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Sach Tai Lieu Giao Khoa Chuyen Toan 10 Dai So ( Doan Quynh )

Sach Tai Lieu Giao Khoa Chuyen Toan 10 Dai So ( Doan Quynh )

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eoAN Q,UYNIH (Ch,ul b~eW1) - DoAN MilNH (UCN:G 'lrRAN INAM DONIG-El~N(j HUN(iTHANG

T'AII L,IIEU

Ii!

'GIIAO K'H'O'A CIHUY'EN lOAN

D~I 5011

I NI.H.~ XUAT IEiAN (~,~,AQ D'IJe VIET NAM

" ~.

DoAN QUYNH (Chu bien) - DoAN MINH CVONG TRAN NAM DONG - DANG HUNG THANG

" ~

TAl LIEU

GIAO KHOA CHUYEN ToAN

a~1 S010

\ NHAxUAT BAN GIAo Due VIET NAM

. .

LaINOI DAu·

Tir han 40 nam nay, he chuyen roan a mroc ta la mot hehoc chinh thong ben canh h~ dai tra. Tuy nhien gan day, B¢ Giao due va Dao tao moi ban hanh chinh thirc chuang trinh chuyen Toan lap 10 va dang xet duyet chuang trinh chuyen Toan lap 11, 12 ben canh chuang trlnh Toan bac THPT da duoc ban hanh nam 2006.

Chung toi nhan thay can bien soan mot bo tai lieu giao khoa chuyen Toan (TLGKCT) bac THPT voi cac muc dich sau :

Phuc vu viec day va hoc a M chuyen Toan th~ hien duoc tinh than cua chuang trinh noi tren, kha gan voi chuang trinh va sach giao khoa (SGK) Toan nang cao nham giup hoc sinh co th~ chuyen d6i tir viec h9C a he chuyen sang he khong chuyen va nguoc lai.

Lam mot tai lieu giao khoa eho giao vien day cac lap chuyen Toan,

Giiip hoc sinh cac lop chuyen nr hoc ; giup h9C sinh khagioi a cac lap dai tra co tai lieu d€ co the nr h9C, nr boi duong them (ben canh SGK nang cao).

Chung toi da moi duoc nhieu thay d<,1Y a cac tnrong chuyen, lap chuyen (day cac lap boi duong thi toanquoc te cling nhu trong mroc, day cac khoi chuyen a cac tnrong dai h9C,; .. ) tham gia bien soan d~ tai lieu sat voi thuc tien giang day he chuyen a nuoc ta, dong thai gioi thieu duoc ph an nao doi net giang day a he chuyen Toan cua cac tnrongdo.

B¢ sach Tai lifll giao klioa chuyen Todn 167) 10 bao gorn 4 cuon :

Tai lieu giao khoa chuyen Toan - Dai so 10 Tai lieu giao khoa chuyen Toan - Hinh hoc 10

Tai lieu giao khoa chuyen Toan - Bai Hlp D<,1i so 10 Tai lieu giao khoa chuyen Toan - Bai tap Hinh h9C 10.

Cac tac gia viet cuon Tai lieu giao khoa chuyen Toan - D<,1i so 10 nay la :

Thay Dang Hung Thang (Tnrong DHKHTN Ha N¢i) : Chuang I

Thay Tra'n Nam Dung (Truong DHKHTN Tp Ho Chi Minh) : Chuang II, Chuang IV, Chuang V, Chuyen de'2.

Thay DoiinMinh Cuang (Khoi chuyen Toan, Truong DHSP Hit N¢i) : 'Chuong III, Chuyen de' J.

3

Tung tac gia chiu trachnhiern ve bai-viet cua minh. Chu bien va bien tap vi en ton trong "van phong" cua tung tac gia (nguoi trinh bay chi tiet, chat che ; nguoi trinh . bay dira nhieu vao true giac ; nguoi trinh bay phan If thuyet phong phu, sau sac ; ngiroi chu trong phan irng dung, bai tap ... ). Chung toi chu yeu sua chira nhirng loi bien tap, phoi hop cac phan bien soan cua nhirng hie gia khac nhau d~ chiing tro thanh mot thtS thong nhat theo dung khuon khd cua chuang trinh.

Trong tai lieu giao khoa nay, cluing toi chua trinh bay phan Thong ke, chung toi se viet gan no voi phan Xac suat trong TLGKCf Dai so va Giai tich 11. PMn Congo thtrc luong giac duoc chuyen sang gioi thieu trong chuang "Tich vo huang cua hai vecto va tmg dung" cua cuon TLGKCf Hinh hoc 10 va se con duoc nhac lai trong chuang "Ham so hrong giac" a cuon TLGKCf Dai so va Giai tich 11. v« cac chuyen de trong chuang trinh chuyen dai so 10, cuon sach nay chi trinh bay hai chuyen de bat buoc la Chuyen de 1 (Bat dang thuc) va Chuyen de 2 (Mot sovdn de' c/la T oan t6 hop). Trong Chuyen de 1, tac gia chua the de cap den nhtrng bat dang thirc can sir dung cong cu giai tich, nhirng ph an nay se duoc dua ra rai rae trong cac cuon TLGKCf Dai so va Giai tich lap 11, 12, Theo dung chuang trlnh, chuyen de 2 de cap den nguyen li Dirichlet, dan bien, bat bien va nguyen li C\!C han,

Trong tirng chuang co nhieu vi du, nhieu bai tap, bai toan (k~ ca bai thi cua h~ chuyen, thi hoc sinh gioi Toan quoc gia, quoc te ... ). Cac bai tap deu co lai giai hoac huang dan giai day du trong cuon Tai lieu giao khoa chuyen Toan - Bai tap Dgi .su:

Cac tac gia cung chu bien va bien tap vien dii rat co gang phoi hop bien soan tai lieu giao khoa chuyen nay. Tuy nhien, cluing toi biet bQ sach van con nhieu thieu sot boi vi viet tai lieu giao khoa chuyen dau tien cho hoc sinh chuyen Toan la mot

'dieu rat kho khan. Trong bo sach, co thtS day do van con dung nhirng ki hieu khac nhau d~ chi cung mot doi nrong (nhirng khong gay hieu nham gi), doi cho co nhirng bai tap trung lap (thuong voi nhirng y nrong giai khac nhau) va cling co th~ co doi cho chua day du chi tiet nhu mong muon. Chung toi mong doc gia luong thtr cho cac dieu do va hy vong cac thay co va cac em hoc sinh trong qua trinh day, hoc, doc tai lieu nay dong gop y kien cho chung toi dtS Ian tai ban sau, sach phuc vu duoc tot han. Cac gop y xin gjri ve : Ball Todn, Cong ty co phdn Dich vu .xudt ban Gido due Ha N(Ji. Nhaxudt ban Giao due Vi¢t Nam, 187. Gidng Va.

.na N(Ji.

4

Chung toi rat cam on cac tac gia da nhiet tinh tham gia bien soan tai lieu trong khi be bon bao cong viec khac va da buoc phai bien SO<;tIl trong mot khuon kho chuong trinh nhat dinh, phai phoi hop voi nhieu tac gia khac (eo th~ voi nhtrng y tuong bien soan khong hoan toan giong nhau). Chung toi rat cam an Tien si Trdn Phuong Dung da dira ra y Wang ve bo sach va giiip do trien khai viet bo sach nay. Chung toi dac biet cam on bien tap vien Phan Tilt Minh N glly~t, ngiroi da giup cac rae gia va chu bien sua chira cac sai sot, sap xep phoi hop cac phan cua cac tac gia khac nhau, khac phuc cac kho khan d~ bo sach duoc xuat ban dung thai han, kip thai phuc vu ban doc. Mong muon duy nhat cua cluing ta la bo sach nay thuc su b6 Ich cho cac hoc sinh ham thich va hoc gioi mon Toan, dac biet giiip hoc sinh chuyen toan co tai lieu giao khoa rieng cho M chuyen cua mlnh.

Chu bien Doim Quynh

? ,,"

BANG PHIEN AM

TEN MOT s6 NHA KHOA HOC NED TRONG sAcH

Phibldtn Phien dill
Ill-tinh tie'nK Viet
Abel A-ben
Bernoulli Bec-nu-li
Brahmagupta Bo-ra-rna-gup-ta
Bunyakovsky Bu-nhi-a-cop-xki
Cardano Cac-da-no
Cauchy Co-si
Celsius Cen-ci-ot
Chasles Sa-le
Chebyshev Se-bir-sep
De Morgan Do Mooc-gang
Descartes De-eric
Dirichlet Di-ric-le
Euclid d-clit
Farhenheit . Pha-ren-hai 6

Phien tim mu« tim
la~tiith tilllg Viet
Fibonacci Phi-be-na-si
Hojo Lee uo.jeu
Holder Hon-de
Jensen I-en-xen
Kirchoff Kia-sop
Klamkin Klam-kin
Mobius Mo-bi-ut
Nesbitt Ne-xbit
Pythagoras Pi-ta-go
Ohm Om
Schwarz So-vac
Venn Ven
Viete Vi-et M~NH DE, T~P HQP, ANH x~

§1. M~NH DE

1. M~nh de lei gi ?

Trong khoa hoc cling nhu trong doi song hang ngay, ta thirong gap nhtrng cau neu len mot khang dinh. Khang dinh do co th~ dung va co the sai.

MQt menh M logic (goi uit la menli de) la mot cau kh~ng dinh dung hoac mot cau khang dinh sai. MQt cau khang dinh dung goi la mot menh dedung. MQt cau khang dinh sai goi la mot menh desai. MQt menh de khong the vira dung vira sai.

Vi du 1. Tat ca cac cau sau day la menh de :

a) Ha NQi la thu do cua Viet Nam

b) Thuong Hili la mot thanh pho cua Nga

c) 1 + 1 = 2

d) 27 chia het cho 5.

Cac menh de a) va c) la menh de dung con cac menh de b) va d) la cac menh de . sai, 0

Vi du 2. Tat ca cac cau sau day deu khong phai la menh de :

a) Bay gia Hi may gio' ? c)x+ 1 =2

b) Hay doc cuon sach nay that ki d) x + 2y = 3z.

Cac cau a)' va b) khong phai la menh de vi cluing khong neu len mot khang dinh. Con cac cau c) va d) khong phai la menh de vi chung chang dung cling changsai: tinh dung - sai (tinh hoac dung, hoac sai) cua cluing tuy thuoc V3.0 viec ta gan cho cac bi~n x, y, z gia tri cu the nao. 0

7

Ngiroi ta quy iroc gan cho menh d~ dung gift tri cluin If bang 1 va gan cho menh de sai gia tri chan If bang O. Ta con noi : Chan tri cua rnenh d~ dung bang 1; chan tri cua menh de sai bang O.

2. Cac phep toan ve m~nh de

Bay gio cluing ta xem xet cac phuong phap tao fa cac menh de moi tir cac menh de dii co bang cac phep toan logic (goi Ult la phep toan). Cac menh de dii eho goi la cac menh. d(]' thanh phdn. Cac menh d~ moi tao thanh duoc goi Ia cac menh de' ph Ltc hop, Bang the hien moi lien he giira gia tri chan If cua menh de phirc hop voi gia tri chan If cua cac menh de thanh phan duoc goi Iii being chan trio

a) Phep phil dinh va menh dephudinh.

Cho menh d~ P, Menh d~ : "Khong phai P" diroc goi Iii menh de- phu dinh cua P va diroc kf hieu la P .

Menh d~ phu dinh P cua P cjing co the duoc xem nhu la ket qua cua phep phu dinh tac dong len menh de P. Ta cling noi : "phu dinh cua menh d~ P Ia menh

de P".

Vi du 3. Tim phu dinh cua cac menh d6 sau :

a) Hom nay Hi thu nam c) .fila s6 hitu t1.

b)20071iis6nguyento

cu:

a) Hom nay khong phai Iii thir narn.

b) 2007 khongphai la s6 nguyen t6 (hay 20071A hop so) .

. c) .fi khong phai la s6 hiru ti (hayfi lA so vo til. 0

Sau day la bang chan tri cua phep phu dinh, no trinh bay moi quan h~ giifa gia tri chan If cua P va cua P :

-
P P
1 0
0 1 8

b) Phep hi)i va menn de' hi)i

Cho ha~ rnenh de P va Q. Menh de "P va Q" duoc goi la menli de' 11I?i cua P va Q va duoc ki hieu la P». Q. Menh de P». Q dung khi ca P va Q deu dung. No sai trong cac tnrong hop con lai (nrc la khi co it nhat mot trong hai menh de P, Q sai).

Phep toan " duoc goi la phep hoi. Menh de" hoi p" Q la ket qua cua phep hoi khi tac dong len hai menh de P, Q.

Vi du 4. Cho P Ia menh de : "60 ehia het eho 3" va Q la menh de "60 ehia het eho 5". Khi do p" Q la menh de "60 chia het eho 3 va ehia het cho 5".0

Sau day la bang chan tri cua phep hoi

p Q P"Q
1 1 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0 . c) Phep tuyln va menb de'tuyln

Cho hai menh de P va Q. Menh de lip hO(IC Q" duoc goi la menh de'tuye'n cua P va Q va diroc kf hieu.Ia P v Q. M~nh de P v Q sai kh~ ca P va Q deu sai. No dung trong cac tnrong hop con lai, nrc la khi co it nhat mot trong hai menh de P, Q dung.

Phep to an v diroc goi la phep tuye'n. Menh de tuyen P v Q la ket qua cua phep tuyen khi tac dong len hai menh de P, Q.

Vi du 5. Cho P la rnenh de : "Tu giac ABeD la hinh binh hanh" va Q la menh de "Tu giac ABeD la hinh thang". Khi do Pv Q la menh de "Tu giac ABeD la hinh binh hanh hoac la hinh thang". 0

Sau day la bang chan tri cua phep tuyen

P 'Q PvQ
1 1 1
1 0 .1
0 1 1
0 . 0 0 9

d) Menh. de' keo theo va phep keo thea

Cho hai menh d~ P va Q. Menhde "Neu P thi Q" diroc goi la menh de' keo thea va kf hieu la P :2> .Q. Menh de P ::::;, Q sai khi P dung va Q sai. N6 dung trong cac tnrong hop con lai, nrc la khi P sai (bat k~ Q dung hay sai) hoac khi Q dung (bat ke P dung hay sai).

Phep toan ::::;, goi la phepkeo theo. Menh de keo thea P ::::;, Q duoc tao ra tir hai menh d~ P va Q bang phep keo theo.

C6 nhieu each dien dat rnenh de keo theo P ::::;, Q. Chang han ta c6 th~ dien dat la: - "Neu P thi Q"

- "Vi P nen Q"

- "P keo thea Q"

- "P Ia dieu kien du cua Q".

Vi d" 6. Cho P la menh de : "Hom nay la tlur bay" va Q la menh de : "Toi se di xem phim". Khi d6 menh de P ::::;, Q la menh de : "Neu hom nay la thu bay thi toi se di xem phim".

Menh de nay chi sai neu hom nay Ia thu bay rna toi lai khong di xem phim. 0

Sau day la bang chan tri cua phep keo thea

P Q P::::;,Q
1 1 1
1 0 0
0 1 1
0 0 1 cua»

i) Trong ngon ngtr thong thuong, cau "Neu P thi Q" diroc sir dung khi giira P va Q c6 moi quan h~ nhan qua (P Ia gia thiet va Q la ket luan), Tuy nhien rnenh de keo thea (theo nghia logic nhu tren) c6 y nghia rong han, khong nhat thiet bao ham quan he nhan qua, trong d6 gia thiet P va ket luan Q c6 th~ doc lap voi nhau.

10

Chang han cho P Iii menh de "Ho~ nay Iii thu bay" va Q Iii menh de : "2 + 3 = 5". Ta co th~ lap menh dekeo thea P :::::> Q: "Neu hom nay Iii thir bay thi 2 + 3 = 5". Day la mot menh de dung VI Q Iii menh de dung. Tuy nhien trong ngon ngfr thong thuong, day Iii mot cau "ngo nghe", va nghia.

ii) Can nho rang neu menh de keo thea P :::::> Q dung thi khong co nghia la menh de P hay rnenh de Q la dung. Chang han menh de : "Neu 1 + 1 = 4 thi nha tho Xuan Dieu la mot nha toan hoc vi dai" la mot menh de dung nhirng menh de P : "1 + 1 = 4" va menh de Q : "nha tho Xuan Dieu Iii mot nha roan hoc vi dai" deu la nhtrng menh de sai.

e) M¢nh deddo, menh. dephdn va menh dephdn ddo Cho menh de keo thea

P:::::>Q

(1)

i) Menh de Q:::::> P dUQ'C goi la menh de'dao cua menh de (1).

-ii) Menh de P:::::> Q dUQ'C goi la menh dephdn cua menh d~ (1).

iii) Menh de Q ===> P dUQ'C goi la nienh de' ptuin ddo cua menh de (1).

Vi du 7. Cho rnenh de H : "Neu hom nay troi mira thi b~ boi Tay H6 dong cira". Hay lap cac menh de dao, menhde phan va menh de phan dao cua menh de H,

Gidi

Menh de H la menh de keo theo P :::::> Q, trong do P la menh de : "Hom nay troi mira", Q Iii menh de : "Hom nay ~ boi Tay H6 dong cira ".

Menh de dao la Q:::::> P : "Neu hom nay b~ boi Tay H6 dong cira thi troi mira" .

. Menh de phan Iii P:::::> Q : "Neu hom nay troi khong mira thi b~ boi Tay H6 khong dong cira".

Menh de phan dao Q:::::> P : "Neu hom nay b~ boi Tay H6 khong dong cira thi troi khong mira". 0

D M¢nh de' tuong duong

Cho hai menh de P va Q. Menh de. "P nell va chi neu Q" goi la menh de' tuang duong va ki hieu Iii P ¢::> Q . Menh de P ~ Q dung neu ca hai menh de P :::::> Q va

Q:::::> P deu dung.

11

Vi du 8. Cho tam giac ABC. Xet menh de P : "Tam giac ABC la tam giac can" va rnenh de Q : "Tam giac ABC co hai dirong trung tuyen bang nhau". Khi do menh de P <=> Q la menh de : "Tam giac ABC la tam giac din neu va chi neu tam giac do co hai dirong trung tuyen bang nhau." 0

Phep toan "<=> " goi la pliep tuong duoug,

Nhan xet. Menh de P <=> Q dung khi va chi khi ca hai menh de P Vl Q cung dung hoac cung sai.

TMt vay, gia str P va Q cung dung hoac cung sai. Neu menh de P => Q sai thi phai co P dung Q sai. Neu menh de Q => P sai thi phai co Q dung P sai. Ca hai tnrong hop nay deu khong xay ra. Vay P => Q va Q => P deu dung, do do menh

de P <=> Q dung. -

Ngiroc lai, giii sir menh de P <=> Q dung, nrc la cac rnenh de P => Q va Q => P deu dung. Gia sir P dung. Neu Q sai thi P => Q sai. Vay Q phai dung. Gia sir P sai. Neu Q dung thl menh de Q => P sai. Vay Q phai s.ai. Thanh thir P va Q cung tinh dung - sai.

Tir nhan xet tren, ta co bang chan tri cua phep nrong duong nhu sau :

P Q P<=>Q
1 1 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1 g) Su tuong duong va chung minh su tuong duong cua hai menh de'

Neu hai menh de P va Q cung dung hoac cung sai (nrc la cluing co cung tinh dung - sai hay co cung chan tri), ta noi P, va Q tuang duong logic (goi Ult la tlfO'llg duong] voi nhau va viet P = Q. Tir muc nhan xet a 11), ta thay P = Q neu va chi neu menh de nrong dirong "P <=> Q" la rnenh de dung.

D~ chirng minh hai menh de Wang dirong voi nhau, ta lap bang chan tri va kiem tra xem chung co trung nhau khong. Vi du sau day se minh hoa phirong phap nay.

Vi du 9. Chung minh rang

a) P=>Q=PvQ.

12

b). P ~ Q = Q ~ P , tire menh d~ thuan' va menh d~ ph an dao la nrong.duong.

• Q ~ P = P ~ Q , nrc rnenh d6 dao va rnenh de phan la wang dirong.

cu..

a) Ta l~p bang 'chan tri :

- -
P P Q P~Q PvQ
1 0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 1 Nhin van hai cot cu6i, ta thay r6 dieu phai chimg minh. b) Chung minh wang tu, 0

Cac phep toan neu tren tuan thea cac luat sau, trong d6 c6 mot s6 luat urong nr nhu luat cua phep toan dai so).

D!nh Ii 1

Cho P, Q, R fa cdc menli de'. Khi do a) Ludt giao hodn

PvQ=QvP p/\Q=Q/\p

b) Ludt ke't hop

,(PvQ)v R = Pv(Qv R) (P /\ Q) /\ R = P /\ (Q /\ R)

c) Ludt ph/ill phol

P v (Q /\ R) = (P v Q) /\ (P v R) P /\ (Q v R) = (P /\ Q) v (P /\ R)

d) Quy tde De Morgan

.PvQ=p/\Q 'p"Q=PvQ

13

Chung minh. Ta chirng rninh hai tnrong hop d~ rninh hoa. Cac tnrong hop khac chimg rninh nrong tu .

• Chung rninh luat phan phoi P v (Q 1\ R) = (P v Q) 1\ (P v R).

Ta Iap bang sau d~ so sanh gia tri chan li cua ve trai va ve phai:

P Q R Q I\R Pv (QI\R) PvQ PvR (P v Q) 1\ (P v R)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Trang bang chan tri tren, ta thay cot thtr nam (tir trai sang) rna ta cac gia tri chan li cua ve trai trung voi cot thu tam (tir trai sang) rna ta cac gia tri chan Ii cua ve phai trung nhau. Do d6 ve trai wang dirong voi ve phai .

• Chung rninh P v Q =p 1\ Q . Ta lap bang sau d~ so sanh gia tri chan If cua ve trai va ve phai

- - -- - -
P Q P Q PvQ PvQ PI\Q
1 1 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 , 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Nhin vao bang ta thay hai cot cu6i hoan to an trung nhau. Do d6 ve trai tuong dirong voi ve phai. 0

Ta c6 the cluing rninh s\! nrong duong cua cac menh d~ bang each ket hop cac cong thirc da biet rna khong can lap bang chan trio

Vi du ltl. Chung rninh ding

Gidi. Sii dung ket qua cua Vi du 9 va quy tac De Morgan, ta co

-- -

- --

Bait~p------------------------------------~--------

1. Cho P va Q la cac menh d~ :

P : "Hom nay a Sapa nhiet d¢ duoi 0" Q : "Hom nay a Sapa co tuyet roi".

Bieu dien cac rnenh d~ sau thea P va Q bang cac phep toan logic:

a) Hom nay a Sap a nhiet do duoi 0 va co tuyet roi

b) Hom nay a Sapa nhiet d¢ dtroi 0 nhirng khong co tuyet roi

c) Homnay a Sapa nhiet d¢ duoi 0 hoac co tuyet roi

d) Hom nay a Sapaneu nhiet d¢ diroi 0 thi tuyet roi

e) Hom nay a Sapa co tuyet roi khi va chi khi nhiet d¢uuai o.

2. Phat bieu menh d~ dao va phan dao cua cac menh d~ sau day

a) Neu ngay mai co tuyet roi thl toi se di tnrot tuyet

b) Neu ngay mai co bai kiem tra thi hom nay toi se hoc den khuya.

3. Cho hai menh d~ P va Q. Xet menh de " P ~ Q". Trong cac menh d~ sau day, menh d~ nao Ia nrong dirong voi menh d~ tren ?

(A)PvQ;

(B)Q~ P;

(C)P~Q;

(D)Q~ P.

4. Chirng minh rang

P = Pv(P AQ); P = P A(PVQ).

5. Chung minh rang menh d~ (P ~ Q) ~ R khong wong dirong voi menh d~

. 6. Chung minh rang

P¢::>Q=P~Q.

15

1. Khai ni~m m~nh de chua bien Cac cau co lien quan den cac bien nhu :

- "r > 3, voi x la s6 thuc"

- "1/ chia het cho 3 voi n la s6 tu nhien"

nit thuong gap trongtoan hoc va trong cac chuong trlnh may tinh. Moi cau nhu tren la mot khang dinh chua mot bien nhan gia tri trong mot tap hop nao do. Cac cau nay khong dung cling khong sai neu ta chua gan cho bien nhirng gia tri cu th~ nao do. M9t khi cac bien nay duoc gan gia tri en th~ thi cau do se co gia tri chan if xac dinh va tro thanh mot rnenh de. Chang han ki hieu cau "x > 3 voi x 13 s6 thuc'' Ia "P(x) voi .r 13 s6 thuc" thi P(4) la menh de "4 > 3", do la rnenh de dung; P(2) 13 menh de "2 > 3", do 13 menh de sai.

Cac cau nhu vay duoc goi la menh de' ell/fa bien co dang "P(x) voi x EX". Khi x duoc cho gia tri Xo ' P( Xo ) se co gia tri chan if xac dinh : P( Xo ) bang 1 hoac 0 tuy thea menh de P( Xo ) dung hay sai. Vi the rnenh de chua bien "P(x) voi x EX" con duoc goi la hum menli de' vai tap xac dinh X va tap gia tri la {O; 11.

Chung ta con gap nhirng menh de chua bien co nhieu bien hon. Vi du xet cau "r > y + 3 voi .r, y la s6 thuc". Kihi¢u ca~ nay la "P(x, y) voi x, y E ]R". Khi'do

P(1, - 2) la cau "1 > - 2 + 3" la mot menh de sai va P(5, J2 ) la cau "5 > J2 + 3" la menh de dung.

TUO'ng tv xet cau "x2 + i = i , x, y, z la s6 nguyen". Ki hieu cau nay la "Ptx, y, z)

/. '0''' Khi d / , P(3 4 5) l' , "32 42 52" l' " enh d" d /

,VO'I x, y, Z E 4. I 0 cau ". a cau + = . a mot men e ung.

M9t each tong quat, menh de chua bien co n bien co dang

" P( ) / ' X' 1 2 "

x1,x2""'x" VO'lxiE i,l= , , ... ,ll.

2. Lltc;1ng tlt "vdi mol" va hJ~ng tlt "ton tal"

Khi tat ca cac bien trong menh de chua bien diroc gan gia tri xac dinh thi m~h de chua bien co gia tri chan If xac dinh va tra thanh mot menh de. N goai ra con mot each' quan trong khac de bien mot menh de chua bien thanh menh de la dua vao

cac hrong nr. Sau day ta se xet hai lirong tir quan trong nhat Ia hrong tir "voi moi" va hrong tir "ton tai".

a) Luang tIl \I (d9C la "voi 1119i")

Cho menh de chua bien "P(x) voi x EX".' Khi d6 cau khang dinh

"Voi moi .-t- thuoc X, P(x) dung"

(1)

la mot rnenh de. Menh de nay dung neu voi bat ki phan tiX Xo thuoc X, P( xo) Ia rnenh de dung. Menh de nay sai neu c6 phan nr Xo thuoc X sao cho P( Xo ) Ia menh de sai.

Menh de (1) diroc ki hieu la

"\Ix E X,P(_-r)" hoac "\Ix EX: P(x)".

Vi du 1. Cho menh de chua bien" x2 - 2x + 2> 0 voi XE JR". Khi d6 menh de "Vx E Itt, x2 - 2x + 2 > 0" dung vi voi moi s6 thuc, ta deu c6

;2 _ 2x + 2 = (x _1)2 + 1 > 0 . 0

b) Luang tIl 3 (d9C la "ton tai"}

Cho menh de chua bien "P(x) voi x EX''', Khi d6 cau khang dinh

"Ton tai mot phan nr x thuoc X saocho P(x) dung" (2)

la mot menh dC.M~nh de nay dung neu c6 phan nr Xo thuoc X sao cho P( xo) Ia rnenh de dung. Menh de nay sai neu voi moi phan nr xo' thuoc X, P( Xo ) la menh de sai.

Menh de (2) diroc kf hieu la

"3x E X,P(x)" hoac "3x EX: P(x)".

Vi du 2. Cho menh de chua bien: "211 + 1 chia het cho II, voi II EN". Khi d6 menh de: "3n EN: 2/1 + 1 chia het cho n" la menh de dung vi voi n = 3, ta c6 23 + 1 = 9 chia het cho 3~ 0

Voi cac menh de chua nhieu bien, ta cling c6 th~ gan cac hrong tir \I va 3 vao thea cac each khac nhau d~ bien cluing thanh mot rnenh dC.

Cho menh de chua bien P(x, y) voi x EX, Y E Y . Khi d6 :

2A-TAI LI~U GKCT fJAI 8610

17

• Cau khang dinh

"V oi moi x E X va voi moi Y E Y , P(x, y) dung"

(3)

Ia mot menh de. Menh de nay dung neu voi rnci phan nr Xo thuoc X va moi phan tiX Yo thuoc Y, ta co P( Xo ' Yo ) dung. Menh de naysai neu co mot cap (xo, Yo ) (xo EX, Yo E Y ) rna P( Xo ' Yo ) sai.

Menh de (3) diroc ki hieu la

"VX E X,Vy E Y: P(x,y)".

• Cau khang dinh

"Ton tai mot phan nr x thuoc X va mot phan tiX y

thuoc Y sao cho P(x, y) dung" (4)

la mot menh de. Menh de nay dung neu co mot phan tiX Xo thuoc X va mot phan tir Yo thuoc Y sao cho P( Xo ' Yo) dung. Menh de nay sai neu voi moi phan tir Xo thuoc X va moi ph an tiX Yo thuoc Y, ta co P( Xo ' Yo ) sai.

Menh de (4) duoc ki hieu la

"::Ix E X,::Iy E Y : P(x,y)".

• Cau khang dinh :

"Ton tai mot phan tir x thuoc X sao cho voi moi y thuoc Y ta co P(x, y) dung"

(5)

la mot menh de. M~I1h de nay dung neu co mot phan tir Xo thuoc X sao cho voi moi y thuoc Y, P(xo, y) la menh de dung. Menh de nay sai neu ta khong tim diroc . phan tir Xo nao nhu vay (nrc Ia voi moi XE X, ta deu tim duoc y E Y sao cho P(x, y) sai).

Menh de (5) diroc ki hieu Ia

"::Ix E X,VyE Y: P(x,y)".

• Cau khang dinh

"V6i moi x thuoc X, ton tai y thuoc Y sao cho P(x, y) dung" (6)

la mot menh de.

18

2B-TAI LI~U GKCT D~I s6 10

Menh d~ nay dung neu voi moi phan tit x() thuoc X, ta deu tim duoc mot phan tir Yo thuoc Y sao cho P( Xo ,Yo) dung. (Chu y rang phan tiX Yo nay co the phu thuoc vao ph an tiX Xo d6). Menh d~ nay sai neu co mot phan nr Xo nao d6 rna P( Xo ' y) sai voi moi Y thuoc y.

Menh d~ (6) diroc kf hieu Iii

"\7'.~_ E X,3y E Y: P(x,y)".

Vi du 3. Cho rnenh d~ chua bien: "x + y = 0 voi x, y Ia so thuc", Xet tinh dung - sai cua cac menh de sau

P : "\7' x E ~, \7' y E ~ : x + y = 0" Q : "3x E R 3y E ~ : x + y = 0" R : "3x E ~, \7' Y E ~ : x + y = 0" S: "\7'x E ~,3y E ~ : x + y = 0".

.

Gidi : P sai vi chang han voi .r = 1, y = 2 ta c6 x + y = 1 + 2 *- O.

Q dung vi co x = 1, y = - 1 de x + y = 1 + (- 1) = O.

R sai vi voi moi so thuc Xo da cho, ta deu tim duoc Yo = 1 - Xo de

Xo + Yo = 1 *- o.

S dung vi voimoi so thuc xo' ta tim diroc so thuc Yo = - x() de x() + Yo = O. [J

3. Phu dlnh cua menh de co chua 111(;,"g tlr "vbi mol" va "ton tal" Cho menh d~ chua bien P(x) voi x E X. Khi d6 :

- Menh de phu dinh cua menh de "\7'x E X, P(x)" la menh de "3x E X, P(x) "

- Menh d~ phu dinh cua rnenh d~ "3x E X,P(x)" Iii menh de" \7'x E X,P(x)".

Chang han, menh d~ phu dinh cua menhde "\7'11 EN, 112 -1 chia her cho 3" la menh de "311 EN, /12 -1 khong chia her cho 3".

T6ng quat hon, giii sir P(x, y) la cau : "(r, y) co tinh chat P". Khi d6, menh d~ phu dinh cua menh de : "V 6'i moi x E X va voi moi Y E Y , (x, y) c6 tinh chat P" Ia menh

d~ : "Ton tai x thuoc Xva ton tai y thuoc Y sao cho (x, y) khong c6 tinh chat p_"

19

V~y :

• Cho rnenh de chua bien Ptx, y). Menh de phu dinh cua menh de "Vx EX, Vy E Y: P(:r,y)"

, la menh de Tirong nr ta co :

• Cho menh de chua bien P(x, y). Menh de phu dinh cua menh de

"3x E X,3y E Y: P(x,y)".

"3x E X,3y E Y: P(x,y)"

la menh de

"Vx E'X,Vy E Y: P(x,y) ".

• Cho menh de chua bien P(x, y). Menh de phu dinh cua menh de " 3x EX, V Y E Y : P( x, y) "

la rnenh d6

"Vx E X,3y E Y : P(x,y) " .

• Cho menh de chua bien P(x, y).·M~nh de phu dinh cua menh de "v x E X,3y E Y: P(x,y)"

la menh de

"3x E X, Vy E Y : P(x,y) ".

Vi du 4. Gia sir P(x, y) Ia cau : "x ham mo y" va X Y la t~p hop Hit ca moi ngiroi tren the gioi. Hay dung cac hrong tir "voi moi' va "ton tai" d~ dien dat cac cau sau va dien dat menh de phu dinh cua cluing.

a) Moi nguoi tren the gioi deu co mot nguoi d~ ham mo.

b) Co mot ngiroi ham mo tat ca moi ngiroi. ci.u

a) "Vx E X,3y E Y: P(x,y)".

Menh de phu dinh Iii

"3x E X,Vy E Y: P(x,y)"

co noi dung la : "Co mot nguai khong ham mo bat cu ai tren the gioi". b)" 3x E X, Vy E Y: P(x,y)".

20

Menh de phu dinh la "\i x EX,::Jy E Y : P(x, y)" co noi dung Ia "Moi ngiroi deu tim thay mot nguoi rna rninh khong ham mo". Dien dat mot each khac la "Khong co ngiroi nao rna ham mo tat ca moi ngiroi". 0

Bait~p-----------------------------------------------

7. Hay viet cac menh de diroi day bang cac cau thong thirong (khong dung cac ki hieu logic) rdi phat bieu rnenh de phu dinh cua cac menh de do.

a) \i mau, ::J con vat mau do

b) \i so nguyen Ie n, ::J so nguyen k sao eho n = 2k +1

c) \i so thirc .r, ::J so thuc y sao cho x + y = O.

8. Xet menh de P : "M9i chiec ao sa mi trong cira hang nay deu duoc ban ha

gia" va cac menh de sau :

A : "M9i chiec ao sa mi trong cira hang nay deu khong ban ha gia"

B : "Co it nhat mot chiec ao sa mi trong cira bang nay khong ban ha gia" C : "Khong co chiec ao sa mi nao trong cira hang nay ban ha gia"

D : "Khong phai moi ao sa mi cua cira hang nay deu duoc.ban ha gia".

a) Hay dien ta cac menh de P, A, B, C, D bang cac ki hieu va phep toan logic.

b) Gia su PIa menh de sai. Khi do trong cac menh de A, B, C, D, menh de nao la menh de dung?

9. Xet menh de R : "V6'i moi so thuc x va y, neu x = 0 thi xy = 0". Trong cac menh de sau, menh de nao la menh de phu dinh cua R ?

A : "Ton tai so thirc x va so thuc y sao eho x'" 0 va xy '" 0"

B : "Ton tai so thuc x va so thuc y sao cho x'" 0 va xy = 0" C : "Ton tai so thuc x va so thuc y sao cho x = 0 va xy '" 0" D : "Ton tai so thuc x va so thuc y sao cho x = 0 va xy = 0".

10. Cho x la tap hop ngiroi Vi¢tNam, P(x), Q(x), R(x) va S(x) la cac menh de chua bien

. P(x) : "x la mot dira tre diroi 5 tuoi'' Q(x) : "x bier doc, biet viet"

21

R(x). : "x biet lam 4 phep toan" Sex) : "x bi coi thirong".

a) Hay dien dat cac menh de sau bang each dung cac kf hieu va phep to an logic

A : "M9i dua tre diroi 5 tudi deu khong biet d9C bier viet" B : "Khong ai bi coi tlurong neu biet lam 4 phep toan"

C : "Nhirng ai khong bier doc biet viet thl deu bi coi thuong" D : "Nhirng dua tre diroi 5 tudi khong biet lam 4 phep toan".

b) Neu rnenh de A, B va C dung thl menh de D co nhat thiet dung hay khong ?

11. Cho P(x), Q(x) la hai menh de chua bien. Chung minh rang menh de "3x EX, P(x) 1\ Q(x)" khong nhat thiet nrong duong voi menh de

"(3x E X,P(x» 1\ (3x E X,Q(x» ",

12. Cho P(x), Q(y) la hai menh de chua bien. Cluing minh rang menh de P: "(v'r E X,P(x»v (3y E Y,Q(y»"

wang dirong voi menh de

Q: "'\IxEX,3YEY:P(X)vQ(y)".

§3. Ap Dl)NG M~NH DE v Ao SUY LU~N ToAN HOC

1. Di~n dCllt mQt djnh n

Cac dinh li trong toan h9C la cac rnenh de dung. Nhieu dinh li trong toan h9C co th~ dien dat bang cac rnenh de chua bien co chua cac phep toan menh de, cac hrong tir "voi moi" va "ton tai' co dang nhu

"'\Ix EX: Pt x;" "3x EX: P(x)"

"'\Ix E X,3y E Y; P(x,y)" ."3x E X,'\Iy E Y: P(x,y)" "'\Ix E X, P(x) ~ Q(x)".

22

vt a«t

a) Ki hieu Z iii tap cac so nguyen. G9i pea, h) iii menh de chua bien: "J2 =*VOi a, b iii so nguyen". Khi do dinh If : "J2 iii so vo ti" co th~ dien dat diroi dang

"Va E Z, '\fb E Z: P(a,h)".

"

b) Ki hieu N iii tap hop cac so nguyen duong, T iii tap hop cac so nguyen to. G9i

Pen, p) iii menh de chua bien: "p > 11 voi 1/ ia so nguyen duong, P iii so nguyen to". Khi do dinh Ii : "Co vo so so nguyen to" co th~ dien dar diroi dang

"Vn E N" ,3p E T: P(n,p) ".

c) Ki hieu X iii t~p hop cac tam giac, P(x) iii menh de chua bien :"x iii tam giac vuong", Q(x) la rnenh de chua bien: "Tong binh phirong hai canh cua x bang blnh phuong canh con lai". Khi do dinh If Pythagoras co thephat bieu iii

"Vx E X,P(x) <=> Q(x) ".

2. Dieu kien can, dieu kiim du, dieu kiim can va du

. '. .

Cho hai menh de chua bien P(x) va Q(x). Xet dinh If co dang "Vx E X,P(x) => Q(x)".

(1)

P(x) diroc goi iii gid thief vii Q(x) duoc goi la kef 111(111. Dinh If dang (1) con duoc phat bi~u :

P(x) iii dieukien du M co Q(x)

hoac

Xet menh de

Q(x) iii dieu kien can d~ co P(x). Vx E X,Q(x) => P(x).

(2)

Neu menh de (2) dung thl no diroc goi Hi dinh li dao cua dinh li dang (1).Luc do dinh If dang (1) se diroc goi iii dinh Ii thudn. Dinh If thuan vii dao co the viet gop thanh mot dinh li

Vx E X,P(x) <=> Q(x).

(3)

Khi do ta noi

P(x) iii dieu kien cdn WI dll d~ co Q(x).

23

Ngoai ra ta eon noi : "P(x) neu va ehi neu Q(x)" hoac : "P(x) khi va chi khi Q(x)" hoac "Dieu kien can va du d~ eo P(x) la eo Q(x)".

Vid1f.2

a) Xet dinh If : "V6'i moi so nr nhien 11, neu 11 ehia her eho 24 thi n ehia het eho 8".

Dinh li nay eo dang

VII E N,P(II) ~ Q(n)

trong do Pen) la : "n ehia het cho 24", Q(n) la : "n ehia het eho 8".

Ta eon eo th~ phat bieu dinh If nay diroi dang : "n ehia het eho 24 la dieu kien du M n ehia het eho 8" hoac du6'i dang : "n ehia het eho 8 la dieu kien can d~ n ehia het eho 24".

b) Xet dinh li 1 : "Neu mot tu giac 16i noi tiep duoc trong duong tron thi tong hai goc doi cua no bang 1800" va dinh If 2 : "Neu mot tu giac 16i eo tong hai goc doi bang 1800 thi tu giac do noi tiep diroc trong dirong tron".

Dinh If 2 la dinh If dao cua dinh If 1. Hai dinh li 1 va 2 eo th~ phat bieu g9P lai thanh dinh Ii 3 : "M9t tu giac 16i noi tiep diroc trong ducmg tron khi va chi khi tong

hai goc doi cua no bang I80n".

Dinh Ii 3 nay eo dang

Vx E X,P(x) <=> Q(x)

trong do X la tap hop cac tu giac l<,?i, P(x) la "x noi tiep diroc trong dirong tron" va Q(x) la "x eo tong hai goc doi bang 1800".

Ta eon eo th~ phat bieu dinh If 3 nhu sau : "Di~u kien can va dli d~ tu giac noi tiep diroc trong dirong tron la tong hai goc doi cua no bang 1800". 0

. 3. PhU'dng phap chang minh tnrc tiap va giiln tiap (b~ng phan chang) Chung minh mot dinh If Ia dung suy luan va cac kien thuc da biet d~ chtrng to rang khang dinh neu trong dinh li Ia dung ..

Chang han xet dinh li

'\Ix E X,P(x) ~Q(x).

(4)

Cluing mirth dinh If (4) la dung suy luan va cac kien thirc da biet d~ khang dinh rang menh d~ (4) la dung, nrc la can clnrng to rang voi moi x E X thi menh de

"P(~) ~ Q(x)" Ia menh de dung. .

24

.

Ta thay neu voi x E X rna P(x) sai thi thea dinh nghia, menh de P(x) => Q(x)

la dung.

Do d6 chi can xet voi x E X rna P(x) dung. Thanh thir viec chtrng minh (4) dung quy ve hai buoc sau :

- Lay Xo tuy y thuoc X rna P(xQ) dung

- Dung suy luan va cac kien thirc dfi biet d~ khang dinh rang khi d6 Q(xQ)

cling dung.

Phuong phap chirng minh nay diroc goi la phuong phdp chung minh true tiel)'

D6i khi viec cluing minh true tiep mot dinh If gap kho khan. Khi d6 ta c6 the dung each chirng minh gian tiep :" Thay VI chirng minh khang dinh cua dinh If Ia dung. ta cluing to rang neu gia str khang dinh cua dinh li la sai thi se dan den mau thuan, Phuong phap chirng minh gian tiep nhu vay duoc goi la chung minh bang phdn chung.

Chang han, d~ cluing minh dinh If (4) bang phuong phap -phan cluing, tachung minh menh de phu dinh cua (4) la sai. Menh de phu dinh cua (4) la

::Ix EX, P(x) => Q(x).

(5)

Til vi du 10, §1, ta co (5) tuong duongvoi

::Ix E X,P(x) 1\ Q(x).

(6)

Thanh thir cluing minh (4) dung nrong duongvoi chirng minh (6) sai. Chung minh (6) sai bao gom hai biroc sau :

- Gia str ton tai Xo E X rna P(xQ) dung va Q(xQ) sai .

. - Dung suy luan va kien .tlurc dfi biet d~ di den mau thuan. Do do (6) sai va nhu vay (4) dung.

Vi du 3. Chung minh bang ph an clnrng dinh If sau : "Trong mat phang cho hai dirong thang a va b song song voi nhau. Khi d6 moi dirong thang cat a thi phai cat b".

Gidi. Gia str ton tai dirong thang c cat a nhirng khong cat b, nrc lac cat a va c song song voi b. GQi MIa giao diem cua a va c. Khi d6 qua M c6 hai duong thang a va c; phan bier cung song song v6i b. Dieu nay mau thuan voi tien de Euclid. 0 .

25

4. Phironq phap chang minh b~ng quy nap a) Phep quy nap

Cho Pen) Ia menh de chua bien voi II la s6 nguyen dirong. Xet dinh Ii co dang sau

*

\inEN ,Pen). (7)

D6 cluing minh dinh If (7) nay, co mot phuong phap rat hfru hieu goi Ia phuong phdp quy nqp toan hoc (goi t~t la phep quy nap},

Chung minh dinh If (7) bang quy nap bao gorn hai biroc sau Buac 1 (hiroc co so) : Chi ra rang menh de P(1) dung.

Buac 2 (biroc quy nap) : Chung minh menh de

*

\ill EN ,P(Il)=>P(n+l) (8)

Ia menh de dung. Vi (8) chi sai khi pen) diing va P{n + 1) sai nen viec chirng minh (8) dung quy ve viec cluing minh :

V Vi moi S(j' nguyen duong n, neu P(n) dung thi P(n + 1) cling dung. Viec "giasir P(n)dung" diroc goi la gid thief quy fU!p.

Biroc quy nap thirong la buoc quan trong va kho khan nhat. Ta con goi biroc quy nap la "Buoc chuyen til n sang n + 1".

D!nh u 1 (Nguyen If quy nap)

Niu buoc C(/ srJ va buac quy nap dung thi menli de' (7) dung (tuc fa Pin] dung voi moi so' nguyen duong n).

Chung minh. Ta chirng minh bang phan chirng. Gia su (7) sai, nrc Ia menh de phu dinh cua (7) dung. Menh de phu dinh cua (7) la

* --

::3flEN ,Pen).

(9)

Vay ton tai s6 nguyen dirong no sat) cho P( 11v) sai. GQi S la t~p hop tat ca cac s6 nguyen duong 11 de pen) sai. Khi do no E. S , do do S la tap khac rong. Vi moi tap con khac tap rong cua tap cac s6 nguyen duong deu co phan tiI nho nhat nen S co phan ttl nho nhat, ki hieu la k. Theo biroc co so, P(1) dung nen k=t:. 1, nrc la k > 1.

Vi the' k -1 E rt . Vi k E S Ia phan ttl nho nhat cua S va k - 1 < k nen k ~ 1 ~ S.

. \

V~y P(k - 1) dung. Theo biroc quy nap, menh de P(k -1) => P(k) la rnenh de

26

dung nen P(k) phai la menh de dung, nghia la k r1. S. Ta c6 mau thuan. Vay (8) sai, do d6 (7) dung. 0

Vi du 4. Cho II dtrong thang nam trong cung mot mat phang va 6 vi trf tong quat. (tire la khong c6 hai duong thang nao song song va khong c6 ba duong thang nao dong quy).

Chii . h ri dire h' av chi h' h' h 112 + 11 + 2 ,

irng min fang II uong tang nay c ia mat pang t an 2 mien.

Gidi. Gia str n dirong thang 6 vi trf tong quat chia mat phang thanh Sen) mien. Ta 2

, hu . h khi di h P( ) '\-I fl.-T* '5 n + n + 2

can c ung mm ang din n+: 'vilE!", (n)= 2 "

Clnrng minh bang quy nap.

BUO'e ca sd : P(1) dung. That vay mot duong thang chia mat phang thanh 2 mien va 5(1) = 2.

BlIO'e quy IU!P : Gia sir Pen) dung. Ta can cluing minh Pen + 1) dung. Ki hieu n + 1 dirong thang la dl, d2, ... , d", d,,+ I' Xet n dirong thang dl, d2, ... ,d,P cluing chia mat phang thanh Sen) mien. Khi ke them duong thAngdll+l. dirong thang nay bi n dirong thang d., d2, ... , d; cat tai n diem phan bier, do do.dirong thang dll+ldi qua n + 1 mien dil cho, moi mien nay diroc chia lam hai, do d6 d"+1 t<;1O fa 11 + 1 mien maio Thanh thir

5(11 + 1) = S(n) + (n + 1).

2

., h" 5 II + n + 2

Theo gta t let quy nap, (n) = 2

, 2 2

S S( 1) n + n + 2 ( 1) (n + 1) + (n + 1) + 2

uy fa n + = + n + = -'--------

2 2

V~y Pen + 1) dung. Theo nguyen Ii quy nap, Pen) dung voi moi so nguyen duong 11.0

b) Phep quy nap dang tling quat

Trong toan hoc, ta con glTtp cac dinh li khang dinh fang menh de P(n) la dung. voi moi so nguyen duong n ~ a , trong d6 a la mot so nguyen dirong cho tnroc. Ki hieu

27

·

A la t~p cac s6 nguyen duong n ~ II . Phuong phap quy nap d~ clnrng minh dinh li

d<;tng

VII E A,P(n)

(10)

baa gom hai biroc sau:

BUtYe I (Buoc khoi ddu voi 11 = ll) : Chi ra rang menh d~ P(ll) dung. BUtYe 2 tBuoc quy Il(jp) : Chung minh menh d~

VII E A,P(n) ~ Pen + 1) la rnenh d~ dung, nrc la chtrng minh

V oi moi so' nguyen duong II ~ a , nell P( n) dung flu' P( n + 1) ciing dung. f)!nh u 2 (Nguyen Ii quy nap dang fcing quat)

N e'u buac khOi ddu voi 11 = a va buac quy I1(jP dung thi menh de' (10) dung (tile fa Pt n) dung vai moi so'nguyen duong n ~ll).

Cluing minh, Ta chirng minh (10) dung bang phan cluing. Gia st'r trai lai, rnenh de phu dinh cua (10) dung. Menh d~ phu dinhcua (10) la

::In E A,P(n).

(11 )

Vay ton tai s6 nguyen duong flO E A sao cho P( 110) sai. G9i S la tap hop tat ca cac s6 nguyen dirong n E A de Pen) sai. Khi do flO E S ,do do S la tap khac rang. Vi moi tap can khac tap rang cua tap cac s6 nguyen duong deu eo phan ttl nho nhat nen S co phan ttl nho nhat, ki hieu la k. Thea biroc khoi dau, P( (j) dung nen k 7: a. Vi k E A nen k ~ a, Vay k > a. Vi the k - 1 ~ (j nrc la k -1 EA. Vi kE S la phan ttl nho nhat cua S va k -1 < k nen k - 1 ~ S. Vay Ptk - 1) dung. Thea buoc quy nap, menh d~ P(k -1) ~ P(k) la menh dedung nen P(k) phai la menh d~ dung, nghia la k ~ S. Ta co mau thuan. Vay (11) sai, do do (to) dung. 0

Vi du S, Chung minh rang voi moi s6 nguyen dirong II ~ 7, ta eo

(12)

Gidi

Buac khoi ddu voi n = 7. Ta co 7! = 5040 > 37 = 2187. Vay (12) dung voi n = 7. Buac quy ll(jp. Gia sir (12) dung vaifl~7 (giii thie] quy nap), Ta can chjrng minh (12) dung voi 11 + 1.

28

That vay, theo giathiet quy nap, ta co n! >3/1 . Vi n ~ 7 nen n + 1 > 3. Thanh thir (1/ + I)! = (n + 1)0! > (n + 1).3"> 3.3" = 3"+'.

Vay (12) dung voi 11 + 1. Theo nguyen If quy nap tong quat, (12) dung voi moi so nguyen duong II ~7. 0

c) Dang manb cua phep quy nap

Sau day la mot dang khac ella phep quy nap cling thuong diroc str dung, D~ cluing minh menh d~ (10) Ia dung, ta tien hanh hai biroc sau :

Buac 1 (Buac khdi ddu vai n = a) : Chung minh menh d~ Pea) dung.

Buoc 2 (Buac quy II(jP n/~l1lh) : Gia thiet ding menh d~ P(k) dung voi moi so nguyen duong k EA va k :::; 11 (gia thiet nay goi la gid thief quy II~/P manh). Khi do menh d~ P(II + I) dung.

Day duoc goi la dung manh Clta phep quy fI(jp.

Trong mot so bai roan, sir dung dang manh ella phep quy nap se giup viec chirng minh duoc de dang hon.

Vi du 6. Chung minh rang moi so nguyen duong 11 ~ 12 d~u co th~ viet duoi dang 11 = 4x + 5y, trong do .r, y Ia cac so tu nhien,

Gidi. G9i P(II) la menh d~ chua bien. : "Ton tai cac so W nhien x, y sao cho 11 = 4x + 5 y", A la tap cac so nr nhien khong nho hon 12. Ta phai cluing minh tinh dung ella menh d~

\;/n E A,P(n).

Buoc khoi dau voi II = 12 : P(12) dung vi 12 = 4.3 + 5.0.

Biroc quy nap manh : Gia thiet rang menh d~ P(k) dung voi moi so nguyen duong k EA va k :::; 1I .. Ta phai cluing minh menh d~ Ptn + 1) dung.

Neu n = 12 thi n + 1 = 13 = 4.2 + 5.1. V~y-P(11 + 1) = P(13) dung. Neu II = 13 thi n + 1 = 14 = 4.1 + 5.2. V~y Pen + 1) = P(14) dung. Neu 11 = 14 thi » + 1 = 15 = 4.0 + 5.3. V~y Pen + 1) = P(15) dung.

Neu n> 15 : Khi do 12:::; 11-3 $11. Theo gia thiet quy nap manh, Pen - 3) dung, do do ton tai cac so W nhien x, y sao cho fl - 3 = 4x + 5y.

V ~ Y 11 + 1 = 11- 3 + 4 = 4x + 5 y + 4 = 4(x + 1) -: 5 y.

29

Vay Pin + 1) dung.

Theo nguyen If quy nap manh dang tong quat, ta c6 dieu phai chung minh. 0

Bait~p _

13. Su dung thuat ngtr "dieu kien can" d~ phat bieu cac dinh If sau :

a) Neu mot so nguyen duong bieu dien duoc thanh tong cua hai blnh phtrong thi so d6 c6 dang 4k + 1.

b) Neu m, II la hai so nguyen dtrong sao cho m2 +n2 la mot so chinh phuong thi mil chia het cho 12.

14. Cho hai so thuc x va y. Chung minh bang phan chirng rang

neu x =I:- -1, y =I:- -1 thi x + y + xy =I:- - 1.

15. Chung minh bang phan cluing dinh li :

C6 vo so so nguyen to dang 4k + 3 ~kE N* ).

16. Cho pIa songuyen to. Chung minh bang phan chirng rang .fP la so vo ti.

17. Chung minh rang

. n(1I + 1)(/1 + 2)(n + 3)

1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + ... + nin + l)(n + 2) = .

. 4

18. Clnrng minh rang 4"+1 + 5211-1 chia het cho 21 voi moi so nguyen duong 1/.

19. Cluing minh rang 3211+1 + 40n -67 chia her cho 64 voi moi so nguyen duong 11.

20. Cho n so duong 0 < xI::; X2 ::; ... ::; XII' Chung minh rang voi n ~ 3, ta c6

voi quy uoc xII+I = xI .

30

§4. T~l> HOP

1. T~p h<;,p

Tap hop la mot khai niern co ban cua toan hoc. Ta nho lai rang mot tap hop thuong duoc cho bang hai each sau :

1. Liet kehet cac phan ur cua tap hop;

2. Chi r6 cac tinh chat dac tnrng eho cac phan ur cua tap hop : Gia su A Ia tap hop tat eli cac phan nr x thuoc X e6 tinh chat P. Khi d6 ta viet

A = { X E X I x e6 tinh chat P} .

Chang han : Cho P(x) la menh de chua bien xac dinh tren tap X GQi A la tap hop cac x E X sao cho P(x) dung. Ta viet

A = { X E X I P(x)}.

Ngiroi ta thuong dung cac chil in rong d~ ki hieu cac tap hop, Tap hop cac s6 W nhien to; 1; 2; ... } diroc ki hieu boi N; tap hop cac s6 nguyen dirong {I; 2; , .. } dtroc kf hieu boi N* ; tap hop cac s6 nguyen { ... , - 2; - 1; 0; 1; 2; ... } diroc ki hieu boi Z. tap hop cac s6 hiru ti duoc ki hieu boi Q va tap hop cac s6 thuc diroc ki hieu boi JR.

Trong cac chuang sau, ta thuong su dung cac tap con sau day cua tap so thtrc

Ten glli va. ki hieu Tap lWp
Do<;tn [v; h) {x E JRI a ~ x ~ h }
Khoang (zz; b) {x E JRla < x < h}
Nira khoang [v; h) {x E !RI a ~ x < b}
Nira khoang (a ; b) {x E !RIa < x ~ h}
Nua khoang (- 00; h) {x E !Rlx ~ h}
Nira khoang [a ;+(0) {x E !Rlx 2 a}
Khoang (-00; h) {x E !RI x < h}
Khoang (v;+ 00 ) {x E !Rlx > v} 31

Noi chung khi noi den tap hop Ia nguoi ta noi den cac phan tit cua no. Tuy nhien nguoi ta ciing xet den mot t~p hop dac bier khong chua phan tit nao. Tap hop do diroc goi Ia tap rang va dUQ'C ki hieu la 0. Vi du: tap hop cac so nguyen duong 16'11 han binh phuong cua no la tap rong,

a) Tdp hap bang nhau

Hai tap hop A va B dUQ'C goi la bang nhau va ki hieu la A = B neu moi phan tit cua A la mot phan tit cua B va moi phan tit cua B la mot phan tit cua A.

Kf hieu (x E A) la menh de chua bien "Phan nr x thuoc tap hop A".

Nhir vay A = B khi va chi khi menh de sau la dung

V.~r,(x E A) ¢=> (x E B) .

Neu tap A va tap B khong bang nhau, ta noi A khac B va ki hieu la A*, B. Nhu vay, A :j::. B neu co mot phan tir cua A khong la phan tit cua B hoac co mot phan tir cua B kh6ng la phan tit cua A.

b) TtJp con

Tap A duoc goi Ia qp con cua t<}p B va ki hieu la A cB neu moi phan tit cua tap A deu la phan tit cua tap B. Nhu vay A c B khi va chi khi menh de sau la dung

V·x,(x E A)~ (x E B).

Tit dinh nghia ta thay :

• MQi tap A la tap con cua chinh no : A c A voi moi t~p A.

Khi ta muon nhan manh rang A la tap con cua B nhung A :j::. B, ta noi A la tap con thuc su cua B.

• A = B khi va chi khi A c B va B cA.

• Tap rang la tap con cua moi t~p hop : 0 cA voi moi tap A. TMt vay xet menh de

Vx,(xE0)~(XEA).

(1)

Vai moi x, (x E 0) la menh de sai, do do menh de keo theo "(x E 0) ~ (x E A)" la dung voi moi x. V~y menh de (1) dung. Dieu do cluing t6 0 cA.

32

c) Bieu do Ven

Cac tap hop e6 the minh hoa tnrc quan bang hinh ve nho bieu da Yen do nha toan hoe Anh John Yenn dua ra nam 1881. Trong bieu da Yen, ngiroi ta dung nhirng hinh gioi han boi mot duong khep kin d~ bieu dien tap hop.

2. Cac phep toan trim t~p hop a) Phep hop

Cho hai tap hop A vii B. Hap cua A WI B, ki hieu Iii A u B, Iii tap hop bao gam tat ca cac phan til thuoc A hoac thuoc B. Nhu vay

Au B = {x I (x E A)v (x E B)}.

Do d6 menh de x E Au B ehinh Iii menh de (x E A) v (x E B).

M9t each tong quat: Cho 11 t~p hop AI' A2,···, All. HQ'p cua n tap hop AI' A2,···, All ' ki hieu iii Al u A2 u ... U All ' iii tap gam tat ca cac phan til thuoc it nhat mot trong so cac tap A, ,A2, ... ,AIl• Nhu vay

b) Phep giao

Cho hai tap hop A vii B. Giao Clla A va B, ki hieu la An B , Iii tap hop bao gam Hll ca cac phan til thuoc ca A vii B. Nhu vay

An B = {x I (x E A) A (x E B)} .

Do d6 menh de x E AnB ehinh la menh de (x E A)A(X E B).

. . "

MQt each t6ng quat: Cho n tap hop AI' A2,· .. , All . Giao cua 11 tap hop Al ,A2,···, All , ki hieu iii Al n A2 n ... n All' gom tat ca cac phan til thuoc tat ca cac tap AI.A2, ... ,AII• Nhu vay

Al n A2 n ... n All = {x I (x E AI) A (x E A2) A ... A (x E A,J}.

VidlJ-l

i) ChoA = {O; 2; 4; 6; 8}, B = {O; 1; 2; 3; 4} vii C = {O;3; 6; 9}. Hay xac dinh AuBuCviiAnBnC.

Ii) Cho 11 tap hop AI' A2, ... , All' trong d6 3A-TA'1 LI~U'GKCT 8AI S6"10'

33

Ai ={kENlk~i}= {i,i+ 1, ... }.

Gidi

i) AuBuC= {o; 1; 2; 3; 4; 6; 8; 9} va AnBnC = {OJ. ii) AI u A2 u ... U All = {I; 2; 3; ... } = N* .

c) Phep My hieu

Cho hai tap hop A va B. Hieu Clia A va B, ki hieu Ia A \ B , la tap hop bao gom tat ca cac phan tir thuoc A nhirng khong thuoc B. Nhu vay

A \ B = {x I (x E A) 1\ (x fl B)} .

Do do menh de x E A \ B chinh la menh de (x E A) 1\ (x fl B) . Vi du 2. Cho mra khoang A = (1; 3] va doan B = [2; 4].

Khi do A \B la khoang (1; 2).

d) Phep My phdn bit

• Cho A la tap con cua E. Phdn bu eua A trong E, ki hieu la C EA , la tap hop bao gom tat ca cac ph an tu thuoc E nhirng khong thuoc A. Nhu vay

• Cho t~p A. Phdn bu ella tdp A, ki hieu la A, la tap hop bao gom tat d cac phan ttl khong thuoc A. Nhu v~~

A = {x I (x E A)}.

Do do menh de x E A chinh la menh de (x E A). e) Chung minb cac ~ddng thuc tap hap

De clumg minh hai tap hop cua hai ve cua mot d~ng thuc tap hop bang nhau, thong thirong ta co the tien hanh thea hai each :

• Cach thir nhat la'ta se cluing minh tap hop ve ben nay Ia t~p con cua t~p ve ben kia va ngiroc lai.

34

. 3B-TAI LI~U GKCT DAI s6 10

• Cach thir hai la dung menh de va cac phep toan menh de. Vi du 3. Chung minh quy tk De Morgan

i) AuB= AnB.

ii) An B = Au B.

Gidi

i) Cacli 1 : Gia str x E Au B . Suy ra x ~ A u B , nghia la x ~ A va x ~ B , nrc la x E A va .r E B . Thanh tlur x E A n B . Do d6 ve trai la tap con cua ve phai.

Ngiroc Iaiv gia sir xEAnB,tucla XEA va XEB hay x~A va x~B,nghiala x khong thuoc ca A va B. Vay x ~ Au B hay x E Au B. Do do ve phai la tap con cua ve trai. Vay ve trai bang ve phai.

C aeli 2 .' Tir dinh nghia ta c6

Au B = {x I (x E A u B)} = {x I (x E A) v (x E B)} .

Str dung quy tac De Morgan ta c6

{x I (x E A) v (x E B)} = {x I (x E A) 1\ (x E B)}

= {x I (x E A) 1\ (x E B)} = An B.

ii) Chung minh wong til (xin danh cho ban doc). 0

Vi du 4. Cho A, B, C la ba tap con bat ki, chirng minh rang: i) A u(B nC) = (A u B)n(A uC).

Ii) An (BuC) = (A n B)u(AnC).

Cong thirc tren diroc goi la ludt.phdn phot cua phep Ju!P va phep giao, Gidi. i) Tir dinh nghia ta co

A u(BnC) = {x I (x E A)v(x E BnC)}

= {x I (x E :4) v «x E B) 1\ (x E C»}.

S~ dung luat phan phoi cua phep tuyen va phep hoi, ta c6

35

{x I (x E A)v«x E B)/\(x E C»J

= {x I (X E A) v (x E B») /\ (x E A) v (x E C»)J

= {x I (x E Au B) /\ (x E Au C)J

= {x I x E (AuB)n(AuC)} =(AuB)n(AuC).

ii) Chung minh nrong tu (xin danh cho ban doc). 0

3. Tich Descartes

Cho A va B la hai tap hop. Tich Descartes nta A vel B, diroc ki hieu la A x B , la tap hop tat cit cac cap (x; y) voi x E A,y E B. Nhu vay

A x B = {(x;y) I (x E A) /\ (y E B)} .

Vi du 5. Cho A = {I; 2) va B = {4; 5; 6), Xac dinh A x B va B x A .

Gidi

AxB= {(1; 4); (1; 5); (1; 6); (2; 4); (2; 5); (2; 6»). BxA= {(4; 1); (4; 2); (5; 1); (5; 2); (6; 1); (6; 2»).

Vi du tren cho thay tich Descartes A x B khac tich Descartes B x A .

Mot each tong quat, cho n tap hqpAI,A2, ... ,An. Tlch Descartes cua n tap hop Al ' A2, ... , An , ki hieu la Al x A2 x ... X All , Ia tap hop tat cit cac day c6 thu tv

(Xl ,x2'" .,xll) voi xi E Ai (i = 1,2, ... ,11). Nhu vay:

Al x A2 x ... x An = {(XI ,x2,···,xn) I (Xl E Al)/\ (X2 E A2) /\ ... /\ (Xll E An)}' []

Vi du 6. Cho A = ro. 1), B = { 1; 2) va C = {o; 1; 2 J. Xac dinh A x B xC.

Gidi

A x BxC = {(O, 1,0); (0,1,1); (0,1,2); (0, 2, 0); (0, 2,1); (0, 2, 2); (1, 1,0); (1,1,1); (1,1,2); (1,2,0); (1,2,1); (1,2, 2»).

D6 la mot tap hop gam 12 phan tir,

36

Bait~p ~

21. Cho A = {x E lR : Ix - 21 < 0,5} va B = {x E lR : Ix - 11 < I}.

Tim Au B va A n B .

22. Chung t6 rang cac menh de sau la menh M sai i)V6im9iti_lpA,B,C,neu AuC=BuC thlA=B. ii) V6i moi tap A, B, C, neu AnC =BnC thlA =B.

23. Cho A, B, C til cac tap hop. Chung minh rang

(A u B)\ C = (A \C)u(B\C)

24. Chung to rang menh de sau til menh de sai V6im9iti_lpA,B,C,neu AnB=BnC thlA=B.

25. Cho hai tap A, B. Hifll dOl xung ella A va B, ki hieu til A !!.B, til tap hop cac phan tli thuoc A hoac B nhirng khong thuoc ca A va B.

a) Chung minh rang neu A !!. B = A thl B = 0 .

b) Chung minh rang neu A!!. C = B !!. C thi A = B.

26. Cho A x B = 0. Chung minh rang it nhat mot trong hai tap (A hoac B hoac ca hai) til tap rang.

§5. ANH X~

1. Anh xa Iii 9i ?

Cung voi tap hop, anh xa la mot khai niern rat quan trong va rat co ban cua toan hoc. N6 c6 mar trong tat ca cac Iinh vue toan h9C. Khai niern anh xa chinh Iil sir rna rong nr nhien cua khai niem ham s6.

Dinb nghia

M r)t dnh xa f tIt tdp X dell t(ip Y la mot (IllY tde d(lt luang ung moi phdn fit x dw X voi mot (I'a chi mot ) pluln fIt cua Y. Phdn til' lilly duac g9i hi anh Cl/U x quu dnh xa f vel duoc ki hieu lc'J j(\).

Tap hopX duoc goi til tap xac dinh euaf Tap hop Y duoc goi til tap gia tri euaf

37

Anh x~ftl1 x den Y duoc kf hieu la f : x ~ Y hay x ~ f(x) .

Khi X va Y la tap con cua tap so thuc, anh xa f duoc goi la mot ham so xac dinh tren X

Cho aEXva yE Y. Neufta) = y thi ta noi y la dnh cua a va a la nghich anh cua y qua anh x~f Chu y rang moi phan ttf a cua X deu co mot anh duy nhat (la phan nr f(a». Moi phan tu y cua Y co the co mot hay nhieu nghich anh va cung co th~ khong co nghich anh nao,

Tap f()C) = lYE Y I]x EX, Y = ftx)} goi la tdp unit cua t. N oi each khac, tap anh fPC) la tap tat ca cac phan tir cua Y rna co nghich anh.

Cac vi du ve anh xa rar da dang, til toan hoc den thirc tien cuoc song. vcs«:

a) Chof la anh xa til Z den Z dar tuong Un~ moi so nguyen II voi binh phuong cua no. Nhu vay ftn) = n2 • Tap anh euafla tap cac so chinh phirong {O, 1,4,9, ... }.

b) Cho X Ia tap hop cac lap hoc cua mot tnrong pho thong, Y la tap hop cac giao vien cua tnrong do va f la quy tac dat nrong irng moi lap hoc voi giao vien chu nhiem lap do. Ta co anh xs f : X ~ Y .

c) Cho tap A = {a; b; c i va Xla tap hop telt ca cac t;;tp con cua A.

X = { 0; {(J I; {h}; Ie}; {a; h}; {h; c}; {c, (J}; {a; b; c} }.

Anh xa f la quy tac dat moi tap con cua A voi so phan nr cua tap do, chang han f( {b;'c} ) = 2, f( 0 ) = O.

Ta co anh se f': X~ No Tap anh euafUl t~pf(x) = {O; 1; 2; 3}. Cac phan nr 0 va 3

. co mot nghich anh ; cac phan tu 1 va 2 co 3 nghich anh.

d) Cho X la tap hop cac hoc sinh cua mot tnrong pho thong, Y la tap hop cac lap hoc cua tnrong do va f la quy tac datnrong irng moi hoc sinh voi lap hoc cua em do. Ta co anh xa f : X ~ Y . Tap anh euafIa tap cac lap hoc. Nghich anh cua moi lop hoc la hoc sinh cua lap hoc ay, do do si so cua lap hoc la so nghich anh cua lap hoc.

e) Tai mot co sa giet m6 gia cam, goi X la tap hop cac con ga diroc dira vao giet mo, .Y la tap hop cac con ga da duoc giet mo va dong goi va f la quy tae dat nrong ung- moi con ga duoc dira vaogiet mcvoi con ga do diroc dong goi sau gie] mo. Ta

eo anh xa I: X ~ Y. Trong van canh cd noi dung kinh te nay, phan ur x thuoc X duoc goi la dau vao (input) va anh y = I(x) duoc goi la dau ra (output).

f) Cho Q la tap hop cac so hiru ti, Ta xac dinh quy tac I dat nrong irng rnoi so hiru

ti r bieu dien boi phan so m voi tu so m, Day khong phai la mot anh xa vi thea quy II

tac nay, mot so huu ti co th~ co nhieu anh, chang han voi r = 0,5 thi neu r bieu dien

boi r = _!_ thi 1(0,5) = I nhung neu r bieu dien boi r = ~ thi/(0,5) = 3.0

2 6

2. Ddn anh, toan anh va song anh

Dinh nghia

i] Anh xa I: X ~ Y duac so! fa dan dnh nell voi a E X hEX nui a =F- b thi f( a) =F- j(b), na: fa hai phdn tit phdn hi¢t se co hai dnh phdn biet. R5 rang {mh xa f fa dan dnh khi va chi khi vai aEX hEX ma fta) = f(h), ta phdi co a = h.

ii} Anh xa I: X ~ Y duoc goi fa toan anh nell 1'6'i m6i phdn til y E Y de'u ton tai mot phdn lit XE X sao cho I(x) = y. Nhu 1'~y I: X ~ Y fa toan dnh neu va chi nell Y = I(X).

iii) Anh xa I: X ~ Y duac so! fa song dnh giiia X va Y nell no vita fa dO'!1 dnh vita fa toan anh. Nhu I'gy I: X ~ Y la song anh nell va chi neu vai m6i y E Y, ton tai vd duy nhdt mot phdn fit XE X de'l( x) = y.

vt a« 2

i) Ham so I: IR. ~ IR. cho bai/(x) = x2 khong phai la dan anh vif(-I) =/0) trong khi ham so g: IR. ~ IR. cho boi g(x) = x3 la mot don anh. Anh xa trong VI du lc a tren khong la dan anh vi/( {a; hI) = I( {b, c}) = 2.

ii) Ham I: Z ~ Z cho baif(n) = n + 10 la mot toan anh vi voi moi so nguyen a thl so nguyen a-10 co anh la a. Ham g: Z ~ Z cho boi g(n) = 4n + 1 khong la toan anh vi voi so nguyen b = 3, khong co so nguyen a nao d~ 4a+ 1 = 3. Anh x'.ll trong VI du l d la toan anh (hien nhien) trong khi anh xa I trong VI du 1 b Ia toan

39

anh khi va chi khi moi giao vien trong tnrong deu lam giao vien chu nhiern mot lopnao do.

iii) Ham t . z ~ Z cho boi/(n) = II + 10 la mot songanh vi voi moi so nguyen II thi/(x) = II neu va chi neu x = II - 10. Ham g: lR ~ lR cho bci g(x) = x3 cling la mot song anh vi voi moi so thuc a thiftx) = II neu va chi neu x =~. Anh xaj neu trong vi du 1 b la song anh neu moi giao vien trong tnrong deu lam giao vien chu nhiem mot lap nao do vi moi giao vien chi him chu nhiern nhieu nhat mot lap.

Anh xa / neu trong vi du l d khong la song anh (tru khi moi lap hoc chi co duy nhat mot hoc sinh). 0

Tir dinh nghia d~ thay : Neu /: X ~ Y la mot dan anh thi / se la mot song anh gitta X va tap anh/(X) cua no.

3. Anh x~ ngltqe ella mQt song anh

Cho t . X ~ Y la mot song anh, Khi do, voi moi yE Y. ton tai va duy nhat mot phan ti'r XEX M lex) = y. Phan nr duy nhat XEX nay duoc goi Ia anh cua phan nr y qua anti xa nguoc CZill f. Nhir vay ta co

Anlz xa nguac nJa t. duac ki hieu bdi /-1 , td dnh xa tit Y dill X gan cho mdi phdn tzt y E Y phdn tl't duy nhdt XE X rna lex) = y. Nhu v(ty

/-1 (y) = x ~ I (x) = y .

Chit j. Neu jkhong phai la song anh thi ta khong thti dinh nghia duoc anh xa nguoc cis«]. Do do chi co song anh moi co anh xa nguoc.

Vid",3

i) Cho X = {a; h; c} va Y = {I; 2; 3 }. Ta dinh nghia I : X ~ Y nhir sau

II

b

c

2

3

R6 rang / la song anh, Anh xa ngiroc I-I : Y ~ X duoc xac dinh trong bang sau day

y

I

2

c

a

b

40

ii) Cho ham sof: ~ --)0 lR xac dinh bOif(x) = x3. VI y = x3 <=> x =.if; nen anh xa nguoc f-I : ~ --)0 lR xac dinh boif-I(y) =.if;. 0

4.Anh xa hop

Cho g la anh xa tir tap A den tap B vafla anh xa tir tap B den tap C.

Neu g(a) E B voi rnoi a EA(tue lag(A) c B) thi ta co th~ xac dinh mot anh xa tir A den C thea quy tac sau : Dat nrong irng moi phan tll' a E A voi phan nr f (g( a) ) E C .

Anh xa nay duoc goi la anli xa h9'P ella anh X<;ifva anh xa g, ki hieu la fog. Nhu vay ta co :

Nell g: A --)0 B vel f: B --)0 C va g(A) c B flu' dnh xa hop

fog: A --)0 C duo: X(Jc dinh hiJi

(j 0 g)(a) = f(g(a».

Vid~4.ChoA=B= {a,b,c};C= {1;2;3}' g:A--)oB va f:B--)oC duoc cho nhu sau

g(a) = b, g(h) = c, gee) = a. f(a) =3,f(h) = 2 vaf(c) = 1.

Hay xac dinh anh xa hop fog ellafva g, anh xa hop go f ella g ve]. Gidi. Ta co fog: A --)0 C .duoc xac dinh nhu sau

(j 0 g)(a) = f(g(a» = f(h) = 2 (j 0 g)(h) = j(g(h» ='f«(') = 1 (j 0 g )(c) = f(g(c» = f(a) = 3.

Anh xa hop g c, f khong duoc xac dinh VI tap anh ella f (tap C) khong la tap con ella tap xac dinh ella g (t~p A). 0

Trong truong hop f, g la cac ham so thi anh xa hop ella f va g duoc goi la ham so' JU;p ella ham so f va g. Ham so g goi la ham sdtrung gian.

41

Vi du 5. Cho f : Z ~ Z va g: Z ~·Z la hai ham so xac dinh tren tap so nguyen va lay gia tri nguyen, eho boi cong thirc sau

/(11) = 211 + 3 va g(n) = 311 + 2.

Hay xac dinh cac ham so hop /0 g euafva g, go/ cua g val

Gidi. Ham so hop fog: Z ~ Z duoc xac dinh nhu sau

(f 0 g)(n) = f(g(lI)) = /(3n + 2) = 2(3n +2)+ 3 = 6n + 7.

Ham so hop s-L: Z ~ Z diroc xac dinh nhir sau

(g 0 I)(n) = g(f(II» = g(2n +3) = 3(211 +3)+ 2 = 611 + 11.0

Vi du tren eho thay anh xa hop 10 geua/va g khac anh xa hop go/ cua g val Nhu vay, thir tt! cua viec lay hop la quan trong,

Chu j. Trong tnrong hop tap anh g(A) cua g khong phai la t~p eon cua tap xac dinh B cua I nh ung eo mot tap eon D cua A sao eho g( u) E B voi moi a E D thl ta van eo th~ xac dinh diroc anh xa hop log: D ~ G nhu tnroc:

,

(f 0 g )(u) = I(g(u» .

Tuy nhien Ian nay anh xa hop se eo tap xac dinh la tap D thay VI tap A.

"

Vi du 6. Cho hai ham so I : [0; +00) ~ IR va g: IR ~ IR xac dinh bci I(x) = J; va g(x) = x-I.

Tim ham so hop log va ehi r5 mien xac dinh cua ham so hop.

Gidi. Tap anh cua g la toan bo true so, do do khong phai la tap con cua [0;+00). Tuy nhien voi moi x E [1;+(0) thl g(x) 20. Vay ta eo ham so hop fog voi tap

, xac dinh [l.co la ham so (f 0 g)(x) = I(g(x» =.Jx -1 . 0

5. O'ng dl)ng vao bai toan dem

Ta xet mot irng dung cua khai niern anh xa trong cac bai toan dern (bai toan xac dinh so phan til cua mot tap hop).

Gia sir rang co dan chim ba cau bay vao mot day 11 chuong. Dat nrong irng moi can chim voi chuang rna no bay vao xac dinh eho ta mot anh xC;lftli dan chim vao day chuang. Neu f la mot dan anh thi ta ket Iuan ding moi chuang chi co nhieu

42

nhat mot con chim, tir do suy ra dan chim co toi da la neon. Neuna song anh thi ta ket luan rang moi chuang chi co dung mot con chim va khong co chuang nao trong, tir do suy ra dan chim co dung II con. Neufla toan anh nhung khong la song anh thi ta ket luan khong co chuang nao trong va co it nhat mot chuang co. chua

hai con chim, tir do suy ra dan chim co nhieu han Il con. •

Nhir vay co th~ xac dinh hay uoc hrong so phan nr cua mot tap hop A nao do thong qua mot tap hop B rna ta da bier so phan tiI cua no nho thiet lap mot anh xa gitra A voi B va xet xem no la dan anh, toan anh hay song anh,

Kf hieu so phan nr cua mot t~p hop hUU han X la IXI. Ta co dinh Ii sau day (de cluing minh) :

Dinh u

ClIO A va B fa hai tdp IWp hiiu IU}Il .

• N eu c6 f119t don anh f : A ~ B thi IAI ~ IBI. '. Nell c6 f119t toan dnh f: A ~ B thllAI :? IBI. • Nell c6 1119t song anh f: A ~ B thi IAI = IBI.

Vi du 7. G9i C;, la so tap con co k phan tu cua mot tap co 11 phan nr (1 ~ k ~ n ).

) Chii . h ~ Ck c: + Ck-I vo 'i' 1 <_ k <_ n .

a ung min rang //+1 = II II

b T' do c: II!

) ir 0 suy ra // =--'-' ---

k!(n-k)!

Gidi. a) Xet tap A = {cll ,112, ... ,0//,11//+1 }. Moi tap con M ella A co k phan nr duoc chia thanh hai 10<;1i : 10<;1i 1 gam cac tap khong chua (/11+1; 10<;1i 2 gam cac tap ehuaoll+l. Cac tap 10<;1i 1 gam tat cit cac tap can co k ph an tiI cua tap

B = {01'(/2, ... ,11//}, do do so tap 10<;1i 1 laC;'. M6i tap 10<;1i 2 co dang M = K U {11//+1}, trong do K la tap con cua B co k - 1 phan nr. D~ thay anh xa f dat nrong irng moi tap M loai 2 voi t~p con K cua B bang each be di phan tiI (111+1 Ia mot song anh. Do do so tap loai 2 laC;,-1 . Vay so t~p con cua A co k phan nr la

k . k-I

C// +C// .

II! n! (1I+1)!

b) D~ kiem tra duoc + =

k!(II-k)! (k-l)!(n-k+l)! k!(n+l-k)!

43

Tir do, bang quy nap thea II, ta e6 dieu phai chirng rninh. 0

Vi du 8. Mot cira hang kern e6 ban ba loai kern : kern xoai, kern socola va kern sua. MQt nh6rn e66 ngiroi vao an kern va goi 6 coc kern. Hoi ho e6 bao nhieu su Iva c119n?

Gidi. Ta thir liet ke mot vai sir Iva chon +) 2 kern xoai, 1 kern socola, 3 kern sua +) 1 kern xoai, 4 kern socola, 1 kern sifa +) 2 kern socola, 4 kern sua

+) 3 kern xoai, 3 kern sua.

MQt sir Iva chon : "a kern xoai, !J kern socola va c kern sua" duoc ki hieu boi mot bo ba (a, h. c),trong d6 a, h. c Ia cac so nguyen khong am thoa man a + b + c = 6

Chang han bon sv Iva chon 0 tren duoc ki hieu la cac bo (2, 1, 3), (1, 4, 1); (0, 2, 4) va (3, 0,3).

V6'i moi bo ba (a, b, c) nhtr vay, ta dat nrong irng voi mot day nhi phan (day gam cac chtr so Ova 1) theo quy tac sau : viet lien tiep tu trai sang phai : a so 1, so 0, h so 1, so 0, roi c so 1.

11...1011...1011...1

~ ~ '--v--'

(/ h

Nhir vay rnoi bo ba (a. h. c) duoc nrong irng voi mot day nhi phan dQ dai 8 (nrc Iii gam 8 kl tv), trong d6 e6 6 ki tv 1 va 2 ki tv 0.

Chang han (2, 1, 3) H 11010111 (1,4, 1) H 10111101

(0,2,4) H 01101111 (3,0,3) H 11100111.

R6 rang phep tuong irng d6 Ia mot dan anh. N guoc lai, voi moi day 8 ki tv voi 6 ki tv 1 va 2 ki tv ° khi ta dern tir trai sang phai rna e6 : a so 1, so 0, h so 1, so ° va (' chir so 1 thi day d6 se irng voi bo (a, h, c) thoa man a + b + c = 6.

Chang h:,111 day 10 110 III se img voi bQ (1, 2, 3), nrc la ung voi su Iva chon : I kern xoai, 2 kern socola va 3 kern sua. Day 010 11111 rrng voi bQ (0, 1, 5), tire la irng voi str Iva chon 1 kern socola va 5 kern sua.

Nhu vay ta dIT thiet lap mot song anh giira rap hop cac su Iva chon voi tap hop cac day nhi phan do dai 8, trong d6 e6 6 ki tv 1 va 2 ki tv 0. Do d6 so cac sv I.Va chon bang so cac day nhi ph an dQ dai 8, trong d6 e6 6 ki tv 1 va 2 ki tv 0.

44

Mat khac, mot day nhi phan do dai 8 voi 6 ki tu 1 va 2 kf tu 0 luang ung voi each chon 2 vi trf trong 8 vi tri d~ ghi s6 o (6 vi trf con lai ghi s6 1). Thanh thir co

c; = 28 day nhi phan do dai 8 voi 6 kf tu 1 va 2 kf tt,r O.

Do do s6 cac su lua chon la 28. 0

Ta da thay hai tap htru han A va B eo cling s6 phan tll' khi va chi khi ton tai mot song anh tir A den B.

Trong tnrong hop A va B co vo han phan ill', neu co mot phep song anh giira A va B thi ta noi rang A va B co cling IW luang (hay co cling ball so).

Vi du 9. Chung to rang tap hop cac s6 nr nhien N va tap hop cac so nguyen duong Ie L la co cling lire luong.

Gidi. Xet ham s6 f: N ~ L xac dinh nhu sau :f(lI) = 211 + 1. De thay fla dan anh.

f - l' , inh ' ,. -. "I' ,m-l J;\T 'f(m-l)

cung a toan an VI val mal so em, ta co -- E n va -- = m . 0

2 . 2

Chu j. Mac du L la mot tap con thuc su cua N nhung L van co cung hrc luong voi N. Nhir vay, doi voi t~p vo han thi mot t~p con thuc su cua no co th~ co cling lire hrong voi no: Day la mot thuoc tinh chi co 6 cac tap vo han. That vay, neu B Hi tap con thuc st,r cua A, A co huu han phan tll' thi I AI > I BI, do do A va B khong the co cling hrc hrong,

Bait~p _

27. Xac dinh xem cac ham tir Z den Z cho diroi day cola dan anh khong

a)f(n)=n-l

b)f(n) = n2 - 1 c)f(l1) = 113

d)f(n) = ~~ 1·

Ham nao trong cac ham tren la toan anh ?

28. Cho g la anh xa tir tap A den tap B vafla anh xa tir tap B den tap C.

a) Chung minh rang neu ca f va g Iii dan anh thi anh xa hop fog cling Iii dan anh.

b) Chung minh rang neu cit f va g Iii toan anh thl anh xa hop fog ciing la toan anh,

29. Cho g la anh xa tir tap A den tap B vafla anh xa tir tap B den tap C.

45

a) Chung rninh rang neu fog ia dan anh thi g la dan anh,

b) Cho vi du cluing t6 neu fog va f la toan anh thi g khong nhat thiet la toan anh.

30. Cho tap S = {I, 2, ... , 2n}. Mot t~p con A cua S duoc goi la tdp dill neu trong t~p do, s6 cac s6 chan va s6 cac s6 Ii: bang nhau. Tap rang duoc coi la tap can VI s6 cac so chan va s6 cac so le trong tap rang bang O. G9i x la t<iiP hop tat cii cac tap can cua S va Y la ho tat ca cac tap con cua S co dung II phan tir.

a) Hay thiet lap mot song anh tir X vao Y.

b) Xac dinh s6 tap can cua S.

31. Cho tnroc s6 nguyen duong n > 3. G9i X Ia tap hop tat ca cac bo ba (a, b, c) trong do a, b, c la cac s6 nguyen khong am co tong bang II. G9i Y I?t 't~p hop cac day nhi phan co II + 2 ki tu, trong do co II ki nr 1 va 2 ki It! O.

a) Hay thiet lap mot song anh tir X den Y.

b) Xac dinh s6 phan nr cua X.

§6. s6 GAN DUNG vA SAl s6

1. So gan dung

Trong nhieu tinh huong thuc tien do dac hay tinh toan, ta khong biet diroc gia tri dung cua dai hrong dang xet rna chi xac dinh diroc gia tri gdn dung cua no rna thoi.

a) Sai so'tuy¢t do'i

Gia str a Ia gia tri dung cua mot dai hrong va a la gia tri gan dung cua daihrong do (nrc la gia tri gan dung cua a). Ta goi I a - a I la sai so'tuy¢t dOl cua so gan dung a va ki hieu la 6£1.

VI noi chung ta khong biet duoc gia tri dung a nen cling khong th~ bier duoc chlnh xac 6£1. Tuy nhien ta thtrong co th~ danh gia diroc 6(/ khong virot qua mot s6 duong nao do.

Neu ta danh gia diroc 6£1 S d , ta noi d la mot cdn tren clla sui so'tuy¢t ddi:

Neu d Ia mot can tren cua sai s6 tuyet d6i thi

46

a-d~a~a+d hayaE[a-d;a+d].

Nhu vay, ta khong bie] gia tri dung a nhirng bier diroc n6 nam trong mot doan [a - d; a + dl Khi d6 ta quy uoc viet

a=a±d.

R5 rang neu d cang nho thi sai s6 tuyet d6i cang be. Do d6 ta n6i d la d¢ chinh xdc cua s{/ gdn dung a.

b) Sai so tuong dOL

D~ so sanh do chinh xac cua hai phep do dac hay tfnh roan, ngiroi ta dira ra khai niern sai s6 nrong d6i.

Sai S(J tuong dOl cua s6 gan dung a, kf hieu lH'a' la ti s6 giira sai s6 tuyet doi cua a

va lal, nrc la 6a = £..a

lal

Vi khong bier duoc chfnh xac £..(1 nen ciing khong biet diroc chinh xac 6(}. Tuy nhien, neu danh gia duoc do chfnh xac cua s6 gdn dung a la d thi tir dinh nghia. ta d

c6 sai s6 nrong d6i cua a khong vuot qua M.

2. 50 quy tren

Trong thuc te do dac va tinh toan, nhieu khi ngtroi ta chi can bier gia tri gan dung cua mot dai hrong voi mot d¢ chinh xac nao d6 (k~ cit khi biet gia tri dung cua n6). Khi do, de cho gon, cac s6 thuong diroc quy tron,

Tuy mire d¢ yeu cau, ta c6 the quy tron mot s6 den hang dan vi, hang chuc, hang tram, ... hay den hang phan chuc, hang phan tram, hang phan nghin •... (goi chung .la hang quy tron). Viec quy tron duoc thuc hien theo quy tac sau

- Neu chir s6 ngay sau hang quy tron (k¢ tir trai sang phai) nho han 5 : Thaythe chir s6 d6 va cac chu s6 ben phai bO'i chtr s6 O.

-- Neu trai lai : Thay the chit s6 d6 va cac chit s6 ben phai boi chir s6 0 va cong

them mot dan V! vao chir s6 cua hang quy tron.

Vi du 1

i) Quy tron s6 7216,4 den hang chuc. Ta thay chtr s6 a hang quy tron (hang chuc) lit 1. Chir s6 ngay sau hang quy tron la 6 > 5.Vfiy s6 quy tron la 7220.

47

·

ii) Quy tron s6 2,654 den hang phan tram. Ta thay chil s6 0 hang guy tron (hang

phan tram) la 5. Chir s6 ngay sau hang guy tron la 4 < 5. V~y s6 guy tron la 2,65.

Ta thay trong vi du tren, sai s6 tuyet d6i 0 i) la 17216,4 - 72201 = 3,6 < 5 = 1~

va 0 ii) la 12,654 - 2,651 = 0,004 < 0,005 == 0,01 . 2

Mot each tong quat, neu thay s6 dung boi s6 guy tron den mot hang nao d6 thi sai s6 tuyet d6i ella s6 guy tron khong vUQ1 qua mot nth dan vi ella hang guy tron d6. Nhu vay do chfnh xac ella s6 guy tron bang mra dan vi ella hang guy tron.

csa»

- Khi guy tron s6 dung (j den mot hang nao d6 thi ta n6i s6 gan dung (J nhan duoc la chinh xuc tai hang do. Chang han so gdn dung ella s6 TI

chinh xac toi hang phan tram la 3,14; s6 gan dung ella s6 12 chinh xac toi hang phan nghin la 1,414.

Neu s6 dung (j chua duoc biet chinh xac rna chi duoc xac dinh diroi dang a = a ± d thi khi duoc yeu cau guy tron ii , ta se guy tron s6 (1 den hang thap nhat rna d nho han mot dan vi ella hang guy tron d6.

Chang han trong mot thi nghiern vat li, mot hang s6 vat If diroc xac dinh la

Zi = 2,43865 ±0,00312.

Ta thay 0,001 < 0,00312 < 0,01 nen hang thap nhat rna d nho han mot dan vi cua hang d6 la hang phan tram. V~y ta phaiquy tron s6 2,43865 den hang phan tram d~ duoc s6 2,44. Nhir vay ta thong bao hang s6 vat If d6 e6 gia tri guy tron la 2.44.

3. Chu so chac va d~ng viet ehu~n ella so gan dung a) Chit so cbdc

Cho s6 gan dung (1 ella s6 dung (j voi d¢ chinh xac d. Trong s6 (1, mot chir s6 diroc goi la chit sc/ cluic (hay dung tin) neu d khong vUQ1 qua nira dan vi ella hang e6 chit s6 d6.

Nhdn xet. Tir dinh nghia suy ra tat ca cac chlt s6 dung ben trai chtr s6 chac la chir s6 chac. Tat ca cac chir s6 dung ben phai chtt s6 khong chac la chir s6 khong chac,

48

Vi du 2. Trong mot CU9C dieu tra dan s6, s6 dan cua tinh A duoc xac dinh Ia 1379425 ± 300 ngiroi.

i) Neu thong bao so dan tinh A gan dung Ia (1 = 1379425 thi cac chir s6 chac cua s6 (1 la nhfrng chir s6 nao ?

ii) Gia tri guy tron cua dan s6 tinh A la bao nhieu ?

G·,· i) V' 100 300 1000 , hfi ~ h' - I' khc h~ a chir sc h'

WI. I I - < < -- nen c U so ang tram a ong c ac va c u so ang

22.

nghin Hi chir s6 chac. Vay cac chir s6 chac la 1,3,7,9 va cac chir s6 khong chac la 4,2,5.

ii) Ta c6 100 < 300 < 1000 nen hang thap nhat rna d nho han mot don vi cua hang do la hang phan nghin, V~y ta phai guy tron s6 1379425 den hang nghin de diroc s6 1379000. Nhir vay ta thong bao s6 dan tinh A c6 gia tri guy tron la 1379 nghin nguoi.D

b) Dang viet chudn cua so gdn dung

Nguoi ta guy iroc dang viet chuan cua s6 gan dung nhir sau

- Neu s6 gan dung a la s6 thap phan khong nguyen thi dang viet chuan cua a la

dang rna moi chir s6 cua no deu la chtr s6 chac.

Neu s6 gdn dung (1 la nguyen thi dang viet chuan cua a Ia A.10k , trong do A Ia s6 nguyen, 10k la hang thap nhat rna c6 chir s6 chac (do do moi chir s6 cua A deu Ui chir s6 chac).

Nhdn xet. Til dinh nghia ta thay :

- Neu s6 gtin dung (1 la s6 thap ph an khong nguyen va hang thap nhat cua dang .chuan do la hang ~ thi sai s6 tuyet d6i cua (1 khong virot qua _l_k .

10 2.10

T' do b' ." d 1 - ,1

ir 0 ta let iroc (1 - --k ~ (1 ~ (1 + --k .

2.10 2.10

- Neu s6 gan dung (1 la s6 nguyen va hang thap nhat c6 chit s6 chac Ia 10k thi 1

sai s6 tuyet d6i cua a khong vuot qua '210k .

T' d: bie d 1 10k < - '. 110k

U 0 ta let iroc (1 - - _ a ~ (1 + - .

. 2 2

4A-TAI L1~U GKCT £),4,1 86 io

49

vi a« 3

• M¢t gia tri gan dung cua J5 diroc viet duoi dang chuan la 0 = 2,236. Hang thap nhat co chir s6 chac la hang phan nghin, do do sai s6 tuyet d6i cua 0 khong virot qua 0,0005. Do do ta bier diroc

2,236 - 0,0005 s; J5 s; 2,236 + 0,0005 hay 2,2355 s; J5 s; 2,2365.

• Gia tri gan dung cua s6 dan Viet nam N· (nam 2005) diroc viet duoi dang chuan la N = 83.106 (83 trieu nguoi). Hang thap nhat co chir so chile la hang trieu, do do sai s6 tuyet d6i cua N khong virot qua 500000. Do do ta biet diroc N 6 trong khoang tir 82,5 trieu den 83,5 trieu,

Chit j. Voi quy uae ve dang chuan cua s6 gan dung thi hai s6 gan dung 0,14 va 0,140 viet duoi dang chuan co y nghia khac nhau. S6 gan dung 0,14 co sai s6 tuyet d6i khong vuot qua 0,005 con s6 gan dung 0,140 co sai s6 tuyet d6i khong virot qua 0,0005. S6 gan dung 0,140 co do chfnh xac eao hon s6 gan dung 0,14.

Bait~p . ~ ~

32. Chung minh rang sai s6 tuyet doi cua ~~ so voi 12 nho hon 0,000073.

, ' 6 y- 266 T hai so 22 ,355 di .,

33. Biet rang 3,141592 5 < 7t < 3,14159 . rong ai so - va - ung de

7 113

xap xi s6 7t, so nao co sai s6 tuyet doi nho hon ? Hay danh gia sai s6 tuyet d6i cua hai s6 nay.

34 O·?? 0 l' . . , . .c dil ? [;5 X' K b 20 + 5

. ra su a> a mot gia tn gan ung cua vo .: et so =--2-.

0+

Chung minh rang neu lay b lam gia tri gan dung cua J5 thi ta duoc d¢ chinh xac eao hon.

35. Mot tam giac co ba canh do duoc nhu sau :

a = 6,3em± G.l cm; b = lOcm± 0,2cm va c = 15cm± 0,2cm.

Chung minh rang chu vi P cua tam giac la P = 31 ,3em ± 0,5em.

36. Trong mot thi nghiem, hang s6 vat li C diroc xac dinh gan dung Ia 2.43265 voi . sai s6 tuyet d6i khong virot qua 0,00312. Xac dinh cac chir s6 chile cua C

50

AS-TAl LI~U GKCT £)~I so 10

" ,..'

HAM SO

§1. KHAI NI~M HAM s6

1. Dinh nghia

Ham s6 xuat hien khi co mot dai hrong nao do phu thuoc vao mot dai luong khac. Chung ta xet cac tinh huang sau:

i) Dien tich A cua hlnh tron phu thuoc vao ban kinh I" cua hinh tron do. Quy tac ket noi A va r duoc cho boi dang thirc A = n1"2. V 6i moi mot gia tri duong cua 1". ta co dung mot gia tri nrong irng cua A, va ta noi A la mot ham so' cua r.

ii) Dan so thegici P phu thuoc vao thai gian t. Bang duoi day cho chiing ta dan so xap xl cua the gioi p(t) tai thai diem t cho mot so nam.

Vi du P( 1950) ~ 2 560000000.

Niftn Dan s6 (tri¢ungltOi)
1900 1650
1910 1750
1920 1860
1930 2070
1940 2300
1950 2560
1960 '3040
1970 3710
1980 4450
1990 5280
2000 6080 Billig 1

. 51

iii) GQi C la circe dich vu chuyen phat nhanh EMS noi tinh thi C phu thuoc VaG trong hrong w cua thu, Khong co cong thirc dan gian d~ tinh C theo w nhung 6 buu dien co quy tac d~ tinh dUQ'C C khi bier w.

M6i mot tinh huong tren day deu rna ta mot quy tac, thea do, neu cho mot gia tri cua mot so (r, t, w trong cac vi du tren), mot so khac se diroc cho nrong ung (A, P, C). Trong rnoi tnrong hop nhu vay, ta noi so thir hai la ham so cua so thir nhat,

Dinh nghia

Cho mot tdp IU!P khac r6ng D c: Itt

Ham so I xac dinh tren D fa mot (jUY tac d~'it tU'011g ung moi so' x thuoc D voi mot va chi mot so: ki hieu la ft x); softx) do goi lei giti tri cua ham so'! tai x (doc Idl(x) hay I Clla x). VrJy ham so'la mot dnh X(I til tdp call D C/ta IR vao IR (trong cuon sdch nay, ta sf xet den coe ham so' cua bien sothuc va nhdn gio tri thuc) va viet

Tdp D duac goi fa ttJ,p xac dinh (hay mien xac dinh), x duac goi la bien sO' hay doi st)' ella ham so].

T~p hop tat ca cac gia trU(x) khi x chay qua D diroc goi la mien gio tri cua ham sof. Khi viet y = I(x) thi x con diroc goi la bien so doc lap, y goi la bien so phu thuoc.

Co th~ hieu ham so nhu mot cai may W dong: cho cac gia tri x 6 dau vao, may se thea nhfrng quy tac cua no tinh toan va cho ra gia tri cua/(x) 6 dau ra.

MQt trong nhirng each thuong dung nhat d~ minh hoa mot ham so Ia su dung do thi. Neu I la mot ham so co mien xac dinh D thi d6 thi cua no la t~p hop cac cap sap thtr tu

I:D~IR

x H I(x)

{(x ;f(x)) I xED}.

Noi each khac, do thi cual bao gom tat ca cac diem (x ; y) cua milt phang toa do voi y = I(x) va x thuoc VaG mien xac dinh.

Qua do thi cua mot ham so, ta co th~ nhan biet nhieu tinh chat cua ham S0 do.

52

·

Vi du I, Ham so y = itx) xac dinh tren doan [0 ; 4] duoc cho bang do thi nhu trong

hinh 2.1.

y

4

3

2

3

4 x

-I

Hinh 2.1

Dua vao do thi da cho, ta c6 th~ nhan biet duoc (voi do chinh xac nao d6) :

Gia tri ella ham so tai mot so diem, chang hl;lnf(O) = 2,f(2) = 0 ;

Cac gia tri dac biet ella ham so, chang han gia tri nho nhat ella ham so tren doan [0; 4] la -1 ;

Dau cllaf(x) tren mot khoang, chang han neu 2 < x < 4 thif(x) > 0.0

2. Cac phU'dng phap bi~u di~n ham so

C6 4 each co ban de bieu dien mot ham so, d6 la

- 'M6 ta bang lei

- Bang so (bang bieu)

- Bang do thi

- Bang cong thtrc nrong minh.

Neu nhu mot ham so co the bieu dien diroc bang ca bon each n6i tren thi se c6 ich neu cluing ta di tir mot each bieu dien nay sang each bieu dien khac de c6 the c6 nhfrng g6c nhin khac nhau ve ham so d6. Tuy nhien, v6i mot so ham so, se tu nhien va thuan loi han neu sir dung each nay thay VI each khac, Ta xem xet lai ba tinh huong rna dau,

53

i) Cach bieu dien thuan tien nhat eho dien tich duong tron nhir ham so cua ban kinh ehfnh la cong thirc dai so A = tir", mac dn ta cilng eo the lap mot bang cac gia tri hay ve do thi wong irng (mot mra parabol), B6i vi ban kinh cua duong tron la so

thuc duong nen mien xac dinh la { r I r > O} = (0; +(0), mien gia tri ciing la (0, (0).

ii) Ta d1i rna ta ham so bang loi: p(t) Ia dan so the gioi tai thai diem t. Ring 1 dan so the gioi theo cac nam la mot each thuan tien de bieu dien ham so nay. Neu ta ve cac diem nay, ta se diroc mot do thi (gorn cac diem). Day cilng Iii mot each bieu dien eo Ich vi eho phep ta nhin cac dtr lieu mot each t6ng th8. The eon cong thirc Wang minh? Tat nhien, se khong the tim diroc mot cong thirc chinh xac de tim dan so the gioi tai mot thai diem t. Tuy nhien, ta eo the tim duoc bieu thirc eho ham so xdp xi pet). Cu the, bang each sil dung cac may tinh bo uii eo tinh toan hoi quy mil, ta tim duoc cong thirc xap xi

P(x) ;::; f(t) = (0,008079266).(1,013731)'.

Ham so f(t) diroc goi la mo hinh todn 119(' cua tang tnrong dan so the gi6i.

iii) Ta rna ta bang loi cho ham so C(w): gia circe thu chuyen phat nhanh EMS noi tinh tinh theo trong lirong w.Theo quy dinh ban hanh cua Biru dien Viet Nam nam 2009, gia circe duoc cho trong bang sau :

ill (VND)
w<50 6000
50 < w::; 100 8000
100 < w ::; 250 10000
250 < w::; 500 12500
500 < w::; 1000 15000
1000 < w::; 1500 18000
1500 < w ::; 2000 21000 Ta eo the ve do thi cua ham so nay, nhirng each thuan tien nhat chinh Ia cho diroi dang bang.

vi du Z, Cong thirc chuyen d6i tir do Celsius sang d¢ Fahrenheit la

54

F - 32 = (~)C.

5

Trong d6 F la do Fahrenheit con C la d¢ Celsius. Bier nhiet d¢ binh thuong cua co the ngiroi la 98,6° F. Hay tim nhiet d¢ tinh thea d¢ C nrong irng.

G· '.. T ' C 5 (F 32' 5 66 6 0 '

/(I/. a co = - - _ ) = - ( ,) = 37 C. [J

9 9

Vi du 3. Hay tim mien xac dinh cua cac ham so sau

a)f(x)=.Jx+2 ;

b) g(x) = --::-J -

x -x

Gidi. a) VI can bac hai cua mot so chi xac dinh khi so d6 khong am nen mien xac

..

dinh cua ham so j{x) bao gem cac so thuc x thoa man dieu kien .v + 2 2: 0, nrc la

.r 2: -2. Tir d6, mien xac dinh cua ham sof(.x) la [-2 ; +(0).

1 1 .

b) VI g(x) =) = va phep chia eho ° la khong c6 nghia nen g(x)

x - x x(x -1) ..

khong xac dinh khi .v = ° va x = 1.

Tir d6 mien xac dinh cua g(x) la {r I x,* 0, x '* I}, hay c6 the bieu dien mot each khac duoi dang hop cua cac khoang nhu sau :

(-oo;O)u(O; l)u(1 ;+oo).c

BiJi t~p ,

1. Trong hinh 2.2 la do thi cua ham so j{x)

a) Hay tinh gia tri euaj{-2),j(-l).

b) Hay uoc Iuong gia tri euaf( ~ ).

c) Voi nhirng gia tri nao cua x thlf(x)'= 2?

d) U ac luong nhirng gia tri x sao eho f(x) = 0.

e) Tren nhirng khoang nao thi ham so f giam?

2. Mot . hinh chir nhat c6 chu vi 20cm. Hay bieu dien dien tieh cua hinh chir nhat d6 nhir ham so cua do daimot canh cua n6.

y

H inh 2.2

55

, .

3. Hay bieu dien dien tfch cua mot tam giac deu nhu la ham s6 ella dQ dai canh

cua no.

4. Gia ciroc cua mot hang taxi duoc quy dinh nhu sau: 1 km dau tien Ia 10 000 dong; moi km tiep thea (eho den km thir 30) la 9 500 dong; tir km thir 31 tro di thi moi km co gia cuoc la 6 500 dong. Hay bieu dien ham s6 gia circe taxi tinh thea x la so km rna khach hang da di. Tinh gia tien rna khach hang phai tra neu di 20km, 40km, 60km.

5. MQt trong nhtrng each bieu dien ham s6 bang cong thirc kha thong dung Ia dung ham cho tren tung doan. Chang han ham s6 j{x) = Ixl co th~ bieu dien duoi dang

f(x) = {x'

-x,

x 2':0 x <0.

Hay bieu dien ham s6 f(x) = Ix - 11 + Ix + 11 bang each su dung ham eho tren tirng doan,

6. a) Hay bieu dien ham so cho a bai tap 4 bang each su dung ham eho tren tirng doan.

b) Hay bieu dien ham s6 cho a VI du 1 being each su dung ham eho tren tirng doan.

7. Tun mien xac dinh, mien gia tri cua cac ham s6 sau :

a) !(x)=.Jx-5;

b)f(x)= 3x+lxl; x

e)f(x) = 12x + 11;

d)f(x) = .J4 - x2 ;

{X+2' x <0 e) f(x) =

I-x, x2':O'

x

f)f(x) = --. 3x-l

56

.

§2. cAc PHEP ToAN VE HAM s6

1. Tang, hi~u, tieh cua cac ham so, thU'dng cua hai ham so Cho hai ham solva g e6 mien xac dinh nrong irng la D(j) va D(g).

Dat D = D(f) (\ D(g). Khi d6 tren D, ta e6 th~ dinh nghia cac ham sof + g, f - g. fg theo tung diem nhu sau

if + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) V xED; if - g) (x) = f(x) - g(x) Vx E D; (j.g)(x) = f(x)g(x) Vx E D.

Rieng voi thuong cua hai ham so, f , thi ta xet g

D = D(j) r\ D(g) \ {x I x E D(g), g(x) = O}

va dinh nghia

f (x) = f(x) Vx ED.

g g(x)

Vi du, Ham so y = ~ + ~ e6 mien xac dinh Ia

[-1; +00) (\ (-00; 1] = [-1; 1].0

2. Ham so hep. Ham so ngU'<;1e va do th] cua ham so ngU'<;1e

Ngoai trir cac phep toan so hoc tren cac ham so vira neu, co mot phuong phap quan . trong d~ xay dung cac ham so moi tu cac ham so da cho, d6 la phep hop cua cac ham so.

D!nh nghia

Cho hai hum S(j' f, g co mien xac dinh Dtf), D( g) tuang {mg. Gid Sit fa co g(x) E D(f) voi moi x E D(g). Khi do ta dinh nghia h9]J ella hai hum sof va g, ki hieu fa fog, fa ham st/ xac dinh tren D( g) va

Vx E D( g), ifog)(x):= fIg(x)].

Vi du vaif(x) = x + 1, g(x) = x2 thi (fog)(x) = i. + 1 va (g,f)(x) = (x + 1)2,

57

liIII Cho j(_r) = X2 - 2 va g(x) = x2 + 1. Hay tim bieu thtrc euaj:,g va gIl Dinh nghia

Clio ham s6'1 co tap xae dinh D(I) va tap gia tri V(I). Ham s6' gxae dinh tren V (I) duo: goi Id ham so nguoc cua ham sof nell

(j:,g)(x) = x \/x E V(I) vd (g.j)(x) = x \/x E D(j).

Khi do ta ki hieu g lal-1.

Vl d h' ' () x -1 I' ham sc , h' "fil) 2 Lvl

I u am s6 g x = T a am so ngiroc eua am so ,x = x + VI

x-I

I(g(x» = 2g(x) + 1 = 2. -2- + 1 = x -1 + 1 = x;

g(f(x» = I(x) -1 = 2x + 1-1 = x .

2 2

Khong phai ham s6 nao ciing co ham s6 ngiroc. Chang han ham s6 j(x) = x_2 xac dinh tren lR khong co ham s6 ngiroc.

~24 Tim ham s6' nguoc Clia ham s6' j(x) = 2x3 + 1.

LUll y. Neu xet ham s6 nhu mot tnrong hop dac biet cua anh xa thi ta co the thay r6 cac dinh nghia tren hoan roan Ia tnrong hop d~e bier cua dinh nghia ve anh xa tich va anh xa ngiroc. Trang chuang I, ta da clurng minh duoc fling mot anh xa la kha nghich (co nghich dao) khi va chi khi n6 Ia mot song anh. Dieu nay ding co the ap dung cho ham s6.

Do thi cua ham so nguac

Xet ham s6 I co mien xac dinh D(j), mien gia tri V(j) va co do thi la G(j). Gia Slr I co ham s6 ngiroc la g. Xet diem M(.ro; Yo) va diem M'(yo; xo) d6i xirng voi M qua duong thang y = x. Ta c6

M E G(j) ~ Yo z:: I(xo) ~ g(yo) = g(f(xo» ~ g(yo) = Xo ~ M' E G(g).

Nhu vay, do thi ham s6 y = g(x) d6i xirng voi do thi ham s6 y = I(x) qua dirong thang y = x.

58

Dinh. li. Db thi hum so' nguac y = f -1 (x) d(fi xung v6i db thi hum so' y = fix) qua dl(ClIIg thdng y = .r.

Bait~p ~

8. Tim tap xac dinh cua moi ham so sau

3x+5

a) y = ;

x2 + 3x+ 2

b)y=~; x-2

,2 2

d) y = x - .

(x + 2).rx+i

9. Tim tap gia tri (mien gia tri) cua cac ham so sau

2x e)Y=-2-' x +1

10. Cho hai ham so f(x) = x4 - 3x3 + 2 va g(x) = 2x - 1. Tf~h (fog)(x) va (g,f)(x).

a) y = x2 ;

11. Cho ham so I(x) = ~. Hay timfn(x), biet ding x +1

flex) = f(X),!,,(X) =f(fn-l(x» voi n = 2,3,4, ...

12 Ti h' -' ua hi' ~fir) x-I

. im am so ngiroc eua am so ,x = --.

x

·13. Cluing minh rang ham so f (x) = ~ thiei lap mot song anh tir lR vao (-1; 1).

. x +1

Tim ham so ngiroc euaf(x).

14. Tim ham so ngiroc cua ham so

{X3 khi x:-:;O

f(x) = 2

. x khi x ~O.

59

§3. cAc TiNH CHAT co BAN CVA HAM s6

1. 51! bien thlen ella ham so

a) Ham so dong bien, ham so nghicb bien

Khi nghien ciru mot ham s6, ngiroi ta thuong quan tam den sir tang hay giarn cua gia tri ham s6 khi d6i s6 tang.

Vi du 1. Xet ham s6 jtx) = _l. GQi x I' X2 la hai gia tri tuy y cua d6i s6.

Truong hop 1: Khi x I va x2 thuoc mra khoang [0; +(0), ta co

2 2 .

O:S; XI < x2 => XI < x2 => j(xI) </(x2)'

Truong hop 2: Khi Xl va x2 thuoc mra khoang (-00; 0], ta co

XI <X2:S;0=>XI2> X22=>jtxI»/(X2)·D 1!!I16 vi du L, khi dOl SO- tdng, trong truong JU?]J nao thi:'

a) Chi tri cua ham sotang ?

b) Cia tri uta ham so' gidm ?

Tir day, ta Iuon hieu K la mot khoang (rnra khoang hay doan) nao do cua R

Dinh nghia

Clio ham sofxac dinli tren K.

Ham sa f so! lei dong bien (hay tang) tren K neu

\j xJ,x2 E K,xJ < x2 ~f(xI) </(x2)' Ham so} so! la nghich bien (hay gidm) tren Knell

\j xJ' x2 E K, XJ < x2 ~ f(Xj) > /(x2)'

Trong vi du 1, ta thay ham s6 y == x2 nghich bien tren mra khoang (-00; 0] va dong bien tren nira khoang [0; +(0). Qua do thi cua no (hlnh 2.3) ta thay : Tir trai sang ph ili , nhanh trai cua parabol (trng voi x E (-00; 0)) Ia dirong cong di XUOI1g, th~ hien s'l! nghich bien cua ham s6; nhanh phai cua parabol (ung voi x E [0: +(0)) la

dirong cong di len, th~ hien sl! dong bien cua.ham s6. .

60

y

x

IIlll11 2.3

Tong quat ta c6 :

Nell mot ham srI dong bien tren K thi tren do, d6 thi ('[fa no di len ;

Nell mot ham so' nghich bien tren K thi tren do, d6 thi cua 110 di xuong, (Khi n6i do thi di len hay di xuong, ta luon k~ thea chieu tang cua doi so, nghia la k~ tir trai sang phai).

cna»

Neu/(xI) = /(x2) voi moi xI va X2 thuoc K, nrc latex) = e V:r E K (c la hang so) thi ta c6 ham so' khong ddi (con goi la ham so'hang) tren K.

Chang han, y = 2 la mot ham so khong d6i xac dinh tren JR. N6 c6 do thi la duong thang song song voi true Ox.

b) Khdo sat su bien thien cua ham S(Y

. .

Khdo sat S1.( bien thien ella ham so' hi xet xem ham sodong bien, nghich bien, khong ddi tren cae khoang (m(a khoang hay dO([II) nao trong tllP xac dinh CliO no.

* Dei voi ham so cho bang bieu thtrc, de khao sat sl;f dong bien hay nghich bien cua ham so d6 tren mot khoang (rnra khoang hay dean) K, ta c6 the dua vao dinh nghia (xern vi du 1) hoac dua vao nhan xet sau :

Dieu kien " x I < x2 ~ f(xI) </(x2)" c6 nghia la x2 - xI va/(x2) - /(xI) cling dau.

61

Dodo

Ham s(f I dong bien tren K khi I'a chi khi

Vi du 2. Khao sat sir bien thien cua ham s6 I(x) = (1./ (voi (1 > 0) tren moi khoang (-00; 0) va (0; +(0).

Gidi. V6i hai s6 xI va X2 khac nhau, ta e6

2 2

l(x2) - I(x I) = (1.\2 - (1X I = (1 (X2-'\ I )(X2 + x I)

suy ra

l(xJ - l(x1) = a(x2 + Xl).

X2 -Xl

Do a > 0 nen:

- Neu xI < 0 va x2 < 0 thl a(x2 + xI) < 0, suy ra ham s6 nghich bien tren khoang (-00; 0);

- Neu XI > 0 va x2 > 0 thi a(x2 + xI) > 0, suy ra ham s6 dong bien tren khoang (0; +(0).0

* Nguoi ta thuong ghi lai ket qua khao sat sir bien thien cua mot ham s6 bang each . lap bang bien thien cua n6. Ham s6 trong vi du Z e6 bang bien thien nhu sau :

x -00 0 +00
2 +00 +00
I(x) = ax ~ 0/
(a>O) Trong bang bien thien, miii ten di len th~ hien tinh dong bien, mili ten di xuong

tM hien tinh nghich bien cua hamso. . .

62

,

Cu 'th~ hon, hang thtr hai trong bang duoc hi~u nhu sau: 1(0) = 0 va khi x tang tren khoang (0; +00) thi I(x) nhan moi gia tri trong khoang (0; +(0) thea chieu tang, con khi x tang trong khoang (-00; 0) thl/(x) cling nhan moi gia tri trong khoang (0; +00) nhirng thea chieu giam.

~ Klulo sat str bien tliien ('/{(J 'him so'l(x) = (J./ (voi (J < 0) tren moi khoang (-00; 0) Wl (0; +00) r6i ldp being bien thien cua 110.

2. Ham so ch~n, ham so h~

C6 nhimg ham s6 c6 mot s6 tinh chat dac bier, de nhan thay rna ta c6 th~ loi dung d6 viec khao sat sir bien thien va ve do thi ella no dan gian va de dang hon. Tinh chat chan - Ie ella ham s6 la mot vi du.

a) Khai niem ham so chan, ham so Ie Dinh. nghia

Cho ham so' y = J(x) voi tdp xac dinh D.

Ham soj duac goi la ham so' chdn neu '\IxE D, ta co -or E D val(-J:) =f(x) Ham sof duoc goi le, ham so'le nell '\IxE D. ta cd -:X E D va I( --ex) = -j(x).

Vi du B. Chung minh rang ham so f(x) = ~ -~ la mot ham so le, Gidi. Tap xac dinh ella ham sola doan [-1; 1] nen de thay

'\Ix, x E [-1; 1] => -x E [-1; 1]

va fe-x) = ~ -~ = -(-Jl+x -~) = -f(x).

Vay Ila ham sole. 0

lEI! Chung minli rang ham so' g(x) = w? fa ham so' cluin.

b) Do thi cua ham so' chdn va ham so' Ie .

Gia sir ham so/v6i tap xac dinh D la ham s6 chan va c6 do thi (G).

V6i moi diem M(xo; Yo) sao cho Xo E D, ta xet diem doi xirng voi n6 qua true tung l~ M'(-xo; Yo)'

Tir dinh nghia ham so chan, ta c6 -XOE D va1(-xol = 1(xo). Do d6

63

M E (G) <=> Yo = f(xo) <=> Yo = f(-xo) <=> M' E (G).

Dieu do chirng to (G) co true doi xirng la true tung.

Neu f la ham s6 le thi If luan nrong tu, ta suy fa (G) co tam d6i xirng la g6c toa d<)O

Vay ta cluing minh duoc dinh li sau day.

Dinn u

D6 thi cua ham so' chdn 11/1(111 true lung lam true dOl xung. D6 thi clla ham.so Ie nluin goc' toa d¢ lam tum dOl xung.

y
4
3
2
x
-2 2
-2 a)

y

x

x

2

3

-2

h)

c)

Hinh 2.4

Hinh 2.4(/ cho hlnh anh do thi cua mot ham s6 chan. Hinh 2.4h cho hinh anh do thi cua mot ham s6 le. Tuy nhien, co nhieu ham so khong chan va khong le. Chang han ham s6 y = x + 1 (hlnh 2.4c) khong chan va khong le.

3. Ham so tuan hoan

Tinh chat tuan hoan cling la mot tfnh chat rna chiing ta co th~ loi dung d~ khao sat sir bien thien va ve do thi cua ham so, cling nhu nghien ciru cac tinh chat khac nhau lien quan den chung.

64

Dinh nghia

Ham soft x) xac dinh tren D duo: goi hi tudn hoau nell t611 tai sothu:

T> 0 sao cho

i) '\Ix, xED c» x + TED;

ii) '\Ix ED:::::? 1(x + T) =1(x).

Sothuc T duac goi Ie) mot ehu ki CliO ham so].

Vi du ham so y = {x} (phan le cua .v) la ham tuan hoan voi chu ki T = 1 (xem muc 4. §4, chuang II). Mot 16p cac ham tuan hoan quan trong la cac ham so luong giac rna cluing ta se nghien crru trong chuang ham so hrong giac o lcp 11.

R6 rang neu T la mot chu ki cua ham so tuan hoan f thi 2T cling la mot chu kl. Dieu ngiroc lai n6i chung khong dung. Mot each nr nhien, ta di den

Dinh nghia

Clio ham so'!!x) xac dinh tren D. Gid S/If(X) la mot ham tudn hoan. Chu ki duong nlio nluit To (nell co) ctia f( x) duac goi hi ehu ki co sa C!((J ham sa].

Vi du ham s6 y = {x} c6 chu kl co sola To = 1. Ham s6 y = sinr c6 chu ki CO sola To = 2n. Nhirng cling c6 nhtrng ham s6 tuan hoan rna khong c6 chu ki eo sa, chang han ham s6

r = {I neu x hiru ti

f(· ) .,

° neu x vo n

la ham tuan hoan, Bat cu s6 huu ti dtrong nao ding Ia mot chu ki cua n6 va cling chinh vi vay, ham s6 tren khong c6 chu ki CO so.

Do thi cua ham sO" tudn hoan

Gilt sir y = f(x) voi XED la ham tuan hoan voi chu ki T > 0, c6 do thi la (G). Tir dinh nghia cua ham s6 tuan hoan, de dang nhan thay neu (xo ; Yo) E (G) thi (xo + nl' ; Yo) E (G) voi moi 11 = ±I, ±2, ±3, ...

Nhu vay phan do thi cua ham s6 y = f(x) voi x E [0 ; T] (1 D se duoc tinh lien ve hai phia voi cac doan ±T, ±2T, ±3T, ... d~ thu duoc do thi ham s6 y = f(x) voi XED.·

5A-TAI usu GKCT D~I s6 1"0

65

Vi du 4 . Do thi ham so y = situ eo dang

y

-4

-2

2

4

x

-1

Hinh 2.5

Bait~p ~_

15. Khao sat su dong bien, nghich bien (nrc la tlm cac khoang tang, giam) cua cac ham s6 sau

a) y = x3 - 3x; 2x b)y=--;

x2 + I

e) y = ,----:;--; . vx2 + 1

16. Hay bieu dien ham s6 y = x2 diroi dang hieu cua hai ham s6 tang.

x

17. Cho f(x) Hi ham s6 xac dinh tren R Chirng minh rang f Iuon bieu dien duoc

mot each duy nhat duoi dang tong cua mot ham s6 chdn va mot ham so le.

18. Ham s6 f(x) xac dinh tren D duoc goi la ham phdn tudn hoan neu ton tai T > 0 sao eho:

xED ¢:=) x + TED vaf(x + T) = - f(x).

Chung minh rang neuf(x) la mot ham phan tuan hoan thi no tuan hoan. Dieu nguoc lai eo dung khong? Tai sao?

19. Tun ehu ki eo 56 cua ham s6 y = f(ax + b), a "* 0 khi biet ehu kl eo s6 cua ham s6 y = f(x) la T.

20. Chung minh rang neu ham s6 y = f(x) eo tam doi xirng Eta, b) va eo true d6i xirng x = c (c"* a) thl nola mot ham s6 tuan hoan.

66

58-TAl LI~U GKCT D~I so 10

21. Cho ham s6.f: Ift ~ Ift thoa man dieu kien

voi moi x. Chung minh r[mg.f(x) Hi mot ham tuan hoan,

" K'" K ?

§4. MOT SO HAM SO CO BAN

1. Ham so b~c nhat

D!nh nghia

Ham sobac nhdt la ham SO'dlt9'C cho bang birfu thuc co dang y = ax + b. trong do a va b ld nhiing hang so voi a ~O.

Ham s6 bac nhat c6 tap xac dinh la R

Khi a > 0, ham s6 y = ax + b dong bien tren R

Khi a < 0, ham s6 y = ax + b nghich bien tren R

Do thi cua ham s6 y = ax + b (a :;t: 0) la mot dirong thang, goi la duong thang y = ax + b. N6 co h¢ so' goc: bang a va c6 dac diem:

- Khong song song va khorig trung voi cac true toa d¢ ;

- cat true tung tai diem B(O, b) va cat true hoanh tai diem A( - ~, 0).

, a

Vi du 1. Do thi cua ham s6 y = 2x + 41a dirong thang di qua hai diem A(-2. 0) va B{O. 4) (xem h. 2.6)

67

-2

Hillh 2.6

Vi tri tuang doi cua hai duang thdng

Cho hai dirong thang (d): y = ax + b va (d'): y = a'x + b', ta c6 - (d) song song voi (d') ~ a = a' va b *- b' ;

- (d) trung voi (d') ~ a = a' va b = b' ;

- (d) cat (d') ~ a *- a',

- (d) vuong g6c voi (d') ~ aa'= -1.

2. Ham so b~c hai

Dinh nghia

Ham so' bdc hai la ham S(Y duoc cho bang bie'u thuc co dang y = ai + bx + (', trong do a, b, c la nhiing hang SfJ voi a ~O.

Tap xac dinh ella hamso bac hai la R

D" hi '1" b 1 'd' h I( b ll) ha d' h2 b

o t 1 cua no a mot para 0 co ill --,-- , n an irong tang x =-_

" 2a 4a ' 2a

lam true d6i xirng va huang b~ 15m len tren khi a > 0, xuong duoi khi a < '0,

68

Khi a > 0, ham s6 nghich bien tren khoang (- OC!'-;:l). dong bien tren khoang

(b) , , ., . h" ha I' L\ khi b

--,+00 va co gia tn non at a -- 1 X = --.

2a . 4a 20

Khi a < 0, ham so dong bien tren khoang (- OC!,-!!_), nghich bien tren khoang 20

(b) , , ., . I' h . I' L\ khi b

--,+eX) va co gia tn an nat a -- 11 X = --.

2a . 4a 20

Vi du 2. Do thi cua ham so y = i - _y + 1 co dang nhir 6 hinh 2.7

y

() 1 x
T
Hill!12 7 3. 'Ham so y = f}_

x

Ham so y = f}_ \Oi a =t- 0 co tap xac dinh EI lIt \ ! 0 I va tap gia tri la IR \ {O I. x

Do thi cua n6 la mot liyfJt'/Jo/ nhan goc toa do lam tarn doi xirng.

Ham s6 y = f}_ nghich bien trcn tung khoang (-cYJ; 0) va (o;+cx:) khi a > O. va dong x

bien.tren tirng khoang (-00; 0) va (O;+OC!) khi a < O.

69

Neu ~ < 0, hypebol y = a hirong be i6m len tren khi x thuoc (-00; 0) va huong be x

16m xuong duoi khi x thuoc (0;+00).

a

Neu (J > 0, hypebol y = - hirong M 16m xuong duoi khi x thuoc (-00; 0) va huang x

be 16m len tren khi x thuoc (0;+00).

Vi du 3. Tren hinh 2.8 Ia do thi cua ham so y = ~. x

5

-8 -6 -

4 6 8

x

-5

Hilll! 2.8

4. Ham phdn nguyeri, ham phan ·IE!

Ham phan nguyen va ham phan le dong vai tro kha quan trong trong viec giai cac bai toan so h9C, tin h9C, quy hoach tuyen tinh, phan tich thuat toano Chung ta lam quen voi cac ham so nay.

70

Dinh nghia

V oi mb; sf/ thuc x, phdn nguyen ella x la so' nguyen Ian nhdt khong VUQ1 qua x va duac ki hieu la [xl Sd thuc {x} = x - [x] dua« goi fa phdn Ii Clla so' thuc x.

Tir dinh nghia, ta suy ra cac tinh chat co ban sau :

1) x= [x] + {x}

2) [x] ~ x < [x] + 1

3) O~{x}<l.

Cac ham so y = f(x) = [x] va y = g(x) = {x} diroc goi lam ham phdn nguyen va ham phdn It!.

Ham y = [x] co mien xac dinh Ia lR va nhan gia tri trong Z. Ham so nay la ham hang tren cac nira khoang [n; n+ 1) voi Il thuoc Z.

Ham y = {x} co mien xac dinh la lR va nhan cac gia tri thuoc [0; l i.Hasn so nay la ham twin hoan voi chu ki CO sa la 1.

~1t.1 Chung minh y'= {x} la ham tudn hoan voi chu ki co so la 1.

Tren hlnh 2.9 la do thi cua ham so y = [x] (net darn) va y = {x} (net manh).

y 3

2

-2

-I 0

3X

-3

--~-I

-2

-3

Hinh 2.9

71

Bait~p-----------------------------------------------

. 22. Hay tim cac cap dirong thang song song trong cac dirong thang sau :

2

Y= J2x+2;

J2 13

y=--x+-.

2 3

y=J2x-2;

23. Cho.ham s6 y = _2x2 - 4x + 6 co d6 thi la parabol (P).

a) Tim toa d(> dinh va phirong trinh true d6i ximg cua (P).

b) Ve parabol (P).

c) Dua van d6 thi, hay cho biet tap hop cac gia tri cua x sao cho y ;::: o.

24. Tim dieu kien cua a va b sao cho ham s6 y = ax + b la mot ham s6 le,

25. Tun dieu kien cua a, b va c sao cho ham s6 y = ax2• + bx + (' la mot ham chan.

26. Ve d6 thi cac ham s6 sau

a) y = [2x] - 2[x] ;

b) y = {x} + {-x}.

27. Chung minh rang voi moi x, Y thuoc ffi. ta co bat dang thirc

[x + y] ~ [x] + [y]. 28. Cluing minh rang

1

a) [x] + [x + - ] = [2x] ; 2

1 2

b) [x] + [x + - ] + [x + - ] = [3x].

3 3 .

72

§5. cAc PHEP BIEN nOI TREN no THl HAM s6

1. Sd Illqc ve phep tjnh tien song song vdi true toa dQ a) Tinh. tien mot die'm

Trong mat phang toa do, xet diem Mo(xo; Yo). V6'i s6 k > 0 da cho, ta co th~ dich chuyen diem Mo:

Len tren hoac xuong diroi (theo phuong .clla true tung) k dan vi; Sang trai hoac sang phai (theo phuong cua true hoanh) k dan vi.

Khi dich chuyen diem Mo nhir the, con n6i rang ta tinh tien die'm Mo song song I'm true tou de).

~ ci: sit M,. M2, M3• u,» cdc die'm c6 duac khi tinh tiel/ diem Mo(.t(): Yo) theo thu tu lell tren; xuong duai ; sang phdi WI sang trdi 2 dan vi. Hdy cho biet tO~1 do

cdc die'm MI' M2• M3 va M4·

b) Tinh tien mot do thi

Cho s6 k > O. Neu ta tinh tien tat ca cac diem cua do thi (G) len tren k dan vi thi tap hop cac diem thu diroc tao thanh hinh (G,). Dieu d6 duoc phat bieu la:

Tinli tiell d6 thi (G) len tren k don vi thi duac hinh (G,) hoac hinh (G,) c6 OI(q'C klu tinh tiel I d6 thi (G) len tren k don vi.

Ta cling phat bieu wang nr khi tinh tien (G) xu6ng duoi, sang trai hay sang phai. Van de la: Neu (G) la do thi cua ham s6 y = j(x) thi (G,) co la do thi cua mot ham s6 khong? Neu c6 thi (G,) la do thi cua ham s6 nao?

Dinh If sau day se tra loi diu hoi d6

lJjnh u 1

Trang nuit pluing toa de) O.lY, clio d6 thi (G) cua ham so' y = ft»); p vit q ld hai soduong tlly y. Khi d6

1) Tinli tien (G) len tren q don vi thi duac d6 thi cua ham so» = ft.x) + q; '2) Tinh tien (G) xuong duoi q dan vi thi duac d6 thi CliO ham so'y = j(xi -q;

73

3) Tinh tien (G) sang trai p don vi till duoc as tlti C/t(J luim s6' y = 1(x + p);

4) Tiuh tiell (G) sang phcii P don vi till duac (hi thi CliO ham s6' y = 1(.1 - p).

Vi du 1. Neu tinh tien duong rhang (<I): y = 2.\ - 1 sang phai 3 dan vi thi ta diroc do thi ham so nao?

Gidi. Kf hieu f(x) = 2.1 - 1. Theo dinh 11 1, khi tinh lien (d) sang phai 3 dan vi, ta duoc dirong thang (dl), do la dd thi ella ham s6 _v =.f{x - 3) = 2(.\ -:- 3) - 1, nrc la ham 56 )' = 2.\ - 7. [J

Vi du 2. Cho do thi (II) eua ham so y =~. li6i muon co d6 thi ham so x

-2x+ I

y = thi phai tinh tien (II) nhu the nao?

'x

',. K' hi 1, - 2x + 1 2 1 ',v " d' hi

Giai. I ieu g(x)=-. ta co =- +-=g(x)- ..... ay muon co 0 t ~

x x x

ella ham 56 y = - 2x + I , ta phai tinh lien (H) xuong du&i 2 dan vi. [J x

Ih2.11I('y elton pluroug (III tra 16i dung trong (,(IC plurong (Ill d(1 clio sail d(IY .-

1 "

Klii tiuh tien parabol y = 2.\- sang trdi 3 don vi, tu duac d() tlu ('I/a 1/(111/ so.

)

(A) Y = 2ex + 3t

1

(B) y = 2.\- + 3

')

(C) y = 2(.\ - 3 r

CD} y = 2./- 3.

2. So Iltc;1C ve phep doi x((ng qua true toa de?

Cho diem M va duong thang Cd). Diem M' duoc goi Ja diem d6i xirng ella M qua (d) neu MM' .L (d) va trung diem II ella MM' narn tren (d). Mot each hinh hoc. M' dung duoc bang each ha Mll vuong goc voi (d), sau do noi dai Mil mot doan 11M' = 11M.

Bieu thirc toa d¢ cua M' tinh theo toa do eua M va cac M so cua dirong thang (d) kha plnrc tap, tuy nhien trong mot so tnrong hop dac biet, n6 e6 the thu duoc de dang, chang han : .

Trong mat phang Oxy, xet diem Mo(xo; Yo). Khi d6 diem doi xirng voi Mo qua Oy la M1(-xo; Yo) va diem doi xirng voi Mo qua Ox Hi M2Cro;-Yo). Diem doi xirng voi M 0 qua duong thang y = x la M 3(Yo; xo).

Tuong tu nhu diu hoi trong phan tinh tien do thi, ta dat diu hoi: Neu (G) la do thi cua ham so y = f(x) thi hinh doi xirng cua n6 qua Ox (hoac Oy) e6 phai la do thi cua mot ham so nao khong va neu eo thl la do thi ham so nao? Ta e6 dinh If :

Dinh u 2

Neu (G) fa db thi Clla ham so' y = f(x). Khi do

a) Nell My hinh dOl' xung cua (G) qua true Oy, ta duac db thi ham .so'

d) Neu My phdn (0') Clla (G) nclm hen tren true Ox hop voi dnh Clla (c;l') (fa phiin cua (G) ;l(lm ben dum true Ox) qua phep dOl .d(ng qua true Ox, fa

duac db thi cua helm so' y = If(x)l.

Vi du 3. Tir do thi (P) cua ham so y = f(x) = i - 3x + 2, ta e6 th~ thu duoc do thi cua cac ham so

y=/(-x).

b) Nell My philn (GP) Clla (G) ndm ben phdi Clla true Oy h9'{J voi anh cua (GP) qua pludp dOl sung qua true Oy, ta duoc db thi ham so' y = f(ix!).

c) Neu My hinh dOl' xung cua (G) qua true Ox.La duac db thi ham so'

y = -f(x).

')

y = fe-x) = x~ + 3x + 2,

y = f(lxl) == i - 31xl + 2,

y = -f(x) = _x2 + 3x - 2 va y = If(x) 1 = Ix2,- 3x + 21

bang cac phep doi xirng true nrong irng.

75

y

y

2

x

x

Hinh 2.10

Hlnh 2.11

(Tren hinh 2.10, 2.llla do thi cac ham s6 y = i - 3x + 2 va y = Ii - 3x + 21).

Bait~p ___

29. Cho dirong thang (d): y = 0,5x. Hoi ta se duoc do thi ham s6 nao khi tinh tien (d)

a) Len tren 3 don vi?

b) Xuong duoi 3 don vi?

c) Sang phai 2 dan vi? d) Sang trai 6 don vi?

30. G9i (d) la duong thang y = 2x va (d') la duong thang y = 2r - 3. Ta coi (el') co duoc la do tinh tien (d):

a) Len tren hay xu6ng duoi bao nhieu don vi?

b) Sang trai hay sang 'phai bao nhieu don vi?

31. Cho do thi (H) cua ham s6 y = -: 3.. x

a) Tinh tien (H) len tren I dan vi, ta duoc do thi ham s6 nao?

b) Tinh tien (H) sang trai 3 dan vi. ta duoc do thi ham s6 nao?

c) Tinh tien (H) len tren I dan vi, sau d6 tinh tien do thi vira nhan duoc sang . trai 3 don vi, ta duoc do thi ham s6 nao?

76

·

32. Tir d6 thi (P) cua ham s6 y = x2 - 2x, hay suy ra d6 thi cua cac ham s6 sau

a) y = _l + 2x;

2

b)y=x -2Ixl;

2

e) y = -x + 2x;

d) y = I x2 - Zx],

33. Tir d6 thi (P) cua ham s6 y = (x - 2)(x - 4), hay suy ra d6 thi cua cac ham s6 sau:

a)y= Ix-21(x-4);

b) y= (x - 2)lx - 41.

34. Hay neu each dung d6 thi ham s6 y = Ix(x - 2)1 tir d6 thi ham s6 y = _i.

35. V6i nhirng gia tri nao cua (a, b, c) thi d6 thi ham s6 y = w? + hx + c co th~ suy ra duoc tir d6 thi ham so y = _l bang cac phep tinh tien song song v6i true toa d(> va d6i xtrng qua true toa d(> ?

§6. D~I CUONG V~ PHUONG TRINH HAM

Phuong trinh ham la phuong trinh rna trong do an phai tim la cac ham s6. Nhu vay ta can tim Hit ca cac ham s6 thoa man phirong trinh, Moi mot ham s6 thoa man phirong trinh ham diroc goi la nghiem cua phirong trinh ham.

Cau true eC1 ban cua mot phirong trlnh ham gom ba phan chinh

i) Mien xac dinh va mien gia tri

ii) Phuong trinh hoac bat phuong trlnh ham

iii) Mot s6 dieu kien b6 sung (tang, giam, bi chan, lien luc, kha vi ... ).

Sau day la hai vi du ve phirong trinh ham :

Vi du I, Tun tat cii cac ham s6f: JR+ ~ JR+ tho a man dieu kien

f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y)

voi moi x, y thuoc JR+.

77

Vi du 2. Tim tat ca cac ham s6 f(x) lien tuc tren lR va nhan gia tri trong lR thoa man dieu ki~nf(4x) - 2f(2x) + f(;r) = x2 + x voi moi x thuoc R

Nguoi ta thuong phan loai phirong trinh ham thea hai yeu t6 ehinh: Mien gia tri va s6 bien ur do. Vi du phuong trlnh ham

f: N ~ N thoa man: i)f(n+ 1) > 1(11) \/11 EN; ii)f(j(n»= 3f(l1) \/n E N

duoc goi la phuong trinh ham tren No Cac phirong trinh ham 0 vi du I, 2 la cac phirong trlnh ham tren R

Phuong trlnh ham 0 vi du 1 la phuong trinh ham e6 2 bien nr do, phuong trinh ham o vi du 2 e6 I bien ur do.

Trong cac tnrong hop don gian, phuong trlnh ham co tM giai bang each thuc hien mot s6 phep the M thu duoc nhirng thong tin hoac phuong trlnh b6 sung.

Vi du 3. Tim tat ca cac ham s6 f: lR ~ lR sao eho

x2 f(x) + fO-x) = 2x - x4 \/x E R

Gidi. Thay x boi 1 - x, ta e6

(l-X)2 iO-x) + f(x) =2(1-x) - (l-x{

(*)

Tir phuong trlnh da cho, ta co fO-x) = 2x - x 4 - if(x), thay van phirong trlnh ("), ta duoc :

2 f(x) = I-x.O

V6i cac phuong trlnh ham xac dinh tren N, Z, Q, ta can hieu r5 cau true cua cac tap hop nay M tim each tiep can. V6i loaiphirong trinh ham nay, mot tieu chuan M di tim lei giiti la xac dinh mot vai gia tri dac biet (nhuf(O),fO», mot each quy nap, ta

xac dinhf(n) voi n thuoc N, va tiep theo laft _!_ ). Sau d6 dung cau true cua Q d~ tlm

n

f(x) (neu can). Vi du sau se lam r5 each tiep can nay:

Vi du 4. Tim tat ca cac ham s6f; Q ~ Q thoa mani(x+y):::: f(x) + f<J) vci moi x, Y

thuoc Q.

78

Gidi

Buac 1 : Cho x = y = 0, ta co f(O+O) = f(O) + f(O) = 21(0), suy raf(O) = o.

BIlO'e 2 : Ta clnrng minh bang quy nap f(kx) = kf(x) vci moi kEN va x E Q.

Dieu nay dung voi k = 1.

Gia sir dieu nay dung voi k, thay y = kx ta co :

f(x + k.x) = f(x) + f(kx;) = f(x) + kf(x) = (k+l)f(x).

Buac 3 : Thay y = -x, ta cof(O) = f(x + (-x» = f(x) + fe-x), suy raf(x) = -f(~x).

Tir dof(-k.x) = -f(kx) = -kf(x) voi moi k thuoc N.

Do v~y f(kx) = kf(x) voi moi k thuoc Z va moi x thuoc Q.

Buac 4. Thay x = .!_ , ta co k

f(1) = f(k . .!_ ) = kf( 1. ),

k k

1 1

suy raf( - ) = - f(1).

k k

Buac 5 : Voi m thuoc Z, n thuoc Z thi

Do dof(x) = ex voi e =f(1) Vx E Q.

Thir lai : Vaif(x) = ex Vx E Q, ta co

f(x + y) = c(x + y) = ex + cy = f(x) + fey). d

79

Bait~p------------------------------------------------

36. Tim hamjt,») biet

(3X-2)

I -- = x + 2 \lx;;t. 1.

x-I

37. Tim hamffx) biet

( I) 3 I

I x-- = x -- \lx;;t. O.

X x3

38. Gia str a ;;t. O. Tim ham so fbief rang

I(x)+ I(~ 1= x. a-x}

39. Tim Hit ca cac ham so f : lR ~ lR thoa man

I(x + y) ~ l(x)/(y) ~ 2009x+Y voi moi.so thuc x, y.

40. Tim tat ca cac ham so I: [1; +00 ) ~ [1; +(0) sao cho I (xl (y)) = yl (x) voi moi so thirc x, y thuoc [1; +00 ) .

41. Tim tat ca cac ham sof: N ~ N sao cho

f(j(m)+f(n» = m + n

vci moi m, n thuoc N.

42. Chung minh ding neuf: lR ~ lR Ia mot ham dan dieu thoa man dieukien

f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) voi moi x, Y thuoc lR

thi f(x) = xf(l) voi moi x thuoc R

80

A' ~ ,

BAT DANG THUC

§1. s6 THVC

T~p h9P so thirc

Cac em h9C sinh dt'l bier ve cac phep toan tren' tap s6 thuc (cong, trir, nhan, chia, nang len luy thira, khai phirong, ... ), cac dang thirc va bat dang thirc tM hien quan he so sanh hai s6 thirc (bang nhau, 16'n han, nho hon), dong thai sir dung thanh thao cac tinh chat cua cac phep toan va cac quan he d6. Trong tiet nay va tiet sau, cluing ta se chi ra nhiing tinh chat co ban nhat cua hai phep toan co ban la phep cong va phep nhan, sir dung cac tinh chat nay c6 the suy ra cac tinh chat can lai cua cac phep toan va cac quan he 16'n hon, be hon.

Hai phep roan cong va nhan cac s6 thuc c6 cac tinh chat dai s6 co ban sau day:

(i) D6ng kin: neu a, bE JR. thi tong a + b va tich ab cung thuoc JR..

(ii) Duy nhat : neu a = a' va b = b' trong JR. thi a + b = a' + b' va ab = a'b' .

. '

(iii) Luat giao hoan : neu a, bE JR. thi a + b = b + a va ab = ba.

(iv) Luat ket hop : neua,b,c E JR. thi a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c,a.(bc) = (ab).c. (v) Luat ph an phoi : neu a.b.c E JR. thl a(b + c) = ab + QC.

(vi) Phan tir khong : neu a E JR. thi a +0 = a.

(vii) Phan ur don v~ : trong JR., 1 * 0 va neu a E JR. thi a.l = a.

(viii) Phan nr d6i : neu a E JR. thi phirong trinh a + x = 0 c6 mot nghiem trong JR.. (ix) Luat gian troc : neu a.b,c E JR.,c * 0 va ca = cb thi a = b.

(x) Phan nr nghich dao : neu a E JR., a * 0 thl phuong trlnh ax = 1 c6 nghiem trong JR..

Ngoai cac tinh chat co ban tren, cac phep toan cong va nhan tren tap s6 thirc con c6 nhieu tinh chat quen thuoc khac, cac tinh chat nay deu c6 the suy tir 10 tfnh .

6A-TAI LI~U GKCT ElAI so 10

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chat C(/ ban neu tren. Chang han, cO th~ cluing minh phuong trinh a + x = 0 c6 nghiem duy nhat, nghiern nay ding la nghiem cua phuong trinh x + a = 0 va duoc goi la phdn tif dOl cua a (ki hieu la -a). Tirong tu, neu a;;j; 0 thi phuong trinh xa = 1 c6 nghiern duy nhat cfing la nghiem cua phuong trinh ax = 1 va duoc goi la

phdn tif nghich ddo cua a (kf hieu la a-I ). D~ minh hoa them, cluing ta se chi ra

mot tinh chat quen thuoc khac, nrong nr tinh chat (v), duoc suy nhu the nao tir 10 tinh chat C(/ ban neu tren,

Vi du. Sir dung cac tinh chat (i)-(viii), chirng minh rang neu a, b, c E ffi. thi

(b + c)a = ba + ca (v')

Chung minh. Do (iii), (v) va (ii), (b+ c)a = a(b + c) = ab + ac = ba + ca. 0

Trong phep cluing minh vi du 1 tren day, ta thay neu phep cong va phep nhan thoa mancac tinh chat (ii), (iii) va (v) thl lap nrc c6 ngay tinh chat (v'), T6ng quat han, neu trong mot tap hop nao d6 c6 cac phep toan cong va nhan c6 cac tinh chat (i)(x) thi ciing c6 tat ca cac tinh chat nhu phep cong va phep nhan cac so thuc. Trong cac nghien CUu to an hoc sau s~c han, ta thuong quan tam den cac tap hop voi hai phep toan c6 mot so hay tat ca 10 tfnh chat C(/ ban noi' tren, dieu nay dan den cac khai niern vanh. giao hOUIl, mien nguyen, truong nhir sau. Gia sir V la tap hop cac phan tir a, b, c, ... tren d6 da cho phep cong va phep nhan ; phep cong va phep nhan hai ph an tir a, b cho ket qua duoc ki hieu Ian luot la a + b, ab va goi la tong, tich cua hai ph an tir nay. Neu V thoa man cac tinh chat (i)-(viii) thi ta noi V la mot vanh. giao hodn, con neu V thoa man cac tinh chat (ij-tix) thi V duoc goi la mot mien nguyen; mien nguyen V thoa man them tinh chat (x) thi duoc goi Ia mot truang. Ta thay tap so thuc ffi., tap so hiru ti Q d~u Hi tnrong voi hai phep toan cong va nhan thong thtrong. Trong khi d6, tap so nguyen Z chi la mot mien nguyen. Tren tap ffi., ngoai cac phep toan cong, nhan, con c6 nhirng phep roan phong phii han nhtr phep chia cho mot so thuc khac 0 (phep toan ngiroc cua phep nhan), phep nang len Ifiy thira, phep khai can bac hai cua mot so khong am va phep khai can bac ba cua mot so thuc bat kl, phep tinh logarit va phep roan ngiroc cua n6, ...

Bait~p __

1. Phat bieu va cluing minh cac khang dinh nrong nr cac tfnh chat (vi)-(x) (chi khac thii tu cac so hang hoac nhan nr) cua phep cong va phep nhan cac so tlurc bang each sir dung cac tinh chat co ban (i)-(x).

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5B-TAI LI~U G~CT f)~1 so 10

2. Chung t6 rang tap so hiru ti Q lit 'mot tnrong, eon tap so nguyen Z chi lit mien nguyen.

3. Ki hieu Z[J2] la tap hop tat ca cac so thuc dang a + a' J2, trong d6 a.a' lit so nguyen. Phep cong va phep nhan hai phan nr cua Z[ J2] duoc dinh nghia boi cac cong thirc sau :

(a + a'J2) + (h + h'J2) = (a + h) -+- (a' + b')J2,

(a + a' J2 )(h + b' J2) = tub + 2a'b') + (ah' + ba')J2.

Chung to ding Z[ J2] la vanh giao hoan voi phan tu khong lit 0 = 0 + ofi, phan tu don vi'Ia 1 = 1 +0.J2.

4, Chung minh rang trong vanh giao hoan V, cac khang dinh sau day dung:

1) (a + b)c = ac + he voi Uit ca cac a, b, c trong V.

2) Neu 0 va 1 tuong irng la phan tu khong va phan tu don vi cua V thi 0+ a = a va 1.([ = a voi moi a thuoc V.

3) Tinh duy nhat cua phan tir khong : neu a trong V co tinh chat lit a + a = a voi tat ca cac a trong V thi a = O.

4) Luat gian iroc eho phep cong : voi tat ca cac a, b, (' trong V, ta e6 a + b = a + c: keo thea b = c.

5) Voi moi (J trong V. phirong trinh a + x = 0 co nghiern duy nhat trong V.

6) Voi moi a trong V. phuong trinh a + x = b co nghiern duy nhat trong V.

7) Voi tat ca cac a trong V, ta e6 a.O = 0 = O.a.

8) Tinh chat cua don vi : Neu a trong V e6 tinh chat la aa = a voi tat ca cac

, a trong V thi a = 1.

9) Voi a va h trong V.luon e6 (-a),(-b) = ab (nhac lai rang -a lit nghiern duy nhat cua phirong trinh a + x = 0).

10) 1.1 = 1 va 0.0=0.

Trang vanh giao hoan, cac nghiem cua phirong trinh xx = x dtroc goi la cac ph/in tic luy ddllg. Chung minh rang trong mien nguyen chi e6 hai phan tir luy dang.

5. Chung minh ding trong moi mien nguyen, cac quy tac sau e6 hieu luc. 1) (a+h)(c +d) = (ac+bc)+(ad+bd).

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2) a + [b + (c + d)] = (a + b) + «(' + -d) = [( a + b) + c] + d.

3) a+(b+c)=(c+a)+b.

4) a(be) = c(ah).

5) aib + (c + d» = tab + ae) + ad.

6) a(h+c)d=(ah)d+a(ed).

7) -(-a) = a.

8) -0=0.

9) -(a+h) = (-a)+(-b).

10) -a = (-1)a.

11) (-a)h = a(-h) = -Cab).

6. Dinh nghia phep toan hieu boi cong thirc a - b = a + (-b). Hay chirng minh rang trong moi mien nguyen, cac tinh chat sau co hieu hrc,

1) (a-b)+(c-d) = (a+c)-(b+d).

2) (a-h)-(c-d)=(a+d)-(h+c).

3) (a-b)(c-d)=fac+hd)-(ad+bc).

4) a+b=c+d neuvachineua+d=h+c.

5) (a-b)e = ae-be.

7. Chtrng minh rang mot vanh giao hoan la mot mien nguyen khi va chi khi no khong c6 aile ClI(l khong (nrc la khong co hai phan nr khac khong a, b rna co

tich ab = 0). SiI dung ket qua nay cluing minh ding Z[ J2] (bai tap 2) cling la

,

mot mien nguyen.

§2. KuAI NI~M BAT nANG TUlle

1. Thu tl! tren R. Bat d~ng thirc trong t~p so thl!c

Ta da biet rang c6 th~ bieu dien hlnh hoc cac so thuc boi cac di~m tren true s6. Nhu vay, cac so thuc cling diroc sap thir nr mot each tu nhien : so thuc a dung tru6:c so thuc b neu diem bieu dien A cua a dirng truce (dirng ben trai) diem bicu dien B cua b. Truong hop nay ta van viet a < b hoac b > a (doc la a 1111() lion h

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hoac b Ion hon a). C6 the thay ngay d~~ trung dai s6 cua tinh hu6ng nay la b - a Iii s6 dirong. Nhir vay neu a, b Ia hai s6 thuc thi hai menh de nrong duong P:" a < b" va Q:" b > a" diingkhi va chi khi b -(1 la s6 duong. Cac rnenh de dang nay diroc goi Ia cac bat ddng thuc. Tuyen P v R cua hai menh de P:" a < b" va R:"!.1 = b" Ia mot rnenh de duoc kf hieu la " ash" , menh de nay dung khi va chi khi a nho han hoac bang h. Tuong nr, menh de Q v R diroc kf hieu la" b ~ a" ,

dung khi va chi khi b 1&1 han hoac bang a. Ta ciing goi cac menh de dang "a s b" hoac "b ~ a" Ia cac bat dcing thuc. Khi can nhan manh sir phan biet, ta con goi cac bat dang thirc dang a' < b; b > a la cac bdt dang thuc nggt, con cac bat

dang thirc dang a s b; b ~ a cling duoc goi la cac bdt ddng thuc suy rong.

2. Cae so thuc dLtdng

. ,

Ta da thay la cac s6 duong duoc su dung de xac dinh tinh dung sai cua mot bat dang thirc. Tap cac s6 thirc duong c6 cac tinh chat hien nhien sau day:

(xi) D6ng kin d6i voi phep cong : T6ng hai s6 duong Ia mot s6 duong.

(xii) D6ng kin d6i vai phep nhan : Tich hai s6 duong HI mQt s6 dirong.

(xiii) Luat tam phan : V ai moi s6 thuc a, mot va chi mot trong ba kha nang sau xay ra : hoac a duong, hoac (1 = 0, hoac -a dirong.

Sir dung bat dang thirc c6 the rna ta cac s6 thuc dirong la cac s6 a > 0 . Nhir vay cac tinh chat (xi), (xii) va (xiii) c6 the phat bieu lainhu sau :

- Neu a>O,b>O thi a+b t- i) ve ab s-t):

- Neu a Ia mot s6 thuc da cho thi mot va chi mot trong ba kha nang sau xay

ra : hoacrz > 0, hoac« = 0, hoacrz < 0 (a < 0 c6 nghia la -a > 0).

Sau day cluing ta se he thong lai cac tinh chat quan trong nhat va thirong duoc su dung nhat cua cac bat dang thirc tren t~p s6 thirc va chun~ minh chung,

Dinh u 1

l} Nell a, b fa hai sothuc del clio thi mot va chi mot trong ba khd nang sau

• xay ra : hodc a > b , hade a = b , hade a < b (Ludt tam phdn t6ng quat).

2)Ne'u a c b va b « c thi a « c (Ludt bdccdu).

3} Neu a < b thi (I + c < b + c (cong mot s()' vao mot bat ddng thuc).

4) Nell a < b va (' > 0 tin' ac < be; neu a < b va c < 0 thi ac > be (nhdn mot s6' vai mot bat dang thuc):

5} Neu a < b,c < d thi a + c < b + d (ct),?g hai bat ddng thuc cung chieu) .

.

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8) Neu 0 < a < b vel n fa mot s(/ nguyen duang thi a" < b" (Iuy thua mot hat ddng thuc),

Chung minh

1) Xet hieu b - a . Theo luat tam phan, mot va chi mot trong ba kha nang sau xay ra :b-a>O,b-a=O,h-a<O.

Neu b - a > 0 thi theo dinh nghia, ta co a < h. Neu b-a = 0 thi a = b.

Neu b-a<O thi-(h-a»O=?a-h>O,dodoa > h.

2) Theo dinh nghia, cac giil thiet a < b va b < e co nghia la

b - a > 0' va c - b > O. .

Do do c -a = (b-a) +(c-b» 0 (cac so duong dong kin doi voi phep cong), dieu nay cling co nghia la a < c.

3) Gia thiet a < b co nghia lit h-a > O. Ma

(h +c)-(a + c) = (h+ e)-(e+ a) = «h+ c)-e)-a = b+a.

Suy ra (b+c)-(a+c) > 0, dieu nay co nghia la a + c < b + c. 4) Neu a < b va e > 0 thi

b - a > 0, c > 0 =? ( b - a) c > 0 =? be - ac > 0 =? ac < be .

Neu a < b va c < 0 thi

b - a> 0, -e > 0 =? (b - a)( -e) > 0 =? -be + ac > 0 =? be < ac hay ac > he . 5) Neu a < h, e < d thi

b=a > O,d -e > 0 =? (b-a)+(d-e) > 0 =? (b+d)-(a+ e) > 0 do doa+c < b+d .

6) Neu 0 < a < b, 0 < e < d thl ac < he va he < bd (nhan mot so duong voi mot bat dang thirc), do do ac < bd (luat bile cau).

T' 'h'" , 0 hl 1 0

. 7) nroc het c u y rang neu x > t 1 - > .

x .

6) Nell 0< a < h,O < c < d thi'ac < bel (1111(111 hai bdt dang thuc cung chieu].

7) Nell 0 < a < b thi ~ > ± (nghich ddo mot bat ddng thuc),

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That vay.theo dinh nghia phan tir nghtch·dao, ta co x._!_ = l. x

N" '1 0 h' 1 0 0 '1'

eu - = t IX.- = X. = ,vo 1.

X X

N " 1 0 hi 1 0 d .? hi " 0 ) 1 0 '1 ' eu - < t I X. - < (0 gia t let x > , suy fa < ,vo 1.

X X

Vay theo luat tam phan ta suy fa _!_ > 0 . x

8) Neu 0 < a < b thi nhan bat dang thirc nay voi chinh no, ta suy fa a2 < b2 . Nhan bat dang thtrc nhan diroc voi bat dang thirc a < b , ta lai duoc a3 < b3 , ... tir do co a" < b" voi moi n nguyen duong,

Dinh u 2

1) V oi moi a.a S a (Ludt phdn xa).

2) V oi moi a, b, nell a::; b va b::; a thi a = b (Ludt phdn xung}.

3) Nell a::; b va b s: c thi a::; e. Bat d!ing thuc sau cung tro- thanh d!ing thia: khi va chi khi hai bat ddng thuc gid thiet tro- thanh d!ing thuc (Ludt bdc cdui.

4) Va,a2 ~O.Ddngthueelzixdyrakhi a=O.

5) N~u a::; b thi a + c ::; b + c. D!ing thuc a + c = b + e chi xdy ra khi a = b (cong mot sovao mot bat ddng thuc}.

6) Neu a S b va e > 0 thi acS be, ddng thuc ac = be chi xdy ra khi a = b. Neu a s: b va c < 0 thi ac ~ be, d!ing thuc ac = be chi xdy ra khi a = b (nhdn mot savai mot bat d!ing thuc).

7) Neu a::; b, c::; d thi a + c::; b + d. D!ing thuc xdy ra khi va chi khi a = b,c = d (cong hai bat ddng thta: cling chieu).

8} Neu 0 < a s; b, 0 < c::; d thi acs; bd . Dling tlu« xdy ra khi va chi khi a = b,c = d (nhdn hai bat ddng thuc cling chieu).

9) Neu 0 < a S b thi ~ ~ ±. D!ing thuc xdy ra khi va chi khi a = b (nghidi ddo mot bat d!ing thuc).

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11) min {al ;a2;a3; ... ;a,,} S; al + a2 + a3 + ... + a" S; max {al ;a2 ;a3; .. :;a,,} . 1/

Dling thuc chi xay ra khi al = a2 = a3 = ... = a" (bdt ddng tlutc WI giu tri 16-11 nhdt, gill tri nho nhdt).

Chung minh

1) Vi a - a = 0 nen ta cling co a - a ~ 0 , do do theo dinh nghia a S; a .

2) Gia sir as; h va h S; a. Neu a:;f; h thi tir gia thiet da cho suy ra a < b va h < a. V~y h -a> O,a - h > 0, hay -(a - b) 'va (a - h) deu duong. Dieu nay trai voi luat tam phan. Do do khong xay ra a:;f; b. Tir do, ta co dieu phai cluing minh.

4) Theo luat tam phan, chi xay ra mot trong ba kha nang:

hoac a > 0, hoac a = 0, hoac -(1 > O.

Neu a > 0 thi a2 = a.a > 0 .

Neu (1 = 0 thi a2 = a.a = 0.0 = o .

10) Nell 0 < a ~ b vd n la ~1()t .w)' nguyen duang thi a" S; b": Dt7llg tlua: xay ra khi va chi khi a = b (luy thua mot bdt dcing tliuc).

.

Neu -a>O thi (-a).(-a)>0 rna (-a).(-a)={UI=a2 nen a2 >0.

V~yVa,a ~ o. Dang thirc chi xay ra khirz = o.

Cac tinh chat 3), 5)-10) deu.duoc chirng minh theo cimg mot phuong phap : Neu cac bat dang thuc suy rong cho trong giil thiet la nhirng bat dang thuc· ngat thi ket Iuan suy true tiep tir tinh chat nrong irng cho cac bat dang thirc ngat. Truong hop cac bat dang thiic suy rong trong giil thiet tro thanh dang thirc thi ket luan la hi6n nhien. De minh hoa, ta clnrng minh cu th~ tlnh chat 3) (cac em hoc sinh ttl cluing minh cac tinh chat 5)-10) ). Truong hop ca hai bat dang thirc da cho trong gia thiet deu ngat thi thea tinh chat 2) trong dinh li 1, ta co ngay ket luan a < c . Neu ca hai bat dang thirc trong gia thiet deu la dang thtic a =b, b = c thi suy ra a = c. Neu

a=b,b<c thi co ngaya<c. TUO'ng' tu, neu a c b.bi=c, ta ciing co ngaya<c. V~y trong moi tnrong hop, tir giil thiet luon suy ra« S; c. Hem nita, bat dang thirc nay tr6 thanh dang thirc chi khi ca hai bat dang tlurc trong gia thiet deu tro thanh dAng thuc.

11) Tir dinh nghia cua gia tri 160 nhat va gia tri be nhat, ta suy ra ngay day cac bat dang thirc

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min {a] ;a2 ;a3;, ,,;al/} s a] ::; max {a, ;a2 ;a;; .. ,;al/ } min {a, ;a2 ;a3; ... ;al/} ::; a2 ::; max {a, ;a2 ;a3; ... ;a,:}

Cong cac bat dang thirc nay ta suy ra

Chia bat dAng thirc nhan duoc cho n, ta diroc dieu phai chirng minh. 0

D6 ket thuc tiet nay.. cluing ta se thea doi each chtrng minh kha thii vi bat dang , thirc Nesbitt (cluing minh cua Hojo Lee).

Vi du. (Bat d!ing tlua: Nesbitt)

abc 3 Va,b,c>O, -_+ __ +-_~-.

b+c c+a a+b 2

Chung minh, Ta nhan thay khi hoan d6i vai tro cua a, b, c cho nhau, bat dang thirc khong thay d6i va dau dang thiic trong bat dAng thirc can cluing minh xay ra khi

a = b = c hay 2. _a_ = 1. Vi vay dat x = _a_ va su dung bat dang thiic dung

b+c b+c

hien nhien (2x-1)2 ~ 0, ta suy ra 4x2 -4x+l ~O hay x ~.!. 8x-l .

. 4 x+l

T? . bi , ,a 8a-b-c (? d? rc chi hi 2

ro lai len eli, ta co _- ~ ( ) xay ra ang thirc elk 1 X = 1 hay

b+c 4 a+b+c

3a =a+lr+cy.

Ta ciing co hai bat dang thirc nrong tu roi cong ba bat dang thirc nhan duoc va chti y rang

8a-b-c 8b-c-a 8c-a-b 3

4(a+b+c) + 4(a+b+"c) + 4(a+b+c) ="2'

suy ra bat dAng thirc can chirng minh.

DAng thirc xay fa khi va chi khi

{3a =a+b+c

3b. = a + b + c ~ a = b = c. 0 3c = a+b+c

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Bai t~p

8. (Bat dang tlnrc trong mien sap thu tu) . Gia sir V la mot mien nguyen co chua mot tap con D thoa man 3 tinh chat sau :

(i) Neu a.b ED thl a + hE D.

(ii) Neu a, b E D thi ab ED.

(iii) Neu a E V thl mot va chi mot trong 3 kha nangsau diroc thuc hien :

hoac a E D, hoac a = 0, hoac -a E D

(cac phan nr cua D cling duoc goi la cac phan tir duong). Ta noi rang V la mot mien sap thti tu. Neu a.b E V thl ta noi rang a nho hon b hay b 160 han a (va viet la a c.b hayh>a) neUh-aED. Tuyen cua hai menh de "a c b"; " a = b" duoc kf hieu la a s: b. Tuong nr, tuyen cua hai rnenh de "b > a" , " b = a" duoc ki hieu la b ~ a. Sir dung cac tinh chat cua mien nguyen va mien sap thii tu, hay clnrng minh cac tinh chat sau day:

1) VaEV,a:S:a.

2) Va,bEV,a:S:b,b:S:a~a=h.

3) Va,h,e E V,a:S: b.b s: (' ~ a:S: c.

4) Va,h,c E V,a:S: b <=> a +c:S:h+c.

5) Neu a, b E V thi ah > 0 <=>

{a <0

b < 0 [a > 0, b < 0

va ab <0 <=>

{a>o a<O,h>O.

b>O .

6) Va, b, C E V , neu c > 0 thi a :s: b <=> ac :s: be ; neu c < 0 thi a:S: b <=> ac ~ be . 7)Neu a:S:b,c:S:d thi a+c:S:b+d.

8) Neu 0 < a :s: b,O < c :s: d thl ac s bd .

9) Neu 0 < a S b va n la mot so nguyen duong thi a" :s: h".

10) VaEV,a2 ~O.

11) Va,b E V,a2 -ab+b2 ~ o . . '12) Va,b E V,a:S: b ~ a3 :s: b3 .

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9. Trang mot mien sap thir W, gia tri tuyct d6i lal cua phan ttr a duoc dinh nghia boi cong thirc

lal = {a

-a

neu lI2 ° neu (J < 0.

Noi each khac, lal Iil. ° neu a la 0, va trong tnrong hop a =F- 0, no la phan nr duong cua cap a, -a.

Chung minh cac tinh chat sau day cua gia tri tuyet d6i trong mien sap thir W :

Voi a. b Ia hai phan tir cua mot mien sap thii tu, ta co

1) lal = max { a; -a} .

2) labl = lal.lbl.

3) la+bl~I([I+lbl.

4) Ilal-lbll~la-bl.

10. Cluing t6 rang trong mien sap thir tu, Iuat gian iroc cua phep nhan duoc suy TU cac tien de khac.

11. Chung minh cac bat dang thirc sau tren tap s6 thuc :

1) a2 ± ab + b2 2 0. (Hay so sanh voi phep clnrng minh bat dang tlurc nay trong mot mien nguyen tuy y).

2) ( x; y r s x2; l

3) ab + be + ca ~ a2 + b2 + ("2 .

4) Neu a2 + b2 + e2 = 1 thi - _!_ ~ ab + be + ell ~ 1. 2

5) Va,b,c > 0, ab+hc+ca 2 ~3abe(a +b+c).

6) ~x2 +xy+ l 2 J3 (x+ y). 2

7) Neu a2 + b2 + c2 ~ 8 thi ab + be. + Lea 2 -8 .

91

{a +h+ (' = 6 .

8)Neu 2 2 2 thia,h,cE[0;4].

a +h +c =18

12. Cho ba sOx,y,z. Chung minh rang neu x,y,z E [0;1] thi

2 2 22 2 2

X +y +Z ::;1+xy+yz+zx.

13. (Murray Klamkin) 1) Chung minh rang

x + y + z xy + yz + zx

r: ~ ~ r= ~ .Vx.v.z c- O.

3...; _j / + yz + z2 +" z2 + ZX + x2 + x2 + xy + / -

§3. cAc D~I LUQNG TRUNG BINH

? ~ A A

CUA HAl SO KHONG AM

Cac bat dang thirc so sanh cac dai luong trung binh ella hai so khong am Ia cac bat dang thirc don gian nhat nlurng ciing duoc Slr dung thuong xuyen nhat trong toan phd thong trung hoc, No cling Iii xuat phat diem eho nhtrngket qua khai quat hon, sau sAc hon sau nay. Vi vay, cluing ta bat dau bang viec nghien ciru cac dai Iuong trung binh ella hai so khong am.

V 6i hai so khong am a, b, kf hieu

A= a+h 2

G=J;;b

Ian hrot Ia trung binh cong, trung binlt nluin, trung binh toan phuong 2) ella hai so a, b.

Neu ca hai so a, b da eho deu Iii so duong thi ta con ki hieu

2 H=-1-1

-+a b

Iii trung binh dieu hoa 2) ella hai so do.

1) Ten tac gia cua bai toano

2) Trung blnh cong, trung blnh nhan, trung binh toan phtrong, trung blnh dieu hoa tieng Anh Iii arithmetic mean, geometric mean, quadratic mean, harmonic mean.

92

Bat dang thirc dan gian nhat, eo ban nhat rna ta da biet la \ix, x2 ;::: 0, trong d6 dang thirc chi xay ra khi x = 0 (dinh If 2, §2). Mac du eire kl dan gian nhung bat dang thtrc nay lai Hi nguon goc cua nhieu bat dang thirc quan trong va la mot ki thuat eo ban nhat trong phep cluing minh bat dang thirc, thea d6 d~ chirng minh mot dai hrong khong am, ta thirong tim each viet bieu thirc dtroi dang mot binh phuong dung. Trong thuc te, nhieu khi viec dua mot bieu thirc ve dang mot binh phuong kh6 han la viec viet bieu thiic d6 diroi dang tong cua nhirng binh phuong roi ap dung tinh chat cong cac bat dang thirc cung chieu, ta e6

x2 + i +z2 + ... +t2;:::0, dang thirc chi xay ra khi x = y = z = ... = t = 0 .

Trong bat dang thirc \ix, x2 ;::: 0, neu lay x = f; - Jb ((J,b;::: 0) va sau vai bien d6i dan gian, ta rut ra

(J+b r-;

-- ;::: -v (J/J hay A ;::: G ,

2

trong d6 dang tlurc chi xay ra khi f; - Jb = 0 <=> (J = b .

, it dana thti G h hai ,lId

Ap dung bat dang t uc A;::: e 0 ar so -'-b ta iroc

a

!(!+!);::: J!.! = _1_, <=> M ;::: _2_ <=> G;::: H .

2 (J b a b j;h !+!

(/ b

Mat khac, trong bat dang thirc \ix, x2 ;::: 0, neu lay x = a - b thi ta e6

( )2 0 (/2 + }/ ( a + b)' ~ a' + b' a + b Q A

a=b ;::: <=> ;::: -- <=> ;:::--<=>;::: .

2 2 2 2

Vay ta e6 day bat dang tlnrc Q;::: A;::: G;::: H, trong d6 moi bat dang thirc tro thanh dAng thirc chl khi (J = b .

Dinh li

Q;:::A;:::G;:::H

trong do A, G, Q, H theo thu tu hI trung binh cong, trung binh 111/(111, trung binh toanphuang va trung binh die'u hoa cua hai siI duang a, b.

Bat dang thirc A;::: G thuong duoc sir dung han ca va diroc goi Ia bdt dl1ng thta: gii((J trung binh cong vel trung binh nluin hay bii! ddng thirc AM-GM (goi tat la bdt

./

93

dJng thuc A-G). Day la each goi terr 6 niroc ngoai, ph6 bien la 6 cac nuoc Au, My, con 6 Viet Nam nhieu ngiroi van quen goi (mot each khong dung) Ia bat dang thirc Cauchy. Trong bai tiep theo, ta se thay bat dang thirc gitra trung binh cong va trung binh nhan con dung cho tnrong hop nhieu han hai so.

Sau day la y nghia hinh hoc cua bat dang thirc A ;::: G . Gia sir ta xet 'tap cac hlnh chi! nhat c6 cung dien tich S da cho. Neu a, b la do dai cac canh cua mot hlnh chi!

nhat nhu vay thi ta co lib = S .con chu vi hinh chi! nhat la 2 (li + h). Theo bat dAng tlurc A-G, ta c6

II + h ;::: J;;;; ~ 2 ( a + b) ;::: 4J;;;; = 4JS

2 .

dang thtrc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = J;;;; = JS .

VI vay trong ca« hinli chii nluit ClIng dien tich S, liinh vuong canh JS co chu vi 0110 nhdt. Tuong nr, bat dang thirc A-G cling cho thay la trong cdc hinh chii nluit

co cunv dill vi P. hinh vuonv ('(11111 P co (lien tich Ion nluit.

o ,.,. 4 .

De ket thuc bai nay, chiing ta se cho mot each if giai bat dang thirc a+h ~h

--;:::'l./an

2

bang hinh hoc, each giai thich nay diroc cho la cua Euclid (mac du khong chac la dieu nay co dung hay khong) va trinh bay mot so vi du sir dung bat dang tlurc A-G va dinh If tren trong cluing minh bat dang thirc.

Xet nira duong tron dtrong kinh AB, tren doan AB lay mot diem C. Duong vuong goc voi AB tai C cat mra dirong tron tai diem D . Dat AC =. a,BC = b thi duong cao DC cua tam

giac vuong DAB co d¢ daila DC = J;;;; , con

. , l' a + b .

ban kinh nua duong tron a R = -- .

2

\

o .

a+b ,-

VI dirong kinh Ia day 160 nhat nen suy ra R ~ DC hay --;::: '1./ ab . 2

Dang thuc xay ra chi khi DC == DO (0 la tam mra dirong tron), hay C == 0, khi d6 'a = AC = BC = b. /

94

Vi du 1. Chirng minh rang neu (J, b, e la ba so thuc d uong thi ab be C(J -+-+-?(J+b+c.

C (J b

Chung minh. Chti y rang ve trai bat dang thirc din cluing minh co th~ viet lai duoi d<;lng

(Jb + be +~=.!_((Jb + bC)+.!_(~~+~)+.!_(C(J + ab).

C (J b 2c (J 2(J b 2b C

Thea bat dang thirc A-G, ta co

.!_( (Jh + be) > b: .!_( be +~) > C" .!_(~ + ab) > a

. 2 C (J - '2 (J b -"' 2 b e _.

Cong ba bat ding thirc nay, ta suy ra dieu phai chiing minh. 0

Vi du 2. Chung minh rang lix,y> 0, (I + 2X)( 1 + ;,)[1+ ~ J ;, 81. Chung minh, Ta co

(1+2X)(1+L.)' = 1+2x+L.+ y? 1+2h + y (bat d~"ng thirc A-G)

2x 2x

D!ng thirc xay ra khi va chi khi

~ (I +~ + ~ +4 r ;'(1 + 2.2+4)' = 81. (bat dang thirc A-G). 2x=L

2x.

4 {x = 1

fY=fY¢::> y=4·l1

.\,y>O

Vi du 3 .. Chung minh rtlOg neu a, h, c Ia dQ dai ba canh cua mottam giac thi J(J+h-e +.Jb+c-(J +.Je+(J-:h ~ J;; +Jh +J:.

95

Chung minh, C6 th~ viet ve trai thanh tong cua ba trung binh cong va ap dung A s Q, ta c6:

J"+c-a+Jc+a-b r. ~('+a-h+J(/+h-(' r:

. ~"c ; ~,\/(J ••

2 2

Cong ba batdang thirc nay, ta duoc bat dang thiic can cluing minh. Dang thuc xay ra khi va chi khi (J + b - c = b + (' - a = (' + a - b <=> (J = b = (' , nrc la tam giac drr cho deu .:. ~

va

Trong nhieu tnrong hop. d6 c6 th6 str dung dinh if tren, cac em hoc sinh can thanh thao nhfrng bien d6i dai so co ban va can phai co mot chut "oc nrong urong". Dac bier trong da so tnrong hop, cue tri cua bieu thirc rhuong dat tai bien va dieu nay goi y each bien doi. Chang han, trong vi du sau, vice du do.in cue tri dat tai bien nrc la

x = 13,xy = 6,x: = 12 hay .r = 13,y = 213,.: = 413 goi Y ta nghi den danh gia

x y ~

.13 + 213 '2 2 ~ 13 . 2J3 ? 2 .

lJ3 ~ .r ~ min lv.z]

la ba so thoa man dieu kien .\y ? 6

" x.: ? 12 .

Vi du 4. Cho .v, y,,:

. Tim gia tri 16n nhat cua bieu thirc

3 I 1

S=-+-+-.

x y

Cidi Ta co

M~t khac

~+: ~ >Hl-;)~ :2~+Jdl-;)

~_!_.21~._}_'__+-1-.(1-~1 (do gi<i thiet xy?6)

y ~ J3 2J3 J3 y

96

,; ~.( JJ + 2JJ F .1( I ~ :) (bat dang thirc A-G)

1 1

=-+--

13 213

(dang thtrc chi xay ra khi x = fj,y = 2fj). Tuong nr ta co:

_!_+_!_=~+_!_(1-~)=_!_.2 {i2 +_!_(1-~),;1_.2~ x . z +_1 (1-~)

x z z x z z ~12 . x z z J3 4J3 J3 z

~ : ( JJ + 4JJ) + ~ ( 1- ~ ) = 4~ + ~

(dang thtrc chi xay ra khi x = fj, z = 4-13 ).

O de 5 3 1 1 15 co 0 max = J3 + 213 + 4.fi = 4/3 U

Bait~p ~ __

14. Cho hai dirong tron ban kinh a, b tiep xiic ngoai nhau. Chung minh rang khoang each giiia hai tiep diem cua hai dirong tron voi tiep tuyen chung ngoai

cua chiing co d9 dai bang J;;h. Tir do suy ra bat dang thirc A-G cho hai so dirong.

15. (Bat dang thtrc giiia trung binh cong va trung binh nhan cua 3 va 4 so khong am).

, . . a + b + e + d 4r-:-: I

.a) Chung minh rang Va,h,e,d ~ 0, 4 ~ '1ahell I.

, , ,. . . a+b+c 3r;-

b) Tu do chirng minh rang Va,h,e ~ 0,' ~ vahe

3

(phuong phap chirng minh bang quy nap kieu Cauchy,xem them 6 §4).

"

16. (Chung minh bat dang thirc A-G bang each quy ve mot bien) V6'i hai so khong . am a, b da cho, luon co th~ chon ra dircc mot so Ion hon hay bang so kia.

II Kf hieu if;; doc III can so h9C bac 4 cua a. do III so duong co luy thira bac 4 bang a.

7A-TAI LI~U GKCT DAI s6 10

97

Khong mat tong quat, c6 th~ gia thiet a ::2: b ::2: o. Hay dat a = t2 b voi t e 1 M dira bat dang tlnrc A-G ve mot bat dang tlurc cua bien t. '

17. Cho x, y, Z dirong thoa man dieu kien x + y + Z :=;; 1. Tim gia tri nho nhat cua bieu thirc

111 !=x+Y+z+-+-+-.

X y Z

18. Chang minh rang v6'i 4 s6 thuc tuy Y x,y,z,t , bat dang thirc sau luon dung:

3 ( x + y + Z + t)2 ::2: 8 ( xy + xz + xt + yz + yt + zt) .

19. (Michale Mobius) Cho 4 s6 thuc x,y,z,t thoa man dieu kien x2 + i :=;; 1 va z2 + t2 :=;; 1 . ChUng minh dng

~(x+z)2 +(y+t)2 +~(x-z/ +(y_t)2 :=;; 2J2.

20. (France Pre - MO 2005). Cho x,y,z dirong va c6 tong cac binh phuong bang 3. Chung minh rang

xy + yz + zx ::2: 3 . z x Y

21. (USA MO 1998). Chang minh rang voi moi s6 dirong a.b,c

1 1. 1 1

--::---:---- + + < -

aJ +b3 +abc b3 +c3 + abc c3 +a3 + abc - abc·

22. (IMO Shortlist 1996). Cho x,y,z la ba s6 duong c6 tfch bang 1.

Chang minh rang

xy + yz + zx

~ ~ ~ ~ 5 5 :=;;1.

x + y + xy y + z + yz z + X + zx

23. Cho a.b,c la ba s6 dtrong c6 tong bang 3. Chang minh rang

abc 3 abc

--+--+-- > - > --+--+-- 1 + b2 1 + c2 1 + a2 - 2 - 1 + a2 1 + b2 1 + c2 •

24. Chang minh rang voi moi a.b.c.d > 0

a b3 (' d3 a+b+c+d

---::-+ + + >-----

a' + b2 b2 + ("2 ('2 + d2 d2 + a2 - 2

98

7B-TAI LI~U GKCT D~I 56 10

§4. BAT DANG THU'C GiDA TRUNG BiNH <-tONG vA TRUNG BiNH NHA.N

Trong bai nay, chiing ta se phat bieu va chirng minh bat dang thtrc rna rong cua bat dang thirc A-G, trong do co de cap den khai niern can bac n cua mot so khong am. Vi vay, chung ta se bat dau bai nay bang each gioi thieu torn tat khai niem can bac n cua mot s6 khong am va cac tinh chat quan trong nhat lien quan den can bac II. Nhac lai rang; thea dinh nghia, can bac 3 cua so thirc ada. cho la so' thuc co luy thira bac 3 bang a. N6i

each khac, can bac 3 cua a la nghiern cua phirong trinh x' = a . Tirong tu, can bac 2 ella s6 a la cac nghiem (neu co) cua phuong trinh x2 = a . Tir do ta thay:

- SO 0 co can bac 2 va can bac 3 deu bang 0;

- M8i so a deu co duy nhat mot can bac 3, ki hieu la ~ ; gia tri nay luon

cung dau voi a.

- SO am khong co can bac 2;

- M6i s6 duong« co 2 can bac 2 d6i nhau, gia' tri duong diroc kf hieu

Ia Fa.

Nhu vay, voi moi s6 a khong am da cho, Fa (wang irng, ~) la so thtrc khong am duy nhat c6 btnh phuong (urong ling, lap phuong) bang a.

Mot each tong quat, ta c6 dinh nghia va dinh 11 sau day:

Dinh nghia

N iu n la mot .\.{{ nguyen duang va a hi m¢t so thuc dd cho thi din hac II Clla so' a (nell co) 1£1 cdc s6' thuc co lu.v thita bd« 11 dung bdn.g a.

Dinh u

So' 0 co mot din bdc n duy nhdt 1£1 0 (ki hieu lei ~ ); moi s6' thuc a de'u co mot cdn bdc Ie duy nhdt (ki hieu hi ~ ) - s6' nay Cling ddu voi a; s6 am khong co can bac chdn; s6' duang co hai can bdc du'in ddi nhau (ki

hifu la ±~ , trong do ~ fa gia tri duang). D~lc biet, can h(lc 1 eua a fa chinh no lien khong dung ki hieu .v;; , cdn hac hai khong dm eua so' a duac ki hieu 1£1 Fa .

D~ dang chirng minh cac tinh chat sau day cua can bac n:

1) !fa =0 .

2) Va> o,if;> 0.

99

3) \ja~O,(~r =a."

4) \-I > 0 ",-;; -

v a _ ,:y a" - a .

6) \j a ~ 0, n~ = if:;. (m, n nguyen dirong),

7) \j a, b ~ O,~. ifh = if;;b (n nguyen Ion han 1).

~~

8) \j a ~ 0, \j b > 0, .r: = " - (11 nguyen Ion han 1).

'\ib b

9) Neu a, b Iii hai s6 khong am, n Iii mot songuyen duong thl

a<b¢:=?~ <ifh.

Can bac n cua mot s6 dirong thuong Iii s6 vo ti, D~ biet gia tri giln dung cua ~, cac em hoc sinh eo th~ sir dung may tinh earn tay (changhan may Casio Ix-500, ... ).

Su dung can tlurc, chung ta eo th~ rna rong dinh nghia luy thira voi s6 mil nguyen dtrong d€ dinh nghia luy thira voi s6 mil hiru ti cua cac s6 dirong nhu sau: Gia sir a Iii mot s6 dirong vii q Iii mot s6 huu ti. Ta dinh nghia:

(1) Neu q nguyen dirong thl aq = ~ (tich cua q thira s6 a). "

(2) Neu q = 0 thl aq = aU = 1.

1 (3) Neu q nguyen am thl -q nguyen dirong vii a" = ---::;; . a

(4)Neu q= m,(m,nEZ;n>O) thi a" =a7; =U.

n

Trong bai t~p 14, ta dii thay la bat d~ng thirc A-G van con dung cho tnrong hop 3 hay 4 s6 khong am. MQt each tong quat, ta dinh nghia : Trung binh cong va trung

binh nhan cua n s6 khong am ai' a2' a3"'" an la cac dai hrong

100

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