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chuan-mon-Toan-lop-11

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BO GIAO D(}C v A nAo TAO NGUYEN THE THACH (CHU BIEN

)

NGUYEN HAl CHAu - QUACH TU CHUONG - NGUYEN TRUNG HIEU DoAN THE PHI-e:T - PHAM DUC QUANG - NGUYEN TH~ QUY SUD

,..,

HU6NG DAN THUC HIEN

. .

J! K / ,.., '-'

CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG

A /

MONTOAN

L6p 11

NHA XUAT BAN GIAo Dl,JC VI~T NAM

LOI GIOI THI~U

Nqay 5 thanq 5 narn 2006, B(> trl1dng B(> Giao due va Dao tao da kf Ouyet dinh so 16/2006/QB-BGDBT ve viec ban hanh Chironq trinh Giao duc pho thong.

Chuonq trinh Giao due pho thong la ket qua cua Sl,J' eMu chlnh, hoan thien, to chirc I~i cac chuonq trinh da diroc ban hanh, lam can cu cho viec quan If, chi dao, to chuc day h9C va kiem tra, danh qia d tat ca cac cap h9C, tnronq h9C tren pharn vi ca ruroc,

Cluronq trinh Giao due pho thong ta mot ke hoach Sl1 pharn gam: - Muc tieu qiao due ;

- Pharn vi va cau true noi dung qiao due ;

- Chu~n kien thirc, ki nanq va yeu cau ve thai d(> cua tUng rnon h9C,

cap h9C;

- Phuonq phap va hinh thrrc to chirc qiao due ;

- Danh gia ket qua qiao due tUng rnon h9C d m6i lOp, cap h9C.

Trong Chuonq trinh Giao due pho thong, Chuan kien thuc, ki ni:lng dl1c;1C the hien, Cl,l the hoa d cac chu de cua chl10ng trinh rnon h9C, theo tUng lop h9C ; dong thoi cOng dl1c;1C the hi$n d phan cuoi cua chuonq trinh m6i cap h9C.

C6 the n6i : Biem rnoi cua Chuonq trinh Giao due pho thong Ian nay ta dira Chuan kien thuc, ki nanq vao thanh phan cua Chuonq trinh Giao due pho thong, dam bao viec chi dao day h9C, kiem tra, danh gia theo Chuan kien tlurc, ki ni:lng, tao nen sl,J'thong nhat trong ca ruroc ; g6p phan khik phuc tinh tranq qua tai trong giang day, h9C tap ; giam thieu day them, h9C them.

Nhin chung, d cac trl10ng ph6 thong hien nay, bl10c dau da van dunq dl1c;1C Chuan kien thrrc, ki nanq trong giang day, h9C tap, kiem tra, danh qla ; song ve tong the, van chua dap ltng dl1c;1C yeu cau cua doi rnoi qiao due pho thong; can phai duoc tiep tuc quan tam, chu tronq hen nO'a.

Nharn g6p phan khac phuc han che nay, BQ Giao due va Dao tao to chirc bien soan, xuat ban b(> tai li$u Ht.fCing dan tht,lt hi~n Chua'n kien thtit,

kf nang cho cac rnon h9C, lop h9C cua cac cap Tieu h9C, Trung h9C co Sd va Trung h9C ph6 thong.

BQ tai li$u nay dtroc bien soan theo hl10ng chi tiet, tl10ng minh cac yeu cau CO ban, toi thieu ve kien thtrc, ki nanq cua Chu~n kien thirc, ki nanq bang cac n(>i dung chon 19C trong sach qiao khoa, tao dieu kien thuan lc;1i hen nO'a cho qiao vien va h9C sinh trong qua trinh giang day, h9C tap va kiem tra, danh qia.

Cau true chunq ella be? tal li~u gem hal phan ehinh :

Ph8n thtJ nhat : Gioi thieu chung ve Chu~n kien thrrc, ki nanq cua Chuonq trinh Giao due pho thong;

Ph8n thtJ hai : Hl10ng dan thuc hien Chuan kien thtrc, ki nanq cua tUng rnon h9C trong Cturonq trinh Giao due pho thong.

B(> tal lieu : Ht.fCing dan tht,lt hi~n Chua'n kien tnuc, kf nang cac rnon h9C d Trung h9C CO Sd va Trung h9C pho thong c6 str tham gia bien soan, th~m dinh, g6p Y cua nhieu nha khoa h9C, nha Sl1 pharn, cac can bQ nqhien CUu va chi dao chuyen rnon, cac qiao vien day gioi d dla phuonq.

Hi vonq rang, Ht.fCing dan tht,lt hi~n Chua'n kien ttusc, kf nang S8 la bQ tai Ii$u hO'u fch doi vOi can b(> quan If qiao due, qiao vien va h9C sinh trong ca nuoc. Cac se Giao due va Dao tao chi d90 trien khai Slt dl,lng b(> tai li$u va t90 dieu kien de cac co Sd qiao due, cac qiao vien va h9C sinh thirc hien tot yeu cau d6i rnoi phuonq phap day hoc, d6i rnoi kiem tra, danh qia, g6p phan tfch cue, quan tronq vao viec nang cao chat 1l1c;1ng qiao due trung h9C.

l.an dau tien dl1c;1C xuat ban, bQ tai li$u nay kh6 tranh khoi nhO'ng thieu s6t, han che. BQ Giao due va Dao t90 rat mong nhan diroc nhO'ng y kien nhan xet, d6ng g6p cua cac thay co qiao va ban d9C gan xa de tai li$u diroc tiep tuc bo sung, hoan thien hen cho Ian xuat ban sau.

BQ GIAo DVC v A DAo TAO

3

A , ,..

PHAN THU NHAT

GIOI THI~U CHUNG vE CHuAN I(lEN THUC, xt NANG CVA CHUONG TRINH GlAo Dl)C PHD THONG

/ A ~ ~

1- GIOI THI~U CHUNG VE CHUAN

1. Chuan la nhimg yeu cau, tieu chi (goi chung la yeu cau) tuan thu nhfrng nguyen tac nhat dinh, diroc dung de lam thiroc do danh gia hoat dong, cong viec, san pham cua Iinh vue nao do. Dat diroc nhfrng yeu cau cua chuan la dat diroc muc tieu mong muon cua chu the quan If hoat dong, cong viec, san pham do.

Yeu cau la su cu the hoa, chi tier, nrong minh Chuan, chi ra nhirng can err de danh gia chat hrong. Yeu cau co the diroc do thong qua chi so thuc hien. Yeu cau diroc xem nhir nhirng "chot kiem soar" d~ danh gia chat Iirong dau vao, dau ra cling nhu qua trinh thirc hien.

2. Nhtrng yeu cau co ban cua chuan

2.1. Chuan phai co tinh khach quan, nhin chung khong l¢ thuoc vao quan diem hay thai d¢ chu quan cua ngiroi sir dung Chuan,

2.2. Chuan phai co hieu lire 6n dinhca ve pham vi hill thai gian ap dung. 2.3. Darn bao tinh kha thi, co nghia la Chuan do co th~ dat duoc (la trinh do hay mire d¢ dung hoa hop If gitra yeu cau phat trien a mire cao hon voi nhirng thuc tien dang dien ra).

2.4. Darn bao tinh cu the, nrong minh va co chirc nang dinh hrong. 2.5. Dam bao khong .mau thuan voi cac chuan khac trong cung linh vue hoac nhtrng Iinh vue co lien quan.

;( ,(' , -....? ...

II - CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG CUA CHUONG TRINH

GlAo Dl)C PHO THONG

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do cua Clnrong trinh Giao due phd thong (CTGDPT) diroc th~ hien cu the trong cac chirong trinh mon hoc, hoat dong giao due (goi chung la mon hQC) va cac chirong trinh cap hoc.

Doi voi moi mon hoc, moi cap hQC, muc tieu cua mon hoc, cap hQC diroc cu the hoa thanh chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua clurong trinh mon hoc, chirong trinh cap hQC.

1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuang trinh mon hoc la cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua mon hoc rna hoc sinh can phai va co th~ dat diroc sau moi don vi kien thirc (m6i bai, chu de, chu diem, mo dun).

Chudn kien thuc, ki nang cua mot dun vi kien thuc la cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua don vi kien thirc rna hoc sinh can phai va co th~ dat diroc.

Yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang the hien mile dfj can dat ve kiln thuc, ki nang,

M6i yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang co the diroc chi titt hun bang nhirng yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang cu the, nrong minh hon ; minh chirng bang nhirng vi du the hien diroc ca noi dung kien thirc, ki nang va rmrc do can dat ve kien thirc, ki nang.

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2. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuong trinh dip hoc la cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua cac man h9C rna h9C sinh can phai va co the dat diroc sau tirng giai doan h9C tap trong cap h9C.

2.1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang a chuang trinh cac cap h9C de cap toi nhimg yeu cau toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang rna h9C sinh (HS) can va co the dat diroc sau khi hoan thanh chuang trinh giao due cua tirng lap h9C va cap h9C. Cac chuan nay cho thay y nghia quan trong cua viec gan ket, phoi hop giira cac man h9C nham dat diroc muc tieu giao due cua cap h9C.

2.2. Viec the hien Chuan kien thirc, ki nang a cuoi chuang trinh cap h9C th~ hien hinh mau mong doi ve ngiroi h9C sau moi cap h9C va can thiet cho cong tac quart lf, chi dao, dao tao, boi dirong giao vien (GV).

2.3. Chuang trinh cap h9C da the hien chuan kien thirc, ki nang khong phai doi voi tirng man h9C rna doi voi tirng Iinh vue hoc tap. Trong van ban ve chuang trinh cua cac cap h9C, cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang diroc bien soan theo tinh than:

a) Cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang khong duoc dira vao cho tirng man h9C rieng biet rna cho tirng Iinh vue h9C tap nham th~ hien su gan ket giira cac man hoc va hoat dong giao due trong nhiem VI,I thuc hien muc tieu cua cap h9C.

b) Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do diroc th~ hien trong chuang trinh cap h9C la cac chuan cua cap h9C, nrc la nhirng yeu cau CI,I the rna HS can dat diroc a cuoi cap h9C. Cach th~ hien nay tao mot tam nhin ve su phat trien cua nguoi h9C sau moi cap h9C, doi chieu voi nhirng gi rna muc tieu cua cap h9C da de ra.

3. Nhtrng dac diem cua Chuan kien thirc, ki nang

3.1. Chuan kien thtrc, ki nang diroc chi tier, wang minh bang cac yeu cau CI,I the, r6 rang ve kien thirc, ki nang.

3.2. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang co tinh toi thieu, nham dam bao moi HS can phai va co th~ dat duoc nhtrng yeu cau CI,I the nay.

3.3. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la thanh phan cua CTGDPT.

Trong CTGDPT, Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do doi voi ngiroi h9C diroc the hien, CI,I thti hoa a cac chu de cua chuang trinh man h9C thea tirng lap va a cac Iinh vue h9C tap ; dong thoi, Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do cling duoc the hien a phan cuoi cua chuang trinh moi cap h9C.

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la thanh philo cua CTGDPT. Viec chi dao day h9C, kiem tra, danh gia thea Chuan kien thirc, ki nang se tao nen sir thong nha] ; lam han che tinh trang day h9C qua tai, dira them nhieu noi dung nang ne, qua cao so voi chuan kien tlurc, ki nang vao day h9C, kiem tra, danh gia ; gop philo lam giam tieu eire cua day them, h9C them; tao dieu kien co ban, quan trong dti co the t6 chirc giang day, h9C tap, kiem tra, danh gia va thi thea Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang.

III - cAc MUC DO vB K[EN TRUC, KI NANG

Cac mire do ve kien thirc, ki nang diroc the hien CI,I thti trong Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua CTGDPT.

Ve kien tlurc : Yeu cau HS phai nho, nam vimg, hieu r6 cac kien thirc CO ban trong chuang trinh, sach giao khoa, do la nen tang virng yang dti co thti phat trien nang lire nhan thirc a cap cao han.

Ve ki nang : Biet van dung cac kien thirc da h9C dti tra lrri cau hoi, giai bai tap, lam thuc hanh ; co ki nang tinh roan, ve hinh, dung bieu do, ...

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Kien thirc, ki nang phai dua tren co sa phat trien nang lire, tri tue HS a cac rmrc do, tir dem gian den phirc t<;1P ; noi dung bao ham cac mire d¢ khac nhau cua nhan thirc.

Mire de) can dat duoc ve kien thirc duoc xac dinh thea 6 mire d¢ : nhan bier, thong hieu, van dung, phan tich, danh gia va sang tao (co th~ tham khao them phan 10<;1i Nikko gam 4 mire d¢ : nhan biet, thong hieu, van dung a rrurc thap, van dung a rmrc eao).

1. Nhan biet : La sir nho lai cac du lieu, thong tin da co truce day; nghia la co th~ nhan bier thong tin, ghi nho, tai hien thong tin, nhac lai mot 10<;1t du lieu, tir cac sir kien don gian den cac li thuyet phirc tap. Day la mire do, yeu cau thap nhat cua trinh do nhan tlurc, th~ hien a cho HS co th~ va chi can nho hoac nhan ra khi duoc dua ra hoac dua tren nhirng thong tin co tinh d~e thu cua mot khai niem, mot sir vat, mot hien nrong,

HS phat bieu dung mot dinh nghia, dinh Ii, dinh luat nhung chua

giai thfch va van dung diroc cluing.

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire d¢ nhan biet bang cac yeu cau :

- Nhan ra, nho lai cac khai niem, dinh li, dinh luat, tfnh chat.

- Nhan dang duoc (khong can giai thich) cac khai niem, hinh the,

V! trf wang dai giua cac dai urong trong cac tinh huang don gian.

- Liet ke, xac dinh cac V! trf nrong dai, cac moi quan he da bier giira cac yeu to, cac hien nrong.

2. Thong hieu : La kha nang nam diroc, hieu diroc y nghia cua cac khai niern, su vat, hien nrong ; giai thich, chirng minh duoc y nghia cua cac khai niern, sir vat, hien urong ; la rmrc do eao hem nhan biet nlurng la mire d¢ thap nhat cua viec thau hieu su vat, hien tuong, lien quan den y nghia cua cac moi quan he giira cac khai niern, thong tin ma HS da h<;>e ho~e da biet. Dieu do co th~ duqe th~ hi~n biing vi~e

chuyen thong tin tir dang nay sang dang khac, bang each giai thich thong tin (giai thich hoac tom tat) va bang each uoc hrong xu huang nrong lai (du bao cac he qua hoac anh huang).

Co th~ cu the hoa rmrc d¢ thong hieu bang cac yeu cau :

- Dien ta bang ngon ngfr ca nhan cac khai niem, dinh Ii, dinh luat, tfnh chat, chuyen d6i duoc tir hinh tlurc ngon ngu nay sang hinh thirc ngon ngir khac (vi du : tir loi sang cong thtrc, kf hieu, sa lieu va ngiroc lai).

- Bi~u thi, minh hO<;1, giai thfch duoc y nghia cua cac khai niern, hien urong, dinh nghia, dinh If, dinh luat,

- Lira chon, b6 sung, sap xep lai nhirng thong tin can thiet d~ giai quyet mot van de nao do.

- Sap xep lai cac y tra lai cau hoi hoac 1m giai bai toan thea cau true logic.

3. Van dung : La kha nang sir dung cac kien thirc da hoc vao mot hoan canh cu the moi : van dung nhan biet, hieu biet thong tin d~ giai quyet van de dar ra ; la kha nang doi hoi HS phai biet van dung kien thirc, biet su dung phuong phap, nguyen li hay y nrong d~ giai quyet mot van de nao do.

Yeu cau ap dung duoc cac quy tac, phuong phap, khai niern, nguyen If, dinh If, dinh luat, cong thirc d~ giai quyet mot van de trong hoc tap hoac cua thuc tien. Day la mire d¢ thong hieu eao hem mire d¢ thong hieu tren.

Co th~ cu the hoa mire d¢ van dung bang cac yeu cau : - So sanh cac phirong an giai quyet van de.

- Phat hien loi giai co mau thuan, sai lam va chinh sua diroc.

- Giai quyet duqe nhQng tlnh huang mm bang caeh v~n d""ng cae

khai ni~m, d!nh Ii, d!nh lu~t, tfnh chat da biet.

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- Khai quat hoa, triru nrong hoa tir tinh huong don gian, don Ie quen thuoc sang tinh huong moi, phirc tap hon.

4. Phan tich : La kha nang phan chi a mot thong tin ra thanh cac phan thong tin nho sao cho c6 the hieu diroc cau tnic, t6 chirc cua no va thiet lap moi lien he phu thuoc Ian nhau gifra chung,

Yeu cau chi ra diroc cac bo phan diu thanh, xac dinh diroc moi quan he giira cac bo phan, nhan biet va hieu diroc nguyen li cau tnic cua cac bo phan diu thanh. Day la mire dQ cao hon van dung vi n6 doi hoi sir thau hieu ca ve noi dung Ian hinh thai cau tnic cua thong tin, sir vat, hien nrong.

C6 th~ cu th~ hoa mire dQ phan tich bang cac yeu cau :

- Phan tfch cac sir kien, duo kien thira, thieu hoac du d~ giai quyet

duoc van de.

- Xac dinh diroc moi quan he gifra cac bo phan trong toan the.

- Cu the hoa duoc nhttng van de triru nrong.

- Nhan bier va hieu diroc cau tnic cac bo phan cau thanh,

5. Danh gia : La kha nang xac dinh gia tri cua thong tin : binh xet, nhan dinh, xac dinh diroc gia tri cua mot nr nrong, mot noi dung kien thirc, mot phirong phap. Day la mot biroc moi trong viec Iinh hoi kien thirc diroc dac tnmg boi viec di sau vao ban chat cua doi tuong, su vat, hien nrong. Viec danh gia dira tren cac tieu chi nhat dinh ; d6 c6 th~ la cac tieu chi ben trong (each t6 chirc) hoac cac tieu chi ben ngoai (phil hop voi muc dich).

Yeu cau xac dinh diroc cac tieu chi danh gia (ngiroi danh gia tir xac dinh hoac diroc cung cap cac tieu chi) va van dung diroc d~ danh gia.

C6 the cu the hoa rmrc dQ danh gia bang cac yeu can :

- Xac dinh diroc cac tieu chi danh gia va van dung d~ danh gia thong tin, sl}' vat, hien tuong, sir kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh gia tri cua cac thong tin, nr lieu thea mot muc dich, yeu cau xac dinh.

- Phan tfch nhfrng yeu to, dtr kien da: cho d~ danh gia sir thay d6i ve chat cua sir vat, sir kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh diroc gia tri cua nhan to moi xuat hien khi thay d6i cac moi quan M cu.

Cac cong cu danh gia c6 hieu qua phai giiip xac dinh diroc ket qua hQC tap b moi cap dQ n6i tren d~ dira ra mot nhan dinh chinh xac ve nang lire cua ngiroi diroc danh gia ve chuyen mon lien quan.

6. Sang tao : La kha nang tong hop, sap xep, thiet ke lai thong tin; khai thac, b6 sung thong tin tir cac nguon nr lieu khac d~ sang lap mot hinh mau moi.

Yeu cau tao ra diroc mot hinh rnau moi, mot mang hroi cac quan M trw nrong (sa do phan lap thong tin). Ket qua hQC tap trong linh virc nay nhan manh vao cac hanh vi, nang hrc sang tao, dac bier la trong viec hinh thanh cac cau tnic va mo hinh moi.

C6 th~ cu th~ hoa rmrc dQ sang tao bang cac yeu cau : - Mo rong mot mo hlnh ban dau thanh mo hmh moi.

- Khai quat hoa nhirng van de rieng le, cu the thanh van de tong

quat moi.

- Ket hop nhieu yeu to rieng thanh mot tong the hoan chinh maio

- Dir doan, du bao sir xuat hien nhan to moi khi thay d6i cac moi

quan he cu.

Day la mire dQ cao nhat cua nhan thirc, vi no chua dung cac yeu to cua nlnfng mire dQ nhan thirc tren va dong thOi cung phat trien chung.

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IV - CHUAN KIEN THUC, Ki NANG CllA CHUONG TRINH GIAo Dl)C PHO THONG vUA LA cAN CU, vUA LA Ml)C TIEU CllA GIANG D~Y, HOC TAP, KIEM TRA, DANH GIA

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau v6 thai d¢ cua CfGDPT bao dam tinh thong nhat, tinh kha thi, phil hop cua CTGDPT ; bao dam chat hrong va hieu qua cua qua trinh giao due.

1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la can cu

1.1. Bien soan sach giao khoa(SGK) va cac tai lieu huang dan day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia, d6i moi phirong phap day hoc, d6i moi kiem tra, danh gia.

1.2. Chi dao, quan li, thanh tra, kiern tra viec thirc hien day hoc, kiern tra, danh gia, sinh hoat chuyen mon, dao tao, boi dirong can bo quan If va GV.

1.3. Xac dinh muc tieu cua moi gia hoc, muc tieu cua qua trinh day hoc, dam bao chat hrong giao due.

1.4. Xac dinh muc tieu kiern tra, danh gia doi voi tirng bai kiem tra, bai thi ; danh gia ket qua giao due nrng mon hoc, lop hQC, cap hQC.

2. Tai lieu Huang dan thuc hien Chudn kien thuc, ki nang diroc bien soan thea huang chi tiet cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu v6 kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuan kien thirc, ki nang bang cac noi dung chon IQc trong SGK.

Tai lieu giup cac can bo quan If giao due, cac can bo chuyen mon, GV, HS nam virng va thirc hien dung thea Chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

3. Yeu cau day hoc bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang 3.1. Yeu cdu chung

a) Can cu Chuan kien thirc, ki nang d~ xac dinh muc tieu bai hoc.

Chu trong day hoc nham dat duoc cac yeu cau co ban va toi thieu v6 kien thirc, ki nang, dam bao khong qua tai va khong qua l~ thuoc hoan toan vao SGK ; mire d¢ khai thac sau kien thirc, ki nang trong SGK phai phil hop voi kha nang tiep thu cua HS.

b) sang tao v6 phirong phap day hoc phat huy tinh chu dong, tich eire, tu giac hoc tap cua HS. Chu trong ren luyen plurong phap tu duy, nang lire ur hoc, nr nghien cuu ; tao niem vui, hung khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai d¢ ur tin trong hoc tap cho HS.

c) Day hoc the hien moi quan he tich eire giira GV va HS, gifra HS voi HS ; tien hanh thong qua viec t6 chirc cac hoat dong hoc tap cua HS, ket hop giira hoc tap ca th~ voi hoc tap hop tac, lam viec thea nh6m.

d) Day hoc chu trong den viec ren luyen cac ki nang, nang lire hanh dong, van dung kien thirc, tang cirong thirc hanh va gan noi dung bai hoc voi thuc tien cuoc song.

e) Day hoc chu trong den viec sir dung c6 hieu qua phirong tien, thiet bi day hoc diroc trang bi hoac do GV va HS nr lam ; quan tam irng dung cong nghe thong tin trong day hoc.

g) Day hoc chii trong den viec dong vien, khuyen khich kip thai str tien bo cua HS trong qua trinh hQC tap ; da dang noi dung, cac hinh thirc, each thirc danh gia va tang cuong hieu qua viec danh gia,

3.2. Yeu cdu dOl voi can bi) qudn li co sa giao due

a) Nam virng chu tnrong d6i moi giao due pho thong cua Dang, Nha mroc ; nam virng muc dfch, yeu cau, noi dung d6i moi th~ hien cu

9

th~ trong cac van ban chi dao cua Nganh, trong Chuang trinh va SGK, plnrong phap day h9C (PPDH), sir dung plnrong tien, thiet bi day h9C, hinh thirc t6 chirc day hoc va danh gia ket qua giao due,

b) Narn vtrng yeu cau day hoc bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang trong CfGDPT, dong thai tao dieu kien thuan loi cho GV, dong vien, khuyen khich GV tich eire d6i moi PPDH.

c) C6 bien phap quan li, chi dao t6 chirc thirc hien d6i maiPPDH trong nha tnrong mot each hieu qua; thirong xuyen kiem tra, danh gia cac hoat dong day h9C thea dinh huang day h9C bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang dong thai voi tich eire d6i moi PPDH.

d) Dong vien, khen thuong kip thai nhirng GV tlnrc hien co hieu qua dong thai vci phe binh, nhac nho nhirng ngiroi chua tich eire d6i moi PPDH, day qua tai do khong bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

3.3. Yeu cdu doi vOi giao vien

a) Bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang d~ thiet ke bai giang, voi muc tieu la dat diroc cac yeu cau co ban, t6i thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang, day khong qua tai va khong qua l¢ thuoc hoan roan vao SGK. Viec khai thac sau kien thirc, ki nang phai phu hop voi kha nang tiep thu cua HS.

b) Thier ke, t6 chirc, huang dan HS thirc hien cac hoat dong h9C tap voi cac hinh thirc da dang, phong phu, c6 sire hap dan phu hop voi dac tnrng bai h9C, voi dac diem va trinh do HS, voi dieu kien CI;I th~ cua lap, tnrong va dia phtrong.

c) Dong vien, khuyen khich, tao CO hoi va dieu kien cho HS diroc tham gia mot each tich eire, chu dong, sang tao vao qua trinh kham pha, phat hien, de xuat va linh hoi kien thirc ; chii y khai thac v6n kien thirc, kinh nghiem, ki nang da c6 cua HS ; tao niem vui, hirng khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai dQ nr tin trong h9C tap cho HS; giiip HS phat tri~n t6i da nang ll,fc, tiem nang cua ban than.

d) Thier ke' va huang dan HS thuc hien cac dang cau hoi, bai tap phat trien ur duy va ren luyen ki nang; huang dan su dung cac thiet bi day h9C ; t6 chirc co hieu qua cac gio' thirc hanh ; huang dan HS c6 th6i quen van dung kien thirc da h9C vao giai quyet cac van de thirc tien.

e) Sir dung cac phirong phap va hinh thirc t6 chirc day h9C mot each hop If, hieu qua, linh hoat, phu hop voi dac tnrng cua cap h9C, mon h9C ; noi dung, tinh chat cua bai hoc ; dac diem va trinh dQ HS ; thai hrong day h9C va cac dieu kien day h9C cl;I th~ cua tnrong, dia plurong,

4. Yeu cau kiern tra, danh gia bam sat Chuan kien thtrc, ki nang

4.1. Quan niem vi kilm Ira, danh gia

Kiem tra va danh gia la hai khau trong mot quy trinh thong nhat nham xac dinh ket qua thirc hien muc tieu day h9C. Kiern tra la thu thap thong tin tir rieng le den he thong ve ket qua thirc hien muc tieu day h9C ; danh gia la xac dinh mire do dat diroc ve thirc hien rnuc tieu day h9C.

Danh gia ket qua h9C tap thirc chat la viec xem xet mire dQ dat diroc cua hoat dong h9C cua HS so voi muc tieu de ra d6i voi tirng mon h9C, tirng lap h9C, cap h9C. MI;IC tieu cua moi mon h9C diroc cu th~ hoa thanh cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang. Tir cac chuan nay, khi tien hanh kiem tra, danh gia ket qua h9C tap mon hoc can phai thiet ke thanh nhirng tieu chi nham kiem tra diroc day du ca ve dinh tinh va dinh hrong ket qua h9C tap cua HS.

4.2. Hai chuc nang CO' ban ella kiem Ira, ddnh. gia a) Clurc nang xac dinh

- Xac dinh mire do dat diroc trong viec thirc hien muc tieu day h9C, xac d!nh muc dQ thl,fc hi¢n Chu<ln kien thuc, ki' nang cua chuang

10

trinh giao due rna HS dat diroc khi ket thuc mot giai doan h9C tap (ket thuc mot bai, chuang, chu d~, chu diem, rno dun, lap h9C, cap h9C).

- Xac dinh doi hoi tfnh chfnh xac, khach quan, cong bang.

b) Chirc nang dieu khien : Phat hien nhirng mat tot, mat chua tot, kho khan, virong mac va xac dinh nguyen nhan. Ket qua danh gia la can cu d~ quyet dinh giai phap cai thien thirc trang, nang cao chat Iuong, hieu qua day h9C va giao due thong qua viec d6i moi, toi tru hoa PPDH cua GV va hirong dan HS biet nr danh gia d~ toi tru hoa phirong phap h9C tap. Thong qua chirc nang nay, kiem tra, danh gia se la dieu kien can thiet :

- Giup GV narn diroc tinh hinh h9C tap, mire d¢ phan hoa ve trinh d¢ h9C lire cua HS trong lap, tir d6 c6 bien phap giup dO' HS yeu kern va boi dirong HS gioi ; giup GV' dieu chinh, hoan thien PPDH ;

- Giup HS bier diroc kha nang h9C tap cua minh so voi yeu cau cua chuang trinh ; xac dinh nguyen nhan thanh cong cling nlur chua thanh cong, tir d6 dieu chinh phirong phap h9C tap ; phat trien ki nang tir danh gia ;

- Gnip can bo quan If giao due de ra giai phap quan If phu hop d~ nang cao chat lirong giao due ;

- Giup cha me HS va cong dong bier diroc ket qua giao due cua tirng HS, tung lap va cua d. co sa giao due.

4.3. feu cdu kiem Ira, danb gia

a) Kiern tra, danh gia phai can cu VilO Chudn kien thuc, ki nang cua tirng mon h9C a tirng lap ; cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu can dat ve kien thirc, ki nang cua HS sau moi giai doan, moi lap, moi cap hoc.

b) Chi dao, kiem tra viec thirc hien chuang trinh, ke' hoach giang day, h9C tap cua cac nha tnrong ; tang cirong d6i moi khau kiem tra,

danh gia thtrong xuyen, dinh ki ; dam bao chat hrong kiem tra, danh gia thirong xuyen, dinh ki chfnh xac, khach quan, cong bang; khong hinh thirc, doi pho nhung cung khong gay ap hrc nang ne, Kiern tra tlnrong xuyen va dinh kl thea hmrng vira danh gia duoc dung Chuan kien thirc, ki nang, vira c6 kha nang ph an hoa cao ; kiem tra kien thirc, ki nang co ban, nang lire van dung kien thirc cua ngiroi h9C, thay vi chi kiern tra h9C thuoc long, nho may m6c kien thirc.

c) Ap dung cac phirong phap phan tfch hien dai de tang cirong tinh wang duong cua cac d~ kiem tra, thi. Ket hop that hop If cac hinh thirc kiern tra, thi van dap, nr luan va trac nghiern nharn han che loi hoc tu, h9C lech, h9C vet ; phat huy tru diem va han che nhiroc diem cua moi hinh thirc.

d) Danh gia chfnh xac, dung thirc trang : danh gia cao han thirc te' se trier tieu dong lire phan dau viron len; ngiroc lai, danh gia khat khe qua mire hoac thai d¢ thieu than thien, khong thay diroc sir tien bo, se uc che tinh cam, trf tue, giarn vai tro tich eire, chu dong, sang tao cua HS.

e) Danh gia kip thai, c6 tac dung giao due va dong vien sir tien bo cua HS, giup HS sira chua thieu s6t. Danh gia ca qua trinh linh hoi tri thirc cua HS, chii trong danh gia hanh dong, tinh cam cua HS : nghi va lam; nang hrc van dung van thuc tien, th~ hien qua irng xir, giao tiep ; quan tam toi mire do hoat dong tich eire, chu dong cua HS trong tung tiet h9C tiep thu tri thirc moi, on luyen ciing nhu cac tiet thirc hanh, thf nghiem.

g) Khi danh gia ket qua h9C tap, thanh tich h9C tap cua HS khong chi danh gia ket qua cuoi cung, rna can chu y ca qua trinh h9C tap. 01n tao dieu kien cho HS cung tham gia xac dinh tieu chi danh gia ket qua h9C tap voi yeu cau khong t~p trung van kha nang tai hi~n tri thuc rna

I I

chu trong kha nang van dung tri thirc trong viec giai quyet cac nhiem vu phirc hop, Co nhieu hinh thirc va dQ phan hoa cao trong danh gia.

h) Khi danh gia hoat dong day hoc khong chi danh gia thanh tich hoc tap cua HS, rna con bao gom danh gia cit qua trinh day hQC nham cai tien hoat dong day hoc, Chu trong phirong phap, ki thuat lay thong tin phan hoi tir HS d~ danh gia qua trinh day hQC.

i) Ket hop that hop If giira danh gia dinh tinh va dinh hrong : Can cir vao d~c di~m cua tirng mon hoc va hoat dong giao due a moi 16p hQC, cap hQC, quy dinh danh gia bang diem ket hop v6i nhan xet cua GV hay danh gia bang nhan xet, xep loai cua GV.

k) Ket hop danh gia trong va danh gia ngoai,

D~ co them cac kenh thong tin phan hoi khach quan, can ket hop hai hoa giira danh gia trong va danh gia ngoai :

- Tu danh gia cua HS v6i danh gia cua ban hoc, cua GV, cua co sa giao due, cua gia dinh va cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua GV v6i danh gia cua dong nghiep, cua HS, gia dinh HS, cua cac co quan quan If giao due va cua cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua co sa giao due v6i danh gia cua cac co quan quan Ii giao due va cua cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua nganh Giao due v6i danh gia cua xii hoi va danh gia quoc teo

1) Phai la dong Il!C thtic day d6i m6i PPDH : D6i m6i PPDH va d6i moi kiem tra, danh gia la hai mat thong nhat hiru co cua qua trinh day hQC, la nhan to quan trong nhat dam bao chat Iirong day hoc.

4.4. Cdc tieu chi ella kilm tra, ddnh. gid

a) Dam bao tinh toan dien : Danh gia diroc cac mat kien thirc, ki nang, nang hrc, y thirc, thai dQ, hanh vi cua HS.

b) Dam bao dQ tin cay : Tinh chinh xac, trung thirc, minh bach, khach quan, cong bang trong danh gia, phan anh duoc chat hrong tlnrc cua HS, cua cac co sa giao due.

c) Dam bao tinh kha thi : NQi dung, hinh thirc, each thirc, phirong tien t6 chirc kiem tra, danh gia phai phil hop v6i dieu kien HS, CO sa giao due, dac biet la phil hop v6i muc tieu thea tirng mon hoc.

d) Dam bao yeu cau ph an hoa: Phan loai diroc chinh xac trinh dQ, rmrc dQ, nang lire nhan 'thuc cua hoc sinh, co sa giao due ; can dam bao dai phan hoa rong du cho phan loai dci urong.

e) Dam bao hieu qua : Danh gia duoc tat cit cac Iinh vue can danh gia HS, co sa giao due ; thuc hien diroc day du cac muc tieu de ra ; tao dong lire d6i m6i phuong phap day hoc, gop phan nang cao chat lirong giao due,

12

pHANTHUHAI

HuONG nAN THllC HI~N cHuAN I(IEN THUC, xt NANG MON ToAN THPT

N(H DUNG MON ToAN THPT

Noi dung mon Toan bao gom nhfrng kien thirc co ban ve : - SO va cac phep tinh tren tap hop so thirc, so phirc.

- Menh de va tap hop ; cac bieu thirc dai so va hrong giac ;

phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy v~ bac hai) ; M phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai) ; bat phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy ve bac hai) va he bat phirong trinh bac nhat (mot an, hai an).

- Ham so, gioi han, dao ham, nguyen ham, tich phan va irng dung cua cluing.

- Cac quan he hinh h9C va mot so hinh thong dung (diem, dirong thang, mat phang, hinh tam giac, hinh tron, elip, hinh da dien, hinh tron xoay) ; phep doi hinh va phep dong dang ; vecto va toa do,

- Mot so kien thirc ban dau ve thong ke, t6 hop, xac suat.

KI NANG CO BAN

- Thirc hien duoc cac phep tfnh loy thira, khai can, logarit tren tap so thuc va mot so phep tinh don gian tren tap so phirc.

- Khao sat diroc mot so ham so co ban : ham so bac hai, bac ba,

h' ' b ' , h h' ' lui ax + b

am so ac bon trung p uong, am so phan t ire y = d '

ex +

2

ax + bx + C hi ' 1 . 'h' '- h' ' 1 .

y = d' am so uong giac, am so mu, am so ogarit,

ex +

- Giai thanh thao phirong trmh, bat phuong trinh bac nhat, bac hai, M phirong trtnh bac nhat. Giai diroc mot so he phuong trinh, he bat phirong trinh bac hai ; phirong trinh hrong giac ; phirong trinh, bat phirong trinh, he phirong trinh mii va logarit don gian.

- Giai diroc mot so bai toan ve bien d6i luong giac, luy thira, mii, logarit, ve day so, ve gioi han cua day so va ham so.

- Tfnh diroc dao ham, nguyen ham, tfeh phan cua mot so. ham so.

- Ve hinh ; ve bieu do ; do dac ; tfnh d(> dai, g6c, dien tich,

the tich. Viet plurong trinh dirong thang, duong tron, e1ip, mat phang, mat cau.

- Thu thap va xir If so lieu ; tinh toan ve t6 hop va xac suat,

- Vac lirong ket qua do dac va tinh toano

- Sii dung cac cong cu do, ve, tfnh toano

- Suy luan va chirng minh.

- Giai to an va van dung kien thirc toan h9C trong h9C tap va doi song.

13

PRAM CHAT TU DUYVA THAI DO

- Kha nang quan sat, du doan, suy luan hop If va suy luan logic.

- Cac thao tac nr duy co ban (phan tich, t6ng hop).

- Cac phfun chat nr duy, dac bier la tu duy linh hoat, doc lap va sang tao.

- Kha nang dien dat chfnh xac, r6 rang y tuong cua minh va hi~u

duoc y nrong cua nguoi khac.

- PhM trien tri wang nrong khong gian.

Ghi dill: + Cac yeu to' kien thirc chuan bi . . * HQc chfnh thirc.

- Co Y thirc tl! hoc, hirng thii va nr tin trong hoc tap.

- C6 dire tfnh trung thuc, can CU, virot kho, dn than, chinh xac, ki

luat, sang tao,

- Co Y tlurc hop tac, tran trong thanh qua lao dong cua minh va cua ngiroi khac.

- NMn biet duoc ve dep cua toan hoc va yeu thfch mon Toan,

GI61 THltU MACH KIEN THUC

... ".. " A ....

CHUONG TRINH MON TOAN PHO THONG

M~CH NOI DUNG

CHUDE

Lap

2

3

*

1. So

1.l. 56 tl! nhien

*

1.2. ~ nguyen

*

*

*

11

12

8

9

10

4

5

6

7

*

*

*

*

1.3.56 hfru ti . - Phan so

- 56 thap phan

- 56 hfru ti

+

+

*

*

*

*

*

*

1.4. 56 thuc

*

1.5. 56 phirc

*

14

LOP
MACH NOI DUNG CHUDE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2. D~i luqng va 2.1. D(> dai * * * * * *
do dai hrong 2.2. G6c * * *
+ +
2.3. Dien tich + + + * * * *
2.4. Th~ tich + * * *
2.5. Khoi luong * * *
2.6. Thai gian * * * * *
2.7. Van toe * *
2.8. Tien t¢ * *
3. D~i s6 3.1. Tap hop, rnenh de * *
3.2. Bi~u thirc dai so + + + * * * *
3.3. Ham so va del thi + + + * * * * *
3.4. Phuong trinh, + + + + + * * * * *
he phirong trinh +
3.5. ·Bat dang t~uc, + + + + + + + * * *
bat phuong trinh
3.6. Luong giac + * *
3.7. Day so, cap so cong, + + + + + *
cap so nhan + + 15

M~CH NOI DUNG

CHODE

LOP

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

+

+

+

12

4. Ghii tich

s. Hlnh hoc

4.1. Gi6i han

- Gi6i han cua day so

- Gi6i han cua ham so

- Ham so lien tuc

*

*

*

4.2. Dao ham

*

*

4.3. Nguyen ham, tich phan

5.1. Cac khai niem hinh hoc mo dau

5.2. D~i cirong ve dirong thang va mat phang

5.3. Quan he song song - Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.4. Quan he vuong g6c - Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.5. Da giac - Tam giac

- Til giac

- Da giac

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

16

+

+

+

+

*

*

*

*

*

+

+

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

MACH NOI DUNG

2 . HDTHT11· A

CHUDE

2 T 3

+

+

5.6. Dtrong tron, hinh tron

+

*

5.7. Hinh da dien

LOP

6

7

12

5

4

+

+

+

+

5.8. Hlnh tron xoay

+

*

5.9. Vecto

.. Trong mat phang *

- Trong khong gian

8

10

11

*

*

*

5.10. TO<:J.d¢

- Trong mat phang

+

9

*

*

*

*

- Trong khong gian

-------------,------------------- -------------------- _-------- ---------- --------- _-------- ---------- --------- -------------------- --------- ---------

*

5.11. Phep doi hinh

- Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

+

*

*

5.] 2. Phep dong dang

- Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

6.1. Thong ke

+

*

*

*

+

+

*

6.2. T6 hop

*

6.3. xse suat

6. Thong ke, l TO h<)p. Xac sua!

_____ _L ~ ~ J_ J ~ L_ L_ L_ __ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

17

*

'" "..! '" ? ,"'"

DAY HOC MOT-SO NOI DUNG CUA CI-IUONG TRINH MaN TOAN

1. D~y hoc cac h~ thong so

a) D~t van d~ rna rong cac he thong so : tir thirc tien, tir noi bo toan h9C, phoi hop,

b) Day h9C nhirng khai niern so : s6 va phep toan, y nghia thirc te cua nhirng khai niern so.

c) Day h9C phep tfnh va quan he thtr nr : ren ki nang tinh toan, phat trien nang Il!C tri tue, ngam hinh thanh quan niem v~ cau tnic,

d) Day h9C nhirng tinh chat cua moi he thong so: N, Z, Q, lR, C .

e) H¢ thong hoa sir ph at 'tri~n cua khai niem so va lam r6 (gioi thieu) phuong phap rna rong mot he thong so.

2. D~y hoc phltdng trinh va bat phltdng trinh

a) Day h9C khai niem phuong trinh va nhirng khai niem co lien quan.

b) Day h9C phuong trtnh dua vao ham menh M : quan niem v~ dang thirc ; hieu dung thuc chat cua dau = trong phuong trtnh (hinh thirc), phan biet dau = trong phuong trinh va dau = trong bien d6i dong nhat ; dieu kien xac dinh va nghiem phirong trinh.

c) Sir dung ngon ngit cua Ii thuyet tap hop va logic toan (bien d6i urong dirong, he qua, ket hop nghiem, ... ).

d) Day h9C giai phirong trinh.

e) Dien bien cua tap nghiern khi bien d6i phirong trinh : rna rong, thu hep, tirong duong.

f) Giai quyet phuong dien ngfr nghia (xem xet noi dung cua nhfrng rnenh M to an h9C va nghia cua nhirng each d~t van d~ toan h9C) va phuong dien cti phap (xem xet cau tnic hinh tlurc va sir bien d6i hinh thirc nhirng bieu thirc to an hoc, sir lam viec theo nhfrng quy tac xac dinh, theo thuat giai).

g) Day h9C giai bai toan bang each lap phuong trinh.

h) Thay duoc irng dung cua toan hoc trong thirc te va viec toan h9C hoa cac bai toan co noi dung thirc tien.

i) Phat hien quan he gitra cac dai luong.

k) Ki nang giai bai toan, trong tam la ki nang lap va giai phuong trinh.

3. D~y hoc ham so

a) Day h9C khai niern ham so : giai thfch dinh nghia ham so dua vao bieu nrong t~p hop va cau tnic logic, minh hoa khai niem bang cac vi du da dang,

b) Day h9C khao sat ham so : tinh toan phuc vu khao sat, ve do thi, d9C do thi,

c) Phat trien nr duy ham : tu nrong chu dao (phat hien, nghien ciru nhirng sir tuong irng) ; thuc hien goi dong C(J ; hinh thanh bieu nrong tien toi tri thirc v~ su tuong irng don tri va tap luyen nhirng hoat dong an kh6p v6i tri thirc phirong phap v~ nr duy ham ; phan bac hoar dong v~ nr duy ham (sir phirc tap, mire do doc lap cua hoat dong nhan thirc h9C sinh, mire d¢ thanh thao cua hoat dong).

d) Phat trien tu duy ham trong toan bo chuong trinh mon to an (theo cac mach toan).

18

2· HDTHT11- El

4. D~y hoc dao ham va tich phan

a) Day hoc ham so lien tuc : gioi han cua day so ; gioi han cua ham so ; ham so lien rue,

b) Day hoc dao ham : hinh thanh khai niem ; day hoc tim dao ham ; day hoc irng dung cua dao ham.

c) Day hoc nguyen ham va tich phan : hinh thanh khai niem ; day hoc tim nguyen ham; khai niem tich phan ; tinh tfch phan,

5. D~y hoc hinh hoc khong gian

a) Day hoc khai niem : hinh thanh, cung co, van dung.

b) Day hoc clnrng minh : goi dong CO ; phirong phap suy luan va phuong phap chirng minh (xuoi, ngiroc lui) ; quy tac ket luan logic.

c) Hinh ve trong day hoc hinh hoc khong gian : hinh bieu dien, hinh ~e tnrc quan trong day hoc,

6. D~y hoc vecto va toa dQ a) Day hoc vecto

- Day hoc khai niem vecto : mo ta tinh cung huang bang tnrc giac, su dung vecto tv do mot each ~n tang, chti y lien mono

- Day hoc phep toan -vecto : can dinh nghia phep toan, quy tac thirc hien phep toan, cac tinh chat co ban cua moi phep toano

- Day giai bai tap v~ vecto : chuyen ngon ngfr, sir dung cac phep toano

- b) Day h9C toa do

- Day hoc phuong phap toa do trong mat phang : he toa do, lap

va sir dung phirong trinh dirong.

- Day hoc phirong phap toa d¢ trong khong gian lien he voi hinh hoc phang : them phep tinh tich vecto (co huang).

c) Day hoc giai bai tap bang toa d¢ : lam quen voi nhfrng each xac dinh toa d¢ cua nhirng yeu to hinh hoc ; quy trinh giai mot bai toan bang phirong phap toa do.

7. D~y hoc mach toan (mg dl;Jng

a) Day hoc yeu to cua phirong phap so

- Lam r6 moi lien he giira phirong phap so, thuat giai va may tinh.

-r-r- Gioi thieu va cho su dung mot so phirong phap so thong dung :

phirong phap lap (tim nghiem).

- Hinh thanh th6i quen lam tron so va viet so theo quy tac chuan. b) Day hoc yeu to cua li thuyet toi uu

- Lam r6 nguon goc hoac y nghia thirc tien cua bai toano (vi du : bai toan tim dirong di ngan nhat...).

- Cho HS giai to an toi uu dua vao nhirng kien thirc toan hoc phd

thong: bat dang thirc ; dao ham.

c) Day hoc mot so yeu to cua xac suat thong ke

- Day thong ke mo ta (nr Ti~u hoc den Trung hoc phd thong).

- Day dai so td hop,

Day mot so yeu to cua If thuyet xac suat : neu y nghia thong ke cua xac suat.

8. D~y hoc mQt so yeu to cua Ii thuyet t~p h~p va logic toan

a) Lam ro nhtmg moi quan he giira nhirng khai niem can cu vao nhirng moi quan he gifra nhtmg tap hop : bieu thi nhirng moi quan he d6 bang bieu do Yen.

19

b) Yeu cau sir dung ki hieu cua tap hop va logic trong dien dat toan hoc ; yeu cau logic cua dinh nghia khai niern.

c) Phan tich cac thanh phan cua chirng minh va cac yeu cau logic urong irng : luan de, luan err, luan chirng.

9. D~y hoc theo mach kien thuc toan

a) GV can hinh dung diroc mach kien thirc trong chuang trinh roan a twang pho thong, cling nhtr mach kien thirc chay ngam trong Toan hoc d~ co th~ trinh bay dung khi day hQC va qua do giup HS hieu va co the thac trien dUQ'C kien thirc da hoc, Can hinh dung va lot ta cac mach doc, mach ngang d~ co th~ img dung, soi roi kien thirc sa cap bci kien tlnrc Toan cao cap va ngiroc lai, chuyen hoa kien thirc Toan cao cap thanh sa cap (trong twang hop co the). Huang dAn HS sao cho qua viec hoc co diroc sa do ve mach kien thirc co trong chuang trinh. Chii y bien rhap thirc hien sao cho kha thi.

b) GV can giup HS hinh dung diroc he thong kien thirc d~ co th~ hlnh dung he thong bai tap, qua do hinh dung diroc mach kien thirc. Tir do bier each khai thac va van dung trong giai toan, hoc toan va nghien CUu Toan hoc,

c) Thong qua day hoc cac mach kien thtrc, GV can:

- Ren luyen cho HS .cac thao tac nr duy : phan tich, tong hop, nrong ur hoa, khai quat hoa, dac biet hoa, ...

- Gitip HS each lam giau kien thirc, nrc la day tri thirc va day tri thirc phirong phap, Nhtr the cling la day HS each suy nghi, day each sang tao,

- Day HS each hoc, biet ur hoc,

- Phan bac hoat dong, tien toi phan hoa doi urong.

- Day hoc huang toi phat trien.

d) Khi hinh dung diroc cac mach toan, GV co the nr lam giau kien thirc, viron t6i bier nr sang tac bai tap.

Day h9C mach kien thirc can gan voi day hoc cac tinh huong dien hinh trong mon toano

Qua viec tim hieu cac mach kien thirc roan a twang phd thong,

GV can van dung diroc trong day hoc cac tinh huong dien hinh nlnr :

a) Day hoc khai niem

b) Day hoc dinh Ii

c) Day hoc bai tap

d) Day hoc on tap.

Liru y tien hanh theo trinh tir, chang han : tiep can, hinh thanh, cung co, M thong hoa, ...

20

HuONG nAN THVC HI~N CHuAN I(IEN THUC, xt NANG MON ToAN LOP 11

A - KIEN THllC CHlfONG TRINH MON ToAN LOP 11 iPhdn in nghieng, dam dann cho chuang trinli nang cao)

BAlSa

1. Cac ham so hrong giac (dinh nghia, tinh tuan hoan, su bien thien, d6 thi), Phuong trinh hrong giac co ban. Phuong trinh bac hai doi voi mot ham so hrong giac, Phuong trlnh asiru: + bcosx = c. Phuong trmh thuan nhat bac hai doi voi sinx va cosx. Mt)t so dang phuong trinh luang giac don gidn.

2. Phuong phap quy nap toan hoc. Day so. Cap so cong, Cap so nhan.

GIAITICH

1. Gioi han cua day so, gioi han cua ham so. Mot so dinh If ve gioi han cua day so. ham so. Cac dang vo dinh, Ham so lien tuc. Mot so dinh If ve ham so lien tuc,

2. Dao ham. Y nghia hinh hoc va y nghia co hoc cua dao ham. Cac quy tic tinh dao ham. Vi phan, Dao ham dip cao.

HINHHOC

1. Phep doi hinh trong mat phang (phep doi xirng true, phep doi xirng tarn, phep tinh tien, phep quay), hai hinh bang nhau.

Phep dong dang trong mat phang (phep vi tir, phep dong dang), hai hinh dong dang,

2. Duong thang va mat phang trong khong gian. ~i tri nrong doi gitra hai dirong, thang trong khong gian. Duong thang va mat phang song song. Hai mat phang song song. Hinh lang tru va hinh hop, Phep chien song song. Hinh bieu dien cua hinh khong gran.

3. Vecto va phep to an vecto trong khong gian. Hai dtrong thang vuong g6c. Duong thang vuong g6c voi mat phang, Phep chieu vuong g6c. Dinh If ba dirong vuong ~6c. G6c giira du<?ng thang va mat phang. G6c giira hai mat phang, Hai m~t phang vuong g6c. Khoang each (til mot diem den mot dirong thang, den mot mat phang ; gitra dirong thing va mat phang song song; giira hai mat phang song song; giira hai dirong thang cheo nhau). Hinh lang tru dirng, hinh hop chir nhat, hinh lap phirong. Hinh ch6p, hinh chop den va hlnh ch6p cut deu.

~ , K

TO HoP XAC SUAT

Quy tic cong, quy tic nhan. Chinh hop, hoan vi, t6 hop (khong lap). Nhi thirc Niu-ton. Phep thir va bien co. Dinh nghia xac suat. Cac quy tic tinh xac suat. Bien ngdu nhien rai rae.

~

21

B - HV()NG DAN THVC HI¢N CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG MON ToAN L()P 11

(Phdn in nghieng, ddm danh cho chuang trinh nang cao}

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HU'6ng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, LU'U Y

I. HAM SO LUQNG GIAc V A PHUONG TRINH LUQNG GIAc

..................... _....... . _ ..

1. Ham so' luang gidc (Dinh nghia ; Tinh 1. Ham so sin va ham so eosin

tuan hoan ; Su bien thien ; Do thi), sin: IR ~ IR

Ve' kien thuc : Hieu diroc khainiem ham so x f--+ Y = sinx ;

hrong giac (cua bien so thuc), cosin : IR ~ IR

ve' ki nang: x f--+ y = cosx.

- Xac dinh duoc : tap xac dinh ; t~p gia tI1 ; tinh chat chan, le ; tfnh tuan hoan ; chu ki ; khoang dong bien, nghich bien cua cac ham so y = sinx ; y = cosx ; y = tanx ; y = cotx.

- Ve diroc do thi cua cac ham so y = sinx ; y = cosx ; y = tanx ; y = cotx.

• Tap xac dinh cua hai ham so nay la IR .

• V oi moi x E IR ta c6 :

-1 s sinx::; 1 ; -1 ::; cosx s 1.

- Dang 1 : TIm tap xac dinh ; tap gia tI1 ; tinh chat chan, Ie ; tinh tuan hoan ; chu ki ; khoang dong bien, nghich bien cua cac ham so y = sinr ;

Y = cosx ; y = tanx ; y = cotx.

- Dang 2 : Ve do thi cua cac ham so y = sinx ; y = cosx ; y = tanx ; y = cotx.

Vi du. Cho ham so y = -sinx.

- TIm tap xac dinh cua ham so.

• y = sinx la ham so le, do thi cua n6 doi xirng - TIm tap gia tI1 cua ham so.

qua goc toa d<) (hinh 1). - Ham so da cho la chan hay le ?

y

" 1~

x

- Ham so da cho c6 la ham so tuan hoan khong ? Neu tuan hoan hay cho bier chu ki ?

- Xac dinh cac khoang dong bien, nghich bien cua ham so d6 ?

Hinh 1

22

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

x

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan, Vi du. Luu Y

• y = cosx Hi ham s6 chan, do thi cua no d6i xirng qua true tung (hmh 2).

y

_ 31l''\. / "- /31l'

2' ~------ -------~ -2 -1

Hinh2

• Ca hai ham s6 y = sinr va y = cosx deu Hi ham s6 tuan hoan voi chu ki 2n; sin(x + 2n) = sinr, cos(x + 2n) = cosx, '<;/x E lR.

• Do thi ham s6 y = cosx diroc suy ra tir do thi ham s6 y = sinr qua phep tinh tien song song voi

true hoanh theo vecto (-; ; 0 ).

2. Ham s6 tang va ham s6 cotang.

• Ham s6 tang la ham s6 diroc xac dinh bOi cong thirc :

sinx y=tanx= -cos x

23

Vi du. Ve do thi cua cac ham s6 sau : a) y = 2sinx ;

b)·y = -2cosx ;

c) y = -tanx ;

d) y = -cotx.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huang dan thuc hien chuan

24

L- ~ _L ~

cos x ,. , d' h

y = cotx = -.- voi tap xac !Il

smx

D = IR \ {k1Z", k E z],

• Ham s6 y = tanx (hinh 3) va y = cotx (hmh 4) la nhirng ham s6 le va tuan hoan voi chu ki 1Z".

y

x

Kien thirc co ban D~ng toano Vi dl,l. LUll Y

~------------------------------+-----------------------------------

voi tap xac dinh

D = IR \ {; + k1Z", k E Z} .

• Ham s6 cotang la ham s6 diroc xac dinh boi cong thirc :

o~ )

(-n n

2

Hinh 3

Chuan kien thuc - ki nang

Huang dan thuc hien chuan

x

Vi du. Gidi va minh hoa tren duong Iron luong giac nghiem eua moi phuang trinh sau

a) sinr = 0,789.

b) 2siru = 1.

Kien thti'c CO' ban Dang toan. Vi du, Luu y

y

2. Phuong trinh. luang gidc ca ban (Cac phirong trinh lirong giacco ban; Cong thirc nghiem ; Minh ko« tren duimg Iron luong giac).

Ve' kien thuc Biet diroc phirong trinh hrong giac co ban : sinr» m ; eosx = m ;

tam = m ; cotr = m va cong thirc nghiem, va

Ve' ki nang : Giai thanh thao phirong trinh hrong giac co ban. Biet sir dung may tfnh bo uii h6 tro tim nghiem phirong trinh

hrong giac co ban.

Hinh4

1. Phuong trinh sinr = a

• Neu rl > 1 : Phuong trinh (1) v6 nghiem.

• Neu rl s 1 : Dat a = sin lp , phirong trinh (1) co

cac nghiem x = lp + k2 Jr , k E Z

x= Jr -lp +kl n , k e Z.

Ta con viet:

[X = aresina + k2Jr, k E Z

(1) ¢:> (aresina la

x = Jr - aresina + k2Jr, k E Z

[" Jr Jr] ,. 7 , b'

g6c thuoc doan l-"2;"2 ,rna sm eua no ang a).

(1) - Dang bai tap : Giai phirong trinh hrong giac co ban ; Sir dung may tinh bo tui h6 tro tim nghiern phirong trinh hrong giac co ban.

25

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thirc hien chuan

Kien tlnrc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

* Chu y:

• Neu so do cua cp diroc tinh bang d(> thi nghiem

[X =cp+k3600 cua (1) co dang :

x =180° -cp+k3600, k EZ.

• Tdng quat, v6if(x) va g(x) fa hai biiu thuc etta x, ta eo : Phuong trinh sinf(x) = sing(x) tuang duang v6i

[f(X) = g(x) + k27r,k E Z f(x) = 7r - g(x) + k27r,k E Z.

Vi du. Giai cac phirong trtnh :

a) cos x = -1 ;

b) cos x = 0,123.

2. Phuong trinh eosx = a

V i du. Giai cac phirong trinh : (2) a) tanx = J3 ;

• Neu lal > 1 : Phuong trinh vO nghiem.

• Neu lal s 1 : D~t a = cos tp , phuong trtnh (2) co cac nghiem

x= ± cp +k27r,k E Z.

Ta con viet:

(2) ¢:> x = ± arccos« + k2 st. k E Z (arccosrz la goc thuoc doan [0 ; zr ], rna eosin cua no bang a).

* Chu y:

• Neu so do cua cp diroc tinh bang d(> thi nghiem cua (2) co dang :

x= ± cp +k3600, kE Z.

26

b) tanx = 20.

Vi du. Giai cac phuong trinh : 1

a) eotx = J3 ;

b) eotx =5,6789.

Chuan kien thrrc - ki nang

(3)

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Liru Y

• T 6ng quat, v6i f(x) va g(x) fa hai bieu thuc cua x, ta co : Phuong trinh eosf(x) = eosg(x) tuang duang voi

fix) = ±g(x) + k27r, kE Z.

3. Phuong trinh tanx = a

V& moi a E R, phirong trinh (3) luon co nghiem

x = aretana + k 7r , k E Z

(aretana la goc thuoc khoang (- ; ; ;), co tang ella no bang a).

Neu rp la goc thoa man tan rp = a thi nghiem ella (3) Ut :

x = rp + k n , kE Z.

* Chu y:

• Neu s6 do ella rp diroc tinh bang do thi nghiem cua (3) co dang : x = rp + k180°, k E Z.

• Phuong trinh tarif(x) = tang(x) tuang duang vai f(x)=g(x)+k7r,kE Z.

4. Phuong trinh eotx = a

V& rnoi a e R, phirong trinh (4) luon co nghiem x = areeota + k 7r , k E Z

(areeota la goc thuoc khoang (0; zr.), co cotang bang a).

27

(4)

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. LUll Y

Neu tp la goc thoa man cot tp = a thi nghiern cua (4)la:x= tp +k rc i k:«: Z.

* Chu y:

• Neu so do cua tp diroc tfnh bang d¢ thi nghiem cua (4) co dang : x = tp + k180o, kE Z .

• Phuong trinh. eoif(x) = eotg(x) tUO'11g dUO'11g voi j(x) = g(x) + k n , kE Z.

~------~----------------~~--~----~------~~--~~~~~--~~--~r----------.--------------------------1

3. M¢t s6' phuang trinh luang gidc thuang 1. Phuong trinh bac nhat doi v6i mot ham so - Dang bai tap Giai phuong trinh thuoc

gijp (Phuong trinh bac nhat, bac hai d6i v6i luong giac cac dang : phuong trinh bac nhat, bac hai doi

mot ham s6 hrong giac ; . Phuong trinh v6i mot ham so hrong giac , phirong trmh

asinx + beosx = e ; M~t so phuong trinb • Phuong trinh bac nhat doi v6i mot ham so asinx + bcosx = c ; phirong trinh thuan nhat bac

luang giac khac). luong giac co dang : at + b = 0, trong do a , b la hai doi v6i sinr va eosx; phuang trinb dang

Ve' kiln thuc : Biet diroc dang va each giai cac hang so (a * 0) va t la mot trong cac ham so a(sinx ± cosx) + bsinxcosx = 0 ; phuang trinh

pmrong trinh : bac nhat, bac hai d6i voi hrong giac (y = sinx, y = eosx, y = tanx, y = cotx). cd su dung cong thuc bien d6i di gidi (if dang

mot ham so hrong giac: asinx + beosx = c : • Cach giai : Bien d6i, dira phuong trinh da: eho dun gidn) ; mot so phuang trinh luang gidc

phirong trinh thuan nhat bac hai doi voi khac.

v~ phirong trinh hrong giac co ban. sinx va eosx ; phuang trinh dang

Vi du. Giai phirong trmh

a(sinx ± cosx) + bsinxcosx = 0 ; phuang 2. Phuong trinh bac hai d6i v6i mot ham so luong

trinh co sa dung cong" thuc bien d6i di giac

gidi (if dang dun gidn). • Phuong trinh asin2 x + bsinx + c = 0, (a * 0) :

Ve' ki nang: Giai diroc phirong trinh thuoc a) 2eos2 x - 3eosx + 1 = 0 ;

cac dang neu tren, Dat t = sinx, It I :so; 1, dira v~ phirong trinh bac hai

b) sin2x - (1 + .J3 )sinxeosx +.J3 eos2x = O. d6i voi t : at2 + bt + c = O. Giai phirong trinh tim

t roi til do tim x (hru y dieu kien I~ :so; 1 d~ co the loai ngay cac gia tri t khong thfch hop).

3sinx - 2 = O.

Vi du. Giai cac phirong trinh :

28

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

HUOng dan thirc hien chuan

Vi du, Giai cac phirong trinh :

a) 5sinx + 12cosx = 13 ;

b) sinx + J3cosx = 1.

Kien thti'c co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

• Phuong trinh acos2 x + bcosx + c = 0, (a :F- 0): Vi du. Giai cac phirong trinh :

Dat t = cosx, It I ~ 1. a) sinx + sin2x + sin3x = 0 ;

• Phuong trinh atan2x + btanx + c = 0, (a :F- 0): b) sin2x.sin5x = sin3x.sin4x ;

Dat t = tanx. c) (sinx + cosx) - 6sinxcosx = 2 ;

Ph ' h 2 b ° ( 0) d)' 2 . 23 2' 22

• irong tnn acot x + cotx + c = , a:F- : sm x + sm x = sm X.

Dar t = cotx.

3. Phuong trinh bac nhat d6i voi sinx va cosx :

asinx + bccsx = c (a:F- 0, b :F- 0). (l)

Phuong phap chung d~ giai :

• Su dung cong thirc bien d6i

asinx + bcoex =) a2 + b2 sin(x + tp ),

dira phirong trinh (1) ve phirong trinh hrong giac co ban

c

cos(x - qJ ) = r . va2 + b2

• Su dung cong thtcc linh sinx va cosx theo x

t= tan- :

2

. 2t 1- t2

smx = --2 ' COSX = 2 ' dua phuang trinh

1+1 l+t

(1) vephuong trinh bac hai dOl voi t.

29

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban D~ng toano Vi d1,l. Luu y

r-------------------------------~-----------------------------

4. Phuong trinh thudn nhat bac hai dOl v6i sinx Vi du. Giai cac phuang trinh :

va cosx:

a) sin2 x + (1 + .J3 )sinxcosx + .J3 cos2 x = 0 ; • Phuong trinh asin2x + bsinxcosx + ccos2x = 0,

trong do a, b, c la cac hdng so: voi a :I; 0 hoij.c b) sin2 x - 5sinxcosx + 3 = O. b :I; 0 hoiic c :I; O.

Phuong phap gidi : Chia hai ve' cua phuong trinh cho cos2 x (v6i die'u kien cosx :I; 0) di dua phuang trinh ve' phuong trinh dOl v6i tanx,

hoij.c chia hai ve' cua phuong trinh cho sin2x (v6i die'u kien sinx:l;O) di dua phuang trinh vi phuang trinh doi v6i cotx.

* Chti j : Doi voi phuang trinh

asin2x + bsinxcosx + ccos2x = d, (a, b, c, dE 1R, a2 + b2 + c2 :I; 0) ta co thi quy ve' gidi phuong trinh thudn nhd: bac hai dOl v6i sinx va cosx bang each viet d du6i dang

d = d(sin2x + cos2x).

II. TO HOP. KHAI NI$M xAc SUAT

1. Doi s(/ t6 h9P (Quy tac cong va .quy tac I, Quy tac cong va guy tac nhan nhan ; Chinh hop ; Hoan V! ; T6 hop ; Nhi

• Quy tac cong : thirc Niu-ton).

Ve' kiln thuc : Biet guy tac cong va guy tac nhan ; hoan vi, chinh hop, t6 hop chap k cua n phan nr ; cong thirc nhi thirc Niu-ton

(a + bf,

Gia sir d6i nrong X c6 m each chon khac nhau, d6i nrong Y c6 n each chon khac nhau va khong c6 each chon d6i nrong X nao trimg v6i moi each chon 'd6i nrong Y. Khi d6 c6 m + n each chon mot trong hai d6i urong ay,

- Dang 1 : Giai cac bai toan c6 van dung guy tac cong va guy tac nhan ; Tinh s6 cac hoan V!, chinh hop, t6 hop chap k cua n phan nr,

- Dang 2 : Khai trien nhi thirc Niu-ton v6i mot s6 mii cu the; TIm he s6 cua i trong khai trien nhi thirc Niu-ton thanh da thirc.

30

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Ki hieu s6 phan nr cua tap hop A la n(A). Gia sir

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, Luu y

Ve'kinang:

- Biroc dau van dung diroc quy tac cong va A va B la cac tap hop hfru han, khong giao nhau quy tac nhan,

• Khi do : n(A u B) = n(A) + n(B).

(1)

Vi du. Mot doi thi dau bong ban gam 8 van dong vien nam va 7 van dong vien nit. Hoi co bao nhieu each cir ngjiu nhien van dong vien thi dau :

- Tinh diroc s6 cac hoan vi, chinh hop, t6

hop chap k cua n phan nr, * Chu y : Cong thuc (1) co thl mil rang theo a) Don nam, don nit?

hai huang : - Bier khai trien nhi thirc Niu-ton voi mot

s6 mil cu th~.

- Tim diroc he s6 cua xk trong khai trien nhi thirc Niu-ton thanh da thirc.

b) Niu AI' ... , Am la cdc t{lP hap hiiu han tuy y, Vi du. Hoi co bao nhieu each chia ngau nhien doi mt)t khong giao nhau thi mot lap co 40 hoc sinh thanh cac nhom hoc tap rna moi nhom co 8 hoc sinh?

a) Neu A va B la hai t{lP hap hiiu han bat ki thi n(A uB) = n(A) + nCB) -n(A r-B).

neAl uA2 u ... UA"J =n(AJ +n(A~ + ... + n(A"J.

• Quy tac nhan

b) D6i nam - nit?

Vi du. Cho cac chit s6 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5. Hoi co bao nhieu s6 nr nhien co 5 chit s6 doi mot khac nhau diroc thanh lap tir cac chit s6 da cho ?

hai co II ket qua. Khi do co m.n ket qua cua hai hanh dong lien tiep do.

cho nhieu hann dong lien tiip.

2. Hoan vi, chinh hop, t6 hop (khong lap) :

Cho t~p hop A gam n phan ur (n ~ 1).

Vi du. Mt)t ht)p co chua 20 vien bi mau do, 30 vien bi mau xanh va 40 vien bi mau vang. Lay bat ki til ht)p do 10 vien bi. Khi do :

Gia str co hai hanh dong duoc thuc hien lien tiep. a) Co bao nhieu khd nang lay duoc 10 vien bi Hanh dong thtr nhat co m ket qua. ung voi moi cung mau ?

ket qua cua hanh dong thir nhat, hanh dong tlur b) Co bao nhieu khd nang lay duac 10 vien bi, trong do co it nht1t 2 vien bi mau xanh ?

c) Co bao nhieu khd nang My duoc 10 vien bi trong do co dung 2 vien bi mau xanb ?

* Chu y : Quy tdc nhan il tren co thl mu rong

31

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. LUll Y

• M6i su sap xep n phan nr cua A theo thir tu nao do diroc goi la mot hoan vi cua tap hQP A.

S6 cac hoan vi cua tap hQP A diroc ki hieu Ia P nr ta co

Pn = n.(n -1) ... 2.1 = n!.

• M6i each lay fa k phan nr cua A (1 s k s n) va xep theo mot tlnr nr nao do diroc goi la mot chlnh hlJP chap k cua n phan tiro

S6 cac chinh hQP chap k cua n phan tir diroc ki

hi l' Ak ,k n!

H~U an. ta co An =

. (n-k)!

(a day, guy uae O! = 1).

• M6i each lay fa mot tap con gom k phan nr cua A (0 s k s n) diroc goi Hi mot ttl hap chap k cua n phan nr. Coi 0 la t6 hQP chap 0 cua tap hQP co n phan nr,

S6 cac t6 hQP chap k cua n phan nr diroc ki hieu

1, c: ' ck n!

an' ta co n = .

k!(n - k)!

3. Cong thirc nhi thirc Niu-ton

• Khai trien nhi thirc (a+bt, theo cong thirc

( b)n CO n C1 n-1b c: n-kbk

a+ = na + na + ... + na +

32

Vi du

a) Khai trien nhi thirc (2x + 1)10 thanh da thirc.

b) Tim he sO cua ~/ trong khai trien nhi thirc (2x + 1 Y 0 thanh da thirc.

HUOng dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, Luu Y

• Trong ve phai cua cong thirc (*), ta co: a) SO cac hang tir Ia n + 1 ;

b) SO hang (hang nr) tlnr k + 1 la C: an -k bk , k = 0, 1, ... n (quy uoc aO = 1 v6i a ;:j::. 0).

c) SO mil cua a giam dan tir n den 0, so mil cua b tang dan tir 0 den n dong thoi tong so mil cua a va b trong m6i hang tir luon bang n.

d) Hai hang nr tirong irng dirng each hang tir dau va hang tir cuoi mot khoang bang nhau thi co cung he so.

Vi du

a) Cluing minh

C~ + C~ + C; + ... + C~ = 2n . b) Chung minh :

o 2 4 C2n

C2n + C2n + C2n + ... + 2n

I 3 C5 C2n-1

= C2n + C2n + 2n + ... + 2n •

Vi du. Chirng minh rang:

k c:'

a) en = n ;

k k k-I

b) Cn = Cn_1 + Cn-I.

2. Xile sudt (Phep thir va bien co ; Xac suat cua bien co va cac tinh chat co ban cua xac suat ; Cong 'thtrc cong xac sua], cong thirc nhan xac suat ; Bien e(I df)e l(ip).

Ve' kiln thuc :

- Biet diroc : Phep thir ngau nhien ; khong gian mau ; bien co lien quan den phep thir ngau nhien. Dinh nghia c6 dien, dinh nghia thong ke xac suat cua bien co.

- Bier diroc cac khai niem : Bien co hop ; Bien co xung khac ; Bien co doi ; Bien co giao ; Bien co doc lap ;

- Biet tinh chat :

- Dang 1. Xac dinh : phep thir ngau nhien ; khong gian mau ; bien co lien quan den phep thir ngau nhien,

- Dang 2. V (in dung quy tdc cong xae sua!, quy tdc nhtin xac sua! trong cdc bai t(ip dun gidn.

- Dang 3. Su dung may tinh bo nii h6 tro tinh xac suat,

Vi du. Gieo ngau nhien mot con sue sac (dong chat).

a) Hay mo ta khong gian mdu ;

b) Xac dinh bien co' "xuat hien mat c6 so le cham".

1. Phep thir va bien co

Tap hop moi ket qua co th~ xay ra cua mot phep thir diroc goi la khong gian mdu cua phep thir va diroc ki hieu la o. Ta chi xet cac phep thir v6i khong gian mau 0 Hi tap hiru han.

P(0) = 0 ; P(O) = 1 ;

3· HDTHi11· A

33

,--------------------------------,-----------------------------------------------------------------------------~

Huong dan thuc hien chuan I

Kien thuc co ban D~ng toano Vi dl,l. LllU y --l

Moi tap con A cua 0 diroc goi la mot bien d/. Vi du. Gieo ngau nhien hai con sue sac. Tfnhl Tap 0 duoc goi la biell ('()' khong the', t~p n I xac suat cua bien c6 : "Tong s6 cham tren mat

duoc goi lil bien co' chdc chan. I xuat hien cua hai con sue sac bang 8" .

Neu khi phep thir diroc tien. hanh rna ket qua cua II

no Iii mot ph an tir cua A thi ta noi rang bien c6 A

xay ra, hay phep thir Ia thuan loi cho A. I

Bien c6 A :: 0 \ A diroc goi la hhtn co'dol cua A.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

0:::; P(A):S; 1.

- Bier (khong chirng minh) dinh If cong xac suat va dinh li nhan xac suat,

Ve' ki nang :

- Xac dinh diroc : phep thir ngau nhien ; khong gian mau , bien c6 lien quan den phep thir ngau nhien.

- Biet van dung quy tac cong xac suat, quy tac nhan xac suat trong bai tap don gian,

- Bier sir dung may tfnh 00 tiii h6 tro tinh xac suat.

A va B d6i nhau <=> A = B .

A xay ra khi va chi khi A khong xay ra.

Bien co A u B xay ra khi va chi khi A hoac B I xay ra. I

Bien co A (1 B xay ra khi va chi khi A va B cung I xay ra.

Neu A (1 B = 0 thi A va B duoc goi la hai bien cdxung khdc.

2. Xac suat cua bien c6

Neu A Hi bien c6 lien quan den phep thir chi co mot s6 hifu han cac ket qua dong kha nang xuat hien thi ti s6

peA) = n(A) n(O)

diroc goi la xac sua! cua bien c6.4. Xac suat co cac tinh chat sau :

a) 0 S'P(A) sr, \fA ;

b) P(O) = 1 ;

34

3· HDTHT~~· B

Huang dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Kien tlnrc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu y

c) Neu A va B la hai bien co xung khac cung lien quan toi mot phep tlnr thi

P(A uB) = P(A) + P(B) (cong thuc cong xdc sudt).

M6' rong : V m hai bien co A va B bat ki cung lien quan den mot phep thir thi

P(A uB) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A r, B).

3. Bien co di)c lap, cong thuc nhdn xac suat. Hai bien co A va B duoc goi la di)c lap, neu su xdy ra cua mi)t trong hai bien co khong dnb huang den xac sud: xay ra cua bien co kia.

Nguai ta chung minh duac rang A va B di)c lap khi va chi khi peA nB) = P(A).P(B) (cong thuc nhdn xac sudt),

Nlu P(A).P(B) ;to thi A va B di)c 14p c» A va B di)c 14P ¢::> A va jj di)c 14P ¢::> if va Ii di)c Uj.p.

~'--------~_'----------------------4------ _

3. Bien ngtiu nhien roi rae tKhai niem 1. Khai niem bien ngtiu nhien roi rae

bien ngdu nhien rai rae ; Phdn bo xac Dai IUl_J1lg X duoc goi la mot bien ngau nhien suiit cua bien ngdu nhien roi rae ; Ki

roo rae neu no nhtin gia tri bang so thuoc mot vong toan, phuong sai, di) I¢ch chudn cua

bien ngau nhien roi r(_lc). tap hop hiiu han nao do va gia tri ay la ngau

nhien, khong du doan truce duoc.

Ve' kien th uc :

Biet duoc : Khdi niem bien ngdu nhien rili rae ; Phtin bo xac suat ctia bien ngau nhien roi rae. Ki vong ; Phuong sai ; Di) lecl: chudn ctia bien ngdu nhien roi rae.

- Dang 1 : Lap va doc bang phdn bo' xac sud: cua bien ngau nhien rai rae voi mot soi: gia trio

- Dang 2 : Tinh : Phuong sai ; Di) I¢ch chudn cua bien ngau nhien roi rae.

Vi du. Mi)t hi)p chua 8 vien bi do va 6 vien bi xanh. Lily biit ki til hop do 4 vien bi. Goi X la so vien bi xanh duoc chon ra trong so' cac vien bi.

a) Mo td khong gian mdu ;

2. Phan bo' xac sud: cua bien ngdu nhien roi rae

Gid sit X la mot bien ngdu nhien rai rae nhdn cac gia tri {xI ,x2 , ... ,xn} . Di hiiu ro han vi x, ta

~.--------------------------------~-----------------------------------~------------------------------------~

35

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

HU'611g dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. Luu y

Vi ki tuing :

- L~p va doc duac bang phan blJ xac sudt cua bien ngau nhien rOi rae v6i mot so it gia tri.

- Tinh duac : Phuong sai ; lJt} I¢ch chudn ctla bien ngdu nhien roi rae trong bai tap.

thuong quan tam dtn xac sud: dl X nhan gia try b) Tinh gui try cua bien ngdu nhien X;

xk tuc fa cdc slY P(X = xk) = Pk voi k = 1, 2, ... , n. c) Tinh : Phuong sai, dt} I¢ch chudn cua bien

Cac thong tin vi X nhu v~y duoc trinh bay du6i ngdu nhien rOi rae X.

dang bang sau day:

I ; I ;: I ;: I ::: I ;: I

Bang 1

Bang 1 duac goi la bang phan bo xac suat cua bien.ngau nhien roo rae X.

Trong bang 1, tling cdc so' U dong thu hai bang

PI + P2 + ... + Pn = 1.

3. Ki vong

Cho X fa bien ngdu nhien rot rae v6i tap gia try ta {XI ,x2 , ... ,xn}' Ki vong ctia X, ki hieu ta E(X), la mot so duac tinh theo cong thuc

n

E(X) = xiPI + x1P2 + ... +xnPn = IXiPi , i=1

u do Pi = P(X = Xi)' (i = 1, 2, ... , n). 4. Phuong sai

Cho X la bien ngau nhien rot rae v6i t~p gia try la {XI ,x2 , ... ,xJ. Phuong sai cua X, ki hieu la VeX), fa mt}t so duoc tinh theo cong thuc

36

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan, Vi du. Luu Y

n

2" 2

... + (Xn -J.l) Pn = L)Xi - p) Pi'

i=l

a do Pi = P(X = Xi), (i = 1, 2, ... , n) va J.l = E(X). 5. fJt) l~ch chudn

Can htJ,c hai cua phuong sai, ki hieu la a (X), duoc goi la de) lech chuan cua X, nghia la

a (X) = .jV(X) .

III. DAy so. CAP so CQNG. CAP so NHA.N

1. Phuong phdp quy nap loan h9C (Gi6i thieu phuong phap guy nap toan hQC va cac vi du ap dung).

V l kien thuc :

Hieu duoc phuong phap guy nap toan hQC. veta nang:

Biet each giai mot so bai toan don gian bang guy nap,

1. De clurng minh mot menh de la dung voi moi n E N* bang phirong phap guy nap toan hQC, ta tien hanh hai biroc :

Buoc 1 : Kiem tra rang menh de do dung v6i n = 1. Buoc 2 : Gia sir menh de da cho dung voi mot so tu nhien bat kl n = k, (k ~ 1) (ta goi la gia thiet guy nap) va chirng minh rang no ding dung voi n=k+l.

2. Trong tnrong hop phai chirng minh menh de la dung v6i moi so ur nhien n ~ p (p la so nr nhien Ian hon 1) thi :

.6 biroc 1, ta kiem tra menh de do dung v6i n = p. • 6 biroc 2, ta gia thiet menh de da cho dung voi mot so W nhien bat ki n = k (k ~ p) va chirng minh rang no ciing dung voi n = k + 1.

- Dang bai tap : Giai mot so bai toan don gian bang phuong phap guy nap.

Vi du. Chung minh

n3 + lIn chia het cho 6 voi 'lin E f:(.

*

Vi du. Chung minh rang v6i 'II n EN, ta co

2 2 2 2 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

1 +2 +3 + ... +n = 6

Vi du. Cho so thuc

x> -1. Chung minh rang: (1 + xf ~ 1 + nx vOi moi so nguyen duang n.

37

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc C<1 ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu y

3. Chu y : Phep thir voi mot so hiru han so tir nhien, tuy khong phai la chirng minh, nhung eho phep ta du doan diroc ket qua. Ket qua nay chi la gia thiet, va d~ clurng minh ta co th~ dung phuong phap quy nap toan hoc,

*

M = {I, 2, 3, ... , m}, voi mEN, diroc goi la day

giam, bi chan cua

s6' hiiu han.

2. each eho mot day so

2. Day s6' (Day so ; Day so tang, day so giam ; Day so bi chan),

Ve' kiln thuc :

- Biet duoc : Khai niem day so ; each eho day so (boi cong thirc tong quat ; boi he thirc truy hoi ; bang mo ta) ; day so hiru han, vo han,

- Bier tinh tang, giarn, bi chan cua mot day so.

Ve'klnang:

- Xac dinh duoc cac so hang cua day so ; Tim cong thtrc bi~u dien so hang tong quat cua day so.

- Xet duoc tinh tang, day so.

1. Dinh nghia

a) Moi ham so u xac dinh tren tap so N* diroc goi la day so vo han (goi tat la day so).

*

u: N ---+ IR

n ~ u(n).

Dat u(n) = Un va goi no la so' hang thu n cua day so (un)'

Doi khi ngiroi ta cling goi no la s6' hang t6ng quat cua day so (un)'

b) Moi ham so u xac dinh tren tap

a) Day so eho bang cong thirc cua so hang tong quat

Khi do Un = !(n), trong do! la mot ham so xac

*

dinh tren N .

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh cac so hang cua day so ; Tim cong thirc bieu dien so hang tong quat cua day so.

- Dang 2 : Xet tinh tang, giam, bi chan cua day so.

Vi du. Trong cac day so diroc cho dum day, hay chi' ra day hfru han, day vo han, day tang, day giarn, day bi chan :

a) 2, 5, 8, 11.

b) 1,3,5, 7, ... , 2n + 1, ... 1 2 3

c) -,-,-, ...

2 5 10

d) 1, -1 , 1 , -1, 1, - 1, ...

38

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. LU'U Y

Day la each kha thong dung (gi6ng nhir ham s6) va neu biet gia tri ella n (hay cling chinh la s6 thtr

nr ella s6 hang) thi ta co th~ tim ngay duoc un"

b) Day s6 eho bang phirong phap mo tit

Ngiroi ta eho mot rnenh d~ mo tit each xac dinh cac s6 hang lien tiep ella day s6. Trong mot s6

tnrong hop, khong th~ tim ngay diroc Un voi n tuy y.

c) Day s6 eho bang cong thirc truy hoi (hay quy nap)

• Cho s6 hang thir nhat U J (hoac mot vai s6 hang dau) .

• Voi n ~ 2, eho mot cong tlurc tinh un neu bier Un-I (hoac mot vai s6 hang dimg ngay tnroc do). Cac cong thirc co th~ la :

{UI = a

hoac

un = !(un_1 ),n ~ 2 .

{UI = a, ~ = b

"« = !(un-I'Un-2)' n ~ 3. 3. Day s6 tang, day s6 giam

• Day s6 Un diroc goi la tang neu un+1 > Un voi

• ~T*

moi » El~ ;

• Day s6 Un diroc goi la gidm neu un+1 < Un vci

• ~T*

m91 n E 1~ ;

39

Vi du. Chung minh rang day s{/ (un), v6i U = 2n + 3 La mot day sti gidm va hi chan.

n 3n + 2' . .

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

+ Neu un+ 1 < 1 voi moi n E I~:r* thi day so da cho

un

la day so giam,

4. Day so bi chan

• Day so (un) diroc goi Hi hi chan tren neu ton tai

, * Vi du. Xet xem trong cac day so sau, day so nao

so M sao cho un ~ M, V n EN. la day so bi chan :

• Day so (un) diroc goi la hi chdn dum neu ton tai

• Cac day so fang va day so gidm diroc goi chung la day so don dieu.

• Phuong phap khao sat tinh don dieu : * Phuong phap 1 : Xet hieu

+ Neu H > 0 voi moi n E N* thi day so da cho la day so tang.

+ Neu H < 0 voi moi n E N* thi day so da cho la day so giam.

, ~*

* Phuong phap 2 : Neu un > 0 voi moi n E 1'3

thl lap ti SO Un + 1 , roi so sanh voi 1.

un

+ Neu un+l > 1 voi moi n E N* thi day so da

cho la day so tang.

40

Vi du. Xac dinh sothuc a di day so (un), voi u = an + 3 la :

n 3n + 2

a) M{jt day so tang;

b) M{jt day s(/ gidm.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huang dan thuc hien chuan

s6 m sao cho un ~ m, 'If n E rl .

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

3. Cap so' cong (SO hang t6ng quat cua cap s6 cong ; T6ng n s6 hang dau cua mot cap s6 cong).

Ve' kien thuc : Biet diroc : - Khai niem cap s6 cong,

- Tinh chat uk = Uk-I; Uk+I; k ~ 2.

- SO hang tong quat un-

- T6ng S; cua n so hang dau tien cua cap

s6 cong,

Ve' ki nang : Tim diroc cac yeu t6 ~on lai khi cho biet ba trong nam yeu t6 UI' u., n, d,Sn-

• Day s6 duoc goi Hi bi chdn, neu n6 vira bi chan

tren vita bi chao n diroi, nrc Hi ton tao i hai s6 m, M b) \-I E ru*

"« = n, v n 1'1;

n *

* Luu y : Cac dau "=" neu tren khong nhat thiet c) Un = (-1) .n, 'If n EN.

phai xay ra.

*

sao cho : m ~ un ~ M, 'If n EN.

1. Dinh nghia : Cho day s6 (un).

(un) la cap so' cong <=> un+I = un + d voi n E N*, d la hang s6.

H~ qua:

Cong sai d = un+I - un- 2. SO hang tong quat:

un = UI + (n -1) d (n ~ 2).

3. Tinh chat :

_ Uk-I + Uk+I *

uk - , voi k ~ 2, n E N

2

hay uk-I + uk+1 = 2uk . 4. T6ng n s6 hang dau :

S - n(ul + un) R-.T*

«> , n E 1'1

2

41

n *

a) un = --, 'If n EN,

n + 1

- Dang 1 : Tim cac yeu t6 con lai cua cap s6 cong khi cho biet ba trong nam yeu t6 UI' Un' n, d,Sw

- Dang 2 : Chung minh mi)t day so'ta cap so cong,

V i du. Cho cap s6 cong voi cac s6 hang ban dau la 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, ... xse dinh uI' d va tinh Un' S; thea n.

Vi du. Cho cap s6 cong rna s6 hang dau la 1 va tong cua 10 s6 hang dau tien la 100. Tim so hang t6ng quat cua cap s6 cong d6.

Vi du. Hay tim so hang tling quat cua cap so cong (Un), bilt rdng

U23 - u17 =30 va

2 2

u 23 + u 17 = 450.

* Luu y : Khi giai cac bai roan v6 cap s6 cong, ta tlnrong gap nam dai hrong la UI' d, Un' n, Sw

HU'6ng dim thuc hien chuan

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan. Vi du. LU'U Y

Can biet it nhat ba trong nam dai hrong do moi tinh duoc cac dai hrong con lai.

S = n[2u1 + (n - 1)d]

n 2

hoac

4. Cap s{/ nhdn (SO hang tong quat cua cap s6 nhan ; T6ng n s6 hang dau cua mot cap s6 nhan),

ve' kien thuc : Biet diroc : - Khai niem cap s6 nhan.

T' h hA' 2 k 2

- In C at uk =Uk-l.Uk+l; ~ .

- Dang 1 : Tim diroc cac yeu to con lai cua cap s6 nhan khi cho biet it nhat ba trong nam yeu t6

ul,un,n,q,Sn"

1. Dinh nghia : Cho day s6 (un).

*

(un) la cap s6 nhan <=> Un+l = unq , v6i n EN.

H~ qua: Cong boi q = un+l .

Un

=Dang 2:

Chung minh mot day sola cdp so nhan.

Vi du. Cho mot cap s6 nhan v6i cac s6 hang ban dau la 1,4, 16,64, ... Xac dinh Uj, q va tinh Un' Sn thea n.

Vi du. Cho mot cap s6 nhan rna so hang dau la 1 va tong cua nam s6 hang dau tien la 34 L Tim so hang tong quat cua cap s6 nhan do.

Vi du. Cho mt)t day so (un) xac dinh bUi Uj = 1 va un+l = SUn+ 8 vOi moi n ~1. Chung minh rang day so' (vn), vOi vn = un + 2 la mot cap so nhan. Tim so hang tdng quat clla cap so nhdn do.

2. SO hang tong quat:

- SO hang t6ng quat Un"

- T6ng sn cua n s6 hang dau tien cua cap 3. Tinh chat:

s6 nhan.

n-l Un = Ul q

Ve' ki nang : Tim dtroc cac yeu t6 con lai khi cho biet it nhat ba trong nam yeu t6 ul' hay ~lkl = )Uk-lUk+l (k ~ 2).

4. T6ng n s6 hang dau tien :

Sn = ul (qn - 1) ,(q:l= 1). q -1

IV. GI6I HAN

1. Giai han etta day s6' (Khai niem gi6i han cua day s6 ; Mot s6 dinh Ii v~ gi6i han cua day s6 ; T6ng cua cap s6 nhan lui vo han ;

1. Gi6i han hiru han. 1 1

- Dang 1 : Van dung : lim- = 0 ; lim I = 0 ;

• lim un = 0 khi va chi khi ~n Iluon nho hem n" n

n-+t-oo

42

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thuc co ban Dang toano Vi du. LUll Y

- Biet khai niem gi6i han cua day so 2. Gi6i han vo eire (thong qua vi du cu the).

- Biet (khong chimg minh) :

Day so dan toi vo eire).

Ve' kiln thuc :

+ Neu limu, = L thi limiuni = L.

mot so dirong nho tuy y cho tnroc, ke tir mot so hang nao d6 tro di.

• lim v = a <=> lim (v - a) = O.

n n

n~+oo n~+oo

• lim un = + 00 khi va chi khi un luon Ian han n~+oo

mot so dirong Ian tuy y cho tnroc, ke tir mot so hang nao d6 tra di.

limqn = 0 voi iqi < 1 de tim gi6i han cua mot so day so dan gian,

- Dang 2 : Tim tong cua mot cap so nhan lui vo han.

n

Vi du. Cho day (un) vOi u = - vOi n la so

n 3n

N~ li - L > 0 ,. . h'· lim un =-00 <=> lim (-un) = +00.

+ eu 1mun - , un _ vO'! mQ1 n t 1 n~+OO n~+oo

L ? 0 va lim';;;: = JL . * Luu y : Thay cho lim un = a,

n~+oo

nguyen duang.

a) Chung minh rdng : un+l :s; ~ ;

un 3

= a, b) Bang phuang ph tip quy nap chung minh

ve n nang:

B'·' • d l' 1 0 u 1 0

- let v~n ung : 1m- = ; 1m I = ;

n '" n

limqn = 0 voi ~i < 1 de tim gioi han cua

mot so day so dan gian,

, . (2)n

rang 0 < un:s; "3

c) Chung minh day sli (un) co gioi han. Vi du

) T' h l' n + 1

a III 1m--;

n

2

b) Tinh lim n2 + 1 n + n

Vi du. Tinh tong cua mot cap so nhan lui vt: han c6 cac so hang dau la :

111

1,-,-,-, ...

248

lim un = ±oo, n~+oo

lims, =±oo.

ta viet tat

3. Cac gioi han dac biet :

a) lim_!_ = o· lim_l = 0 .

, k '

n n

nguyen dirong.

b) limqn = 0 neu iqi < 1 ,

lim,/ = +00 voi k

limqn = + 00 neu q > 1. - Tim duoc tong cua mot cap so nhan lui

vo han. c) lime = e (c la hang so).

4. Dinh li v~ gioi han hiru han

a) Neu lirn«, = a va limv, = b, thi :

43

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

• lim(u + v ) = a + b .

n n '

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toan. Vi du, Luu y

• lim(u - v ) = a - b .

n n '

• lim un =!!._ (neu b -:j:. 0) ; Vn b

b) Neu Un ~ 0 vci moi n E N* va lim Un = a, thi

lim';;;: =Fa.

5. Dinh If lien he gitra gioi han hiru han va gioi han VO eire

a) Neu lim un = a va limv, = ±oo thi lim un = o. vn

b) Neu lim un = a > Oi limv, = 0 va vn > 0 voi

. hi 1· Un

mQl n t 1 Im- = + 00 .

Vn

c) Neu lims, = + 00 va Iimv, = a> 0 thi

44

vt « T' hI· [Jn2 + 1 - 2nJ

I u. In tm .

. 2n + 1

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

UI

S = ul + u2 + u3 + ... + Un + ... = --. l-q

lim (x2 - 3x + 4) . x~2

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. LUll Y

2. Gioi han ella ham sty' (Dinh nghia ; MQt s6 dinh li v~ gi6i han cua ham s6 ; Mo rong khai niern gi6i han cua ham s6 (gioi han mot ben) ; Cac dang vo dinh).

V l kien thuc :

- Biet khai niern gioi han cua ham s6. Gi6i han mot ben.

- Biet (khong cluing minh) :

+ Neu lim f(x) = L thi lim If(x)1 = ILl.

X~Xo x~.xo

+ Neu lim f(x) = L, f(x) ? 0 v6i,x '* Xo x~.xo

thi L? 0 va lim ~ f(x) = Ji:

x~.xo

+ Dinh Ii v~ gi6i han : lim [f(x) ± g(x)] ,

x~.xo

. [ ]. f(x)

hm f(x).g(x) , hm -- .

x~.xo x~.xo g(x)

6. Cap s6 nhan lui vo han

• Cdp s6' nhdn lui v6 han la cap s6 nhan vo han co cong boi q tho a man Iql < 1 .

• Cong thirc tinh tong S cua cap s6 nhan lui vo han (un) :

1. Gi6i han htru han

• Cho khoang K, Xo E K va ham s6 f(x) xac dinh tren K (hoac K \ {xo}).

- Dang 1 : Sit dung djnh nghia gioi han cua ham so chung minh ham so co gioi han hoac khong co gim han.

lim f(x) = L khi va chi khi voi day s6 (Xn) bat - Dang 2 : Tinh : x~.xo

• Gi6i han cua ham s6 tai mot diem.

. . ,

ki, Xn E K\ {xo} va xn -+ Xo thi lim f(xn) = L.

n~-too

• Gioi han mot ben cua ham s6 tai mot diem.

. . . .

• Cho ham s6 y = fix) xac dinh tren khoang (xo; b). lim f(x)= L khi va chi khi voi day s6 (xn) bat x~.xB'

ki, Xo < Xn < b va x, -+ Xo, ta co limf(xn) = L.

• Gi6i han cua ham s6 tai ±oo. o 00 • Mot s6 gioi han dang - ; - .

, .. 0 00

Vi du

• Cho ham s6 y = fix) xac dinh tren khoang (a ; xo).

Tinh lim f(x)= L khi va chi khi voi day s6 (Xn) bat

X~xO

ki, a < Xn < Xo va Xn -+ Xb, ta co limf(xn) = L.

45

,--------------- ----.---------------------------_._------------,

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. Luu Y

Ve' ki nang: Trong mot so tnrong hop don • Cho ham so y = f(x) xac dinh tren khoang Vi du

gian, tfnh duoc : ( )

a; +00 . Tinh

- Gioi han cua ham so tai mot diem.

- Gi6i han mot ben.

- Gi6i han cua ham so tai ±oo.

o 00

- Mot so gi6i han dang - . - . 00 - 00 .

. .. 0' 00 '

lim f(x) = L khi va chi khi v6i day so (Xn) bat

x-+too Vi du

ki, xn > a va x, ~ +00, thi limf(xn) = L.

lim f(x)= L khi va chi khi v6i day so (Xn) bat a) lim 2x2 - 5x + 1 ,

x~--<Xl x~ --<Xl 3x2 + 1

• Cho ham so y = fix) xac dinh tren khoang (-00 ; a ).

ki, xn < a va xn ~ -00, thi limf(xn) = L.

2. Gi6i han vo eire

lim (2x2 - 3x + 5) .

Tinh

')

. X~ - 5x + 4

hm 2

x~1 x-I

Vi duo Tinh

2

b) lim x -/x + 4

x~+oo x-I

Sau day la hai trong nhieu loai gi6i han vo eire Vi du

46

Tinh

lim (x - Jx2 + 1).

x~ +00

khac nhau:

• Cho ham so fix) xac dinh tren khoang (a ; + 00 ). lim f(x)= -00 khi va chi khi v6i day so (xn)

x~+oo

bat ki, xn > a va xn ~ + 00 , ta co

• Cho khoang K, Xo E K va ham so f(x) xac dinh tren K (hoac K\ lxo}).

Vidu

Tinh

Vi du. Cho ham so

_ {21xl - 1 voi x ~ -2

f(x) - I

v 2x2 + 1 v6i x > - 2.

Tim cdc gioi han sau (ne'u co) :

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang ~ Huong dan thirc hien chuan
Kien thirc C(J ban Dang toano Vi du, Luu y
lim f(x) = + 00 khi va chi khi voi day s6 (Xn) bat lim f(x) ; lim f(x) , lim f(x) .
X-~Xo x~( -2)- x---t(-2t x-t(-2)
ki, xn E K\ {xo} vaxn~ xo, ta co
limf(xn) = +00.
Nhdn xet : f(x) co gioi han +00 khi va chi khi
- fix) co gioi han - 00 .
3. Cac gioi han d~c bier
a) lim x=xo; t
I X-t.tO
b) lim c e r; i
x·~.tO I
c) lim c = c : I
x~±oo I
I C
d) lim -= 0;
I X~±OOX
e) lim k ,. k ~ d
x = + 00 Val 'nguyen irong.
x-t·t<XJ
f) lim x k = -00, neu k la so le :
x-t-ro
I
g) lim k = + 00, neu k la so chan.
x
x~-a:) 47

Chuan kien thirc - kl nang

Htrong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc eo ban Dang toano Vi du. LlIU Y

4. Dinh If v~ gioi han hiiu han Dinh If 1 :

a) Neu lim f(x) = L va lim g(x) = M, thi :

X~Xo X~Xo

• lim [f(x) + g(x)]= L + M;

X~Xo

lim [f(x) - g(x)] = L - M;

X~Xo

• lim [.t(x).g(x)]= L.M;

X~-'il

1· f(x) L , 0

• 1m -- = - (neu M:f= );

X~Xo g(x) M

b) Neuf(x) ~o va lim f(x)= L, thi L ~ 0 va

X~Xo

lim .Jf(x) = JL.

X~Xo

(Dau cua j'(x) diroc xet tren khoang dang tim gioi han, voi x :f= xo)'

* C hu y : Dinh If 1 vAn dung khi x -+ + 00 hoac

x -+ -00.

Dinh u 2 :

lim f(x) = L <=> lim f(x)= lim f(x)= L.

X~Xo X~~ X~~

48

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

4· HDTHT11· A

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. VI du, Liru Y

5. Quy tac v~ gi 6i. han vo eire

lim f(x) = L; lim g(x) = ±oo.

x~.xo X~Xo

a) Quy tac tim gi6i han cua tfchf(x).g(x).

lim f(x) lim g(x) lim f(x).g(x)
X~.'D X~Xo x~.xo
L>O +00 +00
-00 -00
L<O +00 -00
-00 +00 b) Q " . ,. h ? h f (x)

uy tac tim gun an eua t irong --.

g(x)

lim f(x) lim 8(X) Dau r f(x)
Im--
x~.xo X~Xo cua f(x) x~.xo g(x)
L ±oo Tuyy 0
L>O 0 + +00
- -00
L<O 0 + -00
- +00 (Dau cua g(x) xet tren mot khoang K nao do dang tfnh gioi han, v6i x ;;t. xo).

49

Hmmg dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, Liru Y

3. Ham so' bin tuc (Dinh nghia ham so lien 1. Ham so lien tuc - Dang 1 : Xet tinh lien tuc cua mot so ham so

tuc tai mot diem, ham so lien tuc tren mot don gian :

khoang ; Mot so dinh If ve ham so lien tuc), • Cho ham so y = f(x) xac dinh tren khoang K va

• Tai mot diem;

va chi khi • Tren mot khoang ;

Ve' kien thuc : Biet diroc

- Dinh nghia ham so lien tuc (tai mot y = fix) lien tuc tai Xo khi

diem, tren mot khoang), lim f(x)= f(xo).

- Dinh If ve : T6ng, hieu, tich, thtnrng cac x---+.xo

ham so lien tuc, • y = f(x) lien tuc tren mot khoang neu no lien • Tren tap xac dinh cua no.

• Tren mot doan ;

- Dinh If ve : Ham da thirc, phan thirc hiiu ti lien tuc tren t~p xac dinh cua chung.

=Dinh. li tgia tri trung gian) : Gid sit ham s(f fix) lien tuc tren doan [a ; b]. Neu f(a) -:f:. fib) 'thi voi moi so thuc M ndm giiia f(a) va fib), ton tai it nha: mot dilm C E(a; b) sao chof(c) =M.

Ve'kznang:

tuc tai moi di~m thuoc khoang do.

• y = f(x) lien tuc tren doan [a ; b] neu no lien tuc tren khoang (a ; b) va

- Dang 2 : Chtrng minh mot phirong trinh co

lim f(x)= f(a), lim f(x) = f(b).

x---+a+ x---+h-

nghiem trong mot khoang cho tnroc (dira vao dinh If : Neu ham so f(x) lien tuc tren doan N han xet : D6 thi cua ham so lien tuc tren mot

[a ; b] vaf(a).f(b) < 0 thi phuong trinhf(x) = 0 khoang diroc bieu thi bci mot "dirong lien net"

Bier .'...., d ' di h If ,. tre 't co it nhat mot nghiem nam trong khoang (a; b)).

- re ung ung cac in 1 noi ren xe tren khoang do.

tinh lien tuc cua mot ham so don gian,

2. Cac dinh If - Bier chimg minh mot phirong trinh co

nghiern dira vao dinh If gia tri trung gian. Dinh If 1 :

a) Ham so da thirc lien tuc tren roan bo tap so thirc JR.

b) Ham so phan thirc hiru ti va ham so hrong giac lien tuc tren tirng khoang cua tap xac dinh cua cluing.

Vi du, Xet tinh lien tuc cua ham so f(x) =} - 3x2 tai x = 2.

Vi du. Xet tfnh lien tuc cua ham so

___ . . L_ ~ ~

50

4· HCTHT11· B

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toano Vi d u, LUll Y

Dinh If 3 : Neu ham s6 y = f(x) lien tuc tren dOC;Ul [a; b] vaf(a)f(b) < 0 thi t6n tai it nhat mot diem Vi du, Chung minh rang phuong trinh

x2cosx + xsinx + 1 = 0 Suy ra: Neu ham s6f(x) lien tuc tren dOC;Ul [a; b] khoang (0; tt ).

vaf(a).f(b) < 0 thi phuong trlnhf(x) = 0 co it nhat

Dinh If 2 : Gia sir y = f(x) va y = g(x) la hai ham s6 lien tuc tai diem xo. Khi do :

a) Cac ham s6

f(x)+g(x), f(x)--g(x) va f(x).g(x) cling lien tuc tai diem xo;

b)H' ,f(x) I·' ·d·j/ "" g() 0

am so -- len tuc tai iem 1"", neu y,,"* ;

g(x) .. --u '-U

c E(a; b) sao chof(e) = O.

mot nghiem narn trong khoang (a ; b).

Vi du. Clnmg minh rang ham s6

{x2 - 3x + 2

voi x"* 2

f(x) = x-I 2

v6i x= 2

lien tuc tai x = 2.

Vi du, Xet tfnh lien tuc cua ham s6

{X2 -5x +6 " 3

---- neu x«

y= x-3

5 neu x = 3.

nghiem

co

thuoc

V. DAO HAM

1. Khai niem dao ham (Dinh nghia ; Cach

tfnh ; y nghia hlnh hoc va y nghia vat If cua 1. Dinh nghia

dao ham). Cho ham s6 y = f(x) xac dinh tren (a , Xo E (a; b), Xo + fu: E (a; b).

Ve' kiln thuc :

- Biet dinh nghia dao ham (tai mot diem, tren mot khoang),

Neu ton tai gi6i han (hfru han)

I· f(Xo + fu:) - f(xo)

1m

fu:~o fu:

- Dang 1 : Tinh dao ham cua ham luy thira, b), ham da thirc bac 2 hoac bac 3 dua vao dinh nghia,

51

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban

Dang toano Vi du. Liru Y

- Biet y nghia vat If va hinh hoc cua dao thi gioi han nay diroc goi la dao ham cua ham so ham.

- Biet tim van toe tire thoi cua mot chuyen 2. Quy tac tinh dao ham bang dinh nghia dong co plnrong trinh S = f(t):

Ve' ki nang:

- Tinh duoc dao ham cua ham luy thira, ham da thirc bac 2 hoac 3 theo dinh nghia ;

- Lap diroc phuong trinh tiep tuyen cua do thi ham so tai mot di~m thuoc do thi .do ;

f'( ) - 1· f(XfJ + fu) - f(xo)

Xo - im

fu~o fu

= lim f(x) - f(Xo) .

X~-'il x - Xo

Buoc 1 : V 6i Ax la so gia cua doi so tai xo, tinh

f.. y = f(xo+ Ax ) - f(xo) ;

B ' 2 L' ? " f..y

uac : ap ti so - ;

. fu

Buoc 3 : Tfnh lim f..y . fu~Ofu

* Chu y : trong dinh nghia va guy tac tren day, thay Xo bci x ta se co dinh nghia va guy de tfnh dao ham cua ham so y = f(x) tai di~m x E (a; b).

3. Quan M giira tinh lien tuc va sir co dao ham:

Neu f(x) co dao ham tai Xo thi f(x) lien tuc tai xo. Nhung dieu ngiroc lai thi chua chac da: dung.

- Dang 3 : Tim van toe tire thai cua mot chuyen dong co phirong trmh S = f(t).

Vi du. Cho y = 5x2 + 3x + 1, tmh y'(2). Vi du. Cho y = x2 - 3x, tim y'(x).

Vi du. Viet phuong trmh tiep tuyen v6i do thi ham s6 y = x2, biet rang:

a) Tiep diem co hoanh de) la 2.

b) Tiep di~m co tung de) la 4.

c) H~ s6 goc cua tiep tuyen bang 3.

V i du. Mot chat diem chuyen dong co phirong trinh S = 3t2 + 5t + 1 (t tfnh theo giay, S tinh bang met). Tinh van toe cua chat diem do tai thoi diem t = Is (v tfnh bang mls).

52

Ve' ki nang : Tinh diroc dao ham cua ham 1

s6 duoc eho a cac da ng noi tren. • ( J; )' = I (x > 0).

2....; x

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

2. Cdc quy tdc tinh dao ham (Dao ham cua tong, hieu, tich, thirong cua cac ham s6 ; Dao ham cua ham hop),

Ve' kiln thuc : Bier quy tac tinh dao ham cua tong, hieu, tich, thuong cac ham s6 ; ham hop va dao ham cua ham hop.

Hurmg dan thuc hien chuan

dao ham thi

Dang toano Vi du, Luu Y

Kien thirc co ban

4. Y nghia hinh hoc cua dao ham

Neu ton tai thi f'(xo) la he s6 goc cua tiep tuyen cua do thi ham s6 y = f(x) tai diem Mo(xo ; f(xo))· Khi do phirong trinh tiep tuyen cua do thi ham s6

tai Mo la

y - Yo = j'(xo) (x - xo)' 5, Y nghia co hoc cua dao ham

v(t) = s'(t) la van t6e tire thoi cua chuyen dong s = s(t) tai thoi diem t.

1. Cong thirc

• (c)' = 0 (c = eonst) ;

- Dang bai tap : Tinh dao ham cua ham s6 diroc cho a cac dang : T6ng, hieu, tich, thuong cua cac ham s6 ; ham s6 hop (khong qua ba lim, dang y = f[u(t(x))]).

( n), n=l *

.x =nx (nEN,xElR);

2 Ph' , , Vi d T' hd ham ci x2 -3x+l

. ep toan : Voi U, V va W la cac ham s6 eo I u. In ao am euay = ----

.. x2+x+l

• (U + V - W), = U+ V'- W;

• (UV)' = U'V + UV';

Vi du. Tinh dao ham cua y = (x2 + x)10 .

53

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

• (kU)' = kU' (k = eonst) ;

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan, Vi du, Luu Y

,

(1) V'

• - =--.

V v2

3. Dao ham cua ham hop :

Vi du. Tinh dao ham cua

a) y = (3x + 1)(x2 + 2)(3x5 + 6) ;

( 3 J10

b) y = x - 5x + 1

x2 + 7x + 9

3. Vi phdn

Ve' kien thuc :

Bier diroc dy = y'dx. Ve' n nang:

Tinh diroc

- Vi phan cua mot ham so.

1. Dinh nghia

Cho ham so y = f(x) xac dinh tren (a ; b) va eo - Dang 1 : Tinh vi phan cua mot ham so. dao ham tai x E (a ; b). Gia si'r Lllia so gia cua x

sao eho x + Lll E (a ; b).

Tich !'(x). Lll (hay y'. Lll) diroc goi la vi phan mot diem.

- Dang 2 : Tinh gia tri gan dung cua ham so tai

dy = df(x) = !,(x)dx.

2. Thg dung cua vi phan vao phep tinh gan dung f(xo + Ar ) ~f(xo) + !'(xo) Lll .

Vi du. Cho ham so f(x) = x3• Tinh vi phan cua ham so tai diem x = 2 img v6i Lll = 0,01.

Vi du. Cho Y =2x3 - 3x + 1. Tfnh dy.

Vi du. Tinh gan dung gia tri cua sin 45°30'.

- Gia tri gan dung cua ham so tai mot cua ham so fix) tai x, irng voi so gia Lll , ki hieu

diem. . la df(x) hay dy.

* C hu y : Vi dx = Lll eho nen

54

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Huang dan thuc hien chuan

- Tinh dircc dao ham cua mot so ham so hrong giac.

(1 - COS2X.COS3X)

Vi du. lim 2 .

x-+o X

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, LUll Y

1· smx 1 "

- Dang 1 : V an dung im -- = trong V1~C

x-+O X

4. Duo ham eua uk ham so' luang guu:

Ve' hen thuc :

, li smx 1

- Biet diroc 1m -- = .

. x-+O X

Cong thirc tinh :

. smx .hm--=l ;

x-+O X

tim mot so gi6i han dang Q dan gian,

. .. 0

- Biet duoc dao ham cua ham so hrong • (sinx)' = cosx ;

giac. Ve'kinang:

• (cosx)' = - sinx ;

. sinx , "

- Biet van dung hm -- = 1 trong mot so

x-+O x

o .,'

gi6i han dang - dan gran,

. . 0

)' 1

• (tanx =--2-;

cos x

- Dang 2 : Tinh dao ham cua mot so ham so hrong giac .

• (cotr)' = __ 1_. sin2 x

1 - cos3x

Vi du. Tfnh lim 2

x-+o x

V(d~. Cho y = tan(3x) , tinh y'(x). Vi du. Cho y = tan(sinx), tinh y'(x).

5. Dao ham cap hai, dao ham cap cao (Dinh nghia, each tinh, y nghia hinh hQC va co hoc cua dao ham cap. hai ; Dinh. nghia dao ham cap cao).

Ve' kiln thuc :

Biet diroc

1. Dinh nghia dao ham cap hai

Gift sir ham so f(x) co dao ham f'(x). Neu f'(x) cling co dao ham thi ta goi dao ham cua no la dao ham cap hal cuaf(x) va kf hieu laf"(x) :

if'(x»)' = f"(x).

- Dang 1 : Tfnh dao ham cap hai cua mot so ham so.

- Dang 2 : Tinh gia toe tire thoi cua mot chuyen dong co phirong trinh s = fit) cho tnroc.

- Dinh nghia, each tinh, y nghia hinh hoc 2. Y nghia co hoc cua dao ham cap hai _ Dang 3 : Tinh dao ham cap cao cua mt)t so

va co hoc cua dao ham cap hai. Dao ham cap hai s"(t) la gia taL' tuc thai cua ham so.

- Dinh. nghia dao ham cap cao. chuyen dong s = f(t) tai thoi diem t.

55

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thirc hien chuan

In -1)

n EN, n ~ 2) to. .

Vi du. Chof(x) =x7, tinh :

Kien thirc CO' ban

Dang toan. Vi du, Luu Y

Ve' ki nang :

Tfnh diroc

- Dao ham cap hai cua mot s6 ham s6.

- Dao ham cap cao cua mot so ham so.

- Gia toe nrc thoi cua mot chuyen dong co

phirong trinh s = f(t) eho tnroc.

3. Dinh. nghia dao ham cap cao

Cho ham so f co dao ham toi cap n - 1 (vOl a) f"(x) ; b)/5)(x).

Neu In -1) to. ham so co dao ham thi dao ham cua no duac goi to. dao ham cap n cua ham so f va ki hieu lain). No; cacb khac,

Vi du. Mot chuyen dong co phirong trinh S = t3 + 4t2 + 5 (t tinh bang giay ). Tinh gia toe cua chuyen dong tai thoi di~m t = 2.

,

In) =[/n-l)], (n E N, n ~ 2).

Dao ham cap n cua ham soy = fix) con duoc ki hieu la/n).

Theo dinh nghia ta co

(f"(x))'= f"'(x) ho~ef3)(x)

56

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HU'Ong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, LU'U Y

VI. PHEP nor HINH V A PHEP DONG DANG TRONG MAT PHANG

1. Phep bien hinh.

ve' kien thuc : Biet diroc dinh nghia phep bien hinh.

Ve' ki nang : Biet mot quy tac wong ling la phep bien hinh, D1!I1g diroc anh cua mot di~m qua phep bien hinh dii cho.

Dinh nghia :

Quy tac d~t urong ling m6i diem M cua mat phang voi mot diem xac dinh duy nhat M' cua mat phang d6 diroc goi la phep bien hinh trong mat phang.

Ta thirong ki hieu phep bien hinh la F va viet F(M) = M' hay M' = F(M), khi d6 diem M' diroc goi la anh cua diem M qua phep bien hinh F.

Phep bien hinh bien m6i diem cua mat phang thanh chfnh n6 diroc goi la phep d6ng nhdt.

N eu H la mot hinh nao d6 trong mat phang thi ta kf hieu H = F(H) la tap cac di~m M' = F(M), v6i moi diem M thuoc H. Khi d6 ta n6i F bien hinh H thanh H, hay hinh H la anh cua hinh H qua phep bien hinh F.

D~ cluing minh hinh H la anh cua hinh H qua phep bien hinh F ta c6 th~ clurng minh : V 6i di~mM tuy y

ME H¢:>M' =F(M) EH.

- Dang 1 : Nhan biet mot quy tac urong ling la phep bien hmh.

- Dang 2 : D1!I1g anh cua mot diem qua phep bien hinh dii cho.

Vi du. Trong mat phang, cho dirong thang d. V 6i moi diem M thuoc mat phang ta d~t urong ling voi diem M' la hinh chieu vuong g6c cua diem M tren dirong thang d (goi la phep chieu vuong g6c).

+ D1!I1g anh cua diem M thea phep chieu d6. + Phep chieu d6 c6 la phep bien hinh khong ?

2. Phep dOl' xung true (Dinh nghia ; Tinh chat; True doi xirng cua mot hinh).

57

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thirc hien chuan

Hinh5

Dang toano Vi du, Luu Y

Kien thirc co ban

Ve' kiln thuc :

Biet diroc :

- Dinh nghia cua phep d6i xirng true.

- Phep d6i xirng true co cac tinh chat cua

phep doi hlnh.

- True d6i ximg cua mot hlnh, hinh co true d6i xirng.

- Bieu thirc toa d¢ cua phep d6i xirng qua moi true toa d¢.

Ve' ki nang:

- Dung diroc anh cua mot diem, mot doan thang, mot tam giac qua phep d6i xirng true.

- Viet diroc bieu thirc toa d¢ cua mot diem d6i ximg voi diem dii cho qua true Ox hoac Oy.

- Xac dinh duoc true 96i xirng cua mot hinh,

- Dang 1 : Dung anh cua mot diem qua phep d6i xirng true,

1. Dinh nghia

Trong mat phang cho dirong thang d. Phep bien hinh bien moi diem M thuoc d thanh chinh no

. ,

bien moi diem M khong thuoc d thanh diem M' sao cho d la dirong trung tnrc cua doan thang MM' diroc goi la phep dlfi xung qua duong thdng d hay phep doi xung true d (hmh 5).

- Dang 2 : Dung phep dOl xung true di gidi mt)t so bai todn tim ttJp hop diim, bai toan dung hinh.

- Dang 3 Xac dinh true d6i xirng cua mot hinh.

•••••••••• "'!..

, , , ,

, " , ,

................................ , ..

, I

, I

, I

, I

I , I

, I

. ...........................•

Vi du. Trong mat phang cho dirong thang d va tam giac ABC. Dung anh cua tam giac ABC qua phep d6i xirng true d.

Phep d6i xirng qua true d thuong diroc ki hieu 1aDd·

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC, co true tam H va diim HI ta diim doi xung cua H qua canb Be. Chung minh rang HI thuoc duong tron ngoai tiip tam giac dii cho.

Nhir vay : M' = DiM)<;:::::? MoM'= -MoM. voi Mo la hinh chieu vuong goc cua M tren d.

2. True d6i xirng cua mot hinh

Duong thang d diroc goi la true d6i xirng cua hinh H neu Del bien H thanh chinh no. Khi do H duoc goi la hinh co true d6i ximg.

Vi du

a) Cho diem M( 1 ; 2). Xac dinh toa do cua cac diem M' va M" nrong irng 1a ~ac di~m 'd6i xirng cua M qua cac true Ox, Oy.

58

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

HUOng dan thtrc hlen chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu y

3. Bieu thirc toa dQ

Trong mat phang toa dQ Oxy, voi moi di~m M = (x ; y) goi M' = DiM) = (x' ; y').

Neu chon d la true Ox, thi

{x: = x

y = -yo

Neu chon d la true Oy, thi

t::~x

4. Tfnh chat : Phep d6i xirng true :

• Bao roan khoang each giira hai diem bat ki ;

• Bien mot dirong thang thanh dirong thang ;

• Bien mot doan thang thanh doan thang bang doan thang dii cho ;

• Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac bang tam giac dii cho;

• Bien mot dirong tron thanh dirong tron co cung ban kinh.

b) Cho duong thdng d co phuong trinh y = 2x+3. Viet phuang trinh duong thdng d' doi xung vUi duong thdng d qua true Oy.

Vi du. Trong s6 cac hinh sau : Tam giac can, hinh vuong, hlnh chtr nhat, hinh tron, hlnh thang vuong, ... hlnh nao co true d6i xirng ? Chi ra cdc true dOl xung (nlu co) cua hinh.

Vi du. Trong mil-t phdng cho duong thdng d va hai dilm A, B u vi cung phia mil-t phiing co bu La d. Xac dinh dilm M thuoc d sao cho MA + MB nho nhdt.

3. Phep dol xung tam (Dinh nghia ; Tinh chat ; Tam d6i xirng cua mot hinh).

59

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Huong dan thtrc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. Luu Y

Ve' kiln thuc :

Biet duoc :

- Dinh nghia ella phep d6i ximg tam,

- Phep d6i xirng tam co cac tinh chat ella

phep doi hinh.

1. Dinh nghia

Cho diem I. Phep bien hinh bien diem I thanh chinh no, bien moi diem M khac I thanh M' sao eho I Ia trung diem ella dOC;U1 thang MM' duoc goi la phep dOl xung tam I.

- Tam d6i xirng ella mot hmh, hinh e6 tam

d6i ximg. Phep d6i xirng tam I thirong diroc ki hieu la D/.

- Bieu thirc toa d(> ella phep d6i xirng qua Tir dinh nghia suy fa :

~ ___,

g6e toa do. M' = D /(M) <=> 1M' = - 1M.

Ve' ki nang: Tir d6 suy fa:

- Dung diroc anh ella mot diem, mot dOC;U1 • Neu M == I thi M' == I.

thang, mot tam giac qua phep d6i xirng

- Dang 1 : Dung anh ella mot hinh qua phep d6i xirng tam.

- Dang 2 : Dung phep doi xung tam dl gidi mot so bai toan tim ttip hop dilm, bai todn dung hinh,

- Dang 3 hinh.

Xac dinh tam d6i xirng ella mot

• Neu M khong trimg voi I thi M' = D/(M) <=> I la trung di~m ella MM'.

2. Tam d6i xirng ella mot hinh. Diem I diroc goi Ia tam dOl" xung ella hinh H neu phep doi xirng tam I bien hinh H thanh chinh n6. Khi do H diroc - Xac dinh diroc tam d6i xirng ella mot goi Ia hinh co tam dol xung.

hinh.

3. Bi~u thirc toa do

tam.

- Xac dinh duoc bieu thirc toa d(> ella mot diem d6i xirng voi diem da eho qua goc toa do.

Vi du. Cho diem 0 va cac diem A, B, C khong thang hang. Hay dung anh ella tam giac ABC qua phep d6i x irng tam O.

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC, co true tam H. GfJi I ta trung dilm canb Be. Bilt rang

f)/ : H -+ HI. Chung minh rang HI thuoc Trong mat phang toa d(> Oxy, eho di~m I = (xo ; Yo), duong tron ngoai tiep A ABC.

goi M = (x ; y) va M' = D/(M) = (x' ; y').

{X' = 2r~ - x

Khi d6 "v

y' = 2yo - y.

60

Vi du. Cho diem M(1 , 3), xac dinh toa do ella diem M' la diem d6i xirng ella M qua g6e toa do,

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban D::,tng tot.n. Vi d1,l. LUll Y

4. Die tinh chat:

Phep d6i xirng tam

• Bao toan khoang each gitra hai di~m bat ki ;

• Bien mot dirong thang thanh dirong thang song song hoac trung voi duong thang da eho ;

• Bien mot doan thang thanh doan thang bang doan thang da eho ;

• Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac bang tam giac da eho;

• Bien mot dirong tron thanh duong tron co cung ban kinh.

Vi du. Cho vi du vi hinb ma no co VO sotam dOl xung,

Vi duo Cho goc nhon xOy va diim A tuim trong goc do. Hay dung duong thdng d di qua diem A va cat Ox, Oy tuong ung tai B va C sao cho A la trung diim ctia Be.

4. Phep tinh. tien (Dinh nghia ; Tinh chat;

Bieu thirc toa do). 1. Dinh nghia

Ve' kiln thuc :

Biet diroc

- Dinh nghia cua phep tinh tien.

- Phep tinh tien co cac tinh chat cua phep

doi hinh,

- Bieu thirc toa dQ cua phep tinh tien, Ve' ki nang:

Dung diroc anh cua mot diem, mot doan thang, mot tam giac, mot dirong tron qua phep tinh tien.

Trong mat phang eho vecto ~. Phep bien hinh tinh tien, bien rnoi diem M thanh di~m M sao eho """iiM' = ~

--<

diroc goi la phep tinh tien theo vecto v (hinh 6).

B

Hinh 6

- Dang 1 : Dung anh cua mot hinh qua phep

- Dang 2 : Dung phep tinn tien di gidi mf)t so' bai todn tim tap hop diim, bai toan dung hinh.

-

Vi du. Cho vecto v*-O va cac diem : A, B, C

khong thang hang. Dung anh cua tam giac ABC qua phep tinh tien theo vecto V.

61

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Liru Y

Phep tinh tien theo vecto ~ tlurong duoc kf hieu Vi duo Cho truce duang tron tam 0 va hai diem A, B. Diem N ehf;lY tren (0). Tim tap hop

Hi T..,.

diem M sao eho AB = NM .

- -+

Nhir vay T~ (M) =M' ~ MM' =v.

* Nhdn xet : Phep tinh tien theo vecto-khong chinh Hi phep d6ng nhdt,

2. Bi~u thirc toa d¢ cua phep tinh tien

Trong mat phang toa d¢ Oxy, eho diem M = (x ; y), ~ =(a ; b). GQi diem M' = T.., (M) = (x' ; y').

Vi du. Cho diem M(l ; 2). Xac dinh toa d¢ di~m M' Hi anh cua M qua phep tinh tien theo vecto v = (5; 7).

Vi du. Cho tam gidc ABC, goi M, N, P theo thu tt! la trung diem ctia cdc canb BC, CA,

AB. Goi 0b I] tuong ung la tam duang tron ngoai titp va m)i titp tam giac APN. Goi O2, 12.tuung ung la tam duang tron ngoai tilp va

{X' = x + a Khi do

y' = y + b.

3. Cae tinh chat

Phep tinh tien m)i tilp tam giac PBM. Goi 03, 13 tuang ung

• Bao toan khoang each giira hai diem bat kt ; la tam duang tron ngoai titp va noi tilp tam

• Bien mot dirong thang thanh duong thing song giac MCN.

song hoac trung voi dirong thing da eho ; a) Xac d!nh dnh ctia Il ANP qua phep tinb

• Bien mot doan thang thanh doan thang bang tien ~N'

doan thang da eho; b) Chung minh: ~OI0203 = Mll2l3'

• Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac bang tam

giac da eho;

• Bien mot duong tron thanh dirong tron co cung ban kinh.

62

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan tlnrc hien chuan

Kien tlurc co ban Dang toan. Vi du, Luu Y

5. Khai niem vephep quay Ve' kien thuc :

Biet duoc

- Dinh nghia cua phep quay.

- Phep quay co cac tinh chat cua phep doi

hinh.

Ve' ki nang : Dung diroc anh cua mot diem, mot doan thang, mot tam giac qua phep quay.

- Dang 3 : Dung phep quay dl gidi mot so bai Diem 0 diroc goi Hi tam quay, a diroc goi Hi goc todn tim tap hop dilm, bai todn dung hinh. quay.

Phep quay tam 0 goc a thirong duoc ki hieu Hi ~O,a)·

a) Goc quay 60° ngiroc chieu kim dong he, • Phep quay tam 0 goc quay a = (2k+ 1) 7f voi k

nguyen, ehinh la phep d6i xirng tam O. b) Goe quay 90° thea chieu kim dong ho.

• Phep quay tam 0 goc quay a = 2k 7f voi k nguyen, ehinh la phep dong nhat.

1. Dinh nghia

Cho diem 0 va goc hrong giac a . Phep bien hinh bien 0 thanh ehinh no, bien moi diem M khac 0 thanh diem M' sao eho OM' = OM va goc hrong giac (OM; OM') bang a duoc goi la phep quay tam 0 J?aea.

Nhdn xet :

2. Cac tinh chat Phep quay

• Bao toan khoang each gifra hai diem bat ki ;

• Bien mot dirong thang thanh dirong thang ;

• Bien mot doan thang thanh doan thang bang doan thang da eho ;

- Dang 1 : Dung anh cua mot hinh qua phep quay.

=Dang 2: Su dung phep quay dl chung minh mot so bai todn hinh hoc.

Vi du. Cho cac diem 0, A, B, C trong do A, B, C khong thang hang. Dung anh cua tam giac ABC qua phep quay tam 0 va co

Vi du. Cho ntia duang trim duang kinh AB, dilm M chay tren cung AB. Lily BM lam canb dung ra phia ngoai duong tron hinh vuong BMCN. Tim tap hap dilm N.

Vi du. Cho L1 ABC co 3 goc nhon. Tim dilm M trong tam giac sao cho

MA + MB + MC nho nhdt.

63

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toano Vi du, Luu Y

• Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac bang tam * Chu Y : Gia sir phep quay tam I g6e a bien

giac da eho ; dirong thang d thanh dirong thang d.

Khi d6 • Bien mot dirong tron thanh mot dirong tron co

cung ban kinh. tt

• Neu 0 < a ::; -thi g6e giira d va d bang a ; 2

• Neu 7r < a < tt thi g6e gitra d va d bang 2

tt -a.

• Neu thirc hien lien tiep hai phep doi hinh thi - Dang 3 : Clnmg minh hai tu giac bang nhau ;

- Neu thirc hien lien tiep hai phep doi hinh diroc mot phep doi hlnh, hai hlnh tron bang nhau.

thi ta diroc mot phep doi hinh, 2. Tinh chat

6. Khdi niem vi' phep dai hinh va hai hinh bang nhau

Vi' kiln thuc :

Bier diroc :

- Khai niern v~ phep doi hlnh.

- Phep tinh tien, d6i xirng true, d6i xung tam, phep quay la phep doi hinh.

- Phep doi hinh : bien ba diem thang hang thanh ba diem thang hang va thir nr gitra cac diem diroc bao toan ; bien duong thang thanh duong thang ; bien tia thanh tia ; bien doan thang thanh doan thang bang no ; bien tam giac thanh tam giac bang no ; bien goc

1. Dinh nghia - Dang 1 : Xac dinh anh cua mot hinh qua phep

Phep doi hinh la phep bien hinh bao toan khoang doi hinh.

each giira hai diem bat ki.

Nhdn xet : =Dang 2 : Ctic bai todn vi moi lien quan giiia

• Cac phep tinh tien, d6i xirng true, d6i xirng tam mot so phep di1i hinh quen biet.

va phep quay deu la nhfrng phep doi hinh.

Phep doi hlnh

a) Bien ba di~m thang hang thanh ba diem thang hang va bao toan thii tu giira ba diem ay ;

b) Bien mot dirong thang thanh mot dirong thang, bien tia thanh tia, bien doan thang thanh doan thang bang no ;

Vi du. Qua phep doi hinh, tnrc tam, trong tam, ... cua tam giac e6 diroc bien thanh tnrc tam, trong tam, ... cua tam giac anh khong ?

Vi du. Hai tit giac lOi ABCD va A'B'C'D' co A.B = A'B', BC = B'C', CD = C'D', DA = D'A'

64

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hmmg dan th .... c hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu y

thrum goc bang no ; bien dirong tron thanh c) Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac bang tam va goe BAC bang goe B'A'C'. Chung minh

dirong tron co cung ban kinh. giac da cho, bien mot goc thanh goc bang goc da rdng hai In giac do bang nhau.

- Biroc dau van dung phep doi hinh trong 3. Hai hlnh bang nhau bai tap dan gian.

Dinli nghia : Hai hinh dircc goi la bdng nhau neu - Nhan bier diroc hai nr giac bang nhau ; co mot phep doi hinh bien hinh nay thanh hlnh

hai hinh tron bang nhau. ki

ta.

- Khai niem hai hlnh bang nhau. Ve'kiniing:

cho;

d) Bien mot dirong tron thanh dirong tron co cung ban kinh.

- Dang 3 : V an dung tinh chat ella phep vi II! 1) Gia Slr M', N theo thii nr la anh cua M, N qua trong gidi loan.

- Phep vi ur co tfnh chat cua phep dong phep vi nr ti s6 k. Khi do

dang. ---< _

a) M'N'=k.MN ;

b)M'N =lkl.MN.

7. Phep vi t1l (Dinh nghia ; Tirih chat; TAm vi ur cua hai dirong tron).

Ve' hen thuc :

Biet diroc

- Dinh nghia phep vi nr (bien hai diem M, N Ian hrot thrum haidiern M', N' thi

{---< -

M'N' =kMN

M'N' = IkIMN)'

- Anh cua mot dirong tron qua mot phep vi ur,

Ve'kiniing:

- Dung diroc anh cua mot diem, mot doan thang, mot dirong tron, ... qua mot phep vi nr.

1. Dinh nghia - Dang 1 : Dung anh cua mot diem, mot doan

Trong mat phang, cho diem I va mot s6 k "* o. thang, mot dirong tron, ... qua mot phep vi nr, Phep bien hlnh bien moi diem M thanh diem M

sao cho 1M' = k.IM dircc goi la phep vi t1l tam I, - Dang 2 : TIm tarn vi nr cua hai dirong tron. ti so' k.

a) Bien ba diem thang hang thanh ba diem thang

Vi du. Tam giac ABC n(Ji tilp duong Iron lam hang va bao roan tlur nr gifta cac diem ay ;

0, ban kinh R. Cdc dinh B, C co dtnh con

2. Tfnh chat

2) Phep vi nr ti s6 k

Vi du. Cho diem 0, va cac diem A, B, C khong thang hang. Dung anh cua tam giac ABC qua phep vi nr tarn 0 ti s6 2.

S. HDTHT11· A

65

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang Hirong dan thirc hien chuan
Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, LUll Y
- Biroc dau van dung duoc tfnh chat ella b) Bien mot dirong thang thanh mot dirong thang dinh A chay tren (0), tim tap hop trong tam G
phep vi ur trong bai tap. song song hoac trung voi dirong thang dff cho, cua tam giac do.
bien tia thanh tia, bien doan thang thanh doan
thang ; Vi du. Dung anh ella duong tron (I; 2) qua phep
c) Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac dong dang vi ur Him 0 ti s6 3, bier rang 01 = 4.
voi tam giac dff cho, bien mot g6c thanh g6c
bang g6c dff cho ;
d) Bien mot dirong tron co ban kinh R thanh Vi du. Cho tnroc hai dtrong tron (0; 2) va (0' ; 1)
dirong tron c6 ban kinh IkIR. a ngoai nhau. Phep vi nr nao bien duong tron
nay thanh dirong tron kia.
3. Tam vi ur ella hai dirong tron
Djnh li : V6i hai dirong tron bat ki Iuon co mot Vi du. Tam giac ABC eo H, G, 0 tuong ung ta
phep vi tir bien dtrong tron nay thanh dirong tron true tam, trong tam, tam duong tron ngoai
kia. tilp. Chung minh H, G, 0 thdng hang (bdng
Tam ella phep vi tir n6i tren diroc goi la tam vi tu phep V{ tu).
ella hai dtrong tron.
Cho hai dirong tron phan biet (I ; R) va (f ; R').
C6 ba tnrong hop xay ra :
• N eu 1 trung v6i f va R :f R' thi phep vi tir tam /
ti s6 !!_ va phep vi nr tam 1 ti so' - R' bien dirong
R . . R
tron (I ; R) thanh dirong tron (/ ; R') .
• N eu / khdc v6i f va R *' R' thi phep vi ur tam 0
, '" k R' , h ' . , 0 ' i k R'
u so = R va p ep V! ur tam 1 ti s6 1 = - R
se bien dirong tron (I ; R) thanh dirong tron 66

5· HDTHT11· B

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huang dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc CO' ban

Dang toano Vi du, Luu Y

(f ; R'). Ta goi ° la tam vi tu ngoai eon 01 la tam vi tu trong cua hai dirong tron noi tren .

• Neu / khac f va R = R' thi chi co phep vinr tam

01 ti s6 k = - R = -1 bien dtrong tron (/ ; R)

R

thanh dirong tron (f ; R'). Do chinh la phep d6i

xirng tarn 01.

8. Khai niem ve' phep dong dang va hai

hinli dong dang 1. Dinh nghia

- Ph~p dong dang : bien ba diem thang hang thanh ba diem thang hang va bao toan Nhdn xet :

thir nr gifra cac diem ; bien dtrong thang • Phep doi hinh la phep dong dang ti s6 1. thanh dirong thang , bien mot tam giac

thanh tam giac dong dang voi no ; bien • Phep vi ur ti s6 k la phep dong dang ti s6 Ikl. dirong tron thanh dtrong tron.

- Biroc dau van dung phep dong dang Phep dong dang ti s6 k :

trong bai tap, V' d D·'? C h " ? duo ,

a) Bien ba diem thang hang thanh ba diem thang I u. tem C f!.y tren nua U01lg troll

hang va bao toan thir nr gitra ba diem ay ; duang kinh. AB. Tren tia AC lay diim D

L_ ~ . _L ~

Ve' hen thuc :

Bier diroc :

- Khai niern phep dong dang.

- Hai hinh dong dang, Ve' ki nang:

- Nhan biet diroc hai hlnh dong dang.

- Dang 1 : Dl!I1g anh cua mot hmh qua mot phep dong dang,

Phep bien hlnh F diroc goi la phep dong dang ti s6 k (k > 0) neu vOi hai diem M, N bat ki va anh M', N' nrong img cua cluing, ta luon co

- Dang 2 : Tim phep dong dang bien hinh nay thanh hinh kia.

M'N'=k.MN.

- Dang 3 : V ~Il dung phep dOllg dang trong gidi toan.

• Neu tlnrc hien lien tiep hai phep dong dang thi diroc mot phep dong dang.

Vi du. Qua phep dong dang, tnrc tam, trong tarn, ... cua tam giac co diroc bien thanh tnrc tarn, trong tam, ... cua tam giac anh khong ?

2. Tinh chat

67

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. Luu Y

b) Bien mot dirong thang thanh mot duong thang, ndm vephia ngoai cua nita hinb tron, sao cho bien tia thanh tia, bien doan thang thanh doan CD = Be.

thang ; Tim ttJp hop diim D.

c) Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac dong dang

v6i tam giac da cho, bien mot g6c thanh g6c

bang g6c da cho ;

d) Bien mot dirong tron c6 ban kinh R thanh dtrong tron co ban kinh kR.

3. Hinh dong dang

Hai hinh duoc goi la dong dang v6i nhau neu c6 mot phep dong dang bien hinh nay thanh hinh kia.

?? .

VII. DUONG THANG vA MAT PHANG TRaNG KHONG GIAN. QUAN H~ SONG SONG

1. Dai cuong vi duang thling va mdt phling (Mo dau ve hinh hoc khong gian ; Cac tinh chat thira nhan , Ba each xac dinh mat phang ; Hinh ch6p va hlnh ttl dien),

V i kiln thuc :

- Biet cac tinh chat thira nhan :

1. Cac tinh chat thira nhan - Dang 1 : Ve hinh bieu dien cua mot hinh

Tinh chat 1 : C6 mot va chi mot dtrong thang di ch6p, hinh hop.

qua hai diem phan biet,

- Dang 2 : Xac dinh giao tuyen cua hai mat Tinli chat 2 : C6 mot va chi mot mat phang di phang.

qua ba diem khong thang hang.

+ C6 bon diem khong cung thuoc mot mat Tinh chat 3 : Neu mot dtrong thang c6 hai diem

phang. phan biet thuoc mot mat phang thi moi diem cua - Dang 3 : Tim giao diem cua dirong thang va

dirong thang deu thuoc mat phang d6. mat phang,

+ C6 mot va chi mot mat phang di qua ba Tinh chat 4 : C6 bon diem khong cung thuoc mot

diem khong thang hang cho tnroc. mat phang.

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Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban

Tinh chat 5 : Neu hai mat phang phan biet c6 mot diem chung thi n6 con c6 mot diem chung khac nira.

Tinh chat 6: Tren m6i mat phang, cac ket qua da biet trong hmh hoc phang deu dung.

2. Cach xac dinh mat phang

2. N6 di qua mot diem va chua mot dirong thang khong di qua diem d6.

• (ABC) bieu thi mat phang xac dinh boi ba diem phan biet khong thang hang A, B, C.

• (M, d) bien thi mat phang xac dinh boi dtrong thang d va diem M khong nam tren d.

• (dj, d2) bi~u thi mat phang xac dinh boi hai

Dang toan. Vi du, LUll Y

+ Neu hai mat phang phan biet c6 mot di~m Tir d6 suy ra : Neu hai mat phang phan biet c6 chung tht chung c6 mot di~m chung khac.

mot diem chung thi cluing se c6 mot duong + Tren moi mat phang, cac ket qua da biet thang chung di qua diem chung ay. trong hmh hoc phang deu dung.

MQt mat phang hoan toan diroc xac dinh khi biet : 1. N6 di qua ba diem khong thang hang;

- Biet diroc khai niem hinh ch6p ; hinh nr

- Ve diroc hinh bieu dien cua mot s6 hinh 3. N6 chua hai dirong thang cat nhau.

khong gian dan gian. - Ki hieu

- Xac dinh diroc dinh, canh ben, dtrong thang cat nhau dj va d2•

canh day, mat ben, mat day cua hinh ch6p.

+ Neu mot dirong thang c6 hai di~m phan biet thuoc mot mat phang thi moi diem cua duong thang deu thuoc mat phang d6.

- Biet diroc ba each xac dinh mat phang (qua ba di~m khong thang hang ; qua mot dirong thang va mot diem khong thuoc dirong thang d6 ; qua hai dirorig thang cat nhau).

dien. Ve'k'inang:

~ Xac dinh diroc : giao tuyen cua hai mat phang ; giao diem cua duong thang va mat phang.

- Biet su dung giao tuyen cua hai mat phang chimg minh ba diem thang hang trong khong gian.

69

- Dang 4 : Su dung giao tuyen cua hai mat phang clnrng minh ba diem thang hang trong khong gian.

- Dang 5 : Suy ludn dua vao cac tinh chat thua nhan

Vi duo Ve hinh bieu dien cua hinh ch6p nr giac, Chi ra dinh, canh ben, canh day, mat ben, mat day cua hinh ch6p d6.

Vi du. Cho hlnh ch6p S.ABCD c6 day la nr giac 16i. Xac dinh giao tuyen cua hai mat phang (SAC) va (SBD).

Vi du. Cho hlnh ch6p S.ABCD c6 day la hinh vuong, GQi M la trung diem cua Sc. Xac dinh giao diem cua AM v6i mat phang (SBD).

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC a ngoai mat phang (P), cac canh cua n6 keo dai cat mat phang (P) urong irng tai D, E, F. Chirng minh ba diem D, E, F thang hang.

Hu6ng dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien tlurc co ban

Dang toan. Vi du. LUll Y

3. Hinh chop va hinh nr dien a) Hinh chop:

Trong mat phang (a) cho da giac lOi AjA2 .. .AnDiem S nam ngoai (a). Lan hrot noi S vci cac dinh Aj, A2, ... , An' ta duoc n tam giac SAjA2, SA2A3, ... , SA,r4j. Hlnh gom da giac AjA2 .. .An va n tam giac SAjA2, SA2A3, ... , SA,r4j diroc goi la

Vi du. Nguoi ta thuang noi "viatg nhu kieng ba chan" tai sao?

Vi duo Cho hinh lap phuong ABCD. A 'B'C'D' co M, N, P theo thit tu III trung dilm cua cdc canh BC, CD, A'B'. Xtic dinh. giao tuye'n cua ';'(jt phdng di qua M, N, P vOi cac mat cua hinh ItJ.p phuang,

hinh chop, ki hieu la S.AjA2 .. .Aw b) Hinh tli dien

Cho bon diem A, B, C, D khong dong phang. Hinh gorn bon tam giac ABC, ABD, ACD, va BCD diroc goi la hinh tu dien, ki hieu la ABCD.

Vi duo Cho hinh chop S.ABC. Tren canh SA lay hai diem phan biet M va N. Chirng minh rang BM va CN la hai dirong thang khong cit nhau.

2. Hai duang thdng cheo nhau va hai duang thdng song song (V! trf urong doi gitra hai dtrong thang ; Hai dirong thang song song).

Ve' hen thuc :

- Bier diroc khai niern hai dirong thang : trung nhau, song song, cat nhau, cheo nhau trong khong gian ;

- Bier (co chung minh) dinh If : "Nell hai mat phang phan biet Ian hrot chua hai dirong thang song song rna cat nhau thi

1. V! trf tuong doi cua hai dirong thang trong - Dang 1 : Xac dinh V! tri wong doi giira hai

khong gian dirong thang,

Cho hai dtrong thang a va b trong khong gian.

Tnrong hop 1 : Co mot mat phang chua a va b. Khi do, xay ra mot trong ba kha nang sau :

- Dang 2 : Xac dinh giao tuyen cua hai mat phang,

1) a va b edt nhau tai diem M, ta ki hieu

a n b = M ; - Dang 3 : Clnrng minh hai dirong thang song

2) a va b song song voi nhau, ta ki hieu a lib song; Chirng minh hai dirong thang cheo nhau. hoac b II a;

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Kien thirc CO' ban

Dang toan, Vi du. Luu y

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

giao tuyen cua cluing song song (hoac 3) a va b trung nhau, ta ki hieu a = b. trung) voi mot trong hai dirong do".

Tnrong hop 2 : khong co mat phang nao chua cit

a va b , khi do ta noi a va b cheo nhau.

- Xac dinh duoc vi tri nrong doi gitra hai 2. Cac dinh 11 va tinh chat

dirong thang,

I) Trong khong gian, qua mot diem khong nam

- Biet each cluing minh hai dirong thang tren dtrong thang cho tnroc, co mot va chi mot

song song. dirong thang song song voi duong thlwlg da cho.·

2) Neu ba mat phang phan bier doi mot cat nhau theo ba giao tuyen phan biet thi ba giao tuyen ay hoac dong quy hoac doi mot song song voi nhau. (Dinh 11 ve giao tuyen cua ba mat phang),

3) Neu hai mat phang phan biet lfin hrot chua hai dirong thang song song thi giao tuyen 'clla cluing (neu co) cling song song v6i hai dirong thang do hoac trung voi mot trong hai dirong thang do.

4) Hai dirong rhang phan biet cung song song voi duong thang tlur ba thi song song v6i nhau.

V i du. Hinh chop S.ABCD co day la hinh binh hanh,

Ve'kinang:

a) Cac diem M, N tuong irng la trung diem cua SC, SD, khi do cac dirong thang AB va M N co song song voi nhau khong ?

b) Cac dtrong thang SC va AB la hai dirong thang song song, cat nhau, cheo nhau, hay trung nhau ?

- Bier dua vao dinh 11 tren xac dinh giao tuyen hai mat phang trong mot so tnrong

hop dan gian, .

Vi du. Hinh chop S.ABCD co day la hinh binh hanh, xac dinh giao tuyen cua hai mat phang (SAB) va (SCD).

Vi du. Tren canh AB cua nr dien ABCD, lay hai diem phan biet M, N. Chung minh rang CM, D N la hai duong thang cheo nhau.

Vi du. Hinh chop S.ABCD co day la hinh binh hanh. GQi M va N urong irng la trung diem cua SB va sc. Chung minh rang M N song song voi AD.

Vi du. Cho hai duong thang cheo nhau a va h. Co hay khong hai duong thdng cat nhau c va d va moi duong diu cat cd hai duong thang da cho.

71

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Htr6ng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Liru y

3. Duong thdng va mdt phdng song song V l kiln thia: :

- Bier diroc khai niem va dieu kien dirong thang song song voi mat phang.

- Biet (khong chirng minh) dinh If : " Neu dirong thang a song song vci mat phang (P) thl moi mat phang (Q) chua a va cat (P) thi cat theo giao tuyen song song voi a".

Ve'klnang:

- Xac dinh diroc VI tri urong doi gitra dtrong thang va mat phang.

- Biet each ve mot dirong thang song song v6i mot mat phang , chimg minh mot dtrong thang song song v6i mot mat phang.

- Biet dira vao cac dinh If tren xac dinh giao tuyen hai mat phang trong mot so tnrong hop don gian.

1. Vi tri nrong doi cua dirong thang va mat phang Giii'a duong thang d va mat phang (a) co ba tnrong hop v~ vi tri wong doi nhu sau :

1) d va (a) edt nhau tai M, ki hieu

d n (a) = {M} ; 2) d song song voi (a) , kf hieu

d II (a) hay (a) II d ; 3) d nam trong (a), ki hieu

de (a). 2. Dinh If va tinh chat

1) N eu dirong thang d khong nam trong mat phang (a) va d song song voi dirong thang d

nam trong (a) thi d song song voi (a)

{d ex. (a)

dlld' => dll(a).

d' c (a)

2) Cho dirong thang d song song voi mat phang (rz}. Neu mat phang (fJ) chua d va cat

(a) theo giao tuyen d thi d song song voi d

{dll(a)

(fJ) ~ d =>d II d.

(fJ) n (a) = d'

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh vi tri nrong doi gitra dirong thang va mat phang.

- Dang 2 : Clnmg minh mot dirong thang song song voi mot mat phang,

- Dang 3 : Xac dinh giao tuyen hai mat phang trong mot so tnrong hop don gian ; Dung thiet dien song song voi mot dirong thang.

Vi du. Cho hinh lap phuong ABCD. A'B'C'D', chi ra tren hinh ve cac dirong thang :

+ Song song voi mat phang (A'B'C'D') ; + Cat mat phang (BCC'B') ;

+ Nam trong (thuoc) mat phang (ABCD).

Vi du. Cho hinh chop S.ABCD co day la hinh thoi.

a) Chimg minh AB song song voi mat phang (SCD).

b) G9i M la trung diem cua SC, xac dinh giao tuyen cua mat phang (BAM) va (SCD).

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Chuan kien thirc - kl nang

Hurmg dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, Luu Y

3) Neu hai mat phang phan bier cung song song v6i mot dirong thang thi giao tuyen cua cluing (neu co) cling song song v6i dirong thang do.

{(a)lld

(fJ)lld => dll d'

(a) n (fJ) = d'

4) Cho hai dirong thang cheo nhau. Co duy nhat mot mat phang chua dirong thang nay va song song v6i dtrong thang kia.

Vi du. Cho tu dien ABCD va M la trung diim ella canb AD. M(lt phdng (P) di qua diem M va dong thai song song voi AC va BD. Xac dinb giao tuyen ella (P) voi cdc m(lt ella tu dien dii cho.

- Dinh If Ta-ler (thuan va dao) trong khong 2. Dinh li va tinh chat

gran. 1) Neu mat phang (a) chua hai dirong thang cat

- Khai niem hinh lang tru, hinh hop,

4. Hai mdt phdng song song. Hinh lang tru va hinh h9P

Ve' kiln thuc ':

Bier diroc :

- Khai niem va dieu kien hai mat phang song song.

- Khai niem hlnh chop cut, Ve'kTnang:

- Bier each chirng minh hai mat phang song song.

1. Dinh nghia - Dang 1 : Ve hinh bieu dien cua mot hinh

Hai mat phang (a) va (fJ) dUQ'C goi la song chop, chop cut, lang tru,

song v6i nhau neu cluing khong co diem chung, ki hieu (a)11 (fJ) hay (fJ) II(a).

(a) II (fJ) <=> (a) n (fJ) = 0.

nhau a, b va hai dirong thang nay cung song song v6i mat phang (fJ) thi mat phang (a) song song trong hinh chop. voi mat phang (fJ) .

(

a c (a), b c (a)

-< a cat b

=> (a) II (fJ).

- Dang 2 : Clnrng minh hai mat phang song song voi nhau.

- Dang 3 : Xac dinh. thitt dien tao bOi mat phdng (a) voi m9t hinh chop khi cho bitt

(a) song song voi mot mat phdng nao do

Vidu

a) Ve hlnh bieu dien cua hinh lang tru v6i day la tam giac.

\.. a II (fJ), b II (fJ)

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Hmmg dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. LUll Y

b) Ve hinh bieu dien cua hinh chop cut voi day la tam giac deu. Chi ra tren hinh ve mat day, mat ben, canh day, canh ben cua chop cut do.

H¢ qua: Neu mat phang (a) chua hai dirong thang cat nhau la a va b, mat phang (P) chua hai dirong thang cat nhau la a' va b' dong thoi a II a', b II b' thi mat phang (a) song song voi mat

ph~ng(p) .

2) Qua mot diem nam ngoai mot mat phang cho tnroc co mot va chi mot mat phang song song voi mat phang dii cho.

H¢ qua 1 :

Neu duong thang d song song voi mat phang (a) thi trong (a) co mot dtrong thang song song voi d va qua d co duy nhat mot mat phang song song ymCa) .

H¢ qua 2 :

Hai mat phang phan biet cung song song voi mat phang thir ba thi song song voi nhau.

H¢ qua 3 :

Cho diem A khong nam trong mat phang (a) . MQi dirong thang di qua A va song song voi (a) deu narn trong mat phang di qua A va song song YmCa) .

3) Cho hai mat phang song song voi nhau. Neu mot mat phang cat mat phang nay thi cling cat mat phang kia va hai giao tuyen song song voi nhau.

- Ve diroc hinh bieu dien cua hinh hop ; hinh lang tru, hinh chop co day la tam giac, nr giac.

- Ve diroc hinh bieu dien cua hinh chop cut voi day la tam giac, ni giac.

Vi du. Cho hinh lap phirong ABCD. A'B'C'D'.

a) Mat phang (A'B'C'D') co cat mat phang (ABCD) khong ?

b) Chung minh rang (AB'D') II (BDC').

Vi du. Cho hinh lap phirong ABCD. A'B'C'D'. Xac dinh giao tuyen cua mat phang (P) di qua trung diem M cua canh BB' va (P) song song voi (ABCD).

Vi du. Cho lang tru ABC.A 'B'C'eo M liz trung diim cua CA '. Mijt phdng (P) di qua diim M va dong thOi song song voi AB' va BC'. Xae dinh thiet dien cua hinh lang tru khi cat bOi mijt phting (P).

Vi du. Cho tit dien ABCD. Cae diim M, N theo thit tu ehq.y tren cdc cann AD va BC sao

hAM CN Ch« . h ' M I

e 0 -- = -. ung min rang N uon

AD CB

song song v6i mot mijt phting co dinh.

74

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HII6ng dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. LIIU Y

H¢ qua:

Hai mat phang song song chan tren hai cat tuyen song song nhirng doan thang being nhau.

4) Dinh If Ta-ler thuan : Ba mat ph kg doi mot song song dinh ra tren hai cat tuyen bat kl nhirng doan thang nrong ling ti l~.

3. Hinh lang tru va hinh chop cut 1) Hlnh lang tru

Cho hai mat phang song song (a) va(a'). Tren (a) cho da giac loi A]A2 .. .An- Qua cac dinh A], A2, ... , An ta ve cac dirong thang song song v6i nhau va cat (a') Ian hrot tai A'], A'b ... , A'n-

Hinh gom hai da giac A]A2··.An, A']A'2 ... A'n va cac hlnh bmh hanh A]A']A'2A2' A2A'2A'3A3' ... , A~'~']A] diroc goi la hinh lang tru va ki hieu la A]A2···An· A'] A'2 ... A'n·

Lang tru co day la hinh blnh hanh dUQ'C goi la hlnh hQP.

2) Hinh chop cut

Cho hinh chop S.A]A2··.An. MQt mat phang khong qua dinh, song song v6i mat phang day

cua hinh chop cat cac canh SA], SA2, ... , SAn

75

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Hirong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan. VI du, LUll Y

Ian hrot tai A\, A'b ... , A'n- IDnh tao boi thiet dien A'JA'2 ... A'n va day AJA2 .. .An ella hinh chop cung voi cac tu giac A'JA'2A2AJ, A'2A'3A3A2' ... , A'~'JAJAn goi la hinli chop cut, ki hieu Ia A'JA'2 ... A'n- AJA2··.An-

- Khai niem hinh bieu dien ella mot hinh tai diem M' xac dinh,

khong gian. Diem M' duoc goi la hinli chieu song song ella

Ve' ki nang: diem M tren mat phang (a) theo plnrong ~ .

5. Phep chieu song song. Hinh bilu dien cua mot hinh khong gian

Ve' kiln thuc :

Biet diroc :

- Khai niem phep chieu song song.

- Xac dinh diroc phirong chieu mat phang chieu trong mot phep chieu song song. Dl!I1g diroc anh ella mot diem, mot doan thang, mot tam giac, mot dirong tron qua mot phep chieu song song.

- Ve diroc hinh bieu dien ella mot hinh khong gian.

1. Phep chieu song song - Dang 1 : Xac dinh hinh chieu cua mot hinh

Cho mat phang (a) va dirong thang ~ cat (a) . phang qua phep chieu song song.

V oi moi diem M trong khong gian, duong thang - Dang 2 : Ve hinh bieu dien cua mot hinh di qua M va song song hoac trung voi ~ cat (a) khong gian.

Mat phang (a) diroc goi la mat phang chieu, phirong cua dirong thang ~ diroc goi la phirong chien.

Phep dat wong img moi diem M trong khong gian voi hmh chieu M' cua no tren mat phang (a) diroc gQI la phep chieu song song len

(a) theo phirong ~ .

2. Cac tinh chat cua phep chieu song song (voi dirong thang va doan thang khong song song hoac trung voi plurong chien).

Vi du. Xac dinh hinh chien cua mot dirong thang qua phep chieu song song trong cac tnrong hop :

- Duong thang do song song voi phirong chieu.

- Duong thang do khong song song voi phirong

chieu,

Vi du. Hinh chieu song song cua mot hinh binh hanh co la mot hinh bmh hanh khong ?

Vi du. Ve hmh bieu dien cua : tam giac deu, hmh thang vuong, hinh binh hanh, hmh thoi.

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Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien tlurc co ban Dang toan. Vi du, LUll Y

1) Phep chieu song song bien ba di~m thang hang thanh ba diem thang hang va khong lam thay d6i tlnr ur ba diem do ;

2) Phep chieu song song bien dirong thang thanh dtrong thang, bien tia thanh tia, bien doan thang thanh doan thang ;

3) Phep chieu song song bien hai dirong thang song song thanh hai dirong thang song song hoac trung nhau.

4) Phep chieu song song khong lam thay d6i ti s6 d<) dai ella hai doan thang nam tren hai duong thing song song hoac cung nam tren mot dirong thang.

3. Hinh bieu dien ella mot s6 hinh khong gian tren mat phang

1) Mot tam giac bat ki bao giG cling c6 th~ coi la hinh bieu dien ella mot tam giac tuy y cho tnroc (co th~ la tam giac deu, tam giac can, tam giac vuong, ... ).

2) Mot hinh binh hanh bat ki bao giG cling c6 th~ coi la hinh bieu dien ella mot hinh binh hanh tuy y cho tnroc (c6 th~ la hinh binh hanh, hinh vuong, hinh chfr nhat, hinh thoi, ... ).

3) Mot hinh thang bat ki bao giG cling c6 th~ coi la hinh bieu dien ella mot hinh thang tuy y cho tnroc, mien la ti s6 do dai hai day ella hinh bieu

77

Vi du. Vi! hinh bilu diin ella mot luc giac diu nf)i titp mot duong trim.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thtrc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban

dien phai bang ti so dQ dai hai day ella hinh da eho.

4) Ngiroi ta tlurong dung hinh elip M bieu dien hinh tron,

Dang toano Vi du, Luu y

VIII. VECTd TRONG KHONG GrAN. QUAN H$ VUONG GOC TRONG KHONG GIAN

- Quy tao hinh hop d~ cong vecto trong Ki hieu AB chi vecto e6 di~m dAu A, diem cuoi

khong gian. - - - -

B. Vecto eon diroc ki hieu la a, b, x, y, '"

- Khai niern va dieu kien dong phang ella

ba vecto trong khong gian.

1. Veet(f trong khong gian (Vecto .; Cong vecto ; Nhan vecto v6i mot so; Dieu kien dong phang ella ba vecto ; Tich vt: huang ella hai vecto).

Ve' kien thuc : Bier diroc

Ve'klnang:

- Xac dinh diroc g6e gitra hai vecto trong khong gian.

- Van dung diroc : phep cong, tnr ; nhan vecto voi mot so, tich vo huang ella hai vecto ; sir being nhau ella hai vecto trong khong gian.

- Bier each xet sir dong phang hoac khong dong phang ella ba vecto trong khong gian.

- Dang 3 : Xet sir dong phang hoac khong dong phang ella ba vecto trong khong gian.

• Gia ella vecta la dirong thang di qua diem dau

va di~m cuoi ella vecto d6.

1. Cac dinh nghia

I ) Vecto, gia va do dai ella vecto

• Veet(f trong khong gian til mot doan thang co huang.

Hai vecto duoc goi la cung phuong neu gia ella cluing song song hoac trung nhau. Hai vecto cung phirong thi e6 the cung huang hoac nguoc huang.

• Dt) dai hay rna dun eua vecta la do dai ella doan thang co hai dau rmit la diem dau va diem cuoi ella vecto d6. Vecto e6 do dai being I diroc goi la vecta don vi. Ta ki hieu do dai vecto la

IABI. Nhu vay IABI = AB.

78

- Dang l : Xac dinh cac yeu to ella vecto ; Xac dinh g6e gifra hai vecto trong khong gian.

- Dang 2 : Chung minh cac dang thirc v~ vecto.

Vi du. Cho tam giac deu ABC canh a, goi M la trung di~m ella Be.

a) Cho biet dQ dai ella vecto AB.

b) Xac dinh g6e giira hai vecto AB va BC.

Vi du. Cho nr dien ABCD, goi G la trong tam tam giac BCD, chirng minh rang

- ---+ ---+ ---+

AB + AC + AD = 3AG.

I

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Hirong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. Vi du, LUll Y

r- ------------------------------+_--------~~------------------------+_----------------------------------~

2) Hai vecto being nhau, vecto-khong

-+ -+

• Hai vecto a va b diroc goi la being nhau neu Vi du. Cho nr dien ABCD. Goi I, J nrong irng la

chung c~ c~ng dQ dai va cung huang. Khi do ta trung diem cua AB, CD. Chung minh rang AC ,

ki hieu a = b . Bi3, IJ la cac vecto dong phang.

• "Vecto-khong" la mot vecto dac biet co diem

dau va diem cuoi trung nhau, nghia la voi moi

diem A tuy y ta co M = 6 va khi do moi dirong thang di qua diem A deu chua vecto M . Quy uac

Vi du. Trong khong gian, cho tam giac ABC, chung minh rang neu diim M thuoc nuit

phdng (ABC) thi OM = xOA + yOB + zOC

moi vecto 6 deu being nhau, co dQ dai being 0 va voi moi diim 0 va x + y + z = 1. cung phirong, cung huang voi moi vecto, Do do

ta viet M = BE vci moi diem A, B tuy y. 2. Phep cong va phep tru vecta

1) Dtnh nghia

-+ -+

• Cho hai vecto a va b. Trong khong gian lay

mot diem A tuy y, dung AS = ~ va Be = b. Vecta AC duoc goi la tong cua hai vecto ~ va b , va duoc ki hieu

~- ----+--

AC= AB + BC = a +b .

-+ -+

• Vecto b la veda dOl cua a neu

Ibl = I~I va ~, h ngiroc huang voi nhau, ki hieu

-+ -+

b=-a.

-+ -+ -+ -+

.a-h=a+(-b).

79

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan thirc hien chuan

2) Tfnh chat

Kien tlurc co ban Dang toan, Vi du, Luu Y

V6i cac vectaa, b, c bat ki ta co

--+ --+ --+ --+

• a+ b=Ir+a (tfnh chat giao hoan) ;

--+ --+ --+ --+ --+--+

.(a+b)+ C = a+(b+e)(tinhchatkethqp);

--+ --+ --+ --+ --+

• a + 0 = 0 + a = a (tinh chat cua

vecto-khong) ;

--+ --+ --+ --+ --+

• a+(-a)=-a +a=O.

3) Cac quy uk can nho khi tinh toan a) Quy tlie ba diem

V6i ba diem A, B, C bat kl ta co:

AB+ BC=AC ;

BC= AC - AB ;

BC= AC +(-AB) = AC + BA = BA + AC. b) Quy tlie hinh binli hanli

v oi hinh binh hanh ABCD ta co :

AC= AB +AD. e) Quy tdc hinh h9P

Cho hinh hop ABCD.A'B'C'D' v6i AB, AD, AA' Hi ba canh co chung dinh A va AC' la duong cheo, ta co:

AC'= AB + AD +AA'.

80

Hmmg dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan, Vi du, Luu Y

d) M6 rong quy tde ba diim ChondiemAj,A2, ... ,An bat ki, taco:

3. Phep nhdn vecta vai mot so'

1) Dinh nghia. Cho s6 thuc k "# 0 va vecto

~ ~ ~

a "# 0 . Tich cua s6 k voi vecto a la mot vecto, ki

~ ~

hieu la k a , cung hu6ng voi a neu k > 0, nguoc

hirong voi ~ neu k < 0 va co dQ dai bing Ikl· H .

2) Tinh chili. V6i moi vecto a, b va moi s6 thuc m, n ta co:

--+ --+ --+ --+

• m( a + b ) = m a + m b ;

~ ~ ~

• (m + n) a = m a + n a ;

~ ~

«mtn a ) = (mn) a ;

.1.a=a;

~ ~

.(-1) a=-a;

• O. a=O ;

~ ~

• k.O =0.

81

6· HDTHT11· A

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Liru y

4. Dieu kien dong phang cua ba vecto

1) Khai niem v6 su dong phang cua ba vecto trong khong gian

~ - - -

Cho ba vecto a, b, c d6u khac vecto 0 trong

khong gian. Til mot diem 0 bat ki ta dung cac

- - - - -- -

vecto OA = a, OB = b va OC = c. Khi d6 xay

ra hai tnrong hop sau :

• Neu cac dirong thang OA, OB, OC khong cung nam trong mot mat phang, ta n6i ba vecto

~, b, ~ khong dong phang .

• Neu cac dirong thang OA, OB, OC cung nam

~ ~ ~

trong mot mat phang thi ta n6i ba vecto a, b, c

dong phang.

2) Dtuh nghia

Trong khong gian, ba vecto duoc goi la dong phdng neu cac gia cua cluing cung song song v6i mot mat phang.

3) Dieu kien d~ ba vecto dong phang

Dinh If 1. Trong khong gian cho hai vecto khong

~ ~ ~

cung phuong a va b va mot vecto c . Khi d6, ba

vecto ~, b, ~ dong phang khi va chi khi c6 duy nhat cap s6 thirc m, n sao cho

~ ~ ~

c=ma +nb.

82

6· HDTHT11· B

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dftn thuc hien chuan

-+ -+ -+ -+

x =ma +nb +pc.

Dang toano VI du, LU'U Y

- Khai niern va dieu kien hai dirong thang 2) Tich vo hmmg - Dang 3 : Chung minh hai dirong thang vuong

vuong g6c v6i nhau. Tich vo huong cua hai vecto ~ va ; (deu khac g6c v6i nhau.

V l ki nang: vecto 0) trong khong gian la mot s6, diroc ki

Vi du. Cho tam giac deu ABC canh a, goi M la trung diem cua BC.

2. Hai duang thling vuong g6c (Vecto chi phuong cua dtrong thang ; 06c giira hai dirong thang ; Hai dirong thAng vuong g6c).

Ve' hen thue :

Biet duoc

- Khai niern vecto chi phuong cua dirong thang.

- Khai niern g6c giira hai dirong thang.

- Xac dinh diroc vecto chi phuong cua dirong thang ; g6c gifra hai dirong thang.

- Bier cluing minh hai dtreng thang vuong g6c v6i nhau.

Kien thirc co ban

4) Phan tfch (bieu thi) mot vecto theo ba vecto khong dong phang

D!nh Ii 2. Cho ~, b, ~ la ba vecto khong dong phang. V 6i moi vecto ; trong khong gian ta deu tim duoc duy nhat mot bo ba s6 thirc m, n, p sao cho

1. Tfch vo huong cua hai vecto trong khong gian 1) G6c giira hai vecto

Cho ~ va ; Ia hai vecto trong khong gian. re

_.,.. -+ _,. -+

mot di~m A bat ki dung AB = u , AC = v . Khi

d6 ta goi iiAC (0° s iiAC s 180°) la g6c gitra

- Dang 1 : Tinh tich vo hirong cua hai vecto. Su dung tfch vo hmmg de tinh d¢ dai cua doan thang (hoac tinh khoang each gifra hai diem)

. trong khong gian.

- Dang 2 : Xac dinh vecto chi phirong ~lla dirong thang ; Tinh g6c gitra hai dirong thang trong khong gian.

-+ -+ -+ -+

hai vecto u va v , ki hieu (u , v ).

Ta c6 : (u , v ) = BAC .

hieu la ~ .; va xac dinh bei :

~ .; = H.FI. cos( ~ , ; ).

a) Tinh AB. BC.

b) Cho biet IAMI.

-+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+

Neu u = 0 hoac v = 0 thi ta guy iroc u. v = O.

83

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan tlurc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toano Vi du, Luu Y

• MQt duong thang d trong khong gian hoan toan thi AB .L CD, AC .L BD,AD .L BC. duoc xac dinh khi bier mot diem A thuoc d va

3) Tinh chat

v m ba vecto a, h, c bat ki trong khong gian va voi moi s6 thuc k ta co :

• a . b =h. a (tfnh chat giao hoan) ;

--+ --+ --+ ---+ --

.a.(b +c) =a.h +a.c (tinh chat phan phoi

d6i voi phep cong vecto) ;

• (ka).h=k(a.h)=o.kh;

_,2

• a ~ 0;

-2 --+--+

• a =0 ¢::;> 0=0.

4) Vecto chi phirong cua dirong thang

_, _,

• Vecto a "* 0 duoc goi la vecta chi phuang cua

duong thang d neu gia cua vecto a song song hoac trung voi duong thang d.

_,

• Neu vecto a la vecta chi phuong cua dirong

thang d thi vecto k; voi k "* 0 cling la vecto chi phirong cua d.

_,

mot vecto chi phuong 0 cua d.

84

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC, tim mot vecto chi phuongcuaduOngthkg

a) Chua canh BC.

b) Chua trung tuyen AM.

Vi du. Cho hinh lap phirong ABCD. A'B'C'D'. Xac dinh goc giira cac duong thang AB' va CD' .

Vi duo Cho hinh lap phirong ABCD.A'B'C'D'. Cluing minh ding AB' vuong goc voi CD'.

Vi du. Chung minh rang neu b II c rna a vuong goc vci b thi 0 vuong goc voi c.

Vi du. Cho hinh tit dien ABCD. Chung minh rdng : neu

AB.AC = AC.AD

= AD.AB

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban

5) Mot s6 irng dung cua tich vo hirong • Tinh d¢ dai cua doan thang AB :

AB = IABI = ~AB2 .

--+ - --+--+

• Xac dinh g6c gitra hai vecto II va v Ia (u, v)

I theo cong thirc : cos(~;, ~) = I~:~I.

- --+ ---+

• U j_ v ¢::> u . v = o.

2. G6c giira hai duong thing

Goc giiia hai duang thang a va b trong khong gian la g6c gitra hai dirong thing a' va b' cung di qua mot diem bat kl dong thai wong irng song song voi a va b.

3. Hai duong thing vuong g6c

• Hai dirong thing a va b diroc goi la vuong goc voi nhau neu g6c gitra cluing bang 900• Ta kf hieu a j_ h hoac b j_ a.

~ ~

• Neu II va v Ian hrot la cac vecto chi phirong

cua hai dirong thing (J va b thi

a j_ b ¢::> II • V = o.

• Neu (J II b va c vuong g6c vm mot trong hai dirong thing d6 thi c vuong g6c voi dirong thing con lai,

85

Huong d~n thuc hien chuan

Chudn kien thirc - ki.nang

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan. Vi du. Liru Y

3. Duong thdng vuong goc v6i mdt phdng (Duong thang vuong g6e v6i mat phang ; Vecto phap tuyen ella mat phang ; Phep chieu vuong goc ; Dinh 11 ba dirong vuong g6e ; G6e gitra duong thang va mat phang).

V l hen thuc :

1. Duong thang vuong g6e v6i mat phang

Duong thang d diroc goi la vuong goe v6i mdt phdng (a) neu d vuong g6e v6i moi duong thang

nam trong (a) .

- Dang 1 : Cluing minh : mot dirong thang vuong g6e v6i mat phang ; mot dirong thang vuong g6e v6i mot dirong thang,

- Dang 2 : Xac dinh vecto phap tuyen ella mot mat phang ; Xac dinh hlnh chieu vuong goc ella mot diem, mot dirong thang, mot tam giac.

Biet duoc : Khi d6 ta noi (a) vuong goe v6i d va kf hieu

D· h hi a die ki A dirong than g d..L (a) hoac (a)..L d ; moi vecto chi phirong

- !11 ng ta va leu ien Vll

vuong g6e voi mat phang.

- Khai niem phep chien vuong' g6e.

- Khai niem mat phang trung tnrc ella mot

doan thang.:

ella dirong thang d con diroc goi la mot vecto

phap tuyen cua mat phang (a). _ Dang 3 : Van dung dinh If ba dirong vuong

2. Dieu kien d~ duong thang vuong g6e v6i mat g6e vao giai toano

ph~g

Neu dirong thang d vuong g6e v6i hai dirong thang cat nhau nam trong mat phang (a) thi d

vuong g6e v6i (a).

3. Tinh chat

- Dang 4 : Xac dinh goc gitra dirong thang va mat phang.

Ve' ki nang :

- Bier each chirng minh : mot dirong thang vuong g6c v6i mat phang ; mot dtrong thang vuong g6e v6i mot dirong thang.

- Dang 5 : Cac bai toan van dung m6i lien he gitra tinh song song va tinh vuong g6e ella dirong thang va mat phang.

- Xac dinh diroc vecto phap tuyen ella mot 1) C6 duy nhat mot mat phang di qua mot diem mat phang. eho tnroc va vuong goc v6i mot dirong thang cho

tnroc.

2) C6 duy nhat mot dtrong thang di qua mot diem eho tnroc va vuong g6c v6i mot mat phang cho tnroc.

- Xac dinh diroc hinh chieu vuong g6e ella mot diem, mot dirong thang, mot tam giac,

- Biroc dau van dung diroc dinh If ba dirong vuong g6c.

Vi du. Cho hlnh chop S.ABCD co day la hinh binh hanh va cac canh ben bang nhau. GQi 0 la giao ella hai dirong cheo cua day.

a) Chirng minh rang SO vuong goc v6i (ABCD).

- Xac dinh diroc g6c gitra duong thang va 4. Lien h¢ giua tinh vuong goc va tinh song song b) Chi ra mot vecto phap tuyen ella mat phang

mat phang, cua duong thang va mat phang trong khong gian (ABCD).

86

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien tlurc co ban

Dang toano Vi d u, Luu y

- Biet xet m6i lien he gitra tinh song song va tinh vuong g6c cua dirong thang va mat phang.

1) Cho hai dirong M1~g song song. Mat phang nao vuong goc voi 'dirong thang nay thi cling vuong g6c v6i duong thang kia.

2) Hai duong thang phan biet cung vuong g6c voi mot mat phang thi song song voi nhau.

3) Cho hai mat phang song song. Duong thang nao vuong g6c v6i mat phang nay thi cling vuong goc v6i mat phang kia.

4) Hai mat phang phan biet cung vuong goc voi mot duong thang thi song song v6i nhau.

5) Cho duong thang a va mat phang (a) song song voi nhau. Duong thang nao vuong g6c v6i (a) thi cling vuong g6c v6i a.

6) Neu mot duong thang va mot mat phang (khong chua duong thang do) cung vuong g6c v6i mot duong thang khac thi cluing song song v6i nhau.

5. Phep chieu vuong g6c va dinh H ba duong vuong g6c

1) Dinh nghia, Cho dirong thang d vuong goc v6i mat phang (a). Phep chieu song song theo

phuong d len mat phang (a) diroc goi la phep chieu vuong goc Len mdt phiing(a).

2) Dinh 11 ba dirong vuong g6c.

Cho duong thang a nam trong mat phang (a) va b la duong thang khong thuoc (a) dong thoi

V i du. Qua phep chieu vuong goc hai g6c bang nhau co bang nhau khong ?

Vi du. Cho hinh chop S.ABC, co SA vuong g6c v6i day va day la tam giac vuong tai B.

a) Chirng minh fling SB vuong g6c voi CB.

b) Xac dinh g6c gitra SB va (ABC).

c) Xac dinh hinh chieu vuong g6c cua C tren (SAB).

Vi du. Cho hinh til dien OABC co OA, OB, OC doi ml)t vuong goc v6i nhau. Chang minh rdng H la hinh chieu vuong goc cua 0 tren (ABC) thi H la true tam tam giac ABC.

Vi du. Cho til dien ABCD, xac d!nh dilm 0 sao cho OA = OB = OC = OD.

87

Chuan kien thirc - ki.nang

4. Hai mdt phdng vuong goc (G6c giii'a hai mat phang ; Hai mat phang vuong g6c ; Hinh lang tru dirng ; Hinh hop chir nhat ; Hinh lap phirong ; Hinh ch6p deu va hinh ch6p cut deu).

Ve' kien thuc :

Bier diroc :

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

khong vuong g6c v6i (a). GQi h' la hinh chieu vuong g6c cua b lent«). Khi d6 a vuong g6c v6i b khi va chi khi a vuong g6c v6i h'.

3) G6c gifra dtrong thang va mat phang

Cho dirong thang d va mat phang (a) . Ta c6 dinh nghia :

• Neu duong thang d vuong g6c v6i mat phang (a) thi ta n6i rang g6c giira dirong thang d va

mat phang (a) bang 90° .

• Neu dirong thang d khong vuong goc v6i mat phang (a) thi g6c gitra d va hinh chieu d cua no

tren (a) diroc goi Ia goc giiia duong thdng d va mdt phdng (a) .

* Luu y : SO do (bang do) cua g6c gitta dirong thang va mat phang la mot s6 khong fun va

khong virot qua 90°.

1. G6c giira hai mat phang - Dang 1 : Xac d!nh g6c giira hai mat phang.

Goc giiia hai mdt phdng la goc giira hai dirong - Dang 2 : Chirng minh hai mat phang vuong

thang Ian hrot vuong g6c v6i hai mat phang d6. g6c.

Neu hai mat phang song song hoac trimg nhau thi ta n6i rang g6c gifra hai mat phang d6

. 0°

bang .

- Dang 3 : Van dung tfnh chat cua lang tru dirng, hinh hop, hinh chop deu, ch6p cut deu vao giai mot s6 bai toano

88

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban

- Khai niem goc gitra hai mat phang, • Xac dinh goc giira hai mat phang cat nhau :

- Khai niern va dieu kien hai mat phang Cho hai mat phang (a) va (fJ) cat nhau thea Vi du. Cho hinh chop S.ABeD co SA vuong goc

vuong goc. giao tuyen c. Tir mot diem I bat ki tren c ta dung voi day va day la hinh chir nhat,

_ Tfnh chat hinh lang tru dirng, lang tru dirong thang a trong (a) vuong goc voi c va a) Xac dinh goc gifra mat phang (SeB) va deu, hinh h9P dimg, hinh h9P chfr nhat, dung dirong thang b trong (fJ) vuong goc voi c. (ABeD).

hinh lap phtrong. Khi do goc giira (a) va (fJ) la goc gitra hai b) Cluing minh : (SAB) .L (SAD).

- Khai niem hinh chop deu va chop cut dtrong thang a va b.

deu.

• Dien tich hinh chieu cua da giac :

Vi ki nang: SI = S.cos rp

- Xac dinh duo. c goc giita hai rna. t phang, ('" S la di ti h d . , ~ t () SI la

vai : a ten u: a gtac nam rong a, a + Hinh h9P chtr nhat la lang tru dirng ;

- Bier chirng minh hai mat phang vuong dien tieh hinh chieu vuong goc cua da gidc do

goc, tren (fJ), rp la goc gift a (a) va (fJ) ). + Lang tru la hinh h9P ;

- Van dung duoc tinh chat cua lang tru 2. Hai mat phang vuong goc dirng, hinh h9P, hinh chop deu, chop cut 1) Dinh nghia

deu vao giai mot s6 bai tap. Hai mat phang (a) va (fJ) diroc goi la vuong goc voi nhau neu goc giira hai mat phang do la mot goc vuong.

Khi do ta ki hieu (a) .L (fJ) hoac (fJ) .L (a) .

2) Tinh chat

Dang toano Vi du. Luu y

V i du. Cho bier rnenh de nao sau day la dung + Hinh h9P la lang tru dirng ;

+ Co lang tru khong la hinh h9P.

Vi du. Hinh chop S.ABe co day la tam giac deu va cac canh ben bang nhau co la hinh chop deu khong ? VI sao ?

V f du. Hinh chop cut tam giac co hai day la tam giac deu co phai la hinh chop cut deu khong ?

a) Dieu kien can va du de hai mat ph kg vuong goc voi nhau la mat phang nay chua mot duong

thang vuong goc voi matphang kia. Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC va mi!-t phdng (P).

b) Neu hai mat phang vuong goc voi nhau thi bat Bitt goc giiia (P) va (ABC) ia tp , Hinh chieu err dirong thang nao nam trong mat phang nay va (vuong goc) cua tam giac ABC tren (P) ia tam

89

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Liru Y

vuong g6c voi giao tuyen thi vuong g6c voi mat phang kia.

c) Cho hai mat phang (a) va (13) vuong g6c voi nhau. Neu tit mot diem thuoc mat phang (a) ta dung mot duong thang vuong g6c voi mat phang (13) thi duong thang nay nam trong mat ph~g(a) .

d) Neu hai mat phang cat nhau va cung vuong g6c voi mot mat phang thi giao tuyen cua chung vuong g6c voi mat phang d6.

3. Hinh lang tru dirng, hlnh hop chtt nhat, hinh l~p phirong

Hinh lang tru dung 1a hinh lang tru c6 cac canh ben vuong g6c voi cac mat day.

Hinh h¢p chii nhdt la hlnh lang tru dirng c6 day 1a hinh chit nhat,

Hinh lcjp phuang la hinh lang tru dirng c6 day la hinh vuong va cac mat ben deu la hinh vuong.

4. Hinh ch6p deu va hlnh ch6p cut d~u

Hinli chop de'u 1a hlnh chop c6 day la mot da giac d~u va chan cua duong cao trung voi tam cua da giac day.

Phan cua hinh chop deu nam gifi'a day va mot thiet dien song song voi day cat tat ca cac canh ben cua hinh chop deu d6 duoc goi Hi hinh ch6p cut deu,

Hai day cua hlnh ch6p cut deu Hi hai da giac deu, dong dang voi nhau.

90

gidc A'B'C'. Goi S va S' theo thu tu la di~n ticb eua cdc tam giac ABC va A' B' C'.

Chung minh:

S' = S. cos e .

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng d~n tlurc hien chuan

Kien thirc C(J ban

Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

_ Khoang each tit mot diem den mot mat 2) Khoang each tit mot diem 0 den mat phang phang, (a) la khoang each gitra hai diem 0 va H, voi

5. Khodng each (Khoang each tit mot diem den mot dirong thang, den mot mat phang ; Khoang each gifra hai dirong thang cheo nhau ; Khoang each gitra dirong thang va mat phang ; Khoang each gitra hai mat phang).

Ve' kien thuc - ki nang:

Biet va xac dinh diroc :

- Khoang each tit mot diem den mot dirong thang.

- Khoang each giita hai dirong thang.

H la hinh chieu vuong g6e ella 0 tren (a), ki • Khoang each giira hai mat phang song song;

1. Dinh nghia

1) Cho mot diem 0 va dirong thang a khong di qua O. Trong mat phang xac dinh b<'ri diem 0 va dirong thang a goi H la hinh chieu ella diem 0 tren a. Khi d6, khoang each giira hai diem 0 va H diroc goi la khoang each tit diem 0 den dirong thang a. Kf hieu la d( 0, a).

Nhu vdy : d(O, a) = OH.

hieu la - Khoang each gitra dirong thang va mat

phang song song.

d(O ,(a».

- Dang bai tap : Tinh :

• Khoang each tit mot diem den mot dirong thang :

• Khoang each giira hai dirong thang ;

• Khoang each giira dirong thang va mat phang song song voi n6 ;

• Duong vuong g6e chung ella hai dtrong thang cheo nhau;

song.

- Duong vuong g6e chung ella hai dirong thang cheo nhau.

- Khoang each giira hai mat phang song Nhu wjy d( 0, (a) ) = OH. 3) Khoang each gitra dirong thang a va mat

phang (a) song song voi a la khoang each tit • Khoang each gitra hai dirong thang cheo nhau.

mot diem bat ki thuoc a toi mat phang (a), ki - Khoang each gitra hai dirong thang cheo

hieu la

nhau.

Nhu v~y dia, (a» = OH, trong do ° thuoc a con

+ Xac dinh khoang each gitta diem A va mat

H fa hinli chieu eua diim 0 tren (a). phang (CDD'C').

d(a,(a) ).

Vi du. Cho hlnh lap phirong ABCD. A'B'C'D'.

+ Xac dinh khoang each gifra diem A va dirong thang BC.

91

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Hu6ng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, LUll Y

4) Khoang each giira hai mat phang song song + Xac dinh khoang each gifra duong thang M' (a) va (13) , kf hieu d( (a) ,(13)), la khoang each va dirong thang C'c.

tir mot diem bat ki cua mat phang nay den mat + Xac dinh khoang each gifra duong thang AD

phang kia. va mat phang (BeC'B').

d( (a), (13)) = d(M, (13)) voi ME (a). d( (a) ,(fJ)) = deN, (a)) voi N E (13).

+ Xac dinh khoang each gitra mat phang (ABB'A') va mat phang (eDD'C').

+ Xac dinh khoang each giira duong thang AB Nhu v9Y d( (a), (13) = MH, trong do M thuoc

va duong thang C'C.

(a) con H la hinh chieu cua ditm M tJ"(!J1 (fJ) .

5) Khoang each gifra hai dirong thang cheo nhau

* Luu y:

la d¢ dai cua doan vuong goc chung cua hai

duong thang do.

1) Tinh khoang each co th~ ap dung tnrc tiep dinh nghia hoac tinh gian tiep. Chang han, co

thcf tinh diroc duong cao cua mot tam giac (khoang each tir dinh toi day) neu biet dien tich va s6 do d¢ dai canh day cua tam giac do.

2) Phai xac dinh diroc cac yeu t6 can co d~ tinh khoang each tnroc khi thirc hien viec tinh toano

92

TO CHUC THl)'C HI~N

I - YEU cAu CHUNG

Viec thirc hien chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua chirong trinh giao due pho thong mon Toan can thea quan diem co ban : sat thirc, tnrc quan, dung chuan va d6i moi.

SAT THlJC

- Sat voi noi dung chuan, voi thirc te doi urong va dieu kien giang day, voi thai hrong cho phep ; bien soan du dang cac bai luyen tap nrong dirong voi cac vi du neu trong chuan nham giup hoc sinh ren luyen ki nang giai toan dat chuan va phan hoa thea mire do yeu cau cua chirong trinh chuan va chuong trinh nang cao. Thirc hien chirong trinh tir chon cua bo rnon thea huang giup hoc sinh dat chuan tot hon,

- Chti trong cac vi du va bai toan c6 noi dung thirc tien doi song va gan voi cac mon hoc khac (lam cho hoc sinh thay r6 Toan hoc gan voi cuoc song va lam quen voi viec ap dung tri thirc Toan hoc d~ giai cac bai toan thirc te, cac bai toan cua mon hoc Vat li Hoa hoc

. .' . ,

Sinh hoc, ... )

TRlJC QUAN

- Tiep can chuan bang plurong phap tnrc quan nham giam tinh han lam, giam cac noi dung nang ne, don gian hoa nhfrng van d6 phirc tap nhirng khong lam mat tinh chinh xac va suy luan c6 Ii rna chuan d6 ra.

- Day va hQC kien thirc ki nang theo chuan tren co sa dan d:it tirng

buoc, qua nhirng vi du mo ta khai niem mot each r6 rang, tranh ap d~t thieu nr nhien,

DUNGCHUAN

- Dam bao dung kien thirc, ki nang, mire d¢ phirc tap cua dang to an minh hoa, nhirng hru y neu trong chuan.

, -,Truac het dam bao ?<.tt chuan hoa va phan hoa thea mire d¢ yeu cau cua chirong trinh chuan va chirong trinh nang cao ; han che cac vi du va bai tap phirc tap, doi hoi ki thuat va meo mire, noi dung kho cirng thieu nr nhien kh6 tiep thu, giam bat so hrong cong thirc can nho. Dam bao sir gon, chat che va he thong kien thirc, ki nang rna chuan neu.

DOl MOl

Theo chi dao day va hoc cua B¢ GD&DT : D6i moi kiem tra danh gia thea chuan, d6i moi cong cu kiem tra danh gia, d6i moi thoi hrong, d6i moi thir nr thuc hien kien tlurc ki nang chuan neu, d6i moi phuong tien day hoc d~ d6i moi phirong phap day hoc, tang cuong tinh chu dong cua hoc sinh trong gio hoc, giiip hoc sinh tich cue, hirng thu hoc tap. Tim toi sang tao nhfmg each dua noi dung hoc tap mot each nhe nhang, de hieu, nr nhien rna van chinh xac, CAn da dang hoa cac hoat dong thirc hien chuan (on lai kien thirc, gioi thieu kien thirc moi, hoc tnroc a nha, lam tai lap, chia thea d6 tai, thirc hien ca nhan hay nh6~ nho, ap dung ngay kien thirc vira hoc, cau hoi trac nghiem khach quan, sir dung may tinh cam tay d~ giai toan ... ).

II - HUONG DAN THUC HI~N

VOIHQC SINH

- V oi hoc sinh dai tra cua moi vung mien, noi dung diroc neu tro~g ~an ban nay la noi dung hoc tap bat buoc phai dat, khong han che noi dung hoc tap voi hoc sinh c6 nhu cau hoc tap nang cao.

93

- V oi nhtrng hoc sinh co nhu cau hoc tap rna rong, nang cao hoac d6i nrong hoc sinh kha, gioi, co th~ tham khao Chirong trinh Nang cao hoac Chirong trinh Chuyen cua Bq GD&DT ban hanh ; co tM tham khao trong sach giao khoa hoac sach bai tap, sach tham khao noi dung chuyen rna nha tnrong tuyen chon hoac co th~ nr hoc theo nang lire ban than.

- 6 vung thuan loi, hoc sinh can duoc tang cirong chat hrong hoc tap qua viec tiep can cac nguon thong tin, cac phuong tien cong nghe d~ cung c6, rna rong, nang cao kien thirc.

- Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuong trinh Trung hoc phd thong mon Toan giiip cac em hoc sinh tu hoc, tu kiem tra kien thirc, ki nang theo cac yeu cau co ban, t6i thieu cua kien thirc, ki nang mon Toan rna hoc sinh can phai co va phai dat diroc qua hoc tap, HQc sinh tu hoc, tu kiem tra theo chuan kien thirc, ki nang qua hoc, kiem tra cac khai niem co ban, cac ki nang co ban, cac cong thirc can nho, cac plnrong phap giai, cac dang toancvf du rninh hoa '" nrong tmg voi cac chu de cua chuong trinh ; nr nghien ngam noi dung hoc tap theo mot yeu cau, phong each rieng va voi t6c dq phu hop. TI! hoc khong nhfrng giup hoc sinh tu than nam noi dung hoc mot each chac chan va ben vimg, xac dinh phirong phap hoc tap va ki nang van dung tri thirc, ren luyen y chi va nang lire hoat dong sang tao ; tu than bu dip cho rninh nhfrng 16 hong ve kien tlnrc, dap irng voi yeu cau cua chuong trinh. (Qua cac hoat dong hoc tap : xay dung k~ hoach, tap trung sire lire va thoi gian cho noi dung trong tam, quan trong nhat, nqi dung con khuy~t ho~c chua r6, tranh dan trai, pnan tan. N6 ll!c, tl! ll!c nfun nqi dung hQc t~p th6ng qua: dQc, tom tilt t6ng hQ'p, s~ sanh, phan lO<;li ; tl! lam bai t~p, d~ ki~rn tra. Tranh thll sl! giup dO' clla thay c6 giao, clla bf;lll be va clla cha my, anh em trong gia dinh, trong dong hQ).

VOl GlAo VIEN

- V m giao vien thi nqi dung co ban neu trong van ban nay la can cu d~ SO<;ln bai, ti~n hanh d<;ly hQc, 6n t~p va dl!a tren do d~ kiern tra danh gia ket qua hQC t~p clla hQc sinh. Dim bao vira dqt chudn vira

phdn hod theo dac diem vung, mien cho cac d6i nrong hoc sinh khac nhau ; danh gia theo d~ nr luan, d~ TNKQ hoac h6n hop gom eli bai roan tu luan Ian bai toan TNKQ. On tap nham he thong hoa kien tlurc dii hoc, hoan thien ki nang giai bai tap, qua on tap b6 khuyet cho nhiing phat hien thieu sot v~ kien thiic, ki nang, ve suy luan roan hQC thieu can cu logic hoac chua hop If ; nho do tao cho timg hQC sinh vtmg tin vao nang hrc ban than co th~ dat ket qua t6t trong cac ki kiem tra danh gia va thi.

Viec on t~p mon Toan can dat toi hi~u diroc ban chat va van dung diroc cac noi dung hoc ; khi on tap khong nen qua chii y vao viec tim nhirng thu thuat ghi nho diroc nhieu, mac du nho la co So' can cho viec giai cac bai toan, nhimg khong dll ; bm vi viec nam vtrng cac each giai cac dang bai roan co ban cho nhieu kha nang dat ket qua t6t trong kiem tra, thi. Viec on tap giiip ta nho noi dung hoc t6t hem va thirc sir htru Ich cho viec giai cac bai toan. SI! quan trong cua viec on tap la a ch6 : giup hoc sinh he thong lai va rut ra nhirng dieu co ban, chu yeu, khai quat hoa cua nhirng kien thirc - ki nang dii hoc d~ thay dircc su nrong dong, nrong irng, dong dang, bien d6i v~ hinh, khai niem, phuong phap, dang toan., trong clurong trinh mon hoc cua mot noi dung, mot chu de, mot lap hay roan cap hoc.

- Giao vien huang dan on tap can quan trier ro : nlumg each on tap deu la nhfing bieu hien cu th~ cua viec he thong hoa kien thirc theo huang lam r6 cau tnic cua tirng phan, tirng chirong, tirng mach kien thirc, tirng chu de hay roan th~ cua chirong trinh ; lam r6 vi trf cua moi kien thirc va quan he giira cac kien thirc ; tranh viec he thong hoa nang tfnh hinh thuc nhu li~t ke cac c6ng thuc, cac dinh If, cac df;lllg toan dii hQc theo dung khu6n rnau va trinh tl! nhu trong sach giao khoa. Cung vm vi~c huang dan hQc sinh h~ th6ng hoa ki~n thuc, giao vien giup hQc sinh silp x~p cac bai t~p va phan chi a thanh cac df;lllg bai t~p d~ nfun vfing cach giai chung cho timg df;lllg chfnh, dong thCri nhac l<;li va ghi ra dUQ'c nhfing ki~n thuc, dinh If, c6ng thuc, suy lu~ dii hQC a lap dum, nay thuemg phai sir dl)ng nhi~u d~ giai toan a lap 11. Trong tinh hinh thl!c t~ hi~n nay, giao vi en can t6 chuc d<;ly va hQC chu dao ngay til dau nam hQc, 6n t~p deu d~ sau timg chuemg, rnl)c, giup hQc sinh tl! giai cac cau hoi va bai t~p neu trong chuAn ki~n thuc, k'i nang.

94

- Giao vi en can phai 1inh hoat trong viec day hoc, co th~ dan dar hoc sinh tiep can kien thirc, ki nang trmh bay thea phirong phap khac, each khac hoac thay boi vi du khac tuy thea d6i WQ'Ilg, vung mien d~ thirc hien chuan phu hQP voi mire d(> nhan thirc cua moi Ioai d6i nrong. Trong day hoc cling nhu kiem tra, danh gia, can hru y tci c6ng cu may tinh cam tay nham giam tai phan tinh toan cling nhir d6i moi ca trinh bay loi giai Ian khau ra de va dap an wong img yeu cau tinh dung hoac tinh gan dung ; khich 1~ nhirng hoc sinh co each giai dung bci nhfrng kien thirc, ki nang co diroc do ban than no lire hoc tap.

VOl co QUAN, CAN B('> QUAN LI GIAo Dl)C

- V oi cac co quan, can bo quan If giao due thi noi dung van ban neu trong cu6n sach nay la can cu t6i thieu d~ danh gia, kiem tra viec day va hQC.

- Trong thanh tra, kiem tra day va hQC ccfu quan trier tinh than

+ Khuyen khfch giao vien sang tao linh hoat trong moi bai hoc, tiet hQC ; giao vien co th~ trinh bay day noi dung kien thirc nhu dii neu trong van ban, tuy nhien co th~ 1inh hoat trong each trinh bay (co th~ trinh bay thea phirong phap khac, each khac hoac thay boi vi du khac nrong nr ve mire do nhan thirc) ; kiem tra (hoac ra de thi) dung thea yeu cau mire d(> dii de cap trong cu6n sach voi nhtrng bai toan khac nrong dirong mire d(> nhan thirc ;

+ Can hru y toi cong cu may tfnh earn tay nham giam tai ve phan tinh roan va d~ d6i moi ca trinh bay 1m giai Ian khau ra de va dap an wong irng yeu cau tfnh dung hoac tfnh gcfu dung ;

+ Khfch 1~ nhfrng hoc sinh co each giai dung bCri. nhirng kien thirc, ki nang co dtroc do ban than no lire hoc tap.

TAl LI$U THAM KHla CHiNH

1. ~K, ~v Toan 10, 11, 12 - Chuong trmh nang cao - GS. Doan Quynh (T6ng Chu bien) va cac tac gia,

2. ~K, ~V Toan 10, 11, 12 - Chuong trinh chuan - PGS. Tnffi Van H<;lo (T6ng Chu bien) va cac tac gia.

3. Van ban chi dao cua B(> GD&DT lien quan : Chuang trinh giao due pho thong mon Toan, D6i moi phuong phap day h9C, D6i moi ra de kiem tra, Danh rnuc thiet bi day h9C Toan 10, 11, 12.

4. Huang dan thirc hanh Toan tren may tfnh Casio, Vinacal fx-570MS.

5. Hi lieu ve hoi nghi tap huan phuong phap day h9C Toan h9C pho thong, B¢ Giao due va Dao tao, 12/2000.

6. De tai B94 - 27 - 01 - PP ve d6i moi phirong phap day h9C cac mon khoa h9C nr nhien a twang THPT theo huang "hoat dong hoa ngiroi h9C" - 1997.

7. Jean - Marc Denomme et MadeIIeine Roy: (Pour une pedagogic interactive).

Tien toi mot phirong phap sir pharn nrong tac (Ngiroi dich : Nguyen Quang Thuan - T6ng Van Quan) - NXBTN - 2003.

8. Tran Kieu (Chu bien) va cong su : D6i moi phuong phap day h9C a twang

Trung h9C co sa - Vien Khoa h9C Giao due - 1997.

9. Geoffrey Petty: D<;lY h9C ngay nay, Du an Viet - Bi, 2002.

10. Robert Fisher: D<;lY h9C tre, Du an Viet - Bi, 2002.

11. Wilbert J. McKeachie : Nhirng thu thuat trong day h9C, Dir an Viet - Bi, 2002.

12. Tran Ba Hoanh va cong s\f : Ap dung day va h9C tfch eire trong mon Toan, Du an Viet - Bi, 2002.

13. Nguyen Ba Kim - Dinh Nho Chuang ... : Phuong phap day h9C mon Toan - NXBGD - 1994.

14. Pharn Gia DtIC - Nguyen Manh Cang ... : Phuong phap day h9C mon Toan - NXBGD - 1998.

15. De tai cap B¢ rna so B 2002 - 49 - TD37 ve Dinh huang va cac giai phap d6i moi PPDH a twang phd thong - Vien Chien IU<;1c va Chuang trinh Giao due, Ha N¢i, 2004.

95

Ml)C Ll)C

Uri gim thleu

Trang 3

Philn thu nhat

GlOI THI~U CHUNG VB CHUAN KlEN THOC·, KI NANG CVA CHillNG TRINH orAD DVC PHO THONG

Phdn thu hai

HWNG DAN rutr HI~N CHUAN KlEN THOC, KI NANG MON ToAN THPT

Hurmg dan thuc hien Chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang mon Toan lop 11 A - Kien thirc chuang trinh rnon Toan lap 11

B - Huang dan thuc hien Chulin kien thirc,

ki nang rnon Toan lap 11

T6 chirc thuc hien

5

13 21 21

22 93

Chiu trach. nhiem xudt han:

Chu tich HDQT kiern T6ng Giam doc NG~ TRAN AI

Ph6 Tong Giarn doc kiern Tdng bien t~p NGUYEN QUY THAO

T6 chuc han thdo va chiu tracn nhiem noi dung:

Ph6 VI,I tnrong VI,I Giao due Trung hoc NGUYEN HAl CHAu Giarn doc CTCP Dich VI,I xuat ban Giao due Ha Noi PHAN KE THAI

Bien tdp nai dung:

NGUYEN NGQC TO - NGUYEN TRQNG THI~P

Trinh hay bia :

LutJ CHI DONG

Slta han in:

NGUYEN TH~ THANH

Che'bdn :

CONG TY CO PHAN THIET KE V A PHAT HANH sxcn GIAo DVC

Nha xuat biin Giao dl,lc Vi~t Nam - B9 Giao dl,lC va Dao t,lo gifr quyen cong b6 tac phfun.

HlJONG DAN THljC HI~N CHUAN KlEN THtJC, K1 NANG MON ToAN LOP 11

S6 dang ky KHXB : 641-2009/CXB/39-1124/GD. Mil s6 : TYT91H9 - DTH

In 7.000 ban (QD 84TK); khd 29 x 20.5 em.

In tai Nha may in BTfM. S6 in: 1073

In xong va n9P hru chien thangl l nam 2009.

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