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f .j1-v'J1- ~ . : ~.

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Application of FEM to High-Rise Building Analysis

Overview of FEM (1)

1. Finite elements are discretization of continuum (structure, solid, fluid, etc). It is of finite size (not infinitesimal as in continuum mechanics) & has a simple geometry e.g. triangle & quadrilateral shapes.

2. FEM transforms a problem with theoretically an infinite number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) to one with a finite number of OOFs.

3. As in other numerical methods, FEM in general yields approximate values of the unknown variables at selected nodes. Values elsewhere are obtained by interpolation or extrapolation.

4. It involves computation of stiffness, nodal forces, etc for typical finite elements selected for the problem. These are then assembled to form the structural values.

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

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Overview of FEM (2)

5. The formulation involves variational principles. For structural problems, the use of principle of virtual work is convenient For field problems, weak formulation is usually adopted.

6. Even though FEM reduces the OOFs, the amount of data to be handled is often still formidable. Procedures suitable for computer implementation are needed, e.g. direct stiffness method, isoparametric formulation, Gauss quadrature integration, etc.

7. Accuracy of FEM solutions depends on good understanding of the physical problem (including boundary conditions) & appropriate modelling - including choice of element type & meshing.

Prof. CG Koh (NUSI

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Problem Types

1. Static - Linearly Elastic"'''' l/...-"l rrtfiJr'i/ ~-

(** Superposition is applicable)

2. Static - Nonlinear

E.g. nonlinear material, P-Delta effect, buckling, staged construction

3. Dynamic - linearly Elastic*'"

account for hystersis behaviour of system

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K = Stiffness _0 <M r;f-. U = Response

Continuum to Discrete System

Classical

Structure/Sol id

Assumptions Equilibrium Compatibility Material Law

Computer Model

etc ...

Partial differential equations

April 2006

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Otte(j) 5

Equilibrium

• FEM is a displacement method (as opposed to force method) - formulation at element level & assembly of structural matrices/vectors in a direct and efficient way (Direct stiffness method).

• Begin with assumption of displacement shape functions (typically polynomial) in each element.

• Shape functions are not exact in general to represent actual displacements. t

• Thus it is not possible to satisfy equilibrium at every point. I

• Approximation is needed to impose equilibrium in an average sense for the element via principle of virtual work (or weak formulation).

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Compatibility

• Finite elements interface with one another through the nodes

• Main unknowns are displacements at the nodes (which could include rotations for frame and shell elements)

• Compatibility is imposed between elements at the nodes, but not necessarily along the edges between nodes.

• Sometimes it is necessary to achieve compatibility by imposing kinematic relations - e.g. rigid diaphragm, "line constraint" (particularly useful for mismatched meshing between two different elements), etc.

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

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Material Modelling (1)
II) Linear Elastic II) Linear Inelastic
t.l e
... ...
0 # 0
L1. L1. (
Deformation Deformation
II) III
e
e ... ~
0
0 L1.
L1.
Nonlinear Elastic ~ Nonlinear Inelastic
Deformation Deformation
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Material Modelling (2)

• Most problems assume linearly elastic, isotropic & homogeneous materials.

• 3D constitutive equation:

1 > v/,f~

-- ---'- 0 E E E

&xx 1 v 0

E

E 1

E

o 1 G

0 0
0 o· Uxx 1
un 1
0 0 uzz 1
+ a.6.T +u'Ve~~
0 0 'xy ~- ·0
-
1 'yz 0
0 'zx 0
G rxy ryz Yzx "J" \

sym.

1 ~

- F A E

G-G=--

~ 2(1+v)

k,

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

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April 2008

Material Modelling (3)

• In matrix form:

~ = Ccr+~T

• For FE implementation, this is inverted to

() = D[~ - ~T]

• For anisotropic materials (i.e. properties dependent on directions), similar equations can be written but involves more material parameters.

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FE Formulation (1)

Consider quadrilateral4-node (04) plane stress element.

Element OOFs: 2 per node (uj I Vj)

(

L

Physical coord. system

U3

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April 2008

FE Formulation (2)

• Nodal displacement vector (g_) for the element - collation of all nodal displs:

~=(U1 Vi U2 V2 U3 V3 U4 V4)T

• Displacement interpolation by "shape functions" Displs at any point (x, y) in the element are expressed in terms of nodal displs.

4 U(X,y) =N1U1 +N2U2 +N3U3 +N4U4=INjUj I i=1

4

V(X,Y) =N1V1 +N2V2 +N3V3 +N4V4='LN;Vj ;=1

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FE Formulation (3)
Strain interRolation 0 0
ox
0 0 [~] ~B ~
E:= -
oy
0 0
-
oy oX
where
aN1 0 aN2 0
ax ax
g= 0 aN1 0 aN2
ay ay
aN1 aN1 aN2 aN2
ay ax ay ax
April200B Prof. CG Koh [NUS] Otle<D 13 FE Formulation (4)

Stress by constitutive law (ignoring thermal term)

(J=O e =0 Ba

Nodal forces

terms of forces at the nodes (f). fy3

Shape functions are used to

e.g. tb = J NT Q dV

V \

body force vector

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FE Formulation (5)

Equilibrium Apply Principle of Virtual Work to the element:

Internal V.W. :::: External V.W.

f = [J~ T Q ~ dV] a /

k elmt (elastic stiffness)

• Equilibrium is achieved in average sense within the finite element, but not satisfied at every point.

• The same shape functions are used in virtual displacements ~ Symmetric stiffness matrix.

Prof. CG Koh (N US)

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April 2008

FE Formulation (6)

• In the above FE procedure, element stiffness matrix & element load vector are formulated in the physical coordinate system (x, y).

• For elements of higher order elements (e.g. Q8 & Q9), particularly with curved shape, this procedure. becomes cumbersome for computer implementation.

• For example, shape functions are difficult to derive mathematically. Integration is also difficult to compute.

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Isoparemetric Element (1)

• Introduce concept of "master element"

Finite element in physical coord.

Master element in natural coord.

7J

(X2' Y2)

(-1, 1)

(1, 1)

2

(0,0)

y

~,

4

(-1, -1)

(1, -1)

Prof. CG Koh (NUS]

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April 2008

Isoparemetric Element (2)

• Shape functions expressed in natural coord (and thus "standard" regardless of the actual shape of physical element). For Q4 element:

1

N1 = 4 (1 + ~)(1 + 7])

N3 = _2_ (1 - ~) (1 - 7]) 4

• Displacement interpolation:

u (t; I 11) = 1 ti (~ I 11)1 g

• Coordinate interpolation (mapping):

Use the same set of X (S I 11) =1 N (S I 11)1 Q

shape functions

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(-1, 1) (1, 1)
2
c==> ; (
6
(0,0)
4
Q8 Element (-1, -1) (1, -1)
Aprii2008 Prof. CG Koh (NUSI OtteCD 19 Isoparemetric Element (3)

• The same shape functions are used for displacement interpolation & coordinate interpolation ~ Isoparametric element formulation

• Allow easy implementation of elements of arbitrary shapes & higher order elements (e.g. 08 and 09)

Isoparametric formulation revolutionized FEM I 1]

Isoparemetric Element (4)

• For partial derivatives required in B matrix:

Jacobian matrix (J) - This matrix needs to be inverted (numerically)

• Element stiffness matrix, e.q, for plane stress element of thickness t

f T (1 f1 T

Kelmt = B DB tdA= .L1.L1 B DB tIJldC;d1]

A

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Isoparemetric Element (5)

• Condition for one-to-one mapping between physical coordinates & natural coordinates is: IJI should not change sign in the domain of mapping.

• Guidelines for element mesh:

>- Avoid hig~ly distorted elements >- Avoid elongated elemenfs

>- Interior angles < 1800

>- Mid-side node located within middle one-half along the edge - middle one-third preferred.

April20D8

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

OtleCD 21

Isoparemetric Element (6)

• Badly distorted element would give Jacobian determinant different signs within the element.

-7 Some points of the master element are mapped to points outside the corresponding physical element.

Physical element Master element
;
17 ;
;
4 3 ;
;
;
2 [ l
c;
~~~LiWoh
det(J) > 0
3 4
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+ + + + +
+ + + ~ (
+ + + + +
2x2 G.P. 3x3 G.P.
Prof. CG Koh (NUS] OtleCD 23 Numerical Integration (1)

• Integration is computed numerically by Gauss quadrature formula, which is the most efficient in terms of achieving the same accuracy with minimum integration points. i

• For example, 2-point Gauss quadrature gives exact integral of cubic _polynomial (other formulae need 4 points).

Kelmt = L [Gauss weight x Integrand computed at Gauss point]

• Gauss quadrature integration is carried out in the natural coord. system

+

1x1 G.P.

ApJil2008

Numerical Integration (2)

• FEM is inexact (in general) and usually it errs by being too stiff.

• Using more Gauss points to integrate element stiffness matrices exactly (or nearly exact) therefore does not necessarily leads to better accuracy, plus increases computational time.

o Lesser Gauss points compensates the over-stiffness of FEM ("two wrongs make a right"), e.g. to overcome "shear locking" problem.

• But It is possible that the strains at Gauss points happen to be zero ~ spurious zero-energy mode (in addition to rigid body modes which are truly zero-energy). This can give instability or inaccuracy.

• E.g. "Hour glass" deformation: No strain (& stress) at Gauss points.

!"~",\"""':""'/

t .\ /:

\ + ! + \~

\\ L \

+

+

~, + + i

)+ J

+

+

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

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Nodal Forces (1)

displacement functions (fY) P2

• For point load (P) not at any node: f = NTp

- -

• For surface traction (g):

[=JNTEtds ~

s

• For body force (!J.), e.g. gravity load, inertia force:

OtteCO 25

April 2008

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Nodal Forces (2)

• Gauss quadrature is used for numerical integration if needed and done in the natural coordinate system

• This method gives "consistent" nodal forces, as the same set of shape function (similarly for computing mass matrix).

• This does not imply "exact" (as shape functions are approximation of actual displacement functions, plus Jacobian transformation in distorted elements).

• E.g. nodal forces for gravity load (W= weight of element) for Q8 element: At corner codes, the --

nodal forces are upwards! But

total nodal forces = W

WI12

W/12

W/3 J

~W13

• Alternative: use "IWJl7~d mass" approach (popu~ shelt elements; zero mass for rotational OaFs).

IW'3 W/12

OtteCD

W/12

April 2008

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Shape Functions (1)

• 04 element is bilinear, i.e. linear along two axes, but nonlinear in other directions -7 linear + some ~ms (incomplete).

~ 08 and 09 contains all quadratic terms and some higher order terms (incomplete).

Typical shape function Shape function for corner

for Q4 element node of Q8 element

Shape function for midside node of Q8 element

April 200B Prof. CG Koh (NUS]

Otle<D 27

Shape Functions (2)

• Shape functions are typically polynomial functions (easy to derive and differentiate).

• They are defined in the natural coordinates system.

• Accuracy of elements depend on order of shape functions used.

• Linear & quadratic elements are common, and cubic elements in some special applications.

• Higher-order element is not justifiable due to the approximation nature of FEM.

• For distorted elements (non-rectangular), isoparametric mapping (via Jacobian transformation) gives nonpolynomial representation of displacement field.

April200B

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Shape Functions (3)

• For triangular elements, the natural coordinates system is not convenient & is replaced by the "area coordinates" system.

• Shape functions are defined in terms of L1, L2 and L3.

, , _-A ". _.... !._'

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ Area coordinate of this point is (L1, L2, La)

where L1 = A/A, L2 = AiA, L3 = A3/A A = A1 + A2+ As

Area = Al

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April 2008

Good Element Shapes

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Poor Element Shapes

April 2008

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Prof. CG Koh (N US)

Unacceptable Element Shapes

Mid-side node too close to

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Boundary Conditions (1)

• One advantage of displacement method is the ease in enforcing displacement boundary conditions.

• FEM formulates the whole structural stiffness matrix for all DOFs and then impose displacement boundary conditions to eliminate those equations corresponding to known nodal displacements.

• Standard: Fixed, pinned, roller.

• Elastic support (e.g. foundation or soil)

Prof. CG Koh (NUSI

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April 2008

Boundary Conditions (2)

• Inclined support can be modelled by a truss or spring element.

'\ Do not set the relative stiffness value too high due to possible numerical truncation error .. - 100 to J 000 times is usually sufficient.

1----- .... e

Stiff truss _ ~ ~~ .. element

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~inematic Constraints (1)

• Finite element mesh can affect the solution considerably.

• Rectangular elements are more accurate than arbitrary shaped elements.

• From coarse mesh to fine mesh, mesh transition would generally mean non-rectangular elements.

• The process of defining transition elements can be tedious, and mesh distortion decreases accuracy.

~nnOt nUlU

( 1"'-
V
r-,
V
\) I

1"'-
V
\..__../ or

<,
.>
<,
.>
<,
->
<,
-> Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Otte<D 35

April200B

Kinematic Constraints (2)
· Alternatively, kinematic constraints can be imposed to enforce
displacement compatibility between elements where nodes do not
coincide - known as "line constraint".
• This eliminates the need for mesh transition elements.
• This approach is also useful for capturing interaction of different
structural objects, e.g. curved shear wall supporting a curved ramp.

;(

------ r--., DiSPla~ment
( \
) compatibility
enforced here
April200B Prof. CG Koh [N US) OtteCD 36 S11oE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

L. _. . __ .. _ . __ ..... __ .._ ._... ._. __ .. _ ... __ ..

(

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2

9 10

o--.q

Kinematic Constraints (3)

• The finer mesh is constrained to the coarse mesh ..

• Shape functions of the coarse mesh is used to evaluate the displacements at the nodes of the fine mesh. .

• Displacements at the 3 fine mesh nodes (#5, 7 & 9) are "constrained" to move linearly as defined by displacement shape between the 2 coarse mesh nodes (#3 & 4).

• For i = 5, 7 & 9:

~: :Z:~: :Z;~: I

1 0--- -04

7 8

3

5 b---O 6

Prof. CG Koh (N US)

Otte<D 37

coarse

fine

April200B

Kinematic Constraints (4)

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Otte<D 38

• Another example:

Inclined floor connected to wall, but their nodes do not coincide.

• If kinematic constraint is not imposed on the elements, there will be gap or overlap between the. slab and wall along the interface.

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Direct Assembly

• Element stiffness matrices are then assembled to form a structure stiffness matrix by the direct stiffness. method.

.. This involves establishing a connectivity array that links element OOFs to structure OOFs. '

• Numbering of OOFs in the shorter direction helps to reduce the matrix bandwidth (hence more efficient computationally) .

• Nodal forces of all elements are assembled in the

same way.

Prof. GG Koh (NUS)

OttetD 39

\

(

April 2008

Solutions

• Solve K ~ = E by LU decomposition (or its variation)

• For large system, special schemes may be required, e.g. active column method.

• The solution gives nodal displacements.

• From nodal displacements, strains and stresses are calculated via B matrix and D matrix:

&= Ba u=Df_

• These are usually computed at Gauss points.

• Forces & moments are numerically integrated at Gauss points: e.g.

Fxx = fO"xx dA A

Mxx = fa-xx y dA A

April 2008

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Convergence Study

• Convergence - FE solution approaches the exact solution as the mesh size decreases to zero.

• When unsure of the adequacy of FE mesh, convergence study should be performed by reducing the mesh size and see how the results change -7 h-refinement

• Alternatively, higher order elements are used to see change in results -7 p-refinement

• Another possibility is rearrangement of FE mesh by shifting nodes to regions where finer mess is required (e.g. stress concentration) without increase in OOFs -7 r-retlnsment ("reshaper")

Original mesh

h-refinement

p-refinement

r-refinement

· At least one node is internal in
F F -
~ H the patch of elements.
· The FE solution should produce
2F -f- constant strai n e xx (exact) for
H the problem defined on the left.
Patch-test for constant-j; and rxy \. ~J: _
F - ·
April 2008 Prof. CG Koh (NUS) OtteCD 42 Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Otte<D 41

April 2008

Patch Test

• Patch test - If a group (or patch) of elements of arbitrary shape is subjected to nodal displacements associated with constant strain, the FE results must yield constant strain.

• If the patch test fails, the FE solution may not converge to the exact solution.

• Patch test is particularly useful for incompatible (or nonconforming) elements that do not fully satisfy compatibility conditions.

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Choice of Elements

10 (e.g. frame)

hr~'h)

b+-h

D

20 (e.g. plate/shell) % ~---------I'! h « L, b b-L

h l~ 3D (solid)

b

h-b-L

April200B

OttetD 43

Prof. CG Koh (NUSI

10 Elements

• Frame element- most useful elements for structural analysis, accounting for bending, shear, axial and torsional deformations.

• Some software allow non-prismatic sections

• 6 OOFs per node ("member end release" possible),

e.g. setting an end moment to zero. "

M.'\. /r v~ /p T

IV.

1M3

• Truss and spring element - axial deformation only.

• Truss element can be obtained from frame element by end moment release.

r:. ~ Gap element - compression only .".,y Hook element - tension only

• Gap & hook elements are nonlinear.

z

2-node frame y element

x

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Modelling of Frame Structures

• Choice of 10, 20, 3D elements depends on physical behaviour & computational resources.

• For buildings, many components (beams & columns) are best modelled by frame elements.

• Even shear walls with openings can often be modelled effectively by frame elements with rigid ends.

• Sufficient to use up to quadratic order's in most problems; higher-order elements do not necessarily work better.

• Incompatible elements could be better than compatible elements in some problems, e.g. to mitigate shearlocking as encountered in 4-node quadrilateral (20) & 8-node hexahedral (3~) elements.

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

OtteCD 45

April 2008

Joint Modelling (1)

• For RC members, joints are relatively rigid as compared to members (beams & columns).

• Model: frame element with rigid ends
,-' -»: .....
I , ,
, ,~ ,
~ ,
Rigid
;;:one ~ Rigid
, " ' - endS~
, , c::::>
,
~ , , - , ///

o = node

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

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Joint Modelling (2)

Rigid zone factor:

13= 0 for no rigid zone (span from centre line to centre line)

13= 1 for full rigid zone (rigid for full width of intersecting member)

Shear

April200B

i""""""'" Centre lines --i

Deformed shape

........ -- ......

RiZ- ""

(_

Constitutive equations are established for the deformable part, & transformed to the two ends (nodes) via equilibrium equations at the respective rigid zones.

Prof. CG Koh (NUS]

Otte(]) 47

Joint Modelling (3)

For steel members, beam-column joints can have significant shear deformation.

Beam

Shear modulus= G Thicknesa= t

,. b .,

0
c:::::::> I
I
1- - • Shear deformation of joint is accounted by modelling the joint as elastic panel with constant shear: kshear = G hbt

• Similarly, flexural deformation of joint can be accounted for but this is usually small.

• Need to account for doubler plates if any.

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Otte<D 46

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Beam-Slab Compatibility

• By default, the centre lines of beam and slab coincide. \~

• If one wishes to capture the interaction of beam and slab more accurately in the analysis, one way is to impose displacement. compatibility by "rigid constraint" option (provided in some software).

• As such, there is no issue of effective width of T or t-beam.

• This way also allows non-prismatic beam where neutral axis is not on a straight line. .

• Nevertheless, design should be consistent with the analysis, e.g .: axial force in beam would be significant and should be accounted for. •

Rigid constraint on nodes I and J

o

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

OtteCD 49

April 2008

Rigid Diaphragm (1)

• In-plane deformations in floors are usually negligible.

• Floor can be assumed to translate horizontally & rotate about a vertical axis as a rigid body.

• Kinematic condensation by "master-slave node concept": 3 master DOFs in-plane per floor.

• Out-of-plane deformations are not affected.

• Advantage: Reduce DOFs significantly & save computational time.

• Disadvantage: Axial forces in horizontal members & diaphragm shear stress cannot be computed. If these are important, use flexible (semi-rigid) diaphragm.

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Rigid Diaphragm (2)

(

-, / -, / -, /'

I" / '\ / 1"- / • Truss action will not be modelled if horizontal chord members are part of rigid floor diaphragms.

• Use flexible floor diaphragm. ~

--

• Alternatively, these members have to be disconnected from the rigid floor diaphragms - to allow elongation or shortening of the horizontal chord members.

Prof. GG Koh (NUS)

OtleCD 51

April200B

Rigid Diaphragm (3)

(

x & yare coordinates of slave node relative to master node

em
z
um
Y-
Master
node Um
x (For dynamic analysis, if master node is at centre of mass, mass matrix will be diagonal.)

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OtteCD 52

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Example

• 20-storey frame building

• No. of joints = 480

• Total OOFs= 480x6 = 2880

• Reduced to

20x3 + 480x3= 1500 OOFs

I "-

3 master OOFs 3 out-of-plane OOFs

per floor per beam-column node

April 2008

Prof. GG Koh (NUSI

e

z
~Y
/~/, ~
~

'I
~

~

~

~

V
OUeCD 53

Static Condensation

• Eliminates those OOFs that are not associated with applied forces.

• E.g. if lateral forces are applied at master nodes only, OOFs can be reduced to only 3 per floor

• For the 20-storey building example =? 60 OOFs.

OUe<D 54

Master node

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20 Elements (1)

• Plane elements - plane stress, plane strain & axisymmetric elements for the respective cases (2 displacement OOFs per node).

• Plate elements - bending action only (1 displacement + 2 rotation OOFs per node).

e Membrane elements - membrane action only (2 displacements + possibly 1 "drilling" OOF per node).

• Shell elements = Plate + Membrane (5 or 6 OOFs

per node) 3

April200B

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Drilling DOF

f

-

4-node shell element

Otle<D 55

(

20 Elements (2)

• Plane stress, plane strain & axisymmetric elements are also 20 elements.

"

Plane stress problem: z-dimension is very small compared to x & y dimensions

Apri1200B

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Plane strain problem: z-dimension is very large compared to x & y dimensions

Otle<D 56

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[rrxx] 1-v v 0 [exx] tkV~~ ...f vfyJ-
1'-'
E 1-v 0 ~
Cfyy = lOyy C
7:xy Sym. 1-2v Yxy
--
2
<,

~ E J o matrix
E-
(1 + v)(1- 2v)
£zz = 0 but Cfzz * 0
April200B Prof. CG Koh [NUS) OHeCD 58 Plane Stress Element

~ Plane Stress - structure in z-direction is short compared to x and y-dimensions, e.g. walls & plates with in-plane action only.

o matrix

[CfXX]

Cfyy = E

7:xy

1

v 0 [exx]
1 0 lOyy
1-v Yxy
--
2 \OU oV
r --+-
xy oy oX Sym.

~f

~~ut £zz*O

Engineering shear strain (which is twice the shear strain as defined in continuum mechanics)

Prof. CG Koh [NUS)

OHeCD 57

April 2008

Plane Strain Element

~ Plane Strain - structure in z-direction is assumed to be infinite, e.g. tunnels, dams, contiguous piles, long retaining wall, etc.

SuoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

29

Otte International Pte Ltd

Axisymmetry Element

z

);> Axisymmetry (solid of revolution) -

structure is symmetric about an axis (z), e.g. pipes, pressure vessels, storage tanks, etc.

r
0
0 r:: 1
t:ee
0 Yrz
i-2v (
2(1-v) ,
o matrix 1 v v
- -
i-v i-v
r::1 1 v
E i-v
(Tee
'trz Sym. E= E(1-v)

(1 + v)(1- 2v)

April 2008

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

OttetD 59

3D Elements

• Solid (or brick) elements

OtteCD 60

(

8-node solid element

20-node (serendipity)

S11oE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

l .. _ .

• Natural coord system - (S, '7, () or (r, S, t)

• Potential problems: Computationally intensive, high distortion, shear locking, ill conditioning

April200B

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

30

Otte International Pte Ltd

Modelling of Floor Systems

• There are various ways to model floor.

• One approach is to extend beam theory (10) to plate

bending theory (2D). i

• Plate bending accounts for out-of-plane deformation but not in-plane deformation. '

• On the other hand, membrane accounts for in-rlane deformation but not out-of-plane deformation

• Shell = Plate Bending + Membrane J

• Shear deformation should be accounted for thick shell or thick plate.

ApJil2008

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Otte(i) 61

Plate Bending Element (1)

• Begin with 8-node element with 16 rotational OOFs.

• At mid-side transform rotation vectors to normal & tangential, and ignore tangential component

ko~.

April 2008

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

OtteCD 62

SuoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

31

QUe International Pte Ltd

Plate Bending Element (2)

• Add vertical displacements at 4 corners. .

• Use static condensation to eliminate mid-side rotations (assuming no moment applied there). ~

~4-node plate bending element with 12 OOFs.'

OtleCD 63

(

April 2008

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Membrane Element

• The approach is similar to the plate bending element, except rotations are swapped with displacements.

-7 4-node membrane element with 12 OOFs (drilling OOF would enable compatibility with frame elements).

• This element has a zero-energy mode (other than rigid body modes) & has to be eliminated by computing & adding the corresponding stiffness term.

• In the same way, triangular (3-node) membrane element can be derived, but its performance is usually poor (too stiff).

April 2008

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

"Drilling" DOF

OtleCD 64

SHoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

1. .

(

32

Otte International Pte Ltd

"Membrane Slab"

• In ETABS, slab with membrane properties can be used to distribute floor load on floor to beams & columns.

• The concept of tributary loads is used as a simplifying . assumption for transferring the loads ,

• The membrane slab (or virtual membrane) does not resist the load. [;

3

3

1

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Otterli 65

April200B

Shell Element (1)

• Classical thin shell theory leads to high order differential equations which are difficult to solve in general.

• Many shell elements have been developed, but none can claim to be best for all problems.

• One popular element is the degenerated solid elements (start from 3D mechanics).

• Alternative: Use plate bending element (which is extended from 1 D beam theory) and add membrane element

~ Flat shell element (4-node, 24-DOF)

• This approach gives more direct physical interpretation of bending moments.

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Otle<D 66

ApriJ2008

S11oE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

33

Otte International Pte Ltd

Shell Element (2)

• In local coordinate system, obtain element stiffness matrices for plate bending & bending.

• Assemble to form 24x24 stiffness matrix & transform to global coordinate system.

Global Z t ,} X

coord. L

Local coord.

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

OUeCO 67

Apri!2008

Shell Element (3)

• Flat 4-node shell elements can be used to model most shell structures if all four nodes can be placed at the mid-surface of the shell.

• This may not be possible, e.g. for shells with double curvatures. Modification will be required to account for offset.

• But this is not a problem for floor slabs in buildings.

Flat shell element~

Offset

Mid-surface of curved shell

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

OUe<D 68

April 2008

SnoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

L_ __ .__

(

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Otte International Pte Ltd

Solid Element

• For very thick shell, it may be necessary to use solid

elements (e.q, deep foundation).

• There is no need to define reference surface,

• More than one layer of solid elements is usually required.

• 4-node tetrahedral elements give constrain strain & do not perform well particularly for capturing stress gradients

• Computational cost increases considerably by using solid elements.

April200B

OHeCD 69

Prof. CG Kch [N US)

Modelling of Wall Systems (1)

• Plane stress elements can be used to model walls, But this does not account for out-of-plane bending,

• Shell elements are preferred, which also allow beam-

wall interaction through rotational DOFs (compatibility).

uracy, it is

use sufficiently for each panel practical for highwith many walls.

• For good ace
RC necessary to
wall fine elements
but this is not
rise building

Iff m tu I"~ Jf/ FE mesh for one panel

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

OHeCD 70

April200a

SuoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

35

QUe International Pte Ltd

Modelling of Wall Systems (2)

• In addition, the use of many elements for each panel does not produce information that is directly useable by structural engineers,

• Users prefer to use one element per panel ~ coarse mesh.

• But not all shell elements perform well in coarse mesh.

• Correction is needed if a one element per panel is to be used to model walls with reasonable accuracy.

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Otte(j) 71

April 2008

Shear Wall Behaviour

• Shear walls are often used to describe RC walls that

are designed to help the building resist lateral loads.

• The name is actually misleading,

• Under normal circumstances:

~ Shear walls deform in bending mode primarily ~ Shear deformations are rarely significant

~ QnlY. very low shear walls (hlw ratio <1) fail in shear~ ~ They are designed to resistthecClmbined effect of

axial, bending and shear

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Otte(j) 72

April 2008

SHoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

(

36

OUe International Pte Ltd

Corrected Panel Element

• Classical 4-node plane stress element - using single element to model shear wall can lead to significant error, particularly for tall walls ( over-stiff).

• Correction is needed. In ETABS, each panel element is automatically divided into 2 sub-elements. A force method is used to compute panel forces, and internal forces are in exact equilibrium with applied

load regardless of wall shape. 1 ETABS Panel Element

.,.¢

width =w

0.8

I~
\ SAP2000 Shell Element
\
-, Classical Plane
--........_ Stress Element is. ...

,--------..., J: .1Il ~ 0.6

II C ><

.... iii ~ 0.4

~ ~~ 0.2

J:

o

J

o

2

4

6

8

10

April 2008

Aspect Ratio (h/w)

Prof. CG Koh (NUSI OtteCD 73

Shear Wall vs. Frame

- f-----t-+--t

-1-+-+---1

-

Shear wall (tall) deforms like cantilever flexural beam

Frame deforms like cantilever shear beam

Prof. CG Koh (NUSI

Ottetli 74

April 2008

SuoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

37

Otte International Pte Ltd

Shear Wall with Openings

Small openings - Medium openings - Big openings -

(full) panel elements piers & spandrels frame elements

- - -

_ f--------l

_ f---------J

..... - ..... - ........... -----,

.---------, :

I

:

I I I I I I I

:

I I

_ f--i-!---...i.....i-l:

-----------------;c

,

r-------, !

I I I I

:

I I I I ,

D

D

D D

Prof. CG Koh [NUS)

Otterli 75

April 2008

Beam-Column System

• When a shear wall has many large holes, the actual behaviour is closer to frame system comprising equivalent beams and columns with rigid zone. Plus, results can be used directly for RC design.

• It may not be worthwhile to use 2D elements of fine mesh.

/

III III

I I

III
III Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

OttctD 76

April200B

SHoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

,

L_, __ •

(

38

OUe International Pte Ltd

Piers and Spandrels

• "Piers & Spandrels" approach produce integrated moments & shear across sections of walls for design purpose.

• Interaction is done by summing nodal forces (obtained from the product of element stiffness matrix & nodal displacements) instead of integrating stress of finite elements.

• Pier is an assemblage of vertical elements.

• Spandrel is an assemblage of horizontal elements.

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Otte<D 77

April 2008

Dynamic Analysis (Intro.)

Eqns. of motion: M (j + C U + K u

E_( t)

• Stiffness matrix: Same as static problem

• Mass matrix: Consistent mass or lumped mass matrix

• Damping matrix: Difficult to establish analytically.

Assume proportional (classical) damping matrix, e.g. Rayleigh damping:

C=80M+8IK

\ /

Can be related to damping

ratios of any two modes

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

OtteCD 78

April 2008

SHoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

39

OUe International Pte Ltd

Dynamic Analysis - General

Direct Analysis (Full Analysis)

.. Solve the matrix equations of motion for the full system directly in time domain, usually by numerical integration methods.

• Commonly adopted: Newmark and Wilson methods, more recently Huber-Hughes-Taylor method.

• Computationally expensive for large systems.

• Applicable to nonlinear systems (e.g. large displacement, nonlinear material, and non-classical damping)

Prof. CG Koh (NUSl

OttejD 79

April200a

Dynamic Analysis - Linear Systems

Mode Superposition Method (Modal Analysis) ~ Applicable to linear systems only

~ Formulation in time domain

~ Involve the use of eigen vectors or load-dependent Ritz vectors

).0- Usually low modes are sufficient

)- Advantage: allow exclusion of high modes and thus computationally efficient

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

OtteCO 80

April 2008

SnoE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April200B

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40

Otte International Pte Ltd

Solving Modal Equations

Each modal equation can be solved by:

(a) Response history analysis in time domain (e.g. by time-stepping method)

(b) Response spectrum analysis (suitable for estimating peak response, widely used for seismic design)

(c) Frequency domain analysis (with the help of Fast Fourier Transform)

For (b), some combination rule is required to estimate the peak response for several rules. Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) and Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) are popular.

Prof. CG Koh (NUSI

Otte(j) 81

ApriL 2008

Response Spectrum Analysis (SDOF System)

• Very useful for earthquake analysis but not well understood by many engineers.

• This method aims to obtain peak (max.) response

for a prescribed earthquake time history. m

• Equation of motion in terms of relative displacement:

mii- cu v ku = -mii; • Elastic force (base shear) is

f =ku=molu m=.Jklm

s

k,c

_Ug

Prof. CG Koh (NUSI

Otte<D 82

ApriL 2008

S11oE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

41

Otte International Pte Ltd

Acknowledgement

The following references have been useful in the preparation of this short course:

"Static & Dynamic Analysis of Structures", EL Wilson, 2004, Computers and Structures Inc., USA

Manuals and User's Guide for ETABS (Version 9),2005, Computers and Structures lnc., USA

Reference materials on CSI website: http://csiberkeley.com/supporttechnicalpapers.html

April 2008

Prof. CG Koh (NUS)

Otte<D 83

S11oE: Using ETABS for Building Analysis and Design 29-30 April 2008

[ _ .

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42

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OtteCD

OtteCD

USING ETABS FOR BUILDING ANALYSIS & DESIGN

RE:VI!5ED 2S APR2CIOeI

By

Choo, June Shyan P.E. Otte International Pte Ltd

SECTION 1

Otte<D

• What is ETABS?

• How is ETABS difference?

§ • ETABS Plus or Nonlinear?

u

D.

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~ ~

~

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Z8-30 April2008

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SuoE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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3:

ETABS

OtteCD

ijtende~ee- Dimensional ~n.lysis o~lrilding Systems

• It development started more than 30 years ago as T~B by

Ashraf Habibullah, S.E. & fref. Ed. Wilson, D. Eng ~

• With the mission:

To provide the profession with the most efficient and

comprehensive software for the analysis and design of

buildings

ChOO,JW1. Shy.., P.E.

2!1-30 April2008

ETABS

OtteCD

• Industry Standard for building analysis & design

• First program to take account the unique properties inherent in mathematical model of building.

• A complete Building Analysis & Design Environment built around a physical object based graphical user interface.

Choo,Jun. Shy.n P.E.

29·30 April2008

Srroli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

[_ .. _. .. _

Otte D

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4

DUe International Pte Ltd

OtteCD

ETABS

Otte(j)

• Top Seismic Product of the 20th Century

• All Tallest Buildings in the world are designed using ETABS &

SAP2000

Choo,June Shyan P.Il.

29-30 April2008

B

ETABS Integrated Models

Otte(j)

• Complex Composite Floor Framings with

Openings & Overhang ~I

• Steel Joist Systems ..

• Moment Resisting Frame

• Complex Shear Wall Systems ~

• Rigid & Flexible diaphragm floor \

• Slope Roofs ~

• Ramps & Parking systems ...

Choo,Jun. ShyanP.ll.

6

29-80 April 2008

Srioli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte International Pte Ltd

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ETABS

Otte<D

• ETABS can perform: [J 2D & 3D analysis [J Static & Dynamic

[J Linear & Non-linear" .

[J P-delta and P-delta with large deformation"

o Construction sequence analysis"

o Response Spectrum ~

[J Time-History Analysis" 101'

* Nonlinear features

Choo,/une Shyan P.E.

29·30 April 2008

ETABS

Otte<D

• ETABS design for:

o Beams - RC, Steel, Composite v-

o Columns - RC, Steel, "Composite" ~

o Walls-RC

• ETABS can export floor to SAFE for analysis and design r

~ ~.",~f'

~'?

Choo,June Shyan P.E.

29·30 April 2008

Srioli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

L _. _ _ _ _ .

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7

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Otte International Pte Ltd

OtteCi)

ETABS Plus

Otte<D

• 3D elastic analysis of the building system based on FEM .

• It includes:

o steel frame design,

o concrete frame design,

o composite beam design,

o shear wall design.

E

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Choo,JuneShySl1 P.E. 29·50 Apri12008

ETABS Nonlinear Otte<D

• Extend the capabilities of Plus to include static and dynamic nonlinear analysis options:

o Static Nonlinear Analysis

• Large Displacement

o Plastic Hinge Elements

o Static Pushover Analysis

o Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis

Choo,Jun. ShySll P.E.

29·50 Apri12008

10

Stroll- Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte International Pte Ltd

OtteCD

SECTION 2 OHe<D
ETABS GUI
• Tools bars
• Windows
E • Bottom
0
I.! Information
a.
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Chao, June Shyan P.E. 2~-90 April2008 11 Views: Different Windows

OHeCD

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• Choose Window Views: Options> Windows> ...

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~ • J~' '~~,'I •• , ~ J ".o::'!," ,~~ r ••

,~ •• J-&>.

• Choose number of views

Plan View 3D View

[J Elevation View

Choo,JlU1. Shyan P.E.

29-50 April2008

12

SlloE- Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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OttetD

Drawing Tools

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Choo,Juno Shyan F.E.

.")1{

-------c> Selection Pointer
-------c> Reshape Object Tool
~ Draw Beam ~
-------c> Draw Column ....
-------c> Draw Secondary Beams
-------c> Draw Braces -(
j Draw Floor
~ Draw Wall
-------c> Draw Window .
~ Draw Door 29-80 April2008

Otte(i)

IS

Selection & Snapping Tools

Select All

Previous Selection Clear Selection

Select by Crossing Line

Snap to qrld Intersections and pOinU
Snap to Line Ends and Mid Points
Snap to Intersections
Snap to Perpendicular Projections I
Snap to Line and Edges
Snap to Fine Grid 29-S0 April2008

Otte<D

14

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SHoE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

• Select - Default ~
• Draw [ill
E
0
u
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:::I
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til
(II
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0
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s
Choo,June 8hyan P.E. 29-90 .... pril2008 15 Otte International Pte Ltd

Modes of Interface

Otte<D

OtteCD

Selecting Objects in ETABS

Otte<D

Drag from left to right

• Selects all objects windowed

E o u

~ Drag from right to left

o

.. .

~ • Selects all objects crossed

~

i

chee, June 8hyan P.E.

29-90 .... pril200S

16

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Srioli-Uslng ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte International Pte Ltd

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Others Useful Tools

atte<D

• Replicate

• Align/Point/Line/Edge

• Extrusion

• Import/Export

Chao,June Shyan p.e.

29-80 April200B

17

SECTION 3

Setting up a ETABS model

Otte(])

• Setting up Database unit

• Setting up Gridlines

• Setting up Storey information

s

8 • Define Material Ii

2 • Define Sections

a

I

Choo,June shy"" P.E.

29-30 April. 200s

18

Sl1oE- Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte International Pte Ltd

OtteCD

Database Units

OtteiD

1st unit used is the Database Unit!

29-50 April 2008

19

Coordinate Systems

Otle<D

(

• Global Rectangular System

o Rectangular

o Cylindrical

o General

• Local 1-2-3 Coordinate Systems

o Line Objects

o Area Objects

E

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Choo,]un. Shyan P.E.

29-50 April 2008

20

Srtols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Otte International Pte Ltd

A ~ \( 'T'
Coordinates 0-' Otte<D
e.- !
• Types 0··--

I:l Rectangular (c)--
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I:l Cylindrical 0,.~~ _0}
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Choo,Junc ShYIIIlP.E. 211-80 <lpril2008 21 Ways to generate grids

Otte<D

• Create in ETABS

o Template

o User-defined

• Import from Architectural drawing (*.dxf)

o Select appropriate layer

o Watch out for the correct units

Choo,jun. ShYllIl P.E.

29·80 <lpril2008

SnoE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

OtteCD

22

OUe International Pte Ltd

Edit Grid

OtteCD

29·30 April2008

Primary & Secondary grids

OtteCD

II ETABS automatically create an Elevation (Sections) for all Primary Grid

• No Elevation is generated for Secondary grid.

• User can define an Developed Elevation of any surfaces.

E o I.! 1:1. ::I o

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Choo,JIII1. 8ilyan p.e.

29·30 April2008

Srrols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

l. . .. __ . _ .. _. _ _ .. _.. _.

OtteCD

28

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Reference Planes/Lines

Otte<D

ETAB! • Reference Plane

o Reference planes are horizontal planes at userspecified Z-ordinates.

• Reference Lines

o Reference lines are vertical lines at user-specified global X and Y coordinates.

choc.june Shy"" P,ll,

as-so April 2008

Developed Elevation

Otte<D

• Draw> Draw Developed Elevation Definition>, , .

o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

%' 'j' l' 'Y l' Y ~"<,,

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2~-SO April 2008

SnoE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

OttetD

28

26

Otte International Pte Ltd

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Global Axes of Model

Otte<D

• y - 90 Degree

• Z - Vertical Up

• x- 0 Degree

Choo,]UIW Shyan P.E.

29-30 April200S

Storey Definition

Otte(D

• Edit> Edit Storey Data

Setting Master Storey and Similar Storeys

29-30 April2008

Srioli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

OtteCD

27

28

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Otte International Pte Ltd

• Material Properties

• Frame & Section Properties E

8 • Wall & Slab Section properties Ii

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• Storey can de defined as "Master" storey in which other storey can be set to "similar to"

• These allow user to make changes to multiple storeys using the "Similar Storey" option

CItoo,]uneShyan P.E.

29-30 April 2008

Otte(i) . Define Material & Sections Properties

Choo,]une 8hyan p.E.

29-50 April 2008

SuoE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

OtteCi)

29

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Otte International Pte Ltd

OtteCD

Material Properties

Otte<D

E

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Choo,June Shyan P.B.

29-30 April200S

31

Isotropic

• The behavior of an isotropic material is independent of the direction of loading.

Otte<D

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g12

Gil a1

Gil a1

G" + a1 .iT

G~ 0

0' to 0

0'1) 0

1 -u12 -u12 0 0 0

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1 -u12 0 0 0

e1 el

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a) sotropic Mllerial

Choo,June Shyan P.E.

29-30 April200S

52

Snoli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Otte International Pte Ltd

Orthotropic

Otle<D

• The behavior of an orthotropic material can be different in the three local axis directions.

1 ·~12 -«13 0 0 0
eT e2 e3
1 -lJ23 0 0 0
~u e2 e3 0"11 el
~!! 1 0 0 0 O"j! a2
e3
I::}~ O"l) + e3 m-
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Sj23 Choo,JllRe Shyan P.t.

29-50 April 2008

Frame Properties

Otte<D

• Define> Frame Properties>

E o ~ C. :::I o Im QJ

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Chao, June Shyon P.t.

29-50 April 2008

SnoE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

OtteCD

33

34

Otte International Pte Ltd

OtteCD

Frame Properties

Otte<D

(

• Example:

Creating concrete rectangular section Click> Add Rectangular

E

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Choo,JWle ShyanP.E.

29-30 April2008

55

Non-prismatic Member

Otte<D

(

• Nonprismatic frame sections may be defined with the properties varying along the element length.

• The variation of the bending stiffnesses may be linear, parabolic, or cubic over each segment of length.

• The axial, shear, torsional, mass, and weight properties all vary linearly over each segment

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29-80 April2008

86

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Non-prismatic Member

Otte<D

• Section's depth varies from 900mm to 600mm to 900mm

• I=(bh3)/12

• EI33 is Cubic

Chco,Jun. ShY"" P.Il.

87

29-80 April200S

Section Designer Frame Section OtteiD

• Example:

Eight-sided Column with excased I-Beam

29-80 April200S

Stroh-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte International Pte Ltd

SECTION 4 Otte<D
Understanding ETABS' objects (
• Point a
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29·30 April2008

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Point Objects

Otle<D

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• Corners of Area Objects

• Ends of Line Objects

• Anywhere in Model g • Automatic Label

u

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Choo,June Shy"" P.B.

29-S0 April2008

Point Object Assignments Otle<D
You can assign:
• a rigid diaphragm constraint
• a panel zone element
• point restraints (supports)
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Otte International Pte Ltd

Line Objects

Otte<D

• Z Point Objects Connect by a Line

• Automatic Line Types

• Automatic Label

[J C followed by a number for columns [J B followed by a number for beams

[J 0 followed by a number for diagonals/braces [J L followed by a number for nulls

[J Automatically Relabeled for Line Type Change

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29-30 April2008

Line Types

Otte<D

• Column:

CJ line object that is vertical (parallel to the global Z-axis)

• Beam:

CJ line object that is horizontal (parallel to the global X- Y plane)

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Chao, June Shyan P.E.

29-30 April2008

Srioli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Line Object Assignments

Otte<D

• Section properties

• End releases or partial end fixity

• Moment beam frame type

• End (length) offsets

• Insertion point

• End joint offsets to model eccentrically

• Frame nonlinear hinges

(pushover)

• Pier labels

• Spandrel labels

• Line spring supports

• Automatic line subdivide

• Use line for floor meshing

• Meshing options

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• Property modifiers

Zll-SO April200B

45

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Area Objects

3 or more corners

Area with 4 corners or less can be any plane

Area with more than 4 corners must be horizontal with all corners on the same plane

Valid analysis area are either 3 or 4 nodedT

Chao,June Shyan P.B.

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46

Strols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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OtteCD

Area Object Assignments

OtteCD

• Wall, slab and deck section properties

• Opening

• Rigid diaphragm

• Local axes orientation

• Area object mesh options I!!!I Automatic meshing of

membrane floor element

• Auto Line Constraint

• Wind pressure coefficients

JIg-SO April 2008

47

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• Pier & spandrel labels

Choo,JI.U1O Sh)llll1 P,E.

1. LINE - Frame

1. FE Line-Frame

a. Auto-Frame Subdivide

b. End-length offset

c. Insertion point offset

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• RED - Local Axis 1

• WHITE - Local Axis 2

• BLUE - Local Axis 3

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zs-so April. 2008

l.a. Auto-Frame Subdivide

Otte<D

• Automatic Frame Subdivide

o ETABS automatically meshes frame elements as necessary by default.

o You may opt not to automatically mesh a frame element.

Choo,June ShY"" P.E.

29-30 April.zoos

SnoE- Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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• End Length Offset line

o Actual structural members have finite cross-sectional dimensions

u E.g. When two members such as a beam and column are connected at a point, there is some overlap of the cross-sections.

u In many structures, the dimensions of the members are large, and the length of the overlap can be a significant fraction of the total length of the frame element.

Choo,June Shyan P.E.

29·50 April2008

l.b. End Length Offset (2)

OtteCD

Rigid Factor = 0 (Default)

What happens to lateral displacement and mode shape when:

- Rigid Factor = 1.0?

- Rigid Factor =0.5? r-"

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choc.june ShY"" P.B.

29·50 April200B

Srtoli- Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Otte<D

• Insertion Point offsets define frame joint offsets from Cardinal Points.

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2~·SO April 2008

l.c. Insertion Point Offset (2)

Otte(D

Choo,JW1e Shy an P.E.

2~-SO April2008

Sttols- Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte International Pte Ltd

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• A panel zone assignment to a point object allows differential rotation, and in some cases differential translation at beam-column, beam-brace, and columnbrace connections

Choo,JIlnO ShyanP.B.

29·80 April2008

Otte<D . I.d. Panel Zone (For steel structures) (2)

Elastic Properties From Column

Elastic Properties From Column and Doubled Plates (SOmm)

o (,7,)

52.7 mm "r

42.4mm

ChOO,JIlnO Shyan P.E.

29·30 April2008

Suoli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte D

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Z. Type of Area Objects

Otle<D

• Membrane

o In-plane bending capacity .",/

• Plate

o Out-of-plane bending capacity

• Shell

o In-plane bending capacity

o Out-of-plane bending capacity

Choo, June ShylUL P.E.

29·80 April2008

B7

Thick- Plate Options

Otte<D

For Plate and Shell only

• Selected:

o out-of-plane shearing deformations are considered

in the analysis. V'

• Not-Selected:

o shearing deformations are not considered in the analysis.

• We recommend that you typically do not use

the thick plate option in ETABS, except when modeling thick footings or mat foundations. V

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29-80 April2008

Srroli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte International Pte Ltd

OtteiD

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Z. FE Area-Slab

a. Virtual Membrane for load collection (J

c. Area meshing option

d. Auto-Line Constraint

e. Beam-Slab interaction

f. Transfer Plate

ehee.june Shyan P.E.

29·50 April2008

Otte<D

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Otte<D

• RED - Local Axis 1

• WHITE - Local Axis Z

• BLUE - Local Axis 3

Chao, June 8hyan P.E.

29·80 April2008

60

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• Load applied onto membrane floor is automatically transfer to supporting beams.

Chao,June ShY"" P.E.

29-80 A!"'il2008

82

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Through "Virtual Membrane" Floor

• When floor is specify as "membrane"

Q ETABS simulates "Yield-line Method" of transferring loads to supporting structural elements: Beams, Columns & Walls

• Automatic "Meshing" for load transfer

Chao,J""" 8hyon P.E.

29-80 A!"'il2008

Srrols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte International Pte Ltd

Otte D

2.a. Virtual membrane for load collection (1) OtteCD

Choo,JuneShyan P.E.

29-90 April 2008

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Auto-meshing for membrane only

29·30 April2008

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SlloE- Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Load Collection Through "FEM" Floor i.e. Plate & Shell

Otte<D

• Load applied onto FE floor are transferred to supporting beams via FEM.

Choo,June ShYIill P.E.

29-50 April2008

68

Load Collection Through "FEM" Floor i.e. Plate & Shell

Otte<D

• When floor is specify as "Plate" or "Shell"

o ETABS will transfer loading on floor to supporting structural elements: Beams, Columns & Walls via FEM

• Proper Meshing required

o "External" or "Manual" Meshing

o "Internal" or "Auto" Meshing

Choo,JIUIe Shyan P.E.

29-30 April2008

66

SuoE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

QUe International Pte Ltd

Z.b. Load transfer by FEM (Shell) Otte<D

- with/without out-of-plane bending stiffness

• Stiffness Modification Factors may be specified for shell to reduce its out of plane bending stiffness

Chao,June Shyon P.E.

ZS-30 Apri!2008

OtteCD

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Otte<D

• Automatic Meshing

o User Assigned meshing property to physical area

object

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ci. 0 Physically mesh the object into smaller elements

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Srioli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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2.d. Auto-line constraint (1)

Otte<D

• Auto-line constraint

o Typically in finite element analysis, shell elements are connected to other elements at corner points only

o When an element does not frame into the corner point of a shell element, but instead frames into the edge of the shell element, no connection exists between the element and the shell element.

o The ETABS auto line constraints feature allows you to specify that elements framing into the edge of a shell element be connected to the shell element.

o ETABS internally takes care of connection between the elements by constraining points lying along an edge of the shell element to move with that edge of the element.

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28-30 April2008

2.d. Auto-line constraint (2)

Otte(D

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29-80 April2008

Sriols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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2.d. Auto-line constraint (3)

OttejD

Ramp connection to wall

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Choo,Jlll1e Shy." P.E.

29·30 April 2008

Rigid Diaphragm

Otte<D

• Floor plate is assumed to translate in - plane & rotate about a vertical axis as a rigid body.

• No in-plane deformations.

• Benefits

o Eliminate in-plane forces.

o Reduce size of stiffness matrix. 1:1 Improve solution stability.

Choo,]Ill1. shy"" P.R

29·30 April200S

Srrols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

1 - __ _ _ _

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Semi-Rigid Diaphragm

Otte(D

• Allow definition of diaphragm extend for:

• Information on diaphragm shear stresses

• Recover axial forces in horizontal members that lie in the plane of the floors

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211·60 April2008

SuoE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

OtteCi)

75

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Z.e. Beam -Slab interaction (2)

Otte<D

... Bending Moment for Live Load

Choo,)une Shyon P.E.

29-50 April 2008

Z.e. Beam-Slab interaction (3)

Otte<D

Choo,JLU1O ShyanP.E.

29-50 April2003

SHOE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Z.e. Transfer plate (1)

Choo,June Shy an P.E.

Otte<D

29-30 April200B

Z.e. Transfer plate (Z) - Mmax

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29-30 April2008

SnoE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte International Pte Ltd

Section 3

Otte<D

3. FE Area-Wall Modified Panel Object

Integration of forces for Pier and Spandrel design Auto- Line constraint for modeling multi -Ieg wall sections

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29-50 April2008

3.a. Modified Panel Object (1)

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Lateral Displacements

2.4mm

Choo,June Shysn P.E.

29-50 April200B

Srrols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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OtteCD

3.a. Modified Panel Object (2)

1. Z P 1 S- no line constraint

2. Z P 1 S- line constraint.

3. Z P Z s- LC only for rnis-meshed middle piers.

4. 4 P 4 S- Fully meshed

5. Z P & frames

2.

4.

Otte<D

Otte<D

1. Piers divided in 2, Spandrels in 1, connection not modeled directly, no line constraint.

Piers divided in 2, Spandrels in 1, connection not modeled directly except through line constraint.

29-50 April2008

3.a. Modified Panel Object (3)

29-30 Apri12008

S11oE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

3. Piers divided in 2, Spandrels in 2, connection modeled directly, line constraint only for mismatched-meshed middle piers.

Piers divided in 4, Spandrels in 4, connection modeled directly and meshed, no mismatched-mesh.

Piers divided in 2, Spandrels as frames, improved rotational connection provided in ET ABS.

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QUe International Pte Ltd

3.a. Modified Panel Object (4)

OtteCD

1. Period 0.3790 - 64% more flexible - not good

Period 0.2298 - 40% more stiff - not good - should not depend on line constraint for this connection

Period 0.2665 - 19% more stiff - OK model- as stories increase error will decrease and vice versa

Period 0.2956 - considered exact

Period 0.2952 - 0.3% more rigid - excellent model for ETABS - not for SAP2000 and possibly other FEM programs - see below

29·30 April200S

3.a. Modified Panel Object (5)

OtteCD

Results in SAP2000

1. Period 0.8608 - 765% more flexible - disaster

2. Period 0.2145 - 47% more stiff - not good - should not

depend on line constraint for this connection

3. Period 0.2684 - 16% more stiff - OK model- as stories E

8 increase error will decrease and vice versa

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29·50 April200S

Sriols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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OtteCD

3.a. Modified Panel Object (6)

The large difference in the ETABS and SAP2000 results in models 1 and 5 is due to the extreme dependency of these models to the rotational connection of the spandrel to the pier which is essentially nonexistent

in SAP2000.

As number of stories is reduced the results will deviate more and as they are increased the results will be closer. This is because the axial load behavior in the piers is exact in all models and the proportion of the deformation due to axial load in the piers increases as the models become taller.

29-30 April200S

Otte<D

S.b. Integration of forces for Pier

Moments

Choo.Juno Shyan P.B.

29-30 Apri1200S

SnoE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte(D

Otte International Pte Ltd

OtteCD

3.b. Integration of forces for Spandrel

Otte<D

Spandrel Label

Moments

Chao,June Shyan P.E.

29·30 April200B

3.c. Auto-Line constraint for modeling multi-leg wall sections

Otte<D

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T" 0.825

T" 0.645

29·30 April200B

Sarols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

L _ ._ ... __ ... _ .. __ .... _ ... _ .. _ .... _ .... _ ... _._ ... _ .. _ .. _ ..

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Creating a Building Model

A simple but realistic 4-storeys building with

o Walls

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Choo,June ShY"" P.E. 28-30 April2008

89

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Chao. June Shy"" P.E.

29-30 April2008

90

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Otte International Pte Ltd

Define Load cases & Automatic Lo~dte<D combinations

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Choo,)un. shyiU1. P.E.

29-30 April200B

Otte<D

• Load applications (DL & LL)

o Exposure for Rigid Diaphragm

o Exposure from Area Objects

o Applied as wind load with 1.5% characteristic DL

Choo,]uno Shy.n P.E.

211-50 April 2008

112

Snols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Analysis Options

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• Set D.O.F.
• Dynamic
• P-Delta
• Save Access
DB file Choo,]wte Bhyan P.E.

29-50 April2008

Analysis Log

Otte<D

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29-80 April2008

Sttols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Analysis Log

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• Solution Lost X.x Digit of Accuracy

* * * WAR N I N G ~ w *

THE SOLUTION LOST B.B DIGITS OF ACCURACY FOR DOF R3 OF CONST~~I~IT

LOCATED AT X ~ 23.609172, Y = ~2.:l12598, Z = '!AD.OQODOO,

STIFFNESS !-f-'tTRIX DIAGONAL Vl<.LUE = 6.il44!lE+l7

Anything less than 11 digit can be ignored!

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• Negative Stiffness

* * * WAR N I N G W • •

NEGATIVE STIFFNESS FOUND DURING SOLDIION FOR DOF RZ OF JOINT

LOCATED AT X ~ 275S8.950, Y = 28939.900, Z ~ 2400.000,

STIFFNESS Y~TRIX OIAGONF.L VALUE = -612.401931,

Model unstable!

chco.june Shymt P.E.

29-80 April2008

Graphical Output

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• Deform shape animation (LL Displacement)

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29-80 April2008

SnoE- Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Graphical Output

• Analysis Results (LL - M33)

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Choo,JlIlIe Shy ... P.E.

28-50 April 2008

Structural Member Design

• RC frame element design per BS8110

o Longitudinal Reinforcement

o Shear Reinforcement

E • RC shear wall design per BS811 0

8 0 Uniform reinforcing design of shear wall Ii

E 0 General reinforcing design of shear wall

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29-50 April200B

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• Worst possible sagging moment estimated per simply-supported beam for the applied L1.

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M=Analysis Moment for Continuous beam for LL Ma=Simply Support LL Moment * LL Pattern Factor Md=Max(M or Ma )= Design Moment

Choo,Jun. Shyan P.E.

29·80 April200B

99

Solving Common problems Otte<D
in ETABS Modeling
• Using Verify Model Tool (
• Proper Meshing of Walls
• Connecting beams to wall
• Beams and column offsets
::I • Modeling transfer beam
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Choo,Jun. Shymt P.E. 29·50 April2008 100 Srioli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Aut-o Corr,;tru~tfon Sequence Ci'i:50

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• Modeling of Raft Foundation with Piles

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8110E- Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Advanced Features of ETABS Virtual Work & Lateral Drift Optimization

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Export ETABS floors to SAFE

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29·30 April 2008

Srioli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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OtteCD

Otte<D Export Response Spectrum Forces to

SAFE

• Since response spectrum forces are always positive, you cannot directly use the response spectrum forces for foundation design.

• You can perform a response spectrum analysis in ETAES and determine the story forces based on dynamic analysis.

• Once the story forces are know, reapply the story forces as user define static lateral load case in ETABS.

• Now if you export the reaction due to this load case then you will also have signs for reactions in SAFE mod

Choo.June Shyan P.E.

29-S0 April2008

lOS

Ways to Speed Up Analysis

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• Modeling

1:1 No LL Reduction

1:1 Do not Calculates Diaphragm Centre of Rigidity 1:1 Assign Rigid Diaphragm directly to Points

1:1 Turn of dynamic analysis

• System

1:1 Increase RAM (1 GB and more)

1:1 Use system with Fast CPU and high Level2 cache 1:1 Fast Hard-disk

o Dedicated display card (256 ME RAM)

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29-50 Apl'il2008

SHOE-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

Otte International Pte Ltd

How to get Help?

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• Tips

• On-Line Help (PI)

• User Manuals

• Reference Books E

8 • Movie Tutorial on Installation CD ci.

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29-30 Apri12008

107

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• Your model: *.EDB & *.EZK files

• The version of ETABS you are using

• Brief description of you model

• Brief description of you problem

Ii The exact wording of any error messages

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29-60 Apri1200S

108

Srroli-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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Structural Engineering Is ...

• The Art of Using Materials

That Have Properties Which Can Only Be Estimated

• To build real structures

That Can Only Be Approximately Analysis

• To withstand forces That ATe Not Accurately Known

• So that our responsibility with respect to public safety is satisfied

Choo,]uno Shyon P.E.

29-S0 April200B

Otte<D

Thank YouT
• Otte International Pte Ltd
• www.ottegroup.com
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Q • Choo, June Shyan P.E.
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:t: ischoo@ottegroup.com
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• +656483 3323
Choo,]Wle Shyan P.E. 29·30 April200B 110 Srrols-Using ETABS for Building Analysis & Design 29-30 April 2008

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