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Sex and Suits

Sex and Suits

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101:0, what 'we' wear, and what wei think we Iook

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its strongest example,

Dress \lV'3S equally showy for men and women until

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Greek nude 'b&IC,3.111e' fashionable, bur :for men's clothes only~, All:e'r tha t" obvious sexual dis:p1lay in, dress w'"~ ~e:fi to women-r-and it came to seem both s hamefnl ,a~fl,d~ esthetically :i nferior blly' COl ,~llpl:lr'isD,II" de-

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beauty of' tailored, sui [is , which women have made

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'Ri,chmJr- informed surprising entertaining Sex la~ld Suits gives 'U,S a fresh view of whae we have long

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16'4~~ Ka.'ntl'mennaUJ. phQlto,pa.p,b~ Chanel ~I ~I her '"li'P- rartm ··iPi'ln·-··~ RA;-'· .... :,,' ,'·H" ,0'.': 'n - r,;,~:

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171:: : lei mur ,I_ew£oll, '(~'S non

p,hotDg~.aph" suit hV Yves Sa~'~lt Laurent.

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p~hotogla.phi' !1Ulj:t by Rhonda Harness

I I (i:: Pu'b'li.,ciIY 'pho'tograp,h of MartIan,

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Copyrighted material

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It :_ T H' 0 U G IMI .M ,A. L :E, heads 'of state wear suits at summit meetings, male

J'. ob applicants wear ·t- hen 'I 'ira inte .rvie ·ws·. and U-· ten accu Ie,C~~ of 'II·:-'P=:.·~· and

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murder wear them -,-, 'iiI '-0,- court to he '! ;~'l·.p·- their cha nces ofa r:.q_ uitt "11'1,. the oants-

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J'" acker-sh :-I~ rt ... and ,_;Io:;IP' costu m c £'0]'[' 0'1"';;11)- or '11'0····· ~o:_".- ' .. ,'r, m nal ,'.,~ often ~:"Iln'I-' ed bo sri rr-'g'" './

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'0.[' WiD.1 '5-'t Like other excellent and simple things we cannot do withoer, ':m.IIIfjJI'I1-IL'~: "",U--I,;,·rt"~ have 11-:··t,-iF'lii:]-"y",: acq 'UI ·-.'~·-~(d--"n··. ·ir, JI"'I~.O:="~l-le· esrheeic ·ft- .. : fV, ,""'r'r'_ '. would ~~I'y.,I·i· .L".'rIiIUi

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"1;ji"r~'r!oJ\~I't',",,~il'ln'I-O' :naJ~#,:-'!~i~'H Th eir ii1n··"ra.g·:-:.·r·II·;:ad·,-'- subtle b '. urv ';,~ '0'- ·"("·'e-··'n-·· an '''''Iiffi:''''-:m- "I\n-I 'lP'iI'jii,

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post-modern sensibilities, to' eyes and minds attuned 11:10 the jagged .. and turbulent climate '0,£ the late twentieth century Current millennial irn-

'I d- ddisi '"., ']' .. ~,. b' '!i"

piuses tend 1:[OI"ra-r_"~_ls,lnt:e_. ~_EJo:n,~, I,D S,ry e as 1,0, po l'tIIC~>; eur men's s'u.mts,

are neither 'PD<t~.IJ10d,e'rl~, ."ID[ minimahst, multici tural nor confes-

" I h '1'1 .). d in th b 'I' '" Th

:510102 -t .. ~.I'? are retenness y~.-' moe ,eir,n,~, tn tnebest C','::-SSIIC sense, 1·,I.J,eY,7 seem

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b ~,.~ d .~ h ,.. lb d d d ~

.1:l10r-eover to _-:e' 'su:rvl\jrln:g,,,;'-_,,esp:llte' t:- etr current J3\.' , ,p're. is ,3rn,' .. '] an unc ... elll,-'

able dip in the number being sold. d.'u.r'!·ng:ffi,c'ulr economic times,

The '£ollowi:ng reflections come trom considering modern mens tai .... lored clothes, By this ,I' mean suits, in parti __ -'ul~"r;, but ,I: more gC'l1erall,y' m,elan. the whole range of tailored jackets, trousers, \ w".a·i'sEcO'ilEs" overcoats, shirts and neckties t'ha,t make up standard masculine civil costume all

' ...

over the \voj[l.d_iJ"::'","/':h,y has this sartorial scheme lasted such a long rime?

.3

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",~~",h,~,t 3,ICi,QD'dll for' :j,ts scy'lis!m,c force and end,'u.'ran['e:'!W~ha,t does male tailoring ,have' [0, do ,v,i,th, modern :·e,xuaii,ry. malic :_D"d fe,D,we? ,H',OW do es ,iE, 'rei ate 'to, fashion, present a;IJ,,_', ,p,as"t:? ,~, I.O'W· does il relate to mod 'ron d,_ sign, 10'£' clothe or anyth'lrD,g ,eleP ''.'',''·hy' have' women '"ra'D,led, 'sa d·=-s,p,t!late'.ly to

IC·-·-:·O, .. -' ';'_:P-'-."Y"'" it I .. t.' 'i ~.'{[. since 'I~ t- " .... '11 III,Mi,·~-"S·.~·., inv '! "A.~~'n-''',e' -:d-,','~,J ... , ,n- .~ d 'w .... ·'·.,···. hat -1:0]5_·. I 1~'IIHi,- e future -'~,~,.I

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- ~:-I,ve···:Nf)'nl:;e.-·' knov ~c: ,th"',a~""~~ clothes ar e :'O;I:C:-I""a1:~" pheno .. -·· ... mens: el "aIIU~, :I~n- . d 'I ~~~,

, .. '"-~J'U--''''''' ,...-",_',_" _.,;:J ' ..... "-''" ... ,Iv._" ,_ .. ~_. D,\'" ,_' __ ". '_', .~.I .... u t ,,--'lU., ._ .. 1,1,111:"', ~, , ~'"'!;]! _, ',,_, '\.,;.!ii:J;i1i

I~'rh social changes It 'l:~:- c..U': 1[1- ,--, ·e.-'-r' said - 11"-hl~.Il'· politic .... "1 ~1'n:'..1 ~'O' .··r~~'1 chan 'IB~:, :"'I~

f,;iI,fL ;:,_ ~:,I, __ , ',j,_·"",«I"'""_'~I,·~'iI! ,I.~ ~_ IJ __ . -._~. ilL ,,",-u.I., ._ . _.Uu""iIJ.. gU, ill - .~l.aJ '\... . ,_ '5"",,;lI gl.lI!!.o-

mirrored :I'R dress; but since suits have Ista,yed 'virtuJlally the same ~jJlr two hundred 'YC'3rS(t thei-r Ic"'o,n:ri'nu:i'ty must illustrate something else, I believe eh '. A; sta 'y\I'~I'~ !I?'L"f 'p .. ·.O·',W-'- ,,"~~j'--' 01=-'£1' - m . iale '~~~ ilorina show ·':·'5···', 'hi i nw ",., ''1,:!:!,~,'CJI~I,'i1iI~~. 'I), '_'-:'~r' m C,'~I:n·.·' h ··I~I···V ... :(Di 11/",

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awn II,uth"g'[,ity.'1 its own self-perpetuadng symbolic : md ernodonal fo[-ce,~

IT I "his 'I'~: a mod ern belief and the -V,:;-.,:iIr\\T' ''-W, ~ ,~~a-'.V' moder :-01- :-'IU-"I~:'''''~: '11'O~·Ol'l!O'. expresses

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'tl-'h-I-, e i, 'h-':I O-:IU,~I' I.h-:.·' t·· II :~: ~ -,~ po -IU~I "0'-1" dc'~ ed b '.',.,1,.' t-'-h-::, I-~~i r ':1 n tr '-1:·"11: I ~"II c alJ:'r y",: I' .:- - bsrract ICo~I-:lr- mal "- ,- cha ~~" r ;'_,

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ac '1Ihii1iiJ[ 'If 0; g.' "'1 ~,t--'h- er with I their a·' b "~,di(-'''' n'u' :PJ'!t:~o:;I··,u~,IFi,D·I.···-n·~I'f'V' ,C'" h 'a···~··'r· acte ~"'I"':-,'h-"'ii!iI\~r 1"0::: ok ,D', -'":,'f'~'

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',! heir message 0':; purelv forr ~.,-], cO'~Jtin'u'i~~ even with .•. 1'1] ,the fra."'1ne'n'ti,~

'1'-1'" 0: :'n'~' m- -- ~III','V' le···-··x~'·, ~Iml - . P"II' -i(! 1"IIr,e'" 'n-'-I 0·', ·:·'w~r-·.. 'U' -"11- ide "'f, in "'U a·~-;··p·I··p·:-,4'fe···-··'·Il' 't-'I~I'y,.i,_. st ~Iil'l C",-- a·~··· rrie ... ~ d····· C", ··e·· "'P-"I"

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satisfaction in the co,nl:eln'p'I'Dra~' world,

l.lJ §_j] II'

1-:',' 5tay,izlg the same 'wh'ile undl.e1r-goiillg c'o:nstan't internal changes,

male tai~o'r,i'ng acquired more virtue and new valu .. e II'broiu,gh'DU.1 irs, '~i;i~I'~1

1~"n:-··5·: .. ead ofIosi DI -'g,-=-:/ force 0:[1'.' currency I'll has ga";C:-"~~' thered po .• ·~-w"~:,·, .. ·r", I:~I,' er rrb'~-I--:-n'-lf.I~ic ... ,

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sip'ating its ,tb,[,c,e' during its, two centuries o,:fl,f1'U,C.tUJI,tjIDID~ so that ,j,1S saris ... , £a.c.; -t-I.~I,n'.. have been cumuls rive .'~ .811 no .. ~--'~] vanishine but instead s ~:h. :,:-I~ btl, ~ljI'"Il-1

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m,e:anin:g'7i tailored suits have proved themselves illfm'i.','el:/," d,y,n3.mi,c·,.~. 'pDSsessed 0'£ their own, fashionsble en,e;rgy~ :~: e'be_U~"IQ,D~ ,.~piD~S:t~:,:'u}c_b :'I-~,'sist,n:l: s;tre~n,~b, is, only n,a'EuJ~r,al~ especia'U,y' in t'h.e' p.rese:nt' :h'is'l'io:,--i,lc>l cli.m'l~~-'~ biut :no,[a'bl,t it, :b;, th.e 'wr1eaii'og' o:~~' suits tha:t is now' s,i'm'pliy bel_D,g Ivo,:i,ded" n.ot 'th.le des,l,gn o,f',the:m, th,3,t is b'e:ing Icol,f,r~upte',dJ 01[' a~ba;nd.oln,ed,~, In, th.e realm_ of ,design,:~---i'tlle'If' 'thleir p--ower is, 'b---in~' p-ll:ovis;;o'nall-y'j~1 s'id:-s,t :-:p-(I .• p~::~~,d- 'n'ot-'trt-:- c' c-.,'d~1

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,H'n_,d a di~rect a:IUJ,ck ,I' beli,ev,-_·· wou~'dJ I;ose."'.---:-:Il·· ,rC_Jio:n 'iii ,tll'l,t 'womc'n ,are

ObVIID'usl'y .not fi:nis'h,e;-~, v.rith ,t'be :m.otitfs o:f'ma),e tailo:r,ingj) eve.n. if'so,.me :m,e'n a'[rc prese:Q'dy' r,_-s'[less i'n them~1 ~':iJoire i5 CQlmin,g.-1 :i'Q line withJ w.'hat· is

_.-" ')- ~Id" ,- \\lr ~I'e" re" '-..;·'1 ;bj-'; 1'" " ·-~"b-···· I~',:···· a: ,'i. -'- :', ,d·· .y" I~""" £1 if,A'm-1 'e' "(., . .' '.' -·'1 -,-,,'"1"( '. . '. ".

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.-',ar '110:01 a:CJ.jIS,._-lln;~ -"'·elul""",_aIl.O'feu_'ult;s, dJio'n,g WI:£J, o't,~,:_", 01<, mO'.es

I"efi: IOVie-~ ::::rom the cf,aft trattirioln'l [a\d\~la.nlce~' ,in r.elchn,o'~ogy' I'~_':'n}_,', eto', tln,ri"

O':""r"mln-I'-'-I~ L"I'~"'''''~I·o··.''·n-·-·· d:'~lu-' I[--:l~n-·.',a "l'--h-'e- Ipl··:iI'II~s<·'" '~·~IO-=:-: ~;;'I,~n,I"'U' -r'-I~ ~ .... '" h-I-·a:- 'V,l,;O I'>n-I 'C'.a·· [1-·,-·· 'b"'PP-'"1 'b::'e-"-n'l[ 0: I·:-n·' "--:I':D,,..

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S{fVl:"~I' the character of 1I1iJen;, ril'illio'riIlg and spreading its 1!~,v,ail,a.'bli·~i'I}r'~, making it ever more flexible. Preserving the good looks of' mens suits has not Dee':n ,31 deliberately conservationist, ,3111'ri,q,Ui.ari3nl e1ffio1rt; :ill: 'has hap-

nened 'by' itself~ in response ~o some h;uge collective fa~Dta",'" that is obviously still potent,

'1 would sa)~' this is I£'h.e· :fan,'r3s'Y of modern .{O.f.m. 3(- r:h.:- ... rope .material \lrle· .. :·~ ••. ·~~I, 0,'£'1,10[[:'11 beaurv and power .. of'posirive :~ex,ult.~li·ty~ ~. 101 convev all, these'

'~1 [ til '-i"

thines .3It OII.IC\~. modern rules or' mate jal Idle5i~ ... ' suggest [hat all lines,

I",,'h:~ 'IP-I::-:P;~ and volume ... ~, .\.,~,1t'. rever their arraneem ent sh O·'·-···Ui 'lid .. ·· pro odu ce ""1 '~:~-I~'~~

,~. ,Jo,. j,",,"~ .~ ~'_- '"," ujlu ~,.;ilLIiI :'Ii~, JI"" ,,J _[",I"",. '" """'., I~I]' lI. ._. I"g ',0'.·.·' I I .... ""Iii '"lI= "'" / __ 11._ ... /,.i ..U!, __ ,~._I'" .g .'!W' '~

ual model of dynamic coherence and, :i.n'£::-_grity~, rather than a model 01£' compl .. ex disp:~3,y~ 0;[ one of crude £o:r-ee- 10, one 0"'-:,' the latte - o·\;rerl21idJ lb}" the former, For re .. -_ll.y le:lfe'criv1e impact, all ornament should :(oif':m. ~pa'n: olf II"'L'e e ', ectal composition -, ,3······ n '1:41 :cf1i'U- -I n--"~I-I[-:le-'--I·:,a·~I,'I', be 1~,~'n:~I~·dI,,=-r·Y:I, ... , 0' nd isgu ise ···d-,-

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:1:0 1"IDs century; al old fashion plates show, the abstract shapes and

'pllain textures 0:£' modern suits were 'linked, to t'h:~- visual vocabulary lof1 modern abstract art; but even more c'e'mli:ngly and more consistently; fh,ey'

h di he I '~II 'h ,I, ~., d- ~ -) d '" 0" .-... ,i

s= arec .. _ 'Ill me 'Of11131 authortty ,0'1 mouern pr2,1C-I:~;,;a, design. '_IJ'le' unpor-

rant thing it and, they both continue ·tol have is erotic appeal, in the [',00"-, fidently forceful r nodr .[' S,U.i,ISI II 'fie' still sexy; .JU,S:E ~i"-:e cars and plane .. ~ IQ,D,e'

even d ... ' eeper seer et 0· .•. -,'f· th '.: eir erotic .:. ap -IP- •.. ~,""rI·1 is the 'UI:; ni t:). I;(;;II),~I. ~~I~~ rtr'hl':"'II[,-,~ seems to 'i

_ ~ ._. ~I"~I ~ !Ji~ ~ ~J'l,._ l" I. l~'l . ~. ·~Il-_:Il. ._. ~QI 1.3 I"" ~J' ... I'll ~·U ~Jj • .3.!~l ~- .~. __ ' ~_.~I~~~IIlJl a ~ .

~ 11. I'.

link them to the unselfconscious natural dress of animals, Panthers , nd

gazelle are often compared 'I~O cars, too, in visual ,ad,!ve:[ll:s·in,~.~; ,t·he.it Icasy,'" 'jni,D'U' :su'i·,-s.· which :aive :~ood-imllre§. 't·o ,all examples, oiIe'[' ,31 ideal fOir .. '

'!'!I .• ~ -~' ,_" -- ,., D·" ._. DI-- ~,' "'DI'~~ .• _ ... '- c_. -- "~.:- • '!i • '- '- - '- ._ .. - " ,_.

modern mode of clothing design t'hal' ; .eeks to ape the e'ffi_i,eolcy' and ,e'l,cgao,ce ofnarure. Nature, ::.If'COIQ'ne', .. ordains that human beings be' ['001-' pleted 'by clo;[hing.t 0,0'1. left bare in their own :insu'fficoicnc skins,

" l_.I::, Ni'i!' ~ N··' (,:~ I~:[ I.: ~I '.'lo .• I.:·m·-·-·'p·~,~'Ji~I'III~- . integ .. ·r-I·~.ry~,., in design ~:f~,,j,a;'m· --r; ~Q,'. have arisen

1111.1. "~ II"" L~ • .... [ • ~ II . . 1. Ir.'\r I . Lli. , .... 11 ....1ir. ~ ". 3~ 1Iir I ~!L... . .. ~ LlI! ~ •.• I

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in ehe 'Wet in rhe second half of the eighteenth century, afrer the decline oJI: Rococo taste, and in, connection 'with the '~~:,n:~i:ghl mment, The

classic male tailoring D<TW' so universally familiar was or,:'~gilla'lmy' Neo-

classi C.· •. ··'.. I I··' 'W··I, .. '.: ,o;;~' ; nv :D'n.- t··, d and -; 'P-- '.1.·· -J~. - liii'""""~d-I' I 'b=- ·.·Ie. It,I.,,"'Ii 1- ····~e· .n .. iho .. ,··'U'-It· 'I 7· ":,' :"_1 an Ild,:I: 1'1- !,IO···-=-_'. J'~ ust

""'!Qi~~, .,_",~,_,,_, ,_ j ~~I J,__"" "._. L...",,,,, , I.jl_~ ,~_I I. _.I_:l.,~_, , _"~ [I,l."",I,,,,, __ , ......:: . !t..'w·"""".3'. I.:_~ -.' '.' , __ I.~ JI .. U Q. ,c_:. _" .-'1." ":.J "_ ,~_ ._

when the simplest visual motifs in Classical design were s[uggestin.g' the force [ill.lld, : l~~rity, of:-~"re'ek democracy and R,o'I):] in te--hn.ol-l.lo,gy~ Both 0'£ these became erotically :--_5 well as political'I.'l' appealin - basic Greek or Roman seemed the [I.g'b,- form in 'which, ro cast the various new social and emotional aspirations ol'f' rhe moment.

1,- "he same :fan't~sy' was recapimlaaed Lo:r' ,3'rE and .' "-i" " in this century, 'in the' modern style mvented 3'€ter the de eli ne of'Viceorian taste, and ill co nnection with mdnstrial expansion and practical democracy J 'he Ii 01 I od er n material version 'h-I,:-,I~~I~'~ ,,",' an d sources d,< 'l!l'~~r' ent '(-~'m" '''.1 the Nee-

.I~ .. '_ .' ~ ,1, _ .l •.• ~ • ~a ''Ii LlI!I..jl! ,a. ~ .. .aU adll~I .. ~ . .. _ . ~ .. I!IIclIL. _..-., .. ~ " _~I[[~.", ," I. II~ry. J "': Y lir J ~ ••

classical one; bUTE :ill the realm of'male '£aii:.'lo·~ling 'tbJDI-_~,h not in architec-

,'. I' .-.'.' dor '~"::'I- desien .;--;,{ / ~I.~ -,11- t:;';h-"I'~i',i-I-;·""., '~"~IYI--:' jI-~,-:-----:-- rhei '~"' -t ' •. "·l~'···~·~'

ture, ,Olll"_"I,C_CSlgII .11,Dr ernaie las, son tne samerorms , iemse ves

served uninrerrup ~t'edly~'i' down to OD'r own time desp-,il'e '1 -Ite Romantic

. "'"' ,I, '_.' s-: . _~," '._" _j ,.,I -e _',l.'_ 'l:~/ .. J ·:\."':lhl, ' 1 "_ I . ....:.. ···,""· •. f~'l _ 1~_''':'''1' "____:__' __ "-.:/ ~) .. I .. !.I'_', l.' •• •• -Ii'_' __ : l:!.l. "."

' .... :,.', ..... .'.~Jt." ... :-;:..'~::., .-', '- .- __ ·d··~ A"-:""--I~" "/-"';-'1-'-":' ',' '.~ ,--",.,- .,,,,, .. ib '. ·t· "':'''1'' :.' .a . "d':~ "~""'I'"-: -."C'~'-I_.·'t· ",,-,"', , .

. ' 1,ICILO.r,JII_n-J (lIl_ .[) aU_lie, .U ICD,I~b •. _ ,1·U,I.lons an I .I_n erven,~J,Onl,.

Suies kept their 'male sexual thrill w:hi,ch. a'p~-,p--~:aren,d,~l dwelt 'in the ICU,~

~ "I J II'

·'1 . 1 ,.: I'~I:,.~· ;-:~. I f-, _: If", of'th . f', ,-' - ---'"1('-' '" '-I···f~)a"l~-h· '-(I····' --',- 'h th - .' " .~.,I'·'I:·~··'· .:"',. " . -' ri ·..:--ih-:-,( .. ·_. ',' ',.1 'I~ ,','. -- -.-~ .

mU_,3lk_IVe ~1,lo,ree 0 , 11,,", J!~ III,or,m, I, "se, _, .. n __ L. _ Du,g' . _, e, L-dl D,rlng se ,erne ~',I·.1 ,per,-,

"p-PIj-UI~ID""v,'iil "b';l'e~ln··'-··g-~ '·e··m·II-I·O·'· .·'·d~~-pD",~d::i 'b-.·,v .. :' (~,,~tbll~'O;-"~~' .. 'l'"lt' ";'~,~4£ ~n:e·~·v,;' e~'r-" ,ul",y,>:-;"n-" 'IO'Pi ... ~ no ,1(' '·ra,,-;-.di.:-··'t:"'"t,·rl,v'

,I ' ..... ' lIi;". a '~' ..... ,w , _~l ,ill'. ""' .. ,," ,..... .~' lQili , .. ' .. ,.1 t , 11.· "'",, ''W¥'I~ c.'. -"'~' 'rJ'- .... ' '- ,- .- " -' -'. - ~iID 1"

d it . "")!I h sr.'" if

[ H, AV ~ "_c':5:E ~J moaern mien'S, 'I_al OfF'ln:! 3.::_ the li:lu,n::_ltlIOn, D',~: :o1y' scory'

because [ have come to believe tha: m~ J e"_FCSS was c lways, euen"tiaJly'

m·ID·· : '1 - ". ~~IV·,. ·""'!I'-n':' ed - than female ·'-h:1 ~-(uah·'--IO. lUI fashion h '·I·~-''''O:'In.t and -I ~A'-n.· ·d-',-· .. ·· ·;·d. I ';"10:'

, " " '.' /, . 'nQ, !1Ii, .. '.' _ ilk ,d '. I:L .""lI.iOl .... i ",D ' ,'- ..... ,[A.3 Ii,· ...• d. ! . Iii.,. i!!'; l'" ,a~~ . !Il.""",". ' 11,1;""

lead ': the ~" ~11- to set the 'f"I"--;- ndard, 't·:O---1 make th ie e srhetic ero ...• ·.·1--0,:' c;'t- ·lii .. ens '£"'-'0: I

,11. __ !g,_, .. ' .~. ,. , 1!!ilI.; 'Ii' _:_. ~ ... II!;, ' .. = '""' '"' ~ ~" ~,~ =UiI ~I_ J, 1"_ _ ,I, _ _ _ ,. 11.,". .. '"",'"" ._cil" Jr'" ~ . _ : _"_iii, ,_. ,~ I"

\~I." "' ch ii~nlal,~' fashion responded, Mens C~D' hes since ,the Mi,ddl"e AI,c~~,

have been 'moire 'fo'r~ma]l·y interesting and innovarive and less conservative than \\l!o,:m,c-:ll~9,;' and I: find t'ha,t the invention ofmodern suits is a. Blood. example ofthe same [,rend:~,'_:'UJt 'I also believe ,t.hat la_ny true '~ CCOUD'£ of cla~hing, ..•• must consider both sexes tog-'~etr' er so I \ ,I·-ill con inu,e' to do t-hat

. . I '

'._ ". __:

:, .I

'[~' 'N"" T 'R' 0-' D" 'U"" C T 1-' O' -.

,_~ I,,~I ~\' ,/: ,." •• " ,L' ,_~! C '" ", >_:) ,

B u T ""'. 0-1: 1::,-' A,"T'T' 'E~ 'R. how R,;inul~'r' the clothes of men and women mav

. .", _- ,--,' . ." , " ,'" y "_, ..._,._ _ A, _ __ 1Ii!;... __ .. ="- _ _ .. _,~ "" ,._~ " , _ ~ . ,)

a,p,pe~'f'" or how d'irtreren,t- the arrangements 01(' each are a],"12Y:5 being made' ·,,:',"J,r~b respect 1£0 the other, "/,' ale and female ,:~m,o;thi;ng" taken '&0-' gether, ,illu,s;tra,~es, what people wish the relation between men and WD'men, tal 'be" besides indicating the seearate peace each 'Ke'X is marking:

"-",,:, 'I·:[~L f~£L[!:,o'-"'ln::'1 or custom --, '3-(- anv [p'~'v".':,I'e·· :-n~" time. 'W",··": .::"< .... I~ th "O--:I"U~ lookina ~Ii" W,~" ':/h,- !1i'iij' m ten

'_", ",,"ILl, J.~~lU - , .. ' '. -, _ 'U~", '!L.lr, ,I, . I _,' ,.' _ [~ D,II' .~. = . ,. 1!Ii;,~ '.' _' ~ ,~, ,I'··!I,I;· . _~ '_"'" ", - ,_. . , CIi' g,,,[ ," i """I..,, I ' _ ,l

are wearing> i[£'[':5 impossible to uhde'DllddJ women's clothes, land, vice versa, The bisc',ory of dress, in" ';-.ru,din.g'it'S, current his[EO,tY: so :far has tOI 'be

't\:e·· -'Ir~··e·, ived : 'I~ ~. du et for m '. en a ·n-· :~I ~~'~OI;'lm' . e . n 'po ·.~[~O>lr'DUI .. in .. g,j--= 0.' ····.·n-·· th ,I~ same staee

.y_' ,,-,,, ".,',' , ,;jli q " , .' iIi" ,In " ,. ~l,~, '. ,U",~[ , ""', _ '\;.-,(1' .,,' [:' " Ill. , '"" ~ .• " '\." ;,'J, -~D' _ I'

"-, 'lb' LliiP,::-~~ m .f' j co :'m' ne .... 1 t'l.~ me wh en 1'F~¥II~lla~~I~I.~lty'···' ,I 'I~S~·' n aot v 'J~'[C"['U"' , .. ,]~ I'"' zed J: n: I I~,",I 0· •. ·.·,:·1'·, h in I:' g . .---= ""1:"

! .. I I' ~ ~.~ _ .'_~ ,I ~.. ' .. _ g~ ~ __ ' ~l' '"' (_h~ '_1 1iJ.~,~"ty-_ JIJ.lII~.'.', ~_ __ ~ 3 " i]i _._.-.~_ ~~I~_ :..______:_ ~11·.~,·IL,~,'~· ~J:'_~'I g~

.. ' I) _-,'

,ri,grb,d:," divided into two main categories; but so :[ar i,I' ~ti~'I, is,

,lilli"" T- T. r, 'H', I ' 'N" 'E. 10(' - :C;- 'L :is, ~, ~~: 'I' :.1 m ~-~ '0:1: rn ----, ~'n' 'I' t'~- tai "1,0'· ·.-.:r· . ~-,_- ~ ~ ui ~'F P-_I 'IU. to: [~~I' 'II [n'~ I,,~,'I ~~ ~ I n f" (~]~ _,

n _ ,J[i; . - .. " ,n, iJi, "." , r, " ...' ..~, I • ", ,4 .. _ . ~. , ~IU, ,1L,j)! "",' ,:L, di ".Ii , do , 3~al !!!l..!'!!.. l.!I!

approval on gauldy clothes for serious men, whatever their' class. ,At, the same rlm,I~,',p, r-hlcy confirmed and approved [,) sharpened visual separation

be- ' .. ~w- ~DA'n-~ Ir.· 'h' Q d ress 0'-" f':' m--- en 3.-' n d W" ""'0" m en- W' h - ''''II"j!i!IiiVA[. 'r-- 'h-I- ;P I'·'.. ,r' 11"'1iC!~' T~ h -;j;Ii srron

i 'iL", , ~li..;, I_ ,I ,1i.;.' :' _.lIi.,~ii'-, ' '. ,0 [,IL:: ' .. 1,[1_\,\.,','_'1 .:~I '11 \~,",I Q!Ii.-~"."'-'Il. I, '[. ~, :!I!; ~'I.d.[cia~.. .' [ ,i.I~' ::id",--:]Il;,I~11 ,g',

~1'·m-';-lp-1'-I,P' forms ;o.··.~ifL~ modern desizn ~~'[t, '~b""~Y\'7 were [fl~' -'-:-.~' conceived C:o<'[~' ' eo-

!;JIiJ._. "I ., ,!!Ii,;., 11 .. _ """ .. _ '. ,.. e t '_ •• U _ LI., JiJLIJ '. _' -~,I,D'.'''" . _,1:1 I!l.-.", !!!i;;;-.: ._' ~ .... '"" ,1]_ _!Ii. 'L,U" . _ .... ~_ ... _' "[t _ J. ,. _' .. _.'

classic archirecture, were perceived as .n,IE,U[,a'Uy masculine, E~"E,h.elic the .... [Ory' a,f' the time is fu~U of' wDlrds like "virile" and "muscular : 1:0 describe the proper character of buildin I created 'wi.lh the new sii plicir of form based 01]] ancient prototypes, An, lana' ',DgU,c' in dress "~o'u],,d thus 11_3;(';-'

u ~ .... 'II'·lv- occu r iI'D'''~' -m-- -.-;'1" "liIii 'C"--'I~"'V'" -)[1:1-' 'C',- 'ostum te an d I no t '~In-~ ,~~'"",i[-D~I~:'n--"'e-- Fa'~,~'L'~"O'-"','n-" ~,~',r:o-;:Im-'-'~"'e'-''''n' ",

, _ .I'3LU, 1 ". ,~, 1 .I, "'~ I". iU,~ "'. , ,::._ j, .II.-IU.·· 1_ . 'I [ " •. ··C' '., .. '.. ,;I." JlIL, 1,,1 ,1-1 " •. ,lIi • I , l,~ ~,I"U,_.." I.. ,~w~", . .'. r , . '

were long, since understood 'to 'folDow [old, ha'b,ir-5 ofadorument, once

commo sn tn bot 'h' I" [~';P-"'I-~'. th '-"3-"""'" were 8····...::'11 considered th ieir abidine P riv .. -i1'"::·:-~O',-::_::,-

.. · ... ·.~,!I..I.!JI._j(_"Il_· .' '._ 1_::1;dI! _- __ ... ' i:J"",,;A: __ ilL, I"e,._.,.' . ·'_--:".Il.,'~'lW_-'._ .. ,_o~~,-"-_"' __ '~ ILI_,,,,,".I., .. -lu_'~-~->-'D" -'~"'-C_:"D'

perhaps even their d,[u,[ty';, and wD,'me,D,~s adherence to variegated dis'p,l-~.y· iSI

one ,thing: that has made their clothing essentially more '&O'lSe,rudil'l~e "han,

m I' ',' 'en ~~,~ A,' ','['1': the "[ N<'II';p!:Dj-,:c~'I' assic '1- nom e )n~'1 I' '1~"iP was m I "~'IJ-~",,~, '0"10':'''' ·WD··~,'m"'1 . ',., n -. 'W,,", ,,·,...h1o': ,", en ·'~'e··· :r~-'-,

I!.~~._ .• ~~~_ 1_~=I~ .. ,,_l! .. e- ~ .~~_., ' ._~dll .. ,ll.~l It! ._l!l_' .. ILl _='._. __ 1!l[!I~'_'1! I __ .ILJ __ '._·l!.I.l'_. J",lt .. ·_·I!II· .. · ~.l"fl..l ,"

P' risingly made a :ndi,cai modern leap .• in, fashion.

~ t;rI~. ..

That period COli ncided wi , ehe 'beginning' 0'£ the > o:man:Elc 'move ....

ment, when an acute tension between I'be' sexes was i'I'_'-lf an 'i,IDa:g;ina'tlve :n.ecessiry"; and the[ ditIe'riol' 'fash'i,Q,ft_S 'f'o:r' clot'hes o,f [['he' 'CWOI sexe~~, illusItra'l,e' ,th~is, j,dea, \I,e:ry c)_ea_rly~ F:ro,m cChat '5~h"o,~'~I,epoch, ("wir;h, ,I, p[t-epa~ra,r.o'll~ Iun,''u.p d:u'r~in:g [t'h,le ~genera'lion, 'b'e:-fo're) datesl 'E:'he' ("uslo':m, of Ip'u,'rring; (lnly 'wo[m,len mn,'I'o IClo'lo -ui, IO['D'I'm:-,:o,tedJ fa[Dcies, ;ro,d d~re'sin.:g; m,e'D in, simp,ie[,. ,d,ul,--:6n'is:hea. [un,d __ 'c:o:r-alc-.-d s;ha,pe[5~ fashi.o,:n Eh"e,reafie,r:t, 'cbe fl,hi,OD. o:f' ['b·e

7

~ E' :--X-' A'" 0-" .. -. 'd· 'I' 'T ~'

ai' ,Ei; ."'J'" _ _ ,1.:.1 ~. I.. I". iilt'

modern world, would move a1,oD,g a, ldilsrinctly divided track :[o,r the 'iilst time in the hundreds or'y:~ars ofirs history, taking tQlOI separate paths that

~"1i'~ onlv just lb·' ~'Ji'I': 'n" . ni D'C 10' ,i"l: 'C'~I~'n'1i':~~lr-'U~ n o,-·,~,!!,· . I h p·n·-;-·· rhe d listin I cti ~'n,CI b etween

A&.''''''' - ., ~',: ,,_ • 'Ik . "!!I!;.oiO! .. "iI-"-D !!!I.JI . '\,?,-Y'",," :~i\o,;r =""~"'J","'" '" 1!k,_: .. !!!1,... _ ,",- ,I ... ~_, ,~""" y, = . - I~~~ "".Il,

male and "_,c:lllaJ.t!' clothes became a more volatile m tter Cb,31.1 i.:: had ever been. IE IC re ,3 ted, the .11.I.O,5t marked feature o:f the w:ho~le modern period until the present disinte;g,-rnti've epoch,

COln.~pI3ring the history D1~ dress before- about .1 ;800 w.i.ltb. what came afterwards, 'V'OIU can see what sartorial modernity seems to consist 0'£" rhe

qua ··.b· ·'ii'r·-.'1li'I~.~ '1-' h ··.,:~-,,,ll 1 .. 'I····,t-.·il·l·itl:.·I" ish '''h''1-19 clot hes 1"'.-","'('" th 'i:!Iii. modern world I--Q.-~.-'m····,"'li'-·'l" e ,.Ji·I"i,.iii;.C'C

IU. . . ' .. 1: ~J .J t •• r . I .Q '.. (1 I .". I'Ll] I' ••• . ,I. I ~c. ,( _~ ._" .•. :_ .. ",_ J _:.~ a! ~ _:. !L: __ ,~ ~,,~,,_~., .... ~ , __ ,_ ._ :_ I, , '_' ", '" .•. 1 ._ :_. ~ • I ~"I '.:. ': .S· r ' _. U~ I~[~~l

'""'

a]VIa)rSI make 3, strong, almost theatrical visual 'C'I,3i[Jl~, but male tailored

costume 'Se'[9, the real s ndard, The tailored C·O'S·CUDJ.e' E' refer to moreove · j'n eludes its informel versions, the sportswear and CD'U1'.1't-ryr leisure wear that shared rhe scene with men ~§ ,farIna] c.~,ty wear for work or 'pl]ay~

~,T'r.D!··.·,·,'r·'k,,,....(""'llo.:it'h;e·.~:_ the J~l"~ cket C' 0,"',' f hr "01'11 'b; p I '~Ilne'n'" and t .. he Jil ~~I'Ii"],'S 10:····£·· .. ' ·C·. ,~~t'I··e ... men

'w·t_, ,.".,Jl._.iIl", ' __ ;i''''~J itJ .-.,..:."".",\..r _~"" ,~, ~. _ uclt~·'\,,;: ~_ ='=' 1!C~Ui"iIi!_.' "'. ,-,,,,,_II, "'i-, ·a,IIl.I __ .-.111,11.1.:.. ".

'W···:"·"",:~·rlp lso 'Pi: .... ' ,.Iii"' 'D""~':' the eeneral :,,-:h·le~'1·1I11··e,~'_ .. dC.~1J~~.'~I~lp~'I~I'Il-·,a Jii~ the r3·'·m-·--·,·Q time tin I', 1 "-"h'-'IP-

.' ,l~ •• '"" ' '.' g; 11lo, _ .1 .... .. ,~, .. , ' .. Ie a, . ,-" . ' . ".1"_ 11_ ."",, '1f~I~ .•... - ,CIi' 'Q,It:.. 1Il.. . __ ,.:I "'", 1,,_. ' .. 'L.- I. , ..... '-"

early nineteenth century, Male garments for g,olf,3_n"dJ 'ICDnis"1 or '£OI:fJ huntin:g:-. shootin .. G:~ sailing or 6:. hing C'3.:n. 'be seen to share in :1" de S,P i te their ,gre'3;t differences when viewed fro m n the standpoint of strict social 'US;: ~,e"'J

. . -, derni - ~,- it. '. ~I' 'III

G'riIJ,d'u.al "modemizations" in :le'I,11aJ!Je' costume smce 11:,1001 have mainlv

tilll

consisted air t~n,:~: [01 a'np:"o;ac:h, the male ideal. more 1c'I.o,S\lelv~ using 3'0 35-'

~. 1 L~ CJ trOt ~ ..

sortment of its n iotifs.

This ideal o,'ffers ;3. "-~OI~11.p'I:_"r.e envelope :for the body rhar IS neverrbeless made ill, separate. layered, detached pieces, A~r·l:n.S legs ,<n,(i trunk are ',I~is,;i,b,ly :i]d~,ca,td but not ti,:gh,till fitted, so that Iarge movements of the

trun ·.'k·":'"" 0"-:"'[-" 111~i'm---·-"b-I~~. do n I'~t··· put ''1':lj~kl W' "'''11 ·d, .. ·· st rain D·· n' S'D""'~I'C 0'-:-"'[--:: fasrenines. anr . th 'p

i!l._,_._, , __ ;:~,~._ )p __ :_' c.,,_~,,~ __ .J:__ .'~J , '" :::_,~¥ ,: \_,.~ 0,1 _ _ ,;;). '~_ J_I.:'.~ _I, ,.,-,·".1,,11 ,L,;,I ",I, lG~Il..,"":" .ill :"'6'"" ~-_" . I :~ !_', ~ ,_ '~.

'1~"iI! '1- '~p i=:~ '1"1i '0'" . d:'I'1 b - )l"I'II"1'1-'lp~: •• ~ of I fi.o"h"l ~I ~ n--' di . :~·'vr. id U' I -,' II 'b:- _ :O·J·. :fi"y. ··~s-> I~',U" ." .--f: '1,: u_ ~, ~~ har - m-'- .-. 0; i'n~"IJ:·'D·:··:U· ~·I···.y>

~ II. .JI:._jtL! a al l I. _ ... _. ,. 1i:'J! .. , ~ I 1"-' JI I •• _ ", I " __ ,I I . " .. lJ .. , _ a In,: .t!l;...~ dl.'~ i. 11_ _1,_,,_ 1_]' __ 1,_, , __ [~_ •

.'. :_, :.:....1

,gIDo, __ sed over, never emphatically modelled. The separate elements 0'£ the

costume lovler),: p'~ rather than at1t'3(:bin'g tOI each cehen sc that g~rea, _ph.ysi-·

C11'1 m O'~' bilitv l~ ~ 'p-" O-:-·'~r.I~ bl ~ L'I·iI.r-~I'I·h-IO· "U" "~I creati lli]tJ' awkward a~lp"~ ill n the co m ., po si

:"'. I,., '_:,11 .. ",,)" ,iI~'1 ,I ~_'_i~~i_,_··:, ',"" '~":r, r 1,1: __ " I~ :' _ ,'g ilL ,b' u'\1f~',,~'.~._,._,- "lU ,b~'.~"~ ~,,~~ k _''-';: :~ I ~;J, '; -_' us ~

tion, The whole costume ma)~ thus settle iaelC',n!3[ur,aJly 'w'h.· m the 'body SI OPSI moving, 50 rhl3J,[ its DW.n 'pDli'St~: is, ,etIolr'le'S'~l:y resumed a~lie,~ a s,wifl dash or sud _ .. _0 s[rugg'~J~~~, ":_, eanwhile laft,guid sp ra,wli:n ,8' wil_~, C'IlI·S·C· the

costa n te to d ;I~ -: rra '·-1- oe··· \;~~ e ~,~"~·v' , .. ~ f;" I""'nl' [--01••. '''I !t" [. ',3" r't-~.I"lre_lv c~· ~~. UII~ 11 fo:=-,:'l: -s·, ~\,,·,'h-·· ;;I,i""hi.

L.U"",'!i. .11_. I~_ '_ ,h" ... , ,!Ii;,'_ "D'- !I.'~ .. ii'I·i .. 11.11,., . ,._.- 1,,1i. .. ,"'"'_ '~" .11, .n. ,;i3J! ,I.'~ ... .,,~ .lII!Ii;.,..""

'fUir:m a. :fl'u;id se'£ 0'( .r,ac'e'--Dlot·es, fOI"' Ih,e reI1._,xed bod.v~, ~lnd 'w'hj,_"h 311"'0

, .

olbli gin g1y' "reSl1Dl,e 3J S,lllOO'lh sha.plf r~f th"c we a rer' l1tlU.st· q\ui,ek],~: gj·t 'D._pi a:odl.

st 'n.d strai'g,h'i[~

'-l:'he C',(]'s,'lu,'m_e :is th,lU~ sloc'ially' fo'rma1 ,and i'u'£of,mam ,at 'th"e 'sa;-ll- e bm,c

II 'k't T' In: :0-:-: II:: U- e: T I ,I, -N··:.-

~, i ''11 '. . 1'-·,·" ~" I... ".;r. ". I ~ .' " '_" .

obedient '10 the :I.ow of circumstance ")~ Decorative elements are .1[0:,' e[.,_ grated 'wi[£'h the overall scheme. COl r.'h,2't nothing sticks O'U!, slides IOtT~[

'h:'!IJ:""~i .. ~'~~ [ .... 'm" ound I"IQ,~ bruised p10'-:~-'- ~ Iimp ·DI<·.['~ ·c .... tches IAI'n- anvthinz, AIc:\-I[~1 It-,-'h--'"I[:'S'

1~Vrl"!Ii, .!Iic':l! d_' , .... - .I_ .. -'. e"",,llI.- ,,'., ,ii)"'" - 't ,D--"~' I '_,.-' ., .. 1 ',EI;III., ,J .'Iii;.I, I Y.I., ill 1..illJ l. ,11.1 ";~'" ".' .~, . -,' . I

com ih in es ,']II'D 1·[I'nll~:r:;n~·· '2'-I~'~I-I~ h- ta 'mo onv of ;~IIl'-··d,,·:I· •. ;-·p-:,I~n- d len 11-: design with i9\'2"Is.~ o:,l'f .... ,...: '0': .~1~1

~ . "-""_ __;li G., "_, ",I .I ,~IU.~ ,_. , ,'__ '.,T U ,;I:, , __ e. "'. '_. ' __ ,~ _ ~;}i __ r= ,,1""_, _ ""'dO ,",,__ ~~

,,,,1 u 1 ( _

_ ,I~n"d a, true echo 101f' UJ1,d, e [my:i[1,g, 'bodimy shape and action. It is, universally

ftalil,ering~, because it doe not insist on specific bodily detail, It reflects th e .. ·· .. , mod ern e ~:t·.· he .• ··>' I:~~} P-I' rinciples tha .. ·,t- were c \' 'IDCC···,j VIClJI O,~-:IU.· :,'1' of :N···· '._ e .o .. r-classic

IL.!l 1._ L!_~ ~ •• _ •• ~l! .... Ia! .. l_ ~" f. . I'Ji ... _. _ .. __ .. ,,__ __ _ ._ _. _ ... " _. .. ._ ... _ .__ t

- -

B. :'Y·I:-:-' con t .. I'-'1I~:iIl'·. -w .. ' ,: rom ten -I '~~11 r~ sh '11'~ ·0:' ~n! "'Ii fiCI:'~'r-1 I~O.;-O-: c .0' •. : '1" !E'111i,'~, ~'A' If]1 [Ii 'y.,: ~,:u,~"u~U~"c."t··'e~,d·:. ': I.q. I'U' I 'I" ,"",~

.~ ..•.. ' !![;;.;. . _c:.. ,~_._ gji)!Ii;"i1i1 . ,_,_"",,- '-'_ ' ;J! I.Q.:I_.,_c..)_ . '_ ,_ A __:"_ ~ ~ ,_, 0__ \;;- '. ~. ili ~"". 1_ ,_' .'J!_ ';~I~d .~_ . _. 1,_" .IIL-~

the purpose elaborate headwear, diffi,C'uil: fuOII~l)tea:r~ cosmetics, e .. xtraneous adornments ,3'D,d accessories constriction and extension i, 'I' would

em 'P' -:' hasize th "3: I·' this '~'r h e me en fbo sdi ,.li~: 1- h .e I 'p-.,'''[' e " ['I r c~I'b···,e.·: .d c .h 11'[' . acre ':r' 0,' :-1£" e 'Ie,· ._,

_ ~ _J ~ I . / I III ~ . . '.._"' l_ I ._I~ _:_._J~':~ ~ ~~ _ ~ - .. _:__:r,_._: ~I~ ~,:._)" ,~:D __ / l., __ 1I1~. ._~l_ c._' ",_.' '. -._:_,- _ -',_ • Ill, ______.:_ -.:'_J' ___:_ -.':__, I It ~ Ip,~.I~, .. it' -,_. ," l ' .• ~' I ',"_

g- ance'fi'~"J "fOlti sexes ~i~ll P=';lS,t epochs all over the world, in both modish and

c. , .1 1 ,.. _.) ,l!! ..., l I ~. , •• •• rill"" h: yl ••• • • •• , • I" .., l • 1 . l,;: •• 1 '=. . . I • . -.. :l I ••• ~. .... ~ L •• I .~_

l!_ I! IJ •

traditional r lk s:tyles of COSIUl\lle e'~'fe:ryw'h"ere,,- nd ·fo:r' self-respecting

'I f' " ,~

'p'~' ••• e '~O:~ :i'IU. '('" m '1" [1-'] 1·0.'-: . ~~' avers ,~i':, ,O':C· ~"I e : 'fr'l:!'-

.,," . :lj..,~ .. ' - -' -, - .... , .. ~!Ii" , a 1 .. , ..::!I! U, .-.... ,' .. ' "'1[.

N":I! net eenth 1',-· .a=- nd - '~'~if-I_ "n-I"~'I~ eth- cen nu ~--'-y" ~:M;o'-::m- nen [iIi:!', clo .. ;·.~h-l- es sim p,l::',-:: -. '='"'p---', it

'. ,')!'Iir.!ll~ ~'[ , I. Il • _ ...! ILII~~'. 'I.L ~ .. ]I ~. 1.1 r!L .. "Ill. / ., ,~ .. __ . I • 'l' ~' .. ' _ I ~ _ I'· It.,~ •. '~I '[.:l!~]O1 ,,~_ .. _' .:' ',~ .... _._

UPI'- Thev continued to demonsrrare 'tile' 'p .. I--j-lla] and often sacred orieinal

. '.'~' .,',. y L ••• u_ 1", .. ," .. r .. t! .. "., , r, '0 .. , , " - " ....•.. ,- ',"1 " .

. purpose 0": dress" which 'is to represent in, terms ofself-imposed and DOI--

- ,', 'b'll b d1il') 'II'" - ~, 'h~ h ~ 'I d' di - , · d d" t..

ticeable bodi .. ,' apPJll.cla:tl,QlnS-~'V,t .)mIC,.~ 111 ")r' mcmue dtstornon ana msng-

.-, I-If ere ~':'"l, '·3· -'[~. ':-0' :,o~,-tj;hl' ··'lfi,-. 0" m iodern abou t" modern ~'IIi~lnl-m" tens ~!i,'O;:-II"h-- ~~I 'UI1' n . iIi'~I"'I- .. L~,

,Jj .. I."", ,IL!, ' dli , . Ill-. . " ;I, 'iel ... ,,_, '_'" Pi ... '.." - ,. ". _ ' .. ~~ \:dr, .. ... II. ~ "",JiJ ._ .. ,!!I!;o;;3_ .' , L, . , 11i,.1~1."""

female imi tarion of the -m-I-'D~ :d-':- ern 'ml-:--'-~I'I[I~ scheme was erad 'luC-~111'1\;~' aecorn-

1,[. _: .. ,_-_- ,~,.-_. .' "" 1Il.. __ ,_,i,.-.:., .. ,.,._, .'. ,_, I",,"). __ -' "."" _/ ._ .'JW;."., , ._". '.', ,_ g;J!,,,," ~',",,"" ''''''''' "':"~ _PI' QliJ'" ,t:'-I" U, _,_,.-~G-I-,- ",1' g __ ~ _">·cc· c_

plish ';Q'-~= durin 'g'" t .. ··hl- ~ ·C(·O,··"IIII'[· Al ,Q ..... f th '1~I'!iC: cen tu ry" ':',' . ':m" "I1'lliIC'~P'~' ted ''1,I~O······.I-ll'' en . eeking

1,.IJ[a, "I"",I,L.,- ,[g,1 ",,' I,: " I. . ~ . .,.' IUc_ :)"" '"II, ,1,- I,~, '.,- "'!Ii, ,I", J .', Ii ' I, I", JIi . .', '"iI; : '!iii' .... """'.' _.. ',,"1!!"!, .. I I I, I, '~ ,,"",I: ,ill I L ,it'

. .. _ - _' -: . _.

'-'10',: mo "'d,:'e.';':-"r~"n-"'I":"7e"-'" their clo I the ~' ,f'.O"~'U~1 md '"'0'1": better 'IIi.' ·-:3····y,')":"' ,ifI·;h-,· .... ,n' ·0'.:' 'I:-OU" nitate what

~' ,I, I r ..... '. '" I, ..... '}' !L- -: ~"I I. ~, .. _ ... IL 1 ., ... ;.':Ii :Il~ ... 1. j' ., •. _ .,1,'." .' ~. :~~.II r " ", I, ~,11_ I" 1'/..... ,~~,,~I' • ,dl~L '¥'II,~ IdlL,

'O:III·ec 'n:1 'h·.,~' ·d, :1- ,.d-,-: ·O;~"I· Til ~ "".. l:cJoe' n '. I, 1111 : V :e· ,:~ r'II(I[i;e': - :r, ',-'0'-, nv'l~ 'n"1 01 rt-'h- M ~id-;:e~~ '0."'; .I'·f·'--'" 10;;~' .O·~·<, :e,~·~Ly." Fl' . t-t-· :]~ ~ po 'e'·· '[1" .-]

, " . " ., rI. .. ,iU... d ILl" Y! ,~' .1II,,1l. '., . r 1 . ~ I" '!. ,iii... a . - '. ,I, .. -. . . ,I,~ 1 ,I]. ,I'LII C) '.

'\rei1J01:'p-, ··e· ': '*,~"'"!jl~: 'WO;"UII'I]' :11, ~~,'~t~: .,. 1;·','~s.···:1 'D.r·;'~:,·~" c .. ,'ltfjj'a" Ir.· if'''1i'il~I'1 ,o-':'r,~ld';, ;:~I~lp":'e, 'w·L":l-,~ s'u·,g.' ',:', ;'~~"1~S::· ,I. I~< I: "

_ . ,1 ... ~ 11,1., ~ ~. lU '_o'~ ~~. ~ l'}I.-. ,~.'...!I ,[ k. Ld _, ~ ~ _ ~1,1tg ~ ~ _ I,~U ~ ~ \r.~.~ ..

- " ~ - ~ - - - ~ ~ ~ - - ~ - ~ ~ - - - - I ': •.. _ .'~ .' I ':-_"'~'_}

th,at of 'C'h,@'bod.y';',· u,:nd.@[' i[~ ~.3;nld, ~l~lo\~r C'onc'e.rled .11l1QVe:,I,le'(l't IDf j.'l1.v,e'nted,

I) .

d---~\'-;:::- :-···d..-'- 11,!!;~c'":-::--;-, b- - ..... , ·d··':-" .. ~ .-:" ..... ,c. ···--.'h-'-=:, ~"I"Jr,- '--1 -'[ ... ~ ,.",l, --'h' '., '< ...... ·-··'r:·-· ,'[-,'h···:·' ". '1''-· ,-: .. ,'I!!' ' .... - .. ···d·- . 'I" ,:~",~ .•

I _less 3D,,'c~ JIVln,g .·~ .. o ... ···y [.og,ft.,er,,,,w'Oll.1,en $i, [.lOlt .,~les 01. I ... ,f ,1,9,;20 ,3n,~ ,1.9IJO ,5

III 7'

_, ,,",'m 'D'" nl l~l.-' .~,

ac [U311 l}" achieved the modern ideal; but, they kept to the distinctively feminine scheme, and the 'se'XJ!SI kent their tra!dici on aI, sepa .. , J,tio:n,~, ' he ancient universal beliefin I~aking visible tID 'ubI , rOI ,dK5- u:p prevailed ICQ1n,-,

'~;'n-"u', 'OIIU'·I'·-I'v'·:·' in modern 'W" rom -'e-"'Il~"~' 'f'))lii}.lb""ilLa-:"IIl~-_ ptemonng ehe 'C-I,'" :r:'~·D:.:IC:~·I~'~ :, nd

",I; 1"-_",, -, ~'_, .,_. ~. 0: ,~" ,I., " _,' :".- _-- """".1, ,'~ ",_, I 1,1, : - _ ,I,a~" cll- '-: "!III ~.-!li}\.I, : b' _- "-.if_ ~D ',,- '"'" _- ',", -i""J '---=. ~AI," '-,;:] ,=" ,

varieties which eSie~n,t:ially make a ve'l"y' old :, .tD'r:~j~ This meant that men ,n'ad, ,D,othiml"g' :6u,lllda_nl,en,ta~D,y' new and m ereseing to learn from, women's clothes throughout the period; their modernizarion was alreadv complete. ,_ hey had long since gone beyend cosmetics, carefully curled bCIII: problematic shoes~'_nld, elaborate decoration. Pashion ,rO,[' men instead ·"o;·:o-Ik··. the '~O-j'-['-n,'l' of continuina ·[-"0.· .• n iod il,h.~ the ":' , eo-cl ssic "'IjIiI'I~·I,:o .•. ·.· .• red con .C.iiIP~"""

!Ii.. '. _ ".- I 11,;._.. I.t, "- -_-- . '"" u, . -I ,. l=ilJ.iO' . '._ "U-,iIUI'J IIIn , " ' ,""" _ ~,iII, .!L.; LS_ _ _ _ _I.~ 1\." _ __ L.. __ ,_, '. IL".,____:,

"1"'OiO'·'. '~'I~'I"I" h I~D.I::n-'ll,:·"'J in '['~,'[. esting ad vances ~'b:-1'r were usuall -'" ItO. -'l"I"p. ~'~I'~~~ (i "1."'. the

!I!._,_. ,___;, '." '~~ l~" a, ,e,. __ ,~,_ ~,,,;;:'1i _ 1i,1:_1 1_ '_' '¥ ,_ ." '. ',,",,~. Iii., d,1".n' ~ ~ .. ill. d.. .i:I_ ... ,j[iL !!Ii..,O. ::I 1!Il.", .

.' ",--' : ,iii ,_ -" _ ~', '. '; 11 '-"""h' ' .... '. ,,.', -, '.:, ,'. ,- '.:': . - -)1' b ' .. - " '.'1·'11,·· - 'I' ri ,,~r, "I :<'",,', "1"' .... ", I'," ',,:" - ", ':. I'':' ',' rk- -')'-1 thes a id

OI'I,glll_3I1, 50C erne 3_.S0 wa~): --'f D,J3JIJe ae rve SpO,~ l.' gear, ,vor,=~ C 0_ nes anc

:nDl"iI3rV' and navaldress, 'I ale costume, commitred [0 the modern Iook

;!!I

of etlolrr,'~ess~'~r Inteorralt'le,d, '(or'lnal desien tend ed t'() bide a.-ny· .... discomfort

__ l __ l. _ •.. , .. ~ll: - I._._~b. __ ... _ .. __ ~ l __ l! l L.: ~.~!!I .!F' ~_ ~~ __ !!I!l '." __ ='" _!:'!!.l _~_

and 'E---IO-C-~:"U'-b· -;':~11~' ,it-.' might a 11"',-' U'I·,~U='ly-.:',; produce ,ero-',,-,'r- I the wearer o-

ld, .. I. -' I . , I,~ ,:1;,. ,1.1. _ _' _,~ _ ,c, _,g ..' ... , , _ ~._ Ie, !L., "'" .,..~ ""' gil" i\.;J '10

I,' ,- : "

'~, .~ .. ~' H-I A':""" T 'I[',:i\, ·S< H 'I 0"- -, ", I""'~I ,[,

-rwll¥ J I l..·I.~!._J ~F n .-: _I ..... ~. ~-~I I ~ .~.

I)' A R" T L Y' ~,N' 'R :e~ s I~J:1 N S 'E tOI the g~re,"I:~ :gum·~} diV1i,d~~'n,g the sexes din "IUlg: these '1"3l- -II two modern centuries, the definition off hilo"n, has undergone a, sharp and, :~imiti'ng: reducti on jl '···'~'/i.,th, the arrival of collective certainty rh ""1- "P-:Oi-'-:'~IIIJfl-,...1.U·~-I-) men n 'i'.'-U'-I.::~ dress sobe ,:,[II,U and sin -u:~'I"'lIilr:l'v. and ,th.~,:tl· women's

III. .. H. L. '''I'¥ ,I',l~~ . .c, .. "1. " ... ii". ,'l; .. !Il.' .. ,;i]I .!Ij;J"" .,!I! 1 A. ". ... jJi,." II! '" J' g._ ._, a _. ;,o). _'

~ 1101-1 th ~ F'I m :-'''-U st ca '~nt a ')'11 tb ~ bu rden -: '01'".':£'- d e Jl~I'b,.e, era "rJ;;;J.. .p'- I,@: ~~D~IH -!'I 1 fan 't:a'-~\~ s fashi .Oc:: II

~I,-_- I" __ ",",,!,J ,_,~ '---' _ ~ .~. ' __ I" '." 1_ 11_ ' ~_._ . ,I.,'._ - ~'_" . --_ ,,1,;1,"_' ., ' . ' .. "'"' ),~' Ii-~. 1,,!liA -' _, --- _ -i:!I11; '_ G._I"U -- '_'_'

In, dress 'bec:aDlc' ashion," one lor "he' huge new industries aimed specifically ar female consumers. instead ofbeing something 11,' 'w,bicb men or 'WOIme n 'migbJt ,p'. 1-'-:~llpe['ly' show the same ina of ;~'n,r:ie:resl ..

AI: the end ,Off the rwenrierh c'e,n[lury~, "Pashion'l seill chiefly means 'l'b, currency efvariarion in women's clothes, perceived v~ihi]k·.' it i- beine

,- e ' _ _ lie , , - -" '_ ,,_ '"_- ,D, " , d '" '" '_ ",' • IL~ ._, - '- " 'JI ,I ,~_, ,""" - - - ,_ - - -- '".... -~ - - '""'D'

.in\)t'f!',n,'ted ,IJI,I"d, marketed £,xlctID',y as ',,~aIia,'ri,o'n-:~ in :~'h,e' entertainmenr bu i'-0-'.' .~s._:' I.--~:-;· pe .. .eceive 'd,~- .:- n .. "d·';, somerim - es -I~'-:' connection wirh rh •.. m .. -,~ "Fashion"

~ ,e .. [-e, __ I~'''''' __ "~ ... ~',. ,_ '"' , __ u ,._I"_:;_Li"_,,1I/;,,o ," "" _" ~ '"" ~ _!IIi;. __ e _ ~ _

is 'w:bat ,3,plpea'[S by that name i'D the media and. in designers' collections

'iii' n ,!I!.IY

I N~r RO.') 'L~C~r~ ·• .. ;:N

I ,-~". ': ,~, ,~t.:: .'~~·I :1- '10.;- 'W IC··.·!JO .• nn n--II- ·IC···~t-"' ld,' I \1, j~h, famou e names and their . ~am,ou's charac-

,oess, ~ .. IS D __ , .. _ '" e .,e l.; ... __ ~.~ .. ~_ 1 ._~ • • _

terisnc associations. The stars 01.( "Fashion" arrive, thrive and .. fade, new "p'I",O~"UI'''~~~ and them "Ie, '5'· A··· •. ourish unril Id·,~,I.I.~ mmed 10-[,' IS,\~~111'1'P-'.~,~ b ..... ,y, .•.. , other '-$ ~,:!,ll'l in:

_'" ~1~. __ L!\..J.i.li alLI. _l "_' I .1_1,1' ,., I," __ ol IL __ II ~Ij !1,Il-JI_~ L ILIL~~ _~ __ i ~~ ~_lULI, I._~lj __ .' __ . .cl~l'-r. Hl!!ll '~LL =~ll

, ~ .'

the context of vast and thrilling corporate risk, Aetna women take ~~I.- I::Q1if1lL,]"'O·-··I-·].[U serio '0' l:"lly o . r n'- A'it" d'~ . ep "e' n idi n,g 0" ""n'" th ~'I"'I'!I lives means and vie ws:

,r' .• ~,ll.'I __ , ~~,-.Il.;I-_i1i"~'.'/ :.~ .1.IYIIi..., .. :'~~:-.'_.'.I-:_~,;II.t;) :_:1[." '1..1,.1,,,".·.10 .!l',~/~.~, jl,~ ,-,-./,,<_ .~_It~,_,,_-:"r~r~.;

b'ru', they may all b .. ieve that it is somethin .. g :me,g:~,tin-lately' possible for them, something 11_11,y 'WO:lll3'[I, Ina,y' 'igJ,I,OI0:1i :if she likes but a~·\\r,B·)"5. has an absolute ri _'~ -t £:0 'take' part in,

Men's cl,ot'h- s cle-J"f 'y"~ do not participate directlv in "Fashion '', since

,',' ... ,.· .. ,.1,1, ... .' " ... ',c,· ", ...... :'_. "'_ .. _ .. _,., ~i I. _,'.".-' II" _ .. ' ... ,: .. : .. , , ... 1 ..... " :'-"1 ._ .. _-. <. _ ..... ,_"_. ~,j.I' "." 1_ ._ . .:.,._1 .... : ..... ,..,""'" ...... ', .. " .. u ._ ..... ' ..... :.

'.~i I"i r :f'i1n- . "S::-, ': ash ion "!l!., ·t"'Iil"', ,''li''n-'" acknow .. 11 ,~d; ·o~:d~'. subse ~'.. .' 'n:d': has sc ·~.FCI :,~lly,.1:" '''''Inl ··v :0;::.'£"" p·h· ' .• e-__'_

.. , :'~'" - .. ~ I~~.-=:I.._ .~._ ~:I ([1,_._.--,. __ , _,\1".1.'_""'" ·!II,o,.--~b"""~' ~I_,.- ,;3 .. - .. 1\"" '--:'__~- ._.~di.i:I --g~.-~.!I" ~=:'_':l' ,_,_, '11.'---

0·-·;·· .. (·"::·,· ",1_, M:,' ·e",__::_':-I'}-I ~~. Fashion ',:-. L,U" ';111' 'hi ~I~ "'Iii lone ·W·"· "'i'a'c~~- ~'O-' [0',0-:-'1 M~·"-il'ln,~'tl m en ina ceo ·· ... rd· t,

,. '. -< ,;:Ii' . a;J!l, !I.,;I . .iIi,~, IU...~,.iIi Iii." ., 'l!1IjjI; 'ii1.~ .. ~ ' .. '_"_', 11..." z,: .. i!iI .1. '., . U~'. iii ., I. ",",ill.., :iii." li;Ii,'Iio..._... 1.- I

ance with modern rules, are 'Still quite comfortable ignoring "Men's

" :~:'"" .• ' :·L.·· l'I"O.i::-_I'-I.".'tI~ _1"'jC1' jI.~llt·~ .. , sh ow ... b :.·.·Ut sinesslil "~Q. _ ~~lp ... .Ie.·-}~'~F'.. 3:' 0-.-1" d 1.&17,p·~ ... I'.I-I'J:i: I n g-' '... £,-_,1'11.11 ~'''.'.~ ,; Ii" 1·~'S.'·, '11'1. .ot actu ......

'_ oil • ,1.1 . ,_,';_ II '. _.1 _1 III _ ._," ," _1'-" .J~ . '. l~_ 1_ ~ _,ljJ _ l~.~.. ~,~. _ 11 I! "_". Jl~~I.l I I. . ,JIIgIJ 11 .. I",J, ,ILl, . _ iii .. IL. _.

, . . .

:ally ,a.v,at·il'_J'b'lc' to them nor even really aimed 3:£ them. The general idea is

th,a:t only a, leJ\\v care, and ,the'y' are' not m'm'pO'[13'ntEIII Ver;~' remarkable and faneastic .n1.3l11~ :IJ10des of dressing, 0:0 the other hand, ate co:nli,n'u;al~y adopted c'hie:ft.y 'b)~' the' powerless, those .IIIOIt' in the main stream of action, " "heir impotrance in mai .-. ream fashion '[or' ,31- men, ·h,oweve·r:,. is grow-

:"', -;- .... alo .-" .",.:, ' ... I_'; •• , .. '~ th -, I "'. .a ... :" I' :' .'. ":1----" '-1- d "I:' .... . ,-- ~'f'···; t "./ i-I ' .• '. ,', ~ th "r' - di I~': '-"'1'1::1)' '--I-I"; 'I ".. .. - -----I:. ide .' ''--II'~ fit

.Jl.n.g~ aon.,g .. 1., ... 13, cU,.rre.n.lt . - J.5Sat,tlS,.I,3,CIIO,~,], ~Vll - ,.,ra- __ Irl.o.na, n,]3Ie .mo .. _,er,n~~'l'"

::" .','~, .. .- -:-' .... ~;h"~:'-~'· , .. .'. '.;." .. ,·--:'-b~·· .... sd .1--: b ~- I·. ~il-'" "~,, .. ,-, di - -.-:-,:-: ed I ~. ~ the -~ 1"'~"':--:::'--'''~ :~.-. ";::;-." ,-.-- . ..-- d :--::-1 :C:;"

vieanw ue every .... o.y' 13S,IIio.O ee aressec In ' e mor.nlng.· ano g-o

II .~. ..1 •.•. l "{."~' .. ~ I_~j' ~ .. !Ct" - I I] • I._ 1.1 .• r Il. 'I .. ~ •••• J •• '~ __ .-

abo ···,=u···[·· .. l[- .. he d'-'-'I'"Y;s: b msiness "W-:"'~'--:h"3"t- everybo 'd""y' wears .... 0-·· do thi 'h--""",. taken JI;II'C

.. ' 'I - 'I_____: "I':" ',',.11, ro"· •• ' ••..••. ,-,-"-" -,"). [.'1_ ,-"'Wol-"' '-'1"1"" '.1.',. 'w:>_- 1·· !11l'I" 1'1" . I. .... ar··· a:· JJ UJJ.I~i

.. - : .1... ' .. ,' 1 .. _.-,.'.,:, , _ .. ··,·1 I· .. "C.-.··. ~ '.:'., I '._.' .. :'. '::: .. - 1 -: :._ , :::_ ':1 .. _'-' .• :.' .. :__., _.: ,.c-~·,:__ .',: ,_."' '" ._.: _·-_ .. ·,··i,·~. ':'__. '_._ .

I·) l. l)

ferent forms in the "'~~ ~'es:t for abour seven hundred years, and that 'is what fashion is" IIO\V' or ever, 1311d what .I al:ways m,learn b,)~ r'h,e' ·ler:m., 'Ini,:rl'us qu:ot!es,~:f :hilon h~~":~: atrect:edl 'bolc:h se.xle,s eq,'D.al·my~ ,dl:n"d .DIJbod,y 'willh ey'es., ,e,~~·3····p-·:~~, '1"I-C,Lt :~'fF.' ';I'~ 'DIIIO"-:W t,-,'-"h·le-.' g·:··;e'n· ·.···e,II},.'~1 n·";<fIj.o,-:d .. r·-·e •• ··.·r~ I~'o-._:nd~-lit-ioc:n or:'!'" aJI Wes.,rer.n, c'),or·h, ....

_ . ~ L . _ . _ ~- ~ "J •• !:II III~ ll_a l J l I ". ~ _ ". ll! J _ r .,.' ~ j _. r g_~J ~ J !l ll~ _. _. _ . _ I' ~. _ ~. __ " . "_ ~ " = ~ _ =.J _ ~ = ~ ~

- .. ~.

,ing~, a,n,d, i'£ has ;·'ID.lcl}e-asi.:n"gly be~om,e >'o,_ince ,'h'e E:ar),y Mod,e'rn. p'e':r-ilod". It

~n,ow J',.p'-,les,rs, 'in 'mtllri:ple nla'ni£est~~tilo,nst so 't.h:at ma'ny' ,~dlitfereln't fash'ions'~1 'sma'illl i:l'nld 1a'[ - are fl'OiUlris'hin:' ~ at th·e same time'. MO:5t f3Js,hio'n ill d're: S 'is

... "'I .. '~. " I .1. OJ'" .'.". '. - ••• "-_ [ 1'1"" _.J., "._. "I .• ' .... _" __ . '_'_ .. _ ~ .. ,.I 1_. " .. " .. __ '" .. __ 1 '_'_' " __ . ,_,,_ •. _ iIo! , •. , •. _ .. "_ ,."_. __ l_ ... ,_ll_l _'_ 1 ". "_' ._." . [_ ..

,ad>o,p't:,ed, 'wih 'tblf conse'i,Qu,s ·wi.s:h, 'o,o:t 'to' lloo'k, 'fa~sh_ion-_'_ble'", b'ut to' 'JoQlk_ 'righ'l~ .' ·F:ashj,ona·b,lle"~' 'is 'm,ere.ly lo:ne v1e,ry c'o:nsc'i.ollu~s·my acmli~:-'ved '\\1~,a,yo:f loolkin,g: fs>'hio:naJblle t'hat is,. righ,r;a:~. ~- ~nJ'y' grivle~n, tim.e lor pma.ce~,

:T''''hlg (!oh,";;~ru ~"h''''ii'~~I[- ~'r': '0' :·· .. f· .. ,-· it," (""hl,~t- l'o-·~'k'!iil"! 'r··;Ii')'·h·'ito' I~i~ 'n-"o-'" 'n-··~'''1I,·!f -··Il··d·:- ·w·· ' .. '."!jj,'il'" 'n-·'IQ'l.iri~! • ,~

.' " 'Iii.,.. '~'iIi"l)L,,' "- '!iII.Ql!!!;... ,;.,...' , -?oi!r .' . !iii, j,_ly"" ..... ,1I:"it"1l. "~ ,I....,", ........ ~Ii I, ,,- )'\}I~\J .. ,,,,",,Y "'""' Iii.

·t'hl·n"g de:~ibera.·te~~\)" creat:le1d. '10 j,m:pose m __ le win. 101:0 .. fe-nlal.e-s" olr ca,p.i'tali5't ''iJ"r~~iml 0'8. th,f' pD'plul.a.tiol'n.,~ Dr des.igll,ers~ '"ri~'1 on p'u'b.-lliilt: ta~cte,~,ol:~g be:tb·IiC'

T .~.

~l llL

e'lljoyi'llg ,I. profound emoeicnal importance, giving ,3, d.)f,ll;amicaD')T' poetic

'VI~~S;'.'UI'4'~ ~'~I::~ ·:O-~· .• · p- __ '~JO'--;Ip·::.-:I· e,-:'~~) ~~~'V;-::7e:--~' a"-n-r,d.·~, rna k'·:-:.~"n·-·,g,-::: ... ·., ',,':.". ·'.,'e:D~: " r n,~ ,c.~. 'l~O .• ,."n·' '~'II'lIg.··. :-.e.··.·'I-y",·.· 11""10::'0· .. ·1· .. ·,-

~ "_ - Q_I~ ~~_11l- I", '- "'_ .. " c, ,~~_, __ ,I _ _ _ ,_ .:1,_ ~ ii, , I f1._ ' _ I ,Ill ",:_._) '"' __ u "

'p~··_:lIii·,:·n{ 0' .,"U· r\'iV~'A'r--) , ... he world W":,,,:',,·71~i·h· new 1:,/ ,,1'01- .0"·,-",1-' consc '~O·"··'··:'U~ sness '1",···- n IO-I~-:"~r ap-

"~' _., ;~, Q _, i\J!I! '.I~' !I.., , )'-> ' .. '., , , _ " ,",' II.. ' .. "'" '.'. ,:t), - . II. 'L. '., , ~'1i_.iI -I I~, '" ~ ;,]1"'_ .,_.~ ,'I,;>

peals to civilizations that have never had a histo ': '0:£ fashionable c:',c~els;;

.~ ']"Id,J I that 'WI'" :'·~·rl~' prou d.··:·~ •. of not h~,··~IV'.,"'-I'···n-lg;· 7 one FI-,"[II~:h' -1'1'~D---n.1 has ,~.~, O(~W,,"·, "-D-" '-'1'.'1" ~·,-.,.~,r-,!t;;

~ il.~_ 1 . _ I I'. __ L_" • l l~., 1 ~ _ I .. _" . __ ._ _ '\uI. __ '. ~ ~il . I . j , r- .~. I' ill ~ "I:il ~ .. ,"' ~ __ , .. " JI~~ _.'~' .~ _' [~ 31111J.LI_j,LI~I'1

~ . -

IVl~'[-~U' I~ not unconnected w ..... ith the 'vn- .. I~"·r~ .. II'I,e--\··. of ~cn·-··di- "~~1'"'d~"'-U-,~,11 freed om and 'U' 0-'-1....,

"_'.' "Il;, __ ,,",,,,1 .".,'._",' '_.' ",,",,_ .• , I .• ~'. ''''''. _, '",' I~, 10. ,~ " , ,",III,;I'_ " ,,,,.I, .iii"., ' __ V,l_I_:_-",_ ~AI .~lIC\.!o __ ,,,-:__,~,~ ~ ,~~, _':__'c_

ce·· ""D'~~lrl . oiQil d .- 'I·' O"C ·-·l~'!Ilg.··.:,".-t'D-' ation th ~'I· ~,Jtc~lur 'U' md le ", ie d e···· -'-"'~O'I("'!ra-~ ti c·-:-:· ide ···--~-'I·:··

~ 'l_, ~ ~~LJI~~I''__:'-_l ___.: .~. ql~, - ~I :.__AI ',"'Idl . I .. _~ll i:ll~JJ - . __ '_l!!!!!'~J._.:~.J .. -. . "_',"' t •• h.·:,I~.I1JIIJ.~-~ ~~ _JI..-,. ~',"-. n , •. · •. .'l_·:.[3 _J'II

cWe':_re now' accustomed £0 the idea that professional designers are the

O·'-'\~I·"'~:S···"· 'W,' ,/h' ." '0--:"" d Ie -I' lib "I'e·~'i"":"'llt .. elv 'I~ nv i'e:...:::'n·-,'~l t:':a'~"'[Ii\i LI'~ on fo'--,- t', h a, zarm ent bu in . ~'S-:'~ ""0' -. pro .... ·.-··,d··"~·'"l1· c' ce

,-)"IU .. , ...,'.J 1,,- < '"_,, " - ',iIl.'liQi,-!ll' -" .~ ... ,J" I,i ~Ji,1 .':./ I l~ '.... ,.,1 ~ bi,"l; , .' .. ~ .. , " 1_, __ ., ~,_ U!li!o.,,~;i]i 'Il..- ,,' : /, I,I~,_:_ ., ~ C:, __ ,~

the 'WII··'·Y,·'·'" :-n,-ll-':O,::,Y;IS' studi ios produ ice the WID"rrJ .. 101::.f', screenw . ."I'--;r·-I~'t-"~·r-,e and directors

"~ ~.. _ _, _ _.. _ 11_ ~ ~"_. __ '. _ ,." ~ _ ... _ _ '"'. ." ., '!!ir ~ '''. , ,K . '" '- ~, ",... "'-", .. ,_, ""'"', "~ U.' __ ii, '1_ . LolL .' ili,t,

Specific credit ,£0[' the extraordinary phenomena c,C fa~,hio,n in the 'p~> :1" however, is quite hard to fix; they were fl,'o'u,r,j's:mng,i"nd, changing long be-

:I~~O~I:"""~ I-Jh. ···_le.·"· 'Jy'l, 1I1'1"tf;e._"~e."-'.: ''''lilt't- r':J'j'LI, £-1 ed .1Q·:~1 ind Ivideal I~f'~' rive .. ~ IQ'~05'f.' t- _ F·'Q.·-·,·,'r.~' six r cent UI ries

~'. ~,~ ~., .. ~ ~' .. ,I.S .. ldLi1 . ILl _ .if QI 1Ik!. . _ ,I~I J. I~_~_I, L. !II..a .l~ ., . ,-,1~lt. . II; • • -_ ,~Jj, ~~Ij ... _ '~"

l • .'

mdividual inventors 'were never held responsible ,(o'r '[he remarkable

clothing 'W,D:I 'n by peasants, burghers lor nobles-e-eirher fashion or CU:tOD1, creased the form, Only anecdotes remain abcut the momentary effects, adopted spontaneously b)V" a royal mistress D'f',3, political star, tha,t set a certain £alhi,Q'.D, for a rime. c-······ •. · .. o credit 'to ,311:y' jmaginarive artisan survives, un,ti'l, near the end 0:;"-' the eighteenth century ,\rh,e:n_ :1 :'-::-Iose Berti .. ll. bee arne faJD.,o"U5 ,{o:r ;~~'rrl3l'n.g~j,n!g the toilettes of Marie Antoinetre. That queen -Wc .. s IOlf'C'DUI'se :£3tm"O 'u IS, £o:r 'v3_ni'Ey' and reckless expendimre and an accomplice ill those vices, was, a natural accompamment ~-'-J her bad reputation.

,A, close Iook at W':b,3[: known designers have done in the mode n perio d "n- 11'0 .• - ·r· . ~IO,V': :··~r· 'F,~O,-c-."IJrs_, ili"h-- I" rh .-." eir '·Il~ol:lr·;~'''' 1~,~,_11~ '~-I'n=la·::··r· k :- b·,'IV' ~I:~ mi ~~ -, a:-'. :C~' (11\. r-;

, . iii. . ... , , ..... , _ .' - ,,"". . . "",". ~j[I, -.' ,i¥', 11k .. ·)1., I...!!Ii..I .', 11'1"·.", " ,K. ,tilIl aJIlt ,10 "'"" . .. ...._. .,' .Jl1 ;;:".. ,~JIl!la I' I ... ,ill.., a II y

given time, exactly like the fashionable phenomena of ' .. _Dy' past period,

he collective i rnaginati 01,1, '. J,ppea.'fJ stronger than the individual one, and

m ost d ~l!"I~011I~~ work 1-1'0-1" serve ~Iil" not th e 11"[' ow '. n ~,~ inspirario m nne ,:,- ..

, .,L.,_,~ ~ I. _ ,,,," ~l,b".' ~:'.i',iI., .JIll '''''~ ul,li" •... ._' ~,,,,, ,I '¥ '!!Ii;.;; I!, ,:_'!I. ·II!.,.I ,> ...." I !nJL''\,., ~ I ~':,iI! ;g""J" -' ,~ ji,,Ih..,, Q''V,3 ,-

'[:lve' genius in modern clotbing design h.3S been ,II, rare as ,3.'ny other :lcin,d~

,'1i'n···d,.- .[. -h'e:: ,~rn'-r~.·d'~, ,o;"::~t:' ~n-I 1.0;-: ~Y'i :c.-.~'~lc.··iIf-'~·, 'U'PI1: ·W," ":,'I""rh}1 11'['. ']- "'Iiil '[--;e 'If' :O,.iOI' .. W" ",'b.··~,'n-I ~u,:e~n-I,~ ,- "c~~~ir:e<

Q."_-_~" .. "I,¥'U !I__ ,ILL,",",~ .•. ~glll.._I,,!I,~ __ ",_.~.!I. "'" ,I,_, ~a' __ '~~"_~_1 ~,~,_,~ ,b'''~-''"" '!l,,;d,,::lIiI,,__

'i'S' 'r:~'ad··. \f~ .,<' .e.'~'n'wh:'''II'I,e''r'!~Li: ".~ ,O,:i" ·d, "'lel;",.Q·;- pr~, I~-I·r·-,e· ~ ~'~, 'W\O=', 'k'" .d· :-I~'n-' 'lID-lUI ~S[-r~I'tl~ 'In I P" it· 'h-- '~llt·-

• l~ ~ " __ ' " ' 1';"'" . - .. l! _. ~ ~, !j _ •• e !J~ __ '" lll~.ll~.u __ . iJi __ . l! .. _l .... t ~ II! J~ .!ilI . _!.II ._. B. . ':J _ ", _. I I _ J. ", _ ~l ..J. wlJ.", _. I I . . !Ell", . ..J. I, -DJ ", j' Q"_.

J:.:~~:bl--'I.~.O,.I.,.-.:nl-I 'iIi~ .. I,P' ~:~v".·~JQ;.· ':'[.-'.-'0-'1 ·I.~'D-,.·-,·IO' t"·_'h--I~"I·~.,-.,·' - J~ I.,~'lil·'~t·- ,~~.;c ~;t. d·· .• O-C-:~.-~~.;, t'~b-:-, :~,' .. ': -r.·~~.~,.t·-" o:.·- .. :.If.·.~· "0' I~.)',- ~. n··,d- .... , ",'hl,- ::-·,rl·l~ t,b--.-·,',:::- .. ··~.~'

IO;:J,. ,_ ,iloJ ~V'. ""'~, , -£'J' ~,_j~~!!i ;_ U!li _ ga ~" '- __ ,"",,3 '" '~''"''~'-' . -' , ,;J'I ,3." . IL.., a.l~ 'II,.. ,ev

'sim,p:~,y ,'im, to :p'lle'as,e~ 'U,S,~ if :,o'5sj,hle. with t'he:i'r' s,pecilic 'v,ers'i'o:ns 'Ol,f :i't .. I 'h.:-:li[,\i'I~ '~h."e:_:·re,:_:'C:-o.···· ... f .. ~' r'O,iill'·I~'n~'u,~d,~- ;;11-·· .. ,rthl~~ Q .• ,)-Id'.·:-, C:-U·.·'· 5-"'0""/n-'I" o,-,;:,'f'~' ~'.'p-~'-·-~Iki:-·;Il·g'.· ""~' ~;f? c~'~h'l""o:,nl'- '~,I;-l-'

_I • ~ ~T 1-:. I.. . Il,il .. I ,..... ~ .. ,I) L J II .••• ~ _. ~ 11.:_, J~ •• _. __ ' •• _ If!. .l~._. ,_,1_, ., .;]il_ .Idl I, ' Qa Ji.,. I-g,~_. _'_ '.',. • .. ,

l_..! _--=

,d·--' I",~ ~,'I we~~·'re···· - ,~ £'.o":-I:rr- r:'~ 'w· '~'i1~1 rhl ~ ]~ '~~' ·0, -:~I~:~':~ n-'-' 'W"', .,: :"'I!Il]~1 Is-:o-:~':m-- -: -,~"t'h' ~" ,i~ ~n, u r'h.· I ~ 'I": 'rh' I~' I~:~II'I ~'C~,[--~ \:'~,e. ,". .:d' tiI~,; fllP.

--.,I."",~ ~"._._ ~ ,~,C-'-'!!I;.,..',"" ,. _IL",,!.oJ ,"",I~ __ 'i'~' ~U ~"c_c~, '. __ " ,,!!!ir.. ,-_Il._,",,!t:I' I,," ,,"UrI, I!j,.L ""', L~V'_~'·"_·,,,iI,.-, _"_.",",,,."!iil.- I!!;;,.-..'

D'C' Weste'r~n, p'copl,e' 'b:roug'ht in '0' eXIsE,c,n,cc '5,0 that i,i mi,grh,'E ~ha'\i~'e an ,inde,-

'ii' ")

.II. _

I NT R()D U C 1~ ~ ON'

~- " :..11, ".' ,-~ '1,"1,t:; j. I ..... r .... ,- , .( ·:,p·h:~'1 - '; 1-' i d·., -. :~';I- --:-- .. - .-.... """i '0""- I . bi_l~ ,.:,'" ,',~ "'~''':~'I' ~', . '~""" -I'~ i.! - ~I··. iii' . (;",, I' , . '1' -":: '1' "-_)

penocn, ,I_[C" .O,I,l,l,eIL", l~,II,g ,,-:elgtl,£rS, 3,0." , pU I .. rc [.O,g .. ILI1.e,[ can, 011.)7 connnue

. 'h- '1-1 ')- ~ ii! h-

to - e "P ,3 ong Its, '\1I,gOro'U5 pa'I'~ r.

'-1 '. 'h- -I' liif,li! "[I' ~:.' .tl -' Q,:~ - f'-" ~"h--: 'I~ ;:'1', st 11 'I' Id, ,~ .y,~,' i~;':'1 3:"', O:-:"U: t r-I h·c,. ,e,' '~!V-, ': a .. - "'~:' ;:' ra' sh -I 1·~. 0 .. (: -Dc." 'ful" tn ". c - r'; IO~- . IJ' ns .: -~;I!:h- 'e, eti cal ·l,.y,,~ /

, ,,,!IIi.u _ iIIir.- .,. _ IL I ~ ra I.. I ;I ~ _ .. _ "_" . .". '1'.. I :t_~ __ ~ ., ,_, ,I-~ _"'" 11. . .1,. ],_" . .:J L . iil. ~ ~ .. _ ,

: : l.~· . (~.

~"-I·d'I'I· . ·,,·-·-· .. ····~·-··:·-·,·U-:·I:llr -,,- ·d_' "'1",·-'," xl ro ,t:'I"-":-;-"~'~""" ,.- ',' th .i-e i]--' .-~",:, .. ( ", nl" ,-~, od ,." .. , .... ." :··d·I-' , .. ) ... ,,·'''~e)

1,0"'-1 erotica ,}1, 3,0,-. usee 10 rune non SOl "~' ,a,E I' eve DIU,IUIY proc uce c, S,U"IEs

for men- 311d, 'what 'ha,p'-,p-:,ened, afterwards in the nineteenth ceneurv;

,. _. __ . ,- __" .. -- . .. , , . ,,_.. -- ".......~.. .. . .,~ , ,",," -- _' .. , ,.... _" . ._. , ... ' ....., , "~ . ~ ,J "

abou .' wh '~I:, ~l ~:'It· ::' . "I' I 'h~·. ,~,'pjp~', ,"11" ad: I, ,; I~ th "I~ s t""l en I I UJ I,~n!' it- -'0-: both tr~,('~ 'I'" :0: .; I'll; ~, ~~I :d<" ~,'U'I "I~ I,' e wi tr'b-:-:I

. _,. . __ '. _I!II; ~.~ _ " .HiJ.. " iiI;."., '" IU, ". _ . _ "' ,~ __ . ,ilJILI, Il, l, _ .' \.,l!!!;... "li. '. _. 'iIL'.1' ." ". _ . _. . I,. If:i:I, _.![[ L_. ' ••. iIi_ !I1i_;li, ,iii.. . j;J. _ , ' .... ~ ''II',!!!!, Iii,. •

respect 1'10 new modes ofsexual feeling, art, las,h'~on, i'r£ and design; about h,(JW women's clothing became modern. and what C·':.-I.le'CI, rhat has had; and about how clothes 0'( the 't\VO, sexes are looking, now t'h,at the next millennium i-., about to sta[It,~ ), wiD continue as alwavs 'ED discuss ,'1,),1 clerh-

' .•..

ing .:5, e-',:~en'li--II'y"'···~· a form of artistic expression with the 181111.. relation 1',0

__ , ':'_'. . _ .... , ,. , .. ,'I ._-, - " -, ..•. '- '--' -' ..• _"., ., 'I! .. ,.~ ,I _" -_ .• _. ,... __ L_,,_ •. 1= _"

1= ,i 'n':"" , 'h' 'b' ~ '1- .. - d" '. b ,i, I ~ .', 'J k-' ~ f'- d'" 'I"

'Il ," -', _. _. '-J."_', . _ _: .. ',,-'", -,' -, .- -',1=' I' :_'." " -.[- .... ~ :_-'[- ", .~. " :_' .. -. " . -!Iiu .. -· ",-' - .. ~. - -'.[" l ti _ ., -', "'- .. - ...• _.... .... .,

II e ~ ,-I,' e S1111e' lei, ~ltlu.n,la lit Jry ano U,~Da'CCOIU"ll.t3~;,llr.y~ ... 11. SP@3 _-tl,l"g 10.' ': ress ..

"1 d iIi'h .. h ii'" d b'~" 'h d

.-"-1-''- .~. --:--,liiiiil--:'-"--:,~-,:,.,-:-:,:--,,,-;::,::-,(~~-,,~,--- r'J,'l·· -'-::-_' - "., .~,"- -'-'-1'-' '~:'i.· . '1";'" --'-:;-',-,-.,;: '.1'-";-:- '.--=. -~'-..' -"---,-: ;--,.,-. ,-. -.',:'

am a_way con- erneu CI'_, er \VIE J nne an __ , 0 m or WI', .sex ana poetry,

~ ,. . ~

not 'w;.-,.-iil~,'h-· m :D,-:i'l,:- 'lL- "11'" d power. ~I.:- '0' 1'1 'W""" eor k-':'-'ll~ n ',a fro,-~-. '1'1.0-11 ~h··:~:· e.": ide 'I[~' r,-h-;, ~ :.e-'Y-DI~I""'I-]·I~;!,'

. , - - II. . ~ ili,l. ., . __ 1i,IL.: UiI"iIIl ,_. - . 'lf~~ l~ , ,;Ii"._, , . Ib' -, L_, II!.. ~,_- (II_, , - 1~,"""Jf!L. __ ,Q; . ,'",,", J

and imagination are Wh2'1: o':fj~g,i'na~IIJ)rr produce the extraordinary torma'~, imagery thar IC,(J,n, cause money and PIQI\Vle'f to, be 're'61ecred in. (:~othes, along with the other things reflected there,

C,( ... 1110 .... -,,''; .~ ,P~: sh ~I" 0, :. -. ,W",:" '. th 31 r' ''1.' :'~if l~ ~'Ur' . :"I')' . r-O, ':". rm ;- .;-. hi: a~"'~ I'·i :"s, < 0," "".1'1.1' 'Ii': n" 'C··~·'''''1 p-'~.:~ ~ I: ru.;-_ I: nd ~'p-.," e"::; '11:-' de - '0'--' r-· 0'-; I-'f"~ .

__:-,-,I!.-,--_.~.I~;J _=,---_:__' ... .''"~,'--_ --,I" ~ ~,~. 111 It '-- ,,---,--,c_C, ~--'-_._~ .~!L. ~,-'i?+ _,_.>Ui, iaI,\.-.J!!Ji"l'!t, ---,-.iII .. iI, ~. '~, _1 ,_.,_._ '.__:.,_.

practical forces in the world. to satis,~fy people, perpetuate :i,~se:~~(! and make its own truth apsrr from linguistic reference and topical allnsion, ~ ~~,o.'rnlSI survive I nd are u··· ed again and again ill nll'ny variants, 1~-lltCllc'hj,ng' di:ffe,ren,~ te:I,11pOI:CI:[)r meaning to their abiding vis,u:] appeal, ~ "he 13,n':page of I,. Iothes is essentially "ror[d~,e:;s~'""-'-"E':hat jill what it wa created tOI be, "0 that it __ -~ln operate :freely' below the 'l.c"veID of c'onS"~IOI'U;~, thought and utterance --='~~,b--I·I.~ 0-0,-", '~I'I~'k-~ ar . shows tha *'- visu 1'~1 sansfacrion h~-:a-'·· I 'I·'t,-~. own re-

ILr'w _ :!i1Jjlt 1. [I! [ .-I', _ _ . l._.~ ~ 1. _,_.; • __ l ['I , .... __ .;J! I .. _ll. .,,' 1 i.l.! . __ Q.:~1 ~. _ 11.-~·1l:/.1 ~I~~[ 1. __ _ [ . .3 ~ _ 11_ .~~'-"

mar cable laws, and that these are .re'·la,t,ed! CO, 'f'xuali'ty' i.-n it, 'im _,gi'n'a,'ci,ve 'veil1~1 '1 -:I,e' 'lel-"tio'D 'bet\'ee:n £'he i'o13Ige'ty of,ta,-h'loD la,~n,d, r1:31 condi-eio:nsl i,n 50cit:~l' i 'chu,; tD:~:ll:pli,ca'£icd, 'by' ,t'hel ima,gl.D,·a:!l;ve pm'c,eS51'~ '\,~,hiICh, has ric.h . . pe:rvl!,[,:'i,ties ,iI,D.d d!emal,s 'b:uil,t in,t,o it IE'hat d,ell~' 1- __ 0':'" easy a,n:~Jyiis, 0:'· '\llh.~~~lt is, c"rea,ti~n.g f3;:-ki.OI,1~~· 'v,islual ~lcheme~I'i' ,f'3.shIJln :IIS rhere'[c).'rle co:~,lJ'stan.tly· cOlmpli,-· c,,' 'te'd, by ,t:h~ rhc,tor'ic' th~_.t s.;u,rro'u,nd-s 'i.t~1 th,e e"~lllotio'nall'y' or cnmnlle'[t:ially' Im,oIci:v3'Ee'd, ,rem ',r--', cha,lt ca,:n cast a tr3,lns£o:r,i'lUn,~: slp-·-,e~l ,o,n liE, f7olr,mal. le,(le',-,

Ib "'

'1-1:" -Ir-~,- A,':-"~-I :-OJ; ·.'i!1l":1 '11"'1-':'1' ,._;>-I-'hltll- '-1- (co :-IIJ:~." .. ' 'I··.:',k,: '-"::'1 '1-1'(, '.'-,' '·~d-I~.IY.,'~I;·I'I~: I-,:'ihl: 1'11-

,men,~~~,,~1 . r co,n~eq.u,ell,ce~ ,3" I,ons Ol~e,n ",00" no .l.llO[1;; rl __ l,t.:U'l~JOU~' ,~3n

'I~;n- ·'e··r--··p-· "'r'-e'I[" iIi"l~:on-"~' .nf':·-· [-h" "e··m·-····· d-:o-"

._11, ' .I~':-::' • ,,~ I.' ~c:, _.1"-.1:,1,.:., U ., 'I', 1.:_:1:,..

OF

••• 1

. ~I ___;

, - A~ ~~_', H I a ,N ~ ,N 10 N - f A I~~_: H I a ,N A, D A NJ I ,_ f A ':~~ H ION

'\1J~ : L~'-~ 'T M ,-~ K E S Fit,S H, 'ION' di'fie'reO'E: £rom other' forms of clloth~ili'llg:? :::- ,O,W Id,D the diliele,D,ce:) work, and ';-CDW :ha've' th!qr been pe:[iceiv,,-d,? ' '. be

worl d h :~'::;I~: I~'-n'v,:~e' '-O,-Ii ted m~I-lt'a~-:-"'n-'-"y\':: ''IJ~~iy\ :!El: ·D~: dress since the 'bl:~gJJ· ~·~ nning ' 0-- C';~ '1""t~'1 h-I' ~~,...

'''-'!MJ _. " __ • ._ ~1! I I. .__ ~"_. _ " II _ ". 1~.Ia; .,. ~ IlL _ _" ~l~;;'I~ Ii, ~~. l"'~, ~j •• ~I .. I I • • • • I .~_ I "~ ~~a

'_o! [" • __ "

~ory but 6~~-hi,o'n has 'been distinct :fm:m-b,I,-~m, aUt, ar~ri~v:in,g in the late

-':"·"Id·· d Ie A·",t'Ile--, '1("0,;-: propose a compellin ";0' '11-::- ew 's~··C"'y.·-,s·f"'e··m~·-:::-·' /iO"'F' ''t::'I'',~" "., -t '~ ····'r~ '0-: : "I, ·e····,·'·:-·';nl'c'~le-:-

__j _' --"-"~.' ---',b"'~ .-._. -' '._,' _-, .. _{J,,", ._. "'""_~'~-' .', '"', __jb' _ ... \._. -,,~, '-',I,.'_-""'-''--'---'' ',_-" W'II._~ .• "_-' -'-' ",- ~',,_._,~-"---='-j~

'Wj- stern fash'ito,n 'has ever since rke'p~'E i- \ own D'b'iq,J'u,- method IDC deal ~ , 'g~-'

"_' • j. .•. '_' _' _ _ ,_, _ ".. _. _ ._j., ~ _ _ ... . ,_ .., _ J • '_ '_' '_ • _It _ • . _ I. • '_ . ••. __ " • _" _" l _,_

, ~ .' ,

ith h h "h' d' ~ i!'1] II Lhi ,.

wit ,~I, t, .1 .e ,,~,'um_cln,I~,:O?:Y~1 creating an even,'tiUlIl VI:-~,u~a~, .~'~5'1~IOl)f qUJ'E'f. separate

'fro'm, w:hat E lea'U non-fashion, the sum ofthe other develepments i'n

lr

dre ,58 and "'I,d"I'" .Q'.·' •. lrnm-, I "e' nt 'l-h;'1r h •. ':""iv,e- b e -en I c onceived and (.·.'O",O'"',-n: ared : .... ['111 over

",' .. " ~',' ~ '_,'_ 1 .... 'I. gILl I II,., ," .... ~ ... _ '_~'Ji •. , ." .• _.1Irl ... ) .• 1.-" '.~ .II-~U '1,_,~ . .1 Iall ._ .. ~

the ,gJlolbei' "",~~,"Ie::'l~[,n :Ie lings ab~~I~:'U{:' l{I~5"h'iIOlrJ have 'var,il'd ~I and so h,~I'::I"I_"'est ... ern ;. entimenr about non-fashion. which !I'*'iU fDI~ms an e,····~..-- ;:;.:=-'-_p'-i~:-~<'-'n- ...•

. _"',',, . ", ,, __ .~_1_1,_ ""~" ._ ,--, __ .. ,._::_,l. _"_ _" '.__:__ I"" ' __ "' ... ,_.:" .,.1 '_"""'_'.1" ' .. :(" .. -,-.I 1_,_, ,~,ve,F ,~_r-e .e, .. I~

counterpoint ·'0"" c~,'~:'lh"'l~'R'n-' ''''1'[1-'' iil"h[~le"-' world '0 .. ,.'··· .. ·,'"' clothed ~'p1p~"e-~"f--~n-::-r'p ~ .. he r · ch l~i'r"-

"",,.l.-~ .l,,~, ,'_'"iliil,tIl,L I"-r~"" ,[,U::.O:J Id·II!\..I'I!I!~' H ILJ '_::.' .. ~/.:__',,",'~~._:_ .. , ""' ',:~ ... ,",'.,' ,g,I,:,_,~"a-l,gl~I'Lo'~'!I; ,. "~~ "J~_gl

acteriseics o,r each are WD,[th examining, ~.o account ICor SJQI'm,e 10'i"- those' feelings,

'F' A 'S 'N Il~1 N' ~ 'N ~~I 'R ~E S 'S i~ committed to risk, :~'UbV&;rli,ID:n, and irregular

IDI-

,C.D'-n~!!' rd movem "-~II~;J;_n,'[_ It F""F,~·a-·/- ~'s' ou "I:. ck sh ~"'_Ii!i/"':- "'. of vis '·0' "'IIi:~1 d "e'C1'IIUIil, ,1:.0' .: ,' 'r" the ~', W··-'I.,· ... h ,o~-:' ~,

,ll~ .. Ii, '~~' .~,IL 'I .' . - , . !!Ii;." _._'._ "!!;.iI,1i ,11,_ '~' . '"" ,11.'\;.". _ .~'I~~l--- "'" .\. '~. ~ _ ~';II .. , __ gj_, . __ '._ ,~;II~~,,~ .['l_. '--'- . _~_:__: ---" ~~ .. '""' ~~ ~, 1!!Io.,

'bod,,~,; but i,t, also a';~:-'ec.ts 'I:in:y' detaila and governs 's-l.o'lw' changes, so :it seems 1,0 change its own hidden design, not just the most noticeable

10;::'-:;--::- 101' ers, r end 1""'0 be :~bli'II;<Jq,,-ue,'-,_-' and inaccurate outraeeous and l,un'ny"';,, .. ,

__ f _ "_'~'_!!! 1"_ ~,~ __ , "'_ __ e 0_ ,II. __ ~_,_ ~~~_'___ _ IU' gL~,~ __ ~ __ - 0_ _~~ __ ' __ ~~~'~, ~

, • • J

F,.:_I-;h'i,OR 'vi'lJ,al1J~l celebt tes the irrational, preserving te,IJ{,:ilo:n nt'he:r' than

seeking resolution: and I't relishes the quick pleasure o'f provisional

a',- rra 'n:'IU~'I-'II''1'e--'n-,t-;~ i n stead of seekim 'p--' erm ---""111"1- ent 'e,-~I~'h:',~,,~ r- ~'D" .,11,U'l' ;t· i~'O'-I[i:I-I'~ '0--;'" ,or' "'Ii iIi~'y' '_,

;,1 " d .' b .... 1.,!I"iI, .--c, ,",~ '.' Ii]!. -,--:- g. _"~ '.,1 .::J. ,- K..,*., 'I' i, ':, '"Jj" ,Q.iI.1 '""'" ,I ..... ;;;J'~. I" ,!!!I..,.II.JI "'" ~,.'jli.: :]1, '. ,~,.~, '. /, ,11 !Ii,,~','~'

·,'h-' '~:nIU' 'p.: U','I re ",'I~r p- ·.'fl acri 1,...,:f.:111 an d-' 'ul-If'e'cull')- E' - ::Ive.·'n.~- 'l~ n ' tl, ·'b'-', e -, re "1, 'a:I~1 ve 11,~, I~'~ hn ~ bi ':"'0,:_ nt" 0·. ,)If' ,

... "ILl ,At~ ,I, . ,. 1 .~ u. I, Ii.; Hl i1\ " .. , . _. i:J .. [~ - - ~ . ~ .. 1 ,,', .,' • ••• •• 111.-11, ~ ~ ,I ,I' ~ a.~ "',' L~ ,",. '.'} .-

m-,: ',I 'O,-; .. de -,;-r:o'l:1 male 11':(!Il"')1 0,'1.' "-rr-)"'-: "'g~:J',_ fashion ,": 'L,:",,~:, been bnmptiousl 'y:1' alive, 'u-I~"il'n':-'-g'r r new

.~. _~ U._ [ 1 __ ,1_1 -_ ~ •. .~ ._. _ '------_I_I, ,.I I g,___ .. ---'_, I.~ ,_I I:l.~ _ ~~~._I .~._ ,_11_, __ l~ .. ~. u~_.' '_' .Ir'¥~.) _ .~Ii_,_. I_l._~.

, , ,

.. . - - .

c"uI,tBe_.s, trousers to make CUJfIsl Iook ridiculous, 0'[1 br1in,:gri:ng, 0] skinny

.i ~£ ~'O---:; "'--r--:II'1 mp "WI.:- '-I.i!l de '0'-:-; I'n-~Ie-:c:

11..,,,,","'1 l!l'",'.", ,,- IU,I"",I, _' ',., ,_:.. :~, 1'".:...1_" ,,~,,'Ii:J;o,

Fashion insranrlv mocks sensible inve "-]:I'~;IO.-In':: in clothine .• 'U' b:t'i,- 'r 1:~I'n'Dj

~~ -" . , JliIJiI""' __ ili,,=IIl."lI'l ,ilJIi,!Ii'l..l ..... [ • .._;;:t ~~, ~"---~'-" ,~_"iIi,''I'_, Io.ili,. U' - "" ""', -, -"~~-'-'te '--J. ~ - ~'I~I

them 'to unfunctional usage 31S 'soon as t'hey' appear, (-'01 they can seem 3,0: .... , thentically desirable and never !l,lc'reJy\:,Y convenient. This ,h~IS happened -01

_ I!. ,. I.

b~,~,III'~'1 pockets and faste "'n--I'~'n-I:M of every kind, ''"'n h-II·.'·mIOC.C .e~,·",..~I'p---:'ml,·~{nC-~'. and

-~ ~,1,I"'!l!t , __ .... - &r .. _-', -i!! ."",' -,-' li=~L, __ , "",II,) -DH - _ u '~_ .. ,' ",' "",' "I 11:,.1\,,1_.. , -_ '''''~ i!i' ~', _ ... -_.' '""' ,0-'1, I U. ""'-_ I

boots; th,e)* are' no sooner 'put, into use than .pu,t into pi-a,,_I:!i' Convenience is

1101['" sacrif ced "I!!' bu ~' it 'l'11 uiekly ',' t' a ke ':SJ· seco "01 d place 't-'O".-'I'-' Jtr"h",,:- e deli ~I'"'(i-""'-U:-[·· '~10·:Dj-'k'····. 10":.-"'i('-

_,->,L .. : :..1 111:1~1·."~:._·.JlII ._·~ .. i._:_lllJ.. .. 1.--.:.: 1,_': .. ~_. !J'._i!.IJ:, . __ .: _~..:. rLr. ·_ .. _ ~~.I~J ·_-_: -.,·I .. l""_:""':- __ ~. IIJ .. .:__: · .. ·_:l .. ,. ~ ···:_.'· .. :__ __ l.~. r~"" _:> ", <_'I

~I I. I

convenience, In, 'tn"e' iD13"gina tive art 0:£ fashion such at look satisfies a. mnch stronger desire than ,all),Y '",_/is'h for a, usefal thing: in actual wear, the look ,3llwaysl outlasts the use,

It L II T H I: SM·'··~ lie E '$1 '(ashio'ft "modern t'~1 bv nature, when modern me ... ans '-b-I.e, ,1"'o,g'l) con · ..... rl~.OI-'I,[~~1:v con ce ':cr- ned '\\\i1:i.th-I-I' '"'-· .• roee ···5,,'-5', both social a- nd 'p~('r'-

""- a ,,~. ' ',-:; ,,' .~, , .. U~~ 1 \.oJ , .. '-' '.- -- II .~,. ,I,· .. '."" " , ".'... . . rill,." !!Ii.."~ ~- =,~ ,"

.10.i':0', 1·-",'1" and 1~,ryl'I-~~·w _., ,,-"I[O;'n""8'· / :i"Ii'n:CI- 1~:ldi" e··.·,;O,,!,'11 of d",:-, eliberare 'm~fho,,·:.,.d:-'I"';:~I~,~··~III!-Ior-':n~- ·r .. arhe ... [, , than ~·n.~--'-e,-·

. _L_~ __ " -~~J.I~. ~ . !i11. ll } __ .1 .. _. !J •• ~ all"._ l ~ •.. Il~.~~l!kl. 1 ._!J~.~.1_._._!J JlI_,_ . ~ .. _l __ .

t ... '

of preservation, where chanee OCCUrsl onlv in a 'i![ad'ual, Idri'ft premoted

l . b [1' b I,

chance, But above all fashion 'it's a modern ,{JI,t'. because its formal

~ I __ [ '._ ~ ~ . _" '_._ '_." . __ .1. _ ._". ," ' __ . -. "_ J,. 1. __ ." _" . '_l _'_. l_ 1._ [ J'_,', ._ l_ j'_ _' 1 •••• l", ._ ._" _ ._ " ""_ . ll • _' __ -[ ::J_l ._ . __ 1

changes 'ill'LI,s'trat::-: ehis idea of process at [:_, remove, as other modern art

'b-' d ,. ,. '( ," F hi k ,.,

111-cl'Q:'.ID;yn:-'e·.·[" ~II" 'II-S>; a ~:li~~y'".,~:- ,'1; [r~!p~;'- esenta ,n-I' IID -r on .i.iI"I_S-, 1"1-0.10-1':- rna · ... es 'ilit:-'\~ e .. own c~'q,-,_l- U-I'I ence

" ,il! ,_ _ I '-.1 ,iii" I , " '"r'l '. ~ ,~ u. ,111;-""',1 " , ,;;]I , ,!L. ., " ,;0' d,_ , , , l., I , _ ,~[I1.,,!;l!,_ 'I"'W a!!lio" , , 1--- ""' , ",

of imaginative pictures in i-i_, own formal medium, which ha its own

'h- '1,;i;I~"o··'nFlI' ;;,.. I.d: l:ol~~'III'- ~~'iFJIIi'lp~,'I''\~' ("'~~, "!ft,,, a d ~~I1'"-'pr.'Ir.' '\J. r ~,~ U-,'· "lid'" '01 u· ':;; rror O····;I'~- i'CI:~'U'- Itu ,1~111 e: ~iri~_

,,- !l "". _ ,.. 1'!iIi ,iii,,", . - '- . !!!i;,;o ij]! • ·~L'_"lIdl.,iIi _:__:_ '1 i\w ,Ic'~, . 1111._ " . ~ :I"iIl" "'" I~ L ' .11,1"·., ~" ,,' , , . .," . _, .. _ I" _~ "Qi;J. lilt ~ ~ ""

[0 :in 1::·les ha:ve ,no 's,in~g1e' o~r s,'i'm:ple fiela,ti,on 'I'D eXI:le,r,naJ Ichangl!!:: ,an,d dli:f~

c'e'_r-~nl"e··-=~,~:'Ih~ :ey. -"I,' £:o_l;~;J[-lin 'a-', ~,e\q:-I'u'e, '-n"'t- :~"'11'11 a:""'r~~- ~;n,-I· .e,m·'lb,'II·e'l -'II'lil'··lr-:~'I("" ·p-I-·:'r:D·-il'l.e~~"";lo'.'lnl ·D'-=:';['" 1111,M(~e) ,- ~

,11.1, ""'" "_ "",";;.'J.. [["',1' [II, -[,Ii. ", ;i;1Il.,. ,,--',- ,"_il-i1i!ll, '. ,iLl! aL,. "~" ,,~,l,_, ,iI, __ ".JI:'I!;.- . ,iIl;"'-,Ji" ""IU. , [, ,,,-I. [~" '[:!i' a

~, 'I 'I 'h- r'-" ~ 'h" t! d· ·..;11

vmsu;al~ ana,IOI,gu,IC' ,to 'tl",le'~ort' 10.' co:m'mo'n e~per'I:_::nc'e t~:':~_:t 'I'S J[o'u'n:=~eu, Ion

S;(]:~ill, :I~'·LC:,_·.·,;~, b,'ut ,tha,t tak,es :i,ts :fof,nlS :','ro:I1JI'·:~n,wl~rd, lifecOrl101DI:n :mLe',I,I1.0-·

r'li·e--~, ?I'-uld· ~'U'-"U;t'-I"I:O:i'r'liI: -p"-'" 'r', ,_'I' .... ,.'_-.,-, 'C'I' "u-'r---:-' 1',,-':'0-"[- 'l~j~~rrA-n',c"-:'e,-~;f', ·[-,,"h:'-I~'n'm ,~4"'- t!U-1 I'U',~, ~I~-a'~r'--n-·,~d:"

,iI!,<_~ a" .. ;_., a ' ... ,~~>iIi,I,_", .", __ ,,, ... ·,1,_, ,_,_., .. _ ., •. ,'L-,1.1~1,'\.,. •. 1,,_:::,- ';;,!:!i' ..• ,1 'bf-" ""'ia_~-ll __ ___:_~1 l~ .. -. "I~,, __

1bly' :m,'ECI, IDE'her] t~bi,ngs lea'rned, [by' half-couscioulJ ha,~b'ilt~; lo'bscure jOlkles,

I h

s EX ,'~ N D 1_", U' ~I T:S

~,P-I.:~._--,:[[n·'· ' .... ·I~r-,.-~~,·._,'·I·F_'[_" a nd a ·h,-,I,IO,;. st .011" ~ D' n,i""'o·-·',~S,r"'I~,.O.,"··.U~,IIi!F'- (-"'0" .:[lleler'FrI""V"_"~ fan "it I~'I~I~S., al .. w-ry,,·,~, ;[1,1"

~!!W, ,,,",,L[Ii;~.i..'l U io'I;, ~ I" _- '" ~ __ .:Ii,iIi_~_~", _ _",..:I'll! __ _l, .... 'Il.",--,!Iii.;o ,G ],,!Ii, _ f:I;Ji )!!".I,._. >G _ '_,' ~ .. Ii

flux rt''''','t'";O-=-''~'llg,,'·':h-' '1' tim Q .

i _' 1~1,1i.'._. IM!:-.,' III J' ""I~

Most of the meaningful references in fashion are subme , ':eld, ),11 the look 0:£ ordinary d'[e' ed persons ~at ,ancy' ,gii:ve~n moment, because fashion is ma 'in ll'" engaged in acting OIUlt' its own lor-mal hj'S;tory~ and, reacts IrlIOI~t ';'~;~\:Jr~d,_i-11",~,., o----:'-n-,lley,n:7' to '=rs'.lgl-'~- like '-m·la"'·--n'),·'li!l other modern arts, ·,,'.';:··h-,::-·t' - 11111~Itl,r,-:-',y,,:- .. ,,'h-I"-~,W .. ·0-_-'~,

VIl\ 1 __ t __ ,,_:l, __ - hk_~ I-~ ,_~,,~ '~." -_. ,,_,_,_, ,, __ U_ -t: __ ,,_ a;r._~,~ , __ I_a,_ g_,~rya. . = __ 0" '

l_, (" I~) (.

r..1~' ',c t "1'''' I~. th e : ~i an '0" :,.:' ,-' .("1" h - ; n n ltc' '0" '.' wn ] ," ,Ce·,'· ", I" -'b-'- ie S··' h-', "1';: ,e. ~ 'n-" 0" ,81=' AW' I': '0': ""'fl~" ;e; 'h-' ,", . 'I'p' p- '" 'n;" ·d·"[

,ILL ,3 ,jai '.' ,I~. :, :iIi';~;--"~L :, ;I,~,' oiIV'U! rJiI 1 " "'~ • [ ; , It.: ' "I L :'., [I II " ',I:.'I "' ,v '_~ 1_ ,) ~:.' _. """.. ,ii, '-.'

hne s'ltl,'o'u1:ders thickening a I-ll d. skirr shortening or the opposite, 13

n e -,- tn es £:.0"-:' UI1 '0" ,···."W:; " '_Iii: 11Ig" "'Ii sl RIP- "p." 'I~ n I~ .. (!' o ···'r·' th - 'I;iili; 'O-I-''-'":P''''''P''' 0-<;1 te fo r 'n- "I' er "U' - If-I' ,d-~- ~ r1:'iI,Jr'Q ";'111 r 'U' 11- ed

, '~J.-"I'_ ...... il~~'-,I L ..... 1,. ,rI._,~[-: g; . .;]i""V .' .1_1. ~'~I .. ,,1_, !I.c~, ""' 11,1.·:c_/)i, "I' [t,I, ,I rI.'\;,,- 1_,IL .. i<:_I_,L.,I!, v."II!I..r'a__::-~,L._

'_ . I l I I I I

j"il~ 10··I.·':'··"U'" terwear O'I":""r" rhe IO.I····.P' I'P-I':O;'I~t'" te - 110,( '11- UJ L.,!'jI'I~ i"" O(-;':F' sh nort ~ 'hi" ai r,~1_ bear -'di .... 'O"f ,. '. o···~··.

~~._ .. _-'~I,"_I!fiI,,_,.I, ',"-~I-:-",~___:;I'--;!i lIi~"IO' JLlcgl,,I.,_._l, ~,_._, I. ".I~", U'\!cgl, __ 1 '_" ,_

beards, !al~ lingering a,plpa[r"i'l-io'n~, incessantly 'Iloolki'ng changed '~,n the light

O'(--',~ ~~~,~,~, n iP'W',,!:: ,,'.--:' 0,1' 0, ',~~~: ~

I Q~ [ILlb 'Yl! ~ ~ '_" ~ ..... l ~,~ '"'

This, dance (ellows :f3/'hiloo,'sl OW.II. uneven 'rh)rt'h'm; which :s,:h~iftsl :i,I;,

e'l,e':IJ1JCn't5'~1 large all,d, smallc at dli8e }CII't rates. _ "0[' ,3 while, the form of notches in. lapels ,nla~t change qJ'uic'iJ'y but whole jackets remain ,DI,U.ch

h h m 'J b "d-· 'h'

E' "e,- 1[-. Im-I"~ 'tr -pn'- :oi]ip'I:::'le- l~ 'm--I::-'y~'-'-' ~:e-r'o·:'.,m--·Ie-' ,lfIe'f·-·'.'· 'n-':~I'rill¥\rW'" I:;: 0,'1--:";: " 'v"','e"~rl'y\':-: ,,,,·i'II'~~,: ~"tl"', !1,f''':1!n~ is.':'-_-·

.' .... - ._!l ~.".~ ,~I ~~~ ~.II-'·'_ ,~~ ~ .. '1'1 L: .··.~)~··.·-_:./~JL~I:~.:._I '¥'~,-" _:.1 ~~.- lIlo'~":J'l:' "~ .. , '":./ ~~ .:.: , ... .I.' .. "-') ..... ~. yll,. W.~~JI_'I:·

l: l.· l'

£0:[' a. time and ICQ,m,e back: then whole jackets ,n1l3,~:; change shape, as

shoulders expand and waists tighten, while ~13,:pe~1 will :s't-:I:y' s,!mll; then the

W'.·'·", 'hole rh "I~"n-;'~ ·w" .. ~,;·1~11'1~ reverse: and 't1I-'MI~I'U''-'v:_ mu I~:-h·.·· €.u~'-r-,=:rrh'~'r-,::, alo .. ~'[~O' '1~'Ii:'1i1 the ~~r_'

.. . " "!l,,.., !Ii;,. ~ ,D,.I ,,", ~ "I, ~. d [ . 11 JiIi,d , 1'-'_1 .II, I. ,,-, " ,[U , I,"" iJIi..o. . - ji, J:',z:"jl ,iIi,:iI!, . c '"" r&1i'lii..

quence, jackets themselves 0,13)1 eventually become obsolete, in :fa'volr' ,0'( tunics lor' whatever, W:hil,e changes are occur iog ;3, palmipsest of old modes ,al,v.a:ys remains Din the scene, ['0 ['OII£Use the future historian. Small movements ill fashion can 'be traced; bU'1: 'Ehey' seem to have no direct relation '['0' changes in the social fabric, even though they go on at the same time, They show fas'h'~la!n, flexin,g ~i,ts muscles and doing a, little shadow-boxing,

Because 0':£ its large emotional foundation, (315m,on ':llUl,3}l • r-eflleclS the'

tem "P---:"'e" r of 'h-;£:·D'M1'~ but 'I'"l"-~' not reall ''''''y'. ',.. p- ,;.:Ii,J~'c··-·"t·· ~Iet'lii 'm'" ';'f:ro'-""'f' exee ";P:-'iI" -;' C' "'!'IiI 'Ii"e· ""m-- . "

II.", ' ',I,I'~ U, -,rl.JI';;'")i'~I.".,~ ,1"~ ",:.',_'_ ~,L ",,11l.,,;.':Ii . '_".,IIl." 1Il..,,~, ,_" ,_ )~,i[l'L,I_, _ 'iQii.'l'~, ,1'111· n [W,' I I ~'A""""'_',:.,'I~ ~_,i" ,g ~".,~ I ,.., __ J

P- ~"r-[""II'] ~ ndex+eh O,CO@, I-Io-'.JI"]·"'-r,~ were worn just :3·' "1" that t -~-m~: '~- 1-I'h~·'I~~rQ ~I[~ hi' '~'~I

U\ ~ [Ii..l .... _ In] II [ .. ~ ~ ._ .. A!J! __ ~ .. 'yy 'J 1 ._.~.,~,_ _ . I, _. l J ~. 'li!l . I., ~l~[ "_ ~l~~ ~ "_ J~ ~ l~

J 1"'_)'

;~'I---" -:- '-,d_'_ :-~,'-:--;'I "e- ier and I ) .. - '-" ,- .. ' . d ')'-'1:--";;--'1' :'1 -", r~' rh ',',J' W' ',-,: -~'I' -'(1-' 'WI," ,F - ,~, I' 'R" ~ " ,- -.' '~r . d

st __ rted sooner ann r ste __ ,o.n,ger,-, tnose were Inl_,·,_orn m _".Dcm,e, ano

later appeared in ,M.a,dridl: this sor-t olf' trouser fir~~:~ appeared west of the ,M[iss'is:::ippi~, and la,le,r' joined this other 501Ft. on the East C03'S,'I'j, Under-

, -

," .. tdi ,. ,--'h' . ,it f"': ["I' iedi ,.'. , " )'-"' .. '0,. '-'"1-' ~. ".,.-, . ,,' '"., . ':h' ""d'" .. ,'~ , "

st~'n,:'-l'n:t:J [,,:',e 1f:'Jle'nle,DJt 01 ~ ~ll1.me •. -la,te po 'J,tl,ca" .'nlport~lncc t, ::Icse CO.llors

'w,e're' 'used. (O'f' 'Ib' e'e' "\';,e,a'rs t~o s,how' 'sluP-'I'lp-l:o'rc' ,for a, cerla"in C3JU'Se ['his P-'3'[['e"'D

.~ • • • ' •• ~ .••• .' • ~~. , ._ ~ ~ ~ ..._ ~ .".~. .....!. . ._ ~ ..." •• , I ~. " . ~ ._ . '. ) l! . . ~ _ _ '. j ._ ~', .'-., .". l.~. -.. ~ '!l 1:·"., .. .... _.' !I'. !l

'.' . .', ..

s'howed p"-:I[ro'teslt al- -[inril! 3[uo'thler-ma"I,'1 'hel'p-~': to datle- £~u~'hitDn-~! bl'ut the' ,3,C-J

., 1"··.· . .' .,..... _. • I:. - .~".... .. , . , 1'1 .ll~· ,.,. ' .. '~ . .•• ••• - •• I J "',. '!IIIIII!l ~ ~".. •• ;'I

.. I ' .'11'-'1- ~.--_-- .. :-;-, 'b--::''- ,t-· . .-:-;- ,p'h - ,--_--,. ,l::,;--'"··· -' , --:- 'd-:-' .'h'-:-.- , ,Ie _' .. --.-.-:--', iil-h-:-'" ,r.-:-!h-~i'·'--' ·t-- ,k,·-; ,.-_-, ".1, t···, -.-. ,

~U re!Jl3_],on ,_/e,_,welen, I!lo.,.."c.:.le pOU.Ll,CSI an, .. ___:. 1 ..,Jel'Orm ~_,L,e IL; __ S~_.IOln _.~~"es aJll\l~ ays

fie mai 'D'S, somewhat uncertain, since people o'b:e,n, wear It··hi.ngs, for perverse reasons or without reasons. Because or' fa-s'hi,lon.'~, indirect represenrarional fu aetion . I~~l,~:anling,< .' '0 incontrovertible immedia,r,c' meanine 'to forrnel

- nJ .. ". -- ""iii' 3L_ 1~1:;:J;"Jl.- ".: __ : a., .. _1" - _ .. ",,,. -- - --,. --.~. ._.. ""' .. ".~-----. "., •. - ._ ... , "",D --" ,- "--,

derails is almost impossible, . he real expressive meaning wiD. by definition escape established expectation and fio a, tl '(ree,l·ll.,: ' in the imaginative

-' ~ I il:'1

world lam.o:ug unconscious aspirations and nostalgias, II1:lO;'Y ofthem irre-

trievable. Only the form its'elf can sometimes, 'be traced back C'IO 'J,ts for-

·nI"lll13· 'I '~' 0-'. ·.:"U" . rr'~.·· .. -: 0·' '-. [. : , ... o· ··,-.·U·~· (I'"iC;:~':~ ~ - .

. :I'IIJ-l~_1. ,'.~ .. l~'~r~. . .' ,._. __ I..~._ ~Il~ ~

':, .I~"rm'c" in !"~I'~ 'h·-·'Ir.o·-(-·;· n has been shown 't-a-il m '-"'O-:-'~~~ '1'"0" 'V···:~~·~ ~A'n-':Ar~II~' ~y.,r,m~s'····· ..... 0.:., ..

u",--,.'~ __C' ,!l,~ "-" ,~aY! ,,,,",,,",_, ~~.-i""_. ,-'- ,~_'iii"!!Ii..r _1"""""1 O"""'I',",,'~ 1;..,_.!!Ii..),,,,,,""".~ .

I'h.~t '_I hat suddenly looks wonderful m~.y suggest w'ha:t looked wonder,~ul about tw'Ie·n.ty .... fi1\)~ie· ye,a:nl earlier, 10:[ even 'fit7ty, or a hundred; and ,'h,e

change therefore i'5 called a. revi,val,.~. Bur t'hc]·oc.iaJ meaning is confined

<"1"'01 "iIi1'p}IV '-,.,. 'W:hIO,.··· 'I'IJ'~'~I[I ..•.. ,"'tt- at the rnomen .. ,- 0-'10"1[-,' ~,'~'h,·y".,,~ and who wears '1"1-

I "I - 1.1 ' .V., _".' 'n \r,d-" ,I!II. I~_ ,_.'. ,I II. ".1 '. '._ ,,,,,,. • I. '. .IIF¥' ..... , B" - I ", '"_~'" 'l·

h · c · 'I'd" I h ft· f' '1 d 11 I.'

c :<an,ges-, Jut as form ,It'e.<'.- :: .. oes, "T ,'1.11:' .', i- IDW· O~.·- moaern culture requires

that £as,hmo:n oli[e'[ :fJluid, i.l.na,ge~flr .{or its own sake, 'tto keep 'V.iB,D,aH.y] present the ideal Q,f·perpe,tu,allcQln'rj,nge'nJc'I.' I'~':,~~'a'ni'n,g is :PfO'I,,~~fly' Ide't2,c'habIe ·from form, SOl that the revival 0:( forms from earlier days .. need have nothing

to do ,r' ~'I'hl .~·lnly ... II" '-p; .. erce nrion of earlie 111[·~I"'""'VS~'I'~· ,~I new ~'ml-lpcl.U"I'~le", ms kes the ·.m-·~·

.. .... '. _ .. ~ _. I", 'J . U 1,// , _ . .10 ._. " .'.. ,. . .. ' ,. ' .. - g ,_"'" L u../ "'1. .. ~,I,.. .. , liIi.". " _ill., I I J " ,,~, ;Ii " _ ., ,J

visually ,a:rlrncr.ive' again, and a new meaning i, attached to them, .A visnal reference E,O the past can, of course, be deliberare and pointedly historical with the meaning included; bot 'ie never needs C.O be. Fashion

•. abhor ... e; s ',:1- ~,',:·l~·h. ,JI!,:, 0.·.· •. "(J: fo .. orm '~r-' "ml' e-.I_·· .. :' '0- ;;'I-~"'~,' of k·~' .. n·:-·,o,.·:···.,"L.,I! ... ,l.rlp.· .. ,:~. ~Il n~' O.~. rr e~.·· .. _e .... ,t·'nllg' .. ':'-/_ o·.·.·.~ .. /r '1', he 'P-, e ' '.~:~'t:·t·.·-·

ulD_ .ii' .. ~rt..~.r'" IJ., ."_ u ."' 1___ , iII~, ~ ,. '"" , __ ~", .!!ii;,;.iL1,e.~ . ,I.. [L. -1.':11 J~; '!Ii; L _ ~ a.~.

:i.cs_ ;I£~,

.1 'h- ~ 'b'll d· 'h h- b "'111- 0' .' '0' - h ~ " -

,_ ~:;_:s .: ' 'lo,na_~le' oress 't~'USI 1;',~aJ '-_-:'lll~,c-1n contmgent cnaracter q,u'I'Ee

la.c:ki'nt; to all ethnic 3'D,d '[01-:" dress, and 11'0 most clo'rb,es, of' the ancient

'W','" ·.:iQII:'I·]· d . 1-"f.a·/rI~:. '1"'0,10'.3·,·"1 dress .. _ e,'·-~v,:··e·:~f .. hing .. ~. t,~ h' at ,- call n·rQ .• "n ....... t:.a'[ll::!"h' '~D', .• ·n-'· .. works d,';I'I'~~~

,.,".__,~ ,_ w_ ,.~.,.I __ ;l;!!I!;,;.L'1~7 '__~.11~ I JI ~>/ .. ,au !!Ii",.- ... , I~; a "iI~ .I ,. 'U'!! ""K~. I~

'£er-e':nlmy~ It creates its vi's'uaI prejections primarily Ito illustrat the confir .... · marion 01£ established custom .I and 11;0 .tllbod,y the desire :(01:[' :~:'ta,1ble' meaning even if custom c:ha_nl~es~it is "i-lo~rmat_iv,-_-,~, I rorm in. non-fashion certainly changes, tOO,;, a1'1 Itra,dit~ilo'n'a'l, dress has developed, j'uIS'[ 3S cUS-J toms 'have', '\\FjJ£:'h, S,DDle' elements becoming vesei ~ al while othe -': gain new "V.i.I-,lity· as the 1i'6e' 10C the comrmmity continues. Bnt even with C'D'n.si .. derable change ill the : .ook 0'£' traditional clo['hio,g over time, the ,fo'[~ ma relation 10'( n .. ew t.IO ol.lldJ is direct. a stfaig'h,t£o'~n,ra[ld, adaptation, never a

d-,=~'~"a' ~lh~I,~dl'l C':"'O'I,_,','ii!Yililnl~AJn-,' t-"'I'ry' ' .. v 0- ···.f': rh p 'D"::~W'" .":' 'u:'pl-'O'~II1; the 0": sld 0-,:[ "'IIi1 [C],U' _. ··b~ .. -V'~C,-'~ll~·"i:~,~·· '"lIilt""~'m'" Ip' '1.1•

, __ """,,_ '~'l_" "'_. '_ ·_·,iII"i!!L,U,Ii,,_~,, _ __c_g,,_. ,1.' _ __c. ,_J~I.,,", ,_,-,,,",,,, ,_, 1_'_ !_" __c_~ __ '_ t ._,- ,Q. ,J1 -e _ ,l_ '_""o!.l,-,~ '_. g .. _,"~,,-, _ __c . .-.","

to undermine it,

I 7

. j 'b·' tr.". b ~- '-. '" c," ·.,.'h··, ·, - ',( W . . e '-.-' "1 ','.f" '~"-,~ :E: .. (" "j" I' ". Ct· .',.t~' . 1-'<-' I~'l' .,.-. ,~- t -,= ~. -. >,- r 't····: .,'.

laI" S .. cause me new noes II OiL, arise OU, 0,1 ,3, '. ensron .IlJ]c._[l11S·,~,C.O

the formal vocabulary iE>elt: 1'~5 it does in. ra;<;bi.on'~l New thins . Dlay\':' come

~'l ". t.

~j m :0-;' I-U_ tsi de . .he trad J'" '~I~I :0.' :10-··.. p.'. ::~~ r 'h:, I 'PCI ,ff: d er ived ~"'ro-II: sn n th ~I dr~: ~~ .. ~C or P-IO' ~ I~ P ssions

leW ,Ii . _ . _ _,. _j"," . ' __ """ .!Ii,lg .. _. ,111., ,. _ ". I, ."""',' ~~. ,_ Io'l! ' .... ,iI,. 1!Ii;.,o. __ . ,I '. " III., , "'" ' .. iIi.,~ ~ . .. . ~ . _""''''!Ii..-li'l'''' '. .

101£' arriving slaves or conq ue FOlrS ~ traders or 'neigh bors-e-or perh, _,'ps lately

10; '1£.' '. '0' 'i(':hro- ··..,:ip' ". ·o:<,'~I.O-:O'i.·~.:;, I' n d J~ IQ. C ··.IU· ... , rn ""'- ~:: '~~'_~J~]'-I':,':' h IO:~U' t'-' .c~~'~< 'n;~-=I'DII'tr Irl'r IQ b <' 'I'" (I:' co ]'. ~ ~'PI-liiOiii

•• 1 _ .. ~., ' •• ~. , •• _Il.-CJiIi,l""a, ,,_ ,::'_:' ._-'-', g _!I .G '~r¥ - __ '.'. . [1 __ "0,:;,. '~ I .... J,I.~ , 1Iii,ol- ,,,";~;

tion of costume a's CU,SIIOI1,1'1 " .. 'he words rare relared, 3", i'n "habit" and , ~'h:~I:bit'~":t, and 'we' know 't'hal habitsare adaptable within " rule for ' t'b,ililt)i'i

In non-fashion, new things are assimilated or ~iln,ply Ildd,ed", jUJ:<:' a'SI in traditional dance and music, ,A'~I 1]100,-]£310:11 primarily c,o:nveys 3,D ideal

D;· .. ··f;,:,': enainev and d emon .. ,s···t·I:rr':~II··e,·.····, ~. link .. jfr'ID: a fixed cosmoloev: ,t·:,L"riI.:. 1~1rc:: h···'IO;W··'-'·.":,:

__:_'''''''. ',._. ..g :_c.__;~,I"t ".",,,,,-- '~. ""--'~',,,,:_,- _,I"g,--.-- '. ,g., W"'"""'-"'l 'Il.,..::_ Ig. ·11,"",-", _. .'~ ..., 0 -=--.lv:~l !Il .• l,L~ ~"'" . ,~'~.

'~:c' do things, because rhis ill what we know 170 have' a'llly ert:Tel'=~'t" changes

must be I: bsorbed inro the abiding scherr e Ion- f-~h'i,oln,~:ugg-esl[J~1 tna,'t: it'S

',,~'~ea're'f', have IDI],g"'~" since .•. / I,-£'Ied 'II '·ill.1d"~II'.llental, queseions :i1-'1d.I-'· snt ffie.:.·:d<;·- ~ •. ='-:',-Ir

. _ __ _ _ ._ ~ _ _ . _ _ ',' _ _ _ _ _ _ ._. _ _ ~ __ ."!I!I I ~ _ __ I ,,.. __ ~. _ ,jJ!= _U ...... Ol_ ~

_. ,

the active lite of doubr and inquiry; instead, it offers gre'3.c be __ . .-u.-ty and

0"-::.:"[': I~ U'I~ '1"1 ~ li tv lo,-'.J'f:~-" '(:'.0;-," "iI I:' J~ area t .• ', .111 b ~J' e :ty" '.,". I :O~' 1£/:'--' j('I'O-i1, or i~ n d'" P-l-:O'li .,',O["ln:. '''!Iil'~ Id;:' I manv v ~ ""'I r ~I _ .

. 'Il!) "iIi,a .111'''-'1''' ,[t. ,Ii, .1.11 ~,,",~a, I.U". 1"- .. , ".' ' "' ...... ,!lu,. G_, ." ,:.QII,.I~!!I;;., ". (lJI! .. I .. ,1 ,." .. l1li ... " . a_.,iI.

eties and ,):evel)sl ofsymbolic meaning refined IOI"ller" 'R,el'n,eIla'!ions~

In traditional societies withour our sort IOI,f lI~]e;a"'}f' self-propelling ,£als'hilon~ clothing may' ha:,'c' immed'iacel),' readable meaning m i,'ls, forms, ill its methods of wear land, ill the character of adornments. a)'~ di.:rec~I·,'ly

'I" 'i' 'k" - d - th - h - -- - - -' - . - - '11] Ii t.': . . - d - '. \11- ;, ') - ~ 1111 . d

nnxeo [0 'i." ,~"e ell! laracr[ler' o cusromary nte, aDI~- SI[alylng :(i~_'clIJa,(]vle~y' S:II.~il '[;0 •... ~;~-_:

~O' ",- S:~;U-I',?' h svstems of dress if 'r' 'hev ~'''''IIU. '\",'i)~I~'iI 5::'1' 0,:-' 'b' '", V"' ",= O,~-I',U' I' I"""Y"·' . (:-~1~1'-'-11 '-r! a",' Ili"'I~- -r ,'=1-' h

;'J .. ' ~ ..... c ",1' $"",,-,, I 5 ., . !L.o.;Jia, .. , "" y JJ.',,",(I,l ~ t:a!l,~ _ .... , ,I, ..... / t dl. ~JI ..... ~ 111.UC: "I

m---' :O:;'f1iiP- ~ IC- /(,",'U-'[-'3-- 'tl"'_ 'S: '01: ~~'~I al 'nu-I--~llI'"' '10; . :r~: rh ~I '0-" 'I~":~ sh ~ :0·;1 n-:-' I~~ 'rel'r' 'd-:. '0;" ;~_ .. ,'I' , .... h -:-'I~"':~ ·3' i'Fe: 0-1' '0':" 1(':'01

• ,.; :". ,iIi,,",,, g .. ),,-~ .. , ,' ... ll1k- .'.' ~" .,g I ' __ '.' "ii., I '·_·'1 ~I Ill., I, .•. , ; liD'" .. ,ii!, , '. ~,!!j!I.., 1 .. _ .",,·.'~'r.'''~1 "'" '1!Ii;;.',I' ._ ,ii, ' .. __ . , ',...::_., _ ~'.' '_

n· '-'iIi ~U' ,rIL, 'r· QP"I'rA .. 'e'i"' ~";~ I .. ~i ~'n~"!C "';'!Iil:'" direc Ii- 'e' 'v p'I'r' 'e'l:\ "'1":0'1-',""0" ",~ ;-;-::: ~'I'W'l"'e p.: .... 'e~ ~ san . ,- ,d"~" i'fl-&e,re p' ;-:-·re· ···1iiiiiIl

j .1., ~ ''''''I~!I! """' ". '"~"' n :_ ,,_)li..adl .. .I,Ll ,I ~ Q~ , ' ..... '=1--,.'::-' !Ii., , ,~nti;;, 1......._-:- .. )1. '.',1 ,lljJl~, ··.U,_!I,,~. . '. ,'. g:'. .. " _ I 'I!;p~'J~J '/,I_~

scribed e:·JOi,"'I·C·:·· 0 .. ··1· odes "I~"'o:-:::""r-' : ;p'-- ecific so ····C~·'I~q·1 :' ierem .. ··0··· "n'''~i' ,··'1 an .. "d< person "I'~ I···I-····'t·'~'

;'"!! '.. ."". ' .. ,,' rd,,··, ,I, [, I. , .. 1 " ,~I I ' .. 11.. ·" .. !!i;.,;~1 ~, ~', " a. ,- , I ,'. I ·,·,iI'" ~ I,,'. .. 'iL. c,j·, I all ' I 1!~;Ji,

__ ' I "_ '_' _. ._.~. . _. .~. __ "_."_!I' I .. I l::r . .__ ... __ . '_ ",' '_ ,_,I _' I _. "_' , __ 1_ ' __ ' _ ,_,1 __ " __ r___ _',_ ._.~_ )

with regional d,- .l';i'~~r'-~"n··'c,,·.··~e.··. "'~.'" 'I"'nl iclud ed in the .... ··· r' ·~··,·~I·"rp.-.D_ ~,Ol.- ··'hl -"~' C·,:~t!,-I.lt·."h·:·e.· '~'''I t':-I-C[ld'[~

i¥~ •• ,!j; .. 1' ... gl . ,I]~L","",". . .. ,I ..... "-, "l. "_ ~C, ~~.~. Ii. c, Ii. .. ~,D. 0,0 .. an.

. ~

o'I'be'[ ,~,dOlr'Dm,e'nIS clo'u'ld Id'ra,w' a fam[ly' c·o'n~I.~J' c't:e ,p':I(.tu~re IOlf ea_1c:h., .pe'no.D'~sl

Ico:nditioll, t.h'r{)I'llllg'b,o'u,t .Ii 'i~',~ The ~folr:Dla , dC:I!lil, had 'iI1I,m,ri,lol:nal :rl,lhLer t~ha'n, ;31 ·.~OC,i.3tive SOIUIC'es; thiel" "\I'le,~e ,t'h,le ·.··:all·.e ~'ha,:pc ". 'u:IC!,d in th.e 'past,! and. ' .h~ [~o

!I:~J~'I~ '~i'- -=~,e.~ 'If''~ Ph-"I~';'f' ~'~~'h··-",o·,·.1Ie.'· .. ": 1Iil·~e.·.':':J1·1;i'nl. g.' '_' --_.'lJ .. Ii,~,h-.··. ~.'h-I'a···· I-:e·~~ e:--~;~~illl~le~,d, - .11·'hl·l:a'~II'f6g"'·/"h-,··D:~Jtn···,~-

'~~~" 1~", .. _3 .. ~, Ik'l!:~l~ I"~~ ._.JIJ ~L~ .. ~I r~l~ ,[i! "'~'IiiP ~ Ii"', .' ... ~l .. v~I·~ ... iD ••• J ., •• ~I'LLr!.'~ J" ••..•• lli!·,·'L-,

(. :~I ~.

"'-1'" on' ',e=-:~ '0:-; 'in " ~ lo::,:'r- ..... lilitl~··h·,~·r ~,'f rh:-"e=-'m-" ;hL iO'C:-'liI!f' h'II~., 1'-0-:- e'[;D __ 'I~Jn' ,t"..o~'m---- ,,~-, ""hl- ,j':o::ln-~,;lij;!'-b,"·:e=-; ·d' .. ~_:,~- 'a-"nj ·dl'

'. _. "I, .. ~'., I, ,!!/;,;; ", Alii,' I".!I!'''.,.~ v,II"" '.""" ,'!i1~ I· '""" ,,[ ,'lJ;_, "!I,.-.'" Il,I... c I I·. .,iIi.~, • it,l. ,_ ." ' ... ~, e~,~ ' .. ",,' ,.

'c· he, . n e, vo····:'~,Vpd:;1 aftle.'· f\;1'I,,":1Ifd.·.'s I""S, 'riC'::: tj,-ch·-I',e.·.· 0..' rh"'\1ild .. I:, ~11~,\1V,~,',"~o b:,e·'e·., .. ··'-n·1 '·:I--I·::-'ld"·:I~'- '1-'),-, ... .... ~. _I~.. u_ ~. ,II ,_ , . y 11.1_ aI, ~ ~y~ .. __ '0 ._"._I~."clona ,~

Thle':n!' h s m,lo,reov:er al:,,_ aysl been a :g;re'3C: Ide',al, olf fOOln1 COlr' imldividu '

Iif":',re· ~t'· .. I~'VI~· ,r~1 n" '1'.'1 ~V" '~'I']' ~:h-~ :e·' IP~'" 'm'I' . ::d," U" of'" r,l~ :0,: "1· '~ I~I::" '''r'' ;\'II d~, ,; ~I~'ID' .":'I]'"i)· ·'1 lfl~,~ ~ 1'1 :il_');''';I,~ el~' '~,~ .i!i'Ijg!, 'h- -I #lil": \e·· ... J~'iDi'in- 'I"·'t··

!IIi ••.. ,_.,jI,._,._.!!!..,. ,i[,U".,,,.: .',.1 I"",,.' ".-" .... _ .. ,~!Il.- .. _.ll,,~~, !L".P: .... ilil~,,_,:_",Ii.,_. <lV,",,'''''''''''''\!Ii,''''~, '1t.,.iII;;. .,u~,''''·._. "~""""., .C.'

:i,n ru,gs, ,drn,d :pott,er)l'l an:d. ,t:h,e same' has 'been, tru,e ot~ dressl~'wh'ic,lh: o'f' c'o,ur.e,: 'nee,d, DO't ICloos,is:t Dlf'Cw(]v'en 1('10 'h~ :1~11 'bodY"_'P'3i,[llt~'n,g, 's.ocie:ties", '~.·;:'u're :pe:r"so,na] inve'n'EI.o'I.I. 11ught :b3r1:,'e :free' re'i.I'gi ,over Olle da~'~':~ lov>era'IID 'bDdy' ,pat--,

'T'Ll

,[ ,1- ~ ,~

'tern- while 'ritu" 'I reauirement 'wo.l'uld,tricl["ly~",~ aovern the one Cor the

,_" . . ) _'" '. '_' I. • ) .. _ . .l._ ',._ ) . _,_,_ ' .. ' I. .._.~. ,. _ . ' ... ' . __ '".. . '. ~_~) :~,j :~ ... ~ . _' . ,_ljl_l . _ .. ,._. .. "_' __ ' , .• ,. f ""_

'D'X'"- 'da-"'" In "1"'11'] oth '-'" " ,'-:-:1 "'1'.":" '",' ,",,',," 'I" , ,,,,,,,':":"'::-" "'-""f'~' : '::-'" " ," -I ", ,- "I' ~I", fac " hewed

,I~,e "'" I_~,':'~ " 1= ,5, II 10[. ,c'r : U "u,r-e :~, olle g;r-ou,p '0. '.' car o,n·, :g,.rc~ S _I,lce ft,:Or'_"J,e,u.

E'ha,'1 she had passed the menarche, while another arrav of them on her

!II

chest ~~" s purely 0 rn amen tal '

•••• ~ L! _._ii._ ._ x .. , _ l. __ '_ ;,1 ' __ ' I - l.! _. __ l . _ [Ii

'1'111 cultures with clothes th e clothes themselves 'f!lliu'ht form a kind of

I . ',", l -_ . ,l._ I "_' . '_' ,". . I "'~ I: ..... I .... _,' ,_" .. '.-,' ,1,:-- l._, I .. '.. '. " _ ...•..•. 1 .. '_]1" ..... _:__. _ . l~ L '.... . I ... ~. I '_~ [ b' ]·_] .. _:I _' ....• 1 ]I_'__, l._ _ _:: . Il,.· _.' ".' '[

mon self-awareness 3R.'d C'IO:I,ltIJ,l.o:n, memory; bur. d'I'~e~renc'e in i,~~,1dllvi,d,ual p,y'c~hollo,g~c'al, fla,vor \;V,. s also :given scope, [You could choose 'ylo'u,r ()'wn

I~IID'I=::I- or 'Ci: II~Oc··.,.'''r-' the '. "I' ibbons an 'd< rh e,"" 'po, ...• ett .-i1J.'""'D-::~'~·, an '·,d,;':-I ern '01 ibroider UO;~'UI r . rom ICI"!,}IC,'~;h:, er '.

L '-' ~ .. , !L;, ,II,. . ". I~ • d .I. !l '~~' .. ' ~. I •. II 1Ib. .. d,l..~ . I ~_, I ~ I I' • I ". ~ .J' .... I , ;I; ,l"~. I.' a .. '1 ,~,

~ -e ~

'~titb fanciful 'V,I ei e't)T, so people could j'uldlge '}ro'u::r' taste: but ':~·:OU, a\'~,\l.c,~,a,y,;

'':,1.:1: :Ir',~r··~,-_:"· th ~_-' .. : C""·"O"-,"I·,lr-·r',-·:p;,-:,,,- rr," number 0;,"\,£'·,,- 's . ikires a: In:~~1 th 'Iec·-=---'.' r, ilg-::'h-,"'I' form 101, .. ,,('1"" headdre "!lii._ I~.":O;··,'

'n ul, . """,.~ '-" ~"-" iL, "II . ,,,J!,D ,"",". , .'.'. 1:Ii ",.,(1 ",,' ,lIi, .. J. ," I I,lL. . ,I, ,. .1]ll.'ia- - ,iIi,,',,",,;;:Ji 'Ii ,_'

"p-:e,", '·0··, p··6'1~ e ",:, "'0· ,,"U-I-'I-ld:J k ~·In-:-'ID····':I~! ',\!rO':""U'[-: V:, I"'U-~ aee whether 'y~.:I'D(::·.IU· "!I;~p;'r~ m '11'r-·IIrI·;C' "d'",~, an d

- _ '. _ '-, "' ,'." '._ '~c, _ _ _ . c /- _.''11''. ,1-~."" - ",' ,. ~\I:'I" ' [: .~',,' '."",, 'l I, .. ~" I. .':' "-". : ¥rl! i\.,;r ,Il, '"",, I ~, ,I. '";,,,, 'Il~ ~HI " ..

whether :-y··::-::-O~'IU- ~\lT~rle:-·· dressed ·fol[-::: work or church

~-i¥l , " 1",,' _,!L, , . .1"'"" ,''''~'''' '. " " "_' ","",II!, I,.'.' ". ~ :.1 "', _ ,~;;, '"' '. ::. . ",,' _, '_' ".' "~",,,,.l__. _.'. "~" ,,',~ ""''__''__'' .:... r , 11;."", _ :__c,;o'

Such schemes for dress did exist '~n Europe and elsewhere, 3.I,th,ou"I:h most 101£ rhem have become obsolete, ln Europe, ',"hey were perbaps even hastened tiD their death 'by the move to preserve them 'cha,t began in

R Ol-';:'IDT .. ~, '11'" 'I-'o'lii ~ ·=-I~· m-, ~ t'I: ·~·.n~·"1 d<·" j,I 0" - .~I,- d 'i ". ~,~; 'r' :h' , ., a·,", r- ed U' '.,e,'"''' tiv ~~ v (I~ ·rr'<"I;·"O:_·>I-C~ 0:-;'(1 ' "'- ~I'I*'Jjr'ljJj d. ~-'~III=-I:·' on ~1'11 e: os-

, u 'g , '_ '-', I" ..." ,~'" a ,__ "'"" ue_ ' ~"i' ,1i.1_",.. ..~ .. . '''';lIi;_ e ,~,;:I!.,,II;,., ' '''!I.la. I,. , .. ail 'L.U3

tume" beina false'I,'v'.,_·ol:n'~'eaJ,eldj into a theatrical uniformirv and :11)aISS,~'

iZ:::ii ~, ,n ~

produced rnainlv for rh ... ,-, 1-.~lIil'~I'""I~ D"'-"f,·~·.,J~~'p-:,";I' "y"" ''''0''','', 0'1 "'"U'I tsid ers '" '·',or:l1~ ... d'~ ress has ",n,

,I .'. ).,IU~I~- I, ,., lUl' 1,1' ,!I~lu I. '1.:., q,'~~)!li'" I.". [J~'ili',I," ",~ Iioo-.- .L,~_,,,,,,, r~ . ·.··,IA, , . ..:;- .. ",,~, . "'~ ,I,iI",

,;-:-·_,:.,-:-:--~I'a1~'·1 '~I~,~'"i:__ in the c".\,):':-~;:-_ because the modern 1. nresentarional imoulse ,mo,['C 11;,_, lile ,10 r .. 1,,_, ,' .. e~st1! ._era,usc t."_,~ l~lO,._._r,n ,re,pree~_,I __ t_,O~,:__c __ , ,~ .. n.p __ ~~e

';'5.-':: '5,'.'0(/ st c~~~lloJ and I~O:--:I desir able,

,II .. ,a .. 1,'U,iIi. ";r,' i1 , .. a. ... .)i", g, .. ~ _ .. ~

'1:"·"~·.···"t~-r:'n'l:e"'r.······. '€'.e,.,Q11 the 'nl~pd-, for references m P-"I":C"""["U"Jill~ ••.... ' and mirrors, the

'W~I .. _~l"_~!l !I __ .l!_._ Li.!t.~1 ._ ..... ~ I!_.~"-r.~._. ~ILY,.!l ._~ll~'L~:~_~['J __ "~:'_' ~~_.~ , .... __ ~_!I'. __ .!I"~ !l.'J'._ .. ' ,. __ !l._ .. !III_-'~'~_'11 .. _ .. ]~~~

imase-makinc req uiremenr that (Ol ids, unselfconsciousness: the peasant

, ., tt;-"" --""'- _~, '_ '_' '-;J -" "- '_' I:_._. '_ '-',_I.- _ _'-- - _'" , . '- " '-'" '-'" -_ '-' , " '- "_" . , "-" .,,' ,,' -' .,' ,'~" ._' -" -' . '-'

air ethnic picture was orieinallv 'made, wi hour reference 1;'0 other iOI3'O'es"

c, ' .. '_ '" O!!lC _,' ',- '. '" """ '_ '.' '- ., "0""'" - '1 '" -- '." ,,'", , - .. " , , , -' . 1""" . '.' '. ,_ ", , ". _ .• -' I~" _. •

~ ij ~',' ~ I~, '-l~ ~~'~ II", th jill art _'IIPC.~, 'W,~ ~:o:-~>'r-' of art and no mirror '\11':,!]jI~: ·111' iee xled ~ ~'O-" check

rl,1 I_.I._ •. _.l! ]'L~~I.·, l" ~ di··, '.~ ,~~~ _. _I", • '._.·r, g I~ g, ]'. __ .I , ] .. ' lI!!!!' " , ~' •. 'P .,.3 1 I •• _. ' •• ". _." ••• _' I~.. . [ ]~I. •

'~''''~', ~;'''7P~:'r*''~, IP'X··· .ce ·:'P'I:"": r- he 'h-"e·,:'III\~I~-II,g"'" "h-.' ~I·· § ,'3'.',0· .41, ~l![e.··s :o,>f" :o.·:t-·LI~'rs .)- :nl "h,~ ,u'f"O"-UIIP--:_,

,!II,";.J ~,I.~I.'~~'!L,", ~,i;"'~ •. ,_,.1. ,.,,_ ,,· .. J~,r'iIi'!I!' .. ~". ILl .... _, u ~~" ... _ __~. (,I"" _. , .' \.~, "" I~.'_· .. _,,"

T" 'hle,_,:~· I~'I 'p.}I~nl'ry-,~ IQ<oI'-::- Id·~""re,'~~, ·:h···I"'iI'.' 'ir "'~'I'~'I' '1-', l'I':·k.,:"e,~ ti"'h.·'~'~, ~'~-lC;_JU,: Id,-','tl'DIIGi "m~,; 1!lI'tili"~]~·'""·-I~IO·I-:;-n-'·' .. n:d,<,

[ . I .. I·~ . __ -l~ '... I .. . . ~~ 11.:":11 d!L; ~i; _.1.: L , •• IL._, ~,.3. .1111:,. JJI. _. .,' .. ,I~ 11.:.1 lid Ir. _., 1, . l . _ .

• _ :_: I.' .'

'cariD'C,3'cion" :io, :P,3,[[;S, of Asia" Afr,mc'a.~ ,__jndl. S'o'u,['h, An er:ic'3.; 'bu"t i'h,'e' 'mo're

a-','t· t- r- r~ '~~ 'we '1"1 ]0' '·d' e-' r' n-" I~'d:' 'e' I' h s ' .. \Ii.te' p','r;-" 'n' "10' c'-h' D' 'f\: 'I' ,t-~ a"\ I' lii'

~'I - , ,. . , '. I l' -, 1 . '. 1', I.... I· rW1-' l' _. • • _. • I' l ' . r

'~·.h,',,: ,:_,",~'.":" .. ' ,_"".~-,.'_"._"~" 1 ~'.:...,I.,_~-:__, 'c ._'~_: -'.I"f·,~ __ ._'_ ,II '=.~ j: .. :,:j ,,I ~_":",,,<_',I[!;

T~~ -1"'1" -'. If', -h··· l!f]IP- ~'p' '.- ~n~'1 e, . d~'- b-:' e· :-~ ~::~I 'U·· c .. ~t"i. ~ p._> .• ~'O(' .p"~'.' __ ' ;In-, ~I 'fl,l-:~'''''V'',:'','' tlcr'a·:.Id:-]~ rfi I": 0,': ·UTI ;i]!111 I~' O-\ .... ,~ ~ r11 ~Ul' 'h" .;;";""'Vc,_' -:'~'

_ .w::l_.li .0:1 ,_._lg, _ . ~ _,,_, _ .. _, I... _ ~a,. __ 311!;.,. e.. ,I.e ~ __ ,1l.-_,_UJI"iI). .... ,_,.. _,gl. .J. Cll,~Iti.-Ji,i\..a , l(li,. '"'

.. _ ' • , . ;!l'

'ob,vicl1lJsl'y' 'wat~n.tedJ 'itt '5'Olil Wesierl,] 'faslh'ioD, o:iIers, 3, 'ViS.,U,_J. '\vaJy' out ,of,the'

tr,3,P of '¢!LadiEio:n... tile prr:isIO:lI, 0,,( U.:rlq_'U,' ,-sitmol,nill,g: w~is.d,o:nl~ Fashi,on, ,a~lmlD\'\rs clorhio,g to Clie a i,'_-It!' ~:~'n :i'ma,ge of' s'klepti,lcjl~::m, of C'O~I'li}Cl ,polsi'bi~'i'ty" of'd_i,tIe'r-, ent 'P":Q'\ve'[' and, 'alEe'['nai iv~c- 'I!~OU "h',- ,'. o'fnIIDI'to'ld c:'h,3rDc,es.. ol~ esc,a'p-'c 'trolj-)]

. iiJI ,I ._i1 ~__..... .] ['J _ ]] _ _ ._il. 1 [_ l. _ ..._ ._ , .•.. _ ~J' ,. -l'lil . [, [ [ ".. .] .. , ,[ . _ II" ] .... -1-,1. . _ _ . .~ ~ _ [ . 'J~

A'NO'

.... .,)

• I _ _

:fixe'dmea;nin,gs and fixed ·ro'),C5I., Thus modern fashion has cIDnsi~te!Dt1,y' looked wonderful from ~~ distance es,pe',eiall,:',' '1,01 'yoIUDg' people seekins eh '''','In''''C' ··.e' '~ml) om " .. old ~'~~a" .y' ..... s - 'he internal ",ne·._~\~;;~ :O~ID-" the otb r han d, is .o·~.;~'e.-··'In,-'·

!Ii;,. , L.d ._~:. ,[L . ,,, '.' ,~ '. 'I!'f~' I. ',~ ~ ~ , "~," L .. , _. '" II, _ 'li" 'IIi '. '''_ ' ,_ '.' IL" a "~ a .. 11i.t! .. ,.,

Ch,Qf'g,ed wi r'h, ambivalence.

I n ,~~,L':·o'nll,_. -'~U'" ····'O-:.J:p ~,~ '-I "'~-··.C,~-· I., :iIiJii'b: :O··:' ••. ut '~~h-I'e' we ""'1:' 11-['-' ca n theore :;I!r~~ln.y." . ..,.. be

,. ,.. .1:._ .. m, .. , II "t . _ .. __ ~ _ _ ,_, _. .... .' __ ... , I~ _ ',__ .'t.'¥! _. iii ' ,. .. " I"'" . ~,iI..I!!Ii...o . .1, ...... 311 ... , .'-

m - a ,.-~. 'll""e' ':d-'- except for p- ierson a 'I '·':""I'!:"pe· and eve n M:h',"'It·· ma -- '-' 'y~.",~ 'b--e,~ suppressed a II!' "'Il!t"ill~···-

. __ J 1\._. , __ , '!!i;.,;.:__., """."",,, ~I". IlL 1_ ~.:Ii..'!:Iu.:._-,~,_1 1~~iIl.o_-,__" ,II;:.__.~U· _~_-,_, __ , I" __ Q ... c__J_-", _-_.'. ~ -~,._, ._.I..'~a ~.' _ "_'", "~.~ I ...

'£:0/,:[ p'.:- O··'·;~I~i~~ ends, 'N··········-·.·· 'I~v~:·-:~r. r the 'I~'~, 'P=P'O·"··.'··'P.:I.I:,-· uneasilv '~,,'~I'1I.;I:"A.1 that the uncon-

(r,~ __ , _ .' ,I_uj" ,'\.; ,,",'. "g,1O ." _ ""I ' .. ~ , __ " _" .... ,~ -' """' ,_. _, ,_ ~_ li=iI "",a~~_ ," "',"" iiJJl;!lL~j!l;.,;. ... ~, _ __, ,,_ __ ,__ _ u..,

1I:l!'~-I"'O-"'Ul-'-I~~, 'O,-;'U· .[r-,-~;, .. s 10 .. -'-:'("--'-' personal taste I~:n--I-I'O'" · .• dern €"'~hi-~'~IO-:-D'- 1"""'I,iR make ·]'~'I' conv -ey.,~-"I'; a;

~b,_,. ...~ . .. . ,~,_, n:I . l . ~I..~ _ , '"- at, lL.da~~ , __ ' _ ,[ _ _ _ ,_!i;, _' .Il~~ ,_ 'll.r.fi:liII, _ ,I ,~ ,_ , __ ." ' _." _.

~ I- :_ .I

~'~I~'h' -:-'. 0 .•. C;' :1Ie,- S" ,::p--,e .• ectr ·U-· .. - 'm' -'.:-, 10:-j(" ~ ~.O'--C···-··l~ 3·---',]-1 ,3---10- d .. ··. personal in -0. '~nir'IrQ'I'I~' 0" :-. O' I'" '01" I '. U' " ch illl~r1L·e· .. · wh a: r~. -I Ill;

,_, ~~ __ I __ , _' __ ' . __ __.l .Jt. __ . __ '[ ' __ ._1'=.J _' ,~_~I~ __ .~~aJ~ "~Jl glu 1 __ L__,_=I~ . ~ ~I __ ~, __ , ~ t_.-_, __ ' l~ !.,s

- I- ,

:slr,I'i.,gh,tf"o'nJI'rd1y' ofrere1d in rr.,-d'lrio.n,aJ" dress, o.l7Ily unconsciously instead

0','- on purpose. Besides that, the social laws tha .. t· !,?"Qve;rn choice in, '(a_~ . "on,

I [ D

.. "li-'Ii'i'~ both unwritten 3-! nd :,~'I-I'~;p=':P··<'~.'N , .... ol,:··d[ 'W\':'~B.-,,·.··a-Ir-·-'~I~·n-I-'g, .. .' the .. ~··· ,[, ~;pb-: IC'-' .--'b-· "I~"n-'a 'r' .--~q.'. uires the

Rill'''''' ~ .~!Ik. . ._, j, 'I?!W' 1 "' .IL ,""", , . , , . -~ . !Ii,.'. - """..., ,I':' a n ~ .. ..... • L, .\, . ., ·1i'bJ w _ _ _ w 'b . - ". _,_~ ~,,3 IIIl. "'"'

ri ,,,'h- Il" insti 'n-II' c:---If and J~] ud lgme -: '~I"'.~ s .• _ ad :O~··.·(I:-' .p-...-.")-I q,,; '-nl :0;' ,:h. ' e -,:d-I ~ ,-',01 ce to the '~,", ile e': of

I~ " L!L, tI~~,.;)iilk~ .. 'Ii;. a . ~ _,,_._ ,'., ,._ ,_1,,11_ "~li!I!__ . _ ~. ,_ = __ il,. ..."""__ ,,"_ I"'~""" .. ~-W _c;1i u·

cust om ~ .. ' Th-' 'U-'="S'" in mod e··-·r--n:l- fashion everything with private meanine 1'0,[-1

""".·· .. ~u.,.,.). ·i' . ' ... ' __ . ~"""_>_. ' .. ".' .•. , •. '1, .') "~I '--'- ') '-.1 .... ~.tJ ",_ .. !l. •.. ' " .. '"-'-" "'" ., .. > , ..... 1 D ll.

the iltd'i'v-j.dual~ the \\~:hDle' combination of conscious and unconscious .fi)r-c'es, that create a, persona] decision about w:h~~!t, 'to wear a'r, .•. __ given time (especially' a. taste ~[Olt modishness) can take on, r'h,'! air' of'being a, 'I ."asry se-

cret whose :e'L~'-I' of";l~~I'II.-ji;I!l ~.O··,.·· m'-fl'p,J ,; omises -I hi e 4" vearer as the wearers "",,£;'--'- ethnic

~, ;. ~ - "I, .~~, r , - '-' ~ Lt '_, ,~ _,'" '-J!!a I .... ILI!.. ~ ~ -_ - .. ,,, ( ~", I '- __ ', r , I _ -, _ i3 ,_ -, -_ iP-JI _ , - : - _. ILI~.. Q. L - - - - ~ !ll-.l.;s M -_ "I~ ~ '-I- 'II-. . - _-, t __ -

.~\~, -~'~' never . "'I""PJ IC'---o.·;-:,,·'m-c=".rp-.· .. ·.lm-II.~···.llinu······~·~:a,; ·,d,,--,-. "P_'_·:~o---'p-:-:··.II·~' wh 10--- ,c~ -1'[-: the wo ... rrk 10· .. -:('1"~ i-a-~ shion are

1I~~ ~ ~~ '_ I.' ~j _ I_~'~ ._.__:" _' ._ ,__:,~- _ "~ '!I!! _____: ~I __ ~.' :_.,:__,~J' ~r _' ~-_~.' IJL, __ < _~~ .. '__ ,_, '_~ '___:___"~:'___:_____': _ __:__' l.]l:._: - '_-_._~~ I _ _:- - ' _

~ , I J.

likely 'to sneer a,'~ i,t~ :in ·t-_vOI of what seem like the lle:fresbingly honest

d ~ ..•. 'p-·.I]- ~y, ·iii:l'1 of'traditional dress .

~~ _ _ 0. n:. ~, !L-iiL, a. I _ _. "oJ u: ~j.3..-Ji~

l!, -:

rules are followed It:~,Ja.lt evervone in. the grtl'U.p' respects, personal choice 'has the sar ne 'V'PirV' "1·[11 mired :·:r-':o·.~··.p~'~' for evervone and unconscious revela-

_,.._~,,--- -.' d\r' -~- ""-"'-' -'~'~~l' __: I!"."._:,,"'iio, , ~'\r-_""_'_'.,,:"~ L!lL,·_ ... ~ """""""L'""I·'.'-'·:·'~!!!ii.''Ii' "':.",-_' "~''""\'''''-'''' ''-."",,'-'-''_-~ "-"""',.,."""',,,,_-_,

rio .. 'r, 'liil'!: ar e I;~ 1'1'" ~II'··'IPiIiI'rIiI"'lII- People nne O-c··~',I'I~ fortable w I'~"h'" tak ;1-); g:" full 'I' ~-;p~ •. D.,·~,.·,·.:i,·b'I'~III'~E)I_\.t

ll¥!lj _ .. ~;I_a g . II I.~ i.Lll'[~.JLI "J . It! .. ~l C . _IILII_ ._~ .IJ[I _ .r-d~~l~~ ~ l I.~. l~iI I! 1.1 l!.,. LI~LI~I. ~ ~ __ ,Ill _[1.1 . ti;~I_ ..

1,_'- ,I :_

JrO~Jr' t -·h-·:I~'I~·I-:= 10" •• ~~'~:r·nTI looks w :,'h·· 0'" / e. -,·i ti" h-I-' e "'r-- ·:;re,a·.~ r _; th '~'~, 'n·u~·· -'r~','·,· ··,'1-,\1 'V·".--'I~: ~.·U- '1,(1'1, der "il an -,d,~~, 0.'· ." f: s'O:--C'_"J~ ,ntj'~1

l~_. , _ ,",,'!!;;,;r_ ~'iV'!!OJ"" JI-_ -- '--' ~If ." L ~- ~-,!I.~__j II,_ ,~. """' I"'~ ''''-' _ ~.l . .. I~ ._ ,g! ~~;'1 ."_,_. Q~,

li{e-''''~,a,ppea:r,al]t~e'~ cl"~a:ppe'a~rallc',es,!'-; 0[' don't trust the operation 0:£' their 101\\ n taste, '£~e':~, threatened and manipulated by fashion, and have called i,(, ,3 tyf3l,l'ti IT-he' CIOII]~'tan't e·:11 IJILe]],1 al*~ fiction in i,t make it S"II,I<lIC'k: 0,[

1·'·n·la·,:·'·U·I~1 ,[- 'h·· :iMi!n'I·[-~]~~~,I'UI",J}. P •• r etense and preten "'[' ion .,,.. an id 1""[:' ';11", indeed obvio :"'U'I"S,: th at

,~, . ~ . __ ~,~ ~I, ,IL ,1..,,',) ,. _' """ .. "" ~,~..l_,t~.U ",iI!,'~''-' ~~ .. IV _~, I . ,. ~~..Ii. .I!~,~ . !!Ii.. '\;> ~ _ , - 'if' LI'!,_ I __ , 11.:, j(.J,

'':~''~.'hl~l:o;:ln··.· 'I"': "'11 'p--:.e. "Jr- peru L"II') ~': II;'~:," :0=' )"I'~' ,I""' ha ·-,-"p':t- er '~1 ~[1 .• d self-k nowl .• e I '.n-~-'. ,~JI¢'; well a: s, ~'a',; e.

,r.,i)l,~, " '. _ , . n. .. . . ~ . !Ii.:. ,a . 11i., .. , ,I~ .... , .,.!iitI I~,'\." !Ii.,;.. "_1,,111,,. . I ;OJ! ",..". , .:1 iii... .. ~''!I!',. '. ~!!Ii.. i1L,iJi 'W'" L ,ill, '¥. '1... _ ., ~ '''I

whereas rraditicnal dress is :IJO'£~,

'1~:~1 tile fashio DL- clad West" [[=:J,dJit.i.,oln,al costume h31~ 1,"'lol'~l,I::e:q'~llul entlv been

~ ~~

viewed with lenJ'\1y, .aL~J1JI_Zed, admiration and often condescendingly exag-

a~'r.,""Iiif=e,·- .d .. :-I re speer Cruel d,< ·.1~I"P': ',11- .... 'V' r s that pern y ~,"','n'~'·n-'frJll,v·,'·) -I'·.-l·lI'U·. '~I-'·:'Ii,t-:~ L,'iI"V,~·"j!:!!i;.,~, aroused

IlJ'L;., . ~,llk _" \..~~ .. .. ~, oiI!... "',. '.. '~"",. a",., ,~.,., 11;." Itlo., : .. , .. , ,=,IUIIlJ!Lc.. 1""Ii'1i1 .... _ . .Ii 1i1.~,"Ili. ,'!!i.., .f ' .. ~.!II..... .

contempt and fear: but: those kinds of cosmetic and elegant arrangement are a.pp,are'll['ly t'ho'u:g'll[ Olf'~3S a'bS(l~Ur,-l) ditr'e,r-e·.II.1 :£1(-'1:111 I.DI\~el'y sl.ri and, kimonos, The stable, fashion .... free beauty or' much traditional clothing has .. d' d b d d-' ~ 'I'" """ ."~ d

~I.·n·······~· eer (-'--~~'r-l·.·· ,'''1I~r£''U-· ~.I'-- \I~.~~' '["0"';-' :- '~'I·l~ ronstrate ""II, " ... uperior q '1':1·; ~I'":~' o i social ann

,. U '., 1!Iii., _._ .. '"' ..... , , . iU! 3',;':'. _ , cI ~,_ ".... ' ... ~ , .. " '\dI. '.. u" _ d . _ !II. ~',-- !!Iii;> ~ ~~" ~ . _ .. ,'.. iliJ 1lI." __ ,l\ :tl_. ",", ,~ a " __

personal beine and a urp erior level 01/ esth eric achievement :S·······o·-n·11'1IP '-p--:'''~I'O' I'· .•

. ··.::_,I"'~:__'·"~,~ __ ,_'_:__.:___ iDi" i{_:__,~.::__. ~-' ·.I'~',·""L"'}:::_c.'_ 11,,",',)1\.:1 ··.:"'·ll_1 : ..... ' _ ,_I!i..J,~ g_I\..._"_ll,"",'_I''\,.'_~UIli ~".'!Ij;,~, ,)'J·'"_'~L~_'i\r. . _~<, .....

ple have be 'en. e,3:I,e'.r· to believe rha,t i: ,rO:f',111:~:--: never change, j ust like the cycles 0:'" nature, ,.' 11.d ·[h.:l.·t ,='::':~I.ldd]e ._. .asrern dress, for example, hasn't ,: 1-· te ·'r· '.~.' ·'d . .' I £i:o~'-::rl thousa nds ID,-,:,-:'I~ y.'." ·,·,· .. ars,

~ Iii! ,~. __ I~[~ .. [ _ II I· l. __ "~. __ ;J~ •••. til __ .. 1 I .... l~l I!I!

:./

But the truth j:~- that the volatile, :ner\:) visual thrusts and .. parries of

fashion created I~ 'tru,e esthetic advance, ;} c~~:I,[u:r-:J'1 leap analogous '10 other fO'nY3.:rd 11IOVt:S in, the his,to,ry of 'Weste'r':n art CODlJ.Jle,fC'e' and th,Olllgh.t;_ poly,~~,lh'oln.y· .. nd perspective, double-entry bookkeepi -:':1 ,311d, the scientific method, [:10 'n,:' me some '[he', have sustained the :1'1:1(: .a.Dld. breath of rhe ::,'i,:., e st. I E has oi II ~l been frOll] tb,e 3,ld'V3'11ta,geoilJ'S, PO'SII,ti ()'11 1,".1~ these h ave afforded that Wes:te:r'llers, have tl ~t 'free '1:0 'sneer at '['h,e:111 " l, and ,_.'[ fashion along with them, and '110 elevate the productions created b)' more '('i, .nited 'worl,dsf, j'llst' as! ,they have l~leya,'rf;d, the '\~, ()I[.k:i'ogs 01(' harsh nature nself

W' E·', T :~ R N'<' 'M'~ N 1'~1IiIVM' apparent 'y," "e.·,l. inad •· .. .qu .. ate .. 0·;=-····, the ,f1u~'·,-IIII,e·. -':'" , .. t· possible

_J.~ I" - ".~ '.~ ~~.jl I ~ I.a I.~, ~l" al-'" I·-··g ·i'~·IJ,II!I.~ ,',I ", Jill,. 1"1 :~la,.-:-_ ... 1.,- t .• _ •• .t"'~ 11..:'" ", . s u '~ ,, __ ,1 t"" • _~ : ~:.' _ •• Iii· I ... ~L

I r ~. [!IIIIII! I!IIII!!:

riJll:g,e ()'_~ .fas,hio·ll. ·jilr Dl~ltl)f :tJ,en,e:ratl.o·rmst__;m'u,g'h'I'y' ~:'I.ll.IClfi I' 800!t \llhle':IJ .R,ol, .... , man,li,:~ WeSlern,~, i:I-~'W·5, of n~l'ru're can,l'e il"l~tl' 'io:-l'u; ri,ull'l: a'~Q'n'~ 'wi'I'h

I~ IrJl

~~ ..... " ••. " o:m~,'ntj,c \riews, olf fio'~k dr.ess~ ~-::'S 13 'les1ult:, ,t'hc'v' ~h3,'Vt· evell arad.'uaID·I.v' ap~I-::'''''''

. ~ a' 1 "

~·-e,a,red tOI ,''"re'a,t,e ;'~ <ort 'o'r'fake 'tra,lli'tio~':tal d'res: OQ,'[ ,:;:f'I'IJ.a'le' (aO'iO'II, ,alms,t:

,]_ 'if

l~ lJJ

a pseudo-e hnic costume, something wi,liI well-classified and ve:'~~' 'li'm:iclcld esthetic demands that commands o,en,eml respect and II,VQ,id. unfeuered

,~ ~

personal fanrasv+-somethine tbc,·t can look, sneakilv and falselv lik:- non-

.. - .-~, .' --'-~ ~ '-".--~' .. ".- l' - '------'··--~""b '- '-.-.",. --'.--~ -"-- --'--~iI! __ , __ .e ... __ P!' a -- -31--,·-~r}':!!!1 ~--' - _,_D ..

~_<:h,iOID,~, - IJ::U£ let's not be fODlled~! It"1 st~"I', o:nl'Y ~_D anti-fashion fashion hke

'm "ny" 0" ·· .. h . ~'rc' 'W' Iiio 'IViP- £c- jfjJ'D ~_~:' .~ .~'~\i"" ... : .:l~' "~~;'.J~ 'l'w'""J~: 'I,~_,I~: '~:_.·I~J~·~"

~,

~ he: exrraordinary persistence :_;1_:'(' Crl-i_si:',;~ male [taiJolr:ing £0'[' nearly tt\101

centuries, during ( . ,pelr ad, of extreme social 'ut:phe'8[v:a') and scientific ad .... , vance, has prompted se~eralJ pO'sibl.e e'x,p:llan_S(/oDS" some D~f w'hic,h, :1 in-

'it' -. nd ,.-' 0-- A -')'0-' 1"\-' lat -'r" B..: ;'[1"'-'" 0-' n' -. e '1-0--0-' ks immediately all .. · too ~'""Iii'I~y". J' CI ,~

1'::._:I_:'~J:·.~: .~: .. I:·:.: '~':; i: 1_"J_.: .. ~.:; .• .l..:-~' I_~.~\._<_l~l _. -·.:' .. ~_'M : .. I~ .... I_.I_ ~I ~.:.:~ .. :::.~.:: '~:l1 .~L~,:_l, L:~J~W~·_)L:r~:I>./' I~_ 1,.!l· .. ~I.·UI ~'II~··::.·/;, ~,~I '··.~_-.,~I

1 _' '_' . _.'

Fliisel ~~~ID"~,,:d:, ['l"r "the .. ':-:;I-e·· ~: .M",i'l!a··:::~u~' Iine Re ':':n"'u'-lnl'I~I" 1!1··,·"t-~:,~~, ."'~I .. he idea ·1'1'. fi'b:~··-Ir-_',

~ 1. -.!llbl~' 1 ~, l~ . __ . I! _I~ L_ ,_ .. _ _ _ 1 ._ ...• 11.. l_l =.J _'_ ~. _ _ _ __ , •••• , _. __ 'Ii..t J. _." JI_~[I'.:.I,~ . 1. . 11 . _.-.1 l _. lL_ _ _.J ••

,'",I.I,':h,eJI11 £as,hi,IDO, became 've,ry 8i:gJ1.ty 13,[ tb.~', end 0:£ the le:it,:~':h,teeD,th, (:-:entu:ry~ men simply Iq",-, 'U,I~~'t· ' .. a···i~, if in protest

'_!l_. ~'l!~ ,_~_,[!Il!ll-'_. l l'': ---~l·_·~lI .. " ._~d ~ _:r !~.~ 'l .. _-._.~ "I~~

Another limited wa:y' 01.£ Idesc,ribriin:g: rhis has been I~DI salt It'ha,t~ men made ,3 c:owa],l:d1-y,~, retreat Cro'm, 'both the risks and, the pleasures offashien.

... .1 -: I ii!!

and rhat their dress has ever since been something air a, bo I_',~i,:. 'h;I,t\r'

~

vie W,,',", I" '0'1. ,-,,£,:" ml13 Ie and female ,t:a::-,~,'b';OI':'ID- since I" °ID~:O':' ", could easilv vield th e false

_'Llt· .. _, ,~.I11 '. __ .'l!' :!Jl.!!)l.!_}Jj , ~IU 1_I...,_JaJI __ ,IJ,i_",-,,_I___:_I:,_., .. , _,i_, ' 01 , 1 __ , ~JI .. _u.;;:JLUI' 1",.,-1 _, .. H,._ L'ill __ il'

id ··e.~ It'~'lh''''a-~ men "·~'V':I~.e; '1,"!Ii'irug:I~\ ' ~if;~ "I-~:d~I·. (D··:,U-"'" .OJ . the a!1'm·-·--'·"I,e·; '-U·'· ntil the late '~'II,",'~n- ti erh ",

" ...• iI:I.' . . ,110 ." .. J, JLlg, " a ~,-, ',~ ~I!Io;d,,~., !!II;"" ., )L .. , . ""," D:- ' . _ , ,1...1, "'" JliI ~ LW'lii..;, , ,ilk .!!Ii.o;. .

cen tu Jr'\}t"iI!' '. nd "'Iii, h " 'O--C"'''-i)-I- ~ view '0" ,·,',r"'~' /}'eOJ.' mini 'n' e '(~I'S.'LI'~:O·-· -"0-· mieh ··t·, s -U· u~'sl" that th . P\1'

",":'_ :,.~J·."'---~-,I '''I '~1i.-11;':~ ,gL ,_ ~~,~~"" I,", ,ii, _: .... ',~f" .:.-. I I._~_ 1.-1I,_,U· I .~ ... ~~: __ . I.·.·'~u: .. ~.~ ~l.~ ~__I~~, .. ' ':zi,-,~- -';. ~'~'-"'''-' 'Ii.....,,", II., :~,'J

di d l;"'t-~' to 'p-,";,~p:o;~: .. ·e.1 :a"'n" 31":' " te ,·"r'n"·I~" .. rive :. "II:~~ ·S···:11'11:P-, :~r··~ '0 .. -.· 1= WI-",Y" '/ 0 .. -/' d '~I;'D.I'g_( th ""0·. 'gs'~'1 'if:o,~ J;'~'_

U l .. llf.. y ~I~ .,,!.'. ~. l il l! • II _. ;;Jl'l~,. ,lJI ~. ~ n _. _ .•. ' •. _~lll.J l!., ,lllt.ll '. _ , I"~ ~.~

:..______:, :_____: ~ ,~, -e _ . .' 1_:

4,~~ :"'[tI, mii'v~ ,~i'nlg:;:' Vi;IiiU'="Ii111 o,:~"b-;~~le ... ction to r'-:'-I,A ~·~m-·I'II~' d em, inds rhar '~~S-;'LI.~ on c .... ,n-'·

i.'IlL,~ all [Iljl J ~ 1 I ." rl. ,a.lI . ., .~ ...... 11 ., J l~., Ilk ~, "-r., lL,IL~, 1~1 . ,~l e- J _ LI~I .~ ~[Ca ,IJI .~, _ _' iii , ,

~~ . ,

make, Wi,';me':n,t nalura'lly~, could then 'he despised .' or' meeting them.

L· - .. ,[.,...::, in this centurv some 'W·,,' romen beean ·P";'i'II~~1'b-~;'1·-"I:oe·:.··I~'v' t' '0>-1 '1··'O'fi··e,'le .. ('t''I!~J~'.''~ such

,_ "" .Jl,.lI\!Il.-""jI,;.'J.! ,~""'. ,'~ ,} ~ I ,~- "" '..... ,_ " - , '''', '-""" -_' :r;,~.iI, ig, .... . . ,II ..... r- I.~,"'''' VI' ,1,,0 .. "I. c_

possible lo,~jl,e'ctions. and their a:lreemlc',nt 'has ofc'e:n 'ra'ken the form 10'£' reli,8Jio'us'],y IClopyin;g: the male scheme and deploring the female one. Cerrain feminists in the 11:,I,",r:I'[l8 boasted that ."1.'bJ':- ",:' ·.di- id not :---:,wo a ··.'k:i-:-~'r'-'-~~"~, ;~f'~' "-,:.',

E e __ ,,~_,~___ ,'_, £_~_ ,-970 te~ ,=I_ [~ __ , __ y , _,~_1 0 __ ~,_ a [, as ,1_ 10

announce s, 'wit'hd~rawal from fashion akogeeher, '~'he,~,I<>~,y men had been believed '£0 do, The truth rSI that men have nev __ r Ilban!doD"ed :fa'shilo·:n, at ,a'O .. b'u,l~ ,h-~ve 'si'mpIDy' p,_.rtt,cipalt'-"d in, Iii ,cii6ie'Ie'D,'t scheme, . ,-'D,S 'tad ore d, ~

cl oth ies have been amazingly variab ::I·-.,e,,-~· and expressive since "I' ,8:',':OO·:,.···~-:,- 'fu·;=-'-IU·-·-·),,;,:~ ,"1iII~1

. _ . \.ira . ,_. ~ ~ _ . ,~, .. A._ .... ,. _. ' .. ' .. ,' t, a .a. __ ... _ . ,I._, ~I 1.. _, ... ~._, • :~ .1, .. __ ' _. _,._, ._ .. '.t. ~

l.':_· I , . l_'

fl,.' '0: "I'"d'I-'- 41,'1I-',dr'l 'I "me, a··'·,p;I'I1··· .. ;y,,:':e···· ,iIjIj,:: \ .. ',o"I'JmCI 1~"n,I'~ 'm····'D:,·,,:,·d', ~p~ 'b-u·i1-' e·· 'y,I:,: hi a·' 'V'" 'e'" ~"D'·'''··'nl~Iii!'I·'iIi',p.n··c tJ' ''U ''''''p. "':'-

lI> . ' .. ,1, -, '" " -.' '. ,DoiIl, ,ILlIi, ' .... 'Q ,.,., .... !!!I.;, ..olI, II "",,~ii.'JI,~_~ .... '!Ii., .. ~< ,~,' ...... ~/ '!!i.<' '"",;.'1 . I(j,!""JJ .. " ,;Ca'.

:p.~.' .·~~r~:d'-, '1""0,1· .O~lp·I:'p'\D:"· '-I~'r'I'~,O~"n- '!I·"o·1 t'h-,I ':e'~' C:e~'nu··.··;'nn: .l~:n,e~' m· ~,':~' 'h .. ··~D-'·· ,.d= '.. 'W, ',': ."h[li:C·-·J~ 'h:'13'::--'~' ;e-Pr7~c; :,iILl'~C-V· ,:}j;a:I',y·":' 'p.fU""', '-

.... ". . .1iL1i~'!!Iii..~. .. , , .• . . . ',. . _. ., ,. _, . •... '. . . ,ILl.. " .,...".. . il.. . '.. J'II ,_ ,]I.. ,!ILl, " . 3 .. ,U,I\,.. .. 11i. , ~ J!!ipo":: . : .. .

',h,e'm, in 'E'he-~bad,e~,

,J/.i1.f1 '.b' '.~, rD', ·'·ml:-·-p·.·~··O:-·D~ e'" ·n· .".~, 0"""",' ',-" 'M' 'a]- ... ,. e" '·'~I'~"IIDI '~d" c··~:~OL·I·,·;h·-,~in·~·g .... ' .. :· hi']j'v,,",:e'" 'v"':-<"'r"II~dl;' 'I"'n-:'" s:h" , .... _ ... Ip- · .. ·e···

,nB iL .. """ "" .... _11 , .~,.> I I",~_., "_-.:I"_,,\,,,, I. ',-!I.-CII, <:,~''I!.r', __ "_:J,~, ... c.ll c .. I.A,~"= ",', _~ ... ~,_~, .l, .. ,_,,' ,,_,1 __

. .~~ ~

,.~ -n' d"~ I ·rc' ""'" ,.'''- ~ '!iI'--~' ·-I·C·- . --', .p",- '-'1 a" "D' di" b' -:-'. ''-hL. -'W' ~ ,--- Ie 1'- D" ,';-" '.-:r "h' -:=,' I - ~ 'b-- --, ~I 'b~ ,--. : ' ... .',." '-'. d·' ' 1- 'h" , .. -_...... ;[- I:!I' .' d'-

_' .:__=x_ure'~1 I 0 :~e __ .1_-, -' ._",_,,_a:\'lOlr,~,~~llaUI , "3,,.,'e _len I~Oxy an:~ .51 ,or_, ,n e:_

;-~I1:_J~ -,O'Dglt) 'wtih d~i_ffer\n_lg di_S:PDSi,rllon_sl 01(1 'bu,HO,D, ':'D,d, tr~~m~' 'tm'u"e': .'.-: h_· ve' 'bee:n, w~,id,e an!d, soft~ sti'ff a,nd, n't)'rrow- ')eged, 10,:[ f1a[ed,~, ,CO_-Jt:1 aOJd, pa,nt'S

lb'I~'~:! . b- :::C~lln-I' 'Irla,d-;'~, ,D,·.,!f:~'~·~p--,a·'lr·,.a:I''''~' ,t:~'b.: .. r--·~~5',- I~r' D·,.,':"r·'·',t·~,L'liiII!!ii ,..,. 'm··· .I~ 'DI·:'''''ln.'~,',,''':(l:'Iji'!C,·~:o·'--I'~~' 1=.a'·I .. t-'~:-ly"I:"

"",faY _ _- __ ' , , , .. __ ,,,",,_, ~~, ,_ _ _I""~, [,A_" """. II! Y , ,~ ,_l,l~ ~ .. ~ , ~l • .,=_ ~ ~ ._' _' ~~I~~ .' ._,II!;~IL"1 t.!!!!!!_"_!l~~>.:,

doesn't, /_Jl within the same fle~xible convenrion; 3 nd the elegant ITL3SCQ, .... · lin,e mixture has moreovet been endlessly enriched from inelesanr :SO'U'K:'eSt M,e:o,[s ,R,e,-:,-[' lilly ha,:_>e·l.oo:kedl, like non-fashion, 'bur. that is a. CQ:m--' plete illusion; i.ts commitment to' risk and irony' is just a's deep II:, thar lof the feminine mode In,d i_lt=S, representational character jusr ;3S strong,

,Modct'll 'malle ,fals.mo,n has in ract been an impressive achievement in modern visual design, since ~it 'has used 3,:0. established 5:,''1 ()"f':for:llla'l rules, ~rat:h,e'r like the Cla55~i.tal. orders [of architectuee, while flowin,g' along at' the same rate of constant change as women's dress, .'_ ike' oit'h,- "·r aspects 0:£' n odem design, it has been an important illusttation ,of modern views and 'lee,Ii-DP,,!, (as~h'ion, is agreed to be, and, not a retreat from, I['he:m~ Trends in modern feminine fasruoiD, have in. face supported this idea, as women, :h3.'v .. iIJ!c'fe·,lsingJy used b~i,ts, of male :~rb ,(olr ev'cry common pur .... , pose, o:fte~n, adopting outmoded elements thae men have currently abando~n.ed" bo.t that 'ItiD lie within the modern canon 'and. 's"tiD, vi:uaJIDy sa,'li's.fy~ 'Wo'm,e:n ~s' fashion, :so noticeable, 10-'· . ~:'a~shio,:nl'ble ~~." has ofien 'been, used ~DI show how i'n.teliestiing male fashion ,rea'D'y is,

b ,L h-I 1 f-:-':c" L "', h b

'F ,E E t, I N 'G S_l ~f '0' ~ S M A'Y about the wnoie 0:; ~ tasmon ,J ave neen ex-

pres .... ed since its very beginning These ", hav ~QJ taken th e form .0, "'1':'-' :0' I"b·~iiie-"e"-~',....,

,I~'.""",~", ;ilc_;lIi"I, ''*'-~ "_.I,~,_-.,,",,: __ ,,lI;, . ··'D'~· --'" ,..,""'-!li_ c_" .-",~. "a.",_.,~" 1, .. __ , II't:, ,I",------;J__::-'~

III " --,'11] h '" 'U 'I k d 'h- '.,

nons to i motai 'y or est aenca I,y' outrageous looks, anc 'to tl I" ··Ie' expensive

'anell inconvenient chsraeter 101f' ilS changes, but even 'more 'to its require-

I _ ' .. I. I ".i!il ., .. [~._~. 1',_, _. '._.,'_J,~ __ ,____:_, __ ,_.I_._I_. __ .':"____. _,I .. ) ._". _ .. _ "'1,,': _,',_,'11 , __ .,. .I._il ',_,·I.·._~!.._____.! [_:,,___·. __ .·~n·. __ 1,._"._. :_:_._ . .I ,". __ •. __ '._-,~' 9_,'

. - . .

ment ,tha'·' p::· .. eople of both sexes p·;ay,,' consta nt attention '.0 their [1-'· hysical

l[" '_" I '_ '_~~_l. • ...• _." _, .. ' .. ' . __ .. ' _, . _ I. _" •• "1 '~" ~ ."_Jl~ •... t! I~~l~ I, _ .. _' . OJI... • _1,1 '.J' -' I .•

:. '_ " _' I! i.J :_:

appearance, It is nevertheless curious to note that '£as'hio:n 'began ills, ro-

b - ') 11 ~. r ~,JII'= '" 'i ··-'h' ~ - ~', ,i h - -) '", L 'III'" ,OJ.

bust, .. ong ~IIJe In. ,m,cw,eVII ' __ rmsnan ~:'uJ:[Qp,e :[,Il,g~_I"., a 01,:_ W~.II1, rel_glo'u,s,

and intellectual ideals e',:I.evatin.,g the· mind and. 'sp:i;m-it far above the fI,,~.sh,

and the material world. 'It is, clear that ill such a climate the charm of' fashion would a),w[a}l"',. lie ill ill, treacherous unconscious operation, its necessary visualization of fa,nEaS[les otherwise not expresse '[ ~ and that ID,nCf" ),11 motion, fasb:l,o':II. WQul,1 therefore be as ,1"1}IUch. feared and reviled and despised [3r_: followed, The aati-fashion Iiterature is, e'D,orOlO'U51, thunId,t'It)US" scathing and, centuries old,

'W ~ T 'H' 0 'U' '1 THE 'E X r: US, E 101: traditionel 'U,IQ:'f', the 11101'1' vivid forms

_'" I l!J. . I!IJ _ L' _ I! _il. "__ _ _ _~ __ . !l_ •• L !l IJ ••• "._1:)-- ' !IIII!l __ • [!I!I.t=J __ . _ _ :J ~_._ ._ .!l . ..:::!i_

in, fashion t~ry' 101'l,lE for social interpretations in current hi S[[IOryil But since

th e,'," f':"'o,\,:,r--'~]- [',," h 'lI,V ... ' -:~ m-i- O~J t, Iv U',' '[~11.p"' o~'n~ - ~~; nlue-- ,-:. '~'O- [0- 'ir-=r ~ ~ w"": rh , -, I~ r: 'h, ~ 'rl~' "'~ [:Ii, u~ l' ed t:r~-7o-:'it-n- .. ro; u~' iiil 'r-': .... ·

".__: "_ ~ _:_-._;... _:__ JI,~-..' ~0~ e- ~ ~____j._.~l._. ,I' , __ ,_,Jl~, ',__:__:_, ,'_, ;]!1~,lIiU ' __ " JI!,_:_ [ __ '-'- ~!Iir;;' ,,_, '-'~ .. , I~~~ g_ ~ '~'~ - ,,~ "__ 1ln '.~' ~L_ L. I~

rent awar ,- "0-1 P'!1Z~ the ····,·O-,~:~I~ '1(, I. ·1-1·'~~'1' ']·',"Ol-:W jF"Ji"j' -I' ~~,;o)jn"'y",,', Q .•• '~-I·l'll y',,',:' be ad duced later .: 1'1II1d,',,_",

,~ l~ • 1;;J • ;j.=jj] .. t I 1~~iJ!. l ... ~ ~. ~,. j ... I ~a I l! e ~g I L~& _ .. l I "J •• i~. . -_'-'~. _ ~I'l~ ~ !tl. 1

-._ _,'-

P--'rQ"ie,c'i'e,d backward to, ,a,t'C'ODDI: for 'p:~;arrj,cul~I'-- phenomena, And then, as

• ~ ~ l

with so much else, it is, ,ea's,}~' to interpret incorrectly from the standpoinr

0:£' ,3 ,di.ffie'~re'n't historical rime, to truss, som .·chirl,g: 'Of' add, something .. , 'Ul· ... in a~n,y~ case, '\1\;r:hat is 'S3'i .. d [a,E the time must be' taken with deep reserva .. - rions, People :may' now sa:'~,~, :for example, that the bu female shoulder-

P- d' ....]1" rn D' 0- ,"'ii' "[h- ,-, e 1- £'11.110- - 'I wh ~I r L, til el go ;110'- Ill" 0 u- - it 0' t-: C:a' ~h-' -, I~ 0 n ; n 'iIi":b- - p n -, I! '-0- e t-]"' a C'

<'I'_Ul:11.l1 e: ;:"1(' '"" U . ~o:; :~\l!"'~~~,,",LI-IJ L~~I ,j-;':_~liIJ:II,,=,~ __ :-_1 '~I) rasn ';':.::~ '~' " ~- /,,~, " I "~'_OOJ~,~l,~

showed that 'WDI:ll),ICrn, wanted to in:UJ.-- te the :'f)L··~ "'tl,',3_11.IC':-·: of male strength. Blut during the rise of'the fashion, nobodv rolmo~:;-Ing it could admit such ;1 thillig:, and the IJ.CW attractiveness of t,rhe IDool_ had '£101 be ~. ccounted (O,f by more appealing-sounding reasons-e-ie makes waists look smaller, for example, And SID it does, but I'halt[~s not enough tOI explain it. a~n,y more than a direct imitation of 111a~I,le d,e:lto.i,ds :18,.

'''':'\ recent .P'3'S1: that includes [3 strong femmist movement makes chi

sort :0·. If~' :1': n terp r e '. ration een I··. ~ "'!Ii"~ ·Y,,!.' ,~[D< Id=-I ·."'I[t:I~ ~'fy:"", ','-I': '~l,g_ [~[; ole, I~ ,t.~h-' ~ '~H.I:C .... !~i ,q, '. ~I or ~~' ~ n d -,

~y, "" ... ,1.,11.1 .. '11;..0, __ . , .. G _ iliL __ ~".1 ,,,",, !!I!;.o,ILI" ~G~,~/ G" ,_" ,",'" ~ '~, • IIdli:t'-" i:J.i.:l., . ~ . ,"" ~U .. iIi,d. H,iIk!l--.-;iJ. d" , ..

the fashionabl e -'I chang res C:'~,-I1',-' b·I,)o.··-:,.,.'h--1 h ,:~ dated and .. , .-', a link ...• :'1ISk:S, to be made

I",,~=e ~~, 1,0 __, _ ~" Q "" __ c,~a- a, " . lli"" .. ~_ __~. _,. II ,_ _ . _ ,IJI . !l.J.-o;c .. I~( . C iii," gU.1f i!1

'1.,III~iII tl' since we n J ·~~'Y"·".' be :O-·I,-b-.'iV"';O('~'I'S~'-I"y',,,,/ ~I- 'u. usled about tLJI~' 0'-1,'0-, ~ :0-:'1111· < ,-~,~ ,O.-=IU1,S,:': .01 ·O·~'·.·'i:'i~L;I"_,,

, _,)I" ~1I1 ,,~i\.,> ''1_, ", __ ",-,,.) ._,_ .. 11._-1,,_ • ', .. , ,iIi_ ~,,,,,,u, UL_ -_._!Ii.. J~~a.~ __ "." . __ III" _' lil~ __ "",, "" - __ ,~i ~g

I"~'O'- ""nIIS-·' beh I'~ no, II d the ,t:~,re'h-I~, 'I~ '0" ':"")~I~ of earl ier da ys an d r ·~'~I'd- o ur mod ~ ern , 'p-'r~'o·::r,iiF""IU-': iiiiiiii<

,,-JILl. , ' .·I_I,~, .. ', '_' It:,.,. ,~, l;d~ [ . ":,111: ,.;J: U ""'.... Ii .. , '_ ... "~'. . .;I,iI:,'_, , ""''_'''.' ... ' ." I" .. '). """ I .'~' .. ""''''''" ' ...

~. -~

1" 1M, ~ I '91'01\, K ", 'f ~,' A S, H ~ 01 N

pations into them jUS[ when we 'I'hio.k, we-~,[-e seeing them mos 'c].'ea:rly~ "W, I;; :'/," m ~ly"IJ" '11. ,a; rHI :L1Q"":'Im- this 'It"j Ih "il, t "W',"P' can JI!]iI')l"D,": be wrona ,3' bout our own recent

,', ~ '_ '___:"', , ,JL_, __ ,_,_, ,[I "-'~' . !Ii,,_, __ ~ __ a,_, ,'" "'"' .... ai_, ~- jiJ-_ "'~ ",' -_", D' ,_ I -',_- _,"' __ " '" ",', "', ","'",",,_,_il

:pa'SIt:~1 'We' are al'W3':':S ~wmlll"II: '£0 find, simple answers, ifwe are ~[Ie',all,y! searchiD_I 'rO'f' the significance ofform.

0'-:: 'nl:'~ 'P': roblem Iii", t-":-'h"'11i" mu tch ~llf" wh 1.'~I,'t a""_'P~~IP-~'"'1I[""'1 '1"'"1 :C':. ~1'OI-'~ ~h"l~.D·,,'g - ~;'n"p<I,'y', ,7 won 'if'

. . I . "1!iP l!:"" ,.' ,'I I. • Jl UI JI iJ ",. I -~, I ,[ ,I . I ~. ~.. ';Y-'Ii 1. a", -e " h . ~ 1!i..~Q. 1.. ., IJ ,il ,J. " I.~. . II 'IC'! • .1,.. I ,'. • i' . ~ j L~I. J l.

lend ]JcseJ_f'tol the easy kind 0'£ meaning '[ha:t b'i,g shoulders can suggest. Ma'i "Y' fU'Ill'n,r-I.'Dol'k:ing' thi n:~~ . in 'fas~hio:n, let,earl,y have sources that :3J'[e' un'f~lthonl-_':b:l,e" and that £;IC-' makes even the easy' ~· .. nswers seem doubtful,

SO'::":DI''''1~' m 'o,:-,',tIJ~\£';,S·'.· can -', be '~l:"1ildi.·,-'~lly,. ~' .. ·'.:.p:'!1:11~;n'-'·e'-~d",·'-. by fa:'-<h- :'·'I",o:ln·"~·- I~"o,"·"'n'.-'I!"'I"O:'U'II~, allusion *'10:' '.

_ ""-=--"'"_~lLI1~ _~l_"~' '._ I! ~Ig~~ ._"~ I/~l' •. " __ · __ '.' ~:_~ ," lali:"".L.'·._.I. __ ._ .... J ,I.~l_ ,_: __ "~.'_.'_. I" ~ __: ,,_~ ~l"_,,, / .. _.~ d:II'_-_:~"'~"'l~_ 11,"·,··

~ -

so ,0' ne ;·'p-~,·.·, r'''I~:,t::L' ~ image, ~U·II~,h·.· ~iCI th ·,·e··' Io u QI~:-'" :O.·~,.i;~ ce ''-r-I,-'-,a::'''I'",nl'''l{.~~'OJ.[', :5···· .0.,'[ sin ,0'-, ~~ -, :Q.·-IJf~

a.. ,~L·" k 1:1 Ilk "ILII, .:___:' ~ '!iJ.i. ,Lo" af.J . .,' eJ l., ," - _. ,- .'., , ,," - -;. '" 1Il,,!.... . '",~r ,iL a", . - ,

arhleres or rulers, or persons representing a C'O'U,l1try 01[' 3 C3'UJSe in the news. But 'w'~ha:1: about th,e mad 'v'ogu,e ,[01'[' ,3, certain shape 01,( collar, the placement of pockets :-:-, '~'II'ljljjf~~' o:·····I"("'·~I~,C.,:-:l";'.," sh oes, or th -IPi ~~'h11=1~' of r-"'·""Ii"p--_,-..s."?- Wh\, .... :[I-

. . .. ""'. ' . • ., n' '.' ,_. 'L." "~ll.~,t,W !dol' . , .Jla._I,lI it» . . ... '. !\i,. '. . . . .-..'!!!v ~ ,,,",] . ,,--I . '.' "'" a.,.- .' ~- '-" g,

'mig_h,[ these have to do 'with current psychological dispcsinons] 'Wh,o' starts ~i,t lan,ldl \"r,·,.·hy' do oehe ~ ... love i,'? W:hy~, indeed, do o:I,1I1y' 501:111:' others ma,ve' ii:?

There are a,in o,nl'y partialanswer :-:: to these quesrions, either in 'the ca_n~ny inventiveness 01£ commercial designers or 'i'n. the huge fleering populari ,Coil of groups and public fi"gure:t, Wal",::e of sartorial desire swe e ,P'

ov .. '[' certain P-~I ,O~J~D,--";"O'." .·nl'~, of the publi ~I~'- an d,-- -, observ -;; ~A'r', 'S:, m --'U·'·: m arve ,'1- 'b~,::,.'I"O:-'~I"

.. Y'.., ""' .. ,!LAc., :.__._ .... ,ii, .. ,,,' ,.;J! '. _. "_ ",'" ~~'. _ """"'- a. "',_. ',_'.. _'II;,,; l .. '!!i;,.;.,. , ,. __ ,i:!Ii''_ , II __ "iii. iii' '. _ . _ ... , .".IIi.''''1

·rh: __ .. even ',~_ry tD a,n,a·IDy.ze'_ .Mos.,[ o,.f:i:t I' would insist .iSI .3, desi .. re to.f' the shape or form itself nIO'[ for expressing anv meanina 'by 'i'!~ the love ofits looks

.- •. _ .. ~.~ I ,J •• _, I, ._"~ 1 .• 1 .. JJI _j- I .•. I',I~:' .lll ~L!_. __ "_."I..' ~·ltJ· II' ·~·II _ .... I •.•. - . L!!!I I ••• "IJ __ . -_.

I:·'~ ,e-~:'D~IO .••• ·· .• ueh, '1'11]-,'d,('i 'm'-'--IQI--·d-·;:I-r":'R:-· assumptions .... b-IO.,~.-U .... ' art and desi --I ~U-I"-p-,:'P"·~'~ such

,i~ .'." I. ~ '_ " ID .. , . .'_ ' _. ,. . ., _ 'I!;", .. '" g:i1t3IU. , ,.J.. !li.<J!, ., ~ d, .. .. ,III. ..~' , a", .._ '""'''', ., ~., .1, . 'IlUfI,I_ L i:'J~ """.iIl~l,

Iove, Love for a, p~ ... articular :(olr~m, is eneendered bv the slackenina of keen

.. ,itI,~ b

desire "D .. ···~.· .. r an earlier form, a:", eO-I:,~,-1 ofestbet ic lassitude that is I(lfi~e:n, uncon-

... Ii. jIk.'!!!i;".l~" ..... , .. ,iliJ IJ !ldl, ~ . ~ f . ~'''. ... ... .. .. _ _ ...;p. _ .

~::.:. nIJd:-I'PIF\':I71fIl- ··~IU- ~,,-'IID.~)O'j/:k",I~ O-I-Itl" pants .. :!II'n- td thort hair, 's·.·.u-:-,~'p-~:~lr~~J· n .• ·IQ" rhe id ea 10:_:'1· mas-

" __ --.lJ~,Dl J~"_ •• "- .. 1 _d~ ,~_~_Jll~l.. __ II _!l I ... , ~ t. lUJlw . '-r'I,-'-'l!IIIL.,ll.IIt!1 ~; l"llir. .. ~. g ._l lla_il!

culine imitation: but th were simultaneously worn \M-ith lull manes of

_. _ .. __ -_ 1.'_ '_ . d_ ._ .• __ • __ " • l_,_. iI. '_' '~ .. _ ._. 1_, ••.•. _" ,.. • I. '_' 1._ " __ • _ ._ .. _ _ \'... _ .•.. I I • _ , ,._. l 1 ._. I, I . I,. ._... . I

'h·,·~:, .Ii., short ,-~,···'h,·~· sk irtsand hieh h .'111,) Both '£('.;'-,1 .}I-"~;I:-"-S. ".': ·11' '-'01 have

,L . __ llll ,s., D,rt [I,g~, ,to 5" '- rrts ,an" __ _ I'IR " ee '-S"'" . _-or 1 tormmanons see.m tc .._. _3_ e

m aore i 0··'1 do .. - 'll'·[i!I'''If,!h~ -, Dil.I~:~1 and '0-- ~~,rr me 'd;'·.'~i!li J"I.m-'· -·"-""iJ'.:e, ,,:[}:, .. and with ... he s iiI"';P' IDc·:'f:I~~ form ;'1

,_ ... &~~, .. ..... lIIr,¥ ,_,:". ' ... U, !dilLll,~· ,_,~ '~'Ii' ,~"J.Ji.,3' _.:i~ .. _:._ -;a': ;g.., ., .l.1Ik~_. ",.' ~,~ ~I ''''',1Ilir- '..' I'I ,_ . ~I,~,

i'n fa:'hioln Idu·ri'nlD: ,the 'p-"re'ceding,<' ep-,o,:"I'h t'han,wi'rh ,-sp-)'ec[~, (llr '[emini,sm'"1

., '"" . -_ .. ,., ~ .. ,--, --~-- .. - ".LD ---,,~ ~ I~.· -" - -- .. -". -, .,,_ .. : .~ - -- c""'"' --=-~"-. - ~""-. ~- .-', .. -- ~_ '""' .. """" -

Wi,['h 1le5lp,ect: tOI ',-~a~;hio'nfs Ico'n··· 11:3,n',I, ch'3'n~e of bod'ilrv sJlap--e-, 'b'i,,,' ~hould,er,

'-" . '-. . ._. ,;:' ~'~ '-' '-' . - ._ . ._ ,~,,_, -' '_"-' - '-' '-' - _' . Ci -' .' -" . 1 ." '- ... j,' ._', ... b'" ~". -"- '-' -'

3i

..

were much in need of 'rle\\"i:~~a'~- havine b--e,:· -en 1,01-11' -'~' eclipse •..• d ,'"" and their : ',-:- r:-

_ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ ¥ __ ~ I.ti _;_" coo g _ ~,J_j_.- __ ---ill all_ I~_". e~r ear

lier u-_ani61tllntl'n, retrjevahle ,fro:I)} old movies. went 'with. short 's.:ki.rt~and ,IID:n,_~ hair, 'DOl lone pants and shit ' __ .ed hair, The la_tel' phe aomena .. ~ however, could be seen 0,0, (he: H[--HI in old movies, who can now be imi-

t·:"!Iii Ad.··(·- -b~'v\;- 1,w,11IO-:-{IIP'ii"ii,Iii9;'n,-" accordine ,.0,···.·" a·:-·· - D"I-A'r--~,'I- modern c,···~-'U-:I~I~II· n of se ,d;-I'u"c~t-I"vl,'·"~'I-"·;··,

d,l. ~.., '!!!!,'11 .... Ii, 11..1. ",,", ",d, .... w " . .IL_ . ' __ ~ _' ill _' 11,,;1 .. 1,.. _ __ _ '_ '_"_ .. , __ ~ !IIJI! _~I '_' . . _: ,., _ _ ,,_ __ 110, _ ~" I,

- - - - - -,~ - - -- - - - - --- - -.:_-.' - --

dressing 'u,p in outmoded male gear'~,

Obviously, both thic •. curly manes and neatly shingled he-aids also

n . eded ' .. 0:-···. 'f'iP''''Ip'-'n~~llr'' in won ten's L·'~··h""'I~:D·:·".n-' - ~,l"tleJr-' the sleekl v' 1';Q;"'I~e-· d--·-·· mou n-'- '_

, ,. ~ it ,~ .. !Ii., / """,;n, _ r'" !!!Ji..l. ,I ,I. "'-'" -., . ,I. ~" 11.1 -'"lil , .. - -,'" Q-!l,'t."". I~, ..I,,,,",, ~""",, ""' '. <I I"'~ ~~ _. . ,. __ " _ _ ' .

'Iai'lls and the 1'3 ~ locks so common evervwhere in '[hie two decades J'·'USI'

i~J (_'

b ~"~O-'. '[iCIio Visu '~,11 chances '~'-1;i11"U',(:r- depend ~,n' '. '1]1, h ,~,,,, 1'~".' alre ".) d,··... there t -0" lo : .... ----'k"- .5i';;;

__ '\or [t_,L~.. '.' ,h"lL '_,D_, c~, __ ._ ',D,,,",--J iii, I ",_-_ __, __ ~" ):_ I~I,~, V I, ''"'" ,_, __ .I,.., :_:_ I al ,, 'c_-. ',~' ",,,_ I L" iii;.. _" • ,_~ '_. . __ 111;1'

th·e'y C3,D_"[ seize a, meaning 'from the atmosphere and try '10 match it with

"1 ~.' 'h 'P.:I~. I'~"I 11-1 he continu u~ 1m I I' ' 'o ... ,··.~'Ojt"~'S;,h·I~lo.Ynl··' - the shape must ~,~,:[rD'~'·'I:~'e,1 'I' -~m····I·· the

111 '_', ~ '\,.--,. ~ ,ilid.! . ",~, '""'"~, IIirJI!" ,_ " _ "" .. ,~, ,!I.:~ ~ iii,." :.. ' ,,"," Oil! , al _ ""' " __ _. ~ ~ , _ • ''''_ JIi.'!LI-,;, _-

'P1r.-eVIO'USI shape, opposing or di.st,rrrtin··,.-' 01[' confirmmg it, 'Whate-: er form

,i'l I. -a kes \,-1 it \"Ji]) ~a'le')f' be !gj,'e':r.I, a meaning I-ha't marches the current mentalilll~ Therefore Isee-i:n,g an intrinsic 'meaning in ir, like male strength in 'bl:.~,' houlders, or feminine submission j,ft ·ti:ght corsets, is probably 'ri,s'k,y '.r'

~

.... ir[Ii :-V"" if't '0--11- A,

it'IILI.. I, " 1~,I·,]. ,,~ ~

~

- r h 'h ~ di ~ II 6 '.' z'l 'b~

"~,~,··,.,~3Jt t ae immediate meam ng- usually comes ~r1Jn_IJ JS avai 3_,:-.I,e tm-

~g,e',r~, ~p,as'I' 01'( present, the suggestive pictures '['hiE: have pervaded pub .... lie consciousness and 13.'R:' loaded with shared associations. ' :-ult wideness and narrowness, which ha .. ~e de ived both from CIODlDlo'n it'lla,ge'l')~ and cr~'~~ U' nconsciou ~', desire 1 ... 0.·.·, 'njrli'lo-'d:-.I~llfY··:'·" earlier kinds o,I:,f,'-"~~\""I~id.'.-·.·· : 0.,.':[" n· rarrow form rn.

LI:~l~~~,~I .• , ._,.~ .1 i ~,I . _ .. _,':) _._. ;:]I ~IL'~. ~ I .11.11.. .~ ~ . ~!II.~:.I _. _ I Jill! u.s. .. I "" '_ .. _. .. _,l ~ I_~~ ,_, ,_. ,Irt. l~ '-I

~.

are' o:(tJt;'ll '\~rol,1,gJ"}~'~_'e:nt such intrinsic meanings. . 'he InU:~.,guided inll,~~lu'~e

'to, attribute them :,'h,(¥W'1 a superstitious belief that fashion ,)'1;1 a "primi ·

't:·]"" ~ ,)'" '" 'i ra rh e '. r t.l- h !':} n ,":ll 0' '-;"1" 0,-, I, de [II' n ,"JIi r r, :9iI, se ··.·t.~' 0· •. : _': f' . 'tI,:~~I," ··:'0'1 'II -I on '-'lb~: )I~' 1i"lliI'"1iI,~~ 0, ms 'f' ha t: :"" re re a~"D"" y t

.. ~ ?f.? _ :_wg _ _.. g J a ,_"'7 .!l d II.J, g t"J__ __ _ '1'1.. ... Jl _ . I l_ .lILI.ClI~lj I ~ II.. _ . • .. ~_ .

consciously coded :1 11 essages, II., c those ill 'the' pe'3'§a'nt. 'viD'agr: 0,[, indeed on II Pacific NO'ft'hwes': totem pole, 'In other words that paddec shoulders don't h .. ",V'l! an authentic place in ehe 'h'i~lto:ry' of form, a. \VI:rt')1 cfIook:],Dtit in 13 sequence of such ways,; that ,th,ley' ,0'1"7 have meaning; that I'hey'

oi'Ilr~, "'0,-';: be "read ';~ in :'c'!lil C' ert "-'II~ 11" 'W",I,~I),:r and '0-10.': 1~.~~'"n,I'O-; -'-r.~' ,..11",:- 'fll''1C!;,~I'''-'~~I_

~"Il L-a- ~ lD~ ~"_ L!J ..Ill II. ~I . ~dL l.d JI. . j .n] I. .~ ~ Y. ,I , .• I~ . i\i.r ~ ],' _~ .. , !l~J::"Jj. of" 1'~!Ii.,-., ,._. \.r.~~,

--I

To ~:, ome extent '[h,ey c'ertal,fl'ly' are signals, since '(:'shio'D'S, do ~ .. imply'

idJe'nrity rhe memb rs IDlf·',g~f10U,pS who ,~O,~UOI\JV' them, Ii\ln,d thtose (:_- :Jl b-_' lie,g ....

· d~ b b B"h Ie" ~ ~ d 1:.' 'L,,~, d~~ «.'

:.~itere::__. l~:\t'f o~·.,§::~('-ve:rs, .. __ 't'lt w'_-.~at lI13_=:es, :mea'nl~n,g__,_' :I-n, :0.}0- :!e:r~n, :1~a'!h,u.on~~lil)e'r--

Iiii' _ "

~:.nt :fmllll fhat of 'toil"; '1111 po'I,~s" ,ain,d of mIDd~e: of' ,dl)e'S$j th,a,E 3X-e likl~' ,th 'C 111 ~I is

t'll,at tb: .. ' 'b~asilc lele'ltJen,'t ;~Il ith,e' mode:rll a'[,- ,0Jf ,dle,55, is the 'chan,gi'n,g' i~llla.,t:e 101( ;,'h,e \\f 'h,ol Ie· eJ'othellJ, 'bod,y, ,n'ot 3, set ::'~ ~inldj,vid,u" ':] 'St'Jl:'~I,]la,tizlt:ld ;,h_&_,_pes"

develoned tOI C'3,'[n (-'::'1111)]10'11 meaninu in a uni ~:,Irl ng,~, vessel - 'he '\~'~ rvina

"_ -- _ • - _' I ,r - - _!l -' I.. J.( - I I. I --_- I - I I I. • - I. ~j l 1 1 L: __ , '_ oJ _ ,_" 1 I I~~. . .• I I. ~ _ •• I l. lD'

shapes of'heel, 'p'" ocket, and belr s re not used as jf rhev were derived from

.'L ·', " ',.",_I I,,,,,,:" J.....',_...,.,,_ '--''Ji ,~' .....:, .. ,,~, c.."""':",_ .',~ ', .. __ ~' .. ,;__.' __ "'.~.'_'_ ' __ ._ J_, .. ~ ,_, ',~ .'.....: ,_'.' __ ... I _' __ ,_._"';_ i( . '_' ',= ~",_ ~. "._. ~ '- ' .. ' I,._ ... ~. ',_ .~.""",:_,~

some legendarv ~'oll.t~, Crocodile or "_ agle, combined 'ill a design that

(:'a'r' ies til c nl ea oi n g'l" - if a nv hit!" I] - odern art of ,fa s.,'hi 01'111 iSI 3 [~\~r . vs re-t7el"'r i 'n'Q'

'" iii' ' " .!Ie! ' .. ' ..."",= . '. - -! I: -7 '.'!I'! _ II = ~I'~ '. . '=' " " ~ iii '""-,. . " ~. """". . - ' • '_ .. ~./ "_,,_, I, I~'

[I;-~) theclothed ';-:"1"'-' [','1 .. c. ·"··d,' :-'""''''1, .. III .'.,~ '~'iIr :11'::""":','," '. "';' rJI-11~ inl istrati :.':'1 ts

..... i tne c a 1,I,e. "I~ _u,r-r!, P3, an C urreru, 3S1 ,Ill. appea rs , n I", ie u ~i = an ve ar l,c~_,

't'h,3It have made fashion intelligible since :Its earl •.. ···. days. 'It, ,is the illustrarive

~ .. -

di - h k ...... ' hi -'~b'~1 'I]' R"" d··' k

me 'IL'1I,,0,1, in art t '-13,t ,~~J,1~t res tas I~ ion po's ~[~, :--:~e at a "..I<J .. le'p .. aten P,~C[~I,reS ,,~e'ep

illla'o,e:·. nresent in the eve .. desirable rcadv for associative si mificance,

, , - 'b _., ,1"" _ .. -~,,= ' , '_ .~ .- Ii!! ,_. 'iii' ._ .- '_-"~' ._. ';!I' .. "-- i .-, 4:. ",,",. . - . -' - ' ., ". ,,,, - . it,,~. . .- ',,

/"., I \\~I P',: [0 tf-'!Iii ,e.··· '0, I :.. ]'~ Ii[ll ·t- :'li nt ; I, 'I ~'t; t .. ;t:1I 'il"I~. O"~ ,- i\ f(r'"O>:,]-'11 i(",,"\.'i\r . d:- 'b-'u' :j;~"' iI" :-[~~ II ~"'I o:~ 'I::-~.t; 1£;1 :-~li IF;,O, .. I: '1"11. . ::I'l' rbver :_

U~lj ,Il, UJ '._ [lUll. _ I~ _ lJII. _ ~l, loll .. _~ Ill .. J •• ~I .. ~ ~l I . 11.1. . ~~J ~ I j _ _ J _ :r. 11 _ .. Ij. 11[11..1 .. '~I.:.I lr:~lt: dJ IL-Il. . _ Jj.JJ.. t • II . _. l I

~ ~

sion, replacem enr and eventual 're,di,c'Q\ e'ry~,

Desira ble form in fa8~nlo'n, is shown and [101' d, ill pictu res" I w here the ,1.1.1e'd'JJu,I],1. can sharpen Iits ed;ge. swell its curve, polish its, surface, underline its fl,ee'tin,g: grllollry~ One '11;3,8 'tOI admit that now, firr exampk .. " without the

camera there would be '~I"~:O"I ,··'1']L.·IIlO····;·n· 'B;U'II[ .O,.;:'I·~ ~ '1~:"1I:n··1iI'~I~O······ '~il!'lie 't··· .. hat ~·r'" th ~~, time

~ "1,lJ'~l~ __: 10· _"_ ~i.~._. ~ I,_J •• ) '._:__ l .. __ J,_!,"_·_ _ ..... ~, .~-I, .. ~.. _'~lJ ,.l~l.l_.·..::._:_.·:__,_,~, _-.' I "__ '_',' ~I.=~ __ U_. ul.3 .____: - tJi~~~ l. ._IL . .:l'1 L)l, ''-='[_'>__:~ l~~:.__,:__,_~

of Durer, :ffl'rr-o'XaJ'I r~"e'i 'the fashionable S'I,Ulll,PI Ir"J·~1.0l~'I(Jt:~,-:~ and the 'bre.·,th,.a'ki,ll[g: break of' folds could 'IlO~'. have seemed '0 modish without

h is ,!l!jj. ~,'" d.'. h ii, co •. ,111 "e'~I,ll7iIJJI es' 11\11,' e ',I. ',~ ~-""~'O.·_:IU.:·: ~"n;:' t!r-' o:Jlf~I'r"iIP'lI' \'t1,!llr'~'I~ h '-O"'1lI'~"iiiI'QJh·· .'. 1'- elez n' ti-: 'pc c ople .

. II ~ iii, II. , I"" [iI!" '._ .. '_ Iubl, ....... ,;;J ~"" "" ,iL~!Ii ' .. ' _.' . '"", ,D' !loci, 'Y ,!Ii,ili,.I z:,,= ~I ~'I' 11: 11. "" '_ ~ I!!i.~ 10 ..,. '_ ' .. 'it',ti. II; _' .~.' .... , _I .

h"OW [,0 see what made them :IOO,k, elegant,

It ';"8,····, ·1··IO,·'t-, th 'e'·' singer 'h-";1'[']'-1~;~~lt,r. 'b-.I,u.1 t ~Jh"I:' CI- bo .. aosand pictures '0, :;:'f,~:~' h-"J11'i I' 1" ';'I''rL the

I l~ I _ "I..... . • .• ~ ,.. .'-r. . ~I._ I _~'-' f. ~ . . . II Ilk I ••.. IU~dl,I,. _. ~!L ... l~. iJ.i .. . ,., _L~ll. . 11L1,1. t, L ..

" -. . '"

1- !.

media that '1), ing '[:0 Iife and nourish tile: vogue for' his looks, and ~,l,lodify'

portrai r painters, commercial ~~Ilus.tri:l'£o~rs,. engravers and adve -ti"5J~,1g artists

g:::;;jI\\"I~' 1if:1;-h"'I~"O""'I-~l" '1"'1;["e> perpetual " urrencv "T'·IL,.'l"~ 'Iii! 1"'11 currem v '111,.. .. 1'[ ju st of 1~'t:lii"IWlaIIU~I~

,:_ ' I "" II, ;:;, . " ' .. ".,', . ,I 3' "'Ill;.. ill, . _ .'. ',IU •. .....', '~. , ' ,""" J'" "ILl .. ;Jl ,II".JI ipi, 'I... ,_"iIi~ .. ''''" ,J, .. }' , y '.' ""' '.,"'" _' , jlJ. ILiIi'ie'!!!i,.,,;]i

bu [- o,f the '111()d'~ o .. ,' makinz 'I" ':"h"e-ll1~'- -~qll.'" -1['I~ p 'ni' ,t~lc"[i( I)' ,",'I bou nd ~O' , ""ll dr

_~'·'_...'.~.;~~C"'\"o ,.i.~.~J'...',,,", <~I" lILJ'....!,,~::O,.; ... ;~ ~I"," - Jl!!!l..>U~·:·,,\.:, !".!t,I:~ .. _:'_'LltU'lI'i ";~"\,"L • ...!~,Ii,;I_~ 1!l,.'.J, U: I,_~-:'_."""

,1113, tic hu ,1113, u! nat rative [,h:3,t 1.1 never ,ti,:~.1 ished, a rno dern serial tal. '~, -We UISC the mirror to check ,o'ur ,pl.a,lce 11,1. i,tll

A- 1~"Ii(~1 '~:~ ~'~'rh"- '.Ie'~' 'I,,"',':"'~~!"'~~"r" "1.'-1". 'f~,~'h""I"-IO':':'i~ :""',:"j'IiI-n·'''I~ '~'n-'-I '[-I~ ,e,......:rvl~[I'· e,.r:=~ICI.I~ 'I·:'II:~I '[" 'I~e.·~· 11~lt'I~I":: ,'::d"I"'-

, IILI,UI, ,;;J~:W" ,,11\.1 ...",.. ;;lIl,~ , .I!UJ:!! '. tl c: al ' ,iI ~ JI .. !!li.-1 ti' I i.1iJ , ,[II! L. . .iIi " iii.. ,~~, !I.,,," '. I,

dl,e ··:'~'I~les'jj 3'D,d in.a;UJg[filte,d '~,111',de~rnity, 'in. lire···s [".1: Ill_3'tlch the .···.";tI1.er .1110tfer,n'iri,e, _lllt:rgill,g a,l~h:e'lJJll.,e 'per.loa- ir 'begaJ,I, tile' :p:ro\: ess tha,t :11.~1~'; ,fi.tlally' ,Plu,'t ,all 111od,er'n_ IC"IOlh inr; (110'[ j 'ust the' 't'ra'p,p,i.llgs 0(' t~l c' r'i C'h:~lld, i,dl'e", "tlto ~nl',-"rel,~, 'b:"g;lll t:h,e .i.d:,'la)i in,l,a t:hlt!, 'r"cp'rt:S~'llta[~,O',~iaJ ,llll(]d~,., To d"o rhat; it

needed the h,eJ'~,p 0'1~' the 'new' realistic representa ions i',-' 1~,'[r"1 which had a chieve d a stunning pie ,I'e'ction, by' the 'flft,ee.nr,h ce'n.'tru,ry~, - hen, the swift

~'P--' read ",;-: 'p- -1·-- t - d !--- - Jrt",- - [(0- -'0-' E""OU' 'Id' set ~,~ ual ~~ dl --~ - r: dl

~, :,1!11jjp u, 0 '-:,':[,1,1 ,e'~1 I'ma;ge, 13'1,_,e:r' = ~,,: ,:, cor '-~_, ;'1" '"I el'SI ~iIJ st ,[1/,-:' -ar:U,s, ll(IOI[J 1',1 ress,

and I' iupp ort th 'e-=' 'I~ dea th a:I'·]~i'D-1 a:'I~~u""'1IiI=' C:,110,'I,-h-;" .d L11g;u'-~II-[I: -",,;: 'I'~~' mos desirsbl e:- 'I.'iI!~ h} e- -"~,

" ... 11 .. ~ .. ,",. ~J " • lJl IILI . II .",. ,,[1.- ... a '.~ J , _ .IIL. & ll, .. j~~' d., .. 1.. .'.',.. .I.I~ _ ..... 1 ',' 3 I. _.~ '._ ~.~ I llll.~. '.~. ¥¥ ~,~,' __ JIl~

J " • ~

'1't, looks like an id,e'a~~, re ilistic picture. Eve,ntuall)f every mode n clorhed

person would create a picture referring ,_0 other pictures, and 'no fo:rm~ l

ld '. b di AD'-': d d Id' ,= '1''"'11..-

messages ICOU ,= I ever' agam c _:e'_lr~ct.,< ;" . moaem 1~'Ii~-S'S, wou (: be like ,3[(!I

with is own rules even though OR,C' of its rules might be to SIU,g(,~5·t narure and '~,oo:k art s, 10'[' to resemble ancient tradition ,3'Dd look, timeless .. -'uJcb, e'£[ec'l=S, would last a, certain w'hil,e' or fin a certain niche, just like other £ashjolls,~,

F,3 - bion - "" I"L 'U',1 'tt; been a -b-':'~~, 11"0- -.I 'b-I_:~C: .ome ,~, ' et of 'ilDI ' ,'U-' Sit" r--""I:"-I~.O,-:':"n- '~I \~'~~e,,~I- f-' ur II -

'Ik'w]. ~ .. "-, 'Iii.<- ILl, ._ I '!;,._.. _. ~ _. ' .. ' g l;.; . .. ,'_.. _ _". _. .;, ill 'l;)_. !!' _ _ _,

like ehe peasant 0:[ ethnic clothe '" ir keeps sbiftin,'g, bach, what 'and how' il illustrates, i ID~'I,'I~,w~'n,g' aJI the other modern ill"tl'stJalive arts. :~· ••• orne cornponents may' be metaphorkal and others direct, some frc~~::h and some fixed, ill, convention: and :in. fa,:'.hit)'n, all these :s"hift around over time, ta'kiling' the' 'bod,y with them. 'The' g-e:fl,eraI, idea of subversion remains ~fu"dd,:,~'m'e:n'Eal~

~h,e! idealizing, normative impulse must 1:-LI_r,aY,1 be' undermined and the drama PUi,', ,,·'U,:~ its next ;a,ct,,',m 'U or large, o,::-~,e'n la,CC"OD1Pa nied by a, certain

amoun t of scandal, B,u'l this :h,3SI no ,_ :nti'rlel~,i predictable \-,,~ _"" 10'£' happen .... inJg ,a- d, nOI ,fi/e'dl, schedule because £'hat'1 tOIO[t1 'would, produce 3 S€3,bj'-i'ty,

(olrei,p 'to the needs of 'fas'hio:n,~ Changes moreover occur piecemeal, ~'IO t:ba,r the picture alters when on 1,:,. some parts __ hifi and otbers endure,

T',h_ifts, can't even be shown 101 follow ehe changes in society ',.' ,_.It'h an'y temporal exactitude. They are much more likeJ'!,y to precede them, as the

g,11COD cious desire for ch __ nge appears in the !:_DJ'us,trjti-~e bodcily' realm be-

fore ,I,n:yol[ue' articulates ,a~nld reasons the need, - ::_,~at':b change in'ar,hi,o:n'~'~

emblem, w'mc'h is a).,:,' 3.1S, cast in, rhe form of a c:l,oc:hed figure as ,:_, p~~CIUJ)e,~ mlay bring a Dle1A' ;-" rrangement ,[0[, its iUu-tra,tivle ef ~,e'ct-'I.- not just a, '.: 'I ,'e.r-, ence in, wideh or '),er]"grCh,., Wid,rh,-_-nd, :I"e:n:~h, 'm-y change, but also the

II f he ni d h h 'h" hieh fl'-' .-~ "

s'ty',u: [J;~~ t_ -,Jt! ,p~l,crDre,~: 3'DI tne r,lyt',I'~m at' 'W'-I1.IC,I.,-I, ';'ny 0,': them changes is,

largely un,p~rediclalble:i' In the case of' the m 5cu'li-n,e 'rail,o'r-e'd_ SIUI~'t,~, ha~lldly' :any bi,g changes occur, even while ,~listD~ry unde ,g,lle·· upheavals a'I~,d, thJ-, male skins 8",,:' up and down, Small changes therefore look ,al'm the more important and get more attention,

Ever since the attention of anthropologists and sociologists WdJS, first

d _, -, ~ =h'· ., d" f"-' di '., ~ (I' h h 'DI d I r·aW,I} to 11tOu e~[I,1 tas uon msteaa 0: __ : £:0 tra ;-II],0:n31 :L_'ressI t~Jey' j,'3',VI. _ mea

''':iiI " " ,","

to P ·:··"r:~ld"-'I'":;-'· ~it· .. ~: ch -~'-I.1ig,;~~~: ~'~" -I"'t:h:" -:;e,'-~p·-,:,-I~'~~ '[~~'D' :',: I~I~ •• -,!;';I,~'II change ,0,.: -rm-.·-····,A,r't' mes :1""I.',;<'I11'~'-In.'~;,l .• ··g,"

. _ ., "'" . ,I!Ii. ,)., jJj '"' , d, .,11, ,G~ .'W ,. ,',' ,f. ~ "" Ii. , . ~vC.ull, C . _ ,II. ... . ... , . ,~Il.I, Lra C. II 1 ~"u.l

:_ _.: : _ -=. .J Li "J ; _ -::::. I ~ • .

that s'k~irt:, .... length will "always" be connected to 'Eh1e' movements of' the

S'CllC:k market, or 'l'h3'1 elegant women s waistlines ''''rill u:a'I\lI3,y~::'n' 'be' dis, .... placed I,:(t'e-r cataclysmic wars: 'but such rig"'d rules have net been accura,te·ly' borne out h>i la,rer hms[or~:- ,3,:n.0 the ,etTo~rl has b --'(rD, ,gi.ve~n. u:p~, One ,thing' 'I'hey did not predict \¥13 •• the breaking u,p of fashion into nl_any' si:~,~-I'ulta'lleO'ulsl streams, 'so that W,:J~'~' and stock-m t shifts might have

m-I' "I' 'iI1'1I'~I.t~I""P- :'11""" ,'~I nd :e-- VI~ '0- ·C·· ~.O.· .~ .• 'J]: "Fr ~ d , '~C::-- t· ,0. I .•...• nr '\\r;1 os' '11 ''iiI 'I. Ie;>: !b' .0.1:, ..... :, - .0' -I r ad I'y~ n- -I c p, 'fl" .• 01: gl- .',f; she ~_ s;

,.~:"~~,_ ',,,,,,'~"'!!i;,r. .,_",, __ , '. __ ''''''' __ ,_"""1.,1 11,,, .. -1.'1 _Ia._.lw._ !!!i..-',,"LI" "_ ., ... iI] ;II; .. _.",.,!IIi.;"'" " .1";11_-,,, .di!l!

'!Ii,

a 101 '," d I th e com 1~11'O······-'~1 '€.a~I<- -~IO. enable sc -~ en e mi .'. ·'h--:'~ rain ::. '---;-11..1;''Ii·''f k'''·:·'"I'~ nd of d ·~-V,·I ersirv

_ "'--,' _ .. 1"_,,_,,",, C_.:_,J.LIl_,:__,, __ -:_'~,I. ,!IL._ ), -_' _u3 _"__ ,3'_'_'. '. _' , . g, 1!Io. gAl... ,_) I ,t::.", .. '. ""'_ _ .1' ". 1., ""I ilil'~-,I'

not 'b-I';:a:' sed ~ .. ~lm·····"pl .. I· 'y:',-' on ~~'~~I~I a .. md ..• oecup .... -t--I"'I~I'n-···· .. but ,0I,OIn···· .d-~I'ta'"p"~~'n-I'I· ~i'lml:~.g--._,-l~'n·.·.;;Il'r~;'~v,'·.·~

I"k '_"_' __ , __ .iD.!"_" __ .1 -'.I.I "_,' !J.~ ~Lla~il ." "jl·. __ .... iJIi..-i. l. __ 1 .•• d,. 1""".1.1', _" .IJ'." ' __ ', t, 'c. JILI-=IIL~'\...JI JJ_lll .11 L I a:, Jl. gl~~ldll'jlll.t.

,_j .___j' ., ','

s'lyles o,:ften within the' same socio-economic group,

The fashio'd ma,p 'mi,ghlt even come to resemble what the ethnic map

10;'- 'If"~' E:u' " irn (·-··r; ." ea -'. ·-n· 1- ,eo",.-·:·,'I·, k- ""JI ~~ ~I~ 0'---,'8, ri~' 1- 0,--:- o-~-'k-~'~I.,JI ~,; '~I '"'~, '~':t",r~, ,~~, HI I~'I~~' h -', O-=-:I'tJ'I'~' g .. ~n- ,- ~~"1! UI,-,'" fiii· '!Ij:-;-:-~'

. j .. , .l ~l ." .. j . c • I· ,[(~t-j ... , U~'~I~~ c ,~,~'Iir~ . - j .-"1 .1"U' lIJ.I,lK.~il 'W'~ vO,I_·. 3~.I~1 I,:I'I"->"~ I ·I~I '~ll.laIJJJ.i' 11r.,.I., ~

-e - !/

inte ··'I-',-"'r~I,'I~'V·,I .. ,:,e. ,-: desire ;'0--11 cls ,It "I! ro' '0'-1" odern -,t1le'h'~I\O: :;'0-. - 1~:'V'~;~~p-I~IIJ'~" ~I:e·· '.d,-, bv m ':0'· ide rnl (I ~,~ _,

,"",!Il;',_ .. :,"",ClI!j"."",~ -. -,iJo. __ . liI"_,, ,,"," _.'ii1!iJ!! ~ ,',,_.' _,' .• ' "aLi]i"-"-"::!i """"iil1Io\;.;,iIi,ili-:__, .. l_,1 , .... " . '1' '.' '." .o~_" "B.' _q_JI.

loring, has been encroached u:po,n lby' 3. new desire f r incoherent multi'£Of'milty) the visual state once t:h,olu,g'hl of as·'li'p'ri'I_lut~ive'--;-~no~n~nlodern"~1

peasant-hke .. The use ofmany disparate printed patterns in ODJe costume, ·(o,.r example or' ehe u-se' of ~mJan:y disparate pieces ofjewelry at on ~Ie~ .. -, some beads a chain uti,cb_ a, cross another chain .. , Both these e:trecIsl! once associated 'with, G')rps'iles 3'n,dJ other unmodern groups, have now become 'C'O.OO1] 0:0, ill. urban :fas:hi,IDn,~,

tarion - .0-':[' separate conve ruio '1f1ii1'_· used 'I'~I :0' me ·C·I'O,I tun e ~- 'he visual result 'I~~'

,,_ ,1ti,..lII,_-", i, .. I., '~""",I,· _ ii. A!Il. """' "'"' --'-. .1,;1,. . __ ._j It~-=-j~,jj ~ y-. - _ ". _. ,..,,1.,1 __ - """~ .'. _ . J_ .'_ • ' •• _ 0 J" , __ ~ .. ~" \r.o '~ ... i.1I! '. _ _,W ,. ""'~ ,_,~"!lJ.l ",""

C···-·-I·o.-:'n~UI' sin ;g"~ a nd .U" mfocu ss ed: ~I'I--"I,d~, that '~~~'M?' resu - 'It. :I~,I~ ,c .. Iearly '" :d;~I.-.I~"[I~.d·, '~'\f.1 1-1Ii)'''1ilrI&flY,,' I.:'

. . .... . ... !aI .. " ' .. .1 .. - ... - ...' ,I,~ .. ,...,_ ~ . .. ., a. liIi,. . . ,....- '!I!!!o'_ ,J' ,"'~,,_, ~ (;, ,"',CI, ".1 '_' '~J._,~.. V,I . ..illl U 11.,11 ~.

,3.'1' nresent .. Links '~yii"h, the d issohirion OJ':I' the :S-·.···.o,.~:V~I,I~t: Union O, .• ·'-"-r;" with the

- - r - - - -- _:1___ - _I"L__,,",~ __ ~_ - '""' __ .'""' . __ '""'_ = ~ .Ii,,",," ~o_,_ __ _ ~ _ LiIi_' _, ._t"_

-~",','~,ulticultural Moverme'nt- however, must not be' (olrg-.·:ed 'coo -ra'p;~,ildly,'I,~, the

I ,_, I, I, ... c I l _, I, " , • I "I. J " l ~ • ,_ , '~ 1" h " " _ .',~' ", ~ I. " _ c , , :J , Y , •• :1 '" _ ~

'_ 1'_:' :"'

, d"·' h f ill II 'I " d d b k r'"

currcnny :01.0: tsr rra -~ entmg impu se ,3' reac Iy: " :'- ':r,es I, : .. aek a 101 uart er' 0'1 r ;II

,'c. ~~~, ~", '<.' ,~~,_, '.' ',_ jl'l' ,~ "II (. ~ ",1",,"_' "'_ 1_,_.1_', .. ,1 '~_'_'_ c __ ,,_I =--" "l ' __ '_' '_

centurv, when fashion itselfbroke 'U'PJ~ ,i'-lto separate livinz frazments 'UD'-

~ 11 : 1 liCt. I:J.~

der ·C·-··"O'···'·'''U-I'-n··'·[-~'II'':_r·u~'11,·~u,~,11 ·p-~-··'~J:I!;···'s····un[e·· .. nd Id:"-~IS--~;'-D-'[~"- red d ~-: "'_< I .. '-I~'m--'-';p'~'II~f b~ 'e':,itl"'a-I'm-"e- Ain--"

> __ ".-,1: .. ,,,",·,1,' I\,.".)J" I,ill,iIl"" _ '-". ~.:.I, "~'.iIi JII" I,_~,~I,. ,1_"_',~JLi\;.._} ,I , :..:_ it .... ~. 'U~ '."_ U II'\.,

'p->:o:.<isib-::-"i');It:lr ,~'n~lll'O"-:.D-IIQ' ~I~:h--' ~'~:-,

,- ' .- Ij, .... ',' a, .I.~- .... 'e' u" I. ,,-,;I;.;:J '"

'F' I:O,~: 'R,) M-',' ,:,~ A':-·"·,- N" D' ~S: E '-X:,:' '-U, T A/~\ ll-I 'f ':-Y,:

1 "". _ _, 1_ ., _"..._: l .... -~ ," "_ .' - ~ ) _' I .,' : j. L! -.. •• • J. •

~4 0 'D :.: Ill. 'N' '-I ~E _ m III 'E is subver ive, M,od1c:t'.n, ,tashii,o'n, acting as the ,ilmu5-' trator of modern civilizancns discontents, never tries 'Eo, tame collective £a_n,'l-~ __ sf into a "f~xe'dj shape meant 1,0 last" but is > Ilw,y,,_ prodding ir, u,:r,gi'o:g it to ,k:e': on, making awkward new suggestions instead of :repe,ati_ng: fine old assertions. In lite'r~ry '6,c,tiou~s,,~ modern need moves ,3w,ay fro~n,1, the comfo rt D'~'-""',;' ,[,,AIP-:RJ;t- ~t·· -I" 'v: ---, incanta .. ~io·-nl an rd s '"!Ii!D'!1, toward compact lvric 31Ind·,-1 the

1!Ii...-'JI,II,II-,I,., I" "'-"L~I __ JIL"I- .'Ii"iI,I .. '-.,d'""dL.I",IIl.,Ij, ;(1,",-'_" d~~, ''''''' __ '11,1,-,' """'V_"~,,g:,~_ . <!II,'!J,;lti\,., .~ iIi,'I':::'_ .. ~ ,I _.___.

phrasing ofvivid 3-nd, dis'£u'r'b!in,g personal narrative; and the same applies in the visual domain,

-W',·:'-':,,·';,.,/h-:e·- __ never the chief d esir ' of the eve ~I'SI a reliance 0,,:0 im •.• nmemorial

" .... " ~ . ," ~ ~._. _ "_. I II • I. -, ," li..r.l 1 _It 'J • _~'Lr.~ I • I II 1 1 "._" '." 1 ~ I~ _" ~~ I _, .. _ '. __ ~ _ I .. ~, "._" ,_1_ _. .l."_. L"LI~ tl.o I

(011',1115,- the prevailing esthetic spirit isn,~E, modern. For visual sarisfaction, modermry l--eq,uires conflict c nd dialectic, uneasy combinadon , ambigni'ty' and tension, ironj, the kiok of dis's, ",£i'sfi.:,-~d, search .. This means that : 'Il~/ clear and stable modern visual harmony, if 31fJ_d, 'W,h,C'D, m'_ 'IS alc'h~,e~:_,.-,ed, de ....

P- ends on tension ,"'I'DI-Id:-I t. acrifice, the posture of imag rinative vigilance-s-

~, I l~ ., I J '-1-" I alh .. ," IJ D, JJ J ,., , • •• [ • ,. • •••• ~ •• '" _ _ .,' --:--:-' f _ . ., ,~, .: ~ t .• ' •• '

. . '._-",

you, can, see i'l in '[hie: 'best works of c;),bS'E.f,atC't: pamting or' sculpture and in,

modern architecture and 'yUiLl! can see it Il'n modern abstl3-ct~ suits, Whell "righ'c-I~y' manaa ~ _:d,,, such balanced 3_Dd coherent 'simpli,c:i:ty, ," 'IDw,ay,s moo: .~",:~ vibrant a'n,d :00'£ dull, never static but alwlilYs charged with potential

'-b d ,i, d" d-I '. " ,,. '111~ '" "h b 'h" '\1.,.'.

IC,I,11311ge ail, .. indeed s.e',x,y~, ,,',-,_o ern sllm,pl,11Cl.t)~ nas become one ,~lg!j1:I.'y'

erotic theme at ,pt,~y in all '(0 r ms of design,

For modern clorhes. sexualiry became the fundamental expressive motor, the u:nd,er'ly,i'n"g: source of creadve plla,y~ of 'wa"Y'~a_rrl;n"ess,- 'of inven-

'" 0; (I d' " b h h ., I d~ h "'il, .. ,:: d 1:'.' "h '",

'£Ion 10C"O_IOg not ,t ,t ne pracncai 3'0:,1, ",':' :r,e,gr'e8".J.v,-- ,uO-_= :I,as,I'-1 ion came'

'~'O-'-·'. ':p' •.. o .. '··.'·rr~-y.,r' 1-:,PVIII'lIl'l-l~'n;.:' 'I· tse -:11'1'~ as 11:"1I'W:., ,',II.:e- ·S~'·· wavward , a nd '-I~' nven fo-I',C-V' 'iiPJ All":" II ~ljII Oi d Ice ... it' 1:0,.' .,':'

'l_ _:- -- -' 'l.1: g. ~/~A'M, __ ""~ I '____'~,:",lIL__~ LIA '_ e- LI .... -~'~I n' g-,r''''~ _'- '_--_--_,,_ '_-- . ,_' ~ , II:. ,' .. '-"II!!' ''''',. '_""'-___ i.l_

IE'~,C'-' --I~ '"I'~! class ,'t'I 'n~ d ,-, 'I ncti 0:":'0-, 'lI~Ar·-~ cont ai ned bv .. ·· " the ~e··,-'~,.t-u'- ,,,,,'ll mode. ~O: ~ h ,,,·),t' __

~~JI! .. iJl u~"' . ·R " II, , I . _ ~".",:I _'1 • ¥w ~ _.~ ~. I I... 'I ,...... . II. J I.. [3. "~J •• all ll: ,I ... U~JI liJI .. , !~ .. l .iI._

~ ~

men's clothes were' always Dloti,t,ealbly' masculine first, and only ~ __ fite,nv:aJld~s

noble, professional, rural, proletarian. Since fashl,o,Q, started, '1,11:1:' forms

'I' tl ,~

that expounded the male 101:r ,teml13-m,~ body' iii dress WCfC generated 'by sexual '[a'n,Ia:~-y' and then tempered to suit other' dimensions of' life, I 'would,

h ,., L ,~'t. L~ h I '1~' h s: ,...I, .... ~ C: r. ~

emp tastze 'CIII,(: sleN,r4d~:,I't,Y. 'WT-Iu,t'~,~, ., ciaim ,a~s the foundation fer '1'IOlrJ1J, tn

'fashian1l1 ~i'!1 not the same ehiag as s'eJI'I~l"il~,lIel"ltSSi' This last has emerged 'and subsided in fasl ion for eirher sex at certain periods; bUl l \L,Q1UJLd, claim th ~i*" sexus ,'I '1='"",. ';11- ~'e·'~I'f' ,: is behin d ~1'~J·"y".", '~'ilEm·.·.~;,·I-lI'Q' (0-' ·{r·'I'II·'~ .l~" ,r;"lir,'h·l;ilo~·,n-~1 whether or n :0.·.""

110 ' ~1i,1!L i'1i. ,n",_, ._J ..,'!!IO' 1 ,iIi",_.a _,,~ I ,a _ -~" I. 11_ " .. _. aUIL ,~, ;:tI11k _ -... .,~I ,It, ., . "Il __ 1.1.1 .1Q.i.'lIi, , ,iii., _I' 'I!;.". _ 1,1Il~" ..... .., .11i;,

the form calls :~ . .tt'enliol1 '·0 the sexual characeeristicsof the wea rer, ~~-:eXD,_' ~I; '",~- h ,,~, .. , ~I~';- as disti '~ ... , .,r'fro' ':'."11111 a 'II'Y"':" simple ·d' '~i'~~'~~"nltjti:~~I",~ln between m ale an Id:'~'

~ ~''''''/'J .. - r u ,gil. ,iIi.~i'-' !C.IOI W~.,"l"",!I'!Il,._ "", ~,, __ .". Ililil ".~" LiliJ .. " d _1_ ,I ~_ '~I",",' ... JIi [['LI&'\.I, . " .Jla'l!,. ,'U.I"" ._...~ liY., "",. c__: '." •• U"" G·" .

{e'n.lale'~,

A111hisl onlv bees me true when Wesler'n fashion ,mo,t :fu'l,y,I?' under 'w,a:yo',,:~

I" ~ I.' lJ!

somewhere between :12,00 and 'm400,~, Ellc,ga:OE clothes dJll:ring that period,

a~'t:e,r consisting of the S3rn,1JC' basic 5 LhJap'es, on which ornament provided rb< ineerest. began ['0 require padding or constriction for the torso, extreme shortness 10'[' trailina I: ··'~1M'h·.1 "'~'I-' ~~I'r~'"llll'i1il.e, ·nrt. s. and ~~.1jf~t!U···I·JJl-~-'y' ... 1 wrouaht ..

1i;.11.'\;,;. ., L, ~"".' -,', '- - ." '"-,, ,~H' ~ ""b"" '"" ,D'''''' 1,IV C"""'·" "11,iI,.,, '., .".;]1" !!iii ... ' -' ~iliIl.'""""IJ, .'/ '"'", "'-'D' I",

expressive shapes for shoes, sleeves, and headgear and '1"O·"C!C,p changing 'these requirements, here \;:.3S a new insistence Ion. cut and fit, 1,10 shape the torso 'bg'h,c:I,',:{ and sometimes s'tra:n,gely~ and th,ICO to change the shape .. 1.- "he same period saw' at new use olf'lextra 'fa,b,ric' to extend the bodvs vis-

~ " l'

'I icuous and ki ,.' h d·· 'L bvi

U,;3. ::c'oLpe J ,:-0 create c,on~sp:I,CUIOIU:S, anc ,-CI'nJ![,I,C: S,I,L'3,P'C'S, aroun __ ' ,It: tnat oI5V,I"'-'

O~ '-uis:ly'·· "'~:r,e,-"'n.I" "'O'!"i,tl'n-I;,t-, the ~~r--r:':A ·0· ,,··f"" n'[~I.C'I-: tical ne ed, and I w"·' ··:e,)1, ]'1 beyond ~, ~IO"I.:~'I'!'",,'II

._.L., 'W''!I!i.,,, ,II. ·Qi'D~ •.. ... ~ :1[,1l", ,'Ii,..."" ... ,r' ,AL .. !lJii...a . ,."-,, .. ~, , __ ",. I ,... !!Iii-<,.' .... , .. ' g, .;JI ..... '11;;.. d-!II,

need for simple osten rion. Eventually parts of the body mjgh,t be smoothly packed ,I,\\\ray, but then referred to, 10,11. the surface. A 'wo'man'" bodice, for example instead of allowing her 'breasts to form hills under the :ra'b·ric,~ would be made to :fia,tten QU,£' a)') her fleshlv curves mto an ab-

,~

stract cone, which would then be adorned with '['~'iOI semicircular fes-

,tr-·"O·'.~··:O::·D~'~ of pearls .. =_ h~':e' '--:'e- 'W:" rould 'If,e, "'pl-,:'I~r"e. the natur ~I'~I IPl1Q Icr\IJ!I';~C .. 'D" ,'" '~' rhe breast ".

_)' '"1'_" ._~'''I JI!;.'J.,~ , '''~._.-.._vl._."_ ,iii, aI""",.," ' .. I Ji,,:lIii;3!_ .. _I'.'~.!I!, !!Ji..rl .'_. ¥~-, '., .....• ,-."-,IlL,.

wieh a reference suggesting " at bre ··a~~I's. th :"I~~~II~I'v~'~-~ are ornaments.

,J _,,, _" "if . J'~~ ~ ._. •• _.' ._. 1_.tiI '.' __ . ~ ._., . __ t_~. __ . .. __ .,, __ ,"-~,I,JLJ!~. ' '. ~"1'~~ • '._.' .•••• ,~~ ,_. 1 ,l~ ,~

.. '-- .. ' ~ .' ~ - .

~TL·'1.·· ,,' .... ,- ' r c,'-····b·I-:-",~ .. 'I,' ... -· :",'., >' zinarina ,"',~ sixt ',,-, uh ,,<"'-" " •. '" ·,,1 .. ' '~'_".'.' "",-_:""'1 h "C, •• ,',,',

.. rus very las I, ion, orl,8lna. -.I.Dl~ m six .. .eenen-cenmry ,= ranee ... ·llE ,3,P'"

hi E .. d 11 f h 'I< ~'~

parent at at ter . ~,u'ro;p~~.e-·-'n courts. is '3 gooc exampie 101". how 'p=:~lc'tO'f~al

-e ) •• l·,' _"_ . __ ,i_'_' __ ' '_l_"_"-,'l-"-'~-'-' ' .... _l •.. l·····1 ' .. Ij,;. t .. , ~~"I'- '--"._.' '_."l __ ._1 '.1 ~'. I!' _...! •• ' •• _.'_ ,I~ ['.]1 __ •.••• _'.'[ .]._._.

fashio: .. e. had ",.,)-, -'. ad .,,:, "b-'" .'" -',' '.'" I b " rh .. ,,-, ,0'. ,,", '~'h- '."., st "'1-·,"" ~'''. " .... ,'~'. I ki "" .. ".~'C- ,- ..... --:",_.1,,".'

,IL3_5 ,11,011 . ,a,., a reacy "-,e'CIOI,Ul'e:y I 1.' I_a I, nme, - ., e s,y,~e ,1_5, now xnown OI,[U,Y

fmnl p·· .. ainted and enzraved portraits, like 'so many other modes: and ']t'

.. I!-II!- .. ,.1. ........., ... - b' , ... ," '.' .~I· .•. , . ' .... ' , II '_":',' '._ 1_'_ '.= l~~l,~._·. __ · ..• "1 1_ .. _..!l!"'j _. ' • .".~

was also un d 'o7.;-u~"b-:-·'jil]i;dl~'-" ''lll'' pro ··'D1-·-"u'·I"~·IID',""I"~"d· "lI11'Dl"D'-' "nO'I th ··e· no"- ",·b-':le' ", (l~d·""llr. Pe' Q-' ·f;)~ '":··u· ,'-- -"p·""e·' -by'

''''~:_j'''' ,~_JL:.:i'._.::l_:__, .. ··· .. _·IILIIII;,..I_, .. ,1' ,:.' .'""" II. ·1Jj,D-A~~,_,I, 'AIL .,1,_:), ·.,~I 1 ... 1:, ..• ":.">" .. ,filii '::-, _,~I~) .... _"I' ... ,,<),

ring tlDI pictorial conventions stricter than it. leJl, ,BU,I jls power 110 ,sa,rlt'S:fy

lav deenei than th ,.' ~II~'" the '-~I'C' '-"~~"F·~I·~+"':I,·11 ,'~-r"-:'(' of fashion which . ay : __ eeper tr 31,1 £ .,,31£.: m rt ae new [-eprese,n,tl£lo.n,aL~ '0, ee 01. ,·_5 . ·0' .~.~.,./., ~""Cl.L-

. '1--')'··-:-·,·, .~ -··d··-- ;~. ,~- .. ,' - r-. ,fi"::'··,- n the ·'1/,·- ,: :£" bres ·s into the ···'b- .. stract emble ~~I

a 'o,.:.e: .. ,a, retreat rom tne actuauty O~O breasts mto t~ e ansteact emmem-

atic 'fil:'OiIJ'l"r-~",J"[~Ss,'''',o'Il''·l~d;~ 11~~1.'~lk~ them 3: part of:

, , I ~ . ~t'jl'~·' """ U ~,. ~ c w .. , '. a~ _""" .... __ , ., , ' ,'" .., ~l

j/( 'W' ,'i'IIII~, w "-:]'~,t~~;h~' the des ,~·IOI---,"n'm~'-I--- ent of such d ev ~~I" :CI"'~'~'; in fa shio .. ·'··.'-n" that d he '·5"", be-

L '. =_ '1lI-!iJ! .. ~ "". II,. ,. . .. _.. ~~, r .. &cllli.... "~. '¥,~ .'''-' . ,~;3 _" 4 i:l1~1II ,., I,,". ~ . ...3 . lIi!;,.:.

came ,3 modern art, It 'began to operae ,':y:mbom,i,c1aU,'y' ~ID,d ,aD,'Q's:ive"I,y' through '£a·;~hjonatble' !,,:ba,'pel and omament, using .itsl own suggestive applied forms in, 'I, dynamic counterpoine £0 the shap .. es of ,ream 'bo~ ... ies,

I .. , I I •.

i,-;( shion has done this ever since, just as art has donie 'I 'ma'ki-n,g· its own

ag~releme:n.t with natural [01 r ms lED create I vital sequence :in :i[~51 OWl] me diurn, But in fashion, ():I'; course, part 0: "the medium is ,al.ways the live

i, .. " 11~':t:

pier ',Q"I'I expertencmg ],U' nre,

In harmony with the other v.islual arts at. the same' time, clothing

1~,·.,;,""'n~'lll'le' ·10,';1 'pli'ro··'·'·.P'dD,':l':J;Qj, ~I ~h~ r[r,p~, ..... din ···l'~'D'.'·~,I~'o'(.:'n'II' (·I'D·,.dJI '1,~'n'-'u:'I·S':I'"'D.·' .. misdc program I tor the .

~d I '.il ~._. . I __ . _" _._ ~~ l~l II. I ~~ . __ ~ ~, a . "l __ ... __ _j __ " __ J •• __ n _._~I"_J.I\.F [. "_ z:I ~a._ I D~ II II! _

_ l 11 ____: "_

clo rh Qd' '.~ bo d U' 1, n AW~' , G iii""" ""I'" on 'a-oil m edi ~-:'. 'U" m ,ii\, ,p"" 01 ···~.i;'"i' '(0 '['1"'1' ome r.'t.uul[r' hal·

'Jyl~~ '.l!l;;.r:"':'__, 1"":~")~1 cq . ..I~".,' ... , ~,~,,-,,,,,:/! '~ __ I. , .. 1, ,~:.:- .. '~_o",;~, liCIl " ... !!iI;..~I!l",:a"". =,.',.,~.I.I.t "',~:._ ... 1:-::: .. , __ . :.,~, ',_, ,',1':'

conveyed imagined truths 'with, the added status of reported ,faJcts~, 31 drama using ~ ,., ;~e actors, The 'body' itself' became ,fi.cEjio,n3Iized,~, Persons

bee, .. Jlle :figu.llCS 3'D,d characters, not just members, of' gro'u,ps~. ~ 'ashion rill ... ·

ven .r~,~ ,L"I poeti ~""' 'V"""I~ ·S·'U~ ~"I~I ·v ... · roc ahular "y,. rIOC~:: I. de emonst rate - e W\e·~I1i U' nconsc ·i,~I;UI ,1,:"

'?t """"_. ~" .. u III ,~._ ~!l~."" . '_. ...1 ..... ,,",0,._ ... _ .. u:, 'Il., ._"" _ ,II,a all] .. , ...... ~ .~ .. ,~ ' .. ' ., !,JI .. V. 'j"

overla :P~IP; -,]~n-;Ia' and simu '~lit\~I'-nl~'o':'U"l S; themes of tem rp,.·OI~'~llitv, ,3 .. m ··.,d<- connngency D:r

~ .' '_.' '. ','. ,~ .. , D g '- ".~' i.,1 - I, . __ J"I!,u ,-.I!!iio. ' .. ' '.-."= '._' ,~, .,.,!!!i;".._ '.o!!'. '."-- """~" " ..... 1I:.'1II_"'·,IJ "-~ • - _. ,_. ~'--- ~ .... :'-'--' ',1.] '-'

social placement and personality, but lal,w,a~ys :(3:,£ in, the terms of sexus lity '~'h'I'-'*': .C1re·I,· .. : dem nand e .. d b>,y,:," the 11;lv·,:, .... j'l·n·,rJ. bodv h iers O'1iF h:;···I'~I~, Competitive dressine

I" " ~)' .. , ._-.~ .'.'.D ...~. e= •.... ,,"'"... c~,!i _, '. "~,.. '. . ,if" ,.~'" '"'" .' '''"'''."lIi ~ . . .~. _'- ,<I) "'"'" J,Ii,!L-1! . "" . _,L~~iJI., itt'

C·~,·-;- In' 'l'~ [.,;1"-';, be based 'O'~:"I" sueeest ive :.f"'ILn·,O' :.< l~in-' sha 'P:'PI color lin PI :l!'fIil'n' .. · d Pl~ roper-

'. a .!Iiii,. " Vi .' '. '.'. " "d.""i\..,' '. ' .. :..' ,~, ;;:t .. ',~!!Ii;.j, )1 ''VI.. 'L; ,n!. . _ .,~( . a .. 1 ,iIi~,·. ~cn·. ',..,,'~' "'" :~" _,. _l.,IL·.·.: " .~IJ r u ""' iii " .'... ~:' ,i!!!;;}', , ". '

tion, all with respect tOI bodil)r shapes, and 'CII1 variable piquancy in rhe forms of 'O'[,n,IIlle.II"Is,;, not just 0:0, the .. ir value,

As, a part '0:£ the drama 0'(' sex uJ'~'li'l)J~~ the fiction of fashion began 'to deal with the idea of phrasing through time, adroitly j-oin ing the forces ofmemorv and desire in O'D,e picture, ,(ria ned ·by, , awareness of'death. The

~ ~ .

desi 'b'· '" 'I d d d 'I'"' . .J'~,« b

esrrame ·v,~Slua~1 moae came tocepena on a pecu aar U_lllLl·erence.~e'Rveen a,

I 'k d 'I'" ,., 'b' ilk d 'h

present w.,"""r'~y.,~i/ EIJO': . IA.Q,I, -. ,"I'~I,I~ I·:--··n·~: 1~,:'r~'I.I:'~'[':~' 'lC\I;,f,':"1IY"";::· 'n·.··lo·····,'~' J'-:luIIIFt~:' r'·:le.·· ·,;t~·-w,' ,:,'Ie.·····'e,:··:·n·/j·· IS~I I ' .. ~' n"':; ,'o'~·lm.·.·.·le·, .. "1,...

. ~~\.r.=-I Il "",,,d, . ~ .. " "~,[I. J __ ~,_, ~" '~f'l:aJ'1 l 1 __ 11k . ~ .. _ .. ~ .... III ._ ll ,!!l __ . '.l!l._

-_ [~ ~~

:s;pu.:n~1 '0,0[' 'bc'Ewe'e'n :sl"eelc ,a·nd IC,fu,d,e adornm,e'Il['1 nOlf' 'be"t\\r:ee'D IditTe'lt:nt

'Slynl.Dllic Icoll.lorl~ 'Do'r e've.11 sinl.:ply' 'beMeell. this Wi,Y' an,d 't'nat '\\r,ay of ~v,ra.p,p;ing t·'he sam,c ~'·ash"j' A, sense lof' Idra'matic s;elqu.en:cel" :ra.t'h,e~r t:ha'n lof' sta1lic' ,a,~:,pa'ri'rio'll. 'C'~l'll]e to u~~lde:flie' the' qlll,:ali:~J" o,:f dje:i.r-ablle 3'p,pe'(i,1 ,3_n,lce· .. )11·:ich 3'nd pOO'f' ,etIect~) kept their o'bvioius :si,pi6Ic:aJllc: .. ,u h'nt the [1e~p,r.ese'n-

., I" d~''"' r<" t'" 'b~ ".' ,

"~'''l-:o~"n-'· m,~r ~~u' -I'~-n--' ':O~" • "!lI',., i'-II.Q:'Ir'i Ir'~·'r"lQ ,t:'o·;: )·I'~nO.:"·s:e' ·1Ilt-, iD.·";w'nrl :c·,··_"o,·_::nl ~1'C"·~'r.:u···.r-ll\'llt'"!l;'nl ·O~1l

'~g,,, ' .. ' "" "". __ , ""," ,_,'L, .. ,_ .. .',11 ., ... "iI;"I . . ... ,ilLl. ~a;iIi~I, .. "" ' .. ~ . 8IJ..I,ilr·' . ,~.. ,iIi~ '. '._. . .. ~. ~."" ' ... ~ .. )tv 1,;1 .. """"~

i n -n' -1-c-,~~'iI,r contexts "'0-:'- ,-- ia .' 1-' d,.1 " A'I,-'1I,C. ·<h-16Iod·'I, comment on '~O'-:[I- :11'1 ier taste,

__ . , ,C liY'_ 0 ._ Ie ' ,1~<Ji '" " _' ,C __ ~_d_ ""_ , """ V.I.iIi. IJ, '1.11 "';,_, _,'~ V . . _!II _,~, . ,,~, '!"

: 'I:ea.'uty ceased tOI 'be all acknowledged aim o!f,fi"h'iolll,~ as it remains 'in, '50 many non-modem, traditional arts, Beautv in fashion come alwavs as

l ~,l II'

.. ~' sort ,0;1:' vivid surprise, as it otten does '1,11 the experiem e of' sexual ,~,DV<~ "~I' '0--1 '~a- sh "''-1"' on be :~. U-:1 'RK d 1:01 I esn "t' r esu ill. 't'Oiro: om th ~ co n ,~ d ·'O(I·t· h ,~I'I'-m-:'''- '0; -DC- :-yr- 'O'~" ~"k::-n--I'o',:"'-·",·· n

, ,I,~ ,,;J;,': " __ '~I -,1\,.-,-,,-1"",1' '':'''' "", .. 'Ii" ,_ ' ,_~_ 1!Il. ,I~ ,~_II." _"'~ '!L;. ._'.' ,~'!L _"", " .. _ .' al~' '" " __ ,1,, '.! ". _. ,. I" _ ' .. II".

,lilT,I,ll, and, material, but frOllt brilliant moments olf clarified vision, Such moments may 'be born 0'1' desire, but c,hey are ,aiwa,ys,I'u,SEcl'I'lled, i'll ,art'" aSI I su .g .... ~g- res .ed :,-':~"r,'~I"I"e,'-' "r" '~~v:,.' ''lrl~g-,,~~i'~1a'" 'on: ce, ee chniq 'U',·~ and imagination. A,'.···',,'b.··.·,·D.,·.-:~lr~- -, ~11'~1.

[~. _ :_.. . .. _..... . f&1 ~I~ .iiJl. [J.I 'w..": .I.lI. .~ .. ~ I'._~, ,l .. Jll. "_" _I: d., "_". , . _ , .r _ l _. I .lJll.iI ,L,. .. ~ _" d.H].l

",_ ~ ",_ .' ~j I., ," J ... II • .' ,"

'L",~I'-U~ru' in '1-- "'~hi:o~i'n:- ~i<' :C'·-'·O. "'0-- stantly crea ted ,n,t! ho: 'L-y~ the pietori .. - 'I' ar tists who

'._ ."~~'''"',,' ,~ , 1,_ l:i'li .1 " "~. '.C. _, ' ,"Ii _Ill . ,!LeI >' .... ,IJ,.' __ .,.~',_ 0,(1: L', iL!'!Il- D,~ '_.'~~ .. ,~,IL'_ '. ..', " • .- JI·i'1, .~_'~ ,~J, ..

make a, medium fo'r' ·ill: aI1d-""onve~~' 'it ,ev'e,n~w'here' who can 1J'3Lk~e the

J, ,~"" .... .. - ... - - .. ,,- _.. - - "" .. , ~ ... "" _. II: ~ "", - l' "" - - _. ,;t.' I.... !f. ,- . - ~ .. ~, ,_. .- -

beauty of an nuage seem identical 'with the beauty of a, garment,

lmlsisrillg fu~rErher 011, the theme of sC'X" men and '\lVo,me',n 'began to d'- '_~ s exttemely di'I'; -e'renE' 'y ,'~ltO, I.., each other somewhere during the €olu;'r: .... ,

... eenth r'~,I··if''Ii''1I'nr' h=I'~I''liI,.I~''n-'ig' ~ W,Iiiii'''O,·'· ".'[', ked U'" 'n t·· 0--'1 l'~ to 'r .... rher !iC1-lol--":~:'iL'I-'y'~' d~.·~U""[I';;.I1-'> the IIIi"W"I .. ",'"0''' be .....

Il""",,,",',, ,'1, I~~I'" il, Ui,-, r~ . ·A~ __ 'I_~' .1, ,_:~I.- "~'r-··· .,\1, ,lg,l" I ,~I. ;i]!',,",''w.1!! ',.. "" '_ ,," " __ , _,1, '", I, ... " ... _~,

fore, A,€ter that, the' borrowing of visual moti:~' across ,3 '\l,jslu,a'U:y sh- "p'C'F

sexual divide created more s:ugg,estive~ interest and emotional tension in c:)othiil:g th,:, n 'it, ever could have done when Il',(;:[1. and '\V"O:~1.1t:'n, wore sim ..... :il--"r:ly des'i .• ,pl,edl g3'r:m,e'h,t5,. S"ma.'11 s'tl,ggestilol:nls olf transvestism became more noticeable a III d IIJ_IIO'[C exciting,

ArE :Sb'Q'W,~ .I1(lW' the ':']),3IJ,_',e worked, In the l!'arly Middle Ages until ,a,'bOll!; ), :100, when garments lOlf both sexes were ,5,tiI'1 ~r-e; alt~iv'e~l)f shapeless,

relief sculptures and mosaics tended to create 01 ne unif .. "10,1 pattern of drapery inside compositions ,tha;t combined male and female :fl'gu~resl~

r-' 'he result '~~)1i'~,~: 'I(h- at the ~'I.o-"[~:h'···';'MIP seemed '[-"0--1- link .,~~ !f:f~'X'-.·~~oS:: mste ... :~~1 of d .• 'I~iiiiiiiii'

_,__ 1I'''"'''IL.· . __ ~I!!. '¥""I~;.'J __ ,, __ ~i!!. __ ,_,,," '"= , __ - __ ,,-,)1 i!!H!l.D-~ !!I!;,.lI!_, ~ _. ._jI._ _ _, ._ ,[iIl~, ;;.1!~,_~,. ""_~ _~ :g.U_, -_"

vidine them 'c' - T'~'Ii!iI"') scheme for ~:I' .D '! I···· •• thes \~I'n--. art de ·'"I''"V~',d,~. -")~lr:t-I',),liI!' bro:.,-·In '~IU', ',e,:-~rh

_ I I . . I.. I . 1!l!I I.-I .. ;Ji . j [ .. L, tll]\r., :I~I'. I \..1,.. Ir. ~~ II a... ~l . _ 'L..l.. a l~ I 1;]1 . .

". . ~.

Classical monuments aSI the celebrated Al(d Paa~s of the Emperor AUJ,gu:I-I_s-

~. . -

tus "I':ml'll 'I hie' earlv first centnrv ,A~D"~II where the frieze 01(' Ill: "nl and wome ,I,

I' ~ II '

II ~1'\\J~as'h in ,3 rb~~t'hnuc arraneement of drap·,·:e'f\l!".

J_l - .... __ .,_1_ ' __ 1_, , __ I _' l_ -Ii" . __ ,1 __ 1_,_1 _" "-- _. '_ ----'-'ltJI'- I_I _l_lo,_, _'_ ._" '_ '_ -- __ . '" " __ 1/'1;

the ladii in 'iHllImill,il'tlon;·· and paintings are instantlv discernible 'in their

~ , •• ,,_l. __ • _ I., I _ ,._. _ .,," _ _ I. I _ _ "I _ • .~ . J' _ _ ••• " • I. ,I b. '1 . _. J • _ • _" • I " _, ,. _' .! I, _ ,I., _. ,

I _ ~ _

h ,": zh _ '. I,"' • a.' '., . ed ",', .,~'lle d ';. II, I' 1:'_~_I,:""I,L~I:'"' I,::r~ .. ::::~ .~.. '': ::iiihr" 'OJ.': ,'·h-·· ~ " " -. ,,' U.~.· re- ,~ ". ...., I _[Oil, "" ,,"'; . .-'

,I I,g, '~ snnene ~, vens _11_,., ,lon.g'~1 il:r-aII-IIl,gl ,S,K] rts, W ~ ,~IC I" appear 1 n strn ID,g,

COII' .. f,as![ to the articula .e'd, bodies 311d, bu: hy hair' olf' the gendemen, In

i 3

.' ...•.. ~ I.'

I

_8U1\tE! Rom D R . Illll!,~ :1.1 -I'll$

.

'Ize

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.

lin 1'-- ~

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", '. 1iII',"" ... ··Iii

1,1.

the _ .';~~

-I: sed on

-' rtic lda.lli~jnsi ir~ ~ 1_,~_-

: l~nl,Jle' ,~. hion I '

~

1j'n' ..!ll . ~ I •

riJl1'C' .,1~ _ In.,·

,

"-11 I. 1 - .. [

• I.' -. III

ke ;Q;'p- ~i"D" 'g~ 1--:: W·'·· ""1" ,.,L \1 [~'S" d '~;:Il'D' i'J, -nu- ~ p p'-m- - ·D-=:-'·-I~I on ~ 'I ·C:-:-:·'O- '~I fashi ·O·:-,'A ~~ b -:·'1' ~ ir]' '0' '. ·t"'L'·~I'~11 g'-' I b .. eea n ."0'" ".

lli'.~~1"" ..• ,1., -! ,~: I~ _' ,[I.II]l ,iI,_·'. -]1. [.I,a: [, I", ""' I~, .. 1' ... ' ,Iii. ,'\J!!! I, a,J .. :' :I,' ...... ,~, I,a, ' •... _ '_'L""I.LL -"..... "'1 I' 1]!'U,I',i.,:, L '-:.D'''-:Jill Ii...: I

dis'p,],ar-y, '. not just p~-:lain sexual ,cJjf£erenc'e- as, 'traditiolb,ID clothine always

.. ~ .,' I.o-"~" ,',I I ,.~ .• ,~, .~.'~" . I~"'~~ _-~' ~ .. ,~' . -, '_' _"." .'_ '_ ". -_., .• ,' -e ",_ , _ __j ", ',_ ~'. ""~ ~ --" --~ .• ).

d b I. 'h ft·" ,..,. .~I ~ r " ...... '1 ,. bet

, Q.':e e s. =:-1.'llt~' ~I ncr '; ·oJ-)r-'-:-m- 1 0' IU'r,amat~: _:, ac vers "'rruw expo -,'f,SSlon netwee m me I

. -_ ~, ,_. 1M] '_ AI l • • . " I. -_ " d' ,I _,I .' -_ Ij., " e- . ,_ '_ I , I ._ I , , _' II 'nl ~ ',_._ . I _l' . I .

u

,:: "n:'"d::-, W··.'· "0· ;'I;-~·I;o·n(1 w··" 'I' ·'h' I' "I~ .ro;~ ';1:' 10--:' n te 10'--:::-:(":-' rh 1--:: ~- ecu .. 'r-' ren .. -.". ,C.I~ ct ~ o. ··:'n· 1'1i1) r be "~m- '-liP'-~' 0" "I: I~' m 0": :. d 'I e :'r·· ....

_ .,1" _. '_,',_, _," . .'. -.JI .~,,_, II~ '_ ,_, .• .1. '\.;;1.0, JI), .. ·I I J. I". - .• _', ~l I,~ I '~' •. '__:".l.~_: " t, ~,' ~' £-l~.~l(h~"I!!E~-~d, ._,~ .. :__,,~. l:.___._:.__~'_"~~ .... ,' yn '. 'I 11_ }, ...... .:_. .• [

II.. l

I-i': 'i" '~I: .. - I .-:.: ri .-', I' '1:: ._.~.

,n_lty In :' / ,ner,~ '. ~

-1'(- .. C'._·,,_,·;'-h- ,'i',...~ ... , :.-., 'i., .'i,,~, ind .,' ··d···· . h·" .' ····I··~,--·· ." ... (; ofn .-.~ .:.: .. """""1 ,'~.'-·'·~:.I .' .. 1-,"" ~~"I '-""1"'" '::."--'1' ,',,_ ..

m ras .1.00'11 ,II.ISI maeec rne e emerr 0 persor aJ S,,_,D,nA ,50 tmportant to

""" -,

d 'II co' d'l h Ui· I." C···:_, d 'h' ~, "h I~' b h Iii d r.

moe ern. nterature :1111_, tne rme_J_-.·ng Of" modern msto I"" t..,[at nes behind its

temporal stvle Olr£o~rmi'I '1all!m'lIl-:"P'e~ b .. ' ':hi'nd all the ef[e'ct··· '[h,~'[ are {orc'cd, to

__ • jL ,. ~,f" •• i . - - ''lli! }' I j.. .• •• - L I ~ j . - I._ _ , !E'Jf~'- - 0'- ;.' _ _ _ ~ .. _ . _ . , . ,. ., ., ... _ .,. I '_" ._. . , _" . ._,._ ._.

L r: ali 'L ~ 'U' "I'~' . ~ ~11 Ol h

cnanee so as t)OI contorm 10 tempera pnrasing. .'. ,I'n.l'l I .. 'ny"1 ··up· esse 1'0 t ~'Ie

'- ---'--~._' . ,I. __ . ,_,,_-~ __ ,_,~_, __ .,. __ """_= __ ._,_' '. __ .. _ 'l.!IIIllI!- ••• .1"- _ ••• 1;,_., .. :'_ ---- ~ ._ ~:~'.'.. rD' .. _.~ .... -~.~ '.,- 1,,_

material 'world clothing 'must deal with each P"~,,·~![SOfl·~S body' Mao',' 'may····~

t lJIIIIII!' .I •... r._. '... .'_' ._.l! .,_., ' .. ~.-. ,1 .. =.1 1[ .•• , jl ,I,· ...•. '1 .. '., .'. ,t., I - ·.,,1' .. , .. 1. '. , .' " .. ' .. " .' _~' . - "'. 11~ '.'" ~ . __ .' .-. '1'.1: '. '.' _",I./

'0"'0:=-" we~"~"r-" 'O:-:"n--:-l'e- p"']jl'r--:'m'-:---:-~'n-I'[-' '"1i'~ 'm'---"3" "n"'Y' '~m'" U' she .. Iter und Pi .. ' 'o'~_-"n--Pi roof and IP~dt" '-'01"

.• ~_: j'~, ' __ ' - 11;,. II. ~ .. 'oj :~._. :, l u "" I !, '-." ~ Iq iil' c: .,,'~ ._. 'L'~'))' !li' :'. ':",'\oo'._J ~ ~:',~,~I_I, 1,"":iL'U~_I '!AL '. ~.,1Li In,.ll~.'

". c: 'hi- ,i, ilI= " t: L, h 11 h ~ '" h h

OI'D,e pot, But fashion rP'o.: ,SI s;t_-". turther IE ran IC10t' :"'[10-=-., 1[,0 ,en,ga.···~c~gL'_~e' wttn tne

~ D t._ .1:' '"'' '

idea of' 3'0, individual body [bcvi'og, an in,divildual Ps,Y'lche and a, 'P'3'f[t.ICU - r'

sex-uali,ty;, a unique 'yo'ul.h 3.D,d ma,tu'ri:tyt a single 'Set of personal experi-

.. -::::.,.-,-. r: .. ' and fa ·"I·· .. ····~·.~:.··· .. : - hi .. ~, .'.1 ··'I:"-:""'I'CIc-·~,t·, .. ···· -' odds with ~:'''-h'~-:;·· rhe 'I";';'" ".:,

e.nccsi a,n, .. tantasies. ,_!lSI .3\, Dotl,g,n. q.UIJ:._ at D ... _:!\.Ci W,I,I~·, l\.,,~.t [,JC ,Ilgur'f' ..

on the Affd PQ~d!' bad 'been sup~esltin'~' 101'" what the whole ranee IOC 'Bar-

. 1 1 ,. I. , ,I ~,' I ,., ,.r ,1"." ,. _, l _ DDI·--'r. 1_,_,_ '-1._ .i. '. -" '. ... . ". ~ 1, .- -_ --' '-' '--D'-' .. I ,6~'-'

· "h '""n~' '- h" III .]. '1- '111 I"

menn .. worn m tne peasant vm .. a~ ICOIDve)t" _i=~ S r '1,0' T IS re ent :~s,~,y ,pe: .sona '.

,'." :thoulwh it: seems to "'i-··q,:·~ Dire i-i hal: manv people do the same thina

, , ... ,., .. _. ..- D"' ,I. . _ .. - "'. - I "L .. I"... . ' .'. . ... -. .. .' .' .",..-. 1 .. ,.. ,,~,... ... . .. '" .'. .. I ", ,I ': .. :1'

fashion I~ ... - ,-,-"-,, ... , ",. theles ,. """-"'1'-: (_·····;··'1·· .. ' "d"- [-.: ... th "u idea of -'--'~':-'-I' '~-'--:'--;:"I,-~,-,ll;hj ,~, ..

li_:, r i I,on IS nev_J[ __ , l,e~,eS5 c,onmu,'!",e::__, .,0 ...... I:e. I."ea 0,. U,DI,lq. ue p._ersona~l~1' Ul

! ~ I .

.. h c: " . 'h . ~ 'II :1:' . d r of II-

the 'vle'l")( terms I,t' uses+-t ae l":n.ater~l.alJ, rorms generaeea ,:I_:U,[, 0" u,nCOnSCIIQ'UIS

f~lnlasv which begins i'n the individual psyche II'i these forms thac have

, _.J ·.·-··-····,1':.·. ·, ..... ...:,,~o__:.,.·- .. -__. .. , ..... _'.,=:~o~._:_. ~o .. I, 1 .. _: .. ' ..... ~o.'.' _ ." : .... _.' .. _,,_ .. -.···,1·._ .. ,~I, _ _::e~ ,--,I._.- _, '-1'~:.".'_ .. ,I <j .. ,L ... ::,'-.,'".',' I .. "y ....

-··1· ,r.' .. '" " '" ". . . ..1, ."". ..... ·k·· ,e 'h" .. . . ~ d'" ~ . ... ,.).... ' ... '. d'" ,.~....... I ... 'I" . I. d' .' '~ ". -, "1~1 . - - al'" . '.'.. -

atwaysl s,eem;e"lJi, to m_ = ~:e II:. 'I, ,1,0111 'rll~.lCU (lUSI lall_ .. peo,pe' r,II __ i'CUJI,OUS ~".Ion,l

lv~ilr'h it': ,the' p"II:e'cu'li'3'[' 'hats. ,.Ibe' p··':,olin.', e,d, ,s'boes ,t'hl- 'U.selle,ss a.I'-'p-:',e~n[dlalpes .. t'he'

• ,- .., , ,,10; _. , .- ",. ... ,. - '-' - - ..-' .• _" ,, __ . ",. _.. ... _.. '.. .. ~I -" ._. . - . . _. "-"... ,_.:[ ,;-. ._. '- - . - - - -1E'i1 . __ . ti' .. -- . '- ~ . -

rtrQl·r' 'I-e·· "';I'~ :e··~' '0''-,''· fr' r:O:=':ln~,~ ,"[-]'.1 [r""""-I·' 0'1:-::"" n-1'- 'tr 'hr-:-,'C- ':bl:::,:~ 'iIJ" Is<h- ~'. :DI :'u· II,~ 'e.,'f~'. ';t-· 'h-[e,.: W·,'-·, :J_. 'h~' 10-'1"")-': :·11"'0'-: f"V"1i1 .a·· 10' . I,d: 'It'lh[ , . ;,,~, 'L -"I:,~

¥'Igj ~,_.,) •.. ~~I .. _ .. , " ""- .. ,,,':lI!'L .. ,,,",,ilk,. ",. ["" "."_ ".ilit'-!' ·, .. _IUI_, ~,_ "'-'~":!!l .. ,_ .. IIoi·'-·'.',J'1i ._. '._ '~I, .. Ii£l! lIla..

ICQ111SitSte'nEmV ap'lp'-,Jied to 'both '. exes A'rit 'fn[o""dl'-~rnI2in:D al t'h,e IS3i1Uqf' 'time

'~.'-.".':J " ." __ " ....•. ""',~i 1'::, - '., 1, .. 1. ' , .. ' .•.. , ' .. ' . ..._ ~ .. ; .. ,.;~ " :"1 ,o'0 ,.--.~. . .I,.b _. '. :,.:_ .. I··.~ __ .~.~,\I,:._ _" ,_i·.'_.,t

C',',h··llo"·;·'w· ,,"~ ,"'h""la- ······a··lm~l· n- ···e'·"'i,,~ p. ···.~'rs·--· '·o··,··ln-·', .... '1 r'h-I ~'I""i1IC','-[1 '~'r- 'I"'n" ,·h··· "'e" 'n'-[ e"'1:':lf e" 'Iv·':'··o"·'-··'C~=-:--"I."''i1i:rie-· ·:-··'g-"-:-·'d:; ~:IU-I'-gg.·.·,~.·,· 'e-':-'

JIi't.IJ~ .. __ ,. "_"_.':;",.. "~_:~I "_> U._h~ ~ :1 .. _,_ 'n' _.~ ~_.·._·_·.·~.··ClJl ~, . .!I_._~lal,. '~I,._~, ~ "I:_I·_.: l!.l!__·~'lf"!f '.,_ 1<=, ·· .. ·-_· .. ·~., .. _)L _·I'1'I .. ~r 1._, '_ ' .. __ l ~... " ,.~

, , 1_', ._.'

ti'vlc' ,"I~a'r[nal 'v'oca'burla'ry'\'} tl));3t infu·~·~es ,tbe' ,,",'·'o'[·k o'f t'h,e ea'f:lv' Rc'naissancle'

• 1'_",oJ l·· ··Il lblll J )·-u··.·._I, I_'!"_·,l ',:.::_' ,~'" 1 -._ '. I . Jl.~·" ,_,'," .. [ '. I '_ ' ...• ' •.. '. ~( "":"_ .. I' _ . __ =,-_"._ •. _.J"

t"h·,···· "1 .- 'h"" . ',,'!'!!J ...ll~,. - -" ,.:, , '~I .. -.:. .. ." , .. ,., . ··d·· I-'b'" ·d·'" L' ,;t··hu .. ,-. . ,« .,-_ :..... : '116" ~. - .. I. " -

,i Ie t~,,_lie,e,-wln.e,DSIQ.n,iU co·rves, anl~_,_: s, coo3_,QW.sI _at O,tler CD,Dlpe "Dlgi pcr-

[.,'_'", .. :11. t·~······-",,";'I:~'-' .. , .. ,". Mi·, " ,., .. ;~I, .. ~ .. £:",-,.",., 'r~"d"'-' ',.1: -. I -'. ~,··, .. k.··I .. · .. ~-,- ~'11,

~o,n!3l.ll e,~r"pla,Sl.ll,D,ft'S ,In, ,\"a:saIC[CI:OIS, [re,SCOeft ,an,~ .. \_,30 ·ye"s ,paneIlSlr~,

'-:--1 - ··.'h·' ., ,,'".--;".. ,,":h'I' .-.JL", ·······'f;:~'I··I· ",_".JI~,:,·;o,..l·I··· :"1'1'- '-b-· ···"-·:·'·d- '1., ,rtL':~1 -I ,ltb-"'" (' :ill···I·' , 'I·t··,· .. "- .. )

:D! le,mp ",aJslzID"g, ",,_,e luea, 0 an lnulVJJuU~,,_· .... O·._yll ,~,i._SI,U,OD. " . US. ~'.u,s~;rates

.,ih":e" ~I·~d,:·. ' ... e-.:" '''Jh-:-'~'''' '~e··-'x--Ul· ",,':-I'Il.~.ty'-:,< W'·· '.,I·/~l-·'I"~ 'l;!'~~: "r[ 'e"~::i-lilnl'IC"-'e,~ ID~::n[. '1~"nd.···'I,t;Vl~d·:'liiu· . a). I} '~a"n: I·~l~y."': a·:·'n~:'lld:. 'ml'le .. · ';·-m''' .. _,

IL. L!~._' 1.'·._ .. _ .. _-,!L dL ~'" l .. a .. ,l.~'_1 _ J , I~I, II.---;a .:lld 1 ··c· .. 1 , .. " _J " __ • 11:(_ 1 1~~1.,1.1 , __ I,_],_, __ ' ,_ I!!""'!J._ .. ,_,,_

. :.'

IOlrv~ aQive'r'DS le,3uc.'h p-'~erson~sl lire' 'It 'iinLl~tra:,es co'l1ec~~i-ve ~ ire aSI 'if' it, 'we'[-e

.. l' tJl .. _ ~... _ '--" . l,_ I •• I - ~ I _' Iii '- ~ ~' - . - . - .. - . - - . - - .. _ 1 • • , I - - • • ,r . I .~' • __ I -_ ,-

persoln~~.l ,nia:r~alive,. with Lits minea~r .. sluJbjle,ctive' p-I.·h-.-'hrough, 'tii~n~lle,~ B" t)'f,~, Cering.=<; c'xtre'nt:~ '\j1'ls'ioDlSI r'h:u: s- Y~-m 'to s· ti "fy:,,', eveiFVbody,:',, 'for at. minut,e- b'ot

..I. , 1 '.'. -; .iirf~l ... , .. 1 ,. '_' ,.. • '[.""" , •• '._." = '_,.' ., __ .. _ .::' ._. '_' _,~, II' ._ . __ . I ,_. _ ____2'= '_'_'_" .' __ :!Ii '. _". ~l _

'. -:::__. I. J ~, I,

s'i'mult3l'nellDs)"Y":7 'to otien.d- n,d lJ:P-',· set eve'rv'bod,v 'fashjoln, i't5el'f refers,

I .~_-_. I_. __ l._, .. _. ~~ __ :')' .___ __I '.0 __ " 1.' •• _ --_._ -', •• ,._ ._ •• , -[."111" ' __ " __ I'~I '.~ ~l!_ -I_,,1i:__ .. 1"_ .10.,.,_1} rl:,.

l;b',i11,,,,[- ,- '-, ')'\')' '--'1- 1-:'h[II-' ',.: ... ~ '.' ). j \'",--. £:':~I··.. II ':I~' :),~. ··'1 _. '1':', .:< ;."'1 " •. - " ·:.,,'-h ·:'1,,'- [; ,. 'bP,' •. ~. ..~., '.;~ .... " ( ", .~, - . '"_

O-:JI., .. ue"y to t ,.1: W3\y,ustl le,a.' I Dr ze,3. ,ma" O\ie.rYJ._ .. ue_m t.c~e m.omen.t~

only ·~,Ol ,-':hi£t with the ,fI'o'x ·o.r Idays and the s.'hi;~E. of circumstance. F'ri,g'h:r and 1~·Ul'~I~·t'-· (or co __ n tempt, or s-'fII'I': ·1:O~·,~'l· hins, or hatred ):1' Il'1IQ,\i1" make people

.~~_ .. , __ .. "". __ a.~ ~ .. ~ ... ··.f·.~"·' ''-'=''"''', ~,IIi,.,~. '.~ .. -. ~- .. ,""" _ I'-~U,"., lilL, ,;:, .. ~~" ,.,_nUl" .~ .. _), .. LiIit1.];, ,_1_11 __ ,,,,,, '_ ""'~',--,,~" .-.~001

ridiculous for the time being; but th,.· .,,~ are 'Ic,aitillll['e condiriom everv ....

,_ .'._" '. . ,'-.'._ .. 1, ~~_,". '.,-. / I , ,~I<___ . ., --.:. ~-:_--.:~ J I :~ '.:.:" .. ~.", ': ',~.. . ..... '~ .. ". I ~ I, ' • .-~ J .,.-. e ~'.l L , .: • _. " .• ~. ._ ~~ ...• :, , .......• - .: . .- ~-', .' .~ . .- '.' .... , .. , .,

O· .-. ·D'· I Wi· esp ···~r.!i:" especi 'a-~· ]1I.c-y~, I:'" n the mod ern '-\1: rto::::- eld

,I e res :"","'~It,:.1I', "'~" :e~-'iI~-I~, • ~" ·_'U~~ ~). I', ':_~.~II_ c_'L"f~l.' '(::__'!!i

1'1_:'L"~lo'---in:" I, ~··1':'lI; represent emotional 6o','r;'es ,tha.'~ don'r have to 'b~l~a tbe di-

l! • _ I~J II _ l " . _ .1, ~, ,~~ ~ ,I. .. '_ 1 ~ • , ,. . .~iJ'~ . ,. __ _ I . ' I ~. iiJ'~ . .. __ ~ U. I ~ ~__ _ ~J .... _ . ~J"" .. 11.1,

, .'

L r-' iii e: '11- duri h it.: hi I"~ - h

rece ecne 101'1· ;;J'ny one wearer's l,ee~lll,gs r U,[.I'IJg· SI1JIC' I -, a, tas mons vogue, 1,1· e

1~'lc -1]J~'o· ·,··,'n:1 !'1'1!!';'[~1 be '~I ...• -o····-'~]]I~e,'~,---~~,---l"',."".:., ~',.~i>I~Q\··I,."i bu I 't-' it ":!I··1~11~ use ~'h· 'if-I; sh iap ··e· .:,.,-. rh .,~ r11 'I': Ipj;, ';;'1-1 "1":IF'f'I,-,

,~~ I I.",V'" ,II!. ,~, . ~' tAl·· ". .,~ ,'. -" ..... ''Y'., ~ ji", .1 ,'. ... , .. 'I' .'.: ,Ij; ,iii, '''''i\!:,1 ~ ·.iIi ~ I,c. ',,,,-, ~I". (.1\_,.... ,.IUi IIj., .lI I!!i.. .I.. ,. l..ili,

dj'\T]d'ua'l psychic depths, and it wiD, 'be euided bv a',vai~ab,le imaeerv in the

. _. ""' ... ' ... " .. ' I_,"'-·.~·'·' .',~' .--~- .. ,. _., ... , ,,,,,, .. -_.,,,',._. -', _ .. --- ~ .. -.',~-- .. ~~. '~~l '~.' .~~~ -~'~~'--- ... ' )L'. -D .""',' "I"", '."'.

::-- .. :,~~I-·b-:-'-l·· .. ; .. --,:~ '-1'-1'-"'-:-"·- I·;· - .. :, ...... , ;.-. ~~ .. "I·{'·,)··, -.'. ··I"'~·I-·:··.·'·· ~ ,·:c.-....;;, ~T~ 'h I· ,:'1 .... fashion :::'-.,., ',:c~. '., .. -

aV31"~al~· e 3rt5"-1 D,,1.11[t; g, rnenrs ,,~eodP e recognize. ",US'"I m ,1.1:15_,'I.on, 3,Lmres·-

~ II b d h loneine f h ~ ldh ..l) ~ \11'1 b

sion (or bcreco n, or L:IO' pe, or ~ :lo:nl,gl~~J,g ,I'C)'[' C' ··II~' 1'1 OOUI',:' wi .1' seem to . r ,:e'

expre sed by evervbody's clothes fo,r 3 time, even those who are not feel-

• t, ',' .• ,5,;, . "._ ~l -":J,I '_ iJo ~"_"" ,I' ,,:~jl " __ '_1' ,._ '_ } -,_,' l.~ __ " ,····_'1 '-._ ._I~_~, ~~~'___:._" '_ .. _' [!IIIIII!,__: • ....:____. ~_,,"._ ,:_____,,_ "_./ ---.....! ••• _,._ •• ~,

-~,- , 'C'. ··c,'L ,-, ~·~'h~-,-"-- .. u b--· -, ,-,. ,,':'., ~( .. 'h· .~'.,i!"l;ii:I,~,. ,~., , ~ ,'k' '-1 ··d~'-··· ..

111,g ElllOSC I 0 lll~1P nee .nse I,E suns E I~e' prevamng temper 101 ,3,C, ._nD'v"e,~ge'

them and not others ~,:n the silent E'he3,C(!;-- of'the mode.

BU. b d n ' f·· . 1111] b d:· II h

IV·"· evervne, . ',v- .. I C,", COD rse mean not res ·.ill·Y"···' (,~Vlery"I"i. ~:IO,I-I v smce 'II nere

_- .' ", or '_ ", '" L.__. ~l/ I - . __ ' - l~{" I' _. I ", . ",_ - .:. ~j "_ I '.~ I" - -. I II ,,~~., •• ~-~ J ~ • '."' iir.:P ,/. ~ •• '-"~l}' t . " I. • • ", I ",'

is now 'DO single :ti1Sbti,Q,ll, nor has there ever really been; 'but everybody " "'b1 ~I d· hi h d~ II] f dress i [II m 'O,D,e VI~t _: .e group, ~_I,O '~~'D' 1'._,:'1'5" the curves ,a!'n:~, angtes ot cress In several

Idlitre~rle'JI'£ fash~i.o.llS ~m3:'f unconsciouslv nnitate and mock bodil."Y'" 'ID'r.m'S!

l~ ~I I·"

(e\lte:n, ),un:8S and intesnnes. or teeth and vertebrae) ,1\'~l3iy51 1_1'1 direct (:,011, .... tact with parts 01:£' [leal bodiea. and ,at: the same time ~U'S~' recoenizable :g,~~I.r: .... mems with pnblicly acknowledgeable sources, The references 111a.. make a double mockery, or a, doubly re'] no te .-lUoSI.~,OI:I1.~,

.~ I"he ,~~~'llus.'iJo·n, [0 known :i:~,ll~ag:eI}r :00'£ only g:iv,es coherence and an 'iI,C'ceptable public mean ~~ng to the shapes 0:£' fa ···.hi.o·n'i, b'iU't intervenes 101 edit and 'I emper their direct efIe:~'r.,!, The picture creates th .. e . '~.lal)I'ill.,g Idi~ltance between the' wearer and 'th,e di.rett pSly'rhlolog.i:c,a] m.1e;a.n'ill:g' o'f t'h,e t~o:rnrm; i,f'

'\1ii~o~,-n- -],e- '1-1' ,~Irl-pi~~ r,rr1lI'I:~IIII1.l ·P-'':'-','''li,d .. , ·d·' il'n- D' 't: 'hi : ~'l~'rl' '- ··h'-lryt.·I:l..Jl~,,-[ •... ,. ·r.~·f~ ······ur ppp~'" ~'I-rp'o·;ut,'h, - ,o~· :-r' 'I:~~r, '''lir--

JIll: ~ __ .. , .. _ ,.L~. q ,"'"" __ ~~I" lu ~ I 1 ,.- ft~ ~1._1i "" iZ5 ~ "", "v . u""'" - "U ~ - o~,,",, ~'l, iIJi . ,.... .... if' -- " "I .~ ~.. ",.~ a

:in.g n~-'as'ses O,r e,xl~~~';n)le~ljy 'u,ntl:I-' y 'h,~~ir' to '~~ugges't ,e'111JotlunaJ lice:ns'e, they' n,eed ~n,lot bt:li.leve· it ~-,t· tb,e' ti'm,e'~ b'u,'t' DIlly' 5 ee ,th el die5'i'[a'bi~i~l o':~ E'h.e I.oo,:k as e~xpo'uilld.e'd :in. ,curr-e'n'[I.~, ,3,dn.lired inla'-~~.cs (}C ,a,cr.r-e~scs olr ll]od,lels~ ill,ld, ,a,.p .... , pro:xima:t'e1d Iby' 3'nr3,c'tl'\re' 'per,s;~I:ll'S in 'the CO~lllll.lo'n 'wlolrcl,d,~ '<'x:p:~ar[la,tlo:rl'~' D'r :~a's'hi,IDn ar,.~ '10 o,fitCI:1 :ill.eo:~,llp~~"e[el bleC3u,~~el t:he SOI'u,rc'esl :[Olr' t:~1J.e' delep ,3.,p'pe'al o~f Ic,ert3'),n 'tor:ms ~~_~'n,d. cc:l\(rlesl ·mu.s'[ be hidld,ecn~"1 to o,rd.e'[' tha,!. fa_mli,o~~l Illav'

- ~

'6r·~'e.l\ '-P d,: '-,0; J 1il~S ~rl~~lt,':I~'~'.r,Q ~~~D~' r.~·"'k·~ ..

~._ . ._ ._ Llll'!i: ~l .. ~"d .. '!If ~-j ~ . _ _ ~

.",

Clo'lhes Iha'~' 3r,e in fa~:h'~lon In3}f m:I~,k,el [·11e bod;y re,'fe'r [0 :p. ri'l, 0'£ jr.:~',ell:

a"ndJ to IDI,thle'r C'I'Dto'hed v't~r.s:IO'IIS of i,tse'lf: ,and. 'tD l~ike: •. I, o ',h,le,r' ,objlec't~s to 'bod,:l'ly :plartf·~ ,A cerla'in 'S(Jrt: of" har: 'n13JY' 11I;J,"klc a pe-;so~n,'~,s, ,I),ea,d ~lJ,gges:[ '~~, pe, .... ,

'11 ~I

lJ. #'

1,0,[,1,,151 ,3i WIOm~'n,~I, ins m ineo n I chest or' , bac , in a, 've~ lo.=~,

,r' l~ll'

wi"t'h. su,gges,'tive cl,eavage' between the ucn;t'two eoes ..

Dressed 'bod-i,e! 'I:i-"ay hie' made' 10 resemble brio-a-bra or' plants,

trash .... heaps or' sailboats, Strips of fab,[ic IJ1,f\V'he're' OD the 'bod}, :; I iake :Ih,osit shackles ID'r nerional bandages, _,.~~ sam'n:IJ ISl1,I--,-~~e5t""'nl, the SOIU,['-'~' Seas 'm~_y' ~J'sO seem like a bath towel; it .m-Iy' 'be WDf,D, with a dandified jlcke,E, e"('l",~in,g; Beau Brummell Dr with a leather tnnic that WIQlllld, gOI "\'7_,e'U on a medieva headsman in : thirtie rr QVIPI .. Costume jewelry v in :~I particular 'I'''' s

u __ !l~~J.~__ _ ~=._IIt~~ ~_~ ~ .~ ~_ .. ~1 ~_ _._llr..~=~_~ . ~ _.~IIr~. ".._._~ ~_

- ~/ ~J' :._

made for ,tll'isl 'sort 0 I: £1S~k~ now's. ieming to ofFer' nice morsels to eat or

amusing handles rio turn, now instruments of torture or lethal machine'ry~ now' arcane 'bad,ges of '0 ffi,c:e' tio'm unkno"_'~n ancient cults. One '5t:-~',lle'

f' hi ,., h ti ~ .

o 'S,~· trt 'may s;ugg,esr tie rronsm tl anomer an earner century I.JI[ a 'C:r:ite :30'-'

t3>c:y about t ,-Ie 'tu,ttlH!'t,

~~ash'lo'n now' also offfr~·: ~~'r'ment~, bearing 1,~",,_olrdS, ('hat nlsv a lexical

b'~ D u ",.

game with u'o,d,e'r:l,yin,g breasts, chests, backs, 'be:Ui1esl', and sboul,d,en~'ln, a

-'I"· /il-' i--,'~- _I-'~i',.,,_ ',", '-'-' - ,-- -', d '~-, "." -,-''-''''=h'''''- "I'b-' ,,'-I( ", ',I - '---,'- ds b"-Iv -, b ..... n addi -~I ', .. , th "(" ,,"-, ,"'--'" -"-,:'-, ", :--:-'

se,lm,o, Dg-[a~ 1[, I ma,tet!\~_e.: .,c ... 3-,;",-,_, ,OIIi,I_, . 3,,_.,e,-,J:=el .. , a.,_,_e,g, EO E"e C'D 1JUll,Ion

I~t-.O· .·· •. c .. 'k" of visual '~a--- nt 'a'su' to be 'on',' nixed 'WI 't-'-' h bo •. d 'Y-"-,,_p-~~"-1lr··'C' 13-n- tid, -, pi etur 'e--n.- ~e'

~.~--- '~-' -~-" .~ ,iIi-L __ .!Ii ll~~ __ ~"-~J'" ",-_- ,- -- ' - _A,;\,;.__ .~. ~ """_., , , - .-----_ 1_-"'- U_," - """""-"---' - r----I.Q,,.'

!li:t:_, ~-',,, '-, Ie" .-~ ,---, ~,-:-:-,--- 'Ii' ,~" --,~. ad v., .. ,.,- ",-:': "-1 .... - .. :-:"" \ r ~ .. , ~[,.,- . ,...J_ .-" !I.'"'k-~ -, ,r: ,.-, Goeh " ",,' -, I"~ ke

, I ,_art c,lmljpson, ,IDSEea'AI :1;010, can m,D',[C!,O\l1"f!,!' DEe-55 ,II ." __ : Yi n '_ ,-og· ~I o,r ,I:e

O:-ID','----'- of ""~a"·"~n-"-, ,G:'o:-r::lh'~- model or "yn"O"'-iU' can wear a tee-shirt ~t':1ir"'I~'D-I'g, .: !~~I'·'--D'

I '" v, V'~i .. ~. < ,,-liC' .. ' '" >'Io.;o'~'11 v. ,~:.". •.. ",,""'iii ._"' ... ' '.." ..... _ ,I, lJl iliA:" l'IOY~i.",

:G,----.I·Q-;- -;-;Ib ." .0-:,'-01 ir, V-:-';=i ~~In-" " ..... 11.,., ~ i7'ln:a~l,k':"'~~'I~ have '''''~~'in-' GI:--:,-:,,~~'~.Sl-~ '~"",:. s:< :'~;d-~~';.' ,',······ •• -',fra'~1,

_ ···,1,----'·,_'-- ,_'!l.... ~I,'DU ~G_c< ,.,11.[, )U,ve,: ",' ,_,_Ave, 'Via", ,_. D, .... ,~ .. I ,I, ne __ 'II)Ur'1 ,~,_II~nl'

embroidered in seouins on the back of you I' J~lalclklel or 'his OWl] painted

',_' ',' " "-""-'" ",,", ,.",-",,-_ • I ,,,-,I, I, ',,- "- __ ",", - ",' '" ,J"'" ',- __ ' ,:____-: _ ,-",_" "_--, I"" ",' '_, ,I" ._'_~'--' ,_ -_-',-,

"~--:I .1'-, eh ' .. 'it'" , ~- ,,·'1.- ,d, ' .. '" ," . · , 111' , "j j I .. _- --I' '.' '.

lace ~, ',O~,Or',[,.Ln,ILle ._'.' on, ':101l[ Jl,eO'~wla[.I1.1er:_jl

r' r' l' b

" -~,ars,'hiIOlnlab,rue clothes thns always look personal, since the forms com-

POlino th rm 'rlefe!I' t'IO individualitv, even if rhe clothes shar : in the 'looks

-!.__ _. _ 'Dl" J J -,. J. • ••• J II!' J • • • _ OJ • _ ~t. ... . c" ., _. _.," _ . '_ I • _ _ . u _ .. 1"1 _ l._ J • _ I

of every. ',·bod,y··.',' else's a,-I: the :m 0 me nIt: Pashion indeed owes ies extraordi-

._._ . __ " "" •••• '.' • __ • __ • __ .' __ '_. _. __ •• "J_ ~ __ ,,_. '_:J~ '.!I'l ' .. ~ __ ._.'I! ."_jl!.'.".l L' •••• _ •••••• _. ',' •••• _J ••••• ,._ _ ••• 1 .. n [l._1

~ . . -'

narv P .. Dwe'r to the 'W;iI~' it can make each person look [r-ul'yr- .. uniq ue. even

H , C.~J __ ~ - - -- , " __ , - '--" - ,---- ,J! "- '--'---""" - -- ' __ - -- "--'" ,:,_-~, "---" ,- __ "-- - "-----'~-:' '----.--"",-':--,.--' - '.- '- '-'

h .. 1- .... 'lit h t :C_'" 11 'OJ 'h' d d '!II h a]' 1 ~ 11_

'\ ,-c, I~I-'I e au tne peopie Ill-,I JJowmg:-~ t 111'e 'mo:- e .~~. re oressmg 'very-~,:,~' mucn ~- '1 lie: ..

. •. • I. ._. __ • ._.', _. 1- _ ._. _ ~._. . . J 11.,::: _~I_I_._ I ~I ' __ , .__ ._~-..==! .__ __ __ ,_. ,.'" __ . . .. _ .. _. _ '.__ _ ._. I

. I - . - . _.

The deen ne "e' "'d~-, 1"'0"-::-:'" be sm 01'11 ''''r: nd , .. ,L~ d Qi181!'1 need ,Ion be part ot "'l 'o-r"o---.'u'lp----"

• I, Jl;.j Ul;, ~',r ,--, I, : '_-'_ ' ',,"'., ,! 'Ii;,,; ,j,), I' b'~-- - : - ,I, lll.=ll,~ _""",""' y' 1I,lu",,",,'. .L,u' ~,' 'S -, ", 'Q,:I:'- '_' ",1 ,

"'i - ' .J ..

, H--' "~ 'W:, , o R~-' 11',,:,: f: I~ ,,!il, S H~ II 0 N':':'-

. l . ~ •• ~I . _ ' .• ' .a. '. I r n. .' l ,IJ . '. .

,i lta _"-I ' '~I-, ,'c'I,I'C'I-- -~I bv ,J:; "- 'L,~,--,,-~"', '-hl-"~' ~-I~"""-'-" -' allowed "":,:-:,,,~,,- -",-:-, 'h':""v-' ",

are SI_mlU£lleIOusJIlY ,[0111 ec , 'IY rasmon ,It ,I as ,31W-YS auoe .. zec you, 1,0 nave

"y"" our ~'1Ik' "A, and eat I··' if 'Y""O'-':"I'O' 'h-I" ;!']i,V'''P, the str .eneth 10'''''-''''£-' Y"":,"O'- 'UI~ convictions and I

',/1,,1-,,- ,""~':,,"," 1.1",:_,_,a,lI. ,III." '_'':_''-~' "la,,'!!iI.o< ':'1 .• ,_ ,--;!L-",L",t',."" "_",,:,!'_,,- __ J:., 1'-'-'--"I:,_,',iIi,''_-"'",''-':'[,Iji:ll a"j",~,

'fai,llh in your eye ..

-, ,:~~'i:r~'n" W" vh en m '!'IiID'---"Y",,... peopl l;jli, \V"'_-'-,', -le-",---'r'-I"Il-'-I"II' ~ 0,-:: ",(1---::--",' '~ fash '~IO"'--:"',In-:-'- seem C"-u:-p'j=-""~"-~I-IC":---_---'I~"'U' ',y;-:-,Ii" ~'O'~,

". y ~'l " 1,_ ',_, , • ~'" .'. J [I )._I. _g . ...!~., I' ,,_~, ,_",' "_":!l~ ·~I'~ •.• ',_ ,. _ u :_~, _',_ __:__" _. '. ~ :Il~;;~~L!"'!l'~'.I.._. __ :.....:.._) r~j, __ . ~~ (_h ~~. __ , 1_ '~,I'-ll·._ 'Jg}~.". 1,=_

(.,,', , '. I)

resemble one another, the suggestive configurations 101C' modish clothing

will in t-~ ct lend II, further indivi,duaJi,ty, to each, as, ge~n,le~r;al" fashions c'a~n"'t:

h -, e-, ~'~Ip'~' br "I"n--!Ul'~ 'liflill 10,,' ,rU, ' "t'--- C, ' "C"-,[, -£1-""11", 'n- - p' :-, ~ r',,;o-~', 1-]1 ~,'I-I Iq' ·.1 D, ",-'" -, "I~:'~'!~I e,- i:; and d :)u-YI,'np' i~: ~~Ii:::I,!;,'1j ",~ 0" ;-, .1 th 'I e" -'f-- -' - T·, -<'h-.I e,- ,:

" "I. , , t eli".D' . , , . , . , a., ,', 1IIi.o" .,. ,ao ,I . ~, A .Il.,iI" . 1"'1,. Iu 'iii;,! ,~!iJ! 01, D ,.,' . ,.. "

'h- j h "11-"" "'D-'- 'k '1-' k I d ,-,-

,,)c--·-~-I.··.: •• '-:1-:'-',.--' '-1-'1-,'1'" ':-"lll W'II ,- ',~:.''''-_ 1':-'·····-, 'I',,:~:'-I' ,"',-:1'" "' _ _-I--"':, :'1'11':' ::"'-I'I'.I'I'-'_"·~ "1':-'

same c ,1('; s, ort J I, air ~.·_,I_ rna re one man ,,00.·, grnn an ',._ anot , er man

-I b -ii, 'It d c. 11· hi '111 'h '" !i'-' 'k- th

10:' ·'01U1JS I· aO:I. a (lew vears tater cmc !JlO,ng,'3!'lf w~ ml"le the SOle

__: .. _ . -_.' '--'1 ,~-.~.__..:., '_-'_' __ ' '-- :.._'- '._.'. IJ' ,._.'-_:.........:._. ,:...__--,_.'.-. ___:! '.- :.........':......:- .. - '____: .. -.:....._:.......:,- .. ~:. '-'-- -':'__: ·.1 • .1 1_,[_I <_j._" ._j1_lo_j·,_ .' . __ ':....._:___:,:_,_

erim one look romantic and the -, boyish one formida ,'b~'~I~'-,

,1'-;11" -.. "., ,,-, ,'U, , "" ,,~_iILI,I' "" .,11=11,.. '".' ,.' ",.~,1;Oi'!! . '. c' '. l~'(", '_,I,g,. ,_c', , l~,~l'"

N-· :0··:1 '-w,~·:~ '-I N'-' T '-H_'_- 'E- ~~-" I~ T' 'q~.' 'U" 1.-- - rter 0-,(····· ,~L'I~I'~ ~'e·· -'n"'c-:ul', rv wem ~ n di ~'C.' :0··.··· n" te "'n te d

, " ,- .,,'. Iii.. ,Ji.-_," " iL,!!!!;";' . 1~l!l.;;]l ~'" ",' ,1',-, II ,I!!!;.." ,iJi .. -, ,I, ._ ' __ -e '

with present aspects of female tashio,n ma'y,"': 'siln-,J1U' adopt 3 di'f(ere:n'! fash-

... ~ - -- .. = ·oJ.-·." ••. ' .. - ..• , •• ='.' _. ~. _,. , , 1',' .• : Ii. . I.·~'," I. _ j... • , , . _, I.. • ,

" .. , ,-, .,'" ,f<'b:l. ,. ,., 1,,,,,,, ,""'I' ,'b' -J' ":h' ,,-- "'" ' "":,,, -, '" '-I':k - -- h . ,£,. ... ,",- ...• :.. . ... ·d: "I

10 ...• ,_:0-11 .. o'.·.:'n'le",-_- 0';-1. I*' I, ,e." ~.e.··-:ve-ra.'-, :~.V'~I ar .• le .. ·· .. it" ,-,''1,,1'"1- ,a···r:e.··.' q"'IUII't-~' Ulln',~ II '1(:"-' t" ,'e',' termmne D\o:e!

u .,. ~-;rl ., j. •• ~ IlL ., . a . L:: • lb. L. w II. ". 1. IL, I A ILl .1:' ..... ~.. ~..... ~. .. ~. ~

n

of the P---,IS:t'i ,An enliehtened woman may Pi- 'lie:te,r' to c'aIDI such C,ID'£hin,~' Ba-

I 17'" l l .e

sic, Timeless, Purely :-~_-o:mforta,b:l:e and Not Fashion-e-but Olr course it :s,tiU, is,. Unless she weaves or knits, the :£a,b:r-ic ,an,ld mvents levery' bit ofthe costume o,.,,:'U-I'-C 0·.·· If] her he .. ·:a·~ d ... fashion d esizners are d,e~:igrli'ng~'-~'n',y~"~ !P:1lrme'nis

~. - .' _ ....... I[!IIIIII!. I~ .•.• • __ •. __ I _ . __ • I ~ __ I . __ ••• _~l. --'11 l.!IIIIIIIIII! •••• _.~ •• - l~l~ . __ I~'._. [~~.,~ _. . . __ .~ ._. .~ •. _ .• ]:', '.' 1_ - I ~I •. , :' .~._._ •• [ .. / ~,_ ~ ._l . ._. ~ ._. _.

'S·-:~,A 'L, -,il'~y~,··'r: and the c~I,-,,'b--'~o'--~ln: h msiness i~ - ,- ~'-;-g-';7 and II'lar--:liik,p,~;i'n-'lg'-':'-~ "'h-'IA,'-,-_'-'m-:1-; iI'Ii,:,1'1I!'-1""it"h"1

,.._I~I,~ 'Ou·, ,!1i I 11_,_,_, "_,c_~ ,[,g,~,_,-'-I,'''::::''_'_' _'::/ __ ,!l',--,_,-,,_ .1Ii,~ ,lI.~ --,_, J __ , ~,_,_",_:_, _'-' _ "_' _!""I~~ '-:, ; "., ~,_: ''-, '11'" ,I '

_. '. '--

h ~ -I" L ,. I b '0 d .' h t:

,t I ie same ,en,ergy' It appl tes 'tOI those creauons taee rec wun 11,'3JDQ'U,S, names

,to-I t-, are r ~p-~'O-'~I-:Ir' ted - in to, h ~I:~ fashion p; ~:'r~-I;'!C!:1.

I~ _ .. ~.~'~.. ~ _ ._. I~~I. __ I I I ._ ~l ~l 11-. t _:.lil ~"_ ~.t, _. ~ il!i.Ji!l

, ,

B:~-;"'I ,-, '~I' '~I,-' (.:."'~':_:'--I--___:_::I\I' '~II_-II-'_-'I, _ _:_-___:i'·II·_.~ '-;'fi,,~-,~, ·"':":··hl-'-I"'I"-'I-I -, :- IIII:II---'."~ .,:.':'1:' . I', "-(\rr:":if·::,~~

, /ut ,mt 15, extreme ,"'I I"n,te,reslmog tnat w ",en, contemporary women 'WlS,~:,I,

(,0, 'be' simple and rin Jess and outside . s, ~ on, the clothes th -; tI5'UaD.y,.:,'

. [.' :

choo '.' ~I,'CJ ~'-ri~ .. aditio :-":0 allv m :-I'_'!C!r'Ur~Ir.I'D-::e',' in oriein - the '"-'n:'ls~"~:d·.'I' 'SL'~I irs, and

~ ,-, _' ,- ",~, ,- gli,''''' 'IIi.JI, m, cil" _ii. :,':' __ :JI',1 ,H' __ -iJ .... _--I '" " , , ',,',' ,ilC!I!' "II!! I':"" '" _- y" .,,'.!I<!!' ',_ ._I_lt _' "_l~J-U" 'L-"- CI "'"' _'

iackets and sweaters ofmodem classic 'male dres ,- jeans and flan'oe'l '5,'hi:rts

J,--- - ~_,e __ -- - - '-"- ,_w,_- a _ '_- I ,_- "_-u _-, __ ' '_ r ,~ ' __ - _' - __ - ","",_, __ -_ _ '_ _ _ ' -', '_ ' __ - -- - '_ - _-- '_ -- - -- . -_ -, , '_ .

--I·'n·-:-',~I';-u-d~' '-:d=" rln-I-:-I~fj~-a;:-l:di)h lOT' ~ ~'~I""""rI'n-ll',a' f;D;~:-r a~-':n=':--v"':---c '-P:'-U---- -r~~I,~y;~' fe~-,'m_----'a-:-,II~ 'L:'""'S,.;iI:C,:= ,:--w,,:,-,,-,-,:cy;',~ ~';O':'~I:3IFA~'~'- '~'-I",'k',~'e---.

, L-· ._"_, __ ,~ ',,",,",' ~' ... ,.,. ._ .... ' iAli.IIi=Ii,U ''''''0 ['t- , '-- '"',;ilr' ,~-- H '~'.lIl./ It, _, __ -1,..., ID_Cl __ .!Ii.." _'_" ',, __ , UL !!!i!!lo:"~~iIi ,!Ii_" - .. '

so,m,e ,o:f't'he'ir- IdresLs-refor'ntina ro'r'bea'I'S, 'in 'I'he ']ar5t ,centu'~. t~h.ley., ~ :bave sim.-

. _ l""1 ._ ._. ._. __ ._ •• _ .. _. _ .. _. . __ ',_" ':J~[ .. _l,b . I' _. ~ ._.. ."l.""'" •• I._ ._ .. _ ' -~ l'lif, I ['.' - .' --

P-'ly,:I.' 'm~ve"d' - 't-- ·'O·········--,!!Jjr· ~.;~~~'IA, di···'~'~'c,~·t-'~Iy\" Df Ie·· ·: .. 'a~'··b'· m'isiled 'male,' fashiD'D- 3!S··' WD'm'en

. /""".:,' ""'-,.., Iv,_, _,_,_!_, .... _, ._,llIt ~ '!L-d.ifi.:,~ I_IL',,"," _,IL_J!, . .::::_.,... '_: .. ,," .. _, j~,__:_- •• !.,.,,~,~_: ... ~,I _J_,,_,., _' . 1,1 .,~--, ,I, ,_.. . . "---' , ,~ "~,, • '

. ~ .

'h'- 'a:v'-',_-'e-;. 'r!e-::--'p·.:·e· :a'-,'t-"AdlI':~:, "y",I;' !C:I',:h' "a::I~'Ii: n··' ""!ii, Id:~"g~"'I~'r~' '[-rO'-', 'd.-' ,'0;--' £".0'··. 'If," ,jf"'i'le~'DI·t- U.· ·r,~"e····, 1"n:'1 '·;'i!:s' ,r·e,-"n,(lfillinli '1- '-h·· ':e~'y',: ,,-

,. "". 11;' '"",=' '. ,_;~_: .,/ ~:-'n' . g,_: '~~', ,,"',_-- .. ,' ,ll'-.· ~. - , . , ,..,.1 .~ Jl. "ill·. 1!!io,.'.7", ,111.", ~'l'fJ . ''''.'

h- ""-ve',,------'l 'S··:''iI-lr':(''"'eA'~e--d,'- - T' '~hl-e-'-~e,: .~~: ..!'!ii'p··-,:p-::""'~n-"'Iy,-,--,· '-n"--'O,;'1 p; -l~e·,·-"'~-n-'" e·,""__:'~'a""'-pl-,.e··:~ ,cm.J----:m-- 'wo::--m'---"e-~'-ni '~s':·, ,-""'n~ -

DJ' , , ,U'L'~' "'" 11_". "., ,"",,1. r: .I~ ,R ,~. __ ai, """ ,iL.' , "_ ~ [i_ ~""'"' I" L_ ,~'L- ," ell. ' __ , ., _,,_ _ .. , I" ... ~. _ '.., '

", : . .

I'C··.···:l~,~n~'·· .. ''Wl~,~lh, t~'Q'> ·w·\'I--:e·· :,a~"[-~ 'mll·l:e'-'n,"~s·~··· ,:- -O· .• ···.·I-'h-:,I.e,-~ t-~u"rl\n-·· trl1f-'.e~~·-m·.-' ·t~ '~e--Jnl ·1,-"",,'I.e··.' ia:··/!"t;:':O-,=':'U·' 'nt"-, -3-'- nd·· .•. 't(D

•. ~. ~L! .1.., ,_.= l.a l _ •.• ' .' '.' . '.. • 9l .~ .. ~ .' .... ...•.• JJ ' ... i:J!JI , •. '. . ~ l 1 11..1]1, ... , l.. ",'-" ,[t .. L! .IJIIIIII. a .I .... ' ._ .. ~L ...... ~. , .. _. 11=1"" ' .• _ ~~ •..... _. .'-'

C:--:I H-,!111'~,--":-::;-;t ,--'d"'h"'-"-'~I , ... .'h~,,_.-,-',,',; ... 'd"'-II ,~,. ':J' .. rrb, ",:,__'"

,[lee, . ,-,uera ,je,,~ w,,~:e,n, '- . .,I .. ~ '. _:,0 ,1,I~lt W' L! .y_, ..

~'ll' .. 1

ThieR' I:SI, 1 wD'ul!d ,c'la'i.m-1, sD.m,el'h_j,:ng per,petul_D.)~ m,o:re 1m 0 dernf about

--- .... ,11- ..-1, .......... -- ~~-- -l"f;'--'h--- ·h'- - - _'I - .. -- - --- -d' - ~ -- ~--'h- -- --tl" -- ---:---:- --- d':'I-----"'--- .. bl_l - -·'h- n

mawe' 'W1C-SS llie ' It) [ ,-'as ,atW,ays 'rna:_}f! Ill. In,lcreD" .·."Y ,m,o·,re 1'leSl[a,~_e E,-,~a~J

£eJrlale drelsl~ It: 'is 1:10', just the S'I,go, DI'£ plow~e,r' in th,e 'wIDlrldo~, o'r 0:1:- ,pot'e:IICY' i'n the 'hea,d~ 'RID,f 'has 'iI, e:ve- a, "'Derall'w' b: ~e'n m,ore p--)hvsii,ca'Dy"I,,' c'o'mfofta.-ble"

","-- -'! ','-" '," .. ,,'.- ... I ;r:,,-' ,- -- ',I ,,-','-'-' '--'"--- ,,----1- -'- ~,( '---'--'--~---'-'-'---'---",

41", ,- .~:- ,:-'::, ,.,'h::··· -- -)1 <t",c, - M-\"--'- ','~ 'd~=dJ'" '"-,, A"'--""" ",- --'-., "-"'-1 - "1,-,-", 'd,'i .. ----:,-, -; iI(-.~- b'-' ':- ':, b'" -'-::--, 'd':- ,--" --,_:,( ";'--:I""fIij ~,-,-, -fi-::~ .,:-.- da··c'· ~--;-.

uUIl. S,lD.ce 1"1, If] '_'.ate .. (, 1'_"1_ ,e ~;ges", ,ma-,e , __ r-ess, Icl_SO . a~", '31._ ,I Cref 1410 un" ~~_)~

39

~':: . '

, -

,5 N<1' 'D- • 'U-'_'I I. 'T '~'

n _ . ~ ... I ~

','--1 --c' -: ,-', -,", , -", Ii] '-, ," ,: --:-, ,-, ',- 'W'-~-' - -,"- ,-, bit ,~' dres ;£' ,,-- I' th "I[~-~'-:' --" E-"

, II ,R S T,~ A B'O U 1, "I [) ,1,t"R,., ,~, ~ ,', '11_',I,tS, 0',1, "",[~S~, rrom me omer sex, , Ji,'"'""

tremely separate male and fe'mal,f! ._ ,f[e'ct":1 in fas'bi,'D,n~ li'- e rhnse in t 3'0 o~r' '11-,,-,101- in "I,_:'('Q orr ]'0'('0 - sueeest 'Ih-~"I' each sex currentlv wan to' have a,

' , ',',.I" -' , ,- ,~I- '_-'- "7})'--- >J --",itlD-- --- ,,--- -- ,----,' , --~'-"---' --- ,i - - ------ -- - ,-

've_ry clear sense of distance ;Iroll~ the other one, :'. _,on -1111U'n-1 ties have someti mes enforced such sartorial separation with considerable r '"'" 1",-['-,

t~ .• ,". ""~ - . l~ "_;=,~ £II_ .. , ~~. _.' ~ .. _ .... ~ I I .gl~ l~ ."_' -tI~-1 ,~" .. _, ,_._ g.l~,I, __ . _ .. ' . I '. IlL. I L., . '!~I~~ __ .~I~ ~I J ~ . i1 < _!_ IIII!

making t~',WSI prohibiring transvestism and i mposing s,~ iff penalri eSI ror 'vi,lo, .... Iations, ',I=;'Ul t,hj~-.: u.:,u,aml,'~' 'begins to ha,plple'~fl, when the '.'_ is'u,a~~" ,d'iffi-~rrenC'e.s

bet 't'iIl:f~~D' 'm·· - . ~·n ':"ie' and '1''1'''0· "n'-}"'" ,'I1····!!i[" cloth eii:'- 'Ie··· actu ""'11'1''\10;, ,; 'n-' "'n e I' ,., '~'I'''li,iI'''e' '- 0"1 :,,-,' -'-, 'c- "0---1 -

.',~. 'n' ~.~I ,II ,I ~,iIi"';"1 ~ _ _JU "i!If.¥' ':.:_':__.;.""..;"_ ~ ... r>li.' IVI,;, ,I,....-i' ( 111~.: '&1,'_ t, .. ~~ .. ,I,i .I,~ c.' II,~' ._ ;J,_.UiIL"-. '. c " _ y, ,I n ....

fusion, and fashion 'i'~ bc',gi'nJ,lin,g 1'01 bring the sexes closer EQ,ge~Eher after :h,(}vi:ng sharply divided them. Since it is committed 'tOI sexual expression, ~:-'s~hioID, has :1 e:pe,i1E:~~dI'y done this." because se,x;.u,ality, j'lse1f gets a sharp spe-cific emohasis if someone uses the clothes of the other S,C]!' cspcci, J~"'y','

r' . II

1;.M,i.'t:h,o'u:t. otherwise hiding his Dr her own. Ir is sexual pleidSllt'e~, set u,p

in visible defiance 0:(' the clear' male and female si __ ,- a s designed tOI fur-

ther procre :~li,'t~IO, :.:'-·0"", t.-,-,'h',~" I·'if'!~ IP·m·II-'p· ~':I'h-.",a~'~~I/'9d-J bv ··n--I"''\J' hine 0,:--1· f~ 'h-IIIDi-~m·I:-I:e.··.-'~I.~~r. fantasv '11-1

!Ii,.- ", __ =",iI,.'Y,,",,_,-IIi,. ,iIi,, __ ·_,I,"I""~ .J'II. ,~ ~,-"," ," i'lili IL.- __ , ---',1 '~1; 'J ' liJ, I" ',-' I" ,., ,, __ .,iL'!!IiJ!Il.iI\... 1"- ,- _ '[I' ,_ '

,(~[olh,esl'; and i:- trig'hee,nsl 'ma,n,l.,

Since personal scxu3-lir:y is (lwrays the engine 0:1'-' :fIJhion,~ ,3.11'::1,' I'hin,g' tem,ti,I--all,'y disturbing will 'n:pea,te'd'l:y' tend '1.0 emerge 0:0, j,lts surface, in, ,op~

posirion to whatever has late'ly'~';/' been Ico'nventioln,aJrl'~' deflning ,1,1 ta lesJ and

,I, ,,J 'I ..

females. Sartori ,- borrowin :' .. ~: from the other s _-X,o; whether in'! ~'vildual 0"

I. ~

collective. suddenly Idils,p'~a',y' ,3, modern kind of'knowledge ,tJbalt ·.'c'xuaJity, is

:,~'uid, unaccountable and even uncomfortable, ,n:' -,t fiXJedt) I'imp:me' and easv; Besides sex, fashion msisn on ri- k. ':,:: the' visual diJ'vide between men and 'w'ome'n, starts lcoking t'ol~I",rltl,lblolu~,c'-; too unrroubled.uoo conventional

,- '0-' , '

- H,.-· . W,-J~' 01 'itf~! U .(() ~ ~ ·A':', ·5···· IH- II ·C·. :1 N

~ . I I. .. J '0 '. ," ." I\r. -',_. r II' J..._ J [I. "

instea :d·~· of dramaric Ca' ·~·h,-,··'I~.O.~ .. m ·W,·'· ': 'ill' II beci iI~1 ·p.·.·.·m,-~d·,~·ill[i'I,r-li1'n-·'u ,-' 'D-~ ~'II"i.D:-'t-I~~· disturbance

".- c __ ~ Ill!!. _ . ,_, . " [.IJ_ .--' _-Q 1Ii.o1i. . '!!II ,Ii ~ , _.'. _ _ ,_ ..... __ . ,_. "'" ;:,-011. ,. ..-- _.'. ._ ,'g ....... _. 0 . _-_. "'" ,il' -__ .. '!I!!.r "_ '" ""_ _". I. _ '_." ._ '!I'

B - Jii··r :- ,-,-, I' ---:-" ·t-,·---:- ,:' -' ~"---:-"'- - .- ~" -', ~-J!c:- '1,11'·:-:-' :-5 th .' -'. ..-, - - .-:---. -". "':-::-'.:- '.- .' -.

IU." nO'_"~1 0, course, :._lwa'y~1 ,. ie same IOIJ.e.~

"t'!; there '~o;:r~' n ot surprising ~:hac'l mainstream femm iine fashion I h -' >I~ ":0·.-':

l~ ._ __ . ~ I! ._.. _ " Ii , " . _ g 1. __ :~¥a ll~l! l!.ll L! _ u ••. i.~:_aU!l' ... I! . ~~ ~_

,~ :,. 1,_ _ •

O·C.Pft £~d'-' on rh 'iIi!I c'·u1a··-··c-~,ili!i; d -I~vi;r~ o 'f'~ s· '!Iii'I'~rtjIV~ borrowine ,l"":"'=-'m- . men 'U' ·s'u.·a·n-' 'v'

IIl,I~,~., [L~_.I'I,,~ I" ',: 1~~,,_::[-Jl..L. _'.~ ·.~'~"IJ~~· 1_>, se I.~~'_.~:,I~_:: ~__:: . ''''1111, __ .• ~~: U1J'J...\ L. _!,~,,"-~~J"__:_:21-1_::~-~"1

I'D SlllaU doses, for' provocative le·fb' cr. But G··~~··-··o··.-"rlg~-.·· S?'~lllld. wearine a I~O-:-:'11J-'

'2' .. '.1 . __ '. <_-,_""IiJ·_··'· "' .. :"'- = __ _ -., ,-= .. _ .. _ .. __ h , ". __ ·.n ., .. -I -", __ ,. '--.-'_~."._-- "~-:.."'. ".:':.-'. i:._-.··. ,·-.A.I,.:.... •... -." I.: , .. ~.-- ..• ,I .. I:_,!C). ~':-:"'"

-i:;I,el:le'I1.I'n·~: 'I-ci' in a '-:: riod when sexual ··.,":'1):'--·1--11--'1 wa '~" .. ~' \'/ .·-I'·',;~',

p __ - _ ,n, __ _ su, t ~ _j pe, 10,_ '." en. sexuat separareness ' .. as .. ery intense,

became .0-': erotic I"C:-·O."C','n-,' because she '1' ooked .. : : Tv ... ·,~"n-' mo .. ,.:~~· '~~rn{';I'nl-:-l~"~I~' in he ··r.

_ ~"_ ~_. '_' _ ._., _ l~.I/~ _ '_' ~ l.__l '_ ~~g __ ~~l I~~ ~ •. _ ._ ~_~. __ . ,_. ~,~_, ,_~l __ ' ~,I~ 1.~,~I.~~~jj,I.~ ,~ _' ,11._ .. _

men ... ,1-'_';CC'_3UJe when :6_,s.:h·mDln 'first arrived to make clothing modern :iJ[ 'W3IS men's clothes c·ha.'_ .. 'provided. a field for the expression o'f adventurous sexual fD_n'tasy~ not wonlen,~s, ..

Mo'" d erniw h .- -a::-1C' n;b'-' ricusl "::-Y"7 '[---:-;--;'11- irred in waves 0:-"'''('- wh 'I~ ch only th ~ ~ atest

• .'_ .' ". - . ", I . .11.1 .... [: ..;. .;.J! u' ~ '~.<,_:_:;:!!I' .',' .'. '"" '. - .0' .; I •. ",,-~, ,I, 1.,1 '~:r.' G.'''' !:_-:-- ."1; '::'_-'" ~<" I ~ .,~. "., .' 'I,: ,. .. _. _I."", 1 a,,",I~: ,_.

:I~ e. i~II~S~:"'I""I;O ated with the 'Ibl :.~D!~ nnina :0.'1;.(.'- ··"hi·,':"!~, een .. · .. C·· -U~lrv'. 'L .. O.·::.DI'~I"'·l:' n-I' .~. J'~ U-'-- ; ..... ,~-'~ ~'I·ID·,:-:·,:"I-,~h·'~ 1"·.'Dlllff

~ a,d _U"," ... '. . . _ ... iIi. •. . r , ,,..,. • - 'I/;,.; bll. ,.. . 'b' . . 'Ilk, .~ ~, , _,,"'" I'~ '-_ - ,I:. .... .:_' .1., nlli.. iL, ...... ' I'J

since I ZOO- WO'U can see that 'SIP··U'fES, of cultural advance W~'~~) illustrated b '7

.. "- -tl ,I '--- '.' .. '.' ", " ,~_U_U[_ a._,_-_c-- ere I U_fl._C Y

the art of dress in '~ __ ::harp new visualization of' human :IOOI~~S"I and 't·ha1t· m ost of th r, ese W\-I'-~\~ -1'~_-n,--·~i.~I>"U-·-'y::· masculine. ~~·.~o)~IFm-1 sen's dress rea cted to new

- ~Il. . ,,"'~"', _ ,,~·,I,'''''· , .. JI"" • ,g __ JJI,_,,_,~·~WL ~" ,_e ~_, . Ult'~'.. ,1.'\';""_" I~e__ _" ,'-- __ w

masculine sartorial assertions both with counter-assertions of' e~x,~.gglcr-·

ated :.OJ~ nservarive and subn -:-lI-<"";£'CI~! ~)".-"J;, ele -r -'0-:-1- ents and n more '~'U' ·,'p--::Pl~I~.~·I"' ,'" '11'1 y .... 1 'w·: .', '1'· th

__ I~~J. _ .. ~ , __ 3'--.~, ''I.i·I;WP.,~,·.L~ _, _ .... _ 3,. __ ] __ a~_.-wC ._~_._ .. l'_~_'_)"~ J ~_. _" _ ' .. ". ". ~~~ ~ .. _' . ~,[-I"I .. ~ .. aJI ". ,/ _. ~ ' ..... _ .. " ...

. .

t~h,e,',t, es,peci_'lly afte'f laDou,r.· '1,51' S·~ Wo'mc'n'-s modes theresfier began to

raid bits of male cloehing 13S, a standard ·plrJ¥:u~.·n imaginative ~.' :.dva·n.ce on

pix········ rem ,01 feminine devices. Things ': ·r~'rp"y,,:.i 'W" '·':-"0; 110' ,~'h' ';e" ·Or-:···.,.·'h-,·,,· ···r:..' \.:': ·3:··Y·1.:" I' I-(t~ clea "r

~ ... ; . &'~ . , .. _I~ ,Ir~:": I . _,I, ~ -e _ .... _ '.j[ 1.,_ ~I"'l~' I~I· - -..... .- ~'Il. I ., . .'~~~I!L ~~~r -e ~1 1 .. ~IILr_~I.' I~ '. "' __ , .I!!!!I __j]'_ ~ -. __ l .. "_: .. _J

:.' _' - I _'

I-','h:a"'r the c: ·t··e<s····t· and ·SA .. :~, .. adva mces in '~·~~~:t-~Ir.' 'D' costume h .. iist orv w, '.:,.. ·:r·,e···

, " _ )!l.1 'l. .~ ,I,j '._ '_. 1_ . __ "_., _. .~,_,_.~.,~!Ii. '''' __ ' ... _ __:c._ \,. "_"~ .:'__._ c._. ·W'~~I~.~.-'. _.'_. ""_ ·il~. __ -_':'__"-. ._,-,--,ioli.__ .. ~ I' '_ ._. _ -'._j

made .mn. mal~-' (a'Shi.oln,~ in.clu.ding· th.e :j,n-i.-tial 'I.eap i'n"~OI fal:hi,on i!IJf -in t"he I-Q,te tweJft'h ce'I)'tu,'~~ ,t'h:-.· shift :~11toIIIJ.,od.erJ:ni.ty W'h'I'C'h, £h,:rew' dO'wn 'the c·ha;Ule,ng.e' t.o' ,aU. 5u.lclceed'i·n:g ge'n.e.ra:tio'n51~'

lU' ~.. T.I:l .' IH E. N .~ th,e 'Eu'ro'pcI3'O. :sch,eme '£or' costume' sj'olcle' l-,:[e an'!igluily :had Idfie~~led m.e.I). II.nd. W'"'O,ln,e'll i'll s~ifn~ilar 'bag-'I'i.ke· :pr,ments M,IChoIU'I' cUor\7e4d. se:~-ms"1 e:itlher (o:r a:r'm'h,o:l,es or £'0 cre,a.'·e ,an', fit ,am,uD,d [:be 'bo .

Sil<l'''llil1 ]"11 common to mu ch 0'··.·:-,£'-' th le~···· Eastern hem .. tisphere in socieries th .'3··-lt' do

IlL l ,._ iii;,.. ._,II"iI,iIi:.UI,}';~", l._. "._ '1;,.-",_., ._" ,...,_.-iOtI!'~" ., ,I~I,"", ,_ ,~,_."._ ~,~ ,II" .... _"'" ~'Ii.-"L-~_. .T_ ..

:001: traditionally 'have' our 'so'rl,o(:fa'sh-i,o'n~ ,A'n·d. in recent attempts to em-

~. l '

ulate Western dres 5, - the people of Nepal, for e:J 'am - .• le, (o'~I,o~r the 311,-

_- Ie ••. "1 •••• l "I' '_ ••.• t, • [I. ~,' ,~. • ~".!P .n) I".· .iii]I.,ilil. - I'll.] •... , ...•. ,,_Il_, l ... e- •..••

cienr rnle ·.I,·t is the men who strive :£0'[ moderniry and now wear cut and sewn Weste:rl,l: clothes, while he women keep '1:10 the :-1:111 draperies on nee wor -n ·b-'~,=y····',~ b}-o-,/,~'h\ ~

,",. I . . •• •. _ ", _ ,~ _ • • .• ~ 'I"!'

,!~:'uring rhe lea;rl,'y Middle .Age'·~: men's rt'UII'IC'S might sometimes be

sh -"0"'[[" er than '91' omen .~;t. but L,O~-[' 11-- sexes wore d':'-r-a'p' "cd-;- clo -'to ;h' "J"o" . ,t-;~I'I' '11 ,t:1\1'-nJl1 ...

I . I,.;.,_~.,', . rnar " '.~. [-II.I,~~:~ s, r:~l~, lUi'~ [, :~.'.: _~~~'Mif'."~· :~-,_":~,I-:_,,:. ,:' .1." 'g~I_1. l!. i~'",ua:""'"

.m,en'ta_D,y· like those of the ancient Gre'e:ks and . .omans, 'Wh.'D had also :31-, lowed men shorter tunics for active war, active labor and active leisure. ~'~'en wore Iong ~D'D·W'flS. too, on ,11" formal civil 0." I.·~ isions The main III ,W

= ~. -"" - - . - . , ~ - "'"' ~ e - it. ~ - . - '!i = - . - - ,- ,.. e - - " ~ "". -, . .." I( _. , . _., ,~-.. .., ,... , . I. - "., ..• , '. . ,

medieval ·di-~-"i'~~~"n·'I~·e,. "1 betwee "'0;' the :~.~'~~- .. ~ w .-q~; tha -'If with their shorter tunics '.

. ,'\,< __ ,"-'-~'~_. IIbJl,~ . ,,,",. "",Iii.; ... """_. ,. '. ;i]i~..i"'!Ii.:_;i]i, d.~ ~Jnl_ ~ 'IWI' i\;; ,'"_ "",_, .;]I,." .' ,l!l.~., .... ,. ,. ,I!\"'S,~

men wore separate leg-coverings 1:0 os ely" d'f31wn 'u,p' and attached I~~O II 'w,aist;ban,d" and :I.oos,e-,fil'ttlng 'uD:d:- 'rp~an,ts, tid, around under those, both

arranaem ents well adaoted to ~h"- e ":'U-,, ropean clim -·Ii!'II*"le··· .. and d e rivin 11'7 from

g, ;I,.p< ',Z:f- · I, 1,,_ I, ,il.~II''II' "~]. ._ ,u,gi r' ._J .:.'.~ _ !Il.,<_,- I".. '_. .~./ I''\.<Q"" I...:..: ,b=~ _iii1,1. __ ,,--,,_,_,, .. ,t ,., ~J~ . ,v ~.;."

the lor.iginal Northern ,'- Old, Northcasteru invaders ,of the' ~'",::-e·dil'e·r-ra·11,eall,

world, ror Greeks and Romans, they h; d o'ri.,g,in,alJly' had the potent chic of the forbidden. the outrageous dress of the ,en,le'JllY,. Wo:me·ll'sl's'[oc'kin"tP,t. almost invisible, o:nly came up '['0 the knee, and women had 'no ,paLI},t§) a·t ..... -n-I· even underneath, Som -I~ men's Iif'"'J:o-I'··hi:-I'~n:'g,-" thus already ~o·;"rml·I·,-@'d;'~ 4 som ,g.'-

dt ." ,' ... iIi"iI, .... , , _, . . ,. u. '." • . .. " , , .. ~ ,_ ,", ,., 'l~ 111;.--.., .. 1"'_.. ., -J __ I 1jJ, .. ~ ~_ . "-"iiiIi r- , • ...•.. .[,~, , ••• ,,,", ,I Q. ..:!. -, ,;lI;..,

what more . etailed bodily envelope than women's, even though II was, aU made of 'baggy drapes,

Arc of the earlv M iddle Ages shows how arnsts virmall Y' created the b .• eau ltv' 0'-:£: early ': m ed :'; ~'V': (·3' 'I ,c-·I~I·!~~I·n·· PJ_ in .: ··~v, zen :'~_'I';n,1 ::'lI' - i PIa· .. U u I~;.LU~ ~1 reci pro #I" 'J~'~~I ~~I '0·' •... 'f",'"

.. ~'-. .- '," 1 . . . lii..U.., .., "" •. _II\"', .. .1, ... ~ 'I.. ~~UH ,Ol!!! .iliff" '"".!I." D . ""_ ,_ .1~1i IJl ~ '~" _, .iIi,'V "" ,_, I~_!I! ~,!OJ ._ '

,£bl,d, :faslte:l}in,o~ texture and ~31~rler' in harmony with stYlized lair ms ,1.lldI1IC',IM,

~ ,;' [I till ~[a

combining the com nponents of the 'iguJ-.··,[e~ with abst •. racn ions Q ..• of d .• '. I -'I~P~I::~ ~rl

______ ~ =. . __ =_ . _~ .. !OJ~. _""" 11 . __ ~ .. ~ DD .~.g,.", .... u.JS_, ._ .a. C!'IJ.,Y

._ .'-'. ,~~ , . ,;,ii'

JI< U·· .~,. '"lil~ G" r~':'::r·p'e·'~ .. , I~, ..•.. u 'i'PI-1f!O; srs and vase-pain C"· '.,'rp h "'_I~ done .', 'E: arlv me d i1e',If:<JI"1

" _ 1 ;'~. Q!I.l!I ," _Ii __ ~'" ,~,. raJ. - l -_ ·11 '. !LJ ..•... lal ,q_ l '." _" ~ ,a~~ . "~" ~' .. "'.:' ri'1 .... _ U .' _"' :-_' I' ", __ [Ii . ,~_ I JI 'q : J)._" 1 .... _. ·~I··._·. '1?Ig :

l, JII'

carvers, painters, illuminators and mosaicists were ele'arly more ,ginted. £0'[' couture than 'c'b,e s'tr,aJl~h~"-'cu'ninl,g:i i·trai~gh't-,ewicng: ta'ilorl of the time,

~ d- t.;' =h; -, 11, ... '" "L, k f'~' .. d"

ron IC::',fIl see '11110 = em .131·.~-IOI:n,'u·r.~.Jn!~.',: tn tne wor 'S 0:;' art, getnng .re·a,I-.Y t

be born,

The :firsl revohrtionarv advance .. 'in, Eurcoean '(a$,·h'io'n. however, were

. ~. ~ ~

conn e1c tc'd, 'to· the late·-,t\Ve"lftb:-·c.c':ntury de\,:,Tel.op·:~o.Ill;en~c IOlf '-p~l-J~'e ~),f'mor~,

.jJ , , . ,

4· 111

, ."""

of lei •. '~11~1I1~"F::I'" cal :""['1 ~1' or; whi c .'~1 had '10»111 0· •.• ):')·'· ed 'tIJl.· .. ·· forms of the ideal nude tIDrSO'

~l __ ._[Il~~~. ~CIi_ ~~ II~l~lJ 'LJ.'IJ.I,. __ ~f"_!l _ll. "L! !I.r .. __ .1~lt_1! ~Il_. _ ~ ~. _ .. ~ __ __ ~~ _ ~ _ _ _ ~_ _ _

and parts ofthe arms 3'nd less. coatine naked muscles in metal sculpture

I_"_ ,_l'_" ~ _ l, __ '_n _ . ,' .•. ", ,_', ,l_ . • • Ii. ,I • ~ I' ~f!_,!II. " • I •••• III '" __ ,'1' .. ' . - _' ~ ,. 110 J ••• ' J iI. Jl I • __ - • -.~ • ••. I I. J • "_. _. ,I .

,[,11 a;t; s e emed 'to 'i mira te t hit 111 ~ an d 'I e avi n'u' other parts bare .

. _:, 'I [._ ... !iio:" .... -, II. r -. _!.! .• , .... _ I' ... ~ j •. __ !l .••. , '. 1 I"~ I":'~' . ,~ . -~. 1 _"~"::J I. ~I~ ·=--'l~. '.,- _::....) -._ ,'I _ 'Ii

B~,~ contrast. the d· namic 'fo'rI1IaID in enuitv of medieval 'p~r~3'[e armor

'.'.' .' ,,' .. " .. ~ '.11 •• " '.. '. .;' .'.' _'.", '.. " .. , " " - • . , '.':-:-' • •. ,.~. ., " .. _,.... . [. ,.. .• . H, , , .... ,

har i d iii] d 'L L ~ 'J d b F

suggests t at It \i", as I; esizne 1101 ennance tne arncu atec beaurv 0'. IbIOII,ll-

f·'··"""~'., •.. ":I· .,~. _,' [." .. =. " ._. 1r.t"~I~ .. ,J _~. . -.::::r" .1.. Jr.,[ .. _ l._., .. , .. _, '.' .-,~111· ._.~ .~--~_[,[

P--,l·~e.---C-··I··'~ male b'I~O:-J.d'~I·~~S~~, verv creat ]'~'''''., 11\,.,.!'i'~. in the modern '~'\'1i":~I·,:,r·~'"',.i··h'-, .... n.··-· in tvenred

"",\-, ",~d··,'-,I ..... "~' \(,-".,'~ ~,·La,. 1I1"=~1"1 ,il .: 'l. ~ !JlI!IkI- ... 1r.. ''iVU':r:'' ,._[Il!l!.ll~' la·,~ .',¥~l,~,!LLJ _J

, ~ # .

abstract in l~lap.r.·y·:" of mnltifa ~~,t-'I~(,~I 'b-~:r='-lE'nl'''I: . n '1~1if'li and 'U' rn earthly-looki J]I~'I[JJ

;H,. _ ,;:'1111.: ifI "'"' Iii., ,II, " ,,_i2i D'~" , ::._' "-" " "iii , ,. ,~, ,IL,II ~. '" """ 'L-. i\",o [I. . _ . "_U .'" ~. ~ '!!i.. lU,I!,I .. _, , ,_ ~ _~" r.1, Ii, iIl",-, m, 1.__ "_. ... "'" t),

strength. It was, a ereat esthetic as '~.rell as, 'P' -":'ra~:[ical advance: !"3 rl"lJ' me ',-,

. '_'. :,,__,;,' .. -',., .. ,. .,~, .-- .... .' .. ,"" .. ' ..... -' .. -, ... " .. _. ' .. -., ,~. _c· .. j ""~'_"-"-'-~' ~ _.~ " .. ~ '~'-. '1· , ".

worn over it '~or dash and ,g'litt',e'r as well as, identification and thick mnics underneath CQ," ..• p~. iro ~:c- .. rio .. ,~,~] from it: bur in itself ir ~~1L~I,d, no "~aV\·)f to :Q),n,}1~~1:11IC'le'

._. ,_IJ_._ ._ ,_, '_ ~O,lL: , , ,lE,t_ .. ~ ., _. ,~CI~{1 _. IJ, :I~J.I ~ . .1.1 . .._llk .. ~ ~.~ _ ~, __ ~ ~_ .~ _~ _, _ _ _ _

l'!J ' ~

the 'f1,g'h,til),g man's fi,gu,,-e,~

Innovations ill armor mark the ,6:r5£ real. modernity in 'Wes,['e'r,ll 'fash,-, ion, showing ~ra:1'·s 'to' redesign ,fl~I, 'the separate parts of the male bod')' and put rh Ie m back Eogecl}le:r' into 3, nlew,I}r" created shape, nile' that re·p· •.. · .. ll~I··,- .. e .. d-,< '1['" he n.~ ... raked h I :'~111·.-n··· un Fr',' "._ '1· me wi eh ,'!:~ not .h er on i~' [~'~,l··~,t,: m ad -~I~ 3 close

~ !if.,- .. '.' iL. '!OJ.'I!! .... ",IIlJ,.".~!I!," !!eLi!! ,~". __ ,iII,IIj,.". a!,ilJ.lI,,,_.r. _!!!o... _._"""' .jg .. l!!! _(~_~""" ~ _

three-dimensional line .... :{or-li.~1Ie' commentarv 10:11 it ill another medium,

- ~ - --~ - l - - - _ _ - _ - - - I)

Mame clothing 1,IOS:t the unfitted character it had had since antiquity and began to S'D,_ --.,,_~( ineeresting new lim 5, for the torso, Illt.i tel consider the whole shape 01,( legsand r3(1115 in ,irs tailoring scheme. Plate armor moreover required an unden arment made by 3l linen .... 3,r:11]IO're'r'~ 13\ close-fining

P ·~·d· ·d·:II"-·~'7""JI . 'U~ 1! ft:' th -"iilil'~' ou rlm ;i!i;];·d r he -'--W'- -.--'h~- ole 1--)- ian and 'p.,.,- ro ····t~·(c"''''-~'d'~1 '~'1' im 6"·-r·· "0'( '-'1' ii['1 ·~II\t~!

. ,'iiI""_ ,,1;., Y,-,', ,1.:0. '"'" rQ,l-. IIlo.JI'_, ...:I!"~,, I~.' __ , It. I,,~,!!!o.. .,),' Vl,~,'~_ ._,.__,!Il,g,,_,_ ;U, __ ,'.::_~ ,I-',----'-____:I_:;,~__:__ """"",.__:__.- ,~, __ llJli ~.L .I__-II ,iliLiIi ,.".1,31

metal c,a.'i,i:ll.g, IQ:f which it £oll'lo1~ve'd the shape, ,,-.-- .. ale :rns,'hilon, quickly aped the shapes created 'b:;'-' the h nen-armorers, '~'" ho can 're'all}~' coun t as tbe 'fll'rs't 'I"~~~ i I 0 rs of Eu ro ne .,

1

From this rime I(J'n ' round about ,1,3Ioo! clothed I),U:~,l a.II,'), women 'bit, .... gan to ~ook extremely ,,'ifre''YelJ,t,~ :, -or men, p,e ,(le;,etly' fined tights and ti,g,h,t .... fitting doublets were m~~u:~'d tOi_'~lle'l.her around the waist for smooth overall fit. and formal coats worn over this were verv short, neat and

~ I~

padded, Sle ves were ,315,0 en ofseveral ~~i,e'ces,~ shaped, and padded. The

separate hose were ses ,~,n 'COl' _ ther 'to become ti,gb,ts,,~ and Id~-~a1Jlll UPI D'r,mJy' ·0'--'" hid Q; the un de ··[--p- .... nts: 3'n-- d once I~M sh "0' -·'w"· -...I "",1;-'- t· 'b- ie 'W' ~~;i'[ljly" nu·-p--· rh - ff"'l'- d I,,"', ,. ,:'-.~,'_.,.~ .~ .• :_10,< I'·II~_ ': "';;"1._, 1:.·.. 1::...;', .t..,-- .. I,"",',~ sno I,,:' eu a '. .._~; ~~"" ,'(;,':;/ ,I,. ,.,. rr I:--~ I~O~-'

piece '\,' 5 invented, and, padded. In ,IE~I,y~, home ofthe 'rir,sl Classical re'vi.v,a·I" ... orne o,:f this articulation ·cl,~,a'rm'y echoed the new vO,gu:e' :fo'r the antique 'm-ale nude, which W~~_S .~~_,ISD making appe'~~_ra'n,ce; in, lr,ali,anJ :RIC8'-,

'''111·9S~I'~~',~e. ". art: b -.'11"1t··' '1;O:'1l-' ~J~r--'c th e'_-.·· ~.Ii":~IIl'!~l'!'-n-··" an - ··.d-~~ I·-,'~;~t·-·I~·U·I~·~IOU·'~ beautv 0,--:£' .,.:, [ .. h "1"'::-: ,-" ,--, r -,' ed

~ ,~ Pi iIl.!I'Lo . ._. L J ' U . _Ill., "'l!i' ~ 'Il., ... a !Il.;Q IJ. iLD. , 231 liIi. , , __ , .. 1.''-'cilI. .it" U ~ _ '-' ..... '~',) '. _. .., ,.e ,II m a

man ,<'1I,·t: most p'·.··rm--~i~ :Tnlnll,dI:··"-y,·,~ -a-97-e. cted europe 'In,1 fashion ~o-~:r~' cen 't:U'IfI~.~~' ~'~r~;r·-

___ U_. = ~ __ i~ ~_~_ 'lUi" ,,_, _ll,~ !!!;.,;·L ~ __ ',--, , cil,Q:;:.J, .'." IJo "-'~ """iI!. ,,,",',;.)! alJl,o~

\.":.lltJ'nis, .. !~:':-.OS'lt (OU:[,' eenth-. 6€tee.ll'th.-,t, sixteeneh-, and early-sevenreenrblelc n tU'MI' m . -,'I,e d-,I fie ss 'I)C-'D;- d ',ee •... -:d\-·I. to .~'.'. i m .. '~r~_ c ite a rmo ;[t' I'!' 111' ·'jO:·[I19nf;1 n .. g~" c:.. I e;~~ ,rfr"' ab .... ~. )':1 .,~ I._~-·

- - ~ J -- -- - -~ -- --- -- --- -- -- """, __ 1)1_""", --=, --- '" 1_0 [I!_, I_I,U_", .: _'''-lll itl.;[. Ito

shapes around the bodg fi'na'U.y' c:llbninaling :in dl,_- starched .ru'ff' 'Sit the necl <;1 3, kind of armor-like ab ,'t_[~a,:frio n ,0 f 'IJ,IC shirt cell _r'~

In the same period of . ~':'u'lop'~:ean historv women's clothes staved es-

, , .... '_'" e I .... _. ,c. "_ '_' - _ _ _" ,. , ._. , _ .__ _ _ . ,, __ ~ ._ ,_. "" ,'1J _'"" ._. _ _ _ ._ ~ '_"= ~ _ ._. =. ~. ye _ ~ ._

1,.e'D~tia_~,y· conservative relinquisl "-DS: 've:ry little keeping to the' ,orj,ginJla~l,

--<I=a'-:;""'S":I:~,"",-,,'I- for ~'Ill'U'-"I,",,,,- Later women ~~, ~~~'h' t'li on _ ~'P-'I ecifically '~D:-':I'" :-="mr'·~-I-~-I~I~-:':;;'t=I.('C' __ };:'"'~ ~t,~,

'. "' .'" [;, ",1;,', ,. II J ,.. .~~ •• I!ii._, 'I"~ .,J. __ &. '\.,. .,;~ 1I[:d:iJ),,, ,~,," '~., '"" .1] t aJ.t, .I,I~ -1I_ e". .. ,,",, eJ::l.let.:;IL ,dS

'we have '§U[·.·)~. sted, often copied masculine la'~ess'o,jles:" not the whole costu "m-I- Ij!ij__ I-'h'-'I"I~: ·W'··"··'·'3··" one f~'null···I··'~DI';·n= le···~' method for 'q'.- "U' ick fashionable ~liiii"1li-r-I!~~'[!' in

~I .. - 'C""I I \.,.ll!l! j I " .~.'.} _, I ' .. ' . '. l~[bl , .. 1 II _I. I.". " I. ",' -",;\ ] ..... " .. -: II' ·.··l -. - .. '-' -J I .I,~, 1,-, .... ,. II --,I ,~ . Id. I.~I'.I'I " I, ",

- - - - - - " - - - ~ -- -- - - -_ ~ - - -- - - - - ,;(I' ---

h h d b aDO' I I;' ~ '0 I~ ft'-·' 'h

W: I" -·1~1[.1 -:-"~I" ~"'~'e-"D- "~]'n'-' e-··l¥ r -·· y,.ij [.,,-, Ii.! ·O"='·.~l.rt ~ty-"" 'I:' snc "P- ""ro- .":"'·u~~:e <U'lp-'-" I.if""lij 'I="'.' "e .:' :'1: te "p,·n·,·'!lr.1 '_', ~p'n'

'.",. u.,!L, "-' u,'_~ .. ",I.~"~ ~,'\;,;ol, "rlI,-,_-,_,', ',"' ~,:/,,~I ,~\,,~_~,.I"'" ,1'1'-i"'J&.\;,;~,~·e~.,~I/ IIi;Ui,.c' '~':.jl""" 1I!Il., "-'''''' ,,'-'

tu:ry~. during which the e'la'bo'~are development o·f' sleeved and 'fitted dresses had 0'.:--:'11' .-.,~I,lJ' g. '-c- I ad .. --: 111"1:""JII' y'" r~e··· ate .. · ,':d, .~ ~~"~~:inll~ 01 ,c .. ·' clo •. II·'b,te·.· ~~ W', ,:,liLt'-'"h-'11 m-~II'I~ sha . p-)e"'-' ~I nd .

. ~ ~ __ !!_G__ l!llJ.1., Ig_ I~. 1.1 'II..r LIJ I!. gl' _. _ ~LILUij.!! _ 1.. ~ _.IL [!I,.r;] .. ~ .. ,,' '-"I."') a [ . j _ • ali I .~.

. ..' : ~

·flr Ir than .. -.·n'tm.'1ui.'r)' had ,prolv_ildedl .. Then, a·ft£,[ the early' sixteenrh century; certan female 15tylles_I"f bodice, har, c ollila r, shoe, ~;_nd, sleeve 'we,r'e' '.'~Im:·"ly stolen :fro:n1,'-1e'n., to add a, new 'w'hifr ofsexualdaring tn women's clothes wiehout recourse either to forbidden pants or to excessive exposure, Such g:c1e:' sture .. ·~'; Id,··'·ID:': 11·,0 .. ·· •· .. t.: ,~I~I:m-' for :~ real masculine le .. ,ll:[e:">~~ th ··.e· ':. 1.'~oID-:k. '.-:-~ Ol'fl"~' 1-~II~t1·-·~:.:I!I~· _. __ "'" ;' _ ~ _ _ il~ iJi _ I" c.. .. ak!rl, U _ . d ,I[" a ,I. .. . ~.n .. _ 10.' "'" ~"" l, .. . . _ . _. C _ \1 ~

·P·:li'-w,el · ~ th -'le"li' show adesi -:--~, ';"'1'; '1' 'I-~' ", ... 11'7" . -.--=-- 1:t~I:-~ -,·U· '~.--: ~.' ----I":-~,-"'I'--',::-tt-~·'V'·· W~liFJl-,--,--,- -Iff' II' '1:-;'11,:".: --'(,'

. _.·0 ,ie,. '_ r, ~ .. _ y S,. ~O_, _'_. _ 5 ·re .. /o ."0 [tft;. em IIJlca __ y lma'gm na.LI. ',~, e ' __ 1(11.,1,1.0 U,Il.. _00 IUD g

too feminine 'to mimic male ']~XU'I~':' freedom, instead of exaggerating the Iook Ol,e female compliance .. The wJ~o,.Ies in Urs G'la£ engravings of

aroun 'd,~ 11' 5':' '4' wear their In-"'JiI~I~ 'b1t--'ts) '.I·;·".I"'t· h ,cl'O'I'" 'I ·p·····~~J~~~'"'!It 1"0":-',"'(1· '~I~ik:~liiPi M'::";-''''''-rll~-n-'e''~

AA'V,_,,,,,LO!J. _. iL_~. ,_·n'!l!i.-oiA ~ I. ",!!!r.r, Jlu I AL,,,",, ,'._, "'_" l •.. ,··' 1I.,e,I., .~~'-IL'U¥"U'I;.;.,._,", 1" ,Ill ,,""', ,_'-!,'ai,I.,",,~,_',

DI'~ ~'~r~"I;" c-~h' ~" r n--' -:-·r~· · ... Opl·ill.--p,-~-:,e~II-~-

:.____.~' _:". __: " ~ _:. 'L~ . ",_ .. [~

I. I :I.

IFJ" O,ilD 01£ A'[,c' bald ap'lpre',3rcd, ,in n13] 1(-:' dress. ,and, ma]e' a'~m:;,-~ 'twol 'h~'-'--,-,

---:.: _. _ . "_~'"" .... _. ,~ '-_ .. ....... __ .,'L .... ", __ ... _f" D.r .. __ .,un.

d d- d- e;' ~ 111 ,i, 'h-t 'h di-' '" d' 'h d d d" J: ~

I .. Ire';. an:~ illty ye,3:rs earll·j.'er '(,,' 3'0, 51 ,Ie' :~',. " Dr IOI'ne ",II,un,!~r.e·~'. an~:, l~~llty yeaJ'n

I~l't,er:il'be mi,ght :have 's'hO:e-,-:'ked, 'Do,'bod,yby' h,er' c:l,othes ,a]one'~J Bu"t m:o, ,he l4.l01•S,t 'her' If)e'n'~SI clQ'Chin.g \V::dl ,all. tb.e :m.o.J'_· o'utrag,'oius 'bee'a.use men.~s

cllothes, we:fe~ so se,K,Ui,ally le'x:.pliesi,ve,~ Joan' was 'vio.la,tin,g· ['he "'lIiO'llgJ,y di .... v.id.c'd. rulle :Ltlr :£a·s~h'i,on. al t·h.e' :nlo,:m)e:llt~ the dJr,aggin,g' .~ki·rts, ~'n,d taU. htlir,-,

,c-.o~:·n--:~~~-~1iI'hn: ·I·~·-~,a' hl-e~'a:-I·d .. ·d·,::r· ·e--'~:~'Ie-~'· 0' -·,'r'~· W:-·~,-;-Am-·-·-··e,'-··:·D--I h- -··-·,d····, b-"p,~'o·,-"m-c::-liti 'm-:-··--'''u· ''''h-::-'' 'm'-'-'O;'I:f' Pi IP'm······nh·~'~I .. P'

~-- ' ,,,~ "" g. "~,DI --- . ~ - --'. ~H. ~~- .!I)-- 1_- u L ". - , ,,_ 1'_ """ Li_ I u'\;.· ",,' ", __ ,,,",, "'" I ,:-__ """ ,""" , ,r ' i1. '" ~'\.;o~

F J& !L~, H~ic- ~I III~~ I: .: ~ ': , If'- ~~ .. .' t. ,~:~

afie'r men's clothes had 'be . 11. to :fo,Ulolw' the [ines of their bodies, to show Oi(f'rh'CI complete shapes of their :~e,~. tOI 13(ldo'P'1 remarkable footgear and

sp orr rr h eir n ''"'II--U' "r-"'il'-) h I'''''"''I~'- '~'I-:'n-I"~' -e-:..:::~if'~· ~Ig- c·ft1~le---;r,

~'j ,,' ~ 11!.c. ""' I, ..1' d I ,- . .., ,lI. .' do r ,1I.n, .1.,..,._ '1o:'I!o..r - ~"l ":: ~ ~ ... , J '~, r, ,~~

. <,Ie'ca,u,se of' the ~n.e\\~ elerm 'n.t· 0:£ di\fide,d, sexual :(3111'35Y' in dress, ,joi3,n' .1.0 o ked immodestlv erotic in her mens :me,ar .. She wasn't J"u's,t disguised as

l ~. I_I.' D'-

a- '11·-]-::-"·'--"'0,· and she d id .. dn ~t·.~ just 'I .. ook s .. .o .. ·.~ld:~'·;ie··,r-·I~),·r' ,''''I'~I._..l. 'p~:.'~.',-; tical espe ··e,~'~I~I~I'~·), sin ..... ·~.·.I in

__ "Ill j a !L!l ~_ .[l~ .J ' "_' _ .!i."'- __ 1 __ .'-1._ ~j._.ll. .l__ I,J g~~U _-.ILI(I_ 1'~/L~._11 .. ~ =-._ [~:frI~lLl" ~ 1 •• '-"'-- III II

, " '-, '. ' :';

her private moments without 3r~m.IOI' she was something 10:£' a dandy ,Al

IF''O··-'I··'U~··I'I[··t· she seized the m .... "leo, 'p~~'··r'llii''Ilpil''II.Qg' 'I~"" of !UIO-~'··;·n~~,a' bareheaded and ,- ·h'·O'··1i"iIL~~'"nl~·la

""'<.~" "'~I a.,'.. ,~\;";,ilHlii ....... ',~~_· !Ii. I."'" .1 ,I. 1Ii_ "'" .,'/' , 11' .1Il,"",_~,~~_ " D"=/'~'~ri' ._'Iat.:· ,""c_)~.~~.· -~.'~'-., .Q -" ,'_. -:~ ~·_I~,-, ~,I '''':0

o:ti' her Iegs and 6bJ.U.rc' with attractive tailormg, abandoning the excessivelv romant .. ;IIC~ modestv oc:f'-':' C.if' rrent ..... vome .. ,··D···'~, d'I': ress withoi 'r hidi ~[(," the

. ~ "" 1 . ~ ~ . u , _.11,.. I. n ~ . - - ~.,1 . . ~ II .;1 ... ,... ,,~, . ~ '" l ~ ~~c'.'. ~~ . ,Ij, . I, , ~ U I~J .. ~1. • n.g, .. e

fact t'h;a,t she was .3, woman .. The result '\\l.a's., I~·ha.[ she seemed 110 be sh, nne-

~~es's.l)r Idispl,-·.yin.g 'Ihe' breadth and richness ofher sexual fa:n't3;s'ie:[, not sim~I-""" clothine her s..p;:ir'itu!all and political srreneth ~'n 'irs, suitable armor, AI·-Id .

. . , .. ~,e .. "',' " " c •••••••• '.' •• ,bi~.J ,., ,' r"" r "n ..

in SO d •. cine she clearlv ar .. oused the sex · .. U··'.":I,'·I. fantasies of other ~, Sh e ~1111~'~J~~"l'y'" ·:5··.··

_I!!J __ .-.-_""__:c~ ii'-~iI!i;.r ~1!!l.Y'CIc _~" f!I;I, •. ~ -~ ... -- ""- .. ""',L' ... _ .• ~"I.~~ ""' .. "."., ._.IIl.,.~ ",.",_,_'Pi_l,n."._

insisted, Din. the .n.elces~i"ty· of her men'sclothes, btu.1 she never once said

the Y·,··'.. ';-W··. -ere co nveni .. e mr :o.···,·r: :C···'(O •. T'~Dc •• rtahle .... -I'" ""111'1,11 . ieemed to sort "Vl i~r'·'·,.' ,r' ~I'I~I wi p'-h····1

. " '. ~.' ~ ' .. ~ .. ~ ...".'~ ~ , _ ..,. "..... ~ I~FUt ~. IWI. ~, "c'" . !I., QI . !!Ii.... . . ·.·c' .' . ~ ~li·. ." Iii., "!!I;.,.. .'. ' ]Ii JI '\1". ,I". .

her spiritual ,amb:i·tioln,~ and helped give her the reputation of sorceress and whore,

,F 0 :R :!: :~ N T 'U' R ~ E :5 3·t7tet' the male revolution in i~ 'he, Middle .A.ges ~ worn en 'I con fl" 1~:'n-I.=uJl1,~,d1,-~. 11'10.' ': \\r:~'~"I-' '\ t..'''iil'r~· ';1,I.t-I~'o '! ::-:n~'I'C'1 of th . ,~, dress, which was simpl ).",~. the

,._ _ . I _. __ . I _. __ . ~ .. _ IL. _, ~.g, __ ' Q. ~J •. _ •• I l'.-J . .~ "_" .C ~_I. ~,.;Ji'~"1 ''''I IIW~"_ I _. __ ,.:I ii, 1 I ._., . _' ~. II ~

,'", "

same' floor-length tunic of anl'li,qtl'il:l~' the chiton, peplo 0'[' sro a, which

had '~;h' '.' -IA,", 'b' seen 'W\": iD(C,-,;,[~- '*~I' wit -hi ~-- '}-,"'iIiilfg' -"-:''''I~ d, '--~ ped sh ~'w~,;,-,I?I- -U.· ised ,- as O,,-',v,.'re.-~'~ rn ten - t ,"" n d':-

,d ... L, ~"Ii..I ... ~~. ,,_, ,.... I!.. . .. I." .. _~ .~d~", ~ __ Il,d _ ~_. 0:1_._.(1,. ,__a~ ~ __ lili . ,_ ,iii. ~ ,~,_,~~_, __ g_l._~,

'. __ ' I· b

veil, "1 ~osh_e dress was, ·traditi,ol:nall,y one-piece 'Cro'm neck !lOI hem .. bnt in the

Renaissance ir Cattle to 'be made i:n two sections, S:,~I tha rhe to-p'" -P" iart. the

-- __ -~ _ _ .. _ ~ _- ~ .. 0 if! ~ . I 0 . 3_ .. e.. , ~. ~f ." e

body or bodice could b.' stilTe~n.ed to .rh·yn~).e· 'With the male fashions based on armor, The dres .. was worn 9til:h a chemise under i'l and ([or

t· h' _""'I'P 'pl-I:II"ID-"~p~'IP'm'-"""'l'I'~):I' ~, fine '1··iF1:'~i'1IB robe over ie for formal occasions 'w·,··' .. ···:· 'J"'t'-'hl, ... his - .. ""' ~~._''',!~J! """"_,~~~_;]!,:, U ,1i.iIi .. ~ 'V"i'L~'e .,Uc"" v 'Il''''''' •• ~~ ~ l:t·,iIl II~,_ ,I I ~~. !!!JJ ..... ~A-"V_ ih ,~,. __ I, I L_.L", .

"W,'" ': ·I·e-·n .£, ,"o'm'- .. I~' ;' -··':'0:: /r-p, '0'·, If:" h ID" ". ,0 ·d:' I vei 11 '0':'(- '~I""D rehi ef : '0. " •. .',nl rh: ~' ·h·' :C':":"Illd-i' 'Iry,' : -m- ·,b; :ol·:·IJ'~ ;lr"".~.Tl·v if..-- i"'~, ' '0- I: n r

.' '. .. _ _'_ L •.. "". '. c I", . .... _. ._ ~ .' III~' ~ _I ,I,· . K\,.,. LIIl.··c_. . _. WI! ~ " '. -',,' I II.: .... "". C·" '._ ~!IIL _ 't ~.,".., .. ' .,-, "~c U } . . , ,'._ II."

act.u_ally cO''le'rin.,8 ch,c hai[~ ju's.t ·a's in the .aJ'l,l:.~-'·le,nt: '\\1~ol'rl,d,,~ I,,'n comd -,'u,rop'e', t~h;e 1:113,I,n. d['I.ffir I'en,ce' frO:I:l1. ,'-.':" ·.e,di,ler~[a,~n.ea.I.1J al~l.tiq'ui'ry' :I'ay in. th.e' ,c,~e31Iio:n. o:f c:),ose·-·:6tEI,n,g; .s~leerve-s" so tha,t I'h,e Id're~ssl ,a],wa,y~: ("0 vc ,red, Ihe ,ar.ms arid t'hle IQ.,ve:r,gar.mlent bec'-]ne' a sle'eved, robe illstea,d. Q,.f ,th.le ~·ha>n·.'~~J,-li'k,e' drt3.·pe of

:G. ,..~[-:- ~"iP"C:-'-"e;- · .a~ 'n~"-' ·d .. -. R·.~··· '0" . n~' ')j dl :S-·~··I-,j.l!··~1I! .~~~;, "r~ '1'" 'c·· '~:h~ ~ .111 .... ' ,t r~ J 'm-~ '101- - I~,d· ',~ "0··:::," 'f~ 'nl~-' €"\;'it"', 'tI'tP'fl .~J '0"', (n'~'l~' I~' ". -'. 'e t

~, "~""',. .'. . ,I """Ii _, I "-"iL-" i\,.;, . "~ I. I .. I '\,., .. '. '. ~ iIJJ ;o; \-,¥l~. e .'~ .,1 ~ I .. ~I

_. - - .~- - . . _. =- I "_ - •• - I~I _- .~. '_" '-- "_. "_- Ii!' - [!IIIIIIIII! I I I~ .~ ~ ~ _." - _" "_- ~ I____! __ " • ~11 '_" ____!'. • =.- [!IIII!!1 ~"_ • ~ _ j •

. ll:l~~ldle :e:pcl'ra[lc·ly 'Iik@· ~~lt'Dc:kin,gsl'J s'I'llppcd. 'up 'h.e 3,'r-m., an,d, -~ac'r:·d, (llf p,iiln,ed.

··I~ 'n~ - 'PI ~lI:"I'C·."if'iiil_

.. ,JI,g._ "",,...

4·' )~

.. ~

,~ .

Anter the dress became two-pieced in, the early sixteenth centurv, its

~ ~ ~~

s'kirt might 'be' at tru1lv separate ~I'fmenr; most commcnlv called in Eng-

",ll,._!lli!_ l!!l.!!l,~ .. _: P" __ !._1 __ ._ ,_. _ ' __ -_ ~' !Ii_ '--1.":~" __ ~1 __ .• _.- Ib-~ It 1 •• _1 [_'_·,I . I!!!!!l ~ ••• _- __ ll.~l_ J,_ l!l .ii'l' .. _---l~~.~!l .!. • !l __ ::.:

hsh ,oij; pei rico at -T, 'hi ct skirr wo mld show I', behind It' he -0- :"~'n-I'I' "n--O' ;0:--1'£;-- the :0; ver-

_,---~IJ,_ !II; , _ _ji1',_i""",~,__: .. d,'_,,~, ", u:.__ ~I 3tJ.\.;(__:,!li,.",,_, __ ,,~_, ai, U',," _:_':_ ... u II 'J_,,' ,_:__ -,", -,~, I~'-I' Il~_,'l"_,

.Jlr~~',~_, 0'.,','[,' b )'jJJ.'I,IO':W'",", ;,t;., tl£'-' rh '~ overd 1'F:Q5~ were hitehe "d,,--' U"I-'p- _:- I ·'-'0,.-0" ~V(): un en l,' nieht

u- ~~~, '_ ,,... '_ ,,' ,iIi,11.. ,IlL I", " ,"'" _ ~ """I,'! _il,'!IiI..;. ~ II _ . 111;,. . I" ru I, , _ ", ,,,_.~ ,~ _ I. OJ. _ 11 , "I;,.._,.. ~ ""~~ l!"J'Io

1 h ~ - - 'I!i -, d" ')- )' b di

... ( .. -, , : . -, ... i: . t' <. I' . .t "J."'~' .', .... : " ',~ . : .' h! :. I "J I I .,'. -~. - -l:- I ( "1-:-:-··'···· ".1' I ,.,.,"' .. ," I' ": ," -1."',_ ~'. ,~" _.~ ,=-'.~' .:,' . ", "', .- .. -"" -I ~ ,", -',. _ ": . -:---',: J ']Ij~ ~[ .~.; .-. . 1',,' - I'

omy wear a cnem se, a petticoat ano a s eeve ess ,D~ - ce, O[ [C,\; en no

bo .. ··.d~: ,'"I-'IQ,il bu "t-I- rh ~'y,1 r "W"',,; - :0: U': tld ··r:-t- ~ 'I' ....... i11,v ,vp· - "1-1",-- kerc .hi cf .DI:'r'lI· th 'e, '-', h-'e';r;Ii::; - I ,.' h .: I~' 'P~I eni r_

, , .:'- _" """ '~ . _' ,_ ,,' ,." ,i\., " __ ',; ' . .-. __ .. __ ,. , , ,L'lI- II:U ,' __ "iir.<. ", _, ,_ ,'. _ lL '. _ I ,ilL," - !Ii,l.,"" ", I,_ ,',' g,. _,-,.. . ,I!!ii.o , r- • , I~ II.-ili,

ICO'311, was [olri,gi:n3'U,y' 0,10'£ 3:0, u,Q,dlerga.r,m.e,n:£ .' ,,£ .' '11. bot l:iIJ1JP,ly a: ,I,Y separate skirt. ASI such, it: became the [011', defining female 'ga'--~m",e:llt, a_],o'n'lg, lA)ri_,th, rhe v'eil for the head, To dress as la, woman, in such ,3 \\tray' as '['0 'be ',,'.'hllI']y transformed and ,:dl';E,m11"J~ sed ~I'l-'~ ,- m :':1,'n-1 need ed ''--w, ,C-,"1iI~\-1 £'11"':I~'rr ; nd ... kerchief

,,",iii, UclhLU:U _ '" . _ Ie,", . _, 1_ =l!'< .. _ _ _II,~ a'- ~".' _ ~ ~ g]l ._' ,.., _ ~g '""' ~ ~_ _ _ .. ,,~ I_. ~ &_ ~ 1"",__ ,_ ' __ ' . "". .,,"", . '"', ,LI

Right IllO\V these t-~YD garments 'will still do i,t~b'D't o:Il'ly' in ",,':' '! ,'esite'rn

!l!J

couumes. ~ ._" ~"_~~ :!I1~~I~

Th--I:- ~ '£'"0'"",,-: o,_~,lll~ cost >'- 'I-(-'I~' ,. '.'~';9iI., _eo, -,ld'- -I--~S, e .• 'n,-I~c~I, .... ll"I-ly" ~ '~Ih-I~ sam " ie si nc 'I~ the ] iddle

, lemal_ . os. u,n.1~ .. IL-a\¥, _ ., ei1i ... ,iLtl.tIJ .' L!, ~ iJ _. ___II!;"., _ ... ~_ _ w_

, - -

,AI~les,,, wirh eventual changes in the fi'ltiDg·_~ and siciffe -, ine of the various

I~ b 1_" ~

" f"-" '~ " "h C' h '.' "h" " '.' -, ~ -, , h 111~ h -

narts 0" 11:- eacn 0,' '\'11 .1- 'tif3,\\T' temporary ~1:rI,a,rlOl]' Ell tne love'rlll, II, ape

rl-- ,._ •• "_.. ,.,' .r.!I._.I_ , , 1 •• 1 _., [~._. ~ '_' • '_" I .t., !.{. _ 1 .. _=.I 1- _._ __, ," ._

!!} ad harmonized '~:I!_:t!!I~ th m--·· ,.,·1~ •.... '~!I'· ,tr;:n-I-'---·e' "S·:~·I. . . ',e-Ole tr the ';b··'~~-I\C"' ~'C-~:L p.~ne, ", of 'S··:a'I"D' IIO"]~ '-0" l'iI'l'-

o. ,_, ,'_. ~_ JU, -iii·' '~_": __ ' ,rll"",'!1.", ,aJ,\o;.)'" [I], ':_,"- ,-ii, ...... .-I_-)~ '!I._,,~ .. '_~_~",' .. ~ ~.jLlll,,",,,iI!~,_,,, __ "'_'--- "--,b--1i.." c_-ihllli

der lire -a"·~ rment ,("~I'I':,h~----,,~- ':, chemi nise O~C r ~S····I1'~'''''rl'O'--: ck '0:""'-" :s",'h···· '.;11' .... ['-)-,-' "l,o-:-"'n'''''8''''-'' dress 'Q--"'-V-=C' "'r-' __ dr e .ss a~'-n""d-·~

, ' '- ,I . ' , , I, ' I ',_ ,I --', '- - ,- ", I " : " "I " ' '--, -, '" _. , I I - ' '-_ _ _ -"- ' I ,', --, - -. ,- "-,',, .', " -_ ."'" I I, ,

I. I. I:._,: r-- 1 1', 1,'. ..' __ • ,. '. iifl,.l ,', _, ", .. , '.' I a . 1 ,', '.. .,' 'I I I.':. ~ r •. • u • t.;_ ,'J' ', ,', '.' ',-, . __ "" '_.' . _ !I 1_ -'

headdress was, of great antiquiry and ,grea:t sobriety; 'tr-ei,gb,t,ed with cen-

t iii .. ~~: of '--.',:",1 -m ','b---'- 'O"~'~I;~' re~ m ·~I~I;j!ij1 modesty '-re"I~'h-"--IIII'n' "g" back .". ,it',~ the ancient ';-w': "r'O=1 "r---)I d

,1, .1"".~1 _ e- , I :Y,I. 1 __ ,-,111,( :n._,..,,~ I ~~,\,,<, "" _-"'._ :il!" 'I , .. ,a~, I . I-I_~~....., IIkV !Il.~, L I~ "J .. ,L,-,i\..,III,JIl. . __ _: ~ ..•. ~

.:", I", -; •

Slee 'es, were alwavs lo'n"~- 3J' td D'ri!~inaDy'·.· a'D necklines were hieh. One I It

. ,e -- \i ,--I - '-- ~ . .-r ... '-'''- -,~( r., , '" c' ':'_I . " ," ':e' . - 'v; . - "1,_,,. - . ,. "-- . - _" "e ,ill • - . , .. ,- "

b .. '~I'ni. ','JI!$",:'h-"'I';'ID,-\'n·" m·-·-:-'~,aJ'h,,'~ '~'h-:"I!"C,='k-':e'",'n=-1 o.IJ'r ~'b,;":l~·n'; 10.·,fllll'- ·h-~'iD, :'-~"m--~"'I-,e,-- r"'o-;,:r--='m--·~··u-'-'l-~I, SOT':',-I'lp'l-ilin,e .. ~.·'S

etJ;:-lIi,cIIl., ,[I].a_,"", = ' '""''''' I!~,-- ,~11i,. . _ _ _ ., __ , I~._ IU. II. ~ '-<-. ,A . _ ,~" _. .. __ ai, . ~ JlI'i;..- . _

i.nita[ill'~: Ir'h:,:-- s'i'mp~-Jici:w of fh: 'P-i-:-OIQ1f, 's.o:m,le'[ ~'II,le :ad!dillg-~, ,m,arl-.' dlis,p- .. ·,:lay,··

b ""~' '. - , , ~'

'-W"-:':I.~ t~-:h-I :"\""'~r' -,., ":m·ll: . I ; ··x.·.·,.':'· '-n"~',i",._'ln~ IO:--=:::fi I~'vt~_""', dJ 1,.~,ta,--~1IS··'. Cl0'·~ :,-n, -'l-'e .. -'~;m· __ [~'~ ,iim,-- -"I~'ra- ~'D-I'" ml-~.- ii:iiD,-C- -~ 3:C",r" _

__ __ , e_X"L e ""e e_ 'I.e ~_, ~lI!.OI~._ ""'A __ Q __ I! Jl_lI! , I~ _-__-'"iIi""_~1![;;,;I . ~'- _ . .I1J.,._I"_c.l,,, D .. ""'" ~_.\o--

~. ··<s·~,o-, ... ' r-]" ~:~I '-b'-·.U'l- ~'~h-I~' ·s',c- 'b.· .•• ,~:]C- - ~ "~:~aC"'fil' ·0··. ·.·Ol~.": 'r--~ :d~ I,~;C(~ 1)'1jT ,:(=~h- - i)j,11 ~,e,-'-'n~,·:'Q;e .. 'd' -u~ -n· ··'11. '-u:"i) it,·'h-:'··'ip', IC,~\e, ··II't-U'rll'

"-", .. ~. . 1Ik.,~ 'Ii ..., . Ill. , ,,,--, . . , - .. 11Il.. ""'" ..,.,..,~ " , . _ " a. - . 1 .. aJi ',I' . I. u.!lI... . '!CJ; . . . . . . - ~ . . . - I ill -... ""''' .. - •• Iii

T'h,;- COID,tin"I'! f 'Y' 10;£ [.'he fOrmllla ';;'1,' as, 0:(' U'lm,Qst in,)p-·,D(fta'nce,- ,exp·'~re.ssi'n~

- .. , e . - - - . _,_ - - U~,!jo' , - . . -. _, "- . ~ - -" . _, - - - .. _ - , . - -. - - - - - - - - - - - -. , - - - -,_ -". - -, . - - - - - - "". -,. - -i, - - - - - - b

I'hl' ,'dea I(JtaE 'fashi,o'n nll,o,ht 'kee'p--:- cba'nm1ng,·J. 'but tha,t 'w'ome'n re'mained,

, - _It: ,I.. . - - - _" _. ._ ' . -, , ",~.., - .. , ,,_ - . - ,. - 'D"'" 1 .. _ ;",1 - . - - ~ - - -, . ~ - ,,,,. -" ,. _, I . - - I,. - . --

, -, __ ,-" d:" - .-. ·f""~' '-b' "5'" ·~·r-'- --- -P- 'tI'-""·- ... -~ .. -- ---'-b'- -"---'di ,~~ d~' 'p-'-'::,- C:!lip'''aU-' · Oillii' ':'"1 ,t"h-" ,'-', '-"n--' ~Iii'",,-,_,- "I

:lpJJ1'r, __ 'la'DS, 0, ·_,la'I,C 'a~slu,m: :::1_· ,on~" e~nl ··0:,1 lle':'_~;,rlll_:l: I~: .. , Jr- .I.~.JJ ' ' .. 'e u, )lver,·: .,

I· ~ .. 'ib ' 'f'~·' , -, ",.' , ,--, ~ iii , , , , ,- >h ,- '" - " , "{--;:-'h .. 'II· (. '" .,"'.' ddl-' - - A'-', , , 'h-' , dl £:.'1- ('

o:og··/ ICI,o·t~~les, 0'11 an,e),c',nE lunc;s, E-'at, mien 0- IJ'lc: lILa,Ee' .'" ],:_'II_·,e ,;:.;~.:: 11~,~a,I_" :I(!t:'.r.,

~.. .:

,(~~~ ''''0'-''' "'Iiib-"la"'11':d'~ ~In' T· ~.~, 'r-'e·':"::fi'--I"nle',_":_'lrl"e',-·n·', ~'f'; ,·'h·re'-____: ~·I'i~.IP!I'''''I' ~'r·': '~e··~~II'n"l;i!:liid'I:· '·'0'-," b' ·····e,' "g"- _']~"~~I"n

ll'!l!;".~ It-. ,!iJ;,-< ' -v '., . ,iEl~ Ii I .. ~ ".I!".~',' ~ - [i, 1,.---, IL.¥, , do -II!. ;::!Iio L"". "",. - L.- [-' __ iI I, - ,''11''"",,,1,

I ".:.__

1'0: v:e-"r-~ ·[:0"" W"'- '~Oi' .'-m-'---Ie'n--' 'a--I':I·· 'Io,':'-u-'-- :g'.·I> g' -:o-:-;-w: ":-·ns···:-:-~ ·bL'ie-~c-'a~m--[-:-'e:-· ·e-''I";r;e~r 'C"m--"o;-c;"~e-: 'e~=x·'/c:-'e-"·p~ E~-l"-o;c-:-'-n-':""'III q.'n,'d-,-I:: C;-~'F:·'-

, ',' -' , ' ,,', - I,', _- _' -' I " ,,', " I '~ , . .. I I, _ . _ .'. . ,.I, . . ., I. I .. .. .., ~ . . I I.. ·111. 'i ' , , .. . . . . . ", .CIJ a. , ' , "'", I., ""',

" _" ., , .~. • .~ _' ( 'j '", _" ~ ~ ", . ~"" ~, .• _""_ ~ . • _._ • __ " I~I. • ," "_" - ~ II I" __ " ",' ". _ ~ '~", ", .~.., • ~ I. •. .• I ..

. '__:__' . .::_. ,~.

'1-'J1Il:O','I"I",~'-l- ·1,0' :,:'r 'I-nr:' ,e"I-'.· ,- .\<~i ;e~-_;'In-";:- 'rI~ ,e':"::lw :"-' "-" 'n,-,·'l',~,r-rl'~ l'-e,:: F-U[l~ ·t-F Q,e·~·t: 'It""h-,~ 'VIP", I-/m· ...• ~ •.•.• UI I~,- 111~:~,~le-,~ f"t""II:,-

,I I I, ,il, ,II ,it , I , " ,'. , '"' , " " .. !lUI:' _ _ .. , , ,U , II .K,., i3 . . . - ';;l jJ.. . . " ,'I/;,,;. ..e . _~ .I = = V U .Ii·1

Irl,g r:one':IO'I:' 'fas:h'io:na'ble chang;e~ and, ~se't fbe leX3'mpl"e"1 :grivi,og 'v~tomen'~s, dress t'h,e ch' .. Illce' tOI ta'ke' ,opposing: Dlr :ha'rnllonizi'ng 's.'hape:" tOI eo,pge in 't-'he' D': "W 'visu,:.~ [,.- j,alo,gue o,r th,e' 'se'xle:'" 'bu,t 'wi.t'hlo,u[t aband,o"Di .~.

'illl :"t ,a~.,,"

T'h:e.' ,tema.lle inlag~' W,3'S 'ch,u's, ,1-~e,[pe'£u,aU,y :fo'unaed, o:n, ,mts o'w:n, 3,'D,ci,en,E :pas'[,~ '.:', arying: ill 'b,a_it rstru,c~,u'-re oinJY,7",e'll withjn (h,e ~ncient' rule:~1 :-j -'h:e's,e'

,j .·1·. '"1" -

A- e 'M- I' 'O:-c- ... , I"."

.~I ~~ 1,.-·" ,~"'"

had been based :1\1'0--:-'1 anc ien ,··,t--' d.'I_'~;v~,'n'IPJ law .. " and civil lawsr and rh "'~yl" easily '~O-'-:IDk

_', a .. _} _.~~. "_ .IP.~"-"._~, 4 ._ L~e "1.1_, "_ JI. 'I Lli· "'~ .' .,,' , 'I ", " ~ ... II-II L~g. ,. '., " - , . J ',.- J .~ .,1' ~@. __ .' '-1 ... l.

" ':

on the I!'JU-~ ra of nat !U' :r.'I~,11'1,al"'''", . I~,D-"· IP'ha'I~" 'W'", --h':e- n lone '~S~~'I~'I~e lo .. lln,u hair and req 'IUI'~.-

U ,III.. '- G .. g, "a, .. , .. ' ,Q 1",It ,;,) \, .,1 ,-, II, ,e ,&- 1,l.li. ~, ,~,g .. '. ,iI,~_.

"'1'''''' L .... 'do' .. , . I'~, . ,,' '.' '.'. ,C" '. '~I'l-' I' .~" ',-'. " -- .. b ' th ,. .,.- '. " I . -"f"-'iI!"'h--'~' .. - .. "'r-' " "

sue nea .. 1, [averll,l"p were'Il"IDalY ,gIlVie,n, up .y me WO,I" ier D' I~ 11'51 Clen,.u,ryi

the chang "~ seemed '~I'~llliOl~ ."'1i. 'p-fr:O'."·".~D-: :,iII"lllliilild-:' . LII'''1I'~lp:'lh-:'1 -'I"Jl"'~'- T· ,11':'IU. sers ID:-.-'.fl-"'Jf"'~'-U·' .rse, '\\Jil~'r' e

Iii.. .. ,,,",, ~ I ,ill " ,_:..)~ ~~"" ,!Ii" J.,~ ,JI!.i&,i\r.o d , , ,- [I' "lUi 1i r, !Ii . V,lid:ill ," "" "il1"- , ' " , , ., ,,"', , ~ '" "'" ""'" ,. ,,,,-,,, '~" "', ,','

,3, worse one,

':U-I• rina the history I:o;-:I'f' ~~I~lhl:I".O~lnl- 10,I'n-Ic··_-: can see the hidd AI'n- t;,=J[:I'iii", of ,,-,'h-( '.

, _ ',_ ,Ii ",~J L '". ,,]I ~ L, ",iii. _ , __ , [d,'>1I" ,," l. '!II ',- I , ", "d I~ '"'" " r:! !L '" " iii. _, , "", ,(;1_" "ilL,Ii. ,_' " , "

''''1,C:-'T1Ia-I'1 '1iil~"o-:-:-"-m--" -In, beina virtu -··';I"I'- -, replace d 'L,-y-' "'II 11.1' -'''-I''ll:le~r'''o-'r--'\lr' imaee of the

d,_: ILU:O, '~'liI\~:I:,I,' ,iIi,l, II., IIi..iI,~, '~ ",I ,"'" ,,.,, I~,I",':L.:"I" D,'" la, ;;j"L.;.::I!lal"':"!lkI~:,1'11/ ,,",,~',~~' :~, l.n,:~"

Dressed Woma,n,~ o'ften:h,a:pe1d, to g,i:e her 'bliz3,'rre proportions according to 's 'ft! in. erotic imagination 1315 fashi 0 'n. kepe c'h,an"gtng'l 'bu'-. a'l,wll'Ys essen'tial'l,y meant tc conceal her 'bod\)" :i I', the ancien t, way and [0, replace its plain facts with sa,ti_s:Ij~,'ng: mythic and fictional verities, I L 'he original expressive I' im 0'£' ancient fellrtale' dress had, 'been nlIDd;el:)1'~ as it 'still is in

'1'5'1~"Il"!I~ Opposing notion 10,"','{' sexu al artractiv eness '," IJl'e, .~-A ,,~ dde ··d'I'" 'b'-"IV c~I,~'h-I:IO":';"n'

,.1cg~,iI!J.ih "",:-_- /"'l.'~b' ,1;0;1 I ~ iI--'~,,_ ,/1)" ~"""", ,_-~_~~ ,~_j",iI!;. -,a,·,IIJI. """~,~""''''i1 '" "-' ',- I~'~ ',~ -,-,-,,~-~,,__:: -~- l' I'R--!'- 1.lI:_I!!'" 'I

in, Iii tense counterpoint to the original principle of' concealment,

'emale '6~~sh'~lO~-~ "'5 first v3l'ria'Ei,on, on the ancient theme ofmodesey was the lowering of the neckline "in the fourteenth c:en'ru,-ry~ 'Wh,en he acquire .. '1 more noticeable .' ,egs,,:i1e' ,iDUD,eld~I.~_'le,l~y' acquired more noticeable breasts, This wa'~1 an ele'ctrifjiin,g: maneuver, accomplished without ,gi,vi.n"g: 'u:p the ove:r),a,'plpl:in,g, draperies that women had worn for millennia, and it was Iarer followed b,y' [hie equally electrifying ,.tifCeni'nlt: of the bodice', of

wh •• ich o .. ·nl p, s···.~'1!"U' effect was ';;t-,":,. imitation ,~I'~: we have said, of th e n.I-:'~"-I-' :-~.i~~,

~, _" __ u ,_ •• !Ii;,. _ rt. .. ,_, 1 - ,rAi" ~'L"" a~ liIi,. ,iIi~. ,. "La~, ~ ,," I '-'Ii:'- ~ ~. ., ~ ~ .. a I ~ u. Lj,,_ .t:W e

t:"..e. cts of m I'). i,,' "'11[. m 0",. ".r'-. ~T- "hese ,l"'~" .mal .. ,._': m IOr',:',',f·.Al"1 W",'::, ;'ljj,;I,'·',"r. e .. " certainl - .. " "_-',i'-' not ind '~p- ,,'e: ·'-0--'-1,..,

I~I'_ .. _.11 . . l._ ._" ~ n _lI I '_" I ~ ~I _._I~;.'J~ l~._, I_~, __ ,_. '.I~I~ .~. '~I_ ~ ~~. _.___ ,. ~ _ ~L ~~ '_ . __ .~ _ ", _ , __

o . _

de'n,t.'I,y' modernizjng '· .. EIC,PSI: if 3'nyth'ing the'y were somewhat regressive,

addine an erotic narcissism ~I:O~;·: modest earments-=s dimension that onlv

.~_c,~_", · :_:I~I ~_'_'._'_'. __ .. _ _J_ ~, [i',,", =. ""I!!C; ""_~ ",,_"_". __ ,e"iIl., t:'-~-r _"' e_,)IIr_" 3t_Im __ "D- .. ,J-:D" '. 'Yid-,_,..:D1Y

emphasized their continuity; But the opening 0:£' the :n,leclk]jl'n,e set 3, nrecedenr for ,[emin'lne fashion: ever since the firs,-, medieval move to .... ,

, "

'W',· ",a-' "~d--:" d Ire-~'lc,'~'Dt .• UI e ··,t:· ~lg:l: ~~. ' ~'- sele -c~,~~'Ij'-~IV,l: e ... e sxpo .... ~ ure of skin ·W' ,~'. ~S~' [-',Q,:,' b ··· .• e,: ... .~. '~~c7~1' ale th erne

_ .. 1]1.. . ... .... l .. 0 .~ ~. 11 ... ,~.... . I~' ;.-) ..• I..l~ .• • •• . Ll! .. I til. .il . I . d 111~,111'1 d ... 'I.",~ , , .. iI

- - - - - :~" -. - - - - - - -;;- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - ~

,Al:th,IQlu,gh. men go I' tOI be consistenrly more j,nnovative with regard 101

overall tailoring, the whole surface ofthei I bodieswas 'll~,ua:JI')' covered,

Until the late seveneeeneh f:".':e.'~I¥IIl','1'l1 the mod ish .C-IOI:~.,pu"m- e for botb

, ... ~. . ",-Q'Il.. . ~"""'." I"'~ .. '~IiJ.". "" ,iliJ',I '" ~ .. -' ,I" ... I,~.· .' ,,1_.. ... _,~ ... .. ~"ll,". ,'.'.. I._-u ... " 'Il.." ,

'.··~exes 'WI3S o:'I~,e'~n, dis,t .a,c'ti,n,g land, ,mobrj),e in :itrse'I",:- p1a;rts 0'- 'it ,pu'tJed 10IU"(:'-1 clailing: ocr' swi~, _" ~ n,g'll lor lel~la'boral:e)y em:beU:is'h,eldl o,n, r.'he 'su'rfa,c'(~' [0 d~mw atte:n,tia:n 3,wa":", ,fro In, th:e ~lctux] 'bod'Y' I,:,. 3'n.d tow,ard all t~h,e 'p·,~-DS5ibjli.ti:--, 101J£

~ ~ .

:£an,ltasy; 'but e'l·-e,n,'~,h,oluigh ,_,,~:- 'e ~i,shio,n mi,g'hc 'be tj;gbt~ and, h.e:rvy~ Icum,-

,b···.rsc 1·- '-I'n'd,l-l"b, : .. -; :c:··'-'· 'I~,'h···. ···,"h'f- " ,.,,'. : ..... :--.'1"'£'- ,- I'~-. 'Si ~'I' I'~i'nl' ·d~; r' .5'5, - '~I'w--', ',,! I~;-(> (,-,- ·.d·-I _-_e ... __ me "_~,. __ , t!c_3_-DnI-,l:C" t!!J~e 5,"· ,P'_ 0, ml_cucoo=!'J ,"""e_e~ __ :c"~~,_y_ conJtlDu,e_

to 3'rr:icula[,e 'I'he bod'U- Ito de' 'Il'o'n '[r-~'te [-he eXiJtef}C:·' of - 't--c-c-,'nk DC ',ck 1C1'--d,

, . ,,'. J._ 1,_, . '_' ._. '_ ._._ ./,,- I, '_ '_' ,1 __ .. ' __ ' . '_'_ a,._._ '_ "_' _ '_' _I_, ._. '_' ,I ,. __ .._ ,_ I ,[U '_', __ ._- '_' "_ , __ ,,0, _ .

:he.a,ld lV-I,th b~ir:. 0'£ mlo1la'ble1 11C:-''-1 'fe'et~~',n,d, l'rms.1 anld so me tim, e 5 '~e'n~i,ralJ-----'

l • 1:. I~l

,4-,'

'. ~

'.'.'1 b···· reas th ." .... offemmine dress did '-""'1"':- 'h '. ~.~- .... '.'-,,=':- ... -,,' ire of ehe C-.

wnereas 1:,,",,"",0 e D rermmne ... iress ,;.:__., not, ":1 e true strucnr eo. t I e ,I~e-·

male b ode' -:-. '1.'l.J', "1i'IW.(lI'1,f~ 'W11"'S-U' '''IU·-~· contased [ ...... ,· .. her than explained ·b··-y:: ·c.a·=·s-L·I~·o"n-·'

I .. ,II," ,'. '.,_', ~' ... nl. .. _a''''~.' .. I ... a." ""' ..... ldU ":_ .. ' a.I~<:_. .1. ,(I. .' ~i!.1 :_.'_" __ ,_.,",,-_::-' . ':1 IL ~IJ.I:.__~:.__,,_,,~.

,~, ... , .. '

Il'., 'h":-1~11Id"'" to 'iIl"h' =-":Pi '0···· ·,'(·d····1 1~ln-": ustence '0· .. · 'In fem '-. al e ,p1·O· rporeal c '0' "'n-' rjti" "3-' lm en It' n 'C' Ii I ·O·l"!;'

>iI!JL, ,I. ~,~,:I_,. I..'. j .... I!I!i;.,: 1.),.11.-_, ... < ~L,J .1 I",~ I.', [~I ' .. '. I.. ~:_I .. -,.,1) ,.,""ill, : .1.1 .1 ... ;,', . ' .. _II I ... IL. .. < .. I, , .1" ~I'~ ,.' .. ·.1-'

fered b:-:-j," . .'", ·m·· . .ean ..... , ,O:C:' 'r imagi '0'-:",· ',' '-I~ \I:f~ .. dissr ···"1iiC,· 'r;1 0:'0'-' 3':-:- ·01'd. ,.':- "I'; 1-' J-I u I~"I~IO··"'·. '0' -

l[~LIu'~. 1 • . I , .. ~, ~ a. '~ . ]I, j" . ~ , '_ , _ .~. ~ W ~l!l;. A.. ~-i1,. '~ ',. ~ ...... ' ~ ~".:J ._. !I ~I

", '-1 - - - - - - •

~ .

A woman :5-. ar:01S and head miehr 'b.:e··· t:a-"'~rfJly:'" ';·n-cl·lI"ellll'I~.U~1"lb,:"IJ '- 'Ib.'·:'u'-I·.' her h ,1ii3';I'r

," "" _8Ii _, . a. -"",-,' "",-- ...... - .. ,-, "--"-iliD' ... __ "- .. r~~_.iIi_ . .Ii~! ,11_ "",,,*-,,1-1- ,e'''''' !t . _'. ,j, _, "., .. -:IIc,

'. ' ',iI!' ',"> 5 "C:TI" ·II~·" '." ,'.,; - .. fullv bo "1"':·:" ·d'~' I -I'" .. -. ',d-: IIC . .'1' ,.--:-'. I:"":':<'~· .':,- .·..JI b '.," h ~':o'. ,'0-' '.',"1 ~·.cE··,.--, .. h ",' '.,. :1· ,._,

~I,_ UsU_· y careru rv eoun , U, _' ,aD.~. otren CIQVefieU\,~, . __ Ie,_,.:: ,gear E,_,.c_(i,I, mr

;-11'" d -',~ - ri .d (b"", '. ,,-:: .. ,'~ sh '1' " 1"'~ .. he ad '.' ad Iii '0 -, ,- . ';1 - .. ~ 1--·'··· ". :L,,:'.··- , . '.

tll ... er._I,gulSe·_ I l'Obe 31ctua ~:.., ... a.pe DI !JLI,eLf ..-J~e'_.~_J 3tn,. __ , trs nQ,[m_3." re!l.,Q'OncS,l:Llp to

her neck, besides ediemz th e character .0,:(",01 her hair itse J'f< 'H-" .er 'p.-:- "11'~i!'I~F' a :n, d

, ,,' ,'. ,. "' .. ~, . ''',' .... !'.,'..... ". ,",;II" ,D ...... ~,." .. '"" 1!li1'~li.l',·, . '" ," ,"'~.' . ..11:1 .. '. ,1!,1,,:i]i, ... 1 ~ ',,','., " , . . .. 1, ''1'' i3 '. ,. ,

legs 'we're al:ul3.YS a .mysl:le.ry~ her feet a somenme thing, and her bosom, .~j Ico'n"r~~'n'~l.y' ,c'h,an,'".,in,g thearrical ,peri <~e,n.tatiIQ(n ofsome kind, Needless ':0

h d h d .~.·1 d · . '111 . .. "

:saY~I .. ier exposec hands were ,aJ.W3,YS'.JEd·ma,I',C CO,S[,Ume' eiemenrs, e;,X,CI,'Clng'

bare episode ..... in a sea of fab'rj,c,!,

On the orhe: -, hand, the d,e'i. ~-: 10":' male dr ss 'had a foundarion ,in, the structure ofthe whole phy,si.caID lbody'~ 'I, fo:rl11a1 :_,·u,t~h.e.rl.tru.cil/" derived .&o:m h '11£: P' C ~ lth h al " d ~ d , iuman corporeal facts, ts fictions. a_.'t_._.IOU,g~:J. _'0 gl,v:en 10' I~ ecepnon anc

.i I lu' uion. conseq 'U· 'e.·~'n'~l\{1 had 3.-····. more £~-"~'~'fi~'~1 '~l ,'I,~rtM~r ,~'h' ····3····.0·1·· the fanta ies " .. f

_ .. ,_ '"' '!II "" "" - '" .. C_' •. _. I", a.. - . .. , . r 1'(;,." vfC ~ [0 l I, I~,_ 11.,.,." '",< L, ",., J;: .3, I .1"'_ ..,m.~,;::J o.

',vlomen ~I modes especially during the long period of male '1: c ense '~,'--'

......... u ..... ,--- .- ~ ",.' ..... _.,,'- ._., ""b" ,. , ..... ,!,~, L·-·f .. _ .... t t __ ,_ l._,c_.,.e .... Dr

Jf" '( "'(10' .... 'r ]~ 'nlv'e' >n" ri 0' In-" In; ':; d'~ ~- I~ Sp·.··II.,\J, ... ,

"'" '. . ' .. j,li, 'Ii!, , ,[ ',~. '.'.. ,,' .'1:., ., ... _,"I '. . _ " .... -, ' .. _iIi ~~':_ .. IL_. 1';oJ

Public artention has nevertheless always 'been rivetted on the femi .... , nine scheme of] 'V~l'rviJla' the same '11de'3 'i'n ditic'Jenc Vil"VS throueh .. ~.·i;; ,

- - -- - =" _. ~·"..J,i "" [lI:l!j" .. .. .. - __ '"' .- .. ~ ~,,"- ... -.~ _1.. .. ••.•. ,a,.I'" ... W .. ·-1 IJ •. _I_Dl ... ~

T'~ "his has been what I~~' 'm·I~IP(11rI"tt 'b"v 'i"F-,sh:'I!D"-::-:":'o,:1'!!1'- when it '1":S"C. dr-,,~s:p-,.'I"'~~,d'~ as

~ , ,...;:!Ii U~~" -, , III. ~ "~ _ ~,,,,Ic . )J' __ ~ _ ' "" " ,~ _,__.!Ii. 1-' .~,___,.,

W' ''''0' nnan' business '" 'he perpeeu 4,1- in' istence 0······0· usme ·t- b"PI "'b' temes 0"("':

1',./,1"=" Q,~, ,'. . :,'IU:, II':.. o:I~11.i!! ' - ~,', I~. ,~J"'I!,;_,~~, :I'. ::~.iIi~~.,:,,~. ,~-~' :.-' I_'_-,~_.I'D': ,~~ I";, [,: ';L \1'!W;t;J"=:I ••

modesty and erosicism tcgether has nrovided 13 .fasc.i;n,ati'll.g; Sjh.QIY;;"~ and has :to:reve'[ linked ehe idea of £e'n.la~e Cas ion with :[als,mlty~ BUi[ it: is important 't'IO remember tha t despite aU, the ,d['~I!~e:[e,n,ce; in the ~r,-,I,ys :1111'1.:", and = .. male dress '\Vle'l:e' .fo,rmall~, ~ cOD,ce'.i,ved", rh.e' MO ::·exes. c.real(~d lal h'a'r~n1Io'nio,u~~: \ris, __ ,

#" 10 .• '· ,:[[. d· ~- ; Oi g" ~ lt~ •.. J: '~'~~I r'"~ Q,",; n-~ 'I'" "], ". 'I-';i'f~, :~" en: I d' - a'I,r" F' .... PI··:,Q.···.:'DI.. :~[ 1'1 d' '; '~O:·;:·:1I'1;'I· e, rl'~ '(ne ~[' 'f .. _. '. g':·.I~ 'l:','11 'b-_.;nu' "1-1 'n\ 0';'1(""

~. I J. _Ill Ll . IL __ rl]!11kd11 dill •• I I I &1 • _ill:IL a I I. . _ ~L':!a_..'J.i~·. _l I d ,I. ~ 3_ II •. " .l"'_ ,. ~ , .. "-:I I .. I I I ••. !

- -. :.~ .. I - - - - - _. _- - ~ _. _. . - - . - . - _. _. - _. - - . - - - ... ~ - . . . I~~ ,I' .... - . - - ..

gel:n.de'r:i an.d ,"h.e' :-:a'm:- wasl tru.e a'bout, th,e ,d,etrl}ee olf 1['lo:-'n'p' :Icxi [j" I'nd.

, .---.-- t ---.---- .. ---.- -.-.- .... '- -'-b1-" . ._. I L,iI: ,~ - I. _-

d

i'lIl 0'-:: f"m'" 'Ol' le'· .·n, '. t,~ .,-

R __ ~ . _. _!r

/:", l'ii'ii,B 'iI"i,j4'a:"':s- 'o;"n' ,'···'o~~-·· 'r' I' ,L,~,~, <'!Ii "d,:' ,co~· .'. r" H'Ii.if "ry- ... ",.,. 'h'-""I":'iIi'rli1P 11:ialt.l'llii 'h'·-·" . V'M' :',t''Ii ,t"~lr d'-' '~L< .... rr'I" b",gJd:' "~.~1i"j[!I

, .• : ,1i"I.!!!Ii.o ,iIi,~ '_I:I..I;;'I! 1!iI>.1lI,iI,'" ,lIt. !!Ii.. '''' _I.:, .. ,II..I,D '~~'~ .':.__",'~ .. '!!i.J!!! .1.,4!~.-._iil"" L_'_~"_'I '~''';iI.,

th,'1I,t" c'l'll 'I"a:· ';;I'~lo.'I:'~ £'.o.::,.:·r--'· b,.,.:O.·,··~·'h,' ',~X'~I~~:: 'W~ .'. ~:~ ~~ 'm" IjlijDI·, .. '. ·'b. "e'" 'b:-ofi,:I!'~'" ~c.'·~.--:-~'h--,p-·mT- ··e·· FD.~-I"~· ·f- t,'h::-l't'Q,'-:"D'-

, ~,,_, _ I. 'l.._ .lIL_.lIl~'l 1,['_, =-' ·_·IL,[ _ .. ~~._~_ .. ',," '.~ 1~1~ I~l_' ~_II_'~ _ ~I~·_ •• _~.g~~-I._ ~l .. ~~"'-, I '[""_" rlt~.~ I~. __ ~~·~· __ 2:

W,3'S ,th,e produ,c'l: o~f .. In_l_me 'C[itJ'f."ltl ,il, ,dis,p,l-,yc'(ln,c:e,i,vedJ"s a 't\No-'e,xed Ul1i1t"

.r-'I, e'I'I'!I,jf~l~ '·\'!I'IOJ'~iUI'~I~ ,111'1-11': '1'~"~11'O-' AI .0.1 [(.-. rh'I'e"~' 're-:~"",,'!tj--i'O"""I----I' ·'bt'·e·.'" , .. e·e'·-I ':-m:' "-':n' Inl-Ji W.· J.Qr··'·m--·-· J'n·· 'T·I'"_

«;Ii ;]i.,~ .1,5" ,-,y, .0:1 . dl '-. _ .. _·ll.ld 1 ........ - . .!Ii. Ii. '. _. I",: ... c .' .~)I." l!kl!.'~- _> !L 'It_, ~I.... . I •. ,'. ,,', .. 11:. ,_.'./ ,.11. !!Ii;... '" ~ ~1. ;_.-

110[< mOi[~Oi¥e.r exis,t'e'd at~,ll lev1eJ<: ,o:f society· :I'ike~ cobb'~,.·rsl .:_:l1ld ti:n_ke[·.; it

c#

..-41 •.

~j •

T- H" - ~1'l',' 'n iI!JI!'ll: F--: I~ i~" 'S·."· H' ~1 0·'· -'. '::.-.'

,~ ~ _I . - 'W " .. ",.. "a. '... ,_I r' In ~.' _I l ,~j "~,, "

\\)'311 :001 just the rich 'N,,110 had their clothes made, I: would also hasten to emphasize that ,a, la'ilo'r:~s[ female clients would have Just as much creative S3,Y' .in. his .lleSll],[S ,3} male ones would; tailors were humble artisans and

DOt prestigious designers. .. The' choice of co;ID'n~ details and accessories was ,-""~'r-'*=~-I",.I:].,'I,y,-, ,'''II .. clie _'n-,-'.'t,.'itl..~' own b ,-,'Il-,'-I~'-;I'~-]'~s,·"~" It)1' .• ' "1'1,--1: o-ir: 'w' '! I- m -' .... on (1[""11--1:: bu --,r. the tech mir .. #a:'ll

'IliW' L C ","c Iloa. _. _ J1, • tit _ _, _ _~_ '~'Ii ILI~_ ~I. iii ~l- _ ~ " ,iIi,.II,Q ' '~_ ~ ", ",JgQ" , '___ _ ~, ,~ i,,",",_ ' , "L _I,

stan dard - of d esien .a-~ nd con stru cti '0· "I'n-~I ·:-w,·"~: -·a':-IC the sam ~"~, i51 1:0 ... - ;""~r=' both sexes 'I~ 'n~ the

.l![_ ',._" _mit',_, ,'_""".~.'._.' ,iIl,;D~iI '_: _ 'iIi.~. _. ~,·,~,;3[~dll, ll..,iI'_' I, .. ' .. , ",1i1 ,,= ",,~, ..:I"" ~ ,I}I,." . "I!LIilll., ", ilili.,.·A·"'1!'" ,,_ ~

vi"~13ge or the ,ci~

lA' ""r E-:' -R~" c ~ IiilH' A NG'---- E S-'

, ,,":':' ~ "!!!J _~: _ __-.11 ~, .'~'_:> J -:' _'I

wavs an ar ,'~'DI~OU' 'D13tt- ,~-c anvwav: ,3 certam amount O·£' trouble and ef-

'- _y-~- .. _- ";tJ,--' ~ .~. '_..-J ,er_,_~) ~--y~1 _' ,e, .- - a '_.. , __ ._0_ --- ,~- ~ --'

'0,/'[1"' is, ~ de "':fill~',tl""I" 11'1 OJ ,i:A Iemem of d tress, ,,,,.,~~ ;,~ 1'" of ~'~)11 11'f[tJ_

~,.,_.=!Ii" '--- g '_',,' ~ ~I. .~ ,1,111:'1 ,""L~' ," II.' 'Ii;.o, ~, u, . -~'IIo.,.;!:J~Ji,:t .~ LiI,!t, ,', U !iii JIi, g,= '-,~

I n rhe p-: ast, s't· "I'·"~n"I"I·e·".'fI§ Ibl;- e avi IDc,Qi,S. - l" :0: nser 'l-~ ~ ,[_)t ,O::'RI PI-:' .1 106,:b:,' e m '~"I:[- -I- c ,,,:.:..[ steni nzs

- ,.. [!LJ _ ", . ' . j.L~_) ,_ '!i 'L·, ~ ll_[L __ ~=') ,. '- j a, _ . " _ '"' kI!. '!II II/;.. - , ,_ I~["'~ . "",~ "- - , -, '!'I .,' ,- - JJ._ .. u . H - ~,"i;._, l,iI~~ - '""" ,iii,. t:::r"'" I

precarious adornments ; . nd all similar ,dim,IC'u]tje~ in clothing would eon<_t.:-"nJtly' remind privileged men and women 't'hi=::t, ,'h,ey were his hlv civilized beirn .'" separated by exacting 'IJr,a'inin_gr~ e,la,'bo[rate education and complex rcsponsibilieies from, simple peons with simple pleasures, burdens and duti s, Changes in very elegant fashion u~;u,all,y meant exchangiI1·G: one physical discomfort for another; the comfort of such clothes was in the h ead .-' m "':li't·. ter of honor and discipline and rh "I~' pro .. ·.'p~J~r·( mainre-

l I, . I. ~ I. -ft._-_I! ~l Q._ j~ " __ ' 1 "' 1 l~ tll~" _J '_~ ~" _,IIJI1_, g ~, __ ~l ", ,_'- 1_ , __ ~I rJLg~1 ~l ~

" 1 ' _, ~ ,

nan ace of so .. -r.,--:::l~::.·· I'. d.' egree,

I 'I, _ ' '_ ~l _ I. ~ ~ '_ , ,~ _ I., ~~, ~

(I ,_

One b.,-- ,,'"I c modet '01 need '. J~'~', ''''~I es cape rhe fe elins thar d esire has [ me

'-- -,~ '.- -~- .'." . ,'-,.---- .. --.- ."' '.'''"1 .. '. __ , ";il [!!l,.U .,oIiJ!" tI;I.","" !Lei",,",' I,.- ... ~_I,""'C [L,~","iiI,[!I., . dL."'" . : __ "_'""

sral e. Fashion therefore depends [on, managing the maintenance ofdesire, ",' ~'.-h'--I~ ch must b "·e' , c ui sfie --,d··· bur neve "'r' '~A'r' ··'0···:·-0···--·-· 1[0':" "n'" g:'- 'iIi't)i~, e -:a:--··'s""\t:!' [IiO"" se ~I h O··-II"~~~ one

'.". I, ,~I , n , __ !,;,l',,", _~_ ...... ~ ~ - Ii_ .... ..> _ILl iIi,.- _ ''1"1._ . ,I. v'.". '._ -_.'-: I '~>-.!! II~. "", -1 I!!i.~ __ ' ;;'-\"," I '_ '''"~.~_j 1_

,- 1I"4Ii1 "-_u "

~ -- . I ,

" I e 7' II

- -.

, __ Hi Ci -~ iI11e'

.'

I-~n -

'n,

'Thi_

_fO,_lt

• - -h

l:' '

'1 __ -n~ br id nc

, k~l

. ,~, S 'H,--' :1 t ; 'N~ .

. 1 n ..... . ~

general impulse ••. ·:'f fashion would therefore be, .ror ,ex): mple, to make the whole bod'? seem riaid when it had been 6Jexib'le for a. long rime, as in

~ ... __ ,_. __ - .. _.y ...... IgI_"~ ~-,=-. I _ _ ... - - .... = "" I.. . .. -. ..- - .. -, :. ; .... I e_- ----- _ ,

th,_~ case of the armor-like l-ar':l.I],en'l; ,0:C' the Re .• la'ISS311,ce'l orr' to reC.hlrifV

. ' ~

the anatomi •. ·· .. -·3] 's .. eheme .. 3[5 -.: eo-classic fa.srh~i.OI1, did when ,~-~I:~'r, .. -.· •• quie and

ROC1D~IID dress had, been bllu~rr'.in.! its outlines for several [ge·.ileirarionsi An. intermediate eX3111.p]e' appe, Jr-e'd in, the first h"alf of the seventeenth cen';-u:ry, which inaugurated ri1( ·faslhriona e impulse Ell :m:-~ke~'x~isJl:ill,g' formal

schemes more casual, '~'IO-- Irr~,~[~ e an 1F:I1'1~'r' .D,~:r'~ accide nt, 0·£····- uTn-[-'b.·,:"':'III~I'n- .",: "':e,--' ·,e··· ven .D:_"~

.. _ I!JJ~~ __ ,,_ .... ~ 1 .. [ !l._.I],I"-" ~n~ .. _. __ 1, 'L __ . ~~,,~U-_ .. ". __ 11 a D ._~ gJ~ ..• _.',. !J"l .. '~'!II _~l!l.~a M~._ ... l~ '_ '¥~[jl '_~_19

carel essness :01:'[-' perver sirv ~[r--I" ilh-, ~ choi t""~1 and ',:!"f - a r '~I',nltr of familia r p'"lil·r'liI'):'D' ~'-

'-'·[,1 '\;or. ""'" . ,. " ili .. '-'- ~,~ "', ., .. I~ ,I' .iI/., • " " c """ ~~.. ", ..)1 ...... ~ [ali .!I_,l!~'_, '" JIL"b' ,. .1L.iI!.I .. U. _ ." ~a.... .1. , u L I.~ '"

Affa~·n-·'. '1-11~,g"n--. '~'I!IlYe- re resnonsible and women '~l ~lliO'~llt" '-h,~ :O~. ,c.o.:~"III,~;~~J,r--,d:~· their exar ~I_,

- '~r-lIi,', _ ' _ . ,Ii."'" ,~'Ii·li -""', .!k-..'} r ... iIi, _ Ili .. - .~_!k- it Q _, . _, '¥¥ ~ . . _l _ 11.11, . I!Ii.. ,. .. ..,~ ~ .U "I, ~ ''II~ _ .. "..III,. _._ 'Q_l ,iI

ple u:p· '[,0 [3 point.

E)~ ) 6,So-" armor had :_: lefinitiv '·l:~" proved itself obsole -.f; in. the field and had even lost much lof iJ[C_' ceremonial imporrance; 'v __ :tigi-" I metal eoreets and breastplates might continue as badges lo'r' rank, But durma

~I . ,_ .... . . .. 3\".. . f_, _ .. . , . . I~ "> ... ... . ,,_. J. .. .. a .. ". -,. . . ".,~ .. . -' '.'. J

the harrowing period of the - I hirE:· Years1 Wa'r' and the '. j','ngli h Civil

It •. Ji~ 'ri' '1"'[ ·0'1" - :t·· 'h- -.R ;~"'-r'-' .-.[-. L '"i'Ii '1-' '(I" ['0',"(- 'ih-,- if!' . ~.\, !':~ ·n·'·' teenrh - I~ ent u '"]I f':h-,- ~ 'm' '1--," '·O-'··.~ t-l e ~X' r ~ ;t-~1 111'1,- -/ FI~ pr~' ''"'. __ ,

w',u,. . J . , "~ .. ilL . ". [~.Lo.. '.1. Ilk .. "" .. ""' '.., ~--j [L;""""",,,iri,. .. ~ ~ _ &. ,J' Ill. I,~ " , ;011 ~ .. , ,,,",,,iI .I.[IL.,. :c .[1,0[1[""

log man was the ,liDlugh_· .... and-ready soldier, clad ~iD b.3'm,,,~ breeches and 3-

'I-'D-'--:D:'<-~-I c;"t':~:l'~n[-""' leather J·~~·r:k."I"'.-I1:[- " Ind er rhis h [~ wore ,""'Iii, p-;'14'liI',O"[ shirt ....... t ' _"'I"'.[.,:L 'h-I- IUlr-"!-

, , . ,. '-" !Ii,.!l!o .. ',D ,~, 1,_ ,.'""" .~ • """ .,' •• iI!' . ., .. - _ ",",. L. _.li~ ",'" .~, I.'",", d, [." 'id .. ,' ., " . !I;", .,' 'Il.n ... ._ .

sle ves, ofwhich lb[it and snatches showed through the ,ft~==,p- . and sli't~ 10 the ierkin, ,"1'i'JI.d.~~·· t[ -'h-I,:.,--, \l,I'"il~[.IQ·I· ,:,~ If'., zure was cove .. ::~,~ in :S;t-~[;11"P-~'.:s. buckles a:' nd 'bl_~;-'U-I,I .-

..e JlI -- ---- ~I .. IL . ,l: ¥.I .. I_rt:; ,il.I,>:'u . n A C __ I/''''''U Ai, , . """" .... ..' _ . __ .

'~O: ','''O'[IS, /~OJ rr ;!i]Iil' tachina 'b--;I'~i, .O,I:·C' ·iI"'ll·~'II-·~I·~~'W eear ' a was 1-3-,:C':C-·· ·'·O-'.·U'[ rered W-~lt'·'[h-e.,.. b-',~,[~~g/

.. - - . u [ -.. - -j. ii, '. _ lIj,"iliL 'I' ,iii", C] '- - - ,1I1!!i.; -' "- - .I~ .lJliI, biIIJ ciliJ'Lg Llo 1 ,;c,'- - d.!IiI , , ,'Ii;". ,_. ,_. ail _ -', _ _ -,_ - __ iLL __ u ' __ -_ _ -e- '. iliJ. ,,_ , LI, ._'

bo n·.', b '-'"I'~: g~ --:. 'L at bi U' 'C"'-"IP-- -'I~' ""Iiin' -, 'd-'-- '"'tii ·'0'- O' .-'. 'se'-'~I,y" '; ~IJ- -u '1-'1 g' --;. CoW:':" ord - .. -

,--~ yll::.,--'_i_)_1 .l.l'l.l.I___:;~ -),!I.t', ,~ d'. ~~ .. ~' a_,~.,~~_· u l·~);: _ ,11:"1 ~~'-' __ ,LlIJ., ~_', ~ ,_",},~I,_.,~_!!!,

I, -'- the I'll[' -. · h'Il.", .,--,t-,·~· th ,- . .c.' -'1' -'."iI!' '1'---·1.' I.!i!!, h .. ··· .. ··, .. ' " .. ' - ",' \ .... ' ,.- ".,--' 'I'." '-.' -.""-.'-'. -'. of I th -. d .. · "

. ,In ,._- ... e. la~ .. r 1.,""1:.0,,--:111:1,,.[, [,;,e,rl'"ury~ \\leo .. a.ve "ere.ll. ,3 .[Ie,: ur,re,nce 0 ...... '., .... lie, ....

sire 1'0 wear open-collar 0'1" co:lla'rle:~-' shirts and .: bandon [hie necktie, 1::0

__ • ~. __ ._._ D .~_, _ •• _ I ._. ._!IJ -or- I .J.! ~!j._!.l.. ,...~ ~_ .~ __ . __ . __ . __ ._ .1 __ •• l! l! .. l!. __ ... l __ •• 1_ !l .• ~ ._

leave the hair uncut and 'lell 'i'£AI'_~\i\t' 011" 'flIOpl~ I!O let stubble grow on the

chi .', . ",-.,-'- c-=.",.~._,.--:--, unf ~--. d ,--. '-'iiiI':--,,~ ,-:-: .. -.--:::;---~ 'T'""',,---,--.,-'-' ,·· .. :.,'f-=-·,c..'-·-·,',--::.·-_· ·.,-.-'t:-.;. '[ --'" . 'h'" -. 1'1'-'--"[ __::._- ". --,' .--, '-,.:----.,'. -:-,--c;- '-.-.,. •

IC .. ,lD,~ to ~·ear u-n .l[jte,,·~_ Del" 11'[er···[10·ns 0" I,Q·,r.1l1e.I,IY IJ,g".Jt ,g~.r.me,n,[s~ tOI we3.r

unmatching versions of what u,seld, ·t'OI march, anti '1:01 adopt I[he' gear 0-( leisure moments flolr' standard dress '~~},'e,ar,. The conscious .. <:er·bal. j'ustifi.c'13,-· '1:;1""0'1n" '0" f '!i1:·-U:- ch moves I:':S; "II'~M~V"':"" easy P! eb e .y.: ... ,: are associated with individ 'U" .' -I

I~ ,'. I,. . .. 'o'. ,;]! I. ',' L ,i, : :0." v'~ ~: .~~.: ,~J, ',.' ;f;I, j" . ~. ,u ... :.. "e' '~ 1!Ii,"i ,.~,,'. '_' ,~ ~ ' .. _:_ ':, .. _: '" ",10 l!l.r"",·'.,....J" '~' .1.1"" ' ]a,... __ ,11' ,'J'._ ',~ _.:,_ _ :

freedom, h'Dcn,._~ty~1 ,an.d, p:h,)~~,.icall,.:-o:mi/'Q:r-t in. the face 't), ':'_' ·h,~.t are suddenly

seen as rigid strictures. But: ,th,,:y' are ulsuaU,y undertaken in Cash'io,n,'Jsl a': d .... · :ingJ spirit ot esthetic su,b".','el,~:j,oil~thl·~-~r"_rle' 3Ictiv:'_ move < t1ow3'rd c:.h.anl:gi. for its own sake, D"OI'£ outraged retreats frol'm the iron demands o:f the

m ::~', nd .~J ;1'" i:'~~ e~IC' 'F,· ash 'I~ .D'=~n·'11 'I~I:C, ju >-11- :-"~. ~~V~J[9. "'1I,'b=-':o':-"IU-', -,t,. I, r. -;-'.~~. "'I~ -I~'" :-I~::~ (1 'I~Oi~'U\t~ orde p- ,:,~ nd

, ., ., l,. " "!!Ii.; . "!Ii; .. '!IIi.- II[,~ d , " ',.' ,~" ' )l} e .iiiJ ~'-'.,. _ "",,",,,", iI _'. ~!Il" '. .;;.'J"",, ii:I!~ ,.'!Ii , .. .' g, " ' .. '" .' 111". . .. '.' .. '

'1Ioo"c'ly knotted scarves and the '[.1gb:! de _' ,-:e ofstubble are ott'eo, much harder '£'0 manage than ,£orJ:malllcc:1 .·· .. t~i,e: and smooth shaving.

G:' '~ll:" :-v' ren th ~ ~ID'-n-,,' u:_,) sti 'n'IP 'hi' abi It~· '01,1'£': c ~'O"llrI::'~I~ ~~,"I;'I~,ml'" [~, n ,L'. .. ma I~I '. d ~ . ress - ·~i·t,-: ~IIS, \tf'!~ :t· .

. -""",_._ ,,"c, "'"' lL ',D' '-, .ilj"IL'Ii!:lli· _._'" '.', .1.=1 """"l,¥'~':'_~;]!,",,, .IJILI, LU,"_,JL __ ,'W-;lI:, ,I, ,_ liIi"IU.

surprising t'~1ar the instiaation 01£ s'u.i .. ,h subversive shi'fts- such wholesale

.. . ' .•• , . "_,, 'I~I '-" -"" '-' .,' S ',;::',_'_ ' . , , ... c;'''' ... C • , ,. .. c,.. ." ", . ~ r.. . ,,", ,," ,. ,. , .. .

"medemizarions," should have 'been, masculine. A),I'ho'u,gh the derails 0'£'

women's ,c~,ot'hin:g' ch,anged Id:u,'r1'I1..g these periods to echo the p:r-evailio,ll f1-vo'r:7! whether of ease 0,:[ of discipline, women's Idr:~S:1 never abandoned the Itie'c'o:llle'ce dress 'w:l.th deceptive skirt and s'ha'pin_'~ 'bodice, and rhe elaborate headdress involving a iIJoodly' head of 3'rttlH,y ~lr~anl~,. d hai'f, its adornments D::I~t~eln. including a he ... od or I.l veil, ~~"., lace 101 lil!len. cap\. or a concealing 'blonlIle'c~~U. variations on the same modest idea, Fashional le 'Ih:lll', 'W .'Ie a~I~,rla¥s in'IDI[llla],~ ~r,akish,~Jilgb'lly mdecem .'nr' 'WI[1ID1.le·n", since aD, hats ~e,re' either masculine or' lower-class in origin ... ,

, ':" ,:' '';1')1'1'" ~~ rlJ' cosmm ··'e·· ", ''1:~;~~D:,··'·[.' ,0' :.::0' to "U" nd p rzo .'.... m"'I"I~1 n ·,·:v,:",:,:' :.', . .:." ", an 19',.'~:. an d eo .. : b e r-' he

_ :It ~~'~:I(I' ~r. ~LI :..ILlllIJ. '~~'l __ . _.~ I 1..1__ _ ... __ ~l-lb- ~l I _. _ I~' .. J!] a_I. '~.:' I~rt G. 1:._ 1'1. _ . ~ . _ L! •

source for much of the D13le sexuality expressed in dress ever since 110 "W·' ·:'b- - ieh women ·h.·'··,> ··'\,'~,e··' contina ied I'~I help th p msel V,: I; ,,;:Ii "1 Lo, .. :r- in terestin D' effec ~~Ii:"._

" .. ,,I;~, , "'11 .. ". ~,!I!.I, '= . _, , .... '_. I .• _, ._ ,olIi,li. .,~',__ ,_.~ _~., 1I!i.." I IlL ,_."'_",_,_ """ ~ " "'"., (I',. ,I. _, .)l,. '_ ,..,.~ __ ,iI~, ~I~ "",",[['L '_ l~ iii

• 'II' .g····.IA, 01:1-' - I" '~lll~ ·f-a·"-·c, hion .~'<- note ofm '.-. ·o.··,'iilUI'n·'i·I·':~·n(__:_'e,'__:_'~, a··· md a·' Jt'ro:;'Jn'~-lu~=t~ 1,- even

, .. :, .•.. ~ ' .. _. .,_.''11'. g.,~ ,.~,j .'_' .. ,,!l.Q., . "_ _ '.'.'" .1". . Jjl.._"',;~. "_ " I ._'._ .. ". -' '11' ~ ._, """. ""

e"tUlle'rretr~ -J and travellers into the rutu'~'m'bl,e:rs '\',·"il.J1h. the ' .. ue o:f~ the earth _,'I~: armed kn ',';;,(;'h~,' .'~~:, Ili!'Iil'Il'dl'l_ ~'['U'!Ci ··.d·I~-~··I·:'~ wer ~ ,p~,"!: .. : 'p;']~"I·.··.:d.~: ~'O··· •• be '1"0" the

"_._ l, ~ ",_,. __ , ' __ J; __ ~ '~_ I, I I~' J [_ J' JILl~r IIW .Ii L ;. __ , ~[D __ ~,~_J'_~. ~J L 'J .. '_"'['~ '~!l_'~hL!_~~, ' ... ~ ~ J '1 " '_." ~ ,_ ' __ J J ,

,~., .. : liddle Ages.. ,Ar'mo,r:-Jikc' clothing, now oficn made' of Isynt'hlle'tilc fibers and molded plasticas 1\w,,-_'1], a'S l,el .. rher, i_II O·ll, .. e' again sensa rional.

..~:~ ='rino' the ea 1''1'' ,'-,llinet'eenlt'h·-cleDt,u.-ry····~:\' ave' of moder -lilty;,;( repre-

. u. - C' ... ,. "'- - _,' .. , ,. '''-' ., .. '-' '-' [ '-'" -' ,../ .. '-' . '- ... , ,_" '-' ... ,I "'-'. ' .. ,I.· .. ,

5e~DJE!ed 'by' the J:'aL[1]}ollIS, Dandy mode, which we 'wil~ l~~I>e'f look a:£,"I'O detail,

the >,Ity.lur:'ic SOU'Fc'e wa'~ aho 'mo:re' S.IPI,'~::rting ,i'han L:' "-i,ta!'ry~., found:_d c:hi~'fl,)r

imitations 10,[ male dress, mi,lii'31ry or nor, were confined to, the upper bod Y" ':r le~"v.r-, ):,- -, 11-· 'FQ, ,.',.r:" sh 0'-, ",,'., TI "h'-I-I@" - ncienr : .. k. eirt '," vhich hid women fr' om th 'e,',-"

_ " ~) ,a;._ _, Ill;. ,(]_ ' ,I), ' ~, , ,,"""' I,., ,1,~,iI "" ",I~ __ _II 1IioJ,'!i' '., ,_I _ I ., , , __ , "''11_ 11.,]1, ~.' 11 "",,,iii,. '.' I~, '_

waist down and thus permitted endks S scope for the ~my[ho:IJo,ln~ of tbe f~'D1l"~-"'~'n"i ine, hi ad I becorm ,"!iI, sac ed 'C:':'r-lI1' __ "I@, 'f~tl'[e'" ' .... nd privile a~_ ~~p,,~':of~;'I~I~'v' "I,fj'-.':-Jr:'

I,lL" iI. "'''"''!II; I, d , , ~ ""-... "_ " ;II; ~ _,'I;." ., '_ :n ,II"" ~..... ,1".", liil'Ii, "" ' , 'Wr ,IIJIL tJ'I;., '!Ii' """LI,I, '-' '""' ,i( ,I iHi 11., ,

,it became ';'~[lI1_ly' established .~. 5 a sep,~ral£le [;mr~n,e'II,~,~, Me:n did not wear skirrs, although they mi .' ~ll, wear robes .1'DJd g9\~I. ns O~D_, o cca sion,

Tro ~ --:"'U·'" sers for r--e~';p"""",,"".II3ii:C:- ""tqibl:.I,~' women 'W"I:"" ere .'" '-", ':-ul"b".,:I"il~I\lt!'" '~I'li -n" iacceptahle except

, "" ,,". _ "',, "I, ra 1.1"-'" ,'" "i11i, ," ~ "" '" ,ill ~ .,""_ _~'1~"'V" 1,1""'" , " ,'~ -e • , , """ ;_' '"-,, ",' L11,...., "I' 'U. iii "" ~., L- '1;1,1;, .JJ, ' ,ft,""" "" .""

'£0-:::-:1'" '~'_'r"'lry,,1P dress an d :O-"I'I-n'" rh -'I~ 1~.;"1iI;"i",~~ and ,,"h'e~"v:':-; ("'I,.~:Q~ n ot ;g'~'ln:",e'~'F!1i'lll.y::" wo ;:'lrD'"'' ~'Ji'~1I1'l

[IJ~ ... ~IJ .[t_,_ ,IJ~I' '1_ 1_ .1,I~ilIt:~ d]. I. ', __ , ,,', , ~l" ~ al~g,: ,~, '_' l_ ',_' ~ _' y?jI~_tl_l.I~L l.~', ',' '._-: : I~' 1 ',_ llt !I-Ill J:I '~'.',.,',. I ~ '., ~Il.l

ti ',I~"~'

inl,rl,siJbly as, underwe r until \vlell on HI the nineteenth century, ,At, that

~ . ..l L. donti f": d'i -b

'p::e:rlou, tne CO,~n,1I110:fl 3::: opnon oi underpants ......• y::,r-J WO:RTIle'11 seems to repre-

I I 1., ~

sent ... ~'h'~ FI- r ,~qil:" expression of the c ollecti ~I'I~' se cret desire t~ 0,''':'' W'", "e, ar ·p'I"':'Iirn '1'!' on "~I'y',:,

"""'" ,b," '",," I,,,",,," ill,· ill! il_" ~,~/ .. \,., >?"'f"'lI!'"" .. "'" ..: .. I., I,,~ .. ,'., ~ ~s!L. '" . " ..... '_ "" ,~,. ' . ,~;)! ,"" L-, , .. ,:__,' . .'. . .. " __ H~'! ,>;111 J ... 'lt. ~ '.~j. .III, •.

,''''IC····~· ceptably brou 1D'"h",[- out 0--0-:· th I~ ~u- ·'~'t"'~ with ,,-,,- ',"~ Ib-I:"il:I-~~1!' 'C- ~ '0· I!'" C,'''O,',,',' "I"u·11 '1"'1-1,~' 0,1 ":'f~'~'

g..-'-~ 1,,_"". I .--':0 '- ul_)l .. "l ~ OII __ "I~JLL,,,",,",, '"rllij •• ,'"', '_,Il_~' .:n: _" ,--,lI ~ ,_--"

the 'I :~-"90's, and only finally confirmed in the '~3tle'[ twenneth century 'with, the' gradual adoption of pants :3'5 normal public: garl,Jll~,n,',,-s for

W- -1'0;· :m, ., ,e~'n- r.

,,' ' " iii

Anomalous persons like George Sand and joan 0:£ Arc made their temporary sensations in a, virtual vacuum; a few movements ikie' E'h,"·_t 10;'1--

,AnC)eJ__:_:I·I'·',a~ ". D, Bleomerin th "I;I:j; ,- 'rIi'~ n eteenrh centu ',-ry-;,fl came nd wen t '. P,,-:" n .. '. Ii",~ ~;~!~~~'

. . .. . ,I . . l:IUI,!Ii;.., ,r l ... \.- ~~ II, !I!i;"., I"~, ,!,;"lI, . ., '-" ., ...1 . Ii.. a I, ,II e II II, .,' " , , ~ , ,., ,"~ '¥l!'I ~,ilL'''''l

(_.'

still a ~O'lrb'-';'II:d<"d.· leo! borrowine 'Fr",O'DI]- the 'm-I'I!'I,i~,_ SO,'"",': UI' nseem ')'1J 1c"h~l: t: thev could

-,~- UJ ,l'~_" ,_Ii" -,", .,,,", ., ,.', , " .. ' _"f,iI" "D .ill._,. 'II. .. ,""" , ,J_H_."", -",- _",.,_'\o;~,L". l' '!Ii., "iIi_," '"'' "'-',J ""'-' ,._"."

0- ,n'-,I ~I'~"'i be .. '·' (r enerally hidden until their rime fin ':"111-,I-,,~,t came. A"'-"'"fi;·,'.~,::-·~"r' rh "O-',,~',~I 'l'I-,l'J~"'I'-" .... ,

... 1.1 '_. , ,.11." ., .. lIJ~, "I, ,u. , __ ,~l'~~, _" ~II.I._'" I IIL-~, ~~~, _" .. I,. ~I[~l Q.,' ~.I, ~I~ ~ _ ~I. I~, '_' ~~ " _'

I , "

I.,' l'I'!, I.,

lennia of dresses, d'iVidil],g the legs IOI~~ respectable women with a I a:yer' of

fabric seemed like' sexual sacrilege. Consequently :P'3JI,'£L on women .llgured, n-a,tural~'y' le'Dolugb" in s,o(t-c'o,'re' pornography since the eighteenth cenmrv and thev were ofren worn for seductive purposes by :[3,5;1 ladies

l~" ~ l_, l,

in elegant society ever since the sixteenth, 'II rousers ,had ce·rl~ai.'n'ly' been

worn by female mine-workers, 'fi~,he,tto~k and agricultural Iaborers, and 'naturally b)~ dancers and acrobats, and actresses or singers in "breeches" parts; b'ul the 'O~~ status D'C arl,), these :fe'rl'la·I,~ occupations J,,:(:pt women's pants fir,I],tI,y' associated wi.t'h lowness ,in, general, or else 'with rhe Myste-, rious East, which had its O'I\Vll dubious associations.

The twentierh-cenmry modernization of women was altogether a '1,lgga,:rd, develop men 1"'1 since i'i came a, hundred }'1!'3.'rs later than th -, grea'"I.

,. Ii d t: b '1-" h ~ 11 'h 'III £'. '1..., 'L. r.

:1~n~nova'tl,o:n'S t Ic',"e,at:e,_-c. [Ill 'm.e n, . ::Iy-~:n ,1'15, ~ 'tarl!.l,Q'rS" ,t.~' at Srll)l, '[o,r:m ','. Jllie u3S,IS,

Ie U-"" 'I T-'~ , ~,} ,I. cU, '.

ofmodern male dress, At £'ha:r period, just 31S with plate armor ool,y' better, the male body' received a complete new envelope that fo:r',nle,d, a :8.a,t~

te :m'~:.'i :-1" m 'DI--:d> e rn commentary -U-"'p'~:~'-nl its ~u: mdamenta shape, ,~I sim ple and

IlL" ,II '-D' ,_,,_, __ '_ _ ~ .... " ,!!I!!,., • ,I~. ',>, '. -', ~ u" .!Ii,;;ili I~, .' .. '. g .. ~" ,1Lill ,~ .. o '~'-i' a ,~,iI "'.," ~ a.,. _ .

articulate new \li-.rsi,Q,n that :[e,p:laced 'Ih,e' naked, flame:, bU'1; ch'i~. time wirh-

IDUJC' encasing :it~ upholstering ~it:. 5rif£e:m_ng; il'. or overdecorating it, The

mod e .:',':"-. I~·UC~' ~'- ~1'1"'[""h'~"OI-''-I,U' --g<h'l 'l'~": ~'_I:il~111 'LII:"'d-"1 ~'·'"··,e---'1rV.·I.;,' inch 0,", ,".',,' I "~~~i'lnl "1. 'n:1 ow skin ,c·--m.''-'CI'']I-Ie,:-:.JI the

,11....-·_,,[,0 ,;;]I ' .. ,Jill.." g,_ .• , .. , ... ; .' ~, "I . .... JU ,[I:. "'", " .. ' ~ ,/' " ",",,,",___; "., . ..K.g,=.. ,'. c:. '". < .~.',," ' '.' U. 10 I .. '

surface and moved ir counterpoint 'Eo the body'~~ movement, making a mobile work 0,£'3'[-£ o'o,r of the combination

At, thaI S3:mJC time female fashion was also temporarily pared down,

thinned O··I,',·:'UI t,~ and sim ·p:.·'I-·'I'·'c.I::~.-'··ld-~;i 'b:-- .. Ul·' £1. _ ;'1'_ :"""10'.:".:-'0-;1'. ··I~'n'I-'u·'-I:.·-··d,.:·- ·:h"~I'~.(':'U'-' l,hl_'O.·I·~··.'U'Jlt-' the n>:'.-.'V.I h~"'U'I'"-

I.l. t. '~'" I "_ OJ •• I.. [P.IIL. _" .. ~~ . I _ 1~1 ~. __ . . . _ . •... 'II-i .. ,. 'I.. .' .. _l ••. _' IL . _~Il~"_ l J _ •• j II .. '. ~ I. _ I~ _ I.,. &JI

dred -y··-·e:-·a·:···'f-I-~ ~!-~-~ eh th - prim -'I~"iIi"~ ·~·~··e~-- .' '~'~'I01II.'-I"I'":::J=I'~IQ! ... ;' .. :, '10;; ;-0' - , dress-and-caref .. -, 11... ead ,iiiii

U:.I,,,,,",_, ,'.' ·'''C'' ~ ,_,', "...;.IU" .... ~...J,.." . .:.- ,,"'~ . _,lL~ J l .. _'~ -,_"_ ~b'~ . _1,1.=,-1- '_ "":~_. ,,,,:: __ , ,0 __ ) .:_: gl.I~"IU ll,~ __ ~

dress, formula. Fas,hj,Q,n. was ISliD steadily rearranging the propertions ,of the (em_a'leJ body aD,1I avoiding much reference '110 iJts actual composnion, ,"'.,. (~I-' ~'I '~~f~ -""Ill cA, costume had been :~I,D,.-··~!I'·I'nl g,-~':'--~;~'/e'cr since the fl~t.~·' big t.' ~I~I]_'

JU. ~ a. ,I.,t;,.n~a~, L, .. .lL,UII"I,. , a. . 1, u.. "., I,",.. ~~3.. ~.', 1·1~lal\

" ,.,~,'.'

in:g ski'rtsof the :(oQ'rtee'nth" ,c'en'tu'ry~, '. ,In,ete,-,ln,[_h'-C'e,n'l,u,ry '£a_sh'i,o~na'b,)e'

changes '£01.' \lsJ";Ome n be'C311,'Ii;_' even more ,di"stra,-,til],g: on, the surface, as, the changes III men's clo','-h,es, continued 'to 'be iI- :m_a:,~I'e'f 0:£' 's:u_'bd'y altering the

bas .. I ... c tailored shape and "1.~.'Ij'':''~' b-.:.'!."!I( "I'IC':-' ,t"~,'b::,r.-I:!i:~~.. T- _ he sartorial Id~-' rama b .. etween .

. .. . '_ il l.d_~I'-',I,-'-'= _I ~I~' -CI ,~ a~ I " __ ' ,~ l,., I. ,I;QL I . ,~~.~I 1" , ., ~d_ "'-Ala,, ,aJ, ,_ A_ &11 .. ~lL .' ~"'-

. r

'"'

the sexes became more acute '~.h.a'n :1'[ had e-yer' been .

.11'·:0·· .. ···.0; (1" ·W·'·" .. '··I"',t'"h.. mode ·r-··)'I11.·. 'E_~-··n,,~~11"1~lip'b··' w"-' oolen ·r':~,li"II~'lr~I'n-.:la for m~" .le'oln·l· :I~I jf'"',Q"-:," .:€,J, 'Jl- ]1'~O~ld,·.~· , .... ,

.nJI .. "''',~ ' .. " '._." "",.lJ.. ,10, , .. , ~ __ iii ,,' .. ~ ' ..... ,'. ,' .. J tu ill _111,-" ~ ,iii .. '~, ',.'." , '. ,,;i.1! """ . _,I~,it ' , .' . _,

ern long trousers came .in,I'DI existence as another example o(:_Jta-[tb.ng; and ' .. ubversive male £ashiD'n,,~ =_ "h,ey :. hie81'y' derived ,f[(Jlm, the French Revolu-

rio ... 'rn··'11-rv. ','-:i': w, . .'.:·,-·o:'r.' rkin ··p,,....,m.1 -""'n-~~ '~Q:/:~~~,,~:,t'-~IJI~:~I,~~e) costa .m-"-~',- ,~' •. - D~'UI' I ,[P·h-··.· e .. ' ,,1.i\i W',,' ,,':':e--\I"'~' :,..'~i~O,-:-I,

y_ ,~g,_, ,~ .. _ L '~~ _ g. . ~I, _i1iIWI ~"_p"'·II, _ ~. ~l~ _. "~, a1I ,~. I~ 1=_1 ',._ ,iIi._~ ill 3

worn '-b'~.y': ": -·'Ifll;il'·-·I\, ,"bl-' co '1-' - '-1".0-;, II' sailors and colon ··I'·I-:-I'I,·:I·:~'v,e .. ;:,-~ ~;'b.I-O,:1 ters, an :dl' h ad

_ . 'U " . _i' ,,' Ii '." \". . L. " ... ". ~-.Ii I .. ,iIl.i.:Ji a_ u'~ ... ill._... la" .,. , , ... '.. ,D,

been occasionally used 'by' gentlemen both e aetive sportswear .. md [or'

')'e"'-Ir"~,-u,,,~ I·!·n .. ··· those ~::.!'m··-··:··'e-~· colonies 'I~-·.'U·I'" 3····,.p:··,··I[: fii'~~IIn"1i their ' __ YX'I·ii,hO-" nlebeian

, .... ~ .. _,I.l~ '1", I.;; .•.•.. -... !l.! .. ':( I........ !li;;.U I. :.iI"illl .-..,,iJ!Ij!' . '", -'~""L~'" ,..l, .... ' H'UI~,' I" ...... ' _I ',' . .iIi.~.._ "":101 j . ",' .. _,' '. _I .

connotarior s'~ they created an undemanding :lloose akernadve tOI the close' ... h'tlin,g 5ir,~ knee-breeches and slkin,-,ti.g'h:t doeskin 'pa~fJJtamoo'llS of the I~_,)= eig-ht,e'e:nch, century-s-clothes which had shown Q,i[t'h,e "'~ ,:~: e ,I,c,gs and

crotch ,,;..-.:lj'l'·':"h···o'·'-'·.·u,··I·'I-' mu .ch reo .. ,··m·l:i fO;.:',r-' com ·'p--:.:~.···:,'nn--:"~Iiiii"I~'

~ "_"" "_.1 "" • , •. " __ ."_ [ I. "_ 1~'1 .,1 __ .. J 1 1:_ _ "_ . _ [ .1 • ll./~ II]. i:I~. Ii

l1'm·· ~-II=.~A~ ~1:'I,d-' "'0:>:£'" '-e-···q:-·u·.· ,~.r'a a·_,'· 'P~IQi'~:-"C,-._:I. bo .. :·d.,v~ and th ."~,'}~ had '!i"!Ii 1fIIi(I'"C'i":I;Ii:ii:I',~ d .;:- .. ---., ......

, " ,',U,~~,!L;JI UJ" ~"!I:,-', Ii_: _: II.,~ '" _" I ~'~' -.1.) '~",';I_,(,II)" ~,_ ,~.~, .. _, -.' ca· "It '. ~,_,y -ar

'Ii, 10'. casual 'J'O:'OI~l", ~.·DI.·I' themselves 'T. hev were '·I~',n.lii:l"itIi!tID·:"d·I'··y, .. '.-'.- m :O,·.~I'~I~liI;I!.d" 'fro;,:·.,m, their

, . '1:'-'1-'- ~.-- ._Ii ", .~,,'~" ,11,_, , , ,.j ,iIi=-IL~., ", _' . "J .,' ". " .,;i .1 - """, "'._' , _~ 11id'I_ ' __ '. " ., '.,' Wc.!I!, ill,,,," ' __ . ,i(cJ, . " "' 1,,_, ',,"," -

:wo'lr.kinl·17~clasll s:i-I'j ,:mi.ci.t)lt '-'ID!d alsinilla,£~ed, in:!IQI t'h,e .• :'u'btllie ,tail.orin.g sch,e.m.e .' ·''-I·r,pad··''-y d·' "'e'v'e"10' pe"'d' '€-'_o~ ····r ,"'h'p c··· Pga' 'n'" I' 'm· ..... 'lc··· c"o' . 'iii"' 0" ···(·"'_:I"h'e'" 'new" 'mlll'Dc'iIi"e"en' .,4b c··c····n·

:~_ IJlI~~_-:_, .. '.·_ .. ~;'I·/ :.~~~ .~.~ \~/I ..... ~l : .. ~~I)' :-. ::~_ .... (~._, J:[_~-:.',:: ,-' 'L:"- 'I~J ~._~.J~r~/:J~J. .: ~l.~ ,.f~- iII!·.·~l ('(~'.(~'>::':~'! l ... ~-~ ~I- I_I~ 1"1 :.~~l I·~:<'~'···/"~J· '1"'1 ~li.>_ ':.:.I'_il·~.'~.: ':'1,. -~ (."-:'<':,_," ~l...-J!

~ . '. .-~

. fo,r "he' lep :',n'~'werr-ed, ha'rmo,.nl.Du;.ly t~o thle'

tu'be,-·like' sll-,ie\Jl:,~_,:< of' thel C'OI_t;1 and, w'h,en, I:he C'IOI. ·i .... sk,I'rtsl be,ga.n, clo:nS:I'S,-

1"' H E~ ·W··' '('1 '," R" R" " ,'" F· F'" . .&. 'S· .... U '~ '" N····

_' J '_ - ', __ . .'-) ,_ ..•.. , _. L .' ) _. "n ,':. ,~ II '.1.,.: ~ "'.

·t-~~'ln-·,tJI'\r ·t-,IOI~: 'v~'''I<~I. the cle ··q'·r'I~, del ineared crotch .0,-;'(-:- earlier :.J:"'Y"'~ the brilliantly .....

_!!Ii;,;., ., , .. ,II' -... - I!i;,,;o, , .." _. ""... a .. ,I, I' . . . ,0 .. B. _... ...... . I,"'\.;;, ". ... La.".,.." LlIiI,.:_ ~, . "~ . ,iL . . B .JI, .' ..

colored 'necktie asserted :I'tse'lf~ to add a needed phallic: note 'to' the basic e':n's emble , ..

. "he modern masculine imaee was thus virmally 'In p-)m:", '[,I 'by':' 118''110

- I""'''''_ .--- '""= ... _~.- ... -- -=-. '-~b" ~~c ..... r., .. ~~_ -, C " ----'c:. ' ,c, .. ,jI" e . ,'_.- ,c_,_.,

and it :has been o',Illy) , , sli. tlv D1,0 .' '"j,ti.'-d since, The modern suit has p.-'m ..... ,

_' "_. l" I

vided SIO':~J perfect a visu ~11·]~~'a~", ... ion of modern male pride 'I:"h'~tj it has ····,··0: ~;;'I'f

'.' ""' _ .,,,", . __ . . -. _. .,-- . __ -... '. . .. _. _. ~ ,iIi,_. ' .. _,'a __ &.! ... ,~I:I" _ I ,_, _ .' , , ,,"' .... U . _ .. J ,. ,., I, .• ~ .. _. .., . ,ilil -". . .. I ,a,... . ,II. J .. _gil! ,.' . ,[,p.

:0,01£ needed replacement, and j,t has gradua'U,y provided the standard '(;0,5,-,

'["I'UJ:ln.IC::··c·', of ("'I~v-;I'I. Ieade ..• rship '~~r' the ~ 'W'.": .··.;~D.·,.'I-e··.~1 world. ,- h''''I~1 '1··.·I··~'''JII··.··.~u·· line su ~'t"c n.--IO .• ·~I'."~,Ir'

•• ~ • ~ 1 •• [.. ~ _ ,IL II~aJLI." ~_l, _' _1~~ ~l .~ _. _1~1l __ .. _~ ltr .. ·"" _ l~lUl~ n I l~ _ .lCl,. ~ '___ _ ",. b U 1 ... _ = .... W

suaeests p- eobitv and restraint, prudence 'a 'Old, detachmenc but ',','1- de :.

---,roD'- ,,"'-'-'''''J -'-'- '--- ---'-'~" ,. __ - ,_e '-''''~--' C __ (, __ "_,C_I_"_,_U," UD_ecf

these ecn'l_i:grh~te,~n,eld virtues ,also seethe its hunting, r~~· .. tboring, ,:-j'n:dl revolu-

'r-lon,a,ry origins; and therefore the suit still remains sexuaJly potent and, more than 31 ,ittli~ menacing, its force tby' no means spent during all these :nlla'n.y.,' : enerations. Other ,\raveS, for men, to dress now S'hSI-e the scene

" '--~" ~

'w"""I·i,('h-·"". suits. 1::0;-.:' ~.'U-~ '~I'._c L,;"-"ii{V,,··.,Q, ~"h(l~ft··,~-gd'· their "O.'I:fI.;-IIII"r"~'~ ""b:"lJ.14It:- th ~y .. ), remain 1~I'n-,'~ true

. . ,j(.., - -- -~" . - _ di. "iI! 'Il. ,11_"'".... i.1t ,,. ,~ ,. , .... ,!Ii ... F' ~"1. ,"" J I . '. . '.. '110.,.; ,." .'. .. . ,U I """ I~, '_ ~

mirror 0:£ modern male self-esteem, Later we 'will fo:llow' ,their 'hi' :t)ory'

a'· . "d· .. 11ii·'''",O.····' .'n:~I·' d le . "'1[1 th :e·· . ir ,lra~" te "l·-l··.·O·;-·lr~' closelv,

_ ". !!!ro,; ._ .. ," ,iii ,', ..... ," . ".... .I t_ i'. , '., ,11.,,· . "'" ... lL '~'" ,,',.,

1 'E Ii" .. , .. ', A""" 'r '( 'I N" ! 'V' 'E -'. "T I 0'" N

' '" 'I', ,'j ", -" ",' ", I

_ ,. <'./ I, .. ),:_,," " '. -. , . <', . ".') - 1 ,_, "": ,', .: ,_:. '.'~ ... _~

an:)"rthing' irnporrane 'to, the successive modernizations 0'£ dress to the t uel devel o;p' ~ ment of fashion I' 'f,'a·~'" the r' t:,hl\a····· n- '.' 'I"'t'~, S-·:~:I"I·'~' 'V,'-II·~· ~i .. ' "c- .'" O-"~ ,- - . ., w····',·\ ,.'. r7"h-~ 'J,-~,t-" £:II,I-':~" ,'-, I'" - ....

_ "" _ .., ~ ~_ _~ = __ .. ,\1,__, I ,~ .' .... 11; I~ __ rl_l. _ iDlli .. "". lu,n,Uam,en,

tal n,e\¥' things have ,tlt),cy' \~,o[n without copying :Ine:n~? One rhlng to notice first miaht 'be whether men have ever copied women ... and bD',----'a\~-;-,"'

- -, '""' ""''''''''''\~r''~'' -.- ~ -, . - . ,,-. , ,,,"" .. _,1 1,. __ . '.' _. c •• " -. --' r" .--- .. u ...... '.'-'.'- ~'-"tt. ' __ ~'~'_." _~.,rr .. we .. -

any compelling e1iIclct·, :&om specifically female " rappings.

One ife'-'IIU'-I'~i'n~'~,~ ··I'~I:n.'gi: 'm:·~·:·I'~I.~, theme d: 'I~dl': ,1'"p··"··,~:~.'r'·' in .... , the 'R,·.Q"n··~':·'. sance. in the

,\,,;; U, I' I' "cl. _, ., _ J. _ .~~. I", '''"'' ,,'Iii..o_. . a ,,"cd, , " ,_ ,. "_ ... , all~al!l,,-,e:, ,I" L ,,,",

'._ ,', 1 . . .. . -

d~c'o:Uelte necklines worn '\ofr a few; '1\Ire3'[S around m ~IOO bv eleeanr 'Y·"/Iolu'ng.·-/

~ -' .. 1 .,_,._._ , •. _"~~~,~,~_. 'j',' _., !..__.l_, "_"'_' ".~ 1_,,_ 11'--"-~ r '._ -- • __ J,_~ __ .__ ;:"'1._ ... _-', '[1 _"IJI_~~ Il..'! .• '_ [')'_ ·,_·· •.. _ •• '1 ~~_.:

men, ikel Diirer i'11 his self-portraits of .491,3 and JI4j~~t',-, lor 'by,,'! the male

I I , " • • , • ".)

subjects o:f Titian's and Giorgione's portraits during the same' period.

T;'h 1:"-: h " '"I .-. ..' ,",l '. II - . ~ f b d d

',. • J ' :. " I, - - "I, _. '. ' I' _' :.,. I' . ", .-' ( 'I '.-' -' " ,_. . ",.- '. . I I ' '. -', ", ,.' .' . '_. :' .. : ." h! . "I '.':' -,['. I -'.' .. , 1'- ..•. .~. ", ','.. ._ -....": I' :' _ 'J _,-: . I.'__ ", " ":11 .--",

. e II.S ion gives ,3, stliOl,n,g I ermmne cast even to ,lIIl_-,geS,Q ne: 1,[\._ C,.-, men,

S 5'

-','

[ii,.'

since an open neckline was al,- e·ad,~.· a basic feature ofwomen's clothes, lt ,~,I[SOI Is'u.,aesls ~a, certain vulnerability chait has ,lirtIe to do with. standard

'II lid '1 f h d hl r-" d [I €o'

male i~ __ eais 0(1 strcngt "_ [a_n,'~-, rutnlessness or 101"- ,3,'U,le'r-lty' all> aloofness. I

has "li marke -:d.·- passive erot -I~ijf'" 'fIl'l---- avor and -I W,I~~,d"'I.·. often do 'u'-b-,,~'~Ie"-'::l~' intended ... 0· .. ·,··

ail! d- ··~·.·a.I .. ". ' .. -_: d.iJiiJil.·, L ~,.,1L}.!'-'J~ ,'~' Gr~I :.,~ 1111 .. 1,·. _. ". I_I A .. ) , ......• '.~ I _:"':__"_. , ..•• ILJll l~~ .: ._.~ 'j U'~'~'J ~"'''::'__)

s:ugges'E' the sexual as \\IreU a's the sartorial modes '0' -'~,'n:tiq,u,ir:y~

In the late ,M'i,lddl'e' A~ges, women's necklines CO'l111d. be' lowered be-

I~

cause all Qiches {or both ~- exes, began 1[:0 be 'more cI,o:e~:'icting,i; an open

neck WD,[ud, no longer make the dr-ess :£aD ,ofl~ One' can see' '~,'"h,y men . . might also use the open neck 'lOi[' 3, time as an all'u~i-in'g device, to [givle' their clothes, a dle'iiC'3te :8avlor'lu,lt3'b;l~' for gentlemen e~n,la,s,e,d. :m, contemp,la"ti,ve or artistic pursuits, but also to ShlDW ,tltr fine neck muscles and handsome clavicles. Even .. among [the' 'toiugh Swiss mercenaries of the e',ar'~y' sixteenth century the low' open neckline appears as a g,ood, ~'bil; tOI exposed hairy legs I big padded codpi,elcl(! and vi':_-,o,m[us:J.y slashed sleeves, B,U,'t this 'vogd:e[ was 'very' shore-lived for men, [:~l Humanist fashion C'OIlnected with the revival of ancient learning and anei nt bodih plreoclc'll'pation [' brut UDSlu.:i.13.b),(!, .111. succeeding generations devoted [0 religious strife and the spread ofmodern empire,

Ii 1.1-1~·U" I," ,'h" \~i( has sornetim --I-C ~I,~o-::-:,··:~k'.~d,'-· Caln-- tinine '·'0·.;: u naccusromed f'Ji!-:-y, ·~.S--:.·.

l"'lJ,'!Lc .. "I!o..:I!! ,,_.' :rHJ ,d;;i]lII'!IiJ, , .• '-" '" , , .. :ilI1 Ji,~, · .. L... IlL _" .! - __ LJ~ !l,. "_'" d.L __ ~'''' ',_j ,",, __ . ~,_~ ",",. ''t

'(he IOrl,8 loose 'hair often worn by men was recurrently ald,oPi ted (S:o'111,e',-, times in [\r,,::-ig: Corm) as a. feature 10£ basic masculinity, Samson-style, not as C,', feminine touch, "! .oose, free 'hair was ill, fact rarely used ~b,y ",['r,',~I[O'fll!'-~rl

WI· [[[hi 10:-': [g. f' :'lIii'n'''I''Y'''';' elaboration :0,,:-;"[' :0' I,~'h"'e~'r head :._,d-'·~~~J~·'I\nIIO' elemen [·[-T t • The '}:O--IIU-I[(" -hi "'3: .I'i"

'_ ,/. I", !II, .~' '-'__ ._ Il.~ IIJ.:.__ .... _~" ,Ilk . .'.. ,._,.·1_. ': .iIi..~~1I! ." co ~.~ -, .-."-'~ ,,'!!, ,~""I.-,~ ~Ie' u ~~_,

of women W,_ s braided, knotted up, curled, up, and interwoven '~I,~~: 'ith

1'-" immines 0""',' r co .. ·'v,·(!·,jaid···.-~, du rina . "h····c·- hisro ."ry_.il .. n'f'~' the 'l~'l~ ··t> IO-"I[_ll.y ... rr-'b=-'I- ~ "'.,: 'irein

",I ,U".I.,1i .. 1Ii11IIi,t;,,", ....... I!o;,.:;o .. 1, ',._ ,I ~I_:::,~ I", '-, ",1 ~'~D ~'~'- i'"J ~I" ": ," '" v, - !Ii. , ,,-. 'W~"'lI .. ~J_U,,_:, ilk _I .. ..' . "i;J.1l. ' ...

d h ~" '111' ~ '1- d d '11 hai h

~al:ll. , ot ,I.e:f' vir'?;lns normat ',,',' 'wore COI11'I1II,e[£'e"y,'," unoresseo ,J,o~nu _ ._:J~-I_r' 'W C,'C'D

[~ (. r·:_. lD

~'L," 1..."1-' d d"

:[IJ.aJJ~,tl.o_n,au)y '. 'I)f:SSrf:'I.' up,

Loose .fem1.13me' hair was a'l\\ray" : I, s_p'~'c'ifi,ca]Jly sexual reference, the sign

f c,':, '. al 'I d al "'b'"']" d a sranda d-

,0 female emotional tooseness ann sensual s;u'scle:,ptl']'I_lty~ an a staonard

sexual .irn.\irm' ···.··,tiol,n:-Ma'rv "Mar-,' lalene wears i[i' This is ;5't1'U. the case in cur-

~ I .. __

rent fashion another si:gn of female reliance on ancient themes, Like fe-

. I· .'

male sexual de s ire , :1,Qolse' hair in I~h.e past was, a potent (e,l,lllle attribute

'!OJ .

'1:10·- r 0 rrec ~ IllJr' d i ~. ~:') ~Iy:," r. ed ~ '01"'-1 p--['U- -= ~~1 r: ~[. Bu .' '~-p-,~ e- iii"" table 'U" 1'0'1- m- " .. 3-," 'r- . ri ~d,· ,- '(1";[''11'''::-, - J[.] 'U-III1':' t,

, .,' '" "" . , "-" ""... ,I . . ~ .' iYi' . ..' ~ . ~ .)1 '. ,,_ ,lg,U!!k-'~, _ . __ !flo, ,!I!,''''''.I. _. __ . ,.,..llG, - _."'" . _" . . ." . . .. iI!,'\oo._. ;D[lidil!",t . '!!!I .~.'., 1 __ ;;;'!Ii.

:~'Ikle the Virgin ~:,>, ary~ wore loose' hair 'to suggest the power ofabsolute :Ce"1111Ie' ch,a:·:tityF Their desire 'W,3[S unawakened 'Ii,k,c that of children, and their Cl03.:k of hair '\. [,as ,3, ,pure g.i,£t, (minI ,: ····,od, ljke,}_h,e clorhiug of the

TH: WI'R'K, · .. ·.IF PAS,H'IO"I······ ...

field-lilies, ;3, kind olf' edenic surrogate tl,U,di"t)r~ Unswakcned desire in, 'a ,fu]I, .... grown girl is moreover uodissipared and, u'nald:u]C'eratcld, ,[ul'~, .... strength and [ea,dl};~ at, powerful a~'· .. er, Queen Elizaberh I 'WO'[-e loose hair 3,,[ her coronation along 1;vi,trh pounds 10£ J .wel and, brocade, to advertise her vi;~gin status 3:~~ 'p,al'rt 0':£ her power~, both sexual . nd temporal, Brides also

wore ·1~':·1~. ~v\,;,'~il'r'l po'."D'· ~fl1l'~; :n',: rs 'I;'n' p~rl'"'IC~'I~U' 'p;p.: .. : wear I" t, Resp ectable m ·3: tro •. · .• n~: ~I':; eh It'·.

1ji-",1 .' 'Lr.t ". II .' J~;[ lb- , ~ddl I .. ~ l l u ~ , .". ll..~" ¥''-'~. j - I .. ill. . .. ~~. ~.. d _ .' I~ 1 ~... .- ,IUI~';:' lil!ll~'liCt. 1 , .

e-· '-e"-"'n- . h i1i" -",jiCi , .. heir :p-=- ... o-..··r-- ... raits painted CI':-I tth ,·'b- eir 'L'"'III]~'r-~' d lo-:-:-w,';-:nl '110-- "'IiI d-··o-l-u'·b-11'p, ~e~' mi

I",.,~:..: ... , ""g"I~ "'"', 1_,iIi,II:",I.I~;-:-_~IL""· ~···,~L',I.\"", .. ,.~., " ,1',""," ,I];.a·· I':,"." .. '~nl!!li ii.1" ,p,.',:,: .. ,I,~,i!L.. ,(.'t,111 . ""'"

nine p,l,oy ':u,_~_"~s:ting both domestic c'ha',:rity and erotic potency at the same rime .. , ~ ',O:f most women ,ii WIS, necessary to have '),o,ng thick hair, S,O' :3: [IQI 'be seen '[Q have sexualitv, but to show it 'pl:u,blic:,),y., under verv strict

~1· ~ #

C on tl rol ji'

B' '.': J!"i'O" mtrast ]-0·"': ",'0'- ":,;Ai, hi air ~o·'· .. ,'['" m .' atu '~, m ipIi'D'- wa s ".: 'U'I ",,,: U' '·I3,'-;-'U-I.-:, iii, 3: pu '·bl-:-:··Jlj-"''''C··I:-·' ''''V,'' 'I~'r" ~:~ A '0: '1' 'r"'-

_ , ","",,::,,,-~,_ ,_~I!j,;':!i!' ..._;.'::' .. .::.:: . .:J.~ __ ..._;_'-' ft_·j. = _a.I!I.;,.:_Il'~ .,-_~_I,,_ ''"11'',_::'" ".~~I. __ =. _ .".":::'_I.-,,-,_. ,' . .::.' '_. _--,-.u~ ' .. .::~.',-"

. l) . L

n .... menu akin 'to the displ .. :Y' of muscle and stature, (I, :S,i~l of sexual force

in action. '1:,£ olnJy 'looks ,Ce:minille when ;i,~, :6'[:5't becomes modish, afj~::~:['" an

exeen de :d,'l, shorr-h '::; ired per "1;·'~d:· , '1""1], .-" m .• -.-.' .. le fash 1'1'" 0'-:0': I".. . 'hen long ~ air g'" re ···t·\~' 'tl .he

~, • ~ •• 1 JLI .... _ ~ ~ .. l IILr ~ .El'li-r. .. ' .. ' .. _ ~l~._ =! ~::I 11._.. L~~ l I •• ~ _ I ~._ I 1 II .. _ . 1~lg .,._. '.'~ ... l!}_.~

l~J, t" . .~ J

immediate disappro oval of co ,.':iJ1I;~'A~'r'I'''I~''V'''.~' 0,'; ::b··-.-···s···· e "'[,:- ~lr'A,~r' w 'l": 'h"-· 0": s '1:~'I1' " ..... ssoc "I,· ate 'I~ 'r'

__..:~,~~ __ .l__..:~I. _ __..:>Q11!L~ '.~-Jl~ilF ~.' _ .. ~.·.I._~ • ...:..:_ . ..__:. ~ •. ~ .. ,Il.,~_3.~,~ Y.I~I!~, l_. ~ • ...:_. _. _:_'.j . 'v.~~ ~I ,_ .. _' ~ .. __:_. r!...:...,_ I~ la~ ,I .... _ _.I, ·1I,'!lP.j __ .~",~)L,

I'·' Ii" 5:'0'" 'I'n" 'I'e"'," 'D~; f "'h-·,·· e 6' '~rl·"e,~iIi,-!",w·. ",': '1;':"0;'1' g" '~·'I;·' n g' '~' 1,0':', ose h a t'·; r ~ f m ',' iod e~:._.:: f' 'n 'I ·W"·· ~ '. "0'>01'1' en r a~"" n ~~~r~'n'l

. .,llkilil .-. -.,. ,., ,". " ... , 1".1, .. iP ." .... Lr :ill ,_. ,~ .. ~.H.. ..··l I[ .. , .- ... ~~... I~ ., ~.. Il , .. '-4 ... ·.'r ,1·, '_ .~J". - I.IIIIIII! ••••• '[1 ~_ ~ l· 'II.J '~iL71 u .

... :.,.' :._.

co un 'I' as, another 'mallie: borrowing in these :=nti'lg'hllened times, just: like their VA", verv short h .... ,i[··,'r·U·,.,~, '~io, c an "O-O"'W" b "e" O· ···D·e···· 'W" . "iii1'Y- 1"0' " .. h'· tow p' 'U""[",'oiiiJ!; sex

'i'_, '-i,ll', '~~, ]":"'."_ ,I,i 'o'li',I,:::,',_,:, QII ~;._,I~I~, ,I. ~ I.~;_, ".'~,"". _=.: c-:: :": ,:_:-", /,a~, 1,,1' '~I_, ',1'1,.",' :1 :L,: ',~' ~ii~_'_,_,-

ual strength without a d_m'IJtting: any mytholegieal feminine weaknesses, Clever decolletage, on the other hand can, 'be' counted as a, t'r~uly serious and 'r'Lo1.:po-;u:'-I"g,-h,·'I'y'·.,·,/ female contrjb oution ' .. o fashion -, I"'~ in clud es 0,-'0'::.,

I _ . 1~!i3 ._iI. ._.. 1~.I~I. _ ,lin "_. _. . ._. ~L ~_~__ ~. "_. ~~'![ , __ .. __ !l... "_. L._ I~~ ,,~I-b _. ~__!!'!! 'l~~~" .. ~._._'. __ I. __ ~ ~~ "_. "

I. .

only rhe neckline, :£1-0:0'1: and back, 'but the line at ~! ... ~ ch sleeves art: cut to

e XP-"I' ose ·1-·"h,I' Ie" '~'~",~O~IS;" ··0···· ·.'r~ ~"D·.I·":y'.·' ·P·:~I.'" "'rt" :0:':1£',· the arm and should JPJ'r"', Even 'h,-""i~I,,~11Iv'·':7 ·t· hl'~' f ~! .....

"'''''_,1,.- . ~'" '".,,_' .. ·~'I!W,I",iIi"I>.!!,I!j" ",." a"", ... , '_:,''''_ .'" ....• ,"' .. ' ._.11.', _l.l' .... "'."Ii , ..... , , ... ""'" 'I! •. -,,",,,,."""u._,IL',~i '._' ,"'" , ,I

nal modernization in this 'vein W~UJ, the irreversible shortenine ofthe skirt

. ,. . - .. ... ... . .." .. '.' .,. . . -, .... .. . . " ., . ~ ._. . .. "-' "- . '-' '-' . . .. _. ." - . '- '-", g. . .. - '.' . , ' . ._.

"I·"r$.,~:II-) in this cent urv a DI .. ' ~I" perfo .• srm " . e ~:d·~·' I~ 'nil se 'V~'.f-~,'I· ~"t··c ... 'g':'" es. J~"U ·5:'" '·I-'I~,~e··., ,;rh'l p~ e ar-

, I"'''''''''", _ "" I"IJ'I, ~ ~'" 1c.I,,_., ,J'~ _, ""~!Ii.. . I,~lt ,ii, n .,' , ".". "'"'" g. iOi" __ .. ;Ji~1 ,~,' . !I., ,A It: , .""'."'1iJ,

'~'~~'r' l.ol',lln·I~S· .. 1~'x)·"'pl~"or,.·S'·.lji:'n," g"'~' ',:'h-:',jQ), lIi~\tlp·filp·I,>e··. ·'r·· 'b':Oi,,':d'~'-1IJ" .1, 'on' ~'h"I"""'I;, ',v,,'· ... ·.al~.n·.·· .. , ',:':-h'IQ! '1-'"1il~:e.··:.·J .m: ':o,.·d:~-.e'r.:.n' ~~.m,'jOfile.·,_

,n ~, . ,1Iii..-I. """', ',,'" .. '.. '1..,,, ,,,-, 'LI" .'., . ..' . I .. " I" d .. ""' , , '!Iii !L " !Iii..; , !ij;'l\11.. . _ II!.- ." .' ... ,," I,lL,,,,, 41. ,

'move b~~s 'be'f:':n c'he 'b,a1r'inig: lor"r'b.e midlri,tT~a, new' op'rlo1n,;) not ,3 :necle,si:,:'~~

ICUh[!i.ID~usly' ern,OiUg'h" 'rh,e n1051£ extreme sho:rte:nmng of <'kirts has se,el~n,e'd 'COl bri'D,g wome:n"s clo'E'hin:1 full Ci'Jc]leo:n,c'f .again" b,a ~';'n't'ol th,e sp'here' 0'( ~nl.e:n,., T'b,e 've:ry~1 'vlery sh:orl 's:kirt ap:pea:re,d in, the '111900"5 jus't 13,1'. t'Il,1! time' 't"h.a,'I: 'pa,n.'[s, bec;~~~mle' ge,n,eraII'y univ'er-saJ £0:[ 'w'o:mJen,;, ,I'Rd, t'hle 'min~iskjirt .. _':p~

P" eared belatedly [.0 echo the scandalous exposure of male' Ieas in the ' ate

~. . D~

M~'d'd"'](lp "gP ano he' male bo rowing £':1_ m the b"'e"g~n'"nl~'ln'g ofmoder

... ,iI,~,~~"I~ /- .',"::J~:o,~a.' ,~I,' ~ "J,f' ~,)_II_;' oorrowms tro'll, I" r _~.)~,,- ::~, ',II~' ,- lIJ,',.:': ~II >. C'-I,~'["""

1,.1 1_:'" . t.,',

:I~ily in, :f3JlhiD.n>~ Girls acquired ,I, 'pa" ,-'boy' ],QIOlk", with endless legs in

brig ... ·/h,~, '1"1"'-'1"1 ·t-'~ descendi D"g" '/ b se ,110", ,,"W,,:,: '.1/ tiny '1-'I~t''''lle'' tu I 'HI , iillr'!':'

tI,. -,_, .,- I~~ 'll .... ~J ... ·~)~!Ii:I!I .. .::liP-l . I" __ [Ill' :.", ~'_"" .. 1·.···· .. ·~.·.~I ~._._ 1··./ I:_: "l_ .. IO"<:-1 '"~·_,JlJII.I~ Ji!!!

• _.. . .' .-..:.__:_.' • I

Interesting exposure above the waist, however, W3'S, the most impor-

ta'n,1 female I'n'ml"a,ti'f: in fashion b,::'f centuries; and male :'>.s,hi,on has flarely imitated :i,t,; :for neck or arms 0;[" n1idI,itf[~ 'I,"",oder'n men' short-sleeved formal shirts, ,often, forbidden in~ strictly correct circumstances, have their disturbing fiavor partly because they were really borrowed from

'l:IJ ~:o,,; m 'e"ln, " t"'~',r wh .. ~. ID,-Im- i arm n e ." x .p ..... 'O'~:~U' re ,.', '-I~'~ '~:. pee -1": ble, M:',: e ~'n" . :h-; ,o!!lJij"V, ::e,·· ,: '10".·' .IW:1 ", iAlI

'''''" ,"" I. "'. ,,11..1, J.II:.,., , ,") , '"' ,ii1... " ". ,,""_'~' '", ,ii'-' ,L'~', __ ..... 1, ,.,1'.1 .. ", L.' , "a..,. ".'", ~u.

themselves to £a'-, their shirts ,Drff: lor to roll 'U,P the sleeves and u nbutt DID,

the collar, in negligent 10[' h .. ,3'rt)',modes,; bUI they ha:ve' not been moved

h kl ,- II] h ki 0;

to cut lope.o. tne nee '.' 11111,e or 'CD,[ rile' sseeves sn asto expose tne skin mm-

tere __ ,lin:g' ways. ~] .... or did they ever Id,D so 'witb costs ,go',wns. and doublets, all. during fashion's ,lo,ng' hl'St,o'ry~, Even very s~110[t shorts for men, z~llonl 1;'!I,:f~'Ir''i, skin-exposin :-;:g::-' undershirts, both qu '~iI',P' re ~::e·· ·''In-··'I":I",:y',,',: ado .. ,:'p'~.''':pd- _ are ~1"O·.,

'l!Wr,I,~ILII ~ .'" .. , ,-,',ft",-. ,ri]i,I, ... , .. _," ,_,,,", ','" ,"1J!". · .. "iLi~,,!I!, ".,I,_:iIi.'!L!!!J,,;. ll,I ... !!!I.,;. , •• 10,",' . '. __ .. ~lLllL.;." " ",,~, ~11il!_:

s'li,gb:I'),y di~rurblin.g' as :p'u,b'li,c male garments for ci,qr. \ve'3:r ':1 believe be-

cause they' also have dared [:0 borrow the modern female rule for o rdinarv expois'ure~ In ali,tiq:ui,l~ 10,( course it went the other Yi3Y': men were bare and women covered,

Skirts those ,gm::ear tradirional garments, also count as an, original and 'P~'Ltrem'y· •. ···· :£em3llle element, when thev h,an'~ from the '\\rla:i's,t.~~~,:in,c'e their be-

, " ;# D

gin nin gs in, the sixteenth century tJh,)'t have never been borrowed ~',O,f'

normal male dress. The kil'£:, .. the male garment that looks most like a, skirt, is in filet: a survival &aIm the ancient I;~I,II:-Y< of general masculine drapery even, '(Olf W'3f: .. , All, the :intel'le,siing' female headgear developed from the veil into '[DiD 13_ud, ~s:litIe,n'ed, hoods 10'£ remarkable kinds W_I ano the r' female mvenrion, md it Willi never imitated 'by' men at all, Ifschol .... , ,lj:[i'!f" '~I';n' .'. d old 'm- -1-'-'-"- ·.-:-··0;-1 rnetimes ·W'·· :n~~ ,c~ ·m--'''1I Je ... lo .. ,. okin '. ,a fine ···d····' ,r'a'~ 'p' -;-',,,;:, '1"'0' ," k '-:-:p ;;:lIip,~ I O .. i .... ',U: 't"

,g: ;;, I~, '_ ~_".I".:.., ,,_,"~:-,--, ,.,:....,:_;~_,_. ',"_!ill!1 ,_,'_,V,I;I~ JLL,·,c'iCl_l, .... ,I,~·,.,".-"J!-''",bl ,.IJlIll,.J,,),~,J '"", "",'''' "il" .~'!Ii..,, _ __:""~'"

the cold, they wore honoeable male hats on tOipl of them when they went 0IU,t,~ Male h,ootl-s, and cowls '\vere either clerical, like gOIW,bS,~ 0'[ an 'u,',-{a":h'~'DI~na,'ble plebeian :P' ro te ctio n lalgain:,'t weather. N'orw we see them 0'0, sweatshirts and parkas,

G'el,ole:ra:1 progress in ·,-:'u·r,~.:I.'y female modernization wall sllo,~:. Alr-though the neckllne 'began, exposing the chest qeite leariy, the s:h orten in,g: of the sleeve WII-: not accomplished until the seve I,~I,- eenth century; w'h, n the ,[or,c',arl ,I·.', WIl811.,:"'I,u'tl,DUSJy' 'bared, '£Olf the firsl£ Imrmle .. Arms were erveDtu~'D,y

It - l:

']'-'f! " ,',

him ] l'~-,~ ... -..::1' ' ". til, D1,10'

, ',r,ain behinc 1 ,d'- ~I.",

J • ~.

11_ r

h if"

- ""'

__ re ~, De __ "

Ii '

t _I, .... , , ] he

",-;',

~ .. ~ ...

~

ion

,- '~"~'~h n ; '1'1: .

~I _ _ II..~ _ J ,I _

r s more

D,··

~ 'rl ., ··'U' n' ...

_til, '.' __ II

r bla c r~ h,· t~,

T- H~ - 'E" W·'· ',,: ,"1 ().' K·· t-I ,C

~ ," '. I I~ ',_. ",' ',.I "', ~.> ' .. ' ... 1 ,r.

.Ii ~ '-H' c- II ' "Ii; .... 1Il ~]!I .. -:-:., ,'- ',~J' , : -t ::

exposed to the le·J.bow'--clloea 'b'y' ~fu:rt~h,_r' e'.x_pOS'Ufi! 'U'p above, as the

011 eckline ~:I!')"'-'~ hueelv wi dened and bare sho •• ulders rose "0'- -p- out of it In I

"",,,,",_ . .iIi~,1,,,,, ,r:,_~ 1:1--l!1 _. __ ,",,~ __ u ~_, !C.II!-''''' i:1i_,_.-_--.!I_-_~"" .. ~_---""'~._-;- _~--",_-, lil,_~ I~",

fashion at that moment around '16601,.;. the naked feminine wrist and I~olft £or·earID, .. so suggestive 0:£ ID,O,fe' smooth softness inside rhe clothes, had fi'n~aI'l~y made ;3. clear link with the naked chest and shoulders; :1.1 was an .... other c',),ectrm:6y.illg: aJl:lld, irreversible move,

The impulse continued toward extreme exposure 'fOif [he whole up:pe~'r body, accompanied 'by even more extreme 1l,'p'h,o:ls'I'ery and drapery for the lower half The idea culminared in Ellie fashionable evenina d'i1!S'SeS of the later nineteenth centurv; when the whole arm '\1l3'S, ex-

._[' -" -.- - _c ."""" __ ~_. . c[' "_c_._."_ --'" ,.-."'" -~ ._c&_._l ~.1·i.1 _ -I -"" .- - - """"-- ""- -~ = - -- ~ '""'

po .. ised along l"~Il~it-·-~~ most 10=::'£-:'·: the chesr ba .r'·k-I~ and sho . ders a .. m ·d~:. ~,LI' ',iPJ 5·····1· eeves

. "_ t3~U __ . 1. ... ",rll" I_~~l 'I'_~' ._" ~._ _ ._" lll!!~ ._.~ __ ~ __ lllIL._. _I~,I. . __ ~. _.'1 " __ . I .•.. _ ',11IL~J ."_'~, ~~

{ . '_

O';"~' the ~ve'n':~"ng: Idr-css became vc::-,ti:gial~, 'The rib-c3.g:c a'nld, w~aj5;tli:nc' were strictly compressed while the elaborate skirt took on ever more' shape,

sco •. :p-:e-~-' "n·· I :-I~:-' dens il ~

,i;1I;!!I..; , .. '._-' '.- -i1IiIJ.iIi>l·.

The woman was thus even more emphatically divided into top and bottom. The' fashion went to .f~.I].al. extremes in the mid-twentiethcentury revival, when the sleeve 'was, w'h,QI,lly discarded and the strapless dress invented, with ,3 tip'~lt, ,c]rl'ry,:sali. encasine the ribs, and bust above a

.." '- ., ,. iJI,,, ..•.. '~I .. ., r , . ·~tILI,.. ." . ::( , .. , ,. ~ d • - n 'e .,' -. " , . " .. ,... "... , . ,.

S-;W···- ·'~,e·n;'n-··'g-' .01 ··"r·' ·[I,lUI·:':·OI gi ·111'(1 skirt - 'I'I -'h-II .;j:Iii, ar m 11;". '0· 11~'1J,~:!,' ,&.u~· 'I ~I·l-·Iy. ·,1 exposed "'0." 'I~ n- "·c,·--:-:·I-u.· d '·-·e·.··: '11--'--·' o " .

. ,'",~. ,r,l, . :,~-j, .. ~ t. .,':~' ~ .,,~"., 11:,.." ".!I!Io.:c ,0 I .. ~ , ,,'-"'r'~ :1'1,_" ','/ '!!i...",,", , ... , ,.i'." " . , .. , .. ',' , .... ,,_ .. ,.~' ,!L.

'0, '0' 'l-y,: t :0-1' ~ ked b '"'Ii,~;oo~k·'.' c ,: I~ 11 est '~I n .d:~,-I ~ h " "'U~ '-l,d',-I. ers b~ -:'U' ~' al so •...• n ql ked :"'1 rmpits - -'I h·- -1- e .. ,

c_- ,_ .- .::.' , _dlfi... ..., _,ii,,,"",. , . ,. ,""" i.J ~ ~"Ii.·._ , ;;,J, !!Ii.)!. _" ,e: ." I , .. _ '!Ilr. l.i,J . .iIi, .41i"fij;.1II;." . _ GI ,,'. ._:-- , -~.. .,' . - .

theme '0.( nearlv nude eop and verv shrouded bottom rel.11al.II,51 IC'OIJ.1:1:-

~ . ~

nelline ,'~r_1 ··h- .- .. , :c.·c_- .' .. , .," ..... - ',.': _ ... _-_,_--)-l] and r·:'-~ ,if!':., .• : .. ,._- .. ' ... "fill·-'b··'I~'·- '~:I···"·- '-··1·-:·······-··': .. " ..... -' .. : ~!h~··,···:·· - th .~ .

. pe~-]n.-g 10, I, I,e present ~vor.U 3111.._, it seems S,U,"ltalj"e tor moments w., en l~ ie

histori ca -] .-3-:·- nd ro ma -1111·[~!r'" "lJ,~ III ~~.~ of :---\. ··~O;-,·~I~'-n-tl b "'II',:, ',1'1': cense to ·p--'iIf~-V,·- -,'a-:-II"") at [-. he ·b:-:.~I.I:·I

"_' ;']1. ... '. 1~_JLr-l.-_. _ ... I ~'. _. ' __ ".'~ •• _. " JI.~ -"' .. ~l W _ . -I •• '_' ',_ .!lLI ~, ~... . g~ I .~ '_,'. ~ ._', ~. I~~' ',' __ •••• ' , __ .-._"' .-. '''''~ ~ .• ,

or the .... wedd '1"·n.'ItJ'- "'II 'in_--· d ':1 ofie . n on the :·····~,u'~ or screen,

'!!i.JI' , _. ,. ~ _ . _ . _ _ r, ,ie) Uill , - - ,11. - , .. - - . , - .. c - Jll.g,iC)~ U ,iJi .... c L-; "",","I •

1'[:1' cor responds ''''O~I' IQr-:-n;;E1;. very .a·Il--·~C'·'-~-'I·~O-,·iIIU' mvth about women the same

.. ' ~,.~.~, ... ".;;:Ii ..... '" .,.lIS !L,,__ .. /' .. ,,",,_,~," _,. IIIJ.;"".' , .1:1" .. : :.'.c _-_.;:" ... 1.,,' 1Ii. ... ,:). "<: ... _-_'_ '_'~·eo -I._.,--~-:t. ~'- ,",J '_=_ .,I'\,.;.

.O .. ·IID:,le- .... hat O'~'I:,-,:e:- '-r-::';I. ··e.···~· to 'i[-_"h,i e im jiJrl'g_ e of the mer maid rhe perniciously f_1"I\.J~.d,~ ed

.. ,,, L,.'" t'-tl,,1 " ,.I ''''".~ ,ill" ,d, __ , ..... III;.,.. ,III,L" .. " ,ill, liiILiII"" "",, .. , _ ". _1!'-',ilY:iJiI',1 I\. ill" J.,"~

"'~'-'i--'--- :-. 'I,· -. :~-:-. ,.:-::.-,--:- c--'--;'· -'·'-·1:--: --:_-- --li'!ii·~· -1-:-"'-·-·-· 'i c--: -., .:~ ·-r-:-,'h·,-' -- .. :~~::~I ·~-'--·I·d,__" ··b~··~-'h·-·I· .-.- ,.-:- l·;-,··d·,~··: .-. . ,:c:; .. ,~::-:- .. ]'-:_-,:--:. ·d}---::::,'-_--r--'-'I'::-::' i-c'h:--:- - -.~ :~.~

crDa ... C mo,ns,r.,erll a, cre·a.lu,re In tCrlte,,_, ,_ ')1 C ,,,,,e Ig,O-J on..,y_~_~o\\,.n, [0 t,1, .. e glr,,,,,,

d- Ie. I" -: ·e-··' 1 '.' 'O",'li-·C··::·e-·' iia·IF1i·d-': ,C~'C··: 'e-· ~~'~r-" h·-·o·····Ii."'·O"·_-··n·nIi a· i1f.,.·d: 'h- ·~I'ii'r' ·h- B:r" ne-·r-·k"" ":lIlif'}-·d·lrl- 'ilil'~ ,,"li'fP a-)11

'c - 1,"4;..:i I, I 'c ",I .. " 1.},lc ": 1..1.., ~I .[ U ,I c'- ,-) ,~, J;,i\;.I. . I" Jii. <'II. I,.!I.- - ~ .. ~'. ~ 1 ,I.d-,ll" , ,1111;,...:" . I" \,..... i£:1idli, I , -" ,-,I. '., ,~iJ 0 .. 1- 1"",.-- .

entran.ci·ng;1", loffi~rin·ll" 0:0'1.""" '\1\ihat: I'S 'b~Jnj:'m a·nl,O·n··1\" th.:~ 'p-l~leas~ur,Ji~ .a.fFord,rdl

__ ". _., '-" __ .. ' .. t- --, if: "' ,'I.:Jj _ .-.-'lI' . ,,'1. '._ •. e _ . ~J' .... ,. _ ""g ,e __ ~~ f. _ .. _~ _

. ,c iii D .

~b:f!U" ~'·:I;~,o'~··:m--- :e· ·-'0-; --. ')11 t,_.'-h;,~,t· '~!·U'PiapS"!i ·t_.-h ~ '0'· ·'n· ·rp;~r\:rr:e· ···dl c· - tl·:e·· ··n-;Idr -:'[,1 9i'n--· ·d~~ ·p.Jhr- 'yl··,-511~·r"~1~11Iy\... d·' :C··~'~l~ '''-

.c_-I· ''I-'' ... -""'' .. -'"'!!Ii .. ---'- ,._,iI __ ,;;J\ __ ~~ .. !Ii., .. ,,~ .-.J.!!!i..~'~ .... --'ili .. _,,,c._j· .. _" u·,l·._ ~ .. _-." . .-'_.' -i\o.gc~JIi.--'._-.~-,

. --~"I - .... - 'I -. 'II ... . .... .... . if· ' r· - ~ ... -~- .. '- I l~- .. -~ .. :- -:- -. Iii'.~·,- cC-· " ,. ~ 1- ··~i -.., - .' (- ... .... --<- -c= -, ~',-", .. 1='1' I-~-"I I . 'h·: ...-'" ,~, ,t.~ . (,c- "fl' .

C.lto. _5 jllove' o. .n"]·otllc·.n, eve,~.]. ~ , .IC· ],teemns [01 ,p.rOllrDSC'· t~le .rou,g 1.1_ s llle 0,

.-a~' Ldl~~'I['IIII~'lt-' :s~·~~·~~· 1-· 'h~··;jZii u·· ·nJ'p-I-:e·· ··;r h~-=-'-II'llf; ~ ·0··'·· ~I ·\:~~IO;l'lm-~"_)i.··I-l .0···.· 'f!~:r-e' '·b.,::o(,·,th-·· 'k·(.:e· ... .'A,·~ 'p-I-.:'~I~,"iC'U-I· ·r~' .. ~ 'I~ ,d:- :"11

iii! _ c_ ~-_c~ ,_, ,,,",,A-,I!' " - ,,",,, ._-_ .'-~,--, -_~~ '--" " __ ~ .. _- "'" tf,Ii, I"'." "" - _"'_ .. _- ,~:I:~" Ol! . '. _ - ._" ,_ ,. - '\.---:- 1II,_i " ,~,~ ~~ _",,~. '. __ - l,iII~-_" "',

:~-o:r£ O'f i lI'u'sion ,of ~wee't. safet~~·.· r'i' ·b·u·[ 'it~ 'is a. trd!p··'T:~ 'Below~ 'u,:n,d,er t'he :fo·a.nl,~ th.'eJ

- • - • - • _, _-._-. - • - c , S - ._ ._- .~- _- ~ . -. .' 1Ii!. - - .~" _- . ~ . ~-_,~' - _ . - - ,J .... . ._-. _- ._ - _ ._- ~ u·-·- -._

. =

swir:li'ng.··'" wav'cs o·f IO'le~"~ 5'-irt. 'he'r' 'hjld"dc'nl bod.y':) re'p.el5,. '161 sh.J',.p.:·e·lill.ess

.. - I. I! __ .!l. ,.:..;; ~ t! __ - __ - ~_ __ ••• !lll -- ~ .l! ~~-- ~ -- - - ~ -- - -- ~ --['_" '1 ~.- ~~ .. -: _ --

31[.IJ),ed j-n. :sc_l)~ 'lie'Eu.sa]';1 itsl oCle:,a('li:~ ~'nte'r'ilo:r' sti,'nkil':'~< olf 'u.n.c]e'll'[~I'rle~l.'i

II~ ·is, realm-y· R,O 'wo:n,der' t:h~-!t ,·:c.011,le'n, 'set!klinJ~: a d;efi.niti,ve cnsl.u~m,e· in, 'lv'h~~, e h" mo, Ie mlJalct 'th"e i,:r' dJftflll.1i:rlve e Y·t:a,'pe' 'I ~ro.-I],1 s· UIC}], Illy t:h ol,DID" s 11,01 uJ d.

cho "0-"5-"-"1 trousers. A '[11'-1'" 'Ce' ''-U' lla:cr- _"~ C;j;I'mai- ,:,'-~, '~Mgs,' ", .".' : iI" 'm"ul ,~I''' h 3" V:-, A e ;iil;t,ilOlii'm~-~ ..a~1 'nl:o-~-

,_' ,I I" ,' .... ,)",,1_, ,", ''''''' ",' ,_,', __ ,'= .. _iiiP".=' _ ,~_, " . I' I· l~ L, Il~l"' Ir. I._il, : __ :._~_3.1 .... ,., ,_.' ~ a~_"~_"_'1 ~_,,1I_- ., ., .

_ 0=1' _ _ !!!I! , ..• , ___:.'._~ • ~ •• '~-. "_) '_______:__, ~~_~ •• _. '~'.~ .=-_. ._ ",_, __ _ __ _ = _

doubt 'unc'o:ns,c,i,o'usJy~ Si'RC'C' the o'rigina{1 ;I'rpme:nttl wl-'re' aD about convenience ~I 'ID-~,c,::,e,~~'':1iI'"' move in I-._,'bl-'e,'~" th tea er of sexual pohtics. Demon "s,t"i~I,'tl_,

.I,I':~ I,"",:: G, I _,,,,",, ,_"i;li~ __ ,'1' __ -' ' ,, ', _ '_ ,~ __ ,_,_-, '_' _ "_ ~~,_ lU "" v __ ~, __ .'t. - ,, __ '-- "" _ _jl,,,.!I,;

jr;o:--,-- women's :[011 humanitv was essential; and, that meant S'h,DW,i'D,g' Eh):E IE'he'y had bodies not UI 'ike men's, in " u='I1~y' p~l~r-ti'eul. rs. 170 S:hIDW rhi_l,r' women have o:n:linarry 'wo,:rking 1:=-8$" jusr :Iike' men (no'e ( .x'qtl'il's:ir.e' ,D13C:hio.'e5

'(o];{[ dan r:"1~IJ"iiU and a crobaei :t"'"1~" :1;-·' shine 'IU, nd er rin 's.,p!~'D"y"" 'C;ro'-"··':'~';'h-',, '"1,0, -:iI'" ~.e:d, ':~U' c rive

11_ " ' ,~iI!,Ii'D , ,' A~-_, .g_--~-~", "" ..... iJ!. __ ._. ~ ._ , "'"' - IIIIo_Li, ,,,,",,_,_, IJ_-,-",f. .l1, __ LiI~ ~~---~----,-""

members like nether arms that entice o:oly [01 clasp ane 'stl"an.,gIe,),1o W3f': ::~I'sQ Ci, '.: show' I_mat they have olrmnary' working muscles 13D"d. ten ~ _:05", as weD as

,;.;\p::I- iQii;@.0.· '~ .... 0· :d: ~ " ''::''1'1,-_~ I;, ':- 'U' I 'O:I"~ 'iJ:::" [n' I', .d,'-' ~I"!:O> - i- achs - and 1- l~y,,/, ~7X,· '''I'! 'n'~· ,.'. :O.~'·" II" b rai ,n I: Ci •

i~, 'L ~,,",",_- ~ ,,_,,_ ,u,~._" ,,'" 0"'" , -," . 1Ii.li'!L".- ,_R'-".", ~'" g . - u., ~. ':',,",,,, ., ',-, ".11' '" ,g , .. ,!Jill!

S-

.

'ICH", G:R'E,A'T' ntvt o r

sented male elegance '{ol:r thre centuries .. ,.r-':eIDow' such ,3, coat, elegarn,t:

m' nen ~,till·~,i'~·1 W"I,',"iD,r~-""::: b'I~(__:'C,"--';h~"I~'1 'W";"'i'I~,tl h stockines. not trousers: b .. ut breeches

)'''~'.''-' a ... _., .. I~!' ",IJ.~._", ~j,"~~ .1_",',' I ..... M. '._, I '.'~.'_" .. _~' ... /liii'I, .. , "."'" .- .•. !._~~,.I.~~

stopped 'being' laced to ehe Id,Olu,b'~et, los':' aD their padding, and became 10\\1"-',II'un:l.. loose' and sofi. A buttoned waistcoat ap reared behind the

Q;::;.:: ','","0'11'"'1'010' .0,(11;£" che ~:O:",,~I~:, ~:I,.I''';'i'·b:-;·'I'''~'·h::-1 was ·n·'·IQr,'W,,", ;;?' 'I,p:~' 'p·.::-t ,'I~I'~:I"",,!, or .~-~I."'O'~~·,a,' ·,t,,"h··'-·,~·r~ open ."15

. , --,' - -- 'liCI' " .. ,,,'lii.; """ -- Qi,L'I' "'~" - ,1ii..; , ''W~ .,il! '''"', -- ~ I,,,",,l·t,. L'--" ,- ',' ." ac~ L 'Ir:!" ' "",,",." - ._:: """~"" a_

part of the ltie,s'ira,b',le Ba'rO,i,',U'C' elfect~ The three-piece SIUI·t W,IS, born,

Sofi shirt collars and ,cu~f.fs replaced 's,tiff ru,trs;; and for the 'fi ~,·,":t time some kind ef cravar went around the neck, The CID3£:,-',I,:I'I31i.ltcIDI3.t-and,,pants-with-shirt-and-tie scheme that ,II' ,DIOIVif :loDs~ly 1C.3[~, 13, "suit" began the :e'~I""I·[:I'·y,(,~'~Ci!i'ilpe--· ~O,:,~'r'" 'I~"I'I~, long l'I=':l"' ...... _ 'I' QW·';>II~"n···'.t'" ·:O~:: propose that the definine ele-

. .,~ ., I ',I~D ,. " .. " . ,.;iiI . '., ' .•. : :J :m,I~... ,I, , '., d " 1;.. I, .... ~, .. ' ~~" ' .... ,I. ~.~~ I. . " ,., ... ,11 '~,e"" 1=.

m- - ·u--' t '£'.0:- '-r m- --', od -rD- -"'I~lty" 'W' I a' C!' n-- 0--1", th __ ~ 11-"- s- ~ 0-' ,f" __: o-"n~-- fabri or ~'~II·:h·'·· 0-' u- -'g'---h' rh ;;!Il·t' ow' _. ;i]ol~

~~ _~,~~I '._1 I-I~_:·:~- ~'.~-~:"~~""'~:'~:~:~~=' I'.~>.'/' ···.,'·Il.·.<.:~if. ~'I~· .. ~I_.' ._': l'~: "_: !.~_~~ : ... '~ ... ::~ :~I.;., .l._. Ilg, I~~J:.) '~jl -UJliL:1 .. ".: .. :' .. _ .11.: ,: 1;, ,", .ld.. '.~' .. ~. ~

.~. .._ .

£ "'J'I yl "

I. )

"C L, d ~'1111 d'~:tr:' t: 'h ~ ~'f' h '11

rtcs trom t',1 f p'a~ntsl,tl nr sti I I J'l[~~e:ren t trom tne ',,~'a!'~ stcID,a,t; 'I" t _~,ey' were 13 •.

the : arne, the' costume was caJl,e'd "3, suit ofdatoes,"

These C~','[)Y developmenc coim ided 'with, a, new upper-clas .. '~.n le ~I = -~- . ~ - 11- ok -,- th '. e-' - easily [1111·- d 1'"'0' ·!t!'it' - .i:'!Wi,dl-~ 0";" rneti -"'U'1IAuj!j<'I"y' trussed U"IP .... nd

IUlt!S:lre 111.'10 IO~lf .... [''3: ~I'>-:r L.d~:"~-~!J,3:~ - ",'~ed:~I-' I ~".lJlI~'j(IC:'1 '0 -I'~, ,\ - -11~3 .J',I anc

", . ~ . -_ . .", .••.• ,. • - I.·', . iii .. 10.. • '.: ••• ',.. t '~~.' . '. .l ~l. . , ,.,. • .•. ," • - • • _- •. • . •• 'I':':" I -.. '. I .• .. . - " - .~ I' :I...l.

ISIIIQwed, ,a~\\a:y', , __ S g,e~,n,'I~],enllen in armor-like double had done for so long. T:he)~ ,1(:'.0 ,gatv'e' t' "f' 6'f~:t suggestions, exp I ssed in the casual sty'le~1 of '3 I haneed milita ideal land IOC the' endunnz conception th'~-f men's

c, . "se - '"'- ,-- _. ---"----- .... L,._ .. '""-. --= .---- "'"'-'""'tD' . ~'""' . -- .. -' -~ ... = -.~ -~ _ ..

clothes are honest, comfortable and utilitarian .. , whereas women's are' difficult, deceptive 1-I'Dld, ,fOOI,I'is,'h,~

Both, sexes 'we're nevertheless wearing hieh heels all the time, o:ft1e'n embellished with large rosettes; mOld, ~.5 the seventeenth century went through IICS second half the nearly u'nivc'r!Hl), male 'use 0'(' 'vtrigs kept '111en.'-s .•.. lethes thoroughly committed to a 1511,0,:::' ofartitice, Long hair had a temporary vO,guJ_ 'fo'r men during the ,"rs,t 'half '.1;:( the century; as 'it had often done before and since; bu It: the wigJ designed I~-'Ol imitate it became deli] e:r,ate',ly :f3.ke land, stayed 'rliat,",,~ay for ,1110~[e' than ,3 hundred vea'r~~I. Suits 'nlay have itaJ'rt'ed~ 'but their easy look ':'135 Or.::erbo'ine' 'by Ithe' look D:(~' extreme contrivance 0'"::0'1 the head and feet.

~~'l'_ ~J __ '_J~ _ I t , Ir~ J II d II ,_ ~ LI _ ]\r,! ~d '_" . Jill. _ llili. ~[~I~

\I:.' ~ .. I,~,'.-: ,-I' '~-'r:l d. d evenn ~:~Il' . Oily" , powder wi thour u , ~:,U',I'- p:. in,-'!.·' II/h e ~~11(1(rilolu';c t, Is'- .'. Blame

.VIIln,G, Ian ._-- e . e ... ua .', 0 ~ .... , " I, .. I~-~.- .. ,-I;. .. ,til -' -- -

crown, . "~:'ith <U the new Iooseness in, c'h,e shape and fir~ '0',(' male clothes, men's C'O'U.:-iC· suits continued to be' made of' rich and _h,~3vy '{a,b'ric:--,-: a'R,d s,ni'[. 1) carried prodigious amounts of Iace, :I-:;m~b,rojde~ry~ ceremonial swords and other showy adornments remained suitabl ,fo:r' gle'n,tlerm,~,:n, until we~I'I, into the eig,b:te'en,'lb, century, ~ ~':le,gan't men had discovered ,~, C:._',I I"",""

'~J"'a' ;"11". <'!Ii'm, IC":O-I::U_ mt IO-:I'f:"pL~,y" '.~··1~ ~","1 ...... ~1 ~'jt'l',O,:·L"I·"IIIr.,~, (:;01[-1' th ,.~, i 'I~: t- :0 .. ····:£· - eh - eir I ia:"'l'\r"~D': ~I~"II,I,II"':~ - but I.'r·.·e-' tid I ,9,3' .

'" :I,"", ldi."" ... "I~, "",,' ,II, .... f~, .~~JL ,ilLiIl..· :DlI. !li'1' ,[U. , . ",\or , , ., I" ,,,,,,", ad" ~"I", ,~,... 1'11. iLll. ,iIi,. ,""' ..

o,f:NI~':rur-e' and au'y' Erule·.~im'pl.m~iJci'f)i had [0 wait until, much later,

On, the ,olh~, ~:[' h .. nd, a :m:o: :~'E 'p· ....• rophetic "modern" 'r'bin,po about 1.1'1'. _,

c"' !!~ h

seventeenth-century suits was the esthene dlislt3'nC'C [h,ey q,'Ulickl~:,f trav .... . ' ,~1i~I .. ·· ':cd' d '-"8"" " the d 'Ie, .cades 'b:e,III"'I,II,I'';p'en'' II' ~~·o·· .... :3··" ed ')' ~r1.'O; '"1i''1i1,:tl!'.· 11' ~'m-:-' , "'I'U"y:', q'O':I-'n'~'":j eL~lI!,e"~-I_url<g 1!li~1 .. ~".~',rg,I.~ __ !lJI-"",~~._",,1 ,ilIU'J~,.~ I~ U;t'<>'!f. 1IJ.'fil!'i :~l,v "'" ~-" 1n.~~~J''',liI!l.1

with fe'~ .. -- '-,e' costume, Durin ~- the first ha'if' of the century, weJI, .... dressed II1,e,n,~,11.,d '\lVOI,nie,ll h ad had a i' ~ai,lrly' similar look with 1,0£)5' - curl ed hs Ir, broad, Iace "01:11':"(5, IJn.1d b,:i.,I! hats on bOlt'h, sexes, a~ id both in. gar,flle:nn of

n"1'~;b·.",:~11Ie.· .. shining ~'I"']I'-J '~.', :£1 h ~I similar '11'~'I"nl'ld •. ··I, I~/""':" O -e ·•·•••· •• fl··n·"~I'm .. ·-·:-···· "'DI'IIi'""Ii't-~D'nl-1 ,- 'n'd' .. ~." similar

I ~ __ lI~ .. _.l ~~[ -IJ III ,~ It, '''_.1. I "I. ~1J]'IIJLlI dlL _It l. __ ~11.J ~_~ III q_ l_~l~_ ~l jil..dJ_:_ljj_=~ll. I!_. •• II.J&LI~.lgl!ll

, I. _ •

(i'-

. "_., "

",tilE GlENESllS [if T:H.E S'U':('l

'b- 'ik'" d th Ii] d hi ~. L .• ' 'iii

bul aness a'[-OIU~11-'_ tne warst ,3'1:J.=, k1j',p5-a_- the nme, womens corsets 'were

\rer,1' ~iha]llow' and gripped o,n~ljy the rib-cage, A'fter I 660,,;:'h,e new ID~n,g: and loos "~Eimting male coats began to appear in dark and :: ven d,'u'n, :fa,'b1r:ic; and soon, a I'), suit-coats ha.d big' :Ha.,plpr:d. pockets and 'b,j,g ,cll'fES~, ,3'ndJ ma'n,y'

PI[O .•. nnine .. 'n"ct ro ows of button .. ~ ~'P·.::lp·~·-:.e,· ared 0'1'01' P'IO, eke, ;Ir~,. cu ~~- coat -front, and

I. . l~.._y ". .. _ ~ ", - ~ ~ . ," -, _. . ID~ ,!lL'l1 ' J~' I", " -r __ JL ~ '_ ." ,,~, '_ ' .. ~"I ~ .. _l.lL.:'. '._. _. l, .. , ll.I_, _' Ill~! 1, __ ~ ,

,~ , "

vest .... front. .RO'\ll!1 ofbraid, borrowed 'froin,l ordinary so,ldias and soon 'tal

be' a standard nl,:·~rlitalry :nlloti/',~ were used (o:r masculine trim even 01:0 rich court dress; hs ts ~_ .nd swo 1,,-'be;l.-ts weee large and assertive Eo n13(C'h, the vast wias 1:'-'."00"-;;5. 'we're' enormousvsculptural a····~"iII';~ with wide '·O··I··-"Cp'-~ expos-

'._!Q;]i"-' '_"""",:r:Y""I" .~ "~--'-'.- --' '~--.' ... _'. ,' .... ,." . -- " .. '.-, -"~ -' ,'. '.--' .... , ' . _!l.J:ddl,lo~ '.'"ill", .,'J ,---,.,~."", I!l,. .. ~_.,::---c.:l !!i!.;._:__'~',~~-.~-!i:'-

ing separate linin.~ i

During the :8311111: period, elegant WTOI.I]],CI:n.·'s costume, 'by contrast, went on to' become much more 'SlilR,'V and ti,gh.t'I,·y fined around ,:-;.:~ :e' whole u,~ppe'r Ibod,y~ and began. 'to be' .111 ide Q" ,li,gbt .... colored sw·ff rha,t increasingly did, a lot of episodic me C0' rative dra!ping~, Decolletage was more emphatic than ever, ,311.d women wore 0'0 bUlto:ns,~ 'ft3.p.s'~1 cuffS'l belts or pockets [at all.~ nor a.ny s,ugg',e:ti,ons of loose fit or milirary braid, Hats were rare. but dainty lace headdresses carne into v '.Iu,e,; and women's

h ,r. -- 'h-I • '" .-. b h '1- - - ii' rh d"'~ b ~ ~

nair was 'I I:, .eir cwn, witn some .. ie p, cll,:n t ,:e modest ::ou,:rg,e'olsi vein,

wom,-·:Il'-S., dress 'was sober and selt __ contained while mens 'was assertive

d d·- hi ,,. d' '" 'II

an _.L_.a.s,--_]n",:~ even m ':_I 11.1,} COI'D'~-S~ ;;t2l

Such diflere'11cles, "~,e'11E' along with ,3 profound split that occurred m

the crafi of ta~i]loril1g daring [he reign of Louis ,,<]'V~ ,3 split that had- 'very

lenethv :~tre-~,~~~: I n 'I' :I{'7" c ."lI om- -._·IIU- '-I'n ofFren ch seam - stresses success ·U'IY.I'., ,p---:." .... ,

., ,iILI,~;~_' "1' ~ [It ~!I.-~ '" "" u ." oJ d, ,e~!'--" '_ -' if' v_ '_ ___:_" - ,.___--_It;.,;., -, r;lI ~ G. • , ~~ _ ~;'I~~ _:_:. "~ ~I __ - C'~"~NJl _- 1,-1 I__~ ,

plied :folr ' oyal permission to form a, guild offemale tailors COf' the' rnaki'D,S 10£' women's clothes .......... co, become the ('-~~r.st professional dressmakers, Louis approved, believing that the d'i,gnmty' o:f' French women would be' well, served bY',ulc'b a development, which permitted scope lor rhei r taleD,t~ respect for their modesty; and independence ro,r their · .. ~l:'I'ei' Increas .. -, i,~n.,gly' thereafier, as ami Olf Europe copied French fashion and fashion

meth 0·, r, worne '-n' I dressed w ... ,c-,:'n;m--I--:--'~'n--I and m;--l'e, ·'Rel dresse d 'm" en.

.I,' ,~l~ .I,"':_:_,.ol ,,',¥~ "_:.,,,~~_, __ .__:_~ I _. "'L-~~~I. _I ' •• _' \...J!.- I': I )~I' ,'I I ~~I ',' '~ '.~'~ , ~1~J~l~", _ ", _, I ~ I ~'-Il !I!'

Altbo;U':I'h this was a change o'r'i.gilla'~ly' inaugurated 'by women :for

h 'r. c: '" h 11 k d hei II ~ ~.=: d

tnerr own pront, tt nevertheless worsen to t neir ulllm_ll.e msa-~',v,anta,ge" ; S,

the whole of' fashiou was progressively divided in.'to respectable tailoring l~or men and, rt~i,rOll.ous, -~': ~:,a .. shion" [Ol' 'WIOlme'~n_,~-I~l" ,:,3'5.:hilo'n,:;" aSI opposed to

developments :10 tailoring, came to 'be something created and consumed 'by' women, which consequently 'W3_5 seen to work, one 'w;,Y or another, to the disadvantage ofthe male sex and therefore 'to lh.u'maniry' aSI a whole,

T'h- k d' h b ,1,., .''"Ii' E; ..l! ,.._ ]-...;1, III in th

ne moment marxea r 1- eJI~:egl'D~n~I,I1Ig: 101 ii, ')[uJnIW men t a , u1.Ve'fgen,['If' in the

clothes '0::1£' the two ~~'X·: tes rh '~11Ii' ,·,!tT'~I~~~,d:'1 the ",:·[':h-·I-'~:I- ~ eigh ueenth cent - "I '"I,!

"'", u. ,"",-" .. ' 1~'Il;..1 Il-~, ,_ ,. 3""~.~ II., g,I!L, ', .. 1~1:~'iI.--!Ii).'!!ii..1.. '.". ~ .. U,~!Lr, "ilL, ' ,I~, ,~,~ _,Ill. " ~"",,fl ury,~

:-. ached ,.':-.-" ."'. 'r'- - t: "'-'-"-,.", .11'-.-., r'h- '.'. ,.---.,.~ ... " "it','" '{-'-'r-"h--" -.:--- d ('n--~11i'l '--',.,.'.: .-," .. ,~. And ..-£"""-., : .... , ,:",~:, ",~, ... ,.

react e:: an extreme In I_'_,-Ie nmeteenm, ICl:~ S' 1.:., persists .. ",;,_nl:-~ rrom 1£ 3_1:0

began the 'uni'qr-I ue and remr -,'Ie a 'b'm e development of the modern A-" tascnline

,. , , " ,,, "",...1..,.""." ., "., , " _ ' " .. ,,' ". ' ,,' . ,J,l. '.' .1, , ,. ~ U l ,e

I ' ..

~ I h II ,..JI'·J II' "' b '( k hi h h- dd ~ I"

smt wit ~ .. 'Its, dtstmcttve a,,:stra,cl, , 00 ,';~S'I wmc J .,I':_'~er-e' 501 mucr II'! O:~,~JJI wun

:i'lUI ~h·--··IP;· women's clothe '.l'!, d ~:.~ign,· '~-I ed du rr ,; '1~1,·.g,-::-1 the sui ":~:"I ]'''''-01, IS···~ asce "'D-Id;---:~'-nl':' :''1,' s

,Ia_ I L .~ '~-.' .. llll!~~,~ ~ILlill ril! ... _ . "_' ~ _ _ .JI .. , I ."_!J •• '_ 1,'J I J. .... aLI L I _'~I_ J~ . !d~L.. ,_Q I, I: iii]

-: .". .._:_ ... \. '. ,_",

B,-,I~-'-- Iit-'h'.""· sf --, true ;e::.... "-,~;.--,-- beaan ,~,--, ·-"h·-·, '~.-,.",.- .. """.iii1,~·..Idl_':-'II·- ,''.. '., ' '.

e Q,re 1,,1 J.S~ a ter true t,. non r e,gan m '1,,1 e tate \j I.u~ ,e'-'" ·'1,-, we

have ·······e,·g'I'II; that male l~' ~;I'~ID.r:"['; had mads 'tl' he clot h-:-:··e··· .~' fo .Ir· bot h sexes, ~n"- 'd.:. that

.~ ,",_, ..... _. ~~"I. 1_ '. ~_ _ I I. '1. djl~ "_.(1_ILI, .. -=..," _' I; I _"__ _ _) I._:. _~ .. _l._ ._.~ .. ~ ~- ".-._ I," ~ .. __ .~ l[~.- . .J U· .. -.J I ... :_: ._.~ .. ~ .. ,' lei .~' .. _l .. 1110 ...

6:"-= 6:'-"" ,,--- ,C"-'nl'I': ries '. certair h :'I'-'~:':-'- -",'" 'W::: -, -''I~,-':"'-:-.-I ". ined ben 1':'-1"-,' --_-, ··"h·'· "1 .. -,,-,,--', :-'.

tor ~OU,f ccnnme .... a, certain narmony ','" aSI mamtamed between II" e sep __ ,-'

... '."'["" 'k ... inds of (,.' ""''':''1 ,,'II :·~,i'~ .. · C bolism :~, dre ·C'···'· <iL,t"'h-" ".". '. ,c"., ,',', ",-"",""'-.,.- and I .. "'iiI,,,,:,,- ... ,,--.,.~ .. ,,, '':'-,'"

rail ~e ,lll-S 10, sexuai svmnonsm m oress, ""~,JL,OI) tes ror men am I WO,11ier},

~j

diLY: . *'d' in h -.. which -- ide C;- d-"'i':« .... ,- .-,--... ., noh si ... ·d·' - - -."

',UJe'lC._ m snape. wn 1[_,,", mace ror omerent le'JiOI[I,C empnasrs, a,I1:~" men s

filsh.i,011 had, always taken rhe imaginative Iead; 'bllut ,.DaIDe and female g3:r'-, ments 'were nevertheless ouite similar obiects before '~Ie late sev nteenth

" ~

out of ~JI-1'I~' 1~,'"iI'[-i'f-II'---' mat :e.= ···r.·---I:~,·~,·I- ~:,: and 1:(.0::" :Iiiiii'[. cenmr ~~ira~, neit h ~r.· ~·~X> '7" ~~"~I:, 0'-'-)-' ore O--I'["n'-' •. ' - ~

LJJI .. I, "'-"" I._"I~ ap __ "~J'_ •. ~,_,,~~ __ '_' "'_.~ l~lIJ.l.. ('It .~~ .-' ... 1 __ , _ .. h_ ~~~ ~. ~J'.I"~ ~" [~!I.~~,., ''tf¥'ID-, '_.' _ ,_~, _'I.~ [. __ .• l.~

'£:03'0_ the oehee,

:0 uring all that time, 111e!~,1, had designed, measured, cut out and fi.tre1d everybody's clothes, and other me: L had constructed them with paddir g' and 'bo~niflg 1~-~I,nldJ,,:tufling: and s,titIe,nio;g to suit the DIode 'i7or both sexes.

'IrllDln~1 guilds had :IS :111'U,c:l1. importance as other ,c,ral'ft and p~ro:£e5sioli.l!';J instiru tions ',I and like them 'wer-e 'wlh,o:I'~y' male, IC,'I,othi_ng itself, now submitring to fashion, thus had a'D honorable place among e~ tablished artisanal products. Professional seamstresses also existed: th,e'~I' were :- mployed bl~' '£3'"11:0'0. to do the necessarv handwork on, seams trim and finishina.

____________ ""__ _ '_,~ ,_ "__ e, ~ .. _,_, 3_ _ __ I _ "g~

Shit ts, underv '_I~le'a,r~ h,O:USIC'hol:Jd, linen and children's clothes we're "110, made b'y women a~Itll,ough a fben ~-':'E horne a:lld, not biy professionals, Pemale plain sewing rhus 'bad! altogether less honor I:ban m tle tailoring.

,:,:'o:me'Il, wer-e never tailors. trained to create d£s:i"gI)".; cut, and :fi.t-----

not m '--". ·,'t-',. "'r--:-__""'a-,j'~I'o-"'r--~ nor joumey man _'r .... 'I~], 'O,····,[iD. no If' . P ""P- srenno '",,;!j, "-b"':U"Iit" th "e' -',' .e- '

., .,!L " . - ". , ..... ' . "'·~lj.· -.?11" . I ,U,.I. _:_i u~_, ~_:." ,~, a ,-". ,~""" 3i,!,- ~::_,. I, '1,' I, e,,",~, e,"1!I~_ ),'" 'Ij.,,,",,",,' Y

'w'e··,r~ "'li1~'kn"-'-':o~'\l~i'l.e.'dJ·g:··,e-,·~,d~'-, .e.·'·'x~,,'-p~-:e .. :1[--·'1 -"!II~ ~I'~I~I n-".:e',· .e-·ld,'-'le-!wDI-J: 'k-',;- ~. h-'~I'e,-'U '111:0:':'*" 'O"""'nl-'I'-l'\~ .d·(·~'·:"d.' l~iln-'· .....

'-'_ "'" H,~.. "'_, '_' ~ ',~', _ ~,'~' .. ' '_ ~"', " ,', !L" iJI,!L ;[~ 111,,11.'-" ,', ., . -.,.~ '~' . ,'", ,'" "iii 1 ,Ii, ",!Ii.. ',., ,J 1 " . "II! "

told, 'ulile!;, or n'cc'ICSS3Jr)' b,asi,c sewin:g: 'b(]'Lh at 'h,oIDle aOld, for' 'hire, b'ut [h,ey' t[alditio'na'~I')' ex,c'le'lled- (I,E la,c'e'-'lIla:ki'ng~1 e:m'b'lioi.de~ry~ lan,d- hie' c_"'br.il"at~iol:n of

ela.,bo:rr,r.e a?'lrl'~~SI~l'ril~,s ~ T,he' ;d,_-,~la' ". !!'iDr~'~[)i'1:S···1 ''''0.1-: h'I'a'- ."v.". "., --, 'b-I .. e, ":e,'- 'n~' r'~CI:['-', 'W'-· In',··OI:'nl']'e,- ':'0' "~~'~i··

C '""!!!;... "", "'" ~_ ,iI-_~__ 13i~~.~~ !,II I~ _ _, _ .. _ _ .~_ " ",(,ra,,_ _ _, .. , '" _' II' ,-"JIl.,e

'bot'h f3dCiful allld d~li:ge'n't,~ 13Jnd, (-~:-Ieve'r "1,th, th,eil- han,d_··:~ 'but ,not C!isenti aD}f i 'I nagi II,ativle" 't113,11: ·i,s.. 'n Oil ,:£(:'#2: ,t oll,!~!,i::Cdl'l)t i Inag:i I 1. a 'rive i' ,A '~te'r t'he [ou,~n, .... da:tioD of thcl ,d,(i::,s,sma'k:el:f' I, gu.iill,d"1 ~~nd, ,th.te sp're':~'d oC'the' ide,a ,t'"hat fe1m:ale'

,VI[lI.n.-Filie.··>n-; _. A·","··,"··. d,I-'I;~,a.~"rpDc:.'e"._:: 1-'0." '~'~I~ ·W\:-,.,:':<:ri\iif clot .hes were con aceived and m aade

!.,II, '_ c ~ , " _ lib, _ ~ . ~, "1,,11,,,", '. . g I .~., '_' . ""'~ ''¥~ ~ ii, I"", .~_ ,~...,\..- !!Ior,IiY g, ~.,"",__ ~ ~ g =~.

tor ,;:'h-:-'II'II ~W~ :,:e.·':e; ;I"'i':m- .'1_' into I •. ,'V'"cii~I··p;'n·'IICI e for the '+1'[I······::'t-, time ,O!J~~'p-:: ... ·[I:"1!iI!ol .. o,I/·n·-I: that

= ,~ .,' I!!i;. I':" c U _,iii' _. ~ _. . . 11;.., . ,~:i."-I~'-"l'."-" It. . :~ .(:~ 11ir_ ~tl P ""',I. CI.-"gll,I.-., ."> _'_.

p,mfO'uD1dl,y' ,atIec'ti!,d both toe character and, the repurarion QI,f'£ash·i.lon ,101[' the "IA'X" Ii two ji"'J(e' "n' '. ij-U' ries ~ nd ~:Ih-'-I ~.' ,~'~-~iUI-- ·5·, 'U- '. rv 'I'~V'~

',", .•. lal 1\;;0,,'," lli,./, Vi\,,;, j .I~, ~' " •.... ",iil ,~, d·-. LJ I. (;I l;, ,J! I':"JI , '., -'. . ' , , "'c '"- jJ! •

During the two hundred years 'before' this split occurred, 's'ta,r,s, made

0_·,'· ~ metal ''IJ::IJ:~o.'''''D,'''''I'dJ~ .0 ..... ,'[: wh "'II·)I,·'b:-,,':QI'HI,' had b e en >C'··e··:"~.':I~!J!'11·]' I~'~~e.~tly' :'1":n'I!'Qi-'-' ~w·" om ien's

. ,_G1l!'¥'II.. .. / '. .' e-. I li' ,,1.iIi ..... . ... ,Ic&. , 1"'1. ,,"' ... """ I I ,I ;;.Ji'" '!\?¥ J '.' Ul"~, 'L. li,_",.!Ii..- ....1 "'"', I ~

dresses to shape them according 'to the mode, I'nd, similar s'tay"s, had been sewn dj,rec"tly' into men's doublets and the s:kirts oftheir coats, S't3',:_.::."s and 5lti~enJng ,31.101 went in lit 01 collars and sleeves and headgear lOI'f' borh sexes,

iI!o'IOr·. hold them 'U' "p-.; O'I-::'f' out, But bv ]~ 7,nnl IC:-:O,-·:'''~-s-···e-·:·~~-'m--:-IA:c:--'~'I-I·I",.', separate bL····;-·,.--1 ed

11.- ... , -Jil _ ~ " .. '" '_, ,_ . . U ,Il ~ _, .,1 .,~, .. '. '.' .r",~ .c__""",anlng se"ara I,",e,o,n.e· ,

undergarments that shaped the figure-=had come ineo existence for women only; and throughout the eighteenth ,ce'n~:u'ry' these continued to 'be designed, CU1~ fieeed and constructed 'by men, Separate corset-making wa.s considered a, logical division of the In ale' tailor's ,3"1-,-[ descended '6,',1:1--1-

_ _ ~ ~. _ _ _ ',' .' ,_ _" ~ ....,. , .. , ,_ ., .. L," _ _ '''" . . .,..., .. , . .of .,' . . .... . n. . .. iii. .. .:10.11.1

'_ .:

th e ar ft;'I, or er's '1I1~ '·k"'·:AJ ,..~ 'I" 11.0: ,-~.[-:- i n a ·1~. f'L'J ~ ~I·r_

'.- . '. - A ... ~,.ilUI. __ . , " ..... ',." ~ el _ .. ~ \,.. ~= ~~ ~ )Il-",,~ b' ' ~"" U 'iii,

Th'IS meant that the 'new' c'l'3Jft of dressmaking, now carried 0111 by

• J II _ J , 'J. " • _. _ j. . , L _ 1. . II. II I. • . J. • _ ._ ._ ." • _ • • I -. __ . • I (. ~ II! 1... v' J •• • , • ,i1 .. - '." .. .;,'t

:-'--,:":--:-,'1--1 ,....-, -.' I-~-:-'n' (" '(~'III--<:::?-"d'-' :"·,·"r'·' .:~',( '. -<~I,- .;--,-~01I:~·:,-·,,-,'h·· . fabric :' ,· .. fien .;:- folds

women, actua ,y consrsten OJ. SllUlp!1lY a',ppell.:, D-,i, me raoric onen In, ,~LO,: __

-'. ad .,. '.'" cL, , ,.', .' -1-'·;'--"1'- .-, I' . -" ,., _. ~ .-,.-'. 6"'1- .'. . ... ~... . .... -"-1"'-- ad I . sh -'~' .. -' d i _. -_. --- C"'l- -'W1 ... -'" - '. ~-

:30.:-, W.I.tl,JI, very ntne cutting, to . tt onto an 3' reac ".,' snapec . torso ai, owing

mu ch 'oc·~··f···· '-1"'" to drape "~: ~ skirt 3:.' nd the -n ad '1-1i!!'n'IO' slee .e- p....... '-::0:-', r ... mch ';'1 d ess

. :e,c". ':'~~"" '._~. ,_ ,:!Ii.. '. :"- . ..' . __ .. ,p. j'.", '~!iJ ~. ~_,I ~,." _ ='[1, '~ I"._: • ..,i. _J; ·_·_c"",", D a,lII.. ;'.:_ V"'" '_,~, ,._-_)., ·u,. -' .", ,a, ._;_Ii •.. ;:.l;iJ iI!

'1'!;-m-·c·.~Ip'I···n·''"'II;'ir':I!O'I!I!IF. ru,', '1'-I';c~i"nCla and constr action ~"I'~\e~···=,: -:;--"-:-11'" '-~"I-'~---- ~·d~- S--:·~'--:- ,-'C', : ir ~':-~-;C~ '[' '"".- ... ..,

.' , At'- . .' dti.,,¥'" ~, .• _llt ~ ,_ J.\,~,_, " _;~'ll.ru",;IJr,w-re no", .requl're ,;ii' ·I,nce I w,as, no,l.

constructed of '1l13'-,I?, ,if' 'P"-';':-I'" "CI es ''''0':-: :t';1~' the W'h=-',D-~JI~ 'b ... odv it could also ", be :::~~ "'il'~y '! ,."

- '-' I,~ ._- _~- _ -- -- - ~ ~,~- _!I!,I"./ 'c. "II!;., ..,;,'Jl I" -_ l.li'l, ',," . '-', -, _.,!l'!li;,.'J' ~ j ,,~I~ "'" -~_~.___- .-=-.''''''~~ __ ~,iIi ~ ,_I

taken 3Jp=·.3Irt ,a'l~ d the :fa.'b:[mc used :ag:-'~',ai'n d.ifIe'fe'ntl¥~, 'Ve~' early eiebreenth-

_ ," . l/~~" ]1 ~"t!"

cenrurv porrraiture shows some of the e:ff:ects, of this situation: the sub-

~ , ~

jeers torso IS clear'ly" r verv 'rilaidly"",~ corsetted, but the dress 'is draped,

. .• • !l .• • . r! .,. • 1 ~ I •• :.., }' ,.. I~" _ :'.. . , ,_ .• , ." , _" , ~ , . __ I. _ 1 " • _ '" .r. " '. . ".. _l 1

perhaps expressly {or' the portrait almost haph, zardly around its stilT

~ - I -; - J' - ,~~" , I", •• ~ - • 'I - "I! ~, ~". .l" -), ~., -, ~'--"" - 'l~ ~ ._l!! ~ "-, "~ '".., ,

shane

~'_L :-',r' .... - ,~,

Clearly th ,~, new ,,:." d - ressmake .• ;~p"(o, cr '.'"llI,~, m -1011 in 'l-y·.,····' d, dern a- n d.;~ e: "d,'- ,C'- -:~~·v,.":~·;:- tf:I'~r""a:"·-n··1 g,,"";'~"'"

,_ Pi )J ,_ ,~, iii .w.~. '. _ll.~;J~.I.lI!.~~~ ,I.. iJIi __ .~l'l., ,~=,_OJl.~~~. J " _~ '_'~' _. __ ,,!l~. er •. r '_II .~

(.' .. : : ... -"

me'n,t~, and tI'U,IC; fem-J1e' le')eganJce lay in ,tJbe e'xq.'uisite' :finis'h, of ~u,r£a,cl-'c-' Id;e'~ tails"~1 'I'he' sori' o:f ,t:h~":'ng' ~wom,e,n w:ere t~adj.tio:naD.y Ig1o,od ,at a:n,y-vI,ay~, Th,'el c·u't and. fit th,at ma:de' 'Ih.le les8e~nti"al ,sh~·_.pe o'f'~'h,e fo,rSD \Viere: d,evi,slt!'d by ,t'h,c ~1.n31e c'orse'E,~ma'k~~~'r,'~ an,d, ,al,thlou.g~:h his harnctiwDrk·. · d. 'nIDIE seize' 'chle :-~=el ,r'n

.. . . .... ... . c',, __ " "" __ >_,'" _, '_" __ ,_ _ _ _ , __ ' __ c ._..... . __ c:y~ D.,

,t~b,e~ slu,rfac:le wh,e~r-e £as'hjon:a.'bllie· impact "vas c'r-e~atle'd- 'tbLle njlJJ~n"c-m~ad,e' CO'fset' "Ira's ':, iIDllthe' an~'~ho.':~I{rO :fio,:-:r ~lh,~' w:h'~.']I~' ,.lln.-n,·1 ·'r.p'~It!'!t~o~'-'~rn·,·' ~'-.·-"l··'t-'il- 'r'h:I-'~ :n,-I?'-ll~l"'~:~'n~'~'h-I. ("I~ -~I>iiiii1

.' .. _ _. . ~ . . . 'll,.. Ii;,.. _ ~ . U \.>. ,,"yl .. " . vil,I,), .,' UI" .. .1 . Ilk. '"' ." 1.1. '"' Lee .I""" L ~II.

'I - - - - - - - - --

, .

't'u'ry .. , 'Co'rse-r-m_akin,g 'was 'Ihe'n t';a]Gf:'n over' by' wo'm,en,,. 'too" oft-en in f;,C£'IO--

6~

jJ'

ries: and WOIDlle'li could become entirely responsible ,10:,' the looks of female clothes ,fro:m the skin OU_,~ except for Sh"O:~-,~

~ -=,- 'e'c-, eleeance '0-'" f m en's c Iothin i[r continue "'d, I '[-"'0' .-', dep ien d --~', ~1'1Iw:;-':-IfI:-y:';~l" 0-:=;-'1'0-"

~ ,'", ,",,",I".'-'b~-'""'-·"'-" '.',-"',,, : :,~" :-' ""-' "--'" -,--':'_ -'I:'- ","",:,_"",,,,,,",I,, ::,',,--',,'--" ,,:",,"/ ,,'3,,_,,1_,_""-' "':',_:, ,_:3 ~I"_",.,_,,/~,, '":--,, ,"

subtle b I'I-~ 'ful:-~ld"':I'I-'--:':-)--i~""~ ,~aI-I--I;,-<-'-""'/i,~" I'~.- of .... ::~11,"'1'·,'_" which 'i -'~"I"" :--"y,,'7'11'I<h' ',':,-''':r'--,,'---:_',

;5 __ ,t e __ u,t ~~_ D __ -ameDIal __ ,tera,Jo,ns 0, cut, w, , Ie" ,', , eane O¥ _,[7'dlU, c,anl_ '," S

0-, '.' "f=-' S' h , "3'-' ' 'p-- ~ 'W': " 'I~ th ' ..... ti, 'I:"t'1i '3-'" d ~", 'U- sted to .~, ~~.~ tch 'T'- - h' hese co -u- J'd~ .•. r'n -U'" n--:: I. '''II if:'! b '''I,ll! ~ r' ].! 'n n - n

.... '_ l: 1 ~I =-;~ ' .. ~' .. _jl 11_ HI l'f(.ILI,_&·~ ," 'l.~_ .• ~_.i3".~.u. ,.~., •• J..LgII.~I~'~lL_)!i!1 ~,,~:._)dI!~!ll~"~ I~I~I.~~"~_" ~1~._:_ __ ______2!' l~;J1 _.~ ... __ j;]I~,~J l~~~=l~--

[' . . ~.,

,'V"':I~I.t~I'0~I'DI"··'S: in the 'p=rOIQ'r',e"~"'S',,", of'a ':S'e'r'I·':I:D~.·:'U': ~S', crafi, rather ~1!,'I'''''e' architecture, -B~-:,y",/ .0.--'0',.--:,";'0-:, ....

" G, _1." . c. _ 11_, , I!L_" ", .' "'~I_,;ili _" , G., , " __ -'" _ __' ,_ ",I ' ca,1lj,1 , '_" U5< !Qi;jl,,~ ., _,"",,""Ill., .JIi.~;,. - . ",'_" '"',

trast womens e'l,e~,'n,c'e was an 13if{a'ir' 10£ temporary e,f£ects- rather like

------, -- -------- -----b'------ ---- ---- - -,--. - . """ " -- .... , - -,---,-,' "-[ _:e

[es'tirval decoration Of' Ii, -,"P]IIII ,d·.:~ ~CiU111 Prin "C'- iples 0'-11'::' actnal de ' .. ·1'"'P'tiJ1 we ",~, '1'''0'': ......

-,.-"",,':,,-,'. --' ,--".".,:__._.',I ',1.-.1 ,.~' :__',,_:,' _ ,_- -o~ ,, __ ~~, ~~!!' ."", ·'_·~I.,,!L~, '-:'" ·,j, __ Ir.,jll ' .. -,,-.: .. :z;,--J, '_' .. "Io"'!!!i;"r ,ilL, ,I

'[hen" ", :a-Ip···~ •. 'plli'C" .. :.JI '--,0' the cut 0:(':; dre c:.c'C .. ~~'. which r'-"Q:D' .• "Ib· -'"','10,',1",'01' . ed '1;0": d ~v,e', "':I'.OI-:P' ~:o':'-nl ':e~- :rl-:-

__ ,~._ _ __ ~'" _"_. , __ u ,,_j I!l,. L_ ,_' ' '_' ~'''~, __ !l" ,"_ ,""",,, .. u ~' __ '_""'_""""--~"-' _,',,' ,...., __ ",_j. _ ...... ' .. ',_ .. .;:tII""

vativ,e:I~~1 the n~IDII}-e 'so in the' 'hands 0';:' dressmakers remote from ,t - e 'more

1.'1. I.,. " -,_ . '1../[' I •• ' -'_ ," . " • - .••• _" r. J",.-.- 0[' "'_'~ .•.• l ... ··._ •• J .-.,- " .. ", _"_ ••• '. I . I _'_ ,", 'Jl _" I ". I' '_- "'0 .I" .. _~ .' .... J" ..... _~ I r' .. _._ . _·o._::_ [____::I •• __

d,Y"i,nanD,e; tailoring tradition. In the eig .. hreenth centurv, eleeance fair'

-:'l - --- - ~-~ - """" "_'.: ~_-- ~ - ~ = ~-- - -- i",,"--" --".;:..,,,__ -- "~_'---,l" --,~"g~~ .. ,e " ,

\\\'01 I,D,e n, was moreover not confined to rhe rather basic and limited ef:' forts ofdressmakers, but created bv the enormously exeensive m,od';~\~,,~~,-;,-,

. --. - . - - -- -, - , .. - - -- -- . . ',I' - " .. -, .. ,F' - "v I. .. IS es or

m:tJ!trCl'dHde:s iJle' ,m~tJld:/j;; wom,lc'n, 'W'~hD specialized in Il,13kin,g~ ,a nidi arranging

rh re e'-"p- ",'h' ieme .......... 'I, liiI"c:l"tm----' and , m 'd'-'C";' accessories that ~It:,t~· feminine '£~'I~'h-I- io "n' us

~,. ':-=- ;~-, ',', ... ,::~, merar w,,;,al,o o· ;Q.,to)l::;· .... \ .n '~_. , ~-"~~~3~'" r 1.r3! .. ~ ... Ig,,~ ~;;""'~'~~ ,,_ •••. r ' . o. lie:.' I~ I~, 'I,ll),.' .:1 ,,: ,,~,

"I~'n~l~r,',e-_:~~i'ID·.··,~II'iIly""..-, bad repu ,'_:;il!ir'~.O~I'n-,' I'(DI~:'rl ~ Fr'''',-I~'V'.·'~1.~ro and e .... , '1["1-I'J,\: ~'III'1II~ ~.O •. stliuess

. "'L.; ,-i:Jiol-L,W_, . _A._, I, .,._, __ '141._, .. , •. (' •. , [L~ .. ullh'.1 _ ... _, •. "alll'! ,,,_iIl.IUL !!k.ali., .. , !!i;,;Ji;iJl.

Alt,rhougJh such a, division between the sexes might seem ik:e' ,3 first advance into ima,gina,'[ive 'fie:ed~om fO'f 'women" and .• ~ first etrear into the 'b- «md a:--'Ioe-' 0:-"-'£":' dnll convention t::o;--'r' -n'-']'e-~'n'\' the nsvchol ogical ':)- nd ~OI:,'.r,.~ ..... '.1 -A4!', l·r- ..

I .. ' ",:__. ""--:c--> '- .'.. ". v "~',",, , , .. 1, .- r I ;[1' " '. ,II, .:. I)'~ rra J '. ".'Y . "_~' ,: r ! ' ;;1t .. ,,,",,",I,ittI r~-;-;]!u ~ .. ,

were the opposite, over the cours ':_: 0:£' the eighteenth and nineteenth centuri es. Male clothing and by extension male regard £O~[' personal g,P-'

PiiP-:"'IIiI''I'"''"II1 'U- -, ee .... 1]· "0·" .'. ".g" reth "e"['~ co '-",n;i'tj, 'O'-;-"'U,;6 d t" '0· ,; ..... 'PnaC-'~I~"V' I~~ a res 'p-". - ~,fio' P" 'IrQ' '--:', 'p' "'0' ortionate t'- 0'- ,-" ,t-L .. ~,

~.~'Q= ~ il ·d_,l~ '_:" .. r .. :~I~ 'I " __ "1 W, ._:. 1Ik.1· I' _: .~ ' _I ,_' ," ," lIJl~ - ,~", ,~ _.' [~\ J •• _.~I~, ::_/l ~.~. 1~''''_:_''lIJ ,1. glIL~ 'j'," ."' l_~ ~

I . ~. ~ • '!i

respect :Q'~·v, '.e· -,~ '£1-01.: all ~'elr'-J~ID'::UI·I., male .. : nterpri ~~- both tech mieal and ~'II",e'-"II·Il."'v,I"i,e,-"-,

1..''''''i.J! ,--," \.;rIll. 1:'11., .... 11..1 '.' djl 1.:1"'" ,. ,', , .' ,1.I,.:Ua:, " " . ,IlL .. " I,,' '~'l.i:li '.' ull,." I". ~, " , . ",,;aJ liIi.I , __ , ~,il,.,_,.,'-·,._,~

Th,e' m3kin~g Q,r m!en,'s c]o.'t'hiesl waSI ,in :iac't a I,f!'r,'~o'tt tnat['e:rI ,invom,v.ing,the

c·· ~,""Ii,rll'I'·,'b:r~"~;IO:-,'ID, quD, :d' .... ,d~li 'UI'I Sj:t- __ ·m.·:'le···"'ln.',' 't~· (0 .. :£·.· (t.'b'le·· '~~I'~~i; -u' ", '(,Iv' I.d= ·~:e'-C''''"'I'P11e ~I, 'P-'~I.·"I'P-I=' •• ~[' rp~, ;!]I_'t-"'e'_"'lf"I"',_,p',' 'l"le'-",cl-IP-'~:t

,aJi_"""'~"-lIi",, Q_ ",-, a"-:J -,._",--, ,,~, " - .. ,' IlL - ~a._lL'!!!i;,;o., ',- -'1 _,.,,;J!!, ,D .. = .. ··· (l ,I "A,;,-"'" ' :_ii:l,,,"I!L .. _, "Ii=I, I. """-~

nee'ded ro'r' the g,'uit, an,d, a ,rre'ti~n.ed s'k'~ll~1 'both, in £'he cu,tting' 'thalE 'E-;-,c--'I.'Iat~~-d lh'eem, :in,to ,fib:ric,~ a~n,d ,i!'D ch,e CIDlnSI~rll"ct_io'n, of'the i'R'ller may'en t'ha·: C[-e~_-":tedl the :ha:l:lg' c~f th, .. - "~/-·~r,m~~:n,'ts. Abo've alt~ s:kiU, was r-eq'uired, in, t'he tj,tting'

... ,-, .---'-h· . ~--.JI-=:\'~Id'- -11--1-1 c. ·-1-·- w~ " h-'-, " '" '-1"--' b-I-.-. Ii: -, ... £ .... ~.---'.- .. ·ur .~- - ,- ~ .---

Co t ; .. e In}W,·~pJl:._,:ua_, ll,gll're __ :, I.C JO'uJt,~lene:[lt el" ICO:O'tro, 109 'Ul1lue'I':G;llI'FRl,e:n,'ts'I

All, 't"hjIS :ha_sl still.OOI: c'h,anged in [h,e CUS,!'O'II1. rail,or~:s, c:'~a:ft'l ~",hi['h, ,i'i s.ri'U c'al'~:F.i,ed, O.n by :Ollc'n,; ,IS a1wTYS w1t'h ~olme wo,:men'~s :he,l,p to[' ,th,le :6nis'hln,g

'p- "ro·r'e··cs'e·'£:

,I~, I ':._' ,:,,",,~ -~' , :_ '~'.

'-:-·U·,I' IU'~;I'_"' ,'h- ":Io'"-'-n·· .. 111. '~'ilH' ..... g-~ ..Jlu· ',gU-:-'y·' 'P' eo. -r~~-"'e" 'I;"V' 'eo "'d' a··"D' AJi '!!. " ~'Ild" "0""'0'-"0· qP'p· ·~"'(r~d- '·0'-'

~_ 'I. ,'-,", . .1:1 I "W;- 0', !~~ I, q!U_,,,:~,:, ~':::_.,~. '.'~:' ~~:~, ,~_,~,,"""'¥M', _~: ,~,~, :_/.:.':: ~ ""J A ~:,i ~ """~_ '~: ~_ ,:_

'b---:e' 1- ,a~ '['1-'g-' e-,,'I- -y'~ 'I-"j)'- - ·e,-:-: u- ,- '-u1s-'e-r-'].!1 O~rUl-IS--C, 'p-~ m--;c--vu',' ~"'In::-· C' '-:'e-'" I'o;--::f'~ 'to: 'h"c- 'WiD· '., ,] ;'--"fm- -- ;C,- "'n-" w"I':h-"Q,'" c::>re-' :,3" "t~ 'e:,d" -' '3' n- "d"1 " 'C"'~"O"'-"'I'n" _,

, -', ".' '" I ". " , I ' ' , ,I "','"'" , , ' ''', I,,,, "", "'''.'','" ,', '" " " ' " , ' , '''' ',' ,I '," ,', -- ,",' ' " ',",', " I,

__ ~.. _ l • .~.. [ .• • _.1 It •. ~. I I l _~_ •• _ .~_.. ~ _~. .~. • ", _ ,_, _. _. I~,,' ~ ,_" I ",.", '", 1 ••.• " _ I • __ • • ," _ _ •

'_ ,.J I

. " .

~-u':-m---'-"I'e .. ~.d:',~ ,~, - :S'~:·~'DIICI I,~ ,t:(-'"I-'ru-- "'D-,,"i'n-'I~' ;t."~~hi'-'''''D''' •. :'n-~ ·"11:0·,' .• ',' '_:, :i!'!Iiin:~:d'- ~"'''IIj'O;".I~e"~ ~1.o;··In-·~,~~,~.,~I~I'D,-::f'~" ,:::p"",;ch" "J--m·· .~' .~'11

~, ",' ... , ,!I.'L,IO . .,1,.. ~ iI!.'l J " " ".I ,'L,; Ed;;)" '.", lUI" .,' .i1 .'. ,11..11,]1,.. ,IL' , L.. ,.iili,,Li::II \\0,,,", 0., -';' ,-' C "e. "" e,fdJ

effiects 'I'ha:t' chaD'ged, 've:ry' ra,pid),y anJd, 'n,otjJce'a,-II'y~ 't'hJ,e'rel was :o'me'thin;g '~'n,

-h ~·d·· l'h- - "h' - 'b d d'" - ,i] d- "c.' 'L·' - '"

t, ,e 1:1' .,ea,~. ,a, ' .. ·.··,OOg"I, ~nol., 0- ".~,!) :=' ,es,pli ,e-=, wo':me'D, '5 tln,1! aCn.I,ec1}'eme':n.£, tn. I!:m-

broidery ,allel 1 ice-making, whichever ~.~~',X they were made for, B')r' the' nineteenth ce~ntury~ however, D1l:0. who concerned themselves less with the basic ,cl~ ~ an d ::'u'';it~,}'III,'b' ~~~';I·~II~·ty.~· ".:' of'their ga.'··~J'·'·'·['I~~I~I'11'·'I' .. '. and '~~,IO~I':['~' ,~,~,~~'h-I ;i''''~~ surface ,~f~

, .. _ _ la. _,i.J . ,1.1 I~ €I, ~. _. . .. [1 .. dL . I [~ '. .., ~ 1.1_ ,~ J. I .JILIL ..... ,I., _ lid 1 _ ,l.iL;I, .. , ,..,.. ·"ll! iill,-;' ,1 Ijlllk~ L1. .n~,~ )1: '- ~1"fII

~ ',--",-

(er"r' could be d esnised ;~'S eflemin ''''NI'r-c~,~;1i,II·h'''.o'·.:u-uh.·· such an associarion ·~:I'i"',o'·~.u-ll:d,.'"

" " -' ~.~ '-""~" -~ ~ ~ ~ 1\.:. " ~ """. r ,~.;Ii~. ~ . gL. ~11[llL ,iI! i! .. U· . "··!!!I..·.i a .. ' .~~ . -.~ C!i' '. ~ -_-. \.:.. . ;g·I, ,iii, .c.""t •. V_ ,iIi,a, _,..,U ~.__, "ti''I' .~_::___.~ .

never have been, madeabout Henrv VII'W 0'[' any other eendernan in 'R.:-,_'

_ _ -- -- _ -- -~ __ --~~ _ -- ~ ~ ~-~- ~ _ -- _ -.--1.' - __ er ~~_l~.~e ~,~~a.,~ l~ .. e

naissance d ~a')\.' r~: .. 1'1 '\\~~I~ also n'ID,~;-';:~ ·'\''I!'e.· .. It·~ autornatical l"y··y/ 'n, ·~·.1:-·~ "d·,: ,I~' ;1'0111 th ~ '11'f:1IF:',-( h .'. alf of the

_ ~ _-_ ." __ .. - __ ,~_ ~ __ .g~ _ .. ~~~_._ l!.!l_.!L I, __ . U. __ . __ l_ Ig!Lr-.~a.__ 11 __ .. _~ IILll, ."ll~l~.II_i1iJ .. la __ ~ .. _ILI"~

," "J I

'. _' ,_

seventeenth century; the diaries ofSamuel ., ~~ep)('s andjohn Evelyn ,3, re.I ~uu of III ni II hi bi ted ~ per ~O.:j : n ·3·' 'II :~ n J~ rest .)'"' 'iii]" the ~', d I~ ~I""I i; 'I s .0·· ... ,1." m oII'S·~ ;, c ~U'I] ~i 1'1 A 'f r~ Ii' :I~ 10,' '1''11 ~ 'B< J ut b~ ~

." ~_"_.",, _, _ '. _' .. '"" . _.' '.. _, ,.... '"'"' I.." I,~ .... 11.. ....,!II!;,.rl'h'li"ill~ '. II, ,iI,." d. . . ....iIi ,.~"" ,I,~ ,.ILI •... iIi. ,II. II' .... .11.. '1

~,'7',,'14.·····c.- Shafiesburv was ,alrea1d'y,.',,' savma that serious art was compromised bv

_ .~I- -- -- ---;I' - ---~--'.'-~I---Ig,~--~ ~~--- ... ~ .. _.~S .. I,,~I., .. -.)

'loa much interest in surface decoration, This, is not ISiC revolutionarv a

~,·!,~~VW'i: 'b-~.Iu~. 'h:-- ,jlI;, '''111~ ~'Ol-~: ,.,. id 1·'h~·I:I1I'[ "11 whole societv with In' nore 1·'1":"·~' ~o-I:'r.--:' decorative

'lfl ,iI~, " . ,_,Iii!;, ""'" II!1- .,1!!. _:__, __ . __ ,_Q!;,_, g ',"" __ ,-,!Ij;;."..,_:_"". "~-'~'1 _~' '~_''---' ._~,~'--,--I..~. '.~" '1Ij,.", I,.I •.. ~ ,~._~~.~ ..• ,I,._.1i''!k.-

than '("0:[' sericus 3'rt could 'ri,grh,t~,y be 'C3U,cd, "effeminate."

Exe:m'~JI: .fm:m the evolurionary laws c'h: It' govern changes in ,a. tradi tional :I~rnft'l women C'10I'uld 'frlc,~;ly' dcplloly' their s.rk'i:11 in surface .farfltasry~ But the-y sacrificed the cl31i'm, 1:0 importance I['hail 'IS 3!1,'wa'y~ made 'by' 3,0.)1' ef[ort to innovate within the strice boundaries imposed by' powerful technical tradition, Sry'lisltilc' change in .aD'.y practical cr~fi. is, ~a:re'l,y' suddenc since prevailing te C'h_D ica '. 'II1C,]]S ~~. 11,dJ materials rend to temp er vmercurial

r 'h'" ,a- '-n'l p~,. ·0-- :'f~' '["'3:-1 ~i ·'1'11 - '''''1 nd . le~'IU· . ~:'[I.Ij~'I-n~ . '~I 'ryl" ",'. '.,' 'p-. ·,~:i'rol. 1-1:'C--:IPd:- :U' '[P' "'I1,(i'!r a··'~ '~I b i :r- .... I !I, •• ~ ;0'·: Ii] '11 iii :-n~ .... 'b: :':-r= ~11d1··· '~I ed ,

""".~, , , '0\0.' .' -' '- - ~ "'''"' ., '~I~IL.L~. ""'. - .Jil~ 'V L .{I", .. ',~' ~~ ~' .. _." "'" ,0, ..... I~~,., I~_ i:'Ii la,. ,. iI, !~.)~....~~ .IJ I • !Ii.!_",", ... : llL !llI!.:'~c'

ridiculous." he skilled tai'~Ojf' '£o:I]O'~iS the customers wis:h,es; 'bIU:E he' must

translate "lnl'Y, ".I W·I·"1'd~:~,- ·\iI!'IU~'l!ilir-'~e.~, the c -1'1'"1:9'!iF1Iit(· ms \;~" Ipl." opose into '-.,,: ·"["""I~I·:('1i;,,~·"b__:,'~p, arti-

,."""A~ ",,~J~iJ;,-_'I/o,., '-~ II .. ~ ... -,-.'-I,~-) '-,-·DdL.,ill".!;J! I!!i;""~,,,";,~ .. 'Iii.e,II",I!.I!!i;" '." -.1' j .. "o~'"2 ... ,il!"'" ~.,.I'~ .... '"'''' _" , ... 1"" U ,Ilk,

facts. To Ida this, he can make at real change In. esrablished methods, but the modification must still't~;~·y' in harmony with normal C'US'tD,~,nr~ so the cliene does not look. 3, fool and his tailor an incompet .. ·e' .:-n-:.t'~- N,J,~:·-~,I~ of this

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ _ _ __ ~ ~ _ is __ 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ ~ ~ _ _ _ c-: ~ ~ '" .. 01.[1 e 0 l., Hi

co mstraine .d=, rhe : m .o .. id '; iste wh 'I~I ha d' .. ~·P':.~'C,(;I~]~ 11;:lc(I~·n·I'i(!'e., .. '10··.··.:, d, d star ~'I··I'I~'nlc:··u' or o nut .....

!L,.~ . I !I., U,iI, , . ". '"' .. ,._. '.- _11,~ 'Ii,. .', ."'!!Ilo,,~ ,~,-:tl y. .. ~, """".!Ii .~_, ~iI "- .."1.. I", "_. '. .. __ ' ,_, ,Iii. ,~, - '._.

:r3, .ons productions on rop of the dressmakers simple shape, \\V'h'I,C'h 'C-_-:'O~ :'frll ~'e· • q i I,U Ij.IIi"nl '·It' .. I' ~i'i 'n- 'e'·· .• ed led 't- "01> c han Itte'·" very little ~

" __ ._.~~J~~._ " 1 .. .-~l~.!L -'-'1 l!.ll __ .• _", ",_," ",_" ~'_!l. II 1 ~" ",.llJ >" ~!LJI.w" fl!

T~:-h· '.~ ,:"'. ,,-.:~ ,-.~ .. d .-'.'- ,.- .. - .: - '-. =~ ..• ;- '.,-'. ;'>,--;-·,··'1·", '-.' : . - .. ".- 'h-' , .. ', .-::- .. 11- .. -:-:, 'h-·'· .-' .. "iiI 'h~ ... 11' •. --: •....• :-~ .. " - !!'.-:-. L., ... .---- ... I-I d' I '··d~~-",~

,_ .. Ie .l.nspllr-el' , .J:naSCU.lln.'e taJ. or mm;g.1 t. ,a 510 .. /a,v~ .,. IS, O"r,n IUO ' I 11 ~.ea~I'11

'b'u[ 'he' w'ould 'l:aJietTul'l'y 3Idju,s,t rhle·m EO :pre'1laili:ng 13'te for ,crlients ,,~lho

w-i'sh(-~d-~ ·~o II-C--:-· t' so -~'~ii'Jh'·~ /1 .. -. ",,--C--:. ,~~. ·'I't'· ~f- -~ s, .. ~'=~~ .;::--, ··b· ",:- ".'[' --Ir:d-I- "~. 'l'" .. _=··-~,t· 'if',""'- ·1,·.----·,···--,---·'-k,~;JI.---- ,P'II'

" .'. ~.: e:L; "I~ry'l,m.ell.':.' tll(; lne.re~I,"I.ng,,~u, lU~n ~ wan. Il.O 00" U .rl.olgl,,·

. I'''hus the craft of '£'~il,o'ril]!O: d:~v.eIIDp-~\ d ii' 'l,ec'hni~ll 'hisr.oi'r\~ s')lowil .... and i,t

• "' ~ ., ---- '.' '.'~ ,-' "', -~'. ~. '-~,.. ~,~" I '~' '. '_ . _ ~_',.-' '_, ,_'" ,~,. ,~.',~ .C.~_ ~ -'~'~'~.1 ,~.~,,~.~ '." ,~y I I, JII", .' , .~,~

,1= 'r.~I~:~ n~ ~ g'. ']·.~r- ~;:o'I1 d< n' r ~ 1·II,y.,,~ 11 e,-~~l1'r n'I~1 e.' --,~ n'; 1~"'iIJ~ p .... ~' '[,a~ . C.' ( .. t···· 'Ir,~ Pi ~~, "'~~]~I tl' 'h- 0,',,- .'U' I 'Ii' h,:':·. o!I. iI'rt']" 'n" g .... ~." t· 'o··~.··: ";h. :'ml',·I~~~'~./_~' O·(::·U.· .. '0. · •. 1'1Id,::-

. 1!l~.I1ilial,,~ ,a:,."1I. I. !IS ilL . u. ,1!'¥'Ii , .., .. '"" "" '~ . . ,. _ . ,!Ii. . d~'.. . ,.!lk ,. . ''ll'" . . .11., ..1 ,

• I . J • " • - 'l.' '9 - - - - - - :. ,- ,I •. - -

'to

·, H.E,

U ,l _

to'p I'O'S l·T.~ :8,O,T 11: O' ' .. ::

ii·

The m '.'. 1m. suit-coat mak . .i~l . '~'-,I aeeearanee tal,o'" wi h ehe neck ie:

l .: I _"

but s ,pe'~,y' leas ',e' '. "'iIl I male [., sh-

~oln: ,bl'~I" ]1IC('_. s,i,Ey'r; ! nd SID is rna .. n. Dir

H- II - 'h-I -"' - - • - .. C: -

. D" n . - ··rr' ·no\\·· ····'(lm ]' .. ' " '", ;[,o'm'

_".,:",:,. '.- • 1_ ~ " l_' _ II " __ ... ...:...__. "_ '._ . . _ _. , J _ • :1.. ."_"1 . ....:._:_ I l' Ei

[n i.ri'E:· !.i:'ra:oli': life :fi·a( b .' ", ribbons and, lace .1,II!C:k, and women eq(J,all"~i and h.ijh, .... he led. shoes are' 'w'om b~'- 'bD,th.~ bUiE' (ID,: rosite bOI'ttom.) onl.,- for ri ~ ft· would a m ~ .-

'_ ~,tt-·,d ion'IO ICIOIS~.I __ n.d d:ra:p·:ld, at sleeve and skin, , "hii h here ···h,o' :', ,il-'j b3.' ition ' double ch racter v .'~, . " c'le\~r·~y·,.·"

, . .

h

isl

hard ..... won ~~lki·ll-: or an,y fundamental unders 'nd'in"G: of the crafi. If new materials became a'v,_j](llb~le;, they \V' re fi'rsr~ adapted to old, methods,

bi h a d del h

WLIC,) .]0 turn ~?'_ ere ~a.~;al'prtle', ta encompass t iem.

I',. odern technical 'i'nvlc'D,'io'ns, like the clewing' machine, have tended to be' used at first '[:0 create 'Ihi .,~' that lookedm e in the old wav~ · . vn-

~ jJ'

rh ietic ·t"~i'b~::r-~Ir~ W",,:J,i~'Ij!9' ~1r'11:'t~ used to im :I··t~'~'·~ natu ral ones: only 1~11~1J::.I,:II.., .. ·d· .. :O-I.~~,

_ ' ,"'"" ,_JI,_ .1:.,. ,III,~~l· .. """"Ii,'"", ,[~,;I"..-:I ~_ . _" 1".:-. ,,_ I '_._ g'iLi,,"", _.jg,I~. ,.1 . __ , I "" _'" . _ ,':.I_,' "'1~~ ~._ '~"~"'_'_'" ......... "1

'h-I I, :tr:' '1- h- ')- "L ~ 'L~ 'h OJ f

new tee :JntOIIlO'~' [leet s~;_,le I~S a wnote, 1:0 '[II'f' astonishing .~~r·[·lory:~_·,',' of

DI' ~1 ' .. ~ I

modern 'In-Ie'~-I-'~> ~·a·-:·.:I·'·IDI--::,Ir-'-;'n-;ID'. th 'I~~ I~ :~~~, L"~I'~' bee n-' quite obvious Inexpen "I"",' ~

,lUll, . _ . _. ~ .. , .. ,,~'!i.5,iI,. _ ". __ • '," "II" '-f''!Ii _ . ,_,j)! "'" ,,,,", "''' ,fl.,,;:) . _ ""', "" '. _. __ c!1i..'ri.f .', '~' ,1(. __ ". _·iIi ".Il _ ' .. _, "",,.I, _" , " ~

mass-produced suits ale ·,:OW made WiEh. varying . inds of fased synthetic materials 'tOlf the invisible in.·- erlinings rhat shape the ga.'rI1.1el:[].t;1 'bUl the desired 'ciIc:'c,t; remains thar ofhand-e iloring and band-finishing, Just, ',S it: was two h·u.nalled 'years a.gtD~ Outside where ir :S'h,QiWS; sy,n,th,e'li ... · /~,ab:[i.cs are

either blended with ,n.a_u,~rla'l. O'I,I.es to preserv -. the look ol.f' nature, or to mimic it can :fully~

'B Y .. H E S E.:'·· t_::.1 I] ,~ .1\ lL f oi the eighteenrh century; feminine dre .. s had acqui ,e'd I, f3>:r~J:~]1Iorvirl_g: rhleI3,tm:.i,c:,_'1 5ty:l.e of p'res~,nt3,lti.'o:rl i'ncre':)Slin,g·'I.y' given u.'p by male tailors, who went on, ·bsin.g their own constant

chanees :0,-'0-' IP;'\I!!'.O·_IUI·,-·;~'n- .·,~I"r-I Y""I' prin . ciple .... .Sin ice (,II hi ~e tend ed I I'J·O',: .• : involve It' he

"!i..I. Q, iC'J' __ ;tJ.! ,-'" '"'" !l __ I!I."IIIU". IIL._,._[,,_, ,'Ii.,r,_._, ""' r t ... _ ,11 '_, _ ".' d,,", __ "_.Ii_ _'!!Iir.<.," ' ..... __ "_V,''I'·'"'' ._",,_

whol 0, costum -I~' ""1:'-" o 'n: "i"",~, the ~a~·,c'- 1"._.:. ·W'"'·~'I~'·B . "'111'[- lv subtle 0,;::"1'" eom usl 'y u - -D"I~"-I~I~"~"-

'~'Ii,_._ .: ,'_.~ t:--.: .II ... I __ ,-.:.__I._:~ u_ .. ,--,_~,"" I.:.-_,._,,,,,,, \,o.rI't,;, 'Il.- ,_ "",,,t~ ._.PlI_':__:'[l' a._:_,_ '.:_ .. _-~ ., ·:__:,~I:·:.___'- :, ," _- .ul!Ll!!i;.oe

ahle {as'hi'ol,~l ·\V,3S. feminine, gr-,:d,llall,r becoming tll.IOI[1! preposterous and

'~~ r~''''ly','' '~. 'r~ 'r' i.,J1 ,L~.'P-I'IP-:'~ rl-" n tt~I~I,): ~' !lI '~I ~ ,; ed '~I~. I,' 'I"'~h-I, a' "1-'- ... bat . ("'0·.'-':-:· U' ~ ]-Id,<' b _;iiOI, rh '-10. (~I U'I" . g" _"-' I-I'll iIf d~-i :-;III~' : cio 'UI ' 'S'·:~ '.:' "

'.,~ iIiOIi, , ~ d ,U €I: . €I ~_ . ,_, 1.111:j iI,. . .~. Ilk... ,,:J~it _ ~_. .. .. ~ """ . .. . .111.11., ,t: . ( .. ]11,"-:1_ ' .JI

,,_ '_ _Y Ii!

'0- .... '0-1' an d h "'liI'ii.1: cons 'I~I~:- ~'n- - ~1'·\.iii' received m ·-··u·- ch less P~"_--"O" ". "--ru-I- ar arten ·t-~I'IO' ". ·o-_ "'1IJt~-"lh-" -J' '1" [h-'"

<_,I, ". 'A __ I __ ,.-u~ ""._,-,1 ,_ ,-,~,,,,,,, ,)'-J' .. i-' ,iii""",'\;,;. '.' .-JI!_ ."""._ _c,.l._l C·,.;,,; I,~OI," '. '__ ,___AI ,~.'I!.: '1;.,.-=" I, .,' :.I,~ '~!!I' _"'~ -,u,:g !OJ

iii" has t miove .• d.,': 'I'D' I'U·: ch more he Y"iOI-:~r'-

[I, I! 4_. I' ;JI ."1"' .. · 1 I, ~ t _'. .,'" I~ . ~j ' •• " ,IIJI .. I!I!I

. 'he increasing separation in the ·~VII.y the sexes wished to ,3:~.I.pe,ar is ~nj]al"~'[est if I the portraits of ,c.o,~upl~~1 d.u,:ri'll·i' the 17'70'ls and .1.7r~O'~s, .. both English and European, and in ehe 'P ···:p'lIl~'.-r' prints and 'fashjloll. plJ,,)es

showing a male and, female figure together; Men's 'SU'-~,tSI'-1 all'boill.,g·h they

~,'·~il·'1 mieht b .. ;P .... ~ 'm II"'':'Ii"d:', Q (].,.:, .. ,,~ I~'n' nbm ·1-···"II:ld·,:,I~ .. 111"'-,I;I.~:d,~· ,.lllk·· ''''!III'OI 'd;:-I 'W"I.',.' o·;·,,"",'f-'nl with 'W"~ ,1'1·~:·-:·' :~'n" d;"- lace -.: ......

il.~lI! I , .. ' I:) .... ~ .- "", ,',. D_- ,L '._:: .. _ \,. I.~_,~. --. ,.,., .~ r.~ -. a~lL.. IQ ,J_. ','..-, .. " ~_ .. I. ,_ t' - . a~.J-· .. (1,(.-.:

trimmed sh'i,rts,~,"~':ere shown much reduced in overall bulk, whereas women' attire had pro d'i,gio'u, sl,,)r' expanded, Back in '1'7100, men h .. ad s,ti'~m kept 'to the ,- -,_,amlq'u"e ideal of innovative male expressiveness in dress, the ·b!i.g 'w~'_~~ included, and women still looked stif£e"f1l :111'0 ric' restrained, and smaller in scope; bur 'by 17'7,S", the refining skills of' male tailors and, the . 'a.n.,c;·'fu,I e,tIo'rt;s o.C· the femi.llin.,e, modistes were showing their deep differen ((",P'

__ ~,:_,:,I "",: )~I,,, >_'!i;,

In .... ~111J .~ he 'pl~;:-~I~I'!!t.~·UII re '.Il'".. 1~'-hIIP ·W,·~'"D'-.·n~. ·)''''II,n-. tak ~.'" 'II~ 'p'.~' iI"'~WI.·',."··l~ ~e ;~,e I' nu ::c:: h room ""I~, rh e

',~_ a ill ... '!W ~_".. .... ~i!i. !Ii.. ""' _ ...... r : (iii, ,,"do !!!!..-Jr.. 'Ui',I, '", .!!Ii..;",", g."i) .. .lILli, ," . 'C' .I-VU.. ~~'1 !Ii. '''',

man, In the French £a's:hioln. plates, the 'Ie'min'j,'nc' f~:gtl,'-~~ is 'filled, out \~_'~ith pu:flY' hch'u,s", b ,aJI 0 oni ng skirn covered with bubbly furbelows, via's t airborne :haIS, festooned 'with. ru:fft,lc:s and :~r:~a'Dds,ti supported 'by' mountains 0,£' £rizz:~d a old, 'A'u,·ffi-d hair, The whole cloud-like ensemble is :Ilu,:r the r at-

te nde .:d', b-y':; the m .IO···:VlP"mICILe'· ','n--;'I'- '0'·.' .... ~'h·· 111'011 vc "'il!"~ s and ribbons thar catch -, It~ be ~11'".·r,· ~I~'

_. __ . ~.U. ,.'" __ I ._ [ " __ e- "" _. ,,,._" ,_'. _. L _I", 'W._ ,j] 101 "", __ , )i,__--_ .... ,Ii.. _~ 11;.." .... "_ ._ a!!l!o.o__: ._ .... la ~

rhe -I~.d(~-,y\.,' '~·I.~"lIiI-~:.

'_ .l,~ G ~ . :'j '¥lIi'a ~l~

The man may 'be nearly a foot shorter. 1-' is hodv forms a slender

_. _ ' - - . - . !l ~ .•.• ~ , .!P ~. _ ... _ L' •• • ~ I [Ii l! j ., 1. l! _. - • ,,J./ ' . .• , ,. _ . _ 1 l ., , _. . ,

'u,n'it .. his 'wig"! disp:,'IDaiY<,s its ti'D"ht, curls with resrrainr and hi, nea 'hat is, of a

• _. 1 "11 - ~ - - •.• ':,."; ',- - ,- ",' I '" ... C" ",' . "_._l ~- ,._ • I . __ ',_' '_ L' ••• _J1i 1.11" .• " I I ",_.' ' ~_.,_, •. '_:_:__,',._____:. _I

m·~ 'Io .. ····d··· e '''[-1- 1i!i:1·I'"I"P.... .."~ .. I ·~'I·-k·,-"'-.::-· '1,-~,--:- -:-. nd ,- -:-- -,!J .. '.. . .... '1"" ',' , ",-:- "_"'" . fabric th ,.". '[-·'·h':···· , " .

. ~ . II., I""S ,~,~~., - lSI 's\l ····.en Jl.e~, .an.,'·' ,arm 5, ·are so fee a ,eX1l)r-a '. .... 11.1: -- III I ;ih~j' .: II ey·,' ...

I •.... ..• ... -. _ .. r. •••• J •• I ""Ct~·· I ._' . J~ ••• __ ,._. __ ',_ ,_"b . J J..... b',_.', _ c ••• ', ••• II', .~! .. J

even look spindly, and his narrow shoulders carry nOI distracting rib'bO'J1)I!;

, "" c • I . ,...;' c. • } • .,. ..,_ ,.. , I, ..., ..". -" . . . . Ii!: .. .. ,_ --.... ." ',: .. _)' ,

or draperies. [. 'I,s waistcoared stomach curves smoothly out bere een his open coat-fronts, bI31I.ancin .. g the gentle flare 'D£' the coat-skirts aste n. 'H:~

10' soks '1i ]-II---t-'lle" . "1'-1"'" .~~ ·'Ih-PI '11""I·d--::-';-y"~"-~' 'P-'-ID'A '0',-"'[=' child-e-unless 1lO"''''U wish to see him as

, '~ '< .,~,-~, a. _._ _,' ,_c,~ I",,J I ,....... '~iQ:,_-. ~;/ ~, ,I < _ D"""c" '.:... ""Ii ,c, _ ,I ".' ~1Iijjil ,1" .~.~ 'II''" ,~,': u u I.:~ _ ~'!!!.." _ rl~l, L " ..... iiJi

her guide or keeper, a responsible mall with a. large decorated beast on a 1 e'·21S'h, lor a full-rigged 5' ~ P in tow, The Istron,g d~i'lIe'r, nces 1"0, the dress 01'£ men and women that 13'P:P ea red. in the art of :I: . .:... __ --OO had none of'this sort' lof im '- .• ba '1:"1i.J]~ -, C,-'~,',

III . I. • ji3L I. __ ~I~

Later ei,gjJ.te,eln'lt'h.,-c ent u t , ry' male tailoring seems 'to have followed 13

gene .. · -"I"""l,'I .. ',m.'· 07 vement 0·'.:-:-"'·'£'--' m nat -'~rr~'tl~11 ras -·I~.· ~~:Ij:!r,'q'y .. ,'l" fie '. xn ~ B~ ;,'~I1pD,I."q.,· ·'U·. e e loq I uem e ' ~O.I·:'-_'

~I .19 •• !t CIt. ,_I e . _ . ~l l~ ~. I JI" ._ I J~ •• _._~. ~1L11 'l. -~ _ ~ gl 'r'W11I1 I d' • 9. • Udlj'-. '. . , __ IIi '_ . '_ _""_ . IILI., ~ l~ ..

I :.-' '- ~

'":~,,,I,I, ard greater simpliciry ;, .nd less breadth of disl:pla,.r~, Male tailors for

women mieht have d .• ··.~ )()'nl~' IF·'L~ sam ,I~' £:0:-,1[1-' women's ~'I-Io .. · ·· .. thes: and in ,d·' eed male

""l_,' __ '. I~"_'~' II •• I~ _ ~ ._ • __ ~ IrIJl~ a ... l.' __ IJ. ~ __ III J~" iI ~"._. _].9 NiI1, .. __ , ·~.jl ._}~~. __ • I .. _~ __ '-'

t'aril,ors am\\tla:y' d'ild .1,)lak.e' tl~.le· ridirl.g c]ol,b.es, "torn, bl)' .fa's'biona'bllle· w,ome'n."

wh·• '~Ir:b' ·" •. te·· ··If·e·· ", d··.~S'='·l·"g~·/n·· ··Ie,·,d: a·::"n-~,-d-,~-T'1i·'1id,e a- ;{,""r~rfl':l~'nl g .. iIl"IO" I ·1-J-'1I,~-~r-u-'~;·.,.e,·,·;, ·1'IIf"'110·-:--:··,d,"IIP');,., LI-,,:::uIT·~ W,,···, 1~ ·h·.:::

, J :f~I~ 'f~j·" " _ .'~, ,': .. 1', __ " J '.~ I.~. ' ':&".-" ~ [_ .I~~~_ 1JU:! __ l I! _', l~". : !cl!lLU_ :':_)i~ UlII .. ..:..~·.. llli.::.IJJ·.··.·'. __ --J~··' Ii} ... _)IL· 1_ ._. 1)'-': !l: 1

" _',- _. ,,-

a. 's,kir! i'Dslte',adJ o:f' p,:,'n,'>,~ Si.ne:' ,t'h,e' :la,I'I-e s,~ve,n.tee'n,rh ,cen'tu'rC)l:~, s:u,ch, ridling:

p'ca-r rep,x;:re·se:n:ted a. c,onsltar,lr. f-e:013le e.ffo .-t to, sthar-e in lnasc·u'lin.c' tra.dir.i.on,s."

Iii! I IJ J!'

,a,e ,1,t!I3S'E [an'loln~g ,the' 'u,'p:pe'r c'l~as·;e._"I.~ in-lu,d~i,llg~' s,h,<:'re in. ,th.: ,~,e.X1ualmy :~.l,e'llll,[al

,a.'-(:It,·,ivi£y,·,· .. ·:: o'-If :ri,d-~il~·n.·.lg.··.~· "101::; 'h·'IO'-,UlLI1·:~:""I-. S·;',~-r':I~ol·-U-'~ -r-·I:~·d,:.:li,n:··g,·- .. -,: c.'-J11~ O,-'~hl'-I~~, '-nu.····,·,·g---.·:h-',t··- h-.··:"'Ji'"V-""Q;, ;~I. I~II -IO:--:-~

- .. .' - ,__ ___, '_'._ w ~_ ~ '"'__ ~ , ,_ ilL--,_ , . I", ... ,",,~ .,' _, . _.d\ . ~ a ,111._ r ~

:._ _.'. '. J :,_ '_,

'Q' '('!' X,. A 'N: I D·.··· :,~I, ·U.. 'ij ~TI . :5:'

.1 ..D ,_'_, .~ _ I ._, _. _,' ",I, I I _.

church, {eminine~ modistes took the idea of refinement straight into rhe domain Ol'~ feminine fanta~ly ,110:1,0:t :in a literary sty,IDe, seeming to imitate se:nti'me'n'[ali,ry~, pietism, It~. ;'/ :io'Ehi!c,k"~ preoccuparions, the cult: o:f feeling,

-II h r ,. b b I '"' ~'bm ~ h JlI

~a<nIOJ, 0 tner ,31' :p e c ts Q:' .: ,e,II' teent ....... c entu 'ry' C"U tnre net 'vilsi. ~1;l.e' .I'D t ne an-

vance of'the masculine mode, Only '\~~Orme,n could We3.'f full ... rigged ships and model, villages 0:0 their heads :i'n, "77::_1,~ S,y' this period, expressing visual fant3S," in d,es:5 W'3JS, an entirely female privilege, Gentlemen now me, .... '~,ibera,tel,y, 'held aloof from ,a'l'I"awing: their clcthed bodies '101 be' elaborate

W·· "J I. "0" -. rk '.~¢ 0-'-- - f 'v': ,cl~ C'U~ ''''I')' "'!Ii I rt : as Hi" .en "'ni V"',;: '/ '1'1 'I c" h a d b g PJn'-'-'" ,'- ll -y' ;' as m U'- ch a ~ E' .:~~ zabeth

")"""-)''- ... ~, '.'-'.'" " .. r, JIII. __ .ft d...: -ti' . __ "iJi ., ,1\...,1 ~ J ' ... " ",il, ' __ "':_:_ .. _:__,,,",,,,,",,,,,,,_. . .'0' '_- ,-,,,,,,, ,~ '= ,~,_;iJ!' '_._:U_L ... ~)\..' .... ",

II~I 'O'~ ([ a ·C' c:'h~::-I~I['~I:i3l~, '~'~. h ad been ··C.UI illv .cl:.: m meh .~C: '::- -lh·,··'r' stin .~, 10'-:£'" '·S-'-''''1''!f,e·.:d-'-J~Ii"[II'~,.

,. iIi:t,~ '- , I ... -. '<'C" ,_,- U" 1'\0",,", ,I, ~ " Q ... _-.. '. __ ~", It I]_ I' .. _,. .,. -" .. -_" .. ", i1.'i:Ji." _, ,~!Ik __ , g, '._,. .- .. ' '!Mi'''''' '. - __ " ... 0111..11 ili[~

,:,> ens :£arn,ci,fbl productions became detached from, their 'p'hysli,calJ 's'e'),v=s-' and arpp.-lrenlly" women became deta ch ed 'from, men,

The physical sexual identities ofmen and women have :r1e,'''e',ntl:,: been described, by "homas Laquenr in, "1,1",:.,1 >~,kiD:g:~~,e~xl' as, having been recon-

'~"r. _CUI cted dn .. r·l~ n i.1 rho ': . e · ,~:.piiilv"·:e· '1Il-:' teen .• ' th I i\""11~1jI,t-U' ~'ry, ... '.'HO!!. 3 .•... 1'0-1 d.1 =- lat J-~"r, ',,' sh . 'I'" ..rlr~. '''10-1 th -, e--· ':, ch aracter

iJiL '. ,lI;.;-iL,"", . U .. , . "I IlL " ,.' r;),"-r"., , , ,'\.,u'-' ~,. ~~,!I"iI"i1'," . _.' , ,g _' iOJ; .1]ji~"1 ,J! . " '. '-, _'_ .,~!Il.,~~

ofmsle and female sartoria] expression seem to bear him O'U.'t~1 '\~~,:'halt be calls .., · ~I,t'_',' "'0"',-:, ex ·m11I""id·,'-Ia!!:I'- "~' 10"1(:' se ocual identirv ersdu fflIl'''ly,,·1Ii cam "~ 'I~"D' . tn C"· .~riiiiXl·· _':'·I~·t-iP1-D·,·..r'A

"_",iIi'iili 'eI, ..'I: '_. . .',oii\"!ti;;" , ., ,U'- ,'1;,.;",', ~" .:,A, "at, ,. , " -~, " ti,;I- ,g' ,,~'11l1 ',..," ,- g. I·".,. ,,_. '. ..:..:. ,",' ~I_,'~' '--' C_'~~~":'

W'·'·· -'·C-h··"~'r,,jjol'b··-:,·y·,·.', m te n an .d ·W,:'I"I\-'O··llm·· I 1~11-" 'W··-:: ·:·'·e--'r--i:jJ perce rived ·t···-'O~I belong ;"0-:' vhol y.,~ se parare

.;t._ I",,~ ~j____:_"ll :..__:........:~,' .. __ :....__. __ --"':_J'--=_' ',_", -'_'___: oI~~:..__,:..__, \~ .. _.' •. _ ~ "'_j___:_~I. __ ._..:,'VL._ .. _ l •• _.~ll._··_.,.l .. , L·._··_ '.:' I ,lIJ.. " a .. ··, ~_.I ~. ' .• ~J

:_; I.. '. -.' .'j.

and disrinct sexes. "opposite" ~ .. n the modern ph rase, This model re-

placed a much older 'view ofthem a's corres,po,ndingID:y' arranged versions

O,£_- th ~I same eOI-"'n--ftlle'-) h' uman ;["., ·X·', with ,\r"II'10" "'011- a: 1 D'" '. "]i'. a less ,c..u· "Dlrv 'Fie 1- Jj''''' !!7'e d ., s .-",- g··.·-:e·-:

'_ . - I, ,""', ~g_,-,_~ ~c___, ,,~'_'_ c_,c_.,: > ~_.c.,_,~,,_ ;:]I ... "r<:Ii '~~ .!Ii..",. Wi~ '.", I, '_ .. I, ,g,'!I., _ 1,-~_ ~jJ :11_ "'i ;1."__ __ .. c,;.'~ ~_,~ ... _'.'

. . -

th "n. ,M,an,,~ The ,difle:r-e:llc'e' was '. hen measured 'by] a, 'sin,gI,e' 'sranltia'lld,'shi,ch,

endowed women with Iess '0'£ the essential heat that thrust men's ge'oi,tal 0[,_ ans outward, and ,P'V'C' men an active imagination as well as an acnve

"'11'11~1 co' d t, d ~ d id id b m ..

whl andjuc __ gment, the desire to create a'n~_, consmer iueas, ol~~~ects 01,( :51,1'-J

U,- tions external to themselves, ,,~,,~ ,:;'o·:,:.'m·iL'lin-- '.'\:], d eficient force kepe b-~-:D''''I)..., h-,'- :-1-

. -' •. 1._ ll.~__ ., _ ,_ .... _ ,__" I:J,~ .. _,V,,",iiI,.. ,.... I, a, ~ ... , _ "_ 0 '_ ' ., ••• ,_,~ _ '" ••• U"II, . _e:r

,~,

imaginarive and procreative machinery within the compass '0:[ her 'bo1d-y,

where ~he,r reproductive o'rpm, were exactly )ike' _,',:'.,I3ln,'"s"tJ Olol,r cons ncted

1!Ii

'1 n re ver 0

.~~.~. jI ••. ~' 'W' ~. . ::.: .....,;·,~I

The later idea o,'£"'~'i~{o'D1a,D,~ which £ree_: .. "._, her :611Dnl the appearance '01"'" b_ i'og s,im ply' 3J'n, D'n:-,:'x,p:r-ess,ed, "~ 1 lan'~1 13',,:,e wo'me:n a, 'w':hole':'e'parra,e'

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= .

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ra

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cue en l

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'Iilil embroid - r' d waistc

il olai

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blr his

,ren ini

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-~~ '.' --

- , .. - I ' .~ - , ,- -, -, -- [' . .

I I ~111e\, "~' ,~, I e (1 ea",

~''''S. phere" in w·: vh i#'"n 'P'O-I I '. ake '~i'A"II"ltI"UI"lD- ~" Pri'vI~ exer cise: 'brU-II- \lil'"I'-~'h ~'D-' I ~I~S fou nda-

•. ' ,_ '-' cl ~ d- "" ~,=~ .I_ __ ~,,-- L ~, iL _ ~ -_ ,u,,;Ii ,LQ,~,_ I, _ _'11,., '_' '"' 1\.,- _:_ '-- __ ,I '-', M"- 'I __ _, _ _ ,_, " ~ iO _ JI!, Ill,. '_ - '_ _ --' (JiI.

tions -Iii n ~O··. ;,m'I" aewhat m ore advan ced kl\-I'1IQ,-:- 1'- -'I~'d,:~=,D'~ ,~,'f'·' anat Q,··-.I_!-I·n.·,- '.y",~" and l"iI, new

lL, .~ .. _~ . I ;:) • II •• ~ '., ~ d._ . I II .~l ~ •• "_ • ~ __ i .• ~ _. 1_.1.. .. I ~ '_ '-b~" pl~llln ... I j " •• ,[ j... ~I ,_ ....

idea of c~:u,!t~li::~'-. its approved liml,l[S also seem '[0 have kept female minds 6r[~n-d,J~' linked ,,(]I :fe:ma·l.'e' bodies, ,and, much more firmly linked rfJ3'D ever b c fo re [0,-;, th e "aslle··,· D· .. ~· .• r emb 0 ... ~ •. ' d ,y' r in'-' g:~.~ '-I-I all e ~ fan I~'" Sl~'I-SI'~' ,- "he ims .g~-:i 'D,::-' :1- ~ ve gi 'ft' s IO:':'I~_j

___ [!IIIIIIIII! _ _ _ _ l._~ __ ~ __ ~[!IIIIII! . ~!J~:I' ~ -- -- ~.-- ~ ---- _. _ ~~. -". . -- _ 'I" =_~

:_" '_ - ". . ..:..

worn ei "'-"'0:-, '0'" ·'1' .d t ,~,'>.p.~:\a-·· rent 'I' 'y"~" be best ~'I. ·.l·~'--'p-~,II~r'~,d,<. "1';0, 11·· crearin :~..: th c:~'I .. ,c1-~I'~~1-·\I .. ,'e-_:t'; ,~.I' --"

_,~ .. . . . I ,iii, c:.. . . .. a. .IL~. , ... ,_ __ ~_ 1Iii..-, ,V, "!Ii,;.... .1, ~,Ii.'""a !l-:&.< 'L.. !L. ,~], i.,iIi;;"\"-, _ .. iJi ""_

l I y •• ' , [) _

'p"l~i'~:S''''I'VIP' ve '-', -"I~:O'"n-" ,D,_If"" 'V;I'P'O:I:I[O-U,I';:, male ~e· :'X,':', I'r,e··· ·It:,P,;.O··:I'D- with :0:1 •• c I: .'~" ,;.0'- :'10·'1 ,~~I piq uant

,a~~-- _!!!i.;l ._. __ " ._"1. _ ",D- ,,-_. , __ ",_1_ --,." &'_.~illJ__' 'Ii _~ [II, " _ .. ,_. ,ill ,,[,'ia_J, , !II',-_.A-""

'L."O·' 1'[- rowines from -, male '0' 's~'ape'" '''1in-'' c' t· oward ,". O:U'II'""t"'e- - ~'e-"'!p"a' -'[·'.i"!lil -~, i:"~"" of '''''I~l-'C

'1) -e -- ~..·c·' 'Ii''II ,1_, :ic,:i"'" ,[1',.1" ,..' J,,",,, _:_ ~j' _ ~ g_ __ _, ,~, iii - . _ "" u . '- ,I :'_ .,g. ~!'"" ~",,~, _, .' ;J!!!ii.;t. 1--

perpetu '_"-]~·'n··g·. - c:, .. "h-'·"I~D·-·-·'n·' ··b·lc··-· refe renee: T' 'hese m ...... or ·"0··'····- more d ··-Ci·'"rl'"b'e·,d'

i. 1_, - I:: .. ,'._. ,I . _ 1t":J .. ,I I II: .:)~ I:I~' \'. ~I : I .. , _'.: '.:.-, _I.: :1,", I ..• · ,I J '. _,' 'I~[I_ ·ll.,-!~&~IJIL; ~ ,_',': l~ I_I' 1]: .. ·._,"··., <._ . . r~: I :"1:. '~., I '" .: _ . ~ :,' _} ~:: t ;, ..:I '".. I -t · . _,:.,' ~. i. ~ I . i . : .. < - -" . I

, '-

collective £~Jmin'in,e' l'ma'gery di(icc.I:'my 'E'hoo'u,gh the constant re-s1h,a.·p·i'ng and

rea rran ' gi -0 0" 0-· -"'n-' I-Iy';'. '0"·' '£"';' .p '0· '-", 11' ven ltc,';' '0" n ~, "II,y" fe mi '10' '1'""1 AJ Ii!ll r r' '0··· "UI te ~"iIi I' 1'· d"1 ts b -, 'e"g' -[:-[1" [~II.f]·-' 'g'

, ~-..J,I,,, ',,' i'> . I ,z=J,':' I ~,':" 1""",_,,, I" "i'-"" 1!Ii.' .... _, .llaJ!1l'/ ,lIll; I., ' . I, .,~,,~ ,a.L L ..... _ ... ' ~ . ~rl • ~,~,", ~,~ ." "_I' c • -~ iI·, ~.:,

he:~_,dg,e: _'r:~ Id,"c'O~neIYy-l-,~, land the ancient femi :,1 ine skirt. These took on more independent Iife,

A5 female '1"3S'hJO,'n became more autonomous, women's skirts spread

"'"

O'De into 'v,arr-i-"b~le' shapes less related to male coat-skirts: and women's

hats shoes and g)1 ... _lIVeS fO'f the Ii,[rst eime became g,uiEe'c'l~irrelent £mln, m tens, '~!"~o .• om . en ~PI -n" '~'IOr, create eve m ". m tore - e .. evocative picture .. ':, 0, l.iU·~I,r: o .. ·.-:~~ their

___ "= !III, ~W,! ~" __ . __ U,-" [,_ 1\ ~ _. __ iIl.-.. __ ~ .. _ _ . e ,__ _ . _ ~ _~ __ iIiIl!l.~ _ __ . J_IIi~!. __ _ ,Ij ~ ~.id

- - , .

D'W.n. p,rh}~icl· 11 5· ·lv,- s; men CDID1U.D'U:d, 'sa:[e1li .r·lyin:gl Din the I, ··xl-,r"na1l:y' es-

tablished railorinz trad ieion for the cresnon of an acceptable ·b~·-···O-,~IU while

_~ __ '_, !i:!i1_LI~I~ I"~ .~ .,:11,., I .. _,~ l!l,,_.,-_~_-,I_!_~.,_,--. ,--,-' :Ic__, __ '","", ~lL,~~Qj __ j~~,;_,_ :_:__:.:. gJ..I.:,_,_;, __ """.,~'_Qi;_;_'_'_,~ ~~:~·U'I'~" "j,}..:_.1 Ii\,;

they allowed their fantasies to llppe'ar' in works of fiction and art, Of' ill .... ,

deed in : cie . 'C'OJ~.7'"-_ P"-O,;-,' ·II'I!·~IC-;-t':, and philosop .,'rI",_ T·· ;L'~i~r~' fantai t~~ about W,," I. "O'~' men

_ '~~l.~.' (I ~I .)~ " •. _: ~_I"' __ ~,!!r. " ~)~~ .. ~.~ I._.~ :oLl, _". ~Il"" .' '.·U .. r- .I.I'~' . 111~~ lQ~IJ _' __ " ~I~J , ' __ " -,,_. /I I~. I,', ',"" ~ _"

• I. , J I (:

Wp,···'·:·re-·- '0' .r!Ii, r , ',:111,' inre "r, "p' ·-i·r-jjC!i.iIoe,· -d (Y, eely b-,-··y"" 'l,-"!I,,~ "0,".' m"', ·'c ... ·· "'0,'1 l', h' ,c·,rm-···'ICe··· ·']-'V"·,i.;:li. I~ 'I"'" the -. 'C'-' alm ",1 0·.".-",'" ,t;: .. ~,'. "'n' .. ,.- .......

_ ~'l _ ", -, _: I~ -,nY' - . :_.llj.,.,_, ",- '\..---yl~ .. __:-p .• I~klll .. _,n •• - .1 '.' "_,- .. :1' '¥~I.,._/. Il~ I_J,_ " I '_ _1",_, II .. ~., -_ . _ ~:~I .Illi . ~ II ~ I I _ li~' 'l~ 1~ .

. " '-' :_.

nine f ~. hion .. ·,-- ,w.·':",·~'L,P,='~~,·.-·. O':,~:. them 'IP,=-",r had ,c..U~1 1'1" scope,

~ .",' lit .. I ~~. ~"I.l~~'~.. I," .. ~ ~1~iJ.I, ," 111·t. ~~ .. f u' ~I~'

l - ~ IS ,iE 'M 'Pi Til, :N G [01 ',pecula,'te about: rtl,e .plossible 'res'uJrsl i'f· aI1'-,/£ WO'Dle""'. :"~_.sh.i,o,n "ha,d cD,nti_uu'c"d, r.:o 'be 'me:l1 s direcl: res,polts[i'b,ili,ty d,'u_r,irn:g :t:'h:e-·· ~':O--,lurs:e~ lo'f': -, ":h,-,- ~ 'e-~'~,":h-' -',I~~~'ln. ·t~'h-I ·c"-":e:::<n"I·"t·-u·,~,~, I~;'II-:"'slt~~'e-"!I;:d-:- ·0 ,f': " Ji. 'U" S.;iIt]'~:'lrs'e..--J"~1 ~ HI.d;--·. 'r"~I.di~'-/II-I· D'

- '-'" ~'.. '- - . - . .' 1:. ..... ~ ...!IE)' .. ~ .. e' . •. ... . - . - ,. •.•. -,I. ",!:~ .'. I. - ,- . a., "',.. .Iie'! II. L. . ,~ .. )l.ei:. Q,!liJLiIJ... .' ,lIi.. -, . b

'h-·- ,'b-·Jlt,[- .•. ~~ D-:"e,- !t:-p-"i[-"p, !Ii::,rm'-" "'n, lpi!' ,s:n·c· ~'Illii "':'I,l'l ''(O:'·'''·''PCP~' ls''''''p-''''I'-r_:-a-;(-I'" 'DD r~·h p ~"e' 'X···PiIir ';"~I 0'···· f':lh·~··· ~·r· '111:ir'1liI:-Y·: ::-~~

, c__ ._.'" c I. ''" ' -=.- _ ; ~._._..I __ "'" ~ L, l_,1 '1'-1' : _ U ,_ eli L I,I~ /_!a~' _ ~~, " ""', (1_ I. ~ ~ II 'b ' __ " "'" ,;,,,~, "l"".., ,Il1"Ii_~ L,I, '~" ~ ''I', gI,," d'",

3'nd ,g,radu,all_~l ma'r,gin~~I'izin:g "e:ma'ie eiiIo'ft" ,t.i~'Jma' e d'ress, ~nli,gltlt stl~l. ha've

"'1"'~ J ~~,

echoed the increasingly restrained masculine program in saetorial <~X: .... pression, followmg 3'£te;r men ,~_IS if 'h ,a d 'fo'rme'rl)t done. The final mod-

ernizarion f"Iil~" '''"j\l"Jio·''I,m· II C", ""'n-'I'~b: d··',: 'reo (!,~ m: -"-"I'~ g" /hl,'" e' ·":')"e·· '0'1' h -'~V,·',:P 0' ,c: :;i""!'iIi'~I·rl:··f:·e·· "d," ~I :if""~'n-'·' tu 'ry. ~ .. , , .. earl ';1-'"

.~ ,,"ALIiI.,,,",,,",-,, 'W ~., .. : ,,[ , • ..i:l '._,,;:1,1~ .,,' -''', 1 "~,I,, ",..,,!!!I..../ ...... 'LJ",I, .. ,' ,,~, ",",,,-,, ... IIIl.,,,,., .. :if" ,~er

l"~' ~~

th !i'iii -n-II 1"'1[- ,~I id - .oJ1 .. ~'hl-:-' a, ~ .. -[-11-' e." .. ; :J1iJI iI~ ':11 ,![" 'ml ,1I'j'H' "ifl!, TI h':- rei ·W·· ·,·'_..:h' I' :0'. Ie - 'e' neer ~p' 'r'-I~ I~::dl ,j'~,+"";i: . I' -~ ash -'. ~'

... d .. ,. -e ,. W,·. - :!II' ,Q.... I~ . .' ~ ~. _. ".~ '_',\J _!I ~ ,u,tI! : '_J _~ ,,;i;li,;!!, "'~"'. ,,_. --" ,. "I . ...:: ._:: , ,I~~~, . ,",L ,a",= v,l, gc3""""".

'I~' o· 'n" ,~ 'DU· ... g' 'h-I 'f'; h "liVP "'Ii'V·O· 'I'" ...J e' d :. . O· . '1111 "IIi, .. , o· . f···· 'I'" t I 'I' ~I ter r~p- . utat ~IO' "n' a' ~ th Q 0" u t" 'I,'II! rard s; g' --1'1

,>' 1.11, ,I: .. 1. • .~'. :,: Iii., I" a ,I ,I~ .,' ,:' ,(.1'_ :~~. ":I,iI, ",I:_' '_, ~_,) "~LL.:, r 'L,': ,_ ,,:'_: ,~_ I ~ as 1(, ue ourwar ,~II,',~;~iIJ

.. --..:.... . ' . _'.

, . 'f'-II,: - 't- inctivel . n" ~I. ~"- .. .....re: ,'I -1,~ ro - d-' "= '1- = '11, .... - - ~ .. ,- t - d 'f"-' b -

0, uu ~ ..• ~ 'Ie ~_, ': .. ell,}, ,I em,' Il e' ::'U 'p er 1. ,u:ml_lJl'~~l a n,::_ _:. rn 0:[31 _c l'le~1I\,n,e5~hl I nste ao 0:-,,' ne ~

ing seen 13;': ,3, hu na I imaginarive e,1 "(llrt just like ,IO:Y other which ml1JJa,y [be overdone or underdone 'b)' bunglers 01,( either sex, just a's itt may 'bel Ult~:II

d b 'il' h

D,n-I p e ,·.-·IV·,,:,,>O,·.····.[·. '1111,

•• I~ • _ _ ••• J Iii.

-, ~ --

But since the clothes of- the '[WO sexes together :rna,)1t always be seen as the' image 0/>':_ relation, it's clear thar by the end of the eighreench centurv ,h,e moo'k, '0(' male tailoring had become nell just simpler, accordine tOI rhe L~~:b'i;o,_,n-"~", 'm:"';'~ ,~'I'~I mate e r :/a·-,··1' taste. but e .. even n"11Ii',Q .• ··.·.·.:rl..:.@Ii:.I.gg;-' .• ·r-'~,,?SI'i,1I,:~~11,)\'r simple "11-~

_ O~ ~IJ ~ dJI ~AI!j='Lj_. ._ ILU _~, __ ~l!L. ",-,. 11 ],.I! D\..r-t ' ... _. ~ Ji._, 11t'~lIJ1.) ~ _ I! •. Jl~' a

1-' I _" ['.J .'

feminine _' 1]1~d:)e"'~1 bees .. une m .. :'IO.··.· .• I'~ f~'n" ·Cc,ii,Fu~,'~I, ~T. h,II~' advance of resrraine '~:. ,i>f:'Iii

_ It.. '-:.1 .w • ~ • '\.~... .11. [1.. .. ;,I~"J! .[ld ""IJt.·, 1.lbLlli l lo.~ dl. . I. . •. l~~ '-I,. .I.I~~. 0, "., pS ~

q,ll,aifury 0,( male dress may well have been hastened, spurred 'by the ex'tfemit}Jf 0'£ ladies' fashionable excesses, of which ehe fo]l~~' could onlv be

e- ." iill

something S2'l1e men should 'be clearl.,)T seen to avoid, even if'l£h,e)'f liked :1'1

, , .. th 'I' d'-I~' .

,O'I-'''''nl II I" ~l . '.':- [11·e··~

. -.. :" .. ' ... 'Ii;,. .' ". II! " .. ~"!ii

Exceptions to these gen,e,.ralizatiolns inls'lan'dy present themselves --, Robespierre, for example, The' 'mIDSIE famous portrait of this lari-~1 .-1' chi-

"._ .... - .. _.' ...... "'-"I ... ', ._. ,,,,,,_:,.-,_ .. ,~ - ' .. "', .. " ... , . ','~ . ,,",. I" .. .'. '.' I ... it}1 n a.r .... ,.

teet ofthe ' .error shows him Cl2dJ 'j,'n v,a'rileti,e~1 olf'brig:h,tly' striped silk: and

h .. ~ costun ue £(o~:\'F the ]:-- 17·;"9:.:4 .. F. "·e. -.,"s··.'[.I''1:~a-I'1 .0.·,.'.',:'1£" ·I'···'h'I:D' Supreme cB~;~"~I'I'!IiIQ' shor ·liIi':~I",f~]',. b refore

, iJi """ . ~ 'Il..., ,. . (II. ~ 1Il.",,!I!;.,;, • ,~. ..• ' .. " __Ii, l!I_ .' . _ ' ,,' _ " J""" r.....",. ~" _" ."'" "'" ,iIJ,_ ,iIJ,,:;:, ... '1_, '. ,. Ill., 1. 1Iio,. .. (I.. ,iIl~..,

h'is execution was described as made ofvivid blue and white silk. with a

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ,_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~_ __ 0 _ _ _ _ ll_ __ _ __ U if 3= _ ~ _, '" e _1_ _,. ,,_ I ~ , a_

li''I!. ,.I"I~,·I"..J.,~;'I,e •. · ., .. "·."'J·~'·'k',. tricclor 'if'."3.' . sh - ~I p .. :J'IiII'DI . 1'· e.'· .d .. r h" ~- ,r.··" a.·~ md .. .-. be .. IU·. "1'1 .. ':' 'ul'le.· :·'t."_·' ~I'''','I ,'i"Il'DI-" ~.~'IIC,--r,>'"'e·.·.~ .. l'O,·,'- .:,"ry':: - I ';jp.

·'!I¥ • .lUJ_ I~IIL =~_~~'-' a.~~"l"~lla ~IWJiloll ... [!,._.IIIr ... l._ ••• __ .• . .• _ CI~ajl a_~_.!:1!~J. __ J ,~l 1 !J~~

~ ~

Sai:~.lt"'J'US'E, and certai n other :~':l1c',rce' members 0,( the Fre'n,lc:~l! Revolurion-

,ary government seem t'OI naive: dressed with a colorfirl exuberance rhen seen mainly on women, and with the sort of richness seen r.natl.n'l.y· O~I-l nobles '1:\10,' earlier [,JI~U'~ whsreve r their ~,O:''V'_ A,~I,', ':CP\;lIl' Prench f:'1II~:'lh. 'J~ :0 •• ·• :'n: pl "'iIi'''''~~ of

'." ',,_ . ,""' _ ,.,. ' '" g. _, \,._;., _' u,.,., i:I"l . , ,"11,1","-,. ~, ",", " _,~ , ~~ ;il1'!L,~,., " ,i:IL"" ,~I '" '"",,, ",I!!;;;.-, " l,g~"". '. "", ,.,1" "_",~I ..

lhe 'Ill,o:m,en't 's:ho,:,':/ thi, !b1ri,ght 11~ale p,t,u.'n13ge', all o'f 1'[' [J,'h:[,_,fi,tti:n,g~ ,a,'nd, ,paredl clown, in 'slh:lpe'J just '¥ih,e~:n, ,th:e: ne'"~e.st A,QIt-If! o:f male C:h'I,IC in, '~~a[is,

'·w:' 1,.~Ie: 'tr"e'~':ln""O" ~r-r-"u' 'IC' ~'k-·· b'.-.- -Y··'.' 'd·"I· 'f""'"b:'-' '~:'·r-· e__:_~'t- "-'~~I~'h, ""I'~ '0'-·' 'n'I"'~' r'h·· .'. 'I" r'""111 ·O-~' lin n,c'e' 'I'l~"b:' 0" ""[e~' .' " 'p; "ll'it'!li .[. iEi~

"'".,a,.,., D'::-),.iliII_:_'~1 ~_ -I __ J 1."_,_I_~,Li!!I-" Oi1!I~,._",_. IliI.~.,=c..:,.,,,,,~' 11I.,.,.;e.:"'"' Ig.e.:;" I!l,;~_' JlUU,j;]i' . Q'-""'<rl -'.1 ~g~II!I~1

.., 'o-i'.d "b~·.I~ g--." ' "'I, g'. : ig':-_.. e'·d,-- 'n'l ~I~,'II,,:" - r'" O .•. , "'."h'- I iJ" -

1 __ 1 ~ •• _." II '. I Igl1 '. . ... _~ . __ ' L ~ ~JIl ~ .... ~. ~ ~I~

:...=.:.... '.:_ .'.....!

In I ' 'E':lnl'n:~IL'"'I'nl ld,~". ,"'Ii ~:II~"h:I'.'~Y\:- ~~I'r-·-::'I·~II~[· .(·I~.rP-.iP' -I' 7-:-:/-7'_"::O.'~'~"')'" .f]·--:~I;t:"i.Q;- .u'-·,'PI.J. .0-1 ,'f': 'o·,.··,.lld·.~ ,-t."::'IC:h-I]\O"'·."le·."d,~:

" - -""t)!~,aL,_:t Q ~'-il"D,,,,-!I'J ~.I"',_,,,,,,",," :; GIll."'" - :1 ~,. =,_' l ,a_,IJ/!I!i;..-,_,' -,-- 1 g:.li " ,-"ILI_ "

:fal]lltas',~" ,amol,n,:g ge:n.tl,em,le,ll, 'res'ulre',d ~_n, ,t·h.e sty:~e du.b'bed, uMalclaro:ni,"

'W~"-: -::h~I~I'i!""'h' 1_, 'P;~IIl-" .. ··0···'.... h'-'-:-"'UI'IDe' 'ft!' ';i,~ a' "n-' ,d' '.- t· 'I'"I'O'::-"v" 'h'::;-· ".ll"~ va:"i:'" -' b··-, "'UI""'-"O"'IOIII(;: "I"d- '11,~~~I1..I~ln O':1.y.. b-'-:-"'r'l~ Uh'-:-' iii"'

"'.f . ,IL'\,;_" _, "'~oJ' ll!.~_· "" ...,;_:__ D-- ",.1 '~'b~- _ ~,_I_'), ,_ "",~,' .J ~a 1~,!J"I_.".~~_'fiJ_ ._ - I .. ,".~.~'.,.!, W '-~_.Ii.;ll~ _I J(.:iI ,~,.I,,",I",bJ ,','_-1,,", ,~,J"" t

~··t-r- ~ip···~-Pl'-., ~",r~ry' .',' ,rn.w,I',~. 'l'l;tfO-':~' 'fo:h'-I~ ~~-h}I"I,ol:'.'n::-· ,'a'-""n-:I:'~ 'J~ 't' .d;~~'I~:d'·,:·- '0'-1 ~,'tr ~I"i's"tr' .0·","'['1- '-h:.-,"'ii'v·\'r~ ~'~1- 'I~·n-"~·u· ':~:n-;:~,',-,

,ill" .iii,....... ~,' \..., .. ' [L '.' '. ~(", 11.",," ","".~ :~.:Q '".,.,'". ,u, " ',' .,,!Il.. a ".. "' .. ' ~ U ill.. , , . . [Ii", ,'!!Ii.;l, ... ~I. '.1

b'u,t, it, ;gol ,a 10'1: '01(' a tte'ntmoDh ,a,( ,h'e' 'ti.me a'Rd, wa's 0:( co'une s;calhi'Dgj'Y'

SEX: A-'ll S'U':I:'T':-;

called efIe'min~~-'te'~, Such b ief but bright mani(e~sl·a.'Eio:nsl~ in a ge':n.e,raID eli-

mate 10,'1.'1£"': ';I'ln: ~'[I~,- ""I~i'n'a male sim l~p~.'~I,~(;-":I·'·t;\1· ,':o-=I.D.,.Jk~· from a d.":' istance 'il" ce I'~" trace of

,_10& _ . ,,_" _. . _. ,. !Ji , !!!Ii,.; • ""'. ill . "b' -, - .Il"" L , .. ' ,n .. , ... '.},. , . . .. _. ,I],'U' II , . g . _ _ ... i1o_ i l , ... - ,I.".. . ., - ..... . . , ,

e,nvy' for the ~"ew female lantude in fashionable ,di'~p~a,y+. Po we ,riTuJ. men, were Ot1, the ~~eilr;g,e' Olf' ba;vini, tOI give ·U.·-~~.: all that for good, '~,ea'vi,'n,g :it tell vain W:OI11.,eni! actors, €ools~ and, children.

:' .~~ te in the nineteenth cf':ntury' ,an,ld, ea_rl.y' in, this one, men (.,gaiD" commonly 'became designers of'women' •. clothes. ,Att,.:"" the inicial S.'hIDC'k,. female fashion began to regain some 0'-' the respect, equal to fhat for

~--".-,~'~~ .',- ilorir ~"'h-L'-"I ,~i'. ha d once 1,.:11:': aved d '1~·[I'n~· the R··; ·~~113i~~'5·~'n:7""(·· when

Dle,n, s tauormg, ~ .. ~I .1.1 .,Ja~_, o,g.ce e.c_ .. ~Joye_,._u~.--s~-g t __ .e c__._e._~ _ _caL_,ce,..,_, ._,_.e,_,,_,

men were in charge of both. ['D fact the h'.,gh sl:_arnd_3Id_, oi male tai'l'D.'ring came once more tOI be' quite D.erally a.p'pii.,e'd, '1:0 elegant Wl0Ii,1"e'n'~ dress IdJu,~fin',G the nineteenth Icen"l~ury~s, last quarter, carrying 0'11 (mill 'Era,dj,tio'na') rid'i.~g; dress to develop other · ~D.r:· Ol( "tailor-made" ensemble for urban feminine tire Crisp shapes for tbe 'body and neat he'31~geaf' 'had [3 strong: appeal in, a period of social revolution and social r -e '(o.r·' 11" in,cl~I'dl,ll,g: fhJ: '. reform of' womens li.Vies and minds, At th,,:~ C:3111'i: time, ,~=3nJ·.als,y ,tin, 'reigned for ball, .... ,go·,wns, ~ nd tea, .... g,Dwns,- md the elegant at-horne costumes such as Prousr describes,

,.",:,'.0' nen, of course eve 1,I,u,~'II'y regained more respect alrogether, which has attached 110' the ',:'"Q,f,-" of fe,,',;lale' designers in this ,cc'nE.ury as i'l: h __ :~ 1'01 that of'female: rtisrs. -,~ he best modern '9l:.:,rkb by' women in fashion d~·. ···.;:'·'1] bas in £a:~IE ~o'ne ':~'Irait)ht 'In rhe opp osite direction from surface

_t: JIp .. 1 .••. I, ..... t'- ,I' "=,I!j" =~ ... "'" .. . .. ... ~ _ . _ ~ ~ '""_ l!!:_C

froth, and concentrated intensely 101:0 serving the shape and movement of the complete female body .i,aU!~~L. ~I:t has 'fUrtb\er insisted on conveying [hie' wearer's overall 'p'~":h,-si,CII, awareness of her 0 ,lin c]o,thin,[D:'f.' This concenrra-

. . ~ ~

tion did 110'~, See'DJI possible for 'tc'malle dressmakers in earlier days, when

women were d ~~s~ ··I~' IT g.-' won men 1.,:"'il~,IT,y'.' ~D}',:r' men '1-:0 lool ... ,3·::- tl" '1,:'." .en ~\I"I;·'"d,-~ entlv

~~ _l!Il!.I~.~.~L!~ __ ~J&.~ __ ~I~ ~ ••• ~~L!_ t:l!_. ~.~, I til' ~ ~l! .~ ~ _ I. ~ ••• ~ ~~_ ~_I.~ •• ~ •• "

~.' ~'. ~

wished 'tOI see women as apparidons, '11,oE 3JU' onomous organisms. So

lo'n,g as that was true, '.' \,O,lne'n. :nda.tu'faly' '£0110'. I'rea" I ,leal'u'fe' in e'J'~ce'lli.n:g, 3.1: the apparition business, whether ~.' _}~ makers or consumers of f shion,

I~ 10: ·1' 'D ~R· I ,-. ·'T ~y":- A> N,····m '0'1'1 ,'I ,M:'·- ,. p .. ' 't, '~I C: .. '-I T v

~ ,.,~. ./ [ill 1 • '-:. J I~ ". 1, ,I "I I, J • ',. I' ,", • ~., I j ...... l. L • J • .. _: - ~ ~. ~ '~;

It. III ,'_~ 11,\ T IF '~" :11 M ,~lJ ,A, 1(" T rl' i~: ·N' to the seventeenth-century dressmaker's revohrtion, there were other early forces lat work 0.0 the genesis of the unassuming man' suit. A certain new desire (olr sob -·r effects i'n men's fashion had arisen, not only from the modish soldierly s'inl.pl·j,ci,ty, every' ....

'~'~~ here evid ~I en '[I' in I'h-I,: [6· -1-' ~*: h '·l.iI·llf' ~~. of the ; e ~:·V' .. :· ene .. - ··I~'iI;I[" 'hi: ~1~n--II'tlU'· .11'. \' .,' ''''IIL!!!'h. ~-- ~Il-- :~ll,!iii 10.- ,:'f:'~'

'~r I ,L. .. .., _,'" _ ... ~ll.: JILl _ I L I "lI~riJ'll I Q.I_. ~ '- .... iiP . II .•. ~.j 1~11I.IL.._ ... _.I. _. I L ~"-=. I ~~I. __ ~.' "_r1! .~ _ I Ia. I __ ••

I.:.:

Europe ~·:-~'-LS a:t war, 'but by a new vogue (0[' clerical :mode,'ry~ Clerical

dress acquired la, s:trol,n.,gl [\iti:uai'p:ree:n,ee i.:n public ~i(e' with the' spread I. nd 'power. of Protesrantism d,l],ri:n,1 rhe cenmrv; and 'IJ11~ period also S:l\V rhe r I~I eC··l ,n f I'~ '11' !P,I:; "U-I ·-1~ ·0· ~:. ms :t:o:-:::' ·'-u· I'n-· d·: Ie ···dl-' '0'-:: ,on·' 're·: aso --:-. n .. an -,'d~; I~ Im- .. I·p-:;;If ·Il ca '~1 J- U' ·d ... !LYniII :i1lI1'n- _-:-.,. I' am '-U-(, .... ,

'" ~-, U I I .i.'I ... I~,.· ~.' - . ,. l't~ II~,I,., - ','- ... III~_I 1,1 1M I.: ~.,' ,I ~'./~ I .. .-J~" 1 ... 1 _ ,1.,[o-~c"'!""'",,"I' L... . ,dlJ I ,~, - . .'

'l!'n'-~·'g·:l~_ IUC, :1Ie--::- 'I~'C'--:-' ~iIi'~'" to ~~I7~'r·.· to bo .. :.·,.:,['h·:-' \p~;lujll~'g-:I_.iID.':'~'u· e "'ln~I:.JI. seeula ·,[-1-·· c.-'.--'-' 0': im I nm utm ent 1[-·'0,7;1

• l .. ~I'. ,l. • :1. .~... I~,I ..... I.I~ I, ~ . . .. '_' 11.lt'~JII ,I .... 3 ~ 11:1 :I.. . . ... u .11 Il-:. I I ~ "91-.. .• _

: -:> ;' .

th ·~I'U" u·1!--,·t·- and learnin t. g~', '!'I,'(;li' ''IJ:'':I!'t'e-:'("11 ,~(.c: to the honest pra ctice ,-9-1'0····:;4 J:·-U.· st iI:1 .. ," mini: ._J

!L. "'U._.O'I]I,"" i1", "_, ,.Ui b., JiI" ['~lI!' tU~ li~ ",~, U. _, _ "-" "'" '" .. ·,w, _..::IlL, ,_;__'clUi "."_!!!i..r_ _ ",[.11,- 31\, u,_~-"" _ ._,_ .

[~ rarion of -1- "'~j"-

i' ill "= .'. _." ._. '_ . ~ [I!I

For citizens of the risine merchant and professional classes especially

~ r' ['

in, Proresrant countries, ,3 dark and p . lain suit relieved bv :.i'D1P'--II,e white

_.1 1 .1

-I-'I~I'~]·· en reas .erted 111i'~ ·V, I) ··r·'U' old .oi1i •.. sociarion ··~I W,··:' ·:I';·it,~L 1~11~,'r 'I~'~I'~ \';1-]-' !tie- _ ... 1 li &7:P'~l~' ~I~· _ £.u-' irthe .. r

_,lI.~._., .... _.~~_",",._I'h~ .. ,Ii,!Il;._ ,,-.,-1,- '._._._,.I._.'._~ ,_ ,a".J~I. !!II,.I.,1,,,,,,,. l~a._1 .iI·,lilk .. liI,t'!'-,""',ilL .. "'-<[IlL" !Ii., [ .. ,.

supported 'by' suggestions 10;£ probity and 're:lil;c-iJoul J,nteiriry~ ,":',r the same time simple textu I.~~S." illicludi:ng 1,IC,lthIC'[ land ,p'Je:D't}r o:f buttons, obi iqu c,I.Y' suggested ,3 pote'ot'!1 quasi-military readiness if 'not ruthlessness. Both D'C' these effects 'hut succeeded i.n the non-courtly bourgeci vein, in

'I ·:_'O·:fl:'h,w,~SI, ' urope and in. England under the Commonwealth, Such ;3. creative combination 10If"· opposices-e-rhe ~,'=\I:"y"'l' 'mu,g;c'hn:s' of 'p-:-,.:r--a,ctl,caJ W,3'['

~l!~ ._,,_.lI*.~ _ ~ ..... _~~ _ ~. __ iL-~__ _ __ I - - _~·'1_. - ~~lI.} ~II r [!III!!I! __ ~.I. ~ ~_ _ ~ _ __ _ __ _

~, __: '.. .._- ~.

100e~:_- ~::-I~ blen ,d- ed 'w, ... · -'-'--I~ th the reti cence ~'f'~ cler _"':i~'!'1I·I;' cl othin p'.-::-_,L,"'!Ii"~ ~'''''d.11 ,C~'. '11,"'I~l,·-I~ iif:'Itl" D' 13[' ... ~'"' "'... .. . .. ~.. Il.., '" . ",,"~,~-.-., ~ .. Lr. ,,". ~_" ~ l(,g, ~,V,~, .. , ,~, lldil!.in II , ill ~.!i.1~_ ~iI.:IJ.~,

:powe.r IOI\:rer t'hi __ ' masculine sartorial i'ma:gio?tj,o'n, ..

'Wa'[' and reli ~ ous fundamentalism both rend tOI dramatize the d~;lIer, ....

" _ ..

ence between the sexes. , ~ve'nJ ·wJi,fhJou,_:· the Ch'-:JDJ:lJS in railoring practice Inauguraeed aE' the' French court, the general scheme (elf' dress in, other countries, in rhe later seventeeeth century S,'h.D\VS the sexual resonance IQ,f the relizious wars th!3't had 'fllon,e (In, all over Europe fol' several zenera ....

le In e

""Ift'li ,~' .-;'

tiO:11t_1 afeer the Re (orrI13, tion, most comprehen ~i'vel,y' in rhe \~,~;:,ar OI'C' ,'~:IS to [61,,'_',!~ In "he' ,g:~I~-a,t .• -,'-:u,tc'h paintings of the middle seventeenth c::nluLY:~ (or' example ehe dif[~"lje'nce' between the ··-_.'ble' 'beaolty 0[' the smooth ... "hal'lied women in their shinine he 1\"1 skirts and the eilSY

[r;1i ~J !!ill

'siwagg,cr ofthe dull-coated men in their [biIS: hats ,'"-nd boots '(o'rms ,~ l~rge

part IDf the modern appeal of these genre scenes, ,~':".e,r:l '~DD,:k. s"im,pl),' ~andl th'ic,~~Jy' dress 'd'i and aremobile and relaxed; women look more IC:~ 're:rully adorned, and are still. and secret,

Such ditIeren,lces are absent 'froiD ·filfi.ee[J'I'h- and sixteenth-cenmry art, in the paintings of -1.le'lO ,dena I .'[, D,['eSC'3--; or Q,';') Ho:~bICi[J, I ,~:I:"reu,gel and

Titian, where 1,III:'n an,dJ women Q'£ the same socisl : ank wear ditieren't,

clothes -b.--,'u"-I 'I" ~,r~. the sam e h'l, I e ··l'·;Ili',wrlf". mov ... e the IC'·:·,'m·· e wsw and '=hl.~ ,,71:' the 1~1~'ml-I.~

I e- '-"" .I" ,~il! tt! .' ".. 1-, Id 11.1~ Ilk I ,_, ~ r, I' ,', I J, 10', IO~~I,L.i[i. [I~I .. I,." I.'. II!. .",. !iLl . I J',. ,~. ~, !Ill 1'~ ',. I.' .,' .~. '. '. ~',' ~ _. II.. u ~

I' d earee '0,1£:' ~:~.-I-b·'·I"':'I-'iI"r ~1~'I.n-br-.~y"I' ance or shine, . "he new ~~·II~I of bou I"f p.M'Oc"" I '1' s

_ ~~' ~.". ". ~l!l. .. '"~' it """,1 ~ !ILl"" '-' ~'_Ii I _' ~~ .~. ~11lii.~ '" '!i" """ ".¥",I ~ 'lit,,'''"'' .". . ... ". ,nl~' ... '::1i

:sex.ua'), 3 mbience a pparent in the Dutch w'Drrk~ I and its corresponding f~~s'h'l,o:IJa'b:']e' ideals are congenial to the nineteenth- and twentiethcentury QI,-e51 in( teasingly founded 0:0 middle-class ideals. 'he: .hanges brought about 'by .ouis's 1:'~"7,S agreement 'to let women dress themselves had eh e .. ir IlJ'lf:~,,'t,e.·· ·.~·I' ~ .. ppeal ~1r'1 ? mid dle-class ·'-W'·.'OII'1 ~'lld"': that had '~I'~S FI;"~'[.-" bread

'"" U ,_ __.,iI ,0 .'L~Q,l~ -;]1._. _.", .. -__ .:Ii iIi=1l '.' '_" ._". __ ._ _ __ 'LI. c~IiJ._ .. _ _~ '._ "Ia~.. _ 1.'11_"__ ,l1J.~_ J:J J, ~li.~ . _ J!,I\.I. _"-_

effects in the eighreenth century; 131,I.d increasing importance 1- he I.>a£te:r'i ~_'_:,~';al~_' I urrop __ an CO'Oft Id'JCSSI j;n the 'fm~~'I' :hal~ 0,:1'" the e'i,:~"h,re:e:nt'h, century

, ~,~

beg Dc '£0' separate even further 'fmn-:, crisp 'boQ,rgleolis.1 modes lind 'to look

more cumbersome [han rmaginative, The ,tea,th,er,_e,dlged hats and 'beribboned braided leOa,I!SI worn at 'Vera'illes under Louis XIV~ and continuiog with modifications under the next two ,LOIU.i·· :'~I do :n,O'I' suggest the 'vitali.EJ' 01£ :foln1l3~r-d-mel,ping, :.ty lesl tha:t: :pl:lant seeds :lor the ,fulure., . -'hey' held srri c"Ely '[0 old vie ',',51 ofdress ,"hat required richness ofsurface (0:[,

hi h k- 'E"-I in d .. d f 6 ~

, :~I_lg ,~_ ran c, .,;;::, egance m u less ,3,· court remain eo ,3, 'n,l:~~,'tte'r 101' '['-e,' nement In.

hixurious display, not of ill'te'restillg: changes ,]10 basic design.

: he 'n.I';O;-:I'~:~ ·VI,:'~-~·I~'~'· (D:'l[---m-I'-[~' .0···.·£·1- male ~']·~~I.,"I,~'P in the 1-·'e.·'r':O_.-··'DI ",:dl 'Ihl~··~lf·;- 0'£ •. he

, e !!Ii..; ,_I.:Ji" .. , ,iii, .. -'II. [~ .'. ," -,. ~." '. . _ " AlIi,.... !!!I;". ,,,", 17- II ,I,,,", '"' cll . !Ir_ a u .'!!Ii;,. _ '. _ !!!w __ -..., '. _ "" 0 _- "'" ·".1\1-1_ .

ei ,- teenth centurv in ~:c[.- were develop bv the eccentric a.no U'8--

-·~I .• ~.· ,- .. _ '-~'- ._ -' _,._,_-.~ ]"1Ji ". -"- " .. ,. '-'" , .. . ., ,1 '_""- '-' -' - "., ,... '-'" .

modish male aristocracv ofEnzland. who i'ncreJlsin~!lY"'i' scorned personsl

!.]" "_ ," ".. _. !l I"k k 1.-, fI!.).~[!!!5_""_",_,, __ , "_.- __ l._ 1 . __ .I~ ·~.~JlJIIIIII!JISJI -_ .. _ -, =.J I •. - I l ._" U. __ . __ "_"_.I I~:_I: .. _" __ . __ "._ '_' ._-_- ,. "_. _ ._ .. _'.I._.~ _I

. .J1.~ :' .. c ···'-1·:" '." .'1 " -_ d c - .. -, ,- --. "" ~1 (-- . -"'II ',.' ,L,,·')-" · "-:':'" _. -.-'. "I' "C'' ~ . "'-'.,,-'iiI , _._-,-.... " I vh " ." "·-1- .-,-, .:-: ·f· t: - -,.- - . -:ih· ", '11,". ,~'k- ',-'

ul,SP, a:,~I' ~ ma court ,[IIUa~,~, .. nue rema_~IJlngol leW/,LII a 001" nom t _J.e ,1'00"11

··-: .... t~· nidd 'l"-~-'I'I' _-I'::I~;:-:::'T;--'---I'--t"A-'(""I~~' sue '('"'@~C" or of'clerl ... lly':'" lar·--·a-'\I·tt~ro T·hr'~y'·:: 3·"I'd o I.lp~'r.·~dr· a 0," nu __ .. ·~,c C' ~_. 51 [:ODU.l,l~r~"_~_,,u,.::_ ~,",,~i1WI .. ~ .__:', "'", '-"'"" M'I b,' .. ·'Y ,iIi.'~,I'~ " .~> '_' __ 1",," 1,""._, '_ •.

... c.' •. _.- ".",.-." _ .• " .. 1)' 'b-_,·"I,.' id :·,'f\~' -h-··"."· ". ch "', I~' '. ·····,11-· .,/.,. ."'. , " ': I' .-. "L' ·1···.··.·-, d ' ,:., rh I '. .. -I:, I' -':"'- · . 'I of .. ~_." IC~", .. ,

sartrm _" ',li,en,.) (]I. [,I,e lei I," _'_ p"a,I,IlD,eS5, ,P[iOI,pos,e __ , .' Y L "e UfIJi.JJn· OJ ear _let

d d '-b -h d-' -u-,~ d ~I f'"

'. ". . .' '.', > :-- .• - • ' ":. • • ,'1' -.'. . .' -' :'.' ,. -·'1' _'. 101 . "-I~ ,'1", .:iiI. _ •. ) , ..• ': "" rlf." __: .. .. ".. -' ,,', . - ·'1' _', .' .' .... ; . '. , , I.' " • ,.- .. '-"'.', !II .' .'. ...:: - '. ':!II ".'1 ,: -tJ"' ·"'1 -.... ':. , " .. ,: ,

a,ys all, . I .• Y . I ,Ie co un Iryr-. - ,.we Ins, eOlmanry . _nl I. '. ~_",n, f) ~ . 0 0\1 ,e, rrDn.e,~~.I_

. "1' ' .• , 'd"~ ... '~I'~' _EO . " .. ,. " ..... " 'h" - . "d' d· . d· . ""hi.. - ..... ~ . ·,t ,il. , .. , ,. "'f' I .'"., ..:11 ., . . ,- "

\.-v!'I·.r ~ 01 .: . II;Ii I ~Ig" .', o· ' •.. ·nl w\ ·'.1' /e .. '~ ·1 I U' ·.'-8:1 .i!'I:'.~ .:- ·e, I. t . e··· I p~'o., ·I.,te·' n I; In3.Yo·.,/r nl': Ie'. (5;;:ure lie au n try-"'" ..

~ "_".. ~ 1 ••. _ ~ ~. ' ','l! ~~~I~ l~, ',' g.,.~ J._." .••• ~II~.. • .~} I '.~ I •• ~ •• I • 'Y" I ~I. ~... • ~ _ .,~ •• ~I.~. ,.1

.~ -' .. :".

1!lJ1 FIii iii}1 U

li£e- nd country sport, which suggest the perennial CODI'lIU,If!·'t of brute n a tu re ..

_ his enterprise carries ,~~i['h_ it Il, certain sense '0(' identification with both the hunted and the h,u.'n,tin,:' beast; ~ md '~n,g'li'h Ic,ou'nrry dress be .... sides harmonizing with the earth and it . ~ lelcb" fa' '-C 'I~ ;~ 'n d rocks, :_ .ame '-~,D : •. u'RlI,e-§. the comfortable coat 0:£ horse and dog, th .. e smooth (l,t and dun

colo ri r Ii),j~l the ii:"'t·- ""g.,:'~ h'- tide ~¥"~O'<I~I and le "'I '''''h-- e ··r'--:-n'd:.~- Iin . e .n c,c-""-'''W'I''I'I!,'' 1110'1.",' 'gicil1J:r-a t· he

iL.,V-)· u,ll l~,._ :1,_, - " . 10.· ~WII~~J !i;l; 1 '.. .' O,IIi.. 1_,- ,_ '" .,_J ,_ I, '-', __ ~. _-II ,- 'J'-~ , -~,'lt,~. I_,,~

.:. l"":_j

,le'n,~rle'nl~l'n,~I ... bod" , __ , poetic 'h·a:r,n~l1,o,n~.' with :hj,~, ' ,·~·Jt.ural, domain, rather than

the ,),00:', ID.f apposition COl i,i~a, kind 0"[' dominiou founded ol~n, Iove, not fear, Paintings by Smbbs Dr :11:13'(1. and beast ourdoors tog,-!t'her show the de,sillt!'d e,'freer .-'lE mid-century and after, _ Iature was genJ1er-ally ICID1min:I' inro VD(P1,[e' ,d:uril1.'~".' he :~,arerl ei-=-'h,t'cen,t:h century 3'S a moral and esthetic influence far superior 1:0 . [_[~I the vain and Idi-[Elo:rtitn,g' effort'S, of civili-za,bJo'n,!t

and a 'mode ofdress that seemed 1:0 embody it could '00'[ help 'but' appeal.

The starding modernizations in male d' ::'<5 that occurred in 1C_~nglJIl,d at the verv end 0':-: the ei:g'h,tee:n,'r'h, c',e:ntu,'ry' were thus al~e'ad,)1!' <Vilell pre,-: red for ,r~'n'\ill the point 0 .. ··,-,£(:-' ~'W:',~W,~,': 0--:'(····:.', male dist anee fro:-,~ '-111""", f~-,.,.·-rlp;, modes,

.1_, ._. ,[iI. [t fJI.'u. '_ ,I!i.., 1 ... JllI' .... \"1lil\..., .. , ,. ,h1~,e ._i11I~ ... I,., ... U .. ILIJ 1J.11,,llc!l3 ~ I'_u_e.[

~ . ,

and of retreat :iro,m old ideas o:£'.·riffb'ulk. and 'wic',mg',hqr richness as signs of

superiority in, [-1;11 -'11'~'I!:~')o'[hil]'U 'I ~'n~mand a: the rim - W3> ,'. very 'tec'h'DIO[I-DU~

. U" ~ , . _I'!I!IJ -~'- ,I~ ,~, '- ""~ - .-~ '~~~--"~""DI~I ~'U~ '---"_ .. ~.' '--. ,~l '-'-'-'- '- U'_'_"~ _'.' ~ -- '.' _ - '-',_'.' '- - '- ,'- . . '01

ically advanced, rich s nd democratic nation, the " -_D,[g~l_is'h had already be'~,

h ·· .. eaded t-,[LI."-'~'Ir" ab ... ~~'~III'[I'r~· n"110;'(n:',: r . ~':h.···· ['I"[:ln, the erevious I-":':,-·nl'ifu'.'nr- befo .: ·'r'e· ", L:o·';:'U'I-[It

, .c . '. iii" .. """ '. .. .:W: 1._ ,iii , ." . . ~,.w u Il,,,,,,,, ""'. -,. , " .. " '" , "~ r ~ .~ ,I __ u. . '.' ", _ iIIII I' '. __. 1~._... _ _ ,1I,j,]!

,_-i~:""~/ had even taken hold in _ 'ra]),ICIe.',~ In, ·E:ll~.a:n,d., a 'pllain C'0,31,'" u;s,efiUl boo :"" plain hat and plain linen weee becorning the signs of it [gl,c'ntl,lc,111an, pos essed n O'~'10 only of many acres and ,1":u- ·I~ co £r'~rc b 'U~I'~r o "f"~' <iiil e~'hC"~I~'LIL'e~' min d-'"

"~ :~! ... ~~, ... ~~: .. ~:_ j I .. '~,.:" ~.~ .. :~:~~' .. < .. ' : .. ~)[~ ~:_j_~ __ ., "":"1',,1 I~~'~j:~ ~~I ~_:'~: .. ~'_. J.II_ .. IJlJ :~ [:.··~', .. ,I-=-I.[ln.~-:~t l' :'._~_..I~ ': .. :1: I ~, j~.;&I~' .IP.I:.:~ ~ ,~~,.£~.,:' ;.,~.~.

) I_,

with an [3- lld'-~- 'U-' .'i." d, 'J"'", -·d-" !1~i~lnl-;' "'::0".1'(-"' ,. srimi rive '1'"'0' ( .. 11;-:;11[- D' eions and rh "'e,:~lr: - 'p·· ... er '0.'(:"'0',1- "i;--,_

~.~ I [ll d:_ J l '_ ~ _ •. __ 1I.~ '__ __."1 I ••• I I I I '--: I~J', ,,_, l"J'&._il._ II!JII~[~. iii_II J I 'J I. IL ~ . ., OJ. __ LI-Ji.,

I [, . _.: l.!_

,-. ".' ' -- ,' .. ', h .. · .. ···, I -'" ' '. " .'.... ... " .... i. if'. W" '.;" :':'/,"' .'., :", "1' . ", '!i .... ---:,,- b- ",. '.' iii" b! ' ,- .. h : 'd·-·· I" :.- "'d- .t'", " .', ,

penes, nowever e,xqulsl.l~e[..,[lgs were worn .. _-,.II .. UII. muc .... reoucen I.,n S12e~

.. o···[·-c:,:,,··· .. "." . "1-' '",' -'~' ",lIiJ,-. ",", .. '-. .' .'-', - ..... , •. I'''' .-' 'h"' ,'."~ b ". .' '~.',~,'" ".:,' b -1- '., - ,,'I'·· ... iii- ..•.. ';b-,II!:--, 1- r I' -I' ,,- ,-

'~'-"L.C"U .~,~,11 court cress mJ,g,,:I,e worn, I,UI lin ,':' [a,l~ oougarory '. our .. 3,P-,

h d: d

',.,' , ,~ ,,-- '[~I"- e: , -'._- . I' 1 :-', ["',,,--- -- 1,-" ': • -_.'( ,.: ,', "',i:-'i ". 1"1

,P ea ran, .'. C!.._. ,.[ , ,,[ ~.I11e ' ,n: .. I ._,[,0. ....,'~,

~ '0--[ E~ n-'~-Ipl~, n- --:-' d. elaborate ..... .nd IfJ<'\l[u.'-·'ld']'-:y: ... p"'iI, r n '1IIP·n- '~'~, in 'g'--','f'i!-'n-: ~~I becan te .. :'[~O:=::F"'[~i,-

, I, ' " ~d ,J , ... 1i '"",,!IIi. ' ... ,Ii.' .. ,L. iI· .. L •• oai. ,. u .. ' ,[jI~' J ,_ ,1Il'","". , lili.~ ,I .• "",, . ,,,,--j,11 dI , . _ ..... d ., "I,. ..JiI ... "":IIi

:;--:-::-::.d .. ·· n';:-:-'''' ·-::;-·n'l.y.'.c :::-'-:'~'r~:h':-, 'P-'-C-:-'RAIF'U' 'b",-"ui-- 'J'iiiI-~I;I-··.'·h·' .: .. p--'.'~'I"~CI'····'''IiI';I'·ly''·· ,i::e· ':-m:' "-"~'n"'~'n-: tU< '~d'X' ,.u· '-"'I'''I'R~ "'IIii·D'I···d-

,,1JI:,,-- .. ~,O!ll,;, O,_l: 1:,[ W,l~, D,r""~' ,J/~-= ,~:,~, iIi,~: '"I~·~~.oI.:ll' G_" 1iI- ,,,I " _.!I',"-. JI""',I,_:_ ~'['1',- q I._I":"

'I', ,""t-L1h ,-.-', -[,., .. ,.- 1·-,'" "d' 'II,., 'I'~'!!f' . -- .h··- .. "[, ··-:h·,·,,,,,[-·-,,;.· .. ·j:',·--·· I" ....... - 1--" •. ' "'[-"" ... " ... ('.," "Pl-"'C';--~'_' ,-:;,.[ "-'·'I~I'~n!~

lV,lt " ~,"ranee ao;-_, ,ll~,a~.) In I~, .,e,l[ c~,..,ar,a,c~er 1~_5 ,c:c,n",_1 ': 0'_1 "_' a-JI.OI],,~.e,nsu~a"~I,~,'

,: 'I'n-:- .dli ·s,u: 'p---~--rs;rl~ il"1~.O':~Jn· ~I: ~·~~,~~;'I'l a~'-~: .0-·.-"; Id,-'~e-'c- '!I'Ii",~ ,~:d', 'fe~lu-'. -a-.III~i-:ln-I·· [~I-I1":d:; ,d'-'I:,a-'··b-,.o?-:'l-I"~ ··C:_ql.'L1:O"I-II':--

_ ._'. __ .~'_ I F ~,ll!"l It, '_'_" d!loo' '~~I ,_~" .-_.11_. __ a,_ ",_ - n_" _ .'. - - I .. " .'. g ", ._- _ -' ._,,~. - gill II. , .'.

-,.- I'~~'n" '1" -P-~'·I~'I\ '\l.JJ!"'!'1i'" ~A 1-'-" '·e-·-'·q'l- '~I pn- "it-Iv m-·:- .... ·'o:-:-...,e~··~ '",1'0"1" ·d,--: [m-"'~-:', ,·"Fe~-:.::· ~J~ 'e··n-·' . ", > 'r-'h-I' ' .. c(-~'l£ip': ""I~ .'a~,c~l A'" 'A'rru:' ',"" ~ -.

_dt , ,'I!; . I d. I, .. ') ~~'Ig~ "" u" _ .... __JJIi ",",. !Ill; '1 _ ,_. ,I,ll. '._ ,nH ,_, ~'''''. J'j,Ii,_ ~'I!o.o-.,. ....; '.. ... ",",.'''!I,. .cl 'LI' ,iJ[1. ' ,- .

nin,e and nlot- nl3s'~"uline 'iasitj,oID'1 ,a-~ '\",om.e'o. ,eem.ed, :nl1ore ,a~Dd n',Q'lie [[0 be':_ o'me' -~b,e '~':_:lnJdl"u: ton D,"~ feeli'Dlg a·~.d r"h"e ~[-epD-~i'I'Ori)es, o',c' e~J'thle'r fr'i'\rolO'USI o'r '-,Q,rib'ild.i_'- .~. n 'ran'ca[~,y , :-e~id;e~, be:'lng' aVI a'l.wI3(yl, th .. e' p:rltdia,:~I.s, ,o.£' lra1di_-ioID- -1'1

I . ~ ,J im
-\.~ :- ··,~r'
0' K: - , I'
'I< i
~j UJ ,
I ',,"'
,10'1 r
·Orr. "
, ~_IG,'-j • l I!
I J ~ I 'Inll_ Ille _ I h
(l _ ~'t~,al ~ ,_I II rene "~
-- - _ III "'~ hi \ ,~1'~1 l:

;~ _JJ,

'-If'! . oh -In, ..

nd-

: 'I ,_

.

1111: liII'iill~ ~ II, ~I. iii

witl ··h

common VI'·':e,··.-w·,""~~I'" sometimes C' ·'-D··~·e·d' old wives tales London on-' the other

~ • j •• ,~. _" _, '_ _ _~, t;;J. _" "IIIi,.~I ... , '_ - . __ ,:~~'< _ ',_~' :,_~, ":},\'¥ -~~ Il, 1 :,\;,o;~!i '. _.' 1: .• :_':_i:.l"I:>.il.1 I~,~ I~~I,_ "L I,

_bl_Dld·- '''~U, the center of t[uly'-~_d,vllnlc:'ed male Icoslu,:nl.lc,~:,ven by cb,e

lI7,a'D~S,~ Frenchmen 'wer-e ,agrele:in.,g with this ,j. ' ,3 and a :£ash:i,o,.n, ,[o.r the

simplicities ofE'n.glis'hl male tailoring was ,alread~" launched in, France before the Rev . unon. For ci.ty wear, the w-a·mki:rlg--stmc·:,·. IS and umbrellas s'uita,'bl,Ie;' '[o:r' :r,i~grb,t-·,min,ded ge.D'll_I)]en goin~g' albouJt IIDV'lD '0:0, foot, 'IS, th,ey .JI"l d i L d' b ') hi d d E bl h-I d" 0'11, m London. bezan 'C'O rep ace C,I,~I,e cress swoms European nobles ,1-[3\1-'

wo,r~ll, while rumbling in gildedcarriages e:ll route 'to, ,stJlllOtlS and, 'evele!~

'8 U'T' I) 'U R, II N G, T .H: ~ s earr,I,y· rise o"f' :n.C"\V -.:nglis'b :id}C,3'S, 1~'bOUI the 'ri:gb,t: 'I,Qo:k '(0[' gentic'me:n's clothes, certain fundamental fb'in;:~- ,a·p:plli,ed~. AD men's suit-coats during the later seventeenth ce',Il,tu,rr}~r and most 0'£ the ;ilh,t,cen'th had no collar, despite t,'he=" ng presence o,fcu,·:····~ and

po cket-Haps, and no shaping :I,t a'~l a'[ the shoulder, II he o'nl" sort o,f,gen,tlemans coat that did have a collar was 3 tN1r'ment O'['RO elezance the in

.~,.J~,I :_~,,~.:::.: I.I~:_I. __ ,~_.I, '.'~;'~~,.~~_\/' :-_,~I~..: ~_" ',~._,,- __ ~~I :c __ 1iC'~' _ ",~I" ":/ _ ......•... I.""._-~~-I ' '-,- '_ ,I,' _ ,11,-

formal WOOl,C,R, ~I~"froc::k,'!w'o~rn by .E"I;I,s'lis:hm.lc'D, at private leisure in. the

1/""',0"'" "u: 'n'''r1I'!I!; ;i!'jj n d c··-, "0"-,':"1:'_-"1 jh"-·· n"·' '1"e'· n wor -e'· "1 Ie. ;0'-' ,'~.~ with jf".;;"JIP- ·-'e·~· eol 1:"1:'r~ ~o:'-Ir' - pro ste . c'·' ~if-I!O 10-'·--·' m

"",,._"-, __ .~'''~ 1~' IUi.MI.· __ -- "--- __ J. '." '~_'"" ""'liV,"",~_._~,d"~ "r'l",I1,,,,,,,,,, 'Wg,. ," "!i.~~I.g ,~" It~ I ':-' I.:I,_,~"II;,. -_,,,,,"

again .... ~'If rain and s·- .... n· "-O-C~'I'~~

!iii Iii·: ~1.1 " _ . I. li:I .' : ' J. ,I, ... ·W-¥I~ --~~.---- }~-- ~ - - ----- ---- -- - -- - - -

.I,···:-,.,,[~ 10' .• ;'.··,'i··lll.· kinds shows 11;:lh"II'!"IiC- throu ,"'-hl:DI'::~'111[ th e period from 1:6'~,~·:o':-': '01-, ''ili1i!71~':to~;:

, Iii;, , ' __ .' , W. 1Ii:I!, . ,V''II'~'';l! " GIl. '. , , -. -0" . _'UJ , ""', ",",., ,-- __ " ,(f.1_" ,-. ,_ Ji ._,'._ I.. g '_-

om' .··19nl"SI shoo. ~(u--I.d--'D:'N' -l~ dea 'I~-y,~ loo ,k, ': iI'I d '. V~["~ narrow and ·'1 <lo'P'-'-I""Il-r-' 0" ': nd their chests

. .' . '!Ii;". ,~"I, ' . . v_- ,'_ ,,""',iI, i;:!Ii "_- - "". . !I,'" ' . " ,'W_, , ' ~ '. l' . " ,. . ' . ,',,"iii.. . '._--, ~'" ' c" ." ,r:!!! '. ,1,iI - -' ""... !!Ii.,..' ~,,~'l

SO'", m e w'h"I" ill' '~"DI'n~,t,!,JPI'n' ." and t- 'h---·-·--, 't·· c Vie', "0'-' 0': .... -0. : 'lim" ..... '~'01']'re-"; ·tJ"· he stomach swelle "'dl::- out

_".,::,', " ".,' ',)'.,--'!I!I :. _,I ill ..• ,~_&!l~.r : ,r~ G. f, '. " .,' -, ' _ ,'. ~ ' . .-_ ',_.I ' .. -:': I .... -_', ,I • __ 'I' ,1~'D'- ' .. ~', _ ' . .-,- " •. ,~', " ,._:'\,)!'., "'~U'"" ill'. r' __ ,1 ': _:__,II .', ,'.,-_ ~ .. ~- ,: ,,:._: '_

p:mnlin,e.n,'t'ly between th .• · open coat ..... imln.',-J··. and above the' low waist O:f' the breeches. - 'his dome ..... 'I,ike shape for' the mid-section · ... 'tClS emphasized by the descending 10,,1 lo:f waistcoat buttons th/I,t marched down its cen-

ter ,;:JI1:c·-":h-IDr··Iii=J;:d~' b :v'--:h-:~ ""·0-,'''' buttons and Cb-:'U'I--·:O'-In'~,o .: les 10:"." e "·l~.··h:-I:e-- :'I[.~ side .C·- ~-~:o-.; '1',-,

1Ik __ . " """'. 'j , •.. "". .. .. J' . ",..,i\.-.- !L-_...... . .. 'Il._"J t..l..". _ ,_.:Ii ,iIi_,.... . __ '. _ .c Ill. __ •. L.JfI .... ,Ii,,,,,... _. ,I...JI. . ,L , ,'. , ,."]iii, .. __ . ~. - .. '. _'. Il--,

skirts" ofien stl'fIj'ned 0'[ "r,jr[led ~,wu,n,g' outward 3,'1 ~hip--)evel:, both sid .. · .. '~"e··.wa:y,'s. and behind. 'U ... · .. Jnder ·1:'h-11e.·' coa .. ~,~ the •• e bree r~'h'-"e--:--;5, 1l"le~·r·,~' '~u-, 11 ~··m. ··· •• und th e~1

. .. ~ ~ ,II •.. ~ . . I ~ .~ . III .. IJ .. . ~ . ~.1 . !I!P ~A "J ~ II! . .. . ~ . ~. .." .. . I •.. t. l~ ..

hips and then buckled ir a,'t the kne __ ,: and stockings and medicm-heeled ':hl oe < '~I'nl~i,"h·. e ,'dl~. the en se "'m-i6"b:::-Ilp, below ~N-~"r:- '~I'f'-"L:O.-.~·~ '-:-w,.·:.",e·,· .re not worn

. _ ~ '. ," _ 1~~.lLI ,'[ J " _', _. 11... ~ .. [ I !~!'L .. I J _.IJI~ D~, ,"_ . 'tlF¥r' IL.nr&:l11r.1 l~ , ID ... ~IL~ ... "_.. .. L .... ,.IIL ~. _ ',,'[ ,'"

The entire letre,cr: tended [0 emphasize ;3, man's hips, belly, and I£hi~ih:\~ shrink his chest and, shoulders lenethen 'his torso and shorten his. Jees.

-. - '''., - ,", ..• -,,[.- , ••. - - ,._- ., ,1-,' ,,~!!Iio_ I. , ". .,j. -.- _J[". L .... u t '-D-'"

"II:hl'y embroidered 10(' plain, al~, male "~gores were' thus rendered ;Iig:htl,y

S'IU 1 and infantine, ~a)'ndJ 'w:hal: "~C' wlo'uld IC,3'11 ,ren:rio'ln,e, with the c'urmeld ~.",I. ;1: .• II:d:"dl~"'~'Ilr£!r *'10,<1 l,th'l- ~I ~'n- ~l-l~p-)r'e,;--I"~'·o···'· •. ·I.·l: - "'T' uh-"I'"I-~I ~I:S""'- .0'·' f····' I~"\O;:'U· ·,:rl. ~',e-'- "'II, n--l1lo"d,-:'; ~'fjll- -p-e'rjPi,--:e·.,-:·p,-t'I~,O-,'n-·-·,-.

I. '_IIJ!~_' . I 1 It) 11r. 1.1 '-I II. ,,~.l jIJ I Iii .. 1 •.... ~. I .. I~ ~ iJi , II Illj.~ !I!.i II ~ .. Ilil· .. 'l' l!I~

Th __ - 'bi:g: wig 3'od, c'h>e c·u,t· IOlf'nl,e~D,'s c),o'[l1i'ng: 'Wle,fe ISO distinctively m_3sc'u .... li'D"e ,at: th,e ti'me ,that OLIO one saw an,y 'fe'~nlini,'Di w'h,atlo::. 've~r' i,n, the 'pe'-_I'f'like £o:r,m tbat, alll ,and, .£ashi,o'll, :su~gesledl, 'WaSI ,a :man's ,i,d.e,al .s"ha,:pel~. Th,e'

8]'

.-, _. - I

form jJlsel~, I would ~nsis·t'l had i,t~ own accumu ted aurhorirv and, ,wc,'S certainly carried with g:,'(.ra.,c'e bv manw he shape D:',~'·· dressed women '\\l1'815 a

,~ '. . ,I ',I' .

complete contrast tOI it convemiona v' ferninine in aze-old way\::~s with,

._!i' ~ •••• ,~ •• !r. -.-~-.- .,-~-- -_- ~-!I". -~-- .-~~ .. -~-- 'I - ~ ~-- ... .=J~ --DI-- =-- --- ..... ~1!J ---~--~--

[h~I-·1JIi1 sev r ere ~,'U" P-('P··' 1~···ll'!I·ID'-I.ln' of [-. he mid-sect '1"'0":,,,·[1':-1 rn "U', 'I' ch Id.:-I"ro:'U~'~":1lg'A and ll130',' r

__ ,G~J .:J~. I J ~_ •• ~ iJ),= ... 1='- _) I.,~_:__ .. ~. _.--,' H' l._:_.... ,_': .. _.~ ',' .I,_--._, I~"'_' ~l .. _. ,-.-_- ,1'1.:, ',~ -',_, ,~, _: '_' ';~~'" ·~~~'I_.·.~" IP ~ '._ I . I" ..... ~ "

• l!' _ -_ .

:;-'iii,-''''--' ~ " '." ,'" ,.' u -, .. ' .. , .. ,'··c: ~. 1,',1 ._.- . -':"-'1-"'-"'" .. -:"'1 defe -I -,~,~ - I kirt ~'.'.'.. ", ,---, ,-,,-:;- uld I--.-'~,,--:- iC· -1-"-: .' h ,:---.

';),H,ll,el es 011 _~,ggfesslv,e,...._,~el,e,nsll"ve S .··II[lIj' ···· ... 0 ORIC C'Do." conmse t em,

II U T' 'H O'W ~I) I D the look, o,f modern "nan i'n his modern tailoring emerge fro:m all this wrinkled :£a\br'iE laden with, m'~I~" 0,( 'bU.'E,-.O:nSIi'1 and

coverina "--'.~.' r-shape .. ···d"'-I m ile bodie .. ·-t· d :OI:l'~I~n'- ,t'o- the kne "'e-'# TO'- ~,--'7~'lr·IIl-I-I. '~·:O;···'

,,",",'V, '!Iio.o ,II ~ [D' ,_ ~""" a ,,,,,a,; . 1 '!!OJ __ • __ 11,._ i.li_ ,'n' , __ ._ '_ I_I ''''' __ ,~. ,I,~_ I..'"" ,I'll ':!!OJ, I!l,;_.

"modernize" the whole shape of rhe ideal 'man, (n.ot just to change the fabrics and accessories that c:l,o'lhed .. him) required an imaginative ,to rc e more immediate than the uncertain work lo,r technological and loci .,1 change, 'C lethe s had certainly begun 'EO look different in keeping with

'ij'J"hl- 'QI), earlier chan g.' I ,A I""'if 'I be ",I.-ollie· ,'f··j ,q,'b-'-:O~"JUI'~ the sexes: but I'~- w .... ~:",,:'·I und !e.·_,:nr'· the in rf'u~ ,-

I. ..... . ifI_ ,II L.I. C,t( ~ "~ ~J III _ iii-,! .' 'M ~J _. ~. I _ JILl _ ~ ~~~.. §lj I ••• _. I • , • I •.• d. . _ ~,I.. . ,!, .• I. .I. '(-I..

I,··.' ,"

ence of a, new radical ,shJIt: in visual style tha,t t'he collecnve eye' tor the'

f ~i'D1~11'r-~' ':IiiJrr""" abru ptly FP[' rained _I ~'v':e.,:-:r since in cont n '~I~ '1i'IO'\) th 'I~' ear 'I~, versions

,ilibl_, ~ '~¥'o. Q!" ., 1 __ '" . "I _,,' ,Ii, ""'" '_" ._._ .,~ '_' ~iI,_" "" ..,'" ,II _. , ".} , ;;;,'IJil. Il.... ,_ ,I;,;. """Q.I 11 li!i '=.11:.,"'11,· .. ', ,

"W,', '1~' have ,'~ '('':'11'1'' de scribe d - ~"-I- m I' '·.0: dern su 'Ii,~, hl"·a- ",:[":' .. b seen :C-~U'~' to ..... ~ " ppe'~.'p~ ."'li

. I'~ "'"", , , I 'W' .~ ~ L[~' .... ~"" '".' . I ''Ii !iJ.~I_, ". , .'. -'. I '. u , , - ... ", ,~ .' .!I!;i,o. .... ~,.. L·U '-'tlD' ~'!!I.. ;g

male 'bodll that [I~per' from broad shoulders and ,'I .. muscular chest has a. ,Ha't stomach and sm' U waisr lean flanks and lo .. :g legs .. Modern development " lo,f'-"-' the ,~lIAQ,~'n"': rO,I,_ W,;~"I .. '~.,,~I~,~I~- shirt ·I'n:,.J1 'n,"'ln"'~J!, 1~'I~.n'· "':.e .. ' "I :";'f"O-' 'r~, 'q:, uire ·· .. d·.'-

, I. ,'""ill,. '. . ... ,. '.. ,. \i"..1,~, r=wu, , ... 'Ii;.,"'" , ... I ~}'a ;]iL"",,YdiLl'i1i" ".!l." ,0. ,rdi . 'IioiJi ,iii ,,"-'.. , .... !!OJ . ' .. '. _ . ,.'. I

nOE' only new materials, but 3, new ,arnalolmi:c'a'm :[0 U nda tio n, The one of-

f=Te· "'['I-"I-l~':U' itself 'If the '11"I~I'm--"~'. ,~Lj[liJ'n presenr :0':,'0-1- if"h'~le···., esthetic scene 'I:'.·J~'''':h-' fresh

... _ . . -',D' .~!l~''''.,._ .. iL, I"",, ,. ~_ ",I, ''''""'''' Ill... JrJ, .... ,1=11, ",iIi,'~...,'Ii;".o, '" ,1L, .... , l~, I. ,. '!!I;.;."" .,",I~_ ". ,~, .. _ "'"" ,. ~ ,L.,,,, ll"iL .. ''1, ,

power w,'-I,;11~, rh e h eroic 'm .. tale nude of Classic -n'[··'I'''-U'·'ru

.... ...:' ¥v,,", ", ',. q;~ ifi.e ~ ~ "", ·..cilL. _I. ,J ~ ., .. ". ,~, .... , .... , . _~~cil!~ a . 'i_ -q~I·Jl'~'I'!ji,

'~'" N-··:··"·

I I" ".

N,,· A"", I,. '-,T' U' 'HI A'~" "N"':;'" , , "DI'"I TI 'y:: ••

" " _. . " '.' ,f.\.! ... ' '. I " ... ~; , ;.' ':.. ,~' , .

'~f 'H' ~ N 11 H ''C 'N' ,~,..: _:'; l. ", s S, I C artists and designers o'f the ~,'~'ce' eighteenth century sought to convey modern idcr_J:' in, ra,d'i,ea'ml,t' , __ nrique form,

, ::'~~~[~J-lc,:::-''"1ii'll antiq .. ruitv W"." I~IS, 'Dlo'"r,L';l~,n-, I,n 'UI ~'P:~'1IJf ~:d:'-'II":,'.'1ilt·.~~'d·'-1 eurone had ,- been minin 110"

. ,_b1 ~\, ,_ o~, ~ ,I ',' ,-~ '-:._- J)- "", ." ... '&:l'j! ,. Ill. 1:1:_ ,b .'''' il'r!!li',.. " ". y_ QI .~. '-<, . " IU ._ ,r. '"'," -Q . I 1IW ,",," l~, ,_, _'"_ ;iii _"iii IJ ., 'it:'/ii'

·'I'·"[~' themes and sub .. ~te"'~"~'1 and r\l:rrI~'~,"U_'""II'I" trop ... ".:_::~- '~~'r-' cen tf.I'lIIiiiiC~I~C., q"n,,::JI '~'r--'[-"I;"~I''lli;, ·h-.--Id,- ~I'p::-

Il.JI _. ~l ._:.I.. 1~'1! d. U iJ. __ . . . _ !Ib: ~~ 4. ~. _, ~ ~~l _ila ~ ~.11~. . [,Y ~l ' .. =.I ,!ILI:I,r,I~]'3.1J!II [I ld. '_ 31!L:i1I . ,. "_. 1 ~ .

I, • !..._ ~ •

THI--' SUIT

',I',~~: 1,,,);1,,., Pon ape '1'""": and ; 0 ,c',P'~':"'U'lll1a:"'ln' e "LI'IOI)" - \riI,S':'U"I'~1 :, onsciousness o .. I'f··~- the antiqu :e····"· was

,'\;,;;;J! ~~It" '" · __ ,11.; " ..... -~" a."._, , '\.,o,Ill;, .... lI .. " __ '" __ ""'" _'I, .,_.a._~. , ._ ·1, ,a""",iI,, ... 3_ ,.~".il! __ "" ~ ',," ,1"'11,_ '_' _' , .. ,.CIi.~

raised anew, It matched emergent ideas of Nature and R'eason, even of

t· ib ertv and E':ii~ll-" <1:'.", th iIj seemed ' best : ~"""~'if "1'0:'1" th e','" 0'1"1110':'· :~"Ui:·.',.~: '-5,-'---'-0' nd I ___:_,,~,, ,I, - '_ ,[ ~ J a",., "'~ U . ].1", ,J" Iii. ,,3 III.; ,5 -!L.,. '" '.L.. '. _,-.' ,:I'I. t d.~11I.; .iIl ". " .. 1, ~ '1..< ".'_ -_ ':_ , even,

primitive mo ld, unmodified 'U:J" later fashiona ble distortions, - "he artisric life 0,:' ,all, Europe was p'rog-rt!slli\l':I'y transformed 5,0 a s [0 e'IIII'p~o,y ehe OfJ_

d ers of :,"~'I, .... ssical arc itectnre and the 'cl-:·g· ... ,t:'-r"]j~ of :,-~~'II"~·~l~~""'I"'tiI'-1 91 rt ~I' much -:1i¥

__ ,I., ~ ~,' __ ,g~E'I,""'Q~ __ !l,'~ I~~ ~,~ _, i\;.__ g, _1]1_- Il,.5U!l.',,",,~ ,\"" ..JI.,~,g.,_ ,'Ii;,;o~ Q_ g,., "'_- ,\,.." , Ig.;'J

po,=:m'b'~e· iIC_, their original (or,DU,!

This meant looking again at 'tile already well-known examples, be-

sid I~I pond .. rine the .. ·' 'n·,",ew :o-','nlll.C' -e In England the ,~'II~J~'-m" "'1,V of the '-n'\il"',:O:' ,ve' "O"l'(Pi'ln 11j'

--"""--""~ ~.- '-""")'.,-'--,'. "");:1' !\;, ,,-,- ',,-'-- ~'-' ,.-",, __ . __ .;:J .. ""'"-,' .. "1,1 .... ~a "._.-'11 'Il,;" _. !!!..r,~" .. d_.lIl!IJ., y, ' ... "' ._. ,"' "' __ ' ._ ..... ',,,,1'''''. ,,!Ii;

occurred 'WC' f"'-I"' th t h "e ~1'r"r'-"'---I"'V':i']I'I' 'o-:,tr' rhe E' ~c"'I:p-l-n'" ""', ,:' arb ., .. ,')' es )'J·o--· L- o ndon in ""' D'O~L, when

,~, .. _.~. __ ,,~.I-~_...: __ ,,~,~~~.,,~,_,I~ d._-,___I_.:,___,,~,D~ 1,11l,. ~____:_____:""", _.:.___~~___!",--. !..c' f;I- .. -,.,.,I~:':___I,'----,,~ ._', ..... ·I,_,~:~ __ ;_,~, .!I,.,,_:.___. ,O"...::,U,,"(~____I:~ ~

afrer generations of engraved and reconstructed antiquities the English public could see examples o~r' i IlCO mpa 'r,iI.b:l, e G reek sculpture face to face, :B,U:l the heroic masculine fi,gu~res on the Parthenon fri,t:zt: 'I.rl,d, other glorious 'fragnl;t!'D,QI ~D'OY.r ,ga'\1~e' the ,f aocoon .. md the ,,.;"': ,:po~~clo Beh edere, which had beIC'I,I, admired .in '[itt,c' V3tJ,C31,l collections since the Renaissance, a new vi talirv as modem sta '0-1- dard S, ''(-o'Jlr-r male beau even wh "~111:e': ~'I··'1IiP;·I~ r nI'U-,'- al-

c.,, _.~. _ ,)~_'-'1 '~,1/"" ,,--.,!I!,,~ .. -.~, ,iii" ._,,'_.,,_,- ",1~!, , ,tt_, ,ilL _,- .!!Ii...- , t:UJ'_'~, _ ,_,,,,," '" __ .uu.lJ, !I:~,ilil!!i.;'L." ", _

ity ;3tS sculpture '\~l,3'S soon seen tOI tbe inferior to the Pheidian master-

P-- '~~'C;~QS""I" T·~.~ A,,',' '·"··P-···o .. , 1;1'.1. o's 'P- :O .. r; .• C.Q C., ·'''''''0' I he clearly see '0· ..• ' as the 'Fo: ,0"" n •• ·'d':-'~'.'[,~Io····:·.'tf"! f':'"'O,:":II· many

,I:LJ .. ~ .. ~I "II,~ =. ~ ~ . . .. ~ . '- .~.~~ I. "-I L ., ILr.-Q)IL '. l~~' ._~ , 43 IL ,~,~ .I,t, I, ~.~~ . ~IJ. , .. ," ,=,~, g ~ I.'

• I h," .' • .'

i,'tan,diu,1 If ale portraits of the later e.i:ghle'enr'h cent 'Il,rry" l~1!ell before tailor-

I,"' -n'::g--', was ch an D':A:d"- '.,0::': emula .'~J the C·" -'II:~I:>,cj; :C--='#lI'11 'fi~'!'-'ru-I-I'[e::': more ~'11:0~1 ~;I-~~~ . '. " ,... +. . . .J.la.",iC)'-"', L . ~ .. 1,,1..11, . 'l-.\..- ~ , '.., ,~a ;,'I,ll. gil! . liD -" ... , .,'. , ~ IL;.J, .IL~, J"~

Fa. nr ~ ts 'U~"C~ of anti 'q".-' uitv ,"'.~i=' ~.O,'·-U·· ~.'-~'I~ 0.1:'[1';' b'I,:"~~I,,,, ';:'0:'" ~ n '.j>'I rat 'h,~r~ than of 'C' ur-

. " .iii 'LiiI,.;]!Iii.. " iI., Ill, ._.,IIIl.o~' dJi d ,~ ... _,r"",!Ii.r ". .. a~,il1C ,I:t r l,l ,r a. ~",~, . A" . ., ~ LilL

• _ ~J

e. ')11 ~ he " '1·1f h ~ ~ 11 b "]'1-' d '.

race ,'I.JJ,US:~D:II, 'E ne "leO'"""CI3S&IC' est ~ enc :rlev~I'v,a.~, can be called an e -, 'f,1Y' ver-

'~AI" of modern d-,j:Ii~~0111 .... ik ll"",-u'''' p ... ~ rsner alled i nodernism' "first

'I.lU'!, o.~ 11,,1::\_~_:' _Ii I:\...,~:I"~ ... ,,J '", l~t: aus ,.~\i':~,m .er (:,3 ,':-:-;'~_, .. I,I~_/_I~' 'I' 1,1 ,I s nrs

chapter," , h e to:C-W,'~,~I'O,-:::1 artistic mov ,7e. em ent il-:- shared a d ~:~ .. ~ re ':''''''O,~I':'I- ,3::-1 ne ~w~'"""~ "rea ·~I. ism 1i''Ii

"_ a ~~ Por. ~ IL, ... _ __ IlL·Ij~'~ 1 __ C-"c..J11!IiJI, "_" II_I_~ '- "_". ~ g~~ " __ g . __ ~ JI_tII_ .. ._~. ~II _" ,.. ,_ "___ I ~I I~

li n I' "1,',[-', ,,'I,. ~,~ \\ho:JU'I .. d denote re ,.,,-:._. pect '~O·.liF fu ~', mdame "~n° It ,;'II,' 1 stru ""F,U-,Ii'iA, ~II[- 'h··' er ,:/I~ ""·1- '[11

,II., . lI; ... . ",I d;11l,; _ _ .... .. . .. iii, ,~IIi.,~ ",~ '_ 'l, ,[I~ . .ill. "Ull!, .. ,d,. ~ ,IL , . ,,,at ;~ 'Il.dli. _ . ''-JII\ '"," ~.l,.'dL ,., . ,I ,II !II ",I,

insisting on surface verisimilitude, In Prance, architectural i-nn,olvlltioD

was promoted 'Ill'" IC-~,'~~I~~II;o ~,_)11 te rms 'b'iy~,": I, laude ''--' .. ';r":O,,·,J~' Ledoux w rho ~~IL~," ~'I

~ _~. ' __ ,lIi,'U .lItiI,II;",._ iI~II!"II,~ .. lld"',;]!~_~~",., ilL~ ~ ",' " , _i~ "" ,11""_,I_i~,",,,_, .oi"", _,,-_. 'i¥rli_,~

one ofthe ,first: t.o bOlrfO\Lt. (riln) l:ll)lcie~n.r 'b1uildillgs, 'lh.eir Si'[l]rp,l:e' re:llil,d,oln,-· 's.'h·· .. ;IPI-,:!i ' "''110,':'1'':0' iPO~:'I,; d,~,- 'f-a':·, 1.'['1 I ~I!ii 'r: :~" 'h-I ,;-a;·r· It,'I~I- 'J." ,,'}'-,1C ]lirr' d'='~l~[lr~,"'iv~' ~11 oltl fi~ His] ~Pari~1

,1 iii". i"lllill,lI ,_",'I"~I 0\11 .1-11.-, ,~J , ,."1-",,, ,a" I """ . !II ,iii "ill 'Il..,.,' . ...., __ 'W,,", _ a. ... ..., _ '!!!oo.-. ,.,,, .. __ -""~ _ _ __ ~

"~I,o<lir7',,';:a~~~f" :0':"""'-"- 'Ii",. ~\.:'4'--" h\ -a"(~v,e. :"II'-n" lilll.----n'~"d·-:, '-o-::-;:'r-'~'1Ii'~ld·I,". ',n""l,~~'d~~ e;:r"-nl ]Io-:'~)Il .. o 1":-0' ,~'I~'rI;I~'~:;;'r,' ,'~'~'riI~I;lrnl-U":'~ "":o·--c;.Ib-":'rl~i-'

OWl, , "if,: 1Ii"~~ " ,. ,Jj .. ", ,_' ,", .~~ .. ,g".. ,IA. _ . '~. ,1i,,!1!~,_ ' __ '~ !!I!i;o, ... , ,_." v,K. ,~.'_. iIlo._"iI.""_',II,,_, Q,ILiII'~lI." .~ , . , ,. .

ety~, 1:~1'1],gJa~D,d-1 Sir Jo:II'f] '~oalle ~5, illl ~_gin,a'tiv~e' S.i'lllp:lificatioclIS b.;, ,~'ed OD, C:la,sic;al '·au,·rce's see:Ol e'tllJ'a'U,y n,_od'·.::r:II1., a:n.d t,l,ey ,also, '}':i,'vc' ,t'h.c· :[u,:rther

'I:~' 'm"p': '(-,;:1; ... 'C"~I'11i 0'. ': '.:n: 0,', :-.:'f',- ~ :.", ., - .. , 'r ry""I. ,~ n': ., ',Q 0,. <'. '0-11 .~ .0·,I··;;:'I,'iIi'. '(";II~, ~. Eli," 'pc: .:,1" -' ' ;, n' . 'iI'jIi e,' ". ~ ~'I t',- h-, . '. ":'Ii. t,· '~'lIi,",~.,~1 ~.': ~I'~I 'r·~a:.:· .,d:'- y .. : ,:' d" ,- ,0,',. -.·.DDI '---,1' "" ",I I, "l: '1 '11.:,-. ',l~ 'n" "

'''''.1,;' ",",r.1ti'1 ,-I, '",~ ,~",I, ,n-""" ;g _, "y,~\", ,'~ _II! ",,1,,1. ..• "l;!,') ,_"",~, ~",~"- a~, ~.~" _, . _ I. ,,_"!I"!I~,~ .1,. "c,,-

lHrng·'~:li~h·'· ,a_:"r:' ·"h.1 .1'~t"'~I~~,u.J·.r~ ~.n·--"',d-. d,,~~ ~~',I""·:',I.,

~ , ~ II ,'I: ~~ I ~ ~J1" . . ~ d , I. •. , ., ~ ~ J ,~

'I.J ,

, '

, h d _.11 l'.;' '[ ~ 11·,.. · ,',

.'=,01 r tl e'_ - ,res SC:~IUJ :Ijgtlre,! .3:0 3.,O,glo,u So I~,I m,p.l,' I~ I C' _,[Io'n'$, \'\!."e're :0 OW' 1.I.l1~p e 1'3,-,

ti.ve fo:r' both '~~e',xe'Si TIle' 6U111d3111ell'tal 's'truJ'c(:u,'re lalf'II'~le' bodY~'1as, 'redisco\1r-

-I' X') ,', N' 'ID' 'S :U" I"

~ ,~ _' - ~ . "', '_ r. . I -, " '

ered b .•• ut le-':"nl-'~'re--1Ly",,, i "Iii. '91 !:-'n-:"t--II·'I'q'IU'~ ~, :t.O:_ .'rl-:;;m-·~I" The Ir,,' :.'I-.'IIi'm-· i of cle _'"Ii1'r:-I~I-~,·~' delln e ~a,·,··'t- ed

"'", ,",,[.!I'll' ""-_" -, ,",1 __ "1[, , ,,- '_ -'-'. '_I~ :(~. ",_,~ , __ ~ .~,,' __ ,\ii;,;o ~'". U,_- ~J.". I" . __ ~ ',.' .,,- __ u

limbs - 'bleadsl land, muscles, 01£ harmonious stomachs and buttocks and

, _ ",_ '_,' ,". '_ .. . _. " . '_ _ L, .. _." . , .. , " . . , '" _ . ." _, ,.. . . '_'" ,. _., . . _, '_" _ " .. , . ~ , .._. __ _" '_" _.

breasts that 'was pe~dect'ed in, 1-'"lt_iqJ,'u,e nude '::-ull-,ltUJ,'_ W:-' adopted as th;

m 1--1.0,'-·. -,,(!!it', ~-U' .. rh ieneic :.~ v -,':-;IIS-~!' on 10, ef ,:- th he b .. :,o.---,d--~"',,... the real -. 'tll __ r,. 'U"" tl:h-·,·· of nan ir 'l-r1. ,c"- D.":.·'.a~·I·,-'"O',~ I,rml -v th - e,-:

," -_-!;I,_ d _'_.'- "I!!ii",., _"1._1_.,, --'= '---~"- '. -',"" I"~_"'" .iL,\iio,_~ -----,~~--,..... ~~ __ I~U~,aI_~ -'''''''''~'-''',I'tl I ... ~,~,_,

'PI_311!DD'i,c form-Cloahing, rn_stea,d of :'·',gDloring much IO:~'- the actual body; ,1-5

it had been doing for so lOrnr~~·., was go in" ~ £0 'bavl,~ ~;O inld'j,c-ale a n,I:~'W 10,0.'ders __ mding Dr such rediscovered "natural" anatomical facts, ,/'1,,5, usual ' , clothine "I-n, .... art took ..... rh I 'e,: _ Ie ... ad ,"

,"",11.. _IIloJLU . ~ ,II , , a .. ., ,.,' _ Il.d 0,., •.. ,". lIil

rol" Fr anc e J'a·"-'l("'!'.-q.'III''iIi'es-,L-' 'O-""'I:U' --1'''5·'' David a "0'" 'd''-' others provided 'p13·" ""J~;nlh;ln"'" .: ' ~ I s '.LIIO"":'"w,''' :;''r-

-~'. -" _ '" i.' la, u .',.' _' ' __ ' 'I ~_..: '._"""' _ -, . g, -- _ __:_, , -.,' ,:j ,-.-. '__:_, ,~:. _''II' ,I ~ _:' _.~:!!!l _ -:___ ,,~- _ , "~Lr.l ,I, -,:,-, ,,~ j '.' ,I_ U,_ -' '~___:, .1. _..,~: !,I_,_I;,I~I_ -. 1_ _ I _1,1.,: .,' "!' ,

ing magnifi"ce'n,t e,xal:.1~s 0:(' correct I'baloln,ctd, ,-.~· ... nd, 'ves'tim,e;,nta'ry' £o:r-m

'Co':"r' be .. ' C-P'v'e"'s- ch "I~~;Pi,ft"y" ,ift, "1 e"DP'n' ..J1_ry- " C' "']-"'''Il'':CIII DlS' ',.' tanc -"'5 " - ..... , ............. , ..... ,'1- 'p"O' ··· ... a"I·,'.U,- [Ri!

1t'. .. lr_-j U.. ~~:~ '::_,~,- I~,_,' ~_, "~(' • !I, II, r_:_:~,_',Jl!!!\.IiI,'~,'~ .,1 ~~,~~ . ~'~~Il;,:_ I"ii' ,I ,:__,I-I~Jaj,~ '~. __ iIl, 1l1,_~,I'" _ ''"' ..

W,,' ,,'~' 'irh .. , I'~"·~' ~Ip-: .~'-I .ial ' -I-:i, C:-~~Jln~lse-' ;;0::"[1 't:a' "'0.· '~~~'~Iy' "'/ 'I" 'n:1 ' t' -~'t Dl',e· '. WI,], .. ;litOh-· fern !!jj:11 :e· ... f~'i~~';':Q·.'-ln" ,"":" 1·~D'~',1 be ..... ,

" "_ ,', ",I a ~J, ~ .... ' u .' . !.II ' ""', ., .IJ, ,I~ '1rCI3~.' . , .. 11;;1 , ... . ... ,III,. , ,U .. ,illiL ,1;aiJi~'.u ., "''f. a:I;, " , ~

carne 'more' ,a;uth,:·. U~D,tically' classicized, 'Sirnillr~I,y:~ :for C'IOI ::tume OD, the :~:I,' mch stag~ the ditTe:[ie:I1C1C' berween the old and ,D,-W' methods ofClassicalI allusion appeared :in the diffi-~:re:nce' between ~31 stage nymph Of'I'76S',J, wearing I leopard skin over I corset and a splln,gl_"dJ hoopskirt, LI10,0,1 wit'h high 'heels and po",l"'ltie,red :haiI' Ic,ro·,:'>,-:n,ed 1\j1",i,th, a ;p'rman.,d, and ,3 stage

:nymJP~h in ]79S,~ wC3'ri'og' the same wreath ' nd leopard skin '"riEh loose hair and app,:are:D,t)}~1' Il,D'Ehin,' .: ~ else but two ·~',a'r-ds of muslin .. T31ma~, the £a,--,

:m,QU5 Fren:c'h, ,Rej\!IDlu:tiIDna'fy- .. ctor, . .. tppeared as an ancI,c:n'C ~~: oman in 't-D,IC '50:11 short tunic and, sandal ofa David pain.ring" instead of the 'big stifr'

skires 'bLI~!a'h" 'LI;iii;,-;II,£, and towering '1IIrtIO' I '0:-:-"[-·0--' "b=--y- .... :11'1 'I--:h· eat ri r, .... I'll -R:' 'I '0' m--" '!!!1i'n- hero .... ··es' ~.fi.l.c!l. 1.'1 II. a. ' ,1i,1~' _ .1,;1, I. ,,~l·' __ ,,"' ~~Ii,.;~"I: .'_ :"I,~ ,,~~, -I.;z:,1 '. ," _1/, ,,'L:' ,au, ' .. I .I!!.. ...•.. I .""w~ ,'._ '_. "I"I.A .1, . '. __ I'~' ~.'

for a hundred and fifty, years,

B·ut aSI usual, :mo'~~ [hin.1 were possible in : __ ft than in life.Tailors and dressma ken .. now I umcbed on :Ci'e-'p-;," ste P--:-J'---"h-·!,'. faced the problem 'O;:'I"I"":I:~':':'-

~1~~:~lll·,~. =', _l •• I~ir. J •••• '_ ~ I ~ ~tI .. I~ ",_' '.~_ .~._ = ~ '.' .". " .,"',_' __ ,'.. _, "ilfo '.' ~."" '. ~I= •• _. ~ ... ~l~ •• I~ ~l ." ~ ,.

- - _". "_,

sicizing the actual npre' accordin .. ( IjD their separ ,t, C.lpll.ci,lti,les~ johann

,j'ol!chi'm \,,:~,,~"inc'k'elm=-'n'nt' th,le: Igre~a!1 historian and exponent IO~:' Greek art, 'had, u~ .gedl, thar the mode 1.11 arti 9,-~ ,- -,.'U'c,. I~I D'. :/im:'::-]" .. ,'Il I-:-O-,y- rhe works 10';- a D---

rique art, but must imi't3'I:e' the way 'i'h;e,_nti,q[u,e ,artist ""lolrked~ Like Ler uxand SOID,C"11 rhe true Neo-classic artils't should, a's ~Parn,orik,yl inter,pretsl\'~~I,'.~,;inc,: .. ·~·lel'maD_D,,. "undergo a, creative assimilanen 0:' ~ his mel.'bDds, and

:h ,,~, .:-', il £. 'L,= '. "" '~I 'h ,_'11 f' ~

:0101, ,pUJt' logetJ ~"Ic:r ,3 scu .·"n:£1 tc [-eCD,~nSI:_[U,CI_I,o"n 0,1 ,1:u8, ![eSlullt's,,~,'" In It ~Ie rearm 01' I'

.N,co-,classic :fa~~hi,o'n~ it wa~; the male' 'tailo-r~ o'r"n:~~,a!nld, 'who 1113nag'ed ,the :£irst J~u/,'t: like '1:1111:' ,a~c:h1te'c:rs, :~I·nl •. ,·,d, IL,~ ·"~nul·'I··'n.'I~:I1,·'·'e .. ·· .. : d .. -'trP.'~:£m··I··;i!']j'-···.e:~, ,o",.:'S'"' .·~r·I--:~'D,·.r-e···.· w"blo.;

- - - 'li1.1 ' - .. - - .. )I" _ !'!!l .. _ _ _ t" _.. _l,tl..-:, '"' """"_ !fI! ,____ __ _,I~'\F~_"" _.g, 0,1 __ I, i;J . _ , " .. CL , ,''''' _. .. ~ , " . ,

ISI'ayea, M,th, the' :Iatt'e'f, jUlt' Ilk,e ,t_h,e ('OSW_ln,e designe:rs~,

One 'imp"~:Drr[a'nr:: 13ncie'nt G~e'l{ cOI-nrven't-ion,-1 " d -e.~-'n:d-'e'~':~, ·h:-,e--u '~--I_'I:- tj,0:'_

., _, 'l!!! _~__ , !'!!l' '__. ,__I.''''~, __ ~ _ ~'_' .. ~ '_~_~_' ,r _'_~ . __ ~ I,.'~U '" " __ .' miLle ,_.lg

g,re, iu t'hJe n'u,de" D.n,d, d'raped, th_ere~nl]~]e' bally' 'C'D,.m~_;-Jli-t_~'I,y~, Until :Iat'·· i,D the

Ci ,~ DILl

third century n.c., women in ancient Greek 'S 1"'ul~ptU:[i showed their beauties 'Ih'rou,gh a, 'vt!'il 0'£ delicate folds, w,bj'),C: the hero 'WO,I}~ nothing but his perfece :n,lId'i,lty, perhaps enhanced b')~' 13, short cape fTll"' Il,S behind hirn, Th .' nude costume 'was 'the one mO;-'I' ,su,gges,ti\ne ofperfect male strength, :pe:r:-, feet vireue and perfect honesty" 'with O'\~'-, rtones of independence and ra-

.. , '.' Ii' h h "'h ' d b he vi '''&...'1-1 !Ii

'norl~ 'l:ty'F. ", .:~. if hero's ,1,~'2'rmDnllO'U'S, nU':I>~~ eeanry was, tne 'V.J'S:I,io,,--,e expression

of hi '5-', 'U-II- n :C{,~ .[~I!PU'I- p"~." ~lp;r~1 mor 'rJI .--,--, n d 1'0-1- en "~'~II. .q.1 U- - ~I"I[-~; e -.~" .'\, ',:- ; ·0--- d ,-,,, _:_- - 't;Q on th Ij:.!Iil I,O~IIi':h:-" er

_ , , ~ ,lL . ".110,"",[1 """.1,.1 ' .. ,., J_ """ .. , , ."'AI- 'I·a I!,JIi ~;!j , ,·.-_ · "1,,, U"I' 1"", '-',,'''" ,!!!i;...,

'r'3'n'-',..J1 , '~'~',a-:-Is-', :~'11\f~~:~cy-I',; ,;t-·-'·h~- e ~'I~ anal female m .o:,;I-r~III'), '~.l~ rtue: f,Q;'O'-I-l- :~I'~, zeal, ene .... :r-ll"'\J or

11 . ''''' U! 1"'''11'- _ . :aJ ~~,a U ,J ' __ , ""_ ~. 'tJl!!' "" a.. (([L, ,_- . , __ -.,,,", ~,_, _- - '" A- . 'II!! oil ,,_- """ " ,~JL. - ... -Q .. "'" ;L; "'" g- i e ',"" _..-. fZ:).I' u. ~

wisdom or indeed sexual attracriveness, had, 'to 'be filtered entirely

I .. ·

,throo.,gh, j,[, 5,0 to, speak. The' resulting combination could 'be' nicely d,le'-

'n -It' -"..l' - - -- - nvelo pin - - -m--- - - to rh '"'I,·t-- hL - d - tend .... e· -ncv 1[0 cl III-ng

I,JlO,,!CU, _," an enve', ,O'lno: ~~:r <, Jce,n ... : 1 __ , ",: 10. __ : _,I 3:.L a ,::_-=-t:,',~' '1 __ ",'/'_:1 I~_, '---, :;, O'!!I

I. ,_ ~ ~I ~_

D--.:'r- a~< ··I'~la:'··,k· ··.'e·· ',-'~ - alr ·~.i'1id'lv··.··~, ....,., 1 .. ".··.'~·-U~'t·A, omed '·0'1.>. #-- . .' •. ~""-..,:!iIi;. ~""'t'l" n' IQI theaerica 'I 1jC!!ltyl,I;.'I-,~~', o.·~:-If"·':' :~'h-:-"I'".C"·-' " ., ~ .... ,l,IIL .... . f:;]!,. do I ""d". "~.' , ..... \;.,.. _r.li ,vIlli!, . ~..... \r. r """.. I~I' ,,'", aL r JII"""illI ~_'~."'~ -_" ..... "., _"

wi tho ~ •• 'UI,-,t·-·, m usch c :~o.~· sncern for cut, S-·:I\I~ m ·:,'--1:'1'-' rearran - d .. ····'- th I, eir m .. ~ ~:~'r'~I~~I'II~: 11:')0: :': ap-

~ .I Ill., .. , , __ -_.. . ,_-_ .. __ - _ ., ,_ e ,. 11 _ ... ~. __ "'!II .. . ... " .. ' ,,",,'lD, liLl._ _ .. IIL \",.___ _ g't~_ .:I!Q.~;J" _

. ~_ I • . ". .. .

'P·. ::-fl.:i9'~1"'11111iiIa'·~ th 'Ie,,--:, antique :,I"~'ll"=u·-'.e,,,::,_'!""h, te '1-'o,,'.,.,.O.:I:k·, ID,,:,.,··,tf·;: '(JIU', ',d.;~'-'I"~ m~~I'D-:[I~' 101;"[:" 'I-'I~S'~I ,~LIIl~I"y ... I.l,:,

" 'U,la_ ... _,11 __ 1""""_ _ _ _ ti1 __ '--:Il.-_, . _-, -_I~,I'" _-_ _ ~ ,~ "__-'" -. _" '"' _- ..... ,,.. r " '., "~ .. " ,'_.iJ !II.,J!~I 11,11,._

covered with , . ..1-=-:-,'-,-----, .. ~:,--:-' U' ',:-- d .-:- .-- '''-hi ,-- "'1':--::-:-,':-' 'w--':-I)I d actuallv I_I·D 'fj(r esh ." .... ,

cQ,·_er1!____I,;J:1 ura:pery~ '. :.',D_er L "e, ,pery , __ ,au , __ ,_C,~U_ y g,~- , __ ,_,

colored bod 'y' Eiftl,l'[! of varvine kine :. and new C'D'DstfUCtiIQ'IlS ,fo(' roundine

, -' .• ,~ ,,'/,1 . ..' I .: :,.'/ '. 1',5-',11.. --: :1) ".I._ . ..J. ,) .. ,,1,6 ,,_I, '. - '0:; . __ '. ,'-' ., ,'.'_ "'._~'.' /,1 '" .. :., I.· ' .. ~.' ., .. ,1 .. ~··.I , .. '., . ,1,,1_ ' ..•• " ',.' , .',~,

and separating the breasts, aU, tlol create a new sort of theatrical effect. But

U', Ib1 I

tailoiH still meeting the ba ic (: -'halle:ng:~:e [10' construct a, complete three-

._. ,. I.,. , .. _ ., . , .. __ . __ .. I I. ,.~" ... ,. .. . . __ . ,t: ... I . . --- ".- -- --. --. _ __ . __ ., -- _ -- ._._!!Ii _ -. I; __ . . . "" ... '""' __ _

dimension __ aJ~ '-I-~"~~~~'-'~~-) £:'--;';-1' the '1-1--:;:",l:c, bodv set II~TC, 1(:--;·1 '~;-:, .... ,-·-eJ,a·'~,e ehe .-;-,--'11,;-'--,'-1

. _meO_SIOD __ , casl_n,g, ,(,or t"c ,mile. O-I't eE DU,t ,_0 Ie cr __ [ __ , e an __ q,ue

- ,- d-'· h -. -, - .-- -'" --. "1- - ,~-.- .' - .. -.- -.- - . 'r-' - ..' - ~ ,- -- - _._:!i. .'). ·-'h" .

I. "[,-,.' -:' II.. -_; .. I ·1 ,- ','. -::-: H 1111,.,:'1 -,':' .-- •• --. '-~ .': ;'111.1. 11'.:' I_.I.-~

,1111 .... " em e,nEllre.y In, terms 0,. eXlstID"g m e ,D ... c, ,0£ . ,e .'t.'

.,:".,.:"",:: 'h: te re as late -e . :;1 ehteenth-ce '0--- tu ry--' I .• .' d ress ma kers .:::-. nd m od ~-::=~~~. were

·_"·111,._,'·._. __ ' I,._. __ '\,;- '._ .I'CI 1:,1 ..... ""'. _IIj".,_: . __ "" ,1'-' ... _-_ ,: .. -,~~ .. _,.~ __ , . .. __ ....... __ , ,... __ ,_,11 ,I',,",,~ ..... "". ,"",

:'T-ee' [0 rhrow out the lbig:":" hats and the b,a1lololrl'i,ng,-,~ hO(lP':5, and dress

• . .. '_ I ._. _,I. .. '_'" .. 1. '_' ..• .'" .1[ 1.1.. ..•. . ...• • . .. . ~ ~ I _ ._ _ ..

', __ ' __ . L!_I

women in strai,ghJt'L_fiU i 'ng- muslin .. the tailors were still bound 'by' c:r3'ft

principles, and could not throw them D:U't~. thev certainlv could Illellt:be'r

r·· .'. -', .'~ ",_-'. J'I ._- - .. 1-,_, -,_ •• '._-' '.. ._ .~... I.. ')"'. -.' ._. _ '.' I ._.' ... _ .••.. '. '1. 'J ••.• _II ~fI I .-_ " ... -,' ' .....• , ,....... - ',I' _ .... -, 1 '_.,_ •.••. , .-'-~ • , •

C'---:-:'rI1 'ill d 'e-·I':-y··'-' denu d ~ the man 'o-=-Io"'---:;··':r'· p,=-"'-U-I" 'h"~I'm-"-' 'J~'n- ''''1 !('·t"-'a~lg---.--.iP-y"~' ':tI:'iI'n-- -11i r< TO:'-'" 11f""'o;:-~:n-yv---"~';Q-y' ~ ~.'h-~

, 1 g" ., I.,.·, 1 .. J'L., II. I, _ I ' ... ' .. ' . - c ]11;1 . .' I !IlI1 ~, ... "",'. ILlY, .'L--~ 011,11 'lot" ',. "", .. . I. I,I!!!I..,

, __ I '_-_! •. __ .__ ,_/ . __ • ..• • __ -_I- ••• _ ._. 1 ._ [!IIIIII! [!IIIIII!I __ I •• lJIIIIIIIIII!l • I:' • -_I _. • I 1 ~. _ ••• _ -_'.:' •. .1' .. / ._ . __ .[ _'. ~.. _ .. _I ••. _. " ._ - •. _.

i:mlg'~e' lo'r unadornled, masculi'n'e p·lerfeIC[)on. ,t'hey",' h,ad to 'rle.'mode~ I'he nu,de

~ '-. _.~'_ '_"_ . __ • . _ .. _ I ,_. _. __ I. ._. _ ~~_,._. 1-"- _~._ .. _ '_'_' ._. __ I~I . __ I,_._." 1 . __ .. __ .. _. _ [ ._.I L ._ .. _.~ ._ .. 1 _. ._ .. __ . _.

'. _.' . _.

"m-l·r·a·····'lljQj, w',.·.;,lh---'o·.····'U--·y·'.I.,: IO·····,,·U·., 10",·,·,·,-(';: c',··:I'o"·· t·_.h-·· 1'1'0:11 c· .. ·rr'~,~,iIio,~1 ~I'n a···b·--:-:i('t'· [:"1I;,C·.·_·' '~'t--a::-'rill''iI~ If1Iif"I-" t-'h-=-'I9J 'nl·~I·~'I~d'·;". 'h'~\ti'"iDI-"

,I. ,---C_I""".I, '---' _<, 1 _,., ._- ,1,_ J, . '~, ,. ~ ~,: 1_... . ~ ,', ",,"a 'L-J,..,. ,,, ... I, ._,. ;ilL_ ., _ '" ;i,l ,_:"," I...,,,,, V. _ I,,",,, , . I. !I;.!""",' I , "~,iI,' .

I.

carve,d, 1C),c'c,o'roing.··'-;c [;0 'tail'D'r's, ,rum---s- T,h'its :1l1ca'nl: modify'~',in,~ ',:h,-:',' ex;(.s, ri'll D' ,Iu'il:

'--.' - -- .---- .-"- .-'-- "~ .. '-.'- . -- .. -- , e '" , -- -- ,_.. ., --':,'" --, ,B __ .- --.--- __ m' .--

mth,Q:ut oiVI'n'o' Up= its b,3,'c·:ic' colmp~:)one'n't!1 ,o'r de:p(lrlioIOI '&0101 its 'm,e'th,ods o:~:~-

" . , ". ,. ..,," I _jl ,Dr ' "Ib" " .. ~' , '.--,' -' . -".', '. .' , ,,_ ~ , .. , ,', .,."" '.','.'. t," . - I, " "'b" '... I ,', ,'. " , . .' ,,- . -' '. 'J,

- '-:--, i"- - Cl-~Ihl -,' , --, - d·~~· . -..J -:~ it-hi, - '.' ·t "~".' , .' ,. ""~' .... ," - ". . 'k·· ~', .... . .... '10"

consl~rU,CL~o,n~ all.! I WlI!l.c!" 1.0U,-, e,x,cpDsllng, ,31D,Y ,5,111. 3,1~ a",

··S'::'_I~·,'-n:-'I~:e-: I,,'h-' ','e-~ -n-',-n-d~;-e--_· C,· •.. '."=1 :-'I~~ :l:C~,ql'l ljim,1-r-,e-: h-~·a::-I:d:-; 'b~:e-~I£"!o-=:::-m---:-I~' ,!,,'h1 ~ ·n--,e:w' =1·.-n-lal'~ 0'(' na't:-,

- -._ .. ---"-',-" 1", ... " _,' .. "., __ .. ... _,_ .. _..:Ii._" ... !eIi." 1,l1tJ,~,-··· .- .-.,- -' - .. __ !!I!v. __ ,~ __ "_"~ I"',,_-~ '--~'- ... -. ~--'~-"'-D""" ._,,,",' _, _._

'D,ra! man a mode'I'D 'ma'n I[nin.:~,tr: 'rl!- son:~,'blm'y'/ 'WT,iI,nt a hem,Llc 'figu,=.·.I"-'--' .. withlo1Ll't

. . " ," _.. ,', ,,_ , . _ . .. ,_ .. , ,,_ _ ,. "~' I, . ".. .. ," ,. ,. ',~. ... .. _."...,." , ', __ :: _ .. I. _ ~ ... I _ _ . __ .•

see'mingr 'Eo, ·y.,'ea;rn '£OO:~'i5'h1'Y":" tor a;n 'imp",ossib'le' 'ide'al- 'H'le WQ:uld ,im'n.']y,':.' 'be

..:__ ... _.l._. ~_:.._______:: _'.: l.~ ... __:___:_.. :., .... _ ~_.__;_''':______: ____: .__:__:_' '__:_',____::..___:__I,:..__:~, . 't') _'__:_.:..___ . __ ____:~ d__":_:"_____:',' 1;-" · . ....:____..·r~ ~._ .~l'_. ~'._. _, __ ,~ ,_" ,._.l ") .. ' ._'._.' . __ ... 1 l~l .r .r·' ~ . .' .~" ..

Idx",·n'[1--e___:_s·",§·;n,O" '"'!II '1",'h-,,··n:ll·e··C'DI"IO"--IIA 'W" ~'~h-: '£;0::'[1 ,.-. 'o"':--nl"e"'I:h"-"~I-"n-"1J' 'O"o-'1[m' 4 -] ~ln"d.'= 'DI10"""',w:,.:' it--:b','R '''''~I'~I'~'D-:-·'·''·[

~ ··'.~,r'·'> '.~ ~iI!,iI,D' ,gil.' , .. , '1 .vl,_ ~._.:, .. I., ~ 1, .. ' .• ,iI__.;)I I I ,['1.:' ... I. '," ',., ,.,'.:. '.,' , _'. ' "1:) I H .• _"", •. '. I,d_ " a._I ', ... _ :_ .... _.' '._'.: IlL-- ""i;,,,! Ld III_Jl".'-_ .. ,

'~Id' ,', 'f' 'h 01 bll '·'11 d- i~I,!, 11 'h' 'h ].

'C'O'U_J1l_~) la~rrafnge 1'[" ,,--:,aS~~Tlo,n,aL~:Jle' ltilt_1I0'n, 'u:~e:-_ O'lu,lLD_ary' CI,O'!I -_,esl tAle"m~ eves 'EO

lransfo~['m, arti6,ciatID[l1 ~bewi,~l?-'ed an,d, RO,C'OCID :man in,ta, i:1lob'l,e ,an,ld ,a:n,ti,lq-crU,IC

• tJC! II

D_ to,m'l m~I1,~, "., ,~h,eY".i QifIe,red th,~~ PI'~e'rfec't C,'lalss..'~,ea'l bod¥:~, lap-~)dv' ttaosl=,te"d

. II ,~

~I, "'X·.·'-. A N······· ~Il: ' I U' '. I, 'T' . ~ •. :,

i3 II I w ,1-,/ . ,.I '"," ~. .. '_'/

into che modern gar,m,e'nt$ that 'we're the' most tr,3!di-rionaDy' "natural" 'in themselves, the ones thar even :tuj'rthle'[] suggested the ul'n!faJ1e'n ,Aldal:~1 in the Garden, the simple clothe ". 0;(' - nglish Cr()'U,:jJ ,:mife~,

But "in the ,I, 7'70~S"~1 these clothes still looked even more bunchy thai} elegant dress~" which had been reduced in scope and sharpened up 1,0 n 'U1C:h OD_ both sides 01,':' thief Channel, 'he loose and comtoreable woolen

frock wri.th its turned .... OIVfr ('0;11'3'[' mi:gh'l form the basic element ~(o'r the new mode, burt i,- needed serious f-e'visi,ol,n.,~ '_-'IItg' tlll'ffs and pocket-flaps had

It'ID~:-' disappear During the next 'rl"W"'~~An'-"""'ry' ".,,~, vears ,1.':1, ... ,'11···· coat-skirts shrank d ~.IIl""I-·-I~' __

. " " ',' ·I3d, I., "~lal ~ ':' I .. ," ~l_. _._) •• _~l"l I~ .. _ ~~~I._I'.I ,.I~ .. __ ._:_J[·, ,[.II~· ~.·._.·ICI,I .. _] ~I __ , _l'-~ ~t:_ ~~IAI.JL.I·: .. '" .IJI!iS!ilI_. I

. r, _:_) (.' : .••.

Ical),y,a:I,]' lost ,al~, their thi,lckening, and s';-iffening, which wars instead trans-

ferr ed U'~' "P~ ""-~11'3'~d; s to expand th . e " chest "1IHd':- should I-r-·· - Sleeves even "'1i1~'nU .. ':·'I~·r- -e"~

lL,~. _.""'" '._ . , ,_, ',.,'V , _ __!,. __ .. I~,_~ ~~ ..... _'- ' ..• ,. ~_ _: ... .'.-', .":'_. '_ ,,,~,,, __ ' ,:.-..:-, __ -_1''-" ..... , . "1, __ ,1,_ ~ '_ ~"",, ,~ "'",'". g,,",,,,, __ -' __ u,

'']Ii, ~'m' I ill 11)' 'P""IU"~ - I· rh e ·O···IP-·· '~O'" 1'1 suggest firm .... ··r deltoids T:"blli" '<IiJ~a:--·,~i~,t· ·r'o'~ at ,fn'['- mer .. :ly"I"

19, iEJi J _Ul_:l _ .. -,,_ .. ~~lI ~_}'.r " : ". lL··.: .. ~··/ ~' ... ''' .•. ,'~J . ·I~.' I.:l-~"]. '.._._ .,.---.:.I .. _·.~_~ ... , -e _·.'~~~ I!!.LI!.~ '~. __ -:.a,.·.~·,:-_; •.. - 111[l..,1 Lil'y~'. ]' .. '

_ ' " l .... · ' .. ' __ ) ",

stretching ~'''· -e- ·e'l) down over ED,e' rounded be -'-y" was shortened and, cut

sr:f,ai,g'ht a C'(10s's' 3,1: a high, neat \.vais"tllbe'" :Like the coat, it 'wa>: O:(t·e.11 made double .. breasted, to b!lp suppress the old domed stomach with its long

') C···: b Th 6'''' '~~ 6'--1 I") - b I .-

centra [ro'1J:~J' '0-' .'. _"-"'U' tto ms ne " n ','J"le"'r Y '. 0'- 'p"pilJ! ~I·O····· ar ro ~.PI U~ll 'p-' [tr.·o·-:·· :: '~I ~ID-·I"C··J~ t'...: -"~l

",1,,",'~i"!I,I. ,LA..: I.' I.W'lI ... ', .' ~ .... I.~"I]:_, "l"I~1 ,.' . , '.'-)," .1"11 ~","':', ," ',-' .. -::'jl '-e' .-., .cli. " ,:,' :;;j~l ,'. ~.. ~I, :-..:II~ .ii:iI_ r, !,'=Il~ II_,~ ~

I' ] _. L~ I

enlarged shoulders, It.D strengthen [he heroic neck and support the 'Q'D,'-'

:po,vd_lefied. head, now shorn of its wig and cropped ill the Classical srvle,

,-egs] 'w,erie (:"Iadl ;£[0,0,]. the high ":~,-'a'isi down 'to the ankle ill one pla'le

color, I~IOI they' :mighl· sweep up in a, lowing' classic Iine instead of" dividing

~11f:!' knee and Ig'~ .ro·-·'J~I'D-- '111.'. ith 'Im·~'·····'·UI ·.c('h·· horiaontal bunchinz of the fabric 'h-e:'

,~" _ .. ,. ' .. '. -_ ,1.1 ,')___ '" "" .!Ij" _" "". ,1. __ ... _ " . ". __ ., LC. .. ·'IJ :'"-«:1, _. ' ... ,I"": ,_ilil, ~ "". _ ""~ ,l~" , .. " ,L~, "._.

verv ,me~~' nude a:r~' ofthe period 'WaS matched in ,a,cc;ua'), dress 'by' "pan-

[I ~.~I lJ UjI.? "

taloons" o:fJ knitted silk, 1,1 "I -' smooth doeskin, which ,g~ l;ye' the r l-al,e' '61gure at

,IJ,eW ,g,en;i,Ea), emphasis that had been :milssi:n,,1 ever since tbe aban Idol 11'me'D,['

O,:·",r~ the IC' -:'0'· ":d: ···p~il~'e .. ··'F".e·.·· 1i11~1 the 'l'"ft1h, 'R- ena :1~~,s·"""ln~:·IC·''-·I··'~ 'H'''' '·D-::-~w-,r:-·~'~e-::r··' .... man "'iI~:"1i!' '~A --'I-'!iIY".-

. e-, '_.C_:.:.oJ., ...... '_ .. _.'_"'-.~-- ,I~.illl 1iJ1'1 .. '. ,l)I'1l. ".-,_.,ILI __ ·~ ... ~-", '.1. "_' ,) ... ,.'.' .. " ,II. = ." "'~ ,Ii,,,,", ~.

'b'uilE',~ his tailor renlaced 'his old s'nort-le,p-p,ed peae-shap .. ed body w,j,t:h, a

c· DD ,~ [ I

Iean. well-rr uscled and '~~I)" ~se,xy' hDd,y' with long '),egs"i'

The new 'f~s'h'io'll: was, however, undeniably hard on the truly' fa't~

Caricatures appeare :~I showin ,,, the Ih·, 'U"'O' '1'p-I- .. ·::h1,,-,·d··.· 'u"n~111~p-~·:;~:~' ~~eJ :IC-'~ :0.1:[-1 the .. ·, 'h'~"'I~f1h,II'

'. -G", '~U:I' .. _'- '\..-~ iU', ..... r -_-Pl.'~'- _, .:J.! '._ ''''' ,I ''''''0 ' .. "_'_ ~ ": ._._< iu LiI, ,--rr.!,1- , _, .. /'Iloil' !'i;,rJ,u ...... !L, .... -, , IL.Jfl,. , .... I~ "

''I'iI,.tr'''liI'I'- st -!";Iii nd tfMi'; i nimal co at-tails on men with 'UI n--"q"'-~'- U1 . enchablv b ~,a' hi ~--.Ai ~ es and

,~'" lUi ,;i.'J.. OIll:lL." ILILlI-I, , . _ .iii" _11_. ". "'-J' ... ' ."'_--.:' -' 1_". ,iI_Ji,,~ '" '~_' ,ilL., '.' ,,'.;_.~I . ",",)l,ill :~,iI~r-c"IDI-":.·~ ._.::., , __ ---',, __ "' 1

tho.se' ",';v,ith '-pi'nldiy legs :ha,cJ 't'o u:se callt:-stu,ffe:n ,~l'nld fhjg'h'~impr:ove'rs to 'p'rod,D'ce' ,the-_~~-~la·s:il -,-,1 :n,o:r:m,~, '. [h,e loose fas'h,iton~ IO~- for,me'r Ida,Y':1 'h,ad, 'been

:fl:1U,c:b, 'k'inlder tOI [:h,le' bulky' :fi,gu:r~' (w~ith, 'S,kinn,',::; ,e~x.tre'miti,e,s; 'bu,'£ qui,ck, d,e ....

'III '" d 1111 ~ dd~' "hl 'bl L, ,.

ve!JlOI,pmc'o'a ill mOI'_-~,Ic;'r~n, rarlllorl_D'g: soo'n,-._- ,~_res's.e,). £ I-I"e plro :~~eln 1 so rt.,!i3'1 '!Ul:I'r!

I"" IO-·· .... ,U'llld~ - '~O··· ':'0'''-' "'10'-' n 3'''-111 .,- .... '1Iri?'I~ e·" . v~ry- '--.,_ ·(·O'U- ", e'- ": A·'''~: .. ·,· 'm-" .. ··O:-:I'l'"'PJ ·'n'lc··;'---:o;-:"m-i -'P'6 . .,. C:Ci~ n'- 10' '~,'b-I"I~'P-' ,,~, r:o":"'-"'r' ·h-t·I:Po ro--::;'a~-:-"t;c

L.-.·,_.:I.,_::-_ .li.··.·"·,'/:.__u_,__: _,",:_,l,dJL...:&o~ '." , .. :'!!i,;.. ,.'('" .,.' .,- .. ~,. ". ' .. :J .. ,~ ~,_~_,_-._ .. =,__;_ ,:Q.;J'~'.I._, b roli. ,,_g, ,,'-'" Il:" 11..1..~' 'Ik'_ ... ' _, ~

b~ d" ~:h 'hi f~ ~ 11· ') d' '1, = ,=

CID:ml;ln,e~_~. 'Wlt"~1 tl.'He ul:e' OJ~ tw'uisiers 1,[' le,Jlegi'nl 'w,ear:, . <:te:r' ,a,~~]usted the

~].;::-'hl- ·e. ':'n: 1~';Q\, ~'v,········n: 'm-"~-~' a·-'I·-'ICC~--U. '~a:'fi'~e· ,'~Iv .~-~ ,;~~" n-~lu=:dJ~ ICI:--'~I';ilfii'~~,I';"..t"i'~I~1 II!""";O~{iliI1li·n·I'·.D'~p--,,,,,,~·

~- ,_ ' .. '_ ,_ ,_" ,.,., ~ .'. _' '_ ='!!i;; ,'" '" . I· _ .... '. __ ~-'. .1'-' ... rlIi ,}_ . ~ ,iI,!Il.U , , '" ,. ,... . _,1 do ~ ,~'dJli, !!Ji... . 'IlolIl. . ,L~ ,ill. L .. d~, 1!Ii..,~,

IH, E 'RO .E s ~'.N 'W' 0 0 l

'0, 'yo I 8 'I 0 ". the new tailoring techniques 'had alrel·dy·.'···" produced art U'D'Of' ....

I • • •• _ I .• ,. I __ . .,. ,_j,.-. . _, _ ~ I' .• ". I. II __ "_' ._.. . . 1 -_ '_' , __ ,, __ .1 ," _ ' __ • 1. "._. ". __ ' • . __ .• '1.' ._',.'

'_ 1 I: I'

namented sculptured coat ' loose envelop ae fO'f the male upper bodv,

• I _ I "_,I •. _._. __ • ~- __ ' __ I .• _·"~·''''''''''''''_~- __ --'_- . __ -._-. __ • .1 "._.I [-, .. __ ""!'II '_ I'.' _.1. ",:" .. 1 ._. ~'._ I _ .• ' .• ' '_l___:_~._ ... l . '- ... )11•

: ',: .Ib-"',rd~: - :',.'.',: 1"(': "'1' it" of d -, - ,·-·"U· -.-----.:-,. It··,.::.::·· II~ .~,~,1I1 "'~- d ~ ·.1'-- '. ,"I "," th h ':~I:,-,'hI-":', r ". ".:~ ·-,~'b·-··::l·-·::-~ .. "' .. ,", "~. '.' ":-'. T: 'he

su,"'-,y CU~I 0: ..... - U, , .ma_er.I,3J. a.D ... seW.R Wl.,~'" . ],guc V vmsl._/. e seams~ ... ~~e

I.~-'~·:·.·:· ,':'-: '01 'I te , ,.,: ,,:'.' id "=-~:,,,,·'t-:I;I'I<'-:__~ ('I .' '1-11';1"-' -:'h' ~·,~"rn-'- ·:·i-=h"II-~Ir:"': I':"l:--::'~ red ies

essen ,.extufie InJ," ons __ rucnon, not £_1 e SUe ace rtcnness, crearec 15

A:~Iio,L'9t'-'-I"C- mte 'r~~liI:'" T'- h '.I-~I ow: as a very modern id ,- ~~;ill an ~I ~i'" 'w' -~Ir p-' "0" t'!'f'~'b-' -I-e'-- 0-' _'I~--

I~JnilJ..'_'-,',· _IJ'- :,'-::,L-'~~i~' '--' rns was a. ''''':''''--',,:,~/ ._._L ::.~" m .. 'I~_I';:'"'I I~_".JU ':WL':'_ ~~l ,:~':~:\~;}I~~:, "I I __ :~[U,::>

""',-, :((11 ancient tailorins traditior r,· ind ed 1'-" the ":,,:," of ·,'-'::",r'~ ,I:,"('"'.··:'h·

1D 13,n l31n,c,),e,n, _, l"aL,orIDlg 11.,1",, __ 11,",0100 ,1,0 on, ,_--.1: .. - 00, '1." e use 0 - WOO I, '., . ..ng 15, . '

't2i.101'S1 had Iong been superior 'tID 'aD others in the 'CU,[ and ,6,[ of' woolen

d I '~.... b L, 111 Clb '. f gil d

earments: an 'woo 'was, ~'DO'WD to be tne :u-re'at' 's'tap-:-,lIe' fa bric Ic'F. ~~-n-"I an

,b~ I _' .1_' __ 1 --~'-~--' '.'_ '_.' --' e- 1._- e- I! __ IJ 'J' .• ' __ L.!'_l ._r._ ._- , I _' Iell _,, __ ll_, ._ •. _- .. ~. _l!!l. __ l!_._ . .1_ ~ ",._. "._ 1.1,:._,".' . __

since the e·" ~4'r' ~l-I~ est period of its hiseory , .. u r '

. I. ',.' ',. . "', G. " ~ ... ,., . ,I Ii· .. ) ", "', JI, a .1-0. . .. '.I.~i!!!l

,.". t,·

'lY'r,··;-,)-I,< ~~.""'~. 7"iI. 'k--' 1;",··'1" ""'1 be ,;fih-"I" ": ,:-,;, .. - ,: .. "':.: ,.- __ ~·I'b··,··<-·-,,"···-·I ofantic "'I'~"ru' .• and ,~,~

'wOO _ was aiso '. Down, ,,,,0 ne Ii; 1000e CODIm,Q,n ,1,,3\r.l.C 0" ' __ n Ilq,U"~,,,'T"~ an,· ,II~

"'~rr''''I'~ a S-'·1t-I'~I:'-~i"n··g·'-.··· 1~~IC;"'-b·"··:~.··'iIi" n····o~'· only country ',,', .. , C'O:,-'''1lt···C'! 'b-I'U, "1, h te ':'ro-:;I'll~C':: togas W' __ 'r-,P'~e~'

'!Ij-.'d~1 I . g., .~ I: II ", . I:,~ "-I ._,_".'Ir ... , ..... ~ ," "', . .' ~' .. __ , .. __ ~,,_J.:._:",. ", .... :lg,_~, .~) __ .' .. '._?~.'.':_:_'~ •. _. I.'~_"'l . ..:'-' "_II,-)~.I} ....

1':"'1 1_' ., l!.' l_'; t. "

properly made ofwoolen cloth. Consequently :(Ol[ the creation 0:£'3 nat-

")- h b -. h-I d- d ~ - 'h "c. 'b !,

u,'ra, man W'I'IO 'was l~otJ.~, monern an:. antique, 'I ..'Ie: a',pprop:fl,3,'£'e ,1~'a,::r,I,C' was

la,t' hand in c\n~'and. accompanied 'by':' materials of eoual antiq uitv and

-"' ._ I!" .1 '15lj·~_'lj[~1'.~"1 .~_._ ' .. 1 I~ .•• _.- 1._' ... _' I"I~" _ ••. 1· .... ,1. .. _" "·~I_'_" • - "_ 'lll.---'~ll· .. _'_'_'

simp,:l'i,c.i'ty such a,s, smooth linen and varieties [01(' leather, and colonial

I.C-IO:iD'IU· ribu rio ms su ch 4.' .... cot ton Emeraent n I ,iljjlb' ;~'O'I:'Dlla;11 'p~,:'r-' Il~ d e. ~'X .. ' 'P-""[i'~~'~I"'I1I- :g~ .. _,: '~'I"'('J_

, " " ., . , ...• ,& e= '. - .I"_J~ .. _'.' di ,oJ!'" ,,.,,.,, 1!i::I.. . '. ". .", '-1,. I' . , . ,t)~C", III;. . ClliJ.. " ., _ . _., ,_. . "" I ,..,... I ::., . III;;.,o,a;iliI._ ,,_ ': ~:, !II.~

I~~·.,I'I' "= .'. ·6':,,-1" - "F"~' -~~': ch and II :liIi','h':c-' ·:Cr-' I-, I·it" ·--, { ·t' ' .. ,'~ "'1'-'- '1":· I . ". '. ".' ' .... ~_ "c. "'-'1-1 'I ." ted ~ ". ~·~'h"'-· _',

'1I;3'IDce . rom, , J..~nc .. aOc cO ...... I.er .. --,OO.I ll.ne,n. _Jll ,I,n . ,U,I~c" ces,., 5Up,p .. or~e-, 3. las,""",

I 1 I,

ii' b- d IlInI" " ~ 'I d' ;;; 'k"ll"

ionoasea mamry 1010, native l,na.te,rlall'S,~_I1_1_, nanve '-1-" 1;01

The . '~,l1gl-'ili's,rh 'had certainl'yn/ used silk, tOQ~ 'but the firm silk fabrics

•• '" , .... - u , -' _ ."... "_.I, --" ....... '. P.,." '._.'. -' -"" ._. ,_",,_.' "_'_ ._. ' '_0_'_' ' _'._, " __ ",,',

- _. ~.'

'used for mens clothes had a. taut and rigid we, ve, whereas all, 'wIDo:1 is flexible and elastic, Under the induence of steam p:r~ ssure and ,c3're£u), manipulation, to say nothing ,0;£ imaginative cutting wool can 'be' made

'.0'<' stre '~cc~-'h' .' ···h-··,e-·[-'tlo-"·:k·,· and rU'-I'r'I.II':M 41It-' the ''''"'I!-I'']='O'-''r'~ lI~C!IJ~il"I- to ,ca'·:)"l"w· :.:'" e- n - d comple-

.Ilo:.j Ij.lJlIo;I':L. _, 'tl' ,," ,ILI"I" '., ,I ... : !Ii.-.; _:,Ji" ""~ 'iPL_", 1_" .... : 11:.; •.. ,' .. ,'. ;:""'.:1 .. " ... <-' U>··IUh,,' '.' .. ',~. ~ __ ,:__,~,I,~-'

ment the shapes and movements of the 'wea,re~r'is, body without 'bulc'kling and rippling, It truly resembles a sculptural medium, obedient to ;3, de-

" ttl ,.' d'" ~iIk:'1 ' h h h d · hori

signers creanve :~; ,esm're'~1 ~·~I;· '~~I on tne or ner nane, asserts ns 0'\[7D, a ut ~','O'fllty~,

'The' m,o~re ~sim,p:my' 'cu,'E s,:!,'I'It ,s'n,d vel,""er: ('Oa'ES o:f':£oirmer da'ys; sui,la,bl,t! :[cr the

R}",:a.~I·.,i('IO,:I""O-··. liIl"le-~nl·,·p~~ .. :e-:'r.-. h'- ,:"!jld,:- 'we, I, :r'··-l"n-··'-kl',',,..::,~ ,.~,,~'Il~:~~h; ,e='iiii1V,~~", ·m-,e-,. ,:O::V,'''1'i1'-1 ":~:n" O'-iJr"~ IIj'h:..-··-' .~ :,r, "':e-::"'I'~'r: 'a··.-·-D'ld'

. "., .. ' "-" " .. ' '"' .. ' iL" "',' '~I" g.. ' ,. ····1 f. • U., ''''~" .... ,,~..., 1" ..... ,~ " ,,,,,,I, .... , ,-'''''_, .... 'II':L'~,:___, , __ -'c '_--'

'with every bit of' pressure on the buttons, :p':l'rtly because the fabri,lc re'-' {uI:seld, to ! 'Ere tch at aD,~

'Wo:rk's 0(' __ It show that all those rows, 01£ buecons and buttonholes. those extra ,cu'lD and :8a::1 and applied embroideries, and, aU. those '10D,g waistcoats, fiJD skirts 31'nd, :soft breeches h __ d created ,3 network of little wrinkles over the whole 'body' of the man, This engendered ~at 51 rface motion tl.h--··3It. ,ca,ug:;,'h,t the .Iigb-=-'~,-[ and made .. ' fu:rrbe-- embellishment ,f(--(,~ the

. '.. - .. --. _ - .• _ " - .• '._ _ . _ r e __ . ,_, _' __ "_ ._. , __ .~ _. ~ men 1\101' _ .. e

" "._-'

s'D,it in, we a r, The body WI_S :-'11:,~~~ ys, 'v:,_il-,_d b_'"', the ripplmg surface 01£' ],IS

g~Jr.m.e:n.cs.-. which ,disp.IDa_y:,~~d the elegance o:f the wearer eVle~ry' time he drew' breath,

. -,,'-Ult· b -,-'\I' th re turn 0-"( the cenmrv e e ··'n·:c.··.;e,·· h ad shified entirelv 3'W'IY."/

j ... -'''''' , .. _.':;- II!.c ,. ,-_ . .' !I!,., -),,' .,' ,-_ _- _'_' "'._' .' "- ,J ' .. _-_~ l' , . ...:_ ,,~_ '.. ,_ ""._. _. "' _0 _ _ _ I _IJ _ .. _. ~ • .llL1i ~.lI.JIi.,,,,",,jIL,1 . .., _'~.'

from wrought surfaces ~to fandamental form, and ,away' (m.m, cO'U'ftly refinement .' natural simplicity, ,:",:',,~n,cil. so tailors elevated the unfitted 'ro:ug'h

country C"-· IQ,~···''''!I;t- ~In~-'I--'~ ."" "r-'I;·:U~· m ilp.'h·l· 0':.':"':'1;' t:"Iil'iIl"'it"_ whereby ~:/ crude natu '~II m ian becam ae

~'·_:··IWI[",IL""-';'.I ' .. _,' '.'3 Jl_.J._.~ _1 10-,· ... ......:.~'.' I .,. __ ,,~ Q:.I.:., . .l"_l ~ll-~ ... .':/ '._.J, ' .. _I"" _ ,,~,. __ "Iq "_ '~"_ .... , __ , .... ~l._ .. ,,', ..... _.

~ ..

bl I !I h L ~ ')-1 b '"'I II "h

• ;DOI-'.Jj,li!1 natura man, W.I.tl~1 rererences to, ancient scu pture 1_-_"·u.I t mtn tne

I. : 'I

structure of his Ic.lo,t_b,es,.',',.'-,'?ith th,e h,el:pl O'I'~' :n,ea'f:),IY imperceptible padding,

curved seamsv discreet darts and steam pressing, the ro'uigh CID,a,'1 0'£ dull cloth was gradually refined into an exquisitely balanced ,gar:ole"D,t rha .. · ,fit-, ted smoothly w~i.'tbou,E wrinkles and buttoned without strain, '£01 clothe what appeared to he the torso IOI'~;~',a G'~re:ek athlete,

Its I[DIIl-lr' was forced by' clever cut, ~sIJe,arming and stiffe~Din,g to curve up and aroun d [I' the , ne 'c'- k I~'O' '. I~Q:'_" Id 'D'" ":1''''[' and '0' "'P'-""e" n o U"·!t·_1 ll~iAI ~~·~n,,,,t.l a n td '.'0",-:·· lC~r-··-..:m---

-.:. __ .-:., ~~~I gl-=,,_~I.~~:. !L,~ 1._ ~. _c,_' II) !Il,. __ ' iUI 1,-, I.-.,,¥I~ ,._,,1,-.11, .•.. '_,-,.1, 00' ,'OIi"lI:ll1J! ,!Ii.'::-:'OO]'_' I",), [u ,IUL

lapels that .... ,''i',IOIUld, obediently he down and ,all'i,_ _I ,- emselves smeothly with the body of' the coat. This .pe:rfecdy' t __ -i~o're'd- ['OIU<f' and Aart,-ly,ing lapel Istill .tolf.ntl· the most distinctive element of the modern suit-coat, and became the formal s,i,p ofmodemity ill dress .. :'1 is now SOl universal fUlr both sexes t'hait it is almost Jiin,vis~ibl"e,., The art (wi-th, which .ie, its, aC'CQ,m.-

:plis'hed is also ~inv.i5ibl.e'~ and the lapels of modern jackets look as if' they :I~a,y 'fla:t 'by' n .. amral inclination.

The subtle lines 0:(' the C"D~-_'t formed ,a'n abstract design bs sed. on rhe 'Iul'nde;r:lyin,g curves o,fl human bone and muscle, and Ithe' matte texture rs'ugge .I:ed the smoothness ofskin. The clrc£uJ. modelling allO\wed the actual 'body" .. to assert i:ae:Lf~ o~n_IJ-y\','? at cereain 'P~~.~··~-,af:esl when the wearer m oved ',,1

~, ., ,

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