P. 1
chuan-mon-Toan-lop-10

chuan-mon-Toan-lop-10

|Views: 2,937|Likes:
Published by hungchng

More info:

Published by: hungchng on Sep 10, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/18/2014

pdf

text

original

BO GIAo Due vA DAo TAO

. . .

NGUYEN THE THACH (CHU BIEN)

NGUYEN HAl CHAu ~ QUACH Ttl CHudNG - NGUYEN TRUNG HIEU DoAN THE PHI$T - PHAM D(fC QUANG - NGUYEN THJ QUY SUtJ

--

HUaNG DAN THUC HIEN

~ K ,.,."..,._

CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG

MONTOAN

LOP 10

NHA XUAT BAN GIAo DVC VI~T NAM

LOI GIOI TIII~U

Ngay 5 thang 5 narn 2006, B9 trL1ang 8(> Giao due va Dao t90 oa ki Ouyet olnh so 16/2006/0£)-BGD8T ve viec ban hanh Chtronq trinh Giao due pho thong.

Chuonq trinh Giao due pho thong la ket qua cua su oieu chlnh, hoan thien, to chirc 19i CaG chucnq trinh oa OL1<;1c ban hanh, lam can cu cho viec quan If, chi 090, to entre day h9C va ki~m tra, danh gia a tat ca cac cap h9C, tnfdng h9C tren pharn vi CEt ruroc.

Chironq trinh Giao due pho thong la mot ke hoach SL( pharn gam: - Muc tieu qiao due ;

- Pharn vi va cau true n9i dung qiao due ;

- Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va y~u cau ve thai 0(> cua tllng man h9C,

cap h9C ;

- Phuonq phap va hinh thirc t6 chirc qiao due ;

- Danh gia 'ket qua qiao due tl1ng man h9C a moi lop, cap h9C.

Trong Chuonq trinh Giao due pho thong, Chuan kien thuc, kT nang duoc th§ hien, cu th~ hoa a cac chu oe cua chucnq trinh man h9C, theo tllng lop h9C ; dong thdi cOng 0L19c th~ hien a ph an cuoi cua chucnq trinh moi cap h9C.

Co th~ noi : f)i~m moi cua Chironq trinh Giao due pho thong Ian nay ta dua Chuan kien thtrc, kT nang vao thanh phan cua ChL1dng trinh Giao due pho thong, darn bao viec chi 090 day h9C, ki~m tra, danh gia theo Chuan kien thirc, ki nang, t90 nen su thong nhat trong .ca nL10c ; gop phan khac phuc tlnh tranq qua tai trang giang day, h9C tap ; qiarn thi~u day them, h9C them.

Nhln chung, a cac trL1dng pho thong hien nay, bL10c oau oa van dunq 0L19C Chuan kien thirc, kT nang trong giang day, h9C tap, ki~m tra, danh gia ; song V8 tong th~, van chua dap Ctng 0L19C yeu cau cua ooi moi qiao due pho thong; can phai 0L19C tiep tuc quan tam, chu tronq hen rnra.

Nharn gop phan khac phuc han che nay, B9 Giao due va Dao t90 to chirc bien soan, xuat ban b9 tai li$u Huring dan thl,lt hi~n Chuan kien thUt,

kJ nang cho cac man h9C, lop h9C cua cac cap Ti~u h9C, Trung h9C co sa va Trung hoc pho thong.

B9 tal ii$u nay 0L19C bien 509n theo hL10ng chi tiet, tL1dng minh cac yeu cau co ban, toi thi~u ve kien thtrc, ki nang cua Chuan kien thuc, ki nang bang cac n¢i dung chon 19C trong sach giao khoa, t90 oieu ki$n thuan 19i hen rura cho qiao 'lien va hoc sinh trong qua trlnh 9i3ng day, h9C tap va ki~m tra, danh gia.

Cau true chung cua be? tai li~u gam hal phan chlnh :

PhBn thtJ nhat : Gioi thieu chung ve Chuan kien thirc, ki' nang cua Chuonq trlnh Giao due pho thong;

Phan tho hoi : HL10ng dan truro hien Chuan kien thuc, ki nang cua tl1ng man h9C trong Chircnq trlnh Giao due pho thong.

B9 tal li$u : Huring dan thl,lt hi~n Chuan kien trus: kJ nang cac man h9C a Trung h9C co sa va Trung h9C pho thong co sl/ tham gia bien soan, tham dinh, gop y cua nhieu nha khoa h9C, nha SL1 pharn, cac can b9 nqhien cuu va chi 090 chuyen man, cac qiao vien day gioi a ola prnronq.

Hi vonq rang, HLf6ng dan thl,lt hi~n Chuan kien thUt, kJ nang se la b9 tai li$u hO'u ich ooi voi can bo quan Ii qiao due, qiao vien va h9C sinh trong ca rurcc. Cac sa Giao due va Dao t90 chi 090 tri~n khai Stl dunq b9 tal li$u va t90 Oi8U kien o~ cac co so qiao due, cac qiao vien va h9C sinh thirc hien tot yeu C3U ooi moi phL1dng phap day h9C, ooi rnoi ki~m tra, danh gia, gop phan tich eire, quan tronq vao viec nang cao chat 1L19n9 qiao due trung h9C.

Lan oau tien 0L19C xuat ban, bo tal li$u nay kho tranh khol nhO'ng thieu sot, han che. B9 Giao due va Dao t90 rat mong nhan 0L19C nhO'ng y kien nhan xet, oong gop cua cac thay co qiao va ban 09C gan xa o~ tal li$u 0L19C tiep tuc bo sung, hoan thien hen cho Ian xuat ban sau.

BQ GIAo Dl)C vA DAo TAO

3

..\ , K

PHAN THU NHAT

GIOI THI~U CHUNG VE CHUAN' I<IEN THUC, 10 NANG CllA CHUONG TRINH GlAo DlJC PHO THONG

1- GI61 THII;:U CHUNG vB CHUAN

1. Chuan la nlumg yeu cau, tieu chi (goi chung la yeu cau) tuan thu nhiing nguyen tac nhat dinh, duoc dung d~ lam tluroc do danh gia hoat dong, cong viec, san pham cua Iinh virc nao do. D<;1t diroc nhirng yeu cau cua chuan la dat diroc muc tieu mong muon cua chu the quan if hoat dong, cong viec, san pham do.

Yeu cau la sir cu th~ hoachi tiet, urong minh Chuan, chi ra nhirng can cu d~ danh gia chat lirong. Yeu cau co th~ diroc do thong qua chi so thirc hien. Yeu cau diroc xem nlur nhiing "chot kiem soat" d~ danh gia chat lirong dau vao, dau ra ciing nhu qua trinh thuc hien.

2. Nlurng yeu cau co ban cua chuan

2.1. Chuan phai co tfnh khach quan, nhin chung khong l~ thuoc vao quan diem hay thai do chu quan cua ngiroi su dung Chuan.

2.2. Chu<1n phai co hieu hrc 6n dinh ca ve pham vi Ian thoi gian ap dung, 2.3. Dam bao tinh kha thi, co nghia la Chuan do co th~ dat diroc (la trinh dQ hay mire dQ dung hoa hop if giira yeu call ph at trien a mire cao hon voi nhirng thuc tien dang dien ra).

2.4. Dam bao tinh cu th~, nrong minh va co chirc nang dinh hrong. 2.5. Dam bao khong mau thuan voi cac chuan khac trong cung linh vue hoac nhirng Iinh vue co lien quan.

II - CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG CllA CHUONG TRINH GIAo DlJC PHO THONG

Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai dQ cua Chuong trinh Giao due pho thong (CTGDPT) diroc th~ hien cu th~ trong cac chirong trinh man h9C, hoat dong giao due (goi chung la man h9C) va cac chuong trinh cap h9C.

Doi voi moi man h9C, moi cap h9C, muc tieu cua man h9C, cap h9C duoc cu the hoa thanh chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua chuong trinh man hoc, chuong trinh cap h9C.

1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuang trinh mon hoc la cac yeu cau CO ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua man h9C rna h9C sinh can phai va co th~ dat diroc sau moi don vi kien thirc (moi bai, chu de, chu diem, rna dun).

Chuan kien thuc, ki nang ctla mot dun V! kiln thue la cac yeu du co ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua don vi kien thirc rna h9C sinh can phai va co th~ dat diroc,

Yeu cdu ve kien thtrc, ki nang th~ hien muc dij can dat ve kiln thuc, ki nang.

M6i yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang co th~ diroc ehi tilt hun bang nhirng yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang cu th~, nrong minh hon ; minh chirng bang nhlrng vi dLJ th~ hien diroc ca noi dung kien thirc, ki nang va mire dQ can dat ve kien thirc, ki nang.

5

2. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuong trinh dip 119C I~ cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua cac man hoc rna h9C sinh can phai va co thti dat diroc sau tung giai doan h9C tap trong cap h9C.

2.1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang a chuang trinh cac cap h9C de cap tci nlnrng yeu cau toi thieu ve kien tlurc, ki nang rna h9C sinh (HS) can va co the dat diroc sau khi hoan thanh chuang trinh giao due cua tirng lap h9C va cap hoc. Cac chuan nay cho thay y nghia quan trong ella viec gan ket, phoi hop giira cac man h9C nham dat duoc muc lieu giao due cua cap h9C.

2.2. Viec th~ hien Chuan kicn thuc, ki nang a cuoi chuang trinh cap h9C th~ hien hinh mau mong doi ve nguoi h9C sau moi cap h9C va can thiet cho cong tac quan If, chi dao, dao tao, boi duong giao vien (GV).

2.3. Chuang trinh cap h9C dil th~ hien chuan kien thtrc, ki nang khong phai d6i voi tirng man hoc rna d6i voi tirng Iinh vue hoc tap, Trong van ban ve chuang trinh cua cac cap hoc, cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang diroc bien soan thea tinh than:

a) Cac chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang khong diroc dira VaG cho lung man hoc rieng bier rna cho tung Iinh vue h9C tap nharn th~ hien sir gan ket gitra cac man h9C va hoat' dong giao due trong nhiern vu thirc hien rnuc tieu cua cap hoc,

b) Chuan kien thtrc, ki nang va yell cau ve thai dO duoc th~ hien trong chuang trinh cap h9C Ia cac chuan cua cap h9C, IUc I~ nhirng yeu cau cu th~ rna HS can dat duoc a cuoi cap hoc, Cach the hien nay tao mot tam nhin ve sir phat trien ella nguoi hoc sau moi cap h9C, d6i chieu voi nhtrng gl rna muc tieu cua cap hoc da de ra.

3. Nhiing dac diem cua Chuan kien thirc, ki nang

3.1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang duoc chi tiet, luang minh bang cac yell cau cu the, r5 rang ve kien thirc, ki nang.

3.2. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang co tfnh t6i thieu, nham dam bao moi HS can phai va co Ihe dat duoc nhirng yeu cau cu th~ nay,

3.3. Chuan kien thtrc, ki nang la thanh phan cua CTGDPT.

Trong CTGDPT, Chuan kien thtrc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do doi voi ngiroi h9C diroc the hien, cu the hoa a cac chu de cua chuong trinh man h9C thea tung lap va a cac Iinh vue h9C tap ; dong thai, Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai d() cung diroc th~ hien a ph an cuoi cua chuang trinh moi cap h9C.

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang 13 thanh phan ella CTGDPT. Viec chi dao day hoc, kiern tra, danh gia thea Chuan kien thirc, ki nang sc tao nen sir thong nhat ; lam han che tinh trang day h9C qua tai, dira them nhieu noi dung nang ne, qua cao so voi chuan kien tlurc, ki nang VaG day h9C, kiem tra, danh gia ; gop 'Ph an lam giam tieu eire cua day them, h9C them; tao dieu kien CO ban, quan trong d~ co th~ t6 clurc giang day, hoc tap, kiem tra, danh gi;i va thi thea Chuan kien tlnrc. ki nang,

III - cAc MU'C DO VB KIEN THUC, KI NANG

Cac mire d(> ve kien thiic, ki nang duoc Ih~ hien cu the trong Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua CTGDPT.

Ve kien thirc : Yeu call HS phai nho, narn virng, hieu r6 de kien tlurc co ban rrong chuang trinh, sach giao khoa, do la nen lang virng vang d~ co th~ phat trien nang lire nhan thtrc a cap cao han.

Ve kj nang: Bier van dung cac kien thirc da hoc d~ tra loi cau hoi, giai bai tap, lam thirc hanh ; co ki nang tinh roan, ve hinh, dung bicu do, ...

6

Kien thtrc, ki nang phai dira tren co so phat trien nang hrc, tri tue HS a die rmrc do, tir don gian den plurc lap ; noi dung bao ham cac mire oc:> khac nhau ella nhan thirc.

Mrrc dQ can dat duoc ve kien thirc duoc xac dinh thea 6 mire oc:> : nhan biet, thong hicu, van dung, phan tich, danh gia va sang tao (e6 th~ tham khao them phan loai Nikko gorn 4 mire do : nhan biet, thong hieu, van dung a nnrc thap, van dung a mire eao).

1. Nhan biet : La SV nho lai cac dir lieu, thong tin oil e6 tnroc day ; nghia la e6 th~ nhan bier thong tin, ghi nho, tai hien thong tin, nhac lai mot loat du lieu, tir cac sir kien dan gian den cac If thuyet plurc tap. Day la mire do, yeu cau thap nhat cua trinh etc:> nhan thuc, th~ hien 6 cho HS e6 tht va chi can nho hoac nhan ra khi diroc dira fa hoac elva tren nhirng thong tin e6 tinh dac thu cua mot khai niern, mot su vat, mot hien urong.

HS phat bieu dung mot dinh nghia, dinh If, dinh luat nhung chua

giai thich va van dung duoc cluing.

C6 tht cu th~ hoa mire dc:> nhan bier bang cac yell cau :

- Nhan ra, nho lai cac khai niern, dinh If, dinh luat, tinh chat,

- Nhan dang diroc (khong can giai thfeh) cac khai niern, hinh th6,

vi trf nrong doi giua cac etoi nrong trong cac tinh huang dan gian.

- Liet ke, xac dinh cac vi tri nrong doi, cac rnoi quan he eta biet giira cac yeu to, cac hien urong.

2. Thong hieu : La kha nang nam diroc, hieu duoc y nghia ella cac khai niern, sir vat, hien urong ; giai thich, cluing minh diroc y nghia ella cac khai niern, str vat, hien nrong ; la mire d9 eao han nhan biet nhung la rmrc dc:> thap nhat ella viec thau hieu su vat, hien nrong, lien quan den y nghia cua cac moi quan he gitra cac khai niern, thong tin rna HS d5 h\>e ho~c du biet. Dieu d6 co tht' dlfQ'e Ih~ hi~n bang vi¢e

chuyen thong tin tir dang nay sang dang khac, bang each giai thich thong tin (giai thich hoac t6m tat) va bang each iroc lirong XLI hirong nrong Jai (du bao cac he qua hoac anh lurong).

C6 th~ cu th~ hoa rmrc etc:> thong hieu bang cac yeu cau :

- Dien Ul bang ngon ngu ca nhan de khai niern, dinh li, dinh Iuat, tfnh chat, chuyen d6i diroc tir hinh thirc ngon ngtr nay sang hinh thirc ngon ngiJ khac (vi du : tir loi sang cong thtrc, kf hieu, so lieu va ngiroc l<;li).

- Bi~u thi, minh hO'.I, giai thich duoc y nghia cua cac khai niem, hien urong, dinh nghia, dinh If, dinh luat.

- Lira chon, b6 sung, sap xep lai nhirng thong tin can thiet d~ giai quyct lTIC:>t van de nao ct6.

- Sap xep lai cac y tra loi call hoi hoac loi giai bai toan thea cau true logic.

3. V<1\n dung : La kha nang sir dung cac kien thirc eta h9C vao mot hoan canh cu th~ moi : van dung nhan bier, hieu bier thong tin d~ giai quyet Vall de d~t ra ; la kha nang doi hoi HS phai biet van dung kien thirc, bie] sir dung phirong phap, nguyen If hay y tuong M giai quyet mot van de nao d6.

Yeu cau rip dung duoc cac quy tile, plnrong phap, khai niern, nguyen If, dinh If, dinh luat, cong tlnrc de giai quyet mot van de trong h9C tap hoac ella thirc tien. Day E\ mire etc:> thong hieu eao hem mire dc:> thong hieu tren.

C6 lht cu tht hoa rmrc d<) van dung bang cac yell cau : - So s.inh cac plurong an giai quyet van de.

- Phrit hien lui gia: co mau thuan, sai lam va chinh sua diroc.

- Giai quyet duoc nhirng tinh huong moi bang each van dung de

khai ni~m, dinh If, c1inh lu,~L t1nh chAt eta biet.

7

- Khai quat hoa, triru nrong hoa tir tinh huang don gian, don Ie quen thuoc sang tinh huang moi, phirc tap hon.

4. Phan tich : La kha nang ph an chi a 1119t thong tin ra thanh cac phan thong tin nho sao cho c6 th~ hieu diroc cau tnic, t6 chirc cua n6 va thiet lap moi lien he phu thuoc Ian nhau giira chung.

Yeu cau chi ra diroc cac bo phan cau thanh, xac dinh duoc rnoi quan he giira cac bo phan, nhan bier va hieu diroc nguyen If cau tnic cua cac bo phan cau thanh, Day la rmrc d9 cao hem van dung vi n6 doi hoi sir thau hieu ca ve noi dung Ian hinh thai cau true cua thong tin, su vat, hien nrong.

C6 th~ cu the hoa mire d9 phan tfch bang cac yeu cau :

- Phan tich cac sir kien, dfr kien thira, thieu hoac du d~ giai quyet

diroc van de. .

- Xac dinh duoc moi quan he gifra cac bo phan trong toan th~.

- CI,l th~ hoa diroc nhirng van de trim nrong.

- Nhan biet va hieu diroc cau true cac bo phan cau thanh.

5. Danh gia : La kha nang xac dinh gia tri cua thong tin: binh xet, nhan dinh, xac dinh diroc gia tri cua mot ttr nrong, mot noi dung kien thirc, mot phuong phap, Day la m91 biroc moi trong viec linh hoi kien thirc diroc dac tnrng boi viec di sau vao ban chat cua doi nrong, sir vat, hien tuong. Viec danh gia dua tren cac tieu chi nhat dinh ; d6 c6 th~ la cac tieu chi ben trong (each t6 clnrc) hoac cac tieu chi ben ngoai (phu hop voi muc dfch).

Yeu cau xac dinh diroc cac tieu chi danh gia (ngiroi danh gia nr xac dinh hoac diroc cung cap cac tieu chi) va van dung diroc d~ danh gia.

C6 the cu th~ hoa rmrc d9 danh gia bang cac yeu cau :

- Xac dinh diroc cac tieu chi danh gia va van dung d~ danh gia thong tin, sir vat, hien nrong, sir kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh gia tri cua cac thong tin, tu lieu thea mot muc dich, yeu cau xac dinh.

- Ph an tich nhtrng yeu to, dfr kien di'i cho d~ danh gia sir thay d6i ve chat cua sir vat, sir kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh diroc gia tri cua nhan to moi xuat hien khi thay d6i cac moi quan he cu.

Cac cong cu danh gia co hieu qua phai giup xac dinh duoc ket qua hoc tap a moi cap d9 n6i tren d~ dua ra mot nhan dinh chinh xac ve nang lire cua ngiroi duoc danh gia ve chuyen mon lien quan.

6. Sang tao : La kha nang tong hop, sap xep, thiet ke lai thong tin ; khai thac, b6 sung thong tin tir cac nguon nr lieu khac de sang lap mot hinh mau maio

Yeu cau tao ra duoc 1119t hinh mau moi, mot mang hroi cac quan he triru nrong (sa do phan lap thong tin). Ket qua hoc tap trong linh vue nay nhan manh vao cac hanh vi, nang hrc sang tao, d~c biet la trong viec hinh thanh cac cau tnic va mo hinh maio

C6 the cu the hoa mire d9 sang tao bang cac yeu cau : - Mo rong mot mo hinh ban dau thanh mo hinh moi.

- Khai quat hoa nhfrng van de rieng Ie, cu the thanh van de tong

quat maio

- Ket hop nhieu yeu to rieng thanh mot tong th~ hoan chinh maio

- DI,l" doan, dir bao sir xuat hien nhan to moi khi thay d6i cac moi

quan he cu.

Day la mire d9 cao nhat cua nhan thirc, vi n6 chua dung cac yeu to cua nhfrng mire d9 nhan thirc tren va dong thai cung phat trien cluing.

8

IV - CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG CllA CHUONG TRINH GlAo Dl)C PHD THONG vUA LA cAN CU, vUA LA Ml)C TIEU CllA GIANG DAY, HOC TAP, KIEM TRA, DANH GIA

Chuan kien thirc, k'i nang va yeu cau ve thai do cua CTGDPT bao dam tinh thong nhat, tinh kha thi, phu hQP cua CTGDPT ; bao dam chat hrong va hieu qua cua qua trinh giao due.

1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la can err

1.1. Bien soan sach giao khoa (SGK) va cac tai lieu huong dan day h9C, kiem tra, danh gia, d6i rnoi phuong phap day h9C, d6i m6i kiem tra, danh gia.

1.2. Chi dao, quan If, thanh tra, kiem tra viec thuc hien day h9C, kiern tra, danh gia, sinh hoat chuyen mon, dao tao, boi duong can bo quan If va GV.

1.3. Xac dinh muc tieu cua moi gio h9C, muc tieu cua qua trinh day h9C, dam bao chat hrong giao due,

104. Xac dinh muc tieu kiern tra, danh gia doi v6i tirng bai kiem tra, bai thi ; danh gia ket qua giao due tung mon h9C, lap h9C, cap h9C.

2. Tai lieu Huang dan thuc hien Ch'ua'n kiln thuc, ki nang diroc bien soan thea huang chi tiel cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang bang cac noi dung chon 19C trong SGK.

Tai lieu giup cac can bo quan If giao due, cac can bo chuyen mon, GV, HS narn virng va thuc hien dung thea Chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

3. Yell Call day hoc bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang 3.1. Yeu cdu chung

a) Can err Chuan kien thirc, ki nang d~ xac dinh muc tieu bai h9C.

Clni trong day h9C nham dar duoc cac yeu cau co ban va toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang, dam bao khong qua tai va khong qua l~ thuoc hoan toan vao SGK ; mire d¢ khai thac sau kien tlurc, ki nang trong SGK phai phu hQP voi kha nang tiep thu cua HS.

b) Sang tao ve phuong phap day h9C phat huy tfnh chu dong, tich eire, tu giac hoc tap cua HS. Chu trong ren luyen phuong phap nr duy, nang lire tu h9C, nr nghien ciru ; tao niem vui, htrng khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai d¢ ur tin trong h9C tap cho HS.

c) D'.lY h9C th6 hien m6i quan he tich eire gifra GV va HS, gifra HS voi HS ; tien hanh thong qua viec t6 chirc cac hoat dong h9C tap cua HS, ket hQP giira h9C tap ca thti voi h9C tap hQP tac, lam viec thea nh6m.

d) D'.lY hoc chu trong den viec ren luyen cac ki nang, nang lire hanh dong, van dung kien thirc, tang cuong thirc hanh va gan noi dung bai h9C v6i thuc tien cuoc song.

e) D'.lY h9C chu trong den viec SlT dung c6 hieu qua phirong tien, thiet bi day hoc diroc trang bi hoac do GV va HS nr lam ; quan tam irng dung cong nghe thong tin trong day h9C.

g) D'.lY h9C clni trong den viec dong vien, khuyen khich kip thai sir tien bo cua HS trong qua trinh h9C tap ; da dang noi dung, cac hmh thirc, each thirc danh gia va tang cuong hieu qua viec danh gia.

3.2. Yeu cdu dOl voi can bf) qudn li co sa gido due

a) Nam vfrng chu tnrong d6i m6i giao due pho thong cua Dang, Nha mroc ; narn virng muc dfch, yeu cau, noi dung d6i m6i thti hien cu

9

the trong cac van ban chi dao ella Nganh, trong Chuang trinh va SGK, phuong phap day hoc (PPDH), sir dung phuong tien, thiet bi day hoc, hinh thirc t6 chirc day hoc va danh gi,i ket qua giao due,

b) Nam virng yell cau day hoc bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang trong CTGDPT, dong thai tao dieu kien thuan loi eho GV, dong vien, khuyen khich GV tfeh cue d6i moi PPOB.

c) C6 bien phap quan If, chi dao l6 chtrc thuc hien d6i rnci PPDH trong nha tnrong I1lQt each hieu qua; thuong xuyen kiern tra, danh gia cac hoat dong day h9C thea dinh huang day h9C bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang dong thai voi tich eire d6i moi PPDH.

d) Dong vien, khen thuong kip thai nhirng GV thuc hien co hieu qua dong thai voi phe binh, nhac nho nhfrng nguoi chua tich cue d6i moi PPDH, day qua tai do khong bam sat Chuan kien thtrc, ki nang.

3.3. Yeu diu dOl voi giao vien

a) Bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang de thiet k€ bai giang, voi muc tieu Iii dat duoc cac yeu call co ban, toi thieu v~ kien thuc, ki nang, day khong qua tai va khong qua I~ thuoc hoan toan vao SGK. Viec khai thac sau kien thirc, ki nang phai phil hop voi kha nang tiep thu ella HS.

b) Thier ke, t6 chuc, huang dan HS thuc hien cac hoat d(mg hoc t~p voi cac hinh thirc da dang, phong phii, e6 sire hap d5n phu hop vci dac tnrng bai h9C, voi dac diem va trinh do HS, vci dieu kien cu the ella lap, tnrong va dia phuong,

c) Dong vien, khuyen khich, tao co hoi va dieu kien eho HS duoc tham gia mot each tich eire, chu dong, sang tao vao qua trinh kham pha, phat hien, d~ xuat va Iinh hoi kien thuc ; chu <; khai thac von kien thirc, kinh nghiern, ki nang eta co ella HS ; tao niem vui, hung khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai d¢ tu tin trong hoc rap eho HS ; giup HS phat trien toi da nang It!e, ti~m nang elb ban than.

d) Thier ke va huong dan HS thuc hien cac dang cau hoi, bai tap phat rrien tu duy va ren luyen ki nang; huang dan su dung cac thiet bi day hoc . t6 chirc co hieu qua cac gia thirc hanh ; huang dan HS co th6i quen van dung kien thirc da hoc vao giai quyet cac van d~ tlurc tien,

c) Su dung cac phuong phap va hinh thirc t6 clurc d~1Y hoc mot each hop If, hieu qua, linh hoat, phu hop voi dac tnrng ella cap hoc, man hoc: noi dung, tinh chat ella bai hoc ; dac diem va trinh do HS ; thoi Iuong day hoc va cac dieu kien day hoc cu the ella tnrong, dia phirong.

4. Yell cau kiern tra, danh gia bam sat Chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang

4.1. Quan niem vlf kiem Ira, danlt gid

Kiern tra va danh gia la hai khau trong mot quy trinh thong nhat nham xac dinh ket qua thuc hien muc tieu day hoc, Kiern tra la tim thap thong tin ur rieng le den he thong v~ ket qua thuc hien muc tieu day hoc ; danh gia hi xac dinh nnrc d(l dat duoc ve thuc hien muc tieu day hoc.

Danh gia ket qua hoc tap thuc chat la vice xem xet rmrc ctQ dat diroc cua hoat dong hoc ella HS so voi muc tieu de ra doi voi tung man hoc, tung lap hoc, cap h9C. Muc tieu ella moi man hoc duoc cu the hoa thanh cac chuan kien thtrc, ki nang, Tir cac chuan nay, khi tien hanh kiern tra, danh gia ker qua hoc tap man hoc can phai thiet ke' thanh nhirng tieu chi nham kiem tra duoc day du ca ve dinh tinh va dinh luong ket qua hoc t~p cua HS.

4.2. Hai chuc nang co ban ctia kilm Ira, danb gia a) Chirc nang xac dinh

- Xac dinh nurc dQ dat duoc trong viec thuc hien ml:'c tieu d<;ly hge, xae dinh mue dQ tht!e hi~n Chu~n kien thue, ki nang ella chuang

10

trinh giao due rna HS dat duoc khi ket thiic mot giai doan hoc tap (ket thuc mot bai, chuang, chu dc, chu diem, rno dun, lap hQC, cap hoc).

~ Xac dinh doi hoi tinh chinh xac, khach quan, cong bang,

b) Chirc nang dieu khien : Phat hien nhirng mat tot, mat chua tor, kho khan, vuong mac va xac dinh nguyen nhan, Ket qua danh gia 13 din cir d~ quyet dinh giai phap cai thien thuc trang, nang cao chat luong, hieu qua day hQC va giao due thong qua vice d6i moi, t6i uu hoa PPDH cua GV va huong dan HS biet tu danh gia M t6i uu hoa phirong phap hoc tap. Thong qua clurc nang nay, kiem tra, danh gia se la dieu kien can thiet :

~ Giup GV nam duoc tinh hinh h9C tap, mire oi? phan hoa ve trinh di? hoc luc cua HS trong lap, tir do co bien phap giup do HS yeu kern va boi dufrng HS gioi ; giup GV·dieu chinh, hoan thien PPDH ;

~ Giup HS bier diroc kha nang hoc t~p cua minh so voi yeu cau ella chuang trinh ; xac dinh nguyen nhan thanh cong cung nhir chua thanh cong, tir do dieu chinh plurong phap hoc tap ; phat trien ki nang tv danh gia ;

- Giup can bo quan If giao due de ra giai phap quan If phu hop M nang cao chat luong giao due ;

- Gitip cha me HS va cong dong bier diroc ket qua giao due cua tung HS, tirng lap va cua ca' CO sa giao due.

4.3. }' eu cdu him tra, danh gia

a) Ki~m tra, danh gia phai cdn ell VtlO Chudn kiln thuc, ki nang cua tung mon hQC a tirng lap ; cac yeu cau co ban, tai thieu can dat vc kien tlnrc, ki nang cua HS sau moi giai doan, moi lap, moi cap hQC.

b) Chi dao, kiem tra vice thuc hien chuang trinh, ke hoach giang d<;ly, hQc t~p clla cae nha tl"Uang ; tang wang d6i mai kh&u ki~m tra,

danh gia tlurong xuyen, dinh ki ; darn bao chat hrong kiem tra, danh gia thuong xuyen, dinh ki chinh xac, khach quan, cong bang; khong hinh thirc, d6i pho nlurng cling khong gay ap luc nang ne. Ki~m tra thtrong xuyen va dinh ki then huang vira danh gia diroc dung Chuan kien thirc, ki nang, vira co kha nang phan hoa cao ; kiem tra kien tlnrc, ki nang co ban, nang luc van dung kien thtrc cua ngiroi hoc, thay VI chi kiem tra hoc thuoc long, nho may moe kien tlurc.

c) Ap dung cac plurong phap phan tich hien dai d~ tang cirong tinh urong duong cua cac de kiem tra, thi. Ker hop that hop If cac hinh thirc kiem tra, thi van dap, nr luan va trac nghiem nham han che 16i hoc tu, . hoc lech, hoc vet ; phat huy iru diem va han che nhiroc diem ella moi hinh thirc.

d) Danh gia chinh xac, dung thirc trang : danh gia cao han thirc te se trier tieu dong lire phan dau viron len; nguoc lai, danh gia khat khc qua rmrc hoac thai di? thieu than thien, khong thay duoc sir tien bo, se trc chc tinh cam, tri tue, giam vai tro tich eire, chu dong, sang tao cua HS.

e) Danh gia kip thai, co tac dung giao due va dong vien sir tien hi? ella HS, giup HS sira chua thieu sot. Danh gia ca qua trinh linh hoi tri thirc ella HS, clni trong danh gia hanh dong, tinh cam ella HS : nghi va lam; nang lire van dung vao thuc tien, tM hien qua trng xu, giao tiep ; quan lam tai mire do hoat dong tich eire, chu dong cua HS trorig tung tiet hoc tiep thu tri thirc moi, on luyen cung nhu cac tier thuc hanh, thi nghiern.

g) Khi danh gia kct qua hQC tap, thanh tich hoc t~p cua HS khong chi danh gia ker qua cuoi cung, rna can chii y ca qua trinh hoc tap, Can tao dieu kien cho HS cung tham gia xac dinh tieu chi danh gia ket qua hQC t~p vai yeu cau khong t~p trung van kha nang tai hi¢n tri thuc ma

I I

chti trong kha nang van dung tri thirc trong viec giai quyet cac nhiern vu phirc hop, Co nhieu hinh thirc va d¢ phan hoa cao trong danh gia,

h) Khi danh giri hoat dong day hoc khong chi danh gia thanh tich h9C tap cua HS, rna con bao gam danh gia ca qua trinh day h9C nham cai tien hoat dong day h9C. Chu trong phuong phap, ki thuat lay thong tin ph an hoi tir HS dti danh gia qua trinh day h9C.

i) Ket hop that hop If gifra danh gia dinh tinh va dinh luong : Can cu vao dac diem cua tirng man h9C va hoat dong giao due a moi lap h9C, cap h9C, quy dinh danh gia bang diem ket hop voi nhan xet cua GV hay danh gia bang nhan xet.xep loai cua GV.

k) Ket hop danh gia trong va danh gia ngoai,

D~ co them cac kenh thong tin phan hoi khach quan, din ket hop hai hoa gitra danh gia trong va danh gia ngoai :

- TV danh gia cua HS voi danh gia cua ban h9C, cua GV, cua co sa giao due, cua gia dinh va cong dong.

- TV danh gia cua G V voi danh gia cua dong nghiep, cua HS, gia dinh HS, cua cac co quan quan If giao due va cua cong dong.

- TV danh gia cua CO sa giao due voi danh gia cua cac co quan quan If giao due va cua cong dong.

- TV danh gia cua nganh Giao due voi danh gia cua xa hoi va danh gia quoc teo

I) Phai la dong lire thiic dfry d6i moi PPDH : D6i rnoi PPDH va d6i moi kiem tra, danh gia la hai mat thong nhat hfru co cua qua trinh day h9C, la nhan to quan trong nhat dam bao chat hrong day h9C.

4.4. Cac tieu chi cua kiim tra, danh. gia

a) Dam bao tinh toan dien : Danh gia diroc cac mat kien thirc, ki nang, nang lire, Y thuc, thai d¢, hanh vi cua HS.

b) Dam bao d¢ tin cay : Tinh chinh xac, trung thirc, minh bach, khach quan, cong bang trong danh gia, phan anh diroc chat hrong thuc cua HS, cua cac CO sa giao due.

c) Dam bao tinh kha thi : Noi dung, hinh thirc, each thirc, phuong tien t6 chirc kiem tra, danh gia phai phil hop voi dieu kien HS, CO sa giao due, dac bier la phil hop voi muc tieu thea nrng man h9C.

d) Dam bao yeu cau phan hoa : Phan loai diroc chinh xac trinh do, mire d¢, nang lire nhan .thirc cua HS, co sa giao due ; can dam bao dai phan hoa rong du cho phan loai doi urong.

e) Dam bao hieu qua: Danh gia diroc tat ca cac Iinh vue can danh gia HS, co sa giao due ; thirc hien diroc day du cac muc tieu d~ ra ; tao dong lire d6i rnoi phuong phap day hoc, gop phan nang cao chat hrong giao due.

12

A ,

PHANTHUHAI

HuONG nAN THVC HI~N cHuAN I(rEN THUC, xt NANG MON ToAN THPT

N(n DUNG MON ToAN THPT

Noi dung mon Toan bao g6m nhirng kien thirc co ban v~ : - SO va cac phep tinh tren tap hop so thirc, so phtrc.

- Menh de va tap hop ; cac bieu thtrc dai so va luong giac

plurong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy vebac hai) ; he phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai) ; bat phuong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy ve bac hai) va he bat plurong trinh bac nhat (mot :in, hai :in).

- Ham so, gi6i han, dao ham, nguyen ham, tich phan va irng dung cua cluing,

- Cac quan h~ hinh h9C va mot so hinh thong dung (diem, dirong thang, mat phang. hinh tam giac, hinh tron, elip, hinh da dien, hinh tron xoay) ; phep doi hinh.va phep dong dang ; vecto va toa d¢,

- MQt so kien thtrc ban dau ve thong ke, t6 hop, xac suat.

KI NANG CO BAN

- Thirc hien diroc cac phep tinh luy thira, khai can, logarit tren t~p so thuc va mot so phep tinh don gian tren tap so phirc.

- Khao sat duoc mot so ham so co ban: ham so bac hai, bac ba, ax + b

ham so bac bon trung phuong, ham so phan thtrc y = d '

, a+

2

ax + bx + C h' ' I ' 'h' K - h' K I' it

y = , am so uong giac, am so mu, am so ogan .

. ex + d

- Giai thanh thao phirong trinh, bat phirong trinh bac nhat, bac hai, he phirong trinh bac nhat, Giai diroc mot so h¢ phirong trinh, he bat phirong trinh bac hai ; phuong trinh luong giac ; phirong trinh, bat phnong trmh, he phirong trinh mti va logarit don gian.

- Giai diroc mot so bai toan ve bien d6i hrong giac, luy thira, mii, logarit, ve day so, ve gi6i han cua day so va ham so.

- Tinh diroc dao ham, nguyen ham, tich phan cua mot so ham so.

- Ve hinh ; ve bieu d6 ; do dac ; tfnh d¢ dai, g6c, dien tich,

th~ tfch. Viet phuong trinh dirong thing, dirong tron, elip, mat phang, mat cau,

- Thu thap va XU li so lieu ; tinh toan ve t6 hop va xac suat.

- Vac hrong ket qua do d<;1C va tinh toano

- Su dung cac cong cu do, ve, tinh toano

- Suy luan va clnrng minh.

- Giai toan va van dung kien thirc toan h9C trong hoc t~p va

dm song.

13

LOP
M~CH NOI DUNG CHU DE I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2. Dai IUQ11g va 2.1. DQ dai * * * * * *
do dai IUQ11g --
2.2. G6e + + * * *
I
2.3. Dien tich + + + * * * *
2.4. Th~ tfch + * * *
2.5. Khoi hrong * * *
I 2.6. Thai gian * * * * *
f---
2.7. V~n toe * *
2.8. Tien te * *
3. D~i so 3.1. Tap hop, menh d~ * *
3 .2. Bieu thirc dai so + + + * * * *
3.3. Ham so va d6 thi + + + * * * * *
3.4. Phuong trmh, + + + + + + * * * * *
he phirong trinh
3.5. Bat dang thirc, ",
+ + + T + + + * * *
bat phuong trinh
3.6. Luong giac I + * *
I
L_ 3.7. Day so, cap so cong, + + + + + + I + *
I cap so nhan
1 15

M~CH NOI DUNG

CHU f)~

lOP

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

+

+

+

12

4. Giai tich

5. Hinh hoc

4.1. Gioi han

- Gioi han cua day so

- Gioi han cua ham so

- Ham so lien tue

*

*

*

4.2. Dao ham

*

*

4.3. Nguyen ham, tfch phan

5.1. Cac khai niern hinh hoc mo.dtlu

5.2. Dai cirong v~ duong thang va mat phang

5.3. Quan he song song - Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.4. Quan he vuong g6e -Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.5. Da giac - Tam giac

- Tir giac

- Da giac

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

16

+

+

+

+

*

*

.*

*

*

+

+

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

- Trong khong gian

+

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

+

+

+

*

*

*

5.10. To~ d¢ I

+ *

- Trong mat phang j I

-- -------------------- --------- -------------------- --------- ---------- --------- --------- ---------- --------- ---------

- Trong khong gian *

5.11. Phep doi hinh

- Trong mat phang

LOP

MACH NOI DUNG CHU DE---~_;-

~-------------~------------------+_----+---2--+_--3--~-4--~--5--~--~~--~-8---~ __ 9 __ ,_ __ 10 __ ~--11--~-1-2~

5.6. DuOng trol1, hinh tron + + + + +

5.7. Hinh da dien

5.8. Hinh tron xoay

---------1--

5.9. Vecto

- Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.12. Phep dong dang

- Trong mat phang

*

*

- Trong khong gian ~-------------+----~------------~----~-----+-----+-----+----~-----~------- -----+-----+----~----~-----~

6. Thong ke, 6.1. Thong ke

T6 hop. Xac suat

16020 Til hop

L --'-_6.3. Xae suM

! "DAN. rOAN LOP 10 A

+

+

+

17

*

*

*

*

DAY HOC MOT s6 NO! DUNG CllA CHUaNG TRINH MaN ToAN

1. Day hoc cac h~ thong so

a) D~t van de rna rong cac he thong so : tir thuc tien, tir noi bo toan hQC, phoi hop.

b) Day hoc nhirng khai niern so: s6 va phep toan, y nghia thuc te cua nhimg khai niem so.

c) D'.lY hoc phep tinh va quan he tlnr nr : ren ki nang tinh toan, phat trien nang lire trf tue, ngarn hinh thanh quan niem ve call tnic.

d) D'.lY hoc nhtrng tfnh chat cua moi he thong so: N, Z, Q, R C.

e) H~ thong hoa sir phat trien cua khai niern so va lam r6 (gioi thieu) plurong phap rna' rong mot he thong so.

2. D~y hoc phl1dng trinh va bat phtronq trinh

a) D'.lY hoc khai niem phuong trinh va nhirng khai niem c6 lien quan.

b) D'.lY hoc phirong trinh dira vao ham menh de : quan niern ve dang thirc ; hieu dung thuc chat cua dau = trong phuong trinh (hinh thirc), phan biet dau = trong phuong trinh va dau = trong bien d6i d6ng .nhat ; dieu kien xac dinh va nghiern phirong trinh,

c) Su dung ngon ngfr cua li thuyet tap hop va logic loan (bien d6i nrong duong, he qua, ket hop nghiem, .. .).

d) D'.lY hQC giai phuong trinh.

e) Dien bien cua tap nghiem khi bien d6i phuong trinh : mo rong, thu hep, urong dirong.

f) Giai quyet plnrong dien ngfT nghia (xem xet noi dung cua nhirng rnenh de toan hoc va nghia cua nhfrng each d~t van de toan hoc) va phirong dien cu phap (xem xet cau tnic hinh thirc va sir bien d6i hinh thirc nhirng bieu thtrc toan hoc, sir lam viec theo nhirng quy tac xac dinh, theo thuat giai).

g) D<:J.y hoc giai bai toan bang each lap phirong trinh.

h) Thay duoc irng dung cua toan hQC trong thirc te va viec toan hQC hoa cac bai toan c6 noi dung thirc tien.

i) Phat hien quan he giira cac dai Iuong.

k) Ki nang giai bai toan, trong tam la ki nang lap va giai phirong trinh,

3. D~y hoc ham so

a) D'.lY hoc khai niem ham so : giai thich dinh nghia ham so dua vao bieu nrong rap hopva cau true logic, minh hoa khai niem bang cac VI du da dang.

b) D'.lY hoc khao sat ham so : tfnh toan phuc vu khao sat, ve d6 thi, doc d6 thi,

c) Phat trien ttr duy ham: tu nrong chu dao (phat hien, nghien ciru nhtrng sir nrong irng) ; thuc hien gai dong co ; hinh thanh bieu urong tien tm tri thuc vc sir tuong U'ng don tri va tap luyen nhirng hoat dong an khop voi tri thirc plurong phap ve tu duy ham ; phan bac hoar dong ve nr duy ham (sir phirc tap, mire d¢ doc lap cua hoat dong nhan thirc hoc sinh, rmrc d¢ thanh thao cua hoar dong),

d) Phat trien tu duy ham trong toan b¢ chuang trlnh mon toan (theo cac mach toan),

18

2 !lOAN. TOANLOP10 fl

4. D~y hoc dao ham va tich phan

a) DC;lY hoc ham sO' lien tuc : gioi han cua day sO' ; gioi han cua ham sO' ; ham sO' lien tuc,

b) DC;lY hoc dao ham: hinh thanh khai niern ; day hoc tim dao ham; day hoc irng dung cua dao ham.

c) DC;lY hoc nguyen ham va tfch phan : hinh thanh khai niem ; day hoc tim nguyen ham; khai niern tfch phan ; tinh tfch phan,

5. D~y hoc hinh hoc khong gian

a) DC;lY hoc khai niern : hlnh thanh, cung co, van dung.

b) DC;lY hoc cluing minh : goi dong co ; phuong phap suy luan va phirong phap clurng minh (xuoi, ngiroc lui) ; quy tac ket luan logic.

c) Hinh ve trong day hoc hlnh hoc khong gian : hinh bieu dien, hinh vi5 tnrc quan trong day hoc,

6. D~y hoc vecto va toa dQ a) DC;lY hoc vecto

- DC;lY hoc khai niem vecto : mo ta tinh cung huang bang tnrc giac, Slr dung vecto ur do mot each an tang, chu y lien mon,

- DC;lY hoc phep toan vecto : can dinh nghia phep toan, quy tac thirc hien phep toan, cac tinh chat Cef ban cua moi phep toan.

- DC;lY giai bai tap v~ vecto : chuyen ngon ngfr, sir dung cac phep toan.

b) DC;lY hoc toa d¢

- DC;lY hoc phuong phap toa d¢ trong mat phang : he toa do, l~p va Slr dung phirong trinh dirong.

- DC;lY hoc phirong phap toa d¢ trong khong gian lien M voi hinh hoc phang : them phep tinh tfch vecto (c6 huang).

c) DC;lY hoc giai bai tap bang toa d¢ : lam quen voi nhirng each xac dinh toa d¢ cua nhirng yeu to' hinh hQC ; quy trinh giai mot bai toan bang phirong phap toa d¢.

7. D~y hoc mach toan U'ng dl:lng

a) DC;lY hoc yeu to' cua phirong phap sO'

- Lam r6 moi lien h~ giira plurong phap so, thuat giai va may tinh.

- Gioi thieu va cho sir dung mot sO' phirong phap sO' thong dung :

phirong phap lap (tim nghiern).

- Hinh thanh th6i quen lam tron sO' va viet sO' thea quy tac chuan, b) DC;lY hoc yeu to' cua If thuyet to'i uu

- Lam ro nguon gee hoac y nghia thirc tien cua bai toan. (vi du : bai toan tim dirong di ngan nhat...).

- Cho HS giai toan tui uu dua vao nhirng kien thirc toan hoc phd

thong: bat d~ng thirc ; dao ham.

c) DC;lY hoc mot sO' yeu to' cua xac suat thong ke

- DC;lY thong ke mo ta (tir Tieu hoc den Trung hoc phd thong).

- DC;lY dai sO' td hop.

- D<.tY mot sO' yeu to' cua If thuyet xac suat : neu y nghia thong ke

cua xac suat.

8. D~y hoc mQt so yeu to cua Ii thuyet t~p hqp va logic toan

a) Lam r6 nhimg moi quan he gifra nhfrng khai niem can cu vao nhtrng moi quan he gitra nhirng tap hop : bieu thi nhirng moi quan h~ d6 bang bieu do Ven.

19

b) Yeu cau sir dung ki hieu cua t~p hop va logic trong dien dat toan hoc ; yeu cau logic cua dinh nghia khai niern.

c) Phan tich cac thanh phan cua clurng minh va cac yeu call logic nrong irng : luan de, luan ctr, luau Ch(01g.

9. D~y h9C theo mach kien thuc toan

a) GV can hinh dung duoc mach kien tlurc trong chuang trinh toan o truong pho thong, cung nhir mach kien thirc chay ngarn trong Toan hoc d~ e6 th~ trinh bay dung khi day hoc va qua d6 giup HS hieu va e6 th~ thac trien duoc kien tlurc d3 hoc. Din hinh dung va lot ta cac mach doc, mach ngang d~ e6 th~ irng dung, soi roi kien tlnrc sa cap boi kien thirc Toan eao cap va ngiroc lai, chuyen hoa kien thirc Toan cao cap thanh sa cap (trong tnrong hop c6 the). HU6'ng dan HS sao eho qua vice hoc e6 diroc sa do ve mach kien thirc c6 trong chuang trinh. Chii 'S' bien phap tlurc hien sao cho kha thi.

b) GV can giup HS hinh dung diroc he thong kien thirc d~ e6 th~ hinh dung he thong bai tap, qua d6 hinh dung diroc mach kien thirc. Tir d6 biet each khai thac va van dung trong giai roan, h9C to an va nghien ciru Toan hoc.

c) Thong qua day hoc cac mach kien thirc, GV can :

- Ren luyen eho HS cac thao 14k nr duy : phan tich, tong hop, urong nr hoa, khai 'quat hoa, ~~c biet hoa, ...

- Giup HS each lam giau kien thirc, nrc la day tri thirc va day tri thirc phuong phap. Nhu the cung la day HS each suy nghi, day each sang tao.

- Day HS each hoc, biet nr h9C.

- Phan b~e hoat dong, tien toi phan hoa doi tuong.

- D<;IY h9C huang toi phat trien.

d) Khi hinh dung duoc cac mach toan, GV c6 th~ nr lam giau kien thuc, wan toi bier nr sang tac bai tap.

D<;1y hoc mach kien thirc can gan voi day h9C cac tinh huong dien hinh trong mon toan,

Qua vice tim hieu cac mach kien thtrc loan 0 tnrong phd thong,

GV can van dung duoc trong day h9C cac tinh huong di~n hinh nhir :

a) Day h9C khai niern

b) Day hoc dinh If

c) D<;1Y h9C bai t~p

d) D<;Iy h9C on tap.

LUll )f tien hanh theo trinh tir, chang han : tiep can, hinh thanh, cung co, he thong hoa, ...

20

HuONG DAN THl)'C HIJ?,N CHuAN I(IEN THlrC, xt NANG MQN ToAN LOP 10

A - KIEN THUC CHUONG TRINH MON ToAN LOP 10 tPhdn in nghieng, dam danli cho chuang trinli nang cao)

DAI s(j

1. Kien thirc co ban ve menh d~, .chtrng minh bang phan cluing.

Tap hop, cac phep toan: hop, giao, hieu ella hai tap hop, Cac tap hop so. S6 gan dung, sai so.

2. On tap va b6 tuc v~ ham so. Ham s6 bac hai va do thi. Ham s6 y = Ixl.

3. Dai wong v~ phuong rrinh, he phuong trinh : cac khai niern co ban. Phuong trinh guy v~ bac nhat, bac hai. Phuong trinh bac nhat hai tin ; he phtrong trinh bac nhat hai tin, ba ~n.

4. Bat dang tlnrc. Bat dang thirc gifra trung binh cong va trung binh nhan, bat dang thirc chua dau gia tri tuyet doi. Dau ella nhi thirc bac nhat, Bat plurong trinh va h~ bat phirong trinh bac nhat mot ~n, hai tin. Dau ella tam thirc bac hai. Bat phuong trinh h(IC hai.

5. G6c va cung IUQ'ng giac, gia tri lirong giac cua chung : cong thirc cong ; cong thirc nhan doi ; cong tlurc bien ct6i tong thanh tich ; cong thirc bien d6i tfch thanh tong,

Bang phan b6 tan s6 - uin suat, bang phan b6 tan s6 - Uln suat ghep lap ; bieu do tan s6, Uin suat hinh cot, dirong gap khiic tan so, tan suat ; bieu do Uln suar hinh quat ; s6 trung binh, s6 trung vi va mot ; phirong sai va do lech chuan.

HINII HOC

l. Vecto . tonz, hieu ella hai vecto ; tich cua vecto voi mot so' ;

, '--' . .

true, he true toa d9 ; toa dQ cua di~m va toa d9 cua vecto.

2. Tich vo lurong cua hai vecto ; img dung vao tam giac (dinh If eosin, dinh If sin, d9 dai dirong trung tuyen, dien tich tam giac),

3. Phuong trinh duong thang (phirong trinh tong quat, phuong trinh tham so). Khoang each va g6c. Phuong trinh duong tron, phircng trinh tiep tuyen cua duong tron, DUOng elip (dinh nghia, plurong trinh chinh tac, hinh dang),

21

B - HUONG DAN THl)'C HI~N CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG MON ToAN LOP 10 (Phdn in nghieng, dam dann cho chuang trinli nang cao)

Chunn kien thtrc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

I - MI;:NH DE. TAP HQP

1. M¢nh de'wl menh de' chua bien (menh d~ ; menh d~ chua bien ; phu dinh cua mot menh d~ ; menh d~ keo thea ; menh

" . . .

d~ dao ; hai menh d~ nrong dirong ; dieu

kien can, dieu kien du, dieu kien can va du).

Ve' kiln thuc :

- Bier the nao la mot menh de, phu dinh cua mot menh M.

- Biet kf hieu pho bien (\7') va kf hieu ton tai (:3) ; biet phu dinh "cac menh d~ co chua kf hieu ph6 bien (\7') va kf hieu ton tai (:3).

- Biet diroc menh d~ phep keo theo, menh M nrong dirong, menh d~ dao.

- Bier khai niem menh d~ chua bien.

1. Moi menh de (logic) phai hoac dung hoac sai. - Dang 1 : NMn biet mot cau co la mot menh d~

MQt menh d~ khong th~ vira dung, vira sai. Ki hay khong.

hieu menh d~ boi cac chir cai in hoa : P, Q,... _ Dang 2 : Phu dinh mot menh de ; xac dinh tfnh dung, sai cua cac menh d~.

- Dang 3 : Lap menh de keo thea va menh de nrong dirong tir hai rnenh de da cho ; xac dinh diroc tinh dung sai cua menh de keo theo, menh de nrong dirong.

- Dang 4 : Lap menh de dao cua mot menh de cho tnroc.

Vi du. Trong cac cau sau day thi cau nao la menh M?

2. VOi moi gia tri cua bien x thuoc mot t~p hop nao do, menh M chua bien P(x) tro thanh mot menh de,

+ "lOla mot so nguyen to".

+ "123 la mot so chi a het cho 3". + "Ngay mai troi se nang".

+ "Hay di ra ngoai" !

22

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan tlurc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LlIU Y

3. Menh de phu dinh P cua menh de P la dung Vi du. Neu menh de phu dinh cua moi menh de khi va chi khi P sai va la sai khi va chi khi P sau va eho biet tinh dung sai cua moi menh de

dung. phu dinh do !

- "SO 11 la mot sc nguyen to".

- "SO 111 ehia het eho 3".

Vai hai menh de P va Q

Q : "n khong la so nguyen".

a) Hay phat bi~u menh de P ~ Q.

b) Phat bieu menh de dao cua menh de tren,

c) Xem xet tinh dung, sai cua cac menh de tren,

5. Menh de dao cua menh de P ~ Q la Q ~ P. Vi du. Cho hai tam giac ABC va A'B'C'. Xet hai

menh de: 6. Ta noi hai menh de P va Q la hai menh de

tuong dirong neu hai menh de P ~ Q va P: "Tam giac ABC va tam giac A'B'C' bang nhau".

Q ~ P deu dung. Q : " Tam giac ABC va tam giac A'B'C' co dien tich bang nhau".

7. Kf hieu V doc Ia voi moi, Ki hieu :3 doc la

ton tai it nhat mot (hay co it nhat mot).

4. Menh de P ~ Q chi sai khi P dung va Q sai Vi du. Xet hai menh de: - Lap diroc menh de keo thea va rnenlr de (trong moi tnrong hop khac P ~ Q deu dung) . P: "n la sO' vo ti'' va nrong dirong tir hai menh de eho tnroc,

Ve' ki ndng :

- Xac dinh diroc mot diu eho tnroc co Ia menh de hay khong.

- Biet phu dinh cua mot menh de, xac dinh diroc tinh dung sai cua cac menh de trong nhirng tnrong hop dan gian,

- Xac dinh duoc tinh dung sai cua menh de keo thea ; menh de tirong dirong.

- Biet lap menh de dao cua mot menh de eho tnroc,

a) Xet tinh dung sai cua menh de P ~ Q.

b) Xet tfnh dung sai cua menh de Q ~ P.

c) Xet tinh dungsai cua menh de P <=> Q .

d) Lap menh de phu dinh va menh de dao cua m~nhdeP~Q.

23

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Htrong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

Vi dZJ. Xet hai menh de :

P : "24 Iii s6 ehia het cho 2 va 3", Q : " 24 Iii so chi a ber cho 6".

a) Xet tinh dung sai cua menh de p ~ Q.

b) Xet tfnh dung sai cua menh de Q ~ P.

c) Menh de p Q Q e6 dung khong ?

Vi du. Lap menh de dao cua rnenh de sau

P : "M9t s6 nr nhien e6 tong cac chir s6 chi a het cho 3 thi s6 d6 ehia her cho 3".

Dinh li :

Dinh. li todn hoc la menh de' dung, thuong co dang A z:» B. Khi do, A duoc goi Iii GL4 THIEl' con B duoc so! la KET LU~N. Hay fa ding noi A Iii DIEU Klf--w In) dl co B, B la DIEU KIJ};N CAN dlco A.

Dinh. li ddo :

Khi "A =? B" la mot dink li thi menb de ddo B z:» A co thl dung hoac sai ; trong truong hop B z:» A fa mot menlt de dung thi fa noi B z:» A Iii DINH u DAO cua dinh li A =? B, COil

A =?B la D!NH t.i TllU~N. Dieu kien cdn vii d,;

_JNtu dting thoi C() dinlt If thtuin A z:» B vii dinh Ii ddo B =? A thi A ¢::::> B fa mfJt menlt de dung.

~----------------------------- ----------.~------------------------------------~

2. lip dung menh. de viio ;uy ludn toan

I hoc (gid thiet, kel fU(l11 ; dUu kien Call, dieu kien l!u, dieu kien cdn va du).

Ve' kien thuc :

Phdn biet dUlJ'C gid thiet, klt ludn cua mot dinh li, bie: duoc dieu kien can, dieu kien dll.

Ve'kinang:

_. Chung minh duoc mot SlY menh de' bang phuong pluip phdn chung. .

24

- Dang 1: Nhdn biel dieu kien cdn, dieu kien du (xtu: dinlt dung dieu kien cdn, dieu kien du trong mot dinlt li cho truoc ; Viet dinh. li cho truoc dum dang dieu kien cdn, die'u kien du, dieu kien cdn vii du ... ).

- Dang 2 :

Chung minh dinb li bang phdn cluing.

Vi du. Cho dinh li : "Neu mfJl tam giac co binh phuong cua mot canlt bdng to"ng binh phuong cua hai canlt kia thi tam giac do la tam guic vuong, "

a) Viet gid thiet, ket ludn cua dinh li tren.

b) Sit dung thudt ngii "dieu kien du" di ph at bien menh de tren.

---~----------------------------,---------------------------------------------------------------------------~

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Kien tlurc co ban

Huong dan tlurc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

f 3. Tap hop va cdc phep I~an tren lap hop

Khi do ta no; : A la die'u kien cdn va du di co B, hay B la dieu kien cdn va du di co A ; hay con

I noi : A khi va chi khi B ; hotic noi : A neu va chi neu B, ...

Chung minh dinh Ii A ~ B co thi theo mot trong cac each sau :

Cach 1 : Chung minh true tiep, do la su dung cdc dii kien cho trong gid thiet A (duac coi la dung), cdc kiln thuc dd biet va cac phep suy ludn toan hoc di cluing to rang B la dung.

Cach 2 : Chung minh gidn tiep. Cach chung minh gian tiep hay duoc dung la CHUNG MINH BANG PHAN CHUNG. Theo each nay ta gid su rdng A dung va B sai, tit do dung cdc dii kien cua gid thiet, cdc kiln thuc dd biet va cdc phep suy ludn loan hoc di di den mdu thudn, chung to gid su tren la sai, suy ra dieu phd; cluing minh.

c) Su dung thudt ngii "dieu kien cdn" di pluu bieu menh detren.

d) Dinh Ii tren co till ph at biiu duoi dang din va du duoc hay khong ?

Vi du. Cho cdc sothuc ab az' bI, b2 thod nuin :

al + a2 = 2bl·b2·

Chung minh rang co it nhat mot trong hai bat ddng thuc sau la dung:

b~ 2: aI' b;2: a2·

Vi du. Chung minh rang neu uing binh phuong cua hai so' nguyen chia het cho 3 thi hai so do chia he: cho 3.

Vi du. Chung minli rang J3 la so'vo tl.

I (Khai niern t~~~ hop ; tap hop bang nhau ; t~p can ; tap rong ; hop, giao ella hai t~p hop ; phan bu ella ITlQt tap can ; mot so' tap can ella t~p so' thuc).

Ve' kicn thuc :

-- Hitu duoc khai rriem tap hop, tap hop can, hai t~p hop bang nhau.

Tap hop 13 mot khai niem co ban ella toan hoc. Thong thirong rnoi tap hop gorn cac phan ttT cling co chung mot hay mot vai tinh chat.

Tap hop thirong duoc eho bang each lier ke cac phan nr hoac chi r6 tinh chat dac tnrng eho cac phan tv ella t~p hop do. Tap hop thtrong duoc kf hieu boi chir cai in hoa : A, B, C, ... phan tv ella tap hop duoc ki hieu bang chir cai thuong : G, b, C, ...

- Dang 1 : Bi~u dien rap hop bang cac each: liet ke cac phan tv ella tap hop hoac chi ra tfnh chat dac tnrng ella tap hop, SU dung cac ki hieu E, E, 0.

- Dong 2 : Xac dinh tap con ella mot rap hop ; Chung minh hai tap hop bang nhau. SV dung cac ki hieu c, =:l.

25

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

- V an dung cac khai niem i~p h9P eon,

tap hQP bang nhau vao giai bai tap. 5. Phep hlY ph an bu : Neu AcE thi

C EA = E \ A = {x I x E E va x (.! A}.

- Hieu cac phep toan : giao cua hai tap hQP, hQP cua hai tap hQP, hieu cua hai tap hQP, phan bu cua mot tap eon.

Ve'kfndng:

- Si.'r dung dung cac kf hieu E, (.!, c, :::::l, 0,A \B, CEA.

- Biet bieu dien tap hQP bang cach : liet ke cac phan nr cua tap hQP hoac chi ra tfnh chat dac trung cua tap hQP.

- Thuc hien diroc cac phep toan lay giao cua hai tap hQP, hQP cua hai tap hop, phan bu cua mot tap eon.

- Biet dua vao bieu do Yen de bieu dien giao cua hai tap hQP, hQP cua hai tap hQP.

1. Tap A diroc goi la tap eon cua tap B, kf hieu la A c B, neu moi phan nr cua A deu la phan nr ciis B.

2. Phep giao hai tap hQP :

A n B = {x I x E A va x E B}. 3. Phep hQP hai tap hQP :

A u B = {x I x E A hoac x E B}.

4. Hieu cua hai tap hQP :

A \ B = {x I x E A va x (.! B}.

6. Cac tap hQP so :

Khoang :

• (a ; h) = {x E JR. I a < x < b}

• (a ; + 00 ) = {x E JR. I a < x}

• (-00 ; h) = {x E JR. I x < h}. Doan :

• [a; h] = {x E JR.I a s; x:S h}. Ni.'ra khoang :

• [a ; h) = {x E JR. I a :S x < h} .

• (a ; h] = {x E JR. I a < x :S h} .

• [a ; + 00 ) = {x E JR. I a :S x} ;

• ( - 00 ; h] = {x E JR. I x :S h} ;

- D(;lI1g 3 : Thirc hien cac phep toan lay giao cua hai tap hQP, hQP cua hai tap hQP, hieu cua hai tap hQP, ph an bu cua mot tap eon. Si.'r dung bieu do

Yen. Sir dung cac ki hieu C,:::::l, A \B, CEA.

- Dang 4 : Bieu dien cac tap hQP so ; Xac dinh phep giao, hQP, hieu, lay phan bu cua cac tap hQP so. (Bier dung bieu do Yen M bieu dien cac phep toan tren tap hQP ; Biet sir dung true so va cac kf hieu doan, khoang, ni.'ra khoang trong viec bieu dien tap so thirc).

Vi du . Viet cac tap hQP sau thea each liet ke cac phan ti.'r:

a){xEJR.i (x2-2x+l)(x-3)=0}.

b) {x E Nix:s 30 ; x la boi cua 3 hoac cua 5 } .

Vi du . Cho cac tap hQP A = [- 3 ; I] ; B = [- 2; 2] ;

C = [- 2 ; + 00).

a) Trong cac tap hQP tren, tap hQP nao la tap eon cua tap hQP nao ? lim phan bu cua chung ?

b) lim An B; Au B; Au C; A \B; B\C. Vi du. Tim tat cd cae trJp hap X sao cho

{a;b} C X C {a;b;c;d}.

X co bao nhieu tap con khac rong ?

26

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dim thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Tap s6 thuc :

.(-00 ;0] U [0;+(0)=(-00 ;+oo)=R

Vi du . Cho cac tap hop :

A = {x E IR 1- 5 :s; x:S; 4} ;

B = {x E IR 17:S; x < 14} ;

C={XEIR 1 x>2}; D={XEIR Ix:S;4}.

a) Dung ki hieu doan, khoang, nih khoang ... d~ viet lai cac tap hop d6.

b) Bi~u dien cac tap hop A, B, C, D tren true so. e) Xae dinh A" B; A u B; A u C ; A \ B ; B \ C ; A "D.

Vi du. Xac dinh cac phan nr cua tap hop

{x EIR l(x2-2x+1)(x-3)=O}.

Vi duo Cho cac tap hop

A = [- 3; I]; B = [- 2; 2] va C = [- 2; + (0).

a) Cho biet tap hop nao la tap eon cua tap hop khac, trong s6 cac tap hop tren ?

b) Tim A" B; A u B; A u C.

Vi du. Sap xep cac tap hop so sau day N * ; Z , N ; IR ; Q thea tlur tv tap hop tnroc la tap hop eon cua tap hop sau.

4. S6' gdn dung va sai s6' (SO gan dung; Sai so tuyet doi va sai so' tuong dOl ; SO quy tron ; d¢ chinh xac cua so gan dung. Chft so' chdc va dang chudn cua so' gdn dung; ki hieu khoa hoc cua mot so' thap phdn),

Cho a la s6 gan dung cua a. - Dang 1 : Tim s6 gan dung cua mot s6 voi d¢

I I chfnh xac eho tnroc.

I. !1a = a - a diroc goi la sai s6 tuyet d6i cua

- Dang 2 : Sir dung may tinh bo nii d~ tinh cac s6 gan dung.

s6 gan dung a.

27

Kien thirc CO' ban

Hunng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

l

2, Neu L111 :::; d thi d diroc goi la d() chinh xac cua - Dang 3 : Xac dinh. chit so chiic va cacli viet

- chudn sf)' gdn dung.

sO' gan dung a va quy iroc viet gon la a = a ± d.

la - al

3. tt s(f lal ,ki hieu ia tSa, duoc so! ia sai so'

tuong doi cua so' gdn dung a (thuang duoc nluin vOi 100% dl viet duoi dang phdn tram).

4. Cach viet sO' quy tron cua sO' gan dung can ctr vao d9 chinh xac cho tnroc : Cho sO' gan dung a voi et9 chinh xac d (nrc la a = a ± d). Khi diroc yeu cau quy tron sO' a rna khong noi r6 quy tron den hang nao thi ta quy tron a den hang cao nhat

rna d nho hun 1119t don vi ella hang do,

5. Cho so' gtin dung a cua so a voi dtj chinh xac d. Trong so' a, mo: chit so' duac goi fa chir so chac (hay dang tin) neu d khong vuot qua ntia dan vi cua hang co chii so' do.

6. Xet so' gdn dung a cua sodung a.

+ N eu a ia so' thdp ph an (khong phdi ld so nguyen), duoc viet duoi dang chudn mel co k chii so' a pluin tluip phdn thi sai so'tuy¢t dOl cua

a khong vuot qua ~ 10-1.:, nghia fa

1 -k _ l-k

a - -2 10 :::; a :::; a + -10 .

L 2

__ . -"-- _l_. _j

v c' kicil thuc :

Hi~u khai niern sO' gall dung, sal sO' tuyet doi va sai sotuong doi, so quy tron, chic so' chdc va cacti viet chuan so' gdn dung, ki hieu khoa hoc cua so' tluip phdn.

V c' ki nang :

- Bier tim so gan dung cua motso v¢i d9 chinh xac cho tnroc.

- Bier str dung may tinh bo nii d~ tfnh toan cac so gan dung.

28

- Dang 4 : Viet so' gdn dung duoi dang ki hieu khoa hoc cua so'th(lp phdn.

Vi du. Cho so a = 13,6481.

a) Viet so quy tron cua a den hang phan tram.

b) Viet sO' quy tron cua a den hang phan chuc.

Vi du. Mtjt cai san hinlt chit nhdt voi chieu rong a = 2,56m ± O,Olm vel chieu dai b = 4,2m ± 0,02m. Chung minli rang chu vi P c~a san,~a P = 13,5~m± 0,06111. Viet sodo chu I lit P dum dang chudn.

Vi du. Biet rdng toe dtj dnlt sang trong cluin khong la 3()0 OOOkm/s. Hoi trong mot nam (365 ngay] dnh. sting di duac trong chan khong mot khodng cacb la bao nhieu ? Viet ket qua duoi dang ki hieu khoa hoc.

Vi du. Ghi so' a dang ki hieu khoa hoc 7 12300000 = 1,23.10 ,

_ -1

0,256700 = 2,~67.1 0 ,

2 123,987654321 ~ 1,24.10 .

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Hirong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

+ N eu a Iii so' nguyen duac viet duoi dang chuan a = A.l0k voi A E Z vii kEN thi sai so'

I tuy¢t dOL cua a khong vuot qua ~ 10\ nghia Iii 1 k _ 1 k

a - "210 S; a S; a + "210 .

~--------------------------------~---------

II - HAM so BAC NHAT vA BAC HAl

J. Dai cuong ve' ham so' (Djnh nghia , I Cach cho ham so , D6 thi cua ham so , I I-I3m so dong bien, nghich bien ; Ham so chan, ham so le),

Vc'kicl1 thuc :

- Hieu khai niem ham so, tap xac dinh cua ham so, d6 thi cua ham so.

- Hieu khai niern ham so dong bien, nghich bien, ham so chan, le. Biet dtroc tfnh chat doi xrrng cua d6 thi ham so chan, d6 thi ham sole.

2. Ham so y = j(x) goi la dong bien (hay tang)

Vi du. TIm tap xac dinh cua cac ham so: tren khoang (a ; b) neu

a)y=~ ,

I. M9t ham so c6 the duoc cho bang:

a) Bang; b) Bieu d6 ;

c) Cong thirc ; d) D6 thi.

- D(_lI1g J : 'TIm t~p xac dinh cua cac ham so don gian,

- Dang 2 : Chung minh ham so dong bien, ham so nghich bien.

- D(_lI1g 3 : Cluing minh ham so chan, ham so Ie.

- Dang 4 : Xac dinh diroc mot diem nao d6 c6

thuoc mot d6 thi ham so cho truce hay khong,

b) y = --_--1--,., + ~ ,

A --.!.

v c' ki ruing : 1- Bier tim tap xac dinh cua cac ham so

I d ,-,

I (In gnm,

I - Biet erich ch(mg minh ham so dong

I, bien, ham so nghich bien, ham so chan. ham so le tren mot tap cho tnroc.

l ---L.. -- _L_ __J

Khi cho ham so bang cong thirc (rna khong chi ro tap xac dinh cua n6) thi tap xac dinh D cua ham so y = j(x) la tap hop un d. cac so tlurc x sao cho bieu thucf(x) c6 nghia.

3, Ham so y = j(x) goi la nghich bien (hay giam) tren khoang (a ; b) neu

V XI' x2 E (0; b), x1< x2 ~ j(x1) > j(x2)'

4, Xet chien bien thien cua mol ham s6 la tim cac khoang dong bien V~I cac khoang nghich bien cua n6. Ket qua duoc tong ket trong mot bang goi la bang bien thien.

29

,---::; 1

c) \' = ~4- X + ---.

- E-l

V f du Xet xcm trong cac diem A(O ; I), B( I ; 0), C(-2 , -3), D(-3 , 19), diem nao thuoc do thi ham so y = j(x) = 2\:,2 + 1.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

- Xac dinh diroc mot di~m nao do co 5. Ham so y = f(x) voi tap xac dinh D goi la ham thuoc mot do thi ham s6 cho truoc hay so chan neu

khong. V xED thi -xED va/(-x) =f(x).

D~ng toan - Vi dl,l- Liru y

---------------~

Vi du. Xet tinh dong bien, nghich bien cua ham

so sau day tren khoang dii chi ra :

a) )! = - 3x + I tren lR ;

b) y = 2.i tren (0 ; + 00) ;

c) y = .J2x - 1 tren tap xac dinh.

Vi du. Xet tfnh chan, le cua ham so:

a) y = 3x 4 - 2i + 7 ;

b) y = 6x3 -x;

c) y = 21xl + x2 ;

d) y = .J x - 4 + rx+4 ; e)y=~-~.

y = ax + b va do thi cua no ; Do thi ham • Tap xac dinh IR. ; so' y = Ixl ' Do thi ham so y = lax + bl • Bang bien thien

r-------------~~------------~

(a * 0).

Vi kien thuc :

- Hieu duoc su bien thien va do thi cua ham so bac nhat.

- Hieu each ve do thi ham so bac nhat va do thi ham so y = I x I ,

- Dang 4: Khdo sat sf! bien thien va vi do thi ella ham stf cho bOi cac ham bac nhd: tren cac khodng khac nhau.

ham stf y = lax + bl (a * 0). Biet duoc • Do thi la dtrong thing khong song song va Vi du. Cho ham so y = 3x + 5. khong trung voi cac true toa dQ.

I x I nhan Oy lam true a) Lap bang bien thien va ve do thi cua ham so

• De ve dirong thing y = ax + b chi can xac dinh

tren, hai diem khac nhau cua n6.

2. On tdp va b6 sung vi ham so'

do thi ham so y = dci xirng.

Do thi cua ham so chan nhan true tung lam true doi xirng.

6. Ham so y = f(x) voi tap xac dinh D goi la ham sole neu

V XED th'i-XED va j(-x) = - f(x).

Do thi cua ham so le nhan goc toa dQ lam tam doi xirng.

I. Ham so bac nhat y = ax + b, (a :F- 0)

a>O a<O
x -00 +00 X -00 +00
Y +00 Y +00
-: -.
-00 -00 - Dang 1 : Xac dinh chieu bien thien va ve do thi cua ham so bac nhat.

- Dang 2 : Ve do thi ham so y = b ; y = I x I , do thi y = lax + bl·

- Dang 3 : Tim toa de) giao di~m cua hai duong thang co phuong trinh cho truce,

30

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Ve' ki nang:

- Thanh thao viec xac dinh chien bien • Tap xac dinh lR ;

2, Ham so hang y = b

thien va ve do thi cua ham so bac nhat,

- Ve diroc do thi y = b ; y = 1 xl, do thi y = lax + bl·

I - Biet each tim toa d¢ giao diem cua hai dirong thang co plurong trinh cho tnroc,

• Ham so hang la ham so chan,

• Do thi la mot dirong thang song song hoac trimg voi true hoanh va cat true tung tai di~m co toa d¢ (0 ; b) .

3. Ham so y = Ixl

• Tap xac dinh lR ; - Khdo sat duoc sf! bien thien va ve do

thi cua ham so' cho bOi cdc ham bac nhd: tren cdc khodng kluic nhau.

• Ham soy = Ixiia ham so chan.

• Ham so dong bien tren khoang (0 ; + 00) va nghich bien tren khoang (-00 ; 0).

4. Ctich. ve- do thi ham so' y = lax + bl

De' ve do thi ham so' y = lax + bl ta:

• Ve hai duang thdng y = ax + b vay = -ax-b roi xod di hai phdn duong thdng nam a phia duoi true hoanlt (cluing han do thi cua ham so'

)' = 12x - 11 nhu hinh 1).

yt

\1"5

I

0,5 \

--~~~~~--~

o 0,5 x

-0,5

Hinh 1

31

b) Ve tren cung he true do thi a cau a) va do thi y = -1. Tim tren do thi toa d¢ giao diem cua hai do thi y = 3x + 5 va y = - 1.

Vi du

a) ve do thi ham so y = 1 x I.

b) Tit do thi, hay tim gia tri nho nhat cua ham so y= Ixl·

Vi du. Tim toa d¢ giao diem cua hai do thi y = x + 1 va y = 2x + 3.

Vi du. Ve do thi y = 12x -11.

Vi du. Tim tap xac dinh, lap bang bien thien va ve do thi ctia ham so'

{3X + 1 khi - 2 ::; x ::; 0

y = -2x khi 0 < x ::; 1

2x + 1 khi 1 < x ::; 2.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

,------------------------------,--------------------------------------------------------------------------~

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan tlnrc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

')

1. Ham s6 bac hai y = ax- + bx + c, (a *- 0)

- Tap xac dinh lR ;

- Do thi cua ham s6 la mot dmrng parabol co

dinh la diem 1(· _l2_ . -~) co tru c doi xtrng

La ' 4a'

1, d' h' b

a uang tang x = - - .

2a

Parabo1 nay quay b~ 16m len tren neu a > 0 (h.2), quay be 16m xuong diroi neu a < 0 (h.3).

\

x

, J

3. Ham so bdc hai y = ax" + bx + c va do

thi cua no.

ve' kien thuc :

- Hi~u diroc su bien thien va do thi cua ham s6 bac hai tren R

vs n nang:

- Lap diroc bang bien thien cua ham s6 bac hai ; xac dinh diroc toa dodinh, true d6i xirng, ve diroc do thi ham s6 bac hai.

- DQc duoc do thi cua ham so' bac hai : tir do thi xac dinh diroc true doi xirng, dinh cua parabol, cac gia tri cua x M y> 0; y < 0,

- Tim duoc phuang trinh parabol 2

y = ax + bx+ c

khi biet mot s6' die'u kien xac dinh.

o ~

x

Hinh 2 : a > 0

Hinh 3 : a < 0

2. Bang bien thien :

a>O

b

x

-00

2a

+00 +00

~-~~

4a

y

32

- Dang 1 : Lap diroc bang bien thien cua ham s6 bac hai ; xac dinh duoc toa d¢ dinh, true ct6i xirng, ve diroc do thi ham s6 bac hai.

- Dang 2 : Ve do thi ham s6 bac hai.

- Dang 3 : DQc do thi cua ham s6 bac hai : tir do

thi xac dinh true d6i ximg, di6m eire dai, diem eire tieu cua do thi, cac gia tri ella x d~ y > 0 ; Y < O.

- Dang 4 : Tim phuong trinh parabol

I y = ax2 + bx + c

khi biet mot s6' die'u kien xac dinh.

Vi du. Lap bang bien thien cua ham so sau :

a) y. = x2 - 4x + 1 ;

b) y = - 2x2 - 3x + 7.

Vi duo Ve do thi cac ham s6:

2

a) y = x - 4x + 3 ;

2 c)y=-2x +x-l;

2

b) y = -x - 3x:

d) y = 3i + 1.

I Vi du

a) Ve parabol y = 3x2 - 2x -- 1.

b) Tir do thi, hay chi ra nhfrng gia tri cua x d~ y<O.

c) Tir do thi, hay tim gia tri nho nhat cua ham so.

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien thtrc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Ltru Y

3. D~ ve duong parabol y = ax2 + bx + c (a "* 0) bitt rang parabol do thod man mot trong cdc

dieu kien sau :

• Xac dinh giao diem cua parabol v6i cac true c) Co true dOl xung La duong thdng x = 1 va di

toa do (neu co). qua cdc dilm M(-1 ; 2),. N(O; 4).

a<O

Vi duo Viet phirong trinh parabol y = ax2 + bx + 2 bier rang parabol d6 :

a) Di qua hai diem A(1 ; 5) va B (- 2; 8).

b) C~t true hoanh tai cac diem co hoanh d¢ xl = 1 va X2 = 2.

Vi duo Tim phuong trinh parabol

2

Y = ax + bx + c

a) Di qua cdc diim ll:1(O , -1), N(1 , -1), P(-1 ; 1) ;

b) Diqua dilm M(O ; 1), va co dinh D(-2; 5) ;

Xac dinh them mot so diem thuoc do thi, Vi du. Ldp bdng bien thien va vi' do thi cua

Chang han, diem d6i xirng v6i giao diem cua do {2 1 khi < 0

h' " x- lX_

thi v6i true tung qua true doi ximg ella parabol. am so y =

x -1 khi x > O.

~. _L_._D~~_a_v_a_o_k_-e_t_q~_u_a_tr_e_n~,.v_e~pa_r_a_bo __ I_' ~L_ ~

b

X

-00

2a

y

~.--_---------------------------~------------------------------------.-----------------------------------~

-00

-00

ta thirc hien cac biroc sau :

• Xac dinh toa do dinh 1(- :a ; - ~) ;

, b

• Ve truc doi xirng d la dirong thang X = - -- ;

. 2(1

III - PHUONG TRINH. HI;: PHUONG TRINH

1. Dai cuong ve' phuong trinh (Khai niern phuong trinh ; Nghiern ella plurong trinh ; Nghiern gan dung cua phuong trinh , Phuong trlnh tuong duong ; M¢t so phep

,--_._

3 HoAN ... TOAN UJP 10 _ A

I. Phuong trinh an X la mot menh de chua bien - Dang 1 : Neu dieu kien cua :in d~ phirong trinh dang f(x) = g(x), trong do f(x) va g(x) la cac bieu co nghia (khong can giai cac dieu kien),

thtrc cua x.

33

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

bien d6i nrong dirong phirong trinh). Phuong trinh h¢ qua

Ve' hell thuc :

- Hieu khai niern phuong trinh ; nghiem ella phtrong trinh ; hai phirong trinh nrong duong,

- Hi~u cac phep bien d6i nrong duong phirong trinh,

- Bie: khai niem phuong trtnli tham .'16' ; phuong trtnb nhieu an.

Ve'kinang:

- Bier neu dieu kien xac dinh ella phirong trinh (khong can giai cac dieu kien).

- Biet bien d6i tuong dirong phuong trinh.

Huang dan thirc hien ~------------K-ie-/n--th-u-'c-c-a--b-a-n------------r--------D-a-.n-g-t-o-a-n----V-i-d-~----l~-uu--y-'---------

2. Dieu kien xac dinh ella phuong trinh (goi tat la -- D(,lI1g 2 : Bien d6i nrong duong, bien d6i h~ dieu kien ella phirong trinh) la nhirng dieu kien qua phuong trinh , Xac dinh quan he tirong ella ~n x d~ cac bieu thirc trong phiroug trinh deu duong, he qua ella cac phirong trinh,

- Dang 3 : Buoc ddu lam quell VOl phuong I 3. Neu/(xo) = g(xo) thi Xo diroc goi la nghiern ella trinb chua tham .'16'; phuong trinh nhieu an. phtrong trinh j'(x) = g(x).

x

b) x + 2 - = 2 ;

a) Cong hay trir hai ve ella phirong trinh voi cung fx -- 1

mot so hay cung mot bieu tlnrc.

eo nghia.

4. Giai mot phuong trinh la tim t~p hop tat ca cac nghiern ella no (nghia la tim tap nghiem).

h' 5. Hai plnrong trinh e ua

I j(x) = g(x) (1) va/I (x) = gl(x) (2)

eo' e) x-I = 2 J x + 2 "

diroc goi la urong dirong neu cluing tap x + 1

nghiern bang nhau (eo th~ la tap rong).

Kf hieu : (1) ~ (2).

b) Nhan hoac ehia hai ve ella phirong trinh voi II cung mot so khac 0 hoac voi cung mot bieu thirc . luon co gia tri khac O.

I .

7. Neu moi nghiem ella phtrong trinh (1) cung la nghiern ella phirong trinh (2) thi ta noi plurong

L I trinh (2) la phuong trinh h¢ qua ella phtrong trinh

I (l), ki hieu : (1) =;>(2).

I •

----------------------------.~--------~--------

6. Neu thirc hien cac phep bien d6i sau day tren mot phuong trinh rna khong lam thay d6i dieu kien xac dinh ella no thi ta diroc mot plnrong trinh moi nrong dirong

34

Vi du. Neu dieu kien xac dinh ella cac phirong trinh a) ~x2 + 3x = x + 1 ;

b) rx~ + 1 = ~ + x ;

d) J x - m = x2 - 2mx + 1.

Vi du . Gidi cac phuong trinh

a) x + 1 + 2 = 2x - 1 ,

x--l x-I

c) ~ (x2 - 3x -.-. 4) = 0 ; d)J;~=~;

lj-- .J 2 5x

e) x- - 4 + :r + 3 = 4 - x + T'

Vi du. Trong cac cap phirong trinh sau, hay chi ra cac cap phirong trinh nrong dirong

._-_j

3- H.DAN . loAN L('jp 10 - [3

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huang dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

hai ~n x, y la mot cap so thirc (xo ; Yo) tho a man Vi du. Tim cdc nghiem (x; y) cua phuong trinh

phuong trinh do, con nghiern cua mot phirong x2 + i + 2x + 4y = -5.

trinh ba ftn x, y, z la mot b¢ ba so thuc (xo ; Yo ; zo)

(HD : bien ddi vt trdi thanh tdng 2 binh phuong). tho it man plurong trinh d6.

10. Trong mot phuong trinh (mot hoac nhieu (in), ngoai cdc chit dong vai tro lin siJ con co thi co cdc chit cai khac duac xem nhu nhiing hling stY va duoc goi La tham so.

Gidi va bien ludn phuong trinh chua tham s{/ la xet xem khi nao phuong trinh do vb nghiem, khi nao co nghiem tllY theo cdc gia tri etta tham siJ va chi ra cdc nghiem do.

Chang han, voi so nguyen dirong 11 tuy y ta c6 :

I(x) = g(x) => [I(x) r = [g(x) r .

8. Phuong trinh he qua c6 th~ c6 nghiem ngoai fai, nghiern d6 khong phai la nghiern cua phirong trinh ban dau, D~ loai nghiern ngoai lai ta phai thir lai nghiern tim diroc van phirong trinh ban dau,

9. Ngoai cac phuong trinh mot ftn con c6 cac phuang trinh nhieu dn. Nghiern cua phirong trinh

a) i - 3x = 4 va i - 3x - 4 = O.

b) 6x - 12 = 0 va x = 2.

c) x(x2 + 2) = 3(x2 + 2) va x = 3.

d) x-I =3 va (x-l)2=9.

e) Ix+21=4va (x+2)2= 16.

Vi du. VOi gia tri nao cua m thi phuong trinh mx2 - 3( m + l)x + 5 = 0

nhdn x = 2 la nghiem ?

--------------------------------1--------------------------------------~-------------------------------------4

2. Phuong trinh quy vephuong trinli bac 1. Giai va bien luan phirong trinh

nhdt, bdc hai (Giai va bien luan phirong ax + b = 0

trinh ax + b = 0 , Giai va bien ludn

plurong trinh ai + hx + C = 0 ; Dog dung

-- Dang 1 :

( 1) Giai va bien ludn phirong trinh ax + b = 0 ;

Giai va bien luan phirong trlnh ax2 + hx + c = O.

35

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

dinh li Vi-et , Phuong trinh quy ve bac nhat, bac hai).

Ve' kien thuc .'

- Hi~u each giai va bien IlUJn I trinh ax + b := ° ; phuong trinh

ai +bx s- c= 0.

- Hi~u each giai cac phuong trinh quy ve

?

dang ax + b = ° , ax: + bx + c = °

phirong trinh co ~n a mau so, phuong trinh co chua dan gia tri tuyet doi.

phuong

Ve' ki ndng .'

- Biet van dung dinh If Vi-et vao viec nham nghiern cua phuong trinh bac hai, tim hai so khi biet tong va tfch cua chung,

tim dieu kien ella tham s6~ de? phuong trinh thod miin dilu kien eho truce.

Kien thirc CO' ban

Hu6ng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Heso

Kel luan

Phuong trinh (I) co nghiem

I ' b

duy n liitx =--

a

a ;t:. °

b ;t:. 0 Phuong t[lnh (1) v6 nghi~m Phuong trinh (1) nghi~lTI_j1 b=O

dung voi 1TI9i x.

2. Giai va bien luan plnrong trinh bac hai

- Giai va bien ludn thanh thao phuong ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a ;t:. 0) (2).

trmh ax + b = 02' Phuon.g trinh I ,------,-----------------,

Biet thirc

ax + hx + c - ° I 2 Ket luan

- . I 1'1 = b - 4ac

- Giai diroc cac phirong trinh quy ve bac f--.-----+----~----------1

Phuong trinh (2) co hai nghiem nhat, bac hai (phtrong trinh co ~n a mau so,

plurong trinh chua dau g.ia tri tuyet doi , 1'1 > ° -h :i -Ii.

phuong trinh chua can don gian, phtrong x1,2 =

trinh dira ve phirong trinh tfch),

a=O

Khi a ;t:. ° phirong trinh (1) duoc goi la phuong trinh bdc nhdt mot an.

2a

~"--.-------~---~-~~~--~_,

Phuong trinh (2) co nghiern kep

b

\"::::--

- 2a

- Dang 2 Giai cac phirong trinh quy ve bac nhar, bac hai ; phuong trinh co ~n a mau so , phirong trinh chua ~n trong dau gia tri tuyet doi ; phuong trinh dira ve phirong trinh tich. (Chi xet phuong trinh trung phuong, phuong trinh dua ve' bdc hai hang each ddt dn phu dun gidn .' dn phu la da thuc bdc nhdt , da thuc bdc hai hodc can bdc hai cua a'11 chinh, phuong trinh co dn J mdu thuc, phuong trinh quy vedang tich hang mot stI phep bien ddi don gian).

- Dang 3 .' Van dung dinh If Vi-et vao viec nham nghiem cua plnrong trinh bac hai, tim hai so khi biet t6ng va tfch cua cluing, tim die'u kien cua tham s6' dl phuong trinlt thod miin dieu kien chotruoc.

- Dang 4 .' Giai cac bai to an tlnrc te dira ve giai phuong trinh bac nhat, bac hai bang each lap phirong trinh.

- Dang 5 .' Giai gan dung phirong trinh bac hai ; giai phuong trinh bac hai bang may tinh bo nii.

Vi du, Giai va bien luan phuong trinh

mix - 2) = 3x + 1, veri m HI tham so.

[-----+-----_._------------

- _1'1 <_0___ Phuong trlnh (2) v6 nghiem. I I Vi du. Gidi va bien lutin phuong trtnb sau, vOi I

------ ----_j m la r: _SO_"_: _

36

Chuan kien thuc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi d1,l- LUll Y

- Bier chuyen bai toan e6 noi dung thirc te ve bai toan giai duoc bang each lap phuong trinh bac nhat, bac hai.

- Biet giai phuong trinh bac hai c6 su ho tro ella may tinh bo nii.

3. Dinh If Vi-et

• Neu phtrong trinh (2) c6 hai nghiem xl' X2 thi

h c

Xl +X2=--,xlx2=-'

a a

• Ngiroc lai, neu hai so u va v c6 tong u + v = S va tich uv = P thi u va v la cac nghiem cua phuongtrlnh

')

X~ -Sx+ P =0,

(dieu kien : S2 - 4P ~ 0).

4. Phuong trinh trung phuang

ax 4 + hx2 + c = 0, (a :I; 0) c6 th~ dua ve plurong trinh bac hai bang each dat t = x2, (z z G).

5. C6 th~ khir dau gia tri tuyet doi trong phuang trinh chua dn trong doli gia tri tuyet dOl nho sir dung dinh nghia

{ khi a ~ 0

lal = :a khi a < O.

Dac bier, ta c6 :

hoac

I/(x)1 = Ig(x)1 ¢::> l'/(X) = g(x) I(x) = ,-g(x).

a) mx2 - 2mx + m + 1 = 0 ;

b) mx2 - x + 1 = O.

Vi duo Tim hai so e6 tong bang 15 va tich bang -34.

Vi du. Tim m de' phuong trinb

x2 -em -5)x -2 = 0

/ hai hi h " - 1 1 4

co at ng tem Xl, X2 t oa man - + - = .

Xl X2

V i du. Giai cac phuong trtnh : a) 2x __ 1_ = 2 ;

x2 _ 1 x + 1

b) (i + 2xi - (3x + 2)2 = 0 ;

4 2

c) .r - 8x - 9 = 0 ;

d) x2 + 5x -13x - 21- 5 = 0 ;

e) .J14x + 2 = )x2 - 3x + 18 ,

f) x2 + 2x + Ix + 11- 5 = 0 ;

g) ) x2 + 3x + 5 = 2x2 + 6x - 5.

V i du. MQt nguoi dung 300 nghm dong d~ dau tu cho san xuat thu congo Moi san pham ngiroi d6 dU<;1C lai 1 500 dong. Sau mot tuan, tinh ca von I<ln lui ngiroi d6 c6 1 050 nghin dong. Hoi trong twin d6, ngiroi ay san xuat duoc bao nhieu san pham ?

37

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

Kien thirc co ban

6. Khi giai phuong trinh chi/a (ill duai ddu cdn Vi du, M9t cong ti van tai du dinh dieu dong mot {hue hac hai ta thuong binh phirong hai ve d~ I so 0 to cung loai de chuyen 22,4 tan hang. Neu khir dau can thirc va dira toi mot phirong trinh he moi 0 to cho them I ta so voi du dinh thi so 0 to qua. giam di 4 chiec, Hoi so 0 to cong ti du dinh dieu

dong d~ cho het so hang tren la bao nhieu ?

3. Phuong Trinh va h¢ phuong trinh bdc nhdt nhieu an :

H~ phirong trinh

{alX + bly + CIZ = dl a2x + h2y + C2Z = d2 a3x + h3y + C3Z = d3·

Ve' kiln thuc :

Hieu khai niem nghiem cua plurong trinh bac nhat hai an, nghiern cua he phuong trinh.

ve' ki ndng :

- Giai dUQ'C va bieu dien diroc tap nghiem cua phirong trinh bac nhat hai an.

- Giai va bien ludn diroc phirong trinh ax + hy = c.

1. Phuong trinh bac nhat hai an c6 dang ax + by = c,

- Dang 1 : Giai va bieu dien tap nghiem cua plurong trinh bac nhat hai an.

trong d6 a, b, C la cac so thuc da cho va a, b - Dang 2 : Giai va bien luan phtrong trinh khong dong thai bang 0 ; x, y la cac an so.

• C6 hai each giai he phuong trinh bac nhat hai an quen thuoc :

) Ph ha h " T' A h ' h ' de - Dang 5 : Giai he phuong trinh bac nhat ba an

a uong p ap t e. ir mot p irong tnn nao 0 . " , . _ ,. ,

, he b· A' thi At ~ . ~ ki A'· the don gian (co the c6 sir ho tro cua may tinh bo

cua ~, leu ! mo an qua an ia roi e van ,. ..

phirong trinh con lai M diroc plurong trinh bac I tui),

nhat mot an. , I-__,D~ng 6 ~. Giili m9~ so. ~ai ~oan = .~?i ~ung thirc b) Phuong phdp cong. Bien doi cho he so cua te bang each dira ve VI~C lap va giai he phirong mot an nao d6 trong hai phuong trinh ia hai so trinh bac nhat hai an, ba an. doi nhau roi cong tung ve hai phuong trinh lai d~ diroc phuong trinh bac nhat mot an.

3. Dang tam giac cua he ba phirong trinh bac

nhat ba an la : Vi du. Giai phirong trinh 3x + y = 7.

2. H~ hai phuong trinh bac nhat hai an x, y c6

{alx + hly = cI

dang , trong d6 ca hai phuong

a2x + h2y = c2

trinh deu la phuong trinh bac nhat hai an.

ax + hy = c.

Giai h~ phirong trinh bac nhat hai ~n

- Dang 3 : Gidi h¢ phuang trinh bac nluit hai In bang dinli thuc.

- Dang 4: Gidi va bien ludn h¢ phuong trinh b(ic nhdt hai lin chua tham so:

38

- Dang 7 : Giai he phtrong trinh bac nhat hai an, ba an c6 sir ho tro cua may tinh bo nii.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien tlurc co ban

HUOng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - VI dl_1- Luu Y

{alX + hly + ('IZ = dl h2y + e2z = d2 C3Z = d3

ho~c

- Cdch gidi :

Tir plnrong trinh cuoi cua he (1) tinh diroc z, the gia tri Z vira tim dtroc VaG phirong trinh thtr hai d~ tinh duoc y roi the ca gia tri y va z tim duoc VaG phuong trinh dau tinh duoc x.

Tir phuong trinh dau cua he (2) tfnh diroc x, the gia tri d6 vao phuong trinh tlur hai d~ tinh diroc y roi thay cac gia tri tim diroc d6 VaG phuong trinh thtr ba tfnh duoc z.

4. H~ ba plurong trinh bac nhat ba frn c6 dang :

Vi duo Ba may troug mot gio' san xuat duoc I 95 sa~ ph,frrn. so s,an, phfrn: may, III I~m t;ong 2 gio nhieu hon so san pham may I va may II Elm tron IT mot gia la 10 san pham. S6 san pham

, b.

I- ,Ca~'h ~~di }thco p"hu<~ng phap G,au-xo) : Khu may I. lam trong 8 gi.~ chl~? bang s6, sa~, ph a,;: dan an so dc dira ve he plurong trmh dang tam may II lam trong 7 gio. HOI trong mot gio, mor

giac. Im1Y s<ln xuat duq'c bao nhiell san pham ?

------------~-----

- Gidi duac h¢ phuong trinli bdc nhdt hai {In bang dinn thuc.

- Gidi va bien ludn duoc h¢ phuong trinh btjc nluit hai dn chua tham so:

- Giai duoc he phuong trinh bac nhat ba in don gian (c6 th~ dung may tinh bo nii).

- Biet chuyen bai to an c6 noi dung· thuc te ve bai toan giai duoc bang each lap va giai he phuong trinh bac nha~ hai an, ba An.

- Biet dung may tinh bo nii h6 tro tim nghiern cua he phuong trinh bac nhat hai An, ba an.

L

39

(1)

(2)

{3X - 2y = 6

Giai he phirong trinh 6

9x + 4y = - .

Vi duo

Gidi va bien ludn h¢ phuong trinlt r2mx + 3y = 6 lx+y=m+1.

Vi dZI. Giai cac h~ phuong trinh :

Vi du.

r3J: +- 4v - 5z = 8

a) J ~y + z = 9

l z = 21 ;

[x + y + z = 2

b) i x + y + 3z = 1

I 2x + v + 3z == -1.

, ~

Vi duo Mot do an xe gam 13 xe tac xi tai cho 36 tan xi rnang cho mot cong trinh xay dung. Doan xe chi gam c6 hai loai : xe cho 3 tan va xe cho 2.5 tan. Tfnh s6 xe moi loai,

Huong dan thuc hien

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

Vi du, Giai h~ phirong trinh sau bang may tinh bo lui:

{2,5X + 4y = 8,5 6x+4,2y=5,5;

a)

{X - y + z = 7

x+y-z=l y + z - x = 3.

Vi du. Tim cdc nghiem nguyen cua phuong trinh 3x - 4y = 5.

b)

4. Mot so' h¢ phuong trink bdc hai hai lin don gidn.

Ve' kiln thuc :

- uu« each gidi mot so' h¢ phuong trinh bac hai hai lin.

Ve' ki nang:

- Gidi duoc mfjt so' h¢ phuong trinh bac hai hai lin : h¢ gom mot phuong trinh bdc hai va mot phuong trinh bdc "hat ; h¢ phuong trinh ma moi phuong trinh cua h¢ khong d6i khi thay x bOi y, thay y bOi x.

- H¢ phuong trinh bdc hai hai lin gom mot phuong trinh bdc nhdt hai lin va mot phuong trinh bdc hai hai lin, co thl gidi theo phuong phap the: nghia la tit phuong trinh bac nhdt bilu dien mot an theo lin kia, the' vao phuong trinh bac hai cua h¢ dl chuyen vi phuong trinh bdc hai co mot lin.

- H¢ phuong trinh bac hai doi xung la h¢ ma khi ta thay x bOi y va thay y bOi x thi h¢ dli cho khong thay d6i. Co thl gidi h¢ nay theo each d{lt an phu S = x + y, P = x.y va bien d6i l'e' h¢ phuong trinh trung gian voi hai lin S l'a P. V oi moi nghiem (S ; P) ta gidi phuong trinh

X2 - SX + P = 0 di tim nghiem (x; y) tuong ung,

- Dang 1 : Gidi mot so' h¢ phuong trinh bac hai hai lin:

+ H.¢ gom mot phuong trinh bac hai va mot phuong trinh bac nhdt ;

+ H¢ phuong trinh bac hai do'i xung.

( Gidi duoc mot so' h¢ phuong trinh bac hai hai lin : h¢ gom mot phuong trinh bac hai va mot phuong trinh bac nhdt ; h¢ phuong trinh ma moi phuong trinh cua h¢ khong d6; khi thay x bOi y, thay y bOi x ; Chi xet cdc h¢ phuong trinh bac hai hai lin : h¢ gdm mot phuong trinh bac hai va mfjt phuong trinh bac nhat ; h¢ phuong trinh dOl xung).

40

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

,---------------------------------,-----------------------------------------------------------------------~~----

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thtrc hien

IV - BAT DANG THUC. BAT PHVdNG TRINH

Ve' kien thuc .' 2. D~ chtrng minh mot bat ding thrrc ta eo thti sir

dung cac tinh chat cho trong bang sau : - Bier dinh nghia va cac tinh chat ella bat

dang thirc.

- Hitiu bat dang thirc giira trung binh cong va trung binh nhan ella hai so khong am.

1. Bat dang thuc

( Khai niern bat dang thtrc va tinh chat ; Bat dang thirc chira dau gia tri tuyet doi ; Bat ding thirc giira trung - binh cong va trung binh nhan).

1. Dti so sanh hai so hoac hai bieu thirc A va B ta xet dau ella hieu A - B, khi do

A~B<=>A-B~O

A < B <=> A - B < O.

41

I Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Vi du. Gidi cac h¢ phuong trinh :

{x2 - 5x + 6 = 0 a)

x2 - 3x + 2 = 0;

b) {x - y = 3

x2 - 3xy + i + x + y = 0 ;

c) {x + y + xy = 5

x2 + i = 5;

{x2 - 2x = y + 2 d)

i - 2y = x + 2.

- Dang 1 .' Chimg minh mot so bat dang thirc don gian (van dung dinh. nghia va tinh chat cua hat dang thuc hodc dung phep bien ddi tuang duong ).

- Dang 2 .' Chung minh mot so bat dang thirc hoac tim gia tri 16'11 nhat, gia tri nho nhat ella mot bieu thirc tvdn dung bat dJng thuc giiia trung binh cong va trung binh nhdn cua hai so', ba so).

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HI16ng dan thuc hien

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi dl,l - LUll Y

----

- D(l11g 3 : Clnrng minh mot so bat dang thirc

don gian co chira gia tri tuyet doi.

- DC;l1g 4 : Bi~u dien cac diem tren true so thoa man cac bat dang thirc Ixl < a ; Ixl > a (voi a > 0).

Vi du . Chung minh rang:

a) ~ + !!_ ? 2 voi a, b dirong ; h a

b 2 ,2 I. 0 ,. . b

) a + ) - a) ? VOl moi 0, ;

- Biet bat ddng thuc giiia trung binh cong va trung binh nhdn cua ba so khong dm.

- Biet duoc mot so bat dang thirc co chua gia tri tuyet d6i, nhu : V x EO lR.

Dieu

Ten goi kien

~~--~------r---------~--~'----~

Bac cau a < b va b < e

-:::=;, a < e

---------~------~

a<h

¢:::>([ + e < b + c

NQi dung

Cong hai ve bat dang thirc voi mot so

~--~------r--------------+--------

e>O

Nhan hai ve bat dAng thirc voi mot so

a<h ¢:::> ae < be

a<h

¢:::> ae > he

e<O

Cong hai bat dang thirc cung chieu

a < h}

e<d -:::=;,a+e<h+d

Nhan hai bat dang thirc cung chieu

a < h}

c<d

-:::=;, ac < bd

a> 0, e>O

Nang hai ve cua bat dang thirc len mot

luy thira

a<h

¢:::> a211+ 1 < h21l+ 1

O<o<h

211 ,211

-:::=;, a < J

Khai can hai ve cua mot bat dang tlnrc.

a>O

a<h

¢:::> if; < Vb

Ixl? 0; Ixl? x ;Ixl? -x.

Ixl ::; a ¢:::> -a ::;x ::; 0 (a >0)

[X ? a

Ixl > a ¢:::>

- x ::; -0

la + hi ::; H + Ihl·

(voi a·> 0)

Ve' ki ruing :

- Van dung diroc dinh nghia va tinh chat ella bat ding thirc hoac dung phep bien

. d6i tuong duong d~ clurng minh mot so bat dang thirc dan gian,

- Bier van dung bat ding thirc gitra trung binh cong va trung binh nhan cua hai so khong am vao viec cluing minh mot so bat dang thirc hoac tim gia tri 16"11 nhat, gia tri nho nhat cua mot bieu thtrc.

- Chung minh diroc mot so bat ding thirc don gian co chua gia tri tuyet doi,

c) (a + h{ ~ + * ) ? 4 voi a, b la hai so dirong ;

) ? 2 l'

d) a- + b: + c >- ab + he + ca voi a, b, c a

cac so thirc.

Vi dLJ. Chung minb ding:

a) (ab + cd)2 ::; (a2 + ('2 )(b2 + d2) voi moi so' a, b, c, d;

(1 1 11

b) (a+b+c)la+[;+;-)?9

voi a, b, c La

cdc soduong ;

c) a + b + C + d >_ 4~ab'~d voi abc d La' cdc

'- v<",

sothuc khong am.

I Vi ~1.1. Cluing minh rang voi moi so thuc a, b, c

ita co

la - el ::; la - hi + Ih - cl·

42

,-------------------------------~------------------------------------------.--------------------------------

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du=- LUll Y

- Bier bieu dien cac diem tren true so thoa man cac bat dang thirc

Ixl < a; Ixl >a (voi a > 0).

3. Cac bat dang thirc chua dau gia tri tuyet dci :

Ixl ~ 0 ; Ixl ~ x ; Ixl ~ -x

a>O

Vi duo Cho x> 2. TIm gia tri nho nhat cua bieu thirc

3 j(x)=x+--. x-2

Vi du. TIm gia tri Ian nhat, nho nhat cua ham so

y = .[;+3 + J6 - x.

2. Bat phuong trinh (Khai niem bat phirong trinh ; Nghiem cua bat phirong

I trl~h ; ~~t ph~ong trinh nrong d~ong ,;

\ Phep bien doi nrong duong cac bat phuong trmh).

Ixl ::::; a<=>- a ::::; x ::::; a

Ixl ~ a <=> x ::::; - a hoac x ~ a

- Dang 1 : TIm dieu kien cua :in M bat phuong trinh co nghia.

- Dang 2 : Nhan bier hai bat phuong trinh co nrong dirong voi nhau khong.

4. Bat dang thirc gifra trung blnh cong va trung binh nhan :

1) V oi moi a ~ 0, b ~ 0, ta co :

a + b ~ J;;h.

2

D' hu a + b r--7h' khi hi khi

ang t ire --2- = "an xay ra I va c I I

a=b.

2) V oi moi a, b, c khong am ta co :

a + b + c 31b

3 ~ sraoc,

ndng thuc a + b + c ~ xdy ra khi , hi

3 = I va c

khi a = b = c.

Bat phirong trinh an x la menh de chua bien dang

j(x) < g(x) hoac j(x)::::; g(x) (*)

(j(x) > g(x) hoac j(x) ~ g(x)),

43

Chudn kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

Kf hieu D la tap cac so thirc thoa man dieu kien Vi du. Gidi cdc bat phuong trinh :

cua bat phtrong trinh P(x) < Q(x). a) 12x - 11 :2: 3 ;

Ve' kiln thuc :

trong d6 j(x) va g(x) la nhirng bieu thirc cua x. Ngiroi ta cling goi j(x), g(x) nrong irng la ve trai,

ve phai cua bat phtrong trinh (*). so thirc Xo sao eho j(xo) < g(xo) hoac j(xo) ~ g(xo) la menh de dung diroc goi la nghiern cua bat phirong trinh (*). Giai bat phtrong trinh la tim tap nghiern ella n6.

H~ bat plurong trinh itn x gorn mot so bat phirong trinh itn x rna ta phai tim nghiern ehung cua cluing,

1. Dieu kien cua mot bat phirong trinh la dieu kien rna itn so phai thoa man M cac bieu thirc b hai ve cua bat phuong trinh co nghia.

2. Hai bat phuong trinh (he bat phirong trinh) diroc goi la luang duang voi nhau khi chung co cung tap nghiern.

3. Cac phep bien d6i bat phuong trinh :

- Biet khai niem bat phirong trinh, nghiern cua bat phirong trinh,

- Biet khai niem hai bat phirong trinh nrong dirong, cac phep bien d6i nrong dirong bat phirong trinh.

Ve' ki ndng :

- Neu diroc dieu kien xac dinh cua bat phirong trinh.

- Nhan bier diroc hai bat phirong trinh co nrong dirong voi nhau khong trong tnrong hop don gian.

- V an duhg diroc phep bien d6i nrong dirong bat phtrong trinh d~ dira mot bat phirong trinh da chove dang don gian hon.

a) Phep cong :

Neuj(x) xac dinh tren D thi

P(x) < Q(x) <=> P(x) + j{x) < Q(x) + j(x). b) Phep nhan :

Neu Vx ED,f(x) > 0 thi

P(x) < Q(x) <=> P(x)f(x) < Q(x)j(x).

- Dang 3 : Van dung phep bien d6i nrong dirong bat phirong trinh d~ dira mot bat phirong trinh da eho ve dang don gian hon.

Vi du. Cho bat phuong trinh :

~ x2 - 3x + 2 > x-I.

a) Neu dieu kien d~ bat phirong trinh do co nghia.

b) Trong cac so : 0 ; 1 ; 2 ; 3, so nao la nghiern cua bat phtrong trinh tren ?

V [ du. Xet xem hai bat phirong trinh sau e6 tuong dirong voi nhau khong :

a) (x + 7) (2r + 1) > (x + 7)2 va 2x + 1 > x + 7.

.3x - 5, 2

b) 2 >7 va 3x-5>7(x +1).

x +1

4

b) x + 1> --.

x+l

4. Chti y : Khi bien d6i cac bieu thirc b hai ve cua mot bat plurong trinh, dieu kien cua bat phirong trinh thirong bi thay d6i. Vi vay, d~ tim nghiern cua bat plurong trinh da eho ta phai tim cac gia tri cua itn dong thai thoa man bat phirong trinh moi va dieu kien cua bat phirong trinh da eho.

44

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huang dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

~-----------------------------------r-------------------------------------

3. Diiu cua mot nhi thuc bdc nhat. Minh l. Dau cua nhi thtrc bac nhatj(x) = ax + b hoa bang do thi : Bdt phuang trinh 'bdc Bang xet dau

nhdt va h¢ hat phuang trinh bdc nhdt mot a'1I.

Ve' kien thuc :

- Hi~u va nho duoc dinh If v~ dau cua nhi

, . . .

tlnrc bac nhar.

- Hieu each giai bat phuong trinh bac

nhat, he bat phuong trinh bac nhat mot 12 Khi d" ',' 'd''"

>' • • U au gia tn tuyet OJ:

an. . .

" _ v I a) Bang khir dau gia tri tuyet doi

Ve ki nang:

- V an dung duoc dinh If -v&" dau cua nhi thirc bac nhat d~ lap bang xet dau . tich I cac nhi thirc bac nhat, xac dinh tap I nghiern cua cac bat phirong trinh dang tfch (moi thira so trong bat phuong trinh dang tfch lil mot nhi thirc bac nhat).

- et« gidi va bien ludn bat phuong b) Dong nhat thirc \x\2 = )?, \Ix. trinli bdc nhoi mot In.

Neu \Ix ED,j(x) < 0 thi

P(x) < Q(x) ~ P(x)f(x) > Q(x)j(x). c) Phep binh phuong :

Neu \Ix ED, P(x)~ 0 va Q(x)~ 0 thi P(x) < Q(x) ~ p2(x) < Q\x).

- Dang 1 : V ~n dung dinh li v~ dau cua nhi tlurc bac nhat d6 lap bang xet dau tfch cac nhi thirc bac nhat.

L-- ~ ~ ~

b I
x --00 -- +00 I
a
a>O - 0 + I
ax+ b
a<O + 0 - b
x -00 -- ~
a
-- -
lax + b\ a>O - (ax + b) 0 ax+b
- (ax + -
a<O ax+b 0 45

- Dong 2 Xac dinh tap nghiern cua cac bat phuong trinh dang tich (moi thira so trong bat phuong trinh dang tich la mot nhi thirc bac nhat).

- Dang 3 : Gidi va bien luan bd: phuong lrinh bdc nhdt mot In. Giai h¢ bat phirong trinh bac nhat mot an.

- Dang 4 Sir dung cac phep bien d6i Wong dirong d~ bien d6i bat phuong trinh da: cho ve dang ax + b > 0 hoac ax + b < 0 va tir do rut ra

I nghiem cua bat phuong trinh.

-- Dang 5 : Giai 111(>t so bai toan thuc tien dIin toi viec giiii bat phirong trinh.

Vi duo Xet dau bieu thirc

A = (2x -- 1 )(5 - x)(x - 7).

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

- Sir dung diroc cac phep bien deli tirong dirong d~ bien deli bat phirong trinh da cho ve dang ax + b > 0 hoac ax + b < 0 va tir d6 rut ra nghiern cua bat phuong trinh,

- Giai duoc mot so bai toan c6 noi dung thirc tien c6 th~ quy ve viec giai bat phuong trinh,

Kien thirc CO' ban

Huang dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

Giai diroc h¢ bat phU011g trinh bac nhat 3. Gidi va bien ludn bat phuong trinh bac nhdt Vi du. Giai cac bat phU011g trinh :

mot ~n. mot dn

tr~<O

1_ x - 2 - vo nghiem.

2x + 1 ~ m

__ ---L-- __ -----l.- _

Gidi va bien ludn bat phuong trinh ax+b<O

(1)

1) Neu a > 0 thi t(Lp nghiem cua (1) La

2) Neu a < 0 thi t(Lp nghiem cua (1) La

3) Ne'u a = 0 thi (1) tril thanb Ox < -b. Dodo

(1) vo nghiem (S =0) neu b ;::: 0;

(1) nghiem dung voi moi x (S = JR) neu b < O.

4. D~ giai mot h¢ bat phuong trinh mot iln, ta thuong giai tirng bat phU011g trinh cua he roi lay giao cua cac t~p nghiem thu diroc.

46

a) (3x - 1)(3 - x) ~ 0 ; 4x - 17

b) (x - 1)(4 - 2x)(5x - 3) ~ 0 ;

x2 -lOx + 9 0

c) 2 ;::: .

x - 5x + 6

V i du. Giai cac h¢ bat phuong trinh :

{2X - 7 > 0 a)

5x + 1 > 0 ;

r (2x + 3)(x - 1) > 0

b) .

L7x - 5 < O.

V i du. Giai cac bat phuong trinh :

a) (3x - 1)2 - 9 < 0 ;

b) _2_;::: 3

1 - x 2x + 1 '

c) Ix - 21 ~ x.

Vi du. Gidi va bien luan bat phuong trinh (m -1)x -1 > x + 2m.

Vi du. Xac dinh. m dl h¢ bat phuang trinh

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

14. ,Bdt phu(fn~ trin~l h~c"nhd~ ~!ai dn. H¢ bdt phuong trinh bdc nhdt hal an.

Ve' kien thia: :

Hitiu khai niem bat phuong trinh, he bat phuong trinh bac nhat hai tin,. nghiem va mien nghiern cua no.

Ve' ki nang:

Bitiu dien . diroc tap nghiern cua bat phtrong trinh va he bat phirong trinh bac nhat hai tin tren mat phang toa do.

Kien thirc eo ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi da, - Lu'u Y

~.-------------------------------+--------------.--------.--------------~----.------

Vi du. Gidi phuong trinh

Ix - 51 + Ix - 71 = 8.

Bat phuong trinh bac nhat hai ~n x, y co dang tong quat la ax + hy < e hoac ax + by ::;: c hoac ax + hy > c hoac ax + hy ~ c (*), trong do a, b, c la nhirng so thuc da cho va a, b khong dong thai bang 0 con x va y la cac ~n so. Trong mat phang toa d¢ OAY, tap hop cac diem co toa d¢ la nghiern bat phirong trinh (*) duoc goi la mien nghiem cua no.

H~ bat phuong trinh bac nhat hai ~n x, y gam 111¢t so bat phuong trinh bac nhat hai <1n x, y rna ta phai tim mien nghiern chung ella cluing. 1. Bieu dien hinh hoc tap nghiern cua bat phuong trinh ax + by ::;: c (1), trong do a va b la hai so

khong dong thai bang 0 :

• Buac 1 : Tren mat phang toa do Oxy, ve dirong thang tl : ax + by = c.

• Buac 2 : Lay mot diem Mo(xo ; Yo) (t: tl (ta thirong lay goc toa do 0).

!I i • Buoe 3 : Tinh axo + byo va so sanh axo + hyo {4X _ 5)' + 20 < 0

I II voi c.

x-,/v+5<0

I 0 Buac 4 : Ket luan :

I I " LX + 3y - 6 < O.

IL ~I_N_e_·u __ a._\o~+. __ b_yO_._<_c_t~h_l_n_u'a __ 111_~_t_p_h_a-n_g __ ba_'_la_tl __ C_h_U_a~ ~

_ I diem Mo 18. mien nghiern cua ax + hy ::;: c.

47

Vi du. Gidi bd: phuong trinh

Ix - 2m + 11 :s; 5.

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh mien nghiem cua bat phirong trinh va he bat phirong trinh bac nhat hai <1n tren mat phang toa do, tTliua nhdn ket qud Trang mat phdng tog dr), moi duang thdng d : ax + by + c = 0 chia mgt phdng thanh hai nua mat phdng. Mr)t trong hai nua mat phdng (khong ke' ba d) g()'m cdc diem co tog dr) thad man bdt phuong trinh ax + hy + c > 0, nua mgt phdng kia (khong kl ba d) gam cae die'm co tog do thad man hat phuang trinh ax + by + c < 0).

- Dang 2 : Ap dung vao bai roan kinh teo

Vi du. Xac dinh mien nghiem cua bat phirong trinh

2x - 3y + 1 > 0,

Vi du. Xac dinh mien nghiern cua he bat phirong trinh

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thtrc co ban

HUOng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Neu axo + hyo > c thi nira mat phang co bo' ~ khong chua diem M 0 la mien nghiern cua

ax + by ::; c.

2. Bo bo mien nghiem cua bat phirong trinh (1) ta duoc mien nghiern cua bat phirong trlnh

ax + by < c.

Mien nghiern cua cac bat plurong trinh ax + by ~ c va ax + by > C diroc xac dinh nrong nr.

3. Bieu dien hinh hoc t~p nghiern cua he bat , fax + by ::; c phirong trinh bac nhat hai an

. l I b' < I

ax+ y_c.

Ve cac dirong thang ~: ax + by = c

va S : ax + h'y = c'.

Bieu dien mien nghiern cua m6i bat phirong trinh va tim giao cua chung.

4. Tim gia tri 1611 nhat, gia tri nho nhat cua cac bieu tlurc dang F = ax + by; trong d6 x, y nghiem dung mot he bat phirong trinh bac nhat hai dn da eho.

Ve mien nghiern cua he bat phuong trinh da eho, d6 thuong la mot mien da giac, Tfnh gia tri cua F irng v6i (x ; y) la toa dQ cac dinh cua mien da giac nay roi so sanh cac ket qua. Tir d6 suy ra gia tri lon nhat va gia tri nho nhat ella bieu thirc.

48

Vi du. C6 ba nh6m may A, B, C dung d~ san xuat ra hai loai san pham I va II. D~ san xuat mot don V! san pham moi loai phai Ian luot dung cac may thuoc cac nh6m khac nhau. SO may trong mot nh6m va so may cua nrng nh6m can thiet d~ san xuat ra mot don vi san pham thuoc moi loai diroc eho trong bang sau :

So may So may trong nrng
trong nhorn d~ san xuat ra
;:c. mot don vi san pham
mor
nh6m Lo~i I Lo~i II
10 2 2
4 0 2
12 2 4 Nh6m

A B C

MQt don V! san ph am I lai 3 nghin dong, mot don vi san pham II lai 5 nghin dong. Hay lap phirong an d~ viec san xuar hai loai san pham tren co lai eao nhat.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

15. Ddu cua tam thuc bdc hai. Bdt phuang trlnh bdc hai. Ml)t s{1 h¢ bat phuong trinh bdc hai mot a'n sodon gidn. M l)t so' phuong trinh va bat phuong trinh quy ve'

bdc hai.

Ve' kien thuc : • Neu L1 = 0 thi f(x) luon cimg dau voi he so a,

- HitSu dinh If ve dau cua tam thirc bac voi nhirng gia tri x -:f:- - :a . hai.

V if ki nang:

- Ap dung diroc dinh If ve difu tam thirc bac hai M giai bat phirong trinh bac hai ; cac bat phuong trinh quy ve bac hai : bat phuong trinh dang tich, bat phirong trinh chua lin (} mau thirc.

- Gidi dUlJ'C mot so' h¢ bat phuong trinh blJ-c hai mot lin sodan gidn.

- Bier ap dung viec giai bat phirong trinh bac hai dtS giai mot so bai toan lien quan den phirong trinh bac hai nhir : dieu kien dtS phirong trinh c6 nghiern, c6 hai nghiern trai dau,

- Gidi duac mot so' bat phuong trinh quy vi bac hai.

4- H.O.A.N . ToAN UJP 10 - A

Huong dan thuc hien

Kien thirc CO' ban

1. Dau cua tam thirc bac hai :

Cho f(x) = ax2 + bx + e, (a -:f:- 0), L1 = b2 - 4ae.

• Neu L1 < 0 thi f(x) luon cimg dau voi he so a, voi moi x E Itt

• Neu L1 > 0 thi f(x) = 0 c6 hai nghiern xI' X2 (quy iroc xI < x2)' Khi d6, f(x) cung dau voi he

so a khi x < xI hoac x > X2' trai dau voi he so a khi x I < x < x2'

2. Minh hoa hinh hoc dau tam thirc bac hai

j(x) = ax2 + bx + e, (a-:f:- 0)

L1<0

a>O

y

a<O

o

/\

x

49

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

- Dang 1 : Xet dau tam thirc bac hai.

- Dang 2 : Ap dung dinh If ve dau tam thirc bac

hai dtS giai bat phirong trinh bac hai ; Mot so bat phirong trinh quy ve bac hai : bat phirong trinh dang tich, bat phtrong trinh chua lin (} mau thirc.

- Dang 3 : Gidi mot so' h¢ bat phuong trinh bac hai mot lin sodon gidn.

- Dang 4 : Ap dung viec giai bat phirong trinh bac hai dt giai mot so bai toan lien quan den phirong trinh bac hai nhir : dieu kien dtS plnrong trinh c6 nghiem, c6 hai nghiern trai dau,

- Dang 5 : Gidi mot so bat phuong trinh quy vi bac hai bang cacn diJt a'n phu thich hap.

Vi du. Xet dau cac tam thirc bac hai :

a) - 3x2 + 2x - 7 ;

b) x2 - 8x + 15.

Vi du. Giai cac bat phirong trmh :

a) - x2 + 6x - 9 > 0 ;

b) -12x2 + 3x + I < O.

Vi du. Gidi cdc bat phuong trinh : a) (2x -8)(x2 -4x + 3) > 0 ;

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Hu6ng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Vi du. Gidi h¢ bat phuang trinh :

{x2 - 12x + 32 > 0 a)

x2 - 13x + 22 < 0 ;

{5x2 - 7 x + 1 < 0 b)

3) m? + bx + c = 0 c6 cac nghiem dirong khi va x2 - 9x + 30 < 0 ;

chi khi

b

-- > O.

a V OJ nhiing gia tri nao cua tham so m thi :

4) ax2 + bx + c = 0 c6 cac nghiern am khi va a) Phuong trinh dii cho co nghiem ;

chi khi b) Phuong trinh dii cho co hai nghiem trai ddu.

3. Mot so dieu kien nrong dirong :

Neu ai + bx + c la mot tam thirc bac hai (a * 0) thl

1) ax2 + bx + c = 0 c6 nghiem khi va chi khi 2

~ = b - 4ac ~ 0;

2) ax2 + bx + c = 0 c6 hai nghiem trai dau khi va chi khi ~ < 0;

a

c

- > 0 a

c ->0 a

b

-- < O. a

50

1 1

b) --1 <--2 ; x+ x+

5x2 -7x - 3

c) 2 > 1.

3x - 2x - 5

{X2 - 2x + 1 > 0 c)

- x2 + 2x + 3 > O.

Vi du. Cho phuong trinh

2

(m - 5)x - 4mx + m - 2 = O.

Vi du. Gidi cac bat phuong trinh :

a) x2 - 3x + 21x - 11 > 0 ;

b) Jx2 - 3x + 2 ~x;

c) x4 - 3x2 + 2 > O.

4- H.DAN .. ToAN L<jp 10 - [3

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Hurmg Min thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LU'U Y

v - THONG KE

2 {a> 0

5) V x, ax + bx + c > 0 <=?

~ < O.

2 {a> 0

6) Vx, ax +bx+c ~ 0 <=?

~ ~ O.

2 {a < 0

7)Vx, ax +bx+c<O<=?

~ < O.

2 {a> 0

8) V x, ax + bx + c ~ 0 <=>

~ ~ O.

Vi du. V6i gia tri nao ella m thi ham so sau luon xac dinh ?

y = ~ x2 - 2mx + m.

1. Bang phdn bel tdn so' - tan sudt. Bdng 1. Gia sir day n so lieu thong ke da eho co k gia - Dang 1 : Xac dinh Hin so, tan suat ella moi gia phdn botdn so' - tan sudt ghep lop, tri khac nhau (k~ n). G9i xi la mot gia tri bat ki tri trong day so lieu thong ke. (Vi¢c giai thieu noi

Ve' kiln thuc :

- Hi~u cac khai niem : Tan so, tan suat ella moi gia tri trong day so lieu thong ke, bang phan bo tan so - tan suat, bang phan bo tan so - tan suat ghep lop.

Ve'kfnang:

trong k gia tri do, ta co :

dung duac thuc hien dong thai vai viec khdo sat

cdc bai todn thuc tien). so Ian xuat hien gia tri xi trong day so lieu da eho

goi la tan so' ella gia tri do, kf hieu la ni'

So I, = ni duoc goi la tan sudt ella gia tri xi' n

- Dang 2 : Xac dinh tan so, tan suat ella moi lap trong day so lieu thong ke phan lap. tKhong yeu cdu : bier caci: phdn lap ; bier day du cac truang h9'{J phdi hlp bdng phdn botdn so' - tan sudt ghep

- Xac dinh diroc tan so, tan suat ella moi 2. Gia sir day n so lieu thong ke da eho diroc ph an lap. Chu y den gia tri dai dien cua moi lop). gia tri trong day so lieu thong ke,

vao k lop (k < n). Xet lap tlur i (i = 1, 2, ... , k) 3 L b' h b" , , ,

b' h b" , , , - Dang : ap ang p an 6 tan so - tan suat

- Lap duoc ang p an 6 tan so - tan suat trong k lap do, ta co :

ghep lop khi da eho cac lap can phan ra. ghep lap khi da eho cac lap can phan ra.

51

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

• So ni cac so lieu thong ke thuoc lop thir i duoc Vi duo Chieu cao cua mot nh6m 30 hoc sinh

goi la tdn so' cua lap d6. lop 10 diroc li¢t ke a bang sau (don vi : m) :

• SOh = !!i diroc goi la tdn sud! cua lap thir i. n

i

52

1,45 1,58 1,61 1,52 1,52 1,67
1,50 1,60 1,65 1,55 1,55 1,64
1,47 1,70 1,73 1,59 1,62 1,56
1,48 1,48 1,58 1,55 1,49 1,52
1,52 1,50 1,60 1,50 1,63 1,71
Hay lap bang phan bo tan so - tan suat thea rnau :
Chieu cao xi (m) Tan so Tan suat Cong

b) Hay lap bang phan bo tan suat ghep lop voi cac lop 13. [1,45, 1,55) , [1,55 , 1,65) , [1,65; 1,75].

Vi du. Hay lap bang phan bo tan so - tan suat cua day so lieu thong ke sau :

24 ; 25 ; 26 ; 27 ; 27 ; 26 ; 25 ; 24; 25; 25 ; 27 ; 26; 26; 25 ; 25; 25; 24; 27; 26; 26; 26.

2. Bie'u do (Bieu do tan so, tan suat hinh cot ; Duong gap khuc Uin so, t<in suat ; Bi~u do hinh quat).

Ve' kiln (hue:

Hieu cac bi~u do tan so, t<in suat hinh cot, bieu do hinh quat va dirong gap khuc I t<in suat,

I Ve' n nang:

- Ve duoc bieu do t<in suat hinh cot.

- Ve duoc dirong gap khiic tan so, tan

suat.

- DQc diroc cac bieu do hinh cot, hinh qU<;lt.

Kien thtrc co ban

Huong dan thtrc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

1. Cach ve bieu do tan so, tan suat hinh cot : a) Cach ve bieu do tan suat hinh cot D~ rna ta bang phan bo t<in suat ghep lap va trinh bay cac so lieu thong ke, c6 th~ ve bieu do t<in suat hinh cot nlnr sau :

Chon he true toa do vuong g6c Ox! voi dan vi tren true hoanh Ox la dan vi cua dau hieu X diroc nghien CUu, dan vi tren true tung Ojla 1 %. D~ do thi can doi, doi khi phai cat bo mot doan nao d6 cua true hoanh (hoac cua true tung) ;

Tren true hoanh, dat cac khoang c6 cac rrnit bieu dien cho cac rmit cua cac lap 0 bang phan bo' tan suat (do dai cua cac khoang bang be rong cua cac lap). Ta goi cac khoang va cac lap nay la nrong irng voi nhau. Lay cac khoang d6 lam canh

day, ve cac hinh chi! nhat c6 dQ dai cua cac dirong cao bang tan suat cua cac lap nrong irng va nam v~ phia chieu dirong cua true tung.

Cac hinh chi! nhat vira ve diroc tao thanh mot bieu do tan suat hinh cot,

b) Cach ve bieu do t<in so hinh cot tirong tv ve bi~u do Utn suat hinh cot, trong d6 thay true tan suat boi true tan so.

2. Duong gap khiic tan suat, tan so :

L_ Cling c6 th~ rna ta bang phan bo tan suat ghep

lap bang each ve dircng gap khuc tan suat,

__ -----'- ---L- ------'

Chuan kien tlnic - ki nang

53

- DCJng 1 : Ve bieu do tan suat hinh cot.

- DCJng 2 : Ve dirong gap khuc tan so, t<in suat.

- DCJng 3 : DQc cac bieu do hinh cot, hinh quat,

Vi du. Ve bieu do hinh cot, dirong gap khiic tan suat urong irng voi ket qua phan b) trong vi du 0 ph an tren.

Vi du. Cho bang phan bo thirc nghiern tan suat ghep lap sau : Nhiet dQ trung binh cua thang 12 tai thanh pho Vinh tit 1961 den 1990.

Cac lap cua °
nhiet dQ X (0C) x· Tan suatji (%)
I
[15; 17) 16 16,7
[17; 19) 18 43,3
[19;21) 20 36,7
[21 ; 23) 22 3,3
I Cong 100% Hay rna ta bang tren bang each ve :

a) Bi~u do tan suat hinh cot ;

b) Duong gap klnic tan suat,

Vi du. Cho bieu do hinh quat v~ co cau gia tri san xuat cong nghiep thea thanh phan kinh te (%) nam 2000 cua mroc ta nlnr sau :

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Hinmg dan thirc hien

Dang toan - VI du - LUll Y

a) Gia tri dai dien

Trong bang phan bo ghep lap, ta goi trung binh cong cua hai rmit lap thir i la gia tri dai dien cua

lap d6, kf hieu la ci'

b) Cach ve dirong gap khiic Uin suat

Tren mat phang toa do OX! (he toa do ox! dll noi 0

tren), xac dinh cac diem (Cj ; fi) ; i = 1, 2, 3, ... , k, Ghi chu :

trong do, Ci va fi Ian hrot la gia tri dai dien, tiln (1) Khu vue doanh nghiep nha mroc suat cua cac lap cua bang phan be (g6m k lap). (2) Khu vue ngoai quoc doanh

Ve cac doan thang noi diem (c, ; fi) voi diem (Ci+l ; fi+l)' i = 1,2,3, ... , k - 1, ta thu duoc mot duong gap khuc, goi la dirong gap khuc tan suat.

c) Cach ve dirong gap khuc tan so nrong tu ve duong gap khuc tan suat, trong d6 thay true tan suat boi true tan so.

3. D9C bieu d6 tan suat, tan so hinh cot ; Duong gap khiic tan suat, tiln so ; Bi~u d6 hinh quat,

54

44,3 (3) ______,

I-----~

23,5 (2)

32,2 (1)

-

(3) Khu vue dau nr mroc ngoai,

Toe dQ tang tong san pham trong rnroc cua mroc ta qua 20 nam (1986 - 2005) dll diroc th~ hien

. . .

qua dirong gap khuc sau day

Tdng san pharn

1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 ThCli gian

Theo bdo Lao dong, s6'09!2006(7159) ngay 20 -4 -2006.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien tlnrc co ban

HUOng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

1. So trung binh cong (hay so trung binh) • Cong thirc tfnh :

a) Truong h<;1P bang phan bo' tan so va uin suat

_ 1 k k

x =-L>iXi = 'l:jixi =tv; +i2x2+"'+/0k'

n i=1 i=1

trong d6 ni, j,. Ian hrot la tan so, Hin suat cua gia tri Xi;

n la so cac so lieu thong ke (nl + n2 + ... + nk = n). b) Truong h<;1P bang phan be tan so va tan suat ghep lap

trong d6 c., ni'!; Ian hrot la gia tri dai dien, tan so, tan suat cua lap thir i ; n la so cac so lieu

thong ke (nl + n2 + ... + 11k = n).

Dua vao bi~u do, hay lap bang thea mau sau :

Khu vue doanh nghiep nha mroc

Ti trong (%)

Cac thanh phan kinh te

Khu vue ngoai quoc doanh

Khu vue dau tu mroc ngoai

Cong

3. S6' trung binh, s6' trung vi va mot Ve' hen thuc :

Biet diroc mot so dac tnrng cua day so lieu (so trung binh, so trung vi, mot) va y nghia cua cluing.

Ve' ki nang :

TIm diroc so trung binh, so trung vi, mot cua day so lieu thong ke (trong nhtrng tinh huong da hoc),

55

- Dang bai tdp : TIm so trung binh, so trung vi, mot cua day so lieu thong ke (trong nhimg tinh huong da hoc).

Vi du. Diem thi hoc ki II mon Toan cua mot t6 hoc sinh lap lOA (guy iroc rang diem kiem tra hocki c6 th~ lam tron den 0,5 diem) diroc liet ke nhu sau:

2; 5; 7,5; 8; 5; 7; 6,5; 9; 4,5; 10.

a) Tinh diem trung binh cua 10 hoc sinh d6 (chi lay den mot chit so thap phan sau khi da lam tron).

b) Tfnh so trung vi cua day so lieu tren,

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

Kien thtrc co ban

HUOng dan thtrc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

2. So trung V! :

So trung V! Me cua mot day gam n so lieu thong ke diroc sap tlur nr khong giarn (hoac khong tang) la so dirng giiia day, neu n le ;

La trung binh cong cua hai so dung gifra day

n

(trung brnh cong cua so hang tlnr 2" va so hang

thtr ~. + 1), neu n chan.

3. Mot:

Mot Mo la gia tri co tiln so 100 nhat trong bang ph an bo tiln so.

Neu trong bang phan bo tiln so co hai gia tri c6 tiln so bang nhau va 100 han tan so cua cac gia tri khac thi hai gia tri d6 la hai mot.

4. Phuong sai va d(J tech chudn eua ddy s6' lieu thong ke.

ve' kien thuc :

Biet khai niem phirong sai, d¢ lech chuan cua day so lieu thong ke va y nghia thong ke cua cluing.

Ve' ta nang:

TIm diroc phuong sai, d¢ lech chuan cua day so lieu thong ke.

1. Cong thirc tinh :

C6 the tinh phirong sai thea mot trong ba each sau:

each 1 : Tfnh thea tan so k

2 1" . -)2 d ," ,. b' ha bo "

Sx =- ~ni(xi -x 01 vO"J. ang p an 6 tan so,

n i=!

k

s.; = _!_ L ni (Ci - xi doi v6i bang phan bo tiln n i=!

so ghep lop.

- Dang bai tap : Tfnh phirong sai, do lech chuan
cua day so lieu thong ke.
Vi du. Chieu cao cua mot nh6m 30 hoc sinh
lop 10 diroc liet ke a bang sau (dan vi : m) :
1,45 1,58 1,61 1,52 1,52 1,67
1,50 1,60 1,65 1,55 1,55 1,64
1,47 1,70 1,73 1,59 1,62 1,56
1,48 1,48 1,58 1,55 1,49 1,52
1,52 1,50 1,60 1,50 1,63 1,71 56

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi d1,l- LUll Y

----.--------+-------------

a) Hay lap bang phan bO' tan so ghep 16p voi cac lap Iii: [1,45; 1,55); [1,55; 1,65); [1,65; 1,75]. I

b) Tfnh sc trung binh cong cua bang phan bo tan I so ghep lap neu tren.

c) Tinh phuong sai cua bang phan be tan sO' ghep lap neu tren.

each 2 : Tinh thea tan suat k

s.; = I.t;(xi -:xi doi voi bang phan bo tan suat,

i=l

k

s; = I.Ii· (Ci - x)2 doi voi bang phan bo tan

i=l

suat ghep lap,

trong d6 ni' fi Ian hrot Iii tan so, tan suat cua gia tri xi trong bang phan bo tan so, tan suat (hay Iii tan so, tan suar cua lap thir i trong bang phan be tan so, tan suat ghep lap) ; n Iii so cac sO' lieu I

thong ke (n1 + n2 + ... + nk = n) ; x Iii sO' trung binh cong cua cac sO' lieu thong ke ; ci Iii gia tri dai dien cua lap thir i.

Cach 3 : Su dung cong thirc s~ = x2 - (:xi. 2. Y nghia va each su dung phuong sai

Phuong sai duoc su dung d~ danh gia mire d9 phan tan cua cac so lieu thong ke (so voi so trung binh).

Khi hai day so lieu thong ke c6 cung don V! do va c6 sO' trung binh bang nhau hoac xap xi nhau, day c6 phirong sai cang nho thl rmrc d9 ph an tan

I (~o v~i sO' trung binh) ella cac sO' lieu thong ke . cang It.

57

~---------------------------_--~---------------------------------------------------------------------------,

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

HUOng dan thirc hien

3. D(> lech chuan

D(> lech chuan Sx la can bac hai cua phirong sai s;

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

Kien tlurc co ban

D(> lech chuan cling diroc Slr dung d~ danh gia mire d(> phan tan cua cac so lieu thong ke (so voi so trung binh).

Cach sir dung d(> lech chuan hoan toan giong nhir each sir dung phirong sai.

Khi can chii y den don vi do, ta dung d(> lech chuan Sx (vi Sx c6 cung don vi do voi dau hieu X diroc nghien ciru).

VI - G6C LVQNG GIAC vA CONG THUC LVQNG GIAc

1. Quan M gitra do va radian

° IT (180)°

1 = -rad, 1 rad « -

180 IT

- Dang 1 : D6i don vi g6c tir d(> sang radian va ngiroc lai,

- Dang 2 : Tfnh d(> dai cung tron khi biet so do

1. Goc va cung luang giac (D(> va radian; So do cua g6c va cung lirong giac , Duong tron lirong giac),

Ve' kiln thuc : ?

Voi IT ~ 3,14 thi 1 ° ~ 0,01745 rad va ngiroc lai, cua cung.

- Biet hai don vi do g6c la do va radian. 1 rad ~ 57° 17'45". _ Dang 3 : Bieu dien cung hrong giac va g6c

-- Hieu khai niem dirong tron lirong giac : 2. D(> dai [ cua cung tron c6 so do a rad, ban hrong giac tren dirong tron dinh huang.

goc va cung luong giac ; so do cua g6c kinh RIa [= Ra. Vi duo D6i so do cua cac g6c sau day sang

va cung hrong giac.

3. so do cua cac cung hrong giac c6 diem dau A, radian:

I =Hieu duac h¢ thuc Sa-la cho cdc cung I\- 1050; 108°; 57°30'.

I vag6c/Uqngg_l_a_c_. . _L_d_1·~_'m __ c_uo_'1_B __ la __ :_sd __ A_B __ =_a __ +_k_"2_IT_,_k_E __ Z_,_tr_o_n_g_d_6-L ~

58

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

~------------------------------,-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hmmg dan thirc hien

vs u nang:

- Biet d6i don vi g6e tir do sang radian va ngiroc lai.

- Tinh duoc do dai eung tron khi biet so do cua eung.

- Biet each xac dinh diem cuoi cua mot eung lirong giac va tia cuoi cua mot goc hrong giac hay mot ho goc hrong giac tren dirong tron hrong giac.

2. Gia tri IU9'ng gidc eua mot goc (eung) (Y nghia hinh hoc ; Bang cac gia tri hrong giac cua cac g6e thuong gap ; Quan h~ giira cac gia tri hrong giac).

Ve' kien thuc :

-- Hieu khai niem gia tri hrong giac cua mot g6e (eung) ; bang gia tri hrong giac cua mot so g6e thirong gap,

L'Iren dirong tron hrong giac goc A, eho eung - Dong 1 : Xac dinh gia tri hrong giac cua mot .

,--.... r» g6e khi biet so do ella goc d6.

AM e6 sd AM = a. The thi tung d¢ cua diem M

la sin a, hoanh d¢ cua diem M la cos a,

4. De bieu dien eung hrong giac e6 so do a tren dirong tron hrong giac, ta chon diem A( 1 ; 0) lam diem dau cua eung VI vay chi can xac dinh diem cuoi M tren dirong tron hrong giac sao eho

,--.... r»

eung AM e6 sdAM = a.

5. Moi eung hrong giac CD irng voi mot g6e hrong giac (OC, OD) va ngiroc lai. So do cua eung hrong giac va g6e hrong giac nrong img la trung nhau.

sma, 0

tana = --(neu cos « « ), eosa

eosa ( ,. 0)

eota = -. - neu sm « « .

sma

n 3 rt

Is' 4' 7'

Vi duo Mot dirong tron e6 ban kinh 10 em. TIm d¢ dai cua cac eung tren duong tron e6 so do :

rt

a) 18 ;

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan - Vi d1,l - LUll Y

~--------------------------+------~~~--------------~---~~~~~~~~~~-~--

a 13. so do cua mot eung hrong giac tuy y e6 Vi du. D6i so do cac eung sau day ra do, phut,

diem dau A, diem cuoi B. Moi gia tri k img voi giay : mot eung.

Neu viet so do bang do thi ta e6

f\-. ° °

sd AB = a + k360 , k E Z.

Vi du. Tren dirong tron hrong giac, hay bieu dien cac eung e6 so do :

Tn: -4n:

30°', -120°', 630°

- ;"6'3

Vi du. Tren nuit phdng toa d() cho duong trim luang giac tam 0, die'm g6c A va cdc duang thdng y = x, y = - x. Goi M, N, P, Q La giao cua duang trim luang giac voi cdc duong thdng do. Tim so do cua cdc eung luang giac co dilm ddu la A va die'm ctuii la M, N, P, Q.

- Dang 2 : Xac dinh dau cac gia tri hrong giac cua eung AM khi diem cuoi M nam a cac goc phan ur khac nhau.

- Dang 3 : V an dung cac hang dang thirc hrong giac co ban gifra cac gia tri hrong giac cua mot goc de tinh toan, chtmg minh cac he thirc don gian,

L_ J_ -L . __

59

--------------------,---------------------------------------------------------------------------~

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

2. -1 ::; sin a ::; 1 ;

-1 ::; cos a ::; 1, voi moi a .

3. tan a khong xac dinh khi va chi khi 11

a = 2 + k11, k E Z.

4. cot a khong xac dinh khi va chi khi a = k11, k E Z.

5. cos a ;?: 0 khi va chi khi diem cuoi M thuoc g6c phan nr tlnr I va tlnr IV cua mat phang toa dQ.

6. sin a ;?: 0 khi va chi khi diem cuoi M thuoc g6c ph an tir thir I va thtr II cua mat phang toa dQ.

7. Til dau cua sin a va cos a suy ra dau tan a va cot a thea quy tac nhan.

8. Cac hang dang thirc hrong giac co ban :

. 2 2 1

SIn a+ cos a= ;

2 1

1 + tan a= ----

cos2 a '

2 1

1 + cot a=--- ;

sin2 a

60

ella

nhau, phu nhau, doi nhau, han kern nhau g6c 11 vao viec tinh gia tri hrong giac cua g6c bat ki hoac chirng minh cac dang thtrc.

- Dang 5 : Chung minh mot bilu thuc khong phu thuoc vao bien cua ham so luang giac.

Vi du. Dung dinh nghia, xac dinh gia tri Iirong giac ella g6c :

711 -411

180°', -

6' 3

Vi du

. -3 311

a) Cho smzz = 5' 11 < a < -:2 .

Tinh cosa, tana, cota.

1 11

b) Cho tana = -2 ; 2 < a < 11 .

Tinh sina, cosa.

Vi duo Chung minh rang (voi x Ia gia tri d~ cac bien thirc c6 nghia) :

a) (cotx + tanx)2 - (cotx - tanx)2 = 4 ;

b) 4 . 4 1 2' 2

cos x - SIn X = - SIn x.

- Hi~u duoc he thirc CO ban gifra cac gia Su dung ole kf hieu sina, cosa, tana, cota, ding - Dang 4 : Van dung cong thirc gitra cac gia tri tri IUQ'ng giac cua mot g6e. dung cdc ki hieu tga, cotga. hrong giac cua cac g6c c6 lien quan dac bier : bu

- Bier quan he giira cac gia tri hrong giac cua cac g6c c6 lien quan dac bier : bu nhau, phu nhau, doi nhau, han kern nhau g6c 11.

-- Bier y nghia hinh hoc cua tang va

I cotang,

Vc" ki nang - Xac dinh diroc gia tri luong giac ella mot g6c khi biet so do cua g6c d6.

- Xac dinh diroc dau cac gia tri IUQ'ng

r» giac ella cung AM khi diem cuoi M nam

6 cac g6c phan nr khac.nhau,

- Van dung diroc cac hang dang thirc

11Uqng giac co ban giira cac gia tri lirong giac ella mot g6c d~ tinh toan, clurng I minh cac he thirc dan gian.

- Van dung duoc cong thirc giira cac gia tri luong giac cua cac g6c e6 lien quan dac biet : bu nhau, phu nhau, doi nhau, hen kern nhau g6c 11 vao viec tinh gia tri hrong giac ella g6c bat kl hoac chirng

I minh cac dang thirc. I

L tan a .cot a = 1. tan420° ; sin8700 ; cos( - 240°).

______________ • ~ Lil ~

Vi du. Tim gia tri cua

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien

sin(-a) = - sma; tan(-a) = - tana ; cot(-a) = - cot( a).

10. Gia tri lirong giac cua cac cung bu nhau : sin(n -a) = sina ;

cos( rt - a ) = - cos a ; tan(n-a)=-tana;

cotrn -a) = - cota ;

11. Gia tri hrong giac cua cac cung hon kern rt : sin(a + n) = - sina ;

cos( a + n) = - cos a ,

tan( a + n) = tan a ;

cot( a + n) = cot a ;

12. Gia tri hrong giac cua cac cung phu nhau :

sin (~ - a ) = cos a ,

cos (~ - a ) = sin a ,

tan (~ - a ) = cot a ; cot (~ - a ) = tan a .

Kien thirc co ban

f-----------------4--------------------+------------------------_1

9. Gia tri hrong giac cua cac cung d6i nhau :

cos( - a ) = cos a ;

~------------------~---------------------~----------------------------------~

61

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Vi du. Chung minh rang trong tam giac ABC ta c6 :

a) sin (A + B) = sin C ;

A+C B

b) tan 2 = cotl·

Vi du. Chung minh ding cac bii'u thuc sau kh6ng phu tit uoc vao x

A = 2(sin6x + cos6x) -3(sin4x + cos4x) ;

B.2 2.2 4

= sm x + cos xsm x + cos x.

Vi du. Chung minh rang vm cung x bat ki, ta co :

a) sin ( x -t ~) = cos x

b) cos( X + -i = -sinx.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thirc hien

Kien thtrc co ban

1. Cong thirc cong :

• cos (a-h) = cosacosh + sinasinh ;

• cos(a+h) = cosacosh - sinasinh ;

• sin(a-h) = sinacosh - cosasinh ;

• sin(a+h) = sinacosh + cosasinh ;

Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

Ve' kiln thuc : tan a - tan h

_ Hi~u cong thirc tinh sin, COSIO", tang, • tan(a-h) = 1 + tan a tan b '

co tang cua tong, hieu hai goc. tan a + tan b

• tan(a+h) = 1 - tanatanh . - Tit cac cong thirc cong suy. ra cong thirc

g6c nhan doi. 2. Cong thirc nhan doi :

3. Cong thuc luang giac. - Cong thtrc cong.

- Cong thirc nhan doi.

- Cong tlurc bien d6i tfch thanh t6ng.

- Cong thirc bien d6i t6ng thanh tich.

-- Hi~u cong thirc bien d6i tich thanh tong va cong tlnrc bien d6i tong thanh tich.

Vi ki nang:

- Van dung diroc cong thirc tinh sin, eosin, tang, cotang cua tong, hieu hai g6c, cong thirc goc nhan doi d~ giai cac bai toan nhu tinh gia tri hrong giac cua mot g6c, nit gon nhirng bilu thirc hrong giac don gian va cluing minh mot ;0 dang

I thtrc.

- Van dung diroc cong thirc bien d6i tich thanh tong, cong thirc bien d6i tong thanh tfch vao mot so bai toan bien d6i, nit gon bieu thtrc.

• sin2a = 2sinacosa ;

2 ? .2221

• cos a = cos- a - sm a = cos a -

2tana

• tan2a = -----,-- 1 - tan2 a

3. Cong thirc ha bac :

2

• cos a =

1 + cos2a 2

- Dang 1 : Tinh gia tri hrong giac cua mot g6c.

- Dang 2 :

+ Chung minh cong thuc tinh sin, eosin, tang, cotang cua t6ng, hieu hai goc ; cong thuc bien d6i tieh thanh. t6ng va cong thuc bien d6i t6ng thann tich.

+ Van dung diroc cong thirc tfnh sin, eosin, tang, cotang cua tong, hieu hai goc, cong thirc g6c nhan doi M giai cac bai to an nhu tinh gia tri hrong giac cua mot g6c, rut gon nhirng bieu thirc hrong giac don gian va cluing minh mot so dang tlurc.

- Dang 3 : Van dung diroc cong thirc bien d6i tich thanh tong, cong thirc bien d6i tong thanh tfch vao mot so bai toan bien d6i, rut gon bieu thirc.

Vi du. Tinh cos 105°; tan 15°.

{ T' d T' h . 2 K • 1

v l U. 10 sin a neu sma - cosa = 5'

Vi du. Chirng minh rang:

) . 4 4 1 1. 22

a sm x + cos x = - Ism x;

b) cos 4x - sin 4x = cos2x.

2 1 - cos2a
• sm a= 2 ,
2 1 - cos2a
·tana= 1 + cos2a 62

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

~------------------------------,----------------------------------------------------------'-----------------,

HUOng dan thuc hien

J.-------------------------------------~------------ .. ------------.--------

Dang toan - Vi du - LU'U Y

VII - VECTd

Kien thirc CO' ban

Vi du. Bien d6i biiu thuc

sina + sinb + sin(a + b) thanh tich.

1 Vi du. Chung minh sinlOo.sinSOo.sin70o = "8'

Vi du. V 6i A, B, C Til cae goc crla tam glac, chung minh :

'nA . B . C' 4 ABC

Sl + sm + sm = cos2 cos2cos2.

Vi du. Bien d6i tich sau thann t6ng

sin x sin 2x sin 3x.

4. Cong thirc bien dcii tfch thanh tong :

1

• cosaeosb = "2 [eos(a-b) + eos(a+b)] ;

• sinasinb = ~ [eos(a-b) - eos(a+b)] ;

• sinaeosb = ~ [sin(a-b) + sin(a+b)]. 5. Cong thirc bien d6i tong thanh tich :

u+v u-v

• eosu + eosv = 2eos -2- cos -2-- ;

2. u+v. u-v

• eosu - eosv = - sm-2-- sm-2- ;

.. 2' u+v u-v

• smu + smv = sin -2-- cos -2-- ;

. . 2 u+v. u-v I

J.- _L_. __ sl_n_u_- __ sl_n_v_= __ e_o_s_-_-_2~~_SI_n~~_2~~_; L__ • . • .~

I 1. Cdc dinh. nghia (Dinh nghia vecto ; D¢

I dai ella vecto ; Hai vecto eu~g plurong. cung huang; Hai vecto bang nhau ; VeetO' - khong).

Vi kiln {hue:

- Hi~u khai niern vecto, vecto-khong, d¢ dai vecto, hai vecto cung phuong, hai vecto bang nhau.

1. Vecto la mot doan thang co huang.

2. D~ xac dinh mot vecto can biet mot trong hai dieu kien sau :

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh mot vecto, sir cung phuong va huang ella hai vecto.

- D~7Ilg 2 : Chung minh hai vecto being nhau.

- Diem dau va diem cuoi ella vecto ;

1- D(}n~, 3 : Khi eho ~ac d~~m A va vecto a, dung diem B sao eho AB = a .

Vi du. Cho hinh binh hanh ABCD, tam O. GQi M, N Ian hrot la trung diem ella AD. BC.

- D¢ dai va huang.

~ ~

3. Hai vecto a va b duoc goi la cung phuong

neu gia ella cluing song song hoac trung nhau.

63

Htrong dan tlurc hien

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

~-----"------------------------------.-----------------------------------~

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

~ ~

Neu hai vecto 0 va b cung phuong thi cluing c6

th~ cung huang hoac nguoc huang.

a) C6 bao nhieu vecto khac vecto 6 c6 diem dau va diem cuoi la mot trong so cac diem A, B, C, D,O,M,N.

-- Biet diroc vecto - khong cung phirong va cung huang voi rnoi vecto.

Ve' ki ruing :

-- Bier cluing minh hai vecto bang nhau.

4. D9 dai cua mot vecto la khoang each giita diem dau va diem cuoi cua vecto do,

b) Chi ra hai vecto c6 diem dau, diem cuoi lay

~ ~ trong so cac diem A, B, C, D, 0, M, N rna

va 0, b cung

~ ~

- Khi cho tnroc diem A va vecto ~ , dung • 0 = b khi va chi khi

- cung phirong voi AB,

duoc di~m B sao cho AS = ~.

huang.

- cung huang voi AB,

5. Voi m6i diem A ta goi AA la vecto- khong,

~

Vecto - khong duoc kf hieu la 0 va quy uoc rang

161 = 0, vecto - khong cung phirong va cung huong voi moi vecto.

- ngiroc huang voi AB.

c) Chi ra cac vecto bang vecto MO, OB.

~"---------------------------------+------------------------------------~------------------------------------~

2. T ong va "hi¢u hoi vecto (Tdng hai vecto :

quy tac ba diem, quy tac hinh binh hanh, I tinh chat; Vecto doi ; Hieu hai vecto).

Ve' kien thuc :

1. Tdng cua hai vecto :

• Cho hai vecto ~ va b. Lay mot diem A tuy y,

---- ..... ---- --+ --+ -. -----+

ve AB = 0, BC = b. Khi do 0 + b = AC.

• V6i ba diem M, N, P tuy y ta luon c6 :

Mil + liP = MP (quy tac ba diem). • Tir giac ABCD la hinh binh hanh, ta c6 :

AS + AD = AC (quy tac hinh binh hanh), 2. Vecto doi :

• Vecto b Ia vecto dOl cua vecto ~ neu Ibl = I~I

- Dang 1 : Van dung diroc : quy tac ba diem, quy tac hinh binh hanh tim tong, hieu cua hai hoac nhieu vecto cho tnroc. Tinh dQ dai cua

--+ --+ --+ -t

a+b i a +b ,

- Dang 2 : Tim vecto' doi va hieu cua hai vecto,

- Dang 3 : Cluing minh cac dAng tlurc vecto (van

dung diroc quy tac trir DB - OC = CB vao clurng minh cac dang thirc vecto).

Vi du. Cho bon diem A, B, C, D.

- Hi~u each xac dinh tong, hieu hai vecto ; quy tac ba diem, quy tac hinh binh hanh va cac tfnh chat cua tong vecto (giao hoan, ket hop), tinh chat cua vecto- khong.

- Bier diroc I~ + bl ~ H + Ibl·

va ~, b Ia hai vecto ngiroc huang. Kf hieu Cluing minh rang:

~ ~

b = -0.

AB + CD = AD + CB.

64

-'--~---'--------------I

I . Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang _~

rmi liang: -------------- • ~cu; 1a vecto doi ella vecto h thi vecto h la

I / ,'~ _~~..... _

I - Van dung diroc : guy tie ba diem, guy vecto doi ella a hay -- (--a) = a,

I de hinh binh hanh khi lay tong hai vecto

- -_._---_.- _. __ ._._--------_ ... - .. - .-- --.-~

Huong dan thuc hi¢n I

-.--.-.------.-------.----.- - ---_ .. _ .. _ .... _----1

Dang toau - Vi du- LLfU )'

---'-'---'---'--"--'--- -.----.------ ------1

Vi du. Cho tam gi;:ic deu ABC. canh a. Tinh do dai cac vecto AB - AC, AB + AC.

eho truce.

• M6i vecto deu co duv nhat vecto doi. Vecto doi Vi du. Cho sau diem /1,1, N, P. Q, f( S bat ki.

- ~ ~ Chung minh ding

ella A.B la BA . Vecto doi ella 0 la 0 . I MP~ + -N-f1 + -j-J,e: = -J~4S: -t- .i~-jl-; +,' L)O-.·.'.

13,~li~~ella~haiv~eto': ~ \) VI. V 1\

I·a-b=a+(-b); \. Ta co : OJ! - OA = AB voi ba diem 0, A., B I bar ki (guy tac trir) ,

Ii 4, Tinh chat eu~ p~ep ~e(>ng cac vecto :

V6'i cac vecto a, b , c bat ki ta co \. ~ + ,; = h + ; (tinh chat giao hoan) ;

I• (~; + h) + Z = ; + (h + Z) (tfnh chat ket c) IIA + HB + IIC == 2HO.

hop) ;

I. ; + 6 = 6 + ; = ; (tinh chat cua vecto- khong) ;

L- l ~ + (-;) = -;+; = 6 1 . __ ---1

13. Tich vecta vai mot so (Dinh nghia tich 11. Dinh nghia tich cua mot vecto voi mot so - Dang 1 : Xac dinh vecto h ::= k;; khi cho truce

vecto voi mot so ; Cac tinh chat ella tich _' ,~~ r' , _" -. I

/' ; t _' D' ~ ki _ d:t hai to' I Cho so thirc k :;:. 0 va vecto a :;:. o. rich eua so k va vecto a .

I vecto VOl mo so; leu ien e ar vee . ~. ~

, cupg phuong : _" Die~ ki.~n d~ ba dien: vecto a voi so th~l!e k la mot vecto, kf hieu la k ": I - Dang 2 : ~~~ dl,ll\g ki~~ thirc ve \'e~~,o d~, ehUn_g I t~~ang har,lg ; eu« thi mot vecto thea hat cung huong voi a neu k > 0, nguoc huong v6'1 a I minh : b,a diem thang nan,g, trung ?!cm c~a ~9t

i "ecta.khong cung phUong). _'.' , _ ,. ~ , I~I d~<.tn thang, trong tam cua lam giac, hal diem

I Ve kien thuc : neu k < 0 va eo d9 dai bang Ikl ai' trung nhau,

II - Hi~ll. duoc dinh nghia tich vecto voi ~ ~ ~ ~ - D. ~ng 3 : Phtin .tich (bieu thi) mot vecto theo

Quy uoc : 0 a = 0, k 0 = 0 , .'

l_:_~~)t so. hat vecta khong cung phuong,

- V ~n dung duoc guy tac trir

I

i

I de chtrng minh cac dang thirc vecto,

I

! I

OB - OC = CB

Vi du. Cho tam giac ,4BC co true tam H, tam duong tron ngoai tiep O. Goi D Iii die'm dOL xung VOl A qua O. Chung mirth ding:

a) Tit giac BDCH ta hinlt binh hanh,

I

0..4 + OB + ()C = 011.

b) OB + OC = AH. Tu do cluing minh

65

tam,

111 ta co :

-~ ~

1) ktm a) = (km) a

~ ~ -

2)(k+m)a =ka + 171 a

~ ~

3) k(a +b )=ka +kh,

Hi~u tinh chat trung diem, tinh chat trong

- Bie: d#rih Ii bieu thi mot vecto theo hai vecto kluing cung phuong.

Vc'klnt'ing'

-

- Xac dinh diroc vecto b = k a klu cho

tnroc s6 thirc k va vecto ;; ,

ta co:

-+ - -+ -

• k( a + b) = k a + k b

~ ~ ~

.(h+k)a =ha +k a

- ~

.h(ka)=(hk)a;

~ ~

.Ja=a;

~ ~

(-J)a =-a ;

~ ~

kO = O.

I - F Huong dan thuc hien

I Chu~n~~th~-hlnang ~--~~~~~~~~~--~~~~~~--~~~~~~~~~--~~

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

1- Biet d~nh chiit_cu~ tich -~ccta voi mot 2. Cae tinh chat cua phep nhan vecto voi mot s6 : - Dang 4 : Chung rninh dang thirc vecto co chua

I " V'" 1" "h I. tich ella vecto vo: mo. t s6 " Xac dinh vi. tri ella so: oi mot vecto a, J va rnoi so tl ire 1\, V 6'i hai vecto a, b tuy y va voi moi s6 k, hEIR.

mot diem nho dang thirc vecto.

- Dang 5 : Sl'r dung tinh chat trung diem ella doan thang, trong tam ella tam giac d~ giai mot s6 bai toan hinh hoc.

~ ~ rk=O

• ka = 0 <=> _ ~ a = O.

• A, B, C thang hang <=> AB = kAC . 1- Biet diroc ~i~u ki~n d~ h~i vecto cung 3. Hai vecto a, b voi h -:t- 0 cung phirong khi va • M la trung diem ella doan thang AB

phirong ; ba diem thang hang. chi khi co so k d~ ~ = kh , s6 k tim diroc la duy MA + MB = 0 nhat.

- Biet dien dat bang vecto v~ ba diem AB = k AC , voi s6 k xac dinh.

thang hang, trung diem cua mot doan ~ M la trung diem ella doan thang AB thang, trong tam ella tam giac, hai d.i~m I trung nhau d~ giai mot s6 bai toan hinh

hoc. <=> OA + OB = 20M

- Sl'r dung diroc tinh chat trung diem ella AM = MB

doan thang, trong tam ella tam giac M

giai m9t s6 bai toan hlnh hge. I (v6'i di6m 0 bat kl).

~ ~

Oa = 0 ;

4. Ap dung :

~ ~ rlk = 0

• ka = 0 <=> ~ ~ a = O.

• Ba diem phan biet A, B, C thang hang <=>

MA + MB = 0

66

OA + OB = 20M (voi diem 0 bat ki). AM = MB.

• G lit trong tam eua tam giac ABC <=>

! -._____' ~ ____. '--t ---+ ---~.__' __ ~

I GA + GB + GC = 0 <=> OA + OB + OC = 30G

I voi diem 0 bat ki.

Vi du. G9i M, N Ian luot la trung diem ella cac doan thang AB, CD. Chung minh rang

2MN=AC+BD.

Vi duo Cho hinh binh hanh ABCD. Chung minh rang

AB+ 2AC+AD= 3AC.

'li)I\~ TOANldp10 fJ

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huang dan thirc hien

Kien thirc CO' ban

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

---+ ---+

a) MB = -2MC ;

I, ---+ 1~ 2~

~ ~ -4 +-~_A_M __ = __ 3_AB __ +_3_A_C_. ~

4. H¢ true toa de} (Dinh nghia true toa do ; 1. True toa d9 (true) la mot dirong thang tren d6 - Dang 1 : Bieu dien diem tren true,

Toa d9 cua diem tren true toa do ; D9 dai da xac dinh mot diem 0 goi la die'm goc va mot

- - Dang 2 : Tim toa d9 cua mot diem va d9 dai

dai so cua mot vecto tren mot true), don vi K' hi (0 ) I ~ 0

vecto on V! e. 1 ieu : ; e IOt;lC x, ... dai S9 cua mot vecto tren true.

2. Cho M la mot diem tuy y tren true (0 ; ;). - Dang 3 : Tinh diroc d9 dai dai so cua mot

- Hi~u khai niern true toa do, toa d9 cua ~ - ,

Khi d6 e6 duy nhat mot so k sao eho OM = ke. vecto khi bier toa d9 hai diem dau rmit cua n6. vecto va cua diem tren true.

Ta goi so k d6 la toa de} cua diem M dai viii true

dd cho.

~ -

e6 duy nhat so a sao eho AB = ae. Ta goi so a b) Hay xdc dinb dQ dai dai s6' ctla cdc vecto

- Xae dinh duoc toa do cua diem, cua ~ ~ ---+ ---+

d6 la de} dai dai so' cila vecto AB dOl viii true dd AB; AM ; MN.

• G la trong tam cua tam giac ABC

Vi dLJ. Chung minh rang neu G va G' Ian hrot la trong tam cua cac tam giac ABC va A'B'C' thi

~

<=> GA + GB + GC = 0

---+ ---+ ----+ -----+

3GG'= AA' +BB' +CC'.

Ve' kien thuc :

- Bier khai niern d9 dai dai so cua mot vecto tren true va h¢ thuc Sa-lo.

Vi n nang:

vecto tren true,

<=> OA + DB + DC = 30G (voi diem 0 bat kl).

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC. G(Ji M fa mot diem

- -

5. Cho hai vecto a va b khong cung phuong va thuoc doan BC sao eho MB = 2MC.

x la mot vecto tuy y. Bao gio cfing tim duoc cap Chung minh rang

- - -

so thuc h va k duy nhat sao cho x = ha + kb.

Vi dLJ. Tren mot true cho cac diem A, B, M, N Ian hrot e6 toa d9 la -4; 3 ; 5 ; -2.

3. Cho hai diem A va B tren true (0 ; ;). Khi d6 a) Hay bieu dien cac diem d6 tren true so.

cho, ki hieu : a = AB. - Tinh diroc d9 dai dai so cua mot vecto

khi bier toa d9 hai diem dau rmit cua n6.

4. Neu hai diem A va B tren true (0 , e) e6 toa 09 Ian hrot la a va b thi AB = b - a.

67

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Kien thirc eo ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

5. H¢ thuc Sa-la :

He thuc AB + BC = AC tuong duong viii h¢

thuc AB + BC = AC .

5. H¢ true tog dr:) (Toa dQ cua vecto, Bieu thirc toa dQ cua cac phep roan vecto. Toa dQ cua diem ; Toa de) trung di~m cua doan thang va toa de) trong tam cua tam giac).

Ve' kien thuc :

- Hi~u diroc toa dQ cua vecto, cua diem d6i v6i mot he true.

- Biet diroc bieu thirc toa dQ cua cac phep toan vecto, dQ dai vecto va khoang each giira hai diem, toa dQ trung di~m cua doan thang va toa dQ trong tam cua tam giac.

Ve' ki nang:

toa dQ hai dau mot. Tinh toa do cua cac vecto

Chi xet h¢ tog de? Dl-cac vuong goc (don vi tren _ _ _ ~ _

cdc true tog do hang nhau). u + v, u - v , ku .

- - - -

• a = (al ; a2) <=> a = al i + a2 j . _ Dang 3 : Clnrng minh ba diem thang hang. hai

• M co toa dQ la (x ; y) <=> OM = (x ; y) voi 0 la dirong thang song song bang toa dQ.

-- --

g6e toa dQ ; x = OMI ' Y = OM2, trong do, M], - Dang 4 : Xac dinh toa dQ trung diem cua doan

thang, toa dQ trong tam cua tam giac.

M2 Ian hrot la chan duong vuong g6e ha tit M

xu6ng Ox va Oy. Vi du. Tren mat phang voi h~ toa de) da chon

• Neu A co toa dQ la (xA ; YA)' B e6 toa dQ la eho cac diem A(- 4; 1), B(2; 4) va C(2; - 2).

(xB ; YB) thi : a) Clurng minh rang A, B, C khong thang hang.

-. Tfnh ehu vi cua tam giac ABC.

AB = (xB - xA ; YB - YA)'

Dung ki hieu Oxy hade (0, i , j ).

1. Toa d¢ cua mot vecto, cua mot diem tren mat phang toa d¢ Oxy.

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh toa d¢ cua vecto neu bier

- Dang 2 : Tinh d¢ dai vecto va khoang each giira hai diem.

- Tfnh diroc toa d¢ cua vecto neu bier toa d¢ hai dtlu mot. Su dung diroc bieu thirc

toa d¢ cua cac phep toan veeta.· 2. Cho ; = (al ; a2)' h = (hi; h2), k E R ta e6

_ .. Tfnh diroc d¢ dai vecto va khoang each _ _

gifra hai diem. I a + b = (al + bl ; a2 + b2),

- Xae dinh diroc toa d¢ trung diem eual' ; - h = (al - hi ; a2 - h2),

doan thang va toa d¢ trong tam cua tam -

giac. k a = (ka, ; ka2)'

68

b) Xae dinh toa do trong tam G, tnrc tam H, tam I dirong tron ngoai tiep cua tam giac ABC.

e) Tinh d¢ dai dtrong trung tuyen thuoc dinh A.

Vi du. Tren mdt phdng vot h¢ toa d(J Oxy eho tam giac ABC, trong do A(1 ; 2), B(5 ; 2) va C(l ; - 3).

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien tlurc co ban

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

~ -+ -+ -~

Tir do suy ra rang hai vecto a vii b (a 1:- 0) cung

phirong khi vii chi khi co so thuc k thoa man

{hi = ka; . h2 = ka2

3. Neu I Iii trung diem cua doan thang AB thi :

xA + xB YA + YB

xI = 2 'YI = 2

Neu G Iii trong tam tam giac ABC thi :

xA+xB+xC YA+YB+YC

xG = , YG =

3 3

VIII - rtca VO HVdNG CVA HAl VECTd V A UNO DVNG

1. Tieh v6 huang eua hai vecta (Gia tri 1. Gia tri hrong giac cua mot goc bat ki (tir 0° lirong giac cua mot goc bat ki tir 0° den den 180°).

180 ° ; Gia tri luong giac cua cac goc d~e biet : Goc giira hai vecto ; Tfch vo huang cua hai vecto ; Tinh chat cua tich vo huang).

Ve' hen thuc :

- Hi~u duoc gia tri luong giac cua goc bat kl tir 0° den 180°.

- Hi~u khai niern goc gitra hai vecto, tich vo huang cua hai vecto, cac tinh chat cua tich vo huang, bieu thirc toa do cua tich vo huang.

• Dinh nghia :

Voi moi goc a (0° ~ a ~ 180°) ta xac dinh duoc mot diem M tren mra duong tron dan vi

~

(h. 1) sao eho xOM = a.

Gia sir diem M co

y

toa do Iii M(xo ; Yo)· {((: -----l7\

Hinh 1 :

I I

a) Xae dinn toa d9 dilm D sao eho ABeD La hinh binb hanh,

b) Xae dinh. toa d9 cua dilm E La dilm dOl xung cua dilm A qua dilm B.

e) Tim toa d9 trong tam, tam dutmg tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC.

69

x

-+ -+ -+-+ -+ -+ --+

(k a). b = k( a . b ); a .L b ¢:::> a . b = o.

- Dang 1 : Tfnh gia tri luong giac cua mot so goc dac biet ; Cho bier gia tri hrong giac cua mot goc a , tim cac gia tri IUQ11g giac con lai cua a ; Cho bier mot gia tri hrong giac cua goc a, xac dinh goc a do.

- Dang 2 : Tfnh tich vo huang cua hai vecto.

Van dung diroc cac tinh chat cua tich vo huang

~

cua hai vecto vao giai bai tap : voi cac vecto a,

~ ~

b , c bat ki :

a Ji= b ,a ;

-+ -+ -+ --- -+-+

a .( b + c) = a. b + a. c ,

,-------------------------------,-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chuan kieu thtrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

I Dang toan - Vi du - Ltru Y

- Hieu cong thuc hinh chieu. Ve' ki ndng :

Khi d6 :

- DC;l1Ig 3 : Tfnh d¢ dai cua mot vecto ; Tfnh Tung d¢ cua diem M goi la sin cua g6e a va I khoang each gifra hai di~m ; 1'fnh g6e gifra hai vecto.

_ Xac dinh diroc g6e gifra hai vecto ; tinh diroc kf hieu 1a sin a = Yo;

diroc tfeh vo hirong cua hai vecto, Hoanh d¢ cua diem M goi la eosin cua g6e a va

- Dang 4 : Chirng minh dang thirc vecto lien quan den tich vo hirong ; Chirng minh sv vuong g6e cua hai vecto ;

- Tfnh diroc d¢ dai cua vecto va khoang duoc ki hieu la cos a = Xo ;

each gifra hai diem, Yo

Ti so -- voi Xo ;;j:. 0 goi la tang cua g6e a va - Dang 5 : Sit dung ding thuc hinh chieu gidi

- Van dung diroc cac tinh chat ve tich vo -'"0 mot S(Y bai tap don gidn.

huong cua hai vecto M giai bai tap.

diroc ki hieu la tan a = Yo ;

" Xo

Vi du. Tfnh 3sin135° + eos600 + 4sin1500.

- V dn dung duoc cong thuc hinh chieu

vao gidi mot so' hili tdp don gidn. I Ti so Xo voi ;;j:. 0 goi 1a cotang cua goc a va V.i.d~: Cho g6~, to ~ bi~t sinx = 0,2. Hay tfnh cac

Yo Yo . gia tri hrong giac eua goe x.

I d ki hi l' t Xo Vi duo Cho tam giac deu ABC eanh a, e6 trong

iroc 'I leu a co a = --. . ..

.. Yo I tam G.

2:, Gia tri hrong giac (GlLG) cua cac g6e dac 1) Tfnh cac tlch vo hirong : AS. CA, GA . GB

bier : theo a.

~ ----. ~ ----. ~
0° 30° 45° 2) Tfnh sin(GA, GB) ; eos(AB, CG) ;
~ -_ -~ ~
0 1 .fi I tan(GA, BG) ; eot(AB, BC) .
~a - -
2 2 Vi du. Cho ! la trung diem cua doan thang AB.
sa 1 13 J2 ' V6i di~m M tuy y, tinh MA . ME thea AB va MI.
- -
, 2 2 Vi du. Tren mdt pluing' toa dr) Oxy voi h¢ toa dr)
L 1
tana 0 13 1 dti chon, eho hai dilm A(1 ; 3) va B(5 ; 1).
a) Tim toa dr) diem I thod mall
13 --
I eota II 1 --. ----> ----> ~
10 + IA - IB = o.

70 Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien 1

~--------------------------------~-----------------------------------1

Dang toan - Vi dl,l - LUll Y J

~ ._.---_---,- .- ---,---+-b-)-T--im-t-re-An·--t·-n--·-lc--'w{miz dilm D sao cho gOC-1

ADB til vuong.

c) Tim tap hop cdc dilm M thod man

Kien thirc co ban

Vi du. Trong mat phang toa do Oxy cho ba diem A (2; 1), B (8: 9) va C (5; -3).

. a) Chung minh A, B, C khong thang hang. b) Tfnh :

- Chu vi L1 ABC.

- So do g6c A ella .t)_ ABC.

3. G6e gitra hai vecto : I

~ ~ ~ - Toa do true tam H ella L1 ABC. I

Cho hai vecto a va b deu khac vecto O. ro mot I

~ ~ -~ ~ - Toa do diem D iii giao ella dirong thang AB va

diem 0 bat ki ta ve OA = a va OB = h. Khi d6 I

true Oy.

Ms voi so do tir 0° den 180° diroc goi la goc

~~ 60° I 90° 180°
sma J3 i 0
-
2
1 0 -1
eosa -
2
tana J3 II 0
1
eota J3 0 II ~ ~

giia: hai vecto a va h. Ki hieu g6e giira hai

--+ --+ --+--+

vecto a va b la (a , h).

4. Tich vo huang ella hai vecto

~ ~

- Dinh nghia : Cho hai vecto a va b khac vecto

~ ~ ~

O. Tich vo huang ella hai vecto a va b la mot

~ ~

so, kf hieu la a. b , duoc xac dinh boi cong thirc

sau:

'- __ . _..J. . ..l .. __

71

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thtrc co ban

HUOng dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi dl,l- LUll Y

-----.-----.------t-----------------------t------------------------j

- - - --+

* Chu y : Tir dinh nghia, voi a :;j; 0, b :;j; 0,

ta co :

-~ - ---+

a.h=O<=>al_h.

- Cac tfnh chat cua tfch vo huang:

- - -

Voi ba vecta a, b , c bat ki va rnoi so tlnrc k

ta co:

a . b = b . a (tinh chat giao hoan) ;

--+ --+ --+ ----

a .( b + c ) = a . b + a . c (tfnh chat phan phoi) ;

- --+ --+ --+ --+ -

(k a ). b = k( a . b ) = a .(k b ) ;

-2 -2 --

a ;::::0; a =O<=> a=O;

--+ --+ 2 -2 -+ --+ -2

(a+h) =a +2a.b+h ,

--+ -? -2 --+ --+ -2

(a-bt=a -2a.b+h ,

-+ -+ -+ -+ -2 -2

(a + b ).( a - b ) = a - b

- Bieu thirc toa d¢ cua tich vt: huang :

Trong mat phang toa d¢ (0 ; i ; 7 ) cho hai vecta

- -

a = (al ; a2)' b = (hI; h2)·

Khi do, tich vo huang a. b la :

72

~---C-h-u-ii-n-k-i-e-n-t-h-U-'e----k---I -n3-- n-g----~-----------------H-U-6n-g-d-a-n-t-h-L!-e-h-i-~-n--.--------------- ~

Kien thirc CO' ban Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

~-----------------------------~~----------------------------------~------------_------------------

- (Jj,g dung cua tfch va huang:

~

• Tinh d(J dai ella vecto. Cho a = (al ; a2), khi d6 :

H = ~af + ai

• Tinh goc giiia hai vecto. Cho hai vecto

~ - -

a = (al .. a2) va b = tb, .. b2) khac 0, khi d6 :

") Cdc h¢ thuc luang trong tam gidc 010 tam giac ABC c6 BC = a, CA = b, AB = e, - Dang 1 Ap dung dinh If eosin, dinh If sin, (Dinh If eosin ; Dinh lf sin; D9 dai duong duong cao AH = ha va cac duong trung tuyen cong tlnrc v( or) dai duong trung tuyen, cac cong

trung tuyen trong mot tam giac , Dien thirc tinh dien rich M giili 11l9t so bai toan e6 lien

AM = ma, BN = m.; CP = me d _ . , (Ch' . I'd' h li

tich tam giac ; Giai tam giac), quan en tam grac, \ ung nun 1 cae !U I

1. Dinh If eosin : eosin, dinh li sin va mot so' cong thuc tinh dien

Ve' kiln thuc : 2 ? ?

a = b' + c: -2be cosA .. tieh tam giac).

- Hifu dinh If eosin, dinh If sm, cong 1)2 2 ) 2 B - Do 11,0. 2· Chung) niinh cac he.', thtrc v~ moi quan I

= a + c: - ae cos ; .,

thtrc v~ d9 dai dirong trung tuyen trong he giira cac yeu t6 trong tam giac. I

mot tam giac e2 = i + b2 - 2ab eosC.

. .' - Dang 3 Giai lam giac trong ITi9t so tnrong I

- Bier (l-fi~u) dtroc mot so C(lI1g thut; tinh H~ qua: hop don giin. (Yhl cdu gidi tom giac trong mot

dien tich tam giac A Il + ('2 - a2 s(;' tru.mg IWp nhu .' tinh duoc ,cae c~llh _:'d cae I

cos = 2bc ' goc con lu! Clla tam giac khi biet ba yell to trong i

- Biet mot so tnrong hop giai tam giac. 2 2 2 do co it nhdt mot _ycli l6' ve' canh (cluing han :

a + c - b

V c' ki ndng .' cosB = 2' cho truoc de) dai ba canh cua tam giac .. cho

ac truac d(J dai mot canh vd s6 do hai goe cua tam

- Ap dung duoc dinh If eosin, dinh li sin, , 2 2

I a" + b - c giac, clio truac dr dai hoi canh vd s6' do g6c

congili~~d9dhl~a~~~ruy~.~ __ c_o_sC_= 2_a_b ~_x_e_l1_g_i_U'_a_h_ai!_~_'_1h_d_a_). ~

, ------------~--.-------------------------------.-----------------.---------------------------~

L Huong Min thuc hien

Chuan kien thu-c - ki nang

Kien thirc CO' ban Dang toan - Vi du - Luu y

cac cong thirc tinh dien rich M giai mot 2. Dinh If sin: - Dang 4 __ Van dung kien thirc giiii tam giac vao

I s6 bai toan c6 lien quan den tam gi.ic. a _ b _ c _ 2R cac bai toan co noi dung thtrc tien, Ker hop voi

1_ Bier giai tam giac trong mot s6 rnrong sin A - sin B - sin C - viec Slr dung may tinh bo tui khi giai toan.

hop dan gdm. Bier van dung kien thirc (R la ban kinh dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac Vi du. Chung minh ding trong tam giac ABC

! giai tam giac vao cac bai toan co noi ABC). ta co :

I dung thuc tien. Ket hop voi viec sir dung 3. D9 dai dirong trung tuyen cua tam giac : a) a = hcosC + ccosB.

I may tinh bo lui khi giai toan. 2 2(h2 + e2) _ a2

I h) sinA = sinEcosC + sinCcosB ;

I - Biet ap dung cdc cong thuc tinh dien ma = 4

I tfch tam giac. !

I

i

4. Cong thirc tinh dien tfch tam giac :

Dien tfch 5 cua tam giac ABC diroc tinh theo cac cong thirc :

• 5 = .!. ab sinC = .!. he sinA = .!. ca sinE ;

2 2 2

• 5 = ~h~' (voi R la ban kinh dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC) ;

I • 5 ::: PI" va r la ban kinh duong tron noi tiep tam giac ABC) ;

I .5= ~ p(p- a)(p - h)(p - c) (cong thirc He-tong).

(p =. .!.(a + b + C))

\. 2

74

c) a = ha (cotB + cotC).

Vi duo Clurng minh rang trong tam giac

h2 2 2 + e - a

ta co : cotA =

45

Vi duo Tam gidc ABC thod man he thuc

3 3 3

b + e - a 2 H- / h / A ----'----- = a. ay tin goe .

b+e-a

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC c6 a = J6 , b = 2 ; I c = J3 + 1. Tinh cac g6c A, B, ban kinh R cua dirong tron ngoai tiep, trung tuyen Ina cua tam giac ABC.

Vi duo Hai dia diem A, B each nhau boi mot ho mroc, Ngiroi ta lay mot dia diem C va do duoc

g6c BAC bang 75°, g6c BCA bang 60°, doan AC dai 60 met.

Hay tinh khoang each tir A den B (h.2).

ABC I

I

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien

~------------------------------------,------------------------------------~

Kien tlnrc co ban Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

IX - PHUDNG PHAp TOA DO TRONG MAT PIL.\NG

---------------------------------+-------------------------------------+--------------------------------------~

c

B

l l inh 2

Chung minh ding trong tam giac ABC

I vt s«

S = 2R2sinAsinBsinC.

1. Phuong trinn duang thdng (Vecto phap tuyen ella dirong thang , Phuong trinh tong quat ella dirong thang ; Vecto chi phuang ella dUOng th~ng , Phuong trinh tham s6 ella dirong thang , Dieu kien dti hai dirong thang. cat nhau, song song, trimg nhau, vuong goc voi nhau ;

I Khoang each til mot diem den mot dirong thang ; G6e gifra hai dirong thang).

I ve' kien thuc :

- Hi~u vecto phap tuyen, vecto chi phirong ella dirong thang.

1. Vecto U duoc goi la vecto chi phuang ella - Dang 1 : Viet phirong trinh tong quat, phuong dirong thang fl neu ~ #- 0 va gia ella ~ song trinh tham s6 ella dirong thing d di qua diem song hoac trung voi fl. M( Xo ; Yo) va e6 phirong eho mroc hoac di qua

ChLJ y : M(H duong thang e6 vo s6 vecto chi I hai diem eho tnroc.

phuong. - Dang 2 : Tinh toa d() ella vecto phap tuyen neu 2. Phuong trinh tham s6 ella dirong thang fl di bier toa d¢ ella vecto chi phuong ella mot dirong

qua diem Mo(xo ; Yo) va co vecto chi phirong thang va ngiroc lai,

- , {x = Xo + tUI 2 2

U=(UI ; U2) la , (UI + U2 #- 0) (h.3)

y= Yo +tu2

75

- Dang 3: Chuyen d6i phirong trinh tong quat, plurong trinh tham so ella dirong thang.

- Dang 4 : Xet vi trf wang deli giira hai dirong thang.

------_._--.-. -

f---------K-ie-'n-t-h-(r-c-c-O-b-a-? n H_U_On_~_d_a_~ n.,--th_U_. C-h_i~Da~;~n ~51 du ~ ~~~~ 1

- Hieu each viet phuong trinh tong quat. I y I - D(jng 5 : Tfnh khoang each tv mot diem den 1

phuong trinh tham so' cua duong thang. I mot duong thang I

u/

- Hieu diroc dieu kien hai duong thang I / / - D~lI1g 6 : Tinh so' do etta g6c giira hai duong

cat nhau, song song, trung nhau, vuong /M thang.

g6c voi nhau. I

Mo Vi du. Viet phuong trinh tong quat, phuong trinh

- Bier cong thirc tinh khoang each ttr mot 0 V x I ' " ' -

tham so cua duong thang trong moi truong hop I

diem den mot dirong thang ; g6c giira hai -: I sau :

duong thang. I ' .'

i a) Di qua diem A( 1 ; -2) va song song voi dirong

thing 2\ - 3y ._ 3 = O.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hlnh 3

b) Di qua hai diem M(1 ; - 1) va N(3 ; 2).

- et« die'u kien dl hai die"m na.~m cung 13.

Phtrong trinh dirong thang 1'1 di qua diem phia hay -khac phia dOL voi mot duong

tluing. Mo(xo ; Yo) va c6 h~ so' g6c k Hi :

Ve'kinong:

y - Yo = k(x - xo)·

c),Di qua diem P(2 ; l) va vuong g6c voi dirong I

~ thang x - Y + 5 = O.

- Viet dUQC phuang trinh tong quat, 4. Neu 6 c6 vecto chi phirong U = (u1 ; u2) I

phirong trinh tham so' cua dirong thang d Vi du. 010 tam giac ABC, biet A(-- 4 ; 1), B(2 ; 4)

, di qua diem M( Xo ; Yo) va c6 phirong cho voi ul *- 0 thi h~ so' g6c cua 1'1 la k = ~2 . I va e(2 ; .- 2).

I I

Neu !>. co h~ s6 goc k thi !>. co mot vecto chi I a) rrnh cosA. I

- Tinh diroc toa do cua vecto phap tuyen phirong la ~ = (1 ; k). . b) Tinh khoang each tir diem eden duong thang I

AB. I

5. Vecto ~ duoc goi la vecta phap tuven cua l , .. . ,. I

. VI duo Hal canh cua hinn binh hann co phuong I

_ Biet chuyen doi plurong trinh tong quat, duong thang 1'1 neu ~ "* 6 va 11 vuong g6c voi I trinh. x - 3y = 0 va 2x + 5y + 6 = O. M<)t dinh I phuong trinh tham so' cua dirong thang. vecto chi phuong cua 1'1. I cua hinh binh hann La ,4(4 ; -1). Viet phuong I

__ L- _l!rinh_~ai c(J-nh con lai cua hinlz b~~~ hanh d~

tnroc hoac di qua hai diem cho truce.

neu bier toa do cua vecto chi phirong cua mot duong thang va nguoc lai.

76

Huong dan thuc hien

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

- Su dung duoc cong thirc tfnh khoang Chu y : Mot dtrong thang co vo so vecto phap Vi du. Cho duang thdng /). : x - y + 2 = 0 va hai

each tit mot diem den mot dirong thang, tuyen, dilm 0(0; 0), A(2 ; 0).

- Tinh diroc so do cua goc giua hai duong 6. Phuong trinh cua dircng thang !1 di qua diem a) Chung to rdng hai dilm A va 0 ndm cung

thang, Mo(xo ; Yo) va co vecto phap tuyen ~ = (a .. b) mijt phia doi voi duimg thdng /)..

la : a(x -xo) + b(y -Yo) = 0, (i + b2 *- 0). b) Tim toa dij cua dilm 0' la dilm doi xung eua o qua /)..

7. Phuong trinh ax + by + c = 0 v6i i + b2 *- °

e) Tim tren L1 dilm B sao eho dij dai duang gitp goi la phirong trinh tong quat cua dirong thang

khuc OBA ngdn nhdt.

~

nhan n = (a; b) lam vecto phap tuyen,

8. Duong thang /). cat Ox va Oy Ian hrot tai A( a ; 0) va B(O ; b) co phirong trinh thea doan

chan la ~ + ~ = 1 (a *- 0, b *- 0) (h. 4)

y

Hinh 4

6- H.oAN ... ToAN l()p 10 - A

77

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Htrong dan tlnrc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

9. Vi trf urong doi cua hai dirong thang Cho hai dirong thang :

~j : ajx + bjy + Cj = 0 ;

~2 : a2x + b2Y + c2 = o.

D~ xet vi til nrong doi cua hai dirong thang ~ j va ~ 2 ta xet so nghiern cua he phuong trinh

{ajx + bjy + cl = 0

(I)

a2x + b2y + c2 = o.

• H~ (I) e6 mot nghiern : ~ j cat ~ 2.

• H~ (I) vo nghiern : ~ j II ~2.

• H~ (I) e6 vo so nghiern : ~ j == ~2 .

• Chu y : Neu a2b2c2 :f:- 0 thi :

~ 1 II ~2

- -

~j .L ~2 <=> I1llj·nll2=O <=> aja2+bjb2=O.

78

6- H.oAN .. ToAN L<JP 10 - B

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Hu6ng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

10. G6c gitra hai dirong thing Cho hai dirong thing

[\1 : alx + bly + CI = 0, c6 vecto phap tuyen

phap tuyen 112 = (a2 ; b2). G6c giira cluing diroc tinh boi cong thirc

(--) I-___' I I~·;;;I

cos [\1' [\2 = COS(I1I' 112) = I~II;;;I

lala2 + b1b21

- Ja~ + bl2 .Jai + hi

11. Khoang each tir mot diem den mot dirong thing:

Khoang each tir mot diem Mo(xo ; Yo) den dirong thing [\ c6 phuong trinh : ax + by + C = ° diroc tinh boi cong thirc :

laxo + byo + ci

deMo, [\) = I .

'\I a2 + b2

2. Phuong trinli duang troll (Phuong trinh dirong tron voi tam cho tnroc va ban kfnh cho tnroc , Nhan dang phirong trtnh dirong tron ; Phuong trinh tiep tuyen cua dirong tron),

1. Phuong trinh dirong tron

• Phuong trinh dirong tron c6 tam I(a ; b) va ban kinh R la :

(x _a)2 + (y _b)2 = R2 (h.5).

- Dang I : Nhan dang mot phirong trinh bac hai la phirong trinh dircng tron ; Xac dinh diroc toa do tam va d¢ dai ban kinh dirong tron khi biet phirong trinh cua no.

79

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

o

x

- Dang 2 : Viet phirong trinh duong tron biet toa dQ tam l(a; h) va dQ dai ban kinh R.

- Dang 3 : Viet plurong trinh tiep tuyen voi dirong tron trong cac tnrong hop : Biet toa dQ ella tiep diem (tiep tuyen tai mot diem nam tren dirong tron) ; biet tiep tuyen di qua diem M nam ngoai dtrong tron ; biet tiep tuyen eo phirong eho tnroc.

Vi du. Viet phirong trinh dirong tron eo tam l(l ; - 2) va

a) Di qua diem A(3 ; 5).

b) Tiep xuc voi duong thang eo phirong trinh x+Y=1.

Vi du. Xac dinh toa dQ tam va dQ dai ban kinh ella dirong tron eo phirong trinh

2 2

x + Y - 4x - 6y + 9 = O.

Vi du. Cho dirong tron eo phuong trinh

2 2 I

x + y - 4x + 8y - 5 = o. i

a) Viet phirong trinh tiep tuyen ella dirong tron tai diem A( -1 ; 0).

b) Viet phirong trinh tiep tuyen ella dtrong tron, biet rang no vuong goc voi dirong thang

x + 2y = O.

Hirong dan thirc hien

Kien thirc CO' ban

M(x; y)

b ------~ {

I I I I I

Hlnh5

• Neu a2 + h2 - e > 0 thi phirong trinh 2 2

x + Y - 2ax - 2hy + e = 0

la phirong trinh ella dUOng tron voi tam l(a ; h)

va ban kfnh R = ~ a2 + h2 - e.

2. Phuong trinh tiep tuyen ella dirong tron :

Tiep tuyen tai diem Mo(xo ; Yo) ella dirong tron tam l(a ; h) eo phirong trinh :

(xo- a)(x -xo) + (yo -h)(y -Yo) = R2.

Ve' kiln thuc :

Hieu diroc each viet phtrong trinh dirong tron.

Ve'kTnang:

- Viet diroc phirong trinh dirong tron biet tam l(a ; h) va ban kinh R. Xac dinh diroc tam va ban kinh dirong tron khi biet phirong trinh dirong tron.

- Viet diroc phtrong trinh tiep tuyen vai dirong tron trong cac tnrong hop : Biet toa dQ ella tiep diem (tiep tuyen tai mot diem nam tren dirong tron) : biet viet phirong trlnh tiep tuyen di qua di~m M narn ngoai dunng trim ; biet tiep tuyen co plurong cho triroc,

y

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

a

80

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Vi du. Cho ba diim A(2 ; 6), B(-3 ; -4) va C(5 ; 0).

a) Lfjp phuong trinb duong tron ngoai titp MBC.

b) Ldp phuong trinh duong tron nt)i titp MBC.

\

3. Elip (Dinh nghia e1ip ; Phuong trinh Dinh. nghia elip fa tt;ip hap cac diim co t6ng chfnh tac ella elip ; M6 til hinh dang elip), khodng caci: den hai diim phdn bie: cho truce fa mot so khong d6i.

Ve' kiln thuc :

- Biet dinh nghia elip.

- Biet phuong trinh chinh 'lac, hinh dang

ella elip.

Ve' ki nang:

- Tir plnrong trinh chinh tac ella elip :

x2 i

- + - = 1 (a > b > 0)

a2 b2

xac dinh diroc d<) dai true 1&1, true nho, tieu cu, Him sai ella elip; xac dinh diroc toa do cac tieu diem, giao diem ella e1ip voi cac true toa do.

- Viet duoc phuong trtnh chinh tac cua e1ip khi eho cac yeu to xac dinh e1ip do.

C6 giai thieu ve' SI! lien h¢ giiia duang tron va elip. - Trang mat phang Oxy eho hai diem F, (- e ; 0), F 2(e ; 0) va mot do dai khong d6i 2a (a > e > 0). E1ip (E) la tap hop cac diem M sao eho

F,M + F2M = La.

Ta co th~ viet:

(E) = {M I F,M + F2M = 2a}.

Hinh 6

- Dang 1 : Tir phirong trinh chinh tac ella elip : x2 i

- + - = 1 (a > b > 0)

a2 b2

xac dinh d<) dai true 1&1, true nho, tieu cu, tam sai ella e1ip ; xac dinh diroc toa d<) cac tieu diem, giao diem ella e1ip voi cac true toa do.

- Dang 2 : Viet phirong trinh chinh tac ella elip khi tho cac yeu to dll d~ xac dinh e1ip do.

2 2

Vi du. Cho elip ;6 + Y9 = 1.

a) TIm toa do cac dinh va cac tieu diem ella elip.

b) Tfnh tam sai cua elip.

Vi du. Viet phirong trinh chinh tae ella e1ip (E) biet :

a) (E) e6 d<) dai true 1&1 bang 10 va tieu cu bang 6.

b) (E) co do dai true 1&1 bang 8, tam sai e = ~ .

81

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

- Phuong trinh chinh tac cua elip (E) la :

2 2

x Y 2 2 2

-2 + -" = 1 (a = b + c ). a b-

- Cac yeu to cua elip (E) la :

• Hai tieu diem : F,( -e; 0), F2(e; 0);

• Bon dinh : A,(-a ; 0), A2(a ; 0), B,(O ; -b), B2(0 ; b) ;

• D¢ dai true 16"0 : A ,A2 = 2a ;

• D¢ dai true nho : B,B2 = 2b ;

• Tieu cir : F,F2 = 2e (h.7). y

x

Hinh 7

- Hinh dang cua elip (E) :

• (E) co hai true doi xirng la Ox, Oy va co tam doi xirng la goc toa d¢ ;

82

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

4. Hypebol (Dinh. nghia hypebol ; Phuong trinh chinh tdc cua hypebol ; Mo td hinh dang hypebol).

Ve' kiln thuc :

- uu« dinn nghia hypebol, phuong trinh chinb tdc, biet hinh.. dang cua hypebol.

Ve' ki nang:

- Tit phuong trinh chinh tdc ctia x2 i

hypebol - - - = 1(a > 0, b > 0)

a2 b2

xac dinh. duoc toa d(J cdc tieu diim, giao diem cua hypebol voi cdc true toa d(J, tieu cu, d(J dai true thuc, d(J dai true do, phuong trinh cdc duang tiem cdn, tam sai. Ve duoc hypebol.

- Viet duoc phuong trinh chinh tdc cua hypebol khi cho cac yeu to xac dinh. hypebol do.

• M9i diem cua elip (E) deu nam trong hinh chtr nhat e6 kich thu6e 2a va 2b gioi han boi cac dirong thang x = ± a, y = ± h. Hinh chir nhat d6 goi la hinh chtr nhat co sa cua elip (E).

Dinh. nghia hypebol la tfj.p hfJP cac diem co hieu khodng cacb dln hai diem phan bie: cho truce la mat so' khong d6i.

1. Dinh. nghia. C ho hai diim co dinh. F 1, F 2 VOl FIF2 = 2c (c > 0) va hang so 2a (a < c). Hypebol (H) la tap hap cdc diim M sao cho

IMFI - MF21 = 2a.

(H) = {M IIMFI - MF21 = 2a}.

F l' F 2 so! la cac tieu diim, khodng cacb FIF2 = 2c goi la tieu cu cua (H).

2. Phuong trinh chinh tdc cua hypebol :

x2 i

2-2=1 (a>O,b>O).

a b

y

'\v~;y)

;0 \ x

Hinh 8

- Dang 1 : Tit phuang trinh chinh tac cua hypebol

x2 i

2 - 2 = 1 (a > 0, b > 0)

a b

xac dinh. toa d(J cac tieu diim, giao diim cua hypebol voi cac true toa d(J, tieu qr, d(J dai true thuc, d(J dai true do, phuong trinh cac duang tiem can, tam sai.

- Dang 2 : Viet phuong trinh chinh tdc ciia hypebol khi cho cdc ytu to' xac dinh. hypebol do.

2 2

Vi du. Cho hypebol (H) : ~6 - Y9 = 1. Xac d!nh

toa d(J cdc dlnh, cdc tieu diim, tinh tam sai, d(J dai true thuc, d(J dai true do cua (H).

Vi du. Viet phuang trinh chinh tdc cua hypebol (H) co mot tieu diim la (5 ; 0) va d(J dai true thuc bang 8.

83

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien thtrc co ban

Hirong dan thtrc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

2 2 b2 0 Ia t' d. ,'" 0 0 l ' ,

e = a + ; a am 01 xung ; x, y a cae

true doi xung,

True thuc AIA2 = 2a ndm tren Ox. True do BIB2 = 2b ndm tren Oy. Hai dinh " AI( -a; 0), Aia ; 0).

Hai tieu diem,' F l( -e ; 0), F 2(e ; 0) ;

T' . e

am Sat e =-. a

Phuong trinh cdc cann ctia hinh chit nhdt eO'so- :

X= ±a,y= ±b.

Ph tnh b i duo ", +b

uung trin at uung tiem can " Y = _ - x .

a

Ban kinh qua tieu diem M(xM ; YM) E (H) :

MF] = la + eXMI = la + : xMI ;

MF2 = la - eXMI = la - : XMI·

5. Parabol (Dinh nghia parabol; Phuong trinh chink tile cua parabol; Mo td hinh dang parabol).

V i kiln thuc :

- uu« dinl: nghia , phuong trinh ehinh tile cua parabol. Bilt j nghia cua tham so tieu, tieu diim, duong chudn, hinlt dang cua parabol.

Dinl; nghia parabol la tap hf!P cdc diem ma khodng each tit diim do dln mot diem eho truoc bang khodng each din mfjt duong thdng eho truce.

1. Cho diim F co dinn va mot duong thdng co' dink L\ khong di qua F. Parabol (P) ta t~p hop cac diim M sao eho khodng each tit M dln F bang khoang each tit M den ~ .

(P)= {M I MF = d(M; M}.

- Dang 1 " Tit phuong trinh ehinh tile ctia parabol / = 2px, (P > 0) xdc dinn toa dfj tieu diem, phuang trinh duong chudn, ve parabol.

- Dang 2 " Viet phuong trinh ehinh tile eua parabol khi eho cac ylu to xdc dinh. parabol do.

Vi duo Tim toa dfj tieu diem, phuong trinh duong chudn va ve parabol/ = 4x.

84

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng Min thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi d1.l- LUll Y

- Bilt duac mot s{/ do' thi y = ax2 (a :;t 0) F goi la tieu diem, ~ la duong chudn,

ciing fa mt)t parabol theo dinb nghia p = d(F ; ~) > 0 goi la tham so tieu clla (P).

tren.

Ve' ki nang:

- Til phuong trinh chinh tdc cua parabol / = 2px, (P > 0) xac dinh. duoc toa dt) tieu diem, phuong trinh duong

chudn. Ve duoc parabol. .

- Viet duoc phuong trinh chinh tdc ctia parabol khi cho cac ylu to' xac dinh. parabol do.

2. Phuong trinh chinh tdc cua parabol: / = 2px (P > 0) (h.9)

Y

(/MCX;Y)

Vi du. Viet phuong trinh chinh tdc cua parabol biet tieu diem la F(S ; 0).

6. Ba duong conic; Duong chudn cua ba duong conic

Ve' kiln thuc :

- Bie: duac khai niem duang chudn ctia ba duong elip, hypebol, parabol.

1. Dinh. nghia. Cho diim F co dinh, mot duimg - Dang 1 : Xac dinh' toa dt) tieu ditm ; viet thang ~ co' dinn khong di qua F va mot so' phuong trinb duong chudn ctia cac duimg

duong e. conic.

x

Conic (@) la tap MF

hap cdc diem M sao cho - Dang 2 : Sit dung khai niem duong chudn cua ba duong conic vao gidi mot so' bai tdp don gidn.

Hinh 9

Dinh : 0(0 ; 0) ; tham so' tieu p ; True dOl xung : Ox ;

Tie u diem : F (~ ; 0) ,

D' hudn t: P

uong c uan ts : x = -"2'

d(M;M=e.

85

1---------

! Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc C(J ban

HUOng dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du-« Luu Y

(@) = { M I d(::~ M = e}.

Vi du. Xac dinh. tieu dilm va duong chudn cua

cdc duang conic sau : 2

? a) y = 16x " Dilm F goi Ia tieu dilm, ~glJi la duong chudn

va e so! Ia tam sai cua conic (@).

2. Cho conic (@) v6i tam sai e. Khi do:

Ve' ki nang: (@) la elip <=> e < 1 ;

! Su dung duoc khai niem duong chudn

(@) la parabol <=> e = 1 ; cua ba duong elip, hypebol, parabol vao

gidi mot so bai tap dun gidn.. . (@) Ia hypebol <=> e > 1.

3. Cho elip (E) :

- Bilt duoc tinh chat chung cua ba duang conic : Cho diem F co dinn va duang thtmg A khong di qua F. Tap hop nhiing

MF

dilm M sao cho ti so d(M; M = e (e la

mot so duong khong dili) la mot conic.

x2 i

- + - = 1 (a > b > 0).

a2 b2

• Duong chudn ~l ung voi tieu diem F 1 (-c ; 0) 2

, h ' h a a

cop uong trin :x= -- = --.

e c

Duong chudn ~2 ang voi tieu dilm F 2(C ; 0) co a a2

phuong trinh : x = - = -.

e c

• V 6i moi dilm M tl!ufJc (E) thi

MF. = MF2 = e < 1.

d(M ; ~1) d(M ; ~2)

86

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

~----------------------------~---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Kien thirc co him

HUOng dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du > LLlU Y

4. Cho hypebol (H) : x2 i

- - - = 1 (a > 0, b > 0).

a2 b2

• DUOng chudn ~l ung v6i tieu dilm F 1 (-c ; 0) CO phuong trinh :

a a2

X= -- = -- ;

e c

Duong chudn ~2 ung v6i tieu diim F 2(C ; 0) co

phuong trinh : .

a a2

x= - =-. e c

(. V 6i moi diem M thuoc (H) thi

. .

MFI MF2

d(M ; ~l) = d(M ; ~2) = e > 1.

87

TO CHUC THllC HI~N

I - YEU cAU CHUNG

Viec thirc hien chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua chirong trinh giao due ph6 thong mon Toan can thea quan diem co ban : sat thirc, tnrc quan, dung chuan va d6i moi,

SATTHVC

- Sat voi noi dung chuan, voi thuc te doi urong va dieu kien giang day, voi thai lirong cho phep ; bien soan du dang cac bai luyen tap nrong duong voi cac VI du neu trong chuan nham giup h9C sinh ren luyen ki nang giai toan dat chuan va phan hoa thea mire d¢ yeu cau cua chirong trinh chuan vachirong trinh nang cao. Thuc hien chuong trinh tu chon cua bo mon thea huang giup h9C sinh dat chuan tot hon.

- Chii trong cac VI du va bai toan co noi dung thuc tien doi song va gan voi cac mon hoc khac (lam cho h9C sinh thay r6 Toan h9C gan voi cuoc song va lam quen voi viec ap dung tri thirc Toan h9C d~ giai cac bai toan thuc te, cac bai toan cua mon hoc Vat If, Hoa h9C, Sinh h9C, ... )

TRVCQUAN

- Tiep can chuan bang phirong phap tnrc quan nham giam tinh han lam, giarn cac noi dung nang ne, dan gian hoa nhtrng van de phirc tap nhirng khong lam mat tinh chinh xac va suy luan co If rna chuan de ra.

- Day va h9C kien thirc ki nang thea chuan tren co sa dan dat tirng

biroc, qua nhtrng VI du mo ta khai niern mot each r6 rang, tranh ap dat thieu LI! nhien,

DUNGCHUAN

- Dam bao dung kien thirc, ki nang, mire d¢ phirc tap cua dang toan minh hoa, nhfrng hru y neu trong chuan,

- Tnroc het dam bao dat chuan hoa va ph an hoa thea mire d¢ yeu cau cua chuong trinh chuan va chuang trinh nang cao ; han che cac vi du va bai tap phirc tap, doi hoi ki thuat va meo mire, noi dung kho cirng thieu nr nhien kho tiep thu, giam bot so hrong cong thirc dn nho. Dam bao sir gon, chat che va he thong kien thtrc, ki nang rna chuan neu,

Theo chi dao day va h9C cua B9 GD&DT : D6i moi kiern tra danh gia thea chuan, d6i moi cong cu kiern tra danh gia, d6i moi thai hrong, d6i moi thir nr thirc hien kien thirc ki nang chuan neu, doi moi phuong tien day h9C d~ d6i moi phirong phap day h9C, tang cirong tinh chu dong cua hoc sinh trong gia h9C, giup h9C sinh tfch eire, hirng thu h9C tap, Tim toi sang tao nhfrng each dira noi dung h9C tap mot each nhe nhang, d~ hieu, nr nhien rna van chinh xac. can da dang hoa cac hoat dong thuc hien chuan (on lai kien tlnrc, gioi thieu kien thirc moi, h9C tnroc a nha, lam tai lap, chia thea de tai, thuc hien ca nhan hay nhorn nho, ap dung ngay kien thirc vita h9C, cau hoi trac nghiern khach quan, sir dung may tinh earn tay d~ giai toan ... ).

88

II - HUONG DAN THl)'C HI~N

VOl HOC SINH

- V 6i h9C sinh dai tra cua rnoi vimg mien, noi dung diroc neu trong van ban nay la noi dung h9C tap bat buoc phai dat, khong han che' noi dung h9C tap v6i h9C sinh c6 nhu cau h9C tap nang cao.

- V 6i nhfrng h9C sinh c6 nhu cau h9C t~p rna rong, nang cao hoac doi urong h9C sinh kha, gioi, c6 th~ tham khao Chuong trinh Nang cao hoac Chuong trinh Chuyen cua B<) GD&DT ban hanh ; c6 th~ tham khao trong sach giao khoa hoac sach bai tap, sach tham khao noi dung chuyen rna nha tnrong tuyen chon hoac co th~ tir h9C theo nang lire ban than.

- d vung thuan Ioi, h9C sinh can diroc tang ctrong chat lirong h9C tap qua viec tiep can cac nguon thong tin, cac phuong tien cong nghe d~ cung co', rna rong, nang cao kien thirc.

- Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuong trinh Trung h9C phd thong mon Toan gnip cac em h9C sinh ur h9C, nr kiem tra kien thirc, ki nang thea cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu cua kien thtrc, ki nang mon Toan rna hoc sinh can phai c6 va phai dat diroc qua h9C tap. H9C sinh nr h9C, tt! kiem tra thea chuan kien thirc, ki nang qua h9C, kiern tra cac khai niem co ban, cac ki nang co ban, cac cong thirc can nho, cac phirong phap giai, cac dang toan, vi duminh hO<;1 ... tuong irng v6i cac chu de cua chuong trinh ; nr nghien ngam noi dung h9C tap thea O1<)t yeu cau, phong each rieng va v6i toe d<) phu hop. Tu hoc khong nhirng giup h9C sinh nr than nam noi dung hoc mot each chac chan va ben virng, xac dinh phuong phap hoc tap va ki nang van dung tri thirc, ren luyen y chi va nang lire hoat dong sang t<;10 ; tu than bu dap cho minh nhirng 10 hong ve kien thiic, dap irng v6i yeu cau cua chirong trinh. (Qua cac hoat dong h9C tap : xay dung ke hoach, t~p trung suc It!c va thOi gian cho n<)i dung tr9ng tam, quan tr9ng nhat, n<)i dung con khuyet ho~c

I,

chua r6, tranh dan trai, phan tan. N6 lire, nr lire nam noi dung hoc tap thong qua: d9C, t6m tat tong hop, so sanh, phan 10<;1i ; tu lam bai tap, de kiem tra. Tranh thu sir giup di1' cua thay co giao, ella ban be va cua cha me, anh em trong gia dinh, trong dong ho).

VOl GIAO VIEN

- V 6"i giao vi en thi noi dung co ban neu trong van ban nay la can cu d~ soan bai, tien hanh day h9C. on tap va dua tren d6 d~ kiem tra danh gia ket qua h9C tap cua h9C sinh. Dam bao vira dat chudn vira phdn hOG thea dac diem vung, mien cho cac d6i tuong h9C sinh khac nhau ; danh gia thea de tu luan, de TNKQ hoac hon hop gam ca bai toan ur luan Ian bai toan TNKQ. On tap nham h~ thong hoa kien tlurc da h9C, hoan thien ki nang giai bai tap, qua on tap b6 khuyet cho nhimg phat hien thieu s6t ve kien thirc, ki nang, ve suy luan toan h9C thieu can err logic hoac chua hop If ; nho d6 tao cho tirng hoc sinh virng tin vao nang lire ban than c6 th~ dat ket qua t6t lrong cac ki kiem tra danh gia va thi.

Viec on tap mon Toan can dar toi hieu duoc ban chat va van dung diroc cac noi dung hoc ; .khi on i~p khong nen qua chu y vao viec tim nhtrng thu thuat ghi nho duoc nnieu, mac du nho la co sa can cho viec giai cac bai toan, nhung khong du ; bai VI viec nam virng cac each giai cac dang bai toan co ban cho nhieu kha nang dat ket qua t6t trong kiem tra, thi. Viec on tap giup ta nho noi dung h9C t6t han va thirc su hiiu Ich cho viec giai cac bai toano Su quan trong cua viec on tap Ia a cho : giup h9C sinh h¢ thong lai vii nit ra nlnrng dieu co ban, chu yeu, khai quat hoa cua nlurng kien rhuc - ki nang dIT hoc d~ thay duoc sir nrong dong, nrong iing, dong dang, bien d6i ve hinh, khai niem, phuong phap, dang toan ... trong clurong trinh mon h9C cua mot noi dung, mot chu de, mot lap hay toan cap hoc,

- Giao vien huong dan on tap can quan trier r6 : nhirng each on tap deu la nhii"ng bi~u hi~n Cl,l th~ cua vi~c h~ th6ng hoa kien thuc thea

89

birong lam r6 cau true cua nrng pharr, tirng chirong, tirng mach kien thirc, tirng chu de hay toan the cua chuong trinh ; lam r6 vi trf cua moi kien thirc va quan he giira cac kien thirc ; tranh viec he thong hoa nang tinh hinh thirc nhu li~t ke cac cong thirc, cac dinh li, cac dang toan da h9C thea dung khuon rniiu va trinh nr nhir trong sach giao khoa. Cling voi viec huong dan h9C sinh he thong hoa kien thirc, giao vien giiip hoc sinh sap xep cac bai tap va phan chi a thanh cac dang bai tap de nam vfrng each giai chung eho tirng dang chfnh, dong thoi nhac lai va ghi ra diroc nhtrng kien thrrc, dinh If, cong thirc, suy luan da h9C 0 lap duoi, nay thmrng phai sir dung nhieu d~ giai toan 0 lap 10. Trong tinh hinh tlurc te hien nay, giao vien can t6 chtrc day va h9C chu dao ngay tit dau nam h9C, on tap deu dansau tirng chuong, muc, giup h9C sinh tu giai cac cau hoi va bai tap neu trong chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

- Giao vien can phai linhhoat trong viec day h9C, c6 th~ dcin dar h9C sinh tiep can kien thirc, ki nang trinh bay theo phirong phap khac, each khac hoac thay boi vf du khac tuy thea doi tuong, vung mien d~ thuc hien chuan phu hop voi mire dQ nhan thirc cua m6i loai d6i nrong, Trong day h9C cting nhtr kiem tra, danh gia, can hru y toi cong cu may tfnh cam tay nham giam tai ph an tfnh toan ciing nhu d6i moi ca trinh bay Ioi giai Ian khau ra de va dap an nrong irng yeu cau tfnh dung hoac

tinh gan dung; khich l~ nhirng h9C sinh c6 each giai dung boi nhtrng kien thirc, ki nang c6 duoc do ban than n6 luc h9C tap,

V61 co QUAN, CAN BQ QUAN LI GIAo Dl)C

- V6i cac co quan, can bo quan If giao due thi noi dung van ban neu trong cuon sach nay la can cir toi thieu d~ danh gia, kiem tra viec day va h9C.

- Trong thanh tra, kiem tra day va h9C can quan trier tinh than:

+ Khuyen khfch giao vien sang tao linh hoat trong moi bai h9C, tiet h9C ; giao vien c6 th~ trinh bay day noi dung kien thrrc nhu da neu trong van ban, tuy nhien c6 the linh hoat trong each trinh bay (c6 the trinh bay thea plurong phap khac, each khac hoac thay boi vi du khac nrong tu ve rmrc do nhan thirc) ; kiem tra (hoac ra de thi) dung thea yeu cau rmrc dQ da de cap trong cu6n sach voi nhirng bai toan khac nrong dirong mire dQ nhan thirc ;

+ 01n hru y toi cong cu may tfnh cam tay nham giam tai ve ph an tfnh toan va d~ d6i moi ca trinh bay 1m giai Ian khau ra de va dap an nrong trng yeu cau tfnh dung hoac tfnh gan dung;

+ Khfch l~ nhfrng h9C sinh c6 each giai dung boi nhfrng kien thirc, ki nang c6 duoc do ban than n6 lire hoc tap,

90

TAl LI~U THAM KHllO CHiNH

1. SGK, SGV Toan 10, 11, 12 - Chuong trinh nang cao - GS. Doan Quynh (T6ng Chu bien) va cac tac gia,

2. SGK, SGV Toan 10, 11, 12 - among trinh chuful- PGS. Tran Van Hao (T6ng Chu bien) va cac tac gia.

3. Van ban chi dao cua B¢ GD&DT lien quan : Chuang trinh Giao due ph6 thong man Toan, D6i moi phuong phap day h9C, D6i moi ra d~ kiem tra, Danh muc thiet bi day h9C Toan 10, 11, 12.

4. Huang dan thirc hanh Toan tren may tinh Casio, Vinacal fx-570MS.

5. Tai lieu v~ hoi nghi tap h~an phuong phap day hoc Toan h9C phd thong, BQ Giao due va Dao tao, 12/2000.

6. De tai B94 - 27 - 01 - PP ve d6i moi phuong phap day h9C cac man khoa hoc tv nhien a tnrong THPf thea huong "hoat dong hoa ngiroi hoc" - 1997.

7. Jean - Marc Denomme et Madelleine Roy : (Pour une pedagogic interactive). Tien tai mot phuong phap sir pham tuong tac (Ngiroi dich : Nguyen Quang Thuan- Tong Van Quan) - NXBTN - 2003.

I

8. Tran Kieu (Chu bien) va cong sv : D6i moi phuong phap day h9C a

tnrong Trung h9C CO sa - V ien Khoa hoc Giao due - 1997.

9. GeoffreyPetty : Day h9C ngay nay, Dir an Viet - Bi, 2002.

10. Robert Fisher : Day hoc tre, DV an Viet - Bi, 2002.

11. Wilbert J. McKeachie : Nhtrng thu thuat trong day h9C, DlJ an Viet - Bi, 2002.

12. Tran Ba Hoanh va cong su : Ap dung day va h9C tich eire trong man Toan, DV an Viet - Bi, 2002.

13. Nguyen Ba Kim - Dinh Nho Chuang ... : Phuong phap day hoc man Toan - NXBGD - 1994.

14. Pham Gia Dire - Nguyen M,.mh Cang ... : Phuong phap day hoc man Toan - NXBGD - 1998.

15. D~ tai dip BQ rna so B 2002 - 49 - TD37 v~ Dinh huang va cac giai phap d6i moi PPDH a tnrong phd thong - Vien Chien luoc va Chuang trinh Giao due, Ha N(!i, 2004.

91

Ml)C Ll)C

Uri gi6i thieu

Phdn {hit nhd:

Glen THIEU CHUNG VE CHUAN KlEN THVC, Kl NANG CUA CHl.iONG TRINH GlAO DUC PHO THONG

Phdn (hit hai

'" A: A ~ ".!' " __

HVdNG DAN THl!C HII;:N CHUAN KIJ;:N THlfC, Kl NANG

MON TO AN THPT

HOONG DAN TH{,t HI~N CHUAN KIEN THUt, Id NANG MON roAN L(JP 10

A. Kien thirc chuang trlnh man Toan lap 10

B. Huang dAn thirc hien Chuan kien thirc, ki nang man Toan lap 10 T6 chirc thuc hien

Trang

Chiu trach nhiem xudt bdn :

3

Chu tich HDQT kiem Tong Giam doc NGO TRAN AI

Ph6 T6ng Giam doc kiern Tong bien tap NGUYEN QUY THAO

5

T 6 chuc bdn thdo va chiu trach nhiem noi dung:

Ph6 VI! tnrong VI! Giao due Trung h9C NGUYEN HAl CHAU Giam doc CTCP Dich VI,l xuat ban Giao due Ha N(>i PHAN KE THAI

Bien tdp n¢i dung:

LE THANH HANG

13

Trinh bay bia :

LutJ CHi DONG

21 22 88

Sua bdn in:

. NGUYEN TH~ THANH

Chebdn :

"" A ~ "',,,....... , ... , ,

CONG TY CO PHAN THIET KE VA PHA THANH SACH GIAO Dl)C

Nha xuilt ban Giao dl!c Vi~t Nam - B9 Giao dl!C va Dao ~o gii1 quyen cong b6 mc phfun.

HlfONG DAN TH(jC HI~N CHUAN KIEN THUC, Ki NANG MON ToAN LOP 10

So dang ki KHXB: 641-2009/CXBi32-1124/(;t) Ma so: TXT53H9 - Hili

In 7.CXlO cuon (Qf) 84TKjKH09) kho 29 x 20,5 em In tai Xi nghiep in Hung Yen. SO in: 45/2CX)9

In xong va nop luu chieu thang I I nam 2CX)9.

92

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->