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thuy_luc_dai_cuong_1988

thuy_luc_dai_cuong_1988

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TRANVANDAc

? .

THUYLlfC

• •

·DAI CrrONG

NHA XUAT BAN GIAO Dl)C ~

GS. TSKH. TRAN vAN DAc

?

THUYLtrC DAI CtrONG

.. .. .

Dung cho sinh l1ien ngtlnh xdy dung dan dung, cong nghi~p va cong ngh~ moi trtamg'

NHA XUAT BAN GIAO Dl}C

LOI GI(lI Tm~U

. Nei dung giao trinh duqc trinh bay trong 10 chuang vci cac ten goi : Nhap mon ; Thuy tinh ; Co sa Dong hoc va Dl}ng 19c hoc cua ch~t long chuyen dong ; Chuyen dong th€ va chu yen d¢ng xoay cua ch~t long dong song phAng ; Suc can thu)' luc ; Tinh tOM thuy luc duong 6ng ; Chuyen d¢ng cua ch~t long qua 16, voi ; Chuyen dong deu khong ap cua ch~t long ; Chuyen d¢ng 6n dinh khong deu trong kenh hb va chuong cuoi cung co ten lit Lf thuyet thu nguyen va nrong 1" d6ng dang.

Nhin chung giao trlnh co n¢i dung chinh xac, phong phu, phuong phap dien giai mach lac, 10 gich, co the dung lam tai lieu hQC t{ip cho sinh vien cac nganh xay dung din dung va cOng nghiep, nganh cong nghe moi tnrong va lam tai lieu tham khao cho sinh vien cac tnrong D~ hQC cong nghe,

Voi nhOng noi dung duqc trlnh bay, 13.c gh\ dii the hien su am hieu nrong $1" nQi dung mon hQC va cac men co lien quan cung vm qua trlnh nhieu nam dii giang d~y mOn hQC trong truong Dai hoc Bach khoa In N¢i nen viec cho x~t ban cuon sach la mQt nhu c~u c1tnthiet.

Ha Noi, ngiiy 1 thang 8 ndm 2003 NguOl viet

OS. TS. NG~N HW CHt

Nguy~n chu nhiem B(J men Thuj Kht DQng hrc Truimg D~i hoc Bach khoa Hit N(Ji

3

"Kh6ng gi th(lc tiln bdng m9t Ii thuyii hay" NEWTON

Thuy b;rc la mon co hQC chat long Ung dung, thuoc loai kinh dien. tir lau da Ia n¢i dung giang day cua cac tnrong dai hoc ki thuat lau doi nhat tren the gidi, 0 mroc ta nhieu tnrong dai hQC ki thuat ra dill each day gan nira the ki ding t6 chirc giang day hi) men nay ngay tir ~Ung ngay dau thanh l~p. Vl v~y giao trmh TIlUY hrc da duqc nhieu tac gia bien soan tuy muc tieu dao tao cua tung loai tnrong nen d6i nrong phuc vu, phan b61i~u luong noi dung cling nhu each tiep can co su khac nhau, song bO sung cho nhau voi tu each la tai li~u tham khao. Nho d6 thoa man diroc nhu cau cua ngiroi hoc, nguoi tham khao khi nhu cau phat trien tam nay sinh nhtmg vung Iden thirc dan xen, Ngoai ra, su khac biet con tim thay trong muc tieu hO trQ qua trlnh nh~n thirc va tam chu kien thirc cling nhu qua trlnh tiep thu kien thU:c cua nguoi hoc bang nhUng phuong phap chu quan khac nhau rna cac tac gia vm hi vong nguOi hQC co the co di~u kien Iva chon cho mlnh CM phil hop nhat,

Giao trinh Day bien soan vm rnuc dfch cung cap luong kien tlnrc Wi thieu, nhung du ' dung v~ thuy hrc cho cac sinh vien nganh xay dung dan dung va cong nghiep, nganh cong nghe moi tnrong, d6ng thei c6'the dung lam tai lieu tham Wo cho m¢t s6 ngAnh 10 thu~t co nhilng rnang kien thirc chung vCri hal nganh tren, Huong d6i nrong cua no la hO tro cho cac sinh vien coi trong khau tv hoc, ua .thfch tu duy va chu d¢ng trong viec tiep nhan kien thee mm d6i v6i ho, V ~ quy mo kiEn thuc : giao trinh nay han che trong pham vi 4 d€n 5 hQC trinh (nrong duong 60 den 75 tiet). ~ dat muc dfch de ra b tren trong khau bien sO<;U1 va cac khau tiep thea cluing toi e6 gang han che tm muc t6i da su thieu triet di trong khau de cap, nhUng sai s6t bien t~p ciing nhu in an. Tat ca la chi de nguoi doc tin fang nhtmg gi eo trong tai lieu nay 18. ket qua dung, cong thuc dung tren co sa phuong phap nr duy ehap nhan duqc va eo thtdilng dtkiim tra ket qua hieu bia cua chfnh minh. Duqc nhu vay thi muc dich hO- trc cho nhiing n6 11:fC tv hQC moo coco may d~t diroc. Giao trinh da diroc dna vao giang day tai Truong D~ hQC Dan ~p Dong DO.

Tac gia chan thanh cam <1D. GS. TS Nguyen Hiiu Chi Tnrong Dcp. hoc Bach khoa Ha N¢i, da danh thm gian dQC va cho y ki€n ~ xct quy bau, Tac gia htt sue cam em GS. TS Doan Dinh Kien, Tnrong D~ hQC xay d~g HA NOi ; PGS. TS Nguyen Van Xuat, HQC vien Ki thuat Quan su ; va cac ban d6ng nghiep v~ S\f d¢ng vien, khfch l~ cho 'sv ra dill m¢t giao trlnh nhu the nay. .

. Cum cung, du c6 ging den dau ciing ching the tranh khoi nhUng sai OOt. mong ban dQC g6p Y xAy dung moi m~t .de giao trlnh Day hoan cWnh hem nita. Cluing tOi chan thanh cam an.

n« u«, nam 2003 rACGIA

4

ChUlfngl NH!PMON_

1. Khw ni~m chung

Thuy luc, con co the goi Hi Ca hQC chAt long rmg dung, fa m9t chuang ltm trong C(/ hoc cdc V{lt th€ bien dang, nghien. cU'u cac quy lu{it can bdng va chuy€n d9ng ding nhu bien phdp ung dung cdc quy /u{lt nay VaG thuc tiln cua chat long va chat khi (Sau nay gQi chung la chat long, dong thm thum;g dung khai niem ch1it long chiu nen hay nen duoc de noi ve cac chat khi).

Thuy l\Ic Hi m¢t men khoa hQC Ung dung, rat gan gui v6i hoat d¢ng nghe nghiep ella cac

ki su n6i chung vii k1 sir xay dung noi rieng, D67 tuang. nghien cUu. Thuy ll!c nghien cU'U ;

+ Cac quy lu~t can bang va chuyen dong clla chAt long' ;

+ Cac bien phap ling dung nhitng quy l~t d6 vao th1!C tien.

2. Luec sir pbat tri~n

BQ mon Thuy 11;!C c6 lich sir phat trien rat IAu doi, bat nguon tu hang may nghln namtnroc Cong nguyen. Dau tfch cua cac cong-trinh xay dung quy rno 16'11 con hru lai den ngay nay nhu cac cong trlnh dan thuy ~p dien (thuy loi nong nghiep), h¢ thong cong tieu thoat nuClc trong thanh ph6; Sl! phat trien cua nganh hang hili, vien duong elumg to cu dancua nen van minh Wac dAy da nAm duqc nhUng kien thUc Ung d\U1K,rat sau sa~ ve thuy ,\lc. Thuc v~y, Wac Cong nguyen nguoi nong dan Ai Cap da biet dung mot doan ong loe (6ng dipphuzo) n6i them vao mieng 6ng cli de lay duoc nhieu mroc han vao ruong cu·a minh rna khong pruu tcl them tien bbi phi thuy l¢ da duqc 1fu dinh theo kich thuOc dng dan tit_ song mango

Thy nhien, de tra thanh mot men khoa hoc thuc su, c6 Ii luan soi sang, duqc chang minh ch~t cha, duqc the nghiem rO fang co Ie phii sau khi Archimedes (Ac-si-met, nam 250 trUac Congnguyen) phat kij!n ra dinh lu~t ~t n6i -11!C day Archimedes - b¢ men ~uy IVC mm ra dM vOi tu cOCb 18.. 111¢t khoa hQC ting dung nhu each hitu ngay nay. Tnt&; ong dii khong it cac nha khoa hQC. c16ng thM 1& trietgia dii c6 nhOng nham lin khi nghien CUu, quan sat chuyen d¢ng eua de v~t ihe trong d6 c6 eMt 16ng. Ching han nhu Aristoteles (ta thuong goi la A-ri-xt6t) cho rang khi mQt v~t·chuy~n·d¢ng trong khOng khi-(chuyen d(mg do quan tmh, khong gAo may d¢ng 1t!C) pMi-c6 mOt 1'!C tbuang xuyen tac d¢ng len no rna 1\lC d6 do khong khf bao quanh sinh ra !

Leonardo da Vincit (Le-on-na do Vanh-xi, 1452 .. 1519 sau CN), ca ve each d~t van de cling nhu phuong phap tiep can, 13. nguoi ffid ra mot giai doan m6i - dung voikhi the cua thOi ld phuc hung a Chau Au - bang tu duy uyen hac, khoa hoc, doan tuyet v6i ur duy triet hoc Clla Aristoteles, thay dOi quan niem, thanh met tnrong phai d¢C l~p. de do da dat nhieu

5

thanh uru khoa hQC trong nghien cuu thuy luc nhu : nghien ciiu sue can cua cMtt long len v~t th~ chuyen dong trong no; trong nghien cuu ve ki thuat bay luOt (doh c6 dinh) va bay vO canh, Ong cling iii ngiroi dAu tien dung rno hinh (thu nho) de nghien cUo chuyen dQng cua chflt long. Tiec rang tu duy cua ong virot xa tnroc thoi dai nen cling g~p khong it kho khan, trb ngai, truce het 13. khong co cac d6i tac thich hop cto nhUng y kien phan bien co tinh thuc d~y, mot t~p th~ "tri lei" de co the tien xa han.

Sang the lei thu 17 Galilei (Ga-li-le, 1564 - 1642) nguOi co cong dAU dua dinh li Archimedes vao khuon kh6 cua mon co hoc tOng quat, nghien cUu hrc can len v~t chuyen dong trong khong khi thong qua con l~c CO' hoc. Tiep d6 cac hoc tro cua ong nhu Torricelli (To-ri-xen-li, 1608 - 1647) va Castelli (Ca-xten-li, 1577 - .1642) dii di sau vao nghien CUo va da dat duqc nhieu kei qua ve quy lu~t phan b6 ap suat khi quyen, dong chay qua 10 va voi, dong chay trong 6ng dan va long kenh, mang dan.

Isac Newton (I-zAc Niu-ton, 1642 - 1727) cling la nha bac hoc 16'0 trong nganh co hQC chat long, co nhieu thanh tuu trong nghien cuu ve luc can clla chat long len cac vat, chi ra rn6i lien quan cua no den binh phuong cua van t6c chay, den cac yeu t6 hlnh dang cua vat the, rna sat gitra chitt long va v~t, d~c biet Iii mo hlnh tuyen tinh xac dinh ling suat tiep tir gradien v~ t6c dong chay. Day qua lA nhtmg d6ng gop to 160. c6 gia tri thuc tien den $1 .ngay nay. La bac hQC cua moi thOi.<41 song ong cling khOng. tninh khoi nhUng ch6 chua thau dao khi bO qua tac d¢ng eua dong quAD sau v~t, nen tinh toan cua ong thien ve gia tri can IOn han. Daniel Bernoulli (Da-m-en Bec-nu-li, 1700 - 1783) va Leonhard Euler (Le-on-ria d-Ie 1707 - 1783) Iii nhtrng nguOi d~t nen m6ng quan trong cho thuy d¢ng hrc hoc, mot mang quan trong cua b¢ men thuy lire, bang cac phuong trlnh co ban trong thuy tinh hoc, thuy dong hoc gAD lien vOi ten tu6i cjra cac ong, D' Alarnbert cling Iii mot ten tu6i 16'0, cung thai vii ngang tam voi Euler va Bernoulli, trong thuj luc D' Alambert quan Him chu yeu den sue can Ian v~t the.

COn co nhiing ten tuOi khac co nhii'ng d6ng gop to 160 cho su phat triin nganh khoa hQC nay nhu Laplace (La pla'x, 1749 - 1827), Cauchy (Co-si, 1789 - 1857), Lagrange (La·g'-rang-gid',1736 ~ 1813), Poisson (Pea-song, 1781 - 1846), Navier (Na-vi-e, 1785 - 1836), Stokes (X'T6c, 1819 - 1903), De Saint Venant (Do.Xanh Vo-nang, 1797 -1886). HQ ta cac nha toan hQC xuitt sac, tiep e~ b!) men thuy l'!c bang s~c thai rieng cua mlnh. D6 HI. cac giai phap toan hoc, cac me hlnhtoan hQC mo ta cac quy luat trong thuj' h;tc rna ngay nay van con nguyen gia tri,

Cu6i the ki 18 con co Darcy (Dac-xi), Chezy (Se-zi) , Basin (Ba-zanh), Weissbaeh (Vay's-bac) di sau vao cac nghien CUu If thuyet mra thuc nghiern va til!n hanh nhieu thf nghiem dti kiem cluing cac ket qua nham dua ra cac cong thtrc tinh toan gidp cho viec rmg dung thuj hrc vao tmrc tien cuoc song, rno dau eho mot huang khoa hoc thirc nghiem trong linh vue cc chflt long, thuy h;tc.

6

S,! xich lai g~ nhau giiia If thuyet va thuc nghiem dien ra h~t suc manh me vao cu6i the ki 19 khi su hinh thanh cac quan niem moi ve chuyen dong cua chat long dua tren nhtmg k~t quanghienciru c~U- true vi mO cua dong chay va thuc su phat trien trong th~ ki 20 khi xuat hien cac thiet hi do luang cao c~p giup khang dinh dung - sai cua lf thuyet thong qua cac mohinh thi nghiem xuat phat tit phan tich tha nguyen va li thuyet nrong ur - d6ng dang. D6 la di~u de hieu cua quy luat phat trien, bOi Ie luc nay nen cong nghiep che tao da lam chu duqc nhtrng cong nghe chinh xac, cho phep che tao diroc cac cong cu rat tinh vi.

Cu6i the ki 19, d~u the kl 20 xuat hien mot loat cac nha bac hoc Nga, cac nha bac hoc X6 viet. HQ da co nhtrag dong gop to 1&1 vao su phat trien chung cua nhan loai trong Iinh V1,1'c co chat long rna cac dai dien tieu bieu la Xioncopki (If thuyet bay, du hanh vii tru), Petrop (1836 - 1920 - nghien cuu rna sat trong chay tang), Traplighin va Giukopxki (chay bao, ll thuyet canh), Tieu bieu cho cac qu6c gia chau Au khac co Prandtl (1875 - 1953 - co nhieu dong gop 100 trong nghien cuu dong roi, lap bien, lire can).

Trong nira cu6i cua the ki 20, Sl,I phat trien cua bo mon thuy lire, mac du la mot nganh khoa hoc truyen th6ng, c6 tinh cO dien, da chuyen sang thOi kl phat trien thea chieu sau nho co cac nghien cuu huong chuyen biet sau, cac cong Ct;1 thf nghiem, cac phuang tien va cong cu toan hoc, d~c biet la may tinh dien tir cung cac thiet hi ngoai vi het suc tinh xao nen - nhu a cac Iinh vue khac - s6 cac nha hac hoc, khoa hQC cua nganh tang len gap boi,

Tai Viet Nam, ong cha ta cling phai co nhiing kien thuc thu), lei sau sac thi moi co the che ngu phan nao nhirng dong song hung dii chang chit khap dat mroc, mai co kha nang khai khan, cM tao cac dii dat yen bien, thau chua rna man, bien no thanh tai san quy gia cho dllt mroc. Cac nha khoa hoc & mrocta ngay nay ve linh V1,1'c Day chac cling khong hiern .

. Ngat vi thieu s6 lieu chinh xac ca ve con ngtroi C\1 the Ian tnrong phai cua ho, nen noi gi a day ding kho dam bao su nghiem tuc vf khoa hoc. Hi vong rang den mot hie nao do chung

ta se c6 diJ dieu kien de lam viec nay. .

3. Cae tfnh chat v(tt Ii chii yeu cua chilt long

3.1. H~ do luang

Khi khao sat cac tinh chat v~t li cua chat long ta khong the khong dung cac cong cu do luang. BOi v~y,tru6c het phai n6i.v~ cac h~ do luang se dung trong qua trinh nghien CUu sau nay. Trong thgc tien Vi~ Nam cac ki su cuachung ta thuangsu dung 2 he do luang. : H¢ kf thuq.t MKGS. quydinh

- D" daido ~g met (m) •.

- Ll,fcd()·birigldlog~·I\lC (kG),

;. Thm gian.do bang giay (s - secondum).

Nhu vay, kh6i Iuong se co thu nguyen quy dan tit quan h~ :

Kh6' 1 Lire

. 1 uang = .

. Gia t6c

de din den "dan vi do luang"lil kG.s2/m.

7

H~ do luang quoc us), quy dinh : ~ D¢ dai do bang met (rn),

- Thoi gian do bang giay (s),

- Lire se do bang "dan vi do hrong quy dan" Ia newton: IN = Ikg m/s2.

Til day co th~ suy ra :

lkG = 9,81kg m/s2 = 9,8IN, neu gia toc trong tnrong g = 9,8 Im/s? ,

IN = O,102kG,

I dyn = 1O-5N = I,02.1O-6kG ..

Trong thuc tien, d(! tien nguCri. ta lay IkO = ION va IN = a,lkG.

Cac dan vi dan xuat khac cling. c6 the suy ra tir cac h~ do luang nhu :

Ap suat do bang kG/cm2, kG/m2, dyn/cm2, atm (at-mot-phe) ; I Pa (pa-xcan) = IN/m2 = O,102kG/m2

= lOdyn/cm2 = 1,02.lO-5kG/cm2 = 9,87.10-6 atm tuyet doi

= 7,5.1O-2mmHg.

Duong nhien, trong moi h¢ do luang nguoi ta c6 th(! dung cac don vi do luang nho han (hoac too han) sao cho thuan tien, song can luu y, dimg de nham Ian khi tinh toan), Vi du : mm, cm; g (gam trong luong), g (gam kh6i hrong), v.v ...

Ta ding thuong g~p HeN (kilo niuton) = lOOON, IMN· (mega niutan) = 106N ; lkPa (kilo pa-xcan) = IOOOPa. IMPa (mega pa-xcan) = I()6Pa.

3.2. Djnh nghia cMt lOng (nghia rong, ke cA khi) :

Chdi long, khdc vai v~t rdn, la loai wl-t eMt c6 tinh di chdy, chi dung mqli1/c ritt M co thllam bit» df;lflglthay d6i hinh dang ," cMt long tl! chdy dulli tac dqng cua trong luang bdn than.

Ta phan biet chat long ra lam 2 loai : nen dUQc (chiu nen) va kh6ng nen dircc (khong chi" nen), Vay cac loai khi la chill long nen duoc, con v~t chat b th(! long deu duoc coila chat long khong nenduoc. Trong mot s6 tnrong hop d~c thu nguoi ta rom xem xet d€n tinh nen diroc cua chiing, du b muc dO dlt nhc so vOi th~ khf.

3.3. Sl! thay d6i thi tich cUa cMt lOng (nghia rong) - Phuong trinh va biiu do ~ng thai m hieu sau sac tinh cMt cua ch{(t long, hay tim hieu hai trang thai long va khf cua v~t chat va trang thai trung gian cua n6 Ht the hoi (theo mach cua thuat ngu "khi u6t", "khf kho" - hoi. hoi qua nhi¢t trong k:i thuat) thong qua phuong trlnh trang thai Vander Waalls : a

(p+ V2 ).(V - b) = RT (1-1)

8

trong d6 : p - ap suat, V - thi tich kh6i khi do bang m3 ; T - nhiet d¢ tuyet d6i do bang K (d¢ Kenvanh);

a va b III cac h~ng 56 ling cho timg loai chat khi, R - hang 56 chung Clla chat khf. Vi du d6i VOl oxi :

a = 273.10-Satm, b = 143.10-scm3• COn d dieu kien 4~Ft=~

T = 273K, p = latm, lay V = 22,4 m3 (mol the tfch) thl R = 847,83kgmjOC. BAi gio ta hay giai thich

bieu do cua bieu thirc (1-1) tren hlnh 1.1.

Duang cong d-e-e la duang nhiet dQ tOl han, Cac gii tri the tfch rieng, ap suat, nhiet dQ cua dirong nay Ia cac gia tri toi han, Tren do thi co 4 vung dac tnrng khac nhau. 0 vimg thu nhat, vung nam a phia tren ben phai dirong Tkr (hay dirong T* = 1)

d~c tnrng cho trang thai khi (ke ca hoi qua nhiet),

Thg voi mien nay, khi do co diroc lang lip suat len bao nhieu de nen cling thong the hoa long duoc. Vimg thu 2 gioi han boi bien e-c-b-phdn tiep cua true V d~c trung cho the hoi ("khi am") co the hoa long bang phuong phap nen, ep. Vimg thu 3 co bien b-n-c-m-a lit vung h6n hop, co cit hoi bao hoa lin chat long voi tl lebat dinh, Vung thu 4 bien d-c-a-otrue P d~c trung cho vung thuan chat long. Cac duong cong nam trong vung nay rat doc, the

hien tinh khong chiu nen cua chat long.

p

d

2

'0 a

b

v

Hinh 1.1

Luu y rang, c6 the xac dinh cac diem cue dai, cue lieu cue bi) va diem uon ella cac duang dAng nhiet tren do thi bang each giai cac phuong trlnh :

dp = 0 va d2p = 0

dY dy2

(1-2)

Tit phirong trlnh trang thai tren co the rut fa phuong trliifi-Gay-Lussac/Boyle-Mariotte quen thuoc

pY=RT

0-3)

Neu viet duai dang VI;\D nang (khong thu nguyen), bang each chia cac bien 56 eho cac tri 56 t6i han nrong ling cua no :

p* = p/Pkr. V* = V N kr' T* = TfI:kr '

ta diroc :

k V:'2 )(3V*-I)=8T*

Hinh 1.2 cho bieu do cua phuong trlnh Van der Waals (1-4) trong he tOI;\ dQ p*Oy* voi thong s6 Ia nhiet dQ 1'*, nghia la cac duong cong la nhUng dirong d~ng nhiet, Ta thay a vung khi (vung thu nhat) cang xa goc tOI;\ dQ duong cong cang sat voi dmmg hypebon cho chai khi Ii nrong.

0-4)

9

20

15

T* = const

10

5

o

15

20'1* 0 Hinh 1.2

5

10

p*

v~

10

T* = const

5

2

4

8

6

3.4. M~ 491 khOi lll(fng rUng, tT9ng lUtfng thl ticbllnJng lfA!1Jg rUng cUa cluft lOng

. . .

+ M~t de) (ki hieu : p) cua chat king ld khOi luqng cua m9t dun vi thi tich Clla cheft lOng d6. Neu tinh dong nhat diroc bao dam:

M

p=- (1-5a)

V

Neu kh6ng, ta co mat d¢ C\lC bo (hay mat d¢ dia phuong) :

I, dM p= Iffi-. dV~O dV

trong do : M la khoi luong cua the tieh khoi chat long V.

(1-5b)

+ Trong IUQ'Dg rieng eua chd: long lei trong luang eua mot don vi thi tich kh6'i chat long do, Neu tinh dong nhat duqc dam bao thl :

o

y =- (l-6a)

V

Neu kh6ng, ta co tronghrong rieng eve be) :

= lim dO. y dV~O dV

trong do : 0 la trong hrong ella the tieh kh6i chat long V.

Giira mat d¢ va trong luong rieng ton tai m6i quan h¢ :

(l-6b)

t= gp

trong do : g 13. gia toe trong tnrong con goi la gia t6c roi 1\1. do.

(1-6e)

10

Nguci ta con hay dung khai niem ti trc;mg (trong hrong nrong doi) fa ti s6' giiia trong luang rieng ella-cluft lOng dang xet va cua mtcJc (H20) a nhi¢t d(J 4oC:

A. = 'Y cl_ , (1-6d)

'Y-n

trong d6 : YellA trong luong rieng cua chat long, Yn la trong lUQ'I1g rieng cua mroc.

3.5. finh chiu nen (nen d"f4tC) do ap ~uiit lIll SI! tldn nii do nh~t tI9 cUa chlit lOng

Nhu da tMy d bieu do Van der Waals, chat long thea nghia hep (the long) co the xern nhu khong nen diroc thee khai niem thong tuc, Tuy nhien, durn. su gia tang tip suat rtft IOn d¢ giam the tich khong the 00 qua. Ne'u xern xet mot.each tinh viItheo mo hinh v~t Ii chat long hat) dum tac dung cua bien d6i ap suat the tich ban d~u cua chllt long cling bi thay d6i mot urcng nhat dinh. D~c tnmg cho quan h~ nay la h¢ s6' nen thi tich, the hien su thay d6i tuong d6i ve the tich khi tip suat bien thien ~ dan vi :

1 AV

13v =-- (I-7a)

V Ap

trong do:

V - the tfch ban dau -ella kh6i chat long ;

.1. V - dq thay d6i (luong bien thien) the tich ella IUQIlg eh:(t long do ; 6.p - dq bien thien tip suat nrong -ung.

co the chrmg minh giita h~' s6 nen the tich d tren voi modun dan hOi the tieh Eo eoa chat 16ng (mot khai niem quen thuoc trong co hoc hay sue ben v~t lieu) t6n tai m6i quan he :

1

~v=-

Eo

1 E=-

o Pv

(1-7b)

3.6. H¢ so dan nil nhi¢t

Trong khoang nhiet d¢ tu 4°C trd len, nhu tuyet dai da so cac v~t lieu khac, khi nhiet d¢ tang. the tfchkhci nu6'c ban dau cting tang lenjtuong tu, trong nhiet ke' dung cha't 16ng). Trong dm song ki thu~t hieu \ing nay - nhieu khi.dong vai trO h~t sue quan trong, chang han nhu trong nganh xang dau. -m¢t cay xang c6 the lam sai lech m¢t luong khong nh6 giita nhap va xuat (ban) -neu nguCri. ta tim cachnhap xang lanh, ban xang n6ng c6 d¢ chenh nhiet dQ Hi vhl dQ. Cllfnh vi v~y nganh dua ra quy chudn he't suc ch~t che trong quoin Ii ve mat Nha nu&; cua mlnh,

Djnb nghia. H¢ stf dan m7 nhi¢t Ia luang tang tuang dot thi tich chat IOn! khi nhift d(J tang lin JOC, nghfa ld :

1 AV

A --- (I-Sa)

Pt - V 8t

11

trong do:

fl. V - luong gia tang the tich khi nhiet d¢ tang -;

fl.t - hrong gia tang nhiet d¢.

D6i v6i nuClc, trong khoangnhiet dO til 40C trb len, chAng han nhiet d¢ tang tir lOOC den 20°C va ap suat ta lOS Pa co the lll"y g4n ddng :

Ilt = 0,0001/ °C (l-8b)

Neu giU nguyen ap suat thl s1! bien thien mat d¢ theo nhiet d¢, tir dinh nghia va bieu thuc h~ so dan no nhiet, tuan theo quy luat sau :

,1

(I-8c)

trong do : Po va to la mat d¢ va nhiet d¢ trong trang thai ban dau (hie xuat phat). Ta d~u biet, rn~t dQ cua chat long la ham cua ap suat va nhiet d¢, nghia la :

p = p(p, t)

va :

dp = op dp + op dt 8p'a

Bien thien cua ~t dO III phi tuyen. 3.7. T{nh nMt cUa cJu1t lOng

Mac du khoi nang chiu keo cua chat long rat nh6, song cung du tao ra 11!c can d6i v6i cacv~t chuyen dOng trong no. Tinh nhot la thuoc tinh cua chat long chong lai sudi dong. MQi chat long d~u co tinh nhot nhAt dinh

. diroc the hien dmri dang rna sat khi co S1! tnrot tuong dOi giua cac phan tiI chat long.

Trong thuc te co nhtrng chat long co d¢ nh6t rat cao (nhua duong nong, dAu nang, glicerin, ... ) gay Il;lc can IOn d6i vci cac vat thechuyen d¢ng trong n6, nhung lai la chat boi tron trong mot so Iinh V1!c cong nghe, ,

Hinh 1.3 cho th.ay v6i met phan ,b6 v~ t6c khOog d60g d~u, cac pMo tu chat, l6ng' bu~ p~ii tnrqt tren nhau gay rna sat

Hinh 1.3

Au du·-

't = lim ).1- =).t- = ugradu

Ay-M) Ay dy ,

trong d6 -: 1" J.a dng suat tnrot hay dng suat cAt, u _]A v~ t6c, 'y ta khoang each tii- thanh fan den lap cMt 16ng dang xet, .... ta h¢ s6 oh6t d()ng l\fChQC. Day Ii mO hinh xac dinh rna sat cua chat long do Newton d~ xuat cho d¢ chfnh xac kha cao :

F = r.S = u.Sgradu

12

'Til -ung suit tnn;tt fa c6 the tinh ra hrc rna s,h.

D¢ nh6td~ng 1\lC hQC trong h~ SI do bang Pa.s = Ns/m2. COn neu do trong h~ COS ta dung dan Vi Poiseuille (Poa-zoi) = dyn.s/cm-, Neu dung h¢ MKGS dan Vi dola kGs/m2•

DO nh& dOng 1l;fC hQC phu thuoc nghich bien vao nhiet d", nghia la nhiet dO tang thi dO nh& giAm va nguoc lai, thea bieu thuc sau :

0,00179

I-l = 1+ O,0368t +0,00022lt2 (1-9)

Tro~g ki thuat nguCri. ta quen thu¢c voi khai niem dO nhot dong hoc : u=1-l

p

(I-lOa)

lien quan den tfnh giam chan, kha Dang dap tit chuyen dOng nhanh hay cham, tilc 1A lien quan den quan tinh cua chA:t long. D6 minh hoa, hay so sanh mroc vOi khOng khf, M~c du d¢ nhOl dong 1'!C hQC clla nlrac Ian han Clla khOng khi, song do mat dQ clla nu6"c lai gap g'n nghin Ian clla khOng kht, Ktt qua la d¢ nhot d¢Dg hQC Clla khong khf Ian han, guip n6

, nhanh ch6ng dap t~t cae nhieu dQng xay ra trong khong khf. Cy the hon, tac dQng cua song do mot tau thuy cao t6c con keo dai lau hon sau khi n? di khbi so vOi mot may bay phan luc lu6t qua b mot khoang each gdn.

Don vi do dO, nh6t dong hQC la St (Stokes - Xt6c), de nho tOi Stokes, nha bac hQC nguOi Anh, v6i 1St = Icm2/s. Ngum ta con dung dan Vilrn2/s = I04St. DQ nhot dong hoc duoc

xac dinh bang nhUt ke Engler va cho dO Engler (OE). Nh6t ke nay la loai thong dungnhat . trong cac nh6t ke.

m chuyen dOi tir dO nh6t quy uOc tfnh bang dQ oE sang dl) nh6t dong hQC ngirci ta dung mot s6 cong thtrc chuyen dOi, nhu cua Ubellot :

u=( O,0372°E-'O,~!31 )XlO,4[St] (I-lOb)

Ngiroc lai, tit St tinh sang °E, nguCri. ta dung cOng thuc Altsul :

OE-=24[2.3IOS j,,1+O,0294- \) +{~\i+O,0294-~U+O.Ol66)]U u2 +0,0166 -u '

- - -

(1-10e)

trong d6 : u do bAng St = cm2/s.

3.8. Sftc cang rn(it ngodi vd hi#n tu'tJ'tlg mao d4n cUo clult lOng

Trong mOt kh6i chat long khOng phai moi phAntu cMt Umg d~u cung trong mot dieu kien can b~g nhu nhau. Phan tit nam d m~t tic!p XU,C v6i cMt khi (nhu b m~t tnoang), vcri chA't long khac hay v6i vat tin (thanh blnh) trong di~u kien can bang khOng d6i xrmg tam nhu cac phan tit n&m trong n¢i b¢ chat long rna dieu kien can bang c;:ua n6 gi6ng nhu cua cac phan tit bao quanh. Tai cac m~t tiep giap, ngoai cac tinh ch(t chung con co the thay

13

duq'C mot s6 hien nrong co nguyen nhan chi co the giai thich duqc- \lang quan diem phan til. Do 13. nguyen nhan sinh ra hien tuong bam, 19'c dfnh, sue cang mat ngoai va 19'c mao dan.

Lire bam dfnh co ngu6n g6c dien til cua pharr ti't chat long co cirong d¢ rat lan, tinh bang ap suat co 10000 atm, nhung chi trong tam ban kinh anh huang R khoang 20 + 50 p..m (Ium = 1 phAn trieu met). Trong chat khi ban kinh anh hueng nay cua phan ti't nho hon nhieu, nhirng 0 chat rim lai 16'0 han gflp b¢i.

&1 do tren hlnh 1.4 co th~ ghip giiU thlch co che' can

bang luc cua 3 loai phan tir chflt long d4c trung : b trong noi bQ chat long (di~m A), tren mat thoangIdiern B) va noi tiep xuc vOi vach binh chua - day va thanh ben - (diem C). Tren m~t thoang, do c6 cuong d¢ va ban kinh anh huang chenh lech ve d¢ lrm, h¢ thong h;rc doi xung true, true giao voi mat thoang va tdng hop Iqc phan ti't_ huong vao chat long, giu khong cho phan tit chat long tach khoi khoi chat long. Tuong tu, 0 cac phan tir tiep x tic v6i thanh binh t6ng hop Iqc pnan til huong true giao

, vao thanh ran (gay hrcbam), Cac luc phful tit co xu the '. tam giam mat thoang ciia chat long (theo nguyen H t6i

, thi6u hoa the nang cua he thong). Vi vay chat long loang rabe mat (ch£ng han mroc tren m~t kinh sach) hay r6n lai thanh hct (nhu thuy ngan tren m~t kinh sach) hoan toan do suc cang be mat quyet dinh, tren hinh ve dac tnmg bl1i goc S (xem hlnh 1.5) :

Neu S < 90°, chflt long bam vao thanh ran loang rong ra ;

Neu S > 90°, chat long khong bam vao thanh ran, co xu the co lai ;

Neu S = 1800, "hat" chat long nhu hi nen lai, (vi du hat thuy ngan tren mat kfnh).

Hinh 1.5

14

H

Hlnh 1.4

2

3

G

NhGng tfnh ch~t nay dii dUt;1C con ngum su dung c6 lei cho mlnh tren nhieu Iinh vtrc, til ph1,lc~W doi sOng hang ngay nhu san xu4't chao chong dfnh d6'n cac cong trinh xay dirng nhu che tao vasil dung cMt chong tham l~u cong trinh ; tarn sieu tharn xu li s~ -co tran dau trong cOng nghe moi tnrong ; trong cong nghe ch€ tao v~t lieu va linh kien u dieu kien vii tru. Tuy nhien, suc cang ~ mat thong qua co che' mao dan lai Jam sai lech ket qua do cua cac dung C1,l do ltremg dung dO cao ciia cor chat long, lam tang them suc can cua cac dong chay trong cac 6ng dAn c6 kich thuoc rat nho, nh~t la trong cac bo loc phan tit trong cac thiet bi tach nito-oxi khong khi, trong h¢ thong bom mroc vao via gieng dau (chi cho i-ong H20 di qua); lam dao len mot s6 quan niem truyen thong trong nganh "cong nghe phan ti" (Nano Technology).

Htnhl.6

x

nu« 1.7

-. SUc cangbe m~t lam cho m~t thoang bi cong, chu yeu tai cac vung tiep giap giiia cac v~t cMt khac nhau, gay them U'ng suat 1>6 sung, lam cho ap suat von co tang hay giam mot IUQIlg lIMt dinh tuy theo dO IOn cua ban kinh cong va tang l:J dang 10i, giam d dang 16m ,,(hinh 1.6 va 1.7). Ap suit b6 sungdo suc cang m~t ngoai cua chat long duqc tinh theo cong

.'~~:~~~~e_~_,--:-_ .:._' _ " __

·:~~.{t+iJ .: · (1-11)

trong d6 : o - suc cang ~ ~' [N/mJ.

R I' R 2 - cac ban kfnh chinh eua phan t6 m~t fuOOng (true giao nhau).

SUe cang he m~t cua ehilt long phu thuoc vao nhi~t d¢ theoquan he sau : 0" = 0"0 - (38t

(1-12)

trong do : 00 - sUc cang be· mat khi tiep xiic voi khong khi 0 nhiet dQ OOC, vi du voi nude : 00 = 0,076 N/m ;

13 - he so ti l¢, bang 1,5 x 10-4N/m;oC.

15

Nhu vay, a nhiet d¢ 200c giita mroc va khong khi : cr = 0,073 N/m va giila fuuy ngan vm khong khi : 0" = 0,48 N/m.

Ap snAt biS sung va chieu cao mao din. Til (1-11) va thea quy lu~t can bang thuy tinh (se nghien CUll a Chuong II), co phuong trlnh can bang:

( 1 1 J

0" -+- =(Y2 -YI)Z

RJ R2

(1-13)

trong do : Y1 la trong IUQl1g rieng cua khong khi, Y2 ia trong hrong rieng cua chat long.

Trong tnrong hop ong tron duong kinh d thi mat thoang 1a mat cau ban kfnh cong R} va R2 bang nhau (=R) va d/2 = r = Rcos S, cling v6i luu y d~n goc S (Kern H.1.8) til (1-12) c6 the viet:

h _ 4crcosS

md - yd

va sau khi da be qua trong hrong rieng cua khong khi so voi cua chat long rna trong ket qua cu6i cimg ta ki hieu la y. Nhu vay d cang nho, chieu cao mao dan cang Ian. Neu cosS I'::l 1, thi trong mot

" s6 tnrong hop nhAt dinn :

4cr hmd·=yd

.'.

(1-13b)

(l-13a)

Dieu d6· giai thich khA nang wnhva eua cae cay cao den nam bay chuc met trong cac rung gia ngan narn.

Truonghop teen M m~t kfnh sach hat thuy ngan trong khong khf g~ nhu hlnh c4u. Luc nay co the tinh ap sufit du trong hat bang-

eOng tlnrc san : d/2 = r = R.cos3

20" .6.p=R

(1-14)

Hfnh 1.8

3.9. C/u1t lOng phi Newton

Nhiing chd: long, khong tudn thu d{nh lut:it nhat eua Newton duac gQi 1d chd: long phi Newton (chdt long luu bien). KhOng loai trir co nhiing 10.p. ehtlt long a dieu kien nay (chu yeu lien quan d~n nhiet de)) la chat long Newton, nhirng a dieu kien khac lai khong phai. Vi du vUa Kay dung, vO:a khoan gieng, cac san pham d~u mo 6 nhiet d¢ gitn dong cUng, cac loai vfra con-lo-It (colloid) - nnu hO bot gao, ... Veri. cac chat long loai nay phai dung mot 1'!C nMit dinh, doi khi kha 1&1, moi co the lam cho chung chuyen dong va chi b~t d~u chily khi irng suat tiep trong cha:t long' dat mot gia tri tm han nao do goi la Ung suai dich chuyen ban ditu. Dum nguong do cluing khong chuyen d¢ng rna bien dang dan hoi nhu chAt dn.

Trong chlit long phi Newton irng suat tiep duqc KaC dinh hang cOng thirc : du

't = 'to +~- (1-15)

dy

trong do: 'to - lIng suat djch chuyen bandau (gia tri tm han).

16

D¢ nhOt cUa chat long phi Newton - goi la dO nhot cau tuqng - d nhiet dQ va ap su4't d8 dinh, phu thuQc vao gradien v~ We du/dy va S1,1' pha huy cau tuqng cua chID: long, c6 nghia la khOng dang huang. Do d6 d¢ nh6t khong con 13. s1,1' tie'p xuc v~t li nhu d6i v6i cha't long Newton.

3.10. CJu1t lO!,g kh6ng nhOt - clult lOng Ii tdUng

De gii'un bat kh6 khan trong viec gitii cac bai toan thuyhrc ngiroi ta su dung khai niem nay. Chdt long li tudng duoc coi la chd: long gid luang co tinh dichchuyen-linh d¢ng tuy¢t d6i, hoan toan chila mot mo hinh cua chat long thuc, la m"t su lf nrong hoa cho nhiing ti!p can ban d~u : khong nhot, tUYfl d6'i khong nen duac, khong dan nd nhiet, khong co khd nang chong lai luc cdt, h!c keo. Cac ket qua tinh toan tren me hinh nay la gan dung, can phai co bien phap chinh Ii, neu thay can thiet,

4. Trang thai (mg suat cua chAt long

\ "

cac dinh lu~t trong thuy tinh va thuy dong duqc xay dung tren co sCi cac dinh Iuat co

hoc moi tnrong lien tuc -ImP v~t chllt c6 cac.d~c trung v~t If va cohoc Ia ham s6 ciia toa d¢ (trong h~ da chon) va thbl gian. cau t<;10 phan ti'r cua cMt long diroc thay the bang moi tnrong lien tuc cua cung rn¢t chat, Dieu do eho phep xem xet s1.,1' can bang va chuyen dong

'. mot each tOng th~ rna khong can tfnh den eo che' chuyen dong cua tirng phan til'. Trang kh6i chit long du<;1C coi la moi tnrong lien tuc - thea nguyen 1i doi ngau : 11.,1'e va phiin hrc - duoi tac dung ella ngoai nrc, xuat hien cac nQi Ung luc tirong thich. De lam ro, hay tiep can vlln de nay qua kha! niem trang thai ling sudt.

4.1. Dinh nghiatrang tJuli itng sudl

Trang thai ung sudt tai mot dilm trong cM't long ld tdp hap (cua v6 cung nhie'u)cac vecta ling sud; tac dung len v6 s6 tiel di¢n (cua cdc miJ.t chua chung} di qua dilm do, rna vecta itng sud't lai bilu thi n(Ji luc tac dung len mot dan vi di¢n ttch tiel di~n di qua dilm dang xet cua chat long. D~ tim hieu trang thai tmg sua":t trong eh~t long ta dung phirong phap tiet dien, BAy gio hay hinh dung mot mat phang Q chia khoi chit long duqc baa bdi dien S khep kin ra lam 2 phAn I va II (hinh 1.9). Neu bO phan I, d~ phan II van duQt: can bang nhu trong trang thai cfl, tren rn~t phan each n_ cfuI phai d~t cac hrc thay tht! duc;IC s1,1' tac dong trUac d_6 ella kh6illtn kh6i ll.

~

Nhu vay, tren mot di¢n tich nguyen t6 .Ml Clla m~t phan each eo m¢t luc AF lAc dung

len kh6i chat long n ~i di~ M. Khi thu nho An thanh diem M, ca"AF lin An giam d'n va tien tm 0, nhimg thuong s6 eua AF va M"l se tien tm met gioi han.nao d6 (ch-a kh6ng nM"t thiet phai bang 0) :

lim 1~_1

Ml-tO ~=a

(1-16)

la ling suat tai diem M cjra mat phang Q. Tri so Ung suat tai cung mot diem phu thuoc vao huang d~t (phap tuyen) cua di~n/m~t d6, dong thoi phuong cua ung suat l~p voi phap tuyen nay mot g@c nhat dinh.

17

z + z'
I
I

Z

~
dz 0: --
/'
/ 1
,
, dy
,
,
Jlx'
0 0
y y
J( x
Hl'nk 1.9 Rink 1.10 Tach m('Jt nguyen t6 ehft:t long dang hinh hOp vuOng (xern hinh 1.10) e6 cac canh III dx, dy va dz. Tom b¢ kh6i ehKt long chuyen dOng duqc gAn voi he toa d('J vuong g6c Oxyz. , Tren cac mi}t eUa hlnh hOp jtuft:t hlen cac ling suat dugc phan ra cae thanh phhl phap va tiep I" - song song,v6i cac true x, y, z, D6ng thoi chang tao nen morpen len m¢t true nso do gay nen mot gia t6e goc doo/dt nao do. Vi du len true t c6 mOmen :

't}dxdydz -ti dxdydz

gay nen gia tee : dro/dt (00 la t6c d¢ g6c).

Do do: ('t} - t~) dxdydz = I(doo/dt)p

v6i I la mornen quan tinh quanh true Z'. CO the thfly ngay, momen We ti l~ bac 3, con momen quan tinh ti l¢ bac 4 v6i dQ dai ella v*t the (momen ll!e = hIe x canh tay don) => (l\fe) rdydz x (canh taydon) dx, hoi}e (If:lC) rdxez x (canh tay don) dy ; cacluc song song vOi true z khong gAy mOmen len 1l1:Je z. Khigiarn the tich hlnh hOp xu6ng thanh mot diem:

." . ~

t - t' = 0

Tren m~t hlnh hOp (hlnh 1.11) xuat hi~n 3 ling suit phap va·3 Ung su!t tiepkhac nhau v~ tri 56' :

• dQC thea hUOng true x e6 (mg sua:t phap 0" I = O'u va cae Ihlg suat ti€p 'tzx ~a 'tyx '

• dQC theo huang true yeo Ong suat phap 0'2 = r:1yy va cac \ing sua:t tiep txy va 'tzy,

• dQC thea huang true z e6 rmg suft:t phap 0"3 = O'zz; va cac U'ng suat tiep txz va 'tYZ'

D6ng thffi thea quy lu~t d6i Ung cua ling suat tiep

18

z

y

Hink 1.11

.. (1-17)

Ll_IC tic d¢ng len M m~t hinh h¢p bang tfch cua Ung suAt xuathien tren di~n tich d6 va dien tfch M m~t d6, nghia lit tren mQt titt dien dii cho luc ti l~ thuan vro d¢ Ian Clla ti€t dien fiy. 0 tnrong hop gi6i han, khi th~ tfch thu ve mot di~m, dien tich ding ti€n d~ Wi 0, hie nay chi con cac luc lien quan dtn ling suat tai di~m do (theo khai niem cua O'ng suat),

Cling theo nguyen dc can hang l\lc trong h~ co hoc, co t~e noi, tai mot dilm P bdt ki trong chat king chi cdn bilt 3 vee to ung slUft tren 3 m4t true giao di qua no, ta co thi bilt duqc ling sud; tren mot tiet dien btft ki ihua dilm P .

. ThVC v~y. hay xet din bang 1\lC cua pharr tit kh6i cMt long hinh tu dien vuong PABe dinh P (hlnh 1.12) trong chat long chuyen dong chiu su tac dong cua b,rc m~t, hrc kh6i - ke ca luc quan tinhtl\lc dong luqng.

z

c

x

y

1l1llh "j .12 .

Tren hinh ~e nay cae ~ FA:;:: x*. PB ~ y*. PC = z*. T~ M. chan c4a du~g cao tir dinh P cua tt'i di~ trong day ABC co mOt tAi do Ung suat T d gay ra. Teen cac m~t ben cua tu dien bi tAl bCri. 3 ling suit da bitt 18 T t. T 2' T). Phuong trlnh can bAng a day Iii :

T. t.0-1; 111 - T; 02 - T, 11, + p( K- ~)t.v -pt.Vt.u=O

T d - Ung suat tai day tu dien ;

TIt T2• T) - cac ling suat tren cac mat ben AOt• A02, Ml) ;

(1-18a)

trong do:

19

pK - hrc khoi, pq - hrc quan tfnh ;

p~ V .6.u - luc xung do bien thien dong luong gay ra ; u - van t6c chuyen dong cua chat long.

Chia cii 2 ve cho.6.0 :

~ ~ ~ 4- . ~ -ry -ry -ry -j. -j. -j. -j. ~ V -j. .6. V

Td-T1 cos(T1, i )-T2 cos(T2, j)-T3cos(T3,k)+p(K- q)--p.6o u-=O (I-18b)

- .6.0 .6.0

"

- - - -

voi i, j, k Ia cac vecto dan vi tren true x, Y va z.

Xet tnrong hop gioi han cua 8 V / ~O khi ~n tien t61 0 v61 luu Y Ia gift cho phap tuyen cua m~t day khong dOi bang tach gift cho ti s6 x* : y* : z* khong dOi de khong lam thay dOi trang thai img suat tai diem M. Biet rang, bac vO cling be/vO cling IOn (con n6i Ia t6c d() tien t61 gioi han) cua.6.V IOn han cua ~O mot bac nen ~V/.6.0 khong the tien.tai vO cling. Do vay hai s6 hang cu6i cling cua phuong trlnh(1-18b) bang O. Nho Iai rang, mat day ABC lay tuy y nen no dai dien cho tat ca cac kha nang co th~ co cua cac tiet dien di qua M va a tnrong hop giOl han no di qua P. Nhu vay khang dinh tren dii duoc clnmg minh,

4.2. Miji ung sutil

CO the bieu dien trang thai irng suat tai mot diem trong chat long bang mot mat cong bac 2 nhu Ia ham cua ung suat va huang phap tuyen irng v61 cac tiet dien di qua di~m do. VOl phuong phap tu duy tren day va thee dinh nghia cua trang thai Ung suat, can bang hrc cua t(r dien PABC a tren (hinh 1.12) voi cac Ung suat tren cac mat cua tu dien duqc phan

. thanh cac irng suat phap va img suat tiep, Neu goi cac thanh phan chieu true x, y, va z cua vecto iing suat Td Ian lUql la x, Y, va Z, thl phirong trinh can bang lire se la :

{ XO = a 1 Ox + "t30y + "t2Qz = o 1 f:!:s~nCt + "t3Qs.inJ3 + "t20~iny Y Q = a2ay + "t 1 az + "t3Qx = o 2QsmJ3 + t 1 Qsmy + "t 3Qsma. ZQ = 0"3Qz + "tIny + "tzax = a3asiny + "tlO:sinj3 + "t20:sina

- .

trong do: a, 13, y la g6c taobei h (tUe AM) va cac true x, y, z (xern hlnh 1.12). Song, thea

quan h¢ hinh hoc cua cac dai IUQIlg tren hinh ve ta co :

sino :;::: x/h ; sinf :;::: y/h ; siny:;::: z./h => x= hsino ; y:;::: hsinj3 ; z:;::: hsiny VI the he (1-19) co dang :

(1-19)

{X:;::: (alx + "t3Y + "t2Z)~ _ Y :;::: (azy + "t1z + "t3x)/h Z:;::: (aJz + "tly + "tzx)!h

D6ng thoi T d co thanh phan phap tuyen la an va thanh phan tiep "tn (xern hlnh 1.12) nen co the viet:

(1-20)

-j. -j.

an =ToJ cos(Td,n)

r = (T2 _0-2)1/2

n d n

(l-2Ia) (l-2Ib)

20

N6u ti6p.t~c phan cac ting- sull't O"n va 'tn thanh ra cac thanh phan 0'1,0'2,0'3 va 'tl' 't2, 't3 ra cac thanh pMn chieu true x, y, z ta - ~6 :

O'n = O'isinia + 0'2sin2P + 0'3sin2y + 2't3Sinasinp + 2't1sinpsiny + 2't2SinySina.

= 0" I (x/h)2 + 0"2(Y 1h)2 + 0" 3(zIh)2 + 2t3(xIh)(y /h) + 2f} (y 1h)(zJh) + 2't2(7/h)(xfh) (1-22) TIt day co :

(1-23)

N6u ta goi M la diiu rmit cua doan keo dai cua h n6i tit P doc theo phap tuyen n cua m~t

, day ABC thi trong truong hop giu cho tich h20"n khong dOi (= const) ta duqc m~t ting suilt

Cauchy nhu Ja quy tich Clla diem M trong khong gian 3 chieu x, y, z. Day la mat cong bac 2 c6 tarn lit diem d6i xiing (do phai dam bao nguyen If d6i ttng tac dung va phan tac dung luon bang nhau trong h¢ can bang) nen n6 chi co the 18. m~t elipxoit hay hypebcloit (ke ca cac dang suy bien cua chiing). BAng phep bien d6i tuyen tinh true toa d¢ ta co the xac dinh duoc he true chinh de ting vOl no chi co cac Ung suat phap chfnh, cac ling suat tiep deu bang O. Luc do ta co phuong trlnh dang

0'1lXt2 + 0'12YI2 + O'I3Z2 = 2f(XI'YI,zi) = const - " v6i cac ban true chinh la :

a = {2f(xr.Yr.Zj)/0'l\} l/2 ; b = {2f(xI'YI,Zr)/0'12} 1/2 ; c = {2f(xI,Yr'Zl)/0'13} 1/2 di co dang chinh tac :

(1-24)

(1-25)

2 2 2

x~ ± Y12 ± Z~ ~ 1 (1-26)

abc

D{(u dai s6 cua f(Xt,y!'ZI) va cac -ung suat phap quyet dinh m~t ting suat fit elipxoit hay hypeboloit lien hop (xem hinh 1.13). Neu tat eli la cung d{(u, m~t la elipxoit ; nguoc lai, mat 18. hypeboloit,

z

z

y

a)

b) Hinh 1.13

z

c)

Tren co sa y nghia quy uac cua m~t ting suat co thi nit ra 2 tinh chat co ban sau ;

21

~ Binh phuang khodng clZeh tit tdm 1m mtit dilm bar ki ella m4t (con goi 13. vecto ban kmh cua diem d6) ti I¢ nghich' vai ang suar phap tai tiei di¢n co phap tuye'n trung wli hlliJng ban kinh do;

- Thuang cua ung sud: thanh phdn huang theo true tot;' dti tuong itng va h fa dao ham rieng cuaj(x.y.z) thea x, y va z, nghia Ia :

1 -+

hgradf(xs(,z} = r, (1-27)

viet nrong minh fa :

(1-28)

V~ ban chat, trang thai t'rng su~t lien quan tnrc tiep den su bien dang ella v~t chat ~ " diem dang xet.

o· • ..

Khi da e6 ling, suft chfnh trong h~ toa d(l chinh thi thanh phIDl ling su6t phap tren m{tt

tiet dien nghieng bA't ki trong h~ toa d¢ nay _ - do, Ung suA"tphap UVC giao v6i m~t toa dQ (x"y"z,) - de dang xac dinh dugc theo quan h¢ :

'.

x = 0'1 1 sinal ; Y = erI2sinPI ; Z = er13siny, va Ung<su6t treo mat dang xet 13. :

c = Xsineq+ YsinPI + ZSinYI = O'nsin2aI + O'I2sin2PI + O'I3sinZy, Trong co hQC chat long ngum ta goi tri s6 trung binh ceng :

1

p = -(erll + erl2 + 0'I3) 3

(1~29)

(1-30)

(1-31)

cua 3 Ung sua'! chfnh lit tip suat. Gi<l thi!t fang :

erll - P = !1er 1; crI2 - P = !10'2 ; aI3 - P = 8.0'3

thl:

8.0') + 8.0'2 + 8.0'3 = a

do diM nghia eua ap sua:t p va cae d<P Iuong 8.cr l' 8.0'2' her 3 a tren, L~ bi!t rang :

sin2a. + sio2p + sinZy = 1 va

sin2a = (1 - cos2a}/2 ; sin2p = (1 - cos2~)12 ; sin2y = (1- cos2y)/2

nen taco

0= p- (O'IJ -p) cos2a- (012 -p) cos2~- On -p cos2y.

2 2 2

22

Nhu v~y, rmg sutft phap tren titt dien e6 huang bat ki g6m 2 phdn, ~t ltl tip suO, p rna tri s6' ella n6 kh6ng phl! thuge vao huang d{it ella tiel dien, motla thanh. phdn bdsung e6 tri so ph~ thuoc VGO huang dr;it eria tiel dien.

Khi khong c6 thanh phan trng suat tiep,

0' :;; 0' II :;; 0'12 :;; 0'13 :;; p.

Trong chat long d trang thai nghi hay trong chat long khong nh6t i.lng suat tiep bang 0, chi c6 ung suat phap dan tri va no bang chfnh ap suat p, hie nay m~t Ung suat la m~t c~u, n1¢t dang suy bien cua elipxoit.

BAr TAll MINH HOA CHVONG I

Bal 1. Do d¢ sau cua day bien thong qua modun dan hoi the tich cua rnroc (chat long).

Nguyen Ii hoat d¢ng ella thiet bi " Dung C9 do Ia m¢t born hinh chuong e6 2 ngan (hmh 1.14), .ngan tren chira chat long, ngan dum chira thuy ngan. So vm thuy ngan thi mroc dan hoi gap nhieu Hill, do vay d da.y co the coi thuy ngan khong co lai duoi hie dong cua ap suat cao.

~ Dong thoi coi vach bam rat cirng vihlg, khong bien dang.

I.. Khi tha thiet bi xu6ng day bien khoang chira thuy ngan thong vOi mrcc bien bao bQC xung quanh (co ap suat cao), dum ap suat Ian a day bien kh6i nu&:: trongkhoang bi nen lai, thuy ngan qua 16 dfin co van mot chieu trao len khoang chua mroc, dien d~y vao phan the tich phat sinh do kh6i mroc ban d~u co lai vi ap sullt lang len dang ke. Khi keo thiet bi len chat long khong the chay ngiroc qua van mot chien do kh6i mroc 11;1.i nO' ra vi ap suat giarn,

Hinh 1.14

23

nen hrong thuy ngan trao len khoang mroc tnroc d6 diroc bao toan, Tren co ss lUQng thuy - ngan nay suy ra dircc d(l co the tich do mroc dan hoi de tinh ap sutlt d day bien va tit d6 theo quy luat phan b6 ap sutlt p = pgh = yh rna tinh dugc d¢ sau h cua day bien.

Tham s6 cua mot thie't bi loai nay nhu sau :

- Khoang chua nuoc c6 the tfch V = 1000 cm3 = Idm3 = 1O-3m3.

- Trong luong rieng cua mroc Yn = 1,04.104N/m3.-

H~ s6 nen the tfch (nghich dao cua modun dan hoi the tich)

Pv = 5. 10-1 Opa-l = 5. 10-1 O(N/m2r I = 5.1O-10m2~1.

Tai mot toa d¢ tren ~ mat day bien ngum ta thu dll<JC ket qua do nhu sau :

Luong thuy ngan trao vao khoang mroc la 350g = 0,35 kg kh6i hrong. V~y d¢ sau a day la bao nhieu ? Biet rang trong hrong rieng cua thu)' ngan Ht

Ytn = 13.6.1Q4N/m3.

Ghli :

Ta van dung cong thuc dinh nghia : 1 dV _ ~v=---

V dp

de giai bai nay. The tich cua hrong' thuy ngan trao len khoang mroc ;

dV = dM = gdM = 10XO,354kgm/~2 =O,257.1O-4m3

Ptn Yin 13,6.10 N 1m

D¢ chenh ap a day lit :

dp=yh-O =yh

Vi vay tit cong thuc dinh nghia a tren c6 the rut ra h == _.!_ dV

VYnflv

Th€ tri s6 cua cac ~ luqn.gd~c trung cho mroc vao ta duqc dl) sau cua day bien a toa de nay :

h-= _ -- 1 - 0, 257. 10-4 m3 == O,257m

_lO-3m3_1.04.104Nm-3 x 5.1O-IOm2N-1 5,2.10-5

h = -4942m.

DQ sau cua day bien d day 18 4942m~ --

Bili 2. )We dinb d(1 nlWt - Nguyen Ii hQ(}t d~ng eUa nhbtU': M¢t hlnh tru trim xoay ban kinh R, = 120mm quay dong true trong mQt blnh try trim xoay kQac ban kinh ~ = 126mm (hinh 1.15), ca 2 t1'9 co chieu cao- h = 300mm. Ngum tadd d4y chit long ctm xac dinh dQ nhot vito khoang rOng giii'a 2 t1'9 (htnh vanh khan). X3.c dinh cit} nh6t cUa chat long bang each do momen ham de tru ngoai dUng yen va qua d6 hi!!t d«c;IC.d¢nh6t can tim. Biet rang trong mot lao do thu diroc cac s6li¢u sau :

24

o s6 vongquay cua tru trong 1a n = 6Ovong/phut de.t1¥ ngoai co th~ dUng yen phai ham no hang momen M = O,8829Nm.

Gi3i:

Khi tru ngoai dUng yen v6i s6 vong quay d tren, dung mO hlnh phan b6 van t6c tuyen tfnh eua Newton ta co :

Tai diem A m~t trong tru ngoai van t6e chat long uA= 0 (vi tru nay dOng yen), eon tP dic!m B mat ngoai tru trong van uSc eha:t long

~ sal mat tru UB = roRt•

'.

Vi

I
I
( Dt
~ On
~ I
I
I
(
I
I
I
I
_. ;IL
\, ) OJ v/ph I (

iA

iB

I I I I

Hinh 1.15

2nn 1tD 11 X 60

OJ = - = - = -- = 211 Rad/s

60 30 30

nen uB = 2nRad / s X 120mm = 2411em / s

Theo Newton gitra Ung sua't ca.t 't va gradien v~ t6c eo quan he

. du du 't "

't = J.1-= 11-=>·"" = - ...

dy dr du

dr

trong do : J.1la dO nhdt dong luc hQC can tim va :

du = uB -UA = 2411 = 40 11/S dr R, - R, 12,6-12

M*t khac ta lai eo quan h~ gifra img suat tnrot va momen ham nhu sau

'tFR = M => r = _!!__ "(b)

n FR

n

(a)

trong do : F la· dien tich xung quanh cua m~t trong tru ngoai :

F = 211~ X h = 21t X 126 x 300 = 75600n mm? = 75611 em?

The't d (b) vao (a) :

M. 0,8829Nm

_ FRn _ 10-2.7, 56m2 xO,126nm = 0,8829.102 = 2, 350.1O-3Ns/m2

1-1.- dU - 4Ons-1 7,56 x 0, 126 x 40 x n2

dr

J..l = 0,235 Pa.s

2S

Biet d¢ nh6t dong luc hoc u, ta suy ra di) nh6t dong hQC U cua chat long, neu biet khci hrong rieng p cua chat long. Gia su tnrong hop trong vi du P = 850 kg/m-' thl :

U = J..l = 0,235Pa.s = 0,235Ns/m2 = 2. 765. 10-4 Nrns I kg

P 850kg/m3 850kg/m3 .

U = 2,765.10-4 Nms/kg = 2,765.1O-4kg.m;s-2. rn.s.kg-i = 2,765.10-4 m2/s U = 2,765cm2/s = 2,765 St

T6NG KtT CHU'ONG I

Chuang nay xac dinh Thuy luc la men khoa hoc irng dung, mot chuang 100 cua co hQC ling dung rna d6i urong nghien ciru cua no Ia xem 'xet cac quy luat can bang va chuyen dong cua chat long de tu do tlm ra cac bien phap khai thac mat co loi cua cluing cho muc tieu phat trien xa hoi con nguOi.

Chuang gioi thieu ngan gon luoc si't phat trien cua mon thuy luc tren nen van minh nhan

" loai trong do con ngirot la chu the phat hien (phat minh) va due ket thanh lf luan khoa hoc, ke thira va phat trien, loai bo nhiing nhan thirc sai lam, tiep can den chan li, Trong su van dong ay lao dong cua con ngtroi thong qua nhan thuc true quan cua quan chang lao dong, su phan tfch li luan day tri tue cua cac nha khoa hoc tu xa xua den nay da ket tinh thanh bi) mon thuy luc hieu theo each hieu ngay nay cua chung tao

Tfong nghien ciru men nay cling can co su can dong do demo Vl vay can nam ducc cac h¢ va cac dan vi do luang thuong dung, dola h¢ do luang ki thuat va he do luang .quoc teo D6ng thOi can n!m duqc each chuyen d6i giii'a cluing.

an nam duqc d~c diem .eua bieu do V ander Waals de biet duQ'C vi trf va tinh chat vat li cua chat .long, mt)t trang thai xuat hien cua v~t chat. Tit day co the. suy ra nhieu ket luan quan trong ve thuoctfnh cuaeMt long,

V m nr each la v~t chat nrong tac co hoc cAn nam duqc mt)t s6 d~c tnrng, tinh chat co ban cua chat long nhu kh6i hrong rieng - m~t d¢ (con goi la khoi luong the tich), trong luong rieng (con goi la trong luong the tich) ; tinh chiu nen va mod un dan hoi th~ tfch cua chat long ; tinh dan nb nhiet ; tinh nh6t cua chat long cling nhu mo hinh tuyen tfnh mo ta quan he giua irng suat cat (tnrot) va d¢ nhot cua chat long; cu6i cung la khai niem sue cang mat ngoai (be mat) va co che sinh ra no, tu do hieu duqc hien tuong mao din. cfing nhu cac irng dung cua no.

Phan cu6i cua chuang noi ve trang thai ung suat cua chat long. a day van dung cac ket qua nghien CUu cua Co hoc cac moi truong dan hoi va moi tnrong lien tuc de phan tich va hieu diroc khai niem ap suat va mot s6 tlnh chat cua no. Dong thci lam quen vci each bieu dien trang thai ung suat trong chat long do Cauchy de xuat.

26

Chuang II THUY TINH HOC

TiP Chuang I ta dii biei rang trong ch~t long tinh (chat long b trang thai nghi) ang su~t ti~p a moi diem cua chat long d~u bAng Ova trang thai tIng su~t duqc xac dinh chi bang tac d"ng tOng hop cua 3 6ng suat plu\p b~g nhau theo cac true toa dq :

0'" = O'y = O'z = O'n = 0'12 = 0'13 = 0' = P

Ltic nay m~t U'ng su~t la m~t c~u. m¢t dang suy bien ella elipxoit (cac ban true chfnh bang nhau: a = b = c).

Do ch~t long duong nhu khong chong lai duqc tIng su~t k60 nen-cac ting suai phap 0 day Hi tmg suat nen, Dai IU<;1I1g co tri s6 bang mOdun U'ng suat 0' trong co hQC chat long duqc goi Ia ap suat thuy finh va ki hieu bAng chii' p :

p = 10'1·

~ co the thay ngay tinh dAng huang cua ap suat thuy tinh do hinh dang cua m~t Ung sullt

I., lii mat cau,

1. Hai tfnh chit co baD cua ap SUalt thuy tinh

Tit cac ket qua tren co th~ rut ra 2 tinh chat cua ap suat thuy tinh nhu sau : + Ap su~t thuy tinh (dOng thci ap

1\lC thuy tinb) huang thing g6c vao ti€t . dien chiu hrc,

+ TIi s6 cua ap suat thuy tinh khong phu thuoc vao huang d~t cua tiet dien chin l\lc (noi each khac Ia co tinh ding huang). '

BAng cach tifp can khac cling co th~ chi ra khAng dinh tren lA dung. TI1\lc v~y. ne"u xet s11 can bang l\IC va' can bAng mOmen cua PMn ti'r kh6i ch~t long to' dien t6n tai trong n¢i ~ cMt long ABCD dinh A nhu hlnh 2.1. KhOi chat long nay giu nguyen trang khi :

- Ve l~c : LF" = 0 ; }':Py = 0 ; LFz = 0,

- V~ rnomen : 'EM" = 0; 1: My = 0; l:Mz = O.

trong do ; F x F Y' F z - cac thanh phrut llJ'c ;

M", My. M, - cac thanh phfut wang Ung cua vecto momen theo phuong x, y. va z.

z

o

c

B

y

o

Htnh 2.1

27

H~ thong cac luc b day g6m co hrc be mat va hrc kh6i. KhOng con 1l!C nao khac, do ta dang xet trong dieu kien thuy tinh, '

Xet phuong trinh tan bang hrc LF x ::: 0 :

v6i dPx::: pidxdy)/21a hrc tac dung len m~t ABD ;

(dPn)x ::: dPncos(n;Ox)::: PndQcos(n,Ox), luc chieu x cua dPn ; 1

(dG)x::: admcos(a,Ox)::: apdVcos(a,Ox):::- pdxdydz Xcos(a,Ox),

, 6

trong do : X la hlnh chieu tren true Ox cua vecto gia toe IVC kh6i a, a ::: I a I. p la m~t d¢ cua chat long. ta co :

" 1 1 1

LJFx ::: Px -dydz -Pn-dydz+-pdxdydzX :::

226

• ::: Px - Pn + pdxX /3 ::: O.

Xu lf tuong W nhu v~y doi v6i cac chieu Oy, Oz, ta co ket qua eu6i cung :

LF x ::: Px - Pn + pdxX/3 ::: 0 LFy ::: Py - Pn + pdyY/3 = 0 LFz =Pz- Pn + pdzZl3::: o.

SO qua s6 hang vO cung be bac eao trong h¢ phirong trlnh nay (cac s6 hang thu 3 ve tnii), co thi thay ngay

Px ::: Py ::: Pz ::: Pn

va tinh ding mreng cua ap suat thuy tinh dii duqe chimg minh.

C1n nh6' rang b dAy khOng efu xet den can bang momen VI b truong hop gioi han cac canh tay don cua cac luc deo bang O.

2. Phuong trtnh vi phan can bang cua chat long thuy tinh - Pbuong trlnh Euler Tach trong khoi cMt long can bang mot the rich nguyen t6 co dang hlnh hcp vuOng goc

-+

nhu hlnh 2.2. Ta thay v6i gia t6<; lvc·kh6i a::: a = [X,Y.Z] (dung ki hieu [ .... J de chi tuong

minh mot vecto) tdng hop IVe plurong x la :

dP~ -dP: +dGcos(a,Ox)=O (2-1)

voi G la dQ 1&1 cua luc kh6i va

dP~ ::: p' dydz, hrc teen m~t 1-2-3-4 ;

dP: ::: p "dydz, luc tren ml}t 5-6-7-8 ; dGx ::: dGeos(a.Ox) ::: pdxdydzX la

thanh phan phuong x eua IJ!C kh6i.

Vi P ::: ptx.y.z), ham cua toa d¢ nen neu tai diem M, tarn cua kh6i phan to, ap su:!t 13. p thi :

28

dR

z

dP" y

y

Rinh 2.2

( ,lOp

Px =p- 2 ax dx

" 1 ;),...

P =p+ __ vp dx

x 2 ax

(2-2)

(Luu y : trong khong gian v6 cung be ham kh.:l vi xap xi tuyen tinh nen theo vi trf cua M trong bieu tlurc c6 h~ ~6 1/2). Lric nay plurong trinh (2-1) c6 dang :

(p -.!. Op dx )dydz - (p +.! Op dx )dydz + pdxd ydzX = 0 =>

2ax 2ax

lOp

=>---+X=O.

pax

Bang each xu Ii nrong nr d6i vOi cac phuong y, z ta co ket qua cho ca he

tOp ---+x=o'

pax ·

-! Op +Y=O; pay

- lOp

---+Z=O

paz

(2-3)

Ia phuang trinh vi phan can bang thuy tfnh do Euler clnmg minh nam 17 S5.

Nhan lin lulJt cac ve cua phuong trmh (2-3) voi dx, dy va dz r6i cong _cac ve nrong ling, ta duqc:

Xdx+Ydy+Uz-!(Op dx+ Op dy+ 8p dz)=O (2-4a)

p axay fjz

hay viet duui dang khac :

Op dx + ap dy + ap dz = p(Xdx + Y dy + Zdz) (2-4b)

ax fly fjz

Ta tMy ngay ve trai la m¢t vi phan toan pMn cua ap su!!t p = p(x,y,z) nen (2-4b) quy ve :

dp = p(Xdx + Y dy + Zdz) (2-4c)

Day Ia mot dang khac cua phuangtrinh. vi phan can bdng chat long thuy tinh, Do ve trai 1ft met vi phan toan phan, nen de dam bao tinh dong nh!!t ve phai cung phai la mot vi phan toan ph<1n cua mot ham cua toa d¢ (x,y,z) nao d6, kh6ng co rang buoc gl ve tinh chiu nen (nen duqc/kh6ng nen duoc) ella chat long.

Neu chat long khong chiu nen (p = const) thl a (2-4c) dai hrong trong ngoac dan Ht vi phan toan phan cua mot ham U(x,y,z), ham cua toa d¢ x, y va z rna cac dao ham rieng cua n6 theo x, y va z chfnh la cac thanh phan phuang x, y. z cua gia tOc luc khoi, cu the la ;

29

x = au(x,y,Z) ax

y = 8U(x,y,z) By

z = 8U(x,y,z)

az

Cac dai hrong X, Y, va Z cling co thi coi III cac thanh phan chien true x, y, va z cua luc kh6i tinh cho mot dan vi kh6i luong (vi d1.J. lkg). Vi vay, ham U co ten ldluJm the ha» ham luc .. elm cac luc xudt xu ta (2-5) ta 'lIC co the:

Nhu vay, can cu vao cac h¢ thtrc (2-4) va (2-5) co th~ khAng dinh : SlI cdn bang clla coot long thuy tinh chi co thi 16n tai neu luc khol' Ia luc co the. Ngoai ra con co nhan xet : Trong pmrong trinh Euler (2-3) chi co mat d¢ p va ap suat p la An s6 (cac dai luong X, Y, Z va toa d¢ duoc xem la cho tnrdc) nen de phuong trinh nay co 1m giai dan tri, can phlri dung phirong trlnh the hien nhat quan m6i quan h¢ gitra cac tinh chat va trang thai cua cha't long dang xet, ching han nhu quan h(} giita mat dO, ap suat va nhiet d¢ cua chat long.

(2-5)

~ Theo If thuyet chung, bitu diln hinh hoc trong khong gian 3 chitu (x,y,z) clla mot ham

I. j(x,y.z) lily tri so' khong d6i. tuc ia j(x,y.z) = const, dU(1c g9i la m{it d6ng mac hay ~t ddng trio Y nghia v~t If cua m~t dAng tri tuy thuQc vao viec ta lay ~ hrQllg nao Ia thong s6 (lay timg gia tri C1.J. the), Vi d1.J. ap suat hay nhiet d¢ lay gia t:rj. khong d6i de cO m~t ding ap hay m~t dAng nhiet., Trong thuy hrc cung nhu co chat long mat (hay dirong - ve tren m~t ph5.ng to giay) dAng tri lamot trong s6 it cac d6i nrong dang duqc quan tam (vi d1.J. v6i thong s6 Ia p). Di dong tren mat nay trang thai ap suat khong thay d6i, tai moi diem ap suat nhu nhau, nghia la dp = O. Nhu v~y phuong trinh vi phan cua m~t dAng ap suy ttt (2-4c) phai la :

Xdx + Ydy + Zdz = 0 (2-6)

do mat d¢ ciia chat long luon khac O.

M~t dAng ap co nhtrng tinh cM't sau :

- Cac m~t dAng ap khOng bao gio giao nhau ;

- Luc kh6i mc dung thAng goc len mat dang ap,

C6 the giai thich 2 tfnh chat tren nhu sau. D6i v6i tfnh chat thu oMt, neu 2 m~t dang ap cAt nhau thl ve m~t toan hoc khOng bao dam duqc tinh dan tri tai giao tuyen, vi d1.J. PI = P2 ; d6ng thOi ve m~t v~t lf, ~p suat se tv can bang rna khOng san sinh/tieu thu cong - nang Iuong, dieu khong the t6n tai, COn tinh chat thu 2, chi can xern y nghia ~t If ciia (2-6) se ro : nhu da noi b tren, co the coi x, Y, va Z la cac thanh pharr chieu true ciia llJc F cua mot dan vi kh6i lirong va nhu vay bidu thirc (2-6) con eo the coi la cong cua lVC holm thanh tren quang dirong :

ds=~dx2 +dy2 +dz2 Luc do cOng cua luc :

30

dW = Fxdx + FydY + Fzdz = Fcos(F,ds)ds = 0;

Song do F :# 0 va ds:# 0 nen chi e6 the 18. cos(F,ds) = O. Di~ri d6 e6 nghia,IA 1\lC F lac dung true giao v6i m~t dAng ap,

3. 81:1 can bAng cua chAt long thuy tinh trong truang treng lqc

Trong truong trong 1\lC.I\fC kh6i Iii l\fe trong tnrong, B6i vay X = O. Y = O. Z = -g v6i g 13 gia t6c trong tnrong (g ngiroc chieu tang Clla z).

3.1. M{it dting ap

Til phuong trinh t6ng quat cua m,t ding ap (2-6) v~ dung eho tnrong trong luc ta c6 : -gdz=O

Do gia t6c trong tnrong khac 0 vii c6 the eoi 18. khOng dOi trong pharn vi' khong gian khong Ian nen suy ra :

z e const

(2-7)

. li, m~t ph!ng n8m ngang bat D, ke ca m~t thoang hoac mat phan each giifa cac chAt long c6 ~\.m~t d¢ khac nhau (khong hoa tan trong nhau) bat ke hinh dang eua binh chua 18. the nao.

, 3.2.S" pluin bO tip sud't

Sit dung (2-4), veti luu y dieu kien C1;1 the ciia trong tnrong : X = Q, Y = 0, Z = -g, tac6 phuong trinh vi phan can bang chat long

dp = -pgdz (2~8)

o day pg khOng thay dOi, do d6 khi tich phan tadua ra ngoM dl"u rich phan :

Jdp=..:pgJdz =>p=-j,gz:~~~,. ,"_ .. "'"~_

hay:

(2-9)

ld phuang trtnh. co ban ella thuy tinhbtJc;:: r;-:,/,- _, __ " ""__. _ -:

HAng s6 Clla phuangtrlnh (z..9)xtc-~,~.,tieri.Q;1,jb:cAc_di4u id~n ella dirtg truong

• I' -, _. r -:. :... ~ <;' '"'; ',:tr .. - . ~ :-::". ":.. : - ;: ~ , . .

hQp cu th~ (di~u ki~ ban dlll). V(d¥,V<Ii'-Pc)~~Ip~ If'lnJt~68ng :'p, =~Po, khi d6 :

:_. ". j" -, ~ .1-: :. :""':.'\' , .. -;~~.~~ .~/~~...:~~:~~ ..... > .. ::. ~. '.:~.' .. ,". ....~~-L.. ~ .•. . .

, ..'. ~ .. ,~~~ •• r '.

cho nen phucng trlnh co bin c6 dang

_ z+l=zo+ Po hayPo+ pgZo=P+ pgz

pg pg

va:

P- Po = pg(Zo- zjhay P = Po + pg(Zo- z) Hlnh 2.3 cho thay y nghia hlnh hoc eua (2-10) :

p = Po + pgh

(2-10)

31

(vm kf hieu h = Z() - z). De dang nhan thay d¢ chenh ap (hi~u s6 ap suat) giita 2 diem b3:t kl 1 va 2, khong phu thuoc vao ap suat cua moi tnrong ben ngoai rna chi phu thuoc d¢ 100 cua chenh lech d¢ cao, con n6i 1a hieu sO' cao trinh cua cluing, nghia 1a :

8p = PI - P2 = pg(hl - h2) (2-11)

D6ng then nhan thay dp sud: tren miJt phdn cacb (m4t thoang) duac truYeil nguyen v~n theo moi huang den tdt cd moi diem trong chdt long thuy tinh. DAy 13. dinh 1u~t Pascal. Con ap suat tai mot diem nam trong nQi bo chat long chinh la trong hrong ciia cot chat long hinh tru chieu cao h, be mat day la dan vi dien tfch dung d~ tinh ap suat, Vi du dung don vi kG/cm2 thi day la lcm-, dung don vi Pa (Paxcan) thi day la m2• Vi vay trong thuc tien ki

thuat ngiroi ta con dungchieu cao cot chat long, nhat lil chieu cao cct mroc h (neu 6ng do ap dung chat long cong tac lil mroc) de the hien s6 do cua ap suat, Khi m~t thoang tiep xuc thong voi khf troi (khi quyen) :

(2-12)

p = Pa + Pdu (p = Pa + pgh)

Do Po = Pa cho nen P lil ap suat toan phan, ap suat tuyet d6i ; pgh lil ap suat du ; Pa la ap suat mat thoang thong voi khi quyen,

z
-Q----------r------- --_Q'
D-'~ a.1~_
u
~ 'iii
a..
..c ::::::-
D-
+
t.f N
M
N
X Ap su~t tuy~t d6i - Po

Ap su§'t dU'

'.

pgh

Po + pgh

Hink 2.3

Nhu v9Y ap sudl thuy tinh cua chd: lOng phu thuQc tuyen tinh vao dQ lim cua chieu sau h.

Trong thuc tien nguoi ta chi do diroc ap suat du de suy ra ap suat -toan phan, Nhu vay rfit tien cho thuc hien phep do. v« m~t ki thuat, do ap suat tuyet d6i khong the thuc hien dugc vi khong the tao diroc chan khong tuyet d6i.

3.3. Y nghra hinh hoc va nang luong coo phUdng trinh ea ban clufJ lOng thuy tinh

Ta thay cac sO' hang trong phuong trinh co ban thuy t'inh deu e6 th11' nguyen Hl chieu dai.

Do vay dei v6i. bat ki diem M nao deu la I6ng cua 2 doan thing z va p/(pg) rna trong thuy luc goi z la.chieu cao vi tri (cao trinh),la khosng each tinh tu m~t chudn 0-0 nao do ; p/(pg) Iii. ap suat tai diem M va co th~ do bang chieu cao dfuI xuat ~ cua cot chat long dang len trong 6ng, da diroc duoi het kh6ng khi, nei VOl binh (ong a eua hinh 2.4).

32

o

o· /' - o·
..... a
- 0 r--b
- s:
-
'" -
"<> - -
~ - Iv Po> Pat -
- 1& - - - ~
- - =-~ - - '0
- - - I
- - - -
l~ -. -
~M- .-"
--- I-
N N 0
0 0, p-o

o

a ..... /P=O
. 0"
-
"
J::.'" I"" Po< Pat
~
IEC~ - - .J::
-
- - - -.__
-- ~M- .: '" -r--
_:_-N - - - -
- - ~"b
- - - -
0 0 Hinh 2.4

Ntu cu6i 6ng hd, vOi 6ng do ap b, ta co : hd = Pd)(pg) goi iii. chieu cao do ap ;

Hd = Z + PdJ(pg), c¢t niroc do ap ;

hmc = p!(pg) Iii. chieu cao dan xu!t H = z + p/(pg), cot mroc thuy tinh.

Neu nhan trong lueng cua hrong chat long co kh6i luong m v{ri cac ve cua phtrong trinh (2-9) :

zrng + _!?_ mg = zmg + pghdx. mg = zmg + hdx. rug = const

pg pg

ta thay cac s6 hang deu Iii. cac dai hrong nang hrong, trong do zrng Iii. the Dang cua kh6i chat long, pg~x cflng 1a the nang nhung do ap suat tao ra.

Neu chia (2-9) cho mg, phuong trinh co ban cua thuy tinh hoc cho ta tOng s6 cua the nang vi tri z va ti the nang ap suai thuy tinh p/(pg) Hi khong d6i.

3.4. Tinh tuong d61 coo dUll lOng thuj finh trong trrmg truang

Dinh nghia. Tinh luang dOl cua eheit lOng fa trang thai rna titng phdn tti eua n6 giil

nguyen vi tri tuang d6'i vOi thanh eua binh chua ehuylndrjng.

Tinh nrong d6i quan tam tm. 2 bai toan : .

- Xac dinh hlnh dang cUa m~t ding aPt trongdo cor04t thoang ;

- X6t quy luat phan bel ap suat

Duong nhien tit phuong trinh CC1 ban con c6 th6 co nbiing bai toan chuyen biet khac nhu xac dinh dang duang/ mat the nang trong nOi bQ cb4't lOng phuc vu.cho mot s6v4'n de ki thuat. Trong pham vi giao trinh nay c-(Ia nganh ta ~p tnmgvae 2 van de tren. m nghien cUu chung bao gio ding phai xuat phat tir dang chung cua phuong trlnh (vi phan) mO Ii no, cu th~ la :

d6i voi mat dang ap co :

d6i v6i quy luat phan b6 ap suat co :

Xdx +·Ydy + Zdz = 0

dp = p(Xdx + Ydy + Zdz)

(2-13) (2-13a)

33

Qua day may, mao chat d day Hl phai bier dUQc cac dai lUQllg X, Y va Z. ChUng la cac . • thanh phanphuong 'tIVc toa dO tuong tmg cua t6ng gia toe luc kh6i (rna n6 chfnh U\ gia t6c quan tinh co mat trong tnrong lire).

+ TInb nrong d6i trong blnh ch(r~ chuy~n dqng thAng c6 gia tOe. Tren hinh 2.5 mo ta mot xe bon cho chat long chuyen dong tren m~t phang, dirong nam ngang vOi gia t6e a. Tnrong hop nay;

{~:~~;

Z=-g.

vci g la gia toe trong tnrong va chon phuong true x trung voi chien chuyen dong. Nen nho rang gia toe quan tfnh nguoc chieu vm gia t6e chuyen dong nhirng e6 cung tri so. Vi v~y, trong (2-13) g va a mang dau am.

Mfit dang ap e6 dang suy tit phirong trlnh (2-6)

(2-13)

z

-

o~~------+----------

x

x

Hinh 2.5

-adx - Odx - gdz = -adx - gdz = 0 .

Tlurc hien phep tfch phan ta c6 :

(2-14)

a

ax + gz = const ee z = --x + eonst. g

(2-14a)

Ia ho mat phang song song voi true y, tren hlnh vi! la duemg nghieng e6 dO doe -alg. Gia tri C\l the eua hang s6 tfch phan tuy thuec vao dieu kien e1,l the dacho (tuc dieu kien ban dAu). Vi du vOi. diem A(Xo.1.o) tren hlnh 2.5 :

a - a

1.0 = - - Xc + const ::} 1.0 + - Xo = const.

g g

The' gill tIi nay vao (2 .. 14a) dugc :

- a

z =--(x-xo)+zo g

(2-14b)

Phdn b6apsuat. Tirphlldllg trlnh:

.: ;dp:='p{-adx - gdz) = ...,.p(adx + gdz)

do ta eoi eel a va' g III thOng d6i.. nen duara ngoai <W:u tich pharr rOi thuc hien tich phan xac dinh V6i can tren (x.y .z) vA-,* dUln (XO,yo.~) : .

P x·~ -

J dp = -pa J ~ - pg f dz ~ P - Po :: -pa(x - Xo) - pg(z - 1.0)

Po

Nhir vay :

p = Po + pa(xo - x) + pg(1.o - z)

34

(2-15a)

Iil phuong trlnh m~t pMng song song v6i tI1J.c y co phap tuy€n lil n :;: [a,O,g]. Dua (2-I5a) v6 dang phuang trinh CC1 ban cuathuy tinh hoc (khi binh chua dUng yen)

p == Po* + pg(Zo - z) (2-15b)

v6i Po* = Po + pa(Xo - x) (2·:15c)

+ Tlnh tU01Ig d6i trong blnh chua chAt long quay vOi t6c d(J goc khOng d6i. Mo hlnh Wo sat c6 the trien khai trong toa d¢ Dtcac vuong goc hay toa dO t11:1 dt)c cue, Bi~t rang gia toe ly tam Iil a = rro2 voi r la knoang each til diem dang xet den g6c toa dO, (0 la t6c

d¢ goc, Trong truong hop nay (xem hinh 2.6) : z

x = (02rcos<p == (02x ; y = (02rsin<p :;: (02y ;

Z=-g.

vi: r = (x2 + y2) 112 ; X = reese ; y = rsintp.

=> dx ~ dr coso ; dy = dr sin <p (A)

Nhu v~y ta c6 phirong trlnh m~t dAng ap

, trong h~ toa d¢ Decac :

"

, (02xdx + (02ydy - gdz = 0

N

(2-16a)

z

x

Hfnh2.6

va (c6 the dung cac quan h~ (A) suy ra) trong h~ toa d¢ lI1J. :

(02rdr - gdz = 0 (2-16b)

Tfch phan (2-16a) va (2-16b) duqc :

(02X2 (02y2 _

--+---gz=const (2-17a)

2 2

ro2r2

--- gz = const (2-17b)

2

De dang tMy (2-17b) co the! true tiepsuy ra t\t (2-17a) n€u luu y too quan h~ :

r2:;: x2 + y2

Quy lu4t pluin b64p,su4t suy til:

dp = p( (02xdx + ro2ydy - gdz) => p -:- Po = p[ j (0 2 xdx + J ~2Ydy_ j gdz]

,. ~ h' ~

dog va to khOng d6i. d6ng thoi sir dung quail h¢ x2 + y2 :;: r2 nen :

,

2 2

p~ Po == p~[(X2 +y2)_(X~ +y~)J-pg(Z-zo) = p~(r2 ..... rg)-pg(z-zo)

2 2, -

SAp xep lai v6i luu y chon dieu kien ban dau : ro = 0, z :;: Zo, p == Po. duqc :

2 2 ror

P=Po +p--+pg(zo -z) 2

(2-18a)

35

C6 the th!'y bieu dien hinh hoc cua m~t ding ap, trong do co m~t thoang III m~t paraboloit co true z di qua dinh, Dua ve dang phuong trlnh co ban ciia thuy tinh hQC ta CO :

p::: Po* + pg(Zo- z) (2-18b)

v6i :

(2-1Sc)

MC dinb quj dao chtml n6i. La bai toan co y nghia thlJC tien trong nhieu Iinh vue ki thuat. OVa vao nguyen Ii luc lAc dong luon true giao v6i m~t dAng ap nen ta c6 the xay dung phuong trlnh vi phan Clla quy dao nhu sau :

Trong cung h¢ toa d¢ 2 ham f1 (r) va f2(r) tI\IC giao nhau n€u thoa man dic!u kien df~' -1

dr ::: df2 dr

Neu goi fl(r) la quy dao va f2(r) 18. mat (duemg) d!ng ap thl phuong trlnh vi phan cua quy dao co dang sau da.y :

Biet rang

2 df2 df1 -1 1 dr

fl (r) ::: Ar :::;:> - ::: 2Ar ~ - ::: - ~ dfl = ---

dr dr 2Ar 2A r

1

f} (r) > --Inlr! + const

2A

(v6i ki hieu gia tri tuyet d6i Ir!) fd no duang cong logarit tV nhien (log Nepe) trong h¢ toa d¢ (zOr) dOl xung guang qua true Oz (xem hlnh 2.7). V~ dung vao tnrong hop C1:l the

A = 002/(2g) 0

fl (r) = -~lnirl = const.

,0)

Nhu v4y quj dao chimln6i cUa w)t trong cluft lOng thuy linh tuang dOl a day Ja duilng _ cong 16ga, khdc hdn so viii trong truang trong lvc thudn tuy ld dlJilng tMng dUng.

4. Ap hrc cua chA:t long thuy tinh len m~U pbang (0 day va thanh ~ chua), ,

Tac dong cua ap IlJc thuy tinh len be! mat chiu luc - nhu trong co hQC n6i chung - co the thay the bang tac d¢ng cua met IlJc tap trung la t6ng hop cua cac ap IlJC thuy tinh noi tren,

Khao sat tac d¢ng cua luc sinh ra bOi ap suat cua ch~t long thuy tinh Iuon phai quan tam tm. 2 v!'n de

-_

(r)

x

Hinh 2.7

- Tri s6 ciia luc,

- Di~m dl}.t (tarn ap hIc) clla'llJc d6.

4.1. Ap If!C lin c1dy phdng ndm ngang

D~c di~m cua quy luat phan b6 ap suat cr tnrong hgp nay Ia tai moi diem cua day ap su!'t deu nhu nhau.

36

Biet rang ap sufit a day 13 p ::; Po + pgh voi h la chieu sau cua M. Ki hieu n ta m~t chiuap Iuc ta c6 ap luc thuy tinh len mat Q (hlnh 2.8):

p::; <Po + pgh)Q

Trong tnrong hop nay dilm dfjt life trung L:; vai trong tam cua mt;it Q.

4.2. M{iJ chiu ap l(le ntim thdng dfmg Luc nay ap suat thay dOi tren tirng diem, do d6 phai dung phirong phap tich phan tren mat 0:

z

x

Hinh 2.8

JdP= fpdQ= J(po +pgh)dQ= JPodO+ JpghdO

n n n n n

C6 the coi Po. g va p la khong d6i, duqc dua ra ngoai dau tich phan :

~ P ::; Po J dO + pg J hdO = PoO + pgSax (2-19a)

" n n

trong do : Sax = J hdO : hex (2 la momen tinh cua (2 len true Ox vOi he 13. khoang each tit n

trong tam mat n den true Ox. Torn lai :

p : PoO + pgSnx = PaQ + pghcO (2-19b)

Diim drJ,t eua ap luc trong truong hop nay xac dinh theo cong thirc t6ng quat cho mat . phangnam nghieng dum day,

4.3. A.p luc thuj finh len m{1t phdng nlim nghieng (mot g6c a. so vro mat phing nam ngang).

V (ri cac ki hieu dung cho hinh 2.9 ta tien hann cac khio sat sau :

+ Tri 86' CUa ap luc. Lire nguyen to len vi phan dien tich dO :

dP : pdQ ::; {fu + pgb)d!l

P = J(po +pgb)dQ::;' JPodQ+ JpghdQ

n n n

Bie-t rang, b: b(z)::; zsinc, nen :

p: Po fdo + pg sin a. Izdn.

n n

Cilng voi y nghia nhu tren voi Sox: .zcG P ::; PoQ + pg sinClZcn

Hinh 2.9

37

P = <Po + pghc}O

(2-20)

Den day c6 th~ nhan xet : ap hrc thuj tinh t6ng quat lil t6ng cua 2 d~ hrong (2 philo) : - Ap l~c ben ngoai Po0 = Po do ,lip suat cua moi Wang xung quanh tao nen ;

- Ap hrc do lip suat du gay ra cua chat long thuy tinh Pdlf = pghcO. .:

+ }(tic djnh tog, dq dilm d{it (D(zD' XD». Nhu da thay ~ tren, ap 1\1C g6m 2 phan (c6 the coi lil 2 luc), can CU vao do de xac dinh toa de;, D thong qua phuong trlnh can bang momen, Tinh zD : Do lip suat Po = const nen diem d~t cua hrc Po, nhu k6't qua b tnrong hop thanh thing dUng (p = const), trung voi trong tam cua rn~t chiu luc, BAy gio ta tim diem d~t cua ap luc do ap suat duo D~ co can bang momen len true Ox ta co :

PduZD = fzdP = jpghzdO = Jpgxzsinax zdO= pgsina fz2dO

00 n n

IzdP .

- n - pgsma J 2d"

Zo ---- Z 110'"

Pdu Pdu n

rna J z2dO Iai chfnh lil mOmen qulin tinh len true Ox cua mat chiu luc .0, ta kf hieu bang: n

Tuday:

lox:: Ixx + Ozc2

(cong thd'c quen.thuoc trong cchcc va = Mn v~t if¢u)vmlxx 18 momen quem tinh len true di qua trong tam Clla m~t chiu 11!C va song song v6i true Ox.

Da bi6't Pdu = p~ nen co:'

pg sin a(Ix" + Qz~) pg sin a(ln + nz~)

zo= =

pgheO pgzc sin an

Do : he = lesina, nen : Zo = ze + Ixx (2-2Ia)

zen

Nhu vay, tarn lip luc (diem d~t cua lip lire) Zo nAm thftp h<1I1 trong tam cua no. Trong, tnrong hop buoc phai luu Y den ap su{(t Po. di~m ~t tinh theo cong thuc :

ZOo = Pozc+ PdltZO (2-21b)

Po + Pdu

Tinh Xo (thanh phan x cUa D) ~ dinh nr plnrong trlnh can bang momen len true Oz: pg Jxhdn Jxhdn

xD = n = n (2-21c)

pghcn hen

Neu mat chiu 11!C co true d6i ximg di qua trong tam rna true nay nam trong rn~t phang thAng dUng thi XD = xc. Ngoai ra con c'o XOo = XD do Po khong thay dOi tren m~t chiu hrc.

s. Ap lire cua chilt long thuj tinh len m~t cong

Day 13. bai toan thuong g~p a nhieu cong trlnh thuy lqi va xay dung cong nghiep,

38

x

0"

z

Hinh 2.10

Trong chat long thuy tinh chon m¢t kh6i chat long V bat kl diroe bao boi mat kin S nhu , ' tren hinh 2.10. Biet rang up moi di~m ciia S ap suat thuy tinh luOn tac dung thang goc vdi

" be mat S. Tach tir S'mot mat cong Q tuy y. Do Q b trang thai can bang nen h¢ lire tren toan " mat cong nay co the thay the' bang mot luc tOng hop dP (lire tap trung) c6 cac thanh phan

theo cac pmrong x, y, z Hm hrot lit dPx' dPy' dPz.

Neu goi dQ la dien tich nguyen t6 ella Q thi ap hrc t<\c dung len no la : dP = pdO = <Po + pgh)dQ

. Trongd6:

h Ul chien Sall Clla _trQng tam ella nguyen t6 dien tich dQ ;

dP = J~ + dP;+ dP; , dPx va dPy nlm ngang, -con dP~ thing dimg,"song song v6i '~j,<;,~~Oz;

.···;~~~-.I!~i~i~~~w.~ox. V.~~,22a)

Lai tMy ~(dr,ot) cbftm:18-hllih'chitu thing clladO len m~t pbing t1'\Ic giao v6i - .truc O~, chAng han ~ piling y6£;ta ki hieu hlnh chltu nay Ia dO'. Tht vito (2-22a) duqc :

dP x = <Po + pgh)dQ' ~ Px = J (Po + pgh)d'l = J Pod'l'+ J pgbdO' .

n" n' ri

'Khi ap suat tren m~t thoang Po khong dOi, tich phan thu nhat :

J PadO' = PoO' n"

1

39

/

vaf 0' Hl hinh chleu cua n tren m~t ph!ng yOz ; con viec tfnh nch phan pg J h dQ' c6 th~ 0'

thao tac tren m~t phang anh yOz r6i suy ve "vat thuc" (do ban chat ciia phep tich phan va tfnh tuong trng mot - m¢t cua phep chieu), v m nhfrng 11m y tren, Ii = h va :

pg Jh'dO' = pgh~O'

D6ng thoi nh& lai rang, de chat long can bang trong wang trong hrc, mat dAng ap phai nam ngang, cho nen h'c = he va k€t qua cu6i cung :

P, = <Po + pghc)Q' (2-22b)

Tuong tv nhu vay, sau khi thao tac cac buClc teen m~t ph!ng anh thu hai - mat xOz - ta co ket qua d6i vci thanh pharr lire nam ngang tha hai :

Py = (Po + pghc)n" (2-22c)

trong d6 : 0" Hi hlnh chieu cua 0 teen mat phang xOz, Hien nhien P x lr\lc giao voi Q' vi P y_ true giao voi 0".

Bay gio xac dinh P Z' thann phan dung true giao vdi mat thoang :

P, = JdPz = J(po +pgh)dQ.cos(dPz'Oz) on'

VI dOcos(dPz'Oz) = dO'" lit h~ chieu cua dO len m~t ph~g n8.m ngang, ching han nhu m~t thoang nen ding theo each nrong tV nhu tren :

Pz = f PodQ'" + pg J hdQ'"

0" 0'"

Lai thay tren y nghia hinh hQC f hdQ '" chinh Ii the tich cua kh6i hinh tru c6 day la

Q"'

hinh chieu Clla Qteen m~t tho ling (tllc Q"') mat dinh Ii n, cac duang sinh 13. duong th~ng ddng. Trong thuy 1l!C ngum ta goi the tich nay 1A v(it thl ap 1(IC va thuong c6 kl hieu Val (hay_W~)·.

(2-22d)

Nhu ~y, thanh .phdn th&;agdUng ala tip lrIC thuj tTnh lin ~t cong bang t6ng cUa tip luc a ~t thoang, (ana ~I1iP9) li~,.di~nt!ch hinh chit" tren "'4t thodng cua miJt cong d6 va

trong /U{11tg CUD'vt;f1 tnldpli/C:flIIingUng. z

- .' Diem 4fcUa lqc'~ n#CODg: _ .

Trong tnrong hop ~t-~g,-vi~d.cdinh di~m'd~t ph<tc

-' -'-., \. ,

tap hon so vOi. b m~t phing. Song, can CIt vao ~~u ki~n can

hang momen ta xac dinh ml)t diem ~t gil. tubng nhu l:J m~t phdng cimg vm phirong tac dl)ng cua vecto lip 1\lC. Dilm tf4t

thuc tren miJI cong chinh ld giao dilm clla m4t cong d6 vOi )(

duang thAng keo dai vecto up luc di qua dilm tf4t gia tudng (khong phdi la vecta tu do) nhu tren hinh 2.11.

l

y

Bi&m d'tt 918 d'lnh Hlnh 2.11

40

Nb4n xet : Pnep chieuap len cac ~t cong co the khOng don tri do co cac mang anh chain nhau. Song di~u d6 khong dang ngai vicoi cac mat nay co huang nen tu clning khu nhau nen chi con ¥cac mang dan trio

6. Bjoh Iu$t Archimedes va ap dl},ng cDs n6 vito khao sat v$t n6i

V~ dung cac ket qua tren dA¥ cO the de dang clumg minh dirocdinh luat Archimedes.

Th1;l'C _v~y. hay xet vat co dang bili kl ngap trong chat long. H¢ thong luc tac d9ng len v~t g6m co: [lie mt;it va [lie kh61 (trong hrong). Kill xet s\ltac d9ng cua chat long thuy tinh len v~t ta chi xet den cac luc ba.t nguon til chat long rna

thOi. Trong chat long thuy tlnh loai lire tac dung len x

v~t chi co luc mat,

Lire m~t 13. ap 11;l'C thuy tinh c6 phuong thing goc vm be m~t vat, 0 trang thai can bang cic luc mat co the thay the bang mot Il,fC t6ng hop P co cac thanh phan 3 phuong X, y, z Ia P x' P Y' P z. trong dO' (xern hinh 2.12) :

'.

p=p'-p"

x x x

P=P'-P"

Y Y Y

P ;::.p'-p"

z z z

D

t p"

z

z

Hinh 2.12

Theo dinh nghia cua thanh pharr nam ngang (phuong x, phuong y) ella lip 11;l'C thuy tinh. co the de dangchtmg Minh dugc rang, trong trUCmg hqp Day P, va Py bang O,vi n6u khong v~t se chuyen d(mg vCti m¢t gia uSc 16nhdn 0 lam cho gm thiet can bing ~Ong connea. De khing'dpm di~u do hay xet thanh pb4n ngang P, :

Ta thay cac 11JC P,' va P/co tri s6 bang nhau vl M ~t rna chungtac d¢ng len d~u nhu nhau do co hinh chieu ella bien cong BFDE, chung Clla 2pMn ''trai -phii nhu nhau", Vl v~y hieu Clla P,' va P," bang 0:

~ P,/-Px" =0.

Ci1ng do nguyen nhan nrong l\l •. vOi hinh chi6u bien chung_ ABCD Clla hai oUa :

- Py'-Py" ::::::O~

Do vay chi crut xct haithanhph4n IVC-~g-4ting:

··'r

. " -

P," tac dunglen ~t cong AECFD

la toan b¢ b¢ 11;lC m~t tat· d\mg len V$tog~pdang xet. Tri s6clla cac 11;lC do l4n luqt la :

P,' = pgVa1(AacCB) P," ;::. pgVal(AacCD)

TOng dai s6 cua bai lire nay chfnh 18. t6ng hop luc Clla ap 11;l'C thuy tinh len vat ngap :

Pz = pg(Val(AacCB) - Val(AacCD» = -pgVal(ABCO)'

41

trong do : Val(ABCD) chinh la the tich cua v~t. Dau am c6 nghia la nguoc cbieu true z !

Nhu vay, ap luc thuy tinh len v~t ng~p co tri s6 bang trong luang eua kh6'i eluft·lOng rna v~t chodn chJ, chieu tJuing dUng. tit dum len. LUll y mat d¢ p trong tioh toan 18. m~t d¢ cua chat long.

Day 18. dinh lu~t Archimedes.

Khdo sat v~t ndi. Dua vito dinh luat Archimedes (ta kf hieu PAR) c6 tht phat bitu nhu

sau : N e'u trong luang cUa v~t trong nuac la G thi

G > PAR ' v~t chim ;

G = PAR' v~t J trang thai lUng la trong nuoc ;

G < PAR ' v~t ndi tren ~t nude, luang char long mel V9t n6i choan eM eo trong IU(1ng bang trong luang eua v~t.

BAI T.;r MINH HO~ CHWNG II

Bai 1. Dung 6ng chit U nuoc - thuy ngan de do ap suat thuy tinh tai cac di~m A, 0, B cua mot 6ng da.n mroc Ian ban kinh R= 1 m nhu sa d6 trong hinh 2.13. Biet rang cac s6li~u thu duQ'c nhu sau :

hI = 50 em, h2 = 1,5 m.'

Biet trong hreng rieng cua nuOc Yn ::; 9810 N/m3,

trong lUQng rieng ,cuathuy ngan Ym :;:,' 133416 N/m3• Cho biet ap suat du tai cac di~m teen; Nell H ::; lam, ap suat tai diem D bAng bao nhieu, c6 nl$l xet gl ?

Giai:

D

1

Hinh 2.13

Ta thay diem 2 n~m tren m~t phan each giita thuy ngan va nuoc. Nhu vay c6 the eoi n6 d6ng thai nam trong mroc va trong thuy ngan, Do d6 :

PI ::;P2 =,P3 Theo cong thirc (2-12) ta co :

PI = Pa + Ytnht = Pa + 133416N/m3 x O,5m = Pa + 66708 N/m2

Po::; P3 + Yn h3 = PI + Ynh3= Pa +66708 N/m2 + 9810 N/m3 x 1,5m = = Ps + 81423 N/m2

PA::; Po -YnR = Pa + 81423 N/m2-9810N/m3xlm == = Pa + 71613N/m2

42

Pa = Po + YnR = Pa + 81423 N/m2 + 9810 N/m3 x 1m = = Pa + 91233 N/m2.

Nhu vay ap suat dir tai cac diem tren la :

POdu = 81,423 kPa ; PAdll = 71,613 kPa ; Prull = 91,233 kPa.

Ap suat tai dinh ong chii' U chua mrcc :

PH = PI - YnH = Pa + 66708 N/m2 - 9810 N/m3 x 10 m = = Pa. 31392 N/m2

Nhir vay tai day xuat hien chan khong va ap suat chan khong tai diem H 13. :

PHek = 31,392 kPa.

Bili 2. Thang may chuyen v~t lieu tai met cong tnrong xay dung van hanh len va xu6ng v6i gia toe ca hai chieu la a= 2m/52 chO mot thung phi ha nap dung d~y rnroc, Kich thtroc

thung phi : D = 800mm cao L = l000mm. Cho biet lip hrc len day thung hie len va hie xuong, Chieu day 3 toi thieu cua day thung la bao nhieu neu la ton thep co ung suat cat cho phep la 'rep = 400kG/cm2 ?

'.

Giiii:

Xac dinh ap l1!c len day thong :

Tnroc het can xac dinh ap suit tai day thung de tit d6 suy fa ap hrc, Thang may chuyen dong theo chieu thang dUng nen gia t6c cua no chi co thanh phan phirong z va nhu vay a day gia t6c hrc kh6i Clla h¢ thong nay (theo (2-4) va (2-5» Ia :

au=x=o. OO=y=o. OO=Z

ax 'By 'm.

va khi len khixuong

Z= g + a, Z=g-a

do gia t6c quan tinh (gay nen 19c khoi b6 sung) luon nguoc chieu v6i gia t6c chuyen dong. Vi vay, neu lay tron gia toe trong tnrong g = 10m/52, khi len theo (2-9) ap suat du 0 day

thung Ia :

va khi xuong

p = peg + a)I1' P = peg -a)H

nen ap 19c len day thimg voi S la dien tfch day va mat d¢ mroc p = 1000 kg/m! : - Khi len

, 1tD2 1t x (0 4ml 3 2 2

P1en = Sp(g + a) =-p(g+a) = ' lO00kg/m x(lOm/s +3m/s )

4 4

P1en = 13,0624. 103kg rn/s 2 = 13,0624 kN.

43

- Khi xuong

TID2 rr x (0,4m)2 3 2 2

Pllu6ng = Sp(g - a) = 4P(g -a) = 4 1000kg/m x(lOm/s -3m/s )

p llu6ng= 7,0336.103kgm/s2 = 7,0336 kN.

Xac dinh be day day.

P

1=-

18

trong do PIa 11!C tM (ap 11!c), [la chu vi day thung, 8 la be day day thung. Do do kiem tra sire ben 6 day phai dung tri so ap lire Ian hon, tuc la ap lire khi thang di len

3~ =~= 13,0624kN = 13062,4N = 12993,4xlO-7 :::::;1,3mm

P h nO, 8m x 400kG / m2 nO, 8m x 400.104 N / m2

Nhu vay phai dung ton eo quy each sao eho eo chieu day &;?: 1,3mm.

Bal 3. Xe xitec co bon chua hinh hop kich thiroc nhu sau : chien dai b = 2m, rong e = 1,6m, cao H = 1,Om, chua chat long den ngan h = O,Sm (xem hinh 2.14).

Hoi xe duoc phep tang tee (hoac ham dl: giam toe) voi gia toe toi da la bao nhieu de chat long khong trao (xanh) ra khoi mep bon ? Vci gia toc toi da do ap hrc len day bon la bao nhieu, neu chat long Ia mroc ?

Giai:

• Tinh gia toe toi da :

Luc xe dirng yen hoac chuyen dong deu mat thoang cua mroc la mat Dam ngang.

Khi xe tang toe, theo thuyet tinh wong dol, mat thoang cfing nhu mat d&ng ap la cac mat phang nam nghieng nlur mo ta cua cong thirc (2-14a).

a

z = --x +const

g

trong do : g la gia toe trong tnrong, a la gia toe ella xe. Nuoc bat dau trao ra ngoai khi mat thoang di qua mep thanh bon (6 tnrong hop nay tnrochoac sau). Voi each chon true toa d¢ nhu cr hlnh 2.14 doi voi mat thoang const = 0 nen tnrong hop tang tee ta co :

2

-a = gH = 9,81m/s xlm =-4 90Sm/s2

mall b -2m '

...... a

.... - ........

.............

:r:

x

b

Hinh 2.14

vi hie do b = -2m (tren true toa d¢). - Tinh ap hrc len day bon:

Do ap luc len day thung chi chiu anh huang boi gia t6c hrc khoi Z = -g (gia toc a nam ngang) nen khi nuoc chua trao fa khoi bon thi ap hrc len day bon chinh la trong hrong cua khoi mroc trong bon (cho du diem di,i.t cua ap luc khac voi hie dung yen). Nghia ra :

44

Pz = G ~ pxgx bx ex h = lOOOkgm-3 x9,81ms-2 x2,Omx l,6mx 0,5m = = 15696N = 15, 696kN

Bal 4. Thang phi dtrong kinh d = l Dm, cao h = 2m (hlnh 2.15) dung mroc quay quanh true cua n6 vci s6 yang quay n = 30 vang!phut. Liic dt'ing yen muc (man) mroc trong thung H= 1m. Hay

- Xac dinh phirong trinh m~t thoang,

- Liic quay ap luc len day thung III bao nhieu ?

- DuQC phep lang s6 vong quay tm tti s6 t6i da la bao

nhieu de mroc khong yang ra khoi thong?

Giai :

I -,
I
Id
I I I
\ I
I I I
I I I
I I
I I I
I I I
I W
I I f ..c
\
\ I
I I
I I 1
I I I
I
I I I
\ I
\ I I
,
\ I I
\ I
, I - Phuong trmh mat thoang, Theo (2-17b) : 02r2

-- - gz = const. . 2

V m z = 0 ; r = ° ta co dirong parabon di qua g6c toa de) :

(27tn)2 r2 (2X 3, 14x 30v IP)2 r2

02r2 60 60

z = -- = =....::...__-----....:::...__-

2g 2g 2x9,81

z = O,5r2

la phuong trlnh mat thoang neu coi nola duong dAngap co tri s6 ap suat p = Ps-

- Ap lI!c len day thung. Liic quay ta thay gia t6c plurong z (true giao vci day) cua luc kh6i khong co su thay dOi, van nguyen nhu Cll nen du thung quay, ap 11!c len day ciing van gili nguyen gia tri va bang trong hrong khoi rnroc chira trong thung :

1td2 '-3 _23,14x(lm)2 2

Pz = G = pg-H = l000kgm x 9.81ms x 1m = 7000kgms

4 4

Hinh 2.15

P -7kN

1.-

- S6 vong quay t6i da. ~ mroc khong yang khoi thung khi s6 yang quay tang dan t6'i tri s6 irng vm dirong mat thoang di qua mieng thiing xac dinh tir k€t qua trung gian khi xac dinh phuong trmh mat thoang a tren.

~2x9.81ms-2 x2m 120 ~ gf hri

3,14 1,0m ~ von p ut.

--x--

3D 2

( 1t )2 X n2

30 2 .J2gxz

z= ' xr ~n=...:......;..._-

2xg _7t r

30

TiI day suy ra :

~

"max = 7t d

302

45

Bili 5, COng nghe due ong be tong bang phtrong phap ly tam : KhuOn due hlnh try dUng co ducrng kinh D = 1120 rnm, chieu cao H = 1000 mm, quay xung quanh true ella no vOi 56 vong quay n = 500 vong/phiit. Viia xi mang co trong hrong rieng y = 1600kG/m3 voi yeu cau

chieu day b day la 31 = 60 mm. Hoi chieu day d~u tren 32 la bao nhieu (xem hlnh 2.16).

Giai:

V Oi dii lieu tren ta co :

... 21m 2 x 1t X 500

~ VAn toe g6e 00 = - = = 52, 3Rad /5

. 60 60

~ Phuong trlnh mat thoang parabon thea (2~17h): 0)2r2

-- - gz = const 2

z = ° ; r = ° ~ const = ° nen :

v6i

'.

0)2r2 z=--

2g

co dlnh b goc toa d¢ rOz (H.2.16). Nhu vay day khuon phai l:J d¢ cao so voi g6c toa d¢ nay la hI chua biet, Theo hlnh 2.16 :

rl = D/2 - 31 = 1120mm/2 - 60 mm = 500mm = O,5m

Tir quan h~ hlnh hoc cua mat thoang ta co:

hI = 00\2 = (52,3rad.s-1)2 x (O,5m)2 = 34,9m.

2g 2xlOm/s2

"

~:.

'.' '" ' .. ", '.' '" I,., ...

:_4I::

::;: D I

I : ,'\. '\. °1 : I : '

" I

, ' I

\ I :

, I I

~ I :

\ I I

, I' \ I

r

Hinh 2.16

h2 = hI + H = 34,9m + 1m = 35,9m

2 2 r.;:;::- I 2 .

h2 = 00 r2 ~ r2 = ,,2gh2 = 'V2x lOms- x 35,9m = O,507m.

2g 00 52, 3 rad 5-1

L,p co:

vatir

Bi€t rang :

32 = D -r2 = 1,120m O,507m=O,053m=53mm

2 2

32 = 53mm.

Bal 6,·~ chira co mat cAt ngang nhu trong hlnh 2.17, Chieu dai be la dubng thang. Xac dinh ap luc va diim d~t ella 19c cho mot don vi chieu dai thanh ben.

Giai:

Theo de bai day lit hili toan xac dinh ap luc thuj' tinh len m$t cong, Ta tha':y neu ChQD mat cAt ngang DAm trong mat phang toa d¢ thi co the coi P y = 0 va chi canquan tam den P;>;

ri~ .

46

Trong d6:

. 2 nR2 2 nR2

VABCDE =lx(R --) ..... lx(R +-)-

4 4

. . nR2. nR2

-1 x (Rx 3R --)+ lx(3Rx R +_ .. -) =

. 4 _4

nR2--nR2 1tR_2--" 7tR2 .

= R2 R2 ---3R2 +-+3R2 +-=0.

4 4' 4·" 4"

Do v~t thf ap 1\lC bang khong nen :

Pz=O.

- Xac dlnh di~m d.t 'I;fc - tAm ·ap"I;fc. -

Do P y = p z = 0 nen P = P x va dietn ~t cUa P chfnh 18 di~m ~t P X' mtt ring. phan b6 ap suat thuj tinh theo chi~u sAu 18 tam giaC vuOng c6 canh day la yhE vlri. hE la d¢ sau eua diem E va chieu cao hE nen diem ,d~t ph8.i a d¢ sAu 2hJ3. Suy fa tam ap 1\lC cbfnh 13. diem

- Xac dinb Px:

Do tfnh chat cua cac dit kien dii eho b dAy chi can quan tam dc!n ap suatdu nen trong (2-20a) vang mat ap sua:t moi

tnrong xung quanh Po. cu the lil :

P, = pghcQ'

= l000kgm-3 x 9,81ms-2 x (4x2m)/2 x (lm x 8m)

= 313920kgm/s2

Px = 313,92 kN - Xac dinh P:

Theo (2-22d) ta co

Pz =-pgVaI-

Vi v~y tnroc htt ta X3.c dinh v~t the ap luc Val-

Theo hlnh 2.17 ta co v~t the ap luc cua mot don vi chieu ~ dai kenh :

'.

Dpc6 toa d¢:

1,B86m

Hinh2.17 -

p(x; y; z);P( R2 -(3R- ~hE J ; 0; 8R/3); P(l,886m; 0; 5,33m). P(1,886m ; 0; 5,33m)

18 dit~m nam tren m~t cong, cung dean CD.

47

T6NG KtT CHUONG II

Chuang II nghien CUu cac quy luat cua thuy tinh h9C va cac van de lien quan nhu hai tinh chAt co ban cua ap suAt thuy tinh noi ve phuong tac dung va tfnh dAng huang cua n6. Tir phirong trinh can bang hrc cua kh6i nguyen t6 chat long thuy tinh suy fa quy luat phan b6 ap suat thuy tinh trong tnrong trong hrc, rno rong ra khainiem tinh Wang d6i vm gia t6c chuyen ~¢ng thAng va trong tnrong ly tarn (quay vOi s6 vong quay khOng d6i). Dong thoi, qua met s6 vi du rninh hoa co thi thay duqc nhUng ting dung dt thiet thirc trong cu.¢<:: s6ng.

Ciing trong chuang nay co the tim thay each dAn dat cac cOng th-uc tinh ap ll:1c len thanh phang va thanh cong vOi viec xac dinh tri s6, phirong va chieu tac dung cua ap ItJC cting nhu diem d(it cjia no - tam ap 11!C. M¢t he qua quan trong thu duqc trong qua trlnh din dat la ap suAt tai mat thoang diroc truyen nguyen ven d€n moi huang. moi noi trong kh6i chat long. Day Iii nguyen Ii Pascal. Ta con thay, neu sit dung cac ket qua thu duqc cua qua trinh clnmg minh cong tmrc, viec clumg rninh nguyen li Archimedes se het suc de dang, dueng nhu Iii hien nhien de roi di den phat bieu nguyen If ve v~t n6i.

48

ChU(1ng III

CO SOI)()NG HOC vA I)()NG Ll1C HOC

ill • -. .• .. oil

CVA CHAT L6NG CHUyfNI>ONG

·1. Cac phuong phap toan h9C dung eho vi~e khao sat 1.1. Phtamg poop Lagrange (each titp c"n)

Phuong phap nay dung each tiep can phan tit chat long rna vi tri eua n6 tai moi thOi diim phu thuoc vao vi trl ban d~u. Day la phuongphap quen biet trong 'eo hoc v~t ran. 0 day nguoi ta nghien cau chuyen dong eua timg phan tit cua n6. Neu vi tri ban d~u duoc xac dinh

boi vecto vi tri rodinh 'vi d,Mm Po up thoi diem to

thi tai thoi diem t bat kl, ham Vi' tri cua ph~ tir z

chat long l3. : r = r(ro.t)

voi kf hieu viet d~m la vecto, Do v~y, duong

" nhien : ro = r(ro,to)

Cfing eo the thay vi dung ham vecto r ta dung ham cua cac bien toa d¢ cua diem Po b thai diem bat kl t nao dffy 18 a, b. e de xac dinh , x = x(a,b,c,t)

y = y(a,b,e,t)

p

I

I

I IZ I

r

r ,

I x,.;;

_ y J ;.,.. ...

------------~--~

y

Hinh3.l

z :; z(a,b.e.t)

vOi a, b, e Ia cac bien Lagrange ; x, y, z la eae IWn dt1ll-trj. lien tuc va it nhfftkhi vi 2 l~, nghia la chung eo d",o ham bac nhat va ~ hai ~ moi ~di,' IIlQi hie.

V Oi cac di~u kien nhu ~y thl Mt ki ~¢t du(fng 1.0 mb,'Mt ld ~t)t ,~tSo nao di qua Po den thm diem t sau to se c6 mt)t duCnig L. mQt ~t S tuonJ ling 'di qua P. Nhu v~y vOi :

a :; ft ().), b':; f2(1..), e :; f3(1..)

13 cac ham tham bien I.. xacdinh mQt dUCrng bl1i tham bien va hie do liP thoi diem t e6 : x.:; x[f1(1..), f2(1..), f30.), t] :; <PIO .. ,t)

y :; y[f~ (1..), f2(i\.), f3(1..), t] :; <P2(A.,t)

z = z[f1(A.), f2(1..), f3(A), t] :; <piA,t).

la h¢ phuong trlnh tham bien (vi tri va thoi gian).

Tit cac quan h¢ tren ta eo cac dai hrong din xua.'t van t6c va gia t6c theo chieu cac true to~d¢ :

49

Ox Ox(a, b, c, t) fix 82x(a, b, c, t)

u =-= =>a .;::!-=----

x at at x at2 at2

Oy_ Oy(a,b,c,t) 82y 82y(a,b,c,t)

U =-= " =>a =-=........;;.,....;.._~___;_

y at ,at Y $t2. 012

, 22

fJz fJz(a,b,c,t) - 8 Z 8 z(a,b,c,t)

Uz = at = Ot _ => az = 012 = cit.2 .

y nghia vat li cua phuong phap la khi khao sat bien d¢ng trang thai cua ph~ tir chat long nguoi ta bam theo n6, n6i each khac, ngum quan sat "troi" cung phlin tit chat long, tdc la gan true toa di) vai phan tir chilt long. Giei k'i thuat it dung phucmg phap nay vi co the g~p kho khan trong xir., If toan hoc, Thuong duoc sii dung trong nghien ciru song va chuyen dong xoay.

1.2. Phuong phap Euler

Phuong phap nay khong gan cac d~c tnmg chuyen dong vao phan tir chat long rna khao sat khong gian c6 dinh chira d~y chat long, xem d~c tnmg cua cluing phan b6;a, sao. 0 day nguai ta khao sat d6ng thoi su bien dOi trang thai tai moi diem cua khong gian chilt long. N6i each khac, ta xem tai mot diem bat kl, kh6ng chiu mot rang buoc nao, cac d~c tnmg

'. nhu mat d¢, van toe, gia toc, ... bien d¢ng ra sao. Nhu v~y viec khao sat dan den st;r tim hieu mot khong gian trang thai nhu truong mat d¢, nhiet d¢-, ... la cac ~c tnmg v6 huang ; truong van toe, gia t6c, '" la cac d~c tnmg g6m ca tri s6 Ian hudng vectc, Trong kh6ng gian nay tai diem bat kl nao, vao bat cu thoi diem nao, cac d~c tnmg noi tren deu c6 the xac dinh duoc nhu mot tnrong. Phuong phap nay khong quan tam den "s6 phan" cua timg ph~n tir chili long. Vi du d6i voi van tOC ta co mot tnrong vecto c6 the bieu dien gon nhat bang m¢t_ ham vecta bie'n vecto

" = "(1. t) (dung chit dam net de ki hieu vecto : ii = u = u(r,t» co cac thanh phan sau

Ux: ux(X,y,z,t):}

Ily ::- uy(x,y,z.t)" (3-1)

Uz = uz(xS,z,t).

"

18. cac ham vb hlllmg biln vb huang.

Tuong t\,l, d6i vdi m~t d¢ ta cling co the viet : .p = p(x,y ,z,t) .

. T6m lai c6 the suy ra gia t6c :

dux Oux Oux Ox Oux Oy Oux fJz Oux Oux '_ Oux Oux

a =-=-+--+--+--=-' -+-u +-u +-u

x dtat Ox at By Ot &z at Ot Ox x By y fJz z

_ du, Ouy Ouy Ox Ouy iJy Ouy fJz Ouy Ouy Ouy Ouy

a =--::;::-+--+--+--=-+-u +-u +-u (3-2a)

y dt at Ox at Oy at fJz at at Ox x fly y fJz z

du, Ouz Ouz Ox duz Oy Ouz fJz Ouz Ouz Ouz Ouz

a =-=-+--+--+--=-+-u +-u +-u

z dt at Ox at Oy at &z at at ' Ox x fJy y fJz z

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ax Oy az

~ u=-'u=-'u=-

x at' Y at' Z Qt'

De gon, c6 the bie~ dien tnrong van t6c bang ham vecta bien va huang thaythecac h~ thuc(3,-1) :

U = u(x,y,z,t)

tit day co gia t6c:

_ dii au au au au Oil _- _ 0

a= a=-=-+-u +-u +-u =-+(u'V)u = -u+(uV)u (3-2b)

dt at ax x ay Y az Z at at

vdi toan tir Nabla:

'0 .0 .0 kO

v = 1-+j-+ -_ .

Ox Oy fJz

Trong (3-2b) s6 hang thO' nMt : IA gia t6e cue b¢ (dia phucng), s6 hang thu hai (uV)u Hi gia t6c dich ehuyen (gia t6c trao d6i) ; sau xa, n6 III cau nOi giiia finh va dong.

Den day cung can n6i clog, co the chuyen tit h~ Lagrange sang he Euler hoac nguoc lai, , nha cac quan h~ tontai giifa cac, bien a, b, e va x, y, z (bieu dien dum dang nrong minh

".thujn nhat)' ciing nhu dinh nghia vat If cua van tOe Uv = Ox , dx . Tuc la lam sao thay het

, ... ~ at dt '

cac bien Lagrange a, b, e bdng cac bien x, y, z de chuyen tu he Lagrange sang h~ Euler.

N guqe lai, de chuyen tit Euler sang Lagrange ta phai giai xac dinh : x = JUxdt = f.(x,y.z,t)+C1

y = fUydt = f2(x, y, z, t) + C2

z = fUzdt = f3(x, y,Z, t) + C3

Trong do ; C1, ~, C3 1a cac hang s6 tieh phan, Trong h~ Lagrange cac hang s6 tich phan nay co the eoi la cae bien d¢e l~p neu viet diroc :

x = 'Pl(C1,<;.C3.t).

s= <t>iCl ,C;,~,t).

-'Z.:,,;;=':(P3(CliCa,Cs.t)~, ,-i"._,; '~,; ",,,, ,-,

So sanh v6i each bi~lL~'" <1i~m.t6Q ~ ~,h~1;8grange.: .:

x = qtI(a.b;c,t). ;

" Y = <P2(a,bi,t),

Z =,'P3(a,b.e.t).

dga vao nguyen Ii d6ng Dbat, co the' thllY : a = C1, b = ~. e ;;;: C;. N ghia la xuat phat til diem Po(a,b,e) : a = C1 ; b= c;; e = C3 co the khao sat ph4n,tU eMt Ihng tai then diem to co

Bitu diln loan h{JC thi nhu the. song trong qua trinh chuyln h~ nhieu khi g~p rat nhitu kho khan.

51

..

Hinh 3.2 cho thlly su khac nhau giua 2 each tiep can tren cung mOt d6i nrong Ia hinh inh chay bao quanh tru e~u.

Thea Lagrange

Thea Euler

Hlnh3.2

2. Cac dang ehuy~n d()ng. Cac kien!;;to hlnhhoc trong dong ehay

Cac d~e tntng cua chat long chuyen d(mg - phu thu¢e vao vi tri, thbi gian - co the thay dOi hoac e6 dinh /khong thay dOi.

Kh6i niem 6n dinh/dang, khong tin dink/khong di/ng III pham tru g&n VOl thOi gian.

Vi du thao can met li chua nu6c qua m¢t lO/voi! eUa xi thi :

Ntu khong b6 sung mWc cho bl chUa giii cho mI!C nuUc kh6ng Mi, chuyln d¢ng coo dong chd» la khong 6n dinh vi m\IC n~ giAnt d&nkhi€n eho ap 1\TC eUa xi eUng gi8.m, dAn den v~ t6c gilun d4n theo thm gian ; cac ~ trung khac cling vi the rna thay d6i theo.

Song. ntu duy tri mVc' nlli1c cd dinh. dong duiy Itl tin dinh (dUng), chuyin d¢ng Id 6n dinh.

Neu m1!C mroc t,e chtra khong thay dOi nhung kenh hay 6ng xi co tiet dien thay dOi, dong chay (trong kenh, trong 6ng xa) tin dinh kh6ng deu, ngugc lai, neu tiet dien khong dOi, dong chay 6n dinh. deu.

Tom lai, cac khai niem tren trong cac bifu thee toan hQC the hien nhu sau :

U = U (x.y.z.t) d~e trung cho dong khong 6n dinh xct theo t6c d¢ va gia t6c.

U = u(x,y.z) va ! U = 0 d~c tnmg cho dong On dinh,

U = utx.y.z) ; a = atx.y.z) ¢ 0, vm ala gia toc, dong 6n dinh khong d~u. u = const ; a = O. dong 6n dinh d~u.

Cac kien tao hlnh hQC. Trong dong chAy t6n ~ mot s6 kien tao hinh hQC nhu quy dao, duong dong, duemg vet, dOi khi thong qua chung, ta co the bift dUQC tfnh eht(t ciia dong chay. Dieu se tMy r5 dum day,

52

Quj ~o ld kiln tao hinh h9C phdt sinh bdi mot phdn tli eMt'lOng cu thl vacb ra khi ehuyln dQng.

f)llImg dong la' dUltng bao cdc vecta vt,in tee dong chd» va tUp tuyen ella no trung vai

vecta vt,in toe tai iiep dilm. TIr y nghia hinh hoc cua n6 (ti€p tuyen ddY ) up mot diim tren

- x

dO¥1 duemg dong ds :

ds = ~r-d-X2-+-d-y-2-+-d-z-2

~ dx / dy / dz = Ux / uy / Uz

va vecto van t6c tai tiep diim nay u = [ux,uy,uJ nhu tren hinh 3.3 ta dtroc phuong trinh vi philo dubng dong:

dx dy dz

---= = (3-3)

ux(x,y,z) uy(x,y,z) uz(x,y,z)

y

Hinh 3.3

va 11k n~y (tnrong hop dong dimg) duang dong

trung vci duang quy dao. N6i each khac, neu qua quan sat biet diroc dubng dong ""ii quy " dao nhu nhau, c6 thi ket luan, d6 la dong On dinh, Iii dong dirng,

Dllimg vit ld tuyen tt,ip hap cae phdn (Ii chat long di qua (da va dang di qua) cung mot dilm cd dinb trong khong gian chat long.

CO the noi, trong dong chdy 6n dinh quj dao, duang dong va duang vet trung nhau.

y

x

Hinh 3.4

Hlnh 3.4 mo ti gan dUng 3 kien tao n6i tren qua-met vi du ClJ. thi caa dong duqc dac tnmg hOi tnrong van t6c d6ng nha:t vm tri s6 van t6c u = const nhung hu6ng cua no thay d6i

53

deu theo thm gian (taimoi diem vectc van ~6c Ion nhu nhau nhung quay tron nguoc chieu, kim dOng ho).

""

Ong' dong duac tao bat tiJp hap duang dong di qua mot duang khep kin. Do su hlnh

thanh nhu th~ cua ong dong nen khong the co phan tu chit long nao xuyen qua 6ng dong, ding co nghia la khong e6 su trao d6i vat chat giila chat long chay trong va ngoai 6ng dong. Vi n~u khong, v6 hlnh chung co vecto van t6e khong tiep xuc voi dirong dong, 180 dieu trai voi dinh nghia.

DOng thm e6 the noi, trong dong khong 6n dinh cac khai niem ve cac ben tao noi tren khong con may y nghia va khong co tinh tiwe tien.

Dong nguyen tif fa dong chdy trong tfng dong (hinh 3.5).

Hinh3.5

3. M(tt sO khai niem thuy l1!c li~n quan·d€n dong chay

De hO trq eho ohUng khao sat tiep thea c~ nim duqc mot s6 khai niern thuy 1\fC dum day.

Luu lltr,rng. Tich so ella mat cat An va v~n t6c u (true giao vm &1) HI. luu hrong tiQ chay qua mat cAt d6, do hang m3/s hay lIs : tiQ = utiO.

M4t edt wit. Neu xay dung dUQ'c mot m~t cat 0 cua mot dong chay sao cho tai moi noi no tnrc giao vci vee to van t6c cua dong chay va 0 = lim L tiO = JdO thi d6 180 mat cat

An~ ,

n

uOt va hru hrong toan dong 180 Q = JUdO.

n

Chu vi uat. Phan chu vi cua mat cat uOt tiep xuc voi chat long chuyen dong 180 chu vi uOt cua mat cat uOt do va duoc ki hieu bang ki tg Hi 4P X (chn "khi"),

Ban kinh thuy life 180 ti so giua dien tich m~t dt UOt va ehu vi uOt :

R=Q X

(3-4a)

Vi du, neu mat eilt UOt 13. m~t cat cua m¢t 6ng tron dUCmg kfnh d thi trong tnrong hop chay da:y mat cat e6 bin kinh thuy 1ge 13. :

mI2

- d'

R = __±_ = - = E. (3-3b)

red 4 2

voi r 13. ban kfnh 6ng ..

54

4. Phueng trmh Him tuc

Dieu kien co ban dam bao su t6n tai cua mot dong chay la tinh lien tuc cua cac d~c tntng dong chay thea toa dO (vi trf) va theo thci gian. Nghia la khi chuyen dong eh{(t long· phlli tuan thll dieu kien lien tuc, kh6ng gian doan ; chat long phai chuyen dong trong cac long dan, kenh ttrong ling nhu la mOt moi tnrong lien U,lC, khong co su gian doan, Nguoi ta bieu thi n6 bang phuong trlnh toan

hoc nhu sau.

can ell vao hinh 3.6 dong chay duqc quan sat til mot h~ toa dO c6 dinh la Oxyz, Trong nrong tucng hay tach khoi moi truong chat long mot kh6i chat long hinh hop co cac canh dx, dy, dz song song voi cac true toa dO tuong UOg clla h~ toa di). O' la dinh toa dO (x,y,z) eua hinh hop nay. v~ t6e thanh phan cua dong chay tai O' liin luot

ta ux' Uy va Uz-

Qua mat ben O'A'B'C' dien tfch dydz cua hinh hop, voi thm doan dt, mot kh6i hrong

z

y

a

x

Hinh 3.6

chat long pUx x dydz x dt di vao hinh hop,

Qua mat ben d6i dien O"A"B"C' co toa di) (x+dx.y.z) mot kh6i hrong chat long ra khoi hinh hop la :

pu, dydzdt + ! (pu x )dydzdt= [pu x + 8(:x) ] dydzdt

N hu vgy, trong khodng thai gian dt s6 chat long VaG va ra chenh lech nhau mi)t luong : pu, dydzdt - [~ (pux) dxdydzdt + PUxdYdzdt] = - ! (pu, )dxdydzdt.

Tuong tt;( npu v*y d6i v6i cachuong y va Z (ltic la~ d6i v6i caccap ~t A'A"O"O'B'B"C'C' va O~O"C'C' - A'A"B"B'} c6 lttQD.g chenh l~h· ch{(t lbng luang ang de tOng

hop eho toan hi) hlnh hep :

a .

. ~ - ax. (pu, )dxdydzdt ;

a

-By (puy)dxdydzdt ;

a

- Oz (puz)dxdydzdt.

Cho phuong x :

Cho plurong y :

ellO phuong z :

Til day chenh lech giila chat long chay vao va chay ra d6i voi toan hinh hop la :

5S

"

-[! (pU,)+ ~ (pUy)+ ! (PU,)]dXdYdzdl

- Cach ti€p c~ tren nang v~ suy dien toan hQC v6i gilt thi€t 13. trong khong gian vO cung

be noi chung "moi tlnr" d~u tuyen tinh. Song, neu suy xet til khiacanh v~t Ii, co the thay :

Sau khi chon he true t01;\ dQ (t01;\ dQ diem g6c 0') tbe tfch hinh hop "cimg" dxdydz Ia xac dinh, tri s6 cua no (khong phu thuoc vao thai gian) cling xac dinh. Vi vay, su thay dOi cua kh6i chat long chi co the xay ra do mat dQ thay dOi theo thoi gian. COn neu khong, chi co the vi co sl.! gian doan nao da'y a noi b¢ kh6i chat long trong hinh hop nhu : soi, gay bong hoi, hoac hrong khf hoa tan giru phong gay thien tich, ... , dieu do trai v6i tinh lien tuc, khong t6n tai trong dieu kien dang xet, Trong tnrong hop coi nhiet dQ la khong dOi, noi chung mat dQ.cua chat long phu thuoc vao toa dQ va thai gian, P = p(x,y,Z,t). Vi dii chon each tiep can Euler nen khi x, y, z dii xac dinh thl su thay dOi cua p chi co the Ia do yeu t6

thai gian. B&i vay su thay dOi cua mat dQ trong khoang thai gian _dt phai la : dt keo thea

su thay dOi kh6i hrong cua kh6i, chat long dxdydz la : dt x dxdydz. V~t chat kh6ng sinh ra ciing khong mat di, vi the, d~ bao dam tfnh lien tuc ket qui cua hai each tiep can phai nhu nhau v6i hru y rang neu kh6i hrong ra Ian hon kh6i luong vao, trong the tich dxdydz, kh6i char long phai "nhe" di, tuc Ia mat dQ phai giam, Hoac nguoc lai, neu hrong fa nho hon hrong vao, kh6i chat long "nang" len, trong the tich dxdydz mat dQ phai tang. Ket qua Ia :

op [0 8 8 ]

at dtdxdydz = - ax (pu It ) + ay (puy) + f)z (pu,) dxdydzdt (3-4b)

(3-4a)

Chuyen ve va UOc -luqc dxdydzdt :

op a 0 a

-+-(pux)+-(pUy)+-' (puz)=O.

at Ox 'By f)z

(3-4c)

, '

Trong co hQC chat long va thuy 1\fC nglllli ta 8Qi 'phUUn8 trinh nay I" phuang trinh

lien tuc, no co gia tri d6i'v6i dong ehiy kheng On djnhhay 6n dinh ella tilt ca cac 101P chat long, bat ke nen duqc hay khong nen duqc. DuOngnhienvOi dieu kien nhi¢t dQ khOng dOi .

. ". ' '.

- Neu dong chay la On dinh, (3-4C) d¢c 14p v6i thoigian, Z= O. ta co :

-

8(pux) o(puy) o(puz) 0 h di (pii) 0 ax + ay + fJz '= ,ay v pu = -

(3-4d)

voi :

div(pii) = [I ! + J ~ + k ! ].[Iu. + JUy + ku,]

trong do: T,}, k la cac vecto dan vi nrong 6ng tren cac true h¢ toa dQ vuOng goc Decac.

56

- N€U.d dong chay 6n dinh cua chat l~ng khong chiu nen, tac6 :

aux + Ouy + auz = 0 =$ divii = 0 Ox Oy &

Vi du d6i vCri. dong nguyen t6 chay On dinh cua chat long

chiu nen :

(3-4e)

pun = const ~ PIUtnt = P2U2nZ' (3-4f)

trong do : a Th tiet dien bat ld caa dong nguyen t6, a1• n2 ; u1• U2 ; Pl' P2 la tiet dien, van toc va mat dO tai m~t 1 va 2 (xem \ hlnh 3.7 cung voi van toc va mat d¢ tai cac mat cat tuong irng),

D6i vCri. chat long khong chiu nen

un = const ~ Utn, = u2n2

S. Phan tich hanh vi cua mt)t phdn tit chAt Umg - Chuy~ndQng the va chuy~n dQngxoay

Nhu da biet, trong co hoc v~t cln su chuyen dQng cua m¢t phan tit co the phan tich thanh 2 loai chuyen d¢ng co ban: tinh tien va quay. Nguoi ta da bo qua bien dang cuavat the vi " so voi cac dai hrong khac mire d¢ bien d~g cua cluing vO cung be.

Hinh3.7

,-

..' :~ ~... ",_

... ~

." .. i:; ..

"

Hinh :3.8

c)

57

Trong chai long s1,1 chuyen dQng cua m¢t 2hiln tit phtrc tap hem do tinh de bi!!n dang Clla no. Vi vay, nhu se thay, chuyin drng cua mot phdn tu chat long ta t6ng,hqp cUa 3 dang chuyin dqng ca bdn : linh lien (hinh 3.8a), quay (hinh 3.8b) va bien dang (hinh 3.8c), xay ra dong thoi. Do 180 dinh luat Helmholtz.

BAy giCl hay khao sat mQt phan tit chat long co dang hlnhhop vuong g6c co cac canh dx, dy, dz. Viec chon nhu the khong lam mat di tfnh t6ng quat cua cac ket qua sau nay, no chi giup ta xu If van de de dang hem. Tnroc het hay nghien cuu st;( chuyen dong cua mot mij.t nao do cua hinh hop, vi du, m~t ABDC trong mat phfuIg xOz tren hinh 3.9, nmrng chi xem xet den chuyen dong quay va chuyen dong bien dang (bien hlnh), tam thm chua quan tarn den chuyen dong tinh tien cua no VI khong kho xac dinh,

z

U.+~dX :J~

_d_x_....__ U + ii\J, ~

Au. B 'ax

z

D

o

x

Hinh 3.9

GQi van t6c 0 diem A toa dQ A(x,O,z) la u = ftx.z) vOi cac thrum phan huang x va z 180 Ux = f1(x,z) ; uz:::: f2(x,z)

Nhu the. tai diem B(x+dx,z) bang ngoai suy tuyen tinh tit A

au au

uSx = u, + _x dx ; uBz. = Uz + ~ dx (3-5a)

ax ax

Tai diem C(x,z+dz) :

au . au

u ..... _ = u +__.!.dz· Uez = U +_z dz (3-5b)

........ x f}z' z i:Jz

Tai diem Drx+dx.z+dz) co cac thanh ph&t v~ t6c nrong ung sau :

au au - au au

uDx = u, +_x dx+_x dz ; UDz =uz +_z dx+-z dz ·(3-5c)

ax f}z ax f}z

De dang nhan thay co s1,1 khac biet v~ t6c tai cac dinh tao nen su chenh lech doc canh gay nen co dan dai va su chenh lech ngang (true giao) lam cho canh phaiquay, dOng thoi goc quay giua 2 canh lien ke khong nhu nhau va con co the khong cung chieu voi nhau dan den bien dang goc (noi chung 1a gay bien dang),

Xet bien dang dal (co - dan) ella cac tu giac vuong g6c nay. TiP thm diem t coi la thoi diem goc tu giac ABDC chua bi bien dang. Song. den thm diem t +. dt, tue la dt sau do no

58

chuyen thanh AB'D'C' (hinh 3.lOa). Nhu v~y canh AB song song v6i true Ox chiu m¢t bien dang dai:

, au au

(UBx-UAx)dt::;(ux +_x dx)dt-(ux)dt::;_x dxdt (3-6a)

Ox Ox

theo phucmg Ox. Va, canh AC song song vm true Oz. chiu mot bien dang dai la :

au au

(uez - U Az )dt ::; (u, + _z )dt - (u, )dt ::; _z dzdt (3-6b)

8z Oz

Bang phucmg phap nrong t1:1 c6 the cluing minh d6i v6i canh AF song song vci true Oy

Z .(lIz + ~dZ}dt

C' I D'

C t---"l __ -+- ..... D

I (lI~ + aJ~ dx}dt ,iJ1,

N

"0 U. dx

J B

x

A u, B'

Hinn 3.l0a

ta cfing c6 :

. au

(UFy - uAy )dt::; _y dydt

fJy

(3-6c)

'.

Duong nhien do each chon toa d¢ : uAx ::; Ux ; uAy::; uy va uAz ::; uz.

Tir y nghia v~t H (coi lU<J11g dan dai la quang dtrong di diroc trong khoang thoi gian dt)

au au au

suy ra cac dai 1u<J11g a:. dx, a: dy, a:. dz la cac thanh phan t6c d¢ bien dang dai

urong irng,

Xet bien dang g6c dan thuan va quay dan thuan. Nhu tren, v6i cac lei hieu tren hlnh 3.10b, thoat dAu tai thOi diem g6c to ::; t hlnh chu nhat ABDC chua ~i bien dang, c~c goc .ciia n6 dang vuOng. Nhung d€n thOi di€m t + dt 06 bien thanh AB'TI"e' rna de de hlnh dung va tinh toan ta phan k€t cue thltnh 2 b~':

+Tir ABDCthanh AB'D'C' do bien dang darithu4n malchOng·quay (duang cheo AD thanh AD' • kh6ng quay).

~dzdt

Z(EJ' liz P" '

do: ~

,

A B

x

Z Dot

,~~

c: 0 ~dxdl

ax

x

b)

c)

Hinh 3.10b, c

59

+ Til AB'D'C' thanh Aff'D"C' do thuc hien phep quay don thuan (tam quay la diem A). GQi g6c e6 cac canh AC va AC" la do ; g6c e6 cac canh AB va AB" 18. d~. Tien hanh , cac biroc noi tren voi cac ki hieu tren hinh ve e6 3 la g6c do bien dang don thuan tao thanh va y la g6c tao bbi quay thuan tuy, Tit quan h¢ hinh hQC tren hinh cO the viet he phirong trinh

{dP = 3 - Y (3-7)

da=3+y

v6i cac an s6 3 va y. Giai he phuong trinh tren ta duqc :

G6c bien dang don thuan : 0 = da + dP

2

(3-Sa)

Va g6c quay don thuan :

da-dP

't=r+z+:

2

(3-8b)

, Ta lai e6 :

- aux dzd

CC" - t au au

tg(da) ~ du = -=- = Oz = _x dt ~ de = _x dt (3-9a)

CA dz Oz az

- 8uz d d

BB" ~ x t au au

tg(dP) ~ dJ3 = -=- = Ox = _z dt => dP = _z dt (3-9b)

BA dx ax Ox

Nhu vay, t6c dQ bien dang g6c (kf hieu ta 9) xung quanh true di qua diem A, song song vUi. true Oy hoac noi khac di, xung quanh canh AF la :

e = 1 do; + dJ3 = .!.(Oux + QuZ)

y dt2 2 Oz Ox

(3-10)

Tuong tl:t nhu tren ta xu li cac tft giac vuOng AFEC va AFOB de duqc cac ket qua cho d.c true Ox va Oz, nhung cling co the dung phep hoan vi true (bien s6) de duqc cac dai Im;1llg con lai, bbi Ie thll' t1! chon cae true hie <.UU 13. tuy y. Ket qua cho ca h¢ nhu sau :

- 1 au au

e =_(_Z +_Y) x 2 fly- fJz.

e = .!.(aux + QuZ)

Y 2 8z Ox

1 Ouy au

9z = 2 (Ox + a;)

(3-11)

BAy gio tim bieu thiic the hien quay dan tbuan cua ca h¢ tren co sa y nghia cua y thu duqe a tren. co the viet van t6c goc quay xung quanh true chua canh AF

da-dp aux dt- anz dt

(() =l= 2 =1 Oz Ox ='!'(OuX_OuZ) (3-12a)

Y dt dt 2 dt 2 Oz Ox

60

Nhu v~y de dang quy nap cho ca h~ d~ c6 : 1 OuZOuy

Olx = 2 ( fly - Uz. )

ro = .!.(OuX _ Ouz )

y 2 Oz Ox

1 Guy au

Olz ;::: 2 ( Ox - 0;)

la cac thanh phan huang theo cac true toa d¢ va vecto quay dcm thuan :

- - - [ J1 -

& ;::: irox + jroy + kroz;::: rox' Oly' IDz = 2 rotii ;::: n ,

trong co chat long nguCri ta dung kIW niem vectc xoay fi (Omega hoa) de me ta hien tuong phan tit chat long quay xung quanh true cua n6. •

a tren chiing ta mci nghien CUD chuyen dOng cua mat hinh hnp nguyen t6 chat long va tim ra tOc d<> bien dang don thuan va t6c d¢ quay don thudn, Neu tiep tuc phat trien ciing tren nguyen tAc ngoai suy, siS thu duqc ket qua t6ng quat mang tfnh khong gian bllt ki rna d tnrong hqp dang xet chfnh la viec k1u\o sat hanh vi cua diem H, dinh d6i cua dinh A. Ta thay dinh H c6 toa dQ :

(3-12)

H(x + dx, y + dy, z + dz)

v6i u;::: f(x,y.z) $1 tiSe cua diem H (llJI) c6 cac thanh pMn sau: uHx = flex + dx,y + dy,z + dz),

UHy ::: -f2(x + dx,y + dy.z + dz),

uHz = f3(x +dx.y + dy,z + dz).

- Khai tri~n chuOi Taylor tal IAn c~ diem A cUa hlun v~ tiSe va bO di ~s6 hang v6 cimg be bac cao, dugc :

(3-13a)

(3-13b)

(3-13c)

~ iam tOOt len i nghia ~tU cda c6~ bieu thtic tren c4n th\fC hi¢n mOt s6phep bien dOi toan nhung khOng lam "InA't di bin chit co hQC cua n6 : ~ng vao cac phuong trlnh tren mot ItJQllg bAng 0 c6 dang nhu :

d6i vm phuong.trmh (3-13a) : 0;::: !.(OuZ dz + auy dy) _.!..(auz- dz + Guy dy) (3-14a)

- 2ax Ox 20x ax

. 1au au 1au au

d61 v6iphucmg trlnh (3-13b): 0 =_(_" dx+_z dz}-_(_X dx+_z dz)

2ay Oy 20y fly

(3-14b)

61

Chi titt hoa (3-13a) ta c6 :

Cux d (1 Bux d 1 Gux d) (1 Dux d 1 Dux d) 1 auz dz UH =U +- x+ --.- y+-- y + -- z+--· z +-- +

x x Ox' 2ay zay 2& 2& 2ax

1 Duy 1 au 1 Ouy

+ __ dy Z dz---dy (3-15a)

20x 2ax 2ax

T6 hop lai theo cac thira s6 chung dx, dy, dz ducc :

uH =u + Oux dx+.!..(OuX + OuZ)dz+.!..(OuX _ OuZ)dz+.!..(OOy + OuX)dy_

x x Ox 2az ax 2& ax zax Or

1 Ouy' au

__ ( X )dy (3-15b)

2 ox ay

Xu Ii nrong tV d6i vei UHy va uHz ta thu dugc :

'Buy 1 Buy au 1 Ouy Du 1 au auy

ui"I =U +-dy+-(-+-X)dx+-(---X)dx+-(_Z +-)dz-

y y. Oy 2 ax fly 2 ax. 8y 2 OJ az

1 au Ouy

-2( a; ~ Oz )dz (3-15c)

OOz 1 Quz Ouy 1 Ooz Ouy 1 Dux OOz d

UHz = Uz + Oz dz + 2 ( By + az )dy + 2 (fly - az )dy + 2 (. az + Ox ) x-

_ _!_ (fux _ Buz )dx (3-15d)

Z fJz ax

The cac bieu tlutc cua e va & til cac bi~u thirc (3-11) va (3-12) vao ket qua nay, duqc :

uHx = Ux + ~ dx + eydz+9zdY +IDydz -rozdy

Ouy

uHy =uy +-dy+6zdx+9xdz+rozdx-roxdz (3-16)

By

au

uHz =Uz + a: dz+9xdy+9ydx+roxdy-roydx

Day la d~nh /U91 Cauchy-Helmholtz.

C6 th~ ~n thay, hanh. vi ella phdn tu eMtlOng chuyln dqng g6m ehuyln vi tjnh tien, bien dang (dili va g6c) va quay xung quanh true eua chinir-n6. Di~u rna ngay tu dau, hie noi v~ tinh chA"t riengcua chat long di dUQc nhk d€n.

6. Phuong trmh vi phAn ehuy~n d(tng ciia chAt long - phuong tr,nh Euler 6.1. Phuong trinh Euler

Tach trong dong chay mot phan tu chat long vb cung he dang hlnh hQp vuong goc co cac canh dx, dy, dz l~ luot song song voi cac true x, y, z. Trong dong chay phan tit chat long

62

"

nay chiu tac.d~ng ella 3 Il;lC : tip lJ!C thuy dling, 11!rkh61 valJ/C quan tinh'(vi mu6n nhan manh, ta khong.xep 1\1C quan tinh chung vm luc kh6i) ; t:ntUc mat bO qua lqc rna sat.

,Theo tien dM dinh lu~t tha 2 cua Newton Ii = rna, vm kh6i hrong dm = pdV = pdxdydz ta co phuong trlnh can hang theo plnrong x :

p x dxdydz x a, = - ap dxxdydz+px dxdydzx X (3-17a)

ax

Trien khai luang u;r d6i voi cac phuong khac r6i t6ng hop lai ta duoc h~ :

pa.dxdydz = (- ap + pX)dxdydz => ax = -.!.. ap + X

Ox pOx

paydxdydz ,= (- ap + p Y)dxdydz => ay = -.!. ap + Y (3-17)

ay pay

pazdxdydz = (- 8p + pZ)dxdydz => at = - 1. 8p + Z

,Oz p Oz

Chi titt hoa cac thanh phan gia t6c g6m gia t6c cue b¢ va gia t6c trao dOi. nhu (3-2a), duoc phuang trinh Euler nhq sau :

Ouy + Ouy u + Ouy u + Ouy u = -.!. Op + Y

Ot Ox x ay y Oz z pay

Oux + Oux u + Oux u + Oux u =-.!. ap +X (3-18)

at Ox x 8y y Oz z pOx

Buz + Ouz u + Ouz u + Ouz u = -.!. 8p + Z

Ot ax x 8y y 8z z -p az

Do each d~t van de ban dAu dii bO qua rna sat nen day Ia plnrong trmh vi phan mo tA dong chay cua chat long chiu nen, khOng nhot, chuyen d¢ng khong On dinh voi rang buoc Ia nhiet dt> khong thay dOi. Trong thuc tien rang bUQC nay chi c6 y nghia d6i vm cac chat khi vi trong qua' trinh chuyen dong cac chat khf thuong thay dOi nhiet d¢.

Dong ch4t long d6ng thm phw hao dam tinh lien D;lC (3.,.1). Ngoai ra, neu bitt dugc_ quail be ham giila mat d¢ va ap suat, p = p(p), pmrong trlnh Euler tIi1,net1 khep kin.

6.2. Phlfdng trinh Lamb-GroRl81co " , ,

De hieu sau han hanlr vi' cua d~g chily blygib'~ hl~,buCrc bi€ndOi sau :

C¢ng vito v€ trw cuapbuang trlrih tha nh't (phuang x) trongb~ '(3:18)-~ hrong :

Ouau au" Ou

O=(-Yu +_zu )-(-yu +_Zu)'

.ax y Ox z Ox' y ax Z •

vito phuong trinh tha hai (Phuong y) :

au au au au

O=(_x u +_z u )_(_x U +_z U ) •

fJyx ayZ fJyx fJyz.

(3-0x)

63

vao phuong trinh thu ba (phuong z) :

o =(Oo)l u + Ouy U )_(au)l u Ouy u )

fiz.)l fiz. Y 8z)laz y'

..

voi ltru Y la b thoi diim t tai mot vi tri xac dinh luon c6 u2 == u; + u~ + u; , d6ng thM sil dung cac bieu thue ella ib, thu dugc phucmg trlnh Lamb-Gromeko nhu sau :

OU)l a u2 1 Bp

-+--+2(u <.0 .... u CI) ),=---+X

at Ox. 2 z Y Y z P Ox

OUy a u2 1 Bp

-+--+2(u 0) -u CI) )=---+y

at fJy 2 x Z Z)l pay

au a u2 1 Op

_z +---+2(u (0 -u ro )=---+Z

at oz2 Y)l)lY pax

(3-19a)

Viet gon dum dang vecto ;

2 •

~ ii + grad ~ + 2m x Ii +.!. gradp + gradU = 0

Or. 2 p ~

(3-19b)

~ .

neu nho lai rang ;

u2 [-: a --: a - a] u2 -: a u2 -: a u2 - a u2 -: -: -

grad("2) = 1 ax + J fly + k az (2) = 1 ax (2) + J fly (2)+ k fJz (~) = (1 + J + k)u ;

1 j k

, roxu =(ic.ox + }roy + kooz)x(iux + }uy +kuz) == ~x (OY (Oz =>

E: -

Ux uy Uz

.:::> IDXU= T({l)y,Uz~())zpy),+](c.ozull -roxuz)+k(coxuy-myux) ;

Tuong tt!:

. ,

gradp = T 8p + J ap + k Op va gradU = T au + ] au + k au .

_ Ox OJ f)z Ox Oy fjz

o chirong II, trong phan thuy tinh hoc, clning ta dl biet h!c kh6i Ia dao ham rieng eua mot the U, nghia Ia :

x=_ou . y=_oU . Z=_8U

ax' By' &

Trong tnrong hqp t6ng quat mar d~ 13. ham lien tuc cua ap suat, C6 the dung mot ham

lien 1\,Ic cua toa d¢ P(x,y,z) sao cho ;

ap lap ap lap oP lOp

-=-- ; -=-- ; -=-- (3-00x)

ax p ax. Oy p By az p Ox

thi (3-19a) co dang ;

64

au a u2

_x +_' (_+P+ U)+2(ooyuz +oozuy) = 0

a & 2 .

au a u2

-y +-(-+P+ U) + 2(00 U -00 U ) = 0

at iJy2 zx x vz

Ouz a (ul U

at+ az T+P+ )+2(ooxuy -ooyux)=O

Day Ja phuang trtnb Lamb-Gromeko.

Vi~t gQO dUm dang vecto :

~ii+ grad(u2 + P+ U)+ 2roxii. at

(3-19c)

(3-19d)

7. Tich phan phuong trlnh Euler - Ttch phan Lagrange, tich phan Bernoulli

Cac k~t qua tren chua the dung true tiep vi thuc chat cluing con dum dang phuong trinh vi phAn. BCri. vay dUm day can tim each tich phan cluing trong mot s6 dieu kien cu the nhat dinh.

~1. TkhphdnLa~nge

'.

Neu dong chay khong xoay, nghia la cac phan nr chat long trong qua trinh chuyen d('lng khong quay xung quanh lI1:J.c cua mlnh thi & = 0, hie do cac thanh phan hu6ng tI"1;1c x, y, Z cua van t~c deu la dao ham rieng cua mot the van t6c cp(x,y .z.t), cu the :

u = &p . u = &p . u = &P '" N+- __ -+-

X ~'y :k,'Z ~ ..

VA V] V£~ ~

IP

va gia t6c cuebe ! ii trien khai chi tiet cO dang

aux = .£_(&P) = .E_(&P) =. a2<p

a at & & at &ar

~ = !(:)= ~(':)= :: auz = .E_(&P) = ~(&P) = a2<p

at at azfJz at.· 0z0t ..

(3~20)

..

x

Hinh 3.11

do cp la ham lien tuc cUa ei bien thCri. giant,·I~ la ham tht, nen co tM hoan vi thu n;r dao ham (xern hinh 3.11).Cho DtnJnlbnghqp nay phuong.trlnh Lamb-Gromeko c6 dang :

!(: + ~ +P+U )=0; !(: + ~ +P+U )=0 ; !(: +f+p+U) = o (3-21al

la cac thanh phttD vi phan toan phan, Bieu thi dum dang vecto :

grnd( ': + ~ +P+U )=0 ~ d(: + ~ +P+U )=0

(3-21b)

65

Co mQt nh~n·xet thu vi la ban than bi~u thuc (3-21b) bi~u thi plnrong trinh cua m~t dang the eua met the! plnrc hQP me ta bOi dai luqng trong ngoac. Chinh vi v~y de dang tich phan teen mQt duong nao d6 gilia hai di~m d~ direc tich phan Lagrange dum d~y

Oq> u2

·_+-+P+ U = const+f'(t).

at 2

(3-22a)

vOi luu y tren tuyen tfch phan ds = Tdx + }dy + kdz va ds ~ ~ dx2 + dy2 + dz2 ; d6ng thOi. do rich phan rieng thee toa dt) nen phai b6 sung mot ham thoi gian nao do.

Trong dong chay 6n dinh Z = 0, nen tir (3.21b) co:

u2

-+P+ U =eonst 2

(3-22b)

Nhu vay trong dong chay co the, tdng cua cac s6 hang trong (3-22a) khong d6i tai

moi di~m.

Can khdng dinh lai, cdc phuang trinh (3-22) dung cho dong the: dong khong xody.

7.2. Tich pOOn Bernoulli

Trong thuy luc ngubi. ta thuang xet chuyen dong 6n dinh doc theo dirong dong. V Oi tuyen tfch phan lit duang dong, mOt truong hqp rieng eua Lagrange. Bernoulli da cho mot ket qua c6 y nghia thuc titn r~t 16n trong linh- Vl!C ki thu~t. ceng nghe. Thuc v~y, nhu da biet a dau chuang nay, tren duong dong ta co quan h~

u.dx - u.dz = 0 ; uxdy - uydx = 0 ; uydz - uzdy = 0 (x)

Nhan cac ve nrong img cua phuong trinh Lamb-Gromeko voi dx, dy, dz Hi cac thanh phan cua nguyen t6 duong dong r6i cong lai, duoc :

au au au a u2 a u2 a u2

_" dx+-Y dy+_z dz+-(-+P+U)dx+-(-+P+U)dy+-(-+P+U)dz+

at at at Ox 2_ By 2 8z 2

(xx)

S~p xep Iai cac s6 hang a dong 2 cua phuong trinh (xx) bang each datcac thanh phan van t6c quay lam thira s6 chung, ta duCJC dai hrong tuong duong :

2(uzdx - u"dz)roy + 2(u"dy - uydx}<oz + 2(uydz - uzdy)w" = 0

vi cac dai luong trong ng~c dan deu tri¢t tieu boi dieu kien cua duong dong (x), Dong thoi con thAy, 3 s6 hangcuoi cung cua dong thu nhAt cua (xx) la mot vi phan toan phan. Do do men theo dirong dong thi (xx) c6 dang :

au au au (u2 J

_" dx+-y dy+-zdz+d -+P+.U =0

·at at at 2

(3-23a)

Neu dong Ia 6n dinh, cac thanh phan gia t6c C\lC bQ triet tieu nen :

66

d(U; +P+U )=0 (3-23b)

Tfch phan ca 2 ye. duqc k6t qua dQC theo duoog dong III tlch phdn Bernoulli

2

u

-+ p+ U = const (3-23c)

2

7.3. Tich. phdn Bernoulli trong I11'ng tntiing - Phltdng trinh BemouUi

~ hru y rang tri s6 cua h4ng s6 tich phan thay d6i theo ducrng dong cu the rna ta dung Him duemg tfch phan. Cho.nen co the hieu (3-23c) con Ia kt!t qua cho dong nguyen t6 hoac cho mot 6ng dong, b d6 cac t~ng thai dong chay dugc coi la khong d6i tren cimg mat cat uOt.

Trong trong tnrong neu chat long khong chin nen v6i 1l!C kh6i chi la trong ltrc thi :

p = fdP = P va U = gz.

p P

Khi d6 dQC thea dUCmg dong t6ng s6 u2/2 + pip +gz 18. khong dOi :

u2 P -+-+gz=eonst

2 p

(3-24a)

H~ thuc nay la phuong trlnh Bernoulli. Dang hru y, men theo dong nguyen t6:

u2 dp .

-+ f-+gz = eonst (3-24b)

2 P

De nam duqe ban eha'! van d€!, bay gio hay phan tfch y nghia nang luong eua phuong trlnh Bernoulli':

DQC thea dUO"ng dong, hay dong nguyen t6, tic ffi~t 1 d€n ~t 2 nhu hinh 3.12. s\l thay 2 2

d6i dong nang ella ffiQt dan vi kh6i hrong la u~ - i ; eUa mOt dan Vi trong IUQllg :

22,

~l - ~2 (do nhAn tit s6 vdi g de dugc y nen mio 56 euagpMi the) ; cOD OO'u tinh cho mOt

g g . .' .

u2 u2 - ',:, ""-"'-"'" ,--; '_;. .,....-, -

d(1D vi the tfch thl 'p _ d ,- p; (do rn = 1 'doD. vi ,kh6i l~g i=pV-=- V:= lip => (lxu2/2)N

= (u2!2)/(llp) = pu2/2). "

Tuong nr, giita diem A ella ~t I va dit!m B cua _ m~t 2, bien d6i the' nang vi tri eua mOt dan vi kh6i hrong bAng : gz. - 8Z2 ; Clla m"t dan vi trong hrong :

Zl - Zz ; eua mot dan vi th~ nch : pgz, - pgZz·

Xet mot phan t6 cha't long, tMy ap luc thanh ben do d6i xirng va true giao vm ducng dong nen khong sinh cong co hoc,

Htnh 3.12

67

Tren hinh 3.12 ap l"c tai hai mat 1 va 21a PI va P2 gay ra mot hrc 8F = pliQ - (p + : lis }~n = - : As.Ml = - : li V

trong do : ~s Hi doan dirong tu A den B, An lit tiet dien mat 1 va 2, A V la th! tich Clla phan t6 (lay xap xi) va luc nay san ra mot cong nguyen t6 bang:

dE = fiFds = fi V Op ds = ~ V dp

Os

trong do : dp la bien thien ap suKt doc theo ducrng dong. Tinh tren mot doan duemg dong htru h<;U1 ~s :

E= J dE= J AVdp= AV(P2 -PI)'

1-2 }-2

Cong nay neu tinh cho met don vi kh6i hrong thi : e ::: _E__ = P2 - PI ;

pAV P

neu tinh cho mot don vi trong luqng thi : E = P2 - PI pg

" con cho mot dan vi the tich thl : E ::: 1'2 - PI'

Tom lai, cong san ra khi co su di chuyln eua m(Jt don vi kho,' luang hay mot dun vi trong luang' hoac mot don vi thi tich la do co chenh. lip, fa cong ap luc. Chat long chuyen dong doc thee duong dong, chuyen dong khong rna sat, vin tudn thu nguyen ll bdo toan nangillqng,nghiala:

SI! bien d6i drng nang va the' niing vi tri bang cong tuang ling do ap 11/c U;IO nen tren doan dr.tang .my ra S1/ bien d6i do. Do vay ,neu tinh nang IUQ'Ilg dV trii cho mot dan vj kh6i luqng, ta co :

u2 u2 P P

_I --1.+g(Zl -Z2) = 2 - 1

2 2 P

hose doc thee duang dong ta vi!t duqc phuong trinh 222

PI u1 P2 u2 P U

-+-+gzi =-+-+g:q ~ -+-+gz=const

p 2 P 2 p 2

trong do:

u - van t6c dong chay ; P - ap suat dong chay ;

z - khoang each den mat chuan tuy chon toi diem z bat kl nao cua dUCmg dong. T6ng hop lai, th~ hien qua phuong trinh Bernoulli nang Iuong dV trii

2

cho mot don vi kh6i luong : p + ~ + gz = const ;

, , . P 2

(3-24c)

68

P U2

cho mot don vi trong IUC1Ilg: - + -.- + z = eonst ;

.' .. . pg 2g

2

cho mot dctn vi the tfch : p + p ~ + pgz = eonst .

(3-24d) -

(3-24e)

ca 3 56 hang trong 3 dang phuong trlnh deu bieu thi eo nang cua dong chay nen e6 the phat hieu nhu sau :

Doc theo duang dong cua chd: long khong nhat, khong chiu nen, du trii ca nang tinh cho mot dan vi kho,' luang hay mot dan vi trong luang ho¢ic mot dan vj thi tich co tri so' khong di1i.

Trong thu)' hrc nguCri ta dinh nghia C9t nuuc loan phti'n cua mot dan vj trong luang

chat long chuyin d¢ng trong dong chdygo'm 3 yeti to': - D¢ng nang - cot nuac v{in toe ;

- The' nang ap sud: ;

- The' nang vi tri (vi nang),

hap thanl: toan' bt) the nang clla dong chdy thi hien tren cot nuac thuy tinh.

Nhu vay, eo the noi, doc thea duang dong dd chon trong dong chdy cLla chat long khong

'.

nhlJt, khong chiu nen, cQt nude toan phdn - "t6ng ella crt nuac v.;in t&: va q5t nude tinh -

gill nguyen tri so'.

~
~I~ ~ i
0-
- I
i ...
Q. ,s
I
S
N'"
0 0
.... N1 2 3 4 0'

.... , 01

:J (\I

. Hinh 3.J 3. Y nghia hinh hoc cua phuang trlnh Bernoulli :

DuOng 0' - 0' : di.Wng c!)t nuOc toan phg,n; Duong a-b-c-d-e-f : dulmg do ap;

Du'Ong 0 - 0 : dubng m~t chuan nAm ngang ; z : chieu cao vi trf ;

doan b-c : bien thien do 6ng thu hep dan; doan d-e : bien thien do 6ng mb rong dan.

0'

69

8. Phuong trtnh vi phan chuyen dc)ng ella ~h:lt long nhOt - Phuong trlnh Navier-Stokes Trong chuyen dong cua chat long thirc (co d¢ nhot) trong chat long, noi bo cling nhq._d bien ton tai irng suat. (fug suat do diroc phan tfch thanh irng sua't phap va Ung suat tiep tren mat rna no tac dong. Nhu dii cluing minh, trong dong chay nhu the co the xem xet 2 h? ung suat :

- Ung suat phap la ling suat don tri, co the xac dinh tai bat ld diem nao trong dong chay,

- Ung suat b6 sung g6m 3 thanh phan phap va 3 thanh phan tiep tuyen, H~ irng suat nay

phu thuoc vao vi trf cua diem dang khao sat trong khong gian dong chay, vao huang d~t cua mat chiu luc rna tren do irng suat xuat hien.

Bay gic tai J1lQt diem bat kl 0' trong noi b¢ chat long duqc xac dinh hOi toa dQ x, y, z cua he toa dQ Oxyz dung mot h~ toa d¢ O'x'y'z' gee 0' co cac true song song doi mot voi cac true cua h¢ Oxyz (xem hinh 3.14). Trong cac mat phang cua he O'x'y'z' ngoai ap suat con co 3 thanh phan phap a I = ax'x" a2 = a '{y" a 3 = az'z' va 3 thanh phan tiep 'tJ = 'ty'z' = 'tzy, 't2 = 'tx'z' = 'tn" 't3 = 'txy = 'ty'x' cua irng suat b6 sung. Cac img suat b6 sung phu thuoc vito cac tinh chat v~t Ii va cac d~c tnmg chuyen dong cua chat long,

'Z

z

x'

x

o~-------------------

x

Hlnh 3.14

Hay khao sat khoi chat long nguyen to dang hinh hop vuong canh dx, dy, dz, Tai thai diem khi hlnh hQP, cung voi dong chay, di qua diem 0 thi tren cac mat hinh h¢p thang g6e voi true Oxco tac dong cua cac luc sau day (vcri cac ki hieu tren hinh 3.14b) va tinh chat cua hrc : ,

,[ 00 'J

_ CJ1dydz va a1 + ax1 dx dydz;

Lap luan urong nr, tren cac mat hinh hQp song song voi m~t phang to"," d¢ xOz co sy tac d¢ng cua cac -ung suat tao nen hrc cung huang voi Ox c6 tri so :

',dxdz va [,'+ ~dY }XdZ ;

70

va tren cac ~t hlnh hc)p song song v6i m~t toa d¢ xOy c6 1\lC tac d¢ng (bCri U'ng suat tiEp 'tz) c6 tri s6':

.,dxdy va [., + ~ dz ]dxdy

Cac hrc nay deu cung phuong vdi true Ox, t6ng hep 1cP tao nen thanh pMn chi.!u x [ "I + ~I dx ]dYdZ - "Idydz +[., + 0;; d;}xdz - .,dxdz+

+ ['t2 + Ot2 dZ]dxdY _ 't2dxdy= (001 + at) + Ot2 )dxdYdZ-

az Ox 8y az .

va thanh ph4n chieu Z :

(00 Ot Ot)

_2 + _1 + _3 dxdydz

8y fJz. Ox

(00 Or Ot)

_3 + _2 + _I dxdydz

az ax OJ

urong t1:l, c6 thanh phan chieu y :

Hay cong v€ pnai clla phtrong trlnh chuyen d¢ng Euler (3-18) v6i cac ket qua cimg chieu b tren, duoc :

Oux +u &.tx +u auK +u Oux =_.!.. Or> +X+.!..(OOI +Ot3 + Ot2)

at x.ax y Oy Z 8z pax. p Ox ay Oz

Ouy Buy OuyBuy 1 ap 1 (002 Ott BT3)

a + Ox ax + uy (Jy + Uz {)z = - P By + Y + P 8y + & + ax

Doz +U &Iz +u Cuz +U Ouz-=_! Op +q+ !(fu3 + Ot2 + Ott)

at Xax Yay Zaz paz p az Ox By

(3-25)

H~ phuong trinh nay the hien cac dieu kien can bang dong l\IC hoc tai chat diem trong dong chay ciia rnoi tnrong lien tuc khi cac ling suat khong tac dong thAng g6c vOi m~t chiu luc, MOi tnrong dang nay rat gan vOl chat long thuc. Tri s6 cac dao ham rieng, d~c tnmg cho su t6n tai cac tIng suat 1>6 sung, ngoai dO 100 cua chinh t'rng suat, con phu thuc)c vao d~c tinh cua dong chay va tinh chat v~t 11 clla rnoi truOng, clla chat long.

Nhu dii n6i d tren, trong khong gian dong chay cUa moi truong lien tuc tai moi diim c6 thi dung mot m~t bac 2 (trong truong hop cu the d day la m~t elipxoit) de bieu thi m~t trang thai t1ng suat cua diem d6, trong h~ t01,\ d¢ sao cho t4't Ctl cac ling suit ti~p d~u tri~t tieu ('tl = 't2 = 't3 =0), chi con lai cac U'ng suilt phap, Ngirei ta goi h~ true toa d~ nay la h¢ t11:1c chinh. Trong h~ true nay cac true cua h~ toa d¢ trVc giao vOi m~t elipxOit n6i tren - rn~t Cauchy - m~t trang thai irng suat va trong phtrong trlnh (1-26) d chuang I khOng xu~t hien cac Ung suilt tiep nita. Vi the trong h~ nay cac Ung suil't b6 sung cung vm ap suat chat long tao ra cac hrc keo - nen.

71

Ciing trong h~ toa d¢ nay t6c d¢ bien dang dan thudn (3-11) cua phan tit chAt long tal thai di~m khi no di qua di~m O(x,y,z) thang goc vOi mat elipxoit. Dong thm t6c d¢ bien dang cua phan tir cimg pmrong voi cac true tuong Ung ciia h¢ toa d¢ (a chuong I ta dung chi s6 I d~ bieu thi noi dung lien quan den h¢ true chinh nhu bien s6 tronghe true chinh ; -ung suat chinh, .. ). PhUC1Ilg trinh mat rmg suat co dang :

- . 1 [(Bux! J 2 (roy!) 2 (Oozl) 2]

f(x"Y"Z')=2 ax, x,+ By, y,+ BzI Zl

(3-26)

Sau day dung ki hieu ;

Oud = e . Ooy, = e . GuzI = e

~ I '~, 2 • f)z 3

lIAj vr i ,

Sir dung mo hlnh chat long Newton, loai chat long co cac tinh chat: U'ng suat sinh ra bbi tinh nhot cua chat long va phuthuoc tuyen tfnh vao gradien van t6c, tire la vao dao ham rieng lay thea cac bien cua h~ Ify, dong thoi dam bao tinh dAng hu6ng trong chat long. Toan hoc cung d1i chi ra rang, trong qu-a trlnh bien dang til hlnh cau sang elipxeit (chat long chuyen til tinh sang dong) hoac ngiroc lai, luon co 3 true (duong kinh) tnrc giao nhau chi chiu bien dang dai nhung gilt nguyen vi tti tirong d61 vci nhau (khong thay d6i g6c vuong v6n

" co v6i nhau) va khOng chuyen khoi m~t phing toa d¢ xac 14p tir dau ; chang la 3 true chinh.

(3-27)

Biet rang, dao ham rieng thea m¢t huang (lay theo m¢t.bien) arm huang den _Ung suat qua he s6 ti l~ A. th~ hien sv co/din diii. con thea hai huang kia su anh hUCmg la dong nhlft thong qua h¢ s6 ti Ie 9. V6i cac gilt thiet v~ mot loai chllt long nhu tren ta co:

{O"Il = A.e, + 9(e2 + e.) 0"12 = A.e2 + 9(e, + e3) 0"13 = Ae3 + 9(e] + e2)

Truong hop chat long khong chiu nen tinh lien tuc duqcdam bao khi :

au au au

_x+_Y +_z=O

Ox Oy Oz

(3-28)

(3-29)

bat k~ he quy chieu la he nao, Di~u·do con co nghia tri s6 cua the tich nguyen t6 hlnh cau sao khi bien dang thanh elipxoft khong thay dOL Vi vay, c6 the viet:

e, +e2 +e3 =,0 de til (3-28) va (3-30) dugc :

.{O" II = (A - 9)el 0"12 = (A - 9)e2

0" 13 = (A - 9)e3

Cong 3 Ung suai chinh b6 sung ta co:

O"Il + 0"12 + 0"13 = (A- 9)(e, +e2 +e3)

(3-30)

(3-31)

(3-32)

72

Hay ki hi~u ~ = (A. - 9)/2 va thay vao (3-31) cac bieu thuc ella el' e2' e3 duqc ket qua:

au au au

0') = 211 a:. ; (12 = 211 a: ;0'3 = 211 a: .

Thea mo hlnh tuyen tinh ella Newton trong rnoi tnrong hop ta co : auy .au

'tJ =2J.l8) =).t(_+_l)

Oz Oy

2 9 (Oull QuZ)

t2 = Il y == J.l fJz + Ox

. ~ auy Ou

't3 = 21la3 = J.l (_+_ll)

Ox. Oy

trong do f.1 chinh 18. d(> nhat cua chat long ehuyen d(>ng.

Bay gia hay su dung (3-33), (3-34) de xac dinh cac l,!c gAy fa bditInh nh6t Clla ehat long Newton xuat hien tai cac eMt diem ella dong chay. Ta xu Ii 14n luqt thea tirng phuong ella true toa d(>. Thanh phan phirong x (con n6i la hlnh chieu tren true x) cua luc nhot tinh cho mot dan vi the tfch tic dong len diem co toa d¢ (x,y,z) lit :

"

80", Or3 Ot2 a (2 Gull) 8 [(Guy aull J a [(Bull OuZ)]

-+-- +- = - Il- +- J..l -+-) + - ~ -+-

Ox By 8z Ox. Ox By ax fly az Oz ax

(3-33)

(3-34)

[2 a2Ull a (Buy roll) a (Gull OuZ]

;:: ~ --+ - --+- +- --+-)

ax2 fJy ax fJy & 8z Ox

, Sau day hay ~p trung xu If ve phai cua phucng trinb nay: Ta lay dao ham rieng thea x cua phirong trinh lien tuc de tinh ve phai cho phuong x roi thea y cho phuong y va theo z cho phircng z :

(3':35)

Dao ham thea x

~(aull + Ouy + Oul )=O~ ~(aull)= _ ~(auy + Buz)

Ox Ox Oy az Ox ax Ox fJy az

Dtra ket qua nay vao v~ phai ella bieu thirc (3-35) va de tien, ta chi xu If cac dai luong trong ngoac vuOng (vm viec tach dOi s6 hang thu nhat, nita de nguyen, nua kia thay bang dai luong tU<1I1g dirong rut tir (xxx) :

a2ull +[_~(auy + Oul)]+ ~(auy + aull)+_E_ (Oull + OuZ):

&2 Ox Oy Oz fly ax , &y fJz Oz Ox

(xxx)

I

Tir day co:

73

(3-35a)

Tuong tv. bay gicr ta xii li :

Dao ham thea y : tit (3-25) -thay

002 Gt3 Uri [) ( 'Oult) a [(Guy Cux)] [) [(ault Ouz)]

ay + Ox + {)z =ay 2J.l ax + Ox J.l ax. + Oy . + az ,~ az + .. Ox

va a day dung k€t qua c40 ham rieng theo y cua phuang trinh lien tuc dang phil 'hqp : _£_(OuY)= _ _E_(Oult +OuZ)

CJyay OyOx &

de diroc dai IU<;IIlg nrong nr (3-25) :

aa Ot Or 02U 02U a2u

_2 + ___]_ + _1 = J.l(--y + __ y + __ y ) .

ay Ox i)z Ox 2 fJy2 ell?

(3-35b)

CUng nhu v~y voi

Dao ham thea z : ta c6

003 Otl Ot2 (02UZ 02uz [)2UZ) (3-35c)

-+-+-=» --+--+--

az 8y ax . az2 'ay2 ex?

The ket qua nay vao phirong trlnh vi phan chuyen dOng cua chat long nhOt (3-25) ta duec phuong trinh Navier-Stokes nhu sau :

Oux +u OOx +u Qux +u Oux =_.!.. Op +X+J..I.(02UX + a2ux + [)2UX)

Ot x &. y ay z az pax p iJx2 fJy2 az2

Buy any Guy Guy I Op J..I. 02Uy 02Uy 02Uy

-+u -+u -' +u -=---+Y+-(--+--+--) (3-36)

Ot It Ox Y ay z az p ay P Ox2 fJy2 ftz?

Ouz Ouz Ouz ,auz lOp z ~ (02UZ [)2uz a2UZ)

-+u -+u -+u -=---+ +- --+--+--

Ot x Ox s . Oy z az p fjz p &2 ay2 az2

Viet dum dang vecto cho gQft,:

Oii - dil ' 1 grad dU J.1 T-

-+ugra u=-"";,, p+gra +-

at - - p , p

(3-37)

trong do:

va toan til Laplace :

iigradil = I (figraduj ) -+- J (iigraduy) + k(iigraduz) f = IdUx + JdUy + kAuz ;

82 fi ri

d=-+-+-

&.2 fJy2 az2

(3-38)

74

9. Phueng trlnb Bernoulli cho dong nguyen to chA:t long -nhM

o phan tnroc chang ta dii co phuong trlnh Bernoulli cho dong nguyen t6 chA:t long khong ohat nhu Iii k!t qua cua tich phan dueng, thuc hien tren mot dO¥1 cua mot duemg dong nhat dinh, Di~u d6 cilng co nghia la neu tren mat cat ngang cua mot ong dong. tuc Iii m~,t ci\t u6t, cac ~c trung cua dong chay (ap suat, van toc, ... ) deu nhu nhau tai moi diem trong m~t cat, thl phuong trinh do c6 gia tri cho ca dong. D6i vffi chat long oh6t, trong chuyen d¢ng cac luc sinh ra do tinh oh6t d1i gay ra cong rna sat rna toan bo bien thanh nhiet nang khong hoan lai (qua trinh khong thuan nghich). D6i vffi nang hrong cua dong chay d6la t6n that. Dieu nay cling duoc the hienmot each nhat quan trongplnrong trinh Naver-Stokes (56 hang cu6i). Viec tich phan phirong trinh nay du la doc thee dirong dong cling g~p khong it kho khan. Chi voi nhiing rang buoc nhat dinh mal co the dira ve wang hop kha di de co dugc phuang trinh Bernoulli cho chat long thuc, chat long nhot, Cac rang buoc do la :

- Chuyen d¢ng la 6n dinh ;

- Phan bo ap suat tren cac m~t cat tuan thee quy lu~t thuj tinh va v~n t6c tai moi diem

tren cling mQt m~it d.t la nhu nhau ;

- Khong c6 su trao d6i nhiet nang va co nang vffi rnoi wang ben ngoai,

Lai biet rang, nang hrong tinh cho mot don vi khoi hrong, mot don vi trong luong hay mot dan vi the tich cua chat long bang t6ng cac nang luong co hQC cua khoi cMt long d6. Theo dinh luat bao toan nang luong thl b Wang hop dang xet t6ng nang hreng nay 'khong d6i, n6 gift nguyen tri so. DQc theo dong chay tit m~t cAt nay sang m~t cAt kia xay ra qua trlnh bien d6i,khOng dao ngUQC_tlr co nang sang nbi¢t nang. 'DO: v~y n~u khOng duqc 1>6 sung tir ben ngoai, co nang cua dongch8y siS giam d4htU m~t:~Atnay_sang ~t cAt kia, theo

chieu dong chay, ' .', : . ,

Cong do luc nhat gdy ra eua ~tdun vi khdil"t/!i8, trgrig'J~t ~,thliii:h'giiJa 2~t cat'duqc g{Ji id t6n thd't thuy II/C. Ntu tinh c';;;~/dW/vi:tr9ng-l~g thl-g9i 'Id t6n'tMt ct)t nuuc (neu ch4tJong ltl nuOt).-'-~-~>:f·' ", '- ..

o hai m~t cAt di chQn,_dith~lZl ~l,.Ul;ZI'~:~~t'~!~-i.2 ta cc co nang tfuh cho met

dan vi trQng.luQllg.~~~,~,; . .' -,' ,'",; . .

" ':~:~'PI ':~ui. ~~-Zz + pz' +ui .-

pg 2g pg 2g

Vi v~y phuong trlnh can hang co nang giila hai m*t cAt co dang :

P u2' p- u2

Zl +_,_1 + _1 = Z2 + __l.+ __1_ + h

pg 2g,' pg 2g W

Hinh 3.15 the hien y nghia hinhhoc cua phuang trlnh (3-39), phuong trlnh Bernoulli cho dong nguyen t? chat long oh6t.

(3-39)

. .

75

0'

___,.,,__--~---- ------___,..,----

N51~

0'

;-

,

j

ON

o

Hinh 3.1 5

T6ng hop lai ta co cac dang can bang co nang tinh cho 3 dai hrong don vi

P U2 p u2 tJ.p

Khoi luang: gz + _I + _I == gZ2 + _1_ + ___l_ + _w_ .

. 'p 2 P 2 p'

P u2 u2

Trong luang: z + -' + _I == z +12 + ___l_ + h .

• • I pg 2g 2 pg 2g W'

. u2 u2

The tich : PZI + PI + p-' == PZ2 + P2 + p....1..+ tJ.pw

2 2

(3-40a)

(3-40b)

(3-4Oc)

Nhan xet thay rang duemg cot rnroc toan phan trong tnrong hop nay khong con la duimg nam ngang nhu b dong chai long kheng nhot do co su t6n that qua tung doan, tirng mat cat.

Trong ki thu~t thuy l\lc ngum ta dinh' nghia 1lin that c9t nuac (clutt tOng) cho m91 dan vi chieu diligiita cae riu;itc&t lit ~ dIfc thuylJ!C va ki hieu bang chit J, nghia 1a :

~(z+ ~:;:) .

J = (3-41)

tJ.l"

tJ.IIA chieu dai doan duemg dong (chieu dai chay) giiia 2 m~t cat. Ngiroi ta con dung khili niem 49 doc do tip dinh nghia cho ti s6 giiia th€ nang va chieu dai chay :

++~)

Jda = __,-...:....::...~

tJ./

(3-42)

co the thay, dl) dOC thUy luc luon nho hen 0 (dl) d6c Am), nhung d¢ dOc do ap co the la Am hoac dirong tuy thuoc vao cac d~c tnmg cua dong chay cu thi. Th\1C v~y, vi du nhu tren hinh 3.15 giua doan 3-4 co mot khuc ong Ice (dlpphuzo) Hun dong chay cham dAn, u giam theo chieu dong chay lam cho p tang nen d¢ doc do ap b doan nay la duong (> 0).

76

10. Phuung trinb Bernoulli cho toan dong chit long nhM £)i~u kien rang buec eho viec rna rong ra toan dong Iii. :

- DOng eMt long tai cac m~t dt dang xet phai thay d6i dan ;

- Trong chuyen dong thay d6i dan nay thanh phan tnrc giao voi chieu dong chay, thanh

phan ngang, phai nho thua hem thanh phan chien chay nhieu Ian;

- Trong dong d6i din cac m~t eat u6t phai 1a phang hoac eong dang m~t tru ; b dAy su phan b6 ap suat tuan theo quy luat thuy tinh.

Mb rong fa toan dong trong ditu kien nhu the' nay, nang hrong ella toan dong bang t6ng nang hrong ella cac dong nguyen t6 hinh thanh nen dong do. Nghia la neu nang luong ella .dong nguyen t6 bang;

, u2 dE=(gz+ P +2)pudn,

nang lucng ella toan dong se la ;

f f P u2

E= dE = (gz+-+-)pudQ

° n p ~

", trong do phan the' nang bang :

Etn = I (gz + P )pudO, ° P

o la, m~t eat u6t.. Song vi do thay d6i dan, t6ng gz + pIp tai tat eit cac diem ella CUDg mot

mat eat nhu nhau, ta co the dua ra ngoai d:iu tieh phan va : .

Etn = (gz + p) fpudQ = (gz + p)pQ PoP

trong do ; Q la luu hrong qua ml},t eat a6t o.

Phdn dong nang clla dong chay tai m~t cat dang xet :

u2 - u3

Edn = J- pudQ = fp- dQ

n 2 n 2

va cua mot dan -vi kh6i lugng - :

3-"

Jp ~ dO

e- n -

- fpudQ

o

v~ t6e trung blnh m,t cat:

JUdO

Q

V =.:..:0 __ =_

n

(3-43)

(3-44)

77

Trong thJ.!C tien ki thuat nguOi. ta tlnrong sit dung v~ t6c trung binh (~t cAt) v. Neu tinh d¢ng nang theo van t6c trung blnh cho met dan vi kh6i Iuong ta du\1C v2/2. D(Ji IUQIlg nay

thuOng khOng trung vOi kit qua tinh theo v~ t6c (cue bo) u. Vi v",y can phAi chinh li cho dung. Neu goi a 13. ti s6 giii'a dong nang thuc va dong nang tinh theo van t6c trung blnh, thl :

Ju3dO

a. ::: 0 (3-45)

v30

Trong thuc tien a. thay dOi trong pham vi kha rt)ng. vi du phan b6 dong deu a. = 1. con van t6c cue 1>9 phan b6 theo quy luat parabon a. = 2, ... H~ s6 nay eo ten 13. Coriolis.

TOng hop lai, cac dang phuong trlnh Bernoulli a chat long thuc viet cho :

- M¢t don vi kh6i hrong :

- M¢t dan vi trong hrong :

- MQt don vi the tfch :

11. Nguyen If do ap suat, van toe va hru luqng eua cac d_'ng cu do

Teen co so y nghia v~t Ii ella phuong trlnh Bernoulli ngiroi ta da thie"t k€ ra cac dung C9 do cac thong s6 ella dong chay gorn : Ong Pitot (Pito), 6ng Prandtl (Prang) va 6ng Venturi (Vangturi),

11.1. Ong Pitot

. 6ngPitot la' dung C9 do apsu~t t6ng eua dang chay, Bill rang trong chuyen

- I y •

dt)ng cua'cMt long neu ta hfim dong duiy

M $ t<5cc~ n6 bing 0 thl toan bO d¢ng n~g clla,dQng "chuyen hoa thanh ap nang (bO qua,t~ntMt).'ta,~o tn9t di~ dimg trong dong chiy l~ .:'c6 'the tht1C hi~ duqc muc dkb do apsU«ltdttg; 'HUili.' s.is cho so do do theo nguyen« "dI neu. Mal'

2 ella 6ng B (6ng Pitot)'hu6ng wo,doug chiysao cho'd~'d4u cua oog b tuthe' d6'i xung true (nhu hlnh vel lam cho di!m i tr6' thanh' dibndmi.gd~ ~dAY $ t6c bAng O. Theo plurong trinh Bernoulli viet cho dwmg dong tren true 6ng :

B

A

Hinh3.16

78

Do ZI = Zz va PI 1aap suAt tinh ~ mat ca.t bAt kl nao tren thucng ngu6n nen p, = P va iac6 :

yu2 P2 =p+-. 2g

Ngbia 1a ap suA't P2 (th~ hien bang cot ap h2) chinh 1a ap suat t6ng (g6m ap suAt tinh va ap suat dong) b mat c~t tai ditm 2.

_.,;

11.2. Ong Prandtl

Ong Prandtl la dung C1:l cung met hie do ap suA't tOng va ap suat tinh, song no d6ng thoi thuc hien pnep so sanh thong.qua 2 nhanh cjra 6ng do lip hlnh chit U de chi thi duqc cot lip van toe h trong phucng trlnh Bernoulli. Nguyen Ii lio'!-t d¢ng cjia n6 the hien tren hinh 3.17.

o 'A

IA

,

----------- - ---------~

M

'.

416cach deu

Hillh3.17

Tai diem M. nhu b 6ng Pitot, xu,"t hi~1i -,eU6m-dmtg; ~'rp..tdtA~A c6 416 duemg kfnh d each deu lam nhiem V1;1 do ap suM tinb bp.-~ cAt~nly·c6a"dongchiy. Do khoingcach giila M va A-A nho nen t6n tMtdongcbiy:~~t~'.;c_6'fhi'~-qua ;duCmg kfnhD ,Clla 6ng do cilng nho thua han nhi6u linso;v6i 4t:Jbna ~.,dn&dIn,kbOuggAy chen dong nen thea

. phuong trmh'Bemoulli ~ che> ~CitJ.i11a:M·.Vi~;clf'A-A.: " "

. - .• j. • ~... ,. ~-. .".:' . -

- ,-"" ,1Ui;'~ .', ", ";, - ,

YJ.A +PA + -2 - -, ')'ZM + PM ~ ZA := ~

, g

u~ =2g(PM -PA) ""'2g ~p = 2gh

y y

u =.J2i,h/

-Suy ra:

Luu y rang eo the dung 6ng Prandtl'Iam chirc nang cua mot 6ng Pitot, neu khOng n6i mot nhanh ehu U vao dtiu n6i 2 (tren hlnh ve), Nguoc lai, co the dung de do lip suat tinh, chi n6i vw nhanh 1 rna khong n6i vw nhanh 2.

79

11.3.0ngVenturi

6ng Venturi dung de do hru hrong, co ket co1u nhu hlnh 3.18. Dung cu nay g6m 3 doan ang d~c tnmg n6i tiep nhau bat dau bang ang con (conphuzo) ngan, tiep theo la doan hinh tru ra'! ngan vaket thiic bang dean ang loe (dipphuzo) did hem voi goc md nhc nham giam nhieu phat sinh do chay qusn va xoay, Nguoi ta do ap sufit tinh tai mat cat 1 va 2 va tren co sd biet duqc tri s6 cua cac dtrong kinh D va d (thuong co ti s6 DId = 2) suy fa luu hrong Q v6i luu y den mot he s6 goi la h~ s6 hru luong (c) cho umg loai kich cO' (xem phan phu luc cua sach),

. ...

I

t

d

o

~-----------

....

Rink 3.18

TIl pmrong trlnh Bernoulli viet cho m~t cat 1 va 2 ta co

p u2 P u2

Z + 1 + 1 -z + 2 + 2 • Z - Z - a

1 -. -- 2 - --. 1 - 2-

Y ·2g 'Y 2g

Dua vao plurong trlnh lien tuc 0 tnrong hqp cMt llmg kheng chiu nen ta co :

u, nD2 = U2 nd2 ==> U2 = (D)2 U1 =( °1 JU1

4 4 d. O2

Ket hop vci phuong trlnh Bernoulli ta co :

2g(PI -P2) / Y

u = c .. ~....:;..:__..:...;=---=-

2 1-(°2/°1)2

va lUU hrong :

Q=o u =0 c 2g(pI--P2)/Y.

2 2 2 1-(°2/°1)2

11 s6 °1/°2 13. thong s6 dii biet cua timg cu ang.

80

12. Bien thien (bien d6i) d(mg lut;mg eua eh~t long ehuy~n d(mg - Phuong trlnhbiin thien d~ng luqng

- Nhuda bi€t, trong co hQC nguCrl ta phan ra hai loai dinh luat khong phu thuoc nhau, d6la :

L-Dinh luat bAo toan nang luong (trong thuy hrc tht! hien a plnrong trinh Bernoulli). 2- Dinh lu~t bao toan xung cua ngoai hrc va bao toan d¢ng hrong.

Khi ap dung dinh luat bolo toan xung luc va dong hrong trong tinh toan thuy l~c can dam bao mot s6 dieu kien sau :

- Dong chay phai duoc giro han khep kin boi cac -mat bien cung vro 2 m~t cat cua dong chay, do chi trong tirong nrong, diroc goi 1ft mfit /dim tra ;

- s~ phan b6 ap suat tai cac mat cat tuan theo quy luat thuy tinh ;

- Cic mat cat noi tren phai thAng goc voi phirong dong chay, tuc 1a true giao voi vecto

van t6c tai mat eat.

Hliy khao sat dong chay trong hlnh 3.19 trong he toa d¢ vuong goc chon tuy y d~ dam bolo tinh t6ng quatcua cac ket qua.

Ml[It ki6m tra

pds sina

z

o

o

Hinh 3.19

Theo hlnh ve ta tMy :

- DOng chay nghieng v6i t:rl}c nAm ngang mi)t g6C laS;

- Thanh ben nghieng vOi true dong chiy rn¢t g6c 1& a. ;

- M~t kiern tra gom'~t tbBnh ben va hai ~t cit u6t 1-1 va 2'-2.

- Ole thanh. phan hu6ng the~ dong chay eua cac hrc tic d¢ng len kh6i eMt long bao bOi

dien kiemtra goin-:

• L1!c rna sat :

T, = J r x dsx coso nB

trong do O:B 1ft dien tfch cea thanh ben.

81

• Aplqc thanh be~ (do ap sua'tthuy tinh): PBI = J px dsx sinu

nD

• Ai> 1'1C a m,t cat 1-1 : Pit = PI x °1 va

• Ap lqc {j mat ca.t 2-2 : P2t = 1'2 x 02

trong d6 °1 va 021a dien tich cua mat cat 1-1 va 2-2 .

• Lire trong tnrong (hrc khoi) - trong hrong cua kh6i chat long: pgVsinS

trong do V la the tich cua khoi chat l.ong (chua trong dien kiem tra).

Tong hop cac thanh phan nay lai vUi luu y den chieu cua cluing, duqc

PI1 +PBt -Pu -TI -01 =P10l + J psinads-P202 - J'tcosads-pgVsinS (3-47)

nD nD

Chinh t6ng hop luc nay lam thay d6i dong hrong cua khci chat long, vi v~y ta co phuong trinh can bang dQng hrong sau

PIOI -P202 -pgVsinS+ J psinads- i 't cos ads = a02pQv2 - aolPQv1 (3-48)

- nD nD

trong do : <lal va C102 la he s6 sira chua dong nang (Boussinesq - Coriolis) cua dong chay tai mat cat 1-1 va 2-2 do trong cong thuc ta dung van t6c trung binh v ; Q 18. luu hrong cua dong chay.

Co mot nhan xet la trong khi dan dat cong thee tinh dong hrong each tiep can tren chi luu y den ll!c rna sat tren mat bien (vach ran). con b phirong trinh Bernoulli rna sat trong noi bl) chat long ding duqc tfnh den. Vi the khi sir d1;1I1g dong thai 2 phirong trinh nay cho mot bai toan nao d6 trong phuong trinh Bernoulli khong duqc quen anh hubng cua tong t6n that

, do rna sat. Di~u do con co nghia lao khi khao sat chuyen dong On dinh cua chat long khong chiu nen, de xac dinh rae d(mg cua cae luc pnat sinh tit dong hrc hQC cua kh6i chat long tach tuy y tit dong chay, chi cln biet phan b6 ap suat va v~n toc tren mat bao khoi {(y rna khOng c4n bi!!t cac d~ luong nay tai cac diem trong nQi b¢ khoi ch{(t long dang xet,

BAr TAP MINHHOA CHlONGIII

. .: .. ~.

. .

Bili 1. aio dong chay On dinh cuach9:t lOng khOng chiu nen vdi cae thanh pMn v~n tee

llx,= 4xz; -

Dy =6y.

- TIm thann phii.n Uz tai toa dt) A(1,l,2), n€u diem dUng c6 toa dQ 0(0,0,2).

- Xac dinh gia toc dich chuyen (gia tOc trao dOi) tai diem A.

82

Gidi:

- Tim thanh phin ehi~_u z eua v~n tOe (Urn uz).

m, giai bainay ta v~n dung phuong trinh lien tuc cho dong 6n dinh cua chat long khong chiu nen, cong thtlc (3-3)

Oux + auy + Buz =0

Ox fJy Oz

Tir day suy ra :

Ouz = _ Dux _ Guy = -~(4xz)-~(6y) = -4z-6

Oz, ax fly Ox fJy

Ta gioii phuong trinh, :

~z =-4z-6~ JOuz =- f(4z+6)az+C

, 2

Ui =-2z -6z+C

Biet rang, tai diem dirng cac thlmh phan vip} t6c deu bang 0 (tri¢t tieu) vt v~y ~ z = 2 ,

Uz = 0 nen ta co :

0= -2><22 -6x2+C ~ C = 20

'. va : Uz = _2Z2 - 6z + 20

TOng hop Iai tnrong van tt::; co dang :

Ux = 4xz

lly = 6y

lIz = _2Z2 - 6z + 20.

- Xae dinhgia t6c ,trao d6i tal A. Theo (3-2a) ta c6

au au au au

ax =_X +ux_x +Uy----A.+Uz~=0+4xzx4z+6yxO+(-2z2 -6z+20)xO= 16xz2

at Ox. fly az _' ,

au au 'au' ,au .

ay =-1...+ux-. _y +uy ........L+uz ~= O+.4xzxO+6yx6+{-2z2 -6z+20)xO = 36y

at . Ox_ 8'1,' az· ..' ,

au .• &'~,' .-

az = _z + Ux _z + uy----L+ Uz -!.= 0+ 4xzx O+6yx 0 + (_2Z2 -6z+ 20) x (-4z-6)

at Ox ,Oy Oz ..

. =8z3 + 36z2 -44z-120

The cac tri sO cua toa d~ di!m A(l,I,2) vao cac bieu thU'c kE't qua tren ta du<;IC tri siS gia toc trao dOi tIP diem A :

ax = 16xz2 = 16 x 1 x 22 == 64m/s2

a . = 36y = 36 x 1 = 36m I S2

y ,

a, = 8z3 +36z2 -44z-120 = 8x23 +36x 22 -44x2-120=64+ 144-88-120 = 0

83

T6m lai :

<Ix == 64 m/s2 ; ay == 36 m/s2 ; az == 0

LUll Y rang tha nguyen ciia gia t6c trao d6i hoan toan gi6ng nhu tha nguyen cua gia t6c cue bQ tx1i vi :

[ a, ) = [ u, I x [ ~ ] thl neu d" dai do bing met, thoi gian do bing giay (s) ta co :

m

[ax.] == ~x..£ == m/52

s m

Dieu do hop H do phru. dam bao 5lJ dong nhKt tha nguyen trong bi~u thee cua gia t6c. M~t khac, trong dongchay 6n dinh bien d6i dan, gia t6c trao dOi khong nhat thiel bang 0, vi du dong 6n dinh cua chat long kh6ng chiu nen trong conphuzo. t~i diem dimg gia t6c trao d6i triet tieu vi trong bieu thuc cua no cac 56 hang deu co thira 5613. thanh phan van 16c tuong Ung. Toy nhien gia t6c CI:1C b¢ c6 the khac khong (0 dong khong 6n dinh),

Bai 2. Ong ti!t dien chii' nh~t chieu rong b == 2e c6 doan khuyu cong· tron ban kinh trung blnh Ro (hinh

~ :.

3.20). Ong dUQc d~t nam ngang.

~ Tinh m~t cat, um, chu vi u6t va ban' kinh thuy I\1C ciIa 6ng neu chieu day ella 6ng c == 15cm. e'::: IOcm ,; Ro=40cm.

- Hay thi6t ~p quan h~ Ilz = h = f(v) v6i e va .Ro la thong 56, v Ia van t6c trung binh m~t cM cua dong chay ; b.z Ia d¢ chenh cot chat long do ap gitra hai diem N va T b met mar cat ngang tai doan cong cua khuju,

- Tinh M, v6i v == 3m/5.

Hinh3.20

BO qua t6n 1Mt nang IU<;1ng. Gw:

- Xac dinh m4)t cat uat Q, chu vi uat 1 va ban kfnh thuj' IlJc R

Do 6ng chay c6 ap nen m~t cAt luon dien day chat long. Vi vay m*t cAt uOt :

n == b x c == 2e x c == 2 x 0,1 m x 0,15 m == 0,030 m2

va chu vi ucrt:

x == 2(b +. c) == 2(2e + c) == 2(2 x 0,1 m + 0.15 m) == 0,7 m Suy ra ban kinh thuy 111c ;

Q O,03m2

R == - ;::: -, == 0,043m == 4,3 em

X O,7m

.'

84

-r:

- Xac dtnh ham llz = h =j(v) va tr] 56 eu th~

Tnroc hetcM n6i them rAng l1 day bO qua dong thO' cAp xay ra trong thuc tit~n, dong c6 xu the can bang sl! chenh ap gitla N va T Clla ~t cat ngang, Nhu vay, ket qua tfnh toan a day la gia tri cue dai, Ia gi6i han tren cua ta:

C6 nhieu each giai bai nay, nhung de v~ dung cac kien thtic c6 duqc tit cac chuang tnroc ta c6 2 each tiep can :

Dua vao quy luat phan b6 ap suat trong tinh tuong d6i cua blnh quay (tnrong Ii tam) - cong thrrc (2-18a) Chuang II va dua vao phuong trmh Bernoulli - cOng thuc (3-24e) Chirong III.

V4n dung (2-18a) Chuang II. Quan niem dong chay a doan khuju nhu tinh urong d6i trong chuyen dong quay xung quanh true tarn trungvoi tam u6n tron cua khuju va gan true toa d¢ quan sat quay dOng 1>(> v6i chuyen dong cua chat long. Do 6ng nam ngang nen trong cOng thll'c se yang m~t dO cao vi trt Z, dOng thoi voi so d6 do nnu tren hlnh ve chi cM tinh

. vOl. ap suat du, nen tit (2-18a) c6 hru y den chuyen dong nrong d6i, ta viet duqc

(02r2 ro2r~ (02[.2

P=-P-2-~PN =-P-2-; PT =-PT'

"

Biet rang:

v 3m/s

(O=-~ro=--=7,5Rad/s ;

Ro 0,4m

(a)

Hinh 3.21

V~n dung (3-24e). Theo lIVc quan va bO qua dong tha cap viet phuong trlnh Bernoulli cho duang dong - di qua diem N va nguoc v6 thuong ngu6n (l1 doan 6ng th~ng) qua diem No ctlng nhu cho duang dong di qua di&n T va nguoc v6 thucng luu qua diem To tai mat

cat 0-0: .

p v'). p2 v2 P v2 P v2

--.:!2..+.22_ = ~+~ ~ _Q_+_::. ....I.+...l

pg 2g pg - 2g pg 2g pg 2g

P v2 p2 v2, P v2 P v2

~+~ = __li+__li ~ _Q_+_ = 1+ __li_

pg 2g -pg 2g pg 2g pg 2g

Uy phuong trlnh teen trir di phuong trinh dUrn duqc :

- 2 2 2 2

PT -PN + vT -vN =0 ~ h= PT -PN = vN -VT

pg 2g pg 2g

(b)

85

Ta thay tri s6 ella h trong ea hai each tit!p can lA nhu nhau. Bay gia ta xay dung quan h¢ ham : h = f(v). Biet rang:

vT = V -flv va vN = v + 8. v rna thee hlnh ve tir 2 tam giac dong dang ta eo :

8.v v e

-=-48.V=-V.

e Ro Ro

Ki hieu e/Ro = a, d¢ eong tuong d6i cua khuyu, tir (a) hay (b) eo tht vit!t:

(V+~v)2 -(V_~V)2

h= Ro Ro =4_e_v2

2g 2gRo

2e 2 e v2

h=f(v)=-v 4h=4--

gRo Ro 2g

Nhu vay vOi cac dQ lieu eua d~u bai d¢ cnenh cot nude giila hai diem T va N la :

h=~V2 = 2xO,lm =

gRo 8,81ms-2 xO,4m

0,0458719559m

h~46mm.

Bai 3. Mot 6ng dAn d~u narn ngang (hlnh 3.22) tai khuyu u6n 450 tit!t dien tron

chuyen tir dl = 500mm sang d2 = 250mm.

Luu luong trong 6ng Q = 0,45 mVs ; ap su~t du tai m~t e~t 1-1 la 40, kN/m2. Hoi:

- - NtubO qua Wn. 1Mt, thanh phan luc 0

, narn ngarig me - dV-Ag ,ltn thAnh6ng . III bao nhieu ? ,

-N~ut6ntMtgHla'2 m~tclt .l-Lva 2-2' Hl 15% t6ngnmglmmg. 11JC-"MY labao

obitu?' - . ,', ' ' -,'

Hinh 3.22

GiJi :

- Trui'mg h~bo:quat6n'tMt~ ViE't Ph~gtiinl!;nemOulliehodong eh~t long thuc

gitta 2 ~t eat 1-1 va 2-2: "_'_

2 '2-

,PI VI P2 V2 '

Zt +-+-=Z2 +-+-+hw(I-2)

pg 2g pg 2g

(e)

Song do 6ng nam ngang nen ZI = Zz va bO qua tOn trnrt hw<t-2) = ° nen tit phuong trmh (e) eo :

(d)

86

Ta da biet ;

.. 3

_ VI = 4Q = 4xO,45m Is -+Vl =2,293m/s

1tdi 1tx(0,5m)2 .

V2 = 4Q = 4xO,45m3/s -+V2 =9,172m/s

1td~ 1tx(0,25m)2

nen tit (d) c6 :

P2 =40000N + 850k;/m3 [(2,293m/s)2 -(9,172m/s)2] P2 = 40000 N - 33518,9 kg x m -lS-2

P2 = 6481 N = 6,481 kN,

De tinh dugc thanh phan luc ngang tac dung len khuyu ta dung plurong trinh dong hrong

voi dien kiem tra 1-1-2-2-1 : -

Bay gia can xem xet cac luc tac dung len h~ :

- LVe trong twang G la trong luong cua kh6i chat long baa bri dien kitm tra, nhu se thay, thea d~ bai khong can quan tam;

'. - Ap hrc tai tiel dien 1-1 :

PI = Plnl = PI X 7tdf 14 = 40 kN/m2 x 7t x (0,5m)2/4 = 7,854 kN; - Ap hrc tai tiet dien 2-2 :

P2 = P2n2 = P2 x 7td~/4 = 6,481 kN/m2 x 7t x (0,25m)2/4::= 0,318 kN ; - Phan hrc ella thanh 6ng len chat long Hi R.

,Tren co sa d6 va thee tinh than cua (3-45) phuong trinh dong luong viet duoi dang vecto Ia nhu sau:

G + R+ i\ + P2 = pQ(v2 -VI)

(e)

(Ttrc 1a tOng hop lire cac hrc tac dQng len kh6i eh~t long nam trong dien kiem tra la nguyen nhan duy nhat lam thay dOi dong hrong cua no),

Th~o d~ bai phlii xac dinh .luc ngang, vi the Ivc trong tnrong G, do c6 phuong thAng dUng, khongcan quan tam, vi ~y Gvang m~t trong phuong trlnh (e).

Phuong trlnh ,viet-cho tirng-tMnh. ph&l ngang theo -phuong x va plnroug y nhu sau :

, . . ~ J:. , .". . , . ,

{Rx + P1- Pz ~os_a =,pQ(v2 .eosa. -VI) ~ Rx = ~PI + Pz cosa.,+ PQ(v.2 coso - VI) (f)

Ry + 0 -. P2SlD<l = pQ(V2 sma. -0) ~ Ry = P2 smu-t- pQV2 SIn a

The cac tri s6 V80 (f) ta duqc .

-Ii . .Ji

R, = '-7854kgm/s2 + 318kgm/s2 x -+ 850kg/m3 x 0,45m3/sx (9,172m/sx-

·22

- 2,293m/s) = -7, 854kN + 0, 224kN + 1,604kN = -6,026kN

87

Ry = 318km/s2 X J2 +850kg/m3 xO,45m3 /sx 9,172m/sx J2 = 225N + 2480N = 2,705kN 22-

n, = --6,026 leN va Ry = 2,705 leN

Nh6' ding IN = lkgm/s? va luc thuy dong lac dung len thanh ong khuyu ngiroc chieu v6i

R:F=-R.

Tri s6 cua luc ngang :

F = \R\ = ~R~ + R; = ~6, 0262 + 2,7052 = 6, 605leN

[F[ = [ii[ = 6, 6kN

G6c lire thuy dong tac dung len thanh 6ng khuyu la :

F -2705 -

e = Arctg~ = Arctg , _ = Arctg(-0,4489) = -24,170 == -24,20

Fy 6,026 _

o =-24,20

Trtrong hop hm Y den t6n thAt (hw(l-2) #:- 0).

Van giil nguyen luu hrong d:iu vao Q thi theo phirong trinh lien tuc van t6c tai hai mat cat van nguyen nhu cli ; ap suat va dirong nhien ap hrc tai mat cat 1-1 (a diim A) - ciing khOng thay dOi. Tai m~t cat 2-2 ap suat du giam mot luong de bu dap vao tOn thai. Nhu vay tOng nang hrong tinh ra cQt rnroc nrong duong la ;

H - Pi v; _ 40000N (2, 293m / S)2 _ 4 797 ° 268 - 5 065

1--+-- + -, m+, m-, m

pg 2g 850kg/m3x9,81m/s2 2x9,81m/s2

, Va nang luong toan phan tai mat cat 2-2 la :

H2 = HI - hw<t-2) = (1- 0,15)H = 0,85 x 5,065m = 4,305m va tll da.y suy ra 1'2 cling nhu P2 :

. p v2 v2

H2 =___l_+___l_ ---+ P2 = pgH2 _p_z = 850kg/m3 x 9,81m/s2 x4, 305m

pg 2g 2

_ 850kg/m3 x (9,172m/s)2 = 144, 8693N /m2 2

1'2 = 0,145 kN

P2 = pz 7td; = 0 145kN /m2 x 7tx(0,25m)2 = 7 12N

4 ' 4'

Vai ket qua nay

R, = - 6,245 kN,

va R = 6,721 kN

d6ng thai g6c cua phan hrc thanh ong khuyu len chat long e la : o = -21,70

Ry = 2,485 kN

88

Nhu vay, cung dieu kien d~u vao nhu nhau d tnrong hop tOn' tM't khong the bO qua, phan b,.rc cua thrum 6ng khuyu len chat long (hay luc thuy dong tac dung len thrum 6ng khuyu) 1&1g len. bieu nay c6 the hi~u duqc.

T6NG KET CHU'ONG ill

Day la mot trong nhimg chuang quan trong bac nhat cua mon hoc, de cap den ra't nhieu van de thuong gap trong thuc tien.

Tnroc het can phan biet ro hai phirong phap nghien cuu, quan sat khac nhau, mot cua Lagrange va mot cua Euler. SI! khac nhau co ban la each chon toa d¢ quan sat : cung chuyen dong voi phan ttt chat long hay co dinh trong khong gian dong chay,

Hi~u dtroc cac dang chuyen dong (dong chay) : 6n dinh (c6 sach goi la dimg), khong 6n dinh ; 6n dinh deu va 6n dinh khong deu ; khai niem quy dao, duong dong, dirong vetnhtrng kien tao hinh hQC nay duqc xem nhu la nhimg co sa, nhirng tieu chuan quyet dinh chuyen dong co 6n dinh hay khOng.

Bat dau lam quen voi cac khai niern mat cat UOt, chu vi uOt ciing nhu ban kinh thuy hrc ... Dong h9C chat long giiip hieu dtroc dinh luat bao toan v~t chat, tinh lien tuc vat chat dam bao dieu kien chat long con la chat long thong qua phirong trmh lien tuc, Ph&1 nay gioi thieu each dan dat cac bieu thirc roan hoc cua van toc, gia t6c va qua bien thuc gia t6c cua Euler thay ro hon su khac biet giua bai phuong phap Lagrange va Euler ;,mO 13. hanh vi cua phan til chat long trong khi chuyen dong (phirong trinh Cauchy-Helmholtz) khac voi cjia chat ran Ia c6 them yeu t6 bien dang, Ta con biet them khai niern chuyen dong the

. (c6 the) va chuyen dong xoay cung cac dieu kien ton t~i/xua't hien cua chung,

Trong nghien cuu dong luc hoc cua dong chay ta tam quen voi phuong trinh vi phan chuyen d¢hg Euler rno ta can bang dong, phirong trinh Lamb-Gromeko la su phat trien ket qua cua Euler co cau true phuong trinh chi tiet hon de biet diroc cac dieu kien ton tai dong the va dong xoay, Tich phan Lagrange va tich phan Bernoulli (tnrong hop rieng cua tich phan Lagrange) thuc chat la su trien khai phuang trlnh vi phan chuyen d()ng Euler vao thuc tien, hieu duqc qua y nghia Dang hrong tua phuong trlnh viet cho dong nguyen t6.,

Phuong trmh Navier-Stokes, thuc chllt ia plurong trinh Bernoulli viet cho dong that long thuc, khi d¢ nhot cua chat long gay nen rna sat; tao Ung s~t c&t, lam tieu tan nang hrong dan den t6~ thAt cot ap, ...

Cu6i cung, Chuong nay cling de cap den m¢t van de clla d¢ng I\fC lrQc trong chuyen d¢ng chat long 13. dong hrong cua chat long chuyea dong, Khac voi chat ran, a day ta phai dua vao sir dung khai niern mdt kilm tra. Dong thm phai xuat pnat til mot nguyen Ii co ban la chi co luc ben ngoai moi lam thay dOi dong hrong cua mot he, Til day lap nen phirong trlnh can bang.

89

.~: ". ~ ..

Chuang IV

CHUYtN DONG TIffi vA CHUYtN DONG XOAy

? J4.!'.,,, ... .2

CUACHATLONGDONGSONGPHANG

1. CO'sO Ii thuyet 1.1. fJijt van tIl

Chuyen dong the va chuyen dt?ng xoay cua dong chat long trong thuj lire hinh thanh mot nhom van de dUQ'e nhieu nguoi quan tam vi no e6 anh hubng dang ktS trong xiI li tinh toan rna ta dii co dip g~p khi tfeh phan plnrong trlnh vi phAn chuyen dong cua chat long (phtrong trinh Euler) de duqc phuong trinh Bernoulli. D~e diem cua dong the la tnrong v~n toe cua dong chay - khong gian cua chat long chuyen dong - e6 the suy ra til dao ham rieng cua mot truong (vO huong), the van t6c la ham cua vi tri cp(x,y,z). Ngoai ra - nhu dii biet - dong the con e6 nghia la trong do cac phan tir chat long khong quay xung quanh true cua n6 nen :

ffiX = COy = COz = O.

Cling vi vay, viec khao sat dong the va dong xoay trong cung mot chuong se co nhieu dieu thuan tien, Han nita, tlurong viec chon h~ true to"," dO la, tuy y nen chi can khao sat tren mot m~t phang to", d¢ la suy ra eho cac m~t to", d¢ khac de co dU<,1e nhtmg kel luan quan trong nhat, Til do nay sinh khai niem dong song phang vm nhtrng 1<,1i the to IOn : co the sir dung mot cong cu toan hoc manh 13. ham bien phuc rna sau nay se e6 dip the nghiem,

DOng tht! se giup lam sang to mot s6 van de nhu hUe tranh ella mot s6 dong chay bao v~t, xac dinh 11,lC nang ella chiy bao, ...

COnkhAosat dong xoay J:t8ng m¢t s6 cong cu.don gian ciing c6 the nit ra duqc met s6 ktt ll$,iiup giai thich duqc m¢t s6 hien tuqng ill nhien m()t each de hieu.

Bloh ngbia dong song - phang : La dimg·c6 cac di!c ttzing d~ng h9CVQ d¢ng Illc h9C chl-ph1;4 t~u~c VQO 2 toa d¢ (tuc'2 bM'n so) ella khOng gian 3 chilu. Vi df!" chl phI!- thu¢c VQO x va y nul: d¢c If)p ddi vm z - trong kh6nggia'n 3 chilu (x,y.z). BUc tranh cua dong chay tren cac m~t pMng song song v6i m~t phang xOy (00' nghia l8. tnre giao v6i true z) d6ng dang voi nhau theo ti 1~ 1 : 1 (xem hinh 4.1).

"

90

z

x

Hinh 4.1

1.2. Ham thl

Ta khio sat dong song phAng trong ~t phing xOy vOi di~u kien COz ::: 0, nghia 1A :

au au au au

co =............!.--y =o=>_x =-'1 (4-1)

Z 'Oy Ox Oy Ox

_ Theo dinh nghia ella th~ van t6c cp(x,y) ta co :

&p ~ &p

u =- va u =-

x Ox '1 f)y

TIt day eo vi phan toan phan ella ham the' :

d(n= &P dx+ &P dy=u dx+ u dy

""ax f)y x y

(4-2)

(4-3)

trong d6: ds = Tdx + Jdy => ds2 = dx2 + dy2 la doan chuyen vi. Theo (4-3) :

uy dx 1

ux = - dy = - dy .

dx

Do vay vecto van t6c tnrc giao vOi duemg cp = const la-duemg ding thE co phirong trlnh ~ vi phan :

'.

(4-4)

1.3. Ham dOng

Trong phan tnroc ta da biet, xuat phattir dinh nghia ella no phuong trlnh vi phan rnO ta dirong dong co dang :

u u

_.!..=.2.. => u dy=u dx => u dy-u dx=O

dx dy x '1 x Y

Phuong trinh nay c6 the giai duoc neu tim dircc mot ham W(x,y) sao cho :

ihv, ihv

u =-vau =--

x Oy '1 Ox

de ve trai cua (4-5a)trO' thanh rn¢t vi phantoan phan : ow dy+ Ot¥ dx = dw

fJy Ox

(4-5a)

(4-5b)

(4-5e)

Dc! dang nhan tMy, dUCtng _~g th.E cp(x,y) ;;: const =C1 t1"\lC giao v6i duemg dong W(x,y) = const = ~.di~u rna ta daehi ra qua m¢t each ti6p e~n khac, ThVC v~y, ti1 (4~5a) va (4-5b)c6 :

va

dY! = uy

dx IjI':;Cz ~ Ux IjI'=C2

chfnh la dieu kien de 2 duong tnrc giao nhau.

C)1

D6i s3nh(4-2) v6i (4-5b) conthay :

u =Ocp=cnv va u =B<r>=_cnv

II Ox fJy Y 8y ax

Nguoi ta goi (4-6) la dieu kien Cauchy-Riemann.

Trong chuyen dong cua chat long khong nen duqc tit phuong trlnh lien tuc ta th"y ham the van t6c cp(x,y) thoa man phuong trinh Laplace:

Gull Guy a acp a acp a2<p a2cp

0=-+-=-(-)+-(-)=-+-=0 (4-6a)

ax 8y ax Ox fJy 8y. ax2 8y2

(4-6)

hay:

a2cp a2cp divgradcp(x,y) = ~cp = -2 + -2 = 0

Ox 8y

Neu xuat phat tit dieu kien dong chay the'va tu ham dong \jI(x,y) :

_ Gull GuY_o

Wz - fJy - ax -.

(4-6b)

hay:

(4-7a)

(4-7b)

Dieu d6 c6 nghia la ca hai ham nay deu thoa man phuong trinh vi phan t40 ham rieng Laplace.

1.4. Y nghia hinh h9C va v~ U CM IuJm thi'va ham dong

Theo cac ket qua thu diroc d tren ta thay 2 ho duong cp(x,y) = const va \jI(x,y) = eonst true giao nhau (xem hinh 4.2). Vm. cac thong s6 lit tri s6 cua hang s6 lay Cll = CzI ' Cl2 = Cz2 , C13 = Cz3, ... duqc mot mang lum. tuong img vOi rmrc chenh : ~<pi = ~\jIi

( i = I, n), nghia la co mang lum :

cp(X,y) = Cll, C12, ,C1n v6i Cli+1 = Cli + ~<p

'V(x,y) = Czl' <;2' ,C 2n vOi Czi+l = Czi + 8\j1

Trong dong On dinh c8c phan tU chat long kh6ng c't ngang qua (khOng xuyen qua) duang dong nen git1a .2- duemg dong dang quansattao thanh met long din/kenh chay (xem hlnh 43) ~6 hmhrong 18. :

(4-8)

Khi van dung trong thuc tien ki thuat bao gia ta cung chon met each chu dong gia tri hang 56 C sao cho tai mot tri s6 nhat dinh t6n tai dubng dong trimg v6i th~ cUng, vach bien dong thoi v6i viec bao dam tinh lien tuc cua dong chay,

92

y

~(x,y) = c;

, , ,

x

Hink 4.2

x

Hinh 4.3

1.5. Ham tM' phitc

Ham so c6 bien so phirc, goi ng&n Hi ham bien phtrc, nhu se thay, la cong C1;l cue ki hitu hieu cho viec khao sat, nghien CUll dong song phang. Song, a ta, nhieu tnrong co met so ~ nganh ki thuat den nay van knong day ham bien phuc. Tuy nhien, chi vOi muc dfch sir dung " don gian cluing ta hay tim hidu m¢t so khai niem, m"t s6 tfnh chat co ban nhat ella mot lap

, hep ham so, thuong la cac ham kha vi, ham chinh quy hay cac ham giii tfch, ta co the vuot qua hiing hut do. Muon hieu sau hon co the tim den cac sach nhap men hoac chuyen khao ve ham bien phtrc. Phuong cham tiep can d day cut! cluing ta la ciln den dau, tim hieu den do. Vi vay phii chap nhan phuong phap xen ke, nhirng tranh de van de quan tam bi loang hoac r6i.

a) Kh6i niem stf phuc va mot scI phep loan Ta goi so phuc thuan ao don V! la i = H . Nhu v~y suy ra :

i2 = -1 ; P = -i va i4 = L

M¢t so phuc : c = a + ib, v6i a, b ia cac so th\lC. c6 phan thqc (tlnrong ki hieu Re) Is Rec = a va ph4n ao(kihl¢u 1m) III !m,c = b. _

S6phuc c ~o-mOdun r=_ .Ja2_+ b2 ~ ~gunient ~'= 8rctg(b/a) = S.

-Theo y nghia hmh hQC bieu'di~n s6-phtic ta c6 th~ bieu dien dum dang s6 mn :

- .

de dugc cong thee Euler bieu dien m¢t ~o phuc, ,-

Ngum 41 goi so phirc lien hiep cua cia c neu c = a-ib.·

, '

_~u trong h¢ toa dQ xOy ta bieu dien so phuc z= x + iy v6i x va y Ht cae bien so thi mQt

tram f(z) se H(y cac gia tri co the la thuc (chi g6m pbrul thuc), c6 the Ia thuan ao (chi co ph&1 ao)va co the Iii phirc (co ca phantlnrc Ian phan ao),

93

CAc phep toan co ban vOi 2 s6 phtrc ci = a\ + ib, va c2 = a2 + i~ :

c = ci + c2 = (al ± ~) + i(bl ± b2); v~y Ree = Reel ± R~ va Imc = Imc. ± Imc, . c = C IC2 = (a, + ib1)(a2 + i~) = a,~ - bl b2 + i(al b2 + a2bl), vi v~y

Ree = a,a2 - b1b2 va Imc = al~ + a2bl

C1 c1 C2 (a, .;. ib. )(a2 - ib2) a, a2 + b1.b2 + i(a2 b, - a, b2)

c = - = -- = = --<--=----=--=-:,--_..;........=........=---....:.......;"-

c2 c2 C2 (a2 + ib2)(a2- ib2) ai + bi

Vi vay :

.9 c" = (re'")" = rneinS vOi r = .Ja2 + b2 ::::::> ~ = rerr/;;;.

b) Nhiing tinh eM', eel ban eua ham the phuc

4.

Bay gia ta xay dung mot ham bien phirc co phan thuc la the v~n tac cp(x,y) va phan aD la

ham dong \If(x,y) roi xem chung phai co nhifng tinh ch~t gi de e6 the dap Ung direc yeu cau can co cho nghien cuu hay khong, tnroc het Hi die'u kien true giao va dieu kien khd vi it nhd: 2 ldn (dt co van toe va gia toe), Nghia la :

fez) = cp + i\lf

voi cp va \If thoa man dieu kien Cauchy-Riemann (4-6), Dong thOi co:

Tinh kOO vi cua ham bien phirc fez) phu thuoc vao gia tri cua dao ham (vOi each hieu nhu trong ham tnuc) df/dz tai z (va doi voi cluing ta ke ca ~ Ian can cua n6) co t6n tai mot each don tri hay khOng. Nhu dinh nghia ta eQ :

df = dcp + idW = O<p dx + &P dy + i(8\v dx + 8\v dy) va dz = dx + idy (4-9)

Ox Oy Ox Oy

-NhuvQy:

(O<p dx+ Ocp dy)+i(8\v dx+ ffiv dy)

df dcp + idW Ox Oy ax Oy

-=-'--"':'"

dz dx +idy rut dx, idy thrum thira so chung :

(Ocp , ~If)d (O<p 'O\v)d . (&p ,ffiv)d 1 (&p ,mv)'d

-+1.':.Y x+ -+1- Y -+1- x+- -+1- 1 Y

_df = ax ax Oy Oy' = Ox ax i Oy Oy

dx+ idy

dx+ idy

(4-10)

=

dz

dx+idy

(&p ,O\jJ)d (Q\v ,8cp)'d

-+1- x+ --}- 1 Y

ax ax 8y 8y

_=------,.----=----=----

df

(4-11)

dzdx+idy Phan tfch (4-11) thay, dao ham cua fez) ducc ki hieu la f '(z) tai z e6 the lay vo cung nhieu tri so khac nhau vOi moi cap gia tri dx, dy xac dinh dz. De f '(z) xac dinh (dan tri) khi va chi khi dieu kien :

94

ap.O\v. O\v .ap

-+1-=--1-- .

Ox Ox Oy.Oy .

(4-12)

duqc thoa man d~ :

df (: +i Z")(dx+ idy) (:; -i :)(dx+ idy)

-= = (+13)

dz (dx+ idy) (dx+ idy)

Nghia la :

df ap . Otv Otv . ap

-=-+1-=--1-

dz Ox. Ox. ay ay

(4-14)

vi luc nay gia tri dao ham khong ph~ thuoc vao tri s6 cua cac cap dx, dy (da gian uac trong (4-13) r6i). Lai thay trong (4-12) ve trai Ia dao ham rieng thea x va ve phai la dao ham rieng thea y (ttic III iy) cua ham (z). Thuc v~y :

_E_r= ~(<p+ i'V) = &P + i Otv ax ax ax Ox.

at B. 1 ap i Otv Otv . B<p

iay = iay (<p+l'V)=j By +i By = By -1 By

-

Vi the rang buoc dt f(z) khi vi III dao ham cua no khong phu thuoc vao huang tien tm

'.

gi6i han cua dz. Day la di~u kien Cauchy-Riemann. So sanh 2 ve cua (4-14) thay di~u kien

nay the hien nhu sau (phan thuc hang phan thirc, phan ao hang phan ao) :

ap = Otv va Otv = _ ap ax fJy ax fJy

v m cac ket qua tren ta thay, phan thuc va phan ao cua ham f(z) qua thirc mO ta ducc day . du quan he t6n tai _giua the van tee va dirong dong cua mot dong chay the. Nhu vay, co the noi mot ham f(z) co cdc tinh chat nhu tren thuang fa dien ta toan h9C coo mot dong chdy

(4-15)

nao do.

1.6. Xdc djnh c~p IuUn dilu hod

Tom hQC goi <p va 'V lit c~p_ ham di&t hoa vi no thai man dieu kien Cauchy Riemann (4:"15). Trong thgcij.en,vl_m¢t nguyennhan nao d6 thuong chi biet 1 trong hai. Vi v.y van de d~t fa b day Ut xac dinh ham chua bi€tde co duqc m¢t c~p bam dieu hoa. Diravao (4-15) thuc hien phep tich phan ta C6 ngay 1m giii cho tirngtnrOnghQp (tim <p hay tim 'V).

aJ Truong h(1p hili'll tim<p

Nhu da thay, neu biet duqc vi phan roan phan eua m¢t ham ta de dang xac dinh diroc ham do. Bai vay tnroc het phai co d<p :

dtp = ap dx + &P dy ~ 'P = J(ap dx + &P dY)

ax fJy Lax fJy

(4-15a)

95

vOi. L la dU<mg tich pnan cnon mQt cacn tor nnai cno unu W4..I1 \'-''"'' u~vu6 e. .. y ........ -- ~- •• C ' song v6i tJl.1C x va true y) voi hru y c.p 130 hani th€, Til (4-15) ta co cac gia tri dao ham rieng cua c.p (thong qua w) de the vao (4;-15a), duQ'C :

II O\v Y c3\v

c.p= J-dx- J Ox dy (4-15b)

Xo Oy Yo

b) Truong hap bilt c.p tim '+'

Tuong tl,t nhu dan dolt a tren, khi da biet c.p, dung :

ll&p Y &p

W = - J-dx+ fax dy

Xo Oy Yo

(4-15c)

v6i hru Y la khi thuc nien tich phAn tlnr 2 thee, y, bien x phru duQ'C thay bang Xc> ; dong thoi tuyet d6i khong duoc gian uOc cac d~i hreng bien sO dum dau tich phan tnroc khi tfch phan.

Hay. mink hoa qua mot vi d\l sau day. Cho : 1

c.p = 2ln(X2 + y2),

tim ham dong l.jI.

GMi:

Day 18. tnrong hop b.

&p =.!. 2x ~ 0\fI = x

ax 2 x2 +y2 Oy xl +yl

&p ~ 1 2y ~ 0\fI = _ y

Oy' 2 Xl +yl ax. Xl +yl

Til day. ap dung (4-15c) :

x _y y XX Y y Xo

'V = JdW. = J 1 1 dx + f 1 1 dy = - J 1 1 dx + J 1 1 dy =

L . Xo X + Y Yo X + Y - llO X + Y Yo Xo + Y

= -[arctg ~]ll + [arctg .L]Y = -arctg ~ + arctg ~ + arctgl- arctg 1:2.. =

y Xo Y Y Xo Xo

llO Yo

= -( 1t _ arctg r) + (2: _ arctg L.) + arctg.L _ arctg Yo = arctg r _ arctg Yo

2 x 2 Xo Xo Xo x Xo

Va cuoi cling \V(x, y) = arctg y + const

x

130 cap dieu boa v6i c.p(x,y) cho a tren l~ thanh the phirc :

fez) = c.p(x, y)+ iw(x, y) = ..3...lnz

21t

v6i q = 21t. Nhir sau nay se thay, day fd thlph{(c cUa mqt ngu6n.

(4-16)

(4-17)

96

2. V ~- dung Ii thuyet d~ khso sat m~t 56 €\ongchsy

,De minh hoa, dum <fay hay khao satIliQt s6 dong chay thuong g~p. 2.1. DOng boo qUanh g6c

fez) = az2

(4-18a)

Trien k:hai ra ta co fez) =a(x + iy)2 = a{x2 + 2x(iy) + (iy)2} = a(x2 - y2) + i2axy fez) = a(x2 - y2) + i2axy

Til day co ham thf van tee : cp(x.y) = a(x2 - y2)

va ham dong: \j1(x,y) = 2axy

Kiern tra dieu kien Cauchy-Riemann : acp

--=u =2ax ax x

Oq> = u = -2ay By Y

(4-18b) (4-18c)

0\jI = u = 2ax Oy x

- 0\jI =u =-2ay ax y

(4-18d)

ta thay dung, Nhir vay yeu cau co chirc nang mo ta m¢t dong chay da diroc thoa man.

DlIiing ddng the' :

x2 y2

<p = ax2 - ay2 = const => - - - = 1 A2 B2

(4-18e)

'. voi A = B = (const/a)lf2 la 2 ho duang cong

hypebon co true 13. true x va true y tuy thea Y

tnrong hop bang s6 canst Hfy gia tri duong hay

am. Con duang dong: .

'V:::; 2axy =.const (4-18f)

cling la 2 ho duong hypebOn khac t:rQ'c giao vm 2 he dirong tren c6 cac duang tiem cq,n- llLtrQc x va true y. Htnh 4.4 cho bile tranh dong ~hiy nay. Trang dong chay mot 50 duang dong Ity~~t.rj_. d~c tnrng 'V = 0 de n6 c6 the d6ngvai tto'~m¢t : " .

dong chay baoquanh mc)t.,v.(~ ~o:d6.~'-,:vi~· -. ;f~=~~~~~~~~~ b tnrong hqpc*th~~~a cht\ng:ta,~ "~,y~-~y"::: R'i

se d6ng vai rro d6 de thaytb!'.c1lem¢tg6c (lorn) '.

900 tao nen thanh ran trong ~g cJuJybao_trong

quanh goc true giao, Vi ban' than true x va true Y cling la cac duimg dong,

2.2.lJiim ngu6n

The phuc cua diem nguOn d~t tai g6c toa d¢ co dang :

fez) = _9_lnz =....9._ In(reiS) = _9_(ln r + is) = _9_ln ~X2 + y2 + i_9_arctgL

21t 21t 21t 21t 21t X

x

Hinh4.4

(4-19a)

97

trong do : q Ut cuong d¢ Clla ngu6n. Suy ra : cp = 4~ln(X2 + y2)

l.JI = _g_ arctg r

21t x

Va cac thanh phan van t6c :

&p q x

u =-=----

x Ox 21t x2 +y2

&p q Y

u =-=--,;;...._-

Y By 21t,x2 + y2

(4-19c)

(4-19b)

Hinh 4.5

2.3. Dilm hf,

Diem tv la diem ngu6n co cuong dq am, Nghia la th€ phuc cua tv d~t b g6c toa d¢. co dang :

f(z) = _ _g_ In z 2n

(4-19d)

Do v~y ham th€v~n t6c cp va ham dong l.JI co dang gi6ng ella nguon nhung trai dau :

CPto,t = -(j)ngu6n ; l.JIU; = -l.JIngu6n·

,-Neu tv d~t b toa d¢ x=:hi va y = 0 vOi a> 0 - (tiic Ut nam tren true x) thl :

b r u Y

u"'--"'--

r 2n

cp= 4~ln[(x=Fa)2+y2J

- q y

l.JI--arctg--

2n x z a

&p q x z a

u =-=---'---

x Ox 21t (x =F a)2 + y2

u=O<p=..i. y

Y &y 21t(x=Fa)2+y2

2.4. Xoay co the'v(in ttic

Lit diem nguon c6 cuong d¢ ao q = il" v6i. I' la luu 56 van t6c. Nhu v~y :

ir f(z)=-lnz

21t

(4-1ge)

(4-19f)

q)=O

x

Hinh4.6

(4-19g)

r y

cp =-arctg-

21t x

r 2 2 l.JI =-In(x +r ) 41t

(4-19h)

98

a't' r y

u =-=----

x ay 2n x2 + y2

0\jJ . r -x

u =--=-----,--

y ax 2n x2 +y2

2.5. T6 hop xody co the'va tu

Buc tranh cua dong chay nay the hien gan dung hien urong xoay trong mroc hoac voi rong trong khi quyen, La su ket hop cua xoay cuong d¢ r va tu ctrong d¢ q c6 the phtrc la : ir q

f(z)=-lnz+-Inz (4-19j)

2n 2n

<p = _£_aretg r + _3__ In(x2 + y2) = ~ S + _3__ In r

2n x 4n 2n 2n

r 2 2 q Y r q

\jJ = --In(x + y ) + -aretg- = -lnr + - S

4n 2n x 2n 2n

r y q x r sin S q cos S

ux = 2n x2 +y2 + 2n x2 +y2 = 2n-r-+ 2n:-r-

-r x q y reDs S q sin S

y =- +- =----+---

y 2n x2 + y2 2n: x2 + y2 2n r 2n: r

Nell fa Sl/ ke't hap giiia xoay thlva nguon chi cdn thay q = -q' ia co ngay dong chdy clia rtf hap xoay the'va nguon. Birc tranh cua dong xoay voi tu the hien trcn cac hlnh 4.7 va hlnh 4.8 la anh cua mot xoay mroc trong thuc teo

nen til (4-19h) va (4-1ge):

va til (4-19i) va (4-19f):

I,

y

, (jl, = canst

Hinli 4.7

(4-19i)

(4-19k)

(4-191)

Hinh 4.8

99

2.6. LUOng qtc

Fhat sinh nha xep chong m¢t nguon va mot t\l c6 cung tri so cueng d¢ (chi trai d~u) dq.t d6i xung qua g6c toa d¢ cung nim tren true x (hoac cnng nam tren true y) each nhau m¢t khoang ~x (ho~c ~y) dan tien too gim han 0 sao cho tich q x ~x khong dOi va lity gia tri qQ, nghia la. :

y

TV (tren O-x)

x

Ngu6n (tren O-x)

y

TI,I (trim O-y)

x

Ngu6n (tr6n O-y)

Hlnh4.9

Tir day co:

qo 1 x-iy x-iy

f(z)=-=qo-.-=qo . . =qo-~

Z X+ly . (X+lY)(X-lY) X2+y2

<p = qox va 'V = _ qoY

x2 +y2 x2 +y2

Neu trong qua trinh tien tm giOi han nguon va tu d~t tren true y (true ao) thl:

<p = qoY va. \V = qox (4-190)

X2+y2 X2+y2

(4-19m)

(4-19n)

De thay, neu hom vi x v6i y trong (4-19n), ket qua dung nhu tren, (4-190). 2.7. Sf! xlp chong cDc the'phftc CMY bao quanh v4J ron

Nhu da: thA"y va se thay, neu xep chdng (hay to hop tuyen tlnh) cac the' phirc, ta se duoc mot the phirc moo me ta mot dong chay rom co cau true chay phuc tap han. Sau dAy hay khao sat varr de nay qua mot s6 vi du tiep theo.

100

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