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•
Application of FEM to HighRise Building Analysis
Overview of FEM (1)
1. Finite elements are discretization of continuum (structure, solid, fluid, etc). It is of finite size (not infinitesimal as in continuum mechanics) & has a simple geometry e.g. triangle & quadrilateral shapes.
2. FEM transforms a problem with theoretically an infinite number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) to one with a finite number of OOFs.
3. As in other numerical methods, FEM in general yields approximate values of the unknown variables at selected nodes. Values elsewhere are obtained by interpolation or extrapolation.
4. It involves computation of stiffness, nodal forces, etc for typical finite elements selected for the problem. These are then assembled to form the structural values.
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Overview of FEM (2)
5. The formulation involves variational principles. For structural problems, the use of principle of virtual work is convenient For field problems, weak formulation is usually adopted.
6. Even though FEM reduces the OOFs, the amount of data to be handled is often still formidable. Procedures suitable for computer implementation are needed, e.g. direct stiffness method, isoparametric formulation, Gauss quadrature integration, etc.
7. Accuracy of FEM solutions depends on good understanding of the physical problem (including boundary conditions) & appropriate modelling  including choice of element type & meshing.
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Problem Types
1. Static  Linearly Elastic"'''' l/..."l rrtfiJr'i/ ~
(** Superposition is applicable)
2. Static  Nonlinear
E.g. nonlinear material, PDelta effect, buckling, staged construction
3. Dynamic  linearly Elastic*'"
account for hystersis behaviour of system
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K = Stiffness _0 <M r;f. U = Response
F = Loading
Continuum to Discrete System
Classical
Structure/Sol id
Assumptions Equilibrium Compatibility Material Law
Computer Model
etc ...
Partial differential equations
April 2006
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Otte(j) 5
Equilibrium
• FEM is a displacement method (as opposed to force method)  formulation at element level & assembly of structural matrices/vectors in a direct and efficient way (Direct stiffness method).
• Begin with assumption of displacement shape functions (typically polynomial) in each element.
• Shape functions are not exact in general to represent actual displacements. t
• Thus it is not possible to satisfy equilibrium at every point. I
• Approximation is needed to impose equilibrium in an average sense for the element via principle of virtual work (or weak formulation).
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Compatibility
• Finite elements interface with one another through the nodes
• Main unknowns are displacements at the nodes (which could include rotations for frame and shell elements)
• Compatibility is imposed between elements at the nodes, but not necessarily along the edges between nodes.
• Sometimes it is necessary to achieve compatibility by imposing kinematic relations  e.g. rigid diaphragm, "line constraint" (particularly useful for mismatched meshing between two different elements), etc.
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
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Material Modelling (1)
II) Linear Elastic II) Linear Inelastic
t.l e
... ...
0 # 0
L1. L1. (
Deformation Deformation
II) III
e
e ... ~
0
0 L1.
L1.
Nonlinear Elastic ~ Nonlinear Inelastic
Deformation Deformation
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Material Modelling (2)
• Most problems assume linearly elastic, isotropic & homogeneous materials.
• 3D constitutive equation:
1 > v/,f~
 ' 0 E E E
&xx 1 v 0
E
E 1
E
o 1 G
0 0
0 o· Uxx 1
un 1
0 0 uzz 1
+ a.6.T +u'Ve~~
0 0 'xy ~ ·0

1 'yz 0
0 'zx 0
G rxy ryz Yzx "J" \
sym.
1 ~
 F A E
GG=
~ 2(1+v)
k,
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
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April 2008
Material Modelling (3)
• In matrix form:
~ = Ccr+~T
• For FE implementation, this is inverted to
() = D[~  ~T]
~ "Thermal load"
• For anisotropic materials (i.e. properties dependent on directions), similar equations can be written but involves more material parameters.
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FE Formulation (1)
•
Consider quadrilateral4node (04) plane stress element.
Element OOFs: 2 per node (uj I Vj)
(
•
L
Physical coord. system
U3
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FE Formulation (2)
• Nodal displacement vector (g_) for the element  collation of all nodal displs:
~=(U1 Vi U2 V2 U3 V3 U4 V4)T
• Displacement interpolation by "shape functions" Displs at any point (x, y) in the element are expressed in terms of nodal displs.
4 U(X,y) =N1U1 +N2U2 +N3U3 +N4U4=INjUj I i=1
4
V(X,Y) =N1V1 +N2V2 +N3V3 +N4V4='LN;Vj ;=1
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FE Formulation (3)
Strain interRolation 0 0
ox
0 0 [~] ~B ~
E:= 
oy
0 0

oy oX
where
aN1 0 aN2 0
ax ax
g= 0 aN1 0 aN2
ay ay
aN1 aN1 aN2 aN2
ay ax ay ax
April200B Prof. CG Koh [NUS] Otle<D 13 FE Formulation (4)
Stress by constitutive law (ignoring thermal term)
(J=O e =0 Ba
Nodal forces
External load (including body force & surface load) are expressed in
terms of forces at the nodes (f). fy3
Shape functions are used to
compute the equivalent nodal loads,
e.g. tb = J NT Q dV
V \
body force vector
April20DB
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FE Formulation (5)
Equilibrium Apply Principle of Virtual Work to the element:
Internal V.W. :::: External V.W.
f = [J~ T Q ~ dV] a /
k elmt (elastic stiffness)
• Equilibrium is achieved in average sense within the finite element, but not satisfied at every point.
• The same shape functions are used in virtual displacements ~ Symmetric stiffness matrix.
Prof. CG Koh (N US)
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FE Formulation (6)
• In the above FE procedure, element stiffness matrix & element load vector are formulated in the physical coordinate system (x, y).
• For elements of higher order elements (e.g. Q8 & Q9), particularly with curved shape, this procedure. becomes cumbersome for computer implementation.
• For example, shape functions are difficult to derive mathematically. Integration is also difficult to compute.
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Isoparemetric Element (1)
• Introduce concept of "master element"
Finite element in physical coord.
Master element in natural coord.
7J
(X2' Y2)
(1, 1)
(1, 1)
2
(0,0)
y
~,
4
(1, 1)
(1, 1)
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Isoparemetric Element (2)
• Shape functions expressed in natural coord (and thus "standard" regardless of the actual shape of physical element). For Q4 element:
1
N1 = 4 (1 + ~)(1 + 7])
N3 = _2_ (1  ~) (1  7]) 4
• Displacement interpolation:
u (t; I 11) = 1 ti (~ I 11)1 g
• Coordinate interpolation (mapping):
Use the same set of X (S I 11) =1 N (S I 11)1 Q
shape functions
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(1, 1) (1, 1)
2
c==> ; (
6
(0,0)
4
Q8 Element (1, 1) (1, 1)
Aprii2008 Prof. CG Koh (NUSI OtteCD 19 Isoparemetric Element (3)
• The same shape functions are used for displacement interpolation & coordinate interpolation ~ Isoparametric element formulation
• Allow easy implementation of elements of arbitrary shapes & higher order elements (e.g. 08 and 09)
Isoparametric formulation revolutionized FEM I 1]
Isoparemetric Element (4)
• For partial derivatives required in B matrix:
Jacobian matrix (J)  This matrix needs to be inverted (numerically)
• Element stiffness matrix, e.q, for plane stress element of thickness t
f T (1 f1 T
Kelmt = B DB tdA= .L1.L1 B DB tIJldC;d1]
A
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Isoparemetric Element (5)
• Condition for onetoone mapping between physical coordinates & natural coordinates is: IJI should not change sign in the domain of mapping.
• Guidelines for element mesh:
> Avoid hig~ly distorted elements > Avoid elongated elemenfs
> Interior angles < 1800
> Midside node located within middle onehalf along the edge  middle onethird preferred.
April20D8
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
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Isoparemetric Element (6)
• Badly distorted element would give Jacobian determinant different signs within the element.
7 Some points of the master element are mapped to points outside the corresponding physical element.
Physical element Master element
;
17 ;
;
4 3 ;
;
;
2 [ l
c;
~~~LiWoh
det(J) > 0
3 4
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+ + + + +
+ + + ~ (
+ + + + +
2x2 G.P. 3x3 G.P.
Prof. CG Koh (NUS] OtleCD 23 Numerical Integration (1)
• Integration is computed numerically by Gauss quadrature formula, which is the most efficient in terms of achieving the same accuracy with minimum integration points. i
• For example, 2point Gauss quadrature gives exact integral of cubic _polynomial (other formulae need 4 points).
Kelmt = L [Gauss weight x Integrand computed at Gauss point]
• Gauss quadrature integration is carried out in the natural coord. system
+
1x1 G.P.
ApJil2008
Numerical Integration (2)
• FEM is inexact (in general) and usually it errs by being too stiff.
• Using more Gauss points to integrate element stiffness matrices exactly (or nearly exact) therefore does not necessarily leads to better accuracy, plus increases computational time.
o Lesser Gauss points compensates the overstiffness of FEM ("two wrongs make a right"), e.g. to overcome "shear locking" problem.
• But It is possible that the strains at Gauss points happen to be zero ~ spurious zeroenergy mode (in addition to rigid body modes which are truly zeroenergy). This can give instability or inaccuracy.
• E.g. "Hour glass" deformation: No strain (& stress) at Gauss points.
!"~",\"""':""'/
t .\ /:
\ + ! + \~
\\ L \
+
+
~, + + i
)+ J
+
+
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Nodal Forces (1)
• Loading are converted to nodal forces via
displacement functions (fY) P2
• For point load (P) not at any node: f = NTp
 
• For surface traction (g):
[=JNTEtds ~
s
• For body force (!J.), e.g. gravity load, inertia force:
OtteCO 25
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Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Nodal Forces (2)
• Gauss quadrature is used for numerical integration if needed and done in the natural coordinate system
• This method gives "consistent" nodal forces, as the same set of shape function (similarly for computing mass matrix).
• This does not imply "exact" (as shape functions are approximation of actual displacement functions, plus Jacobian transformation in distorted elements).
• E.g. nodal forces for gravity load (W= weight of element) for Q8 element: At corner codes, the 
nodal forces are upwards! But
total nodal forces = W
WI12
W/12
W/3 J
~W13
• Alternative: use "IWJl7~d mass" approach (popu~ shelt elements; zero mass for rotational OaFs).
IW'3 W/12
OtteCD
W/12
April 2008
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Shape Functions (1)
• 04 element is bilinear, i.e. linear along two axes, but nonlinear in other directions 7 linear + some ~ms (incomplete).
~ 08 and 09 contains all quadratic terms and some higher order terms (incomplete).
Typical shape function Shape function for corner
for Q4 element node of Q8 element
Shape function for midside node of Q8 element
April 200B Prof. CG Koh (NUS]
Otle<D 27
Shape Functions (2)
• Shape functions are typically polynomial functions (easy to derive and differentiate).
• They are defined in the natural coordinates system.
• Accuracy of elements depend on order of shape functions used.
• Linear & quadratic elements are common, and cubic elements in some special applications.
• Higherorder element is not justifiable due to the approximation nature of FEM.
• For distorted elements (nonrectangular), isoparametric mapping (via Jacobian transformation) gives nonpolynomial representation of displacement field.
April200B
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Shape Functions (3)
• For triangular elements, the natural coordinates system is not convenient & is replaced by the "area coordinates" system.
• Shape functions are defined in terms of L1, L2 and L3.
, , _A ". _.... !._'
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ Area coordinate of this point is (L1, L2, La)
where L1 = A/A, L2 = AiA, L3 = A3/A A = A1 + A2+ As
Area = Al
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Good Element Shapes
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Poor Element Shapes
April 2008
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Prof. CG Koh (N US)
Unacceptable Element Shapes
Midside node too close to
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Boundary Conditions (1)
• One advantage of displacement method is the ease in enforcing displacement boundary conditions.
• FEM formulates the whole structural stiffness matrix for all DOFs and then impose displacement boundary conditions to eliminate those equations corresponding to known nodal displacements.
• Standard: Fixed, pinned, roller.
• Elastic support (e.g. foundation or soil)
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Boundary Conditions (2)
• Inclined support can be modelled by a truss or spring element.
'\ Do not set the relative stiffness value too high due to possible numerical truncation error ..  100 to J 000 times is usually sufficient.
1 .... e
Stiff truss _ ~ ~~ .. element
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~inematic Constraints (1)
• Finite element mesh can affect the solution considerably.
• Rectangular elements are more accurate than arbitrary shaped elements.
• From coarse mesh to fine mesh, mesh transition would generally mean nonrectangular elements.
• The process of defining transition elements can be tedious, and mesh distortion decreases accuracy.
Load Load
~nnOt nUlU
( 1"'
V
r,
V
\) I
1"'
V
\..__../ or
<,
.>
<,
.>
<,
>
<,
> Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Otte<D 35
April200B
Kinematic Constraints (2)
· Alternatively, kinematic constraints can be imposed to enforce
displacement compatibility between elements where nodes do not
coincide  known as "line constraint".
• This eliminates the need for mesh transition elements.
• This approach is also useful for capturing interaction of different
structural objects, e.g. curved shear wall supporting a curved ramp.
;(
 r., DiSPla~ment
( \
) compatibility
enforced here
April200B Prof. CG Koh [N US) OtteCD 36 S11oE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
L. _. . __ .. _ . __ ..... __ .._ ._... ._. __ .. _ ... __ ..
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2
9 10
o.q
Kinematic Constraints (3)
• The finer mesh is constrained to the coarse mesh ..
• Shape functions of the coarse mesh is used to evaluate the displacements at the nodes of the fine mesh. .
• Displacements at the 3 fine mesh nodes (#5, 7 & 9) are "constrained" to move linearly as defined by displacement shape between the 2 coarse mesh nodes (#3 & 4).
• For i = 5, 7 & 9:
~: :Z:~: :Z;~: I
1 0 04
7 8
3
5 bO 6
Prof. CG Koh (N US)
Otte<D 37
coarse
fine
April200B
Kinematic Constraints (4)
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Otte<D 38
• Another example:
Inclined floor connected to wall, but their nodes do not coincide.
• If kinematic constraint is not imposed on the elements, there will be gap or overlap between the. slab and wall along the interface.
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Direct Assembly
• Element stiffness matrices are then assembled to form a structure stiffness matrix by the direct stiffness. method.
.. This involves establishing a connectivity array that links element OOFs to structure OOFs. '
• Numbering of OOFs in the shorter direction helps to reduce the matrix bandwidth (hence more efficient computationally) .
• Nodal forces of all elements are assembled in the
same way.
Prof. GG Koh (NUS)
OttetD 39
\
(
April 2008
Solutions
• Solve K ~ = E by LU decomposition (or its variation)
• For large system, special schemes may be required, e.g. active column method.
• The solution gives nodal displacements.
• From nodal displacements, strains and stresses are calculated via B matrix and D matrix:
&= Ba u=Df_
• These are usually computed at Gauss points.
• Forces & moments are numerically integrated at Gauss points: e.g.
Fxx = fO"xx dA A
Mxx = faxx y dA A
April 2008
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Convergence Study
• Convergence  FE solution approaches the exact solution as the mesh size decreases to zero.
• When unsure of the adequacy of FE mesh, convergence study should be performed by reducing the mesh size and see how the results change 7 hrefinement
• Alternatively, higher order elements are used to see change in results 7 prefinement
• Another possibility is rearrangement of FE mesh by shifting nodes to regions where finer mess is required (e.g. stress concentration) without increase in OOFs 7 rretlnsment ("reshaper")
Original mesh
hrefinement
prefinement
rrefinement
· At least one node is internal in
F F 
~ H the patch of elements.
· The FE solution should produce
2F f constant strai n e xx (exact) for
H the problem defined on the left.
Patchtest for constantj; and rxy \. ~J: _
F  ·
April 2008 Prof. CG Koh (NUS) OtteCD 42 Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Otte<D 41
April 2008
Patch Test
• Patch test  If a group (or patch) of elements of arbitrary shape is subjected to nodal displacements associated with constant strain, the FE results must yield constant strain.
• If the patch test fails, the FE solution may not converge to the exact solution.
• Patch test is particularly useful for incompatible (or nonconforming) elements that do not fully satisfy compatibility conditions.
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Choice of Elements
10 (e.g. frame)
hr~'h)
b+h
D
20 (e.g. plate/shell) % ~I'! h « L, b bL
h l~ 3D (solid)
b
hbL
April200B
OttetD 43
Prof. CG Koh (NUSI
10 Elements
• Frame element most useful elements for structural analysis, accounting for bending, shear, axial and torsional deformations.
• Some software allow nonprismatic sections
• 6 OOFs per node ("member end release" possible),
e.g. setting an end moment to zero. "
M.'\. /r v~ /p T
IV.
1M3
• Truss and spring element  axial deformation only.
• Truss element can be obtained from frame element by end moment release.
r:. ~ Gap element  compression only .".,y Hook element  tension only
• Gap & hook elements are nonlinear.
z
2node frame y element
x
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Modelling of Frame Structures
• Choice of 10, 20, 3D elements depends on physical behaviour & computational resources.
• For buildings, many components (beams & columns) are best modelled by frame elements.
• Even shear walls with openings can often be modelled effectively by frame elements with rigid ends.
• Sufficient to use up to quadratic order's in most problems; higherorder elements do not necessarily work better.
• Incompatible elements could be better than compatible elements in some problems, e.g. to mitigate shearlocking as encountered in 4node quadrilateral (20) & 8node hexahedral (3~) elements.
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
OtteCD 45
April 2008
Joint Modelling (1)
• For RC members, joints are relatively rigid as compared to members (beams & columns).
• Model: frame element with rigid ends
,' »: .....
I , ,
, ,~ ,
~ ,
Rigid
;;:one ~ Rigid
, " '  endS~
, , c::::>
,
~ , ,  , ///
o = node
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Joint Modelling (2)
Rigid zone factor:
13= 0 for no rigid zone (span from centre line to centre line)
13= 1 for full rigid zone (rigid for full width of intersecting member)
Shear
April200B
i""""""'" Centre lines i
Deformed shape
........  ......
RiZ ""
(_
Constitutive equations are established for the deformable part, & transformed to the two ends (nodes) via equilibrium equations at the respective rigid zones.
Prof. CG Koh (NUS]
Otte(]) 47
Joint Modelling (3)
For steel members, beamcolumn joints can have significant shear deformation.
Beam
Shear modulus= G Thicknesa= t
,. b .,
0
c:::::::> I
I
1  • Shear deformation of joint is accounted by modelling the joint as elastic panel with constant shear: kshear = G hbt
• Similarly, flexural deformation of joint can be accounted for but this is usually small.
• Need to account for doubler plates if any.
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BeamSlab Compatibility
• By default, the centre lines of beam and slab coincide. \~
• If one wishes to capture the interaction of beam and slab more accurately in the analysis, one way is to impose displacement. compatibility by "rigid constraint" option (provided in some software).
• As such, there is no issue of effective width of T or tbeam.
• This way also allows nonprismatic beam where neutral axis is not on a straight line. .
• Nevertheless, design should be consistent with the analysis, e.g .: axial force in beam would be significant and should be accounted for. •
Rigid constraint on nodes I and J
o
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
OtteCD 49
April 2008
Rigid Diaphragm (1)
• Inplane deformations in floors are usually negligible.
• Floor can be assumed to translate horizontally & rotate about a vertical axis as a rigid body.
• Kinematic condensation by "masterslave node concept": 3 master DOFs inplane per floor.
• Outofplane deformations are not affected.
• Advantage: Reduce DOFs significantly & save computational time.
• Disadvantage: Axial forces in horizontal members & diaphragm shear stress cannot be computed. If these are important, use flexible (semirigid) diaphragm.
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Rigid Diaphragm (2)
(
, / , / , /'
I" / '\ / 1" / • Truss action will not be modelled if horizontal chord members are part of rigid floor diaphragms.
• Use flexible floor diaphragm. ~

• Alternatively, these members have to be disconnected from the rigid floor diaphragms  to allow elongation or shortening of the horizontal chord members.
Prof. GG Koh (NUS)
OtleCD 51
April200B
Rigid Diaphragm (3)
(
x & yare coordinates of slave node relative to master node
em
z
um
Y
Master
node Um
x (For dynamic analysis, if master node is at centre of mass, mass matrix will be diagonal.)
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Example
• 20storey frame building
• No. of joints = 480
• Total OOFs= 480x6 = 2880
• Reduced to
20x3 + 480x3= 1500 OOFs
I "
3 master OOFs 3 outofplane OOFs
per floor per beamcolumn node
April 2008
Prof. GG Koh (NUSI
e
z
~Y
/~/, ~
~
'I
~
~
~
~
V
OUeCD 53
Static Condensation
• Eliminates those OOFs that are not associated with applied forces.
• E.g. if lateral forces are applied at master nodes only, OOFs can be reduced to only 3 per floor
• For the 20storey building example =? 60 OOFs.
OUe<D 54
Master node
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20 Elements (1)
• Plane elements  plane stress, plane strain & axisymmetric elements for the respective cases (2 displacement OOFs per node).
• Plate elements  bending action only (1 displacement + 2 rotation OOFs per node).
e Membrane elements  membrane action only (2 displacements + possibly 1 "drilling" OOF per node).
• Shell elements = Plate + Membrane (5 or 6 OOFs
per node) 3
April200B
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Drilling DOF
f

4node shell element
Otle<D 55
(
20 Elements (2)
• Plane stress, plane strain & axisymmetric elements are also 20 elements.
"
Plane stress problem: zdimension is very small compared to x & y dimensions
Apri1200B
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Plane strain problem: zdimension is very large compared to x & y dimensions
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[rrxx] 1v v 0 [exx] tkV~~ ...f vfyJ
1''
E 1v 0 ~
Cfyy = lOyy C
7:xy Sym. 12v Yxy

2
<,
~ E J o matrix
E
(1 + v)(1 2v)
£zz = 0 but Cfzz * 0
April200B Prof. CG Koh [NUS) OHeCD 58 Plane Stress Element
~ Plane Stress  structure in zdirection is short compared to x and ydimensions, e.g. walls & plates with inplane action only.
o matrix
[CfXX]
Cfyy = E
7:xy
1
v 0 [exx]
1 0 lOyy
1v Yxy

2 \OU oV
r +
xy oy oX Sym.
~f
~~ut £zz*O
Engineering shear strain (which is twice the shear strain as defined in continuum mechanics)
Prof. CG Koh [NUS)
OHeCD 57
April 2008
Plane Strain Element
~ Plane Strain  structure in zdirection is assumed to be infinite, e.g. tunnels, dams, contiguous piles, long retaining wall, etc.
SuoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
29
Otte International Pte Ltd
Axisymmetry Element
z
);> Axisymmetry (solid of revolution) 
structure is symmetric about an axis (z), e.g. pipes, pressure vessels, storage tanks, etc.
r
0
0 r:: 1
t:ee
0 Yrz
i2v (
2(1v) ,
o matrix 1 v v
 
iv iv
r::1 1 v
E iv
(Tee
'trz Sym. E= E(1v)
(1 + v)(1 2v)
April 2008
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
OttetD 59
3D Elements
• Solid (or brick) elements
OtteCD 60
(
8node solid element
20node (serendipity)
S11oE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
l .. _ .
• Natural coord system  (S, '7, () or (r, S, t)
• Potential problems: Computationally intensive, high distortion, shear locking, ill conditioning
April200B
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
30
Otte International Pte Ltd
Modelling of Floor Systems
• There are various ways to model floor.
• One approach is to extend beam theory (10) to plate
bending theory (2D). i
• Plate bending accounts for outofplane deformation but not inplane deformation. '
• On the other hand, membrane accounts for inrlane deformation but not outofplane deformation
• Shell = Plate Bending + Membrane J
• Shear deformation should be accounted for thick shell or thick plate.
ApJil2008
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Otte(i) 61
Plate Bending Element (1)
• Begin with 8node element with 16 rotational OOFs.
• At midside transform rotation vectors to normal & tangential, and ignore tangential component
ko~.
April 2008
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
OtteCD 62
SuoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
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QUe International Pte Ltd
Plate Bending Element (2)
• Add vertical displacements at 4 corners. .
• Use static condensation to eliminate midside rotations (assuming no moment applied there). ~
~4node plate bending element with 12 OOFs.'
OtleCD 63
(
April 2008
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Membrane Element
• The approach is similar to the plate bending element, except rotations are swapped with displacements.
7 4node membrane element with 12 OOFs (drilling OOF would enable compatibility with frame elements).
• This element has a zeroenergy mode (other than rigid body modes) & has to be eliminated by computing & adding the corresponding stiffness term.
• In the same way, triangular (3node) membrane element can be derived, but its performance is usually poor (too stiff).
April 2008
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
"Drilling" DOF
OtleCD 64
SHoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
1. .
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Otte International Pte Ltd
"Membrane Slab"
• In ETABS, slab with membrane properties can be used to distribute floor load on floor to beams & columns.
• The concept of tributary loads is used as a simplifying . assumption for transferring the loads ,
• The membrane slab (or virtual membrane) does not resist the load. [;
3
3
1
Full uniform load
Point load
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Otterli 65
April200B
Shell Element (1)
• Classical thin shell theory leads to high order differential equations which are difficult to solve in general.
• Many shell elements have been developed, but none can claim to be best for all problems.
• One popular element is the degenerated solid elements (start from 3D mechanics).
• Alternative: Use plate bending element (which is extended from 1 D beam theory) and add membrane element
~ Flat shell element (4node, 24DOF)
• This approach gives more direct physical interpretation of bending moments.
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Otle<D 66
ApriJ2008
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Otte International Pte Ltd
Shell Element (2)
• In local coordinate system, obtain element stiffness matrices for plate bending & bending.
• Assemble to form 24x24 stiffness matrix & transform to global coordinate system.
Global Z t ,} X
coord. L
Local coord.
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
OUeCO 67
Apri!2008
Shell Element (3)
• Flat 4node shell elements can be used to model most shell structures if all four nodes can be placed at the midsurface of the shell.
• This may not be possible, e.g. for shells with double curvatures. Modification will be required to account for offset.
• But this is not a problem for floor slabs in buildings.
Flat shell element~
Offset
Midsurface of curved shell
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
OUe<D 68
April 2008
SnoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
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Solid Element
• For very thick shell, it may be necessary to use solid
elements (e.q, deep foundation).
• There is no need to define reference surface,
• More than one layer of solid elements is usually required.
• 4node tetrahedral elements give constrain strain & do not perform well particularly for capturing stress gradients
• Computational cost increases considerably by using solid elements.
April200B
OHeCD 69
Prof. CG Kch [N US)
Modelling of Wall Systems (1)
• Plane stress elements can be used to model walls, But this does not account for outofplane bending,
• Shell elements are preferred, which also allow beam
wall interaction through rotational DOFs (compatibility).
uracy, it is
use sufficiently for each panel practical for highwith many walls.
• For good ace
RC necessary to
wall fine elements
but this is not
rise building
Iff m tu I"~ Jf/ FE mesh for one panel
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
OHeCD 70
April200a
SuoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
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QUe International Pte Ltd
Modelling of Wall Systems (2)
• In addition, the use of many elements for each panel does not produce information that is directly useable by structural engineers,
• Users prefer to use one element per panel ~ coarse mesh.
• But not all shell elements perform well in coarse mesh.
• Correction is needed if a one element per panel is to be used to model walls with reasonable accuracy.
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Otte(j) 71
April 2008
Shear Wall Behaviour
• Shear walls are often used to describe RC walls that
are designed to help the building resist lateral loads.
• The name is actually misleading,
• Under normal circumstances:
~ Shear walls deform in bending mode primarily ~ Shear deformations are rarely significant
~ QnlY. very low shear walls (hlw ratio <1) fail in shear~ ~ They are designed to resistthecClmbined effect of
axial, bending and shear
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Otte(j) 72
April 2008
SHoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
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36
OUe International Pte Ltd
Corrected Panel Element
• Classical 4node plane stress element  using single element to model shear wall can lead to significant error, particularly for tall walls ( overstiff).
• Correction is needed. In ETABS, each panel element is automatically divided into 2 subelements. A force method is used to compute panel forces, and internal forces are in exact equilibrium with applied
load regardless of wall shape. 1 ETABS Panel Element
.,.¢
width =w
0.8
I~
\ SAP2000 Shell Element
\
, Classical Plane
........_ Stress Element is. ...
,..., J: .1Il ~ 0.6
II C ><
.... iii ~ 0.4
~ ~~ 0.2
J:
o
J
o
2
4
6
8
10
April 2008
Aspect Ratio (h/w)
Prof. CG Koh (NUSI OtteCD 73
Shear Wall vs. Frame
 ft+t
1++1

Shear wall (tall) deforms like cantilever flexural beam
Frame deforms like cantilever shear beam
Prof. CG Koh (NUSI
Ottetli 74
April 2008
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37
Otte International Pte Ltd
Shear Wall with Openings
Small openings  Medium openings  Big openings 
(full) panel elements piers & spandrels frame elements
  
_ fl
_ fJ
.....  .....  ........... ,
., :
I
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:
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Prof. CG Koh [NUS)
Otterli 75
April 2008
BeamColumn System
• When a shear wall has many large holes, the actual behaviour is closer to frame system comprising equivalent beams and columns with rigid zone. Plus, results can be used directly for RC design.
• It may not be worthwhile to use 2D elements of fine mesh.
/
III III
I I
III
III Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
OttctD 76
April200B
SHoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
,
L_, __ •
(
38
OUe International Pte Ltd
Piers and Spandrels
• "Piers & Spandrels" approach produce integrated moments & shear across sections of walls for design purpose.
• Interaction is done by summing nodal forces (obtained from the product of element stiffness matrix & nodal displacements) instead of integrating stress of finite elements.
• Pier is an assemblage of vertical elements.
• Spandrel is an assemblage of horizontal elements.
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Otte<D 77
April 2008
Dynamic Analysis (Intro.)
Eqns. of motion: M (j + C U + K u
E_( t)
• Stiffness matrix: Same as static problem
• Mass matrix: Consistent mass or lumped mass matrix
• Damping matrix: Difficult to establish analytically.
Assume proportional (classical) damping matrix, e.g. Rayleigh damping:
C=80M+8IK
\ /
Can be related to damping
ratios of any two modes
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
OtteCD 78
April 2008
SHoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
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Dynamic Analysis  General
Direct Analysis (Full Analysis)
.. Solve the matrix equations of motion for the full system directly in time domain, usually by numerical integration methods.
• Commonly adopted: Newmark and Wilson methods, more recently HuberHughesTaylor method.
• Computationally expensive for large systems.
• Applicable to nonlinear systems (e.g. large displacement, nonlinear material, and nonclassical damping)
Prof. CG Koh (NUSl
OttejD 79
April200a
Dynamic Analysis  Linear Systems
Mode Superposition Method (Modal Analysis) ~ Applicable to linear systems only
~ Formulation in time domain
~ Involve the use of eigen vectors or loaddependent Ritz vectors
).0 Usually low modes are sufficient
) Advantage: allow exclusion of high modes and thus computationally efficient
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
OtteCO 80
April 2008
SnoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April200B
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Solving Modal Equations
Each modal equation can be solved by:
(a) Response history analysis in time domain (e.g. by timestepping method)
(b) Response spectrum analysis (suitable for estimating peak response, widely used for seismic design)
(c) Frequency domain analysis (with the help of Fast Fourier Transform)
For (b), some combination rule is required to estimate the peak response for several rules. Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) and Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) are popular.
Prof. CG Koh (NUSI
Otte(j) 81
ApriL 2008
Response Spectrum Analysis (SDOF System)
• Very useful for earthquake analysis but not well understood by many engineers.
• This method aims to obtain peak (max.) response
for a prescribed earthquake time history. m
• Equation of motion in terms of relative displacement:
mii cu v ku = mii; • Elastic force (base shear) is
f =ku=molu m=.Jklm
s
k,c
_Ug
Prof. CG Koh (NUSI
Otte<D 82
ApriL 2008
S11oE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
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Otte International Pte Ltd
Acknowledgement
The following references have been useful in the preparation of this short course:
"Static & Dynamic Analysis of Structures", EL Wilson, 2004, Computers and Structures Inc., USA
Manuals and User's Guide for ETABS (Version 9),2005, Computers and Structures lnc., USA
Reference materials on CSI website: http://csiberkeley.com/supporttechnicalpapers.html
April 2008
Prof. CG Koh (NUS)
Otte<D 83
S11oE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 2930 April 2008
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USING ETABS FOR BUILDING ANALYSIS & DESIGN
RE:VI!5ED 2S APR2CIOeI
By
Choo, June Shyan P.E. Otte International Pte Ltd
SECTION 1
Otte<D
• What is ETABS?
• How is ETABS difference?
§ • ETABS Plus or Nonlinear?
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ETABS
OtteCD
ijtende~ee Dimensional ~n.lysis o~lrilding Systems
• It development started more than 30 years ago as T~B by
Ashraf Habibullah, S.E. & fref. Ed. Wilson, D. Eng ~
• With the mission:
To provide the profession with the most efficient and
comprehensive software for the analysis and design of
buildings
ChOO,JW1. Shy.., P.E.
2!130 April2008
ETABS
OtteCD
• Industry Standard for building analysis & design
• First program to take account the unique properties inherent in mathematical model of building.
• A complete Building Analysis & Design Environment built around a physical object based graphical user interface.
Choo,Jun. Shy.n P.E.
29·30 April2008
SrroliUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
[_ .. _. .. _
Otte D
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OtteCD
ETABS
Otte(j)
• Top Seismic Product of the 20th Century
• All Tallest Buildings in the world are designed using ETABS &
SAP2000
Choo,June Shyan P.Il.
2930 April2008
B
ETABS Integrated Models
Otte(j)
• Complex Composite Floor Framings with
Openings & Overhang ~I
• Steel Joist Systems ..
• Moment Resisting Frame
• Complex Shear Wall Systems ~
• Rigid & Flexible diaphragm floor \
• Slope Roofs ~
• Ramps & Parking systems ...
Choo,Jun. ShyanP.ll.
6
2980 April 2008
SrioliUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
Otte International Pte Ltd
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Otte<D
• ETABS can perform: [J 2D & 3D analysis [J Static & Dynamic
[J Linear & Nonlinear" .
[J Pdelta and Pdelta with large deformation"
o Construction sequence analysis"
o Response Spectrum ~
[J TimeHistory Analysis" 101'
* Nonlinear features
Choo,/une Shyan P.E.
29·30 April 2008
ETABS
Otte<D
• ETABS design for:
o Beams  RC, Steel, Composite v
o Columns  RC, Steel, "Composite" ~
o WallsRC
• ETABS can export floor to SAFE for analysis and design r
~ ~.",~f'
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Choo,June Shyan P.E.
29·30 April 2008
SrioliUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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ETABS Plus
Otte<D
• 3D elastic analysis of the building system based on FEM .
• It includes:
o steel frame design,
o concrete frame design,
o composite beam design,
o shear wall design.
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ETABS Nonlinear Otte<D
• Extend the capabilities of Plus to include static and dynamic nonlinear analysis options:
o Static Nonlinear Analysis
• Large Displacement
• Construction Sequence Loadings
o Plastic Hinge Elements
o Static Pushover Analysis
o Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis
Choo,Jun. ShySll P.E.
29·50 Apri12008
10
Stroll Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
Otte International Pte Ltd
OtteCD
SECTION 2 OHe<D
ETABS GUI
• Top Menu
• Tools bars
• Windows
E • Bottom
0
I.! Information
a.
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OHeCD
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• Choose Window Views: Options> Windows> ...
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~ • J~' '~~,'I •• , ~ J ".o::'!," ,~~ r ••
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• Choose number of views
Plan View 3D View
[J Elevation View
Choo,JlU1. Shyan P.E.
2950 April2008
12
SlloE Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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OttetD
Drawing Tools
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c> Selection Pointer
c> Reshape Object Tool
~ Draw Beam ~
c> Draw Column ....
c> Draw Secondary Beams
c> Draw Braces (
j Draw Floor
~ Draw Wall
c> Draw Window .
~ Draw Door 2980 April2008
Otte(i)
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Selection & Snapping Tools
Select All
Previous Selection Clear Selection
Select by Crossing Line
Snap to qrld Intersections and pOinU
Snap to Line Ends and Mid Points
Snap to Intersections
Snap to Perpendicular Projections I
Snap to Line and Edges
Snap to Fine Grid 29S0 April2008
Otte<D
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SHoEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
• Select  Default ~
• Draw [ill
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til
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0
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Choo,June 8hyan P.E. 2990 .... pril2008 15 Otte International Pte Ltd
Modes of Interface
Otte<D
OtteCD
Selecting Objects in ETABS
Otte<D
Drag from left to right
• Selects all objects windowed
E o u
~ Drag from right to left
o
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~ • Selects all objects crossed
~
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2990 .... pril200S
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Others Useful Tools
atte<D
• Replicate
• Align/Point/Line/Edge
• Extrusion
• Import/Export
Chao,June Shyan p.e.
2980 April200B
17
SECTION 3
Setting up a ETABS model
Otte(])
• Setting up Database unit
• Setting up Gridlines
• Setting up Storey information
s
8 • Define Material Ii
2 • Define Sections
a
~ • Define loading (Load cases & combinations)
I
Choo,June shy"" P.E.
2930 April. 200s
18
Sl1oE Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
Otte International Pte Ltd
OtteCD
Database Units
OtteiD
1st unit used is the Database Unit!
Good Practice: Set your database units before defining your model!
2950 April 2008
19
Coordinate Systems
Otle<D
(
• Global Rectangular System
• Additional Coordinate Systems
o Rectangular
o Cylindrical
o General
• Local 123 Coordinate Systems
o Line Objects
o Area Objects
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2950 April 2008
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Coordinates 0' Otte<D
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• Types 0··
I:l Rectangular (c)
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Choo,Junc ShYIIIlP.E. 21180 <lpril2008 21 Ways to generate grids
Otte<D
• Create in ETABS
o Template
o Userdefined
• Import from Architectural drawing (*.dxf)
o Select appropriate layer
o Watch out for the correct units
Choo,jun. ShYllIl P.E.
29·80 <lpril2008
SnoEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
OtteCD
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OUe International Pte Ltd
Edit Grid
OtteCD
29·30 April2008
Primary & Secondary grids
OtteCD
II ETABS automatically create an Elevation (Sections) for all Primary Grid
• No Elevation is generated for Secondary grid.
• User can define an Developed Elevation of any surfaces.
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Choo,JIII1. 8ilyan p.e.
29·30 April2008
SrrolsUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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28
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Reference Planes/Lines
Otte<D
ETAB! • Reference Plane
o Reference planes are horizontal planes at userspecified Zordinates.
• Reference Lines
o Reference lines are vertical lines at userspecified global X and Y coordinates.
choc.june Shy"" P,ll,
asso April 2008
Developed Elevation
Otte<D
• Draw> Draw Developed Elevation Definition>, , .
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Global Axes of Model
Otte<D
• y  90 Degree
• Z  Vertical Up
• x 0 Degree
Choo,]UIW Shyan P.E.
2930 April200S
Storey Definition
Otte(D
• Edit> Edit Storey Data
Setting Master Storey and Similar Storeys
2930 April2008
SrioliUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
OtteCD
27
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• Material Properties
• Frame & Section Properties E
8 • Wall & Slab Section properties Ii
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• Storey can de defined as "Master" storey in which other storey can be set to "similar to"
• These allow user to make changes to multiple storeys using the "Similar Storey" option
CItoo,]uneShyan P.E.
2930 April 2008
Otte(i) . Define Material & Sections Properties
Choo,]une 8hyan p.E.
2950 April 2008
SuoEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Material Properties
Otte<D
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Choo,June Shyan P.B.
2930 April200S
31
Isotropic
• The behavior of an isotropic material is independent of the direction of loading.
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0' to 0
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1 u12 u12 0 0 0
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Choo,June Shyan P.E.
2930 April200S
52
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Orthotropic
Otle<D
• The behavior of an orthotropic material can be different in the three local axis directions.
1 ·~12 «13 0 0 0
eT e2 e3
1 lJ23 0 0 0
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~!! 1 0 0 0 O"j! a2
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2950 April 2008
Frame Properties
Otte<D
Import or Add
• Define> Frame Properties>
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Chao, June Shyon P.t.
2950 April 2008
SnoEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
OtteCD
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OtteCD
Frame Properties
Otte<D
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• Example:
Creating concrete rectangular section Click> Add Rectangular
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Choo,JWle ShyanP.E.
2930 April2008
55
Nonprismatic Member
Otte<D
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• Nonprismatic frame sections may be defined with the properties varying along the element length.
• The variation of the bending stiffnesses may be linear, parabolic, or cubic over each segment of length.
• The axial, shear, torsional, mass, and weight properties all vary linearly over each segment
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2980 April2008
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Nonprismatic Member
Otte<D
• Section's depth varies from 900mm to 600mm to 900mm
• I=(bh3)/12
• EI33 is Cubic
Chco,Jun. ShY"" P.Il.
87
2980 April200S
Section Designer Frame Section OtteiD
• Example:
Eightsided Column with excased IBeam
2980 April200S
StrohUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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SECTION 4 Otte<D
Understanding ETABS' objects (
• Point a
E • Line
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29·30 April2008
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Point Objects
Otle<D
OttetD
41
• Corners of Area Objects
• Ends of Line Objects
• Anywhere in Model g • Automatic Label
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Choo,June Shy"" P.B.
29S0 April2008
Point Object Assignments Otle<D
You can assign:
• a rigid diaphragm constraint
• a panel zone element
• point restraints (supports)
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Choo,June Shy"" P.E. 29·50 April2008 42 SHoEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Line Objects
Otte<D
• Z Point Objects Connect by a Line
• Automatic Line Types
• Automatic Label
[J C followed by a number for columns [J B followed by a number for beams
[J 0 followed by a number for diagonals/braces [J L followed by a number for nulls
[J Automatically Relabeled for Line Type Change
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2930 April2008
Line Types
Otte<D
• Column:
CJ line object that is vertical (parallel to the global Zaxis)
• Beam:
CJ line object that is horizontal (parallel to the global X Y plane)
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Chao, June Shyan P.E.
2930 April2008
SrioliUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Line Object Assignments
Otte<D
• Section properties
• End releases or partial end fixity
• Moment beam frame type
• End (length) offsets
• Insertion point
• End joint offsets to model eccentrically
• Link element properties
• Frame nonlinear hinges
(pushover)
• Pier labels
• Spandrel labels
• Line spring supports
• Additional line mass
• Automatic line subdivide
• Use line for floor meshing
• Meshing options
• Point loads
• Distributed loads
• Tempera ture loads
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• Property modifiers
ZllSO April200B
45
Choo,June Shyon P.E.
Area Objects
3 or more corners
Area with 4 corners or less can be any plane
Area with more than 4 corners must be horizontal with all corners on the same plane
Valid analysis area are either 3 or 4 nodedT
Chao,June Shyan P.B.
Otte(i)
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hnnzontal XY plene horlzonsal XY plane h"ri~"nt,,1 X Y plane
ZllSO April 2008
46
StrolsUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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OtteCD
Area Object Assignments
OtteCD
• Wall, slab and deck section properties
• Opening
• Rigid diaphragm
• Local axes orientation
• Additional area mass
• Area object mesh options I!!!I Automatic meshing of
membrane floor element
• Auto Line Constraint
• Uniform surface loads.
• Temperature loads
• Wind pressure coefficients
JIgSO April 2008
47
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• Shell stiffness modifiers
• Pier & spandrel labels
Choo,JI.U1O Sh)llll1 P,E.
1. LINE  Frame
1. FE LineFrame
a. AutoFrame Subdivide
b. Endlength offset
c. Insertion point offset
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• RED  Local Axis 1
• WHITE  Local Axis 2
• BLUE  Local Axis 3
chco.june ShY"" P.E.
zsso April. 2008
l.a. AutoFrame Subdivide
Otte<D
• Automatic Frame Subdivide
o ETABS automatically meshes frame elements as necessary by default.
o You may opt not to automatically mesh a frame element.
Choo,June ShY"" P.E.
2930 April.zoos
SnoE Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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• End Length Offset line
o Actual structural members have finite crosssectional dimensions
u E.g. When two members such as a beam and column are connected at a point, there is some overlap of the crosssections.
u In many structures, the dimensions of the members are large, and the length of the overlap can be a significant fraction of the total length of the frame element.
Choo,June Shyan P.E.
29·50 April2008
l.b. End Length Offset (2)
OtteCD
Rigid Factor = 0 (Default)
What happens to lateral displacement and mode shape when:
 Rigid Factor = 1.0?
 Rigid Factor =0.5? r"
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choc.june ShY"" P.B.
29·50 April200B
Srtoli Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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l.c. Insertion Point Offset (I)
Otte<D
• Insertion Point offsets define frame joint offsets from Cardinal Points.
C;:rdinal PointC1
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ChOO,]un8Shyan P.E.
2~·SO April 2008
l.c. Insertion Point Offset (2)
Otte(D
Choo,JW1e Shy an P.E.
2~SO April2008
Sttols Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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• A panel zone assignment to a point object allows differential rotation, and in some cases differential translation at beamcolumn, beambrace, and columnbrace connections
Choo,JIlnO ShyanP.B.
29·80 April2008
Otte<D . I.d. Panel Zone (For steel structures) (2)
Elastic Properties From Column
Elastic Properties From Column and Doubled Plates (SOmm)
o (,7,)
52.7 mm "r
42.4mm
ChOO,JIlnO Shyan P.E.
29·30 April2008
SuoliUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Otle<D
• Membrane
o Inplane bending capacity .",/
• Plate
o Outofplane bending capacity
• Shell
o Inplane bending capacity
o Outofplane bending capacity
Choo, June ShylUL P.E.
29·80 April2008
B7
Thick Plate Options
Otte<D
For Plate and Shell only
• Selected:
o outofplane shearing deformations are considered
in the analysis. V'
• NotSelected:
o shearing deformations are not considered in the analysis.
• We recommend that you typically do not use
the thick plate option in ETABS, except when modeling thick footings or mat foundations. V
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2980 April2008
SrroliUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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OtteiD
z. Area
Z. FE AreaSlab
a. Virtual Membrane for load collection (J
b. Load transfer by FEM
c. Area meshing option
d. AutoLine Constraint
e. BeamSlab interaction
f. Transfer Plate
ehee.june Shyan P.E.
29·50 April2008
Otte<D
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Local Axes of Area Objects
Otte<D
• RED  Local Axis 1
• WHITE  Local Axis Z
• BLUE  Local Axis 3
Chao, June 8hyan P.E.
29·80 April2008
60
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• Load applied onto membrane floor is automatically transfer to supporting beams.
Chao,June ShY"" P.E.
2980 A!"'il2008
82
Load Collection
OtteCD
Through "Virtual Membrane" Floor
• When floor is specify as "membrane"
Q ETABS simulates "Yieldline Method" of transferring loads to supporting structural elements: Beams, Columns & Walls
• Automatic "Meshing" for load transfer
Chao,J""" 8hyon P.E.
2980 A!"'il2008
SrrolsUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Otte D
2.a. Virtual membrane for load collection (1) OtteCD
Choo,JuneShyan P.E.
Missing Beam, Triangular load converted to point load on support (Column)
2990 April 2008
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2.a. Virtual membrane for load collection (2) Otte<D
Automeshing for membrane only
29·30 April2008
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SlloE Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Load Collection Through "FEM" Floor i.e. Plate & Shell
Otte<D
• Load applied onto FE floor are transferred to supporting beams via FEM.
Choo,June ShYIill P.E.
2950 April2008
68
Load Collection Through "FEM" Floor i.e. Plate & Shell
Otte<D
• When floor is specify as "Plate" or "Shell"
o ETABS will transfer loading on floor to supporting structural elements: Beams, Columns & Walls via FEM
• Proper Meshing required
o "External" or "Manual" Meshing
o "Internal" or "Auto" Meshing
Choo,JIUIe Shyan P.E.
2930 April2008
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Z.b. Load transfer by FEM (Shell) Otte<D
 with/without outofplane bending stiffness
• Stiffness Modification Factors may be specified for shell to reduce its out of plane bending stiffness
Chao,June Shyon P.E.
ZS30 Apri!2008
OtteCD
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Otte<D
• Automatic Meshing
o User Assigned meshing property to physical area
object
E • Manual Meshing 8
ci. 0 Physically mesh the object into smaller elements
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2930 Apri!ZOO8
SrioliUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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2.d. Autoline constraint (1)
Otte<D
• Autoline constraint
o Typically in finite element analysis, shell elements are connected to other elements at corner points only
o When an element does not frame into the corner point of a shell element, but instead frames into the edge of the shell element, no connection exists between the element and the shell element.
o The ETABS auto line constraints feature allows you to specify that elements framing into the edge of a shell element be connected to the shell element.
o ETABS internally takes care of connection between the elements by constraining points lying along an edge of the shell element to move with that edge of the element.
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2830 April2008
2.d. Autoline constraint (2)
Otte(D
Floor with mismatched meshes
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2980 April2008
SriolsUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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2.d. Autoline constraint (3)
OttejD
Ramp connection to wall
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Choo,Jlll1e Shy." P.E.
29·30 April 2008
Rigid Diaphragm
Otte<D
• Floor plate is assumed to translate in  plane & rotate about a vertical axis as a rigid body.
• No inplane deformations.
• Benefits
o Eliminate inplane forces.
o Reduce size of stiffness matrix. 1:1 Improve solution stability.
1:1 Distribute lateral loads.
Choo,]Ill1. shy"" P.R
29·30 April200S
SrrolsUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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SemiRigid Diaphragm
Otte(D
• Allow definition of diaphragm extend for:
o Wind Load generation
o Seismic Load generation
• Information on diaphragm shear stresses
• Recover axial forces in horizontal members that lie in the plane of the floors
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Choo,]WlO Shyan P.E.
211·60 April2008
SuoEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
OtteCi)
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Z.e. Beam Slab interaction (2)
Otte<D
... Bending Moment for Live Load
Choo,)une Shyon P.E.
2950 April 2008
Z.e. BeamSlab interaction (3)
Otte<D
Axial Load for Live Load
Choo,JLU1O ShyanP.E.
2950 April2003
SHOEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Z.e. Transfer plate (1)
Choo,June Shy an P.E.
Otte<D
2930 April200B
Z.e. Transfer plate (Z)  Mmax
Otte(D
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2930 April2008
SnoEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
Otte International Pte Ltd
Section 3
Otte<D
3. FE AreaWall Modified Panel Object
Integration of forces for Pier and Spandrel design Auto Line constraint for modeling multi Ieg wall sections
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2950 April2008
3.a. Modified Panel Object (1)
Otte<D
Lateral Displacements
2.4mm
Choo,June Shysn P.E.
2950 April200B
SrrolsUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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OtteCD
3.a. Modified Panel Object (2)
1. Z P 1 S no line constraint
2. Z P 1 S line constraint.
3. Z P Z s LC only for rnismeshed middle piers.
4. 4 P 4 S Fully meshed
5. Z P & frames
2.
4.
Otte<D
Otte<D
1. Piers divided in 2, Spandrels in 1, connection not modeled directly, no line constraint.
Piers divided in 2, Spandrels in 1, connection not modeled directly except through line constraint.
2950 April2008
3.a. Modified Panel Object (3)
2930 Apri12008
S11oEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
3. Piers divided in 2, Spandrels in 2, connection modeled directly, line constraint only for mismatchedmeshed middle piers.
Piers divided in 4, Spandrels in 4, connection modeled directly and meshed, no mismatchedmesh.
Piers divided in 2, Spandrels as frames, improved rotational connection provided in ET ABS.
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QUe International Pte Ltd
3.a. Modified Panel Object (4)
OtteCD
1. Period 0.3790  64% more flexible  not good
Period 0.2298  40% more stiff  not good  should not depend on line constraint for this connection
Period 0.2665  19% more stiff  OK model as stories increase error will decrease and vice versa
Period 0.2956  considered exact
Period 0.2952  0.3% more rigid  excellent model for ETABS  not for SAP2000 and possibly other FEM programs  see below
29·30 April200S
3.a. Modified Panel Object (5)
OtteCD
Results in SAP2000
1. Period 0.8608  765% more flexible  disaster
2. Period 0.2145  47% more stiff  not good  should not
depend on line constraint for this connection
3. Period 0.2684  16% more stiff  OK model as stories E
8 increase error will decrease and vice versa
Ii
~ 4. Period 0.2926  considered exact
..
i 5. Period 0.8314  707% more flexible  disaster
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29·50 April200S
SriolsUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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OtteCD
3.a. Modified Panel Object (6)
The large difference in the ETABS and SAP2000 results in models 1 and 5 is due to the extreme dependency of these models to the rotational connection of the spandrel to the pier which is essentially nonexistent
in SAP2000.
As number of stories is reduced the results will deviate more and as they are increased the results will be closer. This is because the axial load behavior in the piers is exact in all models and the proportion of the deformation due to axial load in the piers increases as the models become taller.
2930 April200S
Otte<D
S.b. Integration of forces for Pier
Moments
Choo.Juno Shyan P.B.
2930 Apri1200S
SnoEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Otte International Pte Ltd
OtteCD
3.b. Integration of forces for Spandrel
Otte<D
Spandrel Label
Moments
Chao,June Shyan P.E.
29·30 April200B
3.c. AutoLine constraint for modeling multileg wall sections
Otte<D
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T" 0.825
T" 0.645
29·30 April200B
SarolsUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Creating a Building Model
A simple but realistic 4storeys building with
o Walls
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Choo,June ShY"" P.E. 2830 April2008
89
1st ETABS model
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Chao. June Shy"" P.E.
2930 April2008
90
SuoEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Define Load cases & Automatic Lo~dte<D combinations
II Load Cases:
o Dead Load
o Live Load
o Wind Load
E
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~ generation as per the selected
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Choo,)un. shyiU1. P.E.
2930 April200B
Applying loadings to model
Otte<D
• Load applications (DL & LL)
o Uniform load
o Line Load
o Point load
• Wind load
o Exposure for Rigid Diaphragm
o Exposure from Area Objects
• Notional Load
o Applied as wind load with 1.5% characteristic DL
Choo,]uno Shy.n P.E.
21150 April 2008
112
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• Set D.O.F.
• Dynamic
• PDelta
• Save Access
DB file Choo,]wte Bhyan P.E.
2950 April2008
Analysis Log
Otte<D
GLOBAL FDRCE BALARcH RELATIVE ERRDRS
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2980 April2008
SttolsUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
OtteCD
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Analysis Log
Otte<D
• Solution Lost X.x Digit of Accuracy
* * * WAR N I N G ~ w *
THE SOLUTION LOST B.B DIGITS OF ACCURACY FOR DOF R3 OF CONST~~I~IT
LOCATED AT X ~ 23.609172, Y = ~2.:l12598, Z = '!AD.OQODOO,
STIFFNESS !f'tTRIX DIAGONAL Vl<.LUE = 6.il44!lE+l7
Anything less than 11 digit can be ignored!
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* * * WAR N I N G W • •
NEGATIVE STIFFNESS FOUND DURING SOLDIION FOR DOF RZ OF JOINT
LOCATED AT X ~ 275S8.950, Y = 28939.900, Z ~ 2400.000,
STIFFNESS Y~TRIX OIAGONF.L VALUE = 612.401931,
Model unstable!
chco.june Shymt P.E.
2980 April2008
Graphical Output
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• Deform shape animation (LL Displacement)
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2980 April2008
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Graphical Output
• Analysis Results (LL  M33)
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Choo,JlIlIe Shy ... P.E.
2850 April 2008
Structural Member Design
• RC frame element design per BS8110
o Longitudinal Reinforcement
o Shear Reinforcement
E • RC shear wall design per BS811 0
8 0 Uniform reinforcing design of shear wall Ii
E 0 General reinforcing design of shear wall
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Choo,Jun.Sh)'lll1P.E.
2950 April200B
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SuoEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Live Load Patterning
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• Worst possible sagging moment estimated per simplysupported beam for the applied L1.
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M=Analysis Moment for Continuous beam for LL Ma=Simply Support LL Moment * LL Pattern Factor Md=Max(M or Ma )= Design Moment
Choo,Jun. Shyan P.E.
29·80 April200B
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Solving Common problems Otte<D
in ETABS Modeling
• Using Verify Model Tool (
• Proper Meshing of Walls
• Connecting beams to wall
• Beams and column offsets
::I • Modeling transfer beam
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Advanced Features of ETABS
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~ • Construction Sequence Loading
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Auto Corr,;tru~tfon Sequence Ci'i:50
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Advanced Features of ETABS
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• Modeling of Raft Foundation with Piles
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Advanced Features of ETABS Virtual Work & Lateral Drift Optimization
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Export ETABS floors to SAFE
Choo.J"".8hyanP.E.
29·30 April 2008
SrioliUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Otte<D Export Response Spectrum Forces to
SAFE
• Since response spectrum forces are always positive, you cannot directly use the response spectrum forces for foundation design.
• You can perform a response spectrum analysis in ETAES and determine the story forces based on dynamic analysis.
• Once the story forces are know, reapply the story forces as user define static lateral load case in ETABS.
• Now if you export the reaction due to this load case then you will also have signs for reactions in SAFE mod
Choo.June Shyan P.E.
29S0 April2008
lOS
Ways to Speed Up Analysis
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106
• Modeling
1:1 No LL Reduction
1:1 Do not Calculates Diaphragm Centre of Rigidity 1:1 Assign Rigid Diaphragm directly to Points
1:1 Turn of dynamic analysis
• System
1:1 Increase RAM (1 GB and more)
1:1 Use system with Fast CPU and high Level2 cache 1:1 Fast Harddisk
o Dedicated display card (256 ME RAM)
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ChIlO. Juno Shy"" P.&
2950 Apl'il2008
SHOEUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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How to get Help?
Otte<D
• Tips
• OnLine Help (PI)
• User Manuals
• Reference Books E
8 • Movie Tutorial on Installation CD ci.
f • Email: asksz@ottegroup.com
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107
Tell us your Problems!
Otte<D
• Your model: *.EDB & *.EZK files
• The version of ETABS you are using
• Brief description of you model
• Brief description of you problem
Ii The exact wording of any error messages
CI • Your computer configuration
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• Your name, company, address, phone, fax and email
Choo,J1Uto Shyan P.E.
2960 Apri1200S
108
SrroliUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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Structural Engineering Is ...
• The Art of Using Materials
That Have Properties Which Can Only Be Estimated
• To build real structures
That Can Only Be Approximately Analysis
• To withstand forces That ATe Not Accurately Known
• So that our responsibility with respect to public safety is satisfied
Choo,]uno Shyon P.E.
29S0 April200B
Otte<D
Thank YouT
• Otte International Pte Ltd
• www.ottegroup.com
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:t: ischoo@ottegroup.com
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• +656483 3323
Choo,]Wle Shyan P.E. 29·30 April200B 110 SrrolsUsing ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 2930 April 2008
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