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Tuyen Tap Thanh Ngu Tuc Ngu CA Dao Viet- Anh Thong Dung

Tuyen Tap Thanh Ngu Tuc Ngu CA Dao Viet- Anh Thong Dung

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:II

Lei NOI E>AU

Hien nay, trong miing nghien cuu, bien soan thanh ngif, tuc ngir tieng Anh moi chi c6 cac sach Anh - Vi¢t la nrong d6i phong phii, con hau nhu chua c6 cuon Vi¢t - Anh nao la day du va co d¢ ehinh xac cao. Trong khi do, mot cuon Thanh ngtr, Tuc ngit, Ca dao Viet - Anh la rat can thiet, No lam eho ngiroi dung sach tiet kiern duoc nhieu thai gian va cong sue moi khi muon tim mot thanh ngfr hay tuc ngu tirong dirong trong tieng Anh. De tai nay se giup ngiroi hoc tieng Anh co von tit virng phong phii, the hien y nrong cua mlnh mot each bong bay, giau hlnh anh, co nhUng cau noi day tinh trier 19 va thong thai khi giao tiep bang tieng Anh vai nguoi mroc ngoai, Dong thai, no ding giup nguai day tieng Anh dua ra nhtrng thi du rcrt hap dan trong qua trinh len lop, gay hirng thu hoc tap eho hoc sinh, mang Iai hieu qua eao cho gio day, Ngoai ra, tai lieu nay con giup nguol nuoc ngoai dang hoc tieng Viet tim hieu kho tang Van hoa dan gian Viet Nam.

Tuy da mat nhieu cong sue nhirng khong the tranh khoi nhGng thieu s6t do chu quan trong viec tlm nhimg thanh ngu, tuc ngfr tirong dirong giira hai thil tieng mot each ehinh xac tuyet doi, V~y nen toi rat mong duoc su gop Y chan tinh cua cac d6ng nghiep va ban dQC.

Tac gid Nguy~n Dlnh Hung

vAl NEllE THANH NGif Tue NGif

VIET - ANH

9

I. PHAN BI~T THANH NGU VOl TUC NGU.

Khi sap hoan thanh viec SUU tam cua minh, toi co y dinh ghi ro don vi tieng Viet nao Iii thanh ngu hay tuc ngu de nhUng ai can doc co nhieu thuan loi hon trong viec Slr dung tap tai lieu nay. Nhung t6i thay ngay la minh g~p phai mot kho khan rat IOn.

Thoat tien, toi dua vao quyen T1}c ngfr Viet Nam cua nha xuat ban Khoa hoc xii h¢i -1975 thi thay da so cac don vi tieng Viet toi siru HIm la tuc ngit. Den khi t6i xem cu6n Tir dien giai thfch thanh ngu tieng Vi¢t cua Trung tam Khoa hoc xa h¢i va nhan van qu6c gia - Vien Ngon ngu hoc -1998 thi lai vo Ie ra Iii hau het cac don vi d6 Iii thanh ngit, T6i xin trich dan mot sO' tnrong hQ'P c6 51,1' sAp xep khong thong nhat b hai cu6n sach do nhir:

Sai mot ly di mot darn Ca 100 nu6t ca be

An co di tnroc, 16i mroc di sau Mot tien ga ba tien thee

o chon noi, choi chon ban Giau "d6i ban, sang d6i vq ...

T6i thay hoang mang qua va quyet dinh khong dam tlurc hien y do phan loai r6 rang dau Iii t1}C ngtr, dau la thanh ngft tieng Vi¢t nua vi ve mat nay kha nang cua toi khong eho phep, Tuy nhien, t6i thay cling phai rut ra mot sc dinh huang cho bim than va giiip eho cac dong nghiep cling hoc sinh khi doc tai lieu nay eo nhtrng nhan dinh ca nhan trong viec phan biet 11:IC ngir vai thanh ngfr,

Thea dinh nghia trong Til di6n tieng Viet cua Vien Ngon ngfr hoc - Nha xuat ban Da Nang -1977 thi:

"Thanh ngil Ia tap hQ'P "tir cO' dinh da quen dung rna nghia cua no thuong kh6ng th~ giai thich diroc mot each dan gian bang nghia cua cac ttr tao nen no ..

Thl du:

Mot nang hai strong Ran sanh ra rna Dam ba che cu."

10

"T!,Ie ngu la cau ngan gQn, tlnrong co van dieu, due ket tri thirc, kinh nghiem song va dao due thuc tien cua nhan dan. Thi du:

Doi cho sach, rach cho thorn Mot giot mau dao hem ao nuoc Hi.

Thira nguoi nha moi ra ngiroi ngoai."

Qua hai dinh nghia tren, ta chua thay het duoc 51! khac nhau giUa thanh ngfr va tuc ngu rna phai phan tich them nhu sau:

1. Tuc ngfl la mQt cau noi hoan chinh, dien dat tron ven mot y mang nci dung nhan xet quan h¢ xa h¢i, truyen d~t kinh nghiern song, eho bai hoc luan Iy hay phe phan SI! viec, Do do, mot cau tuc ngir co th~ diroc coi Ia mot "tac pham van hoc" hoan chinh vi no mang trong rnlnh d. ba clnrc nang co ban ella van hoc Ia clnrc nang nhan thirc, chiic nang tham my va chrrc nang giao due. Vi du nhu cau tuc ngil Viet Narn "Thuan vq thuan chong, (at be dong cung can" dien dat mot nhan xet ve sue manh doan ket, mot kinh nghiem song va lam viec eo hoa hop thi moi dem lai ket qua, mot luan Iy trong quan he vq chong. Chirc nang nhan thuc trong cau tuc ngu nay la giiip eho con ngcoi hieu duoc eo sa cua quan h¢ VCj chong la binh dang. dan chu va thong cam voi nhau. Chtrc nang giao due cua no la gop phan dira tinh cam giO'a nguai va ngtroi theo huang tot dep trong quan he Vrj chong noi rieng va trong quan he xii hQi noi chung. Chirc nang tham my cua no la d~ truyen tai noi dung nen ngiroi ta dii dung each noi cuong dieu va co hlnh anh khien ngirci doc de bi thuyet phuc va tiep thu.

2. Thanh ngil Iii mot cum tir co dinh da quen dung. Xet v~ mat ngil phap thi no ehua th~ la mot cau hoan chinh, vi the no chi luang duong voi mot tiro Thanh ngir khong neu len mot nhan xet, mot kinh nghiern song, mot bai hoc luau Iy hay mot sl! phe phan nao ca nen no thuong rnang chirc nang tham my chu kh6ng co clurc nang nhan thirc va chirc nang giao due, rna thieu hai chirc nang nay thi no kh6ng the tra thanh mot rae pham van hoc tron ven diroc. Cho nen, thanh ngfr thuoc ve ngon ngu. Vi du trong tieng Viet, thanh ngil "mat hoa da phan" chi noi len ve dep yeu kieu cua nguoi phu nu, nhung no khong neu len duoc mot nhan xet, mot loi khuyen hay mo: su phe phan nao d. Vi the, du duoc dien dat mot each bong bay. co hinh anh (chuc nang tham my), thanh ngu tren kh6ng mang lai cho ngiroi ta mot hieu

11

bier ve cuoc song va mot bai hoc nao ve quan he con nguoi trong xii hoi (chirc nang nhan tlnrc va chirc nang giao due),

3. Trong khoa hoc Iogich, co hai hinh thirc ur duy rna d~e diem va moi quan h~ giira cluing voi nhau co the diroc coi la nhtmg co sb nhan thirc luan eho viec xac dinh d~e diem va m6i quan he giifa tuc ngu va thanh ngu. D6 la cac hlnh tlnrc khai niern va pharr doan. Xet nQi dung va each dien dat cua nhirng cau rna ta van goi la thanh ngfr va tuc ngil thl thay: noi dung cua thanh ngu Ia noi dung cua nhtrng khai niem, con noi dung cua tuc ngiJ la n¢i dung cua nhtrng phan doan. Quan he gifra thanh ngu va tuc ngif phan anh quan h¢ giua cac hinh thirc khai niern va phan doan. Chang han nhu khai niern ve "su udng cong" co diroc ciing phai trai qua mot qua trlnh khai quat rat nhieu hien urong nhu "mroc dO hi khoai", "ruroc dO dau vit", "da trang xe cat" ... Theo each mieu ta cua cac thanh ngu nay thl do la nhimg hien tuong rieng re, duoc nhan tlnrc bang nhimg tri giac cua giac quan. SI! nhan thee nay nham muc dfch khang dinh mot thuoc tinh nhat dinh cua nhung hien nrong do. SI! khang dinh ay duoc th~ hien ra thanh nhfmg phan doan, co the dien di;lt nhu sau: "Niroc dO dau vit thl rnroc lai troi di het'', "Niroc d6 la khoai thi mroc lai troi di het", "DB: trang 'xe cat bien dong, nhoc long rna chang nen cong can gi'' ... Nhu vay, SI! gi6ng nhau gitra thanh ngil va tuc ngil la b cho ca hai deu chua dung va phan anh tri thirc cua nhan dan ve cac str v~t va hien tuong cua th€ Siai khach quan. &! khac nhau la b cho nhfrng tri thirc ay khi diroc rut lai thanh nhiing khai niern thi ta co thanh ngfr, con khi duQ'c trinh bay. dien giai thanh nlumg phan doan thi ta co tuc ngif,

4. Su khac nhau ve clurc nang cua cac hlnh thirc nr duy tren day th~ hien ra b SI! khac nhau ve chuc nang cua cac hlnh thuc ngon ngif dung d6 hien thuc hoa cluing, Hlnh thirc ngon ngif phu hop voi hinh thirc khai niem co chirc nang dinh danh. Hlnh thirc ngon ngu phu hop voi hlnh thue phan doan co chuc nang thong bao. Thanh ngfr dien dat khai niern nen thanh ngil eo clurc nang dinh danh, con tuc ngil d~n ta cac phan doan nen tuc ngu co chirc nang thong bao, Trong ngon ngu. chuc nang dinh danh duoc thuc hien boi cac tit ngil, eho nen viec sang tao thanh ngfr ve tlurc chat ill mot trong nhimg hinh thirc sang tao tit ngu d~ dap img yeu cau d~t ten eho nhfing SI! vat, hien nrong moi, Do do, thanh ngil Iii mot hien nrong thuoc linh vue

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ngon ngif. Con tuc ngtr khi thuc hien chirc nang thong bao cua no thl eo ban chat III mot hoar dong nhan thirc, nam trong Iinh V1!c nhung hlnh thirc hoat dong nhan thirc khac nhau cua con nguoi nhu khoa h9C, nghe thuat, van h9C ... Qua su phan tich tren day, ta co tM khang dinh SI! khac nhau giua thanh ngu va tuc ngu ve co bin III SI! khac nhau giifa mot hien nrong ngon ngtt voi mot hien nrong '1 thirc xii hoi. Do do, thanh ngu chu yeu 13. d6i nrong nghien ciru cua khoa h9C ngon ngtr, Con tuc ngil, tuy co nhieu mat dang duoc khoa hoc ngon ngir chu '1, song ve CO ban can duoc nghien cuu nhu III mot hien urong '1 thirc xii hoi, mot hien nrong van hoa, tinh than ella nhan dan lao dong.

Tren day, toi dii phan biet thanh ngil' va tuc ngu qua b6n binh dien nghien ciru khac nhau. T6i xin tom tM thanh bang tong ket diroi day de tien so sanh d6i chieu:

Blnh dien nghien . Thanh ngu T1:1c ngil
cUu
Ket cau ngu phap Cum tit co dinh nrong CAu hoan chinh
duong voi mot tit
Chile nang van Chuc nang tharn my Chirc nang thAm my
h9C Chirc nang nhan thirc
Chirc nang giao due
Hinh tlnrc nr duy Dien dat khtii niem, Dien dat phon doan.
Logich khai quat nhirng hien khang dinh mot thuoc
tirong rieng reo tinh cua hien tuang.
Chile nang cua Chile nang d!nh danh Clnic nang thong baa
cac hlnh tlnrc thuc hien hoi cac tir thuoc Hoh vue hoat
ngon ngfr ngu dong nhan thirc
i +
Hien nrong thuoc linh Hien nrong '1 thirc xii
VI!C ngon ngil. hoi, van hoa, tinh than
cua nhan dan II. NHONG NET TUONG a6NG vA KHAc BI~T GIOA TUC NGU ANH (PROVERB) V A TUC NGU VI~T NAM.

1. Nhiing net tuang dong.

13

Gat qua cai vo ngon ngu, cai d~e thu cua tung dan toe, cluing ta co the d~ dang tim thay su dong nhat v~ nr duy va nhan thuc ella cac dan toe khac nhau trong mot cau tuc ngu.

Rieng ve tuc ngtt ella hai dan tQc Viet va Anh, cluing ta thay nhieu Call gi6ng nhau ca ve tu duy, nhan thirc cling nhu phirong phap bieu hien tuy chung mang darn net dac thu cua hai dan 19c. Chi can bang v6n s6ng, bang so sanh clur khong can tra cuu, cluing ta cling d~ dang tim thay nhfrng cau nrong dang trong kho tang tuc ngu Anh va Vi¢t.

- Xa mat each long.

Out of sight. out of mind - (xa mat each long)

- Tai vach mach rung.

Walls have ears - (Tuong vach co tail

- Yeu cho roi cho vot, ghet cho ngot cho bui.

Spare the rod, and spoil the child. (De danh chiec roi lam hu dua tre)

- Cua re HI. ella oi,

Cheapest is dearest - (Rib nhat lai la dat nhat)

- MUll su tai nhan, thanh sl! tai thien.

Man proposes, God disposes. (Ngirci du dinh, troi quyet dinh).

- Mat be> moi 10 lam chuang.

It is too late to lock the stable when the horse is stolen. (Mat ngua roi moi khoa cira chuang thl qua muon),

- Tha con san sM, b£t con ca. ro,

Throw a sprat to catch a herring.

(Tha con ca corn de biit con ca trich).

f)h~m gi6ng nhau thu hai Iii trong mot cau tuc ngtr Viet hoac Anh co the chua mot can thanh ngff, Vi du trong cau tuc ngu Viet "Chong yeu, xo chan 16 mui" co thanh ngii "xo chan 16 mui", Hoac trong cau tuc ngu "Chay nha hang xom, blnh chan nhu vai'' thi co thanh ngu "blnh chan nhu vai". Chung ta cling thay hien urong do 0 trong 1I;Ic ngii Anh. Vi du trong cau tuc nget "Don't put all your eggs

14

in one basket" co chua thanh ngir "put all one's eggs in one basket". Hoac trong cau tuc ngu "Birds of a feather flock together" c6 chua thanh ngil "birds of a feather".

Mot diem gi6ng nhau nua la trong Uri noi cua mlnh, nguoi V iet ta ding nhu ngum Anh co the pha va ket cau cua cau tuc ngu san co, thay d6i di mot chut de su dung vao muc dfch dien dat rieng cua bin than minh cho dung voi ngfr canh cu the nao do. Thi du trong tieng Viet, tit nhtmg cau:

An nen doi, noi len loi, Cai kho bo cai khon.

Co nguai da chuyen the thanh ra:

An khong nen doi, noi khong len loi, Cai kho lo cai khon.

Cling nhu vay trong tieng Anh, tit cau tuc ngfr "Man proposes, God disposes" co ngiroi da pha va ket cau cua no di bang each thay the cap danh tit nay bang cap danh tit khac tao thanh bien the nhu "The writer proposes, the readers dispose". Su thay dOi nay tao hieu qua sinh ra mot cau tuc ngil moi co noi dung thu hep phil hop VOl de tai cau chuyen rna ngirci d6 de cap den. Hoac trong cau tuc ngu "Never put off until tomorrow what we can do today" ta co the d~ dang thay dong tit "do" bang "eat" hoac "buy" ... de lam cho lbi noi them tinh hai huoc, d~ lam eho ngiroi nghe thay vui va dong y thuc hien mong mu6n cua minh,

2. Nhiing net khac bi¢t gifla tuc ngft Anh va Vi¢t.

Tuy nhien clning ta thay dieu kien tv nhien, xa hoi khac nhau tao ra ban sAc dan tt')c va nen van hoa khac nhau, VI the rna tuc ngti cua hai dan toe Viet va Anh co nhung khac biet kha r6.

Diem khac nhau thu nha] lit nhirng cau tuc ngil noi v~ kinh nghiem san xuat, thai ti€t, thien nhien chiern mot phan dang ke trong kho tang tuc ngft Viet Nam, the hien rat r6 d~c tinh cua mot cu dan DOng nghiep lay lila mroc lam luong thuc chinh. Vi du nhu nhtmg cau tuc ngtt:

- T6t gi6ng, t6t rna, t6t rna, t6t hia,

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- Mot IUQ1 tat, mot bat cam.

- Muon giau nuoi trau cai, muon lun bai nuoi bo cau.

- Dau nam strong mu6i, cuoi nam gio nom ...

Nhilng tuc ngu nhu the that kh6 rna tim duoc cau luang duong trong tieng Anh, bbi Ie tuc nga mroc Anh hau nhu tap trung phan anh moi quan h~ xa hoi rna it de cap Uri moi quan h¢ voi thien nhien va kinh nghiem san xuat.

Diem khac nhau thir hai lil trong tuc ngu Vier Nam tlnh phan phong, tfnh dau tranh giai cap duoc tM hien rat r6 net, rat quyet liet trong mot s6 hrong IOn nhimg cau tuc ngu voi nhfrng tit ngtr va hlnh anh vita tham thuy, sau cay vira tao bao nham to cao nhirng cai xau xa cua giai cap thong tri, dong thai phan anh nhilng mau thuan giUa nong dan voi dia chu va quan lai tham nhiing. Vi du nhu nhirng cau:

- Mieng quan, tron tre.

- Quan thay kien nhu kien thay rna.

- Muon noi gian lam quan rna noi,

- Hay lam thi doi, hay noi thl no.

- Ba tien ba thee, ba coc gl ai. ..

Trong khi d6, tuc ngu tieng Anh c6 tfnh phan phong rat rna nhat, tinh dau tranh giai cap khong quyet liet. .. the hien a so hrong it oi, Iai Ie va hlnh anh kin dao chu khong tao bao, sau cay. Chung ta chi g~p mot so it cau n6i lien quan den vua chua, luat phap bat c6ng nhir:

A cat may look at a king.

(Chu meo nho dam ngo mat vua)

One law for the rich and another for the poor. (Luat tnroc cho nguoi giau, Luat sau cho ke kh6).

Diem khac nhau thu ba Ia mot cau tuc ngu Anh (proverb) kh6 co the bi lam voi mot thanh ngff Anh (idiom), con d6i voi mot s6 cau tuc ngu Viet thi tuy theo binh dien nghien ciiu. phan tich rna c6 the vira la tuc ngit, vita Ia thanh ngu (nhu da noi a muc J). Vi du cau "Trong am. ngoai em" neu xern d6ta mot hien tuong cho ta khai quat thanh mot khai niem ve su yen on ca ve doi noi IAn d6i ngoai thl day . l3. mot thanh ngii. Nhung xet theo m6i quan he nhan qua "trong am" - "ngoai em" thl day la cau tuc ngu vi n6 due ket mot kinh nghiem ta

16

sl! doan ket noi bo la co sa viing chac cho su 6n dinh trong quan he d6i ngoai,

Mot diem khac nhau nita la trong viec sir dung phep an du (Metaphor) a tuc ngil hai mroc co dung nhtrng hlnh nrong khac nhau de dien dat mot y kien, mot nhan tmrc, mot su phe phan gi6ng nhau. Thi du cau tuc ngu Viet "Hang sang chet be chieu'' co tM nrong dong voi diu tuc ngir Anh "The cobbler's wife is the worst shod" trong do dung hinh nrong vq anh tho chua giay lai la ngirci di giay xau nhat. Hoac cau tuc ngil Viet "Nguu tarn nguu, rna tam rna" thl nrong d6ng voi cau tuc ngii' Anh "Birds of a feather flock together" trong do lai dung hinh tirong Hi nhtrng con chim co cung mot thu long thl tu tap thanh dan vili nhau.

Cu6i cung, cung can neu len mot nhan xet nho nita la doi khi mot diu tuc ngfr Anh chi trung y mot phan voi diu tuc ngfr Viet, Nhung co hie phai tim den hai cau tuc ngil Vi¢t moi co du y d~ nrong dong voi mot cau tuc ngir Anh. Thi du cau tuc ngll Anh "Each bird loves to hear himself sing" (con chim nao ctlng thich nghe tieng hot cua mlnh) chi nrong dirong ve y voi mot mra cau tuc ngir Viet "Van mlnh, vq nguoi". Ngiroc lai, phai can hai cau tuc ngtt Viet la "An co chirng, choi co do" va "Tim bat kha ep" thi moi co du y de dien dat cau tuc ngii Anh "Eat at pleasure, drink with measure" (An tuy thich, u6ng tuy sire) ...

Ill. BAN VE HAl CHi] "CA DAO" TRONG no slfU TAP NAy.

Dong nghiep cua chung rei lit co Anita Gallagher da thac mac la tai sao toi lai dira tit "folksongs" vao nhan de cua cu6n sach nay. CO Ie dich "ca dao" lit "folk - song" hay "pop- song" thl ngirci mroc ngoai se hieu Ia "dan can mat Nhe ra, d~ tranh hieu lam thi nen dich la "six - eight - word distich' nghia ta mot c~p g6m hai cau tho It:IC bat. Nhirng nhu the thl nhan de eu6n sach lai qua dail Toi da phai giai thich cho Anita day la nhimg cau 11,1C bat da tuc ngii hoa (become proverbial) va diroc dira vao nhu nhtrng dan V! U,lC ngu khac chi! khong con lit Ibi ella mot bai dan ca nhu "Yeu nhau cci ao cho nhau" nita.

Trong cac sach suu tam tuc ngil Viet Nam ngay nay deu co rat nhieu nhirng cau II,lC bat lay tir kho tang ca dao ra rna thuong co nghia

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tirong dong voi mot cau tuc ngfr nao day, Cac cong trlnh nhu the co til dau the ky 20 va noi dung SlID tam thuong g6m eli thanh ngil', tuc ngu va ca dao. Thi du nhu:

- "Tuc ngO phong dao" ella Nguyen Van NgQC, xu!t bin hill dau 1928.

- "Phong dao, ca dao, phuong ngon, tuc ngfr" cua Nguyen Van Chien - 1936.

- "N g<).n ngfr phong dao" cua Nguyen Can Mong - 1941.

- "Tuc ngtr, ca dao, dan ca Viet Nam" cua Vii NgQC Phan,

xuat ban Ian dau tien nam 1958.

T6i muon khai thac triet de khia canh nay de lam cho bQ suu tap cua minh dam da ban sac dan toe han, vui tum han va di dom han. Thf du, (j cac sach khac tac gia chi dua vao thanh ngil "(j hien g~p tanh" thl toi cho them phan "cling":

o hien thl lai g~p lanh,

NhUng nguoi nhan dire troi danh phuc cho.

Hoac :

Phu tai son lam khach hnu cau,

Cung: Ngheo hen gitra cho ai choi,

Giau trong hang nui nhieu ngubi hoi tham,

6 day ta can phan biet ca dao thuan toy va ca dao da tuc ngu hoa. NhiIng cau ca dao thuan toy dai 10~i nhu:

"C6 kia tat ruroc ben dang, Sao co h~t anh trang vang d6 di'',

Hoac:

"Qua dlnh nga non trong dlnh,

Dlnh bao nhieu ngoi thuong minh bay nhieu" ...

chi ea ngoi cai dep trong lao dong hoac noi len cam xuc nho thirong cua mot ca nhan nao do trong m¢t hoan canh cu tM khien ngtroi ta ngdu hirng sang taco Chung khong nham muc dich tong ket va ph6 bien nhtrng kinh nghiem doi song, kinh nghiern lich sir - xa h¢i cua nhan dan lao dong, Trong sach suu Him nay, toi chi dua vao nhiing cau ea dao da tuc ngfr hoa thoi, Chung co day du nhiing tfnh chat ella mot diu tuc ngir nhu da phan tfch a phan 1.

11

M¢t van d~ d$t ra la ngoai ca dao, trong tieng Viet con co nhtrng yeu t6 gl c6 the tuc ngil h6a duqc? Nhin ra the gi6i., ta thay nhieu Uri. n6i ciia cac nhan vat trong cac tac pham cua nhiing nha van Ian cac mwc nhu Nga, Phap, Anh v.v ... da tra thanh thanh ngu, U,IC ngif va duqc dua vao tu dien thanh ngil - ngu cu hQC (Phraseological dictionary) cua nhUng nuoc do. Thi du:

- I.Kri-lop (Nga) co cau "Mot thang ngoc hay giup do con nguy hitm hem ca ke thu",

- Tir dau d~ m¢t chuyen ngl,l ngon cua La Fontaine (Phap) ta co thanh ngu "sao muon long cong".

- Shakespeare (Anh) co cau "Much ado about nothing", tarn dich la "Be xe ra to".

Ben canh nhimg thanh ngu, tuc ngil nlur tren day, trong cac sach suu tcim hoac tu dien thanh ngu - ngu cii hoc baa gio ngiroi ta cling neu ten tic giii va tharn chi con trich dan ca tac phAm nlra.

Theo huang do, ben canh cau "Baa gio chach de ngon da" toi da manh dan them mot cau nrong dong cho no la "Bao gio cho den thang rmroi". Mac du dola ten mot phim Viet Nam, nhung no da trothanh cau noi cira mieng cua nhieu ngtroi mlli khi muon am chi mot hy vong kho tro thanh hien thuc. Tuong tl! nhu vay, tOi dua vao cau "Biei r6i, kh6 tam, noi mai" trong "S6 do" cua Vii Trong Phung rna trong cuoc song hang ngay ta tlnrong nghe nhac den. TOi thay neu hu6ng nay duqc chap nhan thl kho lang thanh ngir, tuc ngu Viet Nam Sf! ngay ding phong phii va phat trien,

Ngoai ra, tOi con dinh dua vao mot so cau tho cua cac nha tho niSi tieng nuoc ta, co the la luc bat, that ngon, bat ngOn... co mang tfnh chat due ket kinh nghiern trong cuoc song. Thi du:

COn bac, con tien con d~ tu Het corn, het nrou het eng toi,

Nguyln Binh Khiem

Hoac:

Tha mot phut huy hoang roi chot t<1t, Con hon buon Ie lei suet tram nam.

Xuan Dieu

19

Dieu thu vi la nhUng cau tho nay lai co cau nrong dirong trong tieng Anh va cac tieng khac ntra! Nhirng y ureng nay khong diroc chia se hoan toano Mot vai dong nghiep day van thi ling ho, nhung mot s6 khac thl kien quyet phan d6i, cho rang tho lit tho, khong tM dua vito mot cu6n sach co tieu de 11,IC ngu, ca dao diroc. Vay nen tOi dii tarn tit bo Y dinh nay cua mlnh. Tuy nhien, trong mot vai bo suu tap cua cac tac gia khac toi dii thay co cau nhu vay.

Tren day lit mot vai y kien rna toi thu 111<;1ll1 duoc va phat trien qua cac tai lieu doc diroc ve tuc ngu va thanh ngir Vi¢t cilng nhu Anh. Toi da sap xep lai cho hop ly, d~ hieu va chi them vai ba nhan dinh rieng cua ban than trong nhUng dieu dii trlnh bay a phan thu nhat nay. Cong sue cua toi trong de tai nay chu yeu la nam a phan thO' hai trong viec tim nhirng cau tuc ngir tirong dong cua hai ngon ngu Viet - Anh va suu tam duoc mot s6 dan V! thanh ngu, H,IC ngil', ca dao thong dung chua co a cac tai lieu khac rna ban than toi lilY lam Him dac.

Muc dfch cua toi khi lam de tai nay la phuc VI,I cho viec giang day va nang cao kien thirc cling nhu von tit virng ca tieng Anh IAn tieng Viet cua ngiroi hoc, Neu cac ban dong nghiep va sinh vien khi doc hoac tham khao tai lieu nay c6 phat hien fa dieu gi sai s6t rna chic chin la khong th~ tranh khoi, toi ra.'t mong duoc gop y thang than. TOi xin chan thanh earn an.

Cu6i cung, toi muon bay t6 long biet hon sau sac den cac dong nghiep la cac can b¢ giang day tieng Anh, Van hQC Viet Nam ... ciing nhu nhUng ngiroi than quen c6 quan tam den de tai nay dii giiip nhieu y kien qUI bau trong viec tim va chon lua nhtrng don vi tieng Viet hoac tieng Anh d~ lam cho cuon sach nay them day du va co chat hrong cao ve noi dung.

20

Viti quy doc d1i.cjc s\t dung khi tra ctru

Adj - adjective : tinh ter

Adv - Adverb : pho til

arch - archaism : til c6

det - determiner : tir xac dinh

idm - idiom : thanh ngii'. khong dich rieng tirng tu diroc.

lit - literally : theo nghia den. dich timg chtr

n - noun : danh tir

pl - plural : so nhieu

pp - past participle: phan tir qui klur

sb - somebody : ai do

sth - something : cai gi do

v - verb : dong tir

(. .. ) : tu trong ngoac don co the dung hoac

khong dung

.. J... : c6 the dung bat eu tir nao

THANH NGU", Tue NGU",

CADAO

VIET-ANH

THUNG DUNG

23

A

.J Ac gia ac bao, • Curses (like chickens) come

home to roost.

- As the call, so the echo.

- He that mischief hatches,

mischief catches.

2. Ai biet cho, ngiroi fiy se diroc. - Everything comes to him who

waits.

- The ball comes to the player.

~ Ai giau ba ho, ai kho ba dai - Every dog has its/his day.

Cling: - The longest day must have an

DUng co chet mat thl thai. end.

SOng thi co hie no xoi chan che .. The morning sun never lasts a day.

4

Ai lam nay Chill.

- He, who breaks, pays.

- The culprit must pay for the

damage.

s

Ai 10 phan nay. Cling:

Ai co than nguoi ay 10, ai co bo nguoi ay giii.

- Every man for himself.

- Every miller draws water to his

own mill.

- Every man is the architect of his own fortune

- Self comes first .

. Let every tub stand on its own bottom.

1. cuse(n) loi nguyen rua, chiri rua mischief (v) gib tro tinh quai

4. culprit (n) mu pham

5. miller(n) chu c6i xay

roosttv) ~u di ngu hatch(n) cira ~p

tub(n) chau, b"inh

2/J
6 Ai thay nay giii'. - Finders keepers.
Ciing: - Findings are keepings,
Chirn troi ca mroc, ai duoc thi
an.
7 An phan thu thuong, - Feel smug about one's present
circumstances.
- The cobbler must/should stick
to his last.
- Let not the cobbler go beyond
his last.
- Rest on one's laurels.
8 Ao nang may nang moi, nguoi - A constant guest is never
nang toi nang thuong. welcome.
Cling: - Do not wear out our welcome.
Nang mira thl tot Ilia duong,
nang di nang lai xem thirong
xem khinh.
9 An banh tra tien - After the feast/dinner comes
the reckoning.
IO An bot bat/doi, n6i bot loi, - A still tongue makes a wise
head.
- Hear much, speak little.
- Hear and see and be still/and
say but little,
- Give every man thine ear but
few thy voice.
II An btta hom 10 bua mai - Live from hand to mouth.
Cilng: - Make both ends meet.
An bii'a tnra 10 bua tci. 7. smug (adj) ur bang long, til man cobbler(n) tho giay

lasun) c6t giay

10. thine (arch - dung tnroc nguyen am) va thy (det.arch) nhu your

25

I2 An cap quen tay, ngu ngay quen - Once a thief, always a thief. mat

1~ An cay nao rao cay ay. - One fences the tree one eats.

(Lit.)

- You must defend the one who gives you a living.

- Do not quarrel with your bread and butter.

I4

An chao daJdai bat.

An chac mac ben.

An cho, buon so. Cling:

Viec cong xin ell phep cong rna lam

17

An cho deu, keu cho dU/song.

IS

An chuc nam chao

I9

An co chirng, choi co do,

16. bargairun) giao keo mua ban 19. dainty(n) mieng an ngon

- Eaten bread is soon forgotten.

- Bite the hand that feeds.

- Comfort is better than pride.

- Solidity first.

- Business is business.

- A bargain is a bargain.

- Share and share alike.

- To cool one's heels for ages.

- Eat at pleasure, drink with measure.

- Diseases are the interests of

pleasures.

- Enough is as good as a feast.

- Moderation in all things.

- Plenty is no dainty.

26

zo An co gid, lam co buoi.

Z.I An co moi, lam co khien.

2Z An co di tnroc.Ioi ruroc di sau.

- There is a time for all things.

- All work and no play makes

Jack a dull boy.

- Speak when you are spoken to, come when you are called.

- He that comes first to the hill may sit where he will.

- An early riser is sure to be in luck.

- The early bird catches the worm.

u An cam cay ngay 0 0, - A great fortune is a great

An com thjt bo thi lo ngay ngay. slavery.

- Better joy in a cottage than sorrow in a palace.

_,. Riches lead to lawsuits.

- Live not to eat, but eat to live.

- You must eat to live, and not

live to eat.

An d~ song, chu khong song de

an.

An den noi, lam den chon. Cling;

Xem hoi, di cho toi chua.

z6 An khong ngdi r6i.

Z5

Z7 An hie doi, noi hie say.

22. worm(n) con sau, giun

23. lawsuit(n) viec kien cao

26. twiddle(v) xoay, quanh

27. soberness(n) su tinh tao, khOng say revealtv) de 10 fa

- Never do things by halves.

- What is worth doing at all is

worth doing well.

- To sit twiddling one's thumbs.

- Fold one's arms,

- Keep one's hands in pockets.

- Sit with idle hands.

- What soberness conceals

drunkenness reveals.

conceal(v) che day

27

Z8 An may doi xoi gsc, an chiu doi - Beggars cannot be choosers.

banh chirng. - Beggars must! should be no

choosers.

- Don't look a gift horse in the mouth.

Z9 An mieng tra rnieng. - An eye for an eye (and a tooth
for a tooth).
- Measure for measure.
- Tit for tat.
- To return like for like.
- To pay one back in his own
com.
- Answer in kind.
- Give as good as one gets.
- Serve sb with the same sauce.
30 An mu6i con han chu6i chat. - Of two evils choose the lesser.
- Choose the least of two ills.
3.1: An nen doi, noi nen loi. - Dot your i's and cross your t's.
32 An nhat moi thirong den mea. - Know the sufferings of the poor
after being in poverty.
33 An nhu mo khoet, - Eat like a horse.
Cung:
An thung ba't chi thlnh.
34 An nhu rong cuon, noi nhu rong - Great talkers are little doers.
leo, lam nhu mea mira, - Loud talking, little doing. 29. in kind (idrn) bang cai luang II! 31. dot(v) danh da:u cham

28
~5 An 6c noi mo. • Speak by guess and by God.
. Speak without knowing the first
thing about sb/sth.
36 An phai dua cua ai. - Take a leaf out of sb's book.
~'7 An phai nhai, noi phai nghi, - First think then speak.
- Look before you leap.
- Think today and speak
tomorrow.
38 An quen ben mui, - He, who drinks, will drink
agam.
- Appetite comes with eating.
39 An vung kh6ng bier chili mep, - Have a finger in the pie.
- His/her nose is not clean.
40 An xcii (1 thi. - Live by makeshifts. B

41

Ba anh tho da bing Gia Cat Ll1qng

Cling:

Tam ngu thanh hien.

- Four eyes see more than two.

- Two heads are better than one.

- The council of many is better.

37. ieap(v) nhay, nhay vot len

40. makeshift (0) vAt dung tam thai

29
42 Ba bit chin chuyen, - One tongue is enough for a
woman.
- Three women make a market.
- Two is company, (but) three's
a crowd.
- Words are women, deeds are
men.
4~ Ba chim bay noi chin lenh - Live a life full of vicissitudes.
denh. - Live a life marked by ups and
downs.
- Go through all life's ups and
downs.
44 Ba gian nha ra loa xoa, - Better joy in a cottage than
Phai duyen coi tua chin toa nha sorrow in a palace.
lim.
45 . Ba hoa chich choe. - To talk hot air .
CLing: - Shoot one's mouth off (about
Ba hoa thien dia, sth.)
- Have a loose tongue.
4& Ba hill don nha bang mot Ian chay - Three removals are as bad as a
nha, fire.
47 Ba hill do, mot Ian cat. - Measure thrice and cut once.
48 Bac dAu con dai, - (There's) no fool like an old
fool.
49 Bac deo day minh khong bang - How much better it is to get
thong minh sang su6t. wisdom than gold.
50 Bach nien giai lao. - Live to be a hundred together. 43. vicissitude (n) SLr thang tni.m

30
51 Bam dai nhu dia. - Cling/stick to sb like a leech/a
burr.
- Stick to sb like a flea to a
fleece.
- Stick to sb like a limpet to a
rock.
sz Bam vay my/vcl- - Be tied to one's mother's/wife's
Ciing: apron strings.
B! mt;/vq xo chan 16 mui.
Ban anh em xa mua lang gieng - Better a neighbour that is near
gan. than a brother that is afar.
- We can live without our
friends but not without our
neighbours.
- A good neighbour /friend is
worth more than a hundred
relatives.
54 Ban mat cho dat, ban lung eho - To toil and moil.
troi, 55

Ban re danh dir, Ciing:

Ban linh hon cho qui dii

Ban cii ban t6t, nrou ell l"UQ'U ngon.

51. leech (n) con dia flea (n) bo chet limpet (n) con ha

52. apron (n) cai tap de

- Sell one's soul (to the devil).

- Old friends and old wine are best.

- An old friend is better than two new ones.

- An old friend is worth two new ones.

burr (n) qua ke fleece (n) long elm

31
57 Bao gio chach de ngon da. - When pigs fly.
Cling: - When two Fridays come
Bao gic cho den thang rmroi together.
- On the second Sunday of next
week.
- Till the hay comes home.
- Until the cows come home.
- When the devil is blind.
- When the moon turns green
cheese.
58 Bao hoang han vua. - More royalist than the king.
- A greater catholic than the
Pope.
59 Bat be: de diroc lau. - A creaking door hangs long on
its hinges.
- Cracked pots last longest.
- Creaking doors/gates hang the
longest.
60 Bat mo hoi d6i bat com. - Earn sth by the sweat of one's
brow/by one's own toil.
61 Bat nuoc hat di roi lam sao lay - It's no use crying over spilt
l<_li duoc, milk.
Cilng: - To cry over spilt milk.
Bat b6 danh con khong lanh - What is lost is lost.
Cling: - What is lost is gone forever.
NUDe do kh6 b6c.
62 Bay miroi chua que cho khoe Iii. - All is well that ends well.
lanh. 59. creak (v) keu col kef hinge en) ban H~

32
6) sang bat cu gid nao. - At any cost.
- At all costs.
BAng du moi each. - By hook or by crook.
Cling: - There are more ways to the
Oich nay khong xong thi xoay wood than one.
cach khac, - There are more ways of killing
a dog than by hanging.
- If he cannot bite, he scratches.
65 Bang mat, khong bang long. - He that fears you present will
hate you absent.
66 Bang vai phai lua. - Of the same rank and age.
6, Bar ca hai tay. - Be on both sides of the fence.
CGng: - Carry water on both shoulders.
Bat d. hai tay, an may co luc, - Hide two faces under one
hood.
- Between two stools you fall to
the ground.
- Dogs that chase many hares
kill none.
- Have a foot in both camps.
- Playa double game.
- Run with the hare and hunt
with the hounds.
ft8 Bat chang duoc tha lam phuc, - The grapes are sour, (as the fox
said when he could not reach
thern.) 67. hood (n) mili (rum dau hound (n) ch6 san

hare (n) tho rung

33
Bat dau lai tit con s6 khong. - Start again from nothing.
- Be back where one started
. from.
- Begin all over again.
'70 :sat ne bat net. - To find fault with sth.
7:1 :sat qua tang. - Catch/take sb red-handed.
- Catch sb in the act/fact (of
doing sth)
- Catch sb at the scene of crime.
'72 B¥ tan tay, day ~ tran, - Catch sb red-handed.
on Ban tfu tit, - Be as busy as a bee / as a
beaver / as a beehive.
74 ~t den xanh (cho ai). - Give sb the green light.
75 Be hanh be toi, - Find quarrel.in a straw.
76 Be hat tieu. - A little body often harbours a
great soul.
- Little bodies may have great
souls.
- Little pigeons can carry great
messages.
77 Be khong vin, ca gay canh. - As the twig is bent, so the tree
grows. 73. beaver (n) con hai ly

76. harbour (v) chua dVng. ap u

77. twig (n) canh eon

beehive (n) [6 ong rnessagetn) thu lin, birc dien

34

78

Be xe ra to. Cting:

Chuyen be xe ra to.

79

Be ngoai then thdt n.6i cuci, M trong nham hiern giei nguOi khong dao,

Benh qui da co thu6c tien. CUng:

Non cao cling co dirong tree, Nhtmg benh hiem ngheo co thuec than tien,

Hi cue, thai lai.

Cling:

Kh6 tan, cam lai.

80

81

8:1

B~ don vao the bi. Cting:

Bi don van chan nrong.

Biet dau rna an cO.

78. ado (n) sl! om xom, r6i eft

- A storm in a tea-cup.

- Make a mountain out of a

molehill.

- Much ado about nothing.

- An iron fist I hand in a velvet glove.

- Desperate diseases must have desperate cures.

- After a storm, comes a calm sea.

- After rain comes fair weather,

- April showers bring forth May

flowers.

- Goudy morning gives way to clear evening.

- There is a good time coming.

- Have one's back to the wall.

- Be driven into a comer.

- You can never know where the ghosts feast, (Lit.)

- You can never know the secrets of others.

molehill (n) dA't do chuot dun len

35

84 Bi€t minh biet nguoi. tram tran - He who sees through life and

tram thang, death will meet most success.

- To know oneself is true progress.

Biet nhieu chong gia.

- Too much knowledge makes the head bald.

- Curiosity killed a cat.

Biet qua chua bang lam qua, lam - Wise after the event. qua chua bang lam qua.

Biel r5 ngon nganh, Cling:

Biet moi ngo ngach.

- Know all the ins and outs.

- Know the ropes.

- Be / feel perfectly at home in

sth.

88

Biet r5 nhu long ban tay.

- Have sth at one's fingertips.

- Know sth like the palm of

one's hand.

Biet roi, khd lam, noi mail

- Stop harping on / upon the same string.

Biet sai thl biet sua.

- A fault confessed is half redressed.

- Confession is the first step to repentance.

- A sin confessed is half forgiven.

88. fingertip (n) diu mat ng6n tay

90. confess(v) thu nh~ ~

repentance(n) su Mi h~

redress(v) sua lai, u6n min

3&
91 Biet s6ng den rnai rna d~ Cll ~ Tomorrow never comes.
khoai den sang. ~ Tomorrow is another day.
~ Take no thought for the
morrow.
Biet thl thua th6t, khong biet ~ Seeing falsely is worse than
thl dua CQt rna nghe. blindness and speaking falsely
is worse than silence.
~ The less said the better.
~ Be sure it's Sunday before you
start ringing the church bells.
~ There is a time to speak and a
time to be silent.
- If you cannot bite, never show
your teeth.
Biet tam biet tich. - In the middle of nowhere.
- Not a trace remained of sth.
- Not a trace of sth was left.
- There hasn't been hide or hair
of sb.
- Sth smelt into thin air.
- Vanish without trace.
94 Biet vo am tin. - Not a sound from sb.
- Nothing has been heard of sb.
- There is neither sight nor
sound of sb.
9S Blnh an vo slJ. ~ Safe and sound.
~ Alive and kicking.
~ Alive and well,
~ Hale and hearty (idm).
.. Bmh ell nrou moi. ~ New wine in old bottle . 91. morrow(n) ngay h6m sau

37
'T7 EO ngoai tai. - Tum a deaf ear to sth.
- Give no ear to sth.
• Take no heed of sth.
· Shut one's ears to sth.
98 B6 thl thuong, wang thi t¢i. · (Keep) a white elephant.
99 BQ net dfi co gie cui. · For a mischierous dog, a heavy
clog.
.loe BOc ngan, can dai. • Live beyond one's means .
.101 BOp chet tiI trong tnmg niroc. • Crush sth in the egg .
· Nip sth in the bud.
- Smother sth at birth.
102 B¢c I¢ tarn can. · Bare one's heart / soul (to sb).
• Reveal one's soul to sb.
.103 BOi tro trat trau (vao mat ai) . · Drag sb I sb's name through
the mud / mire.
104 Eo bai chang bang phai thi. - Make hay while the sun shines.
Cling: - Strike while the iron is hot,
Cho nen b6" 10 thai CO'. - Take occasion by the forelock.
- There is a time for all things.
10S Bm long tim v€t. - Pick holes in others' coats.
- Pick holes in sth the others do.
.I- Bun rim chan tay. - (Go all) weak at the knees . 97. heed (n) sl}' chu y 99. clog (n) gu6c

101. nip (v) kep, cap.Iam thui chot

103. drag(v) k60 I~

104. make hay: phoi eo

smother (v) lam ngat tho mire (n) da't lay

forelock (n) toe x.oa xu6ng tran

38

1.07 Bl:II1g doi, cll chuoi cung ngon. - Hunger finds no fault with

cookery.

- Hunger is the best sauce/cook.

- All's good in a famine.

1.08 Bung doi, duu g6i phai boo - Hunger is an imperative voice. - Hunger is a stiff task - master.

- Hunger breaks stone walls.

- Hunger brings the wolf to the

fold.

1.09 Bung d6i tai diec. - A hungry belly has no ears.

- It's no use preaching to a hungry man.

- The hungry man listens to no warmng.

1.1.0 Bu6i t6i nghi sai, sang mai nghi dung.

CGng:

Nhat da sinh ba ke,

108. fold (n) hili rim de' nh6t ciru task - master (n): ngubi d6c cong 109. preach(v) giang dao, thuyet giao

- An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening.

- It's always easier to think in the morning.

- Take counsel with your pillow.

- Have a sleep on it.

stiff (adj): nghiem khac, khac nghiet

39
1.11 Buon tau ban be kh6ng bang • A penny saved is a penny
an de ha tien. gained.
· Take care of the pence and the
pounds will take care of
themselves.
· He, who spends more than he
should, will have nothing to
spend when he would.
• He, who will not keep a penny,
never shall have any.
1.1.2 Buon nhu trau can. - It's a frightful bore.
· One is bored stiff.
1.1.3 But sa ga chet, - Never write what you dare not
sign.
- What is writ is writ.
- The pen is mightier than the
sword.
1.1.4 But chua nha khong thieng. - No prophet is accepted in his
own country.
· No man is a hero to his valet.
· No man is a prophet in his own
country.
u.s Bu6c chan di cam ky tro lai. • Things done cannot be undone.
· What is done cannot be
undone.
- Things passed cannot be
recalled. 112. stiff (adv) tai eire d¢

114. valet(n) ngirci hau, day to

prophet(n) nha rien tri

40
C
U6 Ca cuong chet den dit con cay. - Throw the handle after the
CGng: blade.
DOC tui danh canh bac cu6i - Throw good money after bad.
cung.
117 Ca them chong chan. - Hasty love is soon hot and soon
cold.
- Soon hot, soon cold.
-The sharper the storm, the
sooner it's over.
11. ca thuyen ca song. - A great ship asks deep waters.
CGng: - Big ship needs deep waters.
Tai k111 viec phai IOn. - A great voyage befits a great
ship.
119 Oi dn cau (biet dau rna go). - To swallow the bait.
:120 Ca chuoi dam du6i vi con. - A child may have too much of
his mother's blessing.
12% Ca 100 nu6t ca be. - The great fish eats the small.
122 Ca nam tren that (con Him Ie - Be left in the basket.
gi). - Be in low water (on the rocks).
- Struggle like a fish out of water. 117. sharp (adj) manh me, quyet liet

118. befit (v) thich dang, phU hop

120. blessing (n) an hue va s,! che cho

41
~Q Qi vang bung bo, • A fair face may hide a foul
Cilng: heart.
Kla ai lao 1<_l.0 ngoai da, rna trong · Fair without, foul/ false within.
rbng tuyech nhu hoa muong - Beauty and folly are often
rimg, companions.
.t24 each song nen phai II,IY thuyen, - Call the bear "uncle" till you
Cam bang dirong lien ai phai are safe across the bridge.
I\lY ai.
~u Cai tit qui chinh. - To mend one's way.
- Tum over a new leaf.
~:16 au kh616 cai khon, - Adversity brings wisdom.
- Adversity is a great
schoolmaster'.
- Necessity is the mother of
invention.
- No difficulties, no discovery.
~27 Oii kim trong boc IAu ngay - You can't hide an eel in a sack.
cung phfu lei ra. • Murder will out.
CUng: - Truth will conquer.
au kim boc gie lau ngay ciing toi - What is done by night appears
ra. by day.
Giau voi dun ra,
~- Cai net danh chet cai dep. - Beauty is only skin deep.
Cung: · Those who are good in mind are
Dep net hon dep nguoi. better than those who are good
in appearance. 126. adversitytn) kho khan, nghich canh

127. eel (n): con hron conquer (v) chinh phuc, thang

"-2
129 Cai net danh chet khong chua. ~ Habit is the second nature.
Cilng: - He cannot change his skin.
Danh chet cai net khong chua. - The cask savours of the first
Ding: fill.
Troi nang thl troi lai rmra, - The wolf may change his coat,
Tinh ai net tfy co chua diroc but not his disposition.
dau, - The wolf may lose his teeth, but
never his nature.
- What's learnt in the cradle lasts
till the tomb.
- You cannot wash charcoal
white.
1~O Cai slty nay cai ung. ~ Big! great /large oaks from little
Cling: acorns grow.
Chay rung boi chirng ti Uta. - A small leak will sink a great
ship.
- A spark is sufficient to kindle a
great fire.
- Little chips light great fires.
1:Jl Can nii, - Be hard up
- Be hard pressed for money.
uz Cang cao danh vong, cang day - The highest heads are the most
gLallnan. exposed.
Ciing:
cay cang cao thi gi6 cang lay. 129. cask (n) cai thong disposition (n) tfnh khf charcoal{n) than cui

130. kindle (v) lam chay, nhenlen

savour of sth (v) phang phat cradle(n) cai noi

chip(n) va baa

43
:lD Cang dong cang vui. - The more the merrier.
- Plenty is no plague.
- There's always room on top of
us.
U4 Cang gar. thang loi cang nhieu - It is always darkest before the
gian nan. dawn.
US Cang gia cang dec cang dai. - Old people may still be of use.
~
:136 Cang mong lai cang Iau. - A watched pot never boils.
Ciing:
Sl,I' lam hay hong, su ngong hay
trtr.
:137 Cao chay xa bay. - Do a bunk (with sth) (idm)
:138 Cao chet ba nam quay dau ve - East or west, home is best.
nui. - There is no place like home.
:139 Cao rmron oai hum. - An ass in a lion's skin.
:140 Cam cau nhtt ch6 can rna. - Like a bear with a sore head.
- Be (as) sulky as a bear.
:14:1 Can rang rna chiu. - Grin and bear it.
:142 Cam nhu hen, - Keep mum as a fish.
Cilng: - Close as an oyster I as wax.
Cam mieng hen. - (As) mute as a fish. 133. plague (n): benh dich, tai hoa

134. dawn (n) blnh minh, rang dong

140. sulky (adj) gian d6i

141. grin (v) nhe rang nrbi

142. mum (adj) im l~ng

on top of sb: sat, canh

wax (n) sap ong

143 cam den chay tnroc 0 to.

:144 an tac vow. rung:

Can t<ic vo ay nay.

:145

aiu diroc uoc thay, Ciing:

Vtra nhac n.D Thao, Tao Thao dii tm.

Cay ngay khong sq chet dUng.

144. ditch (n) hao, mlIong, ranh repentance(n) S\f h6i h~

145. imp (0) qui con.rieu yeu

146. anvil(n) cai de

- Ran before one's horse to market.

- Rush into hell before one's father.

- Better go round than fall into

the ditch.

- Better safe than sorry.

- Caution is the parent of safety.

- Good watch prevents

misfortune.

- Look before you leap,

- Precaution is better than

repentance.

- Safe bind. safe find.

- Although the sun shines, leave

not the cloak at home.

- Two sercurities are better than one.

- Talk of the devil and he is sure to appear.

- Speak of the devil, and his imps shall appear.

- Talk of angels.

- A clean hand wants no

washing.

- A clear conscience laughs at false

accusations.

- A good anvil does not fear the hammer.

precaution(n) 51! phong xa

45
147 Out chung khong ai kh6c. - A public hall is never swept.
Ciing: - What is everybody's business is
Lam sal khong ai dong cita chua. nobody's business.
- If you want a thing done well, do
it yourself.
%48 Cha lam thay, con ban sikh. - Many a good father has but a
bad son.
1:49 Cha my sinh con, troi sinh tfnh. - All men do not follow in the
Ciing: footsteps of their forbears.
Sinh con ha de sinh long. - Many a good cow has a bad
calf.
- Many a good father has but a
bad son.
%50 Cha nao con mfy. - A chip of the old block.
Ciing: - Like father, like son.
H6 phu sinh h6 tiro
%5I Cham noc, - Cut one on the raw.
Ciing: - Hit one where it hurts.
Dung vao cho d~ cam ella ai. - Rub salt into the wound I sb's
wound.
- Sting one to the soul.
- Touch a very sore spot.
- Touch sb on the raw (idm).
I:SZ Chan nhir cam nep nat. - (As) dry as dust.
- (As) dull as ditch - water. 149. forbear = forebear (n) ong ba t6 lien

151. rub (v) cha xat, xoa, thoa raw (n) tran trui, khong e6 quan ao

46

:lS3 OUlY nha hang xom blnh chan nhu vai,

- It is easy to bear the misfortunes of others.

- We bear other people's trouble lightly.

- Other folk's troubles are easily borne.

:lS4 CMy nha ra m~t chuot. - Rats desert a sinking ship.
:ISS Chay dua VOl thoi gian. - Work against time.
:15ft Chay rong bai cong. - Run away like the devil that's
Cling: caught a whiff of incense.
Vac chan len cd rna chay, - Run at breakneck pace.
- Run for one's life.
- Run as fast as one's legs can
carry one.
:lS7 Chay trill sao khoi nang. - He that is born to be hanged
G.ing: shall never be drowned.
Chay dau cho khoi nang troi, - No flying from fate.
o day rna tri. no dOi cho xong.
:ISS ChAc nhu dinh dong cot. - As sure as eggs is eggs.
- As sure as death/fate/a gun.
- As sure as I'm standing here.
:lS9 ChAng biet dang nao rna tan. - Not be able to make head or tail
Cling: of it.
ChAng biei d~u cua tai nheo th€ - Cannot make head or tail of sth.
nao. 154. desert (v) bo di, rm. bb 156. whiff (n) rnui

158. fate (n) s6 phan

incense (n) huong tram

47

1.60 Chang cai dai nao gi6ng cai dai - Every man has a fool in his

nao. sleeve.

• Every man has his faults .

.1.6.1. Chang chong thl chay, .1.14 Chang con gl de rna mat. .1.630 Chang-dam he rang.

- Sooner or later .

- Th~re's nothing-left to lose .

• Not say boo to a goose. (idrn)

.1.64 ChAng ngon cling sOt, chang t6t · Anything for a change .
ci.ingm6i. · Everyone has a penny to spend
Cilng: at a new ale-house.
Met cai la hon 11;1 cai quen.
.1.65 Chang noi chang rang. · Not say a dicky - bird. (idm)
.I." Chang ra tM thong gl. • Neither rhyme nor reason .
Cling: - Without rhyme or reason.
ChAng ra nghia 19 gi.
.1.67 Cham con han khong, • Better late than never .
.1.68 Cham rna chac an. - Slow but sure .
- Better go round than fall into
the ditch.
- Make haste slowly.
- Slow and steady wins the race.
.1.69 ~nhttsen. - Crawl along / creep at a snail's
pace. 164. ale-house (n) quan bia 166. rhyme: vdn (tho)

168. ditch (0) hao, ranh

48
.170 C1tan doan dung benh Iii chiia tri - To know the disease is half the
ducc mot nua. cure.
.171. ~t nha chii khong chat bung . - There's always room on top of
us.
.1'72 Chat nhu nem (col). - Be packed like cucumbers in a
barrel.
- Packed in like sardines in a tin.
- There is no room to swing a cat.
.17:5 CM soi toe lam tu. - Split hairs .
.174 Chenngang . - Jump the queue.
.l7S Che thl de. thao nghe moi kho. - Criticism is easy and art is
difficult.
.17& Chet bat dAc ky til. - Die with one's boots 00 •
- Die in one's boots.
.177 Chet du6i doi den. - An unfortunate man would be
rung: drowned in a tea - cup.
T&. s6 chet a trong nha cling - Cut one's throat with a feather.
chet.
.17. Chet du6i vai phai cong ram. - A drowning man will catch at a
Cting: straw.
Chet du6i vo phai bot, - Clutch I grasp at a straw.
.179 Chet du di'r j thaog dog. - (As) dead as a doornail/as
mutton (idm). 171. on top of sb: sal. canh 178. clutch (v) VQ lay

grasptv) tum. bam lay

lao Chet la het.

1.1 Chet la het nc,

I.a Chet nhu (nga) ra.

I., Chet trong hon s6ng due, Cung:

Chet vinh hon s6ng nhuc,

184 Chi mu6n don tho (cho dO' ngirong).

,. Chia ngot se bui,

181. score(n) lien no

185. mirth(n) su vui ve, hanh phuc

- Dead dogs don't bite.

- Dead men tell no tales.

- Death ends all things.

- The dead don't come back from

the graveyard,

- You don't bring the dead back from the graveyard.

- Death pays all debts

- Death quits all scores.

- He that dies pays all debts.

- Die/fall/drop like flies.

- Better a glorious death than a shameful life.

- Better die on your feet than live on your knees.

- Not know where to hide oneself.

- One almost died of shame,

- One would sooner sink through

the ground.

- One wished the earth would open beneath his feet.

- One wished the floor would swallow him up.

- Share sb's sorrow and mirth.

50

Chim cO dan cung hot, ti61g hOt m6ihay,

Ngua co ban cung dua, nu&:: dua moi manh.

- Friendship is the only cement that will ever hold the world together.

%87 Chim khon n6i tieng ranh rang, - The bird is known by his note, Nguoi khon tieng n6i diu dang the man by his words.

d~ nghe.

%88

Chim khon ti€c long, nguOi ngoan ti€c 1m.

Ciing:

Chim khon chua bat da bay, NguOi kh6n it noi, it hay tra Ioi.

%89 Chim phai ten sq canh cay congo

Ciing:

PhM mot cai, rai den gia.

%90 Chin bo lam rruroi.

- Wise men are not always silent, but know when to be.

- TIe knows much who knows how to hold his tongue.

- A burnt child dreads the fire.

- A bitten child dreads the dog.

- Fear has a quick ear.

- Once bitten twice shy.

- The scalded cat fears cold

water.

- Every fault needs pardon.

- One must not take all that is said

literally.

- You have to make allowances for mistakes.

- You mustn't be too exacting / severe.

- Wink at small faults.

189. dread(v) kinh sCJ scaJd(v) lam hong

190. make allowance for sth (idm) chieu c6 wink at sth nham mat lam ngo

51
.19.1 Chin ngtroi rmroi y . • Everyone to his liking.
• Wink at small faults.
· Every man to his taste.
• So many men, so many minds.
• There is no accounting for
tastes.
.I9Z Cho (ai) di t~u bay giay. · Crack one up to the nines. _,
.1ft Cho an banh ve . · Feed sb with promises I hopes.
.194 Cho vay mat ban, · If you lend your money to your
friend, you will lose your
money and your friend.
- Neither a borrower nor a lender
be.
.195 Cl1.5 mill vao viec nguoi khac . · Poke one's nose into other
Ciing: people's affairs.
Xia vao chuyen nguoi khac. · Put I stick one's oar in (idm).
.I- Ch6 can ao rach, · Misfortunes never come alone to a
poorman.
.I", Cl1.6 cay gan nhlt, gil cay gan - A cock is valiant on his own
chu6ng. dunghill.
· Every dog is a lion at home.
· Every dog is valiant at his own
door.
.198 Ch6 cung rUt giau . · Beast at bay bites hard.
- A wounded animal at bay. 19 L accounting(n) Ibi giai thich 195. oar(n) mai cheo

197. valiant(adj) dung cam. can dam

198. at bay (idm) cung duemg

dunghill(n) d6ng phan

52
J:99 016 dai co mua, ngum dai quanh - An ass will always be an ass.
nam. - He who is born a fool is never
cured.
ZOO Ch6 den giil muc, - Black dogs don't tum white.
- It's hard to change one's
character.
&OJ: Chogia gilt xuong, - A dog in the manger. (idm)
&os Ch6 ngap ph8.i ru6i. - To get a godsend.
- To get a gift from the gods.
203 Ch6 sua cho khong can. - Barking dogs seldom bite.
- Great barkers are not biters.
- Threats do not always lead to
blows.
S04 Ch6 tinh chang sua ch6 khong, - An old dog barks not in vain.
ZDS Chon ban rna choi. - Better be alone than in ill
company.
- Have hut few friends, though
many acquaintances.
sOft Own vq thi chon bang tai, - Choose a wife by your ear
Cho chon bang mAt c6 ngay rather than by your eye.
oan gla.
207 Ch6i cun ~ rach, - Everything but the kitchen sink. 20 L manger (n) rnang An

204. in vain (idm) mOt each vo Ich

53

208 Chong kh6n vq ngoan, chong quan vo bom.

Ciing:

V q b~t thoi chong, diia b giong tong chua nha,

D9 010 duqc rna thi ra dam.

%10 010 duoc va thi rna eta sung.

U:l 01(1 cui v~ rirng.

- A good husband makes a good wife.

- After supper, mustard.

- While the grass grows the horse starves.

- Slow help is no help.

- Carry coals to Newcastle.

- To send owls to Athens.

ZU OIa dung ke gian, cho oan ngiroi - He that spares the bad injures

ngay. the good.

U:J OIa nen 00 la thci eel.

Xem:

Eo 00i chang bang phai thl,

Z:l4 Cho nen dua cot vci tinh yeu, Do not trifle with love.

:US Cho nen rmia riu qua mat tho. - Never offer to teach fish to sWim.

u6 ClIa thay sang loang rna nga la vang.

Ciing:

The gian nhieu ke rna mang, Thay hon son tham nrong vang nang niu,

210. starve(v) chet d6i

211. ow!(n) con cu 216. glitter(v) Inp [r._lIh

- All that glitters is not gold.

- Appearances are deceptive.

54
U'7 Ch6 thay song ca rna nga tay - Never say "die"; up, man, and
cheo, try.
Z18 Cheri dao sdc co ngay dlit tay. - All they that live by the sword
shall perish by the sword.
- The same knife cuts bread and
fingers.
- Do not play with edged tools.
- It cuts both ways.
Z19 Choi cho cho liern mat, - Familiarity breeds contempt.
010g: - Too much familiarity breeds
Than qua hoa Urn. contempt.
zzo Choi van bai l~t ngira. - Lay / put one's cards on the
table.
- Show / throw up one's cards.
- Show one's hand.
HI Choi voi lira. - To play with fire.
- Sit on a barrel of gun-powder.
2ZZ Choi xuan keo het xuan di. - You're only young once.
2ZJ Chap thirng chop chao, chsng - Coming events cast their
bao thl mua. shadows before them.
U4 Chti khi ni, mi khi khac, - He that fears you present will
Cling: hate you absent.
D':\ tnroc mat, chili sau lung.
ZZS Chui dau vao thong long. - Put one's own head/neck under
Ging: the chopper.
Tu dua dau vao thong long, - Put one's head into the noose. 218. perish(v) b6 mang, chet

219. breed(v) gAy ra, dan Mn 225. chopper(n) dao Mu

contemptm) sir coi chLtimg

55
:zz6 Chu6c va vao than, - Have/fix a millstone about one's
neck.
ZZ7 Chuot chay cling sao. - Be at the end of one's tether.
- Be out on a limb. (idrn)
:as Chuyen con ca con ke. - Jaw on about this and that.
- A cock-and-bull story.
D9 Chuyen mlnh thl quang, - Men are blind in their own
chuyen ngiroi thl sang. cause.
Ciing: - Lookers-on see more than
Co ngoai, bai trong. players.
UO Chuyen no XQ chuyen kia. - Hop from topic to topic.
- Jump from one thing to another.
UJ: Chil nhan la chii' nrong vang, - What can't be cured must be
Ai rna nhan diroc thl cang song endured.
lau, - You must grin and bear it.
:uz Chua biet meo nao caln miu - Two can play at that game.
nao.
ZJ,J, Chua danh dm;c ngum ~t do nhu - Cowards are cruel.
vang, - Cowardice is the mother of
Danh diroc nguot roi mat Yang cruelty.
nhu nghe,
Z34 Chua d~t dit da d~t mom. - Have too much tongue.
Ciing: - His tongue is too long for his
Chua thay nguoi da thay tieng. teeth. 226. millstonetn) tMt cO'i

227. tether(n) day dat

228. jaw on (v) ba hoa tAm phao

229. hop(v) nhay 10 co, nhay

56

us:

Chua de dii d~t ten. Ciing:

Chua nan but dii n~n be,

2)6

Chua do eng nghe da de hang t6ng.

Cting:

Chua bat diroc gau dii dam ban da.

U7

Chua hQC be da 10 hQC chay, Ciing:

Chua du long canh da chuc bay cao.

238 aura khoi yang <.fa cong duoi, Ciing:

aura khoi ren eta quen thay,

2:J9 Chua rao rnau d.tu.

Ciing:

Mieng con hoi sua.

235. hatch(v) no fa can 237 creep (v) bu. tnron

238. halloo(v) reo ho, keu Ion tieng

239. scarcely (adv) chi vua mci

- Don't count your chickens

before they are hatched.

- Gut no fish till you get them.

- Never fry a fish till it's caught.

- Catch the bear before you sell

his skin.

- First catch your hare then cook him.

- To sell the bear's skin before one has

caught the bear.

- Eat the calf in the cow's belly.

- Cook a hare before catching

him.

- Learn to creep before you leap.

- Try to run before one can walk.

- Do not halloo till you are out of the wood.

- (Still) wet behind the ears. (idm)

- Be still a chicken.

- He is scarcely out of the shell

yet.

- Still in swaddling - clothes.

- Hardly / just out of swaddling -

clothes.

gut(v) md, moi ruot ca leap (v) nhay vat len

swaddling - clothes (n.pl) ta lot

57
:140 Clnmg 030 ~t a'y. - The leopard cannot change its
Oing: spots.
Cai nt!t danh chet khong chua. - What is bred in the bone will
not go out of the flesh.
241 Co voi lai, - Draw one's horns in.
- Draw in one's horns.
24Z Co ke bot mot them hai. - To drive a hard bargain.
Z43 C6 an nhat moi thirong den - He that is warm thinks all so.
meo, - He jests at scars that never felt
a wound.
- Know the sufferings of the poor
after being in poverty.
Z44 C6 bat an bat df - Have enough and to spare.
Ciing:
C6 cua an cua M.
%45 Co benh vii ttl phirong. - Any port in a storm.
M. C6 b¢t moi g¢t nen h6. - One cannot make bricks
Ciing: without straw.
/< C6 thoc moi boc ra g",o. ~ No flour, no paste.
~' Z47 CO ca moi doi ca chien.
Xem:
Duoc dang chan IAn dang dau, 240. spot (n) dom he:' da baa)

58

Z48 CO cac vang cling chiu.

~ Not for love or money.

• Not for the world and his wife.

• Not for all the tea in China. ~ Not for all the wealth in the

world.

~ For no consideration on earth.

249 CO chi co gao, gian nan wqt tuOl. - Grasp the nettle and it won't sting you.

- None but the brave deserve the fair.

250 CO chi lam quan, c6 gao lam giau,

251 CO chi thi nen, Ciing:

CO cong mai sat c6 ngay nen kim.

249. nettle (n) cay tarn rna c6 long ngt1'a

250. guts(n,pl) quy€t tAm

251. wilful (adj) c6 chu tam, c6 y

- No guts, no glory.

• Nothing venture, nothing have. - Nothing seek, nothing find.

- Fortune favours the brave.

- No cross, no crown.

• No pains, no gains.

- A wilful mao must have his way.

- By hard labour one will succeed.

• Drop by drop, the sea is drained.

- Nothing is impossible to a willing heart.

- Patience and time run through the longest day.

~ Where there's a will, there's a way.

• Genius is only patience.

venture (v) li~u

will (n) y chi, y mu6n

59

sa CO chong ching duoc di dau, - One chick keeps a hen busy.

CO con chang duqc dUng lau mot

gio, - Marriage is a stone wall.

Oing:

Hai vq chong son them dtra con thanh b6n.

SS3 as chung tieng noi, - Speak the same language {as
sb.)
Z54 as co thi cho cling dong, - No man is indispensable.
C6 di lay chong thi cho van vui.
SIS CO cua dO diroc nguoi, - Every man has his price.
SSft Co d6t moi co khon, - Learn wisdom by the follies of
others.
:&57 Co dau yeu moi bier qui suc - Health is not valued till
khoe, sickness comes.
ZSS Co di co lai moi toai long - Claw me and I'll claw thee.
nhau. - Nothing for nothing.
Cling: - One hand washes the other.
Ong dira chan gio, ba tho chai - Roll my log and I will roll
nrou, yours.
- You scratch my back and I'll
scratch yours.
ZS9 CO doc moi co, co phfi nhu cho - Money is the root of all evils.
moi giau, - Honour and profit lie not in one
sack.
- Muck and money go together. 254. indispensable (adj) khong the thieu

258. claw (v) cao bang m6ng tay thee (pron) Ilr chii' thou = you

log (n) khuc gO scratch (v) gai, cao XltC1C

259. muck (n) phan chuong, do do ban

60
Z60 CO it xit ra nhieu, - Make a mountain out of a
molehill.
261: CO lam moi c6 an. - A cat in gloves catches no mice.
Cilng: - W ork provides plenty.
C6 lam thl moi c6 an, - No sweet without sweat.
Khong dung ai de dem phan den - No gains without pains.
cho.
Z" CO rna dqi den tet. - Have to wait till the crack of
doom.
ztG CO mat thl mang, vang mat thl - Absence makes the heart grow
thuong. fonder.
- Far from the eyes, near to the
heart.
Z64- Co nhttng su th~t kheng nen - All truths will not bear telling.
naira. - Not all truths are proper to be
told.
DS CO nuoi con moi biei long cha - He that has no children know
my. not what love is. 260. molehill (n) ddt do chuot dun len 262. the crack of doom (idm) ngay tan the"

61
Z66 CO t~t gi~t minh. - He that commits a fault thinks
that
everyone speaks of it.
- He that has a great nose thinks
everyone is speaking of it.
- A guilty consience needs no
accuser.
- (There's) no peace for the
wicked.
- There is no place to hide a sin
without the conscience looking
In.
- If the cap fits (wear it).
2ft7 CO thit dbi xoi, - Fish looks for deeper water,
Ciing: man for better places to live.
CO chao dbi che, - We all seek what is better.
268 CO thuc moi vue duqc dao, - A fine cage won't feed the bird.
- A fine cage does not, fill a bird's
belly.
- Fine words butter no parsnips.
- You can't feed the hungry with
words.
- The belly is not filled with fair
words.
- The way to a man's heart is
through his stomach.
S69 CO tien mua tien ciing duoc, - A golden key opens all doors.
Ciing: - Money is a passport to
Tien dEn dau mau den dffy. everything.
- Money makes the mare go.
- Money answers all things. 266. wicked (n) ngum xS:u xa

268. parsnip(n) eLI cai

269. mare (n) ngua boac lua cai

62
270 CO tien vq vq chong chong, - A light purse is a heavy curse.
Het tien chong dong vq doai, - Want makes a strife between
man and wife.
- When poverty comes in at door,
love flies out at the window.
- Adversity makes strange
bedfellowss.
27:1 Coi trill bang vung. - Not care / give a fig for sb/sth.
(idm)
2'72 Con ca say la con ca to. - The apples on the other side of
the wall are the sweetest.
273 Con dao hai lum. - It cuts both ways.
- It is a two - edged weapon.
- It has two ways and hits either
way.
274 Con giun xeo lam cling quan. - Even a worn will tum.
- Tread on a worm and he will
tum.
:&'7S Con hu tai my, chau hu tai ba, - Mother's darlings are but
milksop heroes.
Z76 Con khon no mat me chao - Happy is he that is happy in his
children.
277 Con nghe moi sinh chang kinh - A cat may look at the king.
gl h6. 270. curse (n) Ibi nguyen riia strife (n) sir xung d¢t, ca:i C9

274. tread (v) giarn len

275. milksop (n) dan ling nht1t nhat

want (n) canh tung thieu

Z78 Con nha linh, tinh nha quan.

63

Z79 Con nha tong khong gi6ng long cung gi6ng canh,

:z8O Con ro cling tiec, con gi€C cling mu6n.

Cling:

An tnmg thl dimg an con.

Z81 Con sau bo rau n6i canh,

MOt nguoi lam di xau danh ca dan.

- Born into a poor family but having expensive tastes.

- As the cock crows, so do the young.

- Like begets like.

- Like father, like son.

- You cant' have your cake and eat it.

- It is an ill bird that fouls its own nest.

- One cloud is enough to eclipse the sun.

- One drop of poison infects the whole tun of wine.

- One scabby sheep is enough to spoil the whole flock.

- One rotten apple spoils the

barrel.

- (It's) a fly in the ointment.

- (It's) a bug in the butter.

- (It's) a blot on the landscape.

279. crow (v) gay beget (v) gay ra, la b6 cua ai

281. foul one's own nest (idm) lam 6 danh gia dlnh

scabby (adj) bi ghe eclipse (v) che khuat, lam lu rna

flock (n) dan, bay ointment (n)thu6c mo

bug (n) con rep, vi trung blot (n) vet mire

.. Con vua t6t vua d&J., con tOi xau toi yeu

aft COn ga tr6ng, ga mai thi con ga gio.

Cfing:

Chua phai la tuyet vong.

ZII4 COn mroc con tat.

Z8I COn song con hQC.

Z86 Cong ran can ga nha,

- All sb's geese are swans.

- Every mother thinks her own

gosling a swan.

- The devil's child, the devil's luck.

- All is not lost.

- It is never long that comes at

last.

- You must spoil before you spin.

- While there is life, there is hope.

- Make the best of things.

- Make the best of a bad deal/job.

- (It is) never too late to learn.

- (You are) never too old to learn.

- Set the snake on one's own hens.

2JI7 CO dam an xoi, - Put one's pride in one's pocket

for the sake of one's end.

Z88 C6c rno co xei. - One beats the bush, and another

catches the bird.

.. Cong thanh danh toai, - Gain/win one's laurels.

Z90 Cd ba cuoc, com ba bat, thuoc - One is no rule/ custom.

ba thang.

282. swan(n) can thien nga 286. set on (v) cho tan cong

gosling(n) ngong can

85

Z91 Cd den tay ai nguOi ay phai.

~ Jack is as good as his master. ~ One master is as good as

. another.

s,s Co ngoai bai trong.

Xem:

Chuyen mlnh thi quang, chuyen nguoi thl sang.

293 Com te me ruot.

- Com is the staff of life.

- There is nothing like plain

bread.

294 Com te no, xoi vo chang thiet. - Not want, not wait.
Cling:
D6i thi them thit them xoi,
Da no corn te thi thoi moi
dirong.
Z9S Cua an vung la cua ngon. - Stolen fruit is sweetest.
Cung: - Stolen pleasures are sweetest.
Mieng vl:mg thl ngon.
S9. ella ben tai nguoi. ~ Good depends not on things but
on the use we make of things.
ZfT1 ella bieu la cua 10, ella cho la ~ The receiver is as bad as the
cua no, thief.
Z98 ella c6 la cua duoc, ~ A penny more buys a whistle.
299 Cua day n6i lil cua khong ngon ~ Plenty is no dainty.
~ Enough is as good as feast. 293. the staff of life (idm) banh rnl 298. whistle (n) cai coi

plain (adj) don gian, b1nh thui1ng

18
300 CUa it long nhieu. ~ Modest gift given with all one's
heart/with one's whole heart.
_J: CUa mot dong cong mot nen. ~ A grain of wheat in a bushel of
chaff.
30S CUa rnua hon cua muon. ~ Better buy than borrow.
318 CUa ngum b6 tat, cua minh lat ~ Men cut large thongs of other
buoc. men's leather.
Oing: ~ To make free with another's
Cua mlnh thi gill bo bo, purse.
CUa nguoi thi tha cho bo n6 an.
304 Cira ngum phiic tao ~ Rob Peter to pay Paul.
30S CUa phu van khong chan rna ~ Cheats never prosper.
chay, ~ Easily earned money is quickly
Ciing: spent.
0Ja phi nghia e6 giau dau, ~ III ~ gotten gains never prosper.
o eho ngay ~t giau sau moi ~ III gotten, ill spent.
ben. - What is got over the devil's
back is spent under his belly.
.. CUa Ii iii cna 6L - Cheapest is the dearest .
_, rna re re kh6ng b3ng nghe trong - A useful trade is a mine of
lay. gold. .. Cia thien gia dia, CUng:

CUa tri14 hi1i lai JA'y di, Giuong doi mAt ech Hun chi duc.x: troi,

- Fortune is easily found but hard

to be kept.

- Easy come, easy go.

- Ill gotten, ill spent.

- The Lord giveth, the Lord

taketh away.

..~-

301. chaff (n) trau 303. thong (n) day da

305. cheat (n) nguOi. ho~ lro lira dao

belly (n) d.i bung

67
~ Cimg hoi cung thuyen, - Be in the same boat.
- Get on in the same boat with sb.
~o Cling mot giuoc voi nhau. - Birds of a feather.
Oing: - Chips of the same block.
Oing phirong gia ao tui com. - Of the same batch I kidney
- Tarred with the same brush I
stick.
- Cut from the same cloth.
3U: Cuoc dui dau phai mot dai - Life is not all cakes and ale.
vuon hong. - Life is not all beer and skittles.
- Life is not a bed of roses.
3%:1 Cuon g6i ra di. - Pack one's bags (and leave).
3%3 CUa simg lam nghe, - Mutton dressed (up) as lamb.
3%4 Cling dau cling c6. - (As) obstinate I stubborn as a
mule.
3%5 CUoi. nguoi cha c6 cuoi. lau, - Better the last smile than the
CUoi. nguoi horn tnroc horn sau first laughter.
nguOi. cum. - He laughs best who laughs last.
- He who laughs last laughs
longest.
- Let them laugh that win.
3%6 cum. ra nuoc mat. - Smile through one's tears.
Ciing: - Laugh on the wrong side of
DO khoc db cum. one's mouth.
- Laugh on the other side of one's
face. 310. batch (n) mot me

311. ale (n) nrou bia

314. obstinate (adj) ngoan c6 mule (n) con la

tar (v) nll nhua, bei hie in

beer and skittles (idm) thii vui stubborn(adj) buong binh, irong nganh

68

317 arm vahl,mg.

Ciing:

arm den va cl vung

- Split one's sides with laughter.

- Enough to make a cat laugh.

3%8 Qr(tp com chim.

- Take the bread out of sb's mouth.

0
319 Da trang xe cat bik dong, - Beat the air.
Nh9C long rna chang nen c6ng - Fish in the air.
can gl. - Mill the wind.
Cling: - Build sth on sand.
XAy lau dill tren cat. - Plough the sand.
3S0 DI,i sau han bt, bung kin hC1l1. - Another person's soul I heart is a
bu6ng. mystery.
- The soul of another is a dark
place I forest.
- You can never see into another
heart.
3U DI,i truoc mat, chiri sau lung. - He that fears you present will
hate you absent.
3U Dai nhir chao I gie rach. - (As) tough as old boots.
323 Dai thi den gia vAn dai, - He who is born a fool is never
cured. 69
n4 Danh loi bat nhu nhan. - Blessed is he that expects
nothing, for he shall never be
disappointed.
- He is rich that has few wants.
- He is not poor that has little, but
he that desires much.
32S Dao nang lib; nang sAc. - The used key is always brilliant.
~ Dao sac khong got diroc chuoi, - The darkest place is under the
candlestick.
3Z'7 Dao thir trau heo, keo thir lua so.
Xem
Trong con hoan nan moi ro ban
than.
~ Day ba lang b6c thu6c. - Teach the dog to bark.
CUng: . - Teach your granny to roast eggs.
Day diven vay,
Day khi treo cay.
5Z9 Day con tir thuc con tho'. M Train up a child in the way he
(Day vq tit thub bo vo moi ve), should go.
go Darn chan tai chO. M Mark time.
- Make no headway.
~ Day ca ra day muong. - A long story.
~ De nguoi de ta, kho ngiroi kho M What is sauce for the goose is
tao sauce for the gander. 324. blessed (adj) diem phuc thay

325. brilliant (adj) sang choi, lap Ianh

326. candlestick (n) gia dB nen 332. gander (n) ngong dl,rc

70
333 De nhu tra ban tay. - Like a knife through butter.
Ciing: - As easy as ABC.
Dt nhu choi. - As easy as rolling off a log.
- As easy as pie / as winking.
3:J4 Di doc tri doc. - Habit cures habit.
CUng: - Iron is sharpened by iron.
Lay doc tri doc. - One fire drives out another.
- Set a thief to catch a thief.
3:55 Di hoa vi quy - A bad compromise is better than
Ciing: a good lawsuit.
MQl su nhin lit chin su lanh. - An injury forgiven is better than
an injury revenged.
- Better a lean peace than a fat
victory.
- A bad arrangement is preferable
to the best lawsuit.
336 Do du Ht tl! sat. - Delays are dangerous.
- He that / who hesitates is lost.
- Cowards die many times before
their death.
- Delay is tantamount to death.
337 D6c bau Him su, - Open one's heart to sb.
- Reveal one's soul to sb, 335. compromise (n) sir thoa hiep revenge (v) Ira 1M

lean (adj) t6i, kern .

336. Tantamount (adj) ngang voi, chang khac gl

71

3,38 Don vao th€ bi.

Cfing:

Don vao chan urong,

D9 Dot d~c can maio Ciing:

Mit dac can thuong.

340 DOt dljic con han hay chtr long.

34.1 Dot hay noi chtr,

342 Dot tir noc d¢t xu6ng.

DO da uong uong. Ciing:

M6n chang fa men, khoai chang ra khoai.

Cling:

Nila dol, 1l11a chuot.

342. stink (v) co mui hOi th6i

343. fowl (n) thit chim

- Bring sb to bay.

- Chase sb up a tree.

- Put sb in a spot.

- Have / hold sb at bay

- Drive sb into a comer.

- Have sb cornered.

- Not to know a hawk from a

handsaw.

- Not to know chalk from cheese.

- Not to know beans.

- Not to know one's arse from

one's elbow (idm).

- It is better to understand a little than to misunderstand a lot.

- Better untaught than ill - taught.

- Little knowledge is a dangerous

thing.

- The less people think, the more they talk.

- Fish begins to stink at the head.

- A fish rots from the head.

- Neither fish, flesh nor good red herring.

- Neither fish, flesh nor fowl.

herring (n) catrlch

72

M4 00 kh6c da cum.

Xem:

CUm fa mroc mat.

MS Du cho di khap bon phirong, V~ nha moi thay que huang dAu bang.

N6 Due tee bat dat, Ciing:

Cang v¢i cang cham Ciing:

Cham ma chac,

5407 Dtrong dirong tJ! dac.

CUng:

Venh cai mat len.

D

MIl Da da ich thi~n.

Cling: cang nhieu cang t6t.

149 Da ngon da qua.

HO Di n6i Ia lam.

348. plague (n) tai hoa, benh dich

- East or west, home is best.

- There is no place like home.

- There is no place more

delightful than one's own fireside.

- Haste is of the devil.

- Haste makes waste.

- More haste, less speed.

- Slow and steady wins the race.

- With one's nose in the air.

- As pround as peacock.

- Store is no sore.

- The more the better.

- Plenty is no plague.

- He that talks much errs much.

- No sooner said than done.

- So said so done.

- Once I have said, I will do it.

store (n) su doi dao, co nhieu

73
351 Dil trot phai tret, - A lie begets a lie.
Ci1ng: - He who rides on a tiger can
Dam lao phai theo lao. never dismount.
- In for a penny, in for a pound.
- We have gone too far to draw
back now.
- Now that you had accepted you
had to begin.
- If you say the coat fits, you must
wear it.
- Over shoes, over boots.
- Since it has begun, it must be
finished.
- Since you have started, you must
goon.
- You can't back out now that
you've begun.
352 Doai toi lap cong. - Redeem one's faults by
achieving a feat I exploit (Lit).
3D Dan anh co rna, ke ca co dong. - All men can't be masters.
H4 Dan gay tai trau. - Be caviare to the general.
Ciing: - Cast pearls before swine.
Hoai canh mai eho ell dau,
35S Dan ong cam dill, dan ba tam t6. - Men make houses, women make
homes.
35ft Dang yen dang lanh dong eanh - Wake a sleeping dog.
phli toi.
:JS7 Dang dong tien bat g~o. - Get one's money's worth. 351. beget (v) gAy ra, sinh ra

352. redeem (v) tn! het, chuec 354. caviare (n) tnrng ca

dismount (v) xu6ng, xu6ng ngua feat (n) ky cong, chien cOng swine (n) con Ion

74

- The leopard cannot change his spots.

- The wolf may lose his teeth but never his nature.

- He that lives wickedly can hardly die honestly.

H8 Danh chet net khong chira,

359 Danh ke chay ill, khong ai danh ke chay lai,

3&0 Danh tr6ng be dui.
3ftI Danh tr6ng lang.
362 Dao rno.
363 Dao t~n goc, tree tan reo
3fJ4 Dau chong, da chay,
365 Dang cay moi bier ngot bui. ,,661 DAt nhu torn nroi.

358. wickedly (Ad v) IQi l6i, xau xa

364. ague (n) benh s6t ret

365. a dash of sb (idm) mot chtit It

- Don't hit / kick a man when he's down.

- One should not hit a man when he is down.

- Do sth by halves.

- Ride off on a side issue.

- Marry money I a fortune.

- Strike at the roots (of sth).

- Tear sth out by the roots.

- Agues come on horseback, hut go away on foot.

- Misfortunes tell us what fortune IS.

- He, who has never tasted bitter, knows not what is sweet.

- A dash of bitters to make you appreciate sweets.

- He knows best what good is that has endured evil.

- Sell like hot cakes.

75

3'" Dat xat ra mieng.
368 D~t cay tnroc trau,
Cfing:
Lam chuyen ngiroc doi,
369 Dam ba che cu.
3'70 Dam lao phii theo lao.
Xem: Da trot phai tret
371 Dam him sang ao. 37Z Dat Ie que thoi, Cfing:

Dat co Ie, que co thoi,

:573 Dau can la co, dau kho lit di.

374 Dau r6i cling vao day. 37S D~u ga hon duoi trau,

37. DAu rae rol, cuoi 16i thoi.

368. cart (n) xe, xe ngua

369. bark (n) vo cay

371. sieve (n) cai sang, cai ray

. - Best is cheapest.

- Put I Set the cart before the horse.

- You cry out before you are hurt.

- Put one's hand between the bark and the tree.

- Mill the wind.

- Fish in the air.

- Pour water into a sieve.

- To beat the air.

- Every country has its custom.

- So many countries, so many

customs.

- Take the hull by the horns.

- In the end things will mend.

- Better be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion.

- A bad beginning makes a bad ending.

- Bad beginnings make worse endings.

76

377 Dau tat mat t6i.

- To toil and moil all day and night.

378 Dau voi duoi chuot,

- The mountain has brought forth a mouse.

379 Dilu xuoi duoi 191.

- A good beginning is half the battle.

- A good beginning makes a good ending.

- Well begun is half done.

- The first blow is half the battle.

380 De dilu cuoi cO (ai),

- Get sb under one's thumb.

- Make sb slave.

_~ Den bac, do tlnh.

Cling:

Do tlnh den bac,

- Lucky at cards, unlucky in love.

- Unlucky at cards, lucky in love.

38Z Den nhu COl nha chay.

- As black as a sweep / chimney - sweep.

383 Den khoe den t6 hon trang, - Candle in the wind.

Den ra tnroc gin con chang hoi den.

384 Den nha ai nha nay rl,lllg. - Every man must carry his own

cross.

- Half of the world knows not how the other half lives.

- My house is my castle.

378. bring sth forth (v) sinh ra cai gl 382. sweep (n) ngiroi nao 6ng kh6i 384. cross (n) noi 10, dau kho

n
38S Dep ngiroi khong bang dep net. ~ Handsome is as / that handsome
Cling: does.
Dep n€t han dep ngiroi. ~ Prettiness dies first.
.. DqJ nhu tranh . - As smart / pretty as paint.
387 D€n mila quyt, - When the moon is made of
green cheese.
388 Den tnroc thl duoc mieng ngon. - First come, first served.
O1ng: - It is the early bird that catches
Trau cham u6ng mroc due. the worm.
389 Di cho bier d6 bi€t dAy, - Youth must have its fling.
o nha v6i my biet ngay nao khon.
390 Di cung troi cu6i da't. - Go to the end of the earth.
39.1 Di dOi nha rna. - All gone to pot.
O1ng: - Go to pot.
Hong bet d. roi.
HZ Di dern Hun cling co ngay gap - The pot goes too often to the
rna. well but is broken at last.
- Every fox must pay with his
skin to the flayer.
- There is no trader who does not
meet with losses.
- You can't always be lucky.
393 Di gu6c vao bung (ai). - Read sb like a book.
- Cut the ground under sb's feet
(idm). 389. fling (n) SI! lieng, bay iU'Qrl 392. flayer (n) the i¢t da

78
394 Di mot ngay dang hoc mot sang - Travelling forms a young man.
khon. - Travelling broadens one's
Ciing: horizons.
Di buoi cho hQC rna khon.
395 Di v6i but mac ao cit sa, di vai - He needs a long spoon that sups
ma mac ao giay, with the devil.
- With foxes we must play the
fox.
~ Diec khong so sling. - A fool always rushes to the fore.
- He that knows nothing doubts
nothing.
- Fools rush in where angels fear
to tread.
3'1'1 Di&: loi / Di&: d~. - Deaf as a post.
- Stone deaf.
398 Dieu d¢ la me sUe khoe, - Moderation in all things (and all
things in moderation).
- One hour's sleep before
midnight is worth three after.
- Early to bed and early to rise
(makes a man healthy, wealthy
and wise).
399 Do song do bien de do long - Man's heart is unfathomable.
nguUi. - The soul of another is a dark
Cling: place.
SOng sau con co ke do, Long - You can never see into another
ngum nham hiim ai do cho heart.
cling. 394. horizons (n.pl) lAm hieu bier

395. sup (v) an bO'a t6i

396. fore(n) mui tau, phan tnroc tread (v) ~t chan, di

399. unfathomable (adj) khong db ducc

79

400 Do mit dung nhau.
401: Do mat tfa tai,
Ciing:
Mat do nhu gac,
402 Doan ket III song, chia re la
chet.
40:1 Doan ket la sue manh.
404 Dei an banh ve.
405 Dei an vung, tung lam can/
lieu.
40. Dei cho sach, reich cho thorn.
407 Dei dau goi phai 00.
408 Don xoc hai dau. 409 Dong cira bao nhau.

400. be driven to do sth: buoc phai lam gl.

401. beetroot (n) cli cii do

406. fast (n) bO'a an chay

407. trot (v) chay Ion ton

408. chatter (v) dua chuyen

- One beggar is driven to beg of another.

- Red as a turkey - cock.

- Red as a beetroot.

- United we stand, divided we fall.

- Unity is strength.

- Hope is the poor men's bread.

- It is hard to be poor and honest.

- Necessity knows no law.

- A clean fast is better than a dirty

breakfast.

- Needs make the old wife trot.

- Cry with one eye and laugh with the other.

- Play a double game.

- He who chatters to you will

chatter of you.

- Not to wash one's dirty linen in public.

- Family affairs should be kept private.

80
410 Dong thuyen rna khong xe - Make bricks without straw.
van.
4.1.1 D6 dom dom mat. - To see stars before one's eyes.
4.12 D6 them d~u vao lira, - Add fuel to the fire.
COng: - Take oil to extinguish the fire.
Liia da do lai bo them rom. - Pour oil on the flame.
- Fan the flame.
- Heap fuel to the flame. -
- Throw fat in the fire.
413 D6 vay dO thira (cho ai). - Drop I dump sth in sb's lap.
- Lay one's own fault at sb else's
door.
4.14 D6 ai hoc duqc chit ngo, - Anything may happen.
- Pigs might fly.
4.15 Doc gicii doc. - Take a hair of the dog that bit
Cling;
Doc tri d¢C. you.
4.16 Doc nhat vo nhi, - (There are) no two ways about
it.
4.17 D6i ta nhu the con dao, - Go often to the house of your
Nang liec nang sac, nang chao friend, for weeds choke up the
nang than. unused path.
418 DOi trang thay den. - Make white black (Lit).
- Call white black.
- Turn white into black. 412. heap (v) chat. xep day

413. dump (v) vut, d6 bira 417. choke up (v) 14p day

extinguish (v) dap uit

11
4:19 DOng tay hon hay lam. - Many hands make light work.
420 Dong sang di mong. - Share the same bed but dream
different dreams (Lit).
42:1 Dong thanh nrong img, dong - Great minds think alike.
khi tuong duo
422 Dong tien di truce Ia dong tien - He gives twice who gives
khan. quickly.
- He gives twice who gives
without delay.
423 Dong tien khong phan khong - A thief passes for a gentleman
ho, when stealing has made him
Dong tien kheo diem kheo to rich.
mat nguoi. - Money makes the man.
424 Dm cha an man, dbi con khat - Otildren have to suffer for their
nuoc. parents' sins.
- To visit the sins of the father
upon the children.
425 Dai eha vo tron, dbi con bop - A miserly father makes a
bep, prodigal SOD.
COng: - Many a good father has but a
Cha lam thay, con ban sach. bad son.
426 poi eua eua may, dCri. cay cay - Every man for himself and God
dao. for us all.
- The devil take the hindmost. 424. visit upon sb (v) trirng phat ai

425. miserly (adj) keo kiet

426. hindmost (adj) sau cung

sin (n) t()i loi

prodigal (adj) hoang phi

82
41t1 DOi. ngiroi c6 mot gang tay, - Life is but a span.
Ai hay ngu ngay con co nita - Life is long if you know how to
gang. use it.
as Dam do ngon tre. - To seek a hare in a hen - house.
429 Don thuong d(K: rna. - All alone in the world.
CUng: - All by oneself.
MQt than mot minh, - Having not a soul in the world.
- Plough a lonely furrow.
GO Diia m6c doi choi rnam son. - A sow is no match for a goose.
0% Due D_uUc beo co. - Fish in troubled waters.
Ciing:
Cho nuCfc due thi cau,
GZ Dung an cam moi noi chuyen - Let bygones be bygones.
cii.
4D DUng hOi rae len rna ngiri. - It is easier to raise the devil than
to lay him.
- Let sleeping dogs lie.
Got DUng eo cam den chay tnroc - Don't run before your horse to
6tO. market.
- Don't run into hell before your
father.
- Do not ring the church bell
before looking at the church
calender.
OS DUng co ehb cui ve rimg. - One shouldn't carry owls to
Athens. 427. span (0) nhip cau

429. furrow (v) lu6ng cay

430. sow (n) Iqn nai

436 Dimg co darn ba che cu.

83

- Put not your hand between the bark and the tree.

437 Dimg co Ion lanh chua Ion que. ~ It's better to leave well alone.
~ It's better to let well alone.
438 Dirng co venh cai mat len. - Corne off your perch.
Cting:
Dirng co len mat day doi.
4109 Ditng ch5 mfii vao chuyen nguOi - Know your place!
khac. - Stay on your own side of the
fence.
- This is none of your business.
- Mind your own business.
440 DUng d~ mroc den chan moi - Don't have thy cloak to make
nhay, when it begins to rain.
- Not let the grass grow under
one's feet.
44~ DUng goi lai nOi dau ella nguoi - Name not a rope in his house that
khac, was hanged. 442 Dung nen bat eel hai tay.

4U Dirng nen hoi sir muon hroc.

436. bark (n) vo cay

438. come off (v) giam bot, ha xuong 440. thy (det, arch) = your

442. hare (n) tho rihlg

- It's no use trying to do two things at once.

- Dogs that put up many hares kill none.

- If you run after two hares, you will catch none.

- It's no use pumping a dry well.

perch (n) dia vi cao cloak (n) ao choang

put up (v) ch6ng cir, du6i theo

8"

444 DUng nen tha moi bat bong.

445 DUng nen vach ao eho ngirci xem lung.

446 DUng thay ong huyen to bung rna sq.

44'7 DUng vl gian con ran rna d6t cai ao.

448 DUng vl ngirei db rna b6 lbi n6i hay cua ho,

- Never lose the substance for the shadow.

- Never quit certainty for hope.

- Don't tell tales out of school.

- Family affairs should be kept

private.

- It is best to wash one's soiled linen at horne.

- Fat paunches have lean pates.

- Bum not your house to rid it of the mouse.

- A fool may sometimes give a wise man counsel.

- Fools may sometimes speak to the purpose.

449 DUng di tren lira nam ng6i khong - Be on tenterhooks (idm).

yen. - Be on pins and needles. - On a knife - edge.

450 DUng mui chiu sao.

4S:l DUng ngay nhu phong.

Cilng:

DUng nhu troi tr6ng.

- Stand in the breach.

- Throw oneself into the breach.

- To stand as if rooted to the

ground.

- Stand like a stuffed dummy.

- Stand like a stone image.

- Stand rooted to the spot.

444. substance (n) chat, cai c6 thuc

445. linen (n) quan ao, do vii lanh

446. paunche (n) bung phe pate (n) dau, so

450. breach (n) vel mtt. ehO ran va

4S 1. dummy (n) nguoi mau gia, manocanh

4P DUng ruii nay trong nui no,

85

49 Duoc an ca, nga ve khong.

454 Duoc cai no thi mat cai kia.

- The grass always seems greener across the river.

- The grass is always greener on the other side (of the hill).

- Blue are the hills that are far from us.

- Why look for a good thing when you have one?

- Make or mar.

- Neck or nothing.

- Put all one's eggs in / into one

basket.

- Sink or swim.

- Do or die.

- A feast or a fast.

- Man or mouse.

- Win or lose.

- Make a spoon or spoil a hom.

- Have one's cake and eat it.

- You cannot eat your cake and

have it too.

- You cannot flay the same ox twice.

4SS: Duoc chim be mi, duqc ca quen - When the fish is caught, the net

nom. is laid aside (Lit).

- Kick away the ladder (by which one rose).

453. mar (v) lam hong, pha hong

454. flay (v) l()t da

86

45.

Duoc dang chan IAn dang dau, CUng:

Diroc voi doi tien. Cling:

CO ca moi doi ca chien.

- Give the devil your finger and he will take your hand.

- Give him a ring and he'll want your whole arm.

- Give him an inch and he'll take a mile.

- If you agree to carry the calf, they'll make you carry the cow. - The more you have, the more you want.

- Let him put in his finger, and he will put in his whole hand.

- There is no telling what he would try next.

45'7 Diroc d6ng nao xao d6ng nay, - No sooner earned than spent.

4_ Diroc lam vua, thua lam giac, - Losers are always in the wrong. - Let them laugh that win.

- Success in never blamed.

459 Duqc long dAt mAt long do.

Cling:

Duqc long dn mat long ng6e.

456. calf (n) con be

458. blame (v) khi~n trach, che

- One cannot please all the world and his wife.

- He who pleased everybody died

before he was born.

- There's no pleasing everybody.

- You can't please everyone.

- It is hard to please all parties.

- Please all and you will please

none.

- If you try to please all, you will please none.

87
., ,
460 Duqc long ta x6t xa long - One man's breath is another
ngiroi. man's death.
Ctlng: - One man's meat is another man's
Dune nguoi mua, thua nguni poison.
ban.
461. Diroc tieng khen ho hen chang - All lay loads on the willing horse.
con. - Praise is not pudding.
46Z Duong di hay t6i, n6i d6i hay - A liar should have a good
cung. memory.
- A lie has no legs.
46], DUOng nao ciing v~ La Ma. - All roads lead to Rome.
- There are more ways to the
wood than one.
464 Duong a em mieng. - Better to ask the way than go
Cfing: astray.
Dirong di a mieng. - He that has a tongue in his head
may find his way anywhere.
461 Duong vong quen di kern chi - The farthest way about is the
duOngtat. nearest way home.
Ciing: - The longest way round is the
Di muai biroc xa han di ba shortest way home.
buocl¢i. 461. willing (adj) nhiet tlnh, de bao 464. astray (adv) lac duemg

E

466 Ep dAu ep rna, ai nO' ep duyen.

_, ~h chei tai mieng,

G

Gii dung chO ngua,

G3.i co cOng cl16ng chAng phu, Ciing:

Urn c6 kheng 10 mat phan,

Gao do met cay.

Ciing:

Gan het ehO noi. ~pm~h.

Ga.y nhu que cw.

·470

471

466. compel (v) ep bu¢c

468. chord (0) dAy dan. dan hgp Am 47 L rail (0) eMIt song

- Love cannot be forced.

- Love cannot be compelled.

- You can take a horse to the

water, but you cannot make him drink.

- A fool's tongue is long enough to cut his own throat.

- Let not your tongue cut your throat.

- Touch the right chord.

- A good deed is never lost.

- An act of kindness is never

wasted.

- Have a tile I screw loose.

- (As) thin as a bone / a rail / a lath.

lath (n) thanh gO mong

a9
472 Gan chua goi but bang anh, M No man is a hero to his valet.
Trong thAy but lanh ha xu6ng M The nearer the church, the farther
datchai. from God.
473 Gan da't xa troi. M Have one foot in the grave.
Cilng:
Gan ke mieng 16.
474 Gan muc thl den, gan den thi • A man is known by the
sang. company he keeps.
Ciing: - Evil communications corrupt
a bau thi tron, a 6ng thi dai, good manner.
- Good can never grow out of evil.
- He that lies down with' dogs
must rise up with fleas.
- He, who keeps company with
the wolf, will learn to howl.
- Youth and white paper take any
impression.
- Bad examples are catching.
- He that lives with cripples learns
to limp.
- You can't touch pitch without
being defiled,
475 Gan sCf da.Ia so quan ao. - Good clothes open all doors.
476 Gay eng d~p lung eng. - Make a rod for one's own back.
- Be hoist with one's own petard. 472. valet (n) ngum htu, dAy W 474. corrupt (v) lam hu hong howl (v) hd, ni

pitch (n) hie fn

476. hoist (v) keo len, nhac bong len

flea (n) bo chet

cripple (n) nguoi que quat defile (v) lam 0 ui!, lam bln petard (n) phao, trai n6

90

477 Ghet cay ghet dang.

- Hate sb like poison.

- Hate sb guts. (idm)

- Hate sb with one's whole heart.

478 Gilt gian tnroc tudi,

- Have an old head on young shoulders.

479 Gilt ken ken hom.

CUng:

Chin qua hoa nau,

- Never too much of a good thing.

- The best is often the enemy of

the good.

- The best-laid plans may come to nought.

- The best things are worst to come by.

- Too much of a good thing is good for nothing.

- Enough is a good as a feast.

- Extremes are dangerous.

480 Gilt neo dUt day.

- It is the last straw that breaks the camel's back.

- The last drop makes the cup run over.

481 Gilt sinh tat, dat sinh co.

Cling:

GiA thl moi s\,t moi hen.

- Old age is not a blessing.

- An old ass is never good.

- When bees are old, they yield no

honey.

- A cracked bell can never sound welL

481. blessing (n) an hue, dieu dang mung yield (v) sinh ra, cho hoary (ad j) hoa ram

91

482 Gill thl gill toe gia tai, - A grey beard, but a lusty heart.

Gill rang gia loi, d6 choi khong - No sinner like a hoary sinner. gill.

Cung:

Gill choi trong boi.

48J, Gill trai non hot.

484 Gia tnroc tu6i.

485 Gia cam gia diec.

486 Giang san nao, anh hung ay,

487 Giau con hem giau cua.

488 Giau diec, sang dui.

489 Giau d6i ban, sang d6i vq.

483. bully (n) ke bat nat, ham doa 485. sham (v) gia b¢. gia vb

489. upstart (n) ngum m6'i phat len

- A bully is always -a coward.

- Bullies are always cowards.

- Where you exaggerate you

weaken.

- Old beyond one's years.

- Act dumb.

- Sham dumbness and deafness

(Lit).

- Pretend to be deaf and dumb (Lit).

- A man is master in his own house.

- Children are poor men's riches.

- A rich neighbour is a poor friend.

- He that had a full purse never wanted a friend.

- Honour changes manners.

- Rich upstarts ignore their

belongings.

exaggerate (v) cuemg di~u, !hOi phong belongings (n, pi) do dung ca nhan

92
490 Giau khong ha tien kho lien - Waste not, want not.
tay,
Kh6 khong ha tien kho an
may.
49.1 Giau Ia ho, kho ngiroi dung. - Next of kin to the rich, no kin to
the poor.
492 Giau lam chi, kho luy lam em. - An empty sack cannot stand
CUng: upright.
Ngheo moi di m6i hen.
49~ Giau long hem giau cua. - A man is rich according to what
he is, not according to what he
has.
494 Giau nUt d6 dO vach. - Be in the gravy.
CUng: - Have money to bum.
Ho ra bac, khac ra tien, - Have more gold I money than
one can count.
495 Giau sang chua may ai nhan. - He that has land has trouble at
hand.
4" Giau sang lam ke lai nha, - Friends are plenty when the
Kh6 nam gifra cho chang rna purse is fulL
nao nhin. - Poverty parts friends.
497 Giau ve vang, sang lich su, - He dances well to whom fortune
pipes. 491. kin (n) ho hang than thfch

494. gravy (n) ti~n khOng kiem rna co 497. pipe (v) ca hat d6n chao

93
4_ Giau ve ban, sang ve vq. - A good wife is a good prize.
- A life without a friend is a life
without sun.
- A friend is a present you give-
yourself.
499 Gian ca chem th6t. - Cut off one's nose to spite one's
face.
- He that cannot beat the horse
beats the saddle.
500 Gi~n thl mang, lang thi thuong, - Lovers' quarrels are soon
mended.
- Lovers' tiffs are harmless.
- 1he falling out of lovers is the
renewing of love ..
- Lover's not complete without a
quarreL
50.1 Gi~n tim mat, - Go purple (in the face) with
rage.
soz Giat gau va vai. - Rob Peter to pay Paul.
Ciing: - Rob your belly to cover your
Gi~.t dau ca va dau tom, back.
so~ Giau tai, - Hide one's light under a bushel.
504 Giau voi dun ra,
Xem:
Cai kim trong boc lau ngay cling
phai loi ra. 499. spite (v) choc tac

500. the falling out (n) sl! dii CQ

saddle (n) yen ngua

tiff (n) sl,!' xfch mlch, b!t hoa

94
sos Giau d6 hlm leo. -Everyone gives a push to a
falling man.
- Hit a man when he's down.
- When a man is going down -hill,
everyone will give him a push.
- When the tree's fallen, everyone
runs to it with his axe.
soc. Giay mau an phan, - Get involved in some business
for a share of profit.
S0'7 Giay rach gift lay Ie. - A ragged coat may cover an
honest man.
- A gentleman keep; his integrity even
in poverty,
S08 Giay trang rnuc den. - In black and white.
S09 Gieo gin g~t bao, - Sow the wind and reap the
whirlwind.
- We reap as we sow.
- He, who sows the wind, will
reap the whirlwind.
S10 Giet ga dung dao m6 trau, - Break. a butterfly on/upon the
wheel.
- Use a steam- hammer to crack a
nut.
- Crush a fly with a steam - roller.
su: Gi6 nha ai quai nha nay. - As the tree, so the fruit.
- Like father, like son.
- Such fruit, such tree: 505. go down - hill (idm) xu6ng d6e axe (n) cai riu

407. integrity (n) tfnh trung thuc, chinh true

409. whirlwind (n) con gi616c

410. crack (v) lam VO, kep vo steam -roller (n) xe Ian dLIOng

95
512 Oi6 chieu nao xoay chieu ay, - To find out which way the wind
Ciing: blows.
Chay buom xem gi6. - To follow the crowd.
- To see which way the cat jumps.
- To swim with the tide / stream.
- Trim your sails to-the wind.
5:1~ Gion cuoi, nroi kh6c. - If you laugh before breakfast,
you'll cry before supper.
- He who laughs today may weep
tomorrow.
- Laugh today and cry tomorrow.
5:14 Giot chau Hi chao - Be drowned in tears.
Ciing: - Shed floods of tears.
Niroc mat tuon trao,
S:1S Gioi gao nuoc lanh. - Pour / throw cold water (on sth),
4:1. Gi6ng eha nhu due. - Be the very image / spit of one's
father.
4:17 Gi6ng nhau nhu hai giot mroc, - As like as two peas.
- (As) like as peas in a pod.
- Nothing to choose between
them.
51. Gic cao danh khe / se. - Long mint little dint.
5:19 Gio dau chiu bang. - Bell the cat (idm).
- Carry the can (for sth) (idrn).
520 Gio nao viec nay. - There is a time for all things. 512. trim (v) xoay theo hirong gio 514. shed (v) trao ra

516. spit (0) mroc bQI

511_ pod (n) qua d~lI

518. mint (n) cay bac ha

dint (n) sec manh, vet lorn

96
SZI. Gio tram phirong ngan ke. - Pull all strings / wires.
Cling: - Move heaven and earth.
Xoay du tro.
SH Gili' kin nhu bung. - Keep sth bottled up and tightly
Cling: corked.
Khong moi noi mot loi, - You can't get a word out of him.
- Wild horses can't drag a word
out of him.
SU Gili' morn gili' mieng, - Hold one's tongue.
- Keep a still tongue in one's
head.
SZ4 Gili' thai do ba phai. - Fall between two stools
- Sit on the fence.
- Serve two masters.
SZS Gitta ban ngay ban mat. - (In) broad daylight.
Cling:
Thanh thien bach nhat,
sz. Go dung cira, - Take / get the right sow by the
Ciing: ear.
Tim dung t6 con chuon chuon,
SZ7 Go nham cira, - Take / get the wrong sow by the
Ciing: ear.
Hoi khong dung eho. - Come / get to the wrong shop.
SZ8 Gop gio thanh bao. - Many a little makes a mickle. 522. drag (v) keo, mo, lay n6i 526. sow(n) Ion filii

528. mickle (n) sc hrong 1&0, nhieu,

ss,

11

Giri tn1ng cho ac. Cilng:

111<1 cao vao nao chuong gao

530

Guom linh stit can con tranh, Binh huang dau va mieng sanh con thorn.

- Give the sheep in care of the wolf.

- Put the cat near the goldfish bowl

- Set a wolf to keep the sheep.

- Set a fox to keep the geese.

- A good name keeps its lustre in

the dark.

- True blue will never stain.

D
91 Ha mieng cho sung. - He who waits for dead men's
Cling: shoes is in danger of going
Ha mieng cho ho. barefoot.
- Wait until pigs may fly.
- Remain idle and wait fO£ the
windfall.
S3S Ha mieng mac quai. - People who live in glass houses
Ciing: should not throw stone.
An xoi chua ngong mieng. - The dog will not howl if you
beat him with a bone.
533 H~ hoi phan giai, - Postpone the evil hourI day.
534 Hai narn ro mum. - (As) plain as a pikestaff. (idm)
Cilng: - (As) plain as the nose OIl one's
Ro nhu ban ngay. face.
DS Hai Vrj chong son them dua - One chick keeps a hen busy.
con thanh bon, 530. lustre (n) ve dep, Sl! vi! vang

531. windfall (n) qua rung

98

- Coin money. (idm)

S36 Hai fa tien.

537 Hang sang chet be chieu, Ciing:

111q fen khong dao an trau, Nha vuan an cau sau,

- The cobbler's wife is the worst shod.

~ Hanh pluic san se 13 hanh phiic - The only way on earth to

nhan doi, multiply happiness is to divide it.

Hay an thi Ian vao bep, Ciing:

Muon an het phai dao giun. Muon an sirn chin thi VaD rung xanh

540

Hay, dO' cuoi cung rnoi biet, Cling:

Hay, dO' cuoi cung sf: r5.

536. coin (v) due tien

537. cobbler(n) thQ chua giay 539. kernel (n) hanh nhan, h~t 540.praise (v) ca ngoi

- He that will eat the kernel must crack the nut.

- He that would have eggs must endure the cackling of hens.

- He who would search for pearls must dive below.

- One must take trouble to get profit.

- He that would eat the fruit must climb the tree.

- AU is well that ends welL

- In the evening one may praise

the day.

- Praise a fair day only at night.

- That's good wisdom, which is

wisdom in the end.

- The end crowns the work.

shod (v,pp) di giay cackling (n) tieng cue rae

crown (v) holm thanh, ket tluic t6t dep

99
S4J. Hay khong lay hen, sen khong lay - A rose by any other name would
bun, smell as sweet.
Cung:
Hoa sen moe hili cat lilm,
Tuy rang lam hip cung mam
hoa sen.
S42 Hay lam han hay noi, - Actions speak louder than
words.
543 Hay noi thi chang hay lam. - Good words and no deeds.
Cilng:
Nang thuyet bat nang hanh,
544 Hay 11,[ giup minh roi troi se - Help yourse1f and the heaven
giiip cho. will help you.
545 Heo chet khong so mroc sci. - He that is down need fear no
fall.
54& Het khon, don ra dai, - Every man a little beyond
himself is a fool.
547 Het ren quen thay, - Bite the hand that feeds one.
548 Het tien tai, nhan nghia tan, - No money. no friends.
549 Het xoi roi viec, - No longer pipe, no longer dance.
550 Hi~n nhu but, - Not harm/hurt a fly.
CG.ng:
Hien nhu CI,lC bot.
5$1 He) voi bAn sung say, - Much ado about nothing. 549.pipe (n) 6ng sao, ong tieu

100
SP Hoa co thai, gai co thl, - Everything is good in its season.
Cting: - The fairest rose at last is
Dim ba nhir canh hoa mal. withered.
No ra chi dtroc mot thai rna - There is a time for everything.
thoi, - All in good time.
- The morning to the mountain.
the evening to the fountain.
sn Hoa thom, thorn la thorn lung, - He that loves the tree loves the
Thorn cay den re. ngiroi tr6ng branch.
cung thorn,
SS4 HQa phuc khon luang. - You never know your luck.
- One never knows where one will
gain and where one will lose.
SSS Hoa phuc a mlnh, - Every man is the architect of his
own fortune.
55ft HQa vo dan chi. - Misfortunes never come
alone/lonely,
- One misfortune comes on the back
of another.
ss, Hoai cong phi sue. - Flog a dead horse. (idrn)
SS8 Hoai thoc nuoi eo rirng. - Cast one's bread upon the
waters. 552. wither (v) heo kho 557. flog (v) qua! roi

101
55' Hoang kim hac the tam. - An open door may tempt a saint.
Ciing: - Money often unmakes the man
Yang do nho long son. who makes it.
- Opportunity makes the thief.
- A fair booty makes many a
thief.
560 HQc thi sang, kh6ng hQC thl - Learning is the eye of the mind.
t6i. - Learning makes people wise,
COng: ignorance, otherwise.
Nhan bat hoc bat tri ly,
561 HQC thay khong tay hoc ban, - We learn not at school but in
life.
56Z HQc vet. - Learn sth by rote. (idrn)
563 Hoi khong dung cho. - To come/get to the wrong shop.
Cling:
Go nham cira,
564 Hoi thay tu muon luge. - It's no use pumping a dry well.
56S H6 chet ve da, ngiroi ta chet ve - He that had an ill name is half
tieng. hanged.
5" H6n bay phach lac, - Have / with one's heart in one's
Cling: mouth.
So lfu ca lwJi.
56, Hong nao rna chang co gai. - There is no rose without a thorn.
5" Hong nhan da truan. - Beautiful women often have many
misfortunes. 559. tempt (v) cam dO, quyen ril

560. ignorance: 51! ngu d6t 567. thorn (n) cai gai

booty (n) chien lei pham otherwise (adv) : ngiroc lai

102
S69 Han hin mot cai dau. - Be I stand head and shoulders
above sb.
S'70 Hue dau V~lO Wang. - Bang one's head against a brick
Ciing: wall.
Da:m vao b! bong,
57:! Hum dO' chang an thit con. - Dog does not eat dog.
- Wolf never wars against wolf.
572 Hila nhang hila cuoi. - Promise the moon/earth.
Ciing: - Promises are like piecrust, made
Hila htrou hila vUQl1. to be broken.
- He that promises too much
means nothing.
57:1 Huang nang thap nang khoi, - Least said, soonest mended.
ngiroi nang n6i nang 16i. - Many speak much who cannot
Ciing: speak well.
An tam thi het rnieng ngon, - Say nothing but think the more.
N6i lam thi het lai khon h6a - The less said, the better.
r6.
574 Hiru danh v6 tlurc, - In name rather than in fact.
575 Huu sinh htru til. - All that live must die.
576 Htru than hihi kho, - Every man must carry his own
cross.
577 Hfru xa nr nhien huang. - Good wine needs no bush.
Cling: - True coral needs no painter's
RuQU ngon bat luan be sanh, brush.
Ao rach kheo va han lanh vung - Real talent needs no publicity.
may. - Good ware will sell itself. 577. coral{n) san ho

publicity(n) su rao hang, quang CaD

103

I

578 fch ky hai nhan.

- It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.

- It is an ill tum that does no good to anyone.

579 1m lang lIt dong y.

- Silence gives / implies consent.

580 1m lang Iii vang.

- Silence is golden.

- No wisdom like silence.

581 1m lang nhu tao

- Not a breath is heard.

- You can hear a pin drop.

- Quiet as a mouse.

58Z 1m thin thit nhir thit nau dong, - Keep as silent as the grave.

583 it rna tinh.

- It is not the quantity that matters, but the quality.

584 ft xit fa nhieu.

Ci.1ng:

CO it xit fa nhieu.

- Make a mountain out of a molehill.

578. imply(v) ngu y

584. molehill(n) dlll do chuot dun len

1.

SIIS Ke in 6c nguiri dO vo.

- Shouldering other people's SInS.

- Bearing sb's trouble on one's back.

.. Ke cap b3 gia g@ nhau.

- Diamond cuts diamond.

- None cut the diamond but a

diamond.

- One has met his match .

., Ke up a tan VOl nguoi.

- There is snake in the grass.

.. Ke noi suong nhu vuOn co dai, - A man of words and riot of
deeds is like a garden full of
weeds.
5119 Ke tam lang nguOi mra can, - Between two evils 'tis not
Ciing: worth choosing.
<log cting ghe, b3 ding g6m. - Same thing only different.
- It is six of one and half a dozen
of the other.
". Kc tham an Uy rang dao huyet. - Gluttony kills more men than
the sword.
- You dig your grave with your
teeth.
SP Ken ca chon canh. - To pick and choose.
992 KOO lui banh xe lich su. - To put I set back the clock. 590. gluttooy(n) th6i pham an

105
593 Ke vai sat canh, - Shoulder to shoulder.
- Side by side.
594 Khac mau, tanh long. - You cannot get blood from
stone.
595 Khac nhau mot troi mot vue. - Be as far removed as heaven
from earth.
- Be as far apart as heaven from
earth.
- Be as different as earth from
the sky.
596 Khau phat tam xa. - A honey tongue, a heart of
Cling: gall.
Mieng nam m6 bung b6 dao - The devil lurks behind the
gam. cross.
Cling: - When the fox preaches, take
Mieng them thot, da otngam, care of your geese.
597 Kheo an thi no, kheo co thl am. - Put your hand no further than
your sleeve will reach.
5_ Khi thuong cu au cling tron, - Love rounds square things,
khi ghet 16 bo hen cling meo, hatred squares round things. 599

Khi vui thl vo tay vao,

Den khi hoan nan thi nao thay a1.

Ciing:

Duoc thoi chia My chia ba, Thua thl phai ngira ngirc ra rna den,

- Laugh, and they would laugh with you; weep, and you weep alone.

595. removed (adj) khac biel

596. gall (D) mat preach(v) thuyet giao

597. sleeve (n) lay 60 599. weep (v) kh6c

lurkiv) rulp

106
600 Khinh (ai) nhu me. - Treat sb like dirt I a dog.
Ci1ng:
Coi ai chang ra gl,
601 Kh6 hen thi chang ai nhln, - Nothing succeeds like success.
Den khi do trang chin nghln
nhan duyen,
602 Kh6 ngtroi kh6 ta, d~ nguoi d~ - What is sauce for the goose is
tao sauce for the gander.
40~ Khoe nhir vam I voi. - (As) strong as a horse / an ox.
604 Khoi vongcong duoi, - A kindness is soon forgotten.
Cling: - Vows made in storms are
Het ren, quen thay, forgotten in calm.
- The old cow thinks she was
never a calf.
- Kick away the ladder (by
which one rose).
605 Kh6 nhir ngoi, - (As) dry as a bone.
ft06 Kho tan cam lai.
Xem:
ill eire thai lai.
607 Khan dau den tre, khoe dau - No wise man ever wished to be
den gia. younger.
608 Khan doc khong bang ng6c - There's safety in numbers.
dan.
609 Khan lay ella che than, dai lay - Money is a good servant but a
than che cua, bad master. 602. gander (n) ngong due 604. vow (n) lui the nguyen

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