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John Thompson Modern Course for Piano - 4th Grade

John Thompson Modern Course for Piano - 4th Grade

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JOHNTHOMPSONS MODERN COURSE fORTHE PIAN£

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g{;_ fOURTH GRfIDf . BOOK

Sometlti!l9 Mw Every ftSSOlt

.

PROCEEDS IN All DIRfCTlONS fROM THE POINT Of ADVANCEMENT REACHED AT THE END Of THE THIRO GRADE BOOK WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS GIOEN TO STVLE.

THE W{Ll{S MUSlC CO.

CINClNNATl, O.

CONTENTS

"Somethinq New Everg Lesson"

Loeschhorn-"The Juggler", Op. 96, No. 11 (Figures divided between the hands) ..•..........

Beethoven-"Andante" from 5th Symphony (Importance of Simplicity) •... 0 ••••••••••••••

Masseoet-"Aragonaise" from "Le Cid"

(Close finger action) 0 ••••••••••••••••••••••••

"Petite Russian Rhapsodie"

(Two Russian Folk-songs) .

Heller-'~II Penseroso"

(Left hand melody playing) .

.Jensen-vt'Elfin Dance", Op. 33

(Importance of Style) .

Grieg-"Waltz",Op. 12, No.2

(Distlnctioe Waltz Style) .

Schytte-"At Evening"

(Nocturne) 0 ••••••••

Tchaikowsky-"The Skylark"

(Style) .....•... , .

Thompson-"Etude in Style" .

Schubert-"Valse Sentimentale"

(Early Viennese Waltz Style) .

Bach, J. S.-"Prelude" in F major

(Phrasing and Clarity) .

"Arkansas Traveler"-Folk-tune

(Humoresque) .

Chaminade-"Scarf Dance"

(Tempo Rubato) .

Thompson-"Imprornptu ..

(Style) .....•.....................•..•..•..

Hauser-"H ungarian"

(Style) .

"You"-Cuban Folk-song

(Habanera Style).. .. . .

Chopin-"Prelude" in B minor, Op. 28, No.6

(Left hand melody playing) .

7

Bertini-"Etude"

(Arm and Wrist Octalles) ....... 0" ... 0 •••••••

Bohm-"Calm as the Night"

(Famous Art Son/!.) , .. '.'

Ornamen rs o}

Playing Two against Three .

Haydn-"Menuet" (rom E flat major Sonata

(Form and Analysis) .

Bach, J. S.-"Prelude" in D major

(Polyphonic Playinf,) .... 0 ••••••••••••••••••

Page

2

UAy-ay-ay"-Creole Song

. (Style) .•..•................•...........•..

Bach, Carl Ph. E.-"Solfeggietto"

(Style) .............................•••..•.

4

11

14

16

18

20

Thompson-"Nocturne"

(For Left hand alone) .

Tchaikowsky-"Romeo and Juliet"

(Orchestral OtIerture) ••.................. I ••••

Schumann-"Trliumerei" (Dreaming)

(Revery) .. " ., •............................

Strauss, Johann-"Artist's Life"

(Recital TranscriptiCn) .•....................

Brahms-"Cradle Song"

(N()1je/ty Recital Arrangement) .

Mozart-"Rondo" from C major Sonata

(Form and Analysis) .

SchUtt-"Canzonetta" in D major. Op. 28, No.2

(Slyle) .

Salnt-Saens-"My Heart at Thy Sweet Voice"

(From "Sampson and Delilah") .

Sonata and Sonata Form .

Beethoven--"Sonata" in F minor, Op. 2, No. 1

(Sonata Form) , .

Tchaikowsky-Theme from 6th Symphony (Pathetique)

(5/4 Rhythm) .

Certificate of Merit .

22 24

28

30

. 31

34

36

40

42

44

Copyright, MCMXL, by The Willis Music Co.

W. M. Co. 5958

Printed In U. S. A:

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Page

45

48

50

51

54

5S

58

60

62

6S

66

72

74

77

81 84

85

90 93

PREFACE

THIS book, like all others in JOHN THOMPSON'S MODERN COURSE FOR THE PIANO is designed to carry forward, both musically and pianistically from the point of advancement reached at the end of the preceding book.

STYLE

All the material has been carefully selected and arranged to increase the student's knowledge and skill in the important matter of STYLE.

Diversified styles of composition, individual and characteristic of a variety of composers, as well as the development of the performer's siyle of playing have here received serious consideration.

VARIETY OF MATERIAL

t As in the THIRD GRADE BOOK, the contents of this volume has been intentionally varied and made to cover a wide field in the choice of material. Differences in aims and taste among students are pronounced in this grade and are much more manifest than in the earlier years of study. For this reason it is assumed that free use of supplementary material will be made. In conjunction with the study of the FOURTH GRADE BOOK the thought. ful teacher will assign many examples from the Masters to the serious student. On the other hand, for those who are pursuing the study of piano for drawing room purposes, the wise teacher will at this point assign good music in the lighter vein.

The FOURTH GRADE BOOK is designed to provide acomprehensive textbook whereon either type of pupil may build solidly and with profit to musical taste. If it is used as directed. giving dose attention to all foot-notes, the pupil's interest will be maintained throughout and results are assured.

P.S. Certificate of Merit (Diploma) will be found on Page 98.

FOURTH GRADE BOOK OF ETUDES (In all keys)

For furtber technical development in this grade, -Iohn Thompson has compiled, annotated, and edited his FOURTH GRADE BOOK OF ETUDES which provides studies in all major and minor keys with comprehensive preparatory exercises for each example.

This book contains choice etudes from Czerny, BurgmUlIer, Heller, Bertini, Cramer, etc. and has been specially prepared to supplement the FOURTH GRADE BOOK in the MODERN COURSE.

W. M. Co. 5958

DIVIDING FIGURES BETWEEN THE HANDS

The passages in the following example should be tossed from one hand to the other with the utmost smoothness and grace.

Pay particular attention to tonal balance and strive to make the figures sound as though they were played with one hand.

The Juggler

Op.96, No. U

A. Loeschhorn (1819-1005)

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rTHE IMPORTANCE OF SIMPLICITY

and Ie ::: I: 0/ etc

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This same simplicity should be applied in the matter of Interpretation. Not always is a "chills and fever" rendition the most effective. Strive to make the interpretation at all times simple and logical, thereby causing the emotional heights and depths,when occasion demands, to be all the more effective.

r has been said that "All great things are simple". This principle has been exemplified in the music

of the grellt ma ster s. \Vhereas the immature composer is inclined to include every device in the musical lexicon in the effort to create an effect, the master selects but a simple lIIoti/J and by skillful handling develops a musical monument which stands for all time.

The following theme from the Beethoven Fifth Symphony demonstrates this point very forcefully. Note the utter simplicity and purity of the material used. The melody is able to stand alone and requires no elaborate accompaniment to bolster it up. The motif which forms the principal rhythmical structure consists of a simpl~ dotted-eighth followed by a sixteenth,

thus;

,: ~'jf ~ ('!rITe rtc, This figure is preserved almost throughout and is conrs:

tras~~d with a triplet figure, _ d g pn 13 : etc. which later is used as a background in

the inner and lower voices, thus;

Pay particular attention to the marks of dynamics and make rather strong contrast between forfe and piano, The melody line is so obvious that it needs no pointing out.

Theme from Second Movement of Beethoven's Symphony No.5

Ludwig van Beethoven Arranged by J. T.

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-. ~r ~ . . . M assenet's opera "Le Cid" "Was fir':t prodl'c,ed November 30',18,85, in Paris. Don Roderigo, "Le Cid"

(lila Chiif) is loved by the Infanta of Spam and also by Ch irnene, daughter of a Count. The Infanta realizes she cannot marry him because of her royal blood and gives him up to Ch imene. As her father has insulted and defeated Cid's fatber and he has in turn avenged the stain on his family's honor by killing the Count, poor Cid despairs of Jove and happiness. The King permits him to lead the Spanish foroes against the Moors. News comes that he is slain in battle and Ch irnene is heartbroken. She is weeping bitterly when the King enters and explains that the Cid is not dead but victorious. The ballet music is from the festive scene, Act II, and the following theme is No.3 "the dance music from Aragon".

Aragonaise

from the opera "Le Cid"

Assai vivo

Jules Massenet (1842-1912)

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A RHAPSODY is a composition of irregular form usually written on themes from folk-songs,although the term is often used in connection with fantasies on art music, such as operatic airs, for instance, The following piece is written on two Russian folk-songs - the first, in Lyric Form, and the second. in batleR Porm:

Petite Russian Rhapsody

Adapted by John Thompson

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14

LEFT HAND MELODY PLAYING II Penseroso

(The Thinker)

Andantino con tenerezza

t"l accompagnamento leggt'ero

Stephen Heller (1813-1888)

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:16

THE IMPORTANCE OF STYLE

STYLE is a term frequently used in music with various applications. It may refer to the composer's manner of writing, the character of the music itself, or to the /ttyllJ oj'pet;/ormance.

Attack and release; balancing of tonal and rhythmical effects; grace, clarity and precision in technical matters, aU make for style of performance and form a vital part of Interpretation. Simply to play loud and soft, fast and slow, is not enough. The manner or style of performance often makes the difference between mediocrity and real artistry. In the following composition the material used is quite ordinary, but when played in goot! styllJ, the result is a musical gem worthy of a pface on any student-recital program.

Elfin Dance

Op .. 33

Vivace, con grazia

I:)

Adolf Jensen (1837-1879)

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TIlE 'VALTZ FORM

The WALTZ probably is the most popular and fascinating of all danee forms. Perhaps one reason for this is its variety and elasticity in the matter of treatment. We have, for instance, the slow,dreamy type of Waltz; the brilliant concert Waltz; waltzes with a note of tragedy, such as those of ~Hbelius and Tchaikowsky; and of course the Viennese Waltz which is distinct in itself with its heavily accented beats.

Grieg adds yet another distinctive treatment to his waltzes. They seem to reflect an atmosphere of freshness associated with snow-clad mountains and land-locked fjords. This particular waltz is most effective when played without pedal, except for the "Coda" which is sostenu~o in character.

Waltz

Op .. 12, No.2

Edvard Grieg (18~3-1907)

Allegro moderato

I fl 1 4,1 .~ 4 2 1 2
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.J ,v. M.Co. 5958

20

NOCTURNE is a term used to designate a type of composition but refers more to character than to actual Form.

Nocturne means "Night Song" and ther-eby establishes at Once the mood and style of the music.

The Nocturne was developed to its highest point perhaps, by Chopin. The following example by Schytte makes fine preparation for Chop in Nocturnes to follow later on.

Note that the melody throughout lies in the upper voice, played by the right hand. The broken figure in 16th notes, divided between the hands, preserves a feeling of motion which is important to the composition. Be sure this figure is never allowed to obscure the melody j rather, keep it well in the background.

una corda z: apply Soft Pedal tt·e corde. release Soft Pedal

At Evening

8

Ludwig SchyUe (1850 -1909)

8

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una corda

W.ld.Co. lillS8

Give to this piece your best style in the manner of phrasing, and play the TRIPLET figures in clean and sparkling manner.

The Skylark

P. 1. Tchaikowsky (18-10-1893)

p~ . J

5

23

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a tempo

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1 ;1 I)

W.M.CO.1I9S8

Etude in Style

Allegretto 2

5

1

2 1

5

pedal sz'mz'le

John Thompson

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W.:M.Co. 6958

28

Schubert wrote quiie a few little musical gems depicting the Viennese wal tz style. Liszt was so.1 charmed with them that he was inspired to make concert transcriptions of a set of them which were ..". published under the title SOIREES DE VIENNA. The folIowing example is one of the most popular of the set. It is presented here in its original form -as Schubert wrote it- and w ill prepare the pupil for study of the Liszt transcription at some later period.

Valse sentimentale

Allegro

Franz Schubetr (1797-1828) L

~ II

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11-

29

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YlM.Co. 61158

30

OAREFUL PHRASING AND OLARITY

Play all passages in sixteenth notes with well-articulated finger legato. begin on the tlNJak part of the beat. Try to imitate the effect of a Ctaviohord , Keep the tempo strict and not too fast.

Note that most Phras~

Prelude

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01

~----~~~~~~~~--~~--~~~--~~--~~------~~~~--~ The ARKANSAS TRAVELER is a well-known American folk-tune in humorous vein. It is treated

here in Variation Style and should be played in the manner of a musical joke.

Follow all marks of phrasing and expression with the same .ea re given to, a more serious number and the result will be a novelty for the recital program.

Arkansas Traveler

(Humoresque)

Allegro non troppo

Arranged by J. T.

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W. M.Co. 6958

For li~tor 4t~ Grade solos see John Thompson's GUIDE FOR PIANO TEACHERS, supplied upon request by your dealer or TIe

Willts MUSIC Co. .

32

Poco me no mosso

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34

TEMPO RUBATO

Ruhato literally ceans'to rob'. Applied to tem. po (tempo rubato). It indicates a 'bending' of the. r. hyth!1 Usually this is accomplished by having the longer notes steal a little time from the shorter ones. ~1 instance, instead of playing the opening measure of the following example in strict .time, the fir. beat (quarter note) may be held a little longer than its actual value and the fOllowing eighth netplayed a bit faster to make up the difference. This must be handled with great care however, othf wise the rhythra "Will be marred. Rubato , properly applied, will add a certain elasticity to the rhyt~

and will pro,e most effective in certain types of music. t

Chaminade was ,ery fond of the ruhato style and used it very freely in her compositions. i

Scarf Dance (Pas des Echarpes)

Cecile chamil (Born.Paris, 1~

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Wo If. Co. 5958

88 I

IMPROMPTU literally means something that is unprepared. The music it refers to is a compositiQ~l written or played withOt!t previous preparation. However, a piece which has been written out, edited engraved and printed, cac !:.ardly be said to lack preparation or constructive care on the part of th~ composer.

Improvisation, or extemporaneous playing, much in vogue in earlier days, is unfortunately becoming a lost art.

Today the term Impr()mE~ is used to designate a composition which is not written in any set forrn ] and which has the character and freedom of an improvisation. Both Schubert and Chopin left us man,,[ fine examples of the Impromptu style. Naturally the title gives a direct clue to Interpretation. Avoid a studied rendition of the following example therefore,and strive to make it as spontaneous as possible.

Impromptu

John Thompsoi

Allegro anim~ 2 5 I
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.. _..J 40

MICHAEL HAUSER, a nat ive of Hungary, is well known through his compositions and transcriptions for violin, particularly those in the Hungarian idiom. The following excerpt, adapted for piano, is from a composition originally composed for violin solo. It should be played in the style of a Lassan Or lament, which usua.lly forms the slo'W' movement in the Hungarian Rhapsody form, and which was explained in the THIRD GRADE BOOK (page 70).

Try to produce the most socorous tone possible and be sure to observe the marks of phrasing, remembering that the phrasing marks for the pianist are identical with those indicating the bowing for the violinist and, when properly performed, have pretty much the same effect.

Ad g'

Hungarian

Michael Hauser (1822-1887)

Adapted for piano solo by J. T.

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42

The following beautiful Folk-Song from Cuba is in HABANERA form- a dance form alreadyencop..tl

ered in the FIRST GRADE BOOK. .

Besides offering a charming recital number-, it makes excellent rhythmical study, demanding utmos precision on the part of the performer. Be particularly careful of the triplets in measures 16 and 17J

I

You

l

(Habanera)

Animato

CUban Folk ~SOll

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> -fir :::>-

44

While Chopin was essentially a pianist and composed almost exclusively for the piano, he had a deCk] ed fondness for the 'cello. This feeling is reflected in many of his compositions where the meloc is obviously 'ctlllo-lik6 in quality and lies in that register on the piano keyboard best suited for aniIr!· itation of the 'cello tone. In fact, several of his piano compositions have been arranged quite success fully as 'cello solos.

An example of this treatment is found in the following Prelude where the melody lies in the left han-, throughout. Give to it your best possible singing tone, follow the phrasing closely (it represents th'l bowing) and strive to reproduce the deep, rich and sonorous tones of a 'cello.

Prelude

Op.28, No.6

Lento assai

F. Chopi (1810-1849:1

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1
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.
.
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1

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.46

...

CREOLE songs belong to that group which, through the melting-pot of races, has set up in America an individual folk-lore. The French and Spanish colonists, who settled in Louisiana, used to sing their own national folk-songs; but in time, after the races inter-married, their music appeared in the form of new songs for fiestas and at carnival time. The Atnerican composer, Louis Gottschalk, ased Creole themes in m.any o~ his piano pieces.

Ay-ay-ay

(Creole Song)

I'} JJ .'_'f'. ... 3~ . 3~ ,...._ a I Y::""'_ ..:..it ..:.
. . .
t .
4!J .. - -J -..._../ . ... .. ..J. ~~~
m/ .
~: q~: 11'1'
I I I I
· .
· .
. .
. Allegretto ~

Arranged by J. T. i 2 8 i

>-

>-

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W.M.CO.6£58

48

p sti

Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, born at Weimar, Germany, was the third son of the famous J.S. Bach. Although he entered law school when he was 17, he later followed the tradition of his family and became a musician of prominence. For 29 years he was in the service of the Crown Prince of Prussia, who later became Frederick II. In addition to several hundred pieces for clavier, he composed two Oratorios, several Cantatas, many trios, sonatas, concertos, etc.

According to some musical authorities his works form a sort of bridge between the styles of Handel and .J. S. Bach and those of Haydn and Mozart who followed later.

Sol/f'.gg,·etio literally means Ulittle solfeggio". The title was chosen probably because the piece is so much in the style of an Italian vocal exercise of the 18th century.

SoIfeggietto

Carl Phi lipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788)

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W.M.Co.MI58

50

OCTAVE STUDY

Practice this etude at moderate tempo using at first only wris t octaves. When this can be done with ease, repeat using fore-arm octaves. Finally, as speed develops, combine the two attacks.

,.

Etude

Allegretto

Henri Bertini (1798-1870)

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'- W.M.Co. 5958

I For a comprt'hensrre study of Octaye Play 109, use John Thompson's Octave Boe .... PrIce $1. 50

51

CARL BOHM, a native of Germany, was born at Berlin, September 11, 1844, and died in 1U20. He

wrote moderately good music but perhaps his one rns st e rplece was the song, CALM AS THE NIG!IT This particular song is worthy of Schubert or Brahms and ranks among the best in song literature. Happily it adapts itself very successfully as a piano solo and the following version will afford a novelty for the pupils' recital program.

Calm as the Night (Still wie die Nacht)

Carl Bohrn Arranged by John Thompson

Andante e cantabile 5

6

~ ~A~ A~ ~

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. · .
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2

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W.M.Co. 6968

54

ORNAMENTS

The term grace-1lotes (or grac6.'l) is given to auxiliary notes used as ornamentation. They were used for several reasons, one of which was to give a sustained effect to melody tones in the days when keyboard instruments lacked the sustaining qualities of the modern pian~.

They existed in many forms- some quite complicated. A few of the more common ones are listed below.

Written
, "
rr F
Written
, fr F Written

~.

F

Written

Written

@ rCl)r

or Written

@f r

1'lay"d

ApPoGl!iatura (ap-pod-ja-too-ra) to "lean" or "dwell" upon.

This type of grace-note is played on tiM heat and takes ~ the value of the following note. (Two-thirds if the following note is a dotted note).

:4 c: r r

Playe-d

Acdaccatura (at.chak-ka-too-ra) to "crush".

The grace-note is literally "crushed" into the following note almost instantaneously, no special time value being allowed for it. Note the little line through the stem ,« the only difference in appearance from the app4.'7Jiatura.

@iO'-

Played

The Mordent is a sign placed over the note and includes the written note ~ D and the note immediately below, thus;

Played

The Inverted Mordent consists of the written note and the first note above, thus;

Note the absence of the little line through the figure.

PIJI.yed

The Turn includes the written note, the note above and the note below, thus; ~ r rrrpf ~

Played Sometimes the Turn is placed immediately over the note in which case it is 4 r r C r 4 played thus;

In modern music most ornaments and graces are written out in regular-sized notes.

PLAYING TWO AGAINST THREE

The rhythmical problem of playing two notes against three is quite simple when counted in the following manner;

COIWt. OPE, TTYO ANI) THllES. Note that both hands play together on the count of ONE. The second count is tlivid".d ~twun tM hands.

On the third count one hand plays alone.

The above procedure is simply reversed when the left hand has three notes and the right hand two notes-

66 This Menuetto from the Haydn E flat sonata is written in three-part Song Form. The various Themes

and Parts ar e indicated with tlw following abbreviati~ns: .

M.T. I

II

III S.T. R. Coda

Main Theme First Part Second Part Third Part Sub Theme

Return (fragment of a former theme) Closing section

Finale from Sonata in E flat major

Tempo di Menuetto ):126

AfT. *)~

Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

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.,

.)The t ime-value of this grace is taken from that of the preceding eighth-rest, as follows: r )' E • W pi I

W.M.Co. 51158

56

.P

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~ .. - r -+ ........ ~ .. .. POLYPHONIC MUSIC

The terms Polyphonic and Homophonic lose most of their terror when analyzed. Both words come fro;;; the Greek and have the following meaning:

Poly e Many Homo = Single Phonic ;; Voice

It will readily be seen then that Polyphonic means matly voices, and Homophonic means a .~illgle voice.

Used musically, the terms are applied as follows:

When the melody is given to one part only, while supplementary voices and instruments (the accompaniment) are used simply to fill up the ha.rmony , the piece is said to be in Homopnonic style.

However, when each voice is made to carry a melody of its own; the various parts being bound together in such manner that they form a harmonious whole, and each part being equally important, the composition is considered to be in Polyphollic style.

Many of the Old Masters employed the Polyphonic style of writing, particularly Bach, and one should listen to polyphonic music in quite a different manner than to that written in the homophonic style. If it were possible to see the manner in which we hear, an attempt to draw it would look something like

! this:

HOMOPHONIC MUSIC

The Melody Line, heard horizontally.

= The accompaniment heard in perpendicular manner against the melody.

POLYPHONIC MUSIC

= All parts are melody lines, therefore all are heard horizontally.

Study the following example from Bach learning first Men voice sf'.parately, then put them together listening carefully to each part and strive to make both sound of equal importance.

Prelude

Vivace

J. S. Bach (1685-1750)

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60

Nocturne

(For the Left Hand alone)

John Thompso

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Tchaikowsky, always most effective in his orchestral works, has given a characteristic treatment t()) Overture to Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet". The arrangement presented here makes use of the S(I ond theme only. This air, always a favorite, has recently been"discovered" in the field of popular m sic and has been published in song version.

It is perhaps a mark of distinction when the melody ora Master can be equally successful both in cla., ic and popular literature.-

From the Overture "Romeo and. Juliet"

Moderato

a tempo

P. I. Tchaikow (1S40-189a)

Arranged by Jt

3 lA'

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W.M.CO.5958

65

Traumerei - German for dreaming- is written in the style of a Revery. A Revery is a dre arzy inst ru , mental composition,having no set form, and should be played somewhat in the manner of a NOCt::..-:::e. This perfect example of Schumann's art requires a most expressive cantabile, (singing style) a.::::l calls for clean polyphonic playing in order to bring out clearly the interweaving of the voices. No:-:- ;articulady the imitation beginning at measure 7 and extending to measure 17.

The title offers a direct clue as to mood.

Traumerei (Dreaming)

Robert Szzumann (1S1'J..:SZ6)

Moderato

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1 a

66

To Oscar Rasbach.

Artist's Life

(Johann Strauss)

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Copyright MCMXXXIX by The Willis Music Co.

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s -A W.N.Co. fi958

Cradle Song

Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) Transcribed by J. T.

With gentle animation

)

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rt I I a 2 1 1 2 1 11 2 1 1 1 2 S 2
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'74

The RO:snO, one of the earliest and most f're quent Iy used music-a! Forms, was developed and br?~11 into pract ica l shape by Philipp Emanuel Bach. It is characterized by a repetition of the Main TJie afte-r each new theme has been heard.

Rondo

(from C major Sonata)

Allegretto grazioso

t ~fain Theme I ~

w. A. MOZr (1756-1791

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Op. 28, NO.2

Edouard Schlitt (1856-1933)

Andantino, tranquillo .A:101 2~

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strz'ngendo

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My Heart at thy Sweet Voice

Aria from "Samson and .Delflah"

81

Andante

Camille Saint- Saens (1835-1922,) Arranged by J. T.

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W.M.Co.l'i958

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W.M.Co. 5958

Poco pili lento -----

. 83

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~ -+ • ~ W.M.Co; tHI58

. . . .

ppp

SONATA and SONATA FORDI

SONATA

In the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries all in.~lr1tmetltal compositions were called sonata.'. The first composer to use the term was Andrea Gabriele in 1568.

Literally sonata means "sound-piece" and the word was used as opposed to cantata, a piece to be sung •. Later both words took on a mote definite meaning and pertained to the Form of the composition.

There were two varieties in early music, sonata da chiesa (church sonatas) and sonata de camera (chamber sonatas). The first being grave and dignified, the second somewhat lighter in character.

SONATA FORM

In order t-o give to music more dramatic power, more depth of expression, composers realized that the simple forms then in use had to be enlarged and expanded in all directions. The monotony of the older forms had reached the point where a listener hearing a piece for the first time, knew exactly what 'was to follow after' the subj ect matter had been presented.

Mozart and Haydn did much to further the development of the Sonata Form but it reached its present state of perfection through the works of Beethoven.

Among musicians today the Sonata Form is considered to be the highest form of music. Sy mphonies ,Concerios, Overtures and Chamber Music are all based on the Sonata Form.

While subject to certain variations, the Sonata Form in brief usually conforms to the following outline.

A- The EXPOSITION in which the Main Theme is followed by a Second theme in a
related key.
Example
Main Theme in Tonic Key.

~"" ....... ...... . . ,~,~ .. ~~~~"" , ...... """ .. "" .... ,,, .... Second Theme in some related key.

B- DEVELOPMENT or working out section in which fragments (patterns) from either
or both themes are treated as the skill and fancy of the composer dictates, either
singly or in combination.
Example
~...,...
etc . J
........ '.
-
(A working out of patterns from 1st and 2nd themes.)
c- RECAPITULATION, which consists of a return to the Main Theme followed by the
Second. The Second Theme this time however is beard in the same frey as the Main
Theme (the Tonic).
Example .
Main Theme in Tonic Key.
Second Theme also in Tonic Key. ;.,'
~~~" ~.,~" .. ,,, ~." , ..... ,~ .. ""'~ ......
.
..
Sometimes a CODA or CLOSING THEME is also added. W.K.Co. 5958

First Movement from Sonata

Op. 2, No.1

85

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I (l\lain Theme I

Allegro J 112 2 ~~

L. van Beethoven (1710-1827)

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W.N.Co. lHl58

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w. )teo. 11058

90

FIVE - FOUR RHYTHl\l

This example from Tchaikowsky affords a very interesting study in an unusual metre- ~~.

While there are many so-called 9~ meters in musical compositions, this is the only example of the "pure" five beats to the measure - the others being a combination of two-and-three or three-and-two.

This is an actual %. "swing" with but one accent to the measure (the first beat). Try if possible to hear either a phonograph record, a radio performance or, better still an actual orchestral performance of this entire movement. For obvious reasons this version had to be condensed.

Note the manner in which Tchaikowsky orchestrates the music and try to imitate as closely as possible in the piano version.

Theme from Sixth Symphony

(Pathetique)

P. r. Tchaikowsky (18-'0-1893) Arranged by J. T.

Allegro con grazia

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21 42

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W.M.Co. 5958

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