duqc tinh l8.:

$=BS

(2-5)

Dan vi cira til thong ia vebe, ky hieu lit Wh.

Bien thltc (2-5) c6 tb{~ vi€t 18:

s

+

L
..L A ~ 1
~
F m .::r:r:n- ~ ~ w
1 &
~

y
V cj)

B =- (2-6)

S

V~y cirong dQ tit cam B chfnh III mat dl) tit thong tren b~ m~t S.

Vi dl} 1: Cubng d¢ tit cam B duoi mat cue ella ml)t nam cham co tri s6 ia 8.1 O·3T.

Dien tlch m~t cl!c S = lOdm2• Tfnh tit thong ella m6i cue tU'.

Ltd giil:

Hinh 2.7

Tit thong ella mOi cl!c tir

4t = BS = 8 . 10.3• 10.10.2 = 8.10.4 Wb

32

Vi du 2 : Circng d¢ tu cam B trong )oi thep cua may bien ap (hlnh 2.7) IA 1,45T. Ti€t dien ngang cua )oi thep S = 120 em", Tinb tu thong chay trong loi thep,

Lai giai :

Ttr thong chay trong ioi th6p

cjl = BS = 1,45. 120. 10-4 = 1,74. 10-2 Wb.

2.3. V! T LI¢U SAT rtr

Cac cha:t sdt, niken, coban va nhtmg hop kim cua chung lam thanh nh6m nhii'ng v~t lieu sAt tiro Do cau tao v~t cha:t cua no, M s6 tu thdm Il cua v*t Iieu dt tit ra:t l6'n (-Il. c6 tri s6 tit viti tram dln vAi van) va h¢ s6 tit thim khOng phai la hang s6 rna HI. mot ham s6 cua cuong d¢ tu tnrong H. Ngoai ra CJ v*t lieu sAt tit, c6 hien nrong tir tre. nghia 18 khi ta tu hoa 15i sAt bang dong di¢n' xoay chieu trong c8 chu kyo qua trlnh dien ra khong thuan nghich, nghia la khi tang cUCmg d¢ ttl tnrong H thl circng d¢ tir cam B tlng. quan h~ theo nhanh tang. va khi H giam thl B se giam, quan h¢ vm nhau thea nhanh giarn khOng -(l'llng vdi nhanh tang. Dulmg cong quan M giua B va H trong ca chu IcY tir hoa gQi la duemg kb6p kin til'tre (hlnh 2.8).

B

_"".. ,..-
)I /
J I
L J
if- f
i_ J
H
I I
I I

V /
V /'
- ......
Hlnh 2_8

Trong viec tfob toan mach til' B thtrong.dung dltl1ng ~ong tir hoa trung blnb B = f (H) (hlnh 2.9 ).

PhI} thuec via I~ thep se c6 cac duang cong til' hoa khac nhau. Hlnh 2.10 la duang cong til' hoa cua 14 thep ky thuat dien can nguoi,

Khi cirong d¢ ttl cam tha:p quan h¢ B(H) thea dUOng cong I, khi cirong dO tir earn 100 quan h¢ B(lI) theo dirong eong II.

'- - -
..",._ ....
",.1'
V

-. J
L


I
I H

Hlnh 2.9

33

3-Giao Irlnll KTEl

B ITI

Vi dl:l 3: 2,0

Li5i th6p eua may

bien ap Iam bAng

thep co dlWng d~ nnh m hoa 0 h1nh 2.10. Bitt bet dien ngang eua loi tMp

S = 90 ern", ttl' thOng IrOOg li5i thep + = 1,386. J()"ZWb.

xac d!nh cuOOg d(l

ttl' tnrong trong loi thep,

1,5

II
I .... ....
17
·11
I---
1/
I
II 1,0

0,5

L~i glai:

Cirong d(l til" cam:

B =! 1,386.10-2 s 90.10""" =1,54 T

Ttl' tri s6 B tra dubng cong I hlnh 2.10 til. dUc;1C rri s6 eubng d* til" tnreng H == 1,2. 102 Nm

0,1
I 0 2 3 4 5 8 7 8 9 10 11 12.10"
II
20 40 80 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 24(l.1o'
H", [AIm I
Hlnh 2.10 2.4. DlNH LV! T CAM UNG DI¢N TU"

1. Sue di~n dt')ng cam ung khi tif theng xuy~n qua vong dAy bien thlen Hien nrong cam lhIg dien tll" do Faraday phat hien nam 1931, sau d6 narn 1833 Lentz phat hien ra quy tAc v~ chi~u. Noi dung dinh luat nhu sau : khi tit thong XUybl qua vong ddy bien thien, trong vong ddy sf cam ung ra sue di41l dqng, sue di4n dt)ng oy co chitu sao cho dong difll 110 sinh ra co xu huang chong lai sif bUn thien cua til thong.

Nlu chon chieu dirong cua S(ic dien dong cam Ung phil hop voi chieu ciia tll" thong <II thea quy tAc van ndr chai (hlnh 2.11) s(ic dien dOng cam lIng trong met yang day dUQc Yilt thea cong th(ic Macxoen nhu sau :

dcjl

e=--

• dt

(2-7)

Hlnh 2.11

34

Dau ® tren blnb 2.11 chi chieu tlr thOng ~ di til" doc gia vao trang gi4'y.

Neu cuon day c6 W vong day. sue dien d¢ng cam Ung cua cuon day se ia : dq, - d\jJ

e=-W-=--

dt dt

Trong d6

\jJ = wq,

(2-8)

(2-9)

goi Ia tir thong m6e vong cua cuon day.

Trong cac cong thtrc tren ti.r thong do bang vebe (Wb), sue dien dong cam Ung do bAng vOn (V).

Vi da.a4 : Hay xac dinh tri s6 va chieu sue dien d~ng cam Crng khi loi sAt chuyen dong huong vao cuen day (hlnh 2.12), Cho bit't cuon day e6 200 vong va t6e di) bien thien tlr thong xuyen qua m6i vong

. SWb

day bang 0, -.

s

Uti giai :

Chi~u tCr thOng • va chieu duong sue dien d¢ng cam (rog v! tren hloh 2.12. Khi lCii sAt tie'n vao gil1a hai el,i'C ella nam cham vinh Clm. tCr thong xuyen qua vong

day t!ng.luc;mg bie'n thien tft thong dljl > 0, d, = 0,5.

. dl

Slie di¢n d¢ng cam (rog:

e",,_Wd, =-ZOO.O,S=-IOOV

dl

Slie di¢n dOng e < ° nghia la chieu sac dien dQng cam rmg

nguqe voi ch~u duong dii chon tren hlnh 2.12.

Vi dl,l 5 : M¢t cuon day 10 vong hlnh ehl1 nh4-t quay trong tit rnrong eua mer nam cham (hinh 2.13). Bie't rAng vong day

quay voi t6e d¢ g6c ro '" 314 tad va

s ~-..;

sau thbi gian t llr thong xuyen qua vong dAy la :

Hinh 2.12

ell = 0,004 cos 314 t Wh.

Tinh sde di~n d¢ng earn (rng trong cuon day,

Hinh 2.13

35

Lbi giii :

Sli'c dien dong cam irng trong cuon day

e =-W d9 =-10 d(O,OO4cos314t) 12,S6sin314t V

dt dt

Sli'c di¢n d¢ng e bien thien hlnh sin thea thCfi gian. DAy lA mot vi du don gian giup ta hie:u each tao ra dong di¢n xoay chieu hlnh sin.

2. S~c di~n dQng cam ~g trong thanh dAn chuy~n dQng trong tit trtWng Khi mot thanh dan chuyen dl)ng cat dircng suc tit tnrong, trong thanh dan se cam iing s~c dien dong e c6 tri s6 la:

e = Blvsin a

(2.10)

Trong d6:

B - Cirong dQ tit cam do bAng T.

1 - Chieu dai hieu dung clla tbanh dan (phan thanh dAn nam trong tit truong) do bang m.

v - V ~n t6c cua thanh dan do bang ~ s

a - G6c giita chieu v.n t6c voi chieu tit tnrong a = (;~B)

Khi chieu chuyen dong vuong g6c veti" chieu tit tnrong (thuong g~p trong may dien, a = 90°) th) suc dien dong cam tmg Ia:

e = Blv (2.ll)

Chic!u cua suc dien di)ng cam rmg duoc xac djnh theo quy tAc ban tay phai duqc phat bieu nhu sau:

Cho duang suc til trllang di vao LOng ban tay phdi, chieu chuyln d~ng cua thanh ddn theo chieu ngon tay cal xoe ra, thi chieu 4 ngon ' tay COil la! ld chieu cua suc difll d91lg cdm U'ng (hlnh 2.14).

Hlnh 2.14

Khi thanh dAn chuyen dong song song vai phirong tit mrong, trong thanh dAn se khOng e6 sue dien dong cam iing.

Vi du 6 : M¢l thanh din ab chieu dai I ::: a,Sin (hloh 2.15) nam trong tit tnrong d~u B = 1,4T. Ngtroi ta tac dung mot 1I,I'C co hoc F C<I lam cho 06 chuyen dong v~i v~o

36

t6c v = 20,!!!. thing g6c v6i phirong til truffi'lg. Thanh dan truc;n tren hai thanh kim loai s

va hai dau thanh kim loai n6i vai dien tro R == 0,50 lam thanh m~t vong kfn, Coi dit;!n tra cua thanh kim loai rlt nho va bo qua ..

-

Tfnh SI1'C di¢n d¢ng -cam I1'ng trong thanh dan, cOng suat dien trd tieu thu, cong

sUAt co va h!c co hoc tac dung vao thanh dan.

Lai giai:

sac di~n dQng cam IJ'ng trong thanh din: e = Blv == 1,4 . 0,5.20 == 14V

Dong di~n chay qua di¢n tra R

I ""~=.!±. = lilA

R 0,5

Cong suat di¢n teo tieu thu Pd = RI2 = 0,5.282 == 392 W

Bb qua t6n hao trong h¢ tMng, thea dinh lu~t bao toan nang b.rQllg cOng suat co tic dung vao thanh din phAi bing cOng suat di¢n phat ra cung cap cho di¢n teo R .

V~y : COng suat co: P"" == Pd = 392 W Luc ca hoc tac dung vao thanh dan la :

Fea == .!k.= 392 = 19,6N v 20

Day la m~t vi dudon gihI, giup ta hieu nguyen 1t Ism vi~c cua cac may phat di¢n lA: NhlJ Itl IrfrUng, co nang dua vdo true cua may pMI difn dUf/c bUn dtJi thanh difn nang Idy ra q ddy qulin cua may phdt 41 cling cdp cho tai.

2.S. DlNH LU! T LVC BltN -Til'

Blnh 2.15

Khi thanh dAn mang dong dien nim trong ta truong, thanh dan se chiu lqc di~n til me dung co tri s6 lA :

F dt = BIl slnc

(2-12)

Trong d6:

B - Clremg d¢ tu cam do bang T. I - DOng di~n do bang A.

1 - Chieu dai hi¢u dung thanh dan do bang m.

»<: a. - 06c giua chien dong dien va chieu tu tnrong a. = (1.8).

F dt - L\!C di~n tit do bang N (niuton).

Khi thanh d!n d~t vuOng g6c v6i tl) truong (Is. tnrong hop thirong g~ trong may dien, a = 90°) 11!c di¢n tll la :

Fdl = BlI (2-13)

Chi~u l1!c dien tll xac dinh thea quy tact ban tay trai (hlnh 2.16) nhu sau : cho chidu duang sUe tic truang xuyln vao long ban tay

trai, chiiu dong .Jifn trung v6'i chieu 4 ngoll ~ tay, thl chUu Ilgon tay cdi xoe ra /Q chitu

luc dien tit Fdl•

Vi d 1,1 7 : MQt thanh din I = 2m e6 dong dien I = 150mA chay qua, d~t vuong g6e v6"i tll' truong d~u B = 1,2T. Chi~u dong di~n di tit doc

gia vao trang gi«y (hinh 2.17). '

Tfnh tri s6 va chieu Ilfc di¢n tit lac dung len thanh din.

Uri giil! :

Tri s6 cua Il!c di¢n tlr

Hinh 2.16

Fdt = BII = 1.2.0.15.2 = 0,36 N

Ap dung quy tac ban tay trai [a xac dinh dircc

chieu h,C di¢n tll' hu6ng xu6ng du6"L

Vi du 8: Xac dinh tri s6 va chieu cua h!c dien

tit F dt tiic dung len thanh din trong vi du 6.

Ltll gial :

Lire dien til tac dung len thanh dan:

Fdt = BII = 1,4.28 .0,5 = 19.6 N

Chi~u cua luc di¢n til xac djnh thea quy tac ban tay trai ve tren hlnh 2.15.

( (
N - 5 )
) ~ (
I ) Hinh2.17

Ta thay rang trong vi dl,l 6 thanh din dong vai tro phat dien, l,!c di¢n til Fd• co tac dung him (hlnh 2.15) can bang voi Itrc co tac dung vao thanh, nha d6 thanh dan chuyen dQng v(1i v~ t6e v khong d6L

2.6. DJNH LU!T M~CH TU" - TtNH ToAN M~CH TtJ

1. Dlnh IU$t dong di~n toan phan ap d""ng cho mach ttl

Mach til g6m cac bl) phan sau: bl) phan d!n til g6m chi! ylu la cac doan lam bang v*t lieu sat til n6i lai voi nhau thanh mot mach khep kin de dAn ti:r thOng va ngu6n til hoa Ia cuon day c6 dong dien de tao ra tll thong trong mach.

Hlnh 2.18 lit. mach tir dan gian dong nhsr bang thep ky th u~t dien, chi c6 mot CU~ID day. Khi c6 dong dien I di qua cuen day, se tao ra tir thong chay trong mach tiro VI rang he s6 tit thAm J.l ciia thep Ian hon ciia khong khi bao quanh r~t nhieu nen han h€t tir thong t~p trung chay trong mach tit.

Dinh luat dong dien roan phdn lip -dl,mg van mach tit hinh 2.18 duoc viet nhu sau :

WI=Hl

(2-14)

Trang d6:

H - cirong di) tir tnrong trong mach tir do bang AIm.

I - chieu dai trung blnh cua mach tii do bang m.

W - s6 vong day cjia cuon day. Dong dien I tao ra tir thong cho mach tit. goi la dong dien tir hoa.

Tich s6 WI dtroc goi Ht sU'c tir dong.

1:11 duqc goi Ia til lip roi trong mach tiro

S

t

+

Hinh2.18

D6i voi machnrgdm nhieu cuen day va nhieu doan khac nhau (cac doan lam bang v~t lieu khac nhau, hoac tilt di¢n khac nhau), VI du mach tir hlnh 2.19 thl dinh I uat mach tir viet la:

Will - W212 = Hill + H212

Trong do:

tIl' H2 - nrong lIng la cuong dQ tir

tnrong trong doan 1. 2.

11.12 - chieu dai trung blnh doan 1.2. Hjll• H212 - goi 18 til ap doan I. 2. Wjll' WJl - s1ic tirdQng day quan I, 2. SI' s-: - ti€t dien doan 1. 2.

Chti y rang i. co d~u - tnroc W 212 VI dong dien 12 sinh ra tll thong ngtroc vai chieu tir thong da chon thea quy tac van nut chai.

tl, S1
+
r----
I
I, I 1_

Wi t~.S:t
I T-
I
L __ Hinh 2.19

39

MQt each t6ng quat d6i v~i mach tlr c6 n doan va m cuon day dinh luat machtir diroc viet:

m n

'LWjIj = LHklk

j=l . k=l

Trong d6 : dong dien Ij nao c6 chieu phu hop voi chieu tir thong $ da: chon thea quy tac v~n nut chai se mang dau dtrong, khong phil hop se mang dau am.

(2 ·15)

k • Chi s6 ten doan mach tiro

j - Chi s6 ten cuon day dong dien,

Cong thtrc 2-15 dUQ'c goi III dinh lu~t mach tiro

Vi dl} 9 : M¢t mach tir hlnh 2.20. DllCmg cong tit hoa B = f(H) cua v~t li¢u cho lJ bang sau :

B(T) 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 1.1 1,2 1,25 1,3 1,35
H 52 58 65 ' 76 90 110 132 165 220 300 380 600 900
(Aim) B (T) 1,4 1,45 1,5 1,55 1,6 1,65 1,7
H 1200 2000 3000 4500 6000 10000 14000
(Aim) Cho bitt tll cam trong khe hlJ B:z = 1.3T va cuon day c6 1000 vong. Tfnh dong di~n trong cuon day.

LM giai:

Ctrong d¢ tit trubng trong khe hlJ khOng khf.

H2 = 82 = 1,3 = 1035032 Aim j.1o 4n:.W-7

Cirong d¢ tit tnrbng trong doan thep : tit BJ = 1,3T tra bing duqc HJ = 600A/m.

Apd\lDg dinh lu~t mach tir :

WI:= HJlt + H212 10001=600.0,4+ 1035032.0,001

Tit d6: 1= 1275 = 1,275A 1000

40

I. tot4OOnvn

Hinh 2.20

Vi dl,l 10 : Mach t~ hlnh 2.21 g6m 3 cuon day WI = 2000 vong ; II = 0,5 A

W 2 = 400 vong ; 12 = 1 A

Wl = 1000 vong,

Duong cong til hoa ella V~I lieu B = f(H) cho b vi du 9. Cho bi!!1 t~ thong Irong loi thep bang 1,5 . 10-J Wb,

Xac dinh dong di¢n IJ• LUi giai:

Chon chieu t~ thong nhu hlnh 2.21.

T~ cam trong loi thep

B=1= 1,5.10-3 =i,5T

S 10.10-4 .

Tra bang dubng cong til hoa "vi dl;l 9.

Til tri s6: B = 1,5 T ; H = 3000 Nm

L--- ....l J,

Rink 2.21

Ap dung dinh luat mach ttr:

HI = Will - W2 12 + W] I]

I _ HI- WlII + W212 ., 3000.0,5-2000.0,5+400.1

3 - Wj - 1000

Suy ra:

I] = O,9A ..

2. B!ob lu$t Om cho mach tit

Til (2A) H = B va (2-5) BS = cp thay vao bil~u thirc (2 -14) ta e6 : ~

B SI 1

WI = HI = -.-=cjl.-

~ S ~

Til thOng cjl chay trong mach tir wang tll nhu dong dien I chay trong mach dien, khi thiet lap mO blnh mach ttt • til bi~u thee (2 -16) ngtroi ta dua vao cac khai niern sue tir dong F m va tll'tra R, nb u sau:

(2-16)

a. Sue til dl)ng Fill

Sue ttr dQng Fm d~c tnrng eho kbii nang tao ra tu thong trong mach tiro (Tirong tll nhu suc dien d()ng E tao ra dong dien I trong mach dien),

41

Strc tll dong F; cua cuon day dong dien diroc tinh la:

Fm=WI

(2-17)

Trong d6:

W - s6 vong day

1 - dong di~n chay trong cuon day

Dan vi cua sue tll d()ng iil ampe, ky hieu Ia A.

b. T,i'r tTii R,.

Tir tra R, lil dl;Li Iirong d~c tnrng cho v$t dan ttr v~ mat can tro til thong chay qua. (Tuong nr nhu di~n tra R han che dong dien trong mach dien),

Til tra cua mot v~t dan til phu thuec vao ban chat va kich thiroc cua no,

Til tra cua mot v~t dan til d6ng chit co M 56 tir thAm u, tie't dien S. chieu dai 1 duqc tfnh la:

(2-1~)

D ".'" .l.l' 1 A

on Vl cua tu tro a H = Wb

Sao khi dua khai niem stlc tir dong Fm. til tra Rm. bi~u thtrc (2-16) diroc vie't Ia :

(2-19)

Bh~u thtrc (2-19) (luang t\1 nhu dinh lu~~6m cho mach dien E = IR). diroc goi Ia dinh Iuat 6m cho mach tir.

Vi du 11: Tinh tCr lra ella mot doan mach tCr lam bAng thep Il = 15001l0. c6 titt dien ngang S = 120cm2• chieu ~ai I = 50cm, '

Lui giai :

TCr tro cua doan mach tlr iil :

I 50.10-2 I

Rm= -= =2,21.104-

!lS 1500.411:,10-7.120.10-4 H

Vi dl,l.12 : Ml)t nam cham dien mot chieu c6 1250 vong day. dong di~n chay trong cuon day I = 0,2A. Tfnh s(ic tCr d¢ng ella Dam cham di~n,

LUi glili :

Srrc tCr dong cua nam cham di~D

Fm = WI = 1250,0,2 = 250A

42

Vi dl1 13: M¢t mach tir nhir hlnh 2.22a, phan thep c6 chieu dAi trung blnh Ih = 75cm, ti.!t dien S = 100 ern", phdn khong khi c6 chieu dAi 16 = 2mm. Biet M s6 tir (ham cua thep J.th = 1725J.l(). dong di¢n trong cuen day I =IOOA.

Xac dinh s6 vong day W de c6 tir cam trong khe hCt khong khf B6 = 1.3T. LM. ghii :

Mo hinh mach tir viS tren hlnh 2.22b.

Truce Mt tlnh tir tra cua cac dean mach tiro Tir tra phtn. thep :

Tir tra phan khe hb khOng khi

I -1

R :_5_= 2.10 . = 1,59.IO-~ ..!_

II IloS 4x.1O-7.100.1O-4 H

l". Th8p

-~

Fj"

a)

b)

Hlnh 2.22

Tir thOng chay rrong mach lir :

$ = 86 S = 1,3 _ 100. 10-4 = 1,3 _ 10.2 Wb

Ap dung dinh iu~t 6m cho mach lir ta c6 sue lir dOng toan mach:

WI = Fm = ~ (RFe + R~) = 1,3 _ 10.2 (3,46. 104 + 1,59 _ 1O~) F", = 2516.8A

S6 vong day iA :

W = Pm:: 2516,8 ... 25 vong

- I 100

43

Tir ap rei tren phdn thep Urnl,«

UrnFO = IjlRFc = 1,3. 10-2• 3,46. 104 = 4,498 . 102 A Ttr ap raj tren phan khe hCr khong khf

Uma = IjlRa = 1,3 _ 10-2• 1;59 . 1O~ = 2,067 _ 10] A TOng tll ap rei tren toan mach la :

Uml'c+ Uma = 4,5.102 + 2,067.103 = 2516,8 A

Ta thay tong ttr ap roi tren roan mach til khep kin bang t6ng s(i'c tir dong F fIl trong mach tir (nrong tll nhu dinh Iuat Kiecshop 2 trong mach dien da hQC a chuang I).

Til sl! wang tll gitra mach til va mach dien, ta c6 the sir dung cac phuong phap giai mach dien de giai mach tiI.

cau H61 ON T~P vA eAI T~P

2.1. Hay viet bh~u thltc quan M giU'a cllCfng 4{1 tCr cam B va tCr thOng <I> va dC1n vi cua chung.

2.2. Hay viet bi~u thac quan h~ giLta cllC1ng ef9 tli cam B va cllong d9 tCr tnJdng H

va ddn vj cua chung.

2.3. Phat bi~u djnh lu?t cam U'ng di~n tCr. 2.4. Phat bi6u dlnh lui.it It,lc efi~n tlr.

2.5. So sanh 51! Ilfdng II! gilla sc eftS mach efl~n va so do mach Iii, chi ro cac d~i ill(;mg tlldng tl,l nhau.

2.6. TCr thong xuyen qua m9t tiel di~n S = 50em2 bang q, = 6.1O-3Wb_ Cho biet Iii trllong phan b6 ef~u tren di~n trch S. Tfnh cllCfng 49 ICr cam B.

flap s6 B = 1.2T

2.7. M{lt euc;'m dfly 500 vang. Nglldi ta dtJa m{lt nam cham tien gan den cU9n day.

Biet rang toc de'? bien thien tCr thong qua cu~n day la 0,6 Wb . Tfnh 5ltC dj~n d9n9 cam s

U'ng trong cu{ln day. fMp s6 e = 300V

2.8. M9t thanh dan co chi~u dal i = a,6m chuylln 119n9 thing goc vb; mgt tli trllimg deu gilla 2 eire cua m{lt nam cham, Cho biat di~n treh m~U cue nam cham s = 12cm2, tli thOng dllOi moi cue <b = 1 ,44.1 0-3Wb, toe de) v = 14m/s. Tfn h SltC dil}n dl)ng cam U'ng trong thanh dAn.

f)ap s6 iii = 10,OBV

44

2.9. Thanh dan trong bai s6 2.8 cung ca'p dj~n cho dj~n tro R = 20. Tfnh hjC cfj~n tCt tac dvng 16n thanh dIm. Chieu cUa life dil~n tct va chieu v quan h~ vbi nhau nhu th~ nao ? Vai tra cua h/C dil)n tlt trong trllOng h~p nay.

Dap s6 F 1ft = 3,6288 N; F dt nglft)c chieu v ; F 1ft d6ng vai tro IVC ham.'

2.10. Tlnh tct tro cua doan mach tll khe he khOng khf dai f = 2mm. tiet di~n 5 = 1·20cm2.

fJilp 86 Rirf = 1,326.1051

. H

2.11. Tinh tll tro cua (Jo~n mach til lam b~ng tMp dei I = 7cm ; tiel di~n hinh vuong canh 3cm. Bj~'t hI) s6 w th'm j.l= 500 Ilo'

1

Dap s6: Rlol = 1,238.105 H

2.12. Mc)t mach tlr lam bAng thap co h~ s6 ttl thgm j.1= 750 1-10 ; chi~u dai mach tu I = 1 ,26m. Tiet di~n mach W S = 20cm2• Cu(m day 650 vong mang dong di~n I = 3A.

Tfnh a. sac HI dc)ng rnacn tll

b. TU tra RM cua mach tll

c. TU thOng Ch<ilY trong mach W

d. CtJong dl) tt:t cam va cllOng de? tlt trllOng trong mach Ill.

EJap s6: Fm = 1950 A

,.

Rirf = 6,68.105 H

t11= 2,917.1tr1Wb B=1,458T

H= 1547 ~

m

4S

Chuang 3

DONG eleN XOAY CHI~U HINH SIN

DOng dien xoay chieu hmh sin diroc sir dung phd bien trong san xulft va dID s6ng xii hoi,

3.1. eACH T~O RA soc D~ I>()NG XOAY cHIfu HlNH SIN

d chuang 2, khi nghien CUu ve dinh lu~t cam dog dien tlr, dii dua ra cac vi du v~ each tao rasuc di~n dQng xoay chieu hlnh sin.' Ngum ta tac dung luc co hoc vao tI1,Ic lam cho khung day quay, cAt dtrong strc tlr truong cua nam cham NS, trong khung day se cam -ung sire dien dOng xoay chieu hlnh sin.

Hinh3.2

46

Diy quAil

Hlnh 3.1

Dong dien cung cA'p cho tai thong qua vong tnrot va chdi than (hlnh 3.1). Khi cOng suat dien Ion, each IA'y dien nhu v~y g~p nhieu kh6 khan a ch6 tiep xuc giO'a vanh tnrot va chdi than.

Trong cong nghiep, may phat dien xoay chieu dllQ'C che tao nhu sau: day quan dung yen trong cac riinh cua loi thep la phan tinh va nam cham NS 18 pM:n quay.

Khi tic dung l,!c CO hoc vao true lam nam cham NS quay, trong day quan b phan tinh se cam irng ra sire dien dOng xoay chieu hlnh sin. Day quan dUng yen nen viec lay dien cung cap cho tAi ra.'t an roan va thuan lei, MO hlnh cua may phat dien xoay chieu ve tren hlnh 3.2.

au tao chi tic!'t cua may phat dien xoay chieu duqc vie't trong sach may dien.

3.2. cAe DJNH NGHIA V£ DONG DI:eN XOAY eHI~U HtNH SIN

DOng di¢n xoay chieu hlnh sin la dong di¢n bie'n dOi mer each chu leY theo

quy lu3t hlnh sin v6i thOi gian, duqc bi~u di~n bAng dd t1tt hlnh sin tren hlnh 3.3.

i = llQUsin (cot + '¥,) (3-1)·

1. ebu ky T, bin 56 f, t4n 56 goc co

Chu leY T la khoang thOi gian ngln nhKt d~

dong di~n I~p lai hi s6 va Hillh 3.3

chieu bi61 thien,

T§n 56 f IA 56 ebu leY ella dong di¢n trong mOt giay ·1

f=- (3-2)

T

Dan vi cua ~n s6 Ii hec, ky hieu 18 Hz.

T4n s6 g6c co Ul t6c dO bien thien cua dong di¢n hlnh sin. dan vi la tad/s.

Quan M gifi'a t~ s6 g6c co va tin s6 f 18:

co = 21tf (3-3)

Vf dl,ll: Trtn hlnh 3.4 v~ di¢n ap xoay chi~u hlnh sin.

Hiy de dinh chu ky T va [~ s6 f.

Lbi gild: Chu ky T ella di¢n ap duqc xac dinh mot each de dang til' diem trj s6 0 tOO thbi diem 0 li~n sau <16.

mt

u

Hillh 3.4

T=lIlS

47

Ti:n s6 cua dien ap

f=_I_=106Hz 1.10-6

Vi dl} 2: DOng di¢n xoay chieu trong san xuat va sinh ho~t lJ mroc ta e6 (an s6 f = 50Hz. Tfnh ehu ky- T va tan s6 g6e 00.

LM giai: Chu ky cua dong dien

1 1 .

T=-=-=O 02s

f 50 '

Tan s6 g6e cua dong di¢n

rad ro = 2m = 2x.SO = 314- s

2. Tr] s6 tue thOi ella dong di~n

Tri 86 tue thoi la tri 86 irng vci m6i thai di~m 1. Trong bieu thirc (3-1) tri 86 We thai phu thuoc vao bien dQ ImlJl va g6e pha (rot +'1';).

- Bien dQ Imu Ia tri 86 cue dai, n6i len dong dien Ian hay nho,

- G6e pha (rot +'1';) n6i len trang thai cua dong dien a thoi di~m 1. C1 thoi

diem t = 0 g6e pha cua dong dien la '1';. 'I'i duec goi la g6e pha ban d~u (hoac goi ngdn gon la pha cUu) cua dong dien,

G6e pha d~u 'I' phu thuoc vao thOi di~m chon lam g6e thOi gian (thoi dh~m t = 0).' G6e pba d4u Ia doan NO trong d6 N III diem dong dien di qua ttl 86 khong tir am dl!n dirong, g4n dh~m g6e 0 nh~t. Tren hlnh 3.5 chi ra g6e pha d~u '1'1 khi chon g6e toa dt') khac nhau.

"Pi> 0

cot

"P; = 0

b) Hinh 3.5

VI dl} 3: Tren hlnh 3.6 ve dU'O'ng eong bie'n thien cua dong d.¢n e6 ti:n s6 g6e ro = 314rad/s.

a)

48

c)

Hay de dinh bien dO. pha d4u \}Ii vA vi!t bieu th(rc dong dien nrc thbi, khi chon g6e tea dO b diem 0,0' va 0".

Uri giid:

Dua vao do thl cua dong dien ta e6:

Imax == 4,SA

a) Khi chon g6e toa d¢ CJ diem 0, pha dliu If'i = 0

BiI~u thUe dong dien nrc thci

i = 4.5sin314t

b) Khi chon g6e toa eo 6diemO'

'P. = .!!.

I 4

i == 4,5sin (3141+~)

c) Khi ChQD g6c toa dQ b 0"

5
41- - - ..... '"'
3 V \
2 J f\
1 / \.
0- 011 0' ,
j f\
1 \
V \
\ 7
<:» Hinh 3.6

1t \}It =-- 4

3. Goc.lech pba q> gltra di~n ap va dong dl~n o tr~n dii xet bieu thee tri s6 tUc thm cua dong di~n i = Imaxsin (rot + 'Pi)

MQt each nrong t1!. ta e6 bieu thue tri s6 tue thOi caa dien ap u = Umusin (rot + 'Pu)

Trong d6 Umu• 'l'u - bien d¢. pha d4u ciia (Ji~n ap, Di~n lip va dong dien bien thien ding t!n s6, song phu thuQc vao tinh chat mach dien, g6e pha ella chung c6 the khOng trang nhau, ngirei ta goi giita chang c6 sl! l~ch pba. G6e <p thueng duqc dung d~ ky hieu g6e lech pha gitta dien ap va dong dien.

4-Giilolrinh KTD

q>=='¥u-'¥;

(3-4)

49

Khi <p > .0 _ di¢n ap vuot tn.r6c dong di~n (hoac dong dien cham sau dien ap) <p < 0 _ dien ap cham sau dong dien (hoac dong dien virot tnroc dien ap) <p = 0 _ dien ap trung pha v6i dong dien

3.3. TRl 86 HI~U Dl,1NG ellA DONG DI~N

Ta bie't rang tac dung nhiet va luc dien tll' ty l¢ v(ri blnh phirong dong dien. D6i voi dong di¢n bien thien c6 chu ky T thl rae dung nay ty l~ vOi tri s6 trung blnh blnh phuong cua dong di¢n trong met chu ky T.

Tri s6 trung blnh blnh phirong trong mot ehu ky ducc goi Iii tr] s6 hieu dung I.

Tri s6 hieu dung cua dong dien duQ'C tinh la :

I=~

Thay th6 i = Imusinrot vao bieu thUe tren.

/1 rT 2 . 2 1 rT' 2

I = 'IT .b lmax sur rotdt = I max T..b sin retdt

Vi sin2 rot =.!._ cos2rot eho nen

2 2

'Sin2rodt =~ tT dt-~' cos2rotdt

.!.. rT dt= T 2..b 2

.!.. rT cos2rotdt = 0

2.b -

rT 2 T

..b sin eodt = 2'

I = I J 1 . T = Imax max T 2 .fi

V~y tr] s6 hieu dung cua dong dien hlnh sin UI.:

1= l.jf ~ 0.707 Imax

Trong do:

Cho nen

Dod6

(3-5)

Tirong tl! nhir vay ta c6 tri s6 hieu dung cua di¢n ap va sue dien dong xoay chieu blnh sin la :

50

u= u~ax s:::IO.707Umax , ,,2

E = E~ s:::I O. 707Emax

,,2 '

(3-6)

(3-7)

Tri s6 hieu dung la dl).i luqng quan, trong cua mach dien xoay chien. Ta n6i dong di¢n xoay chieu nay bang bao nhieu ampe hoac di¢n ap xoay chieu nay bang bao nhieu von la n6i tri s6 hi¢n dung cua chang. Cac tri s6 ghi tren nhan cac thiet bi di¢n, cac dung cu do luemg (sir dung dong di¢n xoay chieu) ia tri s6 hieu dung,

Chti y: De phan bier dn chti y cac ky hieu:

- i, u - tri s6 tltc thoi, ky hieu che in thtrong

- I. U - tri s6 hieu dung ky hieu chtt in hoa

- Im.x' UI1LlX - bien dl) (tr] s6 cue dai),

VI d\l4: Dong di~n hlnh sin trong vi dl)3 chay qua di~n lIC R = IOn. Tinh cong suat P, di¢n nang A cua di~n lIb tleu thu trong 20giO-.

Uri giii : Tri 56 e'/C d{ti dong di~n I", .. = 4,5A, tri s6 hieu dung cua dong dien qua dien tro la :

I .. I~ =*,,"3,18A Cong' su!'t di¢n P cua di¢n trCr

P = Rf2 = 10. (3,18i = 101,1 W Di¢n nang di¢n lIb tieu thu trong 20h

A = Pt = 101.1 . 20 = 2022Wh = 2,022.kWh

3.4. BItU DI~N DONG DI~N XOAY CHI~U HiNH SIN BANG VECTO

d tren ta di bien dit!n di¢n ap, dong di¢n bang duemg hlnh sin, each bien di~n nay ctlng nhu bien thltc giai rich tri s6 IUC thoi, gitip ta thay ro quy luat bit!n thien, song sir 'd\lng de tfnh roan se khong thuan tien, vi the ta dua vao each bieu di~n bAng vecto,

Tit bieu thee tri s6 ntc thm dong di¢n

i = Imusin(rot + 'PI) = IJi sin(oot+'PI)

Ta thiy khi tA:n s6 da cho, nt!u bi!!t tri s6 hieu dung I va pha d4n 'Pi. thl dong di¢n i hosn roan xac dinh,

TIc loon hoc, vecto duqc difc trung b<ri dl) dai (dQ 160, mO dun) va g6c (acgumen), tit d6' ta c6 the dung vecto de hieu dien dong di¢n hlnh sin (hlnh 3.7) nhu sau :

51

D¢ d8.i cua veda bieu <lien tri sO hieu dung, G6c cua vecto vdi true ox bi!u dien g6c pha d~u. Ta ky hieu nhu sau:

Vecta dong dien : i = 1L\I1i

T

._.

Vecto dien ap : U = UL1.I'u

Vi dl} 5 : Hay bieu dien dong di¢n, dien ap bang vecto va chi ra g6c Iech pha 11', cho bi€t

i == 20 J2 sin(rot.lOo) A u == 100,)2 sin(rot+40o) V.

Lbl giai !

Vecto dong di~n j

j = 20L-IOO Vecto dien ap U U=lOOL400

Chon tf l¢ xfch cho dong di¢n. va tY I¢ rich cho di¢n ap, sau d6 bieu dien chang bAng vecto tren hlnh 3.8. Chu y g6c pha duong, Am dugc xac dinh theo quy u6c tren hlnh 3.7.

rr

Hinh 3.7

100V

Hinh 3.8

G6c l¢ch pha II' gilJa di¢n lip Va dong dien Ia g6c giita 2 vecto U va I.

Phuong phap bi~ll dib veda gitip ta de dang cong hoac trir cac dai hrong dong dien, di¢n ap xoay chi~u hlnh sin.

Vi dJ;1 6: Tfnh dong di~n i3 trong hlnh 3.9a. Cho biet tri s6 nrc thai i J == 16.J2 sinrot: i2== 12.J2 sin( rot+90~.

LCri giai: Ap dung dpm lu~t Kiecshop 1 t{li nut ta co i3 = i, + i2

a)

b)

Hinh3.9

52

Ta khong c!)ng tnrc titp tri s6 nrc thci da chao rna bieu dien chung thanh vecto (hlnh 3.9b)

R6i tien hanhcong vecto

r , il + 12 Tri s6 hieu dung cua dong di~n 1)18.:

13 '" JI22 + 162 '" 20A

G6e pha cua dong di¢n i3 la:

12

19lV) '" 16 = 0,75

G6c 1fI3 = 36.87°

Bitt duqc tri s6 hieu dung I va g6c pha dliu 't'l ta xac dinh de dang tri s6 nrc thai. Tri s6 nrc thai dong di¢n i3

i) = 20 J2 sin(cot+36.87°)

Vi¢c rmg dung vecto de bieu di~n cac dl;l.i luqng va cac quan he trong mach dien cung nhu de giai mach dien se duqc d~ cap trong cac muc tiep theo.

3.5. QUAN ~ GIDA roNG n¢N, D~N AP eVA MOT NHANH

Nhanh la phdn tii co ban ciia mach dien, vt the' tnroc he't ta phai xet cac quan h~ trong nhanh,

1. Nhanh thulin di~n tra R

Khi c6 dong di¢n i = I J2 sineot chay qua dien tra R (hlnh 3. lOa), ap dung dinh luat 6m, dien ap tren dien tra Ia :

UR =Ri = RI J2 sineot = UR Ji sincot trong d6 UR Hi tri s6 hieu dung cua di¢n ap tren di¢n tra R. So sanh bieu thac cua i va UR ta thay:

- Quan h¢ giita tri sehieu dung cua dien ap va dong di¢n (dinh lu~t 6m cho tri s6 hieu dung),

53

ho~c

1= UR R

(3-8)

- Dong dien va dien lip c6 cung tan s6 va trilng pha nhau. G6c lech pha gifia dien lip va dong dien cp = "P u - "Pi = O. D6 thi vecto dong dien, dien ap ve tren hinh 3.1Oc.

R

T

((It

b) mnh 3.10

Vi dl} 7: Mt>t ban 18 dien c6 dien tra R = 48.40. d~u vao ngu6n dien xoay chieu di~n lip U = 220V. Tinh tri s6 dong di¢n hieu dung I va e6ng suat di¢n ban la tieu thu. ViS do th] vecto dong di~n. dien ap,

a)

c)

Uri giai:

Tri s6 hieu dung eua dong di¢n

1= U = 220 =4,54A R 48,4

COng su~t di¢n ban la tieu thu

P = RIZ = 48,4 . 4,54z "'" lOOOW

Do thi vecto viS tren hlnh 3.11 trong d6 dong di¢n

trimg pha di¢n ap,

2. Nhanh thu4n di~n cam L

Ta xet mot cuon day thuan dien cam L (coi dien tra R cua cuen day bang khOng). Khi cho dong dien xoay chieu chay qua cu¢n day. se c6 tir thong bien thien xuyen qua cu¢n day. trong cuen day se earn tmg sUe di¢n dong ti! cam eL va gitta 2 cue cua cuon day se e6 dien lip cam tmg UL

Ldi

(hinh 3.l2a). uL = -

dt

mnh 3.11

Neu dong dien

i = I.Ji sinrot thl

54

UL = L :t (1.J2 sin rot) = roLI.J2 eosrot

= roLl Ji Sin( rot + ~) = uL..fi sin ( rot + ;)

L

rot

T

b) Hinh"3.12 So sanh bieu th11'c ella i va uL ta tM'y :

- Quan h¢ giila tti s6 hieu dung ella di~n ap va dong di~n :

a)

c)

1= UL = UL roL XL

D~ ·luqng roL e6 thu nguyen ella dien tro, duqc goi 1a cam khang XL e6 don vi la 6m (0)

(3-9)

(3-10)

- Dong dien i va di~n ap UL e6 cung ~n s6, song dien ap vuct tnroc dong di~n g6e pha ~ (hlnh 3.12b).

D6 thi vecto di~n ap va dong di~n ve tren hlnh 3.12c. Vi dl,l8 : M~t cuen day thuan di~n cam L = 0.015H

dong vio ngu6n dien c6 di~n lip u =

lOO.Ji 8in(314t +~ )v.

Tinh lei 86 hi¢u dung I va. g6c pha dju dong di¢n 'PiVe d6 thi vecto dong di¢n, di¢n ap_

Llrl giai: Dien khang cua cuen day

XL = eol. == 314.0.015 = 4.710 Tr] 86 hieu dung dong di~n

U 100 I=-=-=21,23A

XL 4,71

)(

T

Hinh 3.13

55

G6e pha dau dong di¢n

7t 7t 7t 7t

Wi =Wu-"2=3'-2"=-6"

Tri s6 tUc theri ella dong di~n-

D6 thi vecto dong dien, dien ap vi! tren hlnh 3.13. 3. Nhanh thuan di~n dung C

Khi ta d~.t dien tip xoay chieu len mot tv dien thuan dien dung C (hlnh 3.14a), dien ap rren tu dien ia uc.

uc = U c..fi sineot

T~ dien dugc nap dien tlch dq = Cduc va dong di¢n chay qua- tu dien 11:t : i = dq = Cd\lC = Cd (Uchsinrot)

dt dt dt

= roCU c -Ii coset = I..fi sin ( rot + ~) So sanh bieu thtrc dong dien va tli¢n ap ta thay :

- Quan he giUa tri s6 hieu dung cua dong di¢n va dien tip HI.:

I=roCUc= Uc-: Uc (3-11a)

1 Xc

roC

ho~e

Uc =IXc

(3-llb)

1

Xc =- (3-12)

roC

1

Dai Iirong Xc = - co thu nguyen ella dien tra duoc goi ia dung roC

khang, dC1t1 vi Ia Om (.0).

Uc

c

a)

b)

c)

Hinh 3.14

56

- DOng di~n va di¢n ap c6 cung tan s6, song dien ap Uc cham sau dong dien i mot g6c pha ~ (hoac dong dien i wqt tnroc dien ap Uc mot g6c :g.) (hlnh 3.14b).

1)6 thi vecto dong dien va dien ap ve tren hinh 3.14c.

Vi dl} 9: Tri s6 lUe thOi cua dong di¢n chay qua tu di¢n e6 dien dung

C=2.1O·Jpla i= 100.J2sin(;141+~)A

Tfnh tri s6 hieu dung va pha dju ella dien lip

d~l len tlJ, dien.

Liri giai : Dung khang ella tl,l dien.

1 I

Xc =-= = 1.590

ec 314.2.10-3

T

Tri s6 hieu dung di¢n lip tren tu dien

Uc = XcI = 1,59. 100 = 159V G6e pha dau ella di¢n lip tren tu dien la:

7t 1t 1t rt

lfIu =lfIj --=---=--

2 4 2 4

D6 thi vecto dong di¢n. dien lip viS tren hlnh 3.15.

4. Nhanh dl4;n tra, di~n cam, di~n dung mae n6i tilp

Khi cho dong dien i = I -Ii sinrot chay trong nhanh c6 L. R. C mae n6i tiep, se gAy ra di¢n ap roi tren dien tra UR, tren dien dun Ut• tren dien dung Uc (hlnh 3. 16a).

Hinh 3.15

Ul UL
Uc
uR M
}~.~~
u u'l
L
UR
~ 0 N
C Y
Uc
a) b)
Hinh 3.16
57 Tri s6 t1k: thoi cua di~n ap u a hai d4u cua nhanh lA:

Bi~u dien hang vecta ta c6:

U=UR+UL+Uc

De vi! d6 thi vectocua mach, tnroc he-t ta vi! vectc dong di¢n j trimg voi.' true ox (vi pha d4u cua dong dien d3 choP, = 0), sau do, dua vao cac quan he

vecto trong cac nhanh thuan R, L, eve vecta UR c6 d~ 160 uR = RI va trung

pha v6i dong dien, vecto UL co dQ 160 UL = XLI va vuct tnroc i mot goc 90°, vecta Uc co d" 160 Uc = XcI va. cham sau i m()t goc 90°. Tien hanh cong hinh hoc cac vecto UR, UL, Uc ta duqc vecto U (hlnh 3.16b).

Tit tam giac vuOng OMN ta co :

Tri s6 hieu dung cua dien ap

U = OM = ~ui +(UL - UC)2 =~(RI)2 +(XLI -xcIl

= ~R2 + (XL _XC)2 .I=zI

G6c lech pha gitla di¢n ap U va. dong dien i la :

UL-UC tg<p = ___..~-=.

UR

(XL -Xc)I = XL -Xc

RI R

XL-XC <p = arctg---"''-----=-

R

Ta c6 k& lu~ sau :

- Quan h~ gitta ttl s6 hieu dung cua dien apva dong dien trongnhanh R, L, C n6i ti~p Ia.:

U = zI hoac

U 1= - z

(3-13)

Trong do

(3-14)

goi 18. tdng tra cua nhanh R, L, C n6i ti~p.

X = XL - Xc = ol, - :C goi la. di¢n khang

58

- G6c l¢ch pha q:t giua di¢n ap va dong dien la :

XL-XC <p = arctg---"'---=-

R

Khi XL > Xc nhanh c6 tfnh cam, cp > 0, di~n ap vuet mroc dong di¢n.

Khi XL < Xc nhanh c6 tfnh dung, cp < 0, di¢n ap cham sau dong dien,

Khi XL = Xc, X = XL - Xc = 0, G') = 0, dien ap trnng pha v6i dong dien, nhanh R. L:

C hie nay c6 hien nrong ceng huang n6i tit!p, dong dieD trong mach c6 trf 86 1&1 nhat

1= ~ va trung pha v6i dien ap (hinh 3.17).

Neu mach c6 XL = Xc » R thl tri s6 hieu dung di¢n ap UL• Uc Ian han di¢n ap U r€t nhieu.

Di~u kien d~ cong huang n6i tie'p la :

roL = _1_ roC

(3-15)

r

-

u .

e

U"U

II

Hinh 3.17

Tan sO' g6c ceng huang Hi

ro=~

Vi dy 10: 010 mach di¢n c6 R. L, C n6i titp (hlnh 3.1Sa), bilt di¢n sp dd.u cl,lC cua ngu6n u = 10.fi sinmt.

Tfnh dbng di¢n I va di¢n aptren cac phan fir UR' UL• Uc. va d6 th] vecto mach di¢n.

Uri glii: TOng trb cua mach di¢n c6 R, L, C niSi tiep

R

son

a)

Hinh3.18

UII

b)

59

Z=~R2 +(XL - Xc)2 "'" J752 +(25-60)2"," 82.8!l Dong di¢n I chay trong mach

I;:: U ;;:....!Q_;;: O.121A z 82.8

Di~n ap tren cac ph'n tir

UR == RI::: 75.0,121 == 9,08V

UL == XLI::: 25.0,121 == 3,03V Uc::: XcI == 60.0,121 == 7,27V

G6c lech pha giita dien ap va dong dien:

XL-XC 25-60 •

tgl.p : R : 75": -0,466

f4) == - 25°

f4) < 0 cho ta bi~t dong di¢n VU'Q't tnroc dien ap,

De ve d6 th] vecto (hlnh 3.18b), tnrec h~t vi! vecto dien ap trung v6i true ox ('flu == 0) sau do ve vecto dong di¢n I VUQl tru6c di¢n ap U mot gcc 25°. Vecto UR

trung pha v6i. I, vecto UL Vuc;n: tnroc I mOt g6c 90°, vecto DC cham sau dong dien I mQt g6c 90°. aui '9: U.o DR + UL + Uc

Vi dl,l 11: MQt mach dien R, L, C n6i ti~p (hlnh 3.19)

Di¢n tp diu cue cua ngudn U == 20V,

tfnh dong di¢n trong mach khi t40 s6 f == 1kHz va f == 2kHz.

R

c

L

Lot giai:

a) Khi f == 1kHz

XL == 21tfL == 21t.l 01• 100. 10'] == 6280.

I 1

Xc "'-'" 79600.

21tfc 2n. 103.2. 10-8

Hinh3.19

z;: ~R2 + (XL _Xc)2 '" J33002 +(628-7960)2;: 80400

I", U;: 20 3 =2,48.1O-3A.

z 8,04.10

b) Khi f == 2kHz

XL == 21tfL == 2x.2. 10l. 100. 10'] == 126Of2.

60

1

Xc=-= 39800

2mc 21t.2. 103.2. 10-8

z = ~R2 + (XL - XC)2 = J33002 + (1260 - 3980)2 = 42800:

I =..!:!. = 20 4,67.10-3 A

z 4,28.103

Vi d... 12: Cho mach dien R, U = 200Y; f = 50Hz. Xac

dinh C de mach c6 ceng huang n6i tiEp. Tfnh dong dien I va di¢n ap tren cac phan tit DR' DL, n,

Lid giii : De e6 c¢ng huang nOi tiep tht

Xc = XL = soon.

Dien dung C cua mach dien

I 1 -6

C=--= 6,37.10 F.

21tfXC 21t.50.5oo

L. C n6i tiep (hinh 3.20a). Di¢n lip ngu6n

R XL x,

a) Hinh 3.20

b)

Dong dien khi cong huimg

1= U =200 =2A. )? 100

Dien lip tren di¢n tr& bAng di¢rl lip ngudn . DR = U = 200V.

Di¢n lip tren dien cam

DL = XLI = 500.2 = 1000Y.

Dien lip tren di~n dung

Dc = XcI = 500.2 = 1000V.

Dien lip DL• Dc 1&1 han di¢n lip ngu6n rtft nhieu,

D6 tJli vecto clla mach di¢n khi ceng huang ve tren hlnh 3.20b

Vi d~ 13 : Mach di¢n c6 R. L n6i tiep (hlnh 3.21a). BiEt dong dien I = 0,2mA, tan s6 dong di¢n f = 10kHz.

a) Xac dinh dien lip U, DR' UL va viS d6 thl vecto caa mach,

b) Thay L bAng C. cho biEt dong dien I co tri s6 khong dOi. Xac djnh C va viS d6 thl vecto trong truem8 hop nay.

61

LM giiii:

a) M{lch RL n61 tiep :

XL = 211:fL = 211:.10.10].100.10'] = 62800 -

z=JR2+X[ =Jl00002+62802 =118000

U = zI = 11.8.103 • 0.2 . 10.3 = 2,36V

UL = XLI = 6,28. 103.0,2. 10-3 = 1.256V UR = RI = 10 . 103 .0,2 . lO.l = 2V

DO tb! vecro cua mach dien R, L ve tren blob 3.21h. b) M{lch·RC n6i tiep :

Vi I khOng dOi, nen tong t:rO z khOng doL TIl' bieu [Mc z = JR2 + X~ [a co:

Xc = Jz2 - R2 = ~118002 _100002 :: 62800

C=_l_= 1 2,53.1O-9p

21tfXC 211:.10.103.6,28.103

DO thi vecto eua mach dien R, eve tren blob 3.21c.

a) b)

Hlnh 3.21

c)

3.6. CONG SUAT eVA DONG DI~N HtNH SIN

Trong mach dien xoay chieu R. L. C n6i tie'p c6 2 qua trlnh nang hrong sau:

- Qua trlnh tieu thu dien nang va bien d6i sang dang nang hrong khac (tieu tan, khong con tdn tai trong mach dien), Thong s6 dl)c tnrng tho qua trlnh nay lil dien tra R.

- Qua trlnh trao dOi, tich luy nang hrong dien til' tnrong trong mach, Thong s6 dl)c tnrng cho qua trlnh nay lil dien cam L va dien dung C.

62

Tirong t1ng v6i 2 qua trlnh ~y, nguOi ta dua ra khai niem cOng suattac dung P va cOng su~t phan khang Q.

1. C6ng suilt tac d\lng P

COng su~t tac dung P la cong su«t di¢n tra R tieu thu, d~c tnrng cho qua trlnh bie'n dOi dien nang sang dang nang hreng khac nhu nhiet nang, quang nang, ...

. P=RI2 Til d6 thi vecto hlnh 3.16b

UR = RI = Ucoso Thay vao (3-16) ta co

P = Rf = URI = Ulcose COng su«t tac dung la cong su«t trung blnh trong mot chu kyo

2. C6ng suilt phain khang Q

De d~c tnrng cho cuemg dQ qua trlnh trao dOi. tfch luy nang luong dien tir tnrong, ngtrOi ta dua ra khai niem cOng su«t phan khang Q.

Q = XIl = (XL - XdI2 (3-18)

(3-16)

(3-17)

Til d6 thi vecta hinh 3.16b

Ux = XI = Usine Thay vao (3-18) ta co

Q = xr = UxI = Usme Nhln V8.0 (3-18) !My ro cOng su~t phan khang ella mach g6m:

Cong su~t phan khang cua dien cam QL

QL = XLI2 COng su«t phan khang ciia dien dung Qc

Qc= -XcI2 3. C6ng suit bi~u kien S

De d~c tnmg cho kha nang ella thiet hi va ngu6n thuc hien 2 qua trlnh nang hrong xet a tren, nguOi t8 dua ra khai niern eOng suat bieu kie'n S duoc dinh nghia nhu sau:

(3-19)

(3-20)

(3-21)

63

S = UI = ~p2 + Q2

Bit~u thirc cua P, Q co tM viet thea S nlur sau: p = Ulcoso = Scoso

Q = UIsincp = Ssino

Tit 2 cong thrrc nay tha'y ro, cue dc;ti cua cOng suat tac dung P (khi coso = 1). cue dai cua cOng suat phan khang Q (khi simp = 1) Ia cong suat bi~u kien S. Vay S n6i len kha nang cua thie't bi, .Tren nhan cua may phat dien, may bien ap, ngubi ta ghi cOng sua't bi~u kien S dinh mrrc,

Quan M giUa P, Q, S ducc mO ta bang met tam giac vuOng (hlnh 3.22) .trong do S la canh huyen, P, Q 18. 2 canh g6c vuOng.

P, Q, S· c6 cimg thu nguyen, song d~ phan biet ta cbo cac dan v] khac

.nhau:

Dan vi cua P: W, leW, MW

Dan vi cua Q: VAr, kVAr, MVAr Dan vi cua S: VA. leV A, MVA

4.90 cling suit tac dung P

I)~ do cOng suat tac dung P, ngtroi ta thuong dung oat lee' ki~u dien dong (hlnh 3.23).

Oat ke' dien dQng gem 2 cuen day, cuon dong di~n (c6 tie't dien 16n) & phan tinh, mac n6i tiep v6i tai, cuon dien ap (tilt dien nho, nhieu vong day) a phdn dong, mac song song voi dien ap tai, c6 dong di¢n

iv = ~. Lire dien tit tac dung vao

RV .. .

ph~n dQng ty I¢ v6i tlch hai dong

dien i va iv nghia la ty l¢ v6i p = ui, do d6 me men quay trung blnh cua dung cu se ty I¢ v6i cOng soa't tac dung P.

Khi sir dung oat ke' c~n chu y n6i dung cue tfnh cua cuon day (d~u danh 'da'u *).

64

(3-22)

Q

p Hinh 3.22

I

Til

Hinh 3.23

3.7. NANG CAO Ht 86 C()NG SUAT cose

Trong bi~u thitc cOng su~t lac dung P = Ulcosqi, coso dugc coi Ia he s6 cong suat.

R¢ s6 cong suat phu thuec VIO thOng s6 cua mach di~n. Trong nhanh R, L, C n6i tiep

R

coso = ~=====

~R2 + (XL _XC)2

P

cose = ir=====

~p2 +Q2

H¢, s6 cOng su4t lit chi tieu ky thuar quan trong, c6 y nghia rat 160 ve kinh tt! nhu sau:

- Nang cao h~ s6 cOng suat se t~n dung t6t cOng suat ngu6n (may phat dien, may bien lip .... ) cung cap cho tai. Vi du rri()t may phat dien c6 cong suat dinh rmrc Sdm = lOOOOkVA, n€u h¢ s6 cong suat cua tai coso = 0,5. ceng suat tac dung ciia may pMt cho tai P = SdmCOS<P ::= 10000 . 0.5 = 5000kW. Neu coso = 0,9 thl P = 10000 . 0,9 = 9000kW. Ro rang In khi coso cao may phat ra nhieu eOng suat han.

- Khi e4n truyen tAi mot eOng suS1 P nhit dinh tren duong day, tht dong di¢n chay tren duang day l~:

hoac

1= P Ucoso

N€ll coso cao (hi dong di¢n I se giam, dAn d~n giam t6n hao dien nang. giam di~n ap rei tren duemg day vA c6 th~ chon day dAn tie't dien nhil hen.

Cac tAi trong eOng nghiep va sinh hoat thuang c6 tinh dien cam (cuon day dOng co di~n. may bi~n lip. chan luu ... ) nen eosqllhlfp. De nang cao costp ta tbuemg dung t1;I di¢n n6i song song vdi di (hlnb 3.24a).

1

-----r----,

1, tIc

u ...L c T

,

I

_---~---..J

a)

b)

Hinh 3.24

S-Giilo Irinh KTB

65

Khi ehua bu (ehua e6 nhanh 11,1 dien), dong dien chay teen duong day bang II' M s6 eOng suat ella mach (ella tail la coso,

Khi e6 bu (e6 nhanh tu dien), dong dien chay tren duang day I la:

j = I, + Ie

Va M s6 eOng suat ella mach la coso. Tir dO thi hlnh 3.24b ta thay

I < II; cP < CPI va eoscp > coso, Nhu vay h¢ s6 eOng suat cose di duqe nang eao.

Dien dung C can thitrt de nang h¢ s6 eOng suat tlt coso, len eoscp duoc tinh nhu sau:

Vi eOng suat tacdung ella tai khOog dOi nen eOng suat phan khang ella mach la:

Khi ehua bu :

QI = Ptgcp,

Khic6 bu bang tu di~n (t1,l dien cung cap Qd

Q = Q, + Qe = PtgCPI + Qe = Ptgcp Tfr d6 nit ra cOog suat Qe cua tu di¢n la:

Qe = -P(tgCPI - tgo)

(3-23)

M~t khac cong suat Qe ella ~ di¢n dUQ'c tioh la :

Qc = -Uele = - U.U.roC = - U2roC (3-24)

So sanh (3-23) Va (3 - 24) ta tfnh dugc di¢n dung Cella bQ tu dien la:

P

C = --2 (tgCPI - tgcp)

roU

Vi du 14: MQt tai g6m R = 60, XI. = SO mac n6i tiep, diu vao ngu6n U = 220V (blob 3.25). ,

a) nob dong di¢n II, eOng suat P, Q, S va coso, ella

tai.

b) Nguoo ta nang M s6 eOng sulft ella mach dien dat coso = 0,93.

Tfnh di¢n dung Cella bQ tl,l di¢n dA'u song song vm tai.

66

LOi glii: TOng Ira tM

z=JR2+X[ =~62+82 :100 R 6

cosCPl =-=-=0,6 Z 10

Dong di¢,n tAi I]

U 220 11=-=-=22A z 10

COng suat P cua tai:

p= RI~ = 6.222 = 2904W C6 the tinh P = UI]eosCJI] = 220 . 22 . 0,6 = 2904W COng suat Q cua tai,

C6 the tinh:

Q = UI1sinCJI] = 220 . 22 . 0,8 = 3872V Ar

Tinhe

cose, = 0,6 ; tgrp] = 1,333 eoSfP. = 0,93 ; tgrp = 0,395 Bi) ty e&t e6 di¢,n dung IS.

c;=-;'(tgCP1-tgCP)= 2904 2-(1,333-0,395)=1,792.IO-4P

co U. 314.220

3.S. BItu nItN DONG DItNHtNH SIN BANG s6 PH1JC

1. each bl~u dien 56 phti'c

Trong m~t phAng toa dQ phnc, s6" phuc duqc bi~u dien duai 2 dang sau (hlnh 3.26).

a) D(Jng d(Ji 3d

+f

b

.

C= a +jb

Trang d6 a III phdn thuc; jb 18. phan aa.

j = ~ 18. dan vi ao (trong toan hoc don vi ao ky hieu 18 i, cr day de khoi nham IAn voi dong di¢n i, ta ky hieu 18. j).

a

-J

Hinh 3.26

67

b) Dt;lng mil

i: = CeJCl = CLa Trong d6: Cia mO dun (d¢ IOn)

a iA acgumen (goc)

c) nlli tU dt;lng mil sang dt;lng dt;li sd

C = CeiCl = C La = a + jb a = Ccosa ; b = Csina

d) n6i til dang dt;li sll sang dt;lng mil

a + jb = CeiCl

trong do:

b a=arctga

Viec dOi nay thuc hien de dang tren may tinh, 2. M(tt s6 phep tinh d6i v6i s6 ph(rc

a) C9ng, tra

G~p tnrong hop phai ceng (trlr) s6 phrrc, ta bien dOi chung v~ dang dai, s6, r6i cong (trir) ph4n thl1c ven pMn thuc, phAn ao ven phan ao.

(4 + j2) + (3 + jl) = (4 + 3) + j(2 + 1) = 7 +j3

(4 + j2) - (3 + jl) = (4 - 3) + j(2 - 1) = 1 + j l

b) Nha», ehia

Khi phai nhan, chia, ta nen dua v~ dang mu: Nhan (chia) hai s6 plnrc, ta nhan (chia) rnOdun con acgurnen (goc) thl ceng (tnr) cho nhau.

6ei2a" .2eila" = 6.2ei(20° +1 a") = 12ej3O"

'20"

~ = ~ej(200-1a") = 3ejla"

2ejla" 2

NhAn cilng c6 the thqc hien duen dang dai s6 nhu blnh thuong (a + jb) (c + jd) = ac + jbc + jad + lbd

= (ac - bd) + j (be +ad)

vi f = -1

68

Khi chia ta nhan tir s6 va mau s6 v6i s6 phtrc lien hop eua mAu s6. a + jb (a + jb)(e - jd) (ac + bd) + j(bc -ad)

e+ jd = (c + jd)(e- jd) = e2 +d2

3. Bi~u di~n esc d,i Ill«.YDg cli~n hloh sin bAng s6 phlic

Cach bi!u dil!n cac d~ luong dien hinh sin bAng s6 phttc nhu sau: mOdun (de) 1&1) ella s6 phnc III tri s6 hieu dung ;

acgurnen (g6e) ella s6 phuc la pha ban d~u.

Dong di~n plnfc :

. . .

I = ILcpj = IeJ'P1

Di~n ap phrrc:

U = ULWu = Uej'Pu

TOng tr6' phUc cua nhanh R, XL' Xc n6i tie'p

Z = z~'" = zcose + jzsine = R + J (XL -Xc)

Trongd6

z=JR2 +(XL '_XC)2 XL-Xc

cp = arctg --"''-----=

R

4. Vift cac d,nh lu$t dtrlli d,ng s6 phb"c a) Dinh lu~ 6m

• "r 1=-

Z

b) Dinh lu4t Ki~cshdp 1 eho m~t nut

})=O

nlll

c) Dinh' lu~ Ki~csh6p2 cho m(lch pong kin

L ZI= L E

mach vong

mach vang

cae quy u6c v~ dA'u nrong nr nhir dii lam l:J mach di~n mot chieu, di~u chd Y l:J dAy la cac dlJ.i luqng phii vie't dum dang s6 phuc.

69

Vi dl,l 15: Tinh dong dien i3 tren hlnh 3.27. Cho bitt: i1 = 5.J2 sin (wt+40o)A

i2 = 10.Ji sin (cot - 300)A

LiJi giai : Bieu dien cac dong di¢n bang s6 phuc

.

. ."

II = 5eJ40 = 5 cos 40° + j5sin4if = 3.83 + j3.21

r~ '" 10e-j3O" :: IOcos(-30") + jsin(-30o):: ~ 66 - j5 Ap dung dinh lu~t Kiecshop 1 tai nut:

r::: I:+I~ =3,83+ j3,21 +8.66- ]5:: 12,49- jl,79 = 12,6Ie-j8.J5"

V~y tri s6 hieu dung va pha d4u cua

dong dien iJ la

13 = 12.61A If') = -8,15° Tri s6 uk thai

i] = 12.61..J2 sin(wt - 8,15°).

• Vi d..- 16: M¢t mach di¢n g6m R = mnh 3.27

100; Xl. = 160; Xc = 110 n6i tiep, Dien lip ngudn u = 200.J2 sin(wt+50o). Tin dong di¢n trong milch.

Uti. gial: TOng trb phU'c cua mach

Z = R + j(Xv Xc) = 10 +i (16 - 11) = 10 + j5 = 11,lSL26,56°

Di¢n lip phuc cua ngu6n

U .. 200L50"

Ap dung dinh lu~t Om

i= u '" 2ooL5O° = 17 ,88L23 ,44° Z 11.18L26,56

Tri s6 hi¢u dung va g6e pha d4u cua dong dien la: 1= 17,SSA

'Pi = 23,44°

Tri s6 tile thC1i cua dong di¢n la:

i = 17.S8..fi sintcot + 23,44°)

70

3.9. PHUONG PHAp GIAI M~CH fJI¢N XOA Y CHI~U HiNH SIN

De giai mach dien xoay chieu ta thuOng dung cac phuong phap sau. 1. Phmmg phap 46 th] vecto

NQi dung cua phirong phap nay III bieu dien dong dien, di¢n ap, sire dien dQng bAng vecto, vi!!t cac dinh lu~t dum dang vecto va th1JC hien tfnh toan tren dO thi vecto,

2. Phuong pbap 56 pbuc

Bieu dien dong dien, di¢n ap, suc dien dOng ,t6ng frO' bang s6 phcc, vi~~ cac dinh luat duOi dang s6 phiic. D6i voi mach di¢n phuc tap, sir dung cac phuong phap da hoc a chuang mach dien mot chieu de giiii nhu phirong phap bien dOi wang dirong, phirong phap dong di¢n nhanh, phuong phap dong dien mach vong, phuong phap di¢n ap cac nut, phuong pMp xep chong ... an chu y rang. khi sir dung cac phuong phap nay pMi bieu dien cac dai IUQIlg bang s6 phnc.

D6i v6i. cac mach dien dan gian, nhi~u khi ta tnrc ti~p sir dung dinh Iuat Om va phuong phap cOng sua't de giM mach di¢n.

Vi du 17: Cho mach di¢n hlnh 3.28a. Hay tfnh dong dien cac nhanh, cong sulft P, Q, S va cosecua mach dien,

Lbi giai: Di h¢ th6ng lai kitn th1l'c ta giai mach di¢n bAng cac phirong phap khac nhau.

100v

Ie

Xc 100

a)

b)

Hinh 3.28

a) PhuUlI8 phap d6 thi vecta Dong di¢n trong cac nhanh

U 100

IR =-=-=lOA R to .

7]

U 100

IL ==- ==-== 20A XL 5

U 100

IC .. -=-zIOA

Xc IO

Ve d6 thi vecto cua mach dj~n . tr~n hlnh 3.28b. Chon pha dii:u cua di¢n ap lJ'u = O. vecto 0 trung v6i true ox vi! vecto dong dien IR trung pha v&i vecto di¢n ilp

0, vecto dong di~n IL cham sau vecto di¢n tp 0 mot goc 900, vecto dong di¢n ic vuc;n tnroc vecto di¢n tp 0 mc)t g6c 90°.

Ap dung dinh lu.t Kiecshop 1 tai nut A ta e6:

I=IR+IL+1c

Tnrc tiep cc)ng vecto tren d6 thi 13 c6 i a mach chfnh,

Tri s6 hieu dung I ==JI02 + lif = 14, 14A.

Cong s~t tile dung P cua mach

P=RI~ ",10.102 ==IOOOW.

COng s~t phin khing Q cua mach

Q = QL + Qe = XLII. -XCI~ == 5.202 -10.102 = lOOOVAr.

COng su4"t bieu kien cua mach:

s zz. ~p2 + Q2 = Jlooo2 + l000~ = 1414VA .

H¢ s6 cOng sulft coso cua mach:

P Hloo coslpz-=-=O.707 .

S 1414

Ta cOng c6 the tinh P. Q. S nhu sau:

p = Ulcose = 100 • 14.14cos4So = l{>OOW Q = Ulsine = 100 . 14,14sin4So = 1000V Ar S = UI = 100. 14.14 = 1414VA

b) Phuong phap cdng suat

De tfnh dong di¢n [ trong nhanh chfnh ta e6 the khOng sir dung d6 thi vecto rna sir dl,lng phuong philp cong sulit nhu sau:

Til dong dien, tfnh cOng sulft P. Q. S cua mach nhu da: lam a rnuc a, sau d6 tfnh dong di¢n I iJ mach chlnh theo bieu thifc:

I=.!= 1414 ==14.14A U 100

72

c) Phuong phQp s6' ph«c bi/II diln cac dl_li luang va dinh lUI!; Mllg s6' ph«c Ap dungdinh lu(l.t Om

• U lOOLOo IOOLO"

Ic=--= =

-jXc -jlO lOL-90°

Ap dung Kiecshop I tai mit A

• • • •

1= IR+ IL+ Ie = IOLO + 20L - 90" + lOL90°

= 10+ jO+O- j20+0+ jlO= 10- jlO= 14,14L -450 Tri s6 bi¢u dung cac dong di¢n Ill:

IR = IDA; IL = 20A; Ie = lOA 1= 14,14A

Cach tfnh cOng suft P, Q. s. cose nhu c muc a.

Vi d", 18: Tfnh dong di¢n trong mach di¢n hlnh 3.29.

DAy 18 mach di¢n phtl'c tap, ta c6 th~ sir dung cae phuang phap dB: hoc a chuang 1.

Du6i dAy ta xet 2 phuoog phap sau:

a) Phuong phap biln d6i tuang duang

50

Hlnh 3.29

Tnroc htt ta bi~u di!n tdng tro cac nhanh du6i dang s6 phtrc ZI =jX1 =jlO

Zt = -jX2 = -j5; Z, = R] =8 Nhanh I va 2 mAc song song.

Tdng tW nrong duong clla nhanh I va 2 la

z - ~ - jlO.(-j5) - '10 12 - ZI +~ - jlO- j5 --J

Tdng tro lUOOg duong roan mach

~m = Z) + Zl2 = 8 - jlO = 12,8L-51.34°

73

Ap dung djoh luat Om

..

i] "" _E_= 200LO" z 15,625L51,340

Zan 12,8L -51,34°

Tri s6 hieu dung 13 = 15,625A

Pha dliu "1'3 = 51,34°

Di¢n ap

• •

U AB= ZI2 I 3

ZI2 = -jlO = lOL-90°

U AB = 10L-900 . 15,625 L51,34° = 156,25 L-38,66°

• UAB 11=--

Zl

Z, = jlO = 10L9Q"

i. = 15~25L - 38,66° '" 15,625L -128,66° 10L90°

Tr] s6 hieu dung II = 15,625A

Pha d4u 'PI = - 128,66°

• UAB 12=--

Z2

~ = -j5 == 5L-900

il_I56,25L-38.6fi'l =3I,25L5I,34°

5L-9O"

Tri s6 hieu d\lOg 12 = 31,25A

Pha d4u '1'2 == 51,34°

b) Phuang phdp dong dj~n nluinh. Ve dang di¢1l: cac nhanh

va cac mach vang nhu tren hlnh 3.30.

~ .

An s6 IA dang dl¢n cac

• • •

-11-12+1]=0

Phuong trlnh Kiecshop 2 cho 2 mach vong

• • •

nhanh I I, I 2. 1 3' Ta I~p h¢ 3

phuong trlnh sau:

Phuong trlnh Kiecshop 1 tai nut A

Hlnh3.30

74

Mach vong 1:

Si3+ jlOil = 200LOb Mach yang 2:

• •

jlOh+ ph = 0

• • •

Gicii he 3 phtrong trlnh tren ta siS c6 dong di~n I I' 12• I}.

cAu H61 ON T~P vA sAl T~P

3.1. Dong dl(m xoay ehl'u hinh sin la gl ? Bigu thac Ir! 56 lac thai. trl s6 hi~u dL,lng ? '1' nghia Irl 56 hi~u dL,ll)g ?

3.2. D!nh nghia g6c pha 'VI' 'Vu' goo I~ pha !p. D~i Il.I\;'ng nao phu thuc?c vao chon g6e toa d~? D~lll.l\;'ng nao phL,l Ihu(>c vao IMng s6 R, X cua mach ?

3.3. Hay "viet bi&u thCfc I, !P. VB deS thi veete 000 cac nh8nh sau : R ; L ; C ; RL ; RC ; LC ; RLCn6i tiep.

3.4. Cae bl&u thac trnh cOng su«1 lac dL,lng P ? P Is ceng suat tieu thu cua phc1n ILt nao Irong mach cfi.n ? '1' nghia cua c6ng ~ual lac dl,lng P ? Dan vi cua P ?

3.5. Cac bi&u thCfc tlnh c6ng su'l phin khang Q ? Q la c6ng suc1'1 li~u IhL,l cua ph~n ILt nao trong mach tf,*n ? Y nghia cua cOng s~1 philn khang Q ? Dan vi cua Q ?

3.6. Cae blgu thltc Ifnh ceng suat bi&u kian S ? Y nghia cua ceng suat bi~u kien

S ? Ddn vi eua S ?

3.7. N~u each bieu diAn dong di~n va 41.n ap hlnh sin bllng vecto, 3.8. NAu cach biAu dh1n dong di.n va di~n ap hinh sin bllng s6 phltc.

3.9. Sa dl,lng cac phiJang philp gisi mach (fI.n da xet lJ mach 4i.n m~t chi~u vao ghili mach di.n xoay chi~u hinh sin clin chu y gl ?

3.10. BiAu thCtc I~ s6 tltc tMi cua dong di~n va di.n ap m¢t nhanh Is i = 10.[i sin(ool-15°) va u = 200.[i sin (001+25°). Hay xac djnh I ....... Uma., I, U, 'VI' ljIu,!p. nay Is nMnh co tinh cMt gi ?

£J8p 56: I""", = 10.[iA; Umax = 200.[iV; 1 = 10A .. U = 200V .. jill = -15", v, = 25", rp = 4(1' .. nhBnh tfnh cam (RL).

3.11. Hay bi~u di~n vecto, s6 phU'c dong di~n va di.n ap d bsl 3.10. Xac d!nh z, R. X, Z cua nhanh.

75

z = 200; R = zcose = 15,320; X = zsinql = 12,850 ; Z = R + jx = 15,32 + j12,85 = 20 el40

3.12. Ngut'Sn dl~n U = 230V d«u vao m'l'lch di~n c6 R = 570; XL = 1000 m~c n6i

ti~. .

Trnh I , UR, UL, cose, P, Q cua mach,

E>8p s6 : I = 2A ," UR = 114V," UL = 200n ,"

cosrp = 0,495 ; P = 228W ; QL = 400V Ar Dong di~n ch~m pha c1i~n ap m(jt g6c 60,JO

3.13. M~t ngut'Sn lfI~n tc1n s6 f = 10kHz cung cilp di(!n cho tai c6 R = 10kO: ; L = 100mH n61 tiep. NgllCli ta mu6n c6 1 = O,2mA. Xac djnh di(!n ap ngu6n U.

fJap s6 : U = 2,36V

3.14. M{lt nguon di~n U = 15V ; f = 10kHz cung ~p 41+n cho tal c6 C =

O,005IlF, R = 1kO: n61 tlap. Trnh I, cese = 0,3, P, Q, Uc, UR•

fJap s6 1= 4,5mA ," costp = 0,3," P = 20,25mW," Qc =:= -64,395mVAr

UR= 4,5V; Uc= 14,31V. Ddngc1ifn VIA;1ItnDc~ ap 1TI(Itg6c 72,54'.

3.15. M¢t ng u6n lfI~n c6 di(!n ap U, cung cilp di~n cho tai c6 R = 150: ; Xc = 200: m'c n61 tiap. Blat cOng suft lac dl,mg cua mach di(!n P = 240W, Trnh I, UR, Ue, U, cose, Q cua mach di~n.

fJap s6 :1 = 4A ; UR = 60V; Uc = BOV; U = 100V; COS(j.I = 0,6 (dOng di~n VU'I;1t trfAX c1i~n ap); Qc = -320VAr

3.16. M{lt m'l'lch di~n· nhll hlnh 83.16. Cho blat UL = 150V. Trnh 11' 12, 13, I, P, Q, U, COSqI cua mach

f)ap s6

I, = SA ; 12 = 5A; 13 =10A

1= 5...{i = 7,07A," P = 250W Q = -250VAr," U =.50V

cos(j.I = 0,707 (dong di~n I v~t tru'dc di~n ap g6c 4&').

u

100

Hinh 83.16

3.17. Cho m¢l d'~n nhll hinh &3.17. Cho biat dong di~n 13 = 50A.

a. nnh UA9; I, ; 12; I. ; 1; P; Q ; S ; cos. ; U cua mach dl~n.

b. Xac djnh ph'n tl'r nao (R, XL ho~c Xc) dfu n6i tlap vim nhanh 2 dg cho dong di~n I. = O. Trnh trl s6 philn tl'1 'y va dong dl4n 1 trong tn.lClng hqp nay.

f)ap s6:

a) UAS = 100V; 12 = 20A ; 11 = 25A

76

14 = 30A ; 1= 39.05A .. p= 5549.8W

o = -3000VAr .. S = 6308. 74 VA

U = 161, 55V .. coso = 0,879 D6ng dj~n I vLI(1t tn.J(Jc dj~n lip

U m()t g6c 50, 19"

b) CAn d5u x; vao nhtJnh 2

Xc = 3n ; I = I, = 26,925A

3.18. Cho m¢t cuen day c6 R =

40. XL = 250 mAc n61 tj~p v(:ll tl,l

di~n c6 Xc = 220 difu vao nguon U = 220V.

a) Trnh I ; QL ; Qc ; Q ; cose cua mach

b) Trnh dl~n ap dl;lt 16n cuen day va di~n ap dl;lt len tt,l di~n f)lIp so:

a) J = 44A .. P = 77 44W

A

I~

u

B

Hlnh 3.17

OL = 48400VAr ; Oc = -42592VAr

0= 5808 VAr; cosrp = 0,8 (d6ng dj~n cMm pha (Ji~n lip g6(; 36,87") b) U~d'y = 1113,99V .. u; = 968V

3.20. M¢t tal e6 R = 60, XL = 80: a) Tfnh h~ 56 cOng suift eua tai.

NgtJCJi ta difu tal vao rigu:.6n U = 120 V.

b) Tfnh e6ng suift P, Q cua tai d~ nAng C051j) eua mach (Ji~n Ilin bang .1.

Tfnh dung 111(;lOg Qc eua b¢ tl,l mile song song v(:li tai. Trnh C eua be) tl,l, eho blat tAn 56 nguOn <fliiln f = 50Hz.

3.19. Tfnh dong dl~n I" 12, I, UAB cua mach dl+n hlnh 83.19.

fJlIp s6: I, = 20A ; 12 = 40A .. 1= 20A .. UAB = 240V

A

1u--

en

120

Hlnh 83.19

fJ;!Jp s6: a) coso = 0.6

b) P = 864W; Q =1152 VAr

Oc = -1152 VAr .. C = 2,547.1(FfF

77

,

Chaung4 M~CH al~N BA PHA

4.1. KHAI NltM CHUNG

Ngay nay dong dien xoay chieu ba pha dl1QC Slr dung rong rai trong cac nganh san xuar vl :

- Dong co dien ba pha c6 cau tao dan gian va d~c tfnh t6t han d(lng co dien m()t pha,

- Truyen tai dien nang bAng mach dien ba pha tilt kiern dUQ'c day dAn. giam bOt t6n thA't dien nang va tOn thlt di~n ap so vol truyen t3.i di¢n nang bang dong di~n met pha,

Mach dien ba pha bao g6m ngu6n di¢n ba pha, dl1Cmg day truyen tai va cac tai ba pha.

1. Ngu6n di~~ ba pba

De tao ra dong dien ba pha, ngU'<n ta dung cac may phat dien xoay chieu ba pha, Loai may phat di~n trong cac nha may di¢n hi¢n nay 13 may phat di¢n d6ng be (dircc trlnh bay chi tic!t trong may di¢n). Cau tao ella may phat dien d6ng b() (hlnh 4.1) g6m:

- Ba day quan ba pha dlJt trong cac ranh cua Wi thep stato (ph4n tlnh). Cac day qusn nay thirong ky hieu Ht : AX (day quan pha A) ~ BY (day quan pha B) ~ CZ (day quan pha C).

x

y

z

Cac day quan cua Hinh 4.1. OIu '\10 may phlil d6ng b(l

cac pha c6 cung s6 vong

day va lech nhau m¢t g6c 1200 dien trong khong gian,

78

,

- Ph4n quay C con gQi'la roto) III nam cham di¢n N - S

Khi quay roto, tir tnrong se 14n hret quet qua cac day quan pha A. pha B pha C cua statova trong day quan pha stato xuA't hien sec dien dQng cam rmg, suc di¢n dong nay c6 dang hlnh sin cung bien dO, cung tltn s6 g6c ro va. l¢cb

, 2n

pha nhau mOt g6c 3'"'

Neu chon pha d4u cua sec di¢n dOng eA cua day quail AX bang khong, thi bieu thuc suc dien dOng nic thlri. cua cac pha U. :

Suc di¢n dQng pba A

eA = E.J2 sin rot

Suc di¢n dOng pha B

r;:: 21t

eB = E"':t sin(rot - -) 3

Suc di¢n dQng pha C

ec =E J2 sine rot - 41t) = E J2 sin ( rot + 21t)

3 3

hoac bieu dien bAng s6 phrrc

BOA = Eei°

.. ·2R

E"c = E ell

Hlnh 4.2a Ve dd thi tri s6 tlie thm hlnh sin va. hlnh 4.2h ve dd thi vecto cua sec dien dQng ba pha.

lilt

a)

b)

Hlnh 4.2.

79

2. each noi mach ditn ba pha Ne"u m6i pba cua nguon di~n ba pha nOt rieng re voi m6i pha cua rai. thl ta c6 h¢ tb6ng ba pha khOng lien h¢ nbau (hinh 4.3). M6i mach dien nhu vay goi la met pha cua mach dien ba pha.

MJ;Lch dien ba pha khOng lien b~ nhau can 6 day dan, khong tie"t kiem nen thuc t€ khOng dung.

c

Y~ZB Zc

~

B

Thirong ba pha cua nguon dien Ie

n6i voi nhau, ba pha cua tai n6i voi

nhau v,a c6 dirong day ba pha n6i Hlnh 4.3. Mach di¢n 3 pha n6i rieng re

nguon voi tai, dan dien nang tit ngu6n toi tai. Thong thuong dung 2 each n6i: n6i hlnh sao ky hieu ta Y va n6i hlnh tam giac ky hieu la a (xem cac hlnh 4.4, 4.5 ... 0 cac ti€t tiep thea).

Suc dien dong, dien ap. dong dien m6i pba cua ngu6n dien (hoac tail goi Iii sec dien dong pha ky hieu Ui E, • dien ap pba ky hieu ia Up. dong dien pba ky hieu Iii Ip.

Dong dien chay tren duong day pha tir ngu6n d€n tai goi la dong dien day ky hieu Iii Id, dien ap giua cac dirong day pha goi la dien ap day, ky hieu ia u;

Cac quan M giG'a dai hrong pba va dai hrong day phu thuoc vao each n6i (hlnh sao hay tam giac) se xet ky 0 cac ti€t ti€p thea.

3. Mach di~n ba pha dol x6'ng

Ngu6n dien g6m ba sac dien dong hlnh sin cimg bien d¢, cung tiln s6, lech nhau v~ pba 231t • goi la ngu6n ba pba d6i xung, D6i vOi ngu6n d6i xung, ta co :

EA + EB + Ec =0

Tai ba pha c6 t6ng tro phirc cua cac pha bang nhau ZA = Zs = Zc - goi 1ft tai ba pha d6i ximg.

MJ;Lcb dien ba pha g6m ngu6n, tM va duang day d6i xung goi la mach dien ba pha d6i xirng (con duqc goi Ia mach ba pha can bing). Neu khOng thoa man dii!u kien da neu goi Ia mach ba pha khOng d6i xirng.

80

o mach ba pha dOi xtmg, cac dai IUQIlg dien lip. dong dien cua cac pha se d6i ximg, c6 tri s6 hieu dung bang nhau va l¢ch pha nhau 1200• tao thanh cac hlnh sao dOi xung va. t6ng cua chung bang khong

IA + IB+ Ie ~ 0

UA+ UB.+ Uc =0 4.2. CACH N6I HiNH SAO ( Y )

1. cse« nOi

M6i pha cua ngu6n (hoac tail c6 d4u va cu6i. Thuong quen ky hieu dau pha Ia. A. B. C, cu6i pha la X. Y, Z. Mu6n n6i hinh sao ta n6i ba diem cu6i ciia pha v6'i nhau tao thanh diem trung tinh (hlnh 4.4a),

D6i v6i .nguen, ba diem cu6i X. Y. Z n6i vai nhau thanh diem trung tfnh 0 cua ngu6n.

D6i v6i tai, ba diem cu6i X', Y'. Z' n6i v61 nhau tao thanh trung tinh O· cua tai,

Ba day n6i 3 diem d4u A. B. C cua ngu6n voi 3 diem d4u cac pha cua tai goi la ba day pha.

Day dAn nOi diem trung tfnh cua ngu6n tai diem trung tinh cua tai goi Ia day trung tinh.

2. Cac quan b~ gill'a d,1 hrqng dAy va pba kbi doi xt'rog a) Quan h~ giiia dongdi~n ddy va dong di~n pha

I.. 14 A'
UAI Io
B lh I. B'
Io
B
a) b)
Hinh 4.4 Dong dien pha Ip III dong di¢n chay trong mOi pha cua ngu6n (hose tai), Dong dien day Id chay trong cac day pha n6i tit ngu6n t61 tal. Cac dong di¢n

s.Giio trinh KTf)

81

nay da duqc ky hieu tren hlnh 4.4 . Nhln VaG mach di¢n ta thay quan b¢ gi11a dong dien day va dong di¢n pha nhu sau:

lJ = I, (4-1)

b) Quan hf giua difn ap ddy vd di~n ap pha

Dien ap pha Up la di¢n ap gi11a di!m -dliu va di~m cuol ella m6i pha (bo~e gifra di!m dAu eua mOi pha va di~m trung tfnh, ho~e giua day pha va day trung doh).

Dien ap day U, la dien ap gi11a 2 diem dliu cua 2 pha (hoac dien ap giua 2 day pha), vi du dien ap day UAB (gitta pha A va pha B). Usc (gitra pha B va pba C) • U"CA (gitta pha C va pha A).

Thea dinh nghia dien ap day ta e6:

(4-2a)

(4-2b)

U CA = U C - U A (4-2e)

D~ ve es thi vecto di¢n ap day. tnroc het vi! dO thi vecto dien ap pha U A.

U B. U c. sau d6 dua vao cong thee (4 -2) ve dO th] vectc dien ap day nhu hmh 4.4b hoac 4.4e .

Xet tam giac OAB (hmh 4.4b)

. .. ../3

AB = 2 AH = 2 OA cos 30° = 20A -=../30A

,- 2

u, = .J3 Up AB ia di¢n ap day U, OA ia dien ap pha Up

Til' dO thi vecto, ta th4"y: Khi dien ap pha dOl ximg, thl dien ap day d6i xtrng,

- V~ tri "S6 hieu dung

Ud= J3l!P (4·3)

- V~ pha : dien lip day virot tnroc di¢n ap pha luang dng mot g6e 30° (U AB vUqt tru6'e U A mt')t g6c 30°,

82

Hlnh 4.4.c

UBC virot tnroc Un mot g6c 30° • UCA vuQt tnroc Uc mot g6c 30°).

Khi tM d6i xung lA, lB. Ic , tao thanh hlnh sao d6i xung, dong dien

trong day trung tinh bang khong,

10 = IA + IB + Ie = 0

Trong tnrong hop nay e6 the khOng Clin day trung tfnh, ta c6 mach ba pha ba day.

D¢ng eo dien ba pha lit tai d6i xtrng, chi dn dua ba day pha de'n dong co ba pha.

Khi tai 3 pha khOng d6i xung, vi du nhu tAi sinh hoat cua khu t~p the. cua cac gia dinh ...• day trung tfnh c6 dong dien 10 bAng

10 = IA + IB + Ie

Vi du I: M¢t nguOn di¢n ba pha d6'i xlingn6'i hlnh sao, di~ ap pha ngu6n Up" =220 V. Ngu6n cung c(p di¢n cho tai R ba pha d6'i ximg (hlnh 4.5a). Bitt dong dien day Id =lOA. Tfnh di¢n lip day U, , di¢n lip ph'h ella tai, dong dien pha ella tlii va ella ngu6n. va d6 thi vecto.

LM. giai : Ngudn n6i hlnh sao, lip dung eOng th(i'c (4-3) di¢n lip day li\:

u, = .J3 Up = J3 .220 = 380 V

Tai n6'i hlnh sao, bitt U, = 380V, thea eOng thirc (4-3) dien lip pha ella tai 18 u, 380

Up! = J3 =J3 = 220 V

IA
T.!
.Uci Yo
B fa c
Ie: B

a)

b)

Hinh4.S

83

Ngu6n n6i sao, tAi n6i sao, ap dl,lng cOng thac (4-2) Dong di~n pha ngu6n

Dong dien pha cua tiii

Ipl = I.t = lOA.

VI tlU thuan di~ trl:! R, di¢n ap pha ella tm. trung pha v6i dbng di~n pha cua tii I,

(hlnh 4.5b). .

4.3. CACH N61 HINH TAM GIAC (6.)

1. Cach n61

Mu6n n6i hlnh tam giac, ta l~y d~u pha nay n6i vci cu6i pha kia. Vi du A n6i v6i Z ; B n6i voi X; C n6i v6i Y (hlnh 4.6). Cach n6i tam giac khong C( day trung tinh.

2. Cac quan b~giita dQ.i hrqngd,Ay VB pba khi doi x6'ng •

Khi gitii mach di~n 'n6i tam giac ta thireng quen quy uoc: chieu dirong

dong dien cac pha I, cua ngu6n nguqc chieu quay kim d6ng h6, chieu dirong dong di¢n pba cua tM dang ehit!u quay kim d6ng h6 (blnh 4.6).

I.. fA A
u,
C B C B
.J;.
t.
ie '
a) b)
Hlnh 4 - 6 C8.e dai hrengday va pba dugc ky hieu tren hlnh 4.6a. 0) Quan h~ giua di~n ap ddy va difn tip pha Nhln vao mach di~n n6i tam giac ta thay:

u, = Up (4-4)

b) Quan h~ giua ddng di~n day va ddng di~n pha

84

Ap dung dinh luat Kiecshop 1 tai cac rnit, ta c6 :

(4-5a) (4-5b)

Tai nat C: Ic = ICA - lBe (4-5c)

DOng di~n IA• lB' Ie chay tren cac day pha tlr ngu6n d€n tai la dong di~n day L. DOng dien lAB' lBe' leA chay trong cac pha la dong di~n pha, lech pha

. . . ..

voi dien ap U AB. U Be. U CA mOt goc <p (hlnh 4.6 b). De ve dong dien day IA•

lB. Ie. ta dua vao phirong trlnh (4 - 4). Vecto lAO cong voi vecto (-b) ta co vecto IA; Qua trlnh tuong tl,l ta ve 10• Ie.

1)6 th] vecto dong dien pha lAO. lBe• leA va dong dien day IA• lB' Ie ve tren hlnh 4.6b.

Xet tam giac OEF

J3 r;; OF"", 2 OE-=",30E

2

L=.J3lp OF la dongdien day L OE 18 dong di¢n pha 1p Tlr d6 thi vecto tathiy :

- Khi dong di~n pha d6i xirng thl dong di¢n day d6i ximg,

- V~ tri s6 hieu dung

(4-6)

- V~ pha : dong dien day cham sau dong dien pha nrong dng g6c 3011 (IA cham pha lAB met g6c 30°; 10 cham pha lBe mot g6c 30°; Ie cham pha leA m(lt goc 30°).

Vi dl,l 2 : Ml)t mach dien ba pha, ngu6n di¢n n6i sao, tii n6i hinh tam giac. Bitt di¢n lip pha cua ngu6n Upn = 2kV, dong dien pha cua ngu6n ~ =20 A.

a) Hiiy ve set d6 n6i day mach ba pha va tren set d6 ghi ro cac dai lirong pha va day,

b) Hay xac djnh dong di¢n pha va dien ap pha cua t!i~. Upt. Liri gilti :

a) Set d6 n6i day mach di¢n ve a hlnh 4.7

85

t

I

,

b) Vi ngudn nO'j hlnh sao, nen dong dien day bang dong di¢n pha

Id = Ipn == 20 A Di¢n lip dAy bang ..j314n di¢n lip pha ngu6n

U,t-=,J3 u; = J3 .2

== 3,464 kV Vl tai nO'i hlnh tam giac, nen dien ap pha cua tai Up, bang di¢n ap day

A

Hlnh 4.7

u; = u, = 3,464 kV

Dong dien pha cua tai nM hem dong dien day .J3 ltin

Vi d1;l 3 : MQt mach di<!n ba pha, tai nol hlnh sao, ngu6n n6i hlnh tam !l Ngudn va tai d~u d6i X1Jng. Bitt dong dien pha cua tai Ip! = 50A, dien ap pha ciu Up! == 220V.

a) HAy v! set d6 n6i day mach ba pha. Tren set d6 chi ro d{li luqng pha va day.

b) HAy xac dinh dong di¢n pba va di¢n ap pha cua nguen lpn, UPQ' LM gial : a) Sa d6 n6i day mach di¢n ba pha ve tren hlnh 4.8

Hinh 4.8

b) Vi tai n6i hlnh sao nen

I, == Ip< = 50A

86

u, = ..fj Up, = ..f3 .220 = 380V

Biet dong dien day va di¢n lip day. ta eo the tfnh dUQ'e dong di¢n pha va dien ap pha ella nguon. Vl ngu6n doi xeng noi hlnh tam giac, nen ta e6 di¢n iip pha Up" ella ngudn la :

Upn = U, = 380V Dong dien pha ella nguon la

Id 50

Ipn = ..fj = ..fj = 28.868A

4.4. CONG SUAT eVA M~CH DI¢N BA PHA

1. Cong suit tac dung P

Cong suat tac dung P clla mach ba pha bang t6ng cong sua't tac dung cua cac pha cong Iai, GQi PA. Pa, Pe nrong U'ng lit cong suat tac dung cua pha A, B. C ta co:

P=PA+PB+Pe

= U A IA coso A + Usia coso + Ue Ie COS!.pe

Khi ba pha d6i xung

Dien ap pha: UA = Ua = Ve = Up

Dong dien pha : IA =Ia = Ie = Ip

H~ s6 ccng sust : cos CPA = COS!.pa = COS!.pe = coso

ta c6

P = 3U~pC;os<p P = 3RpI~'

hoac

Trong d6 R, la dien tra pha ella tai,

Thay dai luong pha bAng dai luong day:

d6i voi each n6i blnh sao :

U I=L;U=~

p p ,,3

(4-7) (4-8)

d6i voi hlnh tam giac : I, = i ; Up = U d vito cong thirc (4-7) ta c6 bieu thee cong sulft viet thea dai hrong day, apdung cho ca tnrong hop hlnh sao va hlnh tam giac d6i ximg.

87

trong d6 cp - g6c lech pha giila di~n ap pha va dong di~n pha nrong trng R

coscp = p

, JR2p + X2p

2. C6ng suit phan khang Q

COng suat phiin khang Q cua ba pba Ia t6ng cOng suat phan khang ciia cac pha cong Iai

Q= QA +QB+QC

= UAIA sino, + UBIBsinCPB + Uclcsincpc Khi mach d6i xtmg ta e6 :

Q = 3U"Ipsincp Q = 3XpI2p

ho~e

(4-10) (4-11)

trong d6 :. X, - la di~n khang pba cUa tai. Neu tinh thea cac dai luqng day

Q = J3 Udldsincp

3. C6ng suit bl~u kien cua mach 3 pha dui xUng S = 3U.,Ip

S = ~UdI.t

(4-12)

ho~e

S = 3Zpl/

(4-13) (4-14) (4-15)

hoac

Vi d.,. 4 : MQt dQng co di¢n ba pha c6 cOng su4't dinh mac Pdm = 14kW, hieu suit dinh mac TJdm = 0,89, h¢ s6 cOng suit dinh mm: Cos<Pdm :: 0,88. DAy quan dQng CC1 di¢n n6i hlnh sao, di¢n ap day mang di¢n Ud =380V.

Tinh di¢n ap ~t len mOi pha day quail.

Tfnb dong di¢n day va dong di¢n pha CWl d¢ng co di~. Liri gliti: ,

a) So dd n6'i day CWl dQng co tren hlnh 4.9. Vl day quan d~ng co n6'j blob sao, nen di¢n 4p pha d~:t vllo m6i day quan pba ia

U Ud 380 0

P="Jj = 73= 22 V

b) D6'i vm d¢ng co di¢n, cong sua't dinh rmre Pdm la cOng su4't co c6 Ich C:J true d~ng co, v~y eOng sua't di¢n dQng co lieu thu Ill:.

88

Thea cOng thuc (4- 9)

P<ll~ = .J3u"I.t coso V~y dong di¢n cua d¢ng co Ia

I.. = Pdi~. = Pam .

.J3ud coso Jiu" COS<P<lm'ldm

Vi day qusn n6i hlnh sao nen

Ip == I.. == 27,16 A.

14. 103

h 27, 16A .

>J3 .380.0,8$.0.89

VI dl,l 5 : M¢t mach dien ba pha d6i xlhIg U" == 380V cung c!p di¢n cho 2 tii d6i

xung: TAi 1 tieu thu PI =()kW ; QI = 4kV Ar, Tii 2 tieu thu P2 = 8kW ; Q2 == 2kV Ax .

. 8) Tfnh dong di¢n dAy cua mOi tii

b) Tfnh dong di¢n day I" cua ngu6n cung clp cho 2 tii tren, Lbi giai : a) Sa deS mach di¢n 3 pha ve tren hlnh 4 - 10

COng su4't bieu kien too 1

SI: ~p,2+Q,2 :: J62 + 42", 7,211kVA.

COng sult bieu ki~n tAi 2

~= ~pl+Q,2 == ~'~2-+-2-2== 8.246kVA.

Thea cOng thU'c (4 - 14). dong di¢n day ella tAi 1 IA I = S, :: ~== 10956A

I EUd .J3.380 . .

89

dong dien day ella tai 2 r,

12=~

J3ud

::: 8246 = 12,528A ../3.380

D! tfnh dong di¢n Id cua nguon cung c(p cho [ai, [a c4n tfuh cong su(t cua ngudn.

COng suat hie dung nguon cung c(p cho 2 tlii

P= P, + P2

= 6 + 8 = 14kW

A
1 U ,. ,80V
... t i:L

I, ~
T811 T812
P. ,Q, I),Qa Hinh 4.10

Cong suat phan khang nguon cung ctlp cho 2 [Ai

Q = Qr + Q2 = 4 + 2 = 6kVAr Congsuat bieu kien nguon

s= ~p2 +Q2 = J142 +62 = 15,231kVAr

Ap dyng cong thlle ( 4 - 14) ta c6 dong di¢n day nguon cung cap cho 2 tai

I = S '" 15231 '" 23,14A

d J3Ud Ji.380

4.5. CACH GIAI M~CH BI~N BA PHA 1>61 XU'NG

£>6i vol m .... ch di¢n ba pha d6i xtmg, dong dien (dien ap) cac pha c6 tri SI hieu dung bAng nhau, va l~ch pha nhau m¢t g6c. Vi v~y khi m .... ch d61 ximg, ti tach ra mot pha de tfnh, khi hi.!t dUQ'c dong dien ella m..,t pha, ta c6 the suy co dong di¢n etc pha con lai,

Khi tai n6i vao nguon c6 dien ap dAy Ud, bb qua t6ng tra dubng day, nel biet tOng tra tai, cac buac tfnh toan thuc hien nhir sau:

- Buae 1 : Xac dinh each n6i day cua tAi (hlnh sao hay hlnh tam giac).

- Buoe 2 : Xac dinh di¢n ap pha Up cua tiii

Neu tiii n6i hlnh sao

90

U

Up= A

Neu tai n6i hlnh tam giac Up= u,

- Dude 3 : Xac dinh t6ng tra pha Z, va M s6 cong suat cua tai T6rig tra pha cua taL

Zp = JR2p + x2p

R- Rp

H¢ s6 cong suat cos <p = _L = ~

zp R 2 +X 2

P P

trong d6 Rp, X, nrong llng la di¢n tra pba, dien khang pha ella m6i pha eila tai.

- B 1Wc 4: Tfnh dong di¢n pha I, ella tai u

Ip = .:.e.

Zp

Tit dong di¢n pha Ip, tfnh dong di¢n day ~ ella tai, N~u tAi n6i hlnh sao

~=Ip

Neu ill n6i hlnh tam giae

r, = .J3 r,

- BUGeS : Tinh cong sua:t rai tieu thu

P = 3 RpI,.2 hoac 3UpIp coso hoac .J3 ur, coso. Q :: 3 X,Ip2 hoac '3UpIp sino hoac .J3 Ud~ simp. S = 3z.,Ip2lJo~e 3UpIp hoac .J3 Ud1d .

V, d1} 6 : MQt tAi 3 pha e6 di¢n tnJ pha R, == 20 n, di¢n khang pha X, = 15 n, nISi hlnh tamgiac, d(u via m~g di¢n c6 dien ap day U, = 220 V (hloh 4.11 a). Tfnh dong di¢n pha Ip, dong di¢n day Id, eOng su(t tAi tieu thu va vi! d6 thi vecto dien ap day vA dong di¢n pha tAi.

Ltd giai : Theo so d6 nISi day mach dien, tiii n6'i tam giac. Di¢n ap pha cua tlii

T6ng tnJ pha ella tiii

zp '" JRp2 + Xp2 = J202 + 152 = 25n

91

Dong dien pha ella tii

Up 220

Ip = - = - = 8,8 A

zp 25

Vi tai n6i tam giac, dong dien day cua ull:

r, = ,f3lp = -Ii . 8,8 = 15,24A

Cong l'u!t tai tieu th\l

P = 3 R, I~ = 3. 20. 8.82 = 4646, 4W

Q = 3 x, I~ = 3. IS. 8,82 = 3484,8V Ar

S = .Jj Ud~ = .Jj . 380. 15,24 = lOO30,35V A.

H¢ s6 cOng suat ella tai

Rp 20

cos <p = - =- ",0,8 Zp 25

<p = 36,87°

Dong di¢n pha cham sau di¢n lip pha mQt g6c <p = 36,87° . D6 th] vecto dong di¢n va dien lip pha v! tren hlnh 4.11.

Uc.o.
r, A
A
U.-22OV
tiM
C
B

C

a) b)
Hinh 4.11 Vi d¥ 7: MQt tai 3 pha g6m 'ba cuon day d!u vao mang dien ba pha c6 di¢n tip day ll\ 380V. Cuon dAy duqe thiet kt cho lam viec v6i dien ap dtnh mec 220V. CUQn day e6 dien tra R = 20 ; di¢n khang X =80.

a) Xac dinh each n6i cac cU('m day thanh tii ba pha.

b) Tfnh cOng su!t P, Q. C08<p cua tai.

92

Li.f glii : a) Ok cuen day nOi hlnh sao d!:u V80 mang dien, vi khi n6i hlnh sao, dien lip pha d~t len cuen day 18:

Up = * = ~= 220 V= dien ap d~miic clla cuon dAy (hmh 4.12a).

Ntu tii nOi tam giac, di¢n lip pha d~t len cuen day Ia

Up = U, = 380V > di~ lip dinh mUt: ciul euon day, cuon day siS bi hOng (hmh 4.12b)

A ------.

A ~l .. .. 38OV-._,

c ..... ---

B ..... ----------~

B.--------------~

a)

b)

Hlnh 4./2

bj Tdng tro pha cua tai zp=JRp2 + x/ = ~22+82 =8,240

H¢ s6 cong su!:t coscp cua tai

coscp = Rp = _2_ = 0,242

zp 8,24

. Xp 8 7

sm<y = - = - = 0,9

zp 8,42

Dong di¢n pha Ip cua tii

Up 220

Ip= - = - = 26,7A

zp 8,24

Dong di¢n day Id

I.. = Ip =- 26,7A COng sdt tac dung P cua tii

p = ,fj UdIdcoscp = ,fj .380. 26,7. 0,242 = 4252,6W COng su!:t phan khang Q cua tii

Q = ..fj UdIdsincp = J3. 380. 26,7. 0,97 = 17045, 7V Ar Cong su!:t bie'u kien S

S = ,fj UdId = -Ii . 380. 26,7 = 17572, 8VA

93

4.6. GIAI M~CH BA PHA KH()NG D61 XU'NG CO DAy TRUNG TiNH

Mang dien sinh hoat, cung cap dien cho cac khu dan eu Ii mang di¢n ba pha 4 day: 3 day pha A, B, C va day trung nnh. Dien eung ellp eho mot em hQ Illy til mot pha va day trung tfnh (dien ap pha). Tai cac pha khOng gi6ng nhau va thay dOi nhieu, Day la mach ba pha khOng dOi xung (hlnh 4.13) .

.-- __ oty......;..._ph_a_A __ A·

c

B'

a)

b)

c)

Hinh 4.13

EO qua tOng tra day trung tfnh (nghia 1a bo qua dien ap roi tren day trung tfnh) dien the diem trung tfnh 0' ella tai eoi la trung v6i dien thl! diem trung tinh 0 cua nguon. Khi tAi cac pha thay dOi dien ap Up tren tAi h~u nhu vln giu

duqe blnb thirong (hlnh 4.13b), khOng virot qua dien ap pha. '

Day III uu diem ella day trung tinh. Khi khOng eo day trung tinh, hoac day trung tfnh bi dltt, neu tAi cac pha thay dOi thl diem trung tinh 0' ella tai lech khoi diem trung tfnh 0 ella nguon, dien ap pha ella tlli U'A' U'B. U'e thay dOi rllt nhieu (hlnh 4.13e), e6 pba di~n ;ip tang len. e6 pha dien ap giam di (vi du tai pha A chiu di~n i1.p V'A Urn han Up rat nhieu, trong khi d6 di~n ap D'B ella tai pha B nbb hen Up.

D6i v6i mach ba pba hlnh sao e6 day trung tfnh, do tai khOng dOi xung, ta hin luot giai timg pba rieng reo tinh duqe dong dien cac pha lA' lB, Ie. eOng sullt cac pha PA. PB' Pc ...• dong dien trong day trung tinh 10 va cOng suat ba pba nhu sau:

DOng dien trung tinh 10 bAng d6 thi vecto

-. ..... - .....

10 = IA + IB + Ie

boac bAng s6 phuc

10 =IA +IB +Ic

94

COng suat ba pha

f

P=PA+PB+Pc Q=QA+QB+QC De hieu ro ta hay xet cac vi dl;l duoi day.

Vi dl} 8 : MQt mach dien 3 pha c6 day trung tfnh 380V/ 220V cung cap di¢n ch 90 bong den sqi d6't, s6' hi¢u dinh mac cua mOi den Udm = 220V; Pdm = 60W.

S6' b6ng den dugc pharo

d~u cho 3 pha ..

A.

B .~~--4-----~------------ 3~ 220\0

C

a) Ve sa dO mach di¢n ba pha,

b) Tfnh lAO 10, t, .10. P khi tit ca b6ng den dt!:u b~t sang ..

c) Tfnh IA• 10; III> P khi pha A co 10 den b4t sang pha B c6 20 den b4t s4ng, pha C cat di¢n

o

0'

d) Tfnh di¢n ap d~t len cac den pha A vA pha B a muc C. khi pha C cat -di¢n vA dAy trung tfnh bj dl1t~

Uri giii :

a) Mach di~ 3 pha 380V / 220V la mach ba pha 4 day, 3 day pha va day trung tinb.

380V lA "di¢n tp day (gilla cac dAy pha)

220V la di¢n ap pha (gina dAy pha va dAy trung tfnh),

3OtS6n

Hlnh 4.14

B6ng den 220V mAc song song v6i nhau gina dAy pha va dAy trung tinh. Sa d~ mAc dAy v! tren hlnh 4.14 . Di¢n apd~t len cac den la 220V= Udm cua den, cac den lam viecdung djnhmli'e.

b) VI di~n ap d~t len b6ng den bang dinh mac cOng suit bong den tieu thu bang dinh mac 60W.

T(t Cll b6ng den d~u b~t s4ng mach ba pha d6'i XUng cOng su«t dien cae pha bang nhau:

PA =< Po = Pc =P, = 30.60 = 1800W COng su«t ba pha

P=<3Pp "" 3.1800 = 5400W.

o

u,

Hlnh 4.15

95

Tai IA cac b6ng den, thuan di¢n tra R. g6c lech pha 'P = 0 ; COS'P = 1. nen dong

di¢n cac pha IA : -

IA=IB=lc=lp= -Pr =~ ... 8.18A

Up cose 220. 1

Vi ngu6n va tiii d6i xlhlg nen

10 = IA + iB + Ic = 0

D6 thi vectc ve tren hlnh 4.15, trong d6 dong di¢n trung pha di¢n ap, IA,IB,Ie tao thanh h¢ thong vecto d6i xrmg.

c) Khi pha C cat dien, Ie =0; cac pha khac van binh thuong, di¢n ap tren cac den yin dinh mire

IA = ~= 10.60 = 2,73 A U COSIp 220.1

ID=~=~ = 5,45 A UCOSIjI 220.1

P = PA + PB = 10.60 + 20. 60 = 1800W D6 thi vecto ve tren hlnh 4.16.

io = IA + Ic

Hlnh 4.16

Thea cong thirc hlnh hoc, trl s6 hi¢u dung 10 IA

10 = ~lA 2 +IB2 +2IAIB cos 1200

( - 2 2

= V2,73 +5,45 -2.2,73.5.45.0,5 = 4.72A

d) Khi pha C cAt di¢n vA dOng thbi day trungtfnh bi dlit. mach dien con lai ve a hinh 4.17a, den pha A va pha B mac n6i tie'p nhau va n6i vao dien ap day U AD'

A
UAB-38OV
B
A B
UAB-38QV
I
I
RA R.
0'
uo: U's 10 Ifltn

a)

b)

Hlnh4.17

96

Liic nay dien ap d~t len den khong con bAng dinh rrnrc, cOng su<t den tieu thu chua biet. De tfnh toan, tnroc h€t Hnh di~n tra cua bong den

u~ 2202

R ..• = -= - = 8066 n

uen Pdm 60 '

Vi cac bong den mdc song song, nen dien tra pha A, RA bang di¢n tri:r tUC1Il.g

duong cua 10 bong den mAc song song -

RA = RdI!n = 806,6 = 80,66 0

10 10

Pha B co 20 bong den mac song song nen dien tra pha B lit

R = ~= 806,6 = 40330

8 20 20 '

Mach dien tUC1Il.g dUC1Il.g viS tren hlnh 4.17b. Dong dien I chay trong mach :

380 ----- =3,14A 80,66 + 40,33

Di¢n ap d~t len den pha A lit

v, = RA • I = 80.66.3.14 = 253.27V Di¢n <ip d~t len den pha B Itl

.o'B = RBI = 40,33. 3.14 = 126,63V Di¢n lip d~t len den pha A

0' ... = 253,27V > Udm = 220V den pha A phat sling qua rmrc c6 the bi chay, Di¢n lip d~t len den pha B

U'D = 126.63V < Udm = 220V den pha B phat sang du6'i dinh mac.

Qua vf du tren, b muc C tuy tii thay d6i song nho c6 day trung tfnh nen di~n ap d~t len den khOng VllQt qua dinh mUc.d muc d. khong c6 day trung tfnh khi tii thay ddi. di~n ap tren cac pba cua tAi tbay d6i ra:t nhieu, c6 pha dien ap vuQt qua dinh nurc.

4.7. DO CONG SUAT M~CH DI~N BA PHA

1. Do cOng suat mach dien ba pha d6i xtrng

Cong sua:t cac pha bAng nhau, ta chi dn do cOng sulft mot pba (hlnh 4.18) rOi nhan ba

P=3P

p

(4-16)

7-Giao trlnh KTE)

97

2. Do cOng SU~l mach ba pha khOng dOl xung Ta dung 3 oat kt! do cong suat timg pha

r6i cong lai (hlnh 4.19).

P=PA+Pa+Pc

D6i vm mach 3 pha 3 day (khong c6 day trung tinh) ta c6 the dang 2 oat kt! mAc' day theo sc dd hlnh 4.20.

Trang SO' d6 nay oat kt! 1 c6 dien ap day U AC va dong dien iA• oat kt! 2 c6 dien ap day Usc va dong dien iB'

Cong suat tuc thoi qua 2 oat kt! la

PI + P2 = uAciA + Usc iB

Vi. UAC = uA - Uc

UBC = UB - Uc

B--+-----I Mfch bapha

C _-+----\ 661 xCIng

N--"'_---I

..____-,

Hlnh 4.18

.- (iA + iB) = ic

nen PI + P2 = UA iA + uaiB +'ucic = PA + PB + Pc

c--+--+--""I:

N-----------~ ~

Hlnh4.I!l

A

M9Ch bapha khOng

c _--4--""'_---I 661 x(ing

Hinh 4;20

Cong sua:t tuc thm qua 2 oat kt! chfnh la cong suat nrc thm cua ba pha, vay cOng sua:t lac dung cua ba pha bAng cOng suat tac dung qua 2 oat kt!

P = PI + P2

Phuong phap 2 oat kt! duqc dung cho mach 3 pha 3 day d6i ximg va khong d6i xung, song c4n chu y ring, khi dii mac day dung cue tfnh nhu hlnh ve, oat kt! nao c6 kim quay nguqc, ta phai d6i chieu cuen day dong di~n (hoac cuon dien ap) cua oat kt! d6 va lay gia tri p am. Vi du kim oat kt! 2 quay nguqc tbi :

98

4.8. CACH N61 NGU6N V A TAl TRONG M~CH BA PHA Ngu6n di~n va tii ba pha Mu c6 the n6i hlnh sao hoac hlnh tam giac, song toy thuec vao di~n ap dinh muc cua thiet bit cua mang dien va cac yeu cau ki thu~t ta se chon each n6i day phil hop,

1. Cach ntli ngu6n dl~n

Cac ngu6n di~n dung trong sinh hoat I(y tll' day quan 3 pha stato may phat dien, hoac l(y tit day quan 3 pha th.r ca'p ctia may bien ap. Cac day quan nay thuong n6i hlnh sao c6 day trung tfnh, N6i nhu v~y c6 uu diem la c6 tM cung cap 2 di~n ap khac nhau: dien ap pha va di~n ap day (hlnb 4.21). Tren thl! gi6i t6n tai 2 loai mang di~n 380V/ 220V (U, = 380V .U, = 220V) va mang dien 220V/127V (U, = 220V. Up = 127V). Hien tai a nuae ta sit dung mang dien 380V /220V.

phaA

B phaB

phaC

dAytrung thh Hlllh 4.21

2. Cach btli d~hg co di~n ba pba

M6i dl)ng co dien ba pha g6m e6 3 day qusn pba. Khi thie't ke' ebe tao ngtrci ta dB. quy dinh di¢n ap dinh mec cho m6i day quan. D¢ng co lam viec phai dung voi dien ap quy dinh a'y. Vi du dOng co ba pha e6 di~n ap dinh rmrc eho m6i pha dAy quan 18 220V (Up = 220V). tren nhan etia dOng co ghi 18 !::./Y-

220V /380V. '

Neu dOng co lam viec a mang dien e6 U, = 380V, thl dong co phii da'u

hlnh sao (hinh 4.22a), di~n ap d~t len m6i day quan pha 18. Up = ~ = 220V bAng dung di¢n ap quy din-h. Neu dOng co a'y 18m viec a mang di¢n c6 U, = 220V, thi dOng co phai dugc n6i hlnh tam giac (hlnh 4.22b), hie d6 di¢n ap d~t len m6i day qum pha eUa dong co bang di~n ap day 220 V, bAng dung di¢n ap quy dinh,

99

U Up~.22OV

.)

Hlnh4.22

b)

De thuan tien cho viec Mu dQng CO, nguni ta ky hieu 6 dAu day cua 3 day quan dOng co AX. BY. CZ nbU' hlnh 4.23a va dua 6 dAn day nol ra 6 bu long (1,2 ... 6) a hOp n6i day tren vi> dOng co (hlnh 4.23b).

Viec dA"u day thuc hien bang each thay d6i vi trf cau n6i gina cac bu long nay thanh hlnh sao (hlnh 4.24 a) hoac hlnh tam giac (hlnh 4.24b).

3. each 061 eac til mqt pha Cac ill mOt pha 1a cac d(Jng co di~n mOt pha, cac 10 di~n mOt pha, cac dO dung di¢n gia dlnh (den di¢n, quat dien, ttl lanh ... ) tren nhan cac thie't b] nay c6 ghi tri s6 dien ap dinhrmrc.

Khi sir dung, cac thi€t bi nay duqc

100

5 Y

ABC

_ 1 2 3

a)

~=- -+-:] =_ ....... :1 =_ -=1 =_

-, -,

I) )
(I II U a)

Hlnh4.24

b)

Hinh4.23

-, "

I I l b)

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