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Xu Ly Tin Hieu Va Loc So Tap2 Nguyen Quoc Trung

Xu Ly Tin Hieu Va Loc So Tap2 Nguyen Quoc Trung

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111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 ~IIIIIIIIIII

*GT 148295"

/\

TAP II

NHA XUAT BAN KHOA HOC -wA KY THU~T m

NGUYEN Quae TRUNG

? " I\.

XU L YTIN HIEU

...

VA

1\.'

LOeSO

TAP 2

.

(Tai ban, co sua chua va b6 xung)

" -' ? ,,--

NHA XUAT BAN KHOA HQC.v A KY THU~ T

HA N91- 2Q03

Trinh bay bta

PGS. TS TO DANG HAl DANG DINH TH~CH NGUY~NiHJNGQCKHU~

QUANG NGQC Hl''ONG LAN

Chiu tracb nhiem xud: ban

Sua ban in

NHA XUAT BAN KHOA HQC vA KY THU~T 70 TRAN HUNG 8AO HA NOI

In . 800 quy~n kh6 19 x 27 em tai Nha in Dai hoe Quae Gia Ha Noi

.. '. . .

Giay phep xuat ban s6111-~40 .2

In xong va n¢p nru ehi~u tMng 4 Mrn 200,,3

UJI Gldl THI~U

Cuoc each mang khoa h9C va cong nghe dang dien ra m91 each soi d9ng chua nrng thay nhir hien nay tren roan the gi6i thuc d~y loai ngiroi nhanh chong brroc sang 111(>1 ky nguyen maio Do lil ky nguyen cua nen van minh dua tren co sa cong nghiep trf IU¢. Mi:'1 dau cho cuoc each mang khoa hoc va cong nghe Ian nay co Ihe diroc danh dau bang sir ra diJi va phat trien 0 at cua may tfnh cung nhir cac phirong ticn x ir ly thong lin khac, dac biet la cac h~ thong xlr Iy song song voi IOC de) ngay cung cao. CLing v6i sir phat t rien nhanh chong cac cong cu xlf Iy lin hieu s6 cling nhir L"lL' nhu l',lll (!'ng dl.ll1g eric cCmg Cl.' nay van moi linh Vl,!'C hout d(mg ella x fi h(li loili nglri\i d(li hl'li sir phill t rien d6ng hl) cac phuong phap xu Iy s6 Ifn hicu hicn dui . D0c bic: eric phuong phap XLI' Iy s6 nay phai ap dung co hicu qua i rong c.ic Iinh vue i hong lin lien h,IC, ph.it rhanh truycn hinh, nr It(mg di611 khicn va cac ng anh cCmg ngh¢ k hac ,

D6 g irip tim hitu mot each co han van d6 nay. Chung roi x i n Ir[1O trong gi(li thieu cung ban doc cuon sach "Xif ly tin hieu va IQC so" cua lac gia TS. Nguyen Quoc Trung. Cuon sach dii dLfQ'C trmh bay mot each he thong nr nhimg kicn tlurc Clf ban v6 rfn hicu va cac phtrong phap I()ng hop phan tfch cac h¢ thong roi rae den nhirng plurong phap x tr Iy s6 Ifn hicu dua tren cac cong cu loan hoc va V~I Iy hicn dui . D~IC biet cuon sach danh phan Ion cho viec phan tfch va t6ng hop cac hI) Il.1C s6 lam co S(} cho vice (rng dung Irong cac nganh cong nghe khac nhau.

Cluing I()i hy Vl.lI1g rang cuon sacb "Xu ly tin hleu va 19C s6" khong nhitng gidp ich IcJl cho sinh vicn cac ng anh cong nghe m a cling la lui lieu th am kh.io I til cho NCS cung nlur cac chuycn gi a dang hout d(>ng rrong cac Iinh virc co lien qu an.

GS. TS Nguyen XlI{1O Quynh

Vien mrong Vien Dien ur - Tin hoc va Tir d(lOg hoa.

LOI NOI DAU

Ng ay salt khi xua: han cuon "Vi dien nr so" tap I, "Trung lam nghien ctru phat lri~n Dicn llr - Tin hoc - Vien thong" hop lac giCra mrong Dai hoc Bach khoa Hi'! Noi viI TCing C(ing ry Dicn ILl' - Tin hC)c Viet Nam da nhan dtroc lui moi cling x ay dung chirong irinh hicn dai hoa g iao trinh va g i ao cu nganh Dien ILl' - Tin hoc - Vien thong ella Trung lam Dao tao BUll chfnh Vien thong I rhuoc HC)c vicn Cong nghe BUll chrnh Vien thong va khoa Thong lin Tin hoc tnrong Dai hoc dan l ap Dong do. Chung toi eta t6 chirc hoi thao khoa hoc v~ chuang trinh so hoa ky thuat Dien nr - Vien thong. Tnroc her trong linh vue gi ang day cu a tnrong Dai hoc Bach .khoa Ha Noi , HC)c vien Cong nghe BUll chinh Vien thong ... va khoa Thong lin Tin hoc I nrong D(_Ii hoc Dan I ap Dong Do.

Duoi sir chi dao cua GS. TS Phan Anh, trong buoi Hoi thao chung (()ida nhar; duoc nhieu y kien quy bau cua cac giang vien va cac nha khoa hoc g i au kinh nghicm. Chung toi da khang dinh viec hien daihoa trong linh vue gi ang day la can i hic: viI rfll eftp bach.

Tnroc hCI cho ra mtl! ban doc h(l sach "XU' LY s6 THONG TIN" nham phuc V~I ngay cho cong lac giang day va nghien ciru khoa hoc tai tnrong Dai hoc Bach khoa Hi1 Noi , Tcing cong Iy Dien tir - Tin hoc Vi¢1 Nam, HC)c vien Cong nghe Biru chinh Vi en thong, I Hrung D(_Ii hoc dan lap Dong DC).

DUll lien cluing toi cho xuar han hai cuon sach:

I. Vi dien tLr so'

2. Xir ly tin hieu va 19C so.

Khong phai n6i nhieu, chung ta deu bier rang viec so hoa cac thiet bi Dien ILT - Vien thong da va dang diroc thuc hien rat manh me 6 tren toan the giai cling nhir i'1 Vier Nam. Chinh VI vay rna xir ly tin hieu va IC)c so da tra thanh mot nganh k hoa hoc va ky thuat. No diroc phat tri~n rat nhanh chong va diroc danh gia bci sir ra clui ella c.ic mach vi di cn IlT co Ion VLSI (Very - Large - Scale Iniergrarion) la ncn lang cho sIT phat lri~n den chong mat ella cac phancung s6 (Digital hardware) chuyen dung cling nhu may t inh s6 (Dig iial Computer) voi gia thanh rc hon, kfch tlnrrrc nho hon. 16c d()c cao hon.

Dt tiep can v(1i ng anh khoa hoc hien dai nay chung la can phai diroc t rang hi nhtrng kien thirc co han khong th~ thieu diroc ella xlr ly tfn hieu va loc scl.

5

Giao trinh xtr LV TIN HI~U Y A LC)C s6 nay da duoc dung de: gi<\ng d'.IY nhieu nam hoc cho hoc sinh chfnh khoa, cao hoc, nghien ciru sinh cua cac truong Dai h9C Bach khoa Ha Noi, Hoc vien Vien thong ORAN (Instil ure des Telecommunication d'ORAN), D<;ti hoc T6ng hop thanh pho Hc5 Chf Minh, D<;ti hoc Bach khoa Da Nang, Trung tam dao tao Biru chfnh Vien thong, C~IC tac chien Dicn ttf B(> Quoc phong , Dai hoc Dan lap Dong Do.

Giao trinh xu LV TIN HII:~U Y A LQC s6 ch·ia thanh ba tap.

Tap 1 d~ cap den nhimg van d~ khai niern co ban cua xir ly lin hieu bao g()m bieu dien Ifn hieu va he thong roi rae trong mien bien so 11, trong mien z, trong mien Ifin s6 lien 1~IC to, trong mien Ian so roi rae to, (hoac mien k), ngoai ra chirong 5 sc trmh bay kha chi tier v~ tong hop bo loc so FIR pha tuyen tfnh ..

Tap 2 g6m nhtrng van d~ tong hop bo loc so I1R,· cau true va d0 nhay ella cac he thong so, bieu dien he thong roi rae trong khong gian trang thai va cau true r rang thai, loc s6 nhieu nhip, bien d6i Fourier nhanh va cuoi cling la bien (k;i Hilbert va h¢ thong pha t6i thieu.

Tap 3 gum nhtrng van d~ ve hieu irng lirong nr hoa trong xu Iy tfn hicu va 19C s6, cac phuong phap danh gia pho, cac bo loc so thfch nghi, rien doan tuycn Ifnh va xir Iy dong cau (Homomorphic), bieu dien trong mien ti~u ba (wavelet).

Tuy ding giao trinh xir Iy tfn hieu va loc so nay da diroc giang day nhieu nam nhirng cling khong the: tranh khoi nhtrng sai sot, chung toi rat mong ban doc g()P y de: tan tai ban roi diroc hoan thien hon.

Dia chi lien he:

Co guan: Trung tam nghien ciru va phat trien Dien tu - Tin hoc - Vien rhong , t nrong D<;ti h9C Bach khoa Ha N(>i.

DHBK Ha N(>i, I D<_li C6 v.«, C4/104.

Tel: 8681068,8694529,8693828; Fax: 8681068.

-Nha rieng: Phong I09B, nha A2, Trung Tir - Dong Da - Ha Noi

Tel: 8528934, DD: 091231914.

Loi cuoi tac gia xin chan rhanh cam on nhirng lai chi giao guy gia ella GS. TS Nguyen Xuan Quynh (Vien tnrong Vien Dien ur, Tin hoc va TV dong hoa ) vu GS. TS Phan Anh (Giarn doc trung tam nghien ciru va phat tricn DT c TH - YT) de: cuon sach diroc hoan thanh voi chat ILHJng cao hon.

Tac gia

Dr. Nguyen Quoc Trung

6

Chuong ti

TONG HOP cAc BO LOC s6 CO nAp UNG XUNG CHIEU nAI vo H~N (BO LOC s6 IIR)

6.1. MODAU

Trong chuang nay chung ta se nghien ciru cac phuong phap h'')ng h0P hI) 19c s6, I LTC la tim ra cac he so cua bo 19C so IIR sao cho tho a man cac chi rieu ky thuat ella hl) loc la 81, 82, O)p' 0), trong mien [an s6 lien t~IC 0) doi voi 1 H(el"') I.

Cac phuong phap tong hop bo 19c loai nay eo th~ chia ra Lim hai loai chfnh:

- Loai thir nhat Ia chuyen tir viec thiet ke' cac h'l loc nrong nr sang h(l 19C so, tire la chung ta phai thiet ke cac h'l Ioc wang nr tnroc sau d6 dung cac phuong phap chuyen dcii nrong dtrong mot each gan dung gifra mien wang tu va mien so de thu duoc hl) loc so. Phuong phap thir nhat nay diroc StT dung rong rfii nhat.

- Loai tlur hai la cac phuong phap tim ra cac thu rue toi tru hoa nho S~T tharn gia ella may tfnh dien tir. Cac phuong phap nay Ia lim kiern cac each tui rhieu hoa sai so cua viec x ap xi cac chi tieu ky thuat cua bo loc can thiet ke hang mor hI) 19C khac co the thirc hien diroc cac tieu chuan gan dung. Loai tlur hai nay ft dLTlJC dung.

Trang chuang nay chung ta se di sau nghien ctru cac phirong phap loai Ih(T nhat VI no don gian va d'l chinh xac l a chap nhan dUQC.

6.2. cAc TINH CHAT TONG QuAT CUA BQ L9C

6.2.1. Be) L()C SO IIR THVC HI~N DVQC

o day chung ta se nghien ciru cac bo 19c so IIR thuc hien duoc v6 mat vat ly, tiic la cac hQ 19C so la cin dinh va nhan qua.

,

Tinh nhan qua dUQC dam bao neu dap irng xung h( II) cua bo loc thoa man dieu

k ien sau day:

h( II) = 0 voi /I < 0

Tfnh cin dinh diroc dam hoi dap trng xung ht n ) thoa man dieu kien 6n dinh sau:

7

w

L:ih(n)i < 00

(6.2.1.1)

11=-U.'

6.2.2. HAM TRUYEN n~ T

Ham truyen dat cua mot bo loc s6 IIR co dang sau day:

lin = 1

M L:brz-r

Tong quat Ht z ) l a mot ham phirc. Nell cac he s6 a, va b, la cac s6 thirc, thl t a

co:

[ M r I[brz-r]*
L:brz-r
[H(z )]* = 1'=0 = r=n
N i: [akz-k J
L:akz-k
k=O k=O Nhirng Ok va b, Ia thirc, ta co:

Ibr(z-r)* M
L:b~(z*tr
H*(z) = r=n = 1'=0
i: «. (Z-k)* tv
L: . ( *tk
lIk Z
k=O k=O = H(z*)

Vay neu at va b, la thuc ta co quan M sau:

H*(z) = H(z*)

(6.2.2.1 )

hose:

H(z) = H*(z*)

6.2.3. nAp UNG TAN SO CUA BO L()C SO IIR

Ta bier rang:

va

8

Neu a, va b, la thirc ta co:

Ta co:

H(eJm)

L1Y logarit co s6 e ta co:

I [ H ( .r» ) 1 . . I [H ( e jr,' ) J

cp(w) = -Ill e. =F(e1£O)=arctg m .

2j . H(e-J(f)) Re{H(eJo.) II

6.2.4. THOI GIAN TRUYEN NHOM

Thai gian truyen nhorn duoc dinh nghia nhu sau:

d<p( 0)) r(w)=- -dO)

(6.2.4.1 )

Bay gia ra tim rem).

Ta bier-rang:

cp((o) = F(e1£O)

d<p(O)) dF(ejW) d(ejW)

--=

• _.' (0 dF( ejw )

= Ie- .

. d(e'V) )

thi

Thay F( e'") vao ta co:

() '~im 1 d {I [H(eiOJ)]}

r OJ = - J~ - . 11 _

2j d(eJOJ) H(e-JOJ )

i ; {d i co d - }

= - -el _ InH(el) - _ InH(eJOJ)

2 ~e~) ~e~)

a day:

1 {H' (_ jOJ) _ _ _ H' ( - io.,) }

( ) e .. 1 ill 'JW e

"OJ =-- ~ +e

2 H(ejOJ) H(e-Jw)

Neu (II va b, la cac M s6 thirc , thea (6.2.2.1) ta co th~ viet:

H(~W) = [H(~W)]* H'(e-iill) = [H'(~W)l*

o day dau * III dau lien hop phtrc. Tir day ta co:

1 {fl'(ejW) - - [H'(eJOJ )l*}

r(OJ) = - - _ elm + e-Jw _

2 H (e}W ) [ H ( e JW )1 *

= _ _!_ {H' (e}W ) el"J + (elw)* [1-1' (e}W )1 *}

2 H(e}OJ) [H(eJw)J*

Chung ta bier ding:

A + A * = Re[AJ + jIm[AJ + Re[A] - jIm [A] = 2RerA I

v ~y cuoi cung ta thu duoc cong thtrc tinh r( OJ) nhir sau:

[ - H' (e!" )]

r( OJ) = - Re e JOJ . _

fI( eJOJ )

(6.2.4.2)

10

Vi du 6.2..1.1

Hay tfnh thai gian truyen nhom cua mot bl'? loc s6 llR neu ta bie'( lIdrn (my~n dat H(z) cua no co dang sau day:

1 H(z) = -' -_-0 1'- z -

Gi<ii

Dat:

1

H(z) = -- =--

D(z) l-z-2

D( z) = 1 - Z-2

,

H'(z) = [_1 ]

D(z)

D'(z)

=---

D2(z)

u: dH(z) t: (z)=--

dz

Thay gia tri cua z tren yang tron dan V! trong mat phang z ta co:

[ H'(Z)]

tt to) = - Re z---

H( z) :=eiw

[ [ D' (z) II

= - Re z --2-.D(z)

D (z) ;0)

. :=e'

D'(e!W) = 1 I = 1

-2. -)2m

1 - Z :=e./w 1 - e

[ 2] [ 2 ]

= Re = Re

el2,,) -1 cos 20) -1 + j sin2())

11

= Re[2 cos 20) -1- j sin 2m 1 (cos 20) _1)2 + sin2 0)

= Re [2 cos 20) - 1 - j sin 20)] = -1 2(1- cos 20) )

6.3. cAc PHlIONG 'PHAp TONG HQP BQ LQC 56 IIR ru BQ LQC TlIONG Tl/

6.3.1. MO DAU

Trong phan nay cluing ta se nghien ctru cac phtrong phap chuyen d6i ham truyen dat cua mot h~ thong nrong nr His) sang ham truyen dat cua he thong so' 11(z). Nhu vay viec dau tien la chung ta phai tong hop dtroc ham truyen dat ella he thong nrong nr H or s ), viec nay da diroc nghien crru phat trien tit lau va da thu diroc cac ket qua t6t dep, chung ta se trinh bay ky 6 phan sau.

C6 bon phuong phap chuyen d6i tit h~ thong nrong tt! sang he thong s6 nhu sau: - phuong phap 1: phirong phap bat bien xung

- phirong phap 2: phirong phap bien d6i song tuyen

- phirong phap 3: phuong phap wong dirong vi ph an

- phirong phap 4: phuong phap bien d6i z nrong trrig.

De thay f6 ban chat cua cac phirong phap nay, cluing ta tien hanh so sanh he thong nrong tv va he thong so.

6.3.2. SO SANH HI): THONG TlfONG ru V A HI): THONG SO

Bang 6.3.2.1 sau day se girip chiing ta on lai mot vai dac trung chfnh cua bo 19c trong nr va bo 19C so, tit day chung ta c6 the rut fa dU<;1C su giong nhau va khac nhau gi ira hai 10~i bo 19C nay.

Bang 6.3.2.1

Mien tuong tu'

H~th6ng

Ttrong nr

So

x~n) I

'__-----'

hen)

yen)

12

Tiel) bdug 6.3.2.1

M

It/,s'

M [1(S-sQr)

A r=1

H o( s) = -'-N::..!----

[1 (s -spk ) k=1

So,: cac diem khong cua Ho(s)

A: he so

M

TI (z - zor)

1I( z) = B .:...r=....:.I _

N

II« -zpk) k=1

M

TI (l - z orz -I )

H ( z) = B .:.."=~I,--- -

N

n (l - z "I. Z -I )

k=1

zo,: cac diem khong ella l lt z )

Zl'k: cac diem eire ella H (z)

B: he s6

Tlch chap

o:

.Vl/(t) = f·\,(T)II,;(t-T)dT

=o:

= x,,(t) * hjl)

.<YO

",; f 11 (T).Y . (I - T tdt.

(I cI

·-oc

<YO

Y( II) = L x( 111 ) II( 11 - m )

1Il=-OC'

= x( /I) * II( II )

OC)

= L II( 111 ) x( 11 - 111 )

m==-oo •

=11(/I)*.\"(n)

Phuong trlnh bieu dien h~ thong

Vi phan

N dkv.(t)

. ~Ck . '~

k=O dt

Sai phan

N M

LlIk y(/I - k ) = Lb,. .\"(/1 - r) .

k=O ,.=0

Laplace

L T: Laplace Transform

z

ZT: Z - Transform

if]

LTfhil)J == IIJs) == J 1I,,(I)e-\/dl

s == a + jto;

Fourier

FT: Fourier transform

<c

FTjh,Jt)j == H,J(J},,) == Jh.,(t)e-i(J)a'dt

-oc

o:

ZTjh(lI)j == H(z) == '2.11(II)Z-1I

Il=-cr::

z == re'"

Fourier

FT: Fourier transform

cc

FTfll(II)/ == H(e''") =:: '2.11(11)(,-1<""

II=-OC

Mat phang

Mat phang s

Im[~J

Mat phang z

-t

Yong iron Jdn vi

SU' 6n dinh

. .

Neu lal ca cac diem qTC cua f(,(s) nam hen trai mat phang s tht 11¢ thong 6n dinh.

Neu tat ca cac diem cue cu a t lt z ) narn hen lrong vong Iron don VI I hi he thong 6n dinh,

6.3.3. PHUONG PHAp 1: PHUONG PHAp nAT Bn~N XUNG

Gi6ng nhir ten ella no da chi r5, phuong phap nay co ban char nhir sau: dap (rng

\

xung ella bl) loc so 11(11) nhan diroc bang each lay mau dap irng xung cu a ht) loc

urong IV hAl), nhir vay dang ella hjl) va hi n ) la nhir nhau, chi khac (1 ch6 11,,(1) I~\ lien Il_IC, eon 11(11) l a roi rae.

()n lai qua rrinh lay mau la thay rang:

a) Trong mien thoi gian

== lI,,(t).('(I)

(6.~.~.1 )

(1 day e( I) Iii day tuan hoan cac xung Dirac co chu ky Iii T, nhu sau:

14

UJ

e( t) = I8 (f ~ liT,)

(6.3.3.2)

Hinh 6.3.3.1 se cho ta d6 thi cua 8(/) va ett ):

et.i)

t

o

t

-2TS -T5 Hinh 6.3.3.1.

o

J7j

Nh6 lai chirong I, sau khi chuan hoa ht liT) hoi T, ta se thu diroc Ii( II): chuan hoa

Ii( liT,) -----l ... Ii( 11) boi F,.

b) Trang mien tdn so'

FT[liclt)] = Hi ma)

I 00 ( 27t1l \

FTfe(I)] = [,'({vJ = - .. I 8 ())" --,-j

t, n=r-cc , 1."

{1 day FT Iii loan IlT bien d6i Fourier.

Vay ta co:

/'1 ,,' co _ H * u _ '1 * [1 ~ s: ( 27t1l )]

7(r ) - orO),,) ,(OJ,,) - h,lm,,) ~ L. u 0)" --.

1 s f/=-UJ 1."

1 [. if· ( 27t1l)]

= - H (w )* " 8 to --

T flO L.... a T.

J II=-U' j"

~ [ ( )]

1 o. 27t1l

-" H (w )*8 w - _-

T L... <l <l <l T

S 11~ '(/' .I'

= _I ~ H (0) . _ 27t1l 1

7~ fI~Cf; " " T,)

o day:

15

Ts: chu ky lay mall.

Nell dinh 19 lay mall diroc thoa man, nrc la:

f/,,( OJ,,) = 0 voi IOJ,,! < ~ - T,.

dieu nay cho phep t ranh diroc hicn nrong chong phd khi lily mau , nrc l a:

Hirth 6.3.3.2 cho ra mot VI du v0 vice lay mau khi dinh 19 l[ly mau diroc thoa rnan.

f

,.

- ll/75

o

-.2 7l.

-7T.

o

JI.

ZTL

w

H1nh 6.3.3.2.

c) M(it phiillg S V{l mat phti ng z

'l ..."

Trong mat phang s ta thay rang true tung (true tan so nrong nr 0),,), do 11<;In chc

cua dinh 15' lay mau nen tfn hieu co be rong pl16 hitu han chi ion t ai trong khoang

.

[- J~ ; ; ]

S .\

Tir day chting ta cung co su nrong img gitra mat phang s va mat phang z, hi nh 0.3.3.3 se minh hoa dieu nay.

Chung ta biet ding ham rruycn dat Hats) cua h¢ 19C nrong tv co the' diroc bicu dien dtr6i dang khai trien thanh cac phan thirc t6i gian nhir sau:

(6.3.3.4)

(1 day: .'II" la cac diem eire don ella His)

16

(6.~.~.) )

Im[I:.]

7lIT .s

-(

f

Re[~]

Mat phang s

Mat phang z

Hinh 6.3.3.3.

Then Iy thuyet cua bien d6i Laplace t a co:

L T r/pk'II(I)] = ---

s-s,}!

(6.~.3.6)

lJ clay:

L T: bien cl6i Laplace (Laplace Transform)

IL T: bien cleli Laplace nguoc (Inverse Laplace Transform)

{I voi f ;:::: 0 ((( f) =

o f < 0

11(1): ham nhay clan vi luang W

TCf day fa c6:

[tVA J tV { [A Jl

ILTIIl,,(s)l=h,,(O=JLT L. ~ == LILT . ~

k=I·~-·~,}/.: !=I .~-.~,}!

17

N

::::::> hclt) = I Akesl'k'lI(t)

k=1

(6.3.3.7)

U1Y mau h,lt) sc cho La:

I ( 'r) 1)1 ',N A, ,I'pk' ( )1 - ~A spklll; ( t )

Ills = 10 (t _Y' = L.. k e lit - L.. k e 11 /1 .I'

/-/1 s

k=1 t=1I1~ k=1

(6.3.3.X)

Bay gia cluing ta hay tim bien d6i z cua h(IIT,):

[N ]

ZT[b(IITslJ = ZT _t:;AkesPkIlT< u(1I1~<) = /f(z)

~ [~A Spk"T,. 'T)] -II

L.. L.. k e ut 11 S Z

11=-00 k=1

nhirng lIe liT,) =

{OJ voi 11 < °

, vay t a co:

11?:-0 .

/-f(z) = f I Ak(',IPklll; Z-II = I I Ak (eSI)kIl1;z-l)"

k=III=-OC' k=III=O

Ap dung cong thtrc tfnh chuoi, ta co:

~ AA,',

l/(z) = L..

1 sl)k1,-1

k=1 - e . z

(6.3.3.9)

a day:

Sf" - cac eire don ella /fJs); 'l, - chu ky Hly mau;

Al - he so Ifnh t hco cong thirc (6.3.3.5).

Cong thirc (6.3.3.9) chinh la noi dung ella phirong phap bat bien xung. l)lr6'i day chung ta xet su tin dinh nrong rrng gitra liJs) va Htz ).

d)fJ(i 6n d!nh

Tir cong thirc (6.3.3.9) ta co tht rhay rang neu z = (,spAT, Ih1 /1(z) ~ IX', vay ro rang l a Z,'A = elpAT, chinh Iii diem eire ella I-I(z), rna Spk lit diem cue ella II,,(s). Nhir Ihe co Iht noi rang cac diem cue sf" = O'f'k + jOJaA ella His) duoc bien c16i I1H)1 each

true tiep rhanh cac diem eire z", = eSPAT, ella Htz ), thay SPA vao z," ta co Iht viet:

1~

So sanh dieu kien dn dinh cua His) va Ht z ) ta thay rang neu (h < () nrc Iii cac diem eire SpA nrong ling se nam a ben trai mat phang .'I, dan den IZl'kl = 1;. = eOkT, < I nrc la cac diem eire Zl'k nrong ling se narn trong vong tron dan vi. NhLT vay dieu kien dn dinh van diroc dam baa khi ta chuyen HJs) thanh Ht z ) then phtrong phap hat bien xung.

Hinh 6.3.3.4 sc minh hoa str nrong ling giita hai mien dn dinh trong mat phang s va mat phang z.

Mat phang z

1m to

Re[~]

-.

Jlons iron ao'n vi

BInh 6.3.3.4.

Vi du 6.3.3.1

Cho ham truyen dat cua bl? 19c ttrong nr His) nhir sau:

4 His) = ----(s +3)(.'1 +5)

- Hay tim ham truyen dat H(z) ella h9 19C s6 nrong rrng bang phuong phap b:,t bien xung.

- Hay ve so do thirc hien bo loc so.

19

Giai

- 11,,(s) co hai di<im eire: SI'I = - 3; Sl'2 = - 5, vay:

AI A2

lIafs) = -- +

S -SI'I S -;<;1'2

Tim AI then cong thirc (6.3.3.5):

Al = (» + 3) 4 __ 1

(s+3)(s+5) ,,=-3

=2

4 1

A. = (s + 5) .

- (.\'+3)(s+5) \=-5

= -2

2 -2

=> /-I,,(s) = + --

s+3 s+5

Ap dung cong rhirc (6.3.3.9) ta co Hi z ) nhu sau:

I1(z) =

2

-2

+

1-e-5[, z-I

- D6 vc diroc so de) rhuc hien bo loc so, chung ta chuyen l It z ) v6 dang sau dfly:

M Ih,-z-' ,-=6

II (z) = ----'--"---,y

I+IokZ-k 1..=1

hoac viet phuong trmh sai phan dUC1i dang sau:

AI tV

Y( /I) = L b; .\"( /I - r) + I (-(/ k )y( /I - k )

,.=0 k=1

Sau khi bien ddi La co /-I(z) nhu sau:

(-~T -'il)-[

2 \e - .1 - e - .1 Z

//(z) = ( -'1 -st. 'I -I -SI.-2

1-\(' . S +e .. 1 JZ +e .IZ

So de) thuc hien bo 19C cho tren hinh 6.3.3.5.

(-'if: - st. ) ( - vt. -'iT)

hi = 2 \e - .1 - e '.1 ; (/ I = - \e - .1 + (' -.1 ;

(/. =

-fl.J' e .\

HIllh 6.J.J.5.

20

6.3.4. PHUONG PHAp 2: PHU'ONG PHAp BIEN D(lI SON(; TUYf~N

a) Dinl: nghia bien d6i

Gi a si'r viI) IiI mot tin hieu nrong tv, vay dao ham bac nhat cua v,,( /) I~I:

dv; (t) v' (t ) = _'_'_

. a (//

va ra co th~ viet \'a(1) diroi dang tich phan cua y',,(I):

I

Ya(1) = fv'" (t td! + Y,.(/o)

10

Neu I = nl , va II! = (II - 1 )1',. thi ta thu diroc:

IIl~

y,,(II[5)= fy',,(T)dT +Y,,/(II-I)Tj ( 1I-~)T5

V(ly:

Ill;

f_v',,(T)dT =vaCIIF,)-Y,,/(II- I)Tsl (1'-[ )7;

Ray gio cluing ta tien hanh tfnh tfch phan rren nho guy tftc hinh thang.

QlIY rae nay diroc sir dung rong rai trong tnrong h9P tfch phan khong th6 tfnh duoc hang g iai tfch. N9i dung ella guy tac nay nhir sau: t inh tcing t ich dicn tfch ella eric hinh thang nhan duoc bang phep noi suy tuyen tfnh gifra cac mall cua tfn hieu ri'Ji f'.IC. Hmh 6.3.4.1 se minh hoa each t inh nay.

y~(nTs) Yd [(n-f) TsJ

t

®® dien tfch gitra hai mau (II - 1 )T,. vii IIF,.

Hlnh 6.3.4.1.

21

Theo hinh 6.3.4.1, dien tich gitra hai mau diroc tinh nhir sau: r, .: \"" (III~ ) + .'I'd /( 11 -l)Ts J

2

Dien tich nay chfnh Iii gia tri gan dung cua tfch phan:

lifT, __ 1 '. _v'a (III~ ) + _v'a /(11 -1 tt, I

.v',; (, td: "

2

Vay ta co:

. . v' a (lITs ) + »; /( 11 -1)I~ J

vJ IITs) - V,,/(II - 1 )T,.} = T'; (6.3.4.1)

.. 2

Gi a sir ta co vi du b9 loc tuong tv diroc xac dinh bang phuong trinh vi phan sau day:

_v'Jt) + coyaCt) = .Y,,(t)

(6.3.4.2)

Trong truong hop tong quat mot h~ thong nrong tv diroc xac dinh ht1i phuong trinh vi phan sal! day:

1'=0

H..(o5) = .:.__::_-N

" k

L. ('ks

V~y trong truong hop nay:

CII = Co ~ 0; C] = 1, C2 = C{ = ... = eN = 0

Ta co:

HJs) = =

Co +c105 S +co

Neu dar I = III', thi phirong trrnh (6.3.4.2) trc thanh:

(6.3.4.3)

thi:

va t ai diem (11 - 1 )1',. ta co:

y',,/( 11 - 1 )T,./ = ~ CIl_vJ(l1 - 1 )T,.) + XJ(II - 1 )1'}

22

d[tn den:

.v',,(IIT,) + .V'J(II - I)T} = - co{Ya(IIT,) + »J:» - I)Tjj +

+ {.\"a(IITJ + .\,,[(11 - I J"/"J/

Thay vao phuong trmh (6.3.4.1):

T

.v,,(IIT,.) - ·_var(1I - I)T,.} = _!_.[- co{vinT,) + vJ(1I - l)T,j} +

2 . . .

+ (.ra(nT,.) + .rJ( 11 - 1 rr,/}

Sau khi chuan hoa boi T, ta c6 th~ viet:

. 7~

y( 11) - y( 11 - 1) = 2.(- co[y( 11) + y( 11 - I) J + [xi n) + x( 11 - I) f}

(6.3.4.4)

Lay bien et6i z hai ve cua phirong trinh (6.3.4.4) 6 tren ta c6:

I T. I I

Y(z)(J - z ) = _" (- cuY(z)(l + z ) + Xf,z)(l + z )}

2

T T

Y(z)(J - Z·I) + _s coY(z)(J + Z·I) = _s Xf,z)(J + Z·I)

2 2

H Viz)

(z) = X(Z) = 2 1-z-1

1~ 1+z-1

So sanh voi bieu thiic ella H ,,(s):

1 HJs) =-s+co

Ta co the viet quan he gilra H(z) va HaCs) nhu sau:

Ht z ) = H(/(s)ls=~I.::-:-l Ts 1+:-1

T(Te Iii chung ta e6 th¢ nhan duoc ham truyen dat ella b¢ loc so ttT bo loc nrong ur neu ta c6 bien et6i sal! day:

2 1-z-1 s= -.

t; l+z-1

(6.3.4.5)

Bien etch nay duoc goi Hi bien ct6i song tuyen. b) A nh clla true do.

TCr quan he giua z va strong bieu thee (6.3.4.5) ta rut ra:

23

2

+s T

z= _s_

2

(6.3.4.6)

-s

True ao cua mat phang s irng voi 0- = 0 nrc la:

vay:

2 . -- + /0)

T ' <I

Z = --=-"--- =

2

-- - /0)

T . a

s

T

1 + /' _.s_ 0)

, 2 ,I

r,

1- /' -- 0)

. 2 a

Bieu rhtrc tren chfnh Ll thuong s6 cua hai so lien h9P phrrc, va y:

ITs I I r. I

I+i-O) = I-i-O) =

'2 " '2"

(T J2

1+ _s 0)

2 "

[ T ]

arg 1 + i_s co

, 2 ,/

(1' J

= arctg 1- 0)"

[ T ]

aru 1- i+».

~. . 2 "

( T) (T)

= arctg --to)" = - arctg 1-0)"

Dan den:

I ,T, I iarg[l+/~(!l"]

1+/ "O),e 2

, 2 '

z =

(l' )

j lardg·\ (~) a

Z =- e 2

(6.3.4.7)

Bi011 there (6.3.4.7) <-1 tren chfnh la anh z cua true ao. c) S~( //ll dinh

Thco bi611 there (6.3.4.7) ta thay rang Izl = 1. Vay quan he nay chirng tt') dng khi de gia rri etta ,\' narn rren true c1.0 se nrong ung voi gia tr! ella z tren v~)I1g iron don vi.

The Ih1 ne~l phan thuc cua S (0-) la am siS dftn den modul cua z nho hon dun vi.

Nhu Ih6, nira /I1i;i1 phang ben Inti cua mat phang s duoc anh X:;1 vao trorig Yang 1J'()n dun vi rrong mat phang z qua phep bien ddi song ruyen.

24

Tir day ta co the noi ding phep bien d6i song tuyen thoa man dieu k ien chuycn mot bo loc nrong nr 6n dinh sang mot bo loc so' c)n dinh.

Hinh 6.3.4.2 se minh hoa phep anh x a n6i tren.

Mat phang s

Mat phang z

Im[i]

1

Re [1.]

Hiuh 6.:1.4.2.

d) S~( tuong ung tdn s{/

Phep bien d6i song tuyen da dan den mot quan he phi tuyen d6i voi sir wong irng t<:in so g i era mat phang s va mat phang z.

Tir bieu thirc (6.3.4.7) ta thay rang:

. (1' ).

OJ = 2arctg to)"

2 (I)

m = -(o-

a T ,., 2

s

(6.3.4.9)

Cac quan he tren gi[ra cac tan so OJ va tan so 0)" Iii cac quan h~ phi tuycn.

Hinh 6.3.4.3 se minh hoa quan he phi tuyen (6.3.4.8).

25

J[

][ l

-7L "2

-lC..

Hinh 6.3.4.3.

Vi du 6.3..1.1

Chung ta can t6ng hop rnor bo loc so IIR eo dap img tan sci cho t rcn ht nh 6.3.4.4 sau day nho plurong phap bien d6i song tuyen.

Hay rim dap irng tan s6 cua bo loc nrong nr nrong (mg.

Hlnh 6.3.4.4.

Ghii

Xet quart he gilra 0) va 0), trong bi6u thirc (6.3.4.8), each tim drip (fng tfin sCi ella hO 19C wong tv nrong (fng diroc gi~li thich tren hinh 6.3.4.5.

26

w

w

--- 1
'I
I I
0; 0 I cva
i-s.
., I Ha(wa)/ 1
I
I
I Biuh 6.3.4.5.

Vi du 6.3.4.2

Cho ham truyen dat cua h¢ loc nrong IV liAs) nhu sau:

4 HAs)= ---. (s-3)(s-5)

_ Hay tim ham truyen dat Htz ) cua bo 19c so nrong ung bang phuong phap bien d6i song tuyen

I

- Hay ve so dO thuc hien bo loc

Giai

Ap dung bieu thrrc (6.3.4.5) ta co H(z) nhu sau:

27

H(z) = (2 I-Z-I l( 2 !-Z-I 1 T, I +Z-l -3 J~. I +Z-I -5

4

4T2 8T2 -I 4T2-2 ,+ sZ + sZ

= ----------------------~--~------~------------------------

(2 - 3T,. )(2 -51~) -/(2 +3T\. )(2 - 5T, )+(2 - 3Ts)(2 +5T, )jz-I -(2 +:'T\. )(2 +5r, Jz-2

Dar:

A = (2 - 31',.)(2 - 51',)

4]'2 8T2 4T2

. _.s. +_-"_Z-J +'~Z-2

H(z) = ~A~ A ~A~ __

(2 + 3Ts )(2 -5T, )+(2 -3Ts)(2 +5T,) -1 (2 + 3T, )(2 + 5J~.) -2

1 - ---.-----.--.-- ----- . Z - ----- -- z

A A

4]'2 8T2 4T2

b - __ s_. b - _s_· ; b, = _s_; a., = I

0- A ' 1- A - A

(2 + 31~ )(2 - 5Ts) +(2 - 3Ts )(2 + 51~ ) A

ii, = -

(2 + 31~ )(2 + 51~ ) A

So do cua bo loc diroc cho tren hinh 6.3.4.6.

X(n)

yen)

Hinh 6.3.4.6.

Vi du 6.3..1.8

Cho ITI<;Ieh dien nrong tv nhir tren hinh 6.3.4.7 sau day:

R
HhIh 6.3.4.7. 0 c::::J Ie 0
uvo~ I ~. , Ura
T
0 - 0 28

Mach dien tren hinh 6.3.4.8 HI mach dieu khien bang dien ap ..

Hay chuyen mach dien nay thanh mach s6 bang phiror.g phap bien d6i song tuyen.

Giiii

Tnroc tien phai tinh ham truyen dat dien ap His):

lIra I

H(s)=·-- = ---

a U",lo RCs+I

Ap dung bieu thirc 6.3.4.5 ta co:

tsCI +Z-I )

H(z) = ~-:------:--- = --___:::...;_-----

'(21-Z-I] 2RC(I-z-I)+Ts(l+z-l)

RC -.- +1

t; I+z-I

t, +Tsz-1

= ------"-_.;;_ __ --

(2RC -r, i-tr, - 2RC )Z-I

T, -2RC -I

1+ z

2RC+Ts

Dar:

. Ta co:

bo +b1z-1 H (z) = --,,--.:...__

1+ a1z-1

yen )= box(n) + b1:r(n - I) + (- a1)y(n - 1) Tir day ta co sa db mach so cho tren hinh 6.3.4:~t

yen)

xo»

Hinb 6.3 .4~.

29

6.3.5. rHlfONG rHAr 3: rHlfONG rHAr TlfONG DlfONG VI rHAN

a) Xac dinh S~( tuong duong

Chung ta biet ding mot bo 19C nrong tv (hoac mot he thong tuycn Ifnh htil bien noi chung) diroc dac tnrng hoi mot phuong trinh vi phan tuyen tfnh he s6 hang, con m91 bo loc so IIR duoc dac trung hoi mot phuong trinh sai phan tuyen unh he sci hang. Chinh vi vay chung ta co the thiet lap mot sir nrong irng gi ira vi phan V~I sai phan,

Sau day chiing ta tien hanh xet chi tier tir dinh nghia ella vi phan va sai phan. Doi voi dao ham bac nhat ta co:

(6.~.:=i. 1 )

Nhung ta cling co:

. /)'y,,(I) y,J1/T~)-.v,,[(1/-I)Tsl

"Ill = -'-'--__::___-__:.:._-----"-

.v~Ts /).f T,

(6.~.:=i.2)

Hinh 6.3.5.1 se minh hO<;1 ban chat cua bieu thirc (6.3.5.1) va (6.~.:=i.2).

Ya(n75) ya[(n-1) 75]

(n-1)!: ~~ «: t=n7S

J '7: I S

s

muh 6.3.5.1.

• D~ phan bier r6 tnrong hop nrong tv va so ta ky hieu hicn rai nhir sau:

.VJlITs) ~ vt n )

Y,,[(11 - 1 )TJ ~ .\'(11 - I)

v ay chung ta co the thiet lap sv nrong irng trong hai twang h(JP s6 va urong Ill' nhir t ren bang 6.3.5.1.

, Phat tri cn doi voi dao ham hac k chung ta cung thiet lap duoc sl.r I Hong (rng cho t ren hang 6.3.5.2.

30

Bang 6.3.5.1.

. So

d(l)vAt) dt

s == LT[ D(I)J = D(I)(s)

tI II

y,J"Ts)- )'" [(11- 1)1 T,

V( II) - V( II _ I)

. _ = O<1'[\,(II)J

T .

s

DII): toan nr so vi sai

Bang 6.3.5.2

Tuong tL_1

So

n(A)[V (t)J == D(I){DIA-I)[V(l)J

ct . a (I cl • cI

sk_y,,(S) == LT{o~k)[Ya(t)J

LN . dk.v,,(t) M dx(t)

= "'d,.-"-

( k A L.

1;=0 dt 1'=0 cit I'

N AI

tek D,~ l.v,,(t)} = LdrD:Jr,,(I)J

k=O 1'=0

M

== Idrs"X<)(s)1

1'=0

( k

1 -I

~) .Y(z) = ZT {Dk [\'(II)j)

T . .

s

N M

Lek Dk[Y(Il)} = Ld,. D'[x(II)/

1:=0 1'=0

( )1: .,

N 1 Z-I M 1 Z-I

Lek _-- .. Y(Z) = Ld,.( ~, ].X(Z)

k=O T, 1'=0 \. i,

( )1'

M z-I

Ld,. 1-

Y(z) 1'=0 T\

H(z)=~ X(z) = N ( Z.-I]A

LeI: 1-,:

1;=0 1,

~I

Tit bang 6.3.5.1 va 6.3.5.2 ta c6 the rut ra ket luan mot each r6 rang rang ham truyen dat cua bQ 19C s6 IIR c6 th~ nhan diroc true tiep nr ham truyen dat ella bo 19C tirong nr bang each d6i bien so thea cong thirc sau day:

1-z-1

s= ---

(6.~.5.3)

Chung ta cling nhan thay rang quan he (6.3.5.3) a tren chfnh la anh x a cua mat phang s vao mat phang z.

? ? ?

b) Anh cua true ao

Bay gio chung ta trm z thea ham cua s:

1

z=--

l-sTs

(6.3.5.4)

rna s = c + j{J}a' vay s = i», (c = 0) se nrong rrng voi true ao, thay vao (6.3.5.4) ta co:

1

z=----=

. w (ITS

= l+w2T2 + ] 2 2

a s 1 +O)aTs

= Re[z] + jlml z]

lm[z]

arg[z] = arctg Re[z] = arctg({J}aTs)

Vay ta CO:

Re[ z] = 1 = Izl ~

l+w2T2

a s

rna

The thi:

Chii y.ril.ng:

w; luon luon dtrong,

T} luon luon dtrong,

dfin den Re[z] luon Juan duong.

32

Bien deli tiep ta co:

( 1 )X ( 1 )2

R e2 [ z J - R e [ z J + 2" - 2" + (1111 f [ z J = ()

( 1 )2 ( 1 )2

Re[zJ-2" +(1111/[ZJ= 2"

(6.3.5.5)

R6 ding 1a phuong trinh (6.3.5.5) la phuong trinh cua mot duong tron co ban

kf h b' 1 " di , 1 1 h' D' :>.. ' hf h l'

In ang 2"' tam nam 0 iern t nrc 2" trong mat pang z , irong tron nay c In a

anh ella true ao (s = JOJ,,) trong mat phang z. Nhir vay anh ella true ao (s = jO),,) kh6ng phai la vong tron don vi Izl = 1 nhir trong truong hop cua phuong phap bien deli song tuyen.

Hinh 6.3.5.2 se minhhoa true ao trong mat phang s (s = j(u,,) va anh cua no trong mat phang z.

o

i-. ['£ J

-1

1 Re [l.]

Yong iron iidn v_i

Hinh 6.3.5.2.

c) IN 61l dinti

Bay gio chung ta tien hanh tim dieu kien 6n dinh doi voi phuong phap nrong duong vi phan nay.

Theo bieu thirc 6.3.5.4 ta co:

1

z=-v-sr,

thay s = c + jto., van ta co:

z=------

.H

,=> Z = Re l z] + jhnj z]

ro ,,T,

lm [ z ] = -1--'I'-)-2.::_____:'----1-.-)-2 ( - a s + (0)" s

Izl =

Nell bo loc nrong nr la on dinh thi a < 0 (cac diem cue IUs) narn ben t nii mar phang v), dan den csl, < 0 va (I - aT,)" > I vay thi voi hal ky gia Iri nao ella ((0)),)' ta 11I{m luon eo:

(I - aT,)" + (wI,)" > I

d[m den:

Izl =

I 1,)2 . '1')2

( -a s +(0)" s'

<1

Tir day t a c6 th6 n6i ding neu cac diem eve ella H.,(s) nam hen t rtii mal phimg: \ thl anh x a ella no vao mat phang z se narn ben rrong vong Iron don V!. Nhu vay Ill' mot bo loc nrong tv on dinh se bien d6i thanh mot b(> loc so 6n dinh nrong (rng htmg phirong phap nrong duong vi phan.

Bay gia cluing ta xet chi t iet hon nira ben trai mat phang s sc anh xu vito drill t rcn vong tron don vi Irong mat phang z.

Ta eo the viet:

Izla<o =

·1 T·)2 Y' )2

( - a.l' + (0) a s

Izla<o < 1

nhung sst', < 0 neu bo loc wang tv la 6n dinh.

Vay ta co Ih~ noi rang mra hen trai mat phang s duoc anh x •. t vao ben t ronu vong Iron ban kfnh _!_, lam narn t1di<im ihirc z = _!_ rrong mat phang z. SU nroua irnu

2 . 2 . c, • '- L

nay diroc minh hoa tren hinh 6.~.5.~.

34

Im[x.l

-1

1

Rtl[~]

04.0

6;0

Hiuh 6.3.5.3.

Vi du 6.3.5.1

Gia sir co mot bl} 19c nrong nr, ham truyen dar ella no co dang salt day:

I J1,,(s) = -s+l

- Hay tim ham truyen dar Htz ) ella bQ 19C so nrong rrng bang phuong phap tuong duong vi sai.

- Hay viS so do thirc hien bo 19c. Ghii

Ap dung bieu thirc (6.3.5.3) ta co Ht z ) nhu sau:

H(z) = H<I(st=I::~1 T,

I -1 -z

.... -.-- + I

r,

= __ 7-=::, __ (l+Ts)-Z-1

l~.z

= -----':--_

(I +T,.)z-I

Vay:

So de) ella bo 19C IIR nay co dang nhir tren hinh ve 6.3.5.4.

sc o»

'j(n)

1

(II = --l+Ts

Hinh 6.3.5.4.

6.3.6. PHUONG PHAp 4: PHUONG PHAp BIEN f)6I Z THicH UNG

Phuong phap nay diroc sao chup lai noi dung cua phtrong phap 1 (phirong phap bat bien xung), nrc 13. chuyen d6i true tiep cac diem eire va diem khong ella ham truyen dat ella bo 19C wong nr Ha( s) trong mat phang s thanh cac diem eire va cti6m khong cua ham truyen dat cua bo 19C so H(z) .trong mat phang z.

Gia sir rang ham truyen dat ella bo 19C Wong nr c6 dang sau day:

!v1 fIrs-so,)

H C ,.=1

or s) =. -'--N-"-----

Il« -Spk)

k=1

(6.3.6.1)

a day:

Sor la cac die-m khong cua bo 19C nrong nr, Sl'k la cac diem eire cua bo 19c nrong nr,

Thi cluing ta thu diroc ham truyen dat lJ( z) cua b(> 19c s6 diroi dang sau day:

/v1

fI (1- eSor7; z -I )

H(z) = C.~'=~I---------

N .

fI(l-eSPkT., Z-I )

k=1

(6.3.6.2)

i) day T, Ja chu ky lay mau.

Thea (6.3.6.1) va (6.3.6.2) ta thay ding moi phan nr (.5 - a) trong JUs) dlT<,1~ <lnh xa thanh ph an tir (l_eSpkTsz-I). D6 la noi dung cua phuong phap bien ct6i z thich irng.

Qua phirong phap nay ta thay ding viec anh xa cac diem eire gi6ng nhtr Irong phuong phap bat bien xung. Con sir khac nhau giira phuong phap bien ct6i z thfch u'ng va phirong phap bat bien xung la viec anh xa cac diem khong.

36

Dt dam bao dap rrng tan sci ella hQ loc nrong tv khong hi bien dang tht chu ky lay mall T, phai diroc chon sao cho co Ihe nhan duoc vi trf cac diem cue va diem khong nrong duong trong mat phang z. Su sai lech nay c6 thti diroc g iam di khi t a chon chu ky lay mall T,. du nho.

Vi du 6.3.6.1

Cho ham t ruyen dat cua mot he thong nrong nr nhir sau:

sts + 1) HaCs) =

(s+2)(s+~)

- Hay tim ham truyen dat ella he thong so Wong ung bang phtrong phap bien ct6i z thfch rrng.

- Hay vc sa do thuc hien he thong so nay.

Ghii

Ap dung bieu thirc (6.~.6.2) ta co bieu rhirc ella ham truyen dat Hi z ) nhir SeW:

= ------------------~------

I -3T -J -2T -I . -st. -2

-e r z -e 'z +e .IZ

I-(e-T, + I)Z-I +e-7; .z-2

= -------------------------

I -17 -27 -I -">7-2

-(e' .1 +e .I)Z +e··I.z

D~I:

+ e-2T,

. _ -5Ts

1I~ - - e

T b, = e - S

Ht z ) =

TLr day c6 th0 ve diroc Sl1 d6 he thong so IIR nhu trcn hinh 6.~.6.1.

~7

X(n)'

Hinh 6,3,6. L

6.4. n)NG HQP cAc 89 LQC TLJClNG Tl,1

6.4.1. n)NG QUAN vf£ cAe B() L<)C THONG TV

Chung t a bier ding mot bo loc luang IV diroc xac dinh hiJi ham t ruycn dat ella chung nhir sau:

. _ Ya(s) IUs) - ---

x,»,

6.4.2. B() U)C TLJONG TV BUTTERWORTH

a) Dinh nghia

B() loc nrong I~r Butterworth eo dac diem 13 6 g()e toa .to (0)" (Jh[mg d,!1 eire dai , tire IA:

(6.4.2.1 )

'jill L(<)~)=

(');i~O·

Buy giu cluing ta xac dinh bieu thtrc cua L(<),~) thco ngh'ia .ro bang ph.ing cue dai t ai 0)" = O.

Co s\'~ Imin hoc nhu sau:

Chung t a bier ding chuoi Taylor ella ham L(\ + ,In) nhu sau:

,2 k /I

.r L' .\ I" X k .1' II

1.(.1' + ,1'0) = U,Y,,) + - (1'0) + - . (Yo) + __ . + - L (1',,) + __ . + --I. (.1',,)

I! 2' k! II!

a day:

t.i«, _ dL.(X)\ ~ ('\0) - -_

dx .\='\0

Neu '\0 = 0 cluing ta c6 chuoi Maclaurin:

. 2 k • rU

Lix) = L(O) + !_L'(O) + !_ L"(O) + ... + !_ L'(O) + ... + _. 1,"(0)

I! 2! k! II!

C6 kha nang l a tai diem Xo = 0, chung ta co th6 c6:

.,.

L(O) = I

va L\O)=O voi k ss n :

So sanh L(w;) va Ltx) ta co:

.Y == 0)2 (/

Nell L(O) = 1

va L'(O) = 0 vci k s: /I - I

thi: B; = I va B[ = B2 = ... = BI\.[ = O.

Tir day ta co:

L(w;) = I + BII0)~!I

Thuong cluing ta chuan hoa thea tan so dt (Oan hie do cluing ta co:

L( I) = 2 tai tan s6 cat chuan hoa ({Oac = I)

nhu vay thi:

B" = 1

va

Tir day chung ta co diroc dap irng tan s6 cua bo 19c thong thap Butterworth chuan hoa nhir sau:

(6.4.2.2)

DrS thi cua iH,,(co,,)i cho tren hinh 6.4.2.1.

39

/HQ (WQ)/

1 ~-o;::,- ___

( a

o

1

muh 6.4.2.1.

- Bac cua bl) loc 11 ding tang thi bl) loc cang gan voi bl) loc ly nrong.

- Dap ung bien d¢ luon bang ~ 6 Hin so dt voi moi gia tri cua fl.

b) Vi tri ctia cdc diim C,!C

Chung ta biet ding voi s = jto; thi to, = ~; nhu the 0):' = - S2, vay ta co th<i viet: .I

L(-s2) = I + (_S2)11 = ----- 1-1., (s ).11" (-s)

Tire la:

2 2 I

L( 0) a ) = L( -s) .

s=Jwa

Tir day ta co:

HJs).HJ-s) = ---- 1 +( _s2 )"

Bieu dien Hats ).Hat -s ) diroi dang cac diem cue ta co:

(6.4.2.4)

A

H,Js).H,J-s) = ----

211

fl (s - s pk ) k=!

(6.4.2.5)

Bay gia cluing ta iien hanh tim cac diem cue SI'A cua ham lI,,(s).I fA -s]:

Ti:r bi611 thrrc (6.4.2.4) ta co:'

40

11 chan ta co: 1 + s~;: = 0 ~ S~k = 1 = ejI2k-l)7t

11 Ie ta co:

I - 2f1 - 0 _ 2f1 - 1 _ j2( k-l)7t

S pk - - S pk - - e

Cuoi cung ta co cac nghiern voi 11 chan va le nhir sau:

11 chan:

ill,~=I)7t 1

Sl'k = e 2f1 , k = 1, 2, ... , 211

(k-l)7t

,--- J

sl'k=e n k=I,2, ... ,211

(6.4.2.6)

11 le .

Vi du 6..1.2.1

Hay xac dinh vitrf cac diem eire tren mat phang sung voi bac cua bl) 19c 11 = 3 va 11 = 4.

Giai

Theo cac bieu thirc (6.4.2.6) ta thay ding:

ISI' k I = I

v ~y cac diem eire cua H,,( s ).H,,( - s} se narn tren mot vong tron trong mat phang s . Yang Iron nay diroc goi Iii vong tron Butterworth.

Phan be V! Ir1 cac diem eire tren vong tron Butterworth diroc cho trcn hinh 6.4.:2.2.

Sp_l, S,>4, s ;«, s,,~ la cac ditim cue cua I-I(/(s)

SI"" SI'j, .'1,,2 Ia cac diem eire cuaH,,(-s)

.'1,,7, .'11'8, .'1"" .'11'2 Iii cac cti~m eire ella H,,( - s ]

Hluh 6.4.2.7

4i .

D2 dam bao h~ thong Iii ()n dinh thl ca\; diem eire ella /I,,(s) phai narn ben I r:i i true ao. Vay trong cac diem eire ella /I,,(s).IIJ- s ) chung ra chon ra eric di(m eire n,1111 ben Inii true ao (xcm hinh 6.4.2.2) d6 lam cac diem eire ella I/,,(s) dCii \'('1i h() loc 6n dinh. Tire la cac diem eire ella ham truycn dat ella bo loc ()I1 dinh phai num hen t rai true ao t rong mar phang s.

VI the cluing ta co Ih~ viet:

11() HJs) = ----"----

II

n(S-sl'k) 1.=1

(6.4.2.7 )

0)

+ Thco ([in so chuan hoa ,/

0) <Ie

i7t( I +2~=1)

SI'A = C 2 211 , k = 1, 2, ... , II

}

H; = I: hang: s6

+ Thco lun s6 khong chuan hoa

/10 =O)~c }

i7t( ~+2k=-1 )

SPA = OJ",.e 2 211 , k = I, 2, ... , II

(6.4.2J~h)

i.'1 lun s6 chuan hoa, cac diem eire SI'A SC nam tren vong Iron co han kfnh r = I (nrc Iii ISI',I = 1).

6 lun so kh6ng chuan hoa, cac di~111 eire SPA sc nam tren vong Iron co han kfnh r = OJ", (OJ", Ia tun s6 d'l khong chuan hoa),

c) Tinh toan h(i c cua bfj loc

/H(1(wQ)/

11---- __

o

Chung la co f-J{

Ihe unh 100In hac

c~a hQ lqc sao eho

hQ 19c t hoa man cac

chi t ieu ky thuat da

cho.

Ova vao hinh 6.4.2.3 chring ia thict l ap rrinh nr t inh loan bac II ella

Hinh 6.4.2.3.

42

h0 LQc.

Thco hinh 6.4.2.3 la thay ding i:'J dai thong thi:

[ ]2//

1+ 0:_"1'

e,) (Ie

=>

" I + (0) "I' ]2//

0) II(~

s--(1-8, )2

( ]2// [ 1

0) 1

II! ~ < 19 -I

~ (J) ac - ( I - () I ) 2

(0) I/, 1 [I 1

21lLg .:': - s lg 2 - I

0) ,Ii- (1- 8 I )

v ay a dai thong ta co quan he sal! day:

(6.4.2.9)

Tuong W thea hinh 6.4.2.3 <'1 dai chan ta co:

_____ < 82 - 2

( ]2//

0) 1+ - _<II

(I) ell'

( ]2//

0) <IS

0) <Ie

I

> - - I - 82

2

43

2111g [ro as.l ~ 19 [~ - 1]

ro ac O2

V~y 6 dai chan ta co quan he sau day:

(6.4.2.10)

K6t hop hai quan he (6.4.2.9) va (6.4.2.10) ta nit ra diroc bieu thirc tfnh bac 11 ella h¢ 19C Butterwort nhu sau:

1 Ig-----

02J28:

n ~ -----'---

lgo <1S -1gro ap

(6.4.2.11)

Chu Y rang 11 chi lay gia tri nguyen.

Vi du 6..1.2.2

Hay tim ham truyen dat !laCs) va vi trf cac diem cue ella !la(S) d6i voi h¢ 19C nrong tv Butterworth chuan hoa ({One = 1), bier ding h¢ 19c wong tv nay co bac 11 = 2.

Giiii

o day 11 = 2; 11 la s6 chan.

Thea bieu thiic (6.4.2.8) ta co the viet nhu sau:

i7t(~-+ 2k-l) i7t(.!.+ 2k-~)

e 2 2.2 = e 2 4 Sl'k =

.7t . 2k-l

.1-2 .I7t-4-

=e.e k=1,2

',,~

37t t=:

=> Sl'l = e 4 k = 1

.:'i7t t+:

sl'c = e 4 k = 2

Thea bieu thrrc (6.4:2.7) ta co:

6 day 110 = 1; 1/ = 2 vay ta co:

44

lJ,Js) =

[ .~7t 1 [ )n I

s - • .. s - e ' .. j

Xct vi trf cac diem cue: ()' day chung I a co hai diem cue S"I va s"c' hai diem eve nay narn ben trai true <10 ella

111(11 phang s d6 darn bao cho h¢ thong

Iii (-in dinh. Hinh 6.4.2.4 se minh hoa -I

VI lri ella S,'I va sl'c'

D6i Vl1i /I chan:

*

*

Hlnh 6.4.2.4.

*

SI'~ = S,{>I)

h()~e Iii:

*

*

DCli v(J'i /I lc:

l 11+1 1

I 2 -I

. 1

,n + ~

2 211

I'

=>

V l:fi tan sCi khong chuan hoa ta co:

*

*

*

hoac lit:

*

:[:

"1).( 1/;1 --IJ

" ..

(1/+.1 )

III 2 +1

II II

u; = n(-"IIA) = (- I)" n(SIIA)

1.=1 1.=1

1/

n, 1.=1

1/

2 )

n Is"k I~

1.=1

() uin s() chuan hori t a co kl

vay ta co gi<l tri ella 1/" .ihrr sau:

1/

I

(6.4.2.12)

('J t.in sCi khorig chuan hoa t a el'1 I,) = 0)"" vay t a co gi<l i ri etta l l ; nhrr suu:

1/

2

u; = n(C'),,,)2 1.=1

0) 1/ . ",

(6.4.2.1.~)

V\"ri /I IC t a co:

II II

11" = n(-SIIA) = (- I)" n(SIIA)

1.=1 1.=1

1/

n-, 1.=1

- S

1/+1 • I)·

1/+1

-I

2 2

n ISI'kl

1.=1

2

<"J Lin sCi chuan ho.i la e6 Iskl = I vii S 1/+1

1'.

2

- I, V{IY t a e\) gill t ri ella l l.. nhu

s au:

II" = - S 1/+1

I)·

2

1/+1

-I

2 )

n ISI)A I~

1.=1

1/+1 -I 2

= - ( - I) n 1112

1.=1

_ (6.4.2.14)

(JJ(I(' S 11+1

I'.

- 0)", vay t a co gl<l lri ella

2

II"~ nhtr sau:

1/+1 • I)·

2

1i+1

-I

2 2

n 1"1)1.1

1.=1

1/+1 -I

II" = - s

2

= - (-OJ",.). n 10) ,Ii 12

1.=1

(6.4.2.1'))

4h

d) Tinh tdn siY cal OJ",.

Phan t rcn ta da co:

[ J211

(I) lip

1 + -_

(I) Ill'

Ta st'r dung dau hang de' tfnh (11",:

0) "I'

1 = ~ 1 - 0 1 r2 - 1 ]2,;

=>

(!) "I'

(11", = ----'----1-

~1-Olr2-1lill

(6.4.2.16)

V6i /I chan:

t1lun s6 chuan hoa:

JUs) =

II

(6.4.2.) 7)

.2 [ 2 (2k -1) ]

Os +2sill··· ·7ts+1

k=1 2/1

(1 Hin scl khong chuan hoa:

1/

0) ac

/laCS) = ------.-:.:..::...------

1/

(6.4.2.1 X)

V6i /I lc:

(1 t an sci chuan hoa:

11,) = I; s 1/+1 --

I'· 2

47

=>

!Ia(S) =

(x + I)

(6.4.2.ILJ)

/I

2-11 2 (2k-I)]

nls+2xill n Iv r l

/,1 L 211

(j tan so khong chuan hoa:

=>

(6.4.2.20)

Vi du 6..1.2.3.

Cho cac chi ticu ky rhuat cua bo loc sri thong thap nhu sau:

>

-

III(e'''')1 < _I - J()

WI' = 0, In; to, = O,2n

Hay tong hop bo IQc so thong thap tv b(l I(_K urong IV thong thap Butterworth btlOg plurong phap bien d6i song ruyen.

Giai

Chung t a co hon bLr0C chfn,h <.16 Icing hop b(l loc s6 It'r bO I<1C wong ur. RI(/)'(, I. NhH dfill bai da cho ta co 4 chi lieu 1-:5' thuar cua bo loc sCi:

('j dai thong

=>

IH( e'''')1 < _I - 10

a diii chan

1

=> 8, = -

- 1 ()

WI' = O,In;::; 0,3141593 to, = 0,2n ;::; 0,6283185

Minh hoa dap (rng bien d() cua hO loc s6 tren hl nh 6.4.2.5.

I

I I I I I

-----1

I I

- - : 11111111/1/

n.

H1nh 6.4.2 . .'i.

Xac dinh lai eric chi rieu ky rhuat ella h() loc ILTOng nr de chi rieu ky thua: ella h() loc so nrong irng theo phirong phap bien d6i song tuyen.

>

-

(j dai thong

1 illJ(oj :S; 10

2 (c') "

0)"1' = -, Ig _I' J T, ' 2

2 (COs)

(0 = -I s -

a F,'~ 2

Ncu chring ta chuan hoa OJ"I' vii. (O"s hang tan s6 lay mau F, th] eric gia tri cu a ai.; va 0)", sc diroc tfnh nhir sau:

(017t) ,

(0,,1' = 21g ~ ~ 0,3167689

. (O.27tJ

0)", = 21g -'-2- ~,O,3167689

Minh hoa clap ung bien dO ella hO loc wong tl;r trcn hinh 6.4.2.6.

49

I 10

I 1 _ _J

I 1l1li/1/1111/11/111 I

Hiull 6.4.2.6.

B/(()'(" 3

T6ng hop bo IQc nrong nr Butterworth.

Truce het tim bac ella bo IQc II, ap dung cong thirc san:

(A-I]

I g --- __ .1- --···1- \

f~ ... -- ..... -

(1_01)2 c 02.J28:

H = ----'---- ~ ---'----

0)

2 lg <IS

0) <II'

f co <IS g-

O) "I'

102 -I f i?- -

L 100.1 -1

11 = --~-~- ~ 4,1377164

( O.,M9R:'94 ) 2 f~ --

L 0,:' 167689

Vay ta chon II = 5.

* 1'[1111 t o an trill s{/

D~ tinh toan tan so cit voi n = 5, cluing ta co the chon sao cho ton trong I1H)1 each chfnh xac cac chi tieu ky thuar d~t ra rrong dai thong (j tan s6 d\t (a"" ClI the nhir sau:

voi

[ r» "I' ]211

II = 5 => 1 + - =

0) lfS

IO"·l

50

[o.ln)

(I)"" = 21g ~-

\ 2

:::; O,31676X9

I

~~~-.O,31676R9 :::; 0,3626207 I

(10°·1 -I}IO

1/(1 = ((LI,,,)" = (0,3626207)' = (l,0062699

(12k-I)

'" + ~

. . 2 2"

.\ pI. = OJ(Jc l'

k=1

=>

· (I I)

,,, . + ....

X" I = 0,3626207. e 2 10

.'" .I

= 0,3626207. e "

k=2 =>

· (I ~)

'" +

""1'2 = 0,3626207. e 2 I()

= 0,3626207.

k=3 =>

· (I I)

I" 2+ ~~

.1',,:; = 0,3626207. e 2

= - O,~· 626207

k=4 =>

* sl'-+ = .1'1'2

k = 5 =>

() day /I = 5 Iii sc> !C, ('1 tan sCi khong chuan hoa (htri (U,,,) iaap dung cong rhrrc (6.4.2.19):

/ (,( s) = . [ 0) ac ]

(s + 0) "C) fl2 2 . (2k - I ). 2

k=l s + 20) ere .\'111 IOn.s + Co) ,,,'

5

0.0062699

.I' +0.3626207 . (s2"*" 0.2241119s + 0,1314938)(s2 + O.5X67326x + O.131493X)

Chuyen /-/,,(.1') thanh Ht z ) bang phuong phap bien deli song tuyen.

51

Can chii y rang cac Ian so nrong nr. ella bo IQc nrong nr eta dtn~1c chuan hoa b{1i Ian sCi lay mau F" vay rrong phtrong phap bien dt)i song tuycn t a cling chuan ho.i bien s bi'1i tan so lay mau F, nhu sau:

- khong chuan hoa hC1i F,:

2 i- Z-I

S=-.-t; ) +Z-I

- chuan hoa boi F,:'

I -I -z

S = 2.-- 1 + Z-I

Vay ta co Ht z ) nhir sau:

0.0062699

I/(z) = ~------------~ ~----------------------------------~

( -I ]' [[ ]2 ( ] ] ,

I-z . . 1 -1 I -1

21~-;=' +0.3626207 2'}-::-_1 +0,224119 21:;_1 +O.UI493X

Sau khi tinh loan t a cO'H( z) nhu sau:

I

Ht z ) = -------

(I-O.6930352z-l)

0.0001092,(1 +Z-I )5

(l-I.6894082z-1 +O,8042417z-2 )(l-1,458449Iz-1 +O.557.:'i69z-2)

6.4.3. BQ L()C TVONG TV CHEBYSHEV

(I) Mif ddu

Chung ta da bier ding, doi voi bo IQc urong II! Butterworth, dap LTng bien dO giam don dicu ca t'J dai thong va dai chan. Chmh VI vay gan dung Butterworth khong cho t a kct qua 161, ILTC l a voi cung mot chi lieu k y thuat da cho tht buc ella b() loc urong II! Butterworth se Ian.

06 gi am bac ella hI) 19c nrong nr, chung la se sir dung mot g an dung k hac , do I~l gan dung Chebyshev, gan dung nay se cho ta ket qua tol han. Gan d(lOg Chebyshev co hai loai: loai 1 va loai 2.

Gan dung Chcbshev loai I: Dap irng bien ct9 gon song t'J dai th,'mg va (hii chan (urong rrng t a goi la bo IQc nrong I~T Chebyshev loai I).

Gan dung Chcbshev loai 2: Dap ung bien dl) gium don dieu (1 da i IhCmg vii gt_1n song i.'1 dai chan (nrong rrng ta goi la bo IQc nrong tv Chebyshev loai 2 I.

52

1:)6 ct~t co sil roan h9C eho gan dung Chebyshev, chung ta phai nghien cuu da i lurc Chebyshev.

b) D« th uc Chebyshev

Cac da thuc Chebyshev duoc dinh nghia nhu sau:

{Tn ( X ) := cas »o

x :=("(}o58

- 1 S .v S 1 Qxl s 1)

(6.4.3.1)

Xu at phat tu cong thrrc luong giac sau day:

cos[(n + 1 )(}J + COS[(II - 1 WJ = 2cos() cosn O '-----v-----" '-----v-----" I.-....y--l '---y--J

T,,(x)

Ta co quan he:

hoac quan he:

(6.4.3.2)

Quan he (6.4.3.2) a tren cho phep chung ta bi eu dien da thirc Chebyshev T,,(.I") thea .r bat dau tir hai da thrrc dau tien TO<.\") va TJ.r) nhir sau:

11=0 =>
11= 1 =>
11=2 =>
11=3 => T,,(.\") = cos(O. (}) == cosO == 1 ::7 To(.\") ==

T,(x) = cos(1.(}) = cos H = x ::7 Td.1') == .r

T2(.1') = 2xTdx) - ~'l~') ::7 Tix) == 2X2 - 1 == 2'x2 - .v''

T3(x) = 2xTlx) - Tdx) == 2.1'(2.1'" - 1) - .r

211.1[ .'1 n .11-2 11(11-3) .11-4 /1(/1-4)(1/-5) .11-6 J

T,Jx) ::. .\ ---.\ + .\ - .\ + ...

1!22 2!24 3!2 ()

(6.4.3.3)

Nguoc lai chung ta cling co the bien x co so mil bat ky duoi dang da thtrc Chebyshev nhir sau:

1 == To(r)

, 1 1

x- = - [1 + T,(x)J = - [To(r) + T,(x)J

2 - 2 -

x3 == ]_[3x + T,(x)J == 2_ [3TJx) + T,(x)]

4 - 4 -

53

.\.4 = _!_ [3T()(x) + 4L(r) + TIr)]

8· -

x" = _I ~'(IIJT!I-2k(X) 2"-1 );=0 k

(6.4.~.4)

["] h' ., II

'2 : p an nguyen cua '2

[II] II!

k - k! ( II - k )!

l;': nghia la neu ton tai tir Tdx) thl tir nay se diroc chia hai (co nghi a I~I 'j~l(x) ).

2

Vi du 6.-1,3.1

Hay viet bieu thrrc cua T,(X) va T~(.r), sau do ve do thi 'TJ(.r) va r~(.\). Ghii

Thea bieu rhtrc (6.4.3.~) ta co: 1'3(.\') = 4.\'3 - 3x

r~(.r) = 2~'1[x4 __ 4_.,.4-2 + 4(4-3) X4-4] = 23[X4 _.1'2 +~l

1!22 2!24 ()_

Do thi ella 1'ix) va T~(x) diroc ve tren hinh 6.4.3.1.

+) .r = cos e => h1 ~ 1

=> e = arccosx => T,lx) = cas(ll.a/,ccosx) Ixl ~ 1

+) Nell .v narn ngoai khoang (-1, + I): \.\1 > I tht 0 se la so phirc: 0 -» j O

-'> "arccos» = jO

hoac la :

1((1 .( II . 1 (I (I

.r = cusjG= _(eli 1+ e"! I) = -(e' + e ) = cosh t)

2 2

54

~ V<:iY neu I.rl > 1 t a co:

.v == cosh () z:» () == arccoshx

ct rcc os.« == .if) == [urccosliv

~ T,Jx) == cosht narccosh O) h·1 > 1

(6.4.~.5)

73 ex)

x

I

Xii == - 0,866

X() == - 0,S>23

Xl == - 0,7

X2 == - 0,~87 x , = O,~87 x4=O,7

x, = 0,<)2~

I-nllh 6.4.3.1.

c) B~J loc luang tu Chebyshev loai 1 Dinh nghia

Rt} loc nrong I~r Chebyshev loai 1 13 bo loc co clap (rng bien eft) g~.m sl'lIlg ('1 d.ii thong va gi arn don dieu b dai chan.

Tire la v~ loan hoc ta co:

2 1 '.[.2)

L( 0)" ) = + e: II (OJa

(6.4.~.6)

e 13 mot iham so',

co; 13 Uln sci ch uc1n hoa ,

55

V~y cluing ta co binh phuong ella dap ling bien dq cua b<) Ioc IU'l1ng_ ur Chebyshev loai I chuan hoa nhu sau:

(6.4.~. 7)

a day: 11 la bac cua be) IQc (hoac bac cua da thirc Chebyshev):

=>

{COS( 11 arccos 0) <1 ) lll( OJa) =

o coshi 11 arccos he: a )

voi 10) I' I s 1 vci 10),,1 > 1

s Ia mot tham so xac dinh bien dq ella gon song a dai thong.

Ta biet rang T,; «(ua) dao dong gifra kh6ng va mot doi voi I(V) s 1 va tang mot each dan dieu doi voi Imal > I dieu nay dan den IHa(O)a )12 se gon song giCra I V~l

_'_' d6i v6i leu) s J va giam mot each don dieu doi voi leual > J.

J +E2

Vi du 6..1.3.2.

Hay ve d6 thi dap ling bien d.q IHa(O) a ~ doi v6i 11 = 3 va n = 4 .

. Ghii

Xern cac vi du 6.4.3. J ta thay rang:

V6i 11 = 3:

=>

to; = I => Tim,,) = 1 => T/(m,,) = J => I+- t!lf«(u,) = + "c

=>

V6i 11 = 4:

=>

56

OJ" = 1

Hinh 6.4.3.2 se minh hoa dap rrng bien d¢ IHAOJa)1 trong hai tnrong hop /I = 3 va /I = 4.

I

V /1'e2

"

-l-

I I I

I

I

1

I 1 1

--1---1-1- - I I I

o

as

0,866

0,7 t f

O,'1J2

Hl.ull 6.4.3.2.

* V! tri cdc diim cue cua His).Hi- .'I) cua bi) loc Chebyshev loai 1

Ta biet ding voi s = JOJ" thi OJ" = ~, vay ta c6 OJ~ = - .'12 va cluing ra c6 the vier }

nlur sau:

2 ' , 2(S J

L( OJ a) = L( - S") = 1 + g- T" j

= I + g2[cosh(llarccosh-J~)l2 = ----- voi (0)" > H.,( s ).H" ( -s)

va voi khoang 0 S OJ, S 1 ta c6:

1 »,» < <

= ----- Val 0 _ OJa _ 1

H,,(s).Ha(-s)

(6.4.3.8)

57

Hjs).Hj- s) =

L(-S2 )

(6.4.:'.<'))

Vay cac diem eve ella /ljsJ.l/,,(- s] chinh l a nghiern ella da thtrc U-,') = o.

Gia Stl" gqi cac nghicm ella 1.( - S2) = () la SI'" ra co:

Chung ra se rfnh loan cac diem cue SI'I trong khoang 0 ~ 0)" ~ I nhrr Situ:

=0

Thirc hi en d6i bien s6:

Spk areeos--

.I

I

--:- (CTI + j(U"k)

.r

Tir day ta co:

Sf'A-

Jlarecos-- = 11(111 + .i\'k)

.I

cos (lIarccos s:/ J = COS{/l(II, + .il'k)/ == ± ~

V~y clurng to ding COS{II(lIk + Fk)/ l a s6 <10.

Ap dung cong rhirc lirong giac:

cos/ a + 13) = eosacosf3 - sinasinf3

ta co:

COS( II Ilk + jll\',) = eosllllkcosjlll'l - sinllilksin.ill\', :::: .I E

2

= cosh.rv,

sin.i/l\'j,

e.l(lll\'j.,) _(,-II/I/\'j,.J

Yay ra co:

eos( nu , + jnvi) = COSIlIlj-Coshll1'k - .isinllllksinhll' K ~~

=0

± .I E

Cuoi cling tu phuong trmh phirc ta thu duoc h~ hai phuong t rmh thirc nhu sau:

(6,4,3,10)

.. 1

slnllllkSlnhll\', = ± ~ E

(6.4.3.1 I)

Tir phuorig trinh (6.4.3.10) t a thay rang:

Ncu:

1t

cissn«, = 0 => 11111 = -(2f..: - I) 2

1t

u, = -Ok - I) 211

(h.4 . .\.12)

Tl:T phuong trinh (6.4.3.11) tac6:

khi sinlllll = ± 1 thi sinh.iv, = ± _!_ E

=>

I . I

arcsinh(± ~) = ± arcsi nh ~

E E

Yay

\'1 = ± _!_arcsinh _!_

II E

(6.4.3.1"1)

Yay vrri II va E e6 dinh thi \'" l a eCi dinh vIii moi gi<l Iri cua k .

TLr:

ILl" day t a co:

(6.4.3.14) (6.4.3.1 ))

Thay gia tri ella u, va Vk trong bieu thirc (6.4.3.12) va (6.4.3.13) vao (6.4.3.14) va (<l.4.3.15) ta e6:

. (2k-l)1t [·nh(1 ·nhl)]

Ch = SIn . ±SI -areSI -

211 11 E

(2k -1)1t ( 1 . 1 )

(0 ak = cos . eosh - arcsinh -

211 11 E

Va cling tit cac bieu thirc (6.4.3.14) va (6.4.3.15) ta e6:

(0 ak

cosn, = voi k = I, 2, ... , 211

eoshvk

Cu6i cung ta thu diroc phirong trinh sau day:

2 2

crk· (Oak = 1

. 2 • +

SInh V k cosh 2v k

(6.4.3.16)

Phuong trinh (6.4.3.16) la phircng trinh ella hinh ellipse c6 dang sau day;

6 day:

R; = sinhv,

1 inh 1

"k = -arCSI -

11 E

(R; va R; la s6 dirong nen cluing ta lay gia tri duong ella '"\).

Db thi rno ta dirong ellipse cua phuong trinh 6.4.3.) 7 diroc eho tren hinh 6.4.3.3.

Tit day ta thay rang cac cap (G'b (Oak) se nam tren dirong ellipse tren hinh 6.4.3.3, nrc la cac diem eire "'pk se nam tren dirong

Hinh 6.4.3.3.

(6.4.3. J 7)

ellipse co cac ban kfnh Hi R, va Rb• cu the ta co the viet nhir san:

1t

U = -(2k - 1)

k 211 .

(6.4.3.18)

Nhdl1Xh:

Chung ta co the viet R" va R; dum mot dang khac nhir sau:

e"k _e-l'k R" = sinh,'. = ----

2

1 . hi, h 1 e!ll'k _e-IIl'k

1', = - arCSIn - => SIn JIl'k = - = -----

11 E E 2

Ngoai fa chring ta biet ding:

arcsinhx = In (.r + ~x2 + 1 )

arcsinh..!. = In (..!. + J 1 + 1 1

E E E2

,=>

I

.l.:k = _!_ arc sinh ..!. = _!_ In (..!. + J 1 + 1 1 = In (..!. + Jl + 1 ] II

/I E 11 E E2 . E E2

I

lJl(~+ il+__l..,)~

l'k ~ V &-

e =e

D~t e'~k = y => Ine"k = Iny => lnv = l'k

• I

(1 ~I"

t= -;+~1+~)

Vay cuoi cung ta co:

61

(6.4.~.1l))

Vi du 6.4.3.3

Hay 11m de diem eire sl'! ella His ).HJ-s) d6i v6i II = ~ va gi'l sir E eta cho truce. Sal! do ve vi trf cac diem cue nay tren duong ellipse.

Ghii

Ap dl.lng bieu thtrc 6.4.3.18 ta thay rang d6i voi 11 va E da cho i nroc i hl cac han kfnh R" va u, Ia hang so.

Bay gia chung ra lien hanh tim II,:

V6i 11 = ~ ta co II, nhir sau:

2k -1 I 2k-1

II, = --n = --n

211 11=3 6

k= n 1 .J3
I :::::;> III :::::;> <J\ = -R,,; 0),,\ = -.Rb
6 2 2
k= n
2 :::::;> II, = - :::::;> <J2 = R,,; U)a2 =0
- 2
5n I .J3
k=3 :::::;> 113 = - :::::;> <J3 = -R,,; 0),,3 = - -.Rb
6 2 2 7n I .J3
k=4 :::::;> I/~ = - :::::;> <J~ - - 2'R,,; O),,~ = - -.Rb
6 2
k= 5 ~n <Js = - R,,; o)"s = ()
:::::;> lis = - :::::;>
2
lin 1 .J3
k= 6 :::::;> 116 = :::::;> <In = - -R,,; 0),,6 = -.Rb
6 2 2 Vi trf cua 6 diem cue nay duoc minh hoa tren hinh 6.4.3.4 .

D6i voi cac h¢ 19c (~n dinh, cac diem eire ella J-Us) phai narn hen t nii true ao (trong mat phang s), vay thi cac diem eire cua HJ - s) se na.n 6 hen phai true an. Chung ta co the thay trong vi du 6.4.3.3 tht:

62.

."

Ra Hiuh 6.4.:1.4.

D6 11m ham truyen dar I/,,(s) cua h() loc 6n dinh chung ta co th0 viet nhir sau:

B

I/,,(s).fl,,(- s) = ----

211

Il (S-Sl'k)

k=1

Tuong nr nhu VI du 6.4.3.3 fa thay ding:

Nell k = (1/ + I) 7 21/ rht (J, < 0 ~ S"k se nam hen trai true ao => h() loc Iii ()Il dinh.

Yay deli voi he} loc on dinh ta co ham truycn dat IUs) nhu sau:

2k-l v6i Ilk = --Te. 21/

I/o IUs) = ---"--- 211

n (.~ - S p]; )

k=II+1

II" Iii hang s6

Chung t a c6 th0 viet lui Ilk va IUs) htmg each deli bien sf) nhu sau:

('=/":-1/ ~ k=e+1I

2(e+n)-1 (2e-l1J

II c = ----'---- 1t = -- + 1t

211 211

HAs) =

/I

Il (s -spk )

k=!

(2k -1 J

11,. = --+1 1t

211

(6.4.3.20)

Vi trf cac diem eire cua bo 19c 6n dinh van diroc xac dinh thea hai he bieu thirc (6.4.3.18) va (6.4.3.19).

Hang s6 Ho co the diroc chon bang each sau day:

Chung ta co the viet:

n

TI (jro (1 - S pk ) k=1

= ~I H_o-,-I -t-t- = 1

In (-Spk J

k=! 1

/I

u; = TI ( =S pk )

k=!

(6.4.3.21 )

V6i 11 chan::::::> 6 g6c toa d¢ H,,(ro,,) = -===

JI;;2

·1/101 = 6In(-SI)k)1

k=!

1 /I

u; = JI;;2. TI(-Spk) 1+E2 k=!

(6.4.3.22)

Vi du 6..1.3..10

Hay tim IUs) ella bo It)C Chebyshev loai I nrong (rng voi II = ~o Hay x.ic dinh vi trf cac diem eire ella HaCs) rren mat phang so

Giai

Tnroc het ta tim cac diem eire sf'! (fOg v6i II = ~ nhu sau:

Ap dung bi0u thtrc (6.40~020) ta co:

k=I :::::;>

k=2 :::::;>

7rr . 7rr 1
III = - :::::;> 0"1 = sIn-oR" =- 2_R"
6 6
7rr J?,
:::::;> OJ"l = cos-oR" = - -.R"
0 2
3rr . 3rr R
1/, = :::::;> 0"1=sln20R,,=- "
2
3rr
:::::;> (!)(/.'! = cos-oR" = ()
2
I ln . 11rr 1
II) = - :::::;> 0"3 = sln-.R" =- 2_R,
6 6
I In J?,
:::::;> (J)", = cos - oR" = '-oR"
- 6 2 S)" = - ..!_ R.] + ,'.J3 .R"

. 2" 2

* *

:::::;> Spl = sp3 hoac 'spl = Sp3

Tir day ra tim dLTlJC Hjs) nhu salt:

Ho

= ------~----------~~~------------~

R ( I R . .J3 R]( 1 R . .J3 R ]

( s + ,/) s + 2 ,/ + .I --2 " s + 2 ,/ -.I 2 b'

(-} day:

rr3 (1 2 3 2)

Ho= (-Spk) =R" -R",+-R"

k=l _ 4 4

65

No =

2

nil d cac diem eire dcu co: CJA < 0, vay lal ca cac diem cue nay dCLI nam hen trai true ao, dan den h() loc Chebyshev IO •. li I nay l a h() loc (~n dinh.

Vi trf de diem eire ""1'1' S/,C va S/,3 cua ham truycn dar l l.Ls) deli voi b() loc nay dlr(.1c minh hoa ircn hinh 6.4.J . .'i.

\

\ \

/

\ \

Hlnh 6.4.3.5.

Nhan xet vc H;

+ V6'i II lc , ta c6 cac diem eire S,'k nhir sau:

k= ~ => 2

3rr

.tt =-

2

66

· 3n

(JII+I = sln2·Ra = -1<:,

2

0) 11+1

(/,--

2

3n

= cos- .R" = 0 2

THong nr ta thay ding:

:-j~ -'pI = S I'" ;

051'2 = .'1/,(11-1;; •.. ;

s ("+ 1 ) = s (1/+ 1 )

I' 2-1 1'.2 +1

Then bieu rhirc (6.4.3.21) ta co th~ viet:

II II

u; = I] (-s 1''' ) = (- I)" Il S pI;

k=1 k=1

1/

- - TISl,k k=1

II-I

21 2

= (- I) S (1/+ 1 ). Il s p]: 1

I' 2 k=1

1/-1

+ V{1i II chan ta co cac diem cue S"k nhu sau:

S"k; S,'\; ... ; .'I (" ); S 1/; .'1.(" ); ... ;.\",'"

1,-1 1'-- Jl +1

222

rna ta thay rang:

* . *

S,'l = SI"'; spc = .'1/,(1/-1;; ... ; S II

I'

2

* = s·

I{>I)

Then bieu t hirc (6.4.3.22) ra c6 th~ viet:

1/

Nhan xet ve HaCs)

Then hi6u thrrc (6.4.3.20) ra co JUs) nhir sau:

(6.4.3.23)

(6.4.3.24)

67

flo

/-/,,( s) = ----'-----

II

n (S -SpA) A:=I

He day ta phan t ich fUs) voi fl le va fl chan nhu sau:

Voi fl Ie ta co:

. Y _y-I

s. ( I) = - R = - sinhv, = -

n fI-t_ a 2

2

=>

!fo

JUs) = -( ---~]-II_-+I-_I--"--------

2 II

s-s ("+1) n(S-SpA:). Il (S-S/JA)

I' 2- A=I k=/~+I+I

2

Ho

= --------------~-------------

( ]"+1

--I

2 *

S-S ("+1) TI (S-Spk)·(S-Sl''')

p 2 A=I

111 a: SpA = a, + jO)"" vay ta co:

(.'I - Sl'k).(o5 - S;k) = s~ - 2a/.\' + (ai +O)~k)

Ho

H,,( s) = .c__ _

II-I

(.'I + R" )·n k - 2a AS +(ai +O)~k)]

A:=I

V oi II chan ta CO:

2 /I

f1 (05 - SpA:). f1 (S - S pk: )

k==I k=!.!-+J

2

(6.4.3.25)

110

= "-- __ -

/I

"0

liAs) = -----~----

/I

* 8<) loc tuong tv Chebyshev loai I (1 tun s6 khong chuiin hrui

Chung ta biet rang (1 tan s6 (!)" chuan hoa h('1i ('),,1' thea hi0u thirc (6.4.:'.7) ta co:

IIU (,) ,,)1 2 = I

1 21·2 )

+ E /I (('J"

v ay trong tnrong hop tan sCi (0)" khong chudn hoa ta co:

(6.4.:'.27)

[ co 1 voi (J)
cos Jlarccos-- ~I
1;,[ ~ 1 o "I' W"I'
(,) "I' [ r» 1 v(1i (.)
cosh lIarccosh-- >1
(0) "I' 0) "I' Vi du 6..1.3.5

Hay vi: de) th] dap (rng bien ch) Ill,J(o)j vai II = :. trong trtrong IWp ttin sCi (')" khong chuan hoa.

Ghii

Tirong nr VI du 6.4.:'.2 ta thay ding:

V{1i /I =:. ta co:

co "I' (0) =--

" 2

=> (~[" ;' J\ ~ T, (_!_) = - 1 => oJ} (_!_) = I.

0"1' 2 2

~ r/(I)= I

Hinh 6.4.3.6 se minh hoa dap rrng tan s6 IHarc,)J voi /I = 3 trong t nrong hop uin s6 C')" khong chuan hoa.

1

I I

I I

----,---

I I

o

Hlnh 6.4.3.6.

Nhan xet vc Hars) va H; trong truong hop bin 'So «i, khong chuan hoa

Chung ra biet rang I) {[in so chuan hoa ta co:

. s ( 2) (2) "'2[")

0)" _, -:- ~ L \0) a _, L - s = 1 + E - J /I -:-

J J

Vay l) Ian s6 khong ehU:1n 110a t a co:

Dan den cac diem cue cua IIJ~ ).IIA - s) chinh la nghiern cua l . (_s2 ):

[ 12

.2 S ,k

I.(-Sl'k) = 1 + E" eos[nareeos-.-,' -. ) Jr) "I'

70

· sP'

va II, + ./1', = arccos -.--

./0) 'if'

=>

(J k . 0) a]:

-- + /-- = jCOS(II, + .iI',) 0) "I' . 0) ,{I'

O) ,II'

0),{/,

=>

(Jk

sin II, = --..::._-

0) ,{psinI11',

(0) ak COSllk = --...:..:.::_--

(!),{('COShl',

V~LY phuong trinh hinh ellipse co dang sau day:

('~ day:

\', = _!_arcsinh_!_

II E

Dc) thi hinh ellipse nay diroc cho t ren hinh 6.4.3.7.

Cuoi cung ta co:

(J, = sinll,.R'a

v-v-I

R' R I I

1/ = C)(lI'· tI = (1)01'· 2

(6.4.3.nJ

I I I I I

--+--

R' Q

Hinh ().4.3.7.

R' b

71

1/-1

110

I/of s] = --------"-------

/1-1

(s+ r, ).nk -2crkS+(crZ +O)~J k=1

v (J'i /I chan:

• 1/

110

11,,( x ) = -----"------ 1/

n[,·2 -2crks+(crZ +O)~k)]

k=l

~, Tinh toun bac /I cua b(I I(lc

Thco hicu thirc (6.4.3.27), ('/ [[In sC) khong chuan hoa chung La tlii co:

(j d,\i thong ta co:

vai 111Qi II.

=>

1 E=r--"'T 1

1-0/) -

72

(6.4.3.29)

6 dai chan ta co:

=>

1

IH"(O),,j = --;===== = A = 0,

1 +f/Tl~(~)~] , -

0) ap

Do thi minh hoa IH,,(O),j cho tren hinh 6.4.3.8.

/Ha(WaJ{

1

1- 0: - (

f - V I-Ie

o

Hiuh 6.4.3.8.

Tir day tinh loan tiep rue ta co:

( ro", ) ~ ~ ~ o'!-,
,
=> Til =
0) <II' c: e rna chung ta bier rang 6 dai chan O)as > O)"p =>

()) as

> 1

())ap

IF

T~I(())as ) = cOSh(lIarccos O)<1S, ) = -'-- __

to 01' 0) "I' s

=>

ro 50

»arccosh ~ = arccossh -'----

0) "I' c:

=>

7?-

R0

arccosh--·--

£

/I = -----=----

=>

W arccos <IS

co "I'

mil t a co: arccosh.v = In(.r + ~)

(6.4.~ .. ~ I )

=>

/I = ~~~--r=======~~

l was [ 0) ,/.,.]2 j

In-- + -I

CO "f' ~ W"f'

(,1111.\': Chung [a chon /I Iii so nguyen.

Vi du 6..1.3.6

Hay tim bac /I cua bo 19c Chebyshev loai 1 vrii cac chi tieu ky thua: s au (by:

s = 0,SOS8471

1 1\. =.(), = -

, - 10

Was = 0,21t

Giai

= 100; (J) ,,., = O.21t = 2

A'; CO "f' O.l1t

Ap dung bieu thirc (6.4.3.31). ta co:

II =

I [ .JiOO-1 100-1 1

n + -I

O,S08847I (O.SOS847I )2

Inl2+~l

= 2,783430 I

Chon /I Iii scJ nguyen, vay /I = 3.

d) H(l Ivc tuong tu Chebyshev IOl;li 2

'" Dinh nghia

74

R(> 1l_H.: urong til Chebyshev loai 2 Iii hl) loc co dar rrng hi en d() gl)'n s(mg ('j d,ii chan vii gi<lI1l don dicu (1 dai thong (nrc Iii nguoc voi h(> 19C loai I),

v C I1l~1 roan h9C fa co i.( 0) ~) duoc cho boi bieu thirc sail day:

2

V)"s Iii Ian s6 gi6i han dai chew;

E Iii tham so;

V)" Iii Ian s6 chu.in hoa.

Tir dfly ta co dap (rng bien dl) cua h(> Ioc nrong ur Chebyshev Ioui 2 nhir sail:

111 (v) )12 = -1- = _

a "2 2

L( co ct )

, . {COS(lIarccos.Y) Ixl :s; I

1/1 (.Y) = ( ) I I

cosh »arccoshv .v > 1

Mil Evil v\" Iii hang s6, vay:

+) r}(V)<lll SC dao dong giita Ova l co ,/

IV) I

Trrc I a v6i .:»: 2 1 hoac Iv) ,,1210) ,/,1 I,

I ~.) I f\"

:::::>' T2(W.'I.I"·l dao donu aiira () va I 'iron!!. dai chan, Naoai ra t a co the vier:

II • ..._ L_ L. L

co

,/

J~~ ( ~) " 1

1 1 (,) <I

H,,(w) 2 = ( 1

r} ~)-".I' + E7} ( 0) <1.1' )

(,) ct

==> (; dai chan IHa(O)a)1 ~ se dao dong gitta 2 gia tri 0 va ----I + 8 2 T'; (()) as )

Chung ta thuong goi d¢ gon song (; dai chan la Oc (hoac AJ. Vay:

1 = 02 = A 2

2 2 2 s

1 +8 T" (Was)

Chii y rang tai Wa = Was thi T}(Was 1 = T}(l) = 1. 0)

,I

IH,Jw,;! = = 0,

I 2 2 •

V 1 + 8 T" (Was )

(6.4.3.35)

+) T}(O)<lsl se tang don dieu voi IWasl > I,taclav{ri IWo 1< 1 hoac Iw"I<lw"sl·

0) " ()) a W (IS

v ay tai g6c toa d¢ «i, = 0 ta co:

T}( :~.l.

lim IH,,(wa )12 = lim a = I

Ula~O (Oa~ao .• 2 (0) as 1 2 2

I" -- +8 T" (W"S) 0) ,I

Tiic Ia tai g6c tea d¢ 0)" = 0 ihi:

IH (W. )11 = 1

a a Ct)a=O

IH,,(wJ 1 = -----2

=

==>

Vi du 6.4.3.7

Hay ve d6 thi IHiwJ ung V{'1i hac cua b¢ 19C 11 = 3.

76

Girii

0)" = 1

0) ,IS 0) =--

a 0.866

0)

~ _!!!_ = 0,866 ~ 111..(0)..;1 = 0

0) "

(0" = ?f:.:

D{) rh] ella III.lo),)1 cho tren hinh 6.4.3.9.

Hluh 6.4.3.9.

Vi du 6..1.3.8

Hay vc d6 thi 111.,(0))/ (rng voi bac ella hQ 19C 11 = 4.

Girii

(j dai I hong:

77

o dai chan:

Ta biet ding T,/(.r) = 1 nell x = 1; .r = 0,707 var = 0.

W (IS = 1 => w"

U) as

W,,= -- = 1,414«)'1> =>

0,707

co

~ = 0,707 =>

())"

U)

W,,=CD => ~=O => IflJ())J =82

W (I

va 1} (.1") = ° nell .r = 6,387 va .r = 0,932.

(0 <IS

COa = -- = 2,584(J)". =>

0,387

0)

~ = 0,387 => if(,(coj = ()

0) <1

co <IS

W" = -. -- = I,0730)as =>

0,932

Hinh 6.4.3. lOse minh hoa do thi ella ifl,,((J)a)i .

11--_:::

1-6.,

I I I I I I

--- -1-

o

muh 6.4.3.10.

:« Cdc die"m czrc va cac diim khong

Chung ta dii co:

j}le~~~)

ilUe,)j 2 = = =

2 T 2 ( Co) as ) + 2 T 2 ( )

II ---- C n Was

Co)

a

1'" (0) <1S )

------------

(0) "S)

T ---

"

0)

<I

2 L(c') ,/ )

s Ihay: C')" __,

.i

1

::::::> H,ls).Hi- s) = --2- = -------2-

L(-s )

T" (0) as)

[ 0) <IS.]

T"

s

./

T}( ": )

= ------~--~--

2 ( ./0) ,IS ) 2 2

T" --;-- + E T" ((0) "s)

V,)y ta thay ding HJs}.H,,(- s) cua bo loc Chebyshev loai 2 chua Ifll d cac ditlll khong va diem eire.

Cac diem khong la cac nghiern cua phuong trinh sau:

Cac diem eire la cac nghiem cua phirong t ri nh sau:

+ Xel ctu: diem khong:

Chung ta phai giili phuong trinh sau day:

Thco dinh nghia cua da thirc Chebyshev ta co:

79

T,l.r) = cos/l8

} .r = cos8

- I :<=:; .r:<=:; I

va:

1",l.r) = coshll8

.v == cosh8

.v < - va .v >

Chung la co th~ tfnh trong khoang - I :<=:; .r :<=:; I hoac trong khoang .v < - vu

.v » I, t a s0 rhu diroc ker qua nhu nhau. Gia sir t a tfnh trong khoang - 1 :<=:; .I:<=:; I:

1t T,J.r) = cosII8 = 0 ~ /18 == (2k - I) _

2

2k-1

~ 8 == --1t

211

2k-1

cos8 =.r ~ .1 == COS--1t 211

. (.1) 1/.\'

rna .1=./--. s

Goi cac diem khong la Sor

.~

'O),/s 2,.-}

t=>: = COS--1t

S or 211

co as -"or=./--=--

2,. -1 cos _._-1t

211

,.=1,2, ... ,11

Vay cac diem kkhong Sor s0 narn tren true ao.

Chung ra phai giai phuong irinh sau day:

Tir day co the viet:

'J.2[j(;.,),/s]= _ 2oJ.2(, )

/I e /I u) ,IS

sl'k

.. [jf)) /5 1 . . [jC') I\" 1

1 _'_ == ± leT (0) ) == cos lIarccos _,_.

n • 11 ctS

s~ s~

rna:

RO

Vay de loi dung ket qua ella bo 19C Chebyshev loai I, chung t a dat:

s p];

0) ,IS

= J .

o k + JO),d

Uk + j13 k

= ---"---'-'-

J

jO) as

TLr day co Ih6 viet:

0) ,IS (u - j13 k )

2 (.1.2

«: +I-'k

Vay quan he gitra o, va ())lIk voi o., va 13k nhtr sau:

O)ok =

Vay La co:

Til [jC') ,IS 1

.\ p]:

( Uk+i13k)

= cosl"arccos j. = ± f.:rll(O)l/,)

D6i bien so:

. uk + j13k

11k + }1'k = arccos .

J

=>

=>

=>

. Cling g iong i nrong hop cua bo loc Chebyshev loai I ta co:

rna:

cosjnv, = COSh1l1'k

sinjlll'. = jsinhm'l

R I

~ COS(lIl1k + jll1'k) = COSlIlIkCOShll1'k - jsinllllksinhlll'k = ± £1'"(('),,,)

TLr My ta co:

cosun.cosh.n-, = 0

sinllllkSinhll1'k = ± £T,,( (J)",)

1t 1t

~ khi COSlIlIk = 0 . ~ Il lt , = - (2k - I) ~ Ilk = - (2k - I)

2 211

sinllllk = ± 1 ~ sinh.n-, = ± £1'"(0),,,)

ttv, = arcsinhl+ £'1',,(0),,)1 = ± arcsinh£T"(0),,,)

I . h T

I'k = ± -arSIn £ "(0),,,)

II

rna:

= jcoslIkcoshl'k + sinlikSinhl'j

o., = sinn.sinhv,

ma:

, 2k - I [. I (1 . h 7' )]

o., = SIn--1t sinn ±-arCSIn s ,,(W"S)

211 11

2k - I [ ( I )]

= sin --- 1t ± sinhl- arcsinhsf'; (()) <IS )

211 II

n. 2k - I ( I . I r )

PI = COS---1t.cos = arcsrnns ,,(<)<1.1)

211 /l

ak si mr, =

sinhv,

Pk

COSllk = ---

coshv,

af

---+ . h2

SIn I'k

pf

----=

cosh 21'k

Va y cap (a" Pk) se nam tren dirong ellipse co dang sau day:

(6.4.?-.YJ)

\' = ~ arcsi nhsf ' (0) )

I (. Ii . as

/I

Dang cua hmh ell ipse nay cho t ren hinh 6.4.3.11.

Ro HIli h ().4.:1. 1 1.

I

I', = - arcsinhEJ'J(')"J /I

I \', = In[EJ'II(()),I.\)+~E21}(())"s)+ly

1 Ihy = 1', = In[f:l~I((!)"S)+~f:2T/;(O)"s)+IJ"

1

- 1'k - [ T ( ) I 2'T 2 ( , I]"

=> y- e - s II W,/s +"f: "W,/s)+

Vay ta co:

R" sinhv, (-'\1 -e-\'/..: y_y-I
= = =
2 2
R; = cosh", el'k + (,-1'k y +y-I
= :::
2 2 'T2 1

c- ,,(Was) = -2 - 1 =>

As

1

[f;0 I]"

t= -2 -1+-

As A\

boac:

I

[ E-: I]"

y::: VO~ -1 +~

Tong ket lai ta co: cap (Uk> Pk) narn tren dirong ellipse co han kfnh Ul R" V;l RI, nhir sau:

R" = sinhv,

l'k ::: ~arcsinhcTI/«(!)"J II

(6.4.3.4() )

hoac iiI:

y_y-l

R" = -'----

2

i+t"

R b = _;____:__

2

X4

I

[~ ,]"

t= ~8~ -I+~

(6.4.:'.41 )

Vi du 6..1.3.9

Hay tim de diem eire ella 11,,(05).11,,(- 05) ella hI) loc nrong tv Chebyshev loai 2 khi bier bac ella bo loc 11 = 3.

Ghii

0) U

(J. = _ <IS k • 0) =

I 2 2' '"

Uk +13k

0) ,/.1"13 k

Ta thay rang voi 11, s va 1',/0) ,,,) e6 dinh ta cling sc co R" va R" la eCi dinh.

2k -I I 2k-1

I/k = --1t = --1t

211 11=:' 6

k=1 =:>

. 1t' 1

=:> U] = S'l Fl r-r- .R" = -R"

6 2

1t J?,

13[ = eos- .R" = - .R"

6 2

1
0)/1" R, 20) <IS .R"
a: 2 '
(JI = - =
(~ R,,), +( ~ s; r R 2 ?,R)
<I +. ,:
J?,
0)".\ .• 2 R" 2J?,()) .:».
('),,1 = =
CR,,), +(!j Rb]' R2 ?,R2
,I +. b k=2 =:>

1t

1/, = -

- 2

. 1t

=:> u, = sln- .R" = R"

- 2

1t

A, = eos- .R" = 0

t-' - 2

(,) ,IS' R" 0) ,IS

(J, = - =

R,~ +0 R<I

1\=4 =>

86

5re J3

p, = cos-.R" = - -.RI'

, ()' 2

I
C') II' R I 2(» <I.\' .R'I
0":; = - " 2 c
=
'I r (FJ r R 2 l,R 2
l2 R</ + - ; Ri> <I +. "
(FJ ]
co 'IS' - 2' R" 2J3c')<I.\'.R'1
(1)(/,> = - FJ R r R,~ + :,Rf,
(~ R'I r +
2 " 7re

{/ .. = -

6

. Tt: I

=> a .. = sln-.R" = - -R'I

6 2

Tt: J3

P .. = cos-.R" = - -.RI,

6 2

( I \
• C')<lI' - 2jR'1 2(,) ,IS .R'I
0" .. = - =
(- ~ R<I r + FJRr R 2 l,R 2
,I +. "
2 "
FJ]
(') <IS - 2 R" 2J3c') <1,1 .R"
(')" .. = =
[,I R r + FJ R, 2 R2 + l,R2
(I ~ h
2 u 2) 3re

/I. =-

) 2

. :,re

=> as = sin 2 .R" = - R"

3re

r:l., = cos- .R" = ()

1-'. 2

C,) <1.1"( -R<I ) C,) <1\

0",) = - =

(-R'I)2+0 R'I

C,) .i< = ()

/..:=6 =>

I Ire

11(, = ~

6

. I I re I

=> 0..(, = sln~.R" = - -Ril

6 2

lire J?

p" = cos ~ .R" = - .RI'

6 2

=>

(0)<1, {- ~ JR" 2(·) (IS .s;
CJ" = - =
(- ~ R" r + -GRj' 2 ~ )
R" +. R/~
2 "
J?
(,')a() = (,) <IS' :2 R" 2J? (0) ".\ .R"
=
j' R2 ~R2
(- ~ R" r + J?R <I +. "
2 " Vi Irf ella cac diem eire nay dLHJC minh hou trcn hinh 6.4.3.12.

Hinh 6.4.:1.12.

Vi du 6A.3.1 (J

Cho cac chi ticu ky thu ar ella h9 loc sf) nhu sau:

!II (ej(')1 < _I i'1 (i:ti chan - 10

(')/' = 0,1 re; r», = O,2re

X7

Hay tong hop bO loc so tir bO 19C nrong nr Chebyshev loai I bang phuong phap bien deli song ruyen.

Ghti

Chung ta co 4 bircc chfnh d~ tong hop hO loc s61Lr bo l oc urong Il.r nhir salt:

HI(//c I. Xac dinh cac chi tieu ky rhuat

Chung t a co 4 chi tieu ky thuat ella bo 19c s6 nhir (HIU bai eta cho nhtr sau:

II/(el"'»I < _I l'1 diii chan - I ()

1

(5,=A_=-

- , 10

0)1' = O,In::::: 0,3141593 0), = 0,2n ::::: 0,6283285

Minh hoa dap irng bien d(> cta bo IQcs6 tren hinh 6.4.3.13.

I

/,?7/7~ I I I

I I

I . I -

- - - -I- - - _-(Y_LULUL/_LL/L/L/..L L/L_

o

II W

Hinh 6.4.3.13.

H[(/)'c 2. Xac dinh lai cac chi tieu ky thuat cua bo I9C nrong tv

Then phirong phap bien d6i song tuyen thi nr cac chi lieu ky rhuat cua hl) 11.K s() chuycn sang cac chi tieu ky thuat cua bO I9C nrong tv, ve dO gqn song (1 lhi.i thong va dai chan k hong co gl rhay doi , nhimg ve Ian so gi6i han dai thong viI t_h'li chan i hi co su thay doi , cu th~ nhir sau:

)H,l f.l,U) .:::: ~ 6 dai thong

1

III ((u)I < 6 dai chan

(/ (/ -10

2((0,,)

(}Jill' = -Ig -

1'" 2

2((0,,)

(}Ja,. = -Ig -.

l' 2

s

Tir cac gia tfj ella WI' = 0, In va co, = O,2n, rfnh thea rhang chuan hoc! ia co cac gia If! ella (;)"" va (;)",. nhu sau:

(O'In)

0)"" = 21g -2- ;::; 0,3167689

(o.2n)

0)",. = 2rg --2- ;::; 0,6498394

Dap ling bien d(l cua b¢ 19c nrong II! dtroc minh hou t ren hlnh 6.4.3.14.

/Hq(Wa)/

I

----1 I I I I

----l----+--

f

f 10

o

mnh 6.4.3.14.

Tong hop b(l loc nrong nr Chebyshev loai I.

- Tfng gia If! E:

=>

E = 0,5088471

. Tinh bac ella b¢ lee 1/:

89

Thay cac gia tri cua E, 02' WaF' va w"s (J rren van bieu thrrc tfnh II, La tfnh dLf0C:

/I ~ 2,5006328

Vay La chon: 11=3

- Tim cac diem eire ella H,Js)

Trong t nrong hop /I = 3 => /I 13. so Ie.

Tnroc het chung ta tim R" va Rh•

-I

y-y

1(, = va

2

I

[1+J1OD.l:3

y = 0,5088471 ~ 1,6096098

=> yo! = 0,6212685

=> R" = 0,4941707 RI> = 1,1154392

W" = ())ol'.R" = 0,1565379.0,4941707 = 0,0782689 WI> = wop.R/> = 0,1565379.1,1154392 = 0,3533364

11=3 =>

k = 1 73

k=1 =>

71t

II] =-

6

C>! = - J_ .R'" = - 0,078269 2

(1),,1 = - J?, R'b = - 0,3059983 2

SI'I' = - 0,078269 - jO,3059983

k=2

3n

/I, =-

- 2

0'2 = - R'" = -0,1565379

k=3 ~

051'2 = - 0,1565379 lin

II, =---

. 6

*

Sl'3 = spl = - 0,078269 + )0,3059983

* Tim he so H

. 0

/I = 3: Iii sCi le , vay /Jo diroc tfnh nhir sau:

II-I

:::::: 0,01562

Cuoi cling ta co H,,( s ) nhir sau:

Ho

H,J s) = __ ...c.__

3

ll (.,. -Spk) k=1

/' = 3 Iii sCi le , vay thea bieu thrrc (6.4.3.25) ta co:

Ho

J-ljs) = ------------

(s+R'" ).[s2 -2O'ls+(O'f +(I);',))

e.o 1562

= -------------------

2

(s + 0,1565379 ).{s + 0.156538.s +0,006126 + 0,093635 /

0,01562

= ---------------

(s + 0,1565379 ).(s 2 + 0,156538s + 0,09961)

Thuc hien bien deli song tuyen d~ tim Ht z ).

91

Ht z ) = 1I"(st,,, 2.1_:.1 T, 1+:.1

Chuan hoa bien s hl1i run s6 lay mau F, ta <.:0:

I -I -z s=2-I +Z-I

Vay t a <':0 haITI truycn dat Ht z ) nhir sau:

I 0,1562

I(Z)=[ ][l]2 [ ] 1

I -I . I -1 I -I

2. -z _ +0,1565379 2 -z _. +(1,I56538 2 ~z _ +0,09961

I +z I I +z I I +z 1

SULI khi rfnh loan ta co ker qLla sau day:

I -I 1

I/(z) = O,OmOOI2. (+z )"

(I-O,8548248z-1 ).(I-I,5751076z-' +O,7104914z-2)

6.4.4. B() U.)C THONG TV CAUER (H()~C U<) L<.)C THON(; TV ELLlPTlQUE)

a) f)!nh nghia

R() loc Caller lit hl) 19<': co (hlp Crng bien de) g9n song. II <.:.1 dai Ih(mg V;l t1 c,j d:,i chan.

v6 mat loan hoc, ham I.( C')~) <':0 dang sau day:

/ 2) I 2/·2

,( U)". = + E 'II (C'),,)

(6.4.4.1 )

rna:

(6.4.4.2)

E la iham so lien quan den 01'

Nell unh thco dB t a <.:0:

[ ]2

. I I

LO(wll) = 201gl· I = lOlg I I

1/" (C,) " ) If" (C)" )

Ray gia chung ra <NI:

,

92

, :::::>

Dar:

= lOig_l_.

A2

s

222

L( co (/.1') = 1 + I> F/I (()) as )

1 = 10 Ig-.

A2

s

hoac la:

'f,2 )

+1>- /I(W,IS = 2

As

F} (0) as) = ---- ( lO°.lLO" lOO,ILO" -1

I) == L'

Nell chung t a dat:

(0)" = (0),,01 PI/((O),,) = ()

v{li II l c: J =

II -1

2

voi II chan: j = 1

II

2

Vi du 6.4.4.1

Giai

(')(1)' t V~l (')a)' 2·

00 Ihoil man de dieu k ien cu a F,,((o),/), chun e t a co dang ella r2((O) ) cho t rcn

• ..L • (,_, 1/' II

hinh 6.4.4.1.

--- ~

+----

Hlnh 6.4.4.1.

)4

Ttl' lby chung Iii nhan diroc dap Crng I[in scl ella h0 loc Caner voi 1/ = ."i nhtr sau:

I/i,,(C'),,)1 == ---==='==

, I 2·2

\j1+E 1-1/(0),,)

D() i hi ella 1/1,,(0),,)1 diroc cho t rcn hinh 6.4.4.2.

f--

I I I I I I I I I

I I I

I I

-1- ri-

f

o

II111h (l.4.-1.2.

Vi du 6.4.4.2

Gi(1 sLr cho 1/ = 4.

Giai

Cric gi,\ Iri cu a 0)"0/' (o)"Y/ vii dang cu a I-',,(C')") va 111,,((0),,)1 dlfl.le elm i rcn hinh 6.4.4.~ VJ 6.4.4.4.

l)."i

HIuh 6.4.4.3.

f ( 1-6()

Hinh 6.4.4.4.

(:j lan so chuan hoa theo kieu sau day:

OJ,,, = ~OJap.(J){/s = 1

(0)"1' = Jk .

+----

I

Jk

0) (/1' k= --

() dCIY k dlHJC gqi lu he s6 loc.

Then k ieu chuan hoa (1 trcn chung t a co:

I

('){/of = -- hoac (')aY''- = --

0) (loci C) (/0/

TCrc Iii:

(1)(/0/0 0)({fj = I

Nhu Ihe cluing la nhan dU<_1c hi611 Iht'rc Ci'UI FJ(j),,) nhu sau:

+ V(li 11 lc:

( I )1 I 2 2

.' , _ - .(,) " n 0) II - (0) ,wi

I J~),,) - II .

I i = I I - 0) ~ .W ~o;

L

( 6.4.4.4)

11-1

r= --

2

. (2iK \

0) o ot = Jk.SII -11-' k j

I = 1,2, ... , F

+ Voi 11 chan:

( I )" 2 2

.: , . - _- __ n (')11 -(')"0;

I J~),,) - t.. 2 2

I ;=1 ]-(')'('('),((i1

t.

(6.4.4.:'1 )

11 F =-

2

Snt.v, k) ia ham sin cl lipti que khong day du loai I nhir sau:

Sru.v, k) = sin<D

(h.4 4.6)

LJ7

K diroc dinh nghia h{1i t ich phan cl l ipt i quc day ttll loai mot:

7t

(6.4.4.7)

Nhir vay K(k) chfnh la ham Jacobi.

b) Cac diem Cl_IC va cac diem khong cua 1I,,(s)

Ng uoi t a <..Hi 11m dlIQC U1c diem C~fC cua lfa!s).I/,,{- s) (nrc la die diem k horig ella

1.,,( - XC)) nhu sau:

+ V6i /I lc:

=

( -I )' 0' () VI ± j0) <10/ • W 2 2

I + 0' 0(0) '/0/

1=

/I - I 1,2, ... ,

2

(6.4.4.~ )

W=

\1.=

I

[ 2 1

2 (0) ,/0/

(I-/.;w(/o/)· I--k-

(2Ki )

Jk.Sn -,-, . k

o:

- 2q 4 . L (_1)111 .q'" 111+11 .sinh] (2111 + I)A I

IfI=O

0'" = ----~~-----------------------

o:

1+2 L (_1)111 (/11 .cosh2l11A

111=1

I I () 0.05. f.()" + I

A = -//1----------

211 10°,051.0"_1

Ngoili ra cluing ra co tht! Ifnh (o),wi khong thong qua ham sin cl l ipt i quc i hco c()ng Ihlrc s au dfly:

1

2 4 ~ I III 1111111+1).· I (2111 + I )1t;

q . L (- ) ·(1 .S1l11

n

/I - I I = 1,2, ... ,

2

11/=0

e') I/0' = ~c:._ _

o: 211m;

I + 2 L (_I/,I a" .cosh

111=1

n

"' 9 I,

(l;:::;qll+2q() + 15(/0 + 15(}(lo'

II--R

(/" =

k'=~

> logl6D
II ------
log
q
IOO.I/D, -I
f)=
IOO.IUi/, -I (6.4.4.10)

._+ -.1-

'\01 --

(0 .toi

+ ~(yi II chan:

(6.4.4.1 1 )

Cac t harn sci W, V, va (J, duoc tinh nhu i rong truong hop 11 1C, nlurnu ('l"", lui du(.yc t lnh nhu sau:

" I = 1,2, ....

2

houc:

(2111 + 1)1t(i - 1 J

2 ... ~.( 1)"1 1I1(1II+lj.· 2

q . L.. - .(/ .sm

(')"", = --.::.:III-=.:.cO---------(-c-.-n-I...,.-J-- 211l1t 1-

1+2I(-I)"I(I'IlC.CllS 2

11 1= 1,2, ... ,

2

111=1

11

Ttl' d,ly cluing t a nhan diroc ham truycn d<.11 fI,,(s) ella bo loc urong ur IhClilg. Ihelp cl l ipt iquc ('y I[in sci chuan hoa nhu sau:

(6.4.4.1~)

r=

JI/-I " I" -2- VC11 /I C

l.·~

--;_ Vl1i /I chan

J s + 0" () voi /I I~ /),,(s) = 1

I v(ji /I chan

A,,,, HI" HOI va II" diroc t inh hang. cac <:Cmg. thirc san:

" l) ~) D

q "" if" + 2(liJ + 15(/0 + 1,,( (/0

f)=

I(fl/iI'l _ I

IO(l.IW, -I

11~ logl6f)
log I
(j
1 IOO.05.IU,J +1
1\= -In . ]()0.05.L(),J
211 -I 1

a:

2(/" . L (-I )111 .(/Illi 111+1) .sinh] (2111 + 1)1\ I

O",! = ~II~/=~()-------------------------

oc ,

1 + 2 L (-I)," a'" .cosh21111\

1I/~1

w=

1

2 -l ~ 1)/11 111(/11+1)., (2111 + 1 )7t1J.

(/ . L,.(- .il .SIn

11/=0 n

(I) no i = ~_cc_ ,:____

a: ::> 21117t"

1 + 2 L ( - 1 )'" if III .cos r

n

111=1

Vl1i /I IC

Yl1i /I chan '

1=

I, 2, __ " r

100

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