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Sllhllef.er: :SOIi!:iOiill!lf.

llZth EdiililDln

e The IMcGraw-ffi111 CompaniEls, :201 [I

Understanding Sociology

e The IMcGraw-ffi111 CompaniEls, :201 [I

Witll all rh,(j 1"eal~lifi assets .I ve ["uUt up in J~1ii1dle age-hank acco"wtl:, JRA., health 'insw,t'lUtCe, ~Hulf.;()'oom }wJne-wtU:~ing iru:llll,gent.ly;(n tlw back{g',m~:nd'i thereuias ~:to' Wll.y I t.!)a~: going to' ·',exJutien.c,(J pO'lh?'tr:y" ,m' $ 4,80 a imorMh illl rem" or

hi A f\ r n ' fhul our lun» :~.t "r,eaUy foiLf?," ,~o be II lm:tg-t,el"'1l:l [,ow"'(vttge Wo",kt21".

81 main8igeau e <it'u per- ~ . .

cent of my ,e:81ffi:i mlg5, It hel!plBd, too, that galS and e:l~ci,ty were included lin my f'6lnt andithat ~ got two or 1!h.I'@l€' frr,e;€ meals 'I'i!aoh 1Mij€,ke:nd at the nursi;nlg heme. Bull:: I waS 'tl'(~~~alt the beginrning offU1€ off..!seaso~.

" II am, iQf course, very d iiffen3nt 1lro:mtlle peoplle whlo I[Jlorm8111ynn America's least attracl:i~~ JiQbs, ijlllid ii:n ways that beth helpooalnd lim:itoo me, MoISt obviotJisly, I was Qlillly visil{img a lj'lJ\nnid that others ii nha bit fu:ll:.;Uime, olen fbr most of theilr I:ii\llss. wm'! a III the reall-I~fe assets I've buillt !lJIP in middl'@' age.-'balnk a[:count, H~A, health i:nsurainG~~ mulitiroom homS'-wai~il1lg indlltlgelllUly lilll the ba~kgr'O'llI1nd ,there w:as no 'Way I was ,goi ng to "expelience pO'iieny" or flirild out hw "t~reaHry feels" 'to be >61

long-term Ilow-wage work€lr.

My aim here was ml1l!cl11 :morestr~iightfQ'~8Jrd and obj,@'cti'!le-jlust to see whethier I could match income tn IDl!penses,a!s the itJ1ul~ PQior a1tOOmpt to' do 'ellery da,y .. ,. ,.

IrnPortiandJ Mailne, r ,ca'm.€! closest to .(llclhfre'!J",llillg,!i;I. de.ml'llt fit behV€!€ln ilnDOme and elp€'IilISes, bull:: ollily beC'i3l!JiSe II worked seV€in days a ~ek Betwe~,n my '!tWo jobs, I was emnin,g app~iQximately $3QO a lj~e!k 81ft~r ta;x~s and pay~ng

In herundercover attempts to survive as a low-wage worker in. di.ffer,ent cities irr fhe United States, journalist Barbara. Elrrenreich revealed patterns efhuman interaction and used methods of study that foster sociological investigation, This excerpt from :her book. .Nicke' and Di med: On (Not) G"ettiJ~g .By in lime-rice! describes how she left a comfortable home and. assumed the identity of 11 dl.ivurce-d,l.niddl1!e-aged. housewife with IlO mUege degree and little worki:l1g experience, She set out to get thebest-paying job and. the cheapest living quarters she couldfind.jn see wh.ethersh.e could. rnake ends meet, Month,s rater, pbysically exhausted and demoralizedby d.enle<lui.ng work: rules, Ehrenreich cnnfirmed what she had suspected before she began: getting by 'in this CiOlIlntry as a low-wageworker is alosEng propnsitian.

Ehrenreich's study focused. on an unequal soeiety; which .ls a. central topic in seciology, Her investrgative'!,vro·rk:, like the work: of many other joumalists, is informed. by sociclogicalresearch that diocmnents the existence and. extent of inequalityin our society, Social ineq ualityhas a pervasive influence nnInnrnm

Iff i ihald:stay€d U ]';Itiili June 2000. I would ha'!lefac€(i the Bhj@ HaN€nls summe;r rent Ij)'f ·$3:QO a w@;e~" whi,ch would of [:oUlrse hiaV€! tieel!] om of the qlJlestiOIilI. So tn sllJirviiW ~'8INoUlndi. I wouilid have had to save eno ugh, in tmle molllths b~tween August ] 999arnd May 2000., to aecumulate U1e 'fli~ mOlllth's rentend deposiit onl an actual apalrtrrllmt.. 1 think I cOl!Jlld nla\!'€ done this:-sav€:d ·$8'00 to $1,OOO-a1l least if IilIO car trouble or i:llmess iilillOOrleomd wiith my tmd~t I am not SUire, howeve.r, ~halt I I(:ou~d hav1e; maimained the s€\II€nJ-dlay-a-mek mgiimen mon~h after month or elud!ed~he kindls of injliJlriesl:hat ,aiff,uewd my 11elllow worke,tS ,ilill the hOl!Jlsec~l,e,2Iini,t:lg business,

ln Milfmeapollis-well, here '~'!I€l am Ileft: w;ith 9 lot off spsculetion, if I had been aolle to 1lilnd an apartment for $400 a montl'l or less, my pay afWa.I-Mart-$1,120 a mooU]1 beforetax€5'-:milgl't 'have been suffl'c::iem:, alithiQugh the cost of I,jvilng :inl a more~l~hile' ~ searched for SilJlcml an ,alp'arrIJnJ']jI(~~lt might have made it ~mpossii.b~e for me to sav'~ ,enoug~ ~or~heflrst month's rent and deposit. A !Nee!~end job, suchas the Ollie I almost: Ilanded at a supermarket for about $: 7.15 an hOIJJr, would have helped, buJt: I hald rilO gueranteoe that I eeuld arrall1ge my s.chedluil'€ art: Wall'-Mart. to reliattDly '8'XClude weeke,nds. If ~ had takel1lthe job at Mena~ds and the pay was in roc! $10 an hO'l!Jlrfolr eleven hours a day, 1 would have made about $440 a week after taxes-ellioughto [pay fot a mote·11 room arid still II have some~hiing :Ieft: rnJ,er to sav€ up for~he iniitiall costs. of an apertmem.But \!'I'ere they ireally off:eninlg, $10 an hO'u.ir?/'Illid could! have stayed or'! myreet ele~lfm hours a day, five days a w€€:k? So yes, with some diif~ femm. ehelees, I probably cou!ld hIDll8: survlI\red iln M:inlne,arpolis. But l'm not ,going back 110 u .ar remaJreh. ,,'

interactions a]]d.i.t1:!;ltJ.mtlons. Certain gWIIJPs of people co]l]tro,[ scarce zeseurces, wieldpower, and receive special treatment,

vvnae .it mi.g;ht he i:nbe.res;~ing to know how ene individual is a£'fectedlby the needto make ends meet, sociui.o£;ists consider how entire groujpS of people ape affected by these kinds of factors, and how sccietyitself [night be altered by them .. Sociolegists,. then) areant cnneerned with what oneindividual does. or does not do, hu.1t with what people do as: members of a gmup or iID interaction with. one another" and what that means :liar individuals <Ind. {Olf society as a who[e.

As afield of study. soeinlogy ]5 extremel f hroad in ~rore. "tOl!1 win see th.mlll.g,bout this book the ~~a1ige of i:O]p1.CS sccinlogists inv:es.tigatte-fro.nl suicide to TV viewing habits, from Amish society to global economic patterns, from p,e.e.r pressureto genetic engineering, Sociology looks at how others influence mrr behaviorc Jmw major social institutions Iike theg,ovefnment •. l!'e.ligi!oJl, and the economy affect us; and 1]!O'w we ourselves affect other individuals, groups. and even erganizatio ns,

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

1.lIllndeIlSt811~ling Slll:iillll}~~ i1rext

How did sociology develop! In what ways does it differ from other socia] sciencesi This chapterwill explore thenarure of sociology as bath afielld of inquiry and an exercise ofthe "50C10- logical .. rm<ll:gi.[lation,~ We']] look at the discipline asa science and considerits relationship to other so cial sciences .. We'.1l meet faur pioneen-ingti:D.m.kers-£~.ni.le Durkheim, M;:u: Weber. [{.,ul Mar:x~

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

and.W .. E. B. Dl!lBois-and examine the theoretical perspectives thatg:rew out of their work, Well note some (lIf the practical d!pplicatiomi:S for sncinlogical theory and researdl.FimlJ]y. wtU see how sociology helps. us to develop a soci.ologicd imaginaticn, For those students interested lIQ. ex.plofing career opportunities ill sociology~ the chapter closes witJiJ. a special sppemfix,

What Is Sociology?

1.. .' i.. . :;']' ... . .. 0'· ... " .:i!. .. ith ..... 'j' C ~;jj A

W.I.i.at nas sacso .ogy gotto " 0 WhJ!l me OF with .:my urei ' .... s

a student. Y0l!l might wem have asked this question when you sign.ed. l!lP fnryourintmductmr sociology com s e. To, Oll'lswer it, consider these points: Are you iufluencedby what:fDu see on televisioni Do y.0u use lllJe' Illt:en1e'l? Did. you vote in. tbe last dec-

• ';0 A.'· .... i::... •. ~.. .' 'b' 1...... dri ki .... ....~ D

nom . re YOll.[>:I.lubl;a:r witt ' . ._.mge .nn· m,g onca:mpm ••. ' . o}i1c:m

use alternetive medicmei These are just a few of the everyd;ay life situations des,o([ibeJ in this book that so oo[ogy Gin shed. light '1)1]. But ;<1$ the opening excerpt Indicates, 8od.oJogy also looks <lit Iarge social issues, "rYe use s.ocjo[ogy~o imvestig,a:tewia.y thousands of jobs have moved fran. the United. States to developing nations, ","vhat social forces pnanoteprejudice, what leads someoneto join a social mnvemem and work for sncial chal'lige; how access, to rnmpl!ltertedllI:uilogy cal] reduce soclal1.nequai:ity;, and why relationships between men and women in Seattle differ from those rn Singapore,

SOd!O.~D.gy is. very s;in].p~.r" the- scientific study of social l~eha:vior <lind human groups. It focuses on sncial relationshipschow those relationsbips injluence people's bebaeior; andhow societ~es>~he sum~otaJ oftl.lo,o;e rd;atio~]ships. develop and d.ll<lnge"

The Sociological I rnagination

In attempting to understand social behavior, sociologists rely on a unique type of critical thi:nkm.g. A leading oodo]ogist, ',c, Wright MiUs, described such thinking <II.s. the rodllm£lgii.c~. hnagmationan awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider sodety, both. today <LIla rn the past ,[bis iilwareness allows all of us (nat just soc.i.ologi,sts) '[0 comprehend the links between OUI immediate, personal social :$etti:~.gs and the remote, impersonal socialworld that surrounds and helps to .shi8i:pems. Barbara :Ehre[lr,e:ichcertaillly used a goc:iol():g~c<ll imagination wht;:n she studied.low-wage workers (Mills. []959] 2GOOa}.

A key element in the sociclogical Im<lginati.on is the ability to view one's own. society <It;; an outsider w'ould,.ra:tber than only from the pel.:,>pectrve ofpersuaal experiences and. culturafbiases, Consider something as Si.imp1!e as :SPQding events, o.n. (jQ.U~ge campuses in the United. States, thousands of students cheer welltrained football players. In. Bali, Indonesia, dozens, IOf spectators gather around ill ri .. ngto cheer <011 well-trainedroosters eng~ged: in mckfi.ght.s. In both .lnstal.nees, the spectators debate the merits of their: :favQi!'ites and bet ontlre outeome of the ,eveIlll:si,¥e1 what is considered. a normal sporting event jn one pert ofthe world is considered un usual in. anetherpart,

The scciologicalImagination allows us to go beyond. pe:rsonal experiences and observations. to nnderstandbroader public issues, Divorce, fOI[ example, is unquestionably a personal hardship for a husband <lind wife who .'lpHt apart, However; C. Wright Mills advocatedusing the soc~iologica] imagination to

view divorce nol: sin:rp]y as ran individual's personal problem but ratlrer @IS, a. soeietal.concern, Using this perspective, we call seethat din increase in the divorce rate actually redefines a raajor social. iustitrnltio]l-th.e family; 'loday's. bous~ho:h:l!sfteque;ntly include stepperenta and ha]f:"s;i.blings whose parents have divorced. and remarried, Through the complexities of the blended f.nnily, this private concern becomes a public issue that sffeets schools" government agencies.businesses, and. lieligiOll!.$ institutfcns,

The sociological lrila.glnaI:iO:ri is an erL1powering too,L[t allows US~Cl rook beyond. a limited. understanding of human behavior to see theworld and its people ill a new way and through <I broederlens than we might ollberwise U;5e. It rnay be <I.S s.imple <IS uaderstsnding why 031 roommate prefers country IlIll!5;]C to hiphO]J~ or it may open upa whele di:ffefent way nfunderstandmg other populatlons in the world .. For example, 'in the aftermath of tbe terrorist attacks 'On the United States on September 11> 20 (]]. many citizenswanted tntmderstand how Musl:i:rns twoughout the world perceived their COl.lntry. and why: From time to time thisil:extbook wilI offer Y0l!l the ch.:Jinoe to. esercise your own seciolog;k;al:. imagination 1..11 avariety of situations,

use your sociological Imagination

YOUI al~e w,allking downth€ sl:r€€t in your CKy orr mlome· town. In looking around you, you can't Ihe~p f1lotidrlig that halfor mm,€ 01' the Ipeople you see are ov€t'Il'Il{lighlt. How do you ,eXlpla"n your ooee:rvatiiorr? If.YO lUI w@rr,'@

C. Wlrilghll: Mi:llis,. hiQ!hl do you t~i.n~ you wOIu.h::i '~xplai[] it?

Sociology and the Socia ~ Sciences

Is s{)c;io[og)" a ~~cience? The term sdoe:f1lccl.:efer.~ to the body of kr.mwledg:e obtalIlJeo by methods based on systematic observation. Just like other scientific disciplines, sociology :invol\res the organized. s,y.stematk study of phenomena (in this case, human behavior) in. order to enhance understanding, .An scientists. wl1'e'the.r stl!ld.ying mushzcoms ormnrdeeers, attemptto collect precise informat]o[l!th.rnmg;b .. methods of study that CIi.Fe as objective as: possible, Tl1.ey Fdy 01.11 careful recording of observations and. accumulation of data.

Of CO!JlrS!e. ther-e is a g[:eat difference between S!Qciology and. physics.between psy,chologyand :astI1Qlu:m.ry: .POll: this reason, tbe sciences are mmmonfydivided intonatural and soeial sciences, Naltur<d. sdenc:e .is the study of thephysical fea:tmes of n<ltl;[l1e and the ways in which th.ey interact and. (fl.alJige. A. s tronomy, biology, chemistry, geology. <Ind. physics are an natural sciences,


1.lIllndeIlSt811~ling Slll:iillll}~~ i1rext

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

:$(11:':1811 seienee ]S tlJ:e stu.d.y of the social features of humansand the V;'<ILysin wh.ichttbey in teractand change, The social sciences include sociology;. anth ~.upo!ogy> eccnoruics, hi:story,p.sych.ology; and. political science.

'111Jes.e social science disciplines have a common £0 ens on the :so!Lial.'bdlavlor of people, yet each has a particular orientation, Anthropo.logists IJSiLUJI.U.y 51udly past cultures andp:rei.nd.ll1stria] societlesthat centinue t:oday,as well ·as tfu!e origins of humans. Ecnnemists explore tbe ways in which people produce and e..x:change gOQdis and services, alongwifh money and. nther resources. Histariansare concerned withthe peoples and events of the past and their significaJI],ce fom: us today. Political scientists studyinternational relations, the wor.ki.ngs of :goverlime~]t, and the exercise of power and. autllOrity., F'syd10Iog;ists lllvestigate personality and individual behavior. So' what do sociologists ['OWl'> DEl! They stmdy the influence that socieryhas DEl people's attirudes and behavio» and the VI.'<lYS, inwhich people inteeactand shape so Gi.dy •. Because h wJt~:[IS are social animals, s(}ci.ol'ogj.">ts examine om" social relationships with others sci entifi,c<l1liy. The range of the relationships they investigate is 'vast) as the currentlist of sections in the American SOclologiGlJi Assoeiation suggests ('fable] - I },

Let's consider how different. social sciences would study the lIfilpad of Hurricane Katrina. whi~hnu.v<l,ged. the Galf Coast of


TABLE1 .. l


IPoiHtrC1!1 Sodology f'op~l!llti(Jn

C1'lIlflITIlJlnity ,pI!!l11 IJrtlglll Sm:iology 0ompa~a.tfrve !;il1ldi Hj$tortoa~ SO()~O~ogy


S[}il€!lJee, ~Iowled'~!, ~nd Teo:hnolo,gy s.E!~ snd GiE!!llide!r'

M;;;III);ist Sociol'ogy

M,~litliile'!ifl,1!fi~a;1 Sodo logy Medi{l~1 s(JdJi;lI[Jg~

S,QciolbjgilC'.1I11 Pramioe 8f11d Pl,lbiil1l Sol;;iologr Teaching and Lea rmil1l~

lEE! U1{laf~ion

nu: ra]~ge (If s;[)ci(l~!lfl.uC[l.~ issues L~ very h~!llld_ .!Fat ("X<I.l1!1Pi.e, ,s().:::iol()gk't~ whobe.Ur~ rig ro [he A.n:i~n a ls e:lild Sode[y sectinn of 1:tiJ,e ASA 1:11 oy :>L:ud}' ttleOl:IiI.in~~,lriBht!i m{l"'rflj~tI L" tho.s~~vho bdu!l'I1:l, t~Jo I.h~, :S<:'.'i:tlOI.~itL~S ilt.'Cll(llJliliiLY :suu:ly gJItlIi,i!1 M:X, wI)rk~n [lit [hI: g:!ly, h~S4::X.II,Ell., a rHI. !r.~.tiJ$g~[H[J,~:r.td. [)\OV'.t~J,ei1ll·s" EC(jfl[) iTn ic ~otiO~>I:Igi~~~ trUlY ilW'e~:t.1g:!lt~ B~(l bi!l.~iZ>JJtiOi1. nr ~IH.u.me:rl s.m. o:I!nlup!\l many odtl:!f ~Dpic,~"

Sf)o!jrr¢: A:me·tiJt.~.1'i S>U~:[!fit[Jgl.·Cil.~ A4~jl1!::!ciElliol'l.2(b09b,

Tlhh,k. :a.bout It

Which of these topics do yo~ th:inlK would ilill:telrest you the most? Why?'

Sllhllef.er: :SOIi!:iOiill!lf. llZth EdiililDln

the United StE!t:es in 200S .. Historians would OO!lupa.re the damage done ]b.y natural disasters in the 2JJrth century to that caused by Katrina . Economists would conduct research on the economic impact of the di3image, not just in the Southeast butthrnughout the nationand the world, Psychologists would study individual casesto assess the emotional sh"e'ss of the traumatic event. And pnlitical sci en tists would. study the stances taken by different elected officials, alongw]lh their implicatious for the g:overnment's response to the disaster

\'Vbat approach would soeiologists talkie? They might lookat Katrina'simpact on dilierel1lt eranrmmities.as we]] as; on different c s ncia] classes, Some sociologists have undertakenneiglrborhood and ccmmurrity studies, l<l determine how to, maintain the integrity of storm-struck neighborhood.s. during the rebuilding phase. Researchers have focused inpertieular on Katrina's impact on marginalized groups,. from the i,n.ner:...city PQQ'f in New Orleans to residents of rural A111erican Indian reservations The dev~stati]]:g socialimpact of the. storm did not strrprise sceiologists, £olfthe disaster area Willi amnngIhe poorest in the United Sta tes .. II]. terms of fa:n].iFy income, fm example, New Orleans ranked. 63])m (7th lowest) amo]!g the nation's '70 IaJ'g:est dti.es.'MVhen the storm reftlJens of thousands of Gulf Coast families. homeless and unemployed, most had no savings to fan back oa=-no WElY tOp3!Y for CI hertel rnnm nr tide themselves over until the next pa.rched:. (Laska 20(5).

Soc.io1ogists would take <3J similim: a.lPpI'Qach to studying episodes of extreme violence, In April 200T, just as college students weJ!1e' beginning to focus on theimpending end of~he semester, tragedy struck on the campus of Virginia Tech. In atwc- hou .• shooting S[p:rt'e, a mentally dislllHbed. senior armed with semiautnmetic weapons killed atotal []if 32 sl:u,de[lf~s and faculty at Virg.ini;a.'s largest university, Observers s:ti·uggled.to describe the events and. place dlen1. in soume social context, For sod.o.logi.sts in pillrtiGu.li,n~,~fue e'V'ETl tra:ilSed numerous issues and topics fur study, including the media's role in describing the attach, the pl'eSence of vinlenee in our ,educatromJinsti[utiom;, the gun. contrel debate, the inadequacy of the nation's mental. health 'CEI:re system, and the stereotyping <lind stigmatiaatiou nfpeople who suffer frO]]] mental illness,

. Besides doing research, sociologists have a Icng history of advising go,'!,',e,'tWJl]ent agencies on how to resp ond to' disastees Certainly the poverty IOf the Gulf Coast region complicated the huge challenge of evacuatiemin 2005. VVith Katrina hearing doYI'II. on the Gulf Coast. thnusands of poor inner-city residents had. no automobiles or ot}I!f:~~r <Ji.va:i,l;abl.e means of escaping the storm. Adde.d te that difficulty was the high incidence of disalbUity.in the area. New Ol-Iea.]]s, ranked Znd ;f1:mong; thenation's 701.ar.:gest cities in the proportion ofpeople over :age 65 who are disaMed-.56 pelce::[!It Mov.ing wheelchair- boundresidents to :safety requires specially equipped vehicles, to say nothing of handica p-aceessible accommodations in public shelters, C~e<ldy. o£ficial~ must consider these factors in developing evacuation plans (Bureau of the Censas 200Sf).

Scciologicalanalysis of the disaster did not endwhen the ftoQd.w<llters receded. long before residents of New Orleans staged a. massive anticrimerally at City Mali. in 2007,. eesesrchers were analyzing resettleme[ltpalterm.s In the city. They noted. that returning residents often faced bleak j ob prospects, Yet families who had stayoo.awoayffOl thatzeason oft:'e~nha.d trouble enrolling

e The IMcGraw-ffi111 CompaniEls, :201 [I

Onl ,Au~mrt: 29, 2()'(:l5, Shl(Jirtiiy allitew Hunfn.,ul,!;l KlltJrillil<l s/j'jIept tilrol!llgh the GlUM

of Me:xiGIJ, the U.S, Coast GUli1Hd ~o(Jok thls ae'riaril plll(ltugtrilpfui (lif New Qrrl'eaifls. TIlle wid!esp'f€!lIdnoodilng s!him'llH in the photo gl"1'!!l1 worse as; th!e week wore 01'1, 11111 m pe!rilfllg Ulle efffim of Fe5CUe telams. SOlJiol'og'i3ts warnt to know how the storm ·affected peopl'eh1l m dlrfleW!;llfllli: [(JoIill ml!miii,es; all11l[j51[lcia II classes, <lIS: 'i'!,re!~ as how ilts 1 m pam \i'<llrried wiU1 resid en~' ulmO)me., race, ~n,d ge ndlerr.

their children in schools unprepared! for an influx of evacuees, Faced.with a choke between the need to work and the need to return their childrento scbo 01] some displacedfamjlies risked . .sendillg their ,older d:nildren heme alon!E, Meamllwlti]e, oppmtuni.sts. had. arrivedto victimizeun suspecting hcmeowners, And the city's evertaxed judicial and criminal justice systems, which had. been understatfed before Katrina struck] had been only [partially restored, All. these social factorsled soeiologists and. others. 10 anticipatetae unparalleled rise iII . reported crime the city experienced in 2006 ;;3::IIId 2007 (J ervis 20ng; Kau&nan2JO(6).

Threughont this textbook, you'I,I!,ill see how sociolegists developtheories and conduct researchto study and better understand societies .. And you win be enceuraged to use your 'Clwn sociological imagination to examine the United States (<IDle[ other societies] from the viewpoint of <II. respectful but q.m~stionin.g outsider.

Sociology and Com man Sense

Sociology focuses on fhe study cfhuman behavior. 'ifiet we all. have experience with human hehav.uol~ and atIeast Smli:le knowledge of it. AU of u:s might wellhave theories about why people become homel.f:!is" forexample, OUf theoriesand opinions typic@llly I[om.e from C01]1mon sense-s-that is, frOl111 our experiences


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

1.lIllndellSt8l:i.~ling Slll:iillll}~~ ilrext

aadconversatinns, frnm what we read], from whatwe see ontelevision, and so. forth.

In our daily lives.we .rely OnWIJlTmOn sense to get us, through Illl<liny un familiar situations, Howeve:r,l:hi:s commonsense knowledge, while sometimes accurate, is not ah,vays reliable, because it rests on co:n:nmo.nly held beliefs rather dum on systernatir; a:m11ysis of fact'S" It W<lS enee considered cammon sense to aceepttbat the earth was f1l3!t-· -<II. view rightly questioned hy Pyth.agnra."i and Aristotle • Incnrrect connnonsense netions are not just a part of ~he distant past; tbey remain with. u£ today.

GOl1tl~ary to the cammon notion that women tend to be chattty eomparedtn men, for instance, researchers have found tittle difference between the sexes in terms oftheir talkativeness, Over a five- year period. theyplElcem.uuobttru.suVie'r11Icmphones on 396 college students in various flelds, at campuses In Mexico as well as the United States. They found that both men and.women spoke about H5,OO(}wmds pel' day (M.ehl et <11120(7).

S]wila:d.y; common sense tells us that in the United: States today, militarymarriages aremore likelyto end in separation or divorce than in th.e past: due to the strain of lo.l1lg de.p.loyments in Iraq and. Afg,b<Ll1lstan,. Yet@! study released ]l1I. 2007 shows no significant increase in the divorce rate among U.S. soldiers ONier tfu~e past decade. In. fact,the rate of marital dissolutiosn ao.noIIIg members of the military is; mmiPanlble to that of nonmilitary fami]i~es. Interestingly, this is not thefirst study to. disprove the widely held notion that milirary service :stra:ins themaeitalhoed, Two gel.1l.eratiuns earlier, during the Vietnam era, researchers came to the same cenclnsien (Call and 'Ieachman 1'99 I ; .Ka[l]ey and Crown 2007) •

Like other social seien tists, soeiologists do notaccept someIilii.ng as <L. fact because "everyone k010W5 it:' Instead, eachpiece of inforrnatiou nmst he tested and. recorded, then analyzed in relation to othel~ data, Soci . .o~ogi.sb :rely on scientific. studies in. order to describe and understand <II. seclalenvlronment.Ar times] die finding. s .of socialogists mal)! seem. like commnn sense" becaus-e ~hey deal with fannliar facets of evel~yd3.y life. The difference ]S that such finding;!> have been testEd by researchers, Common sense I]owtells us that the earth is, round, but this parucUJ1ar ctlmn')O[Isense notion is based on centuries Olf scientific work thatbegan with the breakthrougbsmadeby Pythagoras and. Aristotle,

What Is Sociologica~ Theory?

\Vh)' do people commit suicide] One

traditional commensense answer is that people inherit the desieeto kill themselves. A:rmth.er view is that sunspots

drive people to take their own Iives, These ,ecxjp1a:na.tlons [nary nat seem es.peciaUy aonv.i.l'King to contearpoIrary researchers, but fh.ey repeeseot beliefs widldy held as recently as 1900.

Soci.olo:gists are not particnlarly interested in why ;<I.RY one i:[DdividiLlla! commits suicide; they are E1I.l10Fe conoemed wEtl1. iden1ti.£yi:n~: the social

fOl'iCe8 that .'lyste:matiuJJ:Y(3:LIlse some people to take their own lives, [[I ordier to undertake this research, socio~ogi$ts develop a themy that offers. a general explanation of suicidal behavior.

We can think of theoriesas aHempts to explain event.". forces, materials, ideas. or behavior in a enmpsehensieemanner, In sociology, alihe(l!tyis a set of statements that seeksto explain problems, actions, or beha.vio.r. An effective t.heo.:ry mayhase both IE';l{p]ana.tmy and predictive power,. That is, it Gan belp us to seethe relationships among seeminglyiselaeed phenomena, <I.~ well as tnunderstandbcw one type of d.'1<tng,e in an ei.irvi][Dm]m~en t leads to other changes.

Th.e World Health O[~g~.nization (2006) estimates that some 900,000 people commit suicide ,every year. More than a hnndred years agD> a 5'0 cio]ogistr tried to look at suicide data. &c:ientifimU.y~ Emile Durkheim ( [] 897] 195 I] developed a .highly origina] themy abeut the relatienship between saicide and social factors, Durkheimwas primarily oeucerned, notwith thepersonalities of individual suicide victims, but rather with suicide rates and I.lowthey varied from munrtry to country, As, <I .. result.when 11Je looked at fhe numher of reported. s.uEcides ill France, England, and. Denmark in 1869 "be also. noted the totalpopulatfon of each CDuntry in order to determine the rate of suicide in each nation. He found that whereas England had. only 67 l'eported suicides per millicninhabitants, Prance had. 135 per million and. Denmark. bad :2 77 per million, The question then became ~'WlIy did. nenn]~rkhave OlB.cOlllpar<lti.vd.y high rate ofreported suicide]"

Durkheim went much deeper into his investigation. of SllJJcidle rates, The [~slull was his landmark work Suidd,e.Jpuhli.shed in 1.891 . Durkheim . refused to aecepttmproved exp]<Iml~i(Jins l1e.garding suicide, including the beiiefs that cosmic forces Of inherited tendencies tamed. such deeths, Instead, hefceused on socialfactors such <IS the cehesiveness orlack of cohesiveness. of lJel:igiol]s], social, and nccupational grOiUps.

Durk11!ei.m·s research suggested that suicide. although it is a. s.dit:uy act. isrelated to gmup life. He found that _peopJewi:t:h lfeli.giou;5 <I:ffhl.i.<JIli.,ous had a lower suicide rate than those who were u~]affi1iated; theunmarriedhad much bigher rates than married. people; and. solme:rsw,ete more likely _~o lake thejr lives than civilians, In addition, there seemed tob e hrghel~rate$ .of suicide in times of peace than in times of war andrevolution, and in times of economic instability and recessien [lIther than in times, of prosperity. Durkheirn concludedthat the suicide eates ofa society :refleded the extentIo which pe<ople were or were not integrated into the group lite of the. stOdety~

Emile Durkheim, .1ikelnany other social seientists, developed a theory to explain now individual behavior can be understood within a secial context He peinted out the .influence of gmiUps. and societal forces on what had a1:~rs been viewed as a. higbly person a] act, CI.early; Durkheim offered a more Jjcientifil: explanation. fo'l." tbe causes of suicide than that of sunspots or jnherited tendencies, His th.eory 11 aspr.ernctive

tas Veg@:5 has ,~ su i(lide rate tllat liS twice tna ll1i~ti[mlll a,\i>E!rQi~" 5ocio~(I!I:!is1s SILi:S~:iI~ct Ulat the raJpjdly ,expatndting l[lily I'acks a :seniSe of !jommu fl~ @oll,esiveness;,.

pmcy,!;';:'r. since it: su:ggest.~ that suicide rates will rue or fall in eonjunction with certain social and economic (banges.

Sllhllef.er: :SO'i!:iOiill!lf. llZth EdiililD,n

Of course, a. tbeo['}r:--even the best of th.eories-israot <I final statement abouthuman behavior; Durkheirn's thenry of suicide is. no exception .. Sociologists continue to examine factors that contsibute to dif(er·ecnGes in:!. suicide raeesaround the woeld and toa particular society's fate oJ suicide, They have observed. that in las Veg:a'i, for example, thechances of dying by suicide are s,tr.iking~.y high-,hvTce as high as inthe 'lJ.Il.itecl States asa whole. Noting Durkheim's emphasis on the relationship between ..suicid.e and. social iselation, researchers have suggested that LII.s. Vega,s>S[;<Ipid g;ruwth and oorlst.,mt influx oftourists

L .. .. . .~ ..•. . ,::I' . ~ ',' .~ ., '. . . "f-

uave unnerrmnea the (lo.m:rnlm:uty s sense m permanence, even

<In:wIII.g longtime residents, Ald:u:m.g.h g<l!].l1b[ing-m more :iClCU.rately, losing while gp:Jl'lMing-may seem a li.fuelyptecip.l:l::ating factor in suicides there; careful study of the datahasallowed researchers [0 dismiss that eX:lPlanation.Wbat happens in Vegasma.y stay in. Veg;<ls. but the sense of ccmm l)lui.ty cohesiveness that the rest of the country enjoys I1fUIiY be lacking (W~~ay et at 2008).

use you r sac io logica I .imagination

If yD1!J1 iN,ewe Dm:kheim's successor 'illl his reS€.aJu'h on suicide, h!(H'jI' wo'uld yeu ill\i\S'stigate the factors. t~at

may €xpl!ain the :jllicire8lS€ linl Slui;C!ide trams among Yl)lmg people iin~he Un iited stiles today?

The Development of Sociology

Peoplehave always been curious about sociolegical matters-chow we get aIOl1,!l;'ll!,;fh others, what we do fm a living, wham we select as our leaders. PhllosopheIs and. :rel.ig;iolls authorlties of ancient and medieval sncietiesmade coun tless observations about humanbehavior, They did ]lot test or verify those observations scienti.fi,ca11y;. nevertheless] their observations often became the foundation for 1110lal cedes, Several of these early social philosophers eorrectly predicted. that <II systematic study of humanbehavior wnuld emerge one day. BeginnIng in the 19th ce[JItluy; European tb!e()iri~ts made pioneering contributions to the development of <II science of human. behavior;

Early Thi nkers

,Au:guste CO.mfe' The 19th century W,J;~.a:1Ji unsettling time in France, The Frenchmouarclry had been deposed in the revolution. of I 789. and Napoleon had suffered defeat in. hjs effort to mnque[ Europe. Amidthis chaos, philosophers considered how society ruigbt be irn proved, Auguste Comte (I 7'98-18.57)" creditedwithbeing the n1!ostinfluentia] of the philosophers of the early umos~ believed that a theoretical science of sociely and. ~L systematic irrl'!le:s:tigati!o]] of behavior wereneeded to improve society. He coined the term. s[lcifJl:egy to app1y to the science of humaebehavien,

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Harriet Ma!iliIlil>B6IU, an IH<llrly pkJilrueer oloocklll~ogy wh(l. s-t[Jdieaoocia.llbehavi'oll" bntih ill !liu,wn.atiJ.lH EllgHall'll'll and il!ii~he' Ulliited SM~es, pmpo:sed soma ofthe rnetheds still~ used by sa.:;:iotogists.

Writing in the 18.GOfs. Cemte feared that the excesses of the FreachRevolutien had pefm.~entIy impaired FrOUlGe'S s,talb:iJi:ity. Yet hehoped that lll.e systematic :5l:ud.y .of socialbehavior would. eventually lead to more rational human interactions, In Com:te'g hierarchy of the sciences, SOd.O]iOgy was at the top. He called. it the "queen," arid its practitieaezs "scientist-priests," This .. French. theorist did .not s.i.rnp·ly gl:v~ sodo~.og.y its name; h~ presented. a. rather amhitious cfua1Jenge to the fledgl!i.ng discipline,

Hafrii!l.lt M'a,ti.n,ef:l'lil Scholars learned of Comte's WOI.".ks l<l1"gel.y tllJlQughl:r:a::n.s[aIioT1:S hy the English sociologist Harriet lvIarl:1Il1.eau 0802-1876). But Martineau was apathbreaker in her OWl] right: she offered insightfUll observations of the enstnms and social practices of both her native .Britai.n and the United States, Martineau's book Society irl A.merim (1~]837] ].962} examined :religion, politics, child :l1ea:rin.g, and immign~io.n inthe young nation, It gave special attentionte social. class distinctions and to' such factors <IS ge m:Re I and race. Martineau ([:] 838] 1989) also wrote the flil!'stbo ole on. soc~OlOg]!Cdl] methods.

Martineau's 'liVfil:in!:v,efilphElsizf1d the impact that the eonnom.y, law, trade, health, and population could ha.'l\'e en socia.! problems, She spoke out i]1lm.vor of the yights (:1£ women, the em.anc:ipation of slaves, and .lreJi.giol;us telerance. Later in life, deafness did net :keep heir from being an activist. In Martineads ([ lIB 7 J 1962)' view, intellectuals and s<cho]an should not sim.ply offer obseevations of secia] eenditions; tlley should act ontheir convictions in a. manner that wm benefit society .. That is why lIAarti:nealll conducted research on the: nature ef female empio,yment and. pointed to the need. forfllldher Investigation of the issue (Deegan 20(13; BUl and HoetJrel."-Drysda]e 2001).,

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He.rbe,t S,peIlC'€',,. .Anotfu.er .1U1!]port<Lllt eady contributor to the disciphne of sociology was. Herbert Spencer (1820-19B]). A re.lativdypmspe])ouB Victorian .Eng~jS:luJ:la.IJi. Spencer (unlike Martineau) did. not feel compelled. hl correct or improve society; Instead, :bel.nerdy hopedto understand it better. Drawing; on Charles Darwin's study Orl the Origi1:l of Spec-ies. Spencer a pplied the cOI:acept of evolution of the species ·to societies in order to ex!pl~in how they change, or evolve, overtime, Similarly, he adapted Darwin's evelationary view of !the "sLIl]"vi.val of the ./:: lO' b ··L" ",~, . "1);1.. 11" h Jllttest . y ,E[[',gum,1S tuat It IS . natura tnat SOIn,epeopre are nc .'.

while others He punt.

Spencer's approach to societal change Wl3.S extremel y popu.Iar in his own lifetime. Unlike Comte, Spel'l.cel" suggested that $IID.C",e societies are bound to change evenrually, one need not be high]y critical of jp'reSeilit social arrangements or work active~y fur S1QciaJ! change. This viewpoint appealed [0 manyinfluential people ill .England and the United States who had <II. vested interest in the status CJ!1I10 and. were sll1spiciou:s ofsecial thinkers who endorsed. cbange ..

E:n'lile Durkbeim made many pioneering ,contribut:ions 10 sociology,indurun.g his importan ttheoreticalwork on suicide. The SO]] of .::I. rabbi, Durkheim (" l858~1. 917) was educated. in both Fraaee aud Gennany:. He established anjnrpressive academic reputation andwas appointed one ofthe first p:ro£esso.Fs. of sociology in France, Ahove all, Durkheim w:iUbe remembered for his insistence 111ml: behEl.vlormu'ltbel]llderslJood.",vitn.in a larger secial context, not justin individllJ.a~jstic: terms,

1'0 give 'one example of this emphasis, Durkheim ([19l:2:] 20m) developed afnndamental thesis to. help explain all forms of society, Through intensive srody of the Amnta, an Australian tribe; he focused on the functions that religion performed and unden .. coredthe role of g~iOU]J life In defining: what we consider tto be religion, Durkheim concluded thatlike other fomis of group behavior •. rdigion reinforces, CI.grOUp is, solidarity,

.Ano1Uhe~: of Durld1etrJiJ'S main interests wasthe ICIJIL'iequence.s of wor.k inrnedem societies . In hisview, the gm'l.v:ing division of Iabnr in industrial societies, as workers becamemnch more specialized ill their tasks, led to what hecailled~~a1l!o:n]ie.:' .Am.omi.~: refersto theloss of directionfelt ina. society when social. cnntrol of individual behiilvlorha;. .. bemme irie:ff.ect~vl:e, 011t.el1, the state of anomie [WeUT5 dlu.ring <l time of prufound SJociaJ. change" when people havelost their sense of :pm_pose or direction, In a period of anomie, people ate :SQ coufusedand Ulni:lble'~D cope wifh the new social environmentthat th!ey m@lY resozt to taldng their own. lives.

Durkheim was mncen]edi ahout the dang:e~"s thatalienation,

l' '1'" _]. '1' ti " h t L .:'I' • d' -If... .

mnetmess, <I:nu.l.sO.a . ten lnrg .... pmvelurmouern in .• us,:n<lla. SOCl-

eties, He shared Comte'sbelief that sociology sbonldprovide direction for social change. A..., <I. result, he advocated.the creation of .:n,ew social gmnps-meru<ll.tolrshetween the .ind:i.v]duaJ.~sful]]-· ay and the state-vthat would peovide 3. sense of hdo!nging; for members ofhug.e"i.mpersona1 societies, Uni.ons would be an example of snch gmups.

Lilee ['l1.any other :5ociologj.sts,. Durkheim did .:not Iirnit his ill ten~st$ 1:0 .one aspect of sodal beh.uvim. Later in th.islbool we w~m Gons:iderfuis thinking 'o.L1 cri:rne and puni.shment, :rdigi.on" and the workplace .. Few sodo.l.ogi.sts have-had suc:h <I. dramatic impact on. so Iua.ny d:i:ffereIllt areas within fhe discip1ine,

Max Weber

Another important early theorist W'<IS Max V\leb er (prenounced !JAY-bel''' , .Bmn in German.y,WebC:E (I ,864-1920) studied legal snd eeanomic historj, hut grad.ually develeped an interest in sociology, Eventua1J:y, he became a professor at various Germa.III. unjversities, Weber taught his students thatthey should elUp~oy vers~ehe:1ll (pmnm.Hlcedfa:i.1f.-5,HfAy-,en), the German word for "understanding" or "insight," in their intel1edual work. He pointed out that we cannot analyze 01l1r social behavior by the same type of objeetive criteria 'we use to measure wei.ght or temperature, 1;'0 flllJily comprehend behiilv:i,o.[~, we must learn the subjectise meanings people attach to their actions-llow they themselves view and explain their behavior,

Perexample, suppose that 3. flociotogistW<lls study.i.FI.g the social ranking of individuals in s fraternity, Webel" wou]d expect the researcher to' eInp~.oy 'v.el'stehen to determine the significance of tbe fratemiry's social hieraH:::hy fm its members, The researcher might examine the effecct5 of athleticism or grades 0'[" social skill's DE seniority em standing within the fratemity, He or she would Sleek to learnhow the fraternity members relate to otlrermemhers, of .hig;h.er or lower status, ~i.~.ei.[]ve.stiga6Jlg these qllle-!1- tions, Lh . e researcherwould take into acccuntpeople'semctinns, ~hough ts, beliefs, and a Uitudes (L Coser 1977}.

\~le ilI.~.S.O owe credit to Weher f.olE a :k(':y eouceptual tool; the ideal. type. Ai]. ideal type is acnnstruct (Ir model for evWuiE!:l:i]]~ specific eases, [[I his own. woc:b., """lehe:r identi.fied variouscharacteristics o.f bureaucracy as CI.n idealtyjpe (discussed in detail in Chapter 6). In presenting this model of l~u:reaucracy, Weber was not descr:i.blng any particular business, nor W<lS he using the term .idecai in. <I. waytlbJit suggested. <I positive evaluation, Instead, bis purpose was I'.opwvidie a .u$le'ful :standard fo.F messuring how bureaacratic an actual organization is (Gertll and MiUs 1958). Later in. tbis Ib ook, we will 'use the concept of idealt}'pe to :5ltud:y the family.religion, authority" and. economic systems, <IS well <IS to al.1ai.yze bu[ea:ucrau::y~

Although their profess;i,onal careers ceineided, Emile Durkheim and Max vVeber never met and pmbahly were unaware of each other's existenca.Iet alone ideas. Such was not 'true of the work of Karl Marx. Durkheim's thinking albm~t the impact of the division of labor in industrial societies v!;'<IS related tJoM;au~x?:5 writings, w.hi.l.eWeber's concern fora value-free, objective sociology W<lS a direct response to Marx's deeply held convictions, Thus, it is not surprising that Karl Marx. is viewed. as amajor figlilre in d:l.'e development of sociology" as well as several other social. sciences (Figure 1-1).

Karl Marx

Karl Marx 0818"-1L883) shared with Durkheim aad ''''eller <L. dual interest in abstract philosophicalissues and the conerete reality of e,reryday life. Unlike them" howevelJ:1 M.al"X was so criti.cal of rexi,sting institutions that <II. coDll.venliionaJ. aeademic career was impossible .. He spent most o,fhis~fe in. exile from his native Germane

. - ' .. .~ ..

Marx's personallife WEI:!> a difficult stmggl.e,. '''''hen a paper he bad w.r.iU:en. was sUPP'[le,ssed.,he fled to France. In "nis"E.!f': met Fliedri!ch .Engd.s. (1820-1895), with wJ:wmhe fOl"IUed a Hfelm'lg 6~iendship.. The ItlV10 lived at a ti.m.ew:hen lEuropean and. .North American et;;onomic:li£"e wasim:::l'e:asingly dQ".ni:l1a~ed by th.e £<lGtmyrat~]er thm:fi. the farm.

@ The McGraw-~iM C[]mpani:~3, 2010

Sllha~h~r: :SOll!lio~iD!Jf. l!m Edi~ilDln


Emi'~e Diurkilleiiim :tB!Sa..1l.9:1. ']' Academii1c f'h iilo:\'mphiy lrail1lling

Ke, works 1893·-Ilile Divis lOll of l.a-btlr In S!lJciety

1897-Suidde;' A. Stuqy

in Soeioj,ogy

19 ft.2-EleII'lH!nt;;irrFarm:s of.R'eUgiaus Lite

W~, E'. B. DuBo.is :116~196;3, SOGliQI(lg)i'

19Qi4-1905-Tifle Protestant Etl'l'j~ !;'lfJl(jI tile Spirtt of Cap.itaNsm

192 .1-EC1I][l61my and SGl:ie{v

¥V1:We in Londee in l84 f, M<lI.fX.<Lnd Engels a:Ue[JJd.em. secret meetings of an iUegcll coalition of laborunions known as. the Commnnist League, The foJ:]owil.1g year they' prepared a platform called The G:m1 nn~fl£~tM~~niif'.stDj, in which they argued that the masses of people wiitll. ]]0 resources other than their labor (whmJI'I. they l)efen~ed.to as the pr{)le:t~ritit) shouJid.u.nu.te~ofight for the overthrow of capitalist. societies. In the words of Marx and ]Eng;eTI.s:

The h.i:sto:n-y of <Ill hitherto existing $n[~dyi:stthe history of class st:rl]~gle~ .... Thepmletarians have r.anth:in~ to lose but the.itc:hains. Ther b::t\!'€ :I. w.orld to W~.II].~!\IOIl.Klt>.'G MEN OF AU (COUNTRIES LiNTU! (L Feuer 1939~f., 'I.])

After com pleting The Comm i:ll'1.ist .Mar~.ife~t(j, Marx returned U} IGeru.nany, only to be expelled, He then nrovedto Engl<ll].d~ where .he continued to write-books and essays,. Marx lived there in. extreme poverty; he ]J!awnedmos~ of his.possessio.l1;s;, and sever a I. ofhis children died ofmalmrteition and. disease. Marx dearly was an outsider in British society, a factthatmay well have influenced his view ofWestter.l] cultures;

In Marx'sanalysis, society was fundamentally divided between two classes that clashed 1[11 pursuit oftheir own interests, VVhen he

• .:I .. L • d *']- . t· elL" •. " 1L G'

exarmneume Ul_us.;r.I<Il. SOC[(~ res zn rusnme, snell <IS I jeu"many,

England, and the United] States, be sawthe fa.ctory <11.5 the center of conflict between the exploiters (th.e owners of the means of production) and the exploited (the workers), Manxviewedthese relationshipsin srst!en1atic:tem1S~tthat is" he believed that a :systern of eooi[JJQilnic, social, and politictJl relationsbipsmaintained the powler and dominance of the owners, over the workers, Con:s;eque:n try, Marx and Engels argued that the working class should oViE'.rthliOW the existing class j'j,ystem,. M.<ILrX;'S influence on contemporary thinking has lb een dramatic, His wrstings iuspiredthose whe wenldlaterlead eommnnist revolutions rIll RusS,!1Il, Chin<JI1 Cu ba, Vietnam, and elsewhere ..

Even apart frem thepolitical revolntions that his work fQStered, MElrxi5 significance is pmfeuud. Marx emphasized the

1MB-ThE! Communist Manifesto 1867 -Das :I'l¥H;;iI1

[399- !lue Philadelphia .Negra i'903- The ~egm Cl:rumh t9G.3-.$o'rJls of BlalJM ,Folk

'W~up identifications and associations that influence an il'1.di~ vidual}s place in society. Thisarea of study is the major focus of coatemporarj' socu.orogy~ Throlil.,ghClut thistextbook, we 'win consldes howmembershlp in a.particular gender classification, age gmmp, racial g;ruup. or economic class <l!ffects a person's attitudes and. behavior; I ['J: an. important :se.n"~e,we can trace this way of understanding societyback to the picneering work of Karl .Marx.

'w. E. B. DuBois

Mmx;:s wcrkencouraged sociolog:ists~ov.iew society thruughtlre eyes ofthose segments of thepopulatien that rarelyinfluence decision making, In the United States; some early mack sociologists, inclnding 'VY. E. .E. DuBois ( ] 86,s,-1963). conducted research that tlh.,ey hopedwould assist in the struggle for a l~aciany eg~]itarian society. Dullois (prnnounced doo- Hl!l)y~S } believed that knowledgewas essential in mmba6ng; prejudli!ce and. achi!eving tolerance and j ustice, Soci!Olog~st~,h.e contended, needed to draw on. scientific plf.inciples to study socialproblerrrs such as those experienced. by Blacks in the United. States, To separate opinion. mom fact" he advocated basic research. on the lives ofBlacks, Through his t:rn.-depth studies of IUrbalJlti:fe,bo,th. 'White and. BI,l!Gk~in cities such as Philadelphia andAtlanta, Duliois { [ 1899] :~ 996} made a major contrihutinnto socio[ogy.

Like Durkheim and Weber; DuB.oi~ s:a.w the importance of religion to society; Bowever"he tendedto focus on rdigi.on at the community level and. thel1o~e of the church in the .~ives ofits members ([ 19m J 20(3). DuBois had littlepatience with. theeFists such as Herbert Spencer, who seemed cnatentwith the status quo. He believedtbat the grauting !Q,ffu].~ politicalrights to Blacks was essentia] to their social and economic pmg:n~s.. s,

]3.eCRlI1.Sie many of hisideaschalleeged the status quo" Dulsois did not find a. receptive audience within eitherthe government o.r fbe' academic world .. A:s a result, he became increasingly involved. with ol~gan~.zatimts whosemembers qll'e5tiu[led. the established. social order, In 1909' hehelpedto found the N<l!tianal Association

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for the Ad.vmJlGemenil: of Colored. People,better known toda.y :,H, ith!e NMCP (Wo'rtbm'll zona).

Du),ui,s"s. insi,gnts have be-en lasting, In 1897 he coined the term double rnnsdous·ll(!SS 10 refer' to the di.y:i:s]on of an individual's identity into two or more social . realities, He used the termtc describe the experience of being: Blackin '\-\lhite America. Toda.Y,!lll African American holdstbe mostpowerful office in the nation, President of the United States .. Yet for millions of AfriCEiTI Americaas, the .remty of heing BhlH:k in the Unit'ed. States tYP1- camy is not one OfpOWe'f (l 1903] 1961).

Twentieth -Century Developments

Sodologyttoday builds on the firm fOl][Jldatioll devdoped. by f::mile Durkheirn, Max: Weber" Karl Marx, and W .. E .. B.. DlllBoIs. However; thefield certainly has Rot remained :stag;nanit over the pacst h uadred years. V!/hi.l!e· Europeans have cnntinued to make contributiona to fhe discipline, so ciolngists from t:hwughout the world and especially the United States have advance-d. socinrogica~. H.,eo[·y,and. research .. Their newinsights have fu.elped us to betterunderstand the wa,.rkings, of society,

ct\ari'es Horitlllln C~ole¥ Charles Horton C.:oo]ey {1864-1929} was ty:p.n.cal of the sociologi..,ts who came to prominence in the enly 19001::;. Born inAnn Arbor, Michi:gom.} Con~.ey received his graduate training in economics but later became <II. soci.ology p.mfeScso.r at the University of Michigan. Like other early socio.!ogists, he had beennreinterested in thisnew dis,cipline while pursuing a liielated area of study.

Cooley shared the desire of Durkheim, Webelr" and Marx to learn more about society; . But tn do so' effectively; he preferred to use the seciological perspective to look first at smaller units->imimate, face-to-face gn:mp:s such as £a:rl1.i1.1es,. gmlgs" andfriendship networks. He saw these grQUp,~ as the seedbeds of sm::i!e1y, on th'f:: sense that tbey shape people"s .iderus,. hd:i:e:fs,wlues, and social nature, Coo]Jey'.!'l workincreased OUlf understanding of groups of :rel.a:ti.vely small size,

lane .Adda'JN5 In tlheeady 1900s" [J[!auyl.eading sociologists :ID. the Ul1Iiood. States sawtfuemselves as social reformers dedicated tto systenlatirnLly stndyingand then improving a eorrupt s:oci,e1ty .. 'fhey were ge'[liuindy COID.GeIl'l.ed. aboutthe l:ifv,es of immigrants in. ~heft];atim]\~ growing cities" whether those imn.1!igran1ts carne ]]'OlTl Europe or from. the .Jfl.ual. American South .. Eillrly :feI11.Je £ock).I.ogi.st'i, in particular often to ok active roles in. poor urban areas, as leaders of community ~nt,el~S known as seJt1erueH t l~Ott:ses. For example, T me Addams ( 1860-.1.935), a member of the Arne:riG<lll Soc:ioFogic.a~. SDciety. ,cofounded the famous CbiGlgo settlement, Hull House,

Addams and other pimlee:ring female socioi.ogi.s;ts co'lumonly combined intellectual! inquiry; social service wcrk, and ]poEtical activ:ism.-aH. with the goa] of assisting the underprivileged and creating a mere ,egalihr.ian society; .For example, wmk][!.g; with. the Black journalist and. educatcr lda Wel~s-B.u·neft. Addarns SlIl.cce.ssfUL11y prevented racial ,,,eg:reg;atron in the 'Chicago ]puil]k schools, Addams'~ effiort s to establish a juvenile COl.Ht system and a women's tradeunion reveal the practical focus of her work (Addams 1.910" 193(1;, Deegan 199]; Lengermann and N i.ebl!'ugg:e-Blcant1ey _~ 9'9.8).

By the middle ofthe 20th ce[Jjtl!lty~ however, the fOGUS of the discipline had shifted, Sociologists fm the most part restricted.

~n 01 pllio.to,~ralp~ talt:e 11 amLJm:l 1930, sodall] wefo rmedall,8 Mdla ms reads to ohildir-ell <ilillrle Malry emile NLJrsery ... Add1a!lls was an e~rly pionEl!eJrtJi)~1i! IIJm oo![)iol:ogy ailidi alll the :s,ettIlement mouse mOVeml:HlIt.

themselees to tbeurieing and gath.e:runginfurmatio]];, the aim of~:[aID.sfon:]].i:[Ig; societywaa left to socialworkers and activists. This shiftt aw.ay from social!. reform was accompanied by a g[1:)WiIllg cemmitmentta s,Q!Entiiic methods of research and to. valuefree in terpretatioa of data, Not ;!!1~. sociologists we~"f' happy with this emphasis, A new organization, the Societtyf,or the Study of Social Problems, was createdin 19S.0ibo de:<JJ more directly with social inequality and. other social problems,

.R'01J1erf Mertoill Sociolo'g]st Rubert Merton. (1910-200.:l) made animportant centribution to the disciphne by successfully combiniin.gtfu!eo.ryilrnd.re~ s eareh .. Bornto Slavic immigraet parents in Philadelphia, Merton won. a sehnlarship to Temple University. He continued his studies at Har\l'<IIrd~ where he acquired his, li:fdonginterest in SJodology. Merltcm's teaching careelf was based at Columbia University .

Merton {1968} produced a til.eory than is one of the most freqlllently cited! explanations of deviantbehavior, He noted d.iffe.re:ntways in. which people attempt to achieve success in. [ife. Inhis view~50mem:ay deviate from the socia1Jiy approved. goa~ of accumulating material goods or the socially acceptedmeans of achi!eving that goat for example, in. Merton's classification scheme, "innovatms'tare people who. accept the gem] of pursu.i.l:1g material wealth but use' mega]. means to do so, including robbery,bUlrg13.ry> and extortion. Al.though .Merl:on based his explanation ofcrime on ind:ividl.llal behavior that hasbeeninflueuced by :soci.etry'.sapproved gom and. means" it haswidee applicatiml$. His 1t1.1!eory helps to account for the hig;h. crime rates among the natinn'spoor; who 1I1ay see no hope of advancing themselves through traditional roadsto success. Chapter S discusses Merton's dl!eOl:Y ill. greater detail,

Merton also emphasized that sociology should striveto bri.ng together the "macro-level" and "micro-level" approachesto the study of society. M<l.c:flosocit),logy concentrates on large-scale pheucmena or entire civilizaticns .1Jj:n:a.li.le D urkhdm"s cross(ul1imal study of suicide is an example of macro-level research. Mmce rece'n.t[y> marrosocjologists have examined irrternatienal crime rates (see Chapter 8). the stereotype of .Asjm:a..Amedta:ns

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as a. "model minority" (see Chaptell' II h and the population. patterns of ,deveLoping emmtries (slee Chapter 20). In contrast, nticl1\o:5odij)loty stresses the study of smallgruups, often thmugn experimental means. Sociological research OIl the micm level has; included studies of how divorced men and women disengage &0]],] sig~.1d:ficantt social roles (see' Chapil:er 5); of how wnfonnity can inflaence the expression ofprejudiced attitudes (see Chapter S); andofhnw a teacher's expectations canaffeet a student's academic performauce (see Chapter ]6).

Pi'fJne Boo,d~eu ]l'lc;rea;si:ngly~ scholars m the United. States have been. drawing, on the insights of sociologists in other ccuntries .. The ideas, of the late Preach sociologist Pierre Bcurdieu (] 930-iNlO2) have found a broad following both ill Nmtn America and elsewil!f,:cre. As aY01lIng man, Bomdretl didfie1dwork in Alge'I".ia during its ~"Jtmggle for independence fmmFrence, Today~ scholars study Bourdieu's research techniques as wen as his conclusions.

Bourdieu wmte aibout how capital in .its Il1illly fnrms SlI.$taiusindividuals and falll11ies fmri:i. one genera.lion to thenext, To Bourdieu, mpital incll!lded not just material good.s,. but caltural and social assets, CubimR~.cIlIpi.ktaJI. refersto noneeonomic goods, such as family backgrcmnd and education) which ;f:1I]'e reflected in. a. knowledge of language and the arts, Not necessarilyhcok knowledge" cultural capita] refers 11:0 the kind of education that is. valued by the so cially 'elite. Though. ~ knowledge of Chinese cuisine is culture, {or example. rt is not the prestigious kind. of culture that is valued by the elite, ]n the United States, immigrants=-esperially those who arrived in large numbers <lind settled in ethnic endave:s-haveg,ene.rnUy taken two Q[' three generations to develop the same level of CUltIllHI] capital enjoyed by.moT1e established groups .. In mmpui.s.ml.)socim. caJpita!! refers t~'ltbe ,coliectivebe:nefit of soeial networks.which are built 011 reriprecaltrust, Much has been written about the importance of family and friendship networks in pmv:i.ding peoplewith an opporttllllllityl!oadvance. In his emphasis 01.11 cultural and social capital, Bourdieu's work extends the insigbts of early social thinkers such as Marxand Weber (Bourelieu and. Passerson ] 9'90;. field 2(08).

'Ihday sociology reflects the diverse contributions of earlier theorists. As. sociologists approaeh suchtnpics <IS divorce, drug addiction, and religious mlts,1tfuey Gill] draw OJl the theoretical insights of the discipline's pioneers. A earefulreader can hear Comte, Durkheim, V!.~ehe:r. Marx, Dulsois, Conley, Addams, <lind nUlny others "'peaking th:wllg:h thepages of current research, Sodolog:y haa also broadened beyond. the intellectual confines of North America and Europe .. Con tributions to the disciplime now comefmm sociologists studying and .lfese:arcbing humau behavior in Otl).ET parts of the w,orkt. In d.escr:ibi]].g:the woek of these seciolegists, it is helpful to examine a number of lI1f1ueIIItialtheoretical approaches (also known as pe:rspect'ives).

M,ajor'Theoretical Perspectives

Sociologists view :society in different Wfl.ys. Some see the wo:r.M biil.::;ically as a stable and. ongoi.ng enti tty; They a:rei.l.npressedwittn the endurance of the fa.l.nrIy. organized religion, and ether social institutions, Other so c]oRog~.st$ see so ciety as composed of 111any gmups in oonf1:i!CII.mmpeting fOI scarce resnurces .. 170 still other

sociologists, the most fascinating aspects of the social worldare the everfd,a.y~ml!itine interactions i[rUml,g indlividuals that we sometnnes take for granted.. These three Yi.ew~~.the ones most widelyused by sociolagists, asethe functionalist, conffict, and. interactionistpesspectives, TogelIl1er, these approaches; will :provide an introductory look atthe discipline,


FIJ nctiona I ist Perspective

Think of society as alivlIng mg~misnll in which eachpart of the organism contributes tn its survival. This viewis thefunetlenalist f·e:rspective~ which empbasizes the 'W!3.y in which the parts of a society are structmed to maintainits stabil:ity~

Ta.lcott Parsons {1902-] 979) > a Harv<LId. University sociologist, l>vas a key figure in. the development of f[mGtiOill<li.iisttheory~ Parsonswas grea1IJ!yi.nfluenced by the work of Emile Durkheim, M~x Welbet, and other European socu.olo:gists .. For ove'rfour decades, 11Je domina!.ted. soc:i.ology in the United States with his advocacy of functionalism, Parsom s saw any society as <II. VRSt network of conaected parts, each of whj,chbe.i.p5 te maiatain the sysiben'l as a whole. His fanctionalist approach holds tha t if an. aspect of sociallife does not contribute 1:0 a society's stability or su.rvival-· -if it does not serve someidentifiably usefulfunction or promote value consensus amml]g members of <I. society- -it 'Win not be passed 0111 froml one generation to the next.

let's examine an example of the functionaltst perspective.

Many Americans have d:iHiicuLty under$tanding the Hindu IN'O~ hihition 3.§<I:imt slaughtering L-O'I/!lS (:specificamy~ zebu) .. Cattle browse unhinderedrthrough lndiau st~eetm.a.drets, helping themselsesto or:anges and. m.mg;oes wni~.e peoplebergsin for the little £Qod th.ey can affi:n:d. Vi/bat explains this devotion to file oow in the face of human deprivation-a devotion that appears to be dysfum:::ti.om:d.?

The simple explanation is that eowworship is higMy func-· tio'tm] in Indian !>odety, <Icc.G,u.·ding, to eW'l1!0l111stS., agronomists,

O~S (zehlJ), ~onsiidel!edl sacred in II m:lia , wanderfffil!!ly tihlroulgll thi:s city, reS~:N;~Gtedi by a III1 whoen:DOlJlni'er them. The salllmi1:y 0,1 the !l;:UI'I,I is rUIlII~tronill in lndia, wlITiere plowing, milki!'ilg, illl!iid furtilllzllffii!il are ItlJ !lIlore imp[lrU:lll!iit to Sl!II b:sist:elnce i:lI1lTII:!IFS tihl1il n a d I:el thati neludes beef.

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and. s1Cl(;ia~ scierrtists who have studied thematter, C'..oW:!ii pelJ'furIllMO esse.ntiallasks::plowi.ng the fields <lind. prodncingmilk, If eating their meat were permitted, hungry families might be tempted to slaughtertheir cows .£01' inunediate conaunrption,

I . II' . ] ithout am .. f '1'· ... C" I

eavlng tt ernsewes Wit hout a means 0.. cu tr.'i.!'<litlon. _ ow:!> a so

produce d.l.u'l.g,which doubles asa fertilizerand afuel for cooking.Finally~ C:ow meat sustains the neediest group' in society; the dalit, or I!UlItDllld:HlI.bles,wJw sometimes resort to eating beef in secrecy; If eating beef were socially acceptable, higher-status Indians w.()tdd. no doubtbid up :its price, placing it beyond the reach ofthe hungriest.

M:anim:sf a,n(Jtat~II\I't :F:-unicti,on,s A college catalog typi,cID~y states l!f<li.·[][msfUmctions of theiastiturion, It B1!<ly inform YOU; for e.xam[ple"that the u~.liversityi.[litends to "offer each student a. broad. educatien in elassicskand oon~enlporaE'y t1l.ougb:t,i[l. the hamamties, in the sciences, andin the arts," However" it would be quite a suF]Jirise to find a cataJ.og that deda:r,ed, "Thds mliversi~y was founded in 1895 ito a:'ls:ist [people in 6nding: a marriage partner .... No, mUeg:e GataJ!ogwil declare this <l!S the purpose of the universilty .. Yen: societal i.E1stirtutions serve many fimctions, some of them quite subtle, The university; in. fact, does facilitate mate seleeticn,

R.obert Merten (l96:8) made an impo:r~ant distinction lbe~ twee]]. manifest and latenrfuncticns; Ma:Bilnest f1u!HdioIII:S of institutions are open, st<li.t:ed" and conscious fm:a.eti.ons,. They involve ttbe intended, recognized COlnseq'Ll'e,[J:Ges of an. aspect of sm:idy;, such. as theuniversity's role in (;erti.fyi.In.~: academic cnmpetence and. excellence .. ]'nmnhast,latcl1!tfUndioiliS are unc011Slo.0U:S or unintendedfnncticnathat .may reflect hiddenpllJfp015eS of an. institution, One latent function cfuniversities is to hold do,wn unemployment. Anoth.er is to serve as <I. meetim.g ground for people seeking marital partners,

l):yst:un,ctll1ons Fuactionalists ackrlDwtedge that not <JI]] parts of a society contribute to its stabHityahl the time. A d.ysfun.cnollJ. refers ito an ,eleGl]ellt or pmoess of a. society that [Iil!iiy aotumUy disrupt the social sfSl!ern or reduce its stability.

We view niJanJl}' d.ysLUru:tio:nallbehay:i.m paUerns, such as .homicide, as undesirable, Y-et we should not au.~om;aticalty interpret them in this 'li"i'Ry: The e'\'\aluatimJ! of a dysfimcticn depends on one's own values, or asthe saying goes, 0[1 "where yotu. sit;' .1301' e.x:~I1.1I1pl.ej, the o£fic:i<l]v:iew inprisons in the United. States is that inmate g:a:~lig:.." should be eradicatedbecause tiler are dysn.J.lI.cti.anii to smooth uperations, ¥e1t. some glLmnts have come to view prison gangs as a. funcdcmaJpaJIt of their jobs. The danger posed by gangs creates a ~lthIeat to seclIla:.i:ty;'" requiringincreased surveillauce and. more overtime work for guards, aswell as requests for special. srn:ffi:[Jl._g to address g;mg,p.mble~lIl.s (G.. Sc,aU 20m).

Conflict Perspective

Vvllt;~)le J:\ml;:tnonalisl:s see .stability and cnnsensue, qJ,rl:fi:ict sociologists see CI! s:o cial world. in. continual struggle. The QonllUcil:: pelispective assumes that sodill. behaviee is best understood in. terms oftension between gmups oyer power or the allocation of resources, including .hou~;]:[lg, money. access to services, and. pohtiJt~ zepresentatjon, The tension hetween qJmlPeonggTolllFtl neednot be violent; it cantake the form of laberuegotiatinns, psrtypolitics, competition. between religiousgroups fm new members, -o-r dispute'S over the federal budget,

Throughout mest of the I~OOs, the functionalist perspective had. the upper hand in .sociology ill the Unite-d. States .. However, the conflict approach has becomeincreasingly persuasive since the 1.<IIte 19160s. The widespread social unrestresulting frlOm battles over civil rights, bitter divisions overtbe war in Vietnam, the rise of the fe:minisiI: and gay [t]ber:ati.onm.ovemeElts" the Waterg_ate political scandal, llrha:lJI. ziots, and cnnfrontations at abortion clinics have offered. support for the conflict approach.-fhe view that om sccialwcrld is characterized by contimral struggle between. competing gmups. Cml)endy,. the discipline of slodolog:y accepts conflict theory as one valid way to g:ain. insight into ill sotiety.

J11e .Mai'xistlli'ew As we sawearlier, OCa.d. M.arxvie'Wed stmgglebetween social classes as inevitable, gi'lJien the ,e:xploiUtiml ofworkers that he perceived under capitalism, .Expanding on Marx;: s wmik:, sociologists and other social scientists have come to see conflict not :rnen::ly ;;;lIS 11. elassphenmnenon but as a part of everyday ]:i:fein all societies, [[I studying ;a~]'y culture, org,anization, or social _gJOlLlP, so ciologists want to know who henefi:I:'.5,who sufifer.$j and who dOlnrnates at the expense of others. They are concerned with the oanBicts between. WOB'l!e:D:I and men, pareots and children, cities and suburbs.Whites and. Blacks, to name only a. few. Confli.d: theorists are interested in how seciety)~,instit.l!ltimls.--.iJl!cludiing the :&mily, government. religion, education, and the media-Hila¥' help 1:0 maintain the pr.ivileges of snme g;romps and keep others ina subservient position. Their emphasis on :socia] change and the redistrihution of resources malees Go:n:dlic:t theorists more radical andactivist than functionalists (Dabrendorf 1'959)..

J11e F'e,lIniDi~t :\I:i-etw Sociologi:sil:s began embracing the feminist perspective 1O.1l1yin~11e 1970.5, .although. it has a long tradi- 60n in many other disc]pHnes, The Ee:nth!i1istview sees inequiry in gender as, central ito all behaviorand m§lll.lii:zation .. Because it focuses dearly on one aspect of inequa.lity~ it is often allied with the co.l16iot perspective. Pmponents of thefenilnisil: viewtend ito focus on tbemacrolevel, just as cnnflict theorists do. DrawiJ1g en the work of Marx and. .Eng-e)s, contemporary :femin.:ist theerists often view women's subordination asinherent to capitalist societies .. Some radical feminist theorists, however, view the oppression. of women asinevitable in aU male-dominated societies, whether capitalist, socialist, or oammunist,

An eal~].y example of this, perspective (km.g before the label came into lise by sociologists] can be seen ][Jl the life and. w.I.·iting:s of Ida.Wdk- Barnett (] 862.-19}l) .. FoUow.i.~]g her groundbreaking, plllMication:sm the 1890$ on the practice of lynching Black Americans, she became an advoeate in the wemen's rights camp:;JJi,gn,es:p eciaUy the struggle to win: the vote fm wnrnen, Like femirsisttheerists who succeeded :beo::,WeJb,-Ba:rndt used :he:r analysis of society <IS ameans of resisting uppressioo, IIII her case, she researchedwh at i.t nl!e;~mt to be mack" a woman in the United States, and 031. Black woman in the United States; (Giddings; 2008; Wdls-Ba:mett 1970) ..

~e[Ili:l1iM: scholarship has btoadeeed ourlll.nders:~and:ing of social behavim 'by extending the analysis beyond the male point of view. In the past, studies of ]physical vr.olencetypitalmy failed to r.nclude domestic viclence, :in which women are the chief victims .. Not only was there a void in the research; in the-field, law endoreementagencies were ill-prepared to deal with such

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lda Welrl:s-BiilrneU Il;!.Xpll:on:!d wh;aill it me,1!lllt to befeIillBI'E! and 1B.1!1!clk imlthe, Ulllilted Sta!tes. Heir work esta blisfuled hielF as on e of til e e;;3 ~I'iestfelirl fllliist til 8(Jlrlstl1L

violence, Similarly) femjnists have complained that studies of "clll1d[ell having children' focus almost 'Entirely 0[1 t11'e characteristics and.lbeh.aviom: of unwedteenage motbers, igl1ori.ng the unwed father's role. They have called for more sc;ruti:I1Y of boys andtheir behavinr, aswell as their parents and. their roie models, In sum. the feminist approaehmeces wamen fromthemargins of scientific inquiry to the center (Ferree 2005; J. Pields 200.5;, hook., 1994.).

use you r soc ia logica I im.aglnation

You am a saelologlst who uses th€ cOl'l1llii(::t perspective to study \!',miol!Jls aspects of ,our society. How do you Ullil1l~. you woulici iinterpret th'E! p,ra[:tic:e of prCJ!Stitutio:n? i()onnra&tih~s VlI,ew wlith~h,e f~lnctiorrl!aill!st perspel!:.tiiv,~. 1)0 you t~i:n ~ your co.mme~its WlJU Id diiffenif yo:u ~ook tim fe.miinist view, and if so, how?

~ nteractionist P.e rspectivs

WOI.Kers .~D]ite:ro;l!di]1g 01] the job, encouaters inpublic places like bus stops and P<Ji.rk. s, behavior ill. small groups-c-all t[l!eSe aspeds. of ]].liitmsodologycatclh the attention of interactionists, 'lIN1:I!f':rea$ functionalist and conflict theorists both <IInruyzel.ar:ge:scale, societywide patterns of hehav]C!ir, theorists who lake the ll.lft:e:l:lilctlomistpc;l:silJedlvce generM21e about everyday fO[IJI1.s of social interaction iu order to explain soddy illS <I whole, IbdlalY. given rising COIU:;l;:[l] ove~~ the cost and a.va.i].a.bility of gas], interac - tionists have begun to study a form of comm uter behavicrcalled ":duggi:ng.)i> To avoid. driving to work, commuters gather at certain preappointed placestn seek rides from OC!EI.1p1:e'tte strangers,

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\l\l'he]][ .<1. driver pulls rnt;o the pa.rkmg area or vacant lot mId. announceshis destination, the first slug in Iinewho is headed for that destination jumps in. Rules of etiquette have em.eIg~d to smooththe social ]nte[~3!Gtiol'l between driver and passenger. Neither the drivernor tbepassenger may eat or smoke; the slug may [lot adjust the windows (IF radio or talk en a cell.phone .. The pr-esence of the slugs, who get a free ride. maJY allow the driver to use special lanes reserved fair high-occupancy vehicles (Slug~ Liaes.com 2UnS!}.

Interactienism (also referred to as s.rntbolic b:!~emdio:ni51:1~~) is a sociological framework i.1ll which human bei.ngs are v.iewed. as livingin iii world of ll1,eaning,£ul obj ects, Those '~object;s '; Inay include material ~~hing$, actions, other people, relationships, ~Illdl eyen symbols. Jnteractionists see symbol~ <I~~ an especially iJl].pm~ tant part of hum an cemmundeation [thus the term .~mbl(llic interactioeism), SY:[I]hob have a shared social meaning t11at is understood by all members of a so ciety. In the United. States, for example, a. salute symbolizes respect. while a dencbedfis~ sig~ 111:5es defiance. Another culture might use different gestu:res to convey a feeling of respect or defiance. These types of symbolic interacticn are classifled as :!lCI.I.TIl.5 of IW!uv,e;(1'ibal coml1l1l1il~dc~Hon~, which can iaclnde many other gestu.res, facial expressions] <IIIld postures (Masuda et al, 2(08).

Sy:mlbd.s in the form of tattoostook 01'1 special importance iu the aftermath of Septem beer] 1> 20()i]. Tattoo parlors inlower Manha.ttan wel'e ove[whelmedffith requests fml11WrlOllJS groups for designs that carried sYInboLk significance .:!lOT them. New "lark Cityfi~le:fighte.r.s asked forhrUoos with Ihe names of their fallen comrades; police officers requested designs incorporating their distinctive NYPD shield; recovery WO(r.keES at Gn:rund .Zem s.oughtl::a.tt:on~ il:b~ti:n(:orpora~ed the image of the giant steel C~."Oi!lS] the remnant ofarnassive cross-beam in. <II. 'Wm.ld Trade Center building .. Through s)'mbols SHC]]. as these tattoos, people mmmmlicate their values and beliefs to those arcund them [Seharnberg 1(02)"

Another manipulation of symhcls can be seen in dress codes.

Schools fllown on students who wear clothes displaying messages that appear to e]]doI'se violence or drug and alcohol eonsum p~ tion. Businesses stipulate the attire employees are <I]]owed. to wear on the job in order to impress their customers or clients, In 2005, the National .. Basketball Association (NBA) adopted a new dress code for the athletes who pby professional. basketbaU-· onethat involved, not the uniforms they wear nn court, but the clothes th.ey weaT o:ff court onleague business, The code requires ·~busiEli.ess casual attire" wben p[aY1eTS are representing the league, [ndoor sung~.il.s,ses., chains, and sleeveless shirts <Ire !lpec;::.i:fi!cali1y banned (Crewe and Herman ]()05:A2:3}.

V\ml.ile the fimctionalistand conflict alPpmarnes welreinTtiateil. in . . i2m:ope, interactionisrn developedliu-stin the United. States, Gem-ge He~;hert Mead (1 :863-1931) .lswi.ddy regarded as therol]nde~.~ of !:heintel~acti()ni..st perspectiee, Mead taught atthe Un:i.vei:"Sill:y of Cbicago from 1893 IJl[]tilhis death, As his teachlngshave become better known, sociolDgists l~ave expressed greatee interest in the interactionist perspective, Many have [l1.CJlye.d <!'1¥<10/ from what .~.]l;ay have been an excessive .P.R·ocClJlflat~on with thelarge-scale {macro} level of social behavior and.havetedirected.thei.l~ atteetiontnward behavior that oc.cuts in small grou_ps (micm level}.

Erving Goffman (t922-1982} popularized apsrticolar type ofi.nte:ractio[listnl:ethoQ known asthe dJrama~.lI!rgical <I.pp.['tlflCk,

e The IMcGraw-ffi111 CompaniEls, :201 [I


Fundi onal lst

leve,llofAlila,lpJiS; Emplilacsl:1!edl

l!Wf ~omcept5;

M~ lIii~fest fun OOO(i1S lat.errt fncti.(]rllS lCIysfllU'Ictillrus

'wr~w Df Unli Ilndilvild'lIiilll

f'~[Jrple <liresm::ia!nzed to perffjlITIiTl SOll:~etall flJriCti;OrllSi

'WIDew Df Unli :S!O,~lilliOmer

Mil:! int~ i neQ thf@lU~ CO[JIpera~il:;!!1 !llll1lil:! G!JHsenSU!S

"'lew ofSllml;;ll1 Clilalnge:

Pu b:1 ie p~.!1is~melliits rf!!ruIDme ili,e :S(J.I:;fiCl~ omier

~mille Dl!.llrkheim 1[alltnptl fia~QI'liSi IRlllllUl: Merl:QIfl

•. t..].... r" . . .. t, • _.1 C 'T"i.. .1i

En WHIC:D~. poop e are seen as U.Ie<iltULill pe.FtGiI"Bne["S., .I ne crams-

~m~gjst mmpares everyday life to the 5,eU[['lg .of the theater and stage. ]1I1St as, actors pro] eet certainimages.all ofus seekto pl~,esen t particular features of OUT perscealitie • s while we hide ether features .. Thus,,]]] a class, we .ma.y fed. theneed to Pl:()je:Ct. a setinus image; at a pouty, we may want to look relaxed ;a:nd&:i!e'ndly.

The Sociological Approach

\Vhich. perspective shou.M a soc:iJologrst use in studyinglnnnan belraviorf Functionalistt Conflict? Interaeticnistf .Felninist? In fact. sociologists make line of all. theperspectives summarized in. Table 1-2]. since each offers iL1Jlii!que insights into the same issue. We g<'Iin. the broadest lllnde~"st<'lndlin:g .or our .'loci.ety; then, by dr:<l.wing on all the major perspectives, ]]oti:n:m.g: wherethey overlap andwhere they diverge,

Although no one applfoiiB!cbis 'correct byi.tsel.f,. <lind sociolcgi.st . s d.nIIW on am of them for various purposes,. .nlany 50 ciolngists tend te faver one particulerperapective over ethers, A sociolo-

• .) .• t, .,.: -.~" t t· co' fl-~ . 1L IL ....

g~'~'l S LneOfec.I,Cn orten <ll lIOi[l. m ·uence-s flLI;S or ner approa.cu.luQ a.

research. problem Inimportant w<JIys-i.ndll1oing the choice of what tn stndy~ how to study .it, and what ques~iGiIJ!S to ]pose (Of not tOI pos-e}. See Box I -1 tor <Ill example of how ;;"I. researcher would study sports from different perspectives,

~];iltever the pm:pose of sodol.ogists' work"theiI" research. will always be guidedhy their theoretical viewpoin ts, For exam]pice, :sociolog;i,st Eilijah Anderson (1990) embraces both the interactionist perspective and. the grouudbreakingwork of W. E, R. Dulseis. Fm 1.4 yea:rs Anderson conducted fieldweek inPhiladelphia, '1liherehe studied the interactions of .ll.ac:k and 'VI.'hi.t~ residents who lived iii] adjoining neighbmliIood.s. In particnlar,




ClillalRlctel'iilled Itny tensimil and strugglll;!! be1:'weeriil grOUI~N;

Active in ilfll~JU:!;!n:(liillllg and 1Iffectjn(g e'!ff!ryday soci'lIi iriilte~a:rr!iioll

Micro I' as a \!l'~~ of und ersta mid~ng ths l!cIrger ffiaGID W1he!i1omelfll~

II neql.]il:! I itl/ Cajlill;llism S~ratific;Clli[)lnl


Non\i\erQii:l1 (lommullilic;[ltioll fi;lc)e-M·f~DE! iruteracil:io!1

lPe(ilpl,e ;are sfhiape[j by PQ\'IIe'r, coeroi:orl, !lInd a lJ~hOlirty

Peo,~,he m.CIl'lliipii,Dio;Jlte s,ymbols .md cre~lte tt1ieirr so~L[I! W{lr1di5 th rough iJlllterac,ti:on

Mairril!taine,Qi thmuWI fu~e 1;l11Iii1~ coe~d[)111

Mairl'ilbi:!1ed bym;mFeld ul'lde~an;dirll1lg oJ eve~yj]a,y llehiDIul:o.r

C:!:m~gei takes pitace all tllile~ime snd rno;J~ haw p051ti'ofe ~1;I<!1seq!,lelli(Ie5

Reflemec!. ilil peQP!I3i's :so~<I~ posiijmlls <lind t~e!~ !lmm m lJnJ!:O:citiu!1s wif_h lJillle:r$

lLaws feii·nfotq)e~he posi~:gns Of.(ho6'e In ~(]w.er

Pe(l'p1.!e fe£ipeCit I<I1IJ6 Of !l:Ilisblley tilleR'! b<lis~.d 011 theiIT aW!1 ~11ls1 experiel~(le

iK;[lri MallX

IN, IE,. B, DuBois ~a<li WeiLs-li:!I,a rliett

Ge® rge Herbel1 Mead C~ii3irles, Hortorl CCIJ)ley IEr'IJilng G"offrn a 11

be was interested in their publicbehavior, incl uding their eye conta.ct-m lack of .i.l:-ms,ttheypa:ssed one another O'n the street. Anderson's research ~ens us much alb out the everyday social IlIt,eractIOIJIS of Blacks and. 'VVhit,es in tlre United States, but it does not ex]plai.[I the Iarger issuesbehind those interactions. Like theories, researchresults illuminate one part ofthe st~ge> leavu1g other "p~I1;s in relative darkness"

Applied and Clinical, .socio,logy

MiiiI.!1f}' ,em],. ,S(H::.lQlqgis:tr---:n(ltabl.y, Jane .Ailda:m,s, W. E, R DuBois, and G~mg;e Herbert Mead-were 5tliDt.lg advocates fur sncial reform. Theywanredtbeir thecriesand findings to beeelevant to pelicymakers and to people's lives In :gene~~al .FOi[' instance, Mead was thetreasurer of Hull. H:ou~"e .:[Q]'[nanyyean, where-he a]pplled histheorytoimproving the lives of those who were powerless (le~~.pec:i.aUy inrmigrants), He also served. on committees dealingwith 'Cbi.rugo's, labor pmblen],5 and publiceducation, Today; aJ.ppUed sooo.togyisthe use of the discipline of seeiolagy with the specific in1te:[]~ ofy:i.ekl.]ng pnlJi;:timlappl~C<ltioIlS, for bnman behavim and organizations, By extension, Michael Burawoy (200S), in his p[es:idelJitiaJ: address to the American Soc::iIQlogj.ca~. Association, endorsed what he rn.llf1opublic socio.logy, el](ioungi.ng sehelars.to engE!ge a broader audience in bringing about :p ositive outcomes, In effect, the app.lied! SQci:o~ogist reaches 01l1t to others and joins them in. their efforts to better soci.e1.y.

Often, the ,:goal of sucbworle :is to assist ill r,esolvllJIg <I. social problem, For example.in the past 50 years, eighl: presidents of the United. States have established mmmissi.o.llS 1:0 delve into B1<3Jjm

@ The McGraw-~iM C[]mpani:~3, 2010

Sllha~h~r: :SOll!lio~iD!Jf. l!m Edi~ilDln

J 1 La kin

1 Spa, 5 from Four Theoretical Per.pec:ltves

We wat,cl:1i sports. Tail k sports. Spend mOIfl~y on spans, Som'l1! of IUS li\li1! and Ibreatti1,e, sports. B,@c.alUse sports occupy millen of our '~me arnd! iii irr~C'l:ly or Ii i'lI'd:~reC'l:IY' consu me 8il1ld ~ellerate a gN~at dMlllo!~ money, it should not besilJijlrising 'litlat sports. have sodoliogita~ com ponentts that can be illllally.zedi firomth,e vatriolUS tI1,E!;Q,r,eticall pelrspE:crul'!o'$.

fl!.lnct~onall!isit V~ew

1111 le);.~ mililllll1g a r:lyaspect. ofsociet}(, rIUlnc:~I,oln,aH:Sits em phasizettl iE, IQontri butioD"llt m 8lke'sta ,overalill socla,~ smbiHty. FuncUolflaJUsts, r@'g8Jd spons as sn almost rn'li~iol[Js ~ins~lt'lltioltl ltliE1t uses rlttiJI,all ailld ceremony ~o reiilfmeetth,e commol'll va~lJes of a $clI::ieij:

~, Sports soclallize youFilg people Tnto such value~as oompetltion ami Pi9iMotliSM.

~, Spmts h'~~IP to i1I"I1!iiD"ltalf! PMP~~'Si physical wei I "beill1g,

.' SlPo,rts serve as a safe~' vallve 'for bath par~1!Gipants amlspecta'tom, whn alreBlI~owsd to, stled tensl ona Ad ,ag~re5SM! ~'l"Ielrgy i I'1l a sQc:~a~ly accep~a tile way:

~, SpO:l13 bring to,~tlher me:lflb@i'S of ,8 cornmufility (Wlho Siuppon .Ioc:a~ ,athle~e51 anc:lteams) er e'r.Ie,1l a n,a~loln (dE.H~~l'lIg'WO.rld Cup m<i!wl1e:s ,and the Olympics) I!Ind IPromo:~e an. iO\,!IIar"

a II f~lell~lflg of 6111~tya nd soc~al :so~~di!IJlty.

'ConfUct View

COlnfnct 'thi'90Iists8rgiU8,l:hat ~he s<ocTa~ oiFd,eiF ts based on ,(lo.~rel'O'Ml ,(lInd exp~oijtatioll" The'y empna:siee~at slPo,rts r,efliect and even exaOOlmate many of the d iv~s~orns. .o~ soclezy:

.' Sports are a,OOlrm of big business "n wh~ch pmfi'r5 are more lmpcrtast th!Elin 'the' Ihealth 81'i1d Mfe:t~ of ttle W,Q,rlkers ~atihlletesl •

• ' Sports perpetuate the tallse idea th,at success can be flch~eved simply '~millJ,g,h ihall'd! \!iOfk, wb~llersjlLllre shoLl.ld be 1J:lamed 0111 til,€! ~ndr~ vidual alone ~Irm:her tl'ian on ~njlJS'~ces in th~ IBllrger ;soclall syst,em). Sports also serve as an "Opl,8t,e" tha,[ encmjra~s lPeop~e to se<ek ,a "5x~ or tsmiporilll' "hi~~ rati"1or2rtharll1 'foc:IJS on pe:rsol'lJal pra!bJems ,and soc:iall iiSiSlUes.

fimf:essiOlnlal go Ifer Pa uls Cre'am'8!r W(ln mo re thaln $1.8 1l'Ii.lliQn in 2003, malklng her the 2nd m(J~t su ocess~u~ womal~ !1Hm the. gGlf {:!O!J rrse t~alt. ye1iU, Amonjg men, hter winlllli.ing,s W(il!ild h1WE: h1l'o'epillt Il:e r ill 42nd place.,

iI ComrnlHill.tles ClilJ~rt s>ca.~C!3'l'esources 1'0 slilbs:~dim th~ ~Otm!ltfilJC'tlotli (rr prof:e~s!lornail $POi'tS 'r'acll urle's.

• SlPo,rts i1naJintfilin the :!lllJlbmcil~Mt,e rrole ·()f Black's and liIitlnos, wh.o toill as aithletes but are less vilSJlbil8: tn Sup8NiSimy positions as coaenss, managers, al1d own'SI~,

• lea m lo@s, find mascots (Ilil ke 'd1 ~ Wash lng~OIF:l IRedskllirlg) dispalrage Amerilc8lrl Irndf,8AIS.

1)1.""',.i1. rla:u dillaL'I!~ t:~', [in« rinna! t ~'".., {(j "ffiel 111 ~ .In, LI /t!lmw"r,\, rf1H/ Ulr,nu'rWHl.,,[\ ,I rlll/" al! '.~rL t ,J. 111 ,II ll.

is 'Jlw,:Jr HlOjL ttl .~1}ljrL' ,hdU L\l'n',.H tiT ttl rUI~r"~I,


lFiBmlnistl:hemfsts con s:'lcier nnw wal~r:h iflg or IP,arUcipatillng ~n.spom. lre~nfo.ro@s tlhe mies 'tha'~ men al'lodi women play in tI"Ie ~'Blr~elr $ocie'ty:

10 AltI\ougi'l ~PQ:rm,~r1l!era,~~y prromot.efiITle£s snd he@lth" 'rh,e~~ ma,y aliso have ,Bill adverse ,eff-ect Qi"i paftlcipalil!:S.' h®allUt !Mi@fl a,r,e m,Q:ffl IIJ~ely 'ro resort to illegal s,terOld use (ainiiOIil!E:

Md~bruildefS and baseball IPI.a,)'l8t'S, for ,exam" ph~); '!!roman., tc e:x'CessTve, dlieting (among gyl"llinasts alildll1g,ure .SkatSif'S" fur examp!e,).

OJ Gen del" ,ex:p 8(:'1;a'MiQ.t!JS erlll:::ourage~ma h~ a~h~leteSi to b e passive alnd g,entle, ,qiU a ~i" tiiif3S !J1at do IiIlo,'t s'UIP'P!'Jrt. th·e emphasls

'on C!o.mpetit~vene.ss In sports. As; a. r,eS1u~t, womenfl,nd II dl'ffic'lJ~t to el1J'l;ersports nai(j'i~ ~olnallllj dominated by me,iil, slIl::!h as Ill1diy or N~SCAR,

• AlthOll~h IlJf'Ofe.ssrl)n.8~ wom€!lf'I atl1 !e~8S' eal~J'I~t!lgs a~8iMre:til5ing, th,rry typ~cally !:mil ~lO$e of ma~e .BI~llll'~'te.s.

II nte ral,cii 0111 hit: Vi ew

11M! StlJ.dljllng Ihe sociil~ ,md:e,r~inter.aC:tiio,tlIists a~B especiailly' ~llltere)st!edllll sh ,1iI'ed: u n ders;tBlnd~n)gs of lE'Llle:rydia,y betia;vior. Ilntemctiol1llsts exarnin'8 SiP orts 011 tihe 1I1l1,c:n) I !!v,e~ io,yrocusin g: nn how dla.Y~tcHl,ay SOC~a~ behWilor IS sha peidl by 'the dl$'~ltlI~trve norms, \la~l[jes" illl1d demilillds ()f 'tlii,~ world OIf'S:POrt;.s:

~, Sports. ofl:er:J l1eigh~eill palrent~child ~lf"IVOllv~ meru; they m,a,'i II,sad to parental ,e:l:p@ir:tBl~ t~oO:ns for particil!J,atjml and 'for (some'ttlmes u n r'e!!llis;ticaIHy') success.

III 1fIi!lrtilc:fp,Miol"luri. sports pm'!;i~d,es frl'BrndstliTp ti1let"'lVOitksdl~t Ciil.ri, perm,eate 'e'l!l~iryd.a,y m,e.

.' liJe.spite Ic~a;ss, Ifaci,al, aM rnlig~Oi!J'.g d~fffer" ,elltes,~eamma~es, may 'f,',N:J,rk together harmoniouslYii'md ma,Ye1l'en atla.nclon previous st'@r1l;OotJilDia.s aiM prrejlld~oe:!l,

• Rel<'ii{iol1ships ililWe: sports wo,r~d am de~ned b,Y Ip.eolP+e's .social p05i1:l01l1:'3 as pla:yers, eoachss, alild ffl'f,eme'~as well ,SI!$; bylhe' 11~if!:h o~ Ilmv statusthat i ndiyi dllals h,oolrd; as a feSlJU of~!2ir perforrn,Sirnoes arnd


[)espitte the[r d~ffe'rel1ces,ruil1ctiol1,BlH$ts, conmet®1emls.ts, '~m~ln~sts, ami inl]:ractlol'lhS'I;S.WOuld all aJgJ'eie that ~here is, rnucn MOre-to .SPOitS tmall'l exercise or lreC:~Bal~on. They 'I!Iorulld aloo agree that SPO!rts; and other pop~l~ar 'foflFl1lS of ICUiIti!,.Iffi ,;m~ 'I.'rolrthy sut:l;jects Qlf se'rueus s'ludy by :socl,o'l!og;nsts.

lEli'S [)I!SCUSS

L Have you, 8:xperielllC!BCi ow witn,Bssed dnsr c:rimnna'tior!,Ii'1 spobt$ bal$eod: en gl!lIldi,el!' 0.1" race? I~ ;so, hQW d~d you reacl? H1asU1e repr'e'S'efl'tatlon of lB~acks or \MOmen Ion teams been Icon:tro\,i\~lrsiall on your campus? lin wMt w8fljs?

2.,. Wlhitl'i Ipei'Spec~l\lie do. '(Ow thrll1k i!j

most usefull il'll ~oo:k!illg a:~~'he SOCliO:logy Qf SPQrts?Wth]'?

SOUflCe'~: A~1[)sta and Carpen~~r 2001!: Ei~en :20D9; E:!SPiN 20Dg; Fin~ 1987: Sh a1rp et aiL21:JiD8; ~~ '1~um:g 2004: linn 2008,

n--- 17

societal cencems faeirrg our nation, Socio]ogist5Elre often asJc£d to apply their

expertise to studying such issues asviolenee, pornograJlhy, crime, imnllgrat~on> and ]popuJ!ati.on. In Eumpe,botJh academic and govt.;:r.nnctel1ta:~ research depertmerrts a.re offering increasing financial SUppOI1: for 3.pplied ..,~udiJes.

One example of aplPllied sociology is. thegr-o,wing interest in facilitating neighboehood ecenomic developmem .. Ratner than f.ocu:r.ing om. :sodill. problems, S'Qcio~ogists and others have begu:n to emphasize ~he assetsa ()O:r'l1n1llJJ11ity can offer to its residems, For example, sociologist Richard Taub (19188, 2(04) took. <[111. approaebthat had proved successfulin a working-class, mostly .Black 311ea of Chicago and. applied i~~o a .snlalt,economicaJill.y disadvantaged commurn:t}r in Arkansas,[n both areas, efforts to attractemployers and big businesses had. f(!i1eci. Ra.t:her than continue ~h<It :fuiled <IlPplTHlCb. Taub conducted sUlev;c;:ys to identifyth,E commmnity's strengths, as weI] as potential somas. of

credit aJndted:mlrnll assistance, The da,ta he wUected enmur:a:ged 10m. banks to .invest locally. which would 'bring in more localrevenue, With some outside help, the-banks fcmmR ways to guarantee ~hose investmenrs, which didnot neGe$;s;a:r:ily ofifer q uiekretnms, Findy; Tanh identified. the human ca.pital in the mmmUilll,]1t.y. Today" a place oncethought to' be beyond hope' is bustling with day care centers, beauty shops.catering services; <Ina a Nfury Kay Cosmetics 5..m.chise .. f\]th(mgh,individuaUy" none of tbesebusinesses has the mUings. of a rortl.me 500 corporation.; collectively they have~umed the community around.

GI.-owing interest in. applied sociology has led to such specializations as medica] ~~odoli()g:y and env.ii1iOltm.e[J1tal~~OI:::]Qk),gy~ The former includesresearch onbowhealth eareprnfessienals and patients dealwith disease, To give oneexample medical soeiologists have studied the soci .. I impact of the AIDS crisis on fami- 1ies"friends. and commuoities [see Chapter lSI}, Bnviromnerrtal sociologists examine jherelatkmship between human societies and thephysical environment, One focus of tbeirweekisthe issue of "environmental justice" (see (:;hapter 19) •. raisedwhen researchers and comnnmity activists found that hazardeus waste dumpsare especially likely In be s~tuated in poor and minority neighborhoods (M. Martin 1996).

Tbegrowmg popularjty of applied sociology hasledto the rise of the specialty of clinical .&oci.ology. Louis Wirth (1931) wrote about clbl,k;<l!l sociology more than 7:5 years agQ~ ·bu.t the term itself has become popular only in recent years, \'Vb.ile applied sociology may Sil.ll.p]y evaluate social issues, dliiruicaJl. 5iodn:logy is dedicated to faci~itating change by a1.tering :SOC]aI] relarionships (as in. f1l.11.uly therapy) OllF restructurieg social institutions (as in. the reor:gaJI.i.Z.:1ltion ofa medical center),

The Associaticnfor Applied Clinical Sodology was> founded in 1.'978 to' promote the ap]J,licatiolll of soeiolngical knowledge tnintervention £o.l'undiv.idual and secial change. This prnfessional gmu:pbas developed ;a procedure fmcertify.ing clinicaJ!.

@ The McGraw-~iM C[]mpani:~3, 2010

IIIiI ~(]offiiiOmically disi1J,rn"a~tage,d !:Ilrieasllike tlli:s·one in Arik:aI~:sa5,. eomrmmltles s'lUiffer fmm s host of socia II pmb:lelill s, iiliiilOil,ldllillilg p(J.vertty, viol'en eEl., Cln(j dlrl,lg ;;;IlbWlSE!" AIlPIi:ed :S(ldo~ogists are d edlk:i'oItea to finld i!'JIg plClI:ti.ca~ applltoationsthat wi'll impr>ij\le the! livecs (lIf tJhi(lse' who are caught in cyoles of ~mvBrty.

soeiologists-c-much <IS physic:althe:r:arpists 0.1' psydmlogists are l[erlti:fied.

Applied socielogists generaflyJeave it to others to act on their evalnations, In contrast, clinical sod.ologi:sts take direct responsibility forim plementatiun and. view those with whom th.ey work as their clients, This specialty has beeomeincreasingly attractive Ito g:radua te students in so cio.~ngy because .i t offers an cpportunity to apJPly intellectualleaming in apracticalwag .. A shrinking, job market in the academic world .h.<!.s made such altemative career routes appealing.

Applied and clinical sociology can be crmtrasted with basi<:, or I'ure~ sodolo:gy~ which seeks a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social. phenomena .. Tlli.stype Df research is not necessarily meen 1. to generate specific applications, althmlg11. sud"! ideas mayresult once findings are <I.na]y.zed~WhJen Durkheim studied suicide rates, he was not primarilyinrerested in d.i5co,verI]J[g: awayto eliminate suicide" .Hn this sense, his research was an. example of basic rather than. applied sodo]o&y.

use you I" SOC iolcgrca I .im.aglnation

Whatissuesfaciil'ig your IloC'Brl oommllnity WDl!Jlld .YQUJI li'ka to address witllrappliied sociol:ogica;lllesea;rdl'? Do yell see any global cOlflnectiOrrlrs to these Iloca! :iSSIUIS'S?

D1eveloping aSociologicallm,agination

In this book, we win. beillustrating the: slO~iologiC<l~. imagination in several different wa:ys,.-by showing theory in practice and in. current research; Iby tbinking gl.obally; hy explm:ing the

Sllhllef.er: :SOIi!:iOiill!lf. llZth EdiililDln

si:gnifo.c:a1lice of social ineqlllality:; by speaking acress.race, g~nde!", ;t[111Id religious boundaries; and !by:llighlighti:ng socialpoli.cy fhmiLI.g110ut the world..

Theory in Practice

We will illustrate how the n.'1:3ijor sociolo,gica~ perspectjves can be helpful lnunderstanding 1toda.y~:!ii issues, from capital punishment to the .AIDSerisi:s .. Soeielogists do not necessarily dedall'e~~Be:[e I am msing ·fiw].clIionruism:' buttheieresearch and appmaches do tend to draw on one or meretheoretical frameworks; as will become dear in the pages lIO follow;

Research Today

Socio;logist;sactively investigate a variety nfissues and social behavion We have already seenthat research Gin shed li.ght on the socialfactors that affect suicide' rates. Sociological research of1:enptays <II direct role ill improving people's liVie1'li,as in the case of increasing the participetion of African.Americans in diabetes t:estilrl.g •. Thl1oughout tberest of the book, the research lP ~'f'f()rJ1]ed by so ciologists <Ind. otbelf 5:0 cial scientists willshedlight on group he:hav.iol' of all types.

Thinking Globally

m.a:t:ever their theoreticalperspective or research technique-s> sociologists recognize that social behavior must he viewed ill a glo hal mntext GlobalDizafi(m is the wodd'Wide inregratien of gO'ver.u.u:nenl: po~jcies, cu.ltl].[es, sccialmcvements, andfinancial markets thmlll.g,h. trade and. the exchange ofideas, A1:thongh. public discussion Q1f globaliu<Iltion is reIa:ttivd.y recent.Jnrellectuals nave been _pondering both its negative andpositive social cnnsequences fora long time, Karl Marx and Friedricb Engels warned in. The COlnl:i!:u,~mist Manifesto (writteninI 848) of a worldmarket thatwould ]ead~o production in d.:istant lands, sweeping <twa.}"

. ti 1_~ :I t' L ..

exrs Ulg 'WTI:r~:ng[eJ;a ~o:nsu]ps.

Today; developmerliits oUiUlidie a aounrrya:re as likely to iuAue:rL(e people's lives as changes athome, Por example, t[lImlgh. mnch of the werldwas ab:eadyi:n recession by September 20m j, the terrorist

e The IMcGraw-ffi111 CompaniEls, :201 [I

attacks on New York and Washington, D.C., caused anjnmiediate erenomic decline not j ust inthe UOEted Stales., but throughoucthe world. One example ofthe massise glolb!<1i]. impact llVRS the downturn in internatioll!al tOlliii'l[!J],whkib. ]asted. for at least two years. The. effects have been. fdtby people far removed from. the United States, ind.umng Afric.m game 'I,I!{<llfClens and .J;\S]<U.l. taxi drivers, Soi.me observers see globalization and its effects asthe naturalresult of advarrces in connmmicatians !technology. particularly the Infemetand ,sa~emte transmission of the massmedia, Othersview itmore cri.tically, as a pmcess that allows mnltinational corporaticns to expand unchecked, We examine the impact of globa~.izatioa on our daily lives snd on soeieties thmughout the world, including our 0'0\']], in .Box:li -2 un I?a,~.e 20 (on the g~ob.aJll[o,ff.ee tradejand througheut this 'book. (Biss !Bud

Hirsch 2(05).

The S lgniflcancs of Social I nequa ~ity

'N'ho holds power? VfI:Io doesn:n:'t? Vlh.o11.as prestlg:d\\l]::Io lacks l.ll.? Pier haps the major theme of amd.ysis in sociology today is t;ocbllil. meqilld~Yi. a eanditien in which members of socie~y haye diffe:r~· iug amoumsof wealth, prestige, or power. For example.the disparity between what cof.fee bean pickers in. developing nations are paid and lll,e priceyou pay fora Clllp of Goffee,,:mdeTsc::ores. global:ineqlllotLity (see Box 1-2). And the impact of HUH]C1I.IH::

Katrina 011 :residents of It he Gulf Coa,s.~ drew attention to soda.1 inequality iothe United States .. 'P[e.ciictably, the P eople wbo were hit the bardestbythemassive storm were the pO Dr. who had. the gl~ate's.lI d.illiGlll~ty evacuating before the steam and nave had. the most difficulty recevering frcrn it . .BarbaraEh~"e.n]}e:i.c11;s, research aInOllig low - Vil<I:ge workers uncovered some ot1~.,e.r aspects of.soda.1 inequality iothe United States ..

Some sociologists, En seeking to understand the effe(tc~ of i[JJ.eqllJ:ii!.TIjty, have made the cease for social jlllsti.c:e"W~ E. B. Dulsois ((1940] 1968:4]8) noted that the greatestpowerin the land is not "thought or ethics, but wealth," As we have seen, the eentributions of lK:a:d. Mar.x, fane Addams, <Iud Ida WelIs-.Bam.ett also stressed this sentiment for (be everarchingimportance of secial.inequalifj' and. social justice, :Joe .F,eagi.[!I. {200 I) echoed it in. a presidential address to the AtIler.i.GIJlI. Sociological Association, Thl'OlllgbolJ[t, this boo'kw:m highLi.ght the work of sociologists on. sociaIi:ne:qua]jty.

Speak~ng across Race, Gender", and Religiolls Boundaries

Sociologists inelude both men and women, as well as people &0111 <L variety of ethnic, national, and religious m:].gi:lls. Intheir work, socIQlqgi5ts seek to du.w conclusions that. speak to <Ill. people-c-not just the affluent or powre~diul. Doing so' is not always, eiisy~ Insights into how a corporatien can increase its profirstend to attract more attention andfinaacialsupprnt than. do, say,.lIhe· merits of a needle exchange prugi~al1l1 fellr: low- income inner-city

e The McGraw-Hilll Comp8T.1LeS, :20ll)

.1Il~2. Your :Morning Cup of C,offee

WhenYO!iJ, drl.i1I~ a cup, of cofFee, do YOUi gpve much tf1nught to. where tihe corIElL:!, beans CaJmeh'om, or do you think more aboultihe pleasul'l!l! you get from title popu'lar bev13:Fi3Jge?' Donee IDelit3i~n~y is populaJr-e,s iIIn ~mpon:, il. ls second Of1lly to petro" leum, the mostttad,~d commodl~tyin. the wo:r~d,

IHttlQu,ghl:he cofreEl t)J'ade has been. .~Iobal~ ized, the customs of oo,·!'tel8 drlil'l king stlill vary from place to! place, Starnuc!ks,~h~ch Ifl«W has 41,500 loc8t!iorns CllI lsid's the' Uin~ted S'!:iites, has over' :1,000 ~oc;sf~i'(HiS ln IELlt'Olpe, M.ai'il.age~ 'find tf1ail in I&lmpearl COUil'ilt~es, w1here U'le coRee" house lr:u~rJjj,ffi nrugimuted, 810 percent OiflliheilF customers sur down. t'O dfinktile{r coff-ee. lin. title Uinilt,ed S'r1;l~es, 80 peiFcentof Stariltlclks' eus·oom·eli'S: ~@!ave th.e s'~,ooo ~liY'IJm~diaIT~~y,tak~r!,gIDeiIF caff,ee w~~h them.

Coffee, whi!l::tli is ·~hoLl.~ht tn have ori~nated In Etihiopi03i, has a IOfl~ tl!lis!lmy: It '~i!f'St came to I:I'Hil attefnfjion 0'1' IEuropeans in 1:11.8 16f1 oentury, \li.a th.E! Turklslh Empif!.!l.A century ~a:tIir, ·U~·e ,Mlee." houoo culture was firmly rooted in EurojJe. In ~actt, Eurnjp Ban. dem.eildf'OlI' ,coffee tie.l psd m,roster the s~a;ve trade TnU1e Garillb:be8lrl. alnd La~11 !!\Jirler~cii .. SQ todats oO'leehoIJse, WMllher ~t US: Starlbudlill, D:unkiin' DonlJts, iJj·r a loca~ shop., ~$. roated in !both Afrlica and ELlmpe,

ira day, tlhe cofr:eetm de continues in E'I1!~y on the exploiltatioln of ciheap I,abm: Co~me Is a l8ibolr~rn'~elfls~\I'@: crop: !!hem is lit~fl ·~h.at '~ec:hl1lol~ ogy csn do tn ,ease [hiE! !l::of~~e picker's !llllJird.ell.

The typ~(;a~ coff.ee picker w'OfI(_s ~n:a d:eve~Qpln,g; naJtion Ileiilfrhe equator, mceuvi fig fDr a day's. W.1iIgels .a I'll amOl.Jlrn~tl11at nnartclhes the plrice of a single cup lo·f coffee in North Amerilca. Il1tt:J,i~ ] 940£, ,llIchloca.cy ~rciUlPS be~anw proll'lote[tll>!~ si9Ile of oor~5e:d fa~'( !raole ooff'ele, 'M~c~. gives a Ih.lil'lg wage ootihosewflo IhawvesUhe crop, alll·ow~ llflgtihem to becema ~oonomica Ily se~f~sufficlei'ilt But ,lM!n n,ow, 'fai~trade O!)I"("!,~ am~oUllts for Olfl~Y a smalill fraction. o~[h.e coffee that is bought and sold. ~Ifl the Lin ~too sm~,

S,aIVildo~aJn coffee" was PlJ~led from the air ~n l'eS'pM$le to pressure from iii distributor.

Eto~ogical activists tla;v@· CI rawt'l .attentiOn to What Uhe:yse~as 'th.e coHee irulustry's Oo.F]'tribut~ofl WtiH!' tren.dtowa~d: g,oba~ war.m~lng, TIle ne,e.d 111 makie room for more 'DofFee f~e~ds, th~y c!hargf!J.lllliS. ·elflooUiraged Ute des:[n.l'ction of ra.~n forest'$.lh,e sa me criticism ca n I:! e a ~m,ed at much of'tthl!3 consumpUoll: 111 ~If'UlIUls·tnla~ nifitiOfis .. Of ,all~he procluC1:Sttila~ elTlergerrom d·elJelop~ I'!Ig na·~ior!,s. h,OW.J1lW!f, 'Few howe :!IS sing;Lllar a place: in rn a,I1iY peop~.e's dany lritual as that mOlrn~ tlIg cup ,D,r joe. The· dfinklfil yom MM ~s. yom tan!?)1lble~ink ~Q; rtIrai woMkers ~l1so<Me of~he rlOQ>r'E!st emilS oftth.E wolrlldi,

TIle tY1)'irJal cof],ee.l)1('/wr u.!·rJrh,'i/ i~t lJ de'velal)lng ~~(lJian near ike UPU1LOf, rec€iuingibr a dCi~l~ 'wQ:gi!:',~O:FI, C!/lWlmt chat mateke» lhep1'ice ala s~ngle CliP l)Jci)jlee :in North A.m.erica.


1. Do YO'Ui enjoy cott:ee? W.O·Uild ~CI!IJ: wmlngly pay morefm.(;1 CLIP IOi~ coffee nf you kiflil!l/Ii mat thi~ wolfker wM pvcked ti1e' bssns WOllilld befle'fiI'~ fmmlthe hfgher p~rce?

.2. lIii·e lI::off:~etra!d:e< has been, 1J~;amed for perpetuall ng socliallllleqiUa~iity, WEufalt'E!, and glnDal1 wlIlrmilflg, Call youlti ink of .(;1 ny posltbve effects .of th,e Do,ffEN!rrade? Who ben," e~1!S m QstFrom t!h~:il eeonom te a ct~\!I'W?

Politicall ac:~vjsls halve, sought to bring aiUl!ln~ non llO the rn~l:Is'~i;(;es bmllght about by ~tle rlflternaUonal cMf@~ tJrMlfiL Som,E! n'~ tihelr rnsssagss have been very :S'trOtllg,. IFor eX8mpl!8, a tel·ev~· !'lion ,campaign "at al~d. ~!'I ·the 19:90s :s!how0d a mlJlg ()f Cio:ffe,e bii1lmm.lng O'"!ler with red blood, alollg with a vo~'()e-o;, .. erUjJ8I~ sU,ggesredi:hatwhat w·as Ibe~itl~. t:lI'iB'I.'i@d was d,eath. The campa~gin, wlh~(;h accused a ma.jor food, proc:essorCl'f pro" longin,g ·lh.~ waIF ii'il EI Sallva.dor Iby IPiJJr.!~hasin,g

SIllUroeS; Mam~ 2{WS; GreE!Hwa'ld 1'990; Lutlin.ge,r .ain d Dieum 2Cmi3, Pen.dEirgrMl [999, Rij~r 20D8.

will. he discussed .In Chapter 4. Social:ization;. global irnmigration

•• .f....,~ .. 'l'~ n .'] ..!I' lE L 'If. . -.~.. • . ndrel .. ' '. ,

m "._,;~]apb~I .ll.Jtac1a .. anc . -·tumc .I.lcH~qt[<!Jllty; all! 'r>e]gu)]] In. the

1L. . '11' ·C·h ] 5 R. ].'... . '1I'1L. .. Social 1'1 r . . . ' .., '~[

scnoeis m: rapter ... > . '. e 19]()n, .ll nese OCI"u .. rcldCY sections wtu

demonstrate how fundaI11.enit<l~ soci.nlogical coocepts Gin enhance our critical thinking skiU s and. help us to better understand curre.fDt public policy debates taJdng :pla.ce amuud the world ..

In addition, soci.olQgy has been used 1:0 evahiate the success of programs or the impad of changes bmught about hypoH.cymak.ers andpolidcal activists .. Fer example, Chapter 9'j Stratification

_J S .. ~ u M 1L.'j]' ..' ... H. U ' d' (' .'. '1' .l. _;) ":

anu.· OCI~ ': OU·. J.ty .m. ULle' _ [lille . ,:,tates., UlLC uU.es i3i uJSCUSS10n

of Tesear.ch on tb.e ef.fectjv'Eness of welfare refol"[[1 lex[periments, Such di:scl]ssiolJl.s; m1d.ersO(1)e thema.ny practical <Lpp]ications of ~Qciologlcal theory <lndi..research.

:s.ociologjsts: expect the next quarter of iii. ce.n:tm']l to beperha:ps the :Dl]Ost exciuJ]]g aIld. ,cr.itiQi] pETInd iII t~]e history of tihe di.scipline .. Thart is bern.lUSe· of <I gliov\ringl'erngl1iition-botb i!"1! tAlie United S1ta.tes and a:roll11d I:h!ewodd-tfuM CIlll'T.ent .social problelli]$ ml,]!$t be <Iddn::s.."Iedberore the]!: magnitude oveJn.¥hehn<;huHlafl .societies. We can exped soc~olowsts topla.y anirncreasing ['Q~e in government by l:ese<J].1:hi~g and ~;J.evdopi:ng, pliblic po~:i.cy ;3I_]·~'eruati.ves... ]t seenls only ]];atmali forti:n:is textbook: tofoCIUS on the oonueotionOe:l:'wee!]. !:he 'work of so<;i.ologists andtlhe difficult. guesti,o.ns mnmonti:ng poli.cyn:nakers and peop~.einth.t: UnIted. Sta.tes <md around. the wrnkt

residents. Yet today more than ever, sociology seeks to better understandthe experiences of all people,

SOclo]ogists have noted, FQr example, that the huge tsunami ~h::Jt hit South Asia in 2004 affected men and wnmen .(~jfferently. When the waveshit.rncthers and grandmothers w'ere at hnme withthe childremmen were outsideworking, where-they were more likely to become aware .of the .1.l!Tlpending di:5~sl:e~[, Mo.r.e~ over], most of the men knew how to S'WiID.1> a survival skill that women in these traditional societies usually do not learn .. As a resalt, .. many more men thanwomen survi.ved fhe GI.tasl:mpheabout 10 .I.nen fOin: every 1 woman , In one Indanesia.n vilJa,ge ttypicml of the disaster a]:"ea~ 97 of 1,3(] o people smv.i.ved; o.nly 4: wel~e wnm,en, The imp'dc1t: of th:~.5 gend.erin.lI.hal;a:ncewiU be fdt for smn.e ti.me. given wom.eJ]_~s primary rale as .caregjvers for children <lind th·e elder.ly (BReNew,';; 20(5).

Sacial Policy throughout the World

Onei.mpo:rtanl: walY we can 1!15:e m .so c.io:log;i .. cal ima.giniJti.on is to enhance .our l!lnderstandi:nIg of Cl,]!:rrent social issues th~ou.gholJt Iilie wodd, Hegi:nn:ing with Ch.ap~e[ 2]. ei;lch chaJpt,e~r win oo.nd.u.de with. a discussion of :icontemporary sociruPQ,l:igr i.s.sue.]n some ca.ses,we will ex:aminea. spe.cificissuef;a.c]]].g:natio:rn.ai. goveu]ulIt"nts. Fm eXi3inlp~.e, govenuii]iE:nt fu.llmng of (hiM cue centers


Sllhllef.er: :SOIi!:iOiill!lf. llZth EdiililDln

e The IMcGraw-ffi111 CompaniEls, :201 [I

For the past jwo decades ahenumber of u.s. oo~1ege students l,vh.o have graduared w.ith a degree In 5t1dd~Qgy has ds;efi.s~eadUy (fIgu.r.e .~. -2). In dl:is .appendix w·e']l ccnsider some ofthe optiens these students .haw after co.m.pletung lheir undergraduate education.

An uadetgraduate degree In :rocrp]O-gy' doesn'~ jus,u serve aJS ~.Il~nt prep8!!t'"aticn for futnre g~mdual~ work ill sociology~]rr also pwvhie,s a . .stfcmg Ilberal ,OClS ba.dgwuncl. for' entql'-ievd P01>ilions: in business, social services, fcnmdati,ol1!S, c:om:mlluliity organisatlcns, not-fos-profit grolllPS, l,:tw enforcemeut, and. m.any govemmenr jo:bs. .A number .of fields-> a~nong them Hl.arlketing, pubuc .riI:~ations. and. bmaitca:.l;lhl:g--'rrll)w requlreInvestig~t[vc skms and SiD understanding of the diverse groups [olllnd ]n~oday's multiethnic and mulrin3itim1i111 environment, Moreover, a socio.logy degree :reL]u~res

aocomplil'i~.lnc.!1l11n oral and. written COIUmunlcation, interperscnal ski11~, problem S01vi:tl~h and cl!"i~iC8!l t}l:ink]ng~aI] job-re~a.~ed. sk:IJ~s lh,~~t may giV'c' sodQ:~O:gy gr,adu- S!lun:'e: Dep~.rtme.nl of EJtLr:~.!.io.rn. 21006. ares an a.cl'WIr.ltage over thosewho pll.m:me

more lec:l'l"li:C'aI degrees,

Consequently, w:~.j]e few occupstions sp~dnc:£lny require an undergraduate degree 1111 sociology, such academic training can be an important asset Lnt':::'.r.ncdng Ji. wide range of occupadons, '][;'0 emphaSl.ZC lh]s point, Si number of chapters Inthis beck higbliglrta real-life professloual w1::lo descriibes how the study of :wdol.o'g)' bas helped In hls or her career, Look Thor the "'Taki.ng Sociology toWor.k" boxes,

Iigure I -3 on page 22 summarizes the sources of employmem for those wid. :BA orBS degrees .iJ1 s!oc:kn]ogy .. It shows thatthe .8!r,ea;s of nonproflr a,rgani:zatiOlls)cduc8J[ion, business" and g:OVc.rnlm::nl: otTer m.a.jor career epportunitles for ililld.o.l:ogy graduates. Umie.rgradu.<lues wI,o knewwhere thc:l.1i career i]ner,~sts lie are wi]] advised to enroll In SlcH;:i.ol,ogy ceurses and "'pcci.3L]ties, best sUIledto thoseinterests.Por example, students hoplngw' become healrh plannerswould take a class In medical. sOLuology~ students sltlcl!d.n!!lcm.ploY:Illent as social science researeh assistantswe uld f.oCUS on courses In statistics and. methods, Internships, such ~s' placements at dty plarming agencies and survey reseaech mg::3Jn:iz"Itions,. afford anotherway fall" so,c[otogy students to prepare for careers, Studies show that students who choose an ]1fI~en'lshlp plaeementhave less trouble tind:ing jobs, obtain bette. jobs, and en~oy g,reat~r job satlsfaction thanstudenrs withou[ [n1Jemm.i.p placements (An1er]QlII Sociological. Association 2006; $,a:]e,lu and. Grabarek 1986}.

Mamy c,o]lege students view social wnf.!\:: as [he field most dOSiely assnciatedwlth sociolo;gy. TraditkHu.lly; social wcrkers receivedthelr undergraduate training in sod.Q:.I.ogy8Judan:uedr.dd,~ such \1$ psychology and counse~.i.ng". After some practica] expeelence, social workers would generaUy seek 8J master's degreeulfl sodal. work (MSW) to be


FiGURE :1,~2

26 -
22 -
20 -
."'. HI
E -
0, 16 -
~ 14
E '12 -
4 -








considered for super \li~ory or administrative positicns, Today~ however, some .'ll::ude'flt!i choose "\I!.lhere it is .iilv.anl,i:lJbh~) to pLllrsue ~. bachelor's d.egl"Oe~n social work (SSW). This degree prepares graduates fo!f' direct service pcsitions, such as caseworker or grGlUp worker,

Many studentscentlnue their seelologlcal tr,8JiD:'ling beyond [11(: bachelor's, degree, Morl;: ti!1J.ill.1i 25.0 universlties jn the United States, have graduate FlJagra.l:llI:'l, in sociology that offe'l" PhD amif[]I[ master's degrees .. These pmgrdim,s differ. grcadyin their areas of specialization, mm.semqubements, COS,iS, a!:nd the research and. teadling opportunlties a:V.8!Ml1b]erto graduate students .. Abollt npercent ofthe graduates Slife WO.l1H~l.'1 {AJlDel~irul:l Soc i.o~ogicOil Association 2005" 200903.).

Higher education is an impo:.rt.<l!nt source of flllp]oymCn[wr sodoi.'ag;isrrswltb graduatedegrees, Abom 3.3 perc£:nt of recent PhD redp[eats 111 sociology seek em.ploy.tne.nt ln 001Ieg;("$ and un:iver:shtes. These sociol!og:rsts teach not only majors ,,,,iho ,::Ire CQlmll:liitt~d 10 the di~dpml'l(: but also .$lUdEIl.ts hoping 'to beo;:u11Ie d(lcto .• s, !"m.-ses, .~,aJ.wyel~s" police: of:l:lcers, and S.o forth (American Sod,ol.ogirul.A:ssociat:Uo.n.20(5).

So,cio.l:agists who teach in colleges and. 1li1:1v€rsItiesm.:ilY use their kl1Lowl.edgc and trafning to inflaence pu bKk pnl.ky. FO.r example, socioleglst Andrew Cherlln (lOCH) r~~ndy commented on lin: debate ove:1r proposed federal f:uJ1i}din.g wprO~1liote marriage among welfare recipients, Citing the results of '1[1,,\10 of hls studies, Ched:in. questioned the potential elJec~ive'flc$s of such :sJ. policy hl strengthening k~w-:u:llGo.I~.'le F<3imi.Ues, Because ma:tly single mothers choose [:0 m.ifI:rr.y SOI1l10011eother than the father of their d:dkben'-&-Dlnetimes fo.r' good. t~Jison-th.e]r ehlldre n often g:r,DW up in stepfamilles,

G'I\. 'II" . I I '1 1 '~,2I . 1. ' d i e ,.

lIeru]U sresearcu s lOWS t ltl.lI c 1!]~uren WllO are .~.~Bm.e .'. m steptann-

]1e$ are no better off than those in slngle- p,SJ.rem families, He sees


@ The McGraw-~iM C[]mpani:~3, 2010

goverument efforts 10 'pro'.rnobe marriage asa politicaUYI:lloti- FIGURE .1~3

vated attemptto foster tradlfional sod;~]]values iu a. SOCI,r,::ty that

bas become Illcl!".easing'~y diverse,

Bar $od.o]ogy graduates who are inrerestedin academic careers, the road to a PhD {ordoclm11te) can be long and difficult, This degree ~!O}':mbCl!Hzescon!lpetel.lI.Ge ill originalresearch; ,ead!}. Gll:1J..dJ-

dare m.USL prc'f'<II'C a. bcok-length study known as a dissertatien, R:@s~lIn:h

Typkall.y> Ill. doctoral stu.c!em in. sod.o]ogy wUI. ,engage In four to 5 . .7%

seven years ofimensive work, Iududing thetime requlred tcoompletetbe disse[tlulon. Yet even lh~s effort us, no guaralll:ee of a job at; a SOdOJDgy professor;

The good ~1e-'WS ls that ~wer dH~ next HI )'ir:ars,the demand

Thor instruetors Is expected. to Increase because of high rates of. Se;rviil:@s

S]% retirement ilIJlI10ng faculty from the ba.by b OQm gcneradon, as

wen as dlc an[lclp.SJte.d stow bUl £[e~d.y growth In [he mlleg~' stu-

dent population inthe United St,8J~es. None~'heles$, auyone wbo. launches an academic career must be prepared for considerable uncestaintysnd C!ompuitiQni.ll the college 'a'b market {A~l'l1erican Soc i . .()]og.icSi.] Assodal:ion 2006; Huber 19.85).

Of course.not ,3111 people who workas seclologists reach or hold. doctoral degrees, Take govenU1ile.I~[~ for example, The Census Bureau rdics. on people whh soci,c}log.k~.[r.raillillg to .i[l[c!rpret data Em: oilier gove:rnmem agencies and the general. public, Vinual.l.y every a.geucy depends, on survey research-a. fhdcli.ll which sociology students C!lIII spe.dr!lJJJze-.1in order to assess everything from eommnnitv needsto (be morale of the agency's own workers, In

additien, people with :5odologtcal1r.a:inf.l'lg ca.1l put their academic knowledge to effecti.w' use :un probstlon and pamle, health SdeIH]eS, community deve~opllllent, and recreational services. Some people working in governmem or priv:ilte Industry have a masle~es degree (MA or' MS) ill sociology; others have a b.acbe1o.I"$i degree (BA or BS).

Currently, about 15 percent of !the members off the Ame rican SOclo]Ogk:dAssodaJt[ol] use tbeul! sodo·.logkal skills outside the academic world, whether in social service ,agenicle;s: 'or i.11 marketEng positions for bus!.ne;s;sfiul:ls. mcr~a.shli.g numbers of'soclologists w.i.dl. graduate degrees are e:mp1oyed. by businesses il.'lJdlJ!st.ry~ hospitals, arrd nonprofit crganlzations, Studies $:howitb.8Jt 1118111 $o{jology g:liadu.1Ites; are m3!king career changes from soclal service areas to business .8i.nd. commerce, Porau undergraduate major, s(~dology is excellent preparatlon for employment ]I1.many pUlIS of the business world. (Spalter-Roth and Van Voore.n .2;(I08b).


Other, 'inchsd ii'll'£! p'Lllb,I'ITc r~liailiol1s, ]1.]%

!;D<Eial.Si€!I'VTms .26.5%

Mal'll a,gl€!m@l'llt 14.4%

No'le, Based 0111 .II .n<l~~rm,ill survey ((lndiJct~d ill ~~dcy 2i:){)7 uf .~,;Bm~ ,~(JdiO~ngy majors whrl gmtitl!a'ltid it! 201)5.

5~jjn::~;·n.b~e ~. i_p, Sp::l ~lel:-~ath 8.rnd. Vi:!.~j VOOte.I1I.:li(i(!l8~.

1AI"hdhe:ryou takea few courses In socknlogy or lcompltte a degree, you will benefit from the c.d~fca.l. thinklng sld.~bi developed in [h&s; dJiiid.pl.i.l:u~. S~}doJogi.sb if:m.pha:5,i:z:e the VIiI.]UC of be'u:n:g i31ble to an a].yz:e,interprel, andfunction wid'll]) 3. Vfl]"~ery of wo:rking situa-

tinns=-an a:sse~ in v.irtuB]]y any career, Moreover, given rapid technol.o:g.kal. rn.8lll.ge and. the expa.ndi:i.lgg[ob.:3J].eoo:nonny. all o.f us 'w:i]l need to adapt to substantial social ehange, -c:v;eni~ OUl!" own careers, Sodo[ogy provides a .rich conceptual framework that.can serve as a f.oundiU.1r]on[or f1iex:ilb]e career development and assist you in taking IiId'il4n~liIge .of' new f'mploy.rnenl opportunities.

C'WJ1U:'CI. [ea!"'fl S~eed

For more lnforrnatlon on career opportnnltles for iindividuals with a backgJFOund in !s(II:::kllogy, visit. Uhie On!iil!)JII~ lei5I1'fil~ng CEi·nt@r at www.mhhe.'(h[)mls£)h;jJefE~:d2e,. Go to "Student Edituon," and ~n the section titled ~G()urse·w'ide COIFlitent,~ di:c:k on "WebReso~rces .. " Then dlick Oil "Career OppOftJLlI1I~'tie:s,~ which will provide you wrth numelr'DUS links. ttl s.r!tes, offering careefadivice ~Itlid ~!ilfalrmEition.



Sodology 1:$ the :lc:~eliIJir..c study of ,~ociiJl behavi.or and hllEl'ulIl gtl]Ups,. Inthis, t11.lI.pleEj \'o"e examine the nature of (locio.ll[}gi£ a I.the(]II~f;' the foundens ofthll di;S!t:ipli[l1?, theoretical p·er$pect:Hw\SHtl tOIJlemp(H<t[y-s()cioiogy, prll.ctic4Ia,ppl:ic:lltlo[lS f~][ soc:io].o:Sjc!ll tlle:ory ami [l:'Sil1l:rdl, 'ii1ndwaty,~ to (lX'e'J(cise tb:e~:f;~dtllogiG:!il im,:3Jg;.mil::uO[i,"


:L'th~ siOdD1Q,~cl3illmia,iJ!l:al'l.hlll .. is om. aware:lle,:i8 I]f. tbe['f'I.a~i(ll:rI$hijp' between am indi'!fi.dud aim.] the wi.d.er ~:odety, It i.{l based un t&:!e ahilUly~<l vi~w ()LU own 1>QI("~e'ty <1$ 3.11 ()Il~~;idet migh~, r;ather tht'ln .. &um the pe'rs:rectiiv,~off our Iimlted exp'e:[hlnces. and culttnal b.iase.!>.

@ The McGraw-l1lil1l C[]mpanr.Bs.2[1m

Sllhaefer: Siudulill!:lf. 112th Edlili'[iIn

2:. .hl Wllttr:OiIst lu (]Id:at:r $odal ,sd.'~lilte$; so(uQI(],~y e:rnrl1a:lill~,5 the illHp= enG€" that ~wups cHiLI. ha,\l:l'l om jJoBo,p.I.e:s. bel1.a.viot IU],c] attittrdesand 'the' wa)ffi in which people ~ba.l?'~ fiQ1ci.ety.

3. [l(llowl~dg£:tlI.at relies on. i(Om:mon senseisnot ah'0'3}''!> reliable . .soci. n~(fgush;,:mu~t t.e;st and a:naJlyNl each piece' of in:fo[matlmll. theyuse,

4. Sotiolol);i-5t8 f:mp~'Oy tffiJJefj(f~e~ [0 el(:;Itl:I:inernlatiolllsh:ips beti,¥t."I?1l ob.'jJe-rviltinl1lc~ m data n:i:llltmay seem wmpJ~tdy IUIl-elabedl.

5. Niiletee[[(h-ce:[JJfuryIJllinken; who cotltltibtlted (lDciologicaLillsi:,@ints included AU,i:lJ!lste Comt\f. <I .. Fre:[IdJ. phi1.o1:i'opher; Harrl.et M~tl'ti.lleau, all En,glnsb :8otjn~ogi~t. and He[Ib~[tSp,rnc€r~ llnEngli,,,,h sdtula'[;

6, ()tme[ l:mf1ortm;lntn!,~u:re~iIllhe d~elopm.e'nJJt uf $ot.ioJogy wel::f!Em:iJl,~ Dll.tk!l:1.e-]ltJjI \iho piml~f:ed\",{]ik 0]]. sl:iIidcl.ei M:lxWe:iJ~r, who taugl'itth.e ne§d .!Dr insight i:[jJ~:q:~ll.a9:[I~[\'>'Qrk •. !Ka:rl M;!:rx,. who .gmphasiz.td[ line .impett:ance of 1fu:E' ~!(;U[i;mny :md sncial cOI!l:mrt;:ill1dW.~. 13. Dl!l.B~iis~ w:ho ad:vo(~Uedfu:r tll1e lisefiLtI.1nB.<;!S -of I.JG.S;~G research in mmh:nilllg pt.eju. d!ice and. :f{).!;te'£in~, racial tall:!'r3:[Ice and juS!TIc.e.

t. Itt the 20th Cffit!,]:ry,~Jle di.sc.ipli[le of !lO'Cio1ollY \'i1ili indebted to tile U.s. $OC~O~)[)~i~b; Charl!l1s Horton Cool"'yaJj]id Rob;ftri: Mei'lxm,?lsweU. as to th,€'Fr.end] socinla~stPirt[e H,m..l.[di.€:Li.

3. :M:u;;r;mmcl.urno:!:JY concentrates onhtrliie'm~C'l!.Ie:pbe~lHmtil],!l Oil' etlti . .:;e ci.vi~.iz1!.ti,on;!i~mi.:to,'lO dolJi).gy S:tre:!i&e. ... the stJl]dy ()f sm;O].I1 (lroi:.lp~.

'Critiical Thiinki:ng Questiions

l , What ~spects of the ~{:ICi;lI[ !'Ind work~.i.~V]rpnme:1!l!1:: i.lla fast·food :[(;:5- [<I~a[Jl WOIJl.~.d b~ of p'lItkll~,<l!r :int€t>est to ~. sociologi:s:t hecau ... e ~)[ his or :I:!er. sncinloglmL iItl!lg;i:~O!tiot:J?

K.ey Ter.ms

AililllImlie The I.OSs. of d'ire~Uon felt in a s:ociel.:i whe,i'l soc.i.a! QQntrol' of indr. uirtlual tleha'!.l'io" ha~ be1come i[,!effeeti\il!;l .• (llagilil0)

A~IPWieil'ill SGciolo,gy tFie use Of the discip~ine MSQCiole~ with the specific inte:t1It ot yiela,in,!:l: praeliC8i11 ap~p,jj,ea,~ioMfur nUlrYlan behia.iJior arl.d orga· liliza,tiOrlls. fiB)

Baisoi~ sociiotogy Sociologiic:al ilrlquiry ,[;(llldu,c:~ed with the objectJ)ve of gaLning 8i more protolii.nd knOiwled€ie ,oiftile 'hJn,da!meln'l:al <li8rnE:cl~ of $locii'll phienOITloE:irua, .AHso ~naw n <13 plJ(e soc./Of!PgY. {1~)

eUiillmc~~ !IO!Il;Id!Dffiogy The use o,f '~hedii~c:lpH!'1e 'Clf 1Sec::io~ogy wit~ the s.pr::ciffif: intent of altelirng ",ec::i~1 reiilltionsil'ip$ or restn.u:::turilng $oci~1 in.~'t.itu'tiQ.ns •. ~1S)

C,o\n'Nlie~ IlleIl\Spec:il:ive A sQeiQltI~icalap'plr,oach that as:s,ulTlesthat social lbe!i'lavior i,s Mst understc]IG}d irl,lelTlll5 ,of tensiorl, bet,ween groiJp:s over powe.r orttle 8i11~ocai;tjiOn of 'resources, irlduding 1'!!i'Ljsin~, mon,ElY. aCcess to 'services, andl poH'tircal re'prese.ritation, ~~4}

CI~ltIlJr·li~ ,uapitall No:raBDOrliomic gQod~ ,s!J(;'hi as fa m il¥ bacl:!grmmd ~ Fld .e!d;lJca~ tlon, wll~ch: are refleG~ed r,[1 El: I!JrhlJwledge of la'F\guage 81M the arts, CL$)

D.oilbffiec:li'nsoeiIIlUIl!l!lessirhe' divi,si.o:n elf ahilri!diuid,uafi':S, ide'!lltit:y irl~D tWiD Cit [note soda! ,realiUes, ~t2~

flr.1Il1IfIaturgie2l1 <JIiIIlIOOHC.1'I A view of 8.06el in1ef.EH::'tiol'L in wnk:n pe;ople are seerl8 s theatrlical lPerf'ont:ler$ .. (1,S)

bystllncUOnJ Alraelemetrl: or process IOf a 50g~ety thtllfl~1I' disrupt the socia~ system or red,iJ.ce ttsiitability;. {lAJ

Femmliis1: vffi!l:W fl" '$otjo~o~i[;al app'roa'tn~hBt ... iew~ilr'ilequ~tyil'1 ~,er1de'r as (:IEmtti3I' 'to :all beh8.vior :ElIne! EI rgani~ti,a!!1. ~:14)

FunGltionliiliS!~. pe'rs:pec;ti¥IIlI .Pi. s,o,dQoIIJi!l:~ca~ aJPP[JLl:3 cn. tniat ,e.ITlIJilha shes 'the way in,whicn Ule' pstt'S of:!'l sOciet.y Slr,e Siru;clure(lto main'l!:arn, itssta· Ibili'l;y.(13)

Globllili~llitiOtnl ihe WQ,rlOwide in:te,gtatfol!li ot govern:mentp.olic:ie!1l. cul~ tllres, &,0 cf:a II 1m G¥e:m etits, and 'frona,nc:l,a I rr].i5l.r~effi th r,p ugh t~a,Ele ami' the exthBIl,ge of td,e..;;;ls. (19)

9. 1'.he fUj]IIlt:~Oti,a1j~~ :p~~sp~(,t1Vll' eIl1lph~.'j;Iu~c the Willy rn which. me p:u:ts of a :;OC!Je'ty are structuitE!d to maintain its stability.

.1. O. The ,{Ji)]Jdli.c:tJle:rspec~,i:ve assumes that social bdn,a\ii~[[ i.~ best !1nder.~ ~t()od ill ~e'lms of cQn:llict or ten~;i(]l[j be'tw,e:e!fl cumpeting g:ruups"

Ll , l'heifiU;f:i'I,Ct1oW]sltt petspl:lcil:i:V1e :i~ C1OPlrceomed ·iP'['imat.ily~v~:l!h[u.nT damental or f!ve:ryday ferms of :int€'[.:;rctiOIl.indudi.Il:~ symbols and othe:r trpe~ of .oo:llv'el',baJ loo.mlliJ~~"::i!tiQ!Il..

12. Tl:iefe:m:Wi:sl:: "iew.wh:icJIl :Is oft~f.l allied with t'hel Wif1:IEiI:icr petspecti '\Ie, .!>El!1'sm!;:qu]ty·in geilJder':as ,C11'[1[[alto all bel:!! ,!Lviur and Otrgfl:[I]zlItin:n.

.13. Sud(lro~;u~t"m::J:~e USe' of !'1m ftm:li"pe:l:'spedi'l,!'~c5, $ince ~ad! ,o[fen;; unique ~n,,,ighbt ~.Ii~() the sa.meis:S:lie.

14. AppWred and iLiuic.il. SOdQ.t9~rapp.ly tlhe d:~5t.ipH]le or flocinlogrtothe !Ou~.u6tllll ofpra,o["!ncal :proM.erns in~]I':lli::ial1 b~I:!<'i'\l:itn and o[g:timI;t;]t!,()i:ls:, ]n corrl'n(:!lt, baSk :5od.li!l'logy .I!! soq(]!logi.c<lli[lql,ljry that ~ks on.1y a deep€:1' l-no'w.led!g.e of !]1)f' fundamrnlm!aspec:bl: of :l~J[:'l~.p!h,e:[J(]mE'1'la.

1.5, Th:is t~'XthoClik makes use of the sociologicaL ,i:waJg~l'l.<lti,oj]. by shawi.ng the{Ji[y in. p:ractice and in current .res~;;tn:h; bry tbiunking g~obaU¥;. hy fo.cl,]s,i.ng on the $:igttifk~.nce of social i:[JIItoiIJIIJj~ity; by spl?abng Ol!cm,s.-!:i rac~~ge.[Id~l.;3Jnd n~ligl(m:s nOlLmdar:ie:s;amd by hi¥\!h.lightlJl1.g !Oocia.i pOlk,. aroi:.lnd [he wu.rkl.

2, 'V\1fia~ are t.he malliFe,o;.t mtl.d l:l~enl fu:ndiul1.s of :11. helllth d:1..I.b?

3, How dO[1',<;fne meed]!II'l.d:i~.e tha t is disp~ared ill. 11 ~tIiy .o;;lot,e [e~,alte[() :i~,!,]e:!i, of race, class, a!1l.d g~nd,~r?

Hjleal·iI:~pei A [;onstruct or mo(le~ Torevaluaung spe'r::HillJ C;:3:9,e$ .. (,ltD} ~nlil\erlillc.ti~llIist perspe;ll:ijve A soclG1logka~ a.PPWoOBtC:h t!hat g~ner<lin£!B§ ai)outeveryo,e'li forms of soci:3i~ ifl~er8.Gtion if] md:er to e:l:.plaifl g'otiet)" aSB whore .. (:U5)

latent filnuion An uMcmsci:oLi5D,_r unintellidied fuM,tion Ahat m.ay refJeu hidden. purposes... (Vii)

M:aclID:s,o.ciolo,gy SociologicsI. rn'\i'e:3ti~8itllon tf!8iJt concentrates On l:3irgeiSc8ilepheno!lTi ena !D f entD.re c ivmzsti'On.s. (i2}

Manlfelit filn~tlon 11:11 open! stEl:~e d, '8 ilia [:onSoclo!J srum;ti<lH" t14 ~ MfficrGsoeiiIJmugy 30cio:logical ir'i\fe!5tJigetion. tn6l~ stresses the stud'{ of smail groups .• often UtWlhIgh e.;r.;periJrien'~a,t meaIlS .• {.13)

Natul1,amscielllc;e file study ~f the JIl!Ii~Sic;ai 'f"eature:s: ~f natlJn~ alru~ tile ways. iil WhiC,1l the}' imerili~t andl I::han:ge •. (5~

N0~vell[;tiJil'Ill clooU'lmunlUc:~'IotliOinihe sending!Df lIl:ie's,g8i~es: ttlrou,gh U"!iB use of ,gi8'stures.lalc:la.l ,r::" press.!,o ns. :3ind: po stures .. (1!5,)

Sclenloe 'the I:lody of knmnledige ,o!bt;allned by methodiS, Jbi31£~,d Oil systematic ob:se,rvation. (5 ~

SlIcI::!11 eapital The coUectil.!'e ben.e:ifiiti: of social net!.!(mks. wti'lid'l aJm built on reciproc8J~ lItis t. (1.3)

S,dcitll mn:~qilllll'lliity A lc:oF;HilIth:li'l illwh ith mem bersof sod~ty iJ!ave diffE:rin,~; ii3imoldrarso( V'eal~il,. P'~8'stige:! o.r power. (1:~)

SlIci~1 lic;~e,n,c:e ihestudy o:f th,eiSocial f:eattl,res of h~llfIa:ru:s a,n,d the W8ys 1.1'1 wh iclt! they i'nte ract a rud change. (6l

S,dcillllogj:c;al! im!lglfn31i;lon All aWarel!1ess of Hi:e r'E)La'~ions'hi~ i),etweeln alf~ i rndiVid'u81: ,an~ the 'W idel' is,~:IGiet.y, I]othtoday a,n,d irqti1e p:3 st, ~5l,

SlIdlilagy ThBsc~el'l!tifi,c: study 01 sodal oen,s",i;pr ana: nLl!lTi:3ln gr'b,UP;S!. (5) TlrueQo,r:f In !S(IGiOlogy, <i s~t of =' .. ~at:8mel'lb, :l:h8t seeks toe,xplain prob;lle'ms., adiolns, or behiav~o.r. (S)

ve,st:e:IJelll Th,e Glemaln· w,o,rd Fc'Or • ~ 11 o'Bfs'l;a n,d ifl1g· :Of "i'llIsig)ht"; II sea1Il stress 1:h'e' rr'I.eed 'lor sodo~ogis1t5 to 'take i:nt'csC)C:OWI1E the: subject~ve

me,aning:;; people a:ttachlCl '~hei,r 8c:1:~OI'lS. (1m ,23

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[lmpanf:es.2[1][1

1.lIllndellSt8l:i.~ling Slll:iillll}~~ ilrext

1.2"" W~~hiirlJ sm::illlog1, iI~llI) is a s~l of Sitme:lJ!en~ th'Bt.~gjEllfiJI '1lG ~]alt~ PllJbt:Bm~; S Gliom:s, or tlBihalj'ior,

:1,3. lin 's IillierilrcM (i[ Ilhe :,mien ces, sOD]olll!lr WilS the' "!l1UeBfl1 I' alm~ ~~ pra:~~ili[mflil:& WBflll HsC!Tenvilt~p neSl&:

Schaefer: :So~ioIIDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

1., SbcilJlo,~ ~s,

31" io'BTf n!lrmfll!' [PI ~D[],pe,

b" !;lln~e~me!!! witMwJ:!,jlt u,ne ~PJ,Jji'lf,iduSI~drOE:~DJ d@~ not go. ~"the sil'S!1;m ail!;: .strLid~ !IIr~U~~ia,~ b~m,jl"'ioLBnd ~IU main !lI'j:lUIf}S,

dOl alii aWSlren,eii!s, of1h:E ,rela~omcship tleiMlillill ElI!'II il1d~'o'[dlua~ · a nlii the wider s(J~iel~.

2:,. Which ~FUie 1!)1:lowilJg.lih~m,l';e'rn intr,oduced~be ~(jln~>ept ,oflhe s(lcio,logicsl


,3., Eli1'1iile Du~kheim b, M8~. Weile,[

C'" K.llrl MaD

dl. C. WIiEliut Mi lls

3. Elil'llle Durtkh~itn IS reSBB rth ~!i1 'sui:l;:jrl'e s ugge.!lte·D'UJa~

31. pe[]lpl:e wi~h Ir,eili,gio,us ,affilliiations Iha!!! !3 h~~her suu@lde' rate~l!i;!ln thQSle who y,l13'[e !JIn:affil[!liB.m.

b, sUfDi'de' Ilii3tes seemedi l'Il be liiieJber iiml !!Inn I"lE g:f CI~s ~e' man [mtilm::s Iltws:r ,alii di re!,roli!JJtiiofi.

c. ~i~i"i8irns ~l';: more 1j'I(€ly '~ ~1;.:e~iBir li'lle:~ thSllTh so!!dj~l'S, d., sUfDi'de'lis a S(Jil[tElr)! set, U pn;:ll3Jl.e<[I 'lo grou Il lire"

,4. M.~ 1,!\fetJ.e.r~l!Iii1lht 11 is ~nudEl'mt~ thall they sh,o,u IlllllmplO)' whiclill IJf ~Me:ml!lI;!!Nin:g

in U1eir inl:ellllcl1fJa~ ""edt? ,31. ,a!'lomie

b, ~El.rs~!lhel'l

Gl.,~Me: socioiogics'l iliTl B:gim'Bti{l1l dI., lI1Ii.l::rroIiociolog~

S,. R\ob eft M'e'fl\Dn'scontr:ihwtio.ms to socio lo~~ iml:luClie 3. suc~ssfull~ comibining [heory··a,nd rese.81IiI:rnl.

b. prodlucing-anlie0l)' that is on'B of Ul;I;! m !lSlt rreCluently cited iB:i:planaoon:s o~ deviant Ib 8h~'il,i)io~.

C" ·'1flI a~mpl to brli:l,!ll macm-!l!l"1.fe:1 and mi~m·~e'lfellln!llys;es tllgether. ~.alil oftlite alb O!;,EI

6,. Whlch sil!Cli()!~gjs-tmi;ldie la IiTlc:;ljor ,contribl!ll~o n to sociE:ty tlil!I'Q_UI~h IJ~~ ifl!!·dlBpth

~tuJd!ilt:l!llf'wrtlB'n life-, irn;c~ud ing tlotlil Blia(:ks ElIlild Wlhii~? a. W. E. B. DuBoi\)

iii. R!o:tJEiI'l; Me!:W1rn

e.Augu:;,te C:ol'l1'te

iii. ChaIreS, fillr~!i1 COIJ~Br

'1,. ln th.8 IlalEe 19~M esntu IT. tlefolr,e th,s t~JlifI femiJ;fiSl vfrrw cowll d! 8"'8'11 bs .coiimed,

thB ide&~ blllh iod th is majorthie~retic8!ta ppwa,ch allP~8lred inEbe Writi~lgs of 3. Karl: Miln:,

III" Idsl WBIII~· t:llIrnel'l

C" Gh,Blrll:i~ lilorlmli Co(]I~. 111" PiBlrl!!! Boun:![BIfJJ.

8 Tb~M!ing w\S)Jcie'tys.li SI nving I)rgtiI_lJiIl~m;] in t'i'h~ll;ih each part of tae lJirs,~i'ni:'lm

comMil;lutu t~ its" slir~i;vali is lEI Ireftieoi!j!;l1Th !;If lI.'hii,'(:h tlilliN:)retiC<!l11 pe!rlllle~ti ... e? a, the runctiol'l18,ljst 1~.~llS{p,e~ti\'e

b. the Il;![]ntili~ p~l!lll1ecti ... e

Iii" the r~lIT:rilJilist 1P:E:1\i:~."cti\':e

d. !fI:Je inte'raI::Eif)nis~ PBf¥;PIl~:~

9. '1<8 rI M81X'~Hl\iew oh~e s~rtI,ggllB betwee:1l :social classes il(:fS!l~red lohe


a, rmllc~ioIil18ImS~ Ipers:p 8il:ti\'e. 11" conllict perrspec~i~·e.

e, in't:e18 cliio n ist pe:mp'ect~ve, (I" drilililila~tJ:r,grca.li3lPp'ro8 c~.

,1:IlI. Er~in g GlJftinmlln~, d ~tm.atUirgitlil a~~lUiI~M, wh i~M POlstl!l'laresl that rJllil1ple piflBse!U oEl:rIlain 'B~Pllcts of their pernumil!,i~e:~ I,!,lrnlilBI IJtlscurilil:g Ilther' ,B~P sets, ~~ iI d'BriiW!lti"'B IDifwhat IimBU(jiF UIB 0 rifltics'! pempeq::ti",8?

a, thill ru",;:~mlll3Jl~SlIP efS(p El~ti ... e

lfI"thil ~ntllict p€lrnll~~iti"'El'

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ii1"thil mtara Glion i51 pe'r'5ipflmirre

~1iTl1rr:I i:graJtill n in the YOlUling lilla.tiO:n,

116. SQ.c[[I!IIJg)isl . .Max \'l~lJll:r coinBldlUle: t~rm . . in ffifl3'mlillg to i3r<clmst;rIll~~ er me d'e~!if;lal 'SIl[\lflS aaa 1m essu ring rot! ilgai~~

'I.Ihi!;:lTIr·~ici:lllll ~ase~ Ean be ilwl,ua!ecL

::1.,'1'. In T~~ OfllfflmUI'IJsJ Ma'''i~s~[1\ . Illnd . _

peOlllle who IMave no reSQII~eS, other tlii'sn tlilIeir !alJm (tlilll Ilro!lBit,;lrjat) s!lmuld! unite' to '~i!:iJv~ folfUle: ~rtihl'l'l.l [If ca~itaJ[jsl mcie~$.

:1,8,. , an ilalrl,~ 'e'I'rH3~e ,stlcio'lo~ist ~okluJ:ld~dldilllf!lrnill!l'!l Cliiicago Mttle,rnE;:I~t i:ro'US'll csned Hu!1 Hmms· ,Ellmd also trid tOt

esWllfiS:h ,(3 jIlI;!B'mil!B I:lDLIlrI: s.ystem_

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Ma!", f'SJlUlclll!l.~J o:c: ::!Il.l~UU8'UJ en ~~we~~'o' aU'Elf 15'1' i'S1~]IU:lI4:l!lp~rJ.:! 'XilS~ IJIB\lI iT: :alll.!il ~1E!~p!En :J:apulaill§;.l!,aqJiilH ~1\:F18:.!'W!lJ8:V1j+'E!~IJI8H ,vE ~a~lJiI!qJ <lJis!llFIn1i EI ~,!;JIla:Lfl Zl :~~ew'3lls~s n :[P;~ Ol ~,[q) Ei :{Il) a: ~(q) 1. :(8) 9 :(!J~ ~ :fill) tv ::(Q}~ :{IP) ~*'.lll SJ'~Nisw'o'

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Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

Sociological Research

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" Long a :subter~:alnl:1an topic. th~ deli'berate, nonSluh~iidall destmetlon of one'S OWIlI body USSU'E!! ,@merged fmm ob&C:iIjI~ity in the U'1'90s and be~lIllto5:pread d~;alffiat~ ical'lj(. .... AI~hou.gh a ra1nge ~ff IJghavior:s may be COIl· skier€dI gelf·.injuriOU5, .... !;We foc,us here on , .. , • 5el~cmtilng, burning, brcmdiif!lg, 5crarehill\g,. pi'cking at skiin or reopening wmH'llds, biil:illig, head bariljgjng, [hair p~lling {tll;ch o~i Illo:maniial}, h'iU:ing (wi~h a ha mmer Of o1tti,grr object). and bone brea ~i:ng.

Th!is Bnaliysis draws 0;11 eighty iin-d,eptll :illlloorviews conducted in pew- 80mJ anld on the telephollll€ .. PartiiCilpanrtBt'alnged in ag,® fmm sixteen to their mid-fifties, wiith more women (sixty-five) then mlBfill (flif\:eenl" I'manly all CaJucasi'an.

In addiition, Degill'llillill1g i:1"I 2001-2002" we begpin to explore the W@b s;i~es and plLIbllic pos.tirllgs of

8€l:lf-injuINHS. We jioill'led 5!13''I.!'E!rall hllit:emet self -inj I!Jlry gfOUI ps as o\l'€:rt.reseaN:he~s afl d became active participants in groI:JIP discussluns, Because ofJU1e imima~e natlIuB of virtl!Jlall oommUWlication ... ,. wemrmed sgoor,~1 deep (lind enldl[Jlring welatiio'l1- shlps with people ~n diferellit friendshlp ci:rc:l,@s~hat lasted for y€iaJrS" arid 'We discussed wiitih people the teaIWIFl(:3S ofl:heiir om.imlary lives and ra Illiedl arollJlnd them dl!Jlring it!hB'ir ma'l1Y c:rises. We WI) rked, jN,itnl others, on the diffiiclLillije$ of .su,pporttiing 1}E!oplle wl'lo~"ere diisembodied and (Hst~mt log.e-their w:itllJ them, we lesmed to discem 'the seriousness Q.f people's suiddall threats, theiir claims of abstinenGe, tthei,r prns€~ntaNon of different personas IlJlnder diifter'@fililt pseudQnyms ,ir! diiH!8r·emrl: g)nups"

and~he cons.eqLleniC€!S offftame ·walrs. We· Inet~'l.!I()rk€d~h~lOugh bullle~ilill boards! MyS:pace~ andNle hunldreds of se:lf-i,njlmy-'~ellatedl W@O Us.enet support gmlLlp!S.

We ' " .rou nd ;a Wowing lllIumlber ,or s~~f:-l FljU ~rs who ibelcmgjlld to alte'mative youth su.bcultiLIlres. Some reponed that they hiuf!lg out w:itml "'bhe wrorilg. crowd" and acted out or wer€ d~awlill lilll110 GOlLIll'litE!~culitUirall g)roups. such as Gloti1S" They W@~g rlJihiilists who delighted ln shOll1i'~ng, off by blluning or cuttifllg,~h!em5eilws. Natali!8, a twent,r-two-y,ear;.old college student, reflected back on her ju nlor hiign scho[]lllf'nh~~nds:

fjig~th ~l'3dB was th~ pilint art whiGh I r,e:llll~ sta'rtetlg,ett.iEl$ soGi~hl~, identlf:liing witml this anterruatiiliiE! !l.l.Ib(:t.I~une. It wasn't li:ke I hu'mg U1it wirth t~e IreaiKs <ll1'dthe retE!CTI;, and, Ii.Ire, Ul:E!iJlltC8!Sts. II defunitely was il1l the sw tlDru Iture of~he s~oners ami tine plmks, amd we IIl!Jmg IIlwt oml the bJidge clnd I slarted :smoki'mg am.ddilliing dm,g~ arun, rum, lIUhal pillunt II ass~~iartl;ld with more 'Poflll~le \'j'ho allsQI hurUhemnseill€s.

Some self-injiLIlrerSi roOlt.ed their unmlapP'iness 'inJ peer soc.!al 5!i'l:llJlatlons •. Racheil, a itwenity-th:re!E!-YEtar-oldi ,coillege stl!Jldefil[ with an :inltact, ha ppyfra m Illy; b:1 amed her f;ri'@nds.ifl)r drilli filg her to self-injlure:

It happem.ed !he first HfiIlEl I,!,I~en my gmujl! turmed: agains;t mnill f'of!>Omnl! ~son, TliiB'l aliernated me [or <II weeik ruaP.glllt, '!hey started rumers abiJI!Jt Iililil .. I didn't go IIIl .m~ actMtiesilmt Wllek ;andl I d[dn't

Smn,t rCl'wrtul dtCl.,t they h!:.utg OlU' witJi utAe nrl'ong crowdjj' t:uul,QCfed out 01' 'Were ,drawn infO ,c,t.nmt.!3j·G~dtural grn'NJ)"o; such {'U~ goth.'i'. 'Ihey tUltl'e' n(Jiilist.~ tvlto de Ugh t,ed il1 _,dw1.ving (~flh'Y l)1,u'ntng 0'1' Ctttt£t1g :themsdults.,

8'len go to schooL I: wscs; .!>Il' sao, i~ just sJtarled, II was cryimg ami sn upset aad couldn't s.top ,cft}'[ru~;alldl II jl:ld ~D0k a [aat ham~r, andlhafs how HI. started,

This description. of the covert practice of self-.injury is taken from Patricia Adler and 'Peter Adler':sexten.s[v,e research QIJ the tittle-known behavior and its social m]d.e~F]:m:u.ing~. Over a sixyear period, the Adlers ennducted ]eFlgthy~ emo:tionaUy intense ]ntel:vi,ews with self-injurers, hemming friends wilthm<lIlY; T!.1ey met othersin virtual space> through Internet-based .'lUp]parI: g;mups, and. WebJPo>st:i:ngs. ~~ Rather than remaining :strictly detached from OlJH su.bj'ectts, webecame involved in. their lives, helping, them and givingvnice to their experiences and belfefs,' the Adl.ers admit (2007:542).

The .Adlen" worK. on :se:lf-i~.lIjmyreflecl:s all three majtlJ!' socie.logical approaches, For self-injurers, whor<lu:ly 'COIJae into contactwith othershk.e themselves, the Internet fimctiens as 031. :2a:nneeting place .. B. refuge from ~fueir se1f-imJP osed soda] isol:at.io:n ..

Ma!I1Y peoplle con~inu~d self-illljiurlrlig,. 'EliitheT C"ollllijnuQllJlsly or iinre,rmittently, into .aldlLllt~hood. ContJa:ry to ~i;l;nt ~n"lwlledge,. :rol!,llgJ1:ly tWQi~,tlliirdis of the ''''regllI1ars'' we enC(Dl.llillternd on th e lntemst welPEl ollder than ~nty-fi\!'€, a mi half wem oldlertihan tmlirty..;11ive.,. "'" "

{P; Adler ;;ilia P: AlIl'er .2007::537:"538', 54:0, 541,. :544, 54:5,547) Mdlt!Dnl]~ 1~'lmIllMlff.n aM~t thhs ;{!\!l~~rpt een Il~ IO:ll~dI en UlIlIl OmDM, UNllmifliji C~Il'tQr ~t WWWJl'I~i19,'~DIlI! ;;;~11aJ8jon2ie,

As oo.m:Bi!ct thfloristswould point out. their unconrentional behaviorD]]<II:rglm:i.l.i.zes 1th.en:1l,prevenli:ng them &0]]] recei,ving a&~:ist,u:u:;e even whentl.!ey would welcome it. Interaetiendsts would. recognize the critical nature of self-injurers' interpersonal contacts., in ]person and often enline.

Though miUl¥ people wnuld liketoignore the phenomenon of self- injury" believing that those who practice it win eventually "g;mw out ef i~>'" the AdJe:rs,:'lJesea:t"Ch allows us tIl cnnsider it in telligently and scientificall y,withirll In.e social context. Se,]f:.. injurers, the Adlers found, me a. diverse gwup. whose behavior is cnefully planned and. considered. Su:rp.risiI!tg].y~ members, eften hegintn injlllIe Ihenrselves in the eompanyef othee s rather than in secret, Tl.'ley have recently hegu]] -~o coalesce asa subculture ( 2007:559-560).,


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

Taken as a whole, the Adlers' wOI.k illustrates the e1L1QnnOl,].S breadth orflill.1efi.dd of soc.i.ology;. Over the cnurse of their careers, "Patricia Adler and Peter AdJier if 1991, 1993" ] 998. 20[)4, 2008b) have pll1blished studies of college athletes illicit d.Iug traffid;:el~s" preadolescent 'peer grou:p:s, and resertworkers in Hawaii. Their cnorGe of self-injurers as their Iatest :subject indicates the tremendous freedom sodoRogists, haveto explore and. open up new topics of inquiry,

Effective sociologic:al research am. be qlllite thoug~].t -p]\ovo1ring.

It may suggestmiillly new qJm:,stions that require further :study; sudr 3S why we make assurnptinns abcut people w:11Oo 'engi!lg.e ina.twical behaviorslike selt-injury .. In OOU1Je casescather than m:ising additional qjuestions~ <II stndywill simply confirm previousbeliefs and firldi:ng:s., Suciolegical research can also have practies] al]p'phcatlo]],<;;. For instance, research results that disconfirm acceptedlbeliefs about marriage and the familyn:nay lead! to dhalJl.gesinplilbliJcpolicy,

This chapteewill examine the research IProc:es.s used in. COIlJi.ducting sociological studies, How do sociologistsge about setting mp a researchpmjecti And how do they ensure that the results of

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the research are relii.<lblJe andaceurate! Can they car.ry out their research withoet violating the tights of those they stl!1dy?'

we. willfirstleekatthe st,eJ's that makeup the scientificmethed used in research, Them we w:illltake <I. look atvarieus techniqiIJ.es commonlyused in. sociol.og~c2ill.res.em:-ch> suchas experiments, oh .. ervaticms, and sunrey s, We will ]J<liy partie mar attenrioa to the ethical d1IDi.en,ges soci.ologl:sts face in stud.ying human beha.v:im" and to the debateraised hy Max: Weber's call {Q[' «valllle neutrality" in social science research, 'Wewilll also examine feminist methodologyand. the mle:oocfuno~ogy :pEays in research 'today. Though sodclogicalresearchers can focus 'on a.ny number of ~~ubjects>iuthis chapter we will concentrate OnEWQ inparticulan du;;: relalt~O:[JJshi:p of education to income and the controversial sl!1.bject (:if hUlTIS1l11 sexuality, The Social Po~i.cy section that doses the' ehaptee considers the difficulties <mel the chaJJ'eng,es in researching human seX:I!];a1itty:

\'V'harleve:r the ;UJeR of sodo~ogj,ca]. inquiry and whatever the perspective of the sociologis:t-whetlh,e:r functionalist, conflict, feminist" interactio.nist, or any other- -fhere is one erueia] requiremene imaginative, responsible research that. meets the highest scientific and ethical standards,

W hat Is the Scientific Method?

L i~.e ;<,1 . .1 of us, :5. ~cio.l,~.gi.'5.~s .. are ~D.treres~e.d il.'.' the. c.:e~t.·.r.',~. que. ,8.hom of OIIH trme, Is the family fa.nmg ap:!!.l"t? Why 1:'> there

so much crime in the United St<!tei'>.t Is the world f~.milJlg behind inits a.1bib1Ly~o feed! <I. growing po:pu]attio.n? Such issues ooncem most people. whether or notthey have academic training, However; unlikethe typical dtizoen> the sociologist has CII cnmmitment tnuse the sde:IIIUfi.cmeH-Uiod in studying society, The scientific method is ill systematic, organized series (If steps that ensures maximum objectivity andconsistency in researchinga problem.

.Many 'Of U$ 1IIriU never ac;tlllally conduct scientific research, \!Vhf, then, is It: important that we understand. the scientific methodi The answer isthst it prays a major role in the workings, of nur snciety, Residents of the United States, arecnnstantly 1L. .~. ded ·tL ("it t ~; "~ tt "A· tele .. t nomeart ,eu WI.u rae S OI ,U.a ia, n . e evtsinn news rep0l:

informs us that "one in. everytwo marriages in this country I1JOW ends in djvome:; yet Chapter l4" will show that thiaaseertionis based on misleading statistics. Almm't daily" adyertisers cite supposedJ.:.y s,ciJe]l[ific studies to .]J~'O've that their products ale superim. Such claims maybe accurate or exaggerated, We em better evaluate such infcrmation-c-and will] not be fooled so l;asiAy--if we are &i.mUia:r with the standards of sci!e'ntilic research, These standards are quite stringent, and they demand. as strict adherence as possible.

The scientific methodrequires precise prepaeatina In developing usefulreseaech, Otherwise, the research data colIectedmay not prove accurate, S.odotogists and. otherresearchers £oUow five basic steps in the seienrificmethod; ([) defin]llg the preblem, (2.) reviewing theliterature, {3 }£ormul~ati.~l\g the hypoth.e..s~ifs> (4) selecting the research design and then collecting and analyzing data, ~md (5) developing~Jf coaclusien {Fig[~Ie 2-1 ),We'll use an <IChli1.I.exaa11.jp]le" tnillustrate theworkulgs of the scientific method,


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1iI!IIII&I!r·chl,d:eill,igllil Collli!ct ill1da,nady~@ data

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~d@<l~ror f'tllrthill!lI" JllIi!i!:,lIiiIJllC!h

Ihe &el,elmtilic: rnethed [I~~OWS 5'[UJiol'()gists to objectively a~],d !ogically e'i!i1IIu.ate title data they c[J,I.I:ect.TIl:eilr finditlllg5 (!illn sl:Jggt!csJtide1l:E forfurUileJ~ SQ(lHOI:ogic<lJ1 ffiS8al~'i::h.

Defining the Problem

Does it .:par'" to g:o~oco,[l.egd Some' people make great sacrifires and work hardto get a college ed.ucat:i.oIL Parents lbmmw [1I10ner ['Or dleir d1i1dlrerrs tuition, Stndentswork part-ti:rnejobi5 or even takefull-time ]Joc'iiti.omwhie alttetlding ,eve.nmg orweekend classes, Does it pay om ALe tberemonetary returns for getting that degree?

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Tbefirst step in any research project is to state ;f:1JS clearly as possible what you hope tnineestigare=-that is, defi,~e the ptwiblC~]1:, In this lnstanee.we alee interestedin kl.low]:ng .how 5(Jm01-· ingrelates to income, 1A'e want tefind ou!1t the earnings of people with different levels of fOFI'l1a] schonling.

Ea§~.y on, any social science researchermust developan opeKational definirion of each concept being studied . .An opeT'at:i!llHla]]. dcfmition is an explanation of <III. abstract.concep! that is specific enough to aUow a researcherto assess the concept, f10r example, a :sociologist interested in status m:ight me membership in exclusive 6(,)(;1;a1 dubs asan operationel definition of status, Someone studying prejudice might consider a person's unwillingness to hire orr work. witbm!e:mb ers ofn],m.m:ity groups as all operational defin.ltion otprejuctiGe, In Olin example, we need! to develop two operarional definitions-c-education and earnings-c-in orderto studywhether it pays 10 getan adlwnc:ed educational degree. We".U define ecir,loon.of] as the number of year'S of schooling a pelf~ SOl], has achieved and ,e~m£r~g:s as theincome 3. person reports haVIIllg received in. the past ye:a:~~;

.[nitiaHy;. we will take a functionalist perspective (although we may end. up .m.mrpomt:ing other approaches), We wi]] m~gue that npportunities for mnre earning power are relatedtolevel of sch.oo].i.ng and that sehoolsprepare students for e]],1!.ploYJl],ent.

Revi:ewing the Literature

By conducting a review ofthelitemtun}--l~re'lf~:nt ~cho.la.dy studies and ieformarion-c-researchers refine the problem under study, ,(lar.i:fy possible tecberiquesto be used .in collecrting data, and eliminate or reduce avoidable mistakes, In our example, we would examine .in:£m:ma.t10n a.bout the salaries for different occupatioas, We would see if jobs that reqoire I11.ore academic tHI]uing <Il1e better rewarded. It would alsobe apprnpriate to Ieview other studies 011 the relatinnship 'between education and. moome,

1'11e review of the literature would SiOO!] tell us that many other factors besides years of schooling influence esrning po~enti.at Porexample, we would. learn that the children, of rich parents are more likely to go to oonege [han those from modest backgrounds, sowe Il1.i.gbt consider the pmsihilirty that the same parents milly later help their children. to secrtre betterpaying jobs.

We might also look at macro-level data" such as state-by-state comparisons ofincome and edueationalleeela.In mae macro-level study based on census data, researchers found tin atin stateswhose residents have a relatively high levd. of ed ucation, household income levels are high as well (FiguJr-e 2-2). This finding suggests Ifhalit SCh(}Q~jllg may well be related toincome, thOll.lgh .it does not speakto the micro- level relationship we are interested in. Thatis w,~ want 'to know whether i11:cii'I!'id:uals whoare well. educatedare also well paid,

Formulating the Hypothesis

Alter reviewing ead:i!e:r research and drawing o.n. the centributions of socio]o:gical theorists, the researchers may then. Jo:rrrnl:lCl te :the: hypotfu::sis:. A ,1I.ypothJesis is <I. speculative statement 3bm.lt ~~]e relatinnship between tVIfO ormnre factors known asvariables, ll1C:oil]i]!e" religion, oD:;:upati:on,.and gend!e:r all1.al1 s,ene aswria:ble.s :in CII.sttUQy. 'We can define a.v<l1ri;able a~ a JJlleasl,Irab]e trait OF characteristic that is Sl!1bjiec:t to chm.J:ge under diKelie:rrtt nmditiom ••

Researebers wbo formulate iii. hypothesis gene~."a[Jy must suggest how one aspect of human behavior: Influences or af[e·cls another. The -v:a6a.ble hypotllIe.sizedto eause or in:i1IJLenceannther is. caUi:G th!eindependentvalt'mali:d.e. The second variable is termed the d.epe'll!dmt vliitiaJhle because its action dllpends on the influence of the independent va.Fiable .. In other words. tnere,'>e<lH::her be]:ievestl1.att the independentvar.iable predicts or G3Il;llSeS ch ange in the dep endent varr<lbh:. For e:xalup]e. <I. researcher in sociology-might anticipate that the availability of affordable housing {the independent variable, x) !iI.ffeds the level. of home lessnessin 11 wrnnaunity (the dependent variable, y) ..

Om' Jl.wotbes;i,s is that the hi:gher one's educational d.eg~,:ee, the moremoney one will. 'earn. The independent variable that "is to be measuredistheIevel of education .. The variable that is thoughtto depend. mil. it-lrnG.UEl1fe-I'llI1lst also be measured.

ldenti:fy:i.ng independerst and. dependeot variables is a caitical step in dmify'iI'lg cause-and-effect relationships, A~, shown in .Figme 2-) on p<l!ge 32; caDsiIJl~(]Igj.c involves the relatiunship between a condition or variable and a particular ,cunseq_lIlenoe1 with one event leading to the other, f er instancevbeing Jess int:egmted. i~]to society maybe di.fecd.y relatedto, or produce ;ill greater Ii~elil:wod of, suicide, Similarly, the time students spend reviewing material for <L quiz may he direrrly related. to, or produce a g:rea ter Iikelihoed of~. getting a hi.,gh some on the quiz,

A Q]['r-ell!itlOlll. exists when a change in one variable coin[idles with <I changein the other. Cnrredations are alJ]indimtion that c<lIilsality 111,ay be present; they d.,) not necessarily indicate causation. :Fm: example. data indicate that people who prefer to watch televised news pmgranu are less knowledgeable than those who readaewspepers and newsmagazmes, This eorrelation between p,eople'.s relative k[llowl.ed:ge and their ch.oioe Q1f news media seems to make sense, because it agrees with the common. beliefthat television dumbs dewnmformaticn, But the oo'ndati!OEl between the two variables is actually causedby ill. third variable, people's relative abilit.y to cnmprehend Large amouets ofirrfolFmati!tm. People withpoor .liead:ing sklJib are much rnore likely than othersto get theirnews (t!om television, while those who aremore educated or skilled turn more nften to the print media, Th.ongh television viewing; is correlated with lower news comprebeesson, then, it does not cause it. Sm;io~.ogis.ts seek to' idel]ti.±Y the ca~~$~l 1.i.]]:k between variables; the suspected causal Iink lS generally described in the 'hypothesis (Neuman 20(9).

Collecting and Analyzing Data

How do you. test a hypethesisto determine if it is supported OF r,e:futed? You .. needto ooUect infmn]ation. using o:n,e of the research designs described. bter in the chapter, Theresearch design guides the researcher in. collecting and analyzing data ..

SoJ,ectingthe' 8aOil'IlJ,e In most studies, social scientists must carefully select what is known as a sample. A ,sl!JllI!I.p1!e is a selection from 0'1. .I.a:r,ger population that is statistically representative of that pOPlIJa.tio.n. There are many kinds of samples, but the one social scientists llJ;se most frequently is the randora samp~e. In <II.nlfNlo:rn. sarup~e~ every member of a.IIl entirepQpmatio]] being studied. has: the same cfu:al].ce of being se~ected., Thus, if


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__ ...




High €!duc.atiol1J<lII€!'!.I~I! M~dilJm !;!d!darli(lI1J<lII~vtlll Low ~cliUC[}tiol1i.a~ :Iev@!






• ,1"1 i9lh hous~ljQkl iim co 1In@ M@dHl:Jm hous@t:iold i;lfimm~ Low heusehuld illlcomll':

NIJ!t!3.: D~I.~'ii fil)(! fiOt 2~Oi" Ctito.fFs: .~hr .I:iigll!ih:ll:MilU!li :I.I!H:lm<!ciiu·m/16'W edue atJnniL~ Icvds ,.~O! t'<! 29.,7 p~rr.elnlitllj] 24,,6, percent . .or t]JiCPOPill.l iihofi with ~. ~Q.~Ie;(l.e' degree, :rei>pectiyt.J.y;me<d.hl1il fur the entire l1UiQI~ w~.s 27'"5perCe!iL ~.niC(i·m.C::: d~.!:ii. are .2.f~04-:2{10tl, thn;~-'I'e .. :r ~¥t:r~gem~xl~:,l:l!Is_ C!!IliOfft; for h!g,h/nned.iu:m. ~:l!Idj]fl,tditi:tlrlJ~rr .. '" h.ol)l,~dlolJ. i I!lOOil!U e 1!:''I'dK, -l'!'er~S5 5,.200 ~itId S-4,5',50{l" t',espectivdy 'ilIiltiomt~ lnetli;~:~ L10lt~ch[lM ;i:nG[]m.1! W::l~ $50 ,'''{liD 20'lJo;l.

S~J.[!f~,,'s~AI]:I~fic.;ti1 CornHll.u.l!I.ilty· S~.~ ... e}' Ui08j TlIh~t:sR~ S02 arn(!R 1.9 0'_

II n~nE:lra~ ,. states \i'/i~h h~gh !;ldluc:atiOIlIi;! Ileved:s (top) al5lo fuJave h i_gh hll)U;5e~old lneo mes (botJIQm}.

researchers want to examine the opinions of people listed. in a city directnry (a bnoktbat, unlike the telephnae dj:redory) lists allhrruseholds], {bey might use a eomputer jo rando.n]ly select namesfrom file di:rectmy. The-results would coostimte a random sample. The advantage OfUSII'lg specialized sampling techniques

is that seciologists do notneed to' question e'yeryone in <I. population. (IgoO 2(07) ..

In. scme eases, 'the subjects researcherawant to StUdY<1IE: hard. to .identify. either because their activities me clandestine or because lists of suchpeople are nat readily available, How do


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-- .. > y

l!;!'!I~1 ():f ed Ulc8iljona! d@glr€!@

IDlilgr<!<fl ot lack of in~gratiQrn ln~Q· society

__ - __ """~... LiI!i@lihood of ~!dicid@

A'II1IilahiiMr~y of affmdal:lJ~ Ji'H:JiU sil1lgl

1P<lIr@rnt~' ch m·ch attenda nee

Ii m e S P@r1t pllt!p<lrillg fm,quliz

-----~)... P~rforrn 111m:€! 0111 qlliz


lihlibood' of (lhildreli1'~

11'1 C~i!1s,al ,logic an lliIidlHpemll:iIIHiilt variab~e (Dfteli! dles~llated by the syrntJl1l x) inflU·E!nc!E!S a dep:E!l"iderlit \lan!~ble (ofte!1IiI diesigllated as .1"):; thus,,;( ~elldls ta: y. f'orex$mple, pareliilts who @1tE;!nldl church reglilarliy :(x) are more likedy to hi@'Ii,e ilffiliidrel'l whQ are tlJhurch.~pe·r:s (y)., N10tiile tha~ the TIrnUwo, pairs I)f~ri!llbl;e5 i5Jrebl«!n frnm studies akeady deS{lifibedl in this tex:tlJook"

Tlflink .. about It

Ideflt:1fytwo orthree de,peno.ent '!.I'alri!~blles tlh~t mrght be

i1rrft uenC',ed :bytth is i I1deD end e nt Va!rio5llble: ri1i umb,e r of ,iii IIGQI1I·ol lc drinks ingested.

researchers create a sample of .illegill drug users, for instance, or of women whose husbands are' atleast l:(] years younger :lthan. Iiliey mre? In such.cases, researchers en.1JIP,J:oywhat are ca.neds11.ow~ ball or GONIt~l~;eUce samples-th.a[ is, they recruit participants llimugh. wnrd or ]]lIou1t.n or by posting notices 0:11 the Internet, ~th. tile help of special statistical techniques, researchers (<1.11 draw cnnclusiens from such nonrandcm samples,

[t is all!. teo ell!,')" to confuse the careful scientific techniques rued in Fepresen ta tive samj?i:ingwith the r!ml]]), na:mcienti/k polls. that receive muchmoremedia atteetion, For example, television viewers and radio listeners are often encouraged to e-mailtheir views 01.11 headlinenews or political contests, Such polls reflect DlotlJing r:J:lore than the views of those who happened. to see the ~e1evislon. prog;rn:rn {or .hem the radiobrnadcastl and tookthe time,p e:rhaps rut some cost, to .~~egist!;'r their opinions, Tbese diata. do not necessarily reflect (and indeed may distort) the views of ttne' broader population. Not .Everyone has access to a television

It seems 1ll00solflai:lle t01'l:5Sl[IImE! tllat tlhese (:olilimbiai Univers[1Jj g.raduareswill ea m mOire- in-Dome til an highl :S~h 001 grad LJ~~I;!S, BUll h,QW WQIUlldl YOI!I go 1'iI tiOlJft ~e5tin~, th at h,1)(ilu1liesis?

or mwo,u:n:ne tnwatch or listen to <I.progralTil, or the means and.l or mcfination to send e-mail, Similar problemsare raised hy the mail-b,adc questiormairea found in many magazines and by mall iJ1 tet1:.epts, in which shoppers a±1e' askedabout some issue, Even when these teclmiques include answers from tens of thousands ofpeop.le, theywill be fat 1!f':SS <\uGLU:!!It'e thana c<Il'e£ully selected representatise sample of ],5001.'iespondenK

Por the pl!1rpose.s of om research example. we w']ll use inforrna tion collected in the General Social. Survey (GSS). Since 1'972, the Natim'l<l] Opinion Research Center (NOlte) has conducted. this national survey 26 times.anost .[~CNltly in :2 0 OR. In this survey, administered in. both English and Spanish, a representative sample of the adult population is interviewed 0]] a variety of topics fO'r abou t one and. a. half hours .. The author of this book examined the responses of the 4,510 people interviewed concerning their ]!ev!el :of edu.caltion andincome •

. ~sufJTngVa'ljdif:r .aDd Reliability' The 5c1enti:6c:rne1iliod requires that research resultsb eboth valid and reliable. VaUdi.ty refers [0 the degree to which 11. measure or seele truly reflects the phenomenon under stud.y . .A valid measure of income depends an thee g<l.tb.erill1.g of accueate data, Various studies show that _lPeo~ p]e arereasonably accinatein repcrtingbow much mo.ney they earned in the most recent year. ]f a question is w]']Uen uncleerly, hewever, the resulting data might not be accurate • For example, respondents to an. unclear question about incomemight report their parents' or spouse's incomeinstead of their 'own. ReUabnUy refees to the extent to whid~. a measure produces consistent results, S-om!e ]J eople may not disclose aocurateinfetmatirm, but most do. ]n the General Social Survey. only 9pe:rce.nt of the res]p0Bdents refused tn g]v:e theirincome or indicated they did not know what their incomewas, That means 91 percent of tbe respondents g<lv,e their income, whichwe can. assume is H~asonably accurate (given their other responses about oecnpation and. years .in the labor force}.

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


Developing the Conclusion

Scientific studies, inclnding those eondncredby sociologists, do not aim tnanswer all] the questions that CiL11 be raised about <II particular subjiect Therefore, the cnnclusian. of a research :study represents both an end and a hegilIming. It termlna tes <L. specificphase of theinvestigation but should also gene rue .ideas for future shuiy.

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S'.POlFthJg .HYllot,'U:l'ses; in. nur example, we find that the data support om hypothesis: People witth moreformal schooling do earn. more money than others, TholSewiiJth ,;JI. high sehoul diploma earn more thanthose who failed to completehigh school, but these-with an associate's dleg,ree earnmore thanhigh school g:radma~es. The relationship continues throughnmre advanced levels of schoo1ing, sn that those with graduiilte degreesearn the most.

The relationship isnot perfect, however: Some people who dinp out of high school end up with high. incomes, wher-eas :sornewitb advanced. degrees earn modest incomes, as shown in Figmfe: 2-4,. A successful en trepreneur, for example •. mighta:uot .havemudl1l for]l]i3i] schooling].wh:i.le aholder of a doctnraremay choose to work. for a.1.mv-paying no.npIofitiJ'IstitliitiolJ]. Sociologists areinterested in both. the general. pattern that emerges from their data and exceptions to the pattern.

Sociological studies do not wways generate data that support the origina1h.ypothe~is .. Many times, ahfPothesi~ is refiJted~ and eesearchers il.III1s:tl"efmmllllate their concln-

SEOIJrS. Unexpected.results may alsolead sociologists to reexamine their methodology and .. make ebanges ill the research design.



_ S,60,ODO and' ov€!r· .. $40,ODO-59,999 _ $2.5,ODO-.39,999

$15,ODO-2.4)999 !LIllJdm' s 1 5,000


12% 14%.

SO[[rttC .Authol[ 's all alysi!!: .of General Social Sl)ney 1006 i:[I I- D8 ... i~, em: ul, 20'{II7.

IF.iflyctl!'J'o pereent of people ~'IIlt1l~1 hi~ school! diploma (lor less (left) E;!03,m IJlriiider $25,000 ;81 ye'1:I1F, while [J,I!'l~lI' 24 p,eNl€lI'It. earn $40,0.00 m mOI:e.llnJ contrast, 55 per>C€lilit of those wiU1 <1111 a5S~,(;late's degrree or ~igher (~g~t) earn MO',!DOO 011' mOire, while O'n~:f26 pe'MJent earn Jess thilJ!IlI $25,(100.

!Co.n'ifml~i,qg .mr· Othelf' I"'a'cfiOrs A[i~nh!'lo~ valliable is a factor that is held constant to lest the relative impact of an independent variable. For example, if researcherswanted to know how adults jnthe United States fed about restrictions on smoking in publicplaces, theYl<"I'1ould probably attempt ito LlSiE a. respondent's smoking behavior <IS a. eonrrnl variable, That is, how GO smoken versusnensnrokers feelabout smokiJlg inpublic p1;a1ce,s.? The researchers would compile separate statistics on how' smokers and nensmckers feel about antisrnoking regll]l3ittiQn~~.

OUr stmdiy ()If the ln6uenoe of edlucatio.n o:n income sugges:ts that not. everyone enjoys, equal educational oppmtunili.e$,a. disparity that is one of the causes of social inequality. Since education a1tectts. 031. pesson'sineome; we may wish to ciiI.ll. OID. the eonflictperspectiveto e:qJ:j.Qlie this topic .furtfuer. What impact does 3 peTmn's rna or genderha.Vle? ls <I. woman VIlith <I mUege·degr:ee~ikely toeaen <II~~ much. a~ s a man with similae schooli.ug? later in this textbook we will consider these other £actonand. variables, Thst is, we will examine the impact that education has. on income while controlling forvadalDies such as gender and. race,

use you r sac lolcgica I lmagil1'atlon

Whlat mllghit be tlts IBtmGts of a coillege ed !lIlcatiofi 011 sQci:ety asa whlule? T~in~. of some ,pooo.r:itia Ii eff1ed:s onme fami.ly,. go~mme·mrt, andthe eeono my.

·Think. about It

What kll!ltds of KrQQwledge ~nd skUls QQ peoplE! witl'r! i!'!~ associate's degree or tfiiigrhe'r pos.se:ss, 'IJOm'P~uledto th,Qse wuth a hrlgJl sc:hGoledlilGEI.tion or less? Why w,ould c:! m p~,[)yers va lu e those ki nds of Iknowlie~g~ and skms?

In Summary: The Scientific Method

Let us blf.iefly summerizethe :pmcess of the scientific method thrOlugh a review of the example, We defil'led 11' problem (tbe question of whether it pays tn get a higher educational degree). We n~vitl~ed th(J lit:emt~lrit (Qthe:[~ studies. of the rd.i!illtionship betlrveen education and income) and. form ula ted.a f1:ypothe$is (thehigh.er one's educational degree,l:he more money one will earra) .. We c;ollected.a:P'JJa I1nalyzed the dtim,n:n.iking sure the sample W<I;$representativeand tbe data were valid. and reliable, Finall.y, we declld~ op'?d tf~e: C~,~d~lSiorl,: The data do support our hypothesis about the influence of education on income,

Major Reseairch Designs

An important aspect 'of :soci!O:~og;i.Gll research us deciding how 10 collect the data, Aresea1!"rn. des~g[J. is a detailed plan or method for obtaining data scuen.tificaUy; Selection of areseareh design is often based on the theories and hypotheses the researcher starts 'With (Merton 1948). The choice reqlllire$ creati.vityandingenuity], because it directi.yinHlIl!enoes boththe cost of theproject and. fhe' amount of time needed to cellect the data. Research designs that sociologists r,e-guJa:£1iy useto generate data include sUEveys" observation] experimen ts, and e:xistl.ng SOUTe!ts.


AI:m.ost all ofua have responded jn S,lJIl:yey.'l of Oine kind or another, We [nary have been askedwhat l:ind of detergent we use.which pte..sidential candidate we intendto vote fnr, orwhat om favorite television. program i s, A rsurvey is a study; gen.eJfaUy ]1'1. the form of animerview orqlll.estronnaire, that provides



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1ihink alb out I.t

WharTI'WIo!LIld ,(;Crlsfi1:iLllt@El I,~ss biased qUjes,ti~n fora survey,olFllsmoking,?

[eSeudCH:~TI> witb information ;alhout how people think and act Among the 'United States' best-known surveys of opinion are the Gallup' poll and the Harris poll, As a111ymle whowatrhestbe news during presidential campaigns knows, these pulls have become a staple (If political life.

~]'e:[Q you. think of surveys, YUill nUIl.f recal] seeing~.nany person-on-the-street interviews on lecal television news shows, Altheugh such interviews can be highly entertaiuieg, they are not. necessarily an accurate iadicaticn of public opinion, .. First" ttbey renect the opinions of onlythose people who b<tJlpe~lI to be at acertain location, Such a sample canbe biasedin favor of oammuters, middle-class shoppers, or fu.c1rmyworker.s.. depending on which street or area the newspeople select, Second, television interviews tendto attract outgning peop,je who are willing to appear 001 the <li.ir,wfui.~elilelrfri.:gl1te]] away otbers who m.ay [eel intimidated. by a camera, As we've seen, ·ill. su.rveyn:ulllst be based on precise, representative sam.plixlg if it is ito genninely reflect a broad range ofthe pO]JuJatio["l,. Bp,x 2:-] describes the challenges of 1J00'lciucti:ng a public opinion ~1Il.vey over the 1te1epho.ne.

ln preparingto mnd.llKt a survey, sociolegistsmustnot oOn])" develop representative samples; they nrust exercise great care in the. wording of ques-tioR5ic. An effective :survey questism mustbe simplesnd clear enough far people to understand.It must also be specific enough so lilhat there are .no problems ~n] .i:nte:rp:ret'ing; the results, Open-ended. questions ("'\\'I:l':!!.t do yo III think of ~hep]1oglEif[mm:i:l.]g o,n ed ucationaltelevisi . .cm?")o ilill1J"lt

be mFefully phrased 1:0 solicit the type of infoenaattion desired. Surveys can be indispensable sources of infosmation, but only if the sampling is done ~'.fDped.y and the questions are worded aecurarely and without bias,

There aretwo main forms of the survey: tthe'in~el'riew~ in. which a researcher obtains ]UfOID]]atio[l through .. face-to- face or jelephone questioning, and the qllle'5Uonna:i.re, in w.h.ich

responserate because people find itmore diffi!Cln.hto tuen dOWIl a. personal request Dm an interview than 10 throwaway a written qjUestiOih:naire, TIn addition, a skillful interviewer can go beyond writtenqursticns and.p.mbe for a subject's lHlldedying feeling;; and. reasons, On the other hand, questionnaireshaee the advantage ofbein.g cheaper, ,e~'ipeda]Jy ill large sample s,

Why do peoplelrave s"ex? A ~tmi.gbtfDrw:u:d. question, hutun lil recently Tardy ]IIvlestig;a~ed scie:rrti:l1c,dly, despite its s.:ign]fiGlnc.e to [p1)1bHc health, marital caunseling, and c;ri:miuology. In a study published in 20U7,R1esearcbers interviewed Heady 2.0(lO undergradLllal:es at the Uni.Y1e:rtsil:y of Texas at Allls,tin. Th develop the question for tile interview, Mley first asked a random. sample of 4.00 students to list all the .reaS:Oi[lswh)" they had ever-had sex. The explanations were highly diverse, ranging fron1 c'.l was d:rWlk"" to "n wanted to fee] closer to God:' The team then asked another sample of 1,500 students torete theimportance ofeach of the 287 reasons given by the first group. Table 2-] on ]J.:I@e36rianks the results. Ne~:d'Y everymle of the reasons was rated most important by at least some .respondents. Though there. were SOl1L'l!e gender difterenues in fill": replies, there was significant consensus between men. and WOIl1!e:n on. the top !OreaS01Jf5 (Mest:on and BlIl$.5 .20~)i7)"

Studiesbaee shown thattlse characteristics of theinterviewer have au impact on survey data. . Fer examp]e,.temal.e interviewers tendto receive moee feminist re;spOin~~es from female subj eets thando male interviewers, and African American intervieweestend to receive moredetailed.respenses about race-related issues from Afdcan American

~!..]bjeds t11,an do \\'hite Imtem.ewers, The possible impact of gender and :to;l!ce indicates again how mlLu:h. care social research requires (D. W:

Davisand S]]ve~~ 200.3).

The survey is an example of q!.tilmltiitatii.ve lLIeS€Udl, which collects and reports data primar:ir)" innnmerjcal form. Most of the surveyresearrh d:iscl,ilssed so' far in this book has been quantitative, Wlti~e this type 'of research cartmakeuse ofl .. uge S3]]]p']es,It can't offer great depth and. detail on a topic, Th<JI.t is whir researchers also makeuse of 'quanta:th~e rese.m~which



'iIJ o :0

tbe researcher uses a printed or written fsn'mto obtain information :fro~]] a respondent. Each ofthese hasits own advantages, An iuterviewer can obtain H. higher

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml



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Z 1 rve '" C t Pho eta,s

~Caln you nssr nne mmlt'~lihiSi quesljon.,~a,mlllar t(! celli P'h{l'i'1~ ca[II's:F5 every-where', cou Id be lJOOd ~ cfhilll'a!ctelize a c'eba'te a,m.(J:Ilg, resei1lrchersltll :socio~o.gy~ IJ nlil ~,eoetntJIy, ca II[ing IP eOIP,le onm e telephone was a common way ~m sUr¥e}'lIlikersto reach a broad! li'ainge e:f people. Thougtn not eV8lfyone owns a 'oollep[horne-1P,artleulafily r1I![).'t i,o,w"ilnoome people~ffisefllrc:h,e!i'5: mai:1lag~d: '~Q' account for thst re,la:ti·veiysmal~ pOrl:lon af the popl!Jl~ation ~!1 o:th'~lr w,ay:s.

lHowe\!l~~, ,tI1~ recent :!lpMiald of cell phones, to the pou.u tli1at many people now i1ave a oeJlll IPIiNj'~,e but no 11!!t!!dlifle, pmse~'~.a seri,Q,Us M,etJlocl'Qlo~cal problem to sc!hoilars who d,epemj[ on S'UIF'I/€!VSflI nidi pub[l~c opinion po[I[lIi'iI,g. As of 2008, OFil~ ~61SeN-e11l ad'lJ[lts TI1I [tIS! United State's could !be reslc:hed onlv [by ceill phone, and! the pr,oporooi'l W<'liJ!l i'lslng. Among tillO!se LInder 30, t!he abalndQl'1lment Qlf landlines Wil'S niea~ly ~hl'ee 1]mes as, common. These cel[1 phone su[b~ribeffi ilire more lik.@,ly tn,an others to [be male Eilnd! to. eam a rnodsst ilrlC'{Hlne.

Hec!!!us.e ~h,~ YOlmg ,alnd Iti,@' POOi'illi'e more [I i.k-ellyWhan oti:1l'81rs to be re,1H::i1a.ole an[ly [by oe[11 IPhnr:H~, scholarn am reluctant to rely' only Oi'il [larndl[lne"based SLJrliieys. The.y Sire cclncenM~dI abo'iJI'~ the p01)em]a~r'Ol" m~slea ding m8sru~'tEi., such as, undemstlmatling '~I'iH~ pm .. a~iEr:H;'i!l ofheam:l probh~liIls [I~ kl! [b,li1Ige drl[:il k~flg,s;mo[k:i ng, orb @g~.'~. (lInd[ [11 lilI imfection. Somet[mes~he d~rnere:l1I!ces b etw.een t,ihe 'two sa mptll ng metn odsare n,@g. [Ifgibl~ 8ifld cain be ~.~nolred, In e~@,c:tlon pol[ling d[Q'n'!l! ~1'1 200S, ~10welie~, some Ci9ire(iLJ~ I\8searehem l'1otjie~d~a'~ ~ara,c;k Obama [had 10 perce:l1I~

more' suppert am,cmg,ceU p[hol1e-()n~y votsrs tjhaln amnl1lg'th.o.se wuth, standa rd la ndnfles.

Li n.f,Oi11.mately, sl.JnJeying ceil ptJmua USEl'r'S [has its lQ'I'!IrJ IP,rob~elills. I[n g.l1!i'H~mIJ cell pn.one users alre m m,~ ~ike~y tha nl landil i i'iN~ ussrsto screen ilflclQm~lng, calls or iignore I:I1.em,. ,especially ~f th,sy par an ,ex;lif';] cha,rg'e,for iinooming C'a~ls.

.J,~' 0/ J 00,"', .J~h I J I ,\[ L't jj ruhl/l \ .1. rllj' l .ntt rl SitU u [_'rlHld '~e rnJd. cr! " u Iv /JH l d I filII IHL. Will rlh Ilr.~/lll rt h'rr a u ~ ri UH~.

SUld~esshOlN that because cel[i phene users Onl~H'iI tak@ cans while ttley ,gW@ irnv,o.lved tn ottl'®r ac;~llJli't]esJ~hey are mucih mQre Hkely to b~alk on a ca,lm mrids LJIN-ey tha t'I someone wiho iSS1pea'k~rn.g ona 1·211'i1dline. SUI'!.'~ta~ern ha,ve alsofOllJlnd 'tlhat calliing, Ge~IIPI1Njn,e numbers mealil:sltiey witl~ reaen ,!5l hij~her pr'Ci,port~on of f1onald'[J[I.tstth,al1l wh'@in c8lUiirng, landnne numbers, IFlfl:!lI[ly, !tiere am :somE! e'th iC!!I1 iSSLi'~S. li'il\rlQ,lvedl i'l rMclom I'y dia~~n~ celli phone users., who may be dl'hJill'lg, a motor \rIelh~cle QIf operating difllngerou.s machinery w1hen tI1ey a'l1iSWlelr.

I[n, 2003.r Iresesr.c:helF$ whO' s'Mty ol).Lsune'ss. aM the 5Ioc:lal sc:I,ellloos began gl3;th(i!irllng at ~C!ell[1 plllo,j'IJ,~ Siumrn~'tts" 'to dlsc~ss 'rh,e~lr concerns and d,ev~e 1iI, .solution. One a.ppli'Oi9iclh to tlll,e potelnt~a~ for tD~,as il'1. surveys ~hat exclud~e c@~i [phon,es is to !,fse a st:atllstlcal pmoedwre Ic:a~~ed 'wEl.fgiHlng,. nail is, 5IllJnl'eyl:a1kel"S. o/ve ~oou ru ti1!e respol'1'ses ~hey receive 'fmm yOlHilg :adlj~'t$an,d: people wl'rtn

reli .. es on what is seen ]nfif'~~d and narnrsbstie settings, and often focuses on small groups and ecmmunities rather than on lmg,e l\p'O'llPS or whole nations, Themost common form 'Of qualitative research is obsee ... ation.which we consider next. Througbout this b ookyou w.iU. find. EX<LII21[ples .of both qLtantlitati.ve a.nct. qualitative research, since both ar~ used '~dely, Some soclo[ogjsts prefer one type of l!esearch.to t111f: other, butweleaJ:]l O]ost wlhe[1 we draw on many d:ifferent l'esearch ,deslg;nl;~ iUlid d.o notlllnlt om"Sd.ves to a p<!rti,~;Jla:l" type of re.search.


~m\i'er incom'8s., to correct I'alr the o~aJs~rJ, th8~r samlplilFlg,1b refine their '\i'ielgh~f1g meaJsUffiS, the)'then. 'con,duct nontelephon,e surveys, ~IFI wh~'c:hilhey as1k ~Ile same questions.

Resf3l1il rensrs are atso tlkilng stsps to s1!aJ' abreast nr ter:hnQ~or?Jllr:al ,cMl1!ge. Fow e')(lll.mple. tlle~ 8ire makJltllg al[iowa!llces ~m p.eopl'fa vitho Qo,mm~nlc~te wi~h'Q'lJl~any kiirnd of tel.eph.one, IlJSJill1gth,eilr personal computers 8lndthe Ij'lJter~ l1et And by dr,flw~ng Gin [h~$tOIl'iCiill data, thar sug~sts What k~nds: of p~opl€' rem!1 to aldo[p't !Jr~,er wireless tecMo~o~,es.r re'Bearcthern .a re project~ ~Infl:. wh~ch people are liiklely~jj .abanclonth,e~F ~alndlln.es ~I!'I the nealr future.


1. Ar'@ YI(lJU a cell p[holle~only liI:&el1 lif SO,. dlo yow gf3nem.lliy a,c:e~ptc:a·~~s~rom QJflIknoWfI tlilillillbers? A~lde from u,r!clemstlma;Mg eertaln [health prob[lems and d~tmt~ngtl1e !r:I.~gr,ee of sup[pnl1for certa In pOlitlcua ns, wh,at other pmblem~ mi~ht result from

Ililx"C1 u ding oeJl[1 pli1oflHiHlrn[ly u sersf~om sLlrve~ resea,rcl'l.?

2. Apply WJ1.;it you M\I~, just leam~d 'to '~~ i:as1k of ;stiJr'ii!ayiflg lnternet users, Wh~Cih of l,ihe pmb~ems 'l,ihat al'lise dilJlri.l1.g tll!l@jphor:llE! S'LllrI,(;I3.YS might a[lso arise dru rtng Internet sou r'!fays? lMi,lflt Ilnternet sm~rrys ~flI\.i'O~ve some

1,:1 Ii Iq He: ~,rablems?

S.O!UlrCB'S: illumberg :;md' n.UI~f! 200.7; H1Irrjg,Tnlerlldi'o'B 2D[II8~ K~ eterand Ken nelll'l' 2{~(N5: KiE:eren:t B I. . .2008; lmiirll k~.8 e1. 111'. 20(17,

auentire social seUr]1g thmugn. extended !'l}l'stem.atic 0 bservation, TypicaUy. the emphasis is on how the subjects themselves viewtbeir social life in some setting, In 80im!e cases, the snciologist actmlJly joins a gll[lUP for:a period to get an. <IcC:U.rate sense of how it opera.~e.s. This ,approadli i .. ciill.ed participant o.bsen.ratio,i~~ [n Ilarbara .Ei:ue:me.ich_·s study of low-wage WOlken. desn·.ibed. in Chapter ], tile re:s:earch.e:r was a p<lrtticE.pillnt obse:FVier (see alsQ p, Adler and. Adler 2003 j 2004. 200Sa).

Dilling the late 1930:5., in at d<li.'lsu,c examp]ie of pa:rtiicipantobservation research.. WiJli~J]]J .F. '\'Vhyte moved intD ;(:II. Iowi.l.lImme .h:alian neighbo.l·hood il.CJ. Boston. For nearly £01111" years he was £l. Inember of tfu.e slOcia.lcircle of i~mrlJ:e;r boys"l:h:Ji: he de.&c:ribesin Street C01'l'ler Society. V/hyte rev:eale.d. his identity to tll.ese men and joined in tbeir conversations, !bowLing, at[!J.d

t~ ]-. t" t· ... ; H" - It· t·' I. t

o,n,er. Jelsnr,t:~.une <lC .1Vllues., ... .IS gOi:IJ. W0<l5,.o gam. gm~a fer ulsrgn

into the mmmunity that these men .had1,esmb]i~hed. A'S Viilhyte {li 98l: 303 } li:st:en.ed.l:o Doc, Itl.1le leader of the g,fOmp, he'~~.e@lr]]ed. tbe .am.5we:rs to qmestiQlIls [ wou~d not eVIe'l"lharve had. the sens,e to ask if I had. helen gel:ting[!]yinfoIll:latlon sJole]y on <lLn in[el~·viewi.ng basi.'l .• ""ihfte~s wor.kwas especiaI~yvalua:bIe; since <It

the tim.eil:he. academic1WOrJd bad [ittle diimct knoydedge of the 35,

[I.].vestigatorswho ml.l.ect .infor:nlatlon by dil~ecl:p.al"t~.ci.p<l.tiQn and! or by ,(]o,seiy wa~clling a gJ:iOUp or. 'IWmulunitt.y are e]].gaged in Ob!i<:'Jt1i'atiOim~ This met:hod. allow,'; .so~jo~ogisl:;;,~o 'e%<J[I:o.J]]e cedarn behalvi.ms, and wm.ffiunitiest11.at muM not be invest!.gated thmll1gh other reseaIic:h tecbniques. Though o'hservation Illiay sJeen] a rela.ti.vdy .~n£Qnl1a.l. Hletbod oo.I.]lpa:red to S;UJveys or expeFlme:nli:s, r-eseaychen aIDe .C<ll'eful. t.o take detailed notes whi.le obsetv:i:ng their subjiecIs.

An .i:ncre@l$UlgTy popular fOf'nl of qu,alitati.ve Ft':searcb i.n. S,Qci.olngy today is et1i:m.ography •. E:1thnogmlJph.y refer:s [0 the sil:ll!dy of

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1



PQm~ and. tended. to rely for infurm.ati!oJ] on the records of social service agencies, hospitals. and courts {P: .Adler et ill. I. 9'9 2: }.

The ini tial chaUe[!l.g:e that ·V{h.yte faced=-and that evety piU:;t].c:[P<l.Ii~ observer enceuuters=-was to' gain acceptance into an unfamiliar groillp. It is no simple matter £or <I. mneg~-t[ai.ned SCI cielogist tnwin the trust of a n~ligiQl!Js cult, <I youth gang> a pour Appa.lachian eonnnunity; or a circle of skid rewresidents, Itrequires a great dea] of

patience and an accepting], ~.lI.on.tJn.yeate:niog type of personality on the part of the obSerVieT.

Obs,en'atro[! research [poses other complex challenges fem the .nl.vB'5tlga.tm. Soci.ologists[l]l!Ht

be able tnfnlly understand 'what tbey <I]1e observing. In a sense.thea, researchees mustlearn to see the world as the group sees itin order to fidycmnprehenD. the events ta:w'l!g place around them,

This raises a delicate issue. If the research isto be suceessfuf.the observer cannot allowtbe close associations or even friendships that inevitably developtu infhience the subjectsbehavior or the conclusions of the study. Anson Shupe and David .Brol1.l~.ey (1980) > two sociologists whoheve used participant observation, have likened this cbal-

lenge to that uf walking a tightrope, .Even wbiJe working hardto gain scceptance feom the ,group being studied, the partic(p\':ILot observer must mainsain some degr-ee of detacbment, Thus the Adlers, •. in their work. on se1:f-.injury; acknowledged their departure from strict detachmen tin describing tbeirinvalvemen t with the subjects they studied ..

. ~ecenlly. the issue of detachment became iii contmve[":Sia.i (line 6m~ social scientists emhedderl with the US. I]]]li.tary in A:lfgham.stan and Iraq. Among other studies" theacademicians participated! in the creation ofthe Army's Human Terrain System.,. <L $4 million effo.d to identify the customs, kinship structures, and internal SJO cial conflicts in the twn roun tries, The intention wasto pro:videmili.t:aryl!eade1'3 w~tbi.nfontl3liQln. tfu,at wouh:llhelp them tomake better decisions, Although the-idea of scholars cooperating in anyway with seldiers struek Illany people as iaappmpriate, others countered that the lIl:folrlnatlo]1 they di,e\re[opedwCluld. he].p the military tn avoid needless VIolence and might even f<l.(:11- itaJtetthewiUld:rawal of troops,f1~mn the region (G]enn 20Q7).





II was abtractedlto tih:e person

t 2 3 4 5 6 7 :8

Se[geiull EhiU ID<llm~]>IfI, a s{l~is I s;~ientJis1i [)IIill tfuJe US. Army IHIJllIll.i:I n Ten!:lllliil

Team I chats Wiltltil .Afigha!!1li ch i~drenl dmi ng a seamc-ih ope:rmion. The pOi rtidpati!J]il'ii (lif socral S!c:i'~l!iitis1:sin the A.rmy pm~ralm, wlm i'clh SOIill esee as 11 vlolatil)lliil !J],f schol!alf1y det~u::hmetmt! has ~]>~OlJed (}[lIlitroversi<l!l.









Experim ents

'\tVhen socielogists want to stlLldy 03i possible cause-and-effeetrelationship, they may cendnct experiments. An e'qJ'etnilf),l~ntis an arti.ficiill]y created situation that allews a researcher to manipulatevariables .

[II the classic method of conducting <111 exper]:[[]ent. two gl:OUp.~ or people are selected and matched for similar characteristics, such as age nr edueation, The reseazchers then ass.ign. the SiJ.bj~d5 1:0 one oftwo grmJp5;; the experimen tal. or the controjgroup, The exper.imellltaill .. IP~QU' is exposed to an independent variable; the wlllm~.gr.oupis[!l)ot Thus" if scieuwts were testing anew type or antibiotic, theyweuld administer the drug to an. exparimental g;r;ouphut nat to a control gfOUp.

ln some experiments, just <IS in observation research; the preS!enoe' of <II. social scientist or ether observer Jll:3!Y affect the

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


behavior of the people being studied, Socielegistshave used the term Hawt»Drne i!l':f[f;ect to refer to the unintended inlluenee that 0 bservers of e.J(:p eriments can have on their sub] ects Theterm originated as the result IOf an experiment condncted at the Hawthorne-plant of tile West.e:n:a. Electric Company during th.e]920s and 1930:$. Researchers found that every change they made inworking cnnditions=-even reducedlighting-c-seemed

t, " .tt.· k .J .11 ".' .. Tlc

to nave a posmve ettect onwore.rs pt.1IOUl.]chvrty..J1.1!ey con-

eluded thatworleers had. made a sp ecial ef6Q[t to impress their ohservers, Though the GlrefuUy constructed. stll.dy did identify SQl1l]eGI!I1Se'S fur changes in. the workers.' behavior that did not have to do with. their being observed, the term Hm .. -ythor·ne effe'ct has become synonymous wIth a placebo or guinea pig effect (PnulI};:eiulid .. Kaul ]978).,

use you r socio logica I imaginat.ion

You l1lre a Fcte.seBm:::h'e;r iinteiFB'sted ~n th e en~c:t of TV w8It£lling 0111 s,choolchi,ldrls:n's grades. HQI!h!' would you gtI about flatting up an expe'r,iment to measure ttJhllS elect?

Use of Existing Sources

Sociologists do not nesessarilyneed to collect new data in order to conduct research and. test hypotheses .. The term seQDnditty aUliIlysis,ref,ersto avariety of researchtecbniques that make use of previeusly collected and pillh~id:y accessible infonnation and data, Ge11!era.II.y~ in conducting secondary analyais, researchers use data. in ~fs tbat were unintended by the initial coJl.J:ec:tol:'.'> of information .. .For example, census data aIDe' compiled for specific usesbythe federalgnvemmentbutare alsovaluabletn marketing specialists inlocating everything from bicyc.l!e stores tnuursing humes .. And Social Security registrations, ori.gin<IJ:J!.y meant

Content ~m;llli~si5 of plllll,Il!ar :sorilg lyrics shows tlIil,irt m'elF tlJ:e P'1!st. 50 years, OOIP f,~mal'~ ,1Irti;Sts suchas BeYOlliice iKn(l\\lI'e:5 h ave used ·few.er sem:;iilily e<xpl icit wmds, while ma~e <1i1n1i;i$ts h;;we u!leii;i m(llre.

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

fur goverument use in adm:inister.mg the natinn's retirement system" have been usedto track cultural trends in. the naming of newborn children (Box 2-2.. on page 38),

Soci.o1og;i.sts consider secondary an alysis to be :P10rmeactivethat is, it does not infhaenee people'sbehavior, .For exsmple • . It:mile Durkheim's statistical analysis of suicide neither inrreased nor decreased hnman self-destruction, Researchers, then, can. mroid. the Hawthcme effect ]by using semn.dary analysis,

There is one inherent problem, however: the researcher who relies en data enllected by someone elsem;ay not find e:xact]y what is nee..ded. Social seientlstswho are studying family vinlence can use statistics fro~n police and SOQ.<lI] service agencies on. reported cases, of spouse abuse and. child abuse, butt haw n:lany cases are riot reportedi Govemment bodies have noprecise data on Q·U cases of abuse.

Many social sclentists find .. it useful 1)0 study Glru'tmai. economic. andpolitical documents, inefudingnewspapers, periodicals, radio and television Itapes,tthe Internet" seripts, diaries, songs. fo1hloIle, and leg<ll papers (Table 2-2 on pa,ge 39). .. In examining these sources, researchers employ a technique known as CClIl!ltent mII;ati.y8i~!1 which is the sysl:,e'll'lati.C (lading and objecrive recording of data, guided. by some fa tionale,

USJng content a:nm.r.>Es, Erving 'Goffinan. (19 79) conducted. 031. pinneering explnration of how advertisements puruO\y women. The ads he studied typica]Fy showedwomen as subordmajeto or dependent. on. others, or as taking fnstructfon frommen, They engaged. in caressing and juuching gestm..es rnore fhan men, Even when presented in. leadership .roles" womenwere lilbely to be shown striking seductive poses or :gazing out into sp"u:e ..

Today, researchers who a:n<llyzefilnl content are f.i.nding an increase in smoking in I1]IOI:]OIllPictu].:es, despite heightened public health concerns; Other researchershave found a g;row~ Lng differ,e:l1<:e in~he w:liIY men andwomen use sex!u.:iUy explicit language, For example, an a [lIlIIlysi 3 of the 1)'1:ic5 of Bmbo{lf"d m.agwzin,e"stopUJOI hits indicates that since ]958, male artists haveincreased their use of such language, wftil!e female artists have decreased theirs (Am.erican lU!.lIgAssocial:lon 20[13; Dukes et at 20U3).,

"fable 2-3 on p<I!.ge 39 summarizes the major research designs, alongwith their advantages and limitatinns,

use your sociological imaginat.ion

Imalgine you are a h~giislator or' .gpvemment poliicymalrer \\i\Orkiing [IT] ,al Clomplex sociall plrobJ!,Ei:m. Whalt miight happen lifymJ wert! to base ynur declision en taulty res.eal1:~h ?

Ethics of Research

A bio chemist cannot injeet a drug into <II. human being unless it has beent1:l.Omu.gb.1y tested andfhe subject agree~ ito the shot. To do otherwise would be both unethical and illegal. Soc;iologi,stsj too, must abide by certain. spe1ciFic standards ]1]



@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1


hat·s in

N.am ?


SoCiolQgLsts cam learn agre,at deaJl U1:slf1Igav,fiI!l~ ablle ~ti1f'Ormlatuort. Fow examplle,. everry' ~@ar fle Social Si9<curiity .~.dI milnlstrdtion receives ttl OI!J~ sands, of re~s~Fations for newibDrn br!llb~,es" Using, U'le{se daira, we can ~dI'l!!ltlt]'~ sorne c:ultural'l)J'@ncls in tti'i3 IP apliJ:la.rfity of chih:lIFen's names,

ASltM~ aODOrtlrpa r;rylngftguresh OWS, 'rolF exam" pile! Jolhn has Ibeen,an @xtrem<elly [popular b~'s nam,e fOI"G'lJerr a oeliltury. In :;U}O"7 over 4 ,000 bab~les weli'e flamed John, mgltking btttle 1L9th most pOPilJI181r name ~hiillt yeaIF:, Though Ilesstlhall h8il~as many babies were lI1a.med Jl1lr3ti1 rn 200], !tJa:t. rhame has beeti1 gainIng ~In paplJllarli,y in recent gjener:!l'blo:ilS, I'e'neC'~irng tl'he gl'owin~ Impact of the Latiil10 popl[jllation~n ~he Uniteidi States,

We can see: S1Jme ol:l1e.r pa.l~I1!I'i1S ~ n title annlllal dowtai ,()oj"! nams grvltllg. ln I[l,ar;ry e&ifl~o ami ra'c:ia~ ~roiUpS,. pare,rnt.!l. ctiQos:e names Vilat d~spla,y pride tn th,e~r Identity or the. IUlni!querHEss tI1.ery see ~n,l:I'1elr en Udren. Among A:rrtlca n .Amer!caas, 'fOr ~x1:lmp~Fa, names suen as Ebony a,rid Im81ni am ~he most popular onestor glrK

I H .2 on - ~U L r -I (J (10 h'~~ljl ~ ,j r_ j L lwmul 'lj,JUt, t!!HhfH! it th« J I.H/! ftll'~'1 !w!urlr,1- mum rlwl 'Jr.tlr,

The lPu!b:liiC: dlfilti!! colfnained ln ti1,am@, re~qSl:rrl1!s a!so r,eveal atren,d wward: "Amef1ica.rHiOl:ltlldiMlg,~ na:mes .amOi"i.g imm~gront9 '~a, the [Jrnit:ed Sta/tes. ln UaW, forex<jJmlple" Giusep!p,e fis a 'Irory pOpUrlar boy's rhame'. Among litallian ~mm~gr;]nlS 10, thie United States, ti"lor~ Ef1I~f>s:i'1~orm O'r Giuseppe, Joseph., l:s the 3m. tmD'S'tt IOOiP'u~alr boy-l's name, tti'Ol:lgh. iUanks Olnly 1 !l'~h .a:moi'1,g o~herAme~i!c:an$. Tlhe lPattewll .of se~eC'~ltlg na mes 'that wm 1lI1iffil'l' chih::lmrn to fit in is no~ LlI1BfOtmi, howE!ver. lin some' innmigta.TIIt groups, rp<!lI'eti1t:s teM to fallOW nsrnes 't11:at s.vmbo~i21e tl'H!ir ,e!] ti1I'Oi'ly. For ID;laimp I,e" ~.ell~ is popular !!3ImOltlg Ilii$n AmerlcalnSJ e'!Jelfl though tr ~Sl'l'~ a i:raduU.o:nal girl's name in Irellal1d .. Thus" tlH~ <lvaJ['abl,e data, en newborns' names a~IIO\II[s socio~ogilsm ·ltn de'~@ct clJIl~ural1::rnnd$ that F,enec;t ch<3ii1,ging gIDLip M'~ntilU:e5.

ll'iH~ use of ,existing data: a~oo shows social cfharnge li'iI [p:!!Qrpl,e's; last names (sumames)'. In 2007 an afl;jjlys~$ by '~tle Cef1lsUiS Bureau repOlrted l:I1a't :a11'~holUg~, Smith remaIned IDe most

-:~ :0 III _jJI


~ 20;000 (1,1



5 :z


;!,I~t!E: :N u rnbers imlliil;1ite rilinik ln IP D;pullanil.~ 1I1lTl o~lg alii b<o)'s' nam es in th at Plill'i~ di, S{llJl'ClB; Baby Niarm e Wizard 201]9',

CllrnmOlfl SHmame Ii"! th,~ IUli'iIi'~.ed Sta~frs, Garcia: and Rodriiguez haJd ri51@!n In Il'Ie top 10 most. corn men na meso Th,s aIilIIlOUilloeme!i'iI~ mairked ti"lefi rst 't!tille ~ n 111'8 n a'r~Cln's history thalt a non.Alng!o Mame!lad been, oolJli'il'tedamong the most corn MOlfl :;;umam es,

F~nallly,. fI2IGords ~elpt by~he Snc:ial S'8CL:I ru'ty Jlud'm~rn~$1iratiolil reve.al some reglona,1 vilriarions in namss, Gi\!lBitlthie la rg,@ IH isp,:mic population in Texas, W~ poolba b~y should. not be surprised ttl 'fil"l.d '~hat Juan rank;s 9'th as a name for baltly boys 111 '~at s~l.e. In states lilke .#\llfiloa.ms,. i[)el.a~ w.are, 81nd M~SStlSS1!P'Pi, how'@!ver, John US on tihe top 1.0 Illst


t. Vusi~ www.balb.ynarn.ewiz~nl.co.m en !:he Iintennet, a rnd ,c~~c!k on ~Nam.eVoy~ger:,!· .flvDeoITIirng,rothisWeb sute" how IPopllJ'lalr Is yourfiFSt nam~? Is nt D!E>oomJng mme or less fashior!.a,ble IO·\i'€!r'~me?

2. USlllg th,e f\'J,ame MappelF feabum a,r W!iI!'W' . babyn.;,} mew~rnli'd .GIll,m,m md eut IlrrJili POPUlifH !IfllUlr flam@! ~s itn 'W@! state Wh€!FE! jou were bern, :Is yom nams ~vefll mom pOPlJll.a.r ~Iil soms otiher s'~ams?

S4I!UI'QeS: Baby Name W:i;!ard 20<09: S, l:e~itl: and :Ou:tJner 2GO'o~ LiBb Brs,olll 2:0 DO; Wo.rdl et at, 2:007.,

conducting research, called a c(Hffi.e of dhf~. The professional society of the discipline, theAmerican Sociological Assoda.tinn (A$A),first published the sm:iety~:s Code !Jf.Ethics in. ll'Sl7l and. revisedjt most .[ecenHy in. ] 997, It puts forth the fo]lowu.ng basicprinciples:

1. Protect subjects fronD personalharm ..

4. Preserve confideuti .. lity"

5. Seek informed consent WkN'~CI::L data ate co]J!ec;tedfn.)O'~m research participants Oot when behavior occurs ill a private context.

6. AckrlDwTedge research collaboration and assisrance.

7. Disclose a]] SQuroes of flnancial su.pporl (American SociotOglca,[ Association I 997),.

[. MEli:ntain olli:j,ectivity andintegrity in research, ,38 2. Respectthe subject's right to privacy and. dignity:


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

These basic pri.]]dp~.es probably seem clear-cut. How could they lead. to ,any disagreement OI' crmtrnversyi Yet II!]i1IJY delicate ethical questions cannot be resolved simply by reading these s,evt'n principles .. Foeexample, should :01 !iJClcio[ogistwho is engPl.ged in p<irticipant~observa6.onneSeal"ch alwayspm:l:ed the eoafidentiafity of subj'ects?What if the s ubject.s: are members of a :religious cult. allegedly involved inunethical and. pos.-

"-bl- . ]1]- .: r , • --" ;; w"n. '~r- h .. leei :" -. .,',

si .' Y .l . ega~. actrvmesr n nat It .. ,e socin .Og~.5tI!_S mterviewmg




Most Fm,qtlerntly Used So LI roes







Re(!l)~dsi;lndl i81~c!i~'oI\\lIIIllli8ilertlll ofre.! igilO!J5 olrgalm~~.atimlls, co:rporatiolllls, and other o-rgcrllll~Z.<ltiolliis

Spee;D~es.,;)f p!IJIMi:D fig~IFl;)S ~Si!Jid"i as; pol!iitill;lii;ll'iBs)

\Iotes cast Uifl elec1jollils 1[11' by e leou!,!,j officials on sp'E![lffic 1,~gisl![lij~!l1l pmpDsals



Qu.E!stillJln 1iiii8lires Inltervi:e-ws


De'! iberate IIIlCllrliplLU 1;;Jltinr]1 ~l peopJ'e':s 6!OdaJ beh1;lviar'

Elisfllnlg sOlJ.rt:.es/ SecoliJdi8Jry .linalysis

.#l.IIlJa.lysis of cenSi!JI:5 1)1" hei:lllt!ru dii;lrn #l.I1J[llys,is.af fill'ms; GrTV c-.ommercialts

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

pollticalacrivists andis CJllIl.es,rtlO[Ii!ed by government anthoeities CllbOll.1tt the research ?

Because most. sociological research uses .people as snurces ef Jnfnrmation-c-as respondents to' surveyquesticns, subject s of observation, or pm'ticipantsilll experimersts-c-these sorts of questions are important.In aU cases], s:o:;::i.ologklts, needto be cermin tbey me not invading their subjects' ]pliva.cy. Genendly, they do so by assuring subjects of ~mmly.ln]ty and. fur gll],aranteeing the confidentiality of personal m£Qrma~ilJiHJi... [1Ji addition, research proposals tha~ invnlve human subjectamustnew be everseen by !!! review beard, whose members seek to ensure that subjects CIte not placed CIt an unreasonablelevel of risk. If necessny:, the boasd [,l:1ay ask researchers to, revise their research designs to conform to the code of ethics,

We C1IIll appreciate the seriousness .of the ethical problems researchers cnnfroot by conslderingthe experience of sociologist Rik SC<I:rr:e> described in the next section, Scarce's vow 10 pretect his sulbjleds' m.I.1I:fidentiwity :got him into c:onsjde-ra.b]!E trouble with the law.

Confidential ity

like journalists, siOdologists occasionally find themselves !Subject to qll1estiOi.I.1!S from raw enforcement authorifies because of knowledge they have gained in the course of their work, This uncomfortable situation raises profound ethical questions ..

[n May ]9'93 •. Rik Scarce, 11. dbcIo:ml candidate ill. sodology at W<I.shingtor:t. State Uni.v\':Tsi.ty; was jailedfor cQIJltemlPt of court, Scarce had declined to tell a federal grand jury what he knew->or evenwhethet he knew anytbi:ng-afuout a. 199'1 raid 0]] .;IIu[IIiversity research laboratory by animal ri.ght.'l activists, At the time, Scarce was cnnducting research tor a. hook about environmental protesters and knew at least one suspect in the break-in, Curiously. althoughhewas chastised by a-federal judge> Scarce won. respect from£e:UoV!{ ptri.son inmates, who r,ega:rded him as; <I man. who "wouldn't snitch" (Mcmaghau. 1993;A8) ..

The American Sociologj .. cal .. Associa tion supported. Scarce's position when he appealed his sentence, Scarce maintained his silence .. Ultimately the judge ruled that nothingwould be gained. by fllrlh.e~·~:nGaroCeration], and Scarce was released i3.:fit,e~r serving 159 days in jail In H anua:ry' ] 994;tthe U. S. Sup'l1eme Court declined to hear SC<!.llCe'S case on. appeal. The Court's failure to considerhis Cil.;:lle led Scarce (19'94,. 1995., 20(5) to argue that federal. legis]a.tionis needed to clarifY the l'lght of scholars and .




Y~eldi5 inifornnation about speciific lssues

C<3ln be expHnsiille :and ti rJFIH;[iIIiilS!Jm ing

Yield's detQlH:edli rdalmatian <lbo LIt sl'll~Ciific I?Jro'~IlS: or o~ni!lati.l)lfl~

Inoolves mr:mtlills if not fE;ii8JlS of !all:no'Fintern;;ili.l'e data

Yi:t:lldS direct me1lSIJrBS o!f people's behOlvior

Etll,ft}Cli 1111Iti i'la,t[l)nt5 mil the deE/ree to whicb subjects' b,~hav10K

can til a manilp,I!JDa$edl

Limited to d1llE oolil:ectedi fl)r SIOme {lthe~r p'I!IWJl0:se

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1


40n:ne[J]ibers of file pre..'lS to preserve the confidentiality of th(lse' tbey interview,

Research Funding

Sometimesdisclosing all the snurces offundillg for a study; 3'::; required in pl'.lncip,le 7 of the ASNs Code of Bth'lcs" is not a suf- 5d!enl: guaramee Q1f ethical conduct, Es;pecia1l!y in the case ofbo:tb corporate and govenlimentlilDdi:ng, .n1011ey given. ostensibly for lihe support ef basic research "liay cnmewith Sltrin.gs attached, Acoepling funds!i."Onl a private erganization OJ everli3. gover.nment agency that stands, tc benefit from a glm:li.ys results, can call jnto questi.ol], a. researcher's objectivity and integrity (principle ]. ), The cnntroversy surreunding tlreinvolvemem of social scientists i]]. the U.S •. Army;>~ Human 'fen<l!in Syste:ril is one example of this mnflict of interest.

Another example is the Bxxon Corporation's support for research on jllll.~y verdicts. mli9:B9. the Exxon oil tanker Valdez bit a reef off the mast of Alaska, spi.Uing: over II million gal.lm:a.s. of oil unto Prince Winia:rn Sennd, Almost two decadeslater; the Valdez disasteris still regalJimed. i81S the world's worst oIT. spill interms of its envarmmental tll]pact In 1994 :!II. federal court ordered Exxon ~O pay $5 .. 3 billion in. damages for the accident. Exxon appealed. the verdict and. began <II.pproail.1.ing legal scholars. sccinlogists, and J?sycho1og:ists who might bf'!'Mlli.ng to Shl.my j uty delihe:mdons .. The corporation's objectivewastc dl.e\reknp academic :SllIPport fur its la1Wfel."s·contention that the punitive judgments in. such cases result.from faulty de:WbeHLtlo.lJ'S and donot have a deterrenreffect,

Some scholars have questiened the propriety of accepting ~UI!ldkl. lIJ.uder these circumstances; even if the ~"O!JlKe" is disclosed. III at least one case, an Exxon employee explicitlytold a. sociologist that the corporatism .oftfers financial support to scholars who have shown the tendency to' express views similar to its own. An argument can also be made ILl-tat Exzenwas attempting ~o set scholars' research ag;endas with. its huge war. chest, Rather man funding studies onthe tll]pl'O,v,emeJllt of cleanup technologies or !the assignmeut of long-termenvironsneafa! costs. EXXD]] chose to shift scientists' attention to the validity of the legal .awmds in environmental cases.

The ~ s cholars wbo accepted Exxon's support deny that it][!Ifluenced their work. Of. changedtheir eonclusiens .. Some received support from other sources as well, such <It> the National ScilE:nl(e Poundation and Harvard University's Olin Center fOII.- .law, .:13.00- nomics and Business, Many eftheir findings werepublished in lre/;1:p ected academicjournals after review by a jury of peers. Still, at least one researcberwha participatedin the studiesrefiJsed n:n.onetary support fmm EXX!on to avoid ev,E'.I1:. tbe sl].gg;e'stlon. of a. conflict of interest.

'fo date, Exxon. has spent fOughIy $1 minion OR the research. and at least one mnlpila.tio:n. of studies eongenialtc the ccorpom~iOIll.~5 point of view has been published, As ethical considerations require, the academics W~]O eenducted the 5tudli!E$ disclosed Exxon's role In funding them. Nevertheless, the investment ap.lPears~o have paid off. In 2JJ06, drawing on.these studies, Exxon's tawye:rs succeeded in petsuading an appeals cnurt toreduce the corporatien's legp] punitive damages from $5.3 to $2.S billion, In 200S Exxon appealed that judgmerrrtothe Supreme Couit" which furtber reduced the dammges to $500miUion. The final award, which isto be sharedby about 32,,000 plaintiffs, will result

,A, float~l'ilg ~GntElnment b.lifIlerr encircles t~e Exxon oil tanker lhltd!E'z .i3lker ~ts ~rolJ nding on a re,ei off tfuie coast of A.lalsk:a. Exxon eXeClIJitives spenit $1 m i llien Uoh.JlliId ·acad:emk: reseilll'l:lh ~,at the}" ~oped 1N{lUII'd support ~a\'llye'!iS' efforts to ~ediLUJe lie $.5.3. bill~m~ judgllllent ag!)in:s.t the ~Qrp[l,rail:il[)n forr !iiie'g).i:g~l1i!ce in ~he e l11Jirorllllll elfllta~ dtgii;I!!,.t:E!,r.

m payments Q;f about ,$15.,000 to each person (Preudenburg 2005; Lipta1\:: 20[)i8},

Va~.ue Neutrality

The ethical cnnsiderations of sociologists lie nQI: onTy in the methods they use and the fumll.inglill].ey accept, but in the way they interpret their results, MuWeber ([ 1904] 1949) recognized. that pers()!nffi. valueswould infllu.en<CI~ tlli,e questions tbat socioIogi.s.t.s select for research, In his view; that was pedecdr i3i.(iceptilb~ej,but under no conditions eould aresearcher allow his or Jl!e:rper.sona] £eeli~.gs toinfluence the i1imrpretatim1 of da.ta.]n 'Weber's phrase, sociologistsmust pmdi.cel'\lIluiC:' meutral~ltf in their research,

As part of this .nf:utrall1)y, investigators have an ethical obu:gation to accept research findings even when the di<ll.t;;!. run counter to their personal views,to theoretic;aJly based ezplanations, or to widely accepted beliefs, For example, Emile Durkheim challengedpopular conceptions when. he reported that social (rather than supernatural] forces were aaimportan! fac:~o:r. .in. suicide.

Some sociolcglsts believe tharneutraliry is impcssible, They wotry tl1,at Weber'sinsistence on value-free 51Qci.ology may lead the public to, accept sOl[iologic;3l.~. conclusions without expl(;"ring resea[chers~hi<l$es. Others" drawing on th.e cunflirtperspertive, as Alvin Omddlnei~ {19'70) d.deB, have $uggestedl that socio.log;ist.!i may use objectivity as a justification fOF remaining nncritical of existing institutions <lind centers of power. These argaments are attacks not somuch OJ]. Weberhia.nsdf as ontheW<l.y his goa] s have been. misinterpreted. As we have seen, Weber lWS quitedea:r that sociolog;i.st:s [nay bring, values totheir 5ubje(:t[[laUer. ln his view, however, they must DOl: conmse their ewnvslues with the social reality under study (Bendix 19168).


DaM:; Eberbach, IR:esearch 'Coordllnator, Unlt.edWay of Central Iowa

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

As a re''searrc!h specilalli:st, [)<1Iiv"'e Elb~lrba(;fi1 uses Ills hafn,[i"ii~h' socf,alo,g'y ta, wQrkror sQGial change. IElb e~b,a{:l1, I,ool£s for small!1 IP (lc:~ts oJ 110\ilf.!11'hy War 81'e ,g:enemllv IhMdel"ii ~In S'[a~e a,nl:! i(~OiJrlty statis;~,(;s. By reroing~n 'on COil" diilior1S; Inspeciftc: l1.E!lf?Jhbnrihoods, Ihe empow,e:F$~tatE!' amil 11{lc:a,~ ,af!M,c~esthat work on be~\an of tlM2 d~s.a(hJI@ f)ta~ed.

IEltlerbach" Wtho lis b(;9J~G!d iln iD@!S Morlnes,lo,wa:,was hlr,ed'to establl~sJh a ~datfl wiiHe'holJSet of :S>QD~al statlstl,cs 'rorthe Ilocal U n:ired Way. lfIartt of 11~:s job nas beento d,emonsnattefo ag.el1~ tiees !low [he ilnforma,'[ion Tn: th'e Q,lltalb'fl$Je can b~ ot", use to IDem. "'We na1.1e! moood mos[ of our dl!lllEi, pmsei\'l'ta'[~ol1g ,aw,@y from crnarl'sai1i>1:J gmptl.s, and 'O,ti1 to maps of the courllV, 'tl'le cit}', and tlhe neigilib (Hh'QO d:~ n,e ,e)lpla ins. '1lI!iiSalhrw"S peio.p~e m 'lruly 'see,' tfil'i3 big pi{;ture.~

Wlhen Eb{!rba,ch el'ir~red tl!iillinell Co:~IIE,g@ ~In ]9,80" ns Ihad allrreard,V talo'..el'l,asoc~o~og;y course, 8ifld knew '[h,al the .subj'8ct iflterf!s{ed hlm, ssn, 1lecould not ha1,iE! '[ore$eefl an th,e praC11i,c:a,1 lISe,s, he m~g~t. I'iIS\,I\!'d had for what he l,eaWi"N~d. ~Nev~r assume that yOUl"U l1I,evelr n.e,ed ttl know so,me~hing (ilflQ1lJidin,g: sta~lstjh:::s)," he advises, "Ufe rn,61S .a;[Ul'1'ny w,ay of bril1~t1Ig things amUI1d1 agalf'll.~

let's consider wh.tJt .might happen when. researchers bringlillleilf own biases to the inve5ti:gatio]] ... A person. iuvestigatim.g the inllpad of intercollegiate sports 0]1 alumni mn.tr.i;butions" for example, may focus only on. the highly visible revenue-generating sports of footbwl<L11d. bas,ke'tbaU. and neglect the so-called! minor sports, such a'> tennis or soccer; which are more likely to involve women athletes, Despite theeady werk of '!tV, E, :B. DuBois and Ja[!e Addml,S, :$oc:iologis:ts still. need to be Ji:emiuded. that the discipline often rn:i1s to adequa.tdy consider all people's social behavior,

Ia her book The Deatl1 af W~i:ifE 8a,ctolagy (l973)" royce Ladner caned. attemion to the tendency of mainstream sociology totreat thelives of Mric<i.n Americans <15 a soeial problem, MorerereDtliy" feminist s.ociologist Shulamit Rei:nharz '(1992) has argued that sociological research should be not anI1y inclosive but opento bringm.g ahrm.tr $0 dill!. clMIlI]ge1und to dro.wfung on relevant research by nonsocialegists. :Buff!. Reinharz and Ladner maintain that researchers should mways amtly:ze whether womens unequal social status has affected their studiesin any way. For exm:ujple,. one might broaden the study of the impact of education. on. income to consider the i~.nplicatio]]s of the unequal pay status of men and women. The issue of value neutrality does not meantbat secielogi~l.tS ca]f]'l: have opinions, but it does mean tha;I:Ulu;,ymus~lj,vork to overcome a.nybiase5,howevev unintentional, that d:N'~1 may bring to their analysis ofresearch,

Peter Rossi (1987) admits to having liberal inzlinetions that direct him to certain fields of study, Yet in Tine with 'Weber's view of 'vruueneutral:ity, Rossi's cnmmitmeattc [igOTOU~ research methods and. obj,ecti:ve interpretation of data has sometimes led him. to eontroversial :findiings that .ne not necessal'iny supportive. of his own lihe:rnlvaIl!les. For example, his measure of the extent of homelessness in Chicagnin the mid.-l'9.80s feU far below the estimates of the Cbic,:lgo Coalition for the Hemeless

C _'11' '.' rnh ... '!L' .. 'j. ·tc JI R . ·c .'~ . ." 1:]' .•

uannon memners bitter y a:ttaCI'kE'l1l .. OS$~l!or~li<l:mpermg .'[le'I.r

socjall"efmme:ffor~!iby minimizing the extent of hom . .de!isness,.

@ The McGraill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

Pt:f. G rl til tile~11 ~ EbMba,cl'l beMiilt'ed '~rom!ti.e preSifilnlC>e o"~ :severa,i vfiS~rh'ig; IProfeSOOfS whio exposed Ih~m to a 'ilifHii,ety ofc:ul~lJrai ami racial perspe~tiV€S" His, person.a,1 acquaintance 'wut!ht!1,emcomplemlente,d rtll.,e cOlnoepts, he was lea rniC'l)g in his Slocio!ogy ctassss, Today, EberbaJch draws on his ~ollle,~ e.xperle:noos at the IJIni'~ed W~; WliHi!rn hus worrk bliilng'S hrm int:ocontact V!illbll 0!Ii diue,i'Se ~OiJ,p ,O'f peopl,e,

SO(lJollogy has also .1'!1<!~llped IElb~lrbach lin hJ!Si c;h,O!&e!1Il specialty, I'i1lsearf'Clh, ~I bel~etle tl'il,a'~ I am ii, be'iter'da,ta, person' bectlus!B: (]if my sociology backg)'OIJIII1.d.:' he cl.aTms" 'Tlhe human il::[ln't!8){~FQr datil Is as impOlnMnt and: can .get! ~ost or misduI!'ected by pu,~e s:ta:tEs:tres~ IheexplOlimL ~My so clology bacK~iJ,n.d has l1elped me ask, tMH~ appro!plrla~ qLlest~oll"i sto 1ll,8} keefFe,c:tive Ic:h.alng~ ill'l our (lCm:ll munity,"

urrs [lIISCLlSS

1. IDo YllU lkrn,ow what you want ~o ~e doing 10 yearn '~rnm InO'w'f lif 90" htW.i' might a: knowle~ge ofs!ltatilstics, help YO'Ulilil your [iuture oc:euP1ltl,O'I1I?

2, What knnds, of statistics, .$peciiflcallll~; might you 'flind in the iUl1Ilted

Wifi/'S (I'lltt!il warnh,Ol:i&8? Wh,S!tre wo:u h:lUl@'ji come From?

Rossi 0987:79) concluded that "in the shol!t term, good social research will often be greeted iiIlsa he1trnyalof Ollie ocanetber side to a particular controversy"

use your sociological imagination

YOUI are a sociologicall msea~hEtr who is having ditfjiclLllt~ mail1ltain:irllg ill nE!!!Jfitrall atljitude toward your rese~ n;::h topic. YO~lr to plc iSI'1I't IPo I ~u~ion ~ ir;af:llsm, or hemelessness, Whart is if?

Feminist IMethodology

Of the four theoretica] approaches to sociology intrcdnced in. Chapter III the femEnist perspective has had the greatest impact 0[1 the current gene:raltio.[JJ of socialresearchers, How might this perspectfve Jnflueuce researeh! Alt:holllg'h. researchers mustb e objective, their theoretical orientationmayinfluence tbe q~]es~ tiens t:lley ask-OF; just ;<15 important, the questions tbey fai] to ask. Until recently, £0'1' example, researchersfrequently studied work. and. the family separately, Yet feminist theerists see thetwo spheres of a.ctivity <IS being close]y integrated. Simihdy. work and .. leisure, paidand unpaid dm:l'l!esl:icworkrnay be seen, Iilot as, twoseparate spberes.1hut as, two sides of the same coin.

Feminist theorists have also drawn researehers' attention to their tendency to nverlook women intheirstudies .. For most of thehistory .of sociol(,)gy~ researchers conducted studies of male $iJbj,ects or male-led groupsand oJgmi.zaitions. and. 'Ulen ge[]em1~ ized their findings to all.peop]e .. For mrny decades.for example, eth:n:mgI'3.phic stud~es of urban. life focused em stlreet comers.



Femjll'li~t theorists see! UIH ,gliOlOa!1 uaffickiilmf! of sex workers ,[IS one siglnl of aJ ~IIQse r:elcr~onshdip l:Ietweelli! the two suppocsei:lly se pii;llraw v/or1ds; of ind ustiriOiI natia I'IS iillnd title derellopilll(g mation 5 tha~ dielle rul en tliJem,

neighborhcod tavems,. and bOM1U,g all.eys-plac:es wII.1!Epe men. typically congregated .. Although reseerchers .gained some V<llua]b.l,e insights in thi'iway, they did [1I0t f-orm a true impression of city 1ife,because they everlookedthe areas where WOIl'n~[11 were~ikely ~o gJ)lltheL'1 such as playg;rOl!Inds. gi~()Cery' stores, and .front stoops. These are the arenas that the feminist perspectlve fOG1l.SleS on,

These concerns can be seen in the in:rup<lc.lI ofthe feminist per'spec;tive DIll globa]. l~e.seat:r1:h, Tofelt]in:n:L:sl: theorists, the traditional distinction between industrial. nations and developingnations O>!1eclooks the dose relatinnship between these two supposedly separate 1WOdds;. Feminist. theorists have called fermere research onthe special: role thatimmigrant WO[llei'l .p:]ay in maintainmg their homeho]ds; on the use of dmnesti.c workers from less. develeped nations by households iu industrial. nations; and onjhe gl.ob~. traffickilJg of sex: workers (S. Cheng 2003; K. Cooper et al, 20(]7; Sprague 2JOnS)..

Finally; feminist researchers tend to .n1.vo1ve and consult their subjectSI.norelhan other researchers, and. they are more orientted to\i!{fltm seeki.ng chamg;e, :ral~i]]g the public canseiousness, aud.influencing JPoli.cy;. They are parri.oulm:ly opell to a multidisci.pEnary approach, such asmakinguse of historical evidence or le,gal studies CT, .Baker 1999; Lcfland 1975; Reinharz 1992).

Technology and Sociological Research

Advances in ted:mology l~.ave ,a:ffect:edl all aspects. of ourlives, and sociological research is no esreption, The increased speed and capacity of computers are enl3ibling !>oci.otogisl!:s. to' handle larger and. larger sets of data. In the recent past, only peOjp'.le with grants or ll:Jajorill.Stitut]Oinaii support eoold easily work with census data, Now anym:n.e widl <I. desktop computer and modem can. access census information. and learn mcee about social behavior, Mort-over, data from fO,.I.'eigll countries concerning crime statistics, and .. health. care are sometimesas ~.va:ilable as information from the United States,

Researchers usuall1ly relyon computersto dealWIltl] ~uan titative data=-tha tis, numerical measures=-but elactmnic lechno.l.ogy

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

is also assistingthem l>v.ith qualitative data, such. <IS informarion obtamed in observatfonal research, Numerous software pmgr~JJ:ns, such as EililJJ,ogl~apb and NVivo 7, aUow the researcher not only to record observations but also te ideutify communbehavjm<l1 pattems erceacernsexpressed in interviews. For exatlJlp]e1 after 0 bserving students in. ;j!i. college cafeteria over several weeks and putting her observations in1tothe computer, a resesrcher could gnmp allthe obSerV<l.tiDrtS according to certain variables,

__ 1.., .;~ - ... ,.,' - ~~ -..J ,_ jti'

SUng as- SlQromty or stU.lill gro [[po

The Internet aH'otdl.:s an excellent oppm'tm:il:ityto communicate witbfellow resesrrhers, as well as to locate useful infcrmatiun on social issues that hasbeen posted on 'Web sites, It would be lIfiYpo.ssibJeto calculate allthe soeiological .. pos.tingsOll] Web sites m Internet mailing lists. Of'course, l1e~ea[che.rsneed. tOiilpply the same critical scrutiny to Internet material that fhey would Ito ai'll}' printed resourre,

Howuseful isthe Internet {or eenducting survey researchi Tharis s.tilJ. unclear, Itisrelati.vely easy to send out ;iii questionnaire m: post one on an electronicbulletia beard .. This~e(lu].iqueis all inexpeasivewayto :re3Jcb.]arge numhers of potential respondents and get a ~uick response, However, there ;!iI:re SlQH!!f': obvious dilemmas, How do you .pJio;tect arespondent's al.lJ(Dn.yn:nit),! How do you define the petential audi:ence.? Even if youJbJQlw'l!owimm you.se[ll.[. the que!>tionna:ire,l:he. ]'espOllcl.entsm;i1Y forward it to others, Weibbased SUl"V'.eys aeestill in. their eady stages .. Eve:!]. :5:01 the initial results are promising, Iv;, noted in m;u description of the Adlers' research on sell-injury, discussion grDups. chat mnms.and other collectives sene as an. extensien of Go:I]vent~onatl!fuce-lo-face gmujpS:.

This new technology 1S exciting, but there is one basic: limitation to the methodology. Just as telephone surveys work only with those w1),o ma.ve <l.C(:ess ta, Oil telephone (see Box 2-1 on page 35}, Irnernet surveys work on]y with those who have access to the Internet and are online. Por some market researchers, such a limitation rs acceptable .. For example, if you.weJ:1e interested in the willingness of Internet users to order books or make travel reservations online., limiting the sample population to fhose

ReseaFC~el1S ~se laptop eamputersto tabIJII1ate s!lIrvey rlBSpillliSl8\5, access darta rm m othe r stu dies, 11 ndl rS[]!J)Hj~h'E!'ir otJ\s€:r~tiion:J;i,


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

who are already online makes s;.eDl·, However]. if you. were surveying the general public abouttheir plans. tobuy a computer in the COI'l1ing ye£m or their views on. a particular C<lIlididiate] your online research wouldneed to be supplemented by more traditional sam :pIing procedures, such as mailed questionnaires,

We have seenthat researchers Tely on. a number of loots> from time-tested. 0 bservational research and use of existing sources to the latest in computer technologies, The Social

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

flo1i,cy section that fnllews will describe researchers' effortsto smvey the general popnlation about a controversial aspect of social behavior: h.1UJ]aH st"xuali~y; Thisinvestigatism w,as, 60]]]plicated by its potential social policy implicatiunev Because in theresl world~. sociclngical research can have f.a.r~rf:<lchiIn.g consequences for Jpubl.:ic poHcy andpublic welfare> each of the fnllowing chapters in this bcok win close wrth a Social Policy section,

S;tudyil11g IHuman SexuaUty




• (11/10>1: :S,~lIson

0"41105 :S,@ason 7'0%.


The Issue

ReQlJity TV"show.s often. fea.tU:l:e an aUern:pt. to create a relation~hil? or even a.m.il.n,,]agebe1tween. two strangers. In a picturesque setting~ an elig;i.ble bachelor lOr bachelorette interviews potential partnel.'s-a1JJ. of them. good-looki:ng-' -and gradu<illy eliminates these who seem less promising. The questions that areposed on camera can.be eAlJlicit. "Haw .IJi],an.y sexual partners have you had?jj'~~How often would.}'Dlilhe willing to have sex?'"

The Kaiser Family Pourrdatien conducts regular studies of sexual content on television, The latest report, releasedin 2005; :shows that more than two-fhlIiQS of all TV shows include some sexual content-c-up fsom a bout naif of aU. shows seven yeusearlier (Figu.re l-S). Yet the foundation's 2007 study showed that only T 7 percent of parents 1!1Sle' electronic means, sud! as the V-chip.!:o block TV content that 11]31 beinapproprlate forchildren, Media representaticns IQf sexual behavior are important, because s.urV1eys of teensand ymll.]]g adl.l.Ib teU. us thattelevision is one of their ['OP snurces cfinfermation and ideas about sex. TV has, more influence on yOl.l.ng people's conceptions of sex than $ChOO~5, parents] or pe.ers; {Kai~e'l' Pamily ]FoundaticHl. 20(7).

In this a;ge IQf devastating sexually transmitted diseases.there is

.:'~ • t t t . • <;'..r:: c.1I ~ di

nO~.I.I]e n'lOI"eU1i:iPor ani . nmerease OUI scremnrcunnerstandmg

ofhnman sexuality. AI; we wi1~ see, however, this .is a diffirmt topic to eesearch because of a]] the ]J . reeonceptions, myths, and beliefs people bring to the S'UbjOCl of sextl1ality .. How does one carry out scientific research on such a controversial and pers'onaltopic?

The Setting

Sociclogists have' .1:DtI:~.e reliable national data Dill patterns of sexual beba.vim in the United. States. Until recently. the on].y cornprehensive :Sludy of sexaalbehavinr was the famous n,vo-vu]ru.ne Kirlsey RrJPCJ~t, prepared .. in the 1 '5I4~ls (Kinsey et al, 1948], 1953·;. see also Ige 2007). Mtrl1.ough. ttbe Ki,~s,er Repm<! is stillltvidely quoted> the volunteers, interviewed fortlJ.e report wert: notrepresentative of the natiOi[l.~s adult population.

In part, we lall reliable data on patterns of sexual. bebavior because it is difficwt fm researchers to ebtain accurate inwrona1ilon albOlllt this; sensitive subject. Mo:reove.T, until MDS en'l.ergac:[ inthe ]9'80s, therewas little sQelJlti6c: demand .fOI data on sexual hefua.vior, except fOl specific: conc:erl1!S such as contraception, .Fin:illy; evenl U1Qitllghthe AIDS crisishaszeaehed dramatic pmportinns (as, willbe discussed in Box 19-1. OIl. page 42:5)] governznenr fimding fOE studies. of sexual behavior is controversial. Becausethe General. Social


,Q +-------~~~----~------------~--~~--~~

.AII Shows,

If' ri:meti:me s hews 0 n major l'I@tworks

Smver ecncerns sexual attitudes rather thanbehavior; its funding: has not been jeopardized,

Sociologica.l lnslghts

The omllIDoveuy surroondingresearch on human sexual behavior raises the issue of value neutrality (page 40), wb.[ch becomes especially delicate when one considers tile relationship of sociology to the govemment. The federal g.ov:emment has. become the major source of fi..mWng for SQ ci.O'logical research, Yel MaxWebe~r lL1:rged. that socio'logyo:enl],ain an OIUt.r.HI0l11OI[1J' di$cipline and not become mndu.ly influencedby any one segment of :soddY. A~coHli.Jing. to 'Weber':" ideal of value n.e1utraH1ty> sociologists .lTIUSI. remain free 10 revealinformaticn that is emharrassingta the .gov.eTJIment], or for tha.tnlii11tte1~, supportive of gover..DI'll!f:nt :i[llstit1!1tiol'ls.

Although the American Sociological. As.,~oci.<Jition>5. Code !!If Ethics requires sociologist;;; to d:i.sdo$e <ill.fund.i.1l.g souzces, it does not address the issue of whether socio.1.ogists who accept fimding feom <II particular agency or cnrporetion :mary also aeceptthe ag.e:mc;y's. perspective on what needs to be studied, As we :saw in om discussion of research funded by the Exxon Corporation. {pifl,ge 40), this questien is <II knotty one, Asl:Ihe next secJ.ionwill. show, applied sociological reseazch Oil. human sexuality bas run into political barriers,


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

P'olie), initiatives

In 1987tbe National Institute of Child. Health and HUIIClan Development sought proposals .£:0][ a national survey of sexual behavior; Suciolog,ists responded witth various plans that areview panel of scientists approved for flunding,. However, in 1991] the US. Serna te voted tn forbid fundjng any sU['yey efadult sexual lPl-ac:~:ice.'l" Two years earlier, a similar debatein Gr,eat Britain. bad. red tn the denial ofgov>Enu:nent fllm:iimg for a national sex Slu:,vey (.A~ JohI!S10n ett al. 1994; Lanmann et al, 1994a.:.::Hi).

Despite the vote hy the u.s. Senate. sociologists Ed.ward.

Laumann, John Gagnon, Stuart .Michae]s" and Robert Michael developed. the National Health and Soeial LiJe s,1JJ.rvey (NHSLS} tobetter understand the sexual practices of adults in the United States. The researchers raised $L6, million of p.riv{ij:te funding~o make their study possible [Laumann et <Ill] 994<1, 195Mb),.

The a uthers of the .NHSlS believe that their researchjs impertanf. Theyiiu'gue that using datil! boll. their :SllJrvey allows 111$ to more easily address public poLky issues such as AIDS. sexual harassmeat, welfare .reform, sex discrimination, abortion, teenage pregnancy, <IJJld faTuily planning, Moreover, the research flnding.s help to connter seme cnmmonsense notions. For instance, contrary'bo thepopularbehefs that 'lNQ[lle[l regularly 111$e abortion. for birth cnn trnl and that poor teensare the most ]ikely socioeconomic gr{)il~p to have abnrtiens researchers found tthat three-fourths of all abortions are the first fOir the woman, and. that well-educated and afflueirtwosnen are mereHkelyto have abortions than poor teens (Sweet 20(1),

The usefulness of the NHSl$ in addressing public policy issues has preved in:f1Jl!lentiaJ.[n an effort to. reduce tbe occurrence of HIVI AIDS; scholars ;;JJIUIilIld The wnridare nQW .st1i:Jdying human sexualbehavior, Figure 2-6 S~.1I0'!i\rS some of their data, compiled hy the United N<litiOllJ; ..

Eeen 1:11 nationswhere gp\ilemn1.ent officials once shrauk from .. rn,]]~cti.ng data. on such a :sens:i.ti~ .'lulbject, attitudes are changing. In. China; for example], scholars are awme of 1IiI]e NHSIS and. have begun to collahnsate with. sociologists in. the United States on a similae sind)' :[1] China, The dataaee just nowlbein:g anmy.z:ed,. hut respousesthns .&r indicate dramatic differences in. the sexual behav~or of people ]]lllleiJf :lOs, com]JClted to behavior at the same age by peop:~e who are now !tn. their 50.s. ¥m:m.ger-gener'l.tio]] Chinese are more active sexually and have more partners than their


1 ~16~9



J<lmaica ~~



usA " I

Canada 11+1







1- ..... 1 :;l>I!),.7

Spaii'ri ID !ta,liy D



J 22


.. ~ I

I ! I I


Ag@ in yli!<lrcs


parents. did. P:artliy.un response ito these preliminaryresehs, the Chinese Ministry (If Health has so'lllght U.S. aSSlst;moe em HIV I AIDS preventien andreseareh (BI<MVeTman 20(]2-.; Parjsh et al2-(07).


]. 010 you see anymerlt in the pcsition of thosewho Qp'pocSe gov:erument funding for research on sexualbehaviori Explain JOl!H reaSOmlll[l,g.

2. Exa,c1t~y how could the results of research OEl human sexual behavior be used.to control SE,XIllaJJ!y transmitted diseases]

3. Compare theissue of value neutrality in. gove'nllment-:funded research to the sameissuein cerporate-funded research, Are coueerns shout conflict of mterest [nore or less serlousfn regard to. govemm.entfunding:?

gett il ngi nvolved

1ro ~t involved lin the de~bate 'ow,r research onl human s€Xl!Jla:nty, Visit this. book's Qnllif!€ learnling C@IIlIW.r, whi:cl1 oftfers II~nk!5 ito :~el~evmlit Web si~e5.



Using Statlstlcs

11'1 'their effo!l"[ to better understand secial behavior, $ocl.ologists .r.ely hea:vUy ennumbers and slBtjs~k:.s. Hew have attitudes toward the k:gaIizB:tioitl of marijuana changedeeer the past ~O years? A quick lcok at the N!:SUIl:S of ] 2 national sunreY$ .shows, thllit wb.i~.e suppo:rt for.legal.i:z.acion of the drug has increased, it remains .relatIvely weak (Figure 2:-7).

The most common sannnarymeasuresused by sodolnglsts are. percentages, means, modes, and medians, AlP ercen.t:a:,ge shows 8J po.r~iDn [llf 100. Use of percentages allows U$ to cempare groups of d~JfferC]ll


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


sizes.Per ('.xam.pk:,~f we were tComparrng IInallcialcOl'itriblJl[ors, to ,81 town's Baptist and Reman Catho]k churches, the abso] ate numb ers of mntrfburtors in each group GOIl.I.d. be mis.l.ea.d:ing if there were manymon~ Baptists than C.SJthoUcs in ruewwn. By m,ing perumaJge£j' we could obtain a more mea.lli.llgfu]. comparison, :s.b:Qwing the proportion. OF perso:lfIs in. each groupwho conrrlbutete oi':uu:rdu:s,.

TI.1J.~ mean, Oil 1m1'erl1g~ is a ulll~lber c.1I.culsred by adding a series ofvalues and then d.iv.~dingbythe number of values. Per example, tofind the mean of the nnmbers 5, ] ~l. and 27> 'We add them mg,~tllel" (for fl. [otrt1 tlf Sli), rul¥idc by thenumber of values (;3). and d.lisC:Dve:r that the mean i" 17.

The .lMod!e isthe single most cernmeu value lna series of scores. Suppose we were ]oo.king at the fDU~wing scores OHa to-point quiz;

10 7
10 "I
9 'I
9 6:
8 :I
8. @ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1


90 84%
....... 60
~ 50.
'~ 0, n%


Themode=-the most. frequent score onthe qlli.z-·is 7,Wh.n~thc mode ]s easier tD id.~:I1tkfy than other !j.!,lmmary measures.It tells sodo]ogisls little about all '[heo;U,er values. Hence, you willfind much less use ohbe modein this bODk dl;an of the mean and the median ..

The median ls ffie midpoint 0.1.' numhertbar div.idcs a series of values :L~ltD['IAIO groups 'of equalnemhers of values, For tbe qw.z just discussed, tile mooi,am. or central vaill.Il1t:, is. 8. 'Ihe lucan], ,or average, would be 86 ([be sun] of all scores) divided by 1] ([h.e total number ofscores), 0.[' 7,8.

In the United States,. the median .~.10US€l.10~.di:[Icome for the yea .• 2: (Un l,.WLS ,$50,233;: It :L!;ld.icates that ha:~.f'of IJim .b c ru~s~dlO]d::!i had incomes above $50,2.33, whil.e half hadlower incomes (OeN3Iva.s- Wsill:t et al, 2002:6),. In HU:ny :l"e.s::pe.cts. the median ]s the IfIIOll[ characterisrlc value, Aldmugb h may not r~1tlecn. the FUJI rangeof scores, .~t does appmXimSi[e the typi.ml. value in a SCl elF SC~)irCH:]. and Ir isnot affected by extreme sCO:Ir{'S,.

Some of lhese S'tiillUS;UCS miil.y seem !Co.n6.1sing at fi.rst But think .how diffk:u.U it ]s to comb an endless list of numbers In .idemir.fv a

- _. . . ~. .

pattern nr ceutral tendency, Percentages, means, modes, and. medians are esse~ .• thdlilnec-sa versin s,od.()\I.og,ic[)~ research and.analysis,

Reading Graphs

Tables andfigures {that is, graphs] a.L~ow social scientists [0 d:uspJay data and. develop their conchisions more easily. During 2001-2005, d'lJC Gallup pol interviewed 2,:03JJ, petlp]~ Inthe United Sta~es;, ages 18 and. ever, Each respendent was asked, "Do you. think dlJi! useof marijuana should be m:i'lcle~e!g3it ol."noH" Widwut: some type of summary, there i$ Il.Gway that analysts could examine the hundreds


t: 5'0
2 ,40
0 Y.e~!.I@g'ill

• Nla, iII~ga I

70% ,......;...









M@~, algl@ 18 W, ·49

M~n" Ci9Jrl! SO and old@r

Wome'F1l, ag@U!W49

Womli!l'iI. ,ag'!:! .50 ilrld okl@r

Lf!ga Ilf:2<1tion of Ma ~i1iu,alHa by G,!'!!m:l@f a I'iId Ag@ 2mn-100'5 aggFe<gafl@

of individual respons~s, to tll:is question and .reach.t1Lrm COI]C.llJ1SlfHM, One type of sunu'l'll.ary seciclogists use, a ctOssrtabuilatiou, Sh.DWS the rd,('I!l1onshu.p between .t:1.VO o.r more varlebles, Th.rough the CIlO:s.Stabulatiens presented gm:pl1i.c~dJy til Figure 2-8, we carl qu:id!1y see that o:Mer peop]e Me .!e&~ li.k.c.~y to favor the legi:lJ.~]za tion of marijuana than younger people, and that women are less supportive of 1~alizatlen thanmen,

Gmp.l1s, .l:i:ke tables, can be q ulte useful ten sodologlsts, And. illustrations an: (I ften easfer~or the general. public to understand; whether tiler ,fll",e ill ~lewspap~rs '01' ill Pow,~r.Pdint presentatlons, Stil, :IlJS with all data, we needto be careful .how they an: presented ..

APPIEN D,IX I ~ Writing a Re·siearc.h Report

Lct's say you have decided to wrire 3. re:pmt on coh8Jbha~]on (unmarried COlll.p]e."l Hving togerhex) .. l~pw de you. go about doing the n,ecessi1l~1' libraryres!e~m;:h? Students must foMow procedures simller to tho Sir used by :s.od.ol.ogistsu:li.I. couducting origlna] iresC'.8!.rc.h.For yonr.flirst s;tt'p Yl}U must define the problem thar you. wish to sl:ud.y--perh.ar~~ in this case, how much cohahi.tation. occurs and wh 11~ its fm.pac·~is 01) ]ater marital happh'lJC$s ... T.be next step ]is, to re'V]ew the ~ilter.illtl1rej whichgenerrul.l.y requires libra.ry research,

The foUowimg :steps wiU be helpful in :fi.ndi:ng !nffio fmat]OFli~

L Check this texthock and other textbooksthat you IOWI1. Don't forgetnC! hegin with the materials do!scst M hand, .. includii .• gtheWeb sire associaeed with this textbook, W'I!Y'1.¥.lnhhe.mmjscha!.!~r12e.

2. Use the library rn'tB]og.. Cnmputerized .l1b.mry systems now access not on]ythe college Hh:rar¥,s collectien but also book$lfInd Illliag.aziues frem other .1.ibrald.es.,3vaiiahle l.hral.l.gh.i:nterlibra:ry loan s, These systems aJ.I.ow you to search for books by amhor 0]" [it.!,L',':, ¥O'!UCIfI.l~ usc title searches to [ocate books hy s'ubjed as wc]L Feu e:x:8Jm.p.k~:>if you. search 111C Litle base for the kerword cohab:it(;lrlot1:, you win learn where books wkh thai word somewhere in the title are ]tlcatcd In the Hhrar;i's book stacks .. Nearthese books wHI beether wodi;;s on Gohsio]t:11:iOIDi that l'U<l.y not happen to have ~ba[.."ord. 1]1 ~:h€: tide. You I!i'lar also W8J.nt W searchothetyrelated, 'kc~Dtrd:5, such ;8JS ;re.mmarriea cO~jp~es,

3.llflvest:i.gnte: uslng compll terized per.i.od.icii)] ].nde-xes W they are aVilll]3!b.le in. you.r library. S'oci.oiogka r i!.b:s.rra:cts nnllne covers 'UOI$! sociologkal W:dtf.llg ,sil.lC(': 196.3, In 2008, a search of jast d1J.:is one database found ]]l!(UC than 1,666 d(J.CUIUCnli5. having either rol:iabiMtj.O'H or utltnar.ried couples as keY'WG rds, Some dealt wirh lal'!,!,i's. shout cehabitatkm, whHe otbers focused on trends in other countrles, If you .[Umit:ed your topic 1:0 same-sex couples, yDu~.vound find 72 cltadons. Other electronic databases cover general-Imerest perlodicals {Time, M~.,. No,tirmt!l R:ewie14l;. Adanac Momhr}'~ and so forth], reference m.ale,.r]al.~, er newspapers, These e]elrl:ron.ic Sys:I.C'Il1:sm.ay be connected In a printer, aHowing you to produce your own printout complete with b.i.bliographic . lnforuiauon, and sometlmes even m,"'1ilI.p~~ete copies of articles,

4. Examine gOl{{,l"n.mcnt d.ocmm;l~t,$. Ti.lI.!2: U,S. gGiVcrnlltie:nt, stares and dUT0S, endthe United Nat~!J)n$ pubUsh. hlfonuadon on vltM1aUy every sub ject of lnrre.res:t to soda] science researchers. Publicarious ofthe G::l'l:SU;5 Bureau, for example, Include tables showing the number of unmarried couples [ivingtogelher and some social characrerlstlcs of those housel),p]ds, Many university Kubraries have access toa wide ra.l1ge of .g(liVerUnlent reports, Consult the librarian for ass,i$ra.l1ce in locBJt[ng .sudFl. TI11;3Jte:rf.al ...

5. USC' I~ewSraper$, MiJjor .newspape.rs 'pu1b]isb indexes annl11aUy G!r' eve~.1 weekly thaI arcuseru~ ]11 .Ioc;rudng infom131.ioll about spedt:lc !~ve]]ts o.r iss!]cs. Acade.m.l.c Universe News is ::3Jn Id.ec.trGnlc .iudex.lo U.S, and. ~~rltcrnalionaill newsplflpel"'s.

6. Asl{ people, org8Jnizatuo1l1s, an·d ~gencicsmncenled w.il~.Ule topic for I.flformatloj] and. .8iS,STSH!.1.1C~. :Be IfIS specific IfIS possibJe in m8!!k-

46 iflgrequesEs. You .Il'l]gh[rereive very .dJffercn[ infnrll1ar.ion on th~


I @ The Md3railh'-Hjlll


issue .of cohabimtion&om.hl.lki.ng with. marrlagecounselors and wIth dergyf-rom differentrel lglons,

7. [f you run into d.ifficu.~des, consultthe Irrstrucror, tClfld~.ing a."S]Stant, or reference lihtarian at your coliege Hbr8!ry;

A\~o.rd. of caution: be extremely carefulin using the Internet 1:0 do research .. Much ofthe :~nfonl:latio]) on. the Internetis simply [~1C(m"e'ct-eve.m ]~ ir looks au thorilaltive, ]S accompanied byhnpresslve .g!r:8Jp·b.iC$, or bas bcen\lfI.d.cJy clrculeted .. Un.l.ike thcInfonnatiou In a. lIbra.rr, whkh IHllS[ be screened by a .high~y qU9!.1lHi:[':d librarian, ":in.formati.clu" 'on the Internet cem be created and pos;ted by a~':I:yone Will] acomputer, Check the iliiO urres for ~~.ei.nt:onnaruu()n and note the Well p'<1!ge spousor. Is the anthor qUl:1lit'itld towrite o.n the sublec[~ Is the.ainhor e'vel~ .idenl::i:[k~df lsthe \tVeh page spo.nsor Hkel.y (.0 be hiased? VlheFlle:ver possible, ny to confirm what you have read O!f~ th:e Ir.I~el':ne[d1U\ou:gh 3. weU-k:n:lOwf.l,repu.taJble sourceor organization, If the 3:Gcu.racy of the ]nfonnatioll could be a.tl~c'l:ed. by how old. it is, check the date on whlchthe pa~ <Or article WiJS created or upda[ciR. Used. In[c].mgcndy,dlc Internet ]S a wonderful mol. that oOJe1l's studentsaccess to n:l8Juy oK the reliable print sources noted earlier, indud.i.ng govemmem decumems andnewspaper archives e:X:l:~nd.i.tTIg backever a century.

Once }TOU have ecmpieted ii1]~ you. researeh, you can begfn w:ritiulJ; the report .. Here are a few tlps:

Be sure thetopic you have- chosenIs nor 'too broad, 1"0111 must be able to oovt:r It a.dequ.iJtdy in a.reasenable amount of timeand a reasonable number of pSigC'>.

Develop an OlllHlhle for YOlJ.r report, You should have enlntroductlenanda eencluslon that relate to each Ol!her-'lI.l"l:dd~:e d]S,CUSr sion should proceed ~.ogi.caUy tbmugb.tlut the p8Jper. Utile heading,,, wlthln the paperif they wHl improve clarity arid organizatien, Do not leave :8i:~1 the writing un til the .las:1J: mmure, U is besa to wrIte a .I:o~gh draft, let .ut sit for a few d~.ys. and then take afresh leek l~efo1(lL'! begi.m:l:i.ng revislons ...

[If po>ssib]e, read ymu paper aloud, DO]rIig SIO m~r be bd;pful iu locating S(!;cItiO!l1JS or ph:riilses that don't make sense .

Rernembel" lilal you. must;· clte all .~.n[o.rm:ation you J~a.ve ob!t~illi~d fro m other sourol!s"i:ndud]:rJig the Imer.llietPl.agtiil.rusm~1i <1 serious academic offense ]:o:r which the penelties are severe, rf you use an a.u[h.or's["xaL~word$, 11.is essenrladjhat yo.U place them ]11 quetatiou marks, Even lf you reworked SOll1(10IJlC else's ideas, y!;)U IUUSt indIcate the source of thoseideas,

lneludlng Cltatlons and, Ref,erences

S~;).I::t1Ie pmEessm:s ma.y requi:re thoU :5.[l.ldents, lJS,f:; fuowotcs. tn r6ea.rch I'CPOl"ts. OLi'le.rsw]U al]ow :smdents to cmploy the fann of :referen:cing u.(>~ m th.i$tex~boQk, w.h:i.ch fol.lows th.e [onnal of~he A.m.e·.I".i.can S.odol:ogica:l. AssocIation (ASA).lfY{!Iu SiL~e "(Merwn 1968~27)" Usned. ;lfit.er a. stateme.nt Of' p.uSlgn.pn. it mC.9J:I1S d'!J.a! d1e: mater.ialhas been


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

quoted. from. piilge2_;7 of a work pulbltis:hed. by Merton In 1968 and ~s,wd. Inthe reference sectlon at the back of rhislexibook. (For further guidance, visit the ASA Web sJ~e>'W'II!\11'V.asa.nei:.Qrg, and in the sidebar on the left -hand side of the homepage, click ou"Pu blleatiens," [hell


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

"louruels," and then '~.sA leumals Home;" ¥ouw:iU be C011UfiCtc;d to ~he ABA §oUTI1i1ds. home page. In we sidebar on the .r.igh.l-h8J.I:lid. slde of the page, under ''A,u thor's Co[,ner," dick on "Instrucrionsto Authors" to vlil:W the Preparatiou Chtdd:i.s~ far ASA Manascripts .. )


SQc:i:[J!~.ogi:s.b, <lire !;('m:m.Dt~ed~o thii!' USe 1'.11' the- SC~eJiI;tj:Elic:rn.t;tluld in 'wei:1l Fese;art~] eHOttll., ].11. this (bapr[~J-We exami.iIledi the basic pti:li:l[;iprle~, (lhhe scientlflc Kl'1E'thod and i!itlld:ued v:uio!lc~ techniques 'LiIse:d 'by ~ociolog~5ts i[l co:n,cJ!'l.ilc611l~ researrh,

L 'rhfll':e:3reEiiv'e hasic i!i;tte'p~,m~be .sdemtrull1.:: meth~d: d~fminl.g the pmb~eit.l" :r!2'\':iew:Dll!llrrhe Ute.ra:h.il.rre, fOntll·llaiti.ng the hYllot~l.e.."L~, colItlctinrB and a.n.alyzin~ tbe d~i1l, and d~'!i'eillDl?i:[Ig the oQDndiL}~~cll.

2:. Wh.e:ne'ver teosemrcitets wil'l!hi. to £ludy 3.iJstn'l.d rtlillicfrpt.'I, s.udi!. ::'is jnt:e.m,ge:ilce orp.teju,dI]ce,. I::h,ey 1J!jJ'LiI.t:;t develup war.kalble- 0P~~ll:tj~,na1 d.effin:i:rions.

3. A hypoIW.e:;i;s ",tales a poti'ii.MJe telatiol)lsh.ip bettwe€l!l!l'>Vo O[ m6:re ",;]:ri~b!Il;l:;;,

,I,. lB'y~tsilil.g 3. sample, :;ociologists "mid 1]@f!,1:iIlg hJrtf'st everY-0Ile in 3. pU'pm~a~l()il.

5. A:Ct(]i[.d:i.ng 'tio the ~i'E'nti.fic method, ]"e·.~n:h resllIltl!l. must possess b(c) t~l 'l"3.l:ld:i:ty an.dll'eHiI.bi'l:ity.

6" j\uI_Tnpor-ta[J!iI: part o.f ~c;ie'nti:fic~:S!E:'ar-ch iii die"i~iIlg iii phm fur collett~.niS data,can.led a rl¥.~ea:~dI. design. Socin~.og'sts u~ef{)'LiI[ major ['~-5e<l ... ch designs: lIlu:rvry~> ol:i$~It\'lI.tkHl, eXiP~rnn~~nt$" <li:Hfud E'xW!:;liJJg SOUlX""S.

'Criticall Thlinki ng' Questiions

L StliP'poseYOil)iI ~.o[.i~)logyin:tstmc[(!ir has. ;;Is!ked JUU II[) dna ~tllid)y of h(]rIIl'e;le:ss:ne;~s, "V~lird] re,'!:~al't;h '~etbn'iqllf'! (sut\!\q. ohs Ell"vll.fi;o FI!, exp..eTi:ment, o['~-.xistil:l~ flo1i.ltc'e1l }wbttld.yoll.] find 11l1.ust. Ilsefu]? .How '1,I:,oI;JJdyo'lI uJ>~ th!lI'~ techniql!le to ~mp~~t-e:yOil)l~' ~l;!.~i~nme[lt?'

2:.Huw can a !>oc:in!o8is;~ .El,€[IuineJynla.inta:in. v.m.htEl[l(!It.il.l:r:nJitywhile s:t;udying; a g[I01;ljJ th"t h~ U[ ~,.i:ue find.<;;l:eplJlg:nanr (for e-"amp~.e, a

Key Ter.ms

C!lU'831111:II,gie H1,e reI8tion,s'tiip I'i.etwe,en e rr:~mdiil:i:M OF' 'JIElriEil::ile anda parrtie:UI'sJ' rr:~n seQuen oe .. ,w ith one event ~e8Jdlinlg to the oi~lti,e r, {pa,ge30)

ciude or ettd.Gs lrH~ stan,ej.ar,os o:f <IIccept.ab~e tl!:~hrfl'l.(rQr de'!,lle.i'qped by.and for me. mber:S, .pi iii prof'es5ion. (38)

C'ID\Ot'li'lll!lit IlIf1B1lysis The systematicDOcii,ng and objective retonj~lng; of daM, gu id:eCl iDV :SQme ra'tion:aJ~e ,. ~3 7)

CIUO:DIII ,g:roup Thee :subj,ec~5 in Einexp'eri'lTlienl 'WhoEi~~ not. in,trod,u~eo; to the i l1I~epench~!'l't variiaJl:Ue by UIE: H::se8i~t::her.1316}

C'ID\otjIlO:I varinab~lie A.fa etor th8lt is ne.litl censtan no, ·test the relativ& impact of ani linCl,epelfldent v.efiabte. fB;3)

ClurJi\I:mliltillllll A, reIEi'th:ntsh'i p, between, 'lwo ".al1iab~ml, illl which Ili ehe r:1gein one: coinrtide:s with ill 9na n,ge in, [h,e etner; (30)

Cross,.'iltabiuIDart.iclIIlIl A mJb!e or m,atri~ that: shows the te~S1t~on51:'J[p, beh'l'EN~~ two or more variables. (4.5)

b,e:peillld~rlt v;),rlaIMe lI'he,\i8 riableiltli Ell caUSB I, re latio!rlst].ip that is, ::l u bject to me ~nfluer!l.c;e of anotllena.riable. {~O)

Et:hll!lerJl'llIp:h~ Thes'wet)' of an e'l'litir,e social settir'iJi€lthn:Il.n~h e);;tencied: systemalleot:J.S.e.r\.la.H~IIl_ (35)

f. The It'J,VO .pt.inl::~pa~. forms 'of ~fl.ilr: .... e.r ~liie,nch a:r¢"Ifir<:iilil.tC'niew :;;Iud the qpe!'ltlol!l:l:Iair~_

3, OblSe:r.'\i'l!:il:1.(1!Il ... Ijowi,i !lPG~ol(llgisr.s to s:tudiy cer~a:i!nlb!.:'h::3,y~{]lr{! ;Ind ffilllununities that can:n(jlt Ib~ :u.n.ve.st.igalteil ~lroltgh [)t[je.[ reseOltch methods,

9.WI:lif!':n sot,io[oqisb;,w~'11 to :;rndy ~ 1C,aU$~~ .. nd~~Hoct.ri~~t]Clns.hiip. they may Ct;lll(]UCil: an e~e:ri:m!tIMll~:.

1.0. Suc:ioh)g;~M;s abo !tiakei:Ds.e' of exL~litl,g ~~oU[[,e."i[l !l1fl;QOn.,(I;aty 3ioaly:'I;S lUId ("oIJiIiIl!1l~ta:rlilllly$b.

1.1. The C9\de 0/ E~i!1'~Li!i ~y[ the J\,]]tle'.[ican Soc:uolog,k;d AS~(iti:aticn taU:; for 'cibjtttrv:ity an diitlte,grity in. rese;iTch,. cnn:ficleiilltiaJuty. ai:1.ct cli~dojlu;r,e of all SQIJ],r.:ce:~ ef'financial suppurL

12. Ma:xWeiber u:r,gedsoc:io]ng:is:t~ W pU,c,ti:t€ ",,3!I.I1!l nliiutrnlty if!. their research bYE."nsllI[lil1!J, th1l!t I:.he~t persona] fee.l.ings do nut :inf'hlenrce tlled:" ]:n:lteTptela.ti.on (lIf data"

13. Te<tb.n(ilo~y plays ·m'!. Im port'll m' w]e :in sOc:uO]oB.k~l research. wJletbe:[ if b~ a cUfflputer d):lt~ib:Th5e or infofm:lticm ,obttarnE!'d from tbeIIILte[.n,r::'~.

1.4. De:Splteiiiht:re ~o ohtai:n ~.o·\I(:!'r.nmenl"[und~niEl. rf'~al'cl:!ie'[!l developed 't~lIe NlItiDn1l1 H!.:'o1ihh a:[!d Sodal .lif~ SUFve}r{NHSlS} tel hetter u:ndet:starud l:he ~~eXualpnldice$ of <lidull:S, ill the Unit.ei:!J, States.

V\rbite :5up['!E~mati;!n 'O:rgOlilliiz1ItI.on., iI. satiJilliJC cult, Oll!. g~tntiP' (!of (O!!l!~ vic~:ed Up~St5)?

3, New tecbtlnlugie,s have: be:u:te:r.t~d :sociological research by fu,cilitating iSl1ltL"iticallllnalysiii and encClura.ging. c,on1ni1uni(:l!lll(:m aItlO['!B ~,ch()l· ars. Can:.-"o[t th:unk nf :lnyp~'l~e'1111al dr:1v ... ba.tJu; these: new techno.~.o~iei:i [nightbl..:ye-for ;sutiolo'gi,ccl i:nv¢stiga6or.i{'

EXI"erll'lllellll't "ll", :i3Jrl:Wci!Hly created situation 'l:hat alloWs a rese.:'3f,eMr to ma n npWBt\8 V8 !laDies. (:!l.S)

blpe~il!ilell!ltal .g)~JlIUIP The subjeG~ in IiIrlll e);;pe:riment who Eire exposed to <In mdiel:Jende:F!t vEI.Fiabl'e: IntrQduc:ed IbyO!ll researcher. (.3~

Ha'o'l'Unlll'm,e. Il:ffife,c:t 1I''J:E:l IlJnilllie\f'iI~ed IfI'{i,iJ;enD~that ,o1:lserver,5 of e?:Re:rl· me nts can hia,ve on, thei r ~ulijec:ts,. {$ '()

IHypo<tMles.is A spe,tiJIEI'~iflo'e $tatemJE:fit Bl::ioLittlie !'e.18:1I0n.shi~' betwfN'Hi two or more ui3riables .. ~$[])

nmdJepeil!llilent ",adl3ible The '~iEl rira o,tein a tEl Llsal !Fe l:atiD:l1sflip ttrat Ga,lj SoBs or il1fiuences: a than!l!ie i'l'l a S€cl!J.f'ild \.I'i3dable_ ~3,O),

~1IIi~IHvie:w Af8Ge1to·f;ace OIF '~B·r'ep:hone que:'!ltl(}n~ng of 8 respo,ildeillt ilD 01)'tailr1 desiifed lnfermatlon, (34)

Mean A numlber GB Icuia;ted IJV i'Hj1tilill1g ,<l ~ ede:s.. of v,EiI'uE:5. and tne:lIl, d~vidlln:g by the mJrtlIber (]{vilh.u;=,~:. (45)1

MJedi',aID Tl'ie rn id~ Q,i'nt or ,n'(JIl'1Ii::J.e f tha:~ g ividers a. series !Jif v~ I Ue5 i:r'ito ,two ~ro,up,s 0-1 eqLJa~ numtiers of vaklles. (4S),

... 17·· ..

Moille The sin~l'e most C·O:mIli'lDIl \l'slue Iril !31 seri,es or sC'oFes. ~45,~ "II'

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1


:1:2 .. A(~} ~ . is 11 speculatiiJ.Ie,st;lrern ent ~rimlillt ~liie relBtio ngMi~ be:tlll~B:n tl'j'.O' or m®re f1l~t01S knm'l'1II as "\Eilrisb~es,

13,. [eierski th e dElgr'BIl ki whkh iEI mea,8tJUl or scale uuf~ r~ilects!ll1e :JJhefilorrN~.nQn umler $~ud~.,

:141.. ! n lO.[,d1e·r to Obt8'irl g!latB ;sden~1fi~8[1'ly. reS€li;lrn::hers need '~ s~te~t i;lr reSe8rr'l;:ti1 ~

:15,. If scieliltlsfu were t.i'ls~ing.a ml\!l t!l'p'B[]'f~odl!il1ls'l:e in ,8,n ei(~e.ri;mental setij~, ~n@lY \';'ou1ld ;B(!ilJif!il'1;iSlte('Uie~odlp1lS!:e!,ID ,8.(lm~ , WOllirJ.

:11Ei!.ThIl. terrffii reml'll t[]' tJnre u n~nten:de·d imftlueJ]c8 tJn'Bt oiIlS!lIl'!.fer:ll of 'e:':p'B:rimeriits ~;!iIlf1I rt;Jalle on their subjectt'L

:1'7',. Uc~i!mg cen.su.!l 'dlaitar in a w~ 1lIImillLtB'n,d:ed b)1 'i,~ in'itj!a111:(J]lreetPrs w~wlld ~e aln i3i':armple of" ~

Schaefer: :So~ioIIDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

Olils,erviatJlmn A resea r,ch tecn.n iq ue in wn iell an. in",e8t~aro r co II·ec·tsiif'lIror· meUon throllBiti d!i:rect. ptartkip\6lt'io!1 and/or by closely watt:Jling a ,gr.oup or eomm unit)'. (3.5~

Olilet.alibo:lIlaW"h':,finJrtiO!IiI An exp,llElnElti;oi'! of ;!I'r] EiDstfai!;t caFu;:ept: th~t isiElpe· I::m~ enougn to B,lIow ili re~ea rcher to ilIsSesS; tn,e co:ruc:!f pt.~3ro ~ Pelr,c'entage A 11lOrtio'[l of 1.0'0. (44),

Qll!IaUr~aitJ]ve r·e!ieali'~~ lR,eseall'clh 'that relie.~ 1)'111 "';Fiat is seen ~n fiel:d or lflIat· urali~tk: :H:;:tt:rng~ more thanlp:rn :>Iatislk:al arata,. (34)<

QIllIantltati,vereSe3il\Cfil f;i'·eseaml"il til 61t Gm lectsa rid re.ports 'D!3ta prima ri I,y ~nn iJ menci!l I fOrlm, {34;)1

Qll!Ie8.tiulmnra~re A printed or writ!!en foul'll llSl8,d "to obtain h1:~ormat.i.o,n from ill respomlent.. p4~

Random ,SamIllple A 8!l1mplf;: for wnk,Mi ~velr_y member of an en~rre poPU~H" tioll M$ the 5 Ei'me cnarJ].[;e of bein€j SJ:":lectedl, (30)

Relilillbi1l:titili'ihe e:o:.ten~ to 'o'\f,hich a rneasure progl!J D8S consistent resid Its. (32} Rea,e,a;rch design A detailed ilhilln or method for IDbtaining IdEt~a scientllru· I::8!U¥. (33)

~ead each q'ue~uDn ta.rdlllllily al'l.IfttJillill seillct tJiJle be-st EI'I'!!~W~L :1 •. ThB flilSlt s~p in aln~ flOCioIQgi!C8[1 rese8:rn:h Ipmject is t(l

1iII., roll'eci da~.

b., De!lnre the lJ1Urblem.

0 •. re\fi~w pre!lious. researoh. dl. Iorml.lllaiIJ: ~I h)i1IlQthesill.

2:,. Alii le:l:p!1Ina~(ln l1i;:!l'!I iill~siJact l:(Jn~~~ tIi1'8t is~:ip!l:cif.i¢: ·eHougihto 811iDlW iii researcher

til ilITU;lallWrreUie conC.ll:lllllis a(n) iii. IIypo~he:;lis,

b, ~l;I[~!.atior:JI.

e, IlI'le:ranion.a[1 Dillin i~iolil. iii., ~'fi~blil,

3,. 'i1'l,8 v'.3Jrialble hypdlhesue-d '1O esuse or. iinilulln€!>Il anOOhe.r is called the 31 •. de~en;[J'e;m~ vlIna.bl.e.,

b. IIY"dliiill~c\ll\i\llrii;!llble,

c .. I:Vrre'liEI~i0l!11 ",,arn1lble,

~. ind'B:penililem I;'8Iril3blle<.

·4. iI,co!'llllarfio'n 'll~i5~ When

,iii., Dl!IIEl: \!,!lriiar~!:B' GEl u~s s{]lJI'e~rng~ []l:il::lillrril'll iililiJ[Hllril:rVl3r~1Iille. b, lW{I or rn,D<Fe l,fo!niEl DIES a~,fl e8 U5a]I,~ reTarei:l,

c., ·iI ~hl3n~ in (me \,a ri'alo Ie l;(Jin,cid ~i$ With 1'1 Chi;lrl'lrge'in iEllno~l:ilEir \'arn'Ello le, iii., ·iI ne,~):iitive: relatiol]ship ~bts l:ielvle<en two Vl3r~ a ilI8,

!:I,. lh rou.~ wiT1:ioCh~~pe oi resea rcht>lldlmiqLl18 rdlD eS: Ii ~Dci{fl~~fi~ eli1lfiLlrreUi!l~ data .8 re

sm~istically lI'BiPJeserrl:at~!leof tlile P'[]'pu latiofil Diliing !iIlIiliIied?r 3 •. s!ll'1'1~liilg

1:1 •. ID!per.imens. c .. 'oIBilidiity

iii .. rontro'l \l'8 riiEllb~es

6:_ II'!! mUilr 10, urtltl1iin ,1'1 ralm Eloom 58!lITl pl:e, ,8 rreS~i!iI'rdlBlr m i;gh!~

iii. ildmini\>ll~r iii q'~e8!i~mIilElirE HI 6'J'E:ry fiftl;! 'lffilTIlEl'n who e;nOOI!s, 11 Dl!i!1linfr?;S ofilil::e!, h., ~1Irnlne the IiIttitud'~s !1.f fl'l'.liiidenli'l, Qf ,8 ciW by inlenl'i~win g ever·y .2IlUi name in ·Ib~ city's 'lIBI:epllmnlll hmol,,"

bUlnoHDI ~(n) !l!JDup.

Sam pile, ,A, ::re:l gt1!:iOln, from 8J I a rger pop ulatie I'iI tha t. is stati stica II,y representaU/,e .of thElil:. population. {3'O)

Sd'·eilll'Hfic llillim:hed A systl8m6ltic, org!3lllized s,er'i'es dif steps. that ensures maxirrmlmobjec'tivity end consistent}' ill. researching e pJbbiem, (2:9)

SeeonllillJr¥ :tI1'I3rlili's,i:s, A variety o'f research tEH::hni'ques that m:;llle 1J!S1€'l' of previous,ly eolleetad and putJilidyam:!Essible iniormatlmll Sll'lId dail~ .. (37}

SiIllli'YeY A :sludiY, ge:neraUy i:n Ute form ,M an' IrrterVtew or questl:Oirlil.Eiire. tha'~ pmv'ldes reS'8art:h·~rs with Information sibimrt: .how ~8oplre thi'nk s'nD act .. (33)

V,aliiili'ty T'/1e degree to wn,id'J. :3, rneasllJ,re or IlH::81!e 1ruly :Lefie(:ts the phe· rJ.DmenO!'!, U'Me.r staJcfy. (3:2}

'V,a lillie nellli~raiitty M ~x Weber's [·erm fo rooEec:ti",ity or '$OClo.~OgilS;t5;i n 'the initellilretatiOn O'hiaW. NO}

\I',8rlable A. rhe:a,suf8!ble bait or t:n:Elr8!cl'ens'!:it: ~h""t is subject to Gna.ng'e u~deiF differertl con,dmon,s" (30)

e., Sl1~d~ lli!e: at(iltldlEiS OhE:!!Ij3tt'e''[ifld [)~ mocraiti ~ ~Dtefs b,~ clrl l)()fli'fI!g~f1I 10th nallITl 8 fr[]'UI~d ,[],n ,8 <CLt:!/S mn {)IF !i'egi.sre~dll)eml)cfiil&,

iii., do iill o~ 1);I1~ ,IiII:JiO~t;l.

7.. A reS6Sl[cm,~r Dan IilbtBJilik iI higJIer response. rare b~ usfn:e wlntillh l~~fr IJIf SUr!o\Ei'l'f' 3.,'111'1 inteJlIiew

b.'11 qU!1s1io,nm,aire

e, rtl~mls!lnta.t.ille sal'l'ljIDles d. ®bs~n.r;lili[)nreclii,iilriq LIeS

8 - lin th·e 1 93Gs, Wfil lam F. Whyte lJ:I O'l'frEl Int)], 81 1:O'll-in,com'8 'Itailis n n·eigMborllOod

in Bosllcm.1Fm nea rly fOUF .'I\?811iS, he IjIj\S~!5 :ill lJ:I ember nhhe socisn circlll !!If. "!l:OmElf b D\i'S" tflral~ he dllscrlililes LI'I Btreet CQ!l'.!'Jt'f SoEiefy. Hils ,gti'81 W.BS to gain grea'l.'er insiis,hrr ~Iiliwthe" colifllflilll!lnity esta:Mshe:dl by!he&e men, ~'l'tl:8r~IyJle .o~ ~estillreh tech'f]~qUfr [Ji:[f Whyte us.e?

8., erJi!penrne.nl 11., survey

e, sec()n[llsiry .af1,a1Iy.sis,

d., partlci P.aIr.Jl ub$e'rlo\stiio,R

9. W'he!'l s!!Ici['Jologists W8!ll[-!,ID .$tudiY.8 IlWisilb:!e oaullfr·end-e#ect. relatj,O:rlship. thB~

liIiIal( 'e.m~~ ij!') \!IliIa~ kind Of'.f,'ils.e8,~~ ~Bchn~quei?' a. etilrlilDgra!ll1i:!'

Iii. survey tfes~lrch

e. s~cof'ld:arry ,;:lnj3ly&i5 iii. exp~l'ime.mt

,iLO. ,BlIilile;D ulrk~I~:im's s.tatiiii.tic8rl anall'r.lill @f siw~cidr~ WiiNl' iill'Ie~arn JIDl:!:: of wlii.at. kilnd IJf

llies.ear£ih technique'? a, etIlln D,gral!PhJ1

iii., ob~F\I"illlil:ln re.sesirdl e, se'cl)"n:disri]' ,8 nl3~,~E(iS

Ill., exPIl!r:im.~Jltan res€latrt:h


I'll. Jh~ Amertc:a n sll~i@rllgii!;:a,j .As;\l@~ia:u.un ~ Code Illf ~filq;w~res·s@QigIQgil$m .~ m!li[ltalilfl Q1bjo::'c~illy jilm;i inte~ilt)'· ami! to' IiIr~llF.l[:'ileUJe c~nlid'Bimti~lity

ohheir subjects.

210. As pa rl[],f the'ircOlil:1m itment to ne-utll'!llliW. iiril1estigators h.8'o'B ,81~ e~llliC"alllbni~tkmkJ accept re.sear-chlJliI.dfings !l'J,Ie[l "",h'en the datB run il:Q unter til

~j;JeiJ"Dwfil ~Ellrll(l1il181 tlie'l'fi' or wiji:lely I!lOOBptBd DBliefu. ..

~nI8~ (12: ·'S~!1P1 ~n ~lrnlllll.l.IJOIS aU!Il~] ;'in~s.!S~·I,~u Il' Killglll!Ill~;)S 1. [ :l.J:i!Mao ~.wO!IiI1J\lieiH 91 ·~II1IIIWlro ~lllglU~l!IrJ~ d~ao 'IiI~IJ~!~fl VT:l1l!iP!I'l:lll; ["I ~s!~l!Il.Od.lili 1':l::J!l!~UarJ~ '!: l ~(:J) ~]LJ :( p) 13 :'( ~~ e:( ~~ .t .. : ~:l) 9 ~(I!I'~ 19;.~ (:l)t :,(p) ~. ~(~) l :(Il) 1 g~!U'Ii

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~ilDII1

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll Cllmpanf:es.2[1][I

Kin'sey (Bill Condon, 2004)

lin 'Hli:5 filim, lJaseQgn ,EI true iS~ory, IE[i,raBrm~kl:J\ik::h (Jul~a Roherts) in'iJe$t[. s:ates suspicious lilIctiliities o}' P!:idik G@s; I: IEle~tric.. Bille bee;i,ras; a,Ba fi'l~ ~I~rk in ill IH'ihI firm" but hert:l!Jno~r:~y sOlJlnl-akes her out of tilegfflC~ to [10 fiel'd~sealrch. 8y [nfDepJie'l;li,mg famriiieiSwhol ~~ve near ill r:;nemiC;fII dlllmp and 1[;()mbing_thmugtJ dt)l documents, she buill(lrs, the c<lIseftlr .1;1' C lass- 8ictloril MI\!'iI:8.lI1it. :;;Igainst PG&E.

lrilts film :show~, :;:I researcher us~ng 'B.'!;istin:g sources to develop a GlD·flc:!:U· I!.\Joll:lli:at Pacilfi.t; Ga!!j &. Electric poiso,neda community's water .Sl[jpp~y. To preve 1::h:at tne utj~ltll comp<loY ~s re,s.pcns.I'bI.efQIF tile diseases re~r~ dents contracted. Er'irt needs 'liush()I\!'iI :;:I, c:a,us:allinl\:, ItilOtjHst a Eorre~ati.Olt1l, between '~h'B" locatloltil Of resfd,ei'lts.' ho-me"s near the diJmp iil~~B" and the pr'elial,BnI:N:: of dl~seage'. LOQk 'f,m the scenes in which lE:rin conducts fi,e·ld interviews of community merrtbers.

IlFo:r l'iollf 'COlIiIsiideratiQIliI.

L !-iIow would yeu de!:5Clribe' Elrin IBn:Jck.ovilGil's rese'iilrc;h method?

2. W hart werre'th e depend ant and ilrlld e pen.de nt va r:i ab I es ~n Eri rt! 's res~alrc h de:s,igIrY7

11'11 this film ba:sed antne rf:,ElI:·life re:fit!~'arener;. Alfred Kin!ie~' ([jam NeeiSDn) condlucts tile first w'ide~le. hrrvestigati.b,rR of human se:ll:li,ailly lin tne United State~. We see Kinsey anD hls team in.tefyjewingsubjem:ll, allout their sexual plr,ac:iice~, V'or,k that ~iUIItl~IilEr~,es inU,!,e pub~k:ati,iJ:rlI 0:1 hi::; (;ontwv,er.siel h.insey Re;poft. We see him ,strtlgB~ef(lr fUl1u::!:i'ng and public 8iGcept~nce of his Work in the pl'iuqisi'! 19405 a:flid .:msos, whelll c,a:flidilj t:lilj. ~Ii]out sex vr:o,latB,d ,sm:~a~ 1l0ITl1lS,

One 01 d,nllr'" ,61 few mainstream rrll;rvi'es that show iF'B<sean::h ill, precess, K;I'I~BY WUsti'at.e:s, tile IBthlcal cihelle!nge5 LIil\lO!\,I\B.Q in FBse.:3in::hing huma'il be,ha,vfor. WatCihior scenes ifl whlth IKimsey's ~B,alll1 stri\l.e:s, ED be 1;r~I'Ue ne:!J,itr:31 by st8lIllcl.al'o:b:ll[lg their ~nterv~ewIJlg me'UiqlQ:. (For more about tne Kil']lSBY Repqlrt ;ami its i nrlrUen(;e on, lC:d,n'~'e m_P()1113 ry !'"e$e8 J'ch ij iltD hu ma'il !S,Bxui3Ility. see the Soctt:::iI: f'oli,r:y ~ectron Din 1P1:I!ge 43.)

llFOr'Yiolllr C,ol:1!,;delra1t:iol11

.1. .#i..p'Ply tili,e Alme,rilOiiln Soa:iol,ogi:C!311 Assoc~~tiQnrS Code of Ethics ,to the KinSley stud,Y,. which was don@oef,olf@ tJll~ Dod@ \l'il:8lrlit ilMO effect. If "tilie SiIuay were oione 11l1! 'the sa me way tod:ay. 11 ow we ~i WOIl.dI:d it. c(lIf1prly with the ,oode9

2. H.aw daB'S, JI'tIil'"lsey ~11!Jjstrate the <3Itt.empt. to Ei'Sitab]ish validity and reliiabi'lity ln the nlise~roh de!rrgn?

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


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The Jot.alpolint: Of t.lte sh,,14;n,,{3 is a boxe» ch,(lst 'w.hich i s fH~ilt 11UO the 'lvall. Jft th:is ebes« tt1"a ke'l>f. i>he ''I:lafl:Jj di{tJ':m,.~ (-mil ~'l'l'l1gical.podm~8' 'wirh,m .. tl t{)h~ch JW naNve be l ieoes lie t:mtl d hoe.

, Nacilrema culture is; C harad@'riz~d by a hligJ'lly developed market economy ~1i',h i:c,h has ewlwd if] a ridll rm,tllJlfal hiabirtat" Whiile much oftlle people's time is d€l'IJoted tc eoonom~c: pu rsu i~, a ~argg P!6 fit Qf the fruits of these Ilaborg a nd a cQlllsiderable portion of tile day a r,€s:pgnt ~W1 ;r;itllJlal act[:v· i'ty: TIl e lOCUS of this acti!v~ ity isth,g IhllJlmaJI'I bod~J the apP€iHanOE! and hleallth of wh il(::h loom as ;g, domilt1,i;;mt COIlIC€;rn ~W1 the ethos o.f the people, WhH!e sud'! a can©enli is G€,ttalil"lily I!lIOL 'u rliUS'll a I.,

its 11}E!f~.monia~ aspects and associialood phill:oso:phy are ILIniiqm~ ..

'The fUit'ldame:nt:a.1 beliief

Uflld'@r:lying the whol,g system a ppea rs to beth at the hu main body ls ugly end thet its natara II t.enden ey is to debli Ilily a flId

disease. lnearceratsd ln sueh a bodV, man's orlily nnps 1,5 1i!o avert: ili1e5€ 'C:halr,a!cteris·tilcs t:hmughl the use of the powenful iir:lfllu€r1c,€,s of ritUlal' and ce.FE!mOlny. Ev,€'ry Ihousehold has one or more shrines de\l'Cllted~o this PllJlrpose. The mom~ po'W€!rfull iindivud!)Jlalls iln tnl€ secletyhffi!\e S€'I.mrnll shrines ;iWl thelrheusas and, in faet, the epulencs of a h!oluse is oke,n refenedto in terms of ttH~ m.u.mber iQf such !riitual oenoorrs it possesses, Most neuses are of '!'/aWe and darub construetion, bl!Jft thle sh'ri:ne moms of tl1le mors w,8:allthiy are wa!lled \!flith stone,

In this excerpt from his joumal ar.ltid.e ""Body Rih];al among 'the Nacirema,"an.tfu:ropo]ogist Horace .Mln.er casts his observam e:~ on the: intriguing rituals of an exotic culture.If some dispects of this culture seem familiar to you, however> you areright.fnr what Miner is describing is actually the culture of the United States C~adle:[11;a~)is ·'Anler.i.rnn~' spelled backward), The "shrine" Minerweites of is theharlrreom; he coereetlyinforrns Us that in. this culture, one measure of wealth is how manybathteoms one's home has.Intheir ba throom rituals.he goes Qin>ttbe N<licire~.na.1J1$e charms and m<llgkal 10060]].s (beauty products and prescdption drugs) ebtainedfrom :!>[pe,d.diZledpro;l!diitticu.ers :(s:mch as hair stylDsts}"berbllli.s:ts (pharmacists). and rned.i!cine men (pbysicnnl's), Using om sociclogical ]nl.a.,gi!natlons,we (mild. update Miner's description of the Nacirema's eharms, written. in ] 956, by adding; tooth. whiteners, anti-aging creams" 'Waterpiks; and. In. iii l.f ,gel.

\I\l].li,en we step ba,tl and examine a. culture thollJ.ghtfuIl'y an.d. o bj'edively> whether it is our own clltthLll"ein disg,uise or <tnodl,eT ,52 Ies.s familiar to w, we [earn sOn]ettalng new about s:ociety. Take

Poorer farm:illies imitate the Irilch by ;appl~imJg potl:.ery plaques to the'~r sh rin.E! wallis.,

Wl1iileeachi family has at least ene 5t.u::h s'hrin~,th,g ritlJlals associawd wirth iii: are not farm ill,y :ce;remon:i,e:s but awe pri'llaw and secret, TIlre rites are normailly only discussedwiith (:hji~d~n, amid then only duriing, the, period! whelll they are beif'lg il1jijated lntnthese mysteries. I, w:as able" .hol,w€lver, to estab:li'sh su1f1ciellii rspport with the nati,v,&'s tnssamirm theseshrilnes. and to have the rlituals described to me.

The fOGa II pOli nt of the sh rlne iiS a box. or cih est whi iCih is b lJIil1 into tile wall. ln ~l1is chest are 'kept the many charms and magjcal PQuo:ns without mih~c'h no nati'\llE! bellie\!i@'s he CQllIldllivf:. These pr€,pa'~8Itiomls am secured from a variety of spec ialized p racjjitiio FH:!fS •. 'The most powerfull of these are the medicin€l men, whose asslstsnce must be rewarded wlith substantial ,gifts. Howe:ver, the mediicine men do not p~ovidE! the Cl!Jlrative IPot~[II1S rori:h,e:ir dlil€,l1l!iIs~ bUit decide what~he ilrJ~r-edi~mrts should be and the,nwrite thern down iln an ancient amj secret lialngllJlag;€.1h!js Wriil:illlig is ul'ldercstood onliy by the medielne men and by the herbalists wh 0, fo r another gji:,. provid e the ir§;q'Ll ilred chsrm,

lihe charm is not di!ElpDS€d of ·B1fter it hss served jits PUirpDS.€, but rs placed ,ill1 the chmlllil~bo.\Il of the househeld sh~,ne".Asittae8e mag)ical malt€:nals am.spociific ~Orr'Dertalin iIIsu ,aim! the mal or imagined miil'adies ef the peaple are miElil1V" 1~be (:harm-

[10:;': is ustm;['ly fu:111 to overfloil'l!imlg.lh~ ffialgiC8111 pacKeits am sn rU.lmeOOIiJIS that people'~org€!t ",,!l1lat th:@ir ~pl!Jlrposes were and fear tousetllem ag;;Jlin. Whlill:g the natil\!'e8 a~'iItlify va~€ on tlh,js po:ilnt,. we carni ollll~ assume that the 'id!oo in reta.inin,El allthl8 old magicarl m8i~~a:ls iis 1tha'ttileir piresen(:€! lilF'llhe ciharm-bm::, before wnll:ch th€! body' riiwa Is ar"!;l iQond:udedl, will ln some wa.!!!, prortect the 'I'lms!h ilPper; , .,

(Mfl']',er 1956,503-504) Ad!dHlornal IlIforrmMlon aomllt !!hIs i.l:tCrl~l C;lll Jj~~()JJl!lld on l1li0 :Q1l~lll:rl Uiolmifll[ C'(l<mIlH M iNl\rWj'l1l1li!lil}.,~OJl'l/~ooa(j11lt12Q,

.. Fiji; an island in the Pacific where <I .. robu,stt, niGely rounded body I.ila~<; a1.ways lb een the ideal for both men and. women, This is; a society ]:[1. which "You've gained weightl' traditionallyhas been considered acumpliment, and "Your legs are skinny:} an insult. Yet a recent study shows that £m the fi.lfst time" eating disorders havebeen showi,ng up among the fOllmg; people in .Fiji. VV'!].at has happened to ch<Jnge their body image? Since theintrodnction of cable television in 1995, many Fijiislanders, especially yOlllng women, have begunto emulate not their mothers and 3IJUlt.s, but the small- waisted stars of television programs currently <Ji.i:r~J:1g there, like Gi.lmot:e Girts and .. Lost. Stmdyh:lg cuhnre in places like Fiji,. then, sheds light on om: own socrety CA. Becker 20[J7; Fiji TV 2(09).

In this chapter we w:iU stllldi.y the development of cul ture around the world, .i]]cllJd.~,ll,g the c:n1tl!lr.al.effects of the world'Aride I:l:e.nd toward. globa.bzatim:a. .. We wi.U ~ee just haw hasic the s:tu.dy of c;;uhllJt:e is to S!!JoCio.~ogy" OiIH ,dis~ui$s:iml\.V:ill. focus bolh OEl genera] mhuralpracti!Ges fomnd in aU :societies and. on the


Dance, iiltiemany otner ,8ispects of CUlibJiITB, C<lllTIi be eXipres5il:!d in man,y diffEiltHftll '!Va,li's., QIiii Uiie ierfit, pop s1iaJr C~listinl1i Agui~er~ Iffifeeutes the I@test moV$ on 101,1[. Orli tile right, tradiitionallri'Sihl sitep dancers perterm in <I stnl!et IP;Ell'ade.

Schaefer: :So~ioIIDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

wide varia.tiont;; that can distioguish one :society from anetlrer, We "viil. define and explore the major aspects 'of eulture, 'including la:ngu<ilge. norms, sanctions, and values. 'We will see how cultures develop ,:1 dominant ideology, and howfunctionelist and

What Is Culture?

C I!!Lfil:ure is the totality oflearned, so riallytransnritted GIllStoms, Ib:u)wI.edge" material oJb.j,eds, and behavier, Hi.nd.l!ldes. the ideas, values, and. artifacts (for example, DVDs, c;oluk books, <lind birth control. devices) of grOU]Ji"l ofpeople, Parriotic attachmentto the flag of the United States is an as-peet of culture, 'IS is anational passion for the tango in Argentina,

Sometimes people rder to a particular person as t~very cul-

_.lI". '. . .L.·, '~'·I tsof ·1· "TL..., f h

h!LIt:'U orto a cltyasuaVlng . ots o , culture, . Hat use 0 tt ,e term

culture is different from OUI usein this textbook. In sociological teems, culture does not refer solely to the fine arts and refined intellectual taste, It consists of aU objects and ideas within a society •. i.ncluding slang words; ice cream cones, and rock 111Il1s:i!c. Sod,Q.log;Lst:s consider both a pnrtrait by Rembrandt and the work of graffiti sprOly painters to be aspects of culture .. A. tribe that cultivates soil by hand has just as 1l1111Ch culture as; a people that relies on cumputer-operatedmachinery Each people hasa distinctive culture with its own characteristic ways of gatheril.lg and prepazingfood, cnnstmcting homes. structuring the .:liiUlliJ!y, <lind promoting standards of right and wrong.

The fa,ct that yOl!]~ha:rea similar cultllrewith othrers helps to define the grou.p OF sodety to whiehyeu belong, A .fu:idy large number of people are saidto cnnstitute a soddy when they live inthe same te:nitory,.are :reJ;ati.v'e.i.y independent of people outside

@ The McGraill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

conflict theorists view crutl,]fe.We't1 also seewhat Gill. happen. wn.'en amajor corporatlnn ig;rilOre.s c:u]tm"a]. variations. FDIlaUy,Hn t1..e Social. Policy section we will 1.0 ok a.E the conH:icis in cultural values that underlie cunenlt debates eveebilingualism,


t» c:

their area, and participate in. a. cnmraon culture, Metropofiran Los .• ~.g:de...s Ismore popnlens than at least ']50 nations, yet sociolog;ists do not consider it a :!locidy in. its ownrig;bt Rather. they see it <ItS part ()if-and dependent 0I1-tl:.!e' larger society ofthe United States.

A society i s 1t11.e largest form of human group,. II: (iO[lS]s1L<;: of people who share a CO]].11::1:1m:l. heritage and. culture, Members of the society learn this culture andtransmit it from one generation tnthe next. They even preservetbeir distinctive cultrwe througb lirerature, ad, vid.eoJrec(lrdings, and other means of expression ..

Soci.o.l!ogi,Stshave rong recognized the marry ways> in which. culture infl ue:[I(JE:S human lb ehavior, Through what ,has been. teuned a to 01. kit of habits, ski1h. and :sity]es, people ot a G0111]]]On culture construct their acquisition of .knowledge1 theiriuteraetions with kinfolk, their entrance .mrto the job market=-in short, the way in which. they live. If it were not for the social transmission of cWt:L1L['e'., each generation would have to reinvent television, not tomention the wheel (Swidler 1986).

HavI:ng a mm~JI.10:l1 culture a1,,0 simplifies mamy day-~o.~d;ay interacrlons, Per example, when yon buy an airline ticket; you. kIllow yO'U. don't have to bring aJ]o.l]glmnru~ds of dollars in. cash, You. Gill pay with a credit card .. liAI'll'eTI you are pad .of <I society; yOl], take for granted Inany small (as wen as moreimportant) cultural] patterns, You assume that theaters wm provide seats for tbeaudience, that physicians W.ilU.llrot disclose m.l.lfiK:i.entiril.


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

infarmatiou, and that parents will be carefulwhen crossing the street with Y0l,[.ng children, AIlli these assumptions :reflect basic values, beli!e:fs, and customs of the culture Qif the United. States.

'fuel".)';. when text. sound, andvideo canbe transmitted armmd ~he wOlfld instantaneously, some aspects of cultueetranscend national borders, The German philusnpher Tbeeder Adorno and others halve spoken of the wo.rldlwide culture indl!ilstry that standardizes the goods and. services demanded !by cnnsumers, Adorno contends that glob<lnr~ the primary effect of popular culture isto limit people's. choices, Yet others 1,OIv:e slmv.l.i. that the clI.lltmeludlllstry's influence does not always, permeateinternational herders. Sometimes the cultureindustry is embraced; a tother times, 5.Q1l.wdly rejected. (Ad.o.r.[JJo lll. 9'lh 1 1991.:98-10ti.;. Horkheimer and Adomn [1944] ::N]02).

Cultural Universals

The c:u.l.tm~~.pm.ctice5 MurdockIisted maybe universal, bmt the manner in which tiler are expressed varies, from cultureto cuilltlllre. for example, one society may let its [[II embers choose their own marriage partners.another .m.ay eJ]co1[1ra,ge marriage s arnuiged by the pa15e'I1L Is.

NDt only does the expression. of cultural unF.VeF!iEl.ls va:r.y from one so ciety to anO'[her; w1t11111 a society; itmay also change drarna 1I1cally over time, EaA:h. generation, o:md each year fDr that matter.mest human CULtLilI'E5 ehange and expand through the prooesses nfimll.ova tiom] and diffusion.


Many everyday ststements reflect OUT a.ttitlllde that O1[1.r own culture is best. lA'e use tenus such as lu~derdevel{)p:ed, back'W'llrd1 aLnd primitive torefer to other societies, Vl,lbaJt "'we'" believe Isa religion;what (~they"' believe is. superstition and mythology .

It is tempting toevaluate the practic;e.s of other cultures on the basis of om own perspectives, Sociologist 'WiUiaJ]]. Gran"u1I] :SUl'I1ne.~.· (1906) coined the term e1liDoC>el[l.kism to .re£eo.F to the tendency to assume that one"s ()WIlJi culmre and way of life re[p-

fu ..... . '" 1.1: .:.1:. 1'~ bnocentri

resent t e norm or are supenor to aJ!] etners, ine ett .nocentnc

person sees his or her own gm1!1.p as. the center 'or defining point of culture andviews all other eultures as deviations from what

. AJI secieties Lave developed certain cnmmon practices and. beliefs, known a'S ,eulllunlll!JllllversoW.s. Many cuhural unjversals are, in. fact, adaptations tomeet essential human needs, such as tth.e need for food. shelter, and clothing, Antlu:o]JoRogi.Sit George Mcrdo de ([ 945: 124) compiled a list of cultural universals, includi:mg athletic :sports, cooking, funeral ceremoni.es., medicine" marriage, and sezual restrictiens,


• . •. ., ' •. - - ... , ••• '. • ••..... i"" ., ....• •. •• .•. .'" , ,. . - .• . I




S"!ff'(~;Fdlm~nn ,~t. a12007;76,

TIl is ma p, charwl!lI .by a ~ igh scih:ool student i'ril Gallll, lfEfi:ects the- em p.ha:SiS" Inll paln-A~albism ilnJ til e Pales.tilliia n edm:ati:ona II au r~jlJiUllll;im. At Sl1am r~e!Fs to "G~oe:ater Syria," a regiQIrn tlllarl enlJOmpillsS'l;!S. SyrrarJDlm!~n, lebanon, ~srae'll. and t!h11J Palesti:ni.a1l11ltenilrorie:$.

Thirnk. about lit

Willat 'would be, the .maj,or ditfe'renee's be:rtwe®ntllis ma.p' M.da (']lap based on your world view,? WlI"lat would a(;GQ~ tit f;olt tho Se' d ifferen Ms?


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

is "normel," Westerners.1i.vho think cattle areto be used .foyfood might 100];; down on India's Hindu religion and cnlturewhich views, the cow 0.$ sacred, Orpeople in one cuhuremay dismiss <I~~ untbiukahle the mate selection oechild-rearing practices of another culture .. As Fi.gu:re 3-1 shows, OUI~ view of thewnrld is dramaticallymflueneed bytbe sociery in which we were raised,

Ethnocenntic value judgments have complicated U.S. ef£Qrts at democratic ['\efoml of Ul!e Iraqi government. Be£o.H'~ {hie 20m m1.T in Iraq. U.S. planners had assumed that Iraqis would adapt to a new form of governmf:Illt in the same way the GenllllmJLS and Iapanese did fo 11 0 wi.n:g World. War Il, Butinthe Iraqi culture, unlike the 'Gel".I1u.II. and J apanesecultures, loyalty to Hie family and the extended clan COUles before patriotism and the CiQ!lUmon good, In ;<L. mUD try in which almost half of all people. even those inthe cities, rn:u.ry a first or second cDusin" citizens are predisposed. to lIiilvo,r their own kin .. in govemment and business dealings, '\¥by trust a stranger feem outside tbe family? ·\'V'h.at We.slem'e'fswowd ~r~ticlze as nepotism, then, is actually an <J!.cce]JtiilMe, even ad[!l]irnble, pcaetiee to' Iraqis (J. Tierney 20(3),

Conflict theorists point ou t that ethnocen tric value judgments serve to devalue gmupsand. tn deny equal oppertunhles, Functionalists, on the otfu,erhaIl!d, pointt out that ethnucentrism serves to maintain a sense of solida:rity byp:.m.a.noti:ng group pride, Denigrating other nations and. cultures can. enhance our own patriotic feelings and belief that DIU' way of life is superior, Yet this type of social £tabili.ty is, established. at the expense of other peoples, Of course, ethnocentrism is.hard]y limited. to citizens of the United States. Visi~m's from many i\f~'lci[[] cultures are surprised at the disrespect thatchildren in the United States. show their parents, People from lndia IJ]aJY be repelled by our practice of .Iivin.g, :i:n the samehcusehold with ,dogs and cats. Many Islamic fu.nda:mentaJ:ists in] the Arab wodd and Asia view the United Stt<):tes as corrupt, decadent, <lind doomed. to destruction, Allthese people mayfeel GOl11DQrted 'by membership in cultures that In their view are superior to ours,

Cultural Relat[vism

Wh.ile etbnacentrismmeaus evaluating: foreign cultures using tlte familiar culture of the observeras CI standard of eerreet behavior, cuhurn]Jrdlil~J:vis:m .m.eaJII.s v.i,ewing people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture. It places <I p1rimitycm understanding other cultnl:ies,. rather 1tililiil.n dismis~iJJlg them as "strange" or "exotic," Unl.lke ethnocentrists, cultural relativists employ the kind. of value neutrelity in scientific :srudy that Max Web eo.' :saw <IS so impertant;

Oultural relativism stresses tfu.at different social contexts give rise to different nerms ;;;md values, Thus, we 1Cl1USt examine practices such <IS IPQ~yg:a!my, bullfighting, and .monan::hy w.i:1t11in the particular contexts of the cultures in. which tlttey are found, A~though cu]turalreFativ"ism does not suggest that we must unqllJe,>1rio[lalb.Jy acceptevery culturalvariatinn, it does require a serious andunbiased e:fforrt to evaluate nm~.ms,. values. and c:ustoms in light of their distinctive culture.

Consider the praerice of children marrying adults. MOISt people in. North .Amer:ica cannot fathomtheidea of a 12-yea:r-oId gid.marrying. The custmn.whidl. is illegal in the United States. is, ~ommou in Wes~ Africa and SOl.l.til Asia, Should tbe United States respect such F.I.:LaH:i<llge,~? The appa.rent answer is no. Jn 2006 the US. gover[limenil: :S]Jent $623 I11iUlon. to d.is-cuurage th.e

@ The Md3railh'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

practice m 1.6 ofthe 20 oountrieswiththe highest cbj]d.-maniflge rates (Fi.gllJ:re 3-2 on jpag.e 56).

from jhe.perspecrive of cultural relativism, we might ask whether one society should spend itsresources !to dictate the norms of another .. However, federal offiGiaIs have defended~be gpve.niment's actions .. 'They crmtend that child nl.aHiage deprives girls of educatine, threatens their health, and weakenspehlichealth 'efforts to combat illVlAIDS (Jain and Kurz 20.07; B. S~.ayin 2:0(7),

Sociobiology and Culture

'V\lhile sociology empbasizes diversityand change in theespression of eulture, anether school of thougbt, SOcIO b.i.o]agy, stresses the tmiversal aspects of culture, SodoMo~.ogy isthe systematic study of bow lbio[ogy affects human social behavior, Sociobiolcgists assertthat [millry of the cultural traits humans display, such as the almost universal expectation that women w.ill. be mtrturen. and Mel] win be providers, are notleamed but are rooted in. om geneti.cmakeur.

Sociobiology is founded on the naturalist Charles Dan-vin;!], (18.59)the!Ory of evo]ution.,[n traveling the WQdd, Darwin had] noted! small variations in. specJes:--inthe shape of a bi:rd."s beak, for exanlple-fu:'OlJIl onelocation toanctlrer, He, theorized that cver Jnmdreds of generations, random vrtriations in. genetic .maleu.p had helped certain members ofa species to sUl"vive in. a particular euvironment.A bird with @l d:i.ffel'ently shaped! beak might bavebeen better stgathering seeds than other birds. for instance, II] l;eJl:mduci.n.g, these lucky individuals hadpassed ()[Ii. their ad.van.rng'eous genesto succeeding generations, EventtmlUy" given their advantage In survival, individuals with the variation. began. to oummnber other members of the species, The species was sk,w.I.yilcl.aptingito its environment .. Darwin caned this process of <lidapt~~iou tothe environm!en[ through random genetic variation natural sel'e:ctiQH.,.

Sociobiologists ap1Dly Daf1,1j;:in~s priaciple of natural selection to the study of social beh.a:vim~,. 'They assumethat particuJar forms of behavior become geneti.caJilly linked. to a. species if they eontrjlnrte to its fitnessto survive (van. den Berghe ~n 97.8). In. its extr-eme fmm, sociobiology suggests that .aU behavior is file result of genetic or biological. factors and that social ]ntel'3ctions play ncrole in. s.h<!.pim,g peop]e's conduct,

Sociobiologists do [IQt seek ito describeindividual behavior 01] the level of":Why is Fred more aggressive than Ji.m?" Ratber, they focus on how human nature is affected by the genetic cumposition Oif a gro.up of peeplewho share certain eharacteristics [suchas men orwomen, ormembers ()if isolated!. tribalbands). [I]. general, secinbiologistshase stressed thebasic genetic heritage that ,flU humans share andhave shown titU~]nteres.t in sp eculat - ing about. alleged differences between racial g;mups or nationalities, A few researchers have LF.]ed. totrace specific behaviors, like criminal a.otivily. to certain genetic markers, but those markers aeenotdeterministk; .Fam.ily mhesiiveness., fleer group behavior, and other sccial.factcrs can ov~rrideg,enetici.l1nUlence-s on behavior (Guo et al2!008; E. Wilsm::L.1'975, 1975).

Some researchers insist that intellectual interest in sociobiology will on~y deflect serious study of the 11.lOFe sig,1l1:fica:nt iofluence 0[11 human behavior, the social environment. Yet Lois VVladi.s Hoffman (1.985). in her pres:i&en 6a1 addresste the Society for th!e .!Psycho:~ogicaJ!. Study of Soda].. Issues; a[:gued that 5JQciobio.logy pos,esa valuable challenge to' :soclal. scientists to. be1ttter dot:unlel'lt

t» c:

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IlrM~8fifPl,NJ~ Llj~~:~W.O~a'LD~W:\rtQI~; I




Doml'rlhi::a,n Ille>ptlillill!::

Who, Ma[J',r~e:d IUn,d,er A,ge 18

500-77 percent 40-49,.9 P!1lFC@lTt ]{!I-]9;9 pflr~f!lll Ul'lld~r]o() p@rrHmt




SC'!fi'Cf': [ain mId KUE 20'(1'7 A5.

1111 33 OOIJlliilmeS, [Jo'!;\er 30 perllJ€'lIiIt of the women I!lIllJdielf 18 are married"

their own research ... lnreractieeists, for example, Gould show how SQC~.aI. behaVIor is not programmedby humanbielogy; but instead adjusts cont.inually to the attitudes andresponses of others.

Certainly most secial scientists. wou]d agree that there is a biotogkal basis for so cia]. behavfor, But there is less support for the extreme positinns taken by certain adveeates of snciobiologj, like iateracticoists, conflict thecrists and ftmctionalists believe that people'sbehaviorrather MlI<1.n their genetic strucnne defines soc:i~l r:e<1lHty. Conflict theorists fear that the sociobiological approach oou]d.beu:soo .. <IS an argumentagainst efforts to assist disadvan~ag,ed people, SIlKn as schookhildren who are notcompeting surcess~uli.y (Gute.nnan 2.1)00; Segel"Str:He 2000;, E,Wil$oI1l 20[)0),

Development of Culture 3iroumd the World

We've come a! ]O[U:g war fmm OiU!I :prehiSloric heritage. T1]!f: human species basproduced such achievements ;8IS the novels of Leo 'fobto'y. the art of Pablo Pieasso, and 'lthefih:ns of Ang; Lee. As webegin a. [lew miUe]]UlUrnl we can transmit an entire hook am und the world via t-he [[Jjten1et~ clunecells, and prolong Lives tlImug'll. organ transplants. We can peer into the eutermost reaches of the universe or analyze OUE innermnst feelings. In this



I!lln9ll<ld~sll. it

section we win examinetwa of the social pmcess.es tha tmake these r,e.ma:rkalble achievements possible: innovation and. the diffusion of culture thrcugh globaHzation and te['h:no.~ogy.


The p[iocess of Introducing a new idea or object to a. culture is b1lOWJiI. as,iinIliJl)v;aftion~ Innevation interests sociolegists because of the social consequersres of introdacing something new. There are two £m·.n:ts of Inn.Qvation: discovery and invention, Discove:ry involV€$[nakm.g l~JJLO'wn orr sharing the existence of an aspect of reahty. The finding of the DNA molecule and. theidentificatinn of a new moon of Saturn are hath ads of d.ismverry. A :significant factnr in the process ofd.ismvery is the sb«uing of newfound knowledge with others, [I] oontFast,auinvenUolli. resultswhen existi:ng cultural items are combined into a £or[l1 that did.Dot exist before. The bow and aBTOW~ the amemobile, andthe television are all e,x<in1Jpllf:s efinventions, 1)15> are .P'l:oi!est<li1JliSI1:i and dernoCF<!:c.y.

G lobalization. D iffusion a nd Technology

The recent e.rne:rgenoe of Starbuck's, the worldwide chain of eoffeehouses, is just one illnsnatien (){the rapidl.)' escalating bend toward g~ob<l1ization. (see ChalPh~I' 1), \Vill.l!e:p~opl.~ in ASIa are begiu[II]ug1Do enjoy mffiee, people I:n North America are discovering sushi, Some have becamefamiliaewith the bento b~x, a small

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


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3~31 Ute lin the 'G,lolb,al Vlil~age

l1ative cultures, if~tll~Y dom~na:te the me,d:ia, at ttle e,xpemse .of loca~ art fonms .. As Semtle'nN~ Ousmalle, OrleOif .A.'mlca's most pml'l"lifi'en~ writ~ ers alnd '~II mm a kiSI'S,. Iloted, "[Today ~ we :are I'll o~e famlli1H with EuropeaJn '~l:Iiry tales Ulan with cur ownrad i~iQirna I :s~o,niles~ (Worildl [leve~opm snt IFo.ruM ~9~90:4)"

GlobaHzeijotll haJslts posl1)ive: side,OOo. Many dmielopiM i1,i;I:r~Oi1:S ,ar,e t~kMlg;~h,eilF p~~'De ~111 the 'wQrhj lorr comme:rce iElnd bnirnging Tn much l1eMe.d il'll:::ome'.lihe ,c;ommLlnitatiiom;;, revolution Ihelps [PeoIPI.@ 'to s.t:ay ooi'ill1l,ected allCi ,gi\ll8S them aecsss to knowiledg,eij1at can fmp'i'O\IIE li\l~ ling S'Ja n,dlards and evei1! :5ih!e liU\~s,., Far e'><am pie., Ipeop'[,e s'lJff:el'ing {from ilml'1~S:S!es are 1'l01!l aeeessring trea:tment pmgl'Elms. tl'1a't were dI,eveloped OIl.ItSid,~ ttle~r .own. nartliDI'il'S medii cal e:st1ilb~!sh~ mef1ltThe ~ef seems. to be 'f.itil,d~l'!,g a balla!lloo hetween, the o~d. '~i'i!i!Js and~h'~ nH~w~betOi'l'l~n,g modernized witi'l.onJt leavili1g meai'ilirrlg,fu~ (;!ullruulrall trnrd~tilollS behind.,.

Ilmagine a "bor,d@r~@ss wolrld'" in il'I,i!1~c!h culture, tl!'aJdeJ oommeroeJ, m.OI'! elfj, a,M f;'lJern people m OV8! 'free,~y '!"rom cme, place to af1l,o'~her, ~pular culture ~s widely shared, wh,ettler it Ibe Japalnese susbi air U,S, running s:hoes,llIl11d Vhe Erngl~slh speaker whn afisweb'S questiofls ,OlVer rl1e, teieptlone atbOtf~ you r ,emdU esm aeeount is as ~ikeiy to. ibBin iltlld~8, or Ilrel,8rnd aJS rn the' United Stales. ln this worM, @~ein 'th,e, sovere~gi'iJ'~ of ni9Jtioi1s is at iiSlk, chlllll,eli1:gedl lb~ pollii~,ca I mowm ems,3tndi iideoliogies mat S:P!61 n nanons

lihemfts no Illee.d to i mag,illl!'l! 'ttl is wQlrl,d ,~o.r 'I,!l\@ am a~ffiilrd~' ~~)Jiit1g In th,e a~ of~lotba IT:za:tlon, Alriicliui ti'hbi3i1 y,OH flIg5't€rs wr:ealr Simp~oi1s l-sl'l,~rts; naiteeflls daflce~Q teC!hlflO m usle; Ame~ca.l"l chHdrel'! collect Heilio Klitty items. Ethnic eeeessones h~'@! became a fas~iQmstlil~em~l'iltil1l t!he Un~tted S1:i3ite<s, ,8f"1dAsranr marital ants have swept Ule' wo,r~cI.

Wlhat ICSU:SOO this gl'!B8t wave o~ Guliti.lral dij~~ 'fusion? Firstt, sm:iollogwtstake l10te ofa,dl.ia ness ~n c:ammUinica[ions technology. SatelliltTli W, oo~11 ph,cJ.]':!,eSr the Internet, ,[lInd the 1IIIIke aillow [rnfolr~ m~t1on to How frEe~ya.~mss '~h,e WOli'ld, linking g~Qball markets. lin 20018,. this pmc:ess r'I3ilchieci tihe point where ClJJ.rnSllIme!',s 'DoiJ~d v~e.w vldses on hiflndlheldl (j,evlces olno surt tne Internet en t!heir wirell@'ss cell phones, shoppirng (frlHne at Ammon.Qom, el3a,:t'.llInd ol;her comm,ere~a~ Web sites 'From csrs, i;I~rpoftS". aed 'c:a,'Mte.rla,s, Second" D!J.l1Porarl'(H'i1$1 nrh,e ~l1a l.Istrfla I natlons Iha\,i\!E Mcome m 1II1'tln1.nIOI'l8 I, wuth, Ib nth fa ctol'iE!S sind! ms r~@ts Ttll clevll!~Clpilng countries. Busi= ness l'ead'ri!ii'S wel,Dom,e '~h,e '0 ppoMluln~ty 'to ~e~ll

consumer good's llil pcpulous cOUinlJrie:s such as Ghil'ilfil, Tlh~lrd, these mu:~Unationa~flrms h!8lJ"'@: 't":ooper;at:ed wl'i1~I,obOll~ fiflaJflc!Tall il'lstnbrriol'tS, 'I)r~.nlzatiim'ls, !9Jf'ld @vemrnerrl'ttsto promoteffire:e 'rurad'e~Ull'ilre$m(:ted or ~~~hbly res~riet.ed OJJ.m~ me.rceau::rnss tnatiOlnal1 borrd,eli'S,

G~OI:H,lII~laliQfl is IIlOt llInivers81~y liIie~comed:.

M1Hly c-rl'tl,r:s ~ee, the domin!1'lflce IOI~ '''bILlsirnessfa's wittlout bmdem~ as helilefit~ng Iti~ neh, per'~i,c;u,~arlyth,~, ),1~ry \!leiillithy ~ n liI'1du:stri a~ C:aIUIIlU1es,

Even 'a.me.ff .Bm~.d m~)Vfe;9c;md .B1'iw.ey Sl}(~ar."i "nall he: se,e:n as t.lireaL!I lo nq:i;il:J£ cl~lture .. s,

st 'bhe e\)(pe.rts.e ,orr 'U'le poor 1m. lsss ,d:e.~~oped 111 atJio I"lS, They cOflsideir globall iZS.tJio.1"l to bea sueleeSSOIF to the' ~mpefialism a.rn,di coloniatl~sm that i(J'Pprwssedilihird WOr'JdI F1I!l11llCN1I:S for cemulnies.

A!llother critri,r:Hsm of globallllzatJ)ollil comes :k'om lPeopl'~ 'who ree.iovel'Whelmoo by gJobal 1r:1i,I~tl.He.,. Emlbeddedi I n '~.!1l' ccn(lept of g~obaliz.a~ '~l'(H'iI lis Ihe i'iIoU.on of the cultLUFo;Il1 domination of ,d!l!'I,i\eilopTiI'1g l1I,at[,o.ns by more ,ailu!2l11t na.li OM. Simplly put pe,ople I!osethe.~r trad[tl'Of1l,alll8~UfMi, afllrdi be,~lln to Idientify with 'the culture 'O'f d,aminant i'ia'tiiOfll$. Tiley i"!i'I~y di$Ca,i"d ,or i'Ie,~leC'tttheir na~ve: langu,ages, ami dNmS8stl1,e~ attempt to COllY th~ ~con9 of mass·ma~k@,t fa'nt'8rtail1- msnt andf.a1shl,o,n, EJ,I~n James Botlld ffiovi@,s, a flIrdi Briitl'! ey Spear's may be seen as thrna:ts, to


1. iHow a'~~ ~I[j aftected by g~oballrzaT!lo[i1?

Whim aspects of gJoba~~za~jQln do yalU fmd a,d!!.illl tiltageorU$ and ~h~ch olbj e~r'O,tiIa tile?

2.. lHow VI10uld vat.! feel if th,e customs 81nd lBraditf(H'IS you gre:'lII up wrrh were repia.c:ecl by '[h,@! CLlI~u Fe or VOllillues of an~rh,e!r cOiLlI1~ry? l40w m~gl1t. youtlryto protect your .c:ulrtur@?

S,o,u rceifi: [!mlds 2QOO; Gid dens 1.991: Hirst al~d ThD,limplSJI]n 1L~96; [i, Malriio gi; aU!OD6; iliiz,er2@4~ Sern a u .200!l; l~deschtu 200K

lunch box that is often used to serve sushi. Moreand more cultural expressions and practices are iCIoSSlng national borders and .having an effect on the traditions and. customs of ruhe societies exposed to them .. Socialogjsts use the term djfht5:~Dn, torefel" to the pm'ce,ss byw.ruch a. cultural item spreads from groupto group or society to society, Diffusicm can occur through a variety of means, among them e:x.plo.m1ti.on" milita.ry conquest, mi.s;.oiio!],a:ry work., and .. the i.n]]ue[IGe oft:helnas:s medjaJ,~ourism,and.the Internet (Bo.x 3'~]).

Soc:io~ogi.st George Ritzer q:J,ined~]:I!IE~ term McDona.ld izail(m of :m.dety to describe bow the principles offus1t-foodrestau:ntnts deveJopedinltfue United Sta.t;es.h:ave: come to dominate more diJl:d nl0re sedor.s of societies th:r.oLlghO][J,[ tl~.'e worM (see Chapter 5},. for example • .hail' salons andmeo.icaJ! dinics now take wi!l~.c-.i.I1S. [n. Hong Kong, s!ex seh;~di.o:1Jl clinks offer <Il1.uenlil ofiloen.lcs, fmm fertillity enhi3iIlGer.l'le]1t to meth.ods ofmo:ea's:ing dlelikdiboo d. of having a ,chud .of the desired sex. ReJigi.ollls !il;mups-from evaugeli.cl'll preachers on ]0 eml stations .or Web si~estClIP:r.ie:sts. at th.e Vati.can 'il''eI.ev:isio.n. Centel'-u:se n1.arketing techniques s]mi]ar to those tbiilt are used to sem Hi:lppy Mea~s"

.McDonaldization is, <l!ssoci.atJed. with the r:neldl.ing of cultures> thmugh which we see more and n10re similarities in cultural.

expression, In Fapa'l':l" £0'1' example, Afric<I_I.'!: entrepreneurs have found a thriving market fm hip-hop fashions popularized by teens in the United. States. And. the famjliar Golden. Arches, ef McDo.lJald's can be seen aIOUl1d thewceld, Yet ccrporaeions like l.vkDoni3ild;s havehad to make some adjmstm.en.ts or their O'WTI. Until 2JJOl, McDonald's ran its overseas operatirms frem (m~po~ rate headqua.rters 11:0 suhlllrban Cb.icago. After!! few fal,se s;tarts. E'xflcutive'.s :recognized. the need to. di.evelopthe[OestalL1:ra:n t"s [lil:en[lS and 111uketing sb-ategies OVI,::!:Sleas, rel.yin:a.g on. advi(:e froI:llloml peop].e. Now, at over 3.700 r,esU.umI:Lts in Japan., c:usI!O.ll1el:".'l, can enj.oy the Tamago Burgey-beef, bamn~ and .liled ,egg wirth spe~ ci:aI Sa!lIlGeS. hll. In.d:i;aJ" patrons who dmlt eat beef c<lin o.rder a dOlllble chidk.e:n:n.-patty sandwich know.n as the Maharaja .Mac .. .And in Aus~r.ia" the loc:3l.ls'~ove of !;Coffee, ~.e, and GCillversatiOl'lIi:nas, ins[pir.edtbu:: McCafe (Hughlett lO()g.; Ritzer 2002, ]()O:H.

Tedmol.ogy in its many£orms hasinuea..sed. tbe siPeed of cu]~ t1l1rd dilfLiSi.on and Ibroadenedl, tbe distrihllltio(l] of ·clJlhlll,cal dem.ents. Sociolc'gjst GedmId. lens1k:i has de:fiJ'ledli\ec1i:Jno~,ogy as "'~.cu~turali:nfQi~TIJt<!l,tio]] albo.ut hOli-v '~omS',ethe ma~e['ii!l~ re,'lUl].rGes of t11!eenvimnment to. sa.tisfy hunmn. needs and desire.,," {Nol<m and .

. Le:I'lski 20(li~k37)r. T.oday's~echno.~ogiQl!]. developments, n!O .I!Onger 51

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Ciulltura I praetlees ma,y sp~,ead thmufJ'h I(j iffl.Es,h;m, but they IJllliidergo chic Ilge intltiie prn cess , BE;!c:ause til is McDolm:!ld"s rrest<Jll!Jlr<lil!ilt in Rill¢lOhs,errves Saludi ~rab~<lillii$, MGIRibs awe out <lind Mcl\rabia~WiIl~d ohicken on flattJ'read-is inl. Nom the S1;!'p<llFate liJlo~s fo!' men and wo.merii.

await publicatien in journals with Iimited circulation. Press, conrel:emce.$, ,oft:e:ncarlied :sinu:nJta.nec,u:s1'y on the Imemet, trumpet the new developments.

Technologynot onTy accelerates the diffusion of scientific img.ovations but alse jransrnita culture, The :1E]1lg.I:llih.l;angu~ge and. Ncrth American cUlhm~ dominate the Internet and World. Wide Weh. Such, control, or at least dominance, of techllo!]ogy DnfiueIDces the direction of diiffu,s,iol1, of culture, For exanrple, Web sites cover even. the l'II.OSt su.p erficial aspects of U. S. eulmre but off-er .tittle information about the pressmg issues. faced by citizens of other nat1.o.n:s .. People all ovelf t[lie world find iii: easier ttovisit eLectronic ~hat roemsabeut the latest remir TV" shows than to learn. about their own. governments'ipolicie s on day care or Infant nutrition,

SOclo];o:gistWiUian'l F. Ogburn {h 922)rn;ade a useful distinction between the elements of material and. nonmaterial culture, M~terial .clUllJture referstothe physical '0.]:" technological aspects of our daily lives> ind uding food, houses; factories, and .raw materi .• tls, N·ODllli);B!~:erl..d cuilt!!ll:re refers to way s of nsingmaterial objects. as wehl <l!S to custcms, beLi.ef~,pbilosophie.~ •. goveznments, and. pa tterns of commnnicafion, Generally, the nonmaterial [:1,]1- tture is more resistant to ch.a.nge than thematerial eulture, 0;1![1- sequently; Ogbmn in truduced the term !cultulR: :lag to refer to the J)el~iod of maladjustment when the .nonm.a.t:eriaLl culture is still :siI::ruggJin:g to adapt to .new ,[[,l<ltel'ial conditions. For eX3I11.p]e,. the ethics of using the Internet; particularly issues concerning ]plivacy and. oenSlo],s,hip, have not yet aJillght. up with the explosion inIntemet use and technology (Gti"""voldl2004) .

Resistance to technelogical cl1.ange can. lead. not only to culture lag,lbut to' some real questions of cultural survival (Box: 3-2).

use your sociological imagiFllEltlon

lf you grew lip i 1'1 yo LJ r parents' ~,erJeratiio:n-<wWmlJJlt Dompul€i:rs,e-:maill, MP3 play€.IS, and celli phOnlfSi-how WOIJ I!d yom da iily liife di1ffier 11m m the olllleyou lead 1l!oday?'

Cultur,al Variation

Each culture has a unique character. Innit tribes in northern Canada, wrapped in furs and dieting 0]] whale blubber, have Hule in. common with farmers in Southeast Asia, who· dress for the beat and subsist mainly on the rice they grow in their paddies. Cml.turnes adapt 'tomed specific sets of circumstances, such as climate, level. of technology, pepularion, and geogu~aphy. Thus, despite the pr.esence of culturaluniversals such. <IS mmtship and r.digiou"g;reat dive:rsity exists m.110ng the workl'smarry cultures. Mereuver, even within BI . single nation, certain segments of the populace develop culturalpattems that diffe],' f1~mTI the pa fter.n:s of the d.ominant soci.ety.

RoOdeo riders, residents of 3. ¥le1t:iremerlit conlmunity"worken, on om. offshore oil :rig-· =all are examples of what "'0 cielegists.referto as Sl:lbt':filtimes. A :5pbcuJI'tl]J:fie is a segnllent of so cid}, that shares 11. dl:istil1lctive pattern of morea; folk1l"!laYs, andvalues that differs [mIl']. the pattern of the larger society: In. ill sense, a. subculjure can be dl.01llght of as a 'culture existingwithin a.larger, dnminant (ultme. The existence of marLY subcultuees is characteristic of complex societies such as the United States,

Members of a subculture participate in the dominarrt culture while at the same time engag;i.ng in uniqae and distinctive !li'Qrm:!\ of behavior, f.n::qlUentiy, a sabeulture will develop an iil!rgoti' or specializedlanguage, that distinguishes it from the wider SOLidy:

Athletes who p[aypC1~·J(,(:mr. an ex.treme .sport that combines forward c[[uning with fence leaping and the vaulting of witl!ls,. water barriers, and. even moving cars, speak an ar-got they devised eS,pecially to describe theh feats .. Pu.kau1' runnerstalkabout do-iD],g

Wfui,e~ c. s(JlJ:iety's nllHilmarteria~ Dljiitl,lre (its 'lJalues i8i1l,illaws) dio:es net ~,ep p~ce wit~ rspid I:;hi8ill1ge'£ ilnn its !ill ateriiJlll mJlllI:ure, p~H~llle expelriel1li(le all!! awkward Ilertod Df m.alcdjusltm~ntD~ile~ ~ultulre lag. The tralll>siti~]lilllo Uill.lCle<llr ~ iJwer gene r<litiolltll,atbe,~~r1 illli the ::;i'eQO nd halif of til e 20th century brouglmt wid esprread prO'Eests ag;:;Ii nS1!: tlil!~ rliew~e[:h n(J,I'og~, as. well as :5enio~:sam::id1elnJts tthat gDr,rernme!nt offieiia Is: w€!re pOO rly pwe~alred to de.al Wiillh. Tsnsions ove·nhe oollltrO'llersj<ll1 oo>l;,hnology ilia'!re not rlji nas higihl in some eo unaies as in otller:5, ~O'\!,'€fller., Fro Iliu;::el, wherell;ll is lI1!ui~le<ll~ PQwe r p,l~ilit is sil;LJ<IIted, genei<ires

78 pel"l)ent of 1lllits ele,otJioityW rough iii Uele<llf ~OWEJ. Ihe t~!llhno~ogy j;s not aSI}I(]Ilri:mllJerEi<l111 tllere asin the Urnited Stams and Ccll1<1d!at which genlel<lte I:ess th<llll1! 20 piE!IrI:!iE!!lIlt oftJru,eir elect!rici;'!:y UllrrougmJ nuelear reactimll.

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

3,·2 'CUIt.UlraISurvival i~nBraziil

When ttrH!!fiffi~ lPol'tugLH!Se .ships landed on 'Um CIOI8st of what we i'iIOW know as Blrazil, more th!lu'1l :2 rn~llli iorn rn~oplle in ha b~ted '[he vast,. millera 1~II1Tch laed, They liVed ~f1 sm~lI,i~ohnMs@lUlemel'1:ls, s:p·o~e a \lar~,ety of ~81ngl..li9iges. and embraced! many di'ff,ernnt 'r:u~tmal tJi'aaitiOI'll$.

lod~)/, ,o\!\elrfj:vecemr~Llllnles lEiter, ~ rarijll's popullalilolil has !?fm:Wiil to 1'1'1 cm~ 'than :li 8rO 1'1'1 ~~Iiofl, Cln,~y at.!O'iJI'~EiOO.OO n of wholTll are~ndigen;mJs pseples CJ.E!soended[rom '~h'!1!! arlgjnai ilnthab~tall'tS, Oi;l~r 200 d~ffer,efilt ~mjigel1ouSi~LiPSi .h.!lI\I'~ sUNuve.dl, llivilflg, a ~ife t~ed clo1selyro th,~ ~al"lld andit!he nlvers, jilJstaSUlJ'S~lr sncssters d~d. But Q.\I\BIF 1iJhe past two ,g,e!tlern'tlon'S, 'tiheir nu m bers lhave dWlll1d1lea as Morns ~lfl miniM,. ~O;1Mjng. oil driilliflg, ana agr~'cu I.'~LI re have ,eflcl!'Oac!hed 'Ol'iltti1 ell r ~Em.darndl tllleir settlements.

Ma'ny indigenous groups were' OiilCi@ 11(lU"I'Ia<dS. m01;'llllg amui1d from one lhunting orlilshing gi'Ql[jfid. Ito <!IIflO'~tHii:, Now 'UiN~Y 2i.re I~eirii'l"l,eaitli Ol1tti1e reseNaij'OJ1S th,egovl!rriI menlt. conflll1ecl tnem to, sLlrmm'1!d.ed byhilJge ra,rms 01' mn:ctle'S whose O:\I'IIine~s dell1:yU'l,eir rlg~:t 1:.0 Ii\.!\~ offth'8 lfill'ild. Srat€ omcLa Is may ins:~s't 'tihat: laws; re$~rictttJe

!developmelilt of indigen.ous 1!]r1ds,. bu:n ifldl~nClUs peopl.les 'r,ell~ a dlltl'er,sn[ stolry. lin rYl1ar.t:), Gmsso, ,EI hea~llyf;ores;~M St,81t€!, li1el3i~UlJ'fl Amaron River, In'gg®r'S haW'! b~:um Ic!eaii""cuJ't'ting tt1e ~a!ld at ,8 rate tnat a,~arms. ~l1e Bororo, a ill ~mjigenlo,,"J:S g~o,up '~at has Uved Tlllrn,earea. fm oelllturiL~'s. AccoWl:iilng to ,o:ne e~de~, ltie, sororo are now (:onfln,ed to six :small resenJatioll1s of about 500 square m~~e~ much 1,88S; 'tihilltl 'the area offii'crallygr.an~ed them II'IU'le, 19~h cenwry,.

h"MaM flros.~(). {I !ttj(1'j;JiJy f('m!.sr;,~d S,(.afe rltt![l' tlw Amazon .R.iu,er, lC!gger:s nave be(l'll ClC,(Lf~ C:l..ll·triup' :r:.he {and at Ct f'lH'll lAra


alan~ls i/J,(! .lIon:m:t

Ifl(l~g:8:noills,ITIbes 8·re no. ma'teh~Q,r powel'~ :rlil agrHMJsin.~ss irHeres1;S, 'O,tM~ of wlhMe lea.dem Is a~so govemor of Marl!O <Grosso. Bl<1Iiro !Maggi, h,eaol of the! ~.BIrgest soybean pmdllo~lr in tile wm~d, has; pl[Jbllir:ly 'triviallllzed the consequerlces ;Q'r rh~! massive de~oresta.tion oC:ClIfir'iltlg, in !MallO,

King Kong vaults~i\l'i.ng <Jirm.sn.rst over a waID or gl'Oeerycart and landing in a standingpos.ition. They may foUow this maneuverwitb a tic. tac~i.ckilJig off <iI. wallto oV'ecrmme SOI'l1.e kind of obstacle (Wilkinson 20(7).

Snell ar:g.ot allows fnsiders-cthe members. of the s1J]bmhmre-to understand words with special meanings. It also establishes patterns of cnmmtmicatiun that outsiders can't understand, Suciologists associated with the interactionist perspectiee emphasize that language <lind sy.u.nbuls offe:r a powerfun way for a suhcultureto feel cohesive and maintain its identity.

hn. India. a n,ew subculture has delle]opedillClJl(l![lg employees at the international call centers established by multinational corporations. To serve customers in. the United States and ELII.mpe, the young men and wnmen who work there must be fluent speakers of EJJI-' glish ... But the cerporations that emp~oy them dlemand more than proflciency in a foreign hlJII. gllI age; tn.ey expect their Indian employees to adopt We:stenl values and wm:khabits, und.ud:i:[Ig th.,e grueling pa.c-,e U.S .. workers take to:rgv<I:nted. In return they oflter perks such <IS Wes~e.r:lJl-sl:y]e dinners, dances, and coveted consumer goods. Significant]y;tbey allow emph.:nyeesl:!o tale the day off onry on U.S. holidays, like la.hor Day and ThaIlksgi'if~ng-not em Indian ho.hdiJ.ys like Diwali, the Hindu festival (If lights. While most Indian familiesare home

GrmSSQ'. TI10illg~, Maggi said he' WClu~d prepcsea three~yea,1" moratorium 011 dI'Bvelopmel'l:t, opponents am sll'JeIP,tJl,c:a,~ ~hat ns wmmillowttlmu'gih entns p~o.mn~e"

Meamvlhile, liildigenous grou,ps m(e~e Bo~oro suu.ggl,eoo main'l;aiililiiheur ~ulbl re ~Il ~he ~a{)e of dw~ndlinig reso:LIlrces.lihClugh Ille tribe .s:M~11 obSenN~:9 t11rE trn.(iuUcN'1l.all ~li1ntia'Ur:H'llrte's for .adlol·es~ cent bOys, mem bsrs are 'filtld~lilg~t dimcfultro contii'lllLl.e thel.r thun~ung .t~md, '~Sh~fi,g riitt:l.atls., gil',"el1 ·tl1e scarcity of game arndl5s;h in the area,. Pest[.Cii:l8S rlniihe runO'fFfrom 1100 r!by~a rms lla-iJ13 pOfisO.n,ed the wate!" l:I1e,y '~sh and bmh,s in, thlreair~nirMl: !Joth 'iihe~r [heanh 81f1dtheir 1(;[jJI~ure's S'UlrvJ\i'st


1, I·tow do you think th,e f~,of'ilti,elr in Br:a:zuitad.ay eomps res; to 'r~,e American West in 'iihe t800s? Wh,at ~~milarritie:s do you see?

2, What does s!)c:lety ~ose whlf;llil ilndl,gef1ous mJltm·es diie?

EmploYl:H1S of EllIiI iliiltenl@tiona~ caU lJente!~ in Simla, India,socialiiz.i2!alftedini£h~liiIg;81 SJevell!-hmJlf shlifl: nlm thetf!~epholiile. C,ilIllc1;!'l'1Iteremployees, lImll]l areis@l!a,wdkflm oth!E!'f

in d lens b~ fle~rr adheren Qeoo We:stem ho,i iday.s a ad odd w{lwli:inng h ours, hai!A\El formed! a tighlt-Jm it g.uibctJ iWlre based piCllrtly en their illppre:Diati:oll! fo,r Weste'm-£ty~e (;(Ins~ mer gil] nds,

celebntti.ng" call center employees see only each other; when they havethe day off; no one else is free to socialize with them, As, a result, these employees.have formed. a tight-knit subculture

basedon hard work aed a. taste £mWes;tern]LiIxury goods <Ind. leisure-time puzsuits,

Increasingly" call center workers arethe object of criticism.

from Indians who live a more rnnventimla~l:ifestyle centered on.S9'


fam.i.1y and .liloHdaytradition!i. In :response to such negat:i.ViE pulbLie opinion, the government ef'the Indian . statewhere call centers are lo ca ted! ha. s banned scheols from teaching English rather than. Kannada, the lc .. cal laJ!.gl)1age. B egiJlnin,g ill 2008, some )<0 (l,OO(] students were affected by the han. (Chu 2JJ07~,Ka]ita 1[l(6).

Another Sbartd. e]l!U1!.c:teristk arnI{mg, some employees <lit Indian. call Qen1ter'.s is HH;:'i[; mntemJPthr the callers they serve. Inpelfon:ning their morsotnnous, H::pet~tive job day after day;, Enm.dreds of thousands of these workers have cnmeto see IDe faceless Ameri.cansthey deal with as s]ow~ often rude castomen s, .As describ edin the reoen tIndian bestseller ONe' .Night @ the Cau Ce.~ltre, new trainees qlllickly learn the '(35 = IO I'u.k~.)jmeaniIIJ.g that a J'.5-year~o]Jd A.me~·i.c:a:l[is IQ is the same asaIll-year-cld Indian's, Such shared understandings underpin this emerging subculture (BbClgat 2:007; Gen1tJemaI1l10(6).

Punctionalist and connict theerists agr,ee that variation exists within a culture .. Functionalists VIew subcultures asvariatiens of particular social envirenments and. a$ evidence that differences C31J] exist within it conrmenculture, However, cnn[[iet theorists sugg;.est that variations o ft:en reflect the inequality of social arrangementswirhiu a society, AmnHict tbe.mist would view the ,(haJ:]enges to dominant social [1I0l:" IDS by Afei-· can American activists, the femieist mcvement, and the disability rig;h Its movement as reflections of inequity based on race" gender. mad d.isabili·~y sta hIS. Conflict theorists also argue 1th.1I.1: subcultures sometimes emf:'rge when the dcminant ~~ocjety ansnccessfully triesta SUppl"eS:S a practice, such as. the use of m.eg;ill d.rlllgs,

Cou nterc ultu res

By the end. of the R960s, <111 extensive subcultme had emerged in the United States] composed of YOiI,l]]Jg people turned off by a society tll.ey believed waS~QO materialistic and technelogical, This g;rDIlI~ indude1d primarily political radicals and. hippies who had d.ropped OLK~ ofmainstream social institutions; These young men and. women rejected. the Pl'esslue ito accumalate more and. morecars, larger and larger .1i.omes, and an. endless anay of material! goods. Instead, they expressed a desil'iE toki.ve in iI! culture based 0]] more huma:n:i.stic values, such all sharing, love, and coexistence with the environment. As apolitfcal force, this subc:wllllre opposed the UnIted. Stales' involvement in. the Wll1' in Vietnam. and encouraged draft: resistance (Flacks 1971~ Roszak 1969).

ViJ["I,e]] iii subculrure conspicuocsly and dldib erately opposes certain aspects of the .I.a.rger culture, it is known as a Wl!!Ul1tcr'"curutlliIfle. Countercultures typically till'lve anlong the yelit,mIg, who have theleast investment in the e.};.-i:sting culture, In most G<II.seSj a :m-year-old. can adjust to new cultursl standards more easily than someDne' who has spent GO years following the patterns of Iilie domrmmt culture (Zenner _] 99'5),

In the wale of the terrorist attacks of September] 1,. 2001,. people around. the United States learned ofthe existence .of terrarist groups operating as a cmmterculture within their co~m~ry: This was a sitlJla~joTl that g,eneufion:s have Iivedwith in. Northern Ireland, Israel and ItlliePEI.lJe'Sti:n:i<in tenito,ry. andmany nther partsof theworld .. But terrorist cells are nat necessarill' fueled 0111.11' by outsiders. F:re.quenUypeople beeeme disenchanted. with. the p olicies of their own country, and 11 few take very violent steps,

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. -

"\1"':; ~t-iI_)LE..tj'";l. \fiJe ... -JQtN f.. ~"(~~'Vl1\}11.i&- t"f B~(~ '5 1""~ ,Vt..WQS" WE- JO,j,N ~r~ CO IJNT'f1l,~(:\J L TO~E: rr e,~c~S-rO'\'lG cvt-l""_,rOe.,, -" ~

Culilttiires chiange., Fa:slhlions we OIllIJI:!! reg;amde'cl ;[!IS uliiI;alQ}cl;!pl1il'lle-suc'h as !illellll WtlliJl'irmg eaITilflgs and peop~e: we.:wing jealrAs in ths 'l'l'orikpl!1)'Ci~Or ass.oc~iilI~ed with flfilnlge grol!.lps {SLJch <115 men and WI[lmenw~thtBrtml[]!s) are !iiiOlll widel¥ aece pt.ed.lheSEl DOIJIIlllt:e ml,llltJumai p'riIdice5, have been 11 bsorlJeo till" mainsl:ream cullJrre.

Culture Shock

.• '\n.yo!n.e wEl,o feds disoriented. uncertain, OIlIt ofplace, or' even fearfulwbenimmersed in. an unfamiliar culture maybe experiencing euJIture sheek, for ,example. a resident ofthe United States who visits certain areas in China and. wantslocal Bleat for dinnermay be stunnedto learn that the specialty is dog meat. Si.m.i];a.dy. somenne from ;;I strict Islamic culture may 1)1; shocked when first seeing the compri;l.I~ati.vEly ptevncative dl.re'5iS styles; and open d.isplay.s of affection that are cornmon inthe United. States and. various Euzopean cultures.

AU of us. to some extent, take for granted~he culmral practices of om ~c.iety .. As a.result, it can be sl,irprisrn.g and even di.slurbrn.g I!Q realize that other cultures de not follow our way of life, The fact is that customs 1ihaJ.t seem strange to us maybe considered normal and pr-oper in other cultures, which may see 01111" own mures and. fo[kways as odd.

use your soc io logica I fmaglnatian

You afiri:Ve ~n a dWE!llopilng Afini:carJI [}oul'ltrry as a ~@ao~ Gorps ·\,!IOI:L1lliOOe r; What aspects Of Cl\l€ry dlif.ifere nt ICU II~ ture do you ttJh~nk wouldl be the 'hardesuto i3rdjiusHo?' Whrat miight the citiizens of that !l::o'untrry ~illid shocking a bam your cUilture?

Role of tangu3,ge

Language is one nfthe major elements. of culture that nnd.e:die cllitt~jfa.l!/ari<ittiol]:5. Itisalso an important c:ol1l]pone:n:t ofcultural [Capital. Recall fmm Chapter 1 that Pierre Bourdieu used the term. CllitlJra.l ,capit~ltQ describe noneeonenrie assets, such <IS


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

fau.lIily background and past educational investments.which are reflected in a person's knowledge of langnage and the arts,

Mem b ern of a sodety generally share <II cnmmon language> which. facilitates day-tn-dayeaehanges with others, \\fbenji1ou <lsk a hardware store clerk for a flashlight,. you don't need. to draw a pictnre of theinstrument, You share the $anu~ cultural term for <II. small, portable, battery-operatedIight, However, if you. were in Eng]aIII.d. and needed this item> you WOldd have~o ask for an electric torch. Of conrse, even. within the same society, :<1. term can have a number ofdiffeyen:1l1: meanings..In the United States, _pot si.g;n:ifi.es both a container thrutis used fur OOOkLElg aod. all intcsicating drug. In this section we will examine the cultural i.n:fll!Je~lIGe of la.nguage. wh.ich.indudes both the written and spoken. word and ncnverbal.cunamrmication,

La nguage: Wlrit.ten and Spoken

Seven thousand ]m:g.g:lllag:es are spoken intheworld tada:y-· -maIOy more than themnnber of cennrries Within a nation's political boundseies, the number of languages spoken llfl<lly muge from o.nly one (as in North Korea )~o several hundred (as in Papua New Guinea] with 820). F,orthe speakers of each (line]. wbeth.el~ th.ey number 2,000 or 200 million, language is fundamental to their shared culture (Gordon 20(5).

The .Eng[ish 1a:nglllag.e, for exaarple, makes extensive use ef words dealing with war. We speak .of "conquering" space; ('fighting" tfu,e "battle" of the budget, "wa,g]ng waF'" IOn d.mgs,maki.ng <I ~k:illin.~tpl1 the stock ma:U'l~et~ and "bonrbing" an examination; :son'l.ethmg mcnumental ()r great is "the bm:nb.'" An observer from an entirely different <1:]]'([ warless culruee could gauge the importance tbfl.t war and the military have hadin om lives simply by recognizing tfue prominence thatmilitaristic terms. have in. our ]<l:n1g:u,~ge, On the other hand], in the Old West, words. sud]. as gelding, sf:riJ1irm, marE. pidJ'ald~ and sorrel were allused tn describe one animal- =the borse, Even :if we knew little of1bhat period in hist!OlfY. we could conclude fmm the list of terms that horses were impcrtaat to' the culture .. Silnilady, the Saini people of northern N mway and S.weden.fu;ave a rich dliVie~rsi tty of tenens for sno,w; ire, andreindeer (Haviland etal, 2003; Magga. 2A1(6).

la:nguageis,.in&cI:] the foundation ofev.ery culture, tWlgll!l;a,ge .is an abstract s},st!em of word meanings and sy.mbols for all aspect.'> of culture. Itincludes speecb, written characters, numerals, s.yn]lbnl.s]. and rLo[]'verbal g;estures and expressions, Because Language IS the foundation of every culture, the ability to speak otrl1.,e[·langu:ages is crucialte intercultural relations, Thl)ongia.ol!J.t the Cold.\¥;am: era, beginning in. ttb.e]950~~ and eontinuingwell into the 19705, the u.s. government encouraged the study of Russian hy developing special langaage schools fOi!: diploma.ts and. military advisers who dealtwith the Soviet Union . And toUowin.g September 1 I , ::WO 1. the na tion Fiecognized how few skilledtranslators it had). for Arabic. and other Ianguages. spoken in Muslim countries . .Langu<lge quickly became a hy. not Oldy to tt:.ac:k:ing potential terrcrists, hut to building diplomatic bridges with MusUm countries willing tohelp in the w~£ against terrorism ..

Ianguage does .1JL1!Ol)e1ill~Mm s.i.mply describe l:)eali:ty; itt. also servesto sh~p'e the lceru:ity of <I culture, For exanrple, mostpeople ll''!. the Unlited States cannot ,e'<Jisll.ym;ake the verbal distinctions concemmg snew andice that are possible in the Sa.mi culture .. As a result, they <LJ:1e less lik!e]y to notice such differences,

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A lliiaHv:e s,pe'i;ike r w~Jns i nstlllJictorntrom tile Ollii'l~rd a N'ati(llm ~lf N:ew York illlil the! IBeriitz meth C!d of 1;:mgILJCllge telllchiing. 1Mii1l1ill~ Natj!,re Ameri:caniUio,e.s. are ta I'll ng st!epis, to feC(l1,l'er thHI r s't'!l!d ern-used l'allig)Jage$., realili ng that lallilgllag~is thle e£semial fUlllllldiatioJ:1 of .any clUll:ttll'e.

The Sa.I'iur-Wb.o.l1'fh:YiP'olil.'e:s:ms:~, named bm two Linguists, describes the role of ]angnage in shapin.g oueirrterpretation oif l:)e<l.iity; According to Sapir and. ·\I\i]]nrf~ because people can '(:011- eeptualize the world enly thraugh language, language _Pfiecedell thougbt, Thus, the word sym.bo1s and goa:mElulJ: of a language OI~.n]Ze the world fo.r us" The Sa.p.ir.~·Wb.orf hypothesia also holds that language is not a given. Rather, it is culturally determined. and encourages iii distinctive interpretation of .reality by tomsing our attention on certajnphenornena (Sapir 1929),

.For decades]. the Navajo Iiave referred to. cancer as Ioed doC! luJ~dziihii Now> througha project funded hy the National Cancer Institute, the tribal college is seeking to. change the phrase, \'Vhy? .Lite:raUy, the phrase m:eant! (~the sore that does: not heal," and health ediuc:alnrs are concerned that tribal members who !have been diagncmed with cancer view i.iI: as a death sentence. Their ef.fort: to change file Navajo. language, DOl: ,easy in itself is complicated by the Navajo belief that to. talk about the dis-ease is I~O bring it on one's people (.F.onsecl:1. 200S}.

Shnilarly; feminists !have noted that gender-related language can refi1ect-. -aJltbnmgh irritseltit does not determine-s-the tra-

ditionsl t f _J ' .. ,. If:·

1.I!O.ml. acceptance o. men anu. womnen 111 eertain eccupauons,

Ea!cfu time we useaterm such <IS .mnilmarr. p,olice1I'U;m. O£ fillemau, we ~ue implying (esp~c:i03illy to young ehildren }tthtlltlt]].ese 0 ccuPdJ~]ons can befilled only by males.Yet many women work ::IS l!rtterCalrlers. police. o/fice.r$,and. fimfighters--<J, fact that is be-mg increasingly recognized and legitimized throngl) the use of such nonsexist language,

t» c:


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

Language can also transmit stereottypes related to race, Look lI1p the mean[ugs of the adjective b.lack in dictionaries published in lIh,e United States. YOlilwill find. dism(l,J" gtom11y m' forbiddil"g. Jestir:r~te of ~~u:nml.light or gOQthi,ess, .a:t:I'iJCiO'~IS. evil; thr:eate,ni~:~g, clouded 'With ,(lJ~ger, Jn contrast, dictionaries ]istputie and .. imiOc~~t <I111ong the meanings of the adjec~jvewhi M. T1n:ough. such patterns of lang;l!lage], our nlilltu.re reinforces positive associations witil. the term (and skin oolor)w':jite and negati.ve associations with. bw.ck. Is it surprising, then, theta list meant to prevent people from working in a professian is. called i!! hlaclliJ>t. while a lie thatwe think. of as somewhat acceptable is ,called a.wi1'iw lie?

Language can shapen.ow we see, taste, smell, feel], and hear. H also infh.1-

ences the way we think about the people, Ideas, and objects arnund us. Language communicates, a culture's most importan t aorms, val!lIIe.s,anod sanctions, Thal'swhy the decline of an old. language or the introduction of anew one is. such a seasitive issue in [Illany pa.rts afthe world (see the Social Policy section at the end. of this chapter}.

U:sin g Am ell'i~i!! n Sign l~n~uj~ge, ill fo rrn of ~onjJ€!m<lll! ((I!ifI ml,lniC~~OIl, .alootball coach d tseusses a p,1!1I]t wi:th his team. The Silen,t WaMo:rs, fmJIHime natiloJilal ()halllllp~olfllS:~<Ill1l1d the! Ilrtde Ol'tffilH AI:ab<3ima Sohnol few t~e Deaf, have defeatedl both fuJ'E!!a rin~ ami no nh es r~nlg teams.

Nonverbal Communication

If you: don'tlike the way a meeting is ,going, you migbt suddenly sit back, fold )'IJ'mramlS,. <lID1d tum dloW']].i:hecm:ners 'Of yom mouth, '\Nhen.rou see a friend in l:eaIEs>yourIlay give <I. qll1.i!ck hug. Allier winning a big gaIlae, YOlll ]Ja.'Ob~bly h:lg,h. -five your teammates,. These are all examples of nonverbal .commf~H;:Gation. the use of gestures" fadal f''x]p:resfigOnS, and other visualimages to. cemmunicate,

We me not born 'With these expressions .. We~e<lrn them], just as we learn other forms ofhmguage"frmn people who share OUT same cULIIllUe., This statement is as true for the basic e:xp'.[es,sicm,s ofhappiness <lind sadness as it is fbt mere complex emotions. such. as shame 01' distr-ess (Fridlund et al, 1987).

.Li,J,:Qe ether £orms of language, Iu:mverbal eomnnmlcatien is not the Slime in all cultures, For example, seciological research done at the micro .I!ev,d. documents that people .:&01'1:1 various cultures differ in the degree to which they touch others dllll'eng the OOiI,Irse of normal social interactions. Even: experienced 1!.mvele:rs are sometimes cca:ugbt off gua:rd.by these differences, In Saudi Amb~:!il. a middle-aged man mdi.ywant to hold hands with. a. parinel' after dosing: <I business deal. In .Egypt],I.nen. walk handin hand in the street; in cafe~],dley fall asleep w.hile knmgung in each other's arms. These gestures, which would shock an American businessman, aI1e considered compliments in those cultures .. The meaning of hand signals is another form 'Of nonverbal eornmunication that can differ frem 'One culture to the next. In Austra.iia.; the thumbs-up sign is considered rude (Passero 2002~ Vaughan 2007),

A related form of communicationis tlre use of 5}'11]lbols to Gonvey meaning to others. Synibob are the gestmes, objects, andwrrrdathat tonn th,e basis ofbuman cemmurrication, Tbe 1iliUlnl)~-up gesture, a gold star sticker. and the smiley face in an e-mail are 3]] symbols. Often deceptivelj' simple, manysymbols

;!I];1e rich in meaning, and. .ma.y not conveythe same meaning in all social contexts, Aruund someone's neck. £Ol~ example, a cross can symbolize .reln.giou,s reverence; over <I. grave site, a b efief in ever.iasting: life; or set iufl.<J[[nes], racial hatred,

Some symbols or gestl!lJ"e,~. such vas the hasiceli1ol:~ona~

. ile.al L fL . b l' ,

eXpre3:Sl0IJiS-a smue, a . cOOK 0 .·ll!On01~-may e erose to' unrver-

sal, Not long ago" a team eflinguists, social scientists, and physical scientists collaborated 0.11 Oil system for cemmueicating with those whe live thousands of years.&Qm now, long after people .ha.'!i'e cessedto speruc ourlanguages, The dla.Uel.lge W<1IS to ereate 3. series of signs and explanationsthaa would. wam future generations of the dangersposed by th.eWasite lsolation Pilot Plant (WIPIP). a.nuclear waste repositoey in Nevv Mexicu.Fo:r the next few centuries, Wal]].lll,g signs engraved in .EiJlgtish, Sp!i:lni.,h, Russian, French, Chinese, Arabic, and Navaj owill alert those 'in the area to the p:re.'ience of the underground dump, which. will rema:i.nhighI.y radioactive For <'[II: least HJ!,OOIJ years. But the signs also include pictographs that researchers :hope will be understandabletn penple who live miUenliliafrnm .now" no matter what their languag;e (Figu:l1e 3-3; Department of .E[JJergy 2004~ Piller 20(6).

use your soc io logica I i'magination

BeS:ides yom Ila:ngulage and ~,estuires, what uUller aspe-cts ofYOl!u GlLllnure mighu seem lH1JUSI!JIi311 Klp€;op,l:e Ii n ~ 1i1ld la ~ Ja pa iii, or Fran ce?

Norms and Values

'''Ul L . ...1< d .. :I ... f..··. "'.'. ..jj (~T'Lr J'.. .. l..:iP; ,Tn· ..

~'i'as.rj: YiHH' ~1tm. .s rJt:}ore ,[;amn:';r. .. tu:m Sl'!.{'ut not .UH. J\espea

'I!Jt~~· ,e1del'~.'j Ail societies have ways of en.C:;Duraging and enfcrcing, what they viewas appmpriaitebefuavioT while disc:;ou:raging and pUI!I:iSbulg what they consider to be improperbehavior, They also have a ecllective idea of what is good and desirable in


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml





rhe symbo,I::; (In this subsurtace ma,rke,r at the Waste looi<l~ion IPilot Pt<arllt

illl Nelli M,exiico are OJ 1m attempt to COIlll mu nkalte the presence of h<llzaITilo LJS waste lei' ~e;()lPle wMlo may liv<e Hl,.OOO years from flOW. W[ml!d these symbols convimle YOLJ no~ ita dIg? Might futlJlr'El ger.mrmiorlls mi5uliilterpretUH~m?

lifE------G,r not. In tbi~ section we win leamto disti:ngui'ih between the closely related concepts ofnormsand values.


Nor.ms arethe establishedl.sttan.dards ofbehavior main1taine-d.hy a society. For a norm. to he come si.g;nifi.calIt, it must be widely ~ .. bared andtmderstoed . .For example, in mcvietheaters in the United States> we typically expect tint people willbe quiet while

II n Iraq I a ferna~e' mem b er o1the· U. S, Amy :seal~'G.heg. 1'iI j[io'l,l'erec:i Musl im '1'1'0 mall. The se<lJrchies, wh lc hare necessary to p revellllt: t.errmlst iillf\.aOk:5,. vl(J,late a Milislim norm tihli'lt fmbids tOlllohiilllilg tDy stJra nge:rs.

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the filmis shown. Of course, the a.ppliGlttio.n. of thi.5U(J<rm am. vary> depend:ing IJIll the particular film and type of audience.

1I"Ii I L •• •. .•. T C]·· ··I·~ 1L ·I·k- ·l!

.I:'"eop.e WU.lO are YB~wmg 0:1 serious arusnc nun wiu U)e more. :le.iY

tn jnsist on. the norm of silence than those who are 'watching <II slapstick comedy orhorror raovie,

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'Types of .No.r.ms Sociologists distinguish between norms if I. biN'o V!t'<llys • First, nnrms dire classified as either fmmal (H" in£onnaJ. Fllrm3JI nOlf111liSgenemUy have been written dm'lfn. and .specify strjct punishments for violators. In the United States, we often formalize norms into laws, which are -very precisein defining proper audin1pm]pe:[ beha.vio:r. Sociologist Donald Black (l995} has teTm.edlaw~~gove],]lll1e~]ta] social cnntro]," meening thatlaws are formal norms enforced by the state. Laws are just one ex.<lIUpie of formal norms, The requirements for a college major <IIIld. tbe' rules of a csrd gaIi:)!e are alsocnnsidered fC)i[;,nlia~ norms,

In. cootrast, u'[for:mall m.o.m1.s are generally understood. but not ]plrecisdy recorded, Standards of prOpel" dress area common. example cfinfonnalncems. Oau society bas no specilic punishment (IF sanctienfor a. person who comes to schnol, say. weari~1Jg a ]]]Otlkey suit. Making fun of the Ilonoon:fotIl'ling student is. usually Itnenlost liNdy respome.

Norms are also classified by their relative impurtanceto society.'When classified in this Wl3Iy~tfuey are known as mores and. folkways. Mor,es (preoounced ~'Mol~.-ay:s.).j} are norms deemed highT)" ll:e:beSsary~1[I the wdfal~e of a :s:ocie:ty~ often beeausethej' embody the most cherished principles of a people. Each society demands cbedience to its mores; violation canlead tn severe penalties, Thu.s>tlI:e United Stateshas stron.g mores aga:inst murde .. , treason, and child abuse, whichhave been institutionalized intn formal norms .

. ~o.lkwny5 are norms governing everyday behavioc Folkways play an UHF ortant role in shapin.15 the daily behavior of members

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When is a lIliss rnera th~UiI ill kiss? Ilnl IndiiiJ, pk.lb~~c displays of <liffect!'oUlI are decidled~y not Ulle norm, even <ilmo,ng mOl!.l'ie 5ltl;lr8. Wftil'!!lm R~chaITI'GerJ:!5.wept i;I'G$SS S hilpll S hethy int'iJI li1l~s arms <lit o1IllI1l JUDSawa r~lI1ll8~s.s 'evElflilf prote$1!l>. erolpted. 8J1lld some ol!lltraged O'l"lioo ke rs de!m 1Ulidled 'ltihlat ~,e be sa ncUclifled.

of <I. culture, Society isless likdy to for:Il1E1.1izei\"o,[kwa.ys than mores, and their violation raisescnmparatfvely littleconeem, For example, w~ing; up a down escalatnr .1]] <I department store challenges OUlI' standards of approprfate behavior.but itt w:ill not result in. a fine or a. jsil sentence,

Inmany societies around iliew'O'l"ld. faU(w3.Y,!j, exist to rein[omepaJHerns of male dominance. Va:riOl!1$ folkV!l'<l)'S reveal men's hierarcbieal position alDove wnmen W11\:run the traditional Buddhist areas of Southeast Asia .. In the sleepi:~]g cars of trains, women do not sleep inupperberths above. men .. Hospitals that flOl)lS,em.eu on tbe first floor donot :p,ta.ce women patients on the second floor, Even on. rlotheslines, £olkways dictate male dominance: women's. attire is hung lower than that of men (BmlJe 1987).

~bu area h i\ghl school princi!pail. What norms. wou Id

you want to govern the students' behavi:or? How might those norms dliffe:r flroml:h0i8€ appmpnate lor oolll8'ge stu de [ljts?

use you r sociological imagination

.A,C.CB,ptance 0'1 NiO.rms People dQ not fol!low norms, whether mores or folkways, ill all situations. Jn some cases, theycan evade <I norm because they know it ~sw'eakly .en£om~d.. Itisillegpl fo.[ Ll.S, teenagers to drink alcohohc beverages.yet drinking by minorsis commnn throughout the nation, Vn fact, teenage alcohofism ]S aseeious socialpm blenr.)

ln some instances, behavior that <lIppears to violate society':!> norms Illla:y actuallyrepresent adherenceto the norms of a particular gmup. Teenage drinkers areclJllfurming to the standards of their peer groupwhe]]. fh,ey violate norms that cenderon underage drinking .. Similar1y. business executives who use ~~hady accounting techniques may be responding to <i. emp orate culture that demands thetnaximizaticn 'of profits ;iII.1: any cost, .ind.u.dm.,g the deception of If.l'ife!itors and. govermnent regulatory a.gende,'S ..

Norms are violated in. some instances because one nortn (o[lflicl:s wrili.:!!.1CIothlEr. FoOlE example, suppO.5e that YOlll live in an apartment building.and one night hearthe screams ofthewoman next door,V'!.~]o IS beinglbeal:en. !by her busband ... lf y,ou decide to intervene by ringing their dourbell m~ calling the po.ll.Ge. youan;~ violating theuorm of minding your own business. while ar the same time t\amm'l!ing ili:e nom} of assisting a victim of violence,

Bven if norms do notconfliet.jhere are-always exceptions to any norm, The same action, under different circumstances, can cause oneto be viewed as ei ili.er a .hero or avillain .. Secretly taping telephone conversations is :normally GOTts:ideredlUegCl] and abbm.l'1en.t However, it can be d.o.o.1l1!:: \'1']1:11 a <COl/lIEU Older to obtain valid evidence for a crimina] trial, We would heap praise on a {l,ovenmlent agentwhoused such methods to convict <till organized. crane fi.gl]FrE'. In OUT eultnre, we tolerate killing another hmTlju:nbei.ng in self-defense, and we adllaHy reward ki.lling in warfare,

Acceptanc-e of norms is subject to change ;<IS the political, ecnnomic, and snciel Ganajtaons of a culture are transfermed, Until the 19'6~1~ • .Dor example, formal norms throughout much of the United Statesprnhihited the marriage ofpeeple from diffe.l"entraeialgroups, Over thepast halfcentury; however, such legal pmhihitions were cast aside, The prooess of change Ca,[I!. be seen today in the mcreasing acceptance of single par,eI'l~s and gm'wil]g 'support fur thelegalization of marriage between same-sex couples (seeChapter 14,}.

\o'\'hen eircumstances requirethe sudden violation oflongstanding cultural nerms, the change can upset an entirepopula- 600.]n Iraq, where Muslim custom strictly forbids t:ou.cbiog by strangers ben menand e'spedaUy forwomen, thewar that beg:illl In 200.3 haslbrul!1ght numerous dlailyvlol::..tions of the norm, Ootside important mosques, gOViemment ofnces"and oth.e:r facilities I.ikely to be targeted byterrurists, visitors mustnow be patted down and! have their hags searched hy Iraqi security' gaards, To reduce the disromfcrt caused by the procedure, women are searched by femalegaards and men by male gU<lnis .. Despite that cencessicu, Md. the fad that [[Iii31I!Y Iraqis admit or even insist on the need for saeh measmes, people stilJ wince at the invasion of their persona] privacy, ln reai:;l:ron to the searcbeaIraqi WOI'l:l!en have begun to' limit tlJe eoutents of the bags tlher carry or S.lIn.lIpJ.y toleave them. athome (Rub}]] 2003 }.


Suppose a foot.ball coach sends, <II 12th pkllye[~ ontothefield, Imagine a wl1ege gradnate s.ho\ylng up in shorts fOF a j{Jib interview at


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


's::l: San ctiolflS

'~_N_o_t_m_s_, IPo_ .•. _5_it_i\(_e IN_e_·gat_ .. _ .. ~_V~_.· _---'

'e :E :E :::J


5al;1I1'}' bonus !Demotion



a large bank, Orcnnsider a dr.li.ve~.·who neg,i.ects. to put my lucmey into a parking meter, These peopleheve violated widely shared and imdersteednonns, Sewhar happens] In each of these situations, the pe:r.mn willreceive sanetions if hisor herbehavior is detected,

Silim:il:lm1!O'ji, arepenalties and rewards DOl' conduct eonceming a soeialnorm •. Note that theccncept of reward is included in this definition. Cmltcu.mity to a. norm can lead topositive sanctions such as <I pay raise, 11. medal, a word. of gratitude, or apst on the back, Negative sanctions include fines, threats, imprisonment, and stares of Q"JD:luempt

Tab.le 3-1 summarizes the relasionship berweenuornrs and sanctions, k~ you can see, the sanctions that are assodatedlwilfu formal norms (which me written dlovm. and. eodified] wend. to be forma] as well, If oq. mUege mach sends tooma]]YlPb~y.:ers onto the HeM, the teamwill be penalized. 15 yards .. The driver w.ho fails tn pntnloner in tbe parkingmeter will receive a ticket and have to ]Jay <it fine, But sanctions for v:ioJatioIDs of in£o.r.malnoHl]:s call v<I:ry; The college g;raduatewho goes to the bankinterview in. 'shorts wi.U probablylose any chance of getting the job; 0.[1 the other handi,he or she might be sobrilliant that bank officiil]s win overlookthe unconveational attire,

The entire fabric: of norms and :5!'1]][tio[IS in <II culture refllects that cultures values and priorfties. Themost cherished values wiU be most heaviFy sanetionedj raattersregarded as. less C1:1 tical. win cal!Ty light and informal S~IlCtiOl1S"


Though weeach have om (lW]l personal set of staudards-swh:id:n. .m.<!.}' include caring or fitness or success in business-e-we also share a general set of objectives <.1:$ members of <L. society, Cultural V::ll:llI!I!es are these collective cenceptions of what is oonsidered good,. des]rabJ,e., and pmpeF-or bad, undesirable, and improper-e-m <II eulture, They indicate what people ina given cultnze prefer as wellas what theyfind important and IllOJ'<J!.I.[.y ri.ght (or wrong). Values .rnay be specific, such as honoring nne's parents and owning a home, or they may be more general, such. BI~~ health, love, and democracy; Qfc:aiUl:r.se,the members of <II. s ociety do not 1,].[li.no:rmly share .its values, Angry political debates and. billhO<l:rds pmmotin,gconflicting causes. tellus tha t rnuch,

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'Vialues. influence peo-p]d;, behavior and. serve as criteria for eV<lillul!l.11g the actions of others, The values, norms> and sanetiOI.1S ofa culture are ol1ten. direc:tlyrelated .. For example, if a culture places ;<JJ high. value 0]] the institueien ofmarrfage, it Inay have norms, (and strict sanctians] that prohibit the <Ict .of adultery or make divorce difficult.[f aculrure views private plfiopel:ty CIS abasic valua.it will probably have stiff laws against thef~ and. vandalism ..

The 'values of a culture may cha:nge'. butmost remain relati.ve~y stable dU:r:lllg anyone person'sIifetime, Socially shared. intensely felt values. are a fundameutal part of our Iivesin the United States, Sociologist Robin WiUiams (970) has offered a list of basicvalues, It mcludes achievemem, effidency.m,a:teria] conrfort, natiooalism, ,equalitYl and the S~]FI~m;[l.cy of science and. reason over faith. Obviously> not all 307 million 'people in this country agree on all these values, but such ill! list serves as <II starting pcintin deflnjng the national character,

Each yen more tban 240,580 entering college students ;iII1: .340 ofthe natien's four-year colleges fill out aquestionnaire about tbeir attitudes .. Because this .survey focuses on an an:ay of issues. beliefs, andbfe gO~5, .It iscnmruonly cited <lisa barometer of the nation's values, Therespendents are asked. w.hatvruues are persmuUy important tothem .. Over the past 40 years, the value of "heing verywell-off finaacially" has shown the S1t.IOUge.st gain in. popularity; the proportion of :first -year co1]ege students who

...lL! . 1 .' .~, .'. .' '1" .". . '. .' .. " fr ,I..l

ennnrse tmsvajueas essenna or very nnportam+rose • DEll ';:1:"':

percent t.n 1967 to 76.8 percent in 1.008 (Figure 3-4 on "Page 6·5). Incnntrast, the value-that bas shown the most striking decline in. endorsementby students, 1S "developing a meaningful philosophy of life." \IV1lile this value was the most pO]p'ula:r ill the 1967- $urvey~, endorsed by more than SO percent of the resp ondeots, it had.fallen to sixth place on the list by 2008. when itwas endorsed by S L4 pet-cent of students entering college,

Duri.ng theI 980'S anti 19905; support for values harv.lng to do with maney pewer.and status grew: At the same time, support for certainvalues .iha.villg 10 do-with social ~[liV,ag"eness and. altruism, such as "belping ethers,' declined. Aecurding to the 2m)l8 natiOD]wicie survey; o:n1y 44.:.7 lPemefi~ ofli ... o;tt-yea:r co]]i!;:g~ students stated that I:.i:nfiluencrn.g social values" w<I!sau "essential" or "veryimportant" goal The proportion of students fm whom "helpingto pml1l10te racialunderstauding" was an essential or veryimportan t goaJI reached a record. high of 42. percent in 1992,. then feUibo 37.3pe:rcent t]l 2008. Like otheraspects of culture,

'L . 'n d . ti "] t

sucn as [<lIlgU<II.g:e an . :n.O'.[111S; <II. na Kin SV<I!. ues are ncr. necessar-


'\t\fbetber the SJOgilDl is "Plant a Tree" or "Think Green;' students have been exposed tovalues associated with environmentalism, H.owmany of them accept those v<I]ues? Poll results cvertlre past 40 years show fluctua tiona, with <II h.rgh. of nearly 46 percent of students indicating a desire to become involved in cleaning up the envircnment .. Beginning intlre 1'9805, student support Dm: embracing thisobjective had dropped. to around 20 percesrtor even lower (see Figure 3-4). Even. with recent attentionto globel warming, the prepoetlen remains level at only 29 . .5 percent offirst-yeer students in 2008.

.Rec:ently;,cheati.ng has become allot issue on college CaIU]pIJlS,eS" Pvo£ess>an who take ad.v.a.[ltage IOf compu terized services that can i!rne[ltifY plagiarism, such as the search engine GOOc,gle> .have been. shocked to learn that IJ1!aIDY of the papers their students hand in

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1(10· .



B@v@ry W@Uofffini1l!iKi~l!y

(ji~<ll'Iil'l911J P ili!mVimrml@:nt O.+---~---.----r---.---~--~.----.------~

1966 1970 ~ 975 192{1 19851990 1995 2000 20<08

&mr't:t£ UCLA H;3h~::" .Edi:i.O:::al:i()~iRe~,~l'eli Ijj:!;riti:il:~. ~sr~pOl:t~cl ii~ ASli~i ~'I a], 1 ~941 .Prymi' ~L al, 2:(lOi. 20.(f.B.

Tlflilflk abeut It.

Why do you think values haves!lifted aMong Go~h~g'estil.ident:s iin ti'II,e past few de.caae:s? Whi,ci'n oftMse~d[Jes is imlJort~f1!t to you?

are pJiil,:gia:rized. 1.1]. whole Oi[ in part, Bux 3 - 3 examines the shiftin values that underlies this decline in academic integrity,

Another valuethat has begun. to change reOE'ntl:y;,llot just among students but ;<[1I11(lng the publsc in generol, is the right to privacf, Americans have alway.s valued. their privacy and resented goy,e:mmenti:nh'1IJsions into their personal lives, In. Ithe afterm .. U. ,of theterrorist attacks of September ] I, 2001, mowever, many citizens called fOlf greater protectinn against the threat 'Of terrnrism, In response, the U.s. government broadened its surveillancepowers and increased its abilil:yro

',. .... ~.' 'I!., 'L,. ..'" L .' . . . . .. • . . . . I' 'I' ~'fil~ I'

llll.Qn[~o.r peop.~.e S l!Jeuo;J!VIO[ witnnut ccurt apprmr.B •. ua .L.UU'. ;,

shortly :3IfiJer the attacks, Congress passed the Patriet Act,which empowersthe FBI to aceessindividuals' medical, Rilb'l:ao:y" student, and phone eecordswirhout informing them. nr obtaining a search warrant.

Global Culture War

For almost a general:1ml, public atttenlionin the United States mas· foeused on cuJjtlH,ewatr~ or the polarizatien of society over controversial cultural elemenrs. Origi.uall.y;, i~.lI.tll.e 1990s,. the term referredto political debates over hearted. issues 511ch. as abortion, religious 'Exp:ression. gun ,contliQl,iilna. sexual orjentatinn, Soon, however" it took on <II glO''b<JI] meaning-----espedoill.y after' 91 LI, as Americans wondered; "'Wiry do they hate us?" Through 2000, global studies of public opinion had reported f3N'Urnhlev'iews of th.eUnited. States in. countries asdjvense as .MomccO' and. GeIman},; But by 2003" in the wake of the U.S. invasion of Iraq,

£o.lfeign opinien of the United States had becnme quite 1JLeg~rltive (J. Huntte~.·li9'9]; Kohut Z005, 2(07),

In the past 20 years" extensive efforts bay,e been made to CQimp,ne values in dif£erentnatiQ<us,r.ecognizing the chal-

11 •• it' ". l •. ~ . imil

lenges mmi ei·prettmgva. ue .[oncep..:,,; HI a sun] ar manner acmss

cultures .. Psychologist Shalom SdIW3:rtZ has nreasuredvalues in mere than 60 countries, Aml!lnd fhe world., certainvalues ne'l.viddy shared, inchading benevolence.wbieh is, defined as ~';~org;i.vel1es:sand Joyalry." In contrast, power, defined as "conbol Or dOlminance over ~people ,andresoul'ces,"'i.s <I value fhat is endersedmuch less often {Hillin and Piliavm 2004; S. Sch.wa:rt:z and. Bardi 200 I }.

Despite this evidence of shaeedvalues, some scholars have interpreted the terrorism, genoci,de, wa:r.'l. and. military- OCCIJLpations of the e<ldy 2l:st ,rentu:r~f' as <II. "clash ().f civilizatiens,'

A di .. "i-" ~t . . .. l'm· l' d Ii·' • ..11 titie th

. rcorr Ing'LO' ILI.']:S "Ln,E:$]S, cuu . f@[] an refl,gl.OllL."i iaerr ~.l.leS"rn .. 'eT

than] national or pnlitical Jcyalties, are' besoming file prime sour-ce ofi.nt'em.ationa] .. eontliet, Cl:itks of this thesis point out thatcunflict over valuesis nothing new; oniy OUT ability to create havoc andviolence has gmwn.FlIll'tll.eiTllme, speaking of a clash of f'ci'l.fili:zatioHs?' disguisesthe sharp divisiuns that exist within .la:rge gJ:iOUps .. Christianitj, fOI~ example •. runs the gamut from Quaker-style pacifism to certain elements of the Ku Klux KJa:njs ideo]ogy (Berman 2003:; Huntington 199)~ Said] 20m).

Culture and the Dominant Ideology

Punctionalist and. <conflict theorist ... ag;ree that culture and society are mutuall y supportive" b!,:]t £Cil' di:fferemtreaso:ns. FlllI].ctio.DJI.alists maintain that social. stability requires a consensus and the support of society's members; ShUI1!g central vahies and common norms provide that support. This view of culture became popular in S<9cioiogy beginning in the ] 950s. It was borrowed from British antlrropologists who saw culturaltraits II;::; a. stabi~jzi.ng dement ina culture .. From a functionalistperspective, a Cllli:t1lJ.1'a] trait or practice wm persist if it perfcrms.functions that society seems to need or contributes to overall social stability ;md consensus.

Conflicr theozists ;agree that a common culture nmy exist, but they argnethat it serves to maintain mepriv.ileg:es of certain gromps. Moreoves, while protecting their own selt-inteeest, powel:fu~. gl'lOupS[llay keep ethers ira iii. subservient position, The term dOmDlImlil i:cl.cology describes the set of cultural beliefs and practices, that helps to' maintain powerful social, eoenomic, and po[itkaJ: interests, This concept was first IJlsedlby Hungarian Marxist Gem'g Lukacs (19'23) and]talial'l Marxist .Antcm.i.o Gr:amsci o 929}, but it didnot gain an audience in fhe United Slaltes until the ,early ] 97[}s. In Ka:rl MaIx"s view, a capitalist society has adominant idoo.lo,gy that serves the jnterests of the ruil:]ng class,

From acnnflict perspective.the dominaJut ideology has major 50d~ siga.lri.fi,cance. Not oruy d~?,a. soci.ety'$ most powerful g;roups and institutions conttro]weaJ.th and property; even. more important. Ith.ey control the means of preducingheliefs about J'1e.a.iity through religion, education, and IDe' media, Peminists would a~.sIO argue jhat if all a society's most important. .i.nstitllltio.B]S teUworllen they shouldbe snbservient to men, that dnminant

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3-,3 A Cullture' of C:he'81:ting? On INO·!J'emlb·81F 21, 200.2, ,rl'fter issuing se'l1era~ wamitngs, nfflcla,~s at the LLS, INa),ia~ ..il1'l::a(iJ,r~my seized the computers of 8Ih'1lloSt :!l00 ml;ds;t!ull" mensuspecmd ,of d'OWI'i'~Mdling 11I'Io"Jies ;!lInd musiil:: .Uletallyrrornthe I rnt;emet. OffitC4a1'S at ttl e :schno<l may h8\'ernkerl the unusually strong acncn to EllJ.'lIid liability on the P(ll't ,o,'f~he U.S. ~Q\i\erf1m@!rl't, wl1uch oWlns the COITqluters. studern11;~m t1Sill1g, But 09i~mgSlh,e rlO3!rlol'l, coUege a(lm~lnL~!~r.aOOrE ~lave be,elrl '~rying to i'estrain students 'rrom do:wlfllloadl'rqg pim:~ed e'nt:ert:a~lnmE!rlI~ for free. The pmcijoe ~s so w~despmmd, It has baen gilmilll'lg: dGwn the high-p«were,d. computer Inetwoli'ks ,oo~~egesan,d! ufli\'!\iElrsities depend om fllr research ·(M'i,d aJdll'l'iliMuons.

Illllegal dawnloadil"l\g HS just one aspect a,~ ther grawilllif!: problem of c:opyrl~ht v~ola~TiQi'!l. both 01'11 campus 31110, !Off. ~QW mat college. stlLu::lerrts can LIse IP~li"Sonal compllterl'S.M sud the Ilnmr~ net, most do 'b1leilF fflSeiili'Cih otnllr!e. Appa!"entlv, t!tu~temptaiUon to 'Gut ami paste passages from Web s,lwe IP olstil"l gs and pass. tnern ,CI,ff as one's own. [s irresis:t1blla to lJliI,a f'ily. Surve~ys O{).flIf8 lb~ the Cerner for Academ~lC: li'ir~egrT'tYs:how tnat fmm 199'9'ta .200.5, l111e pereent!!lge Qf s.'i:JlId'fllfll:$ Wfl'O, approved of th~s type ,o:~ pllagiairistin r,o:SiE' from 10 percent m 41 percent. At. 'th,s same lime, t!tu3 PI3 rcent;age: wh,o cmnside~ejd cutTJll1lg and pa~l't~ng 'from '~h,ra Inllw'1e:tt to be 1I serious 'form o·~ eh e,atti n,gr'eu 'mrom 6S percent ro 23 percent Perhapslh'i!!! worst ~D.rm Qlf ~ntemet pl.al!ila.rism rs the pu rclhase of entire pa.persmmm ,o<th,er writers. II1lCrlll@,singly, '~he W,e tlsit!s that ss II essiI.yS to studsnts alre b8ised ~n mh:er CiOU nlries, ilnC;IIJ.diln~ I n elia, LI krailfl€!, Nigelria" and th,s pnUippine:s.

ill re>OOl1it Cm;j!HU~~lJral s~ud~ compalred, ctle6'tillg by stuo,enlB iln lLe:bal('iJon and! the I[]l1i~@d States .. Be'sea rchre:rs 'ro linda high 'WmDn~PH~ss to ct!,eail .among stIJJdlents In bot!h counMes: 54 Iperoent of the' U,S. stud,®l'I'iS snd 80 pen::e:nU~ftl'H~ L,ebaJnese

sM:I!ents lreported having cheated msome Wi31j dUlFingllhe past year. 11"1 boHl cul'llmBs, stud,@n[S wen;e mOire wil!l~ng to Icheat ~~ ·tthey perce~voo 'theilr Ipeers to be dishonest ,arid ~f '!!hey '~ough~ llileilr e;'hea'lln,g was llnl!ilkely to be reportedi.

1Q address 'Wihat 'Ilhey IGons:ider' alnah9lrm~ng treml, m~ny schools alre rewrtiitlng or adopt~Il~ n.8!W i1u::ad,emic honor cOG,es" Thus rE!r:J,ewed emphaslls Gin honor' ~nd intewlty ul'lder:SJcm.es. the ~Inntleru~e of cl[J~tiUlf'all vfl:llu,es on sodal behavinr. Obsenierl'S contend that 'th,e ~ncrea:5e rill student cheat.lng: re~lects wlde~y PLJb~ic~zed ~lflSt:alllceS of che~t1f1g in pub~iic Ili~J whIch h.8'1.1B sel"lJ'@:d to, crMooam 91lterrlilitlve SE!,t of iJa~ues ~111 wll~'chthe end JliIs'~i~e5; 1lhe means. Whe~ ,YO!lJl"Ilg iP'eopl,esee' SPOl'tg, hier;oE!s., a,uttims, enr.erltmi:n€l'S, alld IDmpma:te e.:o:l!CllJ'ti'l.!les, eJ:iP,o;sedror clhe@l~nig ~Ifl ollerorm or anomsr, the message seems to b@ "(:m,eatllng,is OK, fillS llolng as you dlo,n!l~ ge1t ca IJght~ More tl'i!!;lfl plMc~!ilng 'o'~ erxams 01' re~i~ anee on search! engines to rdelltiiFy pllagiarism, then', 1!!>I:::I1uG8'ting :S~lJd,ents about 11'he nee;d!~or acad@mic honesty seems to red U'oo the TI1l'r:~~ d'E!!lnc'S of cheating. "Tille ~@eliilng of beJr:Jg he,lllted as tin ad LJ 1'~2! nd r;es:p'O,['lJ,d!in;g I j'ij k~r!.d I" says Pro~ fesso,r [)onalld McCabe of :Rutgers UniIJrernit:y, "irs cl.ealrly ttler,e for manYS[lJ dell1its.They don't wa I'iIt to violate that trust"

lVlort!: tkon. 1):rQ,cwdng ~l£(_mJns or rn/tcmc,(! tm 8(Ul:rchengine.'Ii .to ,idenlif}Jpl(lgi(lriJm~r 8duc(UJ~1g

sltldents aiJ~nu .r.h£ w!:etl for ~lC'ad.!.l'mi.c.: li.oue:sty slI,!!'ms U! reduce the i~ ieide« ee of ch e(t,l:ji~1g.

The G~lrl~er 'r~~ A~ademh~ Ilnmgrl'ty esr~mat.es i:!tmt at most $choo~s, mOre~18ln 75 pement of 'tlhe s[lJld.r=II1!:S e:t1I:ga~ in some form of cheating. Studel1lt5, mot olnly cut pass~l[e·s.~rorn thle !ll'ilteme~ alnd rp.aste them into Uhe~r IP:81P·elt:S wirI'1Qu'~ olting Iljhesourro:~h~.V slh~re qUie:MioD'h~ a.nd 8liiswem on exams, IDolirnborate en ass~Flnmelntslhey are s'U!PlPQsed to do iMepel'ld.e,nl:ly, andevenfal-· s~fy~h.e fe'Sullts o'f tbeir ~alb(j:ratory ,e);)perlmenlS. Worse, many pmf~Sio,~ l'iav·e become TrnL!lred to 1Jjh~ problem Bind halVe ceas~dI m report it


1. [)o yoU' know 8ifiycDinewho has ,etngag,ed ~ll'Ilt'I'ttemet pl<3igiarlsm? Wh~l <':liboutche,srttit1lg on tests or falsifyin,g IlEIbomtor.~ It'eSUUS? If so .• how d~d tns IPl3iFSOn jllst~1'y these rOl1ms o~ d~S:holtlesty?

2, Eve,j'ij ~.~ ctieatfl1f"S !!Iiran'I,oa u ~ht, what llegll'thuI! enects doe.s~heir ,academ~c d! iSih.ol'l.~$ty have en tjhem? WMt affects does ~t have on students who am lilornesr? Could

,111 i'I entire QoH@gB or nJl'li\.!'ers~1y siUf~elf from students' 0 isholll:esty?

S.DUlrI::e.s: A rg~tsiinger a nd fu~r,n 2.00.2 ,E!iart] ett 2I)O!;l:Center(]lr. Ac.Bdem[~ 11'iJi:e.S)Iii.)' 2D06; McCabe etal, 200'8; 11:. Themas 2003: lerrn~ke 20012 •.

ideology will hdp to contrel women and keep them in a subordinatep osition.

A g;mwing number of sociaJi. scientistsbelieve that it is not easy-to identify a OOFie culture En the United States. F01~ support, they point tnthelack 'Of (OI]:$en~~1!I.'S cnnatienalvalues, the diffusien of cultural traits, the diversity within our cuhure, <lind. the changing views of yOlllng p~opJre [Ionk again. a.t Figure 3-4). Yet there is no W<lfy of denying that certain. expressions «)f V<lilues have g11e:d!ter in:lllllenoe than others, ,eve]]. in as mn1J.plex C1s(Ki.ety as th.e United. State~~.

]f clIlltlilralvalues varywitfuill the United. Stab::s) they va.!:}' even. more sigui1i.cantly from one Q::n]ll]try to lhenext. The

following case stud y mll.st~~ates wha t eanhappenwhen <L corpQrra.~ tion atteillpts to export U.S, cultural valuesteauother country,

Table 3~2 on pag:e 68 summarizes the major sociological perspectives on culture, How one views, a culhlJ:1e-whe1.her from an. ethnoceutricpoint of view or through tbe lens of culturalrelativism=-basimprmant conseqillences. in the area. of socialpelicy; It also has SetlOIJ15 lJonsequenGe5 in business.as our ease s~'l1d:y on. 'Wd-Mart demoastrstes,

Ah.ot issue tndalris the ex:1ient ~o which a nation sJml!lI.rl. aJ.Gconunoda.te non-.nati.ve language' speakers by sponsoring bihngual pm,g:rams .. Weill take a dOSielook <L t this lSSlIle in~he Social! PoliJCY secti.o.m, on page 69.


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Conflid Perspe.cti,ve

I nte raetl 011 lst Perspective

Func:f~onali!5,t Pers peetive

Reinmrc€' sOGietai st1l1lldi~Hd5

Fernlnist Persp e~t,jrve

Reilniforoo palI;Wrrns af dominal1.De

Are malil'iitaliirued W rough mC1e.-to-faceilflilenlction

Are c(],~I~eaive ,[l,llllooptions {If wfulat is good

IReilmf.mce rules of mel] <In'll W(liItl!;::n

M,p,y I"lt!'rpemate SQci;Qli! 1 nequla I ity

Are defilmed and redlefiillJed tluolJ,gtJJ sacia ~ inl~eractiorlJ

I(;ullture refi:e&tJ; OJ SO!(Ji~i~'S shClIl,g, c:ti'IIiI,tniil \'f,;l !lUles

ICu!tme reftects a SQ!(}i~zy's dominal]lt idleol~,gy

fA sQtieiy'$ core culture is p€'lpewared th~!ugh d.aily social ~!iiitetraCtill]lriII:5

S~bGtI~ures serve the l~erHsts of SIJ Dl?itlJUpS; e~tIl].Q(]i;mitt:igm reil1ilf:c!IrI:les, grnull :solid ;;airily

GQUI]~e~I:lUlltures qlle&ior]! tiliedQmilli~Hlt :sncia~ oITI~ew; e~tIl1olCe'!iiiVfu;m d;eval ues gtlJinipS

PiFIlJllli:di'ng ~ods' a!]d se rvices to I}.uslillmers

Treliiltme nt of u nioJ:il:S; he~lth OEllllleJ1ts: wo memJ in J:iili1illllagelillel1i~

casestudy Culture at W'al~Mart

.By some measures, "Val -Mart is the largest eorporatinn in the world. By other measures, it is, the world's 14fth largest emn.oo.ny. lndeed.flre Arkansas-based retailer'sann ual revenue-over onethird of atrillicn doUao."S-su:rpas.ses the total value ofg,oods and services produced in ma.rIty countries, such. as Sweden,

'WaJ!-Mart's rise to. the status of an economic: .strperpow,er has notbeen without criticism. Opponenrshase criticized its p01iq of shutting nut labor unions, its lack of commitment to elevating women to managerial positrons. its slowness to [p:n;:nridl.e adequate health care benefits, and its neg:ative i.mpil!ct on smallerretailers in. the areas, wft':!.e:re its storesare located, Nom::theless:, U.S. 10011- sumers have e:mhraced\·Va:I.-Mart's «ev1e'ryday low prices," The reaction has not been as positive when the discount giant has tried to' 'Enter countrieswhere C01l'5l!JmerS hoM different cultural. values (Bubal1Q 2(08).

The company. newlocated in]:5 muntries.has .rIot been. an unqualified success abroad. In 2,006 WiJI-Mi!LIl,t puU~([ out of Germany, due in part 1:0, it" failure to adjustto the national Cl]] .. ~ lure. 'GentTIa:n shoppers. accustnmed to nu-nonsense.inrpersnnal service, fOlllndWaJ-Ma:rt ecnployees' smiling. ollItga'~:ng style ,o;ff~ ptIUing. The mnTpany':S "tea-foot attitude" -a salespersenwho mInes within lO feet of <I. customer IUII15,t took the person in the eye, greet the person. and ask if he or she needs help-----simply did no~ pJay·we!ill. there. Food ..,happer:. .. .used to lb.;llggi:ng th,e~r own g;lio~ ceries, wereturned off byWaJ-Ma:rt)s practice of ill~owi.ng clerks to. handle tfueirpun:has.es,. Furthermore, German. eUlIploiyees:, whohad gmwn upjn a culture that acreptsworleplace .romances" found the mo.llp,ulfYS prchibiticn.ageinst on-the-job re]ationshiip',~lbjnl'.re.

May perpetl)late !iii el1i's dlJ.m~rn;Qlllin;e

Cultlllfe reneDt5 'soc~e!i'£ vi~ ill men a ndl womeill

C uil~~ Ii ffi~;amivrl$.f[! res~ects 'ii't~Hi'<IItrml.s. in th,E! w~ rI1I en aJPlid ViOmemi are \i'i:ewedl jlliJ differem sQ'~eti€'5

CI!I$1:om$andi tiad~ti.0I15 are 1r® msmitttl'd tim roili,gh illiit~i]r()l!l.~ eOfltail;:t ano thmu,gtll the me.~ ia

S~Te,-'Gll!Bstomew rEdat~i3nJshil'ls illli diffu rHnit ctillfufes

Un:£cil"t[[na.te~y> executives did not react quicklY' enough 'to the eultural clash, Despite their need. for Gllli:1rnral know-how, they passed up the eppcrtunity Ito rnstaJI. Germae-speakingmanagers in key positie,.o.1ls. While the company sl:rugg,iedto adju:5t~o ll.nfumJ:iliu cultural standards.Beree competiticn from German retailers cut into, its profits, Aft:er an eight -y,ear e:ffort that cost the con'lpany one hiUton doUars, Wal-.Ma:l!t"s. executives (:0'0]ceded defea t,

W~-Mares, withdrawal f[)O.:llC1 Gen.nany was i.ts, second exit of the yea.I, E<lil.leF in 2006" the ccmlpany sold <i.~ its facilitiesin South Korea, where its warehouse-style stores wel1e not ii!rp1ge-~ dated. by sheppersaccustorned to more deg<l:nt surroundings, Todaj, the successful us . retailer is learning not to impose its ccrpcrare culture OIlI foreign customers and em.p]oyees" No .10.01- geT doe.'! the mmpa[]y plan to sellgoff clubs 1.11 Brazil, where the game is ra:rel.ypl<11.yed~ .or .iDe skatesin Mexico, where skating rinks are hard tofind, More imporjant, the corporete giant has begun to stilldy the culture and: sncial patterns of potential customers (Landler and Barbarc 2006; Saporito 2007; W~-M<u~[ 2007;

A. Zimrnerman and. Nelson 2J:) 06}.

Wa1-M.art'.'l mistakesin Germany and! South Korea <Ire instructive, Even without a background in s.odology. mostbusiaesspenple }mow that cuhureis fundamental to society. Yet they often f;iJi~. to adjust to new cultures when they enter foreig;nm.i!!Ylcets, Today; as 'WaJ.-M.ut prepares tn enter Cruna <Ind. India.jwn massive coasumermarkets.execntives are determined tn repeat tIle company's success in latin America.rether than its failure in Genna]].}' and South Korea (Nussbaum 2006,).


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The lssue

AU. over the worid,n.atim'lS face the rhallenge of how to dlfa] with residential Inil1!oriti!Es who speaka tangu.ag:e different from. that of the mainstream culture. Bitmguallisnlil. refers to theuse of two ormere languages in a particular setting, sud]. as the workplace or schonlroom, treating each language 3,5 equally leg1ti.mate, Thus, a teacher ofhibngllal education [I]ay i.n.st.n,JIc[ childreu ill HH:~ ir native trnguage wi:Di]!e gradua]Jy intmd.UlCil1gltbem. to thelanguage of the host so ciety~ U the cuzriculum is alsubierdtUIr<Ii1"it wi.H teach children about the mores and fo].kwd!Y's of both the denainant culture and the subculture,

To what degree should schools if I the Un:i~ed States present the CIJ.HICuiluuin. <I. langU<JI!ge other than .English? This issue has. pm'lTI pted a great deal of debate among educators and policymakers..


The Sett in,g

Because languages knnwna political boundaries, minori:Jtybmgutag-


PI!:rmn'l:1I9@ ow P,l!Opllil! 25.,Q or m mEl 15,0-24.9' 95-l4"9

7.0-9A 2.3,-6"9

Nui'l!; [l,ill.;! J .. ~w n .~raim. the 2007 Afflt:r:lca.n C[Utl.l:l:l utl.i.a.y S u:rvey ()fpe~)ple five yeli:rs illtIIt! rr'\l'i:!r:

Ns.a ill u~. iII~e.rug[! Wil.;S 1 ~Lip'e'tote'I'IL

Sejjn:'·~: Am.f!rie~:1i'i Ct}itl.~tiUtlH.y Si.J:r".~)' lons: T<ihl~ f.t ! .' MU.

es are COn.1JmOll i.TI! most nations,

Por ex:amnfp1e, Hindi. is the most widely spokenlangaage in Jndia, and. Erlgl:ish i s used widelcy for official. purposes,. but 18 other ~anguages a:re cfficially recognized ... in the [I atl on ofabout 1 billion people,

Aacmrni:ng: to the Bareau of tile' Census, :59 million residents oflihe United States oyer age' five--tilurCs aibol!l:t 19 pescent of the population-vspoke ,abmg:uage other than English ;<IS their primary bnguage atheme in. 2:007 (Fig,ru:re 3-5), Indeed, 32 d.:ifrere:nl: la.IJI.guag.es me each 5jpoken]b,y at least 200;O()Oresi.~dent.s of this country (Bureau of the Census 2006b; Shin and .Bruno 201:X3).,

Threugbcot the worM] schools must deal with .i.[JI.ca'liI.1ing students who speakmany different languages, Do bilin:gllla[ P'~"Og:ran1Sinl:be United States help these children to Iearn EI]gli..sh?' It is difficult to reach firm cnnclusions because bi.linglll.o1.~. programsin ,genel'al 'I{,ny so widely in their qJlIJ.aHty andappvoarh, Th.ey differ in the length of the transition 1:0 Englishand in how long fh.ey allow students toremain in bilingual classrooms, M!Ql',eover"resultsmavebeen mixed. Inthe years since California effe[t~yd.y dismantled its bilingual. education pIOgram~ J!iead.ing

and math scores of students with limited EI],glish proficiency rose dram ati caHy. especially in the lower grades. Yel: a major overview of 17 different studies, aOD1e at Johns. Hopkins Unive:rrsity. fuund that students w.hoape offered lessons ]1.] both English and their hOIIDe languagesmake better progress than similar stu.d.entswho are taught only in English (R Slavin and Cheung 2,003},

Secleloglea I IltlS~ght.s

For a long time" people in the United State,s demanded conformity toa singlelanguage .. This demand. coincided with the functionajist view that lamgua.ge serves to nnifYnJf:1Ubers of <II society; Immigraat children from Eurepe <lind. Asia- -] ueluding you:ng Italians, Jews> Poles, Chinese, and [apanese=-were expected. to leamEnglish once they entered school. In some cases, i]1linli.gl~aIlt children were actmUy forbidden to speak their native hm.guBI,ge.'l on school gmunds. Little respect was granted jn immigraets' cultural traditions; a ycmn:g :p.erson would often be teased about his .or her "'fu:nJly" name. accent, or style of dress,


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Recent decades have seen challenges tothis pattern of forced obedience to the dominant ideology: .Begi:nning in the ]960s,. active mevements for Glad .. pride and ethnic prideinsisted that people regard. the tradirioos of all. racialand ethnic subcultures as .I,egitimateand.~nlpmr:tant. Conflict theorists explain this development as a cast' of smbordi.natedlm:u.g)lu.geDllli:no.r.ities Sleeking; opportunities for self-expression, Pardyas a ~:"eSI,.l!]t ofthese ehalIenges, people began tnview bilingualism as an asset. It seemed. tn pmvic]e a sensitive way o,fassis:ting millions of nan-Englishspeakingpeople in the United States tolea1"tI English in order to ~uI!lction more effectIvdy within IDe society.

The perspective of mnf1Lict theory alsnhelps 11]$ to understand. some of the artaeksen bilingualprograms, Malll}'" of Ul:erall. stem from a:n etlmocentrfcpoin t of view, whichho~ds that <l!ny deviattion fromthe .m,ajority is bad, This attitude tends to be expressed bytlhme who wis"h. to Sitiill1l1p out foreigninfluence wherever it O(]ClllTS. especially in our schools. It does not take into account that success in bWJil.guaI educationmayac:tuaUy have be:n.eficia.lresults" such <IS decreasing thcnumher of high. school dropouts and. inae~]]][g the numher of Hispanics in ,co]]eges and universi ties.

allows studentsto taketheir mothertongue as a seoond. language, be it Chinese, Malay, ,or Tamil

Inmany natiens, llangua,g'e dominance is, a regienal issue-for example. in Miami. or a10ng the Tex-Mex: border, wher~ Spanish speaking is prevalent, A particularly virulent bilingual hot spot is Quebec,~]e Prench-speaking proeinoe of Canada .. The Queibecois, asthey are known, represent 83 percent of the ]p'[i('JvIIlice's population, but onl.y25 percent ·ofCanada's ~ota1 popnlation.Alawanplemerited in. 1978 mandated ed.l!1cat~on. in French for all Quehecj,~ children except those whose' parents or siblings had learned En.g1ish elsewhere in Canada, Whi.le· special laws like this one have advanced French in the province; dissatisfied. Qllu;;becojs~uLve tried to :form. th.eIr own separate country. IIII. ~]995> the people of QUJebecindicatedtbeir preference 'Of remaining nuitedwitb Canada by ot:Jlythenanowesl 'Of margins (50,spercent). Language and language-related ouJtnrn] are.as both unify and. divide thisnation of 33 rnillionpeople (The Eoonom:is.r 2J005b; Schaefer 2010).

Policy]ua:kers in. the United States h ave been somewhat a:n1.1lbiV<llent m d:ea.1ing with the issue orfbiIDgua]ism .. 1111965, the Elemeutaty and Secondary Eduat:i.on Acl (ESEA .. ) provided for b.i.l:i.~]gl!laLj biwltmcl. education, In the 1970s,IDe federal governmell~ took an active role in establishing fhe proper form for bilingua]. jp'.mgram.:5. However, more mcen~y, federal po.licy has been less suppm'tive ofbiling)LI.<lliS1Tl" and local school disl:ric:ts havebeenfnrced IJQ provide an increased ShdiJie' offu:n.di.ng {Dr their bi.lingmal pmg;ralTls. Yet bilingual pmgEID]S are an expense that r:l1any communities and sta "be.'> are mnwil:ling "bO]Xlly for and are quick to cut back, In ] 9'9:8, voters in Cali:fo:mia a pproved apw]JG<sition that .2ill]. but eliminated bilingual education; it require s instructionin Engiish for IA miUion children. who are nat f.h;ve~]1r in. thelanguage,

In the United States, repeated efforts have been made 1:0 intmducea constitutional amendment dedaring English as the nation's official language. In 2006, the issue arose onceagain during debates evertwa extremely controversial cnngressional :proposab----fl House bill that

would have criminalized thepeesence of illegal immigrants in the lImited States and. expanded the penalties for aiding them" and a Senate bill that offered some mega] immigrants a pathto citizenship, in an attempftn rea~h<i. compromise between the two s:ides,.legi.s.lative leaders introduced a proposal to makeEnglish the nationallanguage .. iU tfu:ey described it, tbelegislation would [lot com pl.dely outlaw bilingual or ['J:IuJitiI:inguaJi. government services, As. of 20 OS, .30 states had declared English their official langmllge-an action that isnow more S'YIn.belie thaalegislativein its: ... :ignm(:a~.1!.ce .

. "[llllie concern over a potential decline in the use of .ErLg]jsh appears tn be overblown. In reality, most immigrants and th.·e~r O.ff.sPI][[I.g quickllylbeo::n:ne Rl,l!en.t in English. and abal.1ido.nthe,i.l~m!otb!e:r to:Dl.gue.Figu:re 3-·6,prcese:nt'$ data from Southern. Califnmia, aregion with OJ, high

poncy Initiatives

Bilingualism has policy implications largely iutwo areas; efforts tto maintein languagepurity andprograms to enhance bilingual. education, N<JItionsv.,n~ dF<ln1ati!c<lUy in their tolerance fur a. variety of IaJilg;U.atges,. China. eootinues to ti;g~].tell itscultural 00![1- Itml over Tibet by extending instruction of Mandarm, a Chinese dialect, f110m high school into the elemerrtary schools. which will now be bll:i:l'1gua] along with Tibetan. In oo.n.t:rast,.~.lIe<IIby Singapoee establishes English as the medium of instructionbut



FIGUREl .. 6,

M,!j;!}lica;l'ls Sa;h,la.d·o!nms·Gu;3~€! m a;la:F1!s,

0.2 .-




Nu!;!~ Ha;!;ed ulil .;1. :siU [\i~:y ad' 5, 7ei') Fe~lpleifi Meirupo~~ttlj]n.(J H .An.go::~e!i ;I[I.d 5il:rli [) i~ll-0 fitQ·IlJ. 20{J (I tQ 1004. Gf!jjJ¢ratio[j 1.Si 11.::1 lLd~~ tl!io~e ·who carne Itlo tllt:! Uli:li~f<(:! St.Hes. beJot.~ !i~e: I. S. Gentcrl!lliQIl .. 2inc:l!lile,s tb ose ·Wh.U· \vei'\e .bo["it i~i thE: U nitoo Sta:~,~~ to ~.t ~e8.st (inc f,m:'ejgn.-bD.rn r;!i:~en L C;~t'ierntio[j. 3 ~.t'i.['.~i:id~S thCl~e~vho ~vc . .-e bo ... itI i:1:I tli~Ui:li:ter! 5:to!ltli!~ 10 1I.S.-b{)[~1p;!l:r.enJs." IHH: hil~lm:ile o.r l:il:t'lite for.~ilflitl-oor.it gr8:ndlp~:Ii'~:l'! Is.

Sawt'r:RLlnl 1J~.i.H ei al, 20nfl:456.,


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

proportion of immigraues. It ~JD!O'I;VS a :steady, rapid Inove toward Eng[isJl, particulmly inthe first geuerati.on. Despitethe preseuGe of alarge Iatin enclavein the .regIon, even Spanish-speaking immigrants ql]:iddylbecorne speakers of Eoglisb,

N evei.lt:~].eIess.ma:tIIy 'peop~eal'e impatient with those imnrigrantswho cnn tin ueto use their mother tnngue .. The release in 200{i of "'NuestnJ Hi mrw:," the Spanish-language version of the "'{' ,co' "J' d 13 ,j', duced . . ILl' , '" 6r~

JtaT-~p<liIilg, ,e' nanner, pro ,'uce ' a st~n[l;g ]PUIL1',I(; reactione .·;i

percent of those who were surveyed OIl the topic s<IIid tb.eantfuem should be SlUilg m:a]y iIi! .. Eliglish.[n reaction against the Spa[!lish version, at least one coingy,eS5,maan defi,antiy StIng the national anthem in. .Engli.sh-wi1t11 incnrrectlyrics, And the proprietor of arestaurantin Philadelphia posted. signs advlslug. patrons that hewould accept orders fm his. famous, steak sandwiches o[lly in English, Threughout the re<l:~.pa~~sions ran high as poficymakess debated how much support to affQ~.:d. peoplewho speak other languages U. Carm]] 2006;, US .. Engl.ish 2(09).

In the end, the inc:uuigmntt's, experience, whether in the United States or .AustnJJia, is. not only about learning <II. new language .. It

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

is about leaming a wl1'ole new culture-a new totality of socially transmitted customs, knowledge], material objeds" and beltavior (V~:mIrlontes 2(07).

,let's Disr:ulss

]. H<IIye you. attended a schocl with a number of students fOol' whom. English is a secondlanguagei If so]' did tile school set: up' a special bilingual pmg;rm::'I:l.? Was, it eff.e(:ti.ver ~],iilt is your Qpinion of such p,.iO:g:mml.'i?

2. The ultimate gOod of both English- only and bilingual :programs is for£or~ign~ b om. students to become proficient in. English, Wh.y should .. the type of pregram stndents attend. matter 8.0 much to son:um.y pe:p'p1e? list all the reasons you Gill. think of fur supporting or opposing such pl"og;rm:rlls. Vifllat do you see as the primary reasoni

3. Besides bili:n:guahsul, can yO]] think of another issue tbat has become controversial recently because of 11 clash of culltl)ll'f:s? lf so; analyze the iss ue frnm iii. 50 ci.ologkalpom.t of view,

getti nginlv'olv,ed

10 get iln'!.!'olwd in tl1le debj[l.te ov,ef biili~l1gJlal,ismJ.l.lisit thls hook'ls Onil~ne teaming Center, wtlkh offers liilll~ to re:levantWeb :s:iW8:s"

www.mhhe .. com/schaeferfZe


Cultlne is tb.f: ~ntli.litr of learned, .$odlllly tfiillmrniJted i:lil~tfiroll, knJO'w~EJdg;eo; material obj ects, and behilvi:or. Thi~ dJlapter examines the: basic e.!em.enil:s.tbar m;1ike up :3. cultnre, Sioc]~lp[:aGtiteiS ic(lm.rnOI1 to ail cuitl[[Oe'i>;Oi:nd V;iFiat]on~, dl11!t d.i~;tillli,gml~~h tmif cultu:re fuHtiI another.

L A ;Sln<l:redj rult:ltte help.s ~n d!~I1Ili3 the group or !!o(;i~ty to which we Elehrn:g.

2. An:thwp(]llogu~t Ge(llJgeMtiI[doiik wIJ:Iipiled a .~.ist oif[;u~il:III:ffij!lil1.uti.ve:rn 5&1l5; or cammon 'pmclucl!':(! found in eve.ry Gultufe,imdudiing. [[111:[,· dal!J~' spon:>, moki[JJ~, :medici:ne,1I!nd sexual [,estrrcl:iorrg"

3.!Pl;:ople who 3;.;5u.me that thei.r own cw[u:r.e'is ~upe:[i!Ot tu others engage in et1!i:nooeiElltrism. .hl C{][[I]:lra~~ Icull!:tJ:rnliJ relam:iv'ism :us 'the pmct]Cfl ~fvi(>win[g. otibef'poople'$i hefta/vtQI' nom the pe.[sp~dive nf t~]e-it 0'\"'0. culture.

4. Hmm;ancrrltU:fe :1$ ClMtstantly ~Jt'randilllg: th[(~u:8h the Pl'oc(;':'l!! of i.IitIfi,(iV)itroit, 'ifvbid:ii.n;.dudes b~th d~~-'Ilve;1f1 <i:n'ld,jj)veiill~(il(j.

5. Di'liu.sii)I}ft-'U!lf' spread of C~l~ltn.nd :i'eB:ItliS from. one plaCE to al:'ioth€:[-~ia!; f(l~ .. ~~.rl::d g~()b:aI:i:;!atio[l, Stat p":'.>fiple r.e~nstude<J!s m.at seem I:OlO foreign, 3,~W~n as 'tho.-se the}' pet(eJ.v:t; a~ thriecate:[Iln.g to ~~it OWIl\''II:l:lIl~s and bt'[ids_

Critiical Thiinki:ng Questiions

L Select three cultural j,Jl[!i"l'e!['$,'ils fr:tlTl.l1 Georg.l? Mllfduck'!'! li!lit ($e"!1l'f1.a~ 54) and a [I:;jdyH thf1m from J, rlQIlmio[J,:ilis,i p(:F5pec1iiv~. Why ~:re the:se Pli:I1Lt~(t'5 [OlUnd in ,every cu.ltmttd Whal[i.JJtldion ~ dotfl:1~y l!i~t'IIler

2. D;f\3wmg 011. the. theCllrllEs a.mod m11r~pts pte~~n~f!di[l t~~.is cl:bap'~f!j;;. app.lll' lim::iologi£a.1 a.illi3]yt:<i5 'to OIl!!: ~'ill'b(lll]tm~e wit'h whid:l yalllll:re

6, .En;3. ~e[J;!'le. ,a. sulil<Gl!lltue [;iJ[I l:ir: thought: or ;!IS ·at small ciUllitil.teth.:il ~.xi;!l:ts wUl:lIin 11. larger, dominant clilhl:n:~e,Corutl'.eli'rnltllles are suheultu fe. .. ti:ha.t d,eliibeoUely (jppo~e a$p~cl:S of the l:a[~;e[ culture,

7.LiUili~ge. atrL.i:mp~:ltitl1I:U dement Qf cu]Jtm£, inchades.speerh, wTit~ ten. in.a:r.:lJC'te:r$, numerals, ;']ud symiIlJ:i.ll, :a.S will :<IS gesrures and nfher rura:n~ of [lunVi!'rhal ce mm.Ui!lila.tio1i:I .. Lai:lg;ml\je 'botb desctihe5 cnlttIte1!JlQ. shapes it,

8. 5f}cio!():~:u5'b." d]5tin~ljish be:tw~el''1 .OO[l'ttis [11 twowa:t~ clas-sifying !11eIl!l1 !2~tL!Jretasrn:lCm:!lll ori:nfulEiID.al [l1r~$:iItol:es l;lt:fo'~'f5,

9. The ft]l"[l1aJ l:Io[tt1~" of .:!I, cldtm'e "",:HI CULT the ~:ilea'f!,e.,~t s:!l:nct;ioiills.~ infovm;t! I1or::ms,wil C~U:fy light .1l'1IIDCti.oD.$.

III. The .dI(iim.~nan:t: 'irdeology {) f :I. Culht1:-E ]S the lSet of clIllhltal belief;\; :iI1d pf;'i.cti('€$ tn[Jt h~~ptQ m;ii.n'~a:m pow~.r:ful sod!a~, ~~onQmit:, 1ti!Jd po.l:itic<1J.i:nt~nl~ts.

1.1,. The ~oda[. policy o[ bUhi.:gualiism c;ills fot tile ~~e Qf twO' otm;orn l,U]:gflli,ag~"~" ~uating each aiS ~q1it3H}' ]egal~im.;;iltJE'. It is :lilLpported by Ihos~ who t'i'll.ilt to ease the tr<lJn.~ition or OO]]~.li1Jati'''e .. laIilgllllge: i>peak:en intoa ha.$~ society, '!bul OPPC14,sd by 'tho$ew.l:1O 3Jhe[~ W a. s~nfl:~e cnltural trod itirm and la[lgu;]g.l!t<

fumj]u:;J'r, De.scllhe ~h.emJnn:s. "\':!Ilues,. a[~Qt. a:nd S;1I.Ilctl.ons eli'i.dJ,mt in that 5uhc!1~tul\~.

3, In. what 'ways i$ thJi? do:m:i:l!1!a:ntide:olCl{tY of the UniterlStatte,s e'!l.inent i[l the n a :tiom's literature, nrusic, mJi:J'\i'i.es, theatelr,:rteJevlsihn progm:m~" and sp(mti]tg evelll~?


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

Key Terms

Ali'gi}liJ: S;.pe,d::Hnzed l'ang,IJ'8,ge IlJsed 1iJ'1I' melfilMn. of:EI B)FOILIP or subcu~ture,. {page 58)

aniilnf,ljlllailsmi lh;e use of tWQ or more la ngwages rn a. particui!llf se'"~ng, :S,LiI(;h ,as the 'l'l!Qrkplace Of schcclrcom, ln~:<I'ling; each, i,ang;uiiii;g)e as eq,I!.JB.ny ~egitrm~'te. (69~

CIllIJI'I~erol:litmeA suboulture ,th,:srl: dei~berateiy opPQs;es, c,ertai:!1i .e,spect:s Mthe larger eultute, (60.)

ClllIl!I:!lJlt,ai ~efh~J~i ... iiSDl! The ","ewing of l1i~aple'iEl hehavior 1iro11l'l the p~rspecthJe ofl:hei town ,[;uU.un~.~55)

CllillclJuiw,a:i i:ihh':elr,sal; ,A, to,i'riiiilo'll prad:ke or lJe~ief:'£ound: ~n every culture. t54)

ClllIlrtJUI~e:nile t.ota~ity of learned, so(:jij~ Iy tran:O;lIfI it:tetl ClJS1iOfflS, klnowlil':fd~e.,!

I'I1IIlIteri811 ol:ljet::iI:.si" a,n,O oe'nauiqt'. (5~)

Clulitil.lre mnd:uis'b¥ Th,e wo,rlldwide m,etlia indushy that S.tEi,!,!diCiilxiiz,es the goOdS8fl~ sl~Hit;e:s d.ef1lJandetl; b, CGfl:S.um'E:FS. ~S4)

ellill,tlllllr,~'I:alg If! Ille ri 0 d Qf rna l.adj ustrnent wll aTI ti:J,e (']0 nrn alerial cu~turei5 still s1tru,l~!glill,g to 'f!,d!sl'I:t to Inew rn 8:1:erial cono ltien s. t58,~

CI~I!I:!Ulml: sllIllillklhe 'reelln~ of ,5w'pris'a and d!i:soJleflU[~igfl tnat people eJ:.~eri'enc,e whellUle'i' e'll~Omlter tidlhilr81 practices that are diffenMU, hom tlleir own. {SO)

Cllillct!UI~e wilt' Th'e po larizatimtPi ,societ~ O'I!1e.r co nrr.O\lEH'sial cllJ'ilural elerne.rI'l'S, (86)

m~ffiIil:l3iD~ line process lily whiidl,E! cultura] 'it~rf1 spreads fromgtoup to gr;Q'u PI or :;l,o de'ty to :;;Jgt,Le~" tS 1)

D~sco:ve!r" Th)i:j' pmtle:S:!l of (naki ng krHawn or sharung t'tle E:,...,istence 'o,f <lin aSpJec~ 'oti' realilty" (56)

Demlfllil~il:idJellilo,mr A, sa~ ,of cultural beliefs s,nd P'FJSlGtiQeg, thst helps to maintEfif] pow~Jfu! sod8t 8,[;ollumic, and p()litka~ inteJests. (r6,J3)

E!tftnlilll1en,t'ri:S.1ll! The tenden,cy~o aSsull'1iE: thai lD.ne's; 'OWIl coiLllture '.,md 'way of i;r~El ,ne p reSeJl,~ the no rrn Qf III re .:1;luperior tn ill II CI'the rs, (·'54)

F'amk:wsy A nerm g.overriH'Ig le'i,ler~8r!, boehEl\.i'ior Whlls,e Violation, raises com lDar8tirve~y I i'l:I:le ,(;~n[:em. (63}

f'olnmarn 1!11l11i',IIi'I A norm UlEit has Ib.een wTitten down an,ol tl1at sp'ec.ff1e's strict punlshments for 'ilLol:atoF:!l. (6·3)

l'i'Iimlrliliiam IlIIemi A norm that ils g18lneranyLilrlder~tfiocl out not precis.elry recorded. (63.)

111IIm10v::Millln Tale precess of irl'bodll!.Jr::il1g a n'~W icliE!.<'I or otJlecl 00 8 I[:UltUra. 'U1WIJgh[J!isoovery (III" inrverHion. (56,)

ililllient!onnie (lorn b,i nati·onCif 'e~i:s:tin,B eu ttu ra,~ Items :i ntoa torm ~I:'N:J'~ did I1Qtexis.t befo:re,. (56)

LSllligl).:lllilii!;e AI1i abs.traict system of 'iil9rd meanil1i~5 a!l.d~vmbClI:3 for ,an aspects of eulture: 'im::ludes ge'sil,ures, and other nQll,verban Dommunic;a'lion. ~6.1)

Law Grnem:m ental 5~ttia I cnntml. (63)

MllrlIiei'lallcuiillilte The ,physical orfethnoltflgitBI as,petts of our d.aiJy li~es. (58)

Mores, Norms de'el1nled hililhl~j necessa:ry to the, we~filire of a soaiet¥. {6S}

NOlllllllllatelMllJ1 aUlltur:e Ways 0'[ using rn<llt¢ria~ objects, 81:!l. W'EHI~s eustom!s., be~!efs. philosophies., g'0vemm'e,nts.,. and paJtt;ems of !::omrtmni· catiofl, (5S~

Nonn An e~tablished st>;lndl8'ro' m Ibehavior 'ma.in:lained by is! :sO'. ciel/y. (6.:E!)

Stanetion A ~,en,altlr' of ffiWiltn:i for ~ondllo·t (:!I)n~erntng a sQ,[:ial Ilorrn. t65)

Sa~rr-w~~1I'f b!yplltJlrlesls .A hypothesis c:olr<cerning bhe role o'E 18,ng,ua.g18 ill.

SJ1S piing our i nterpretetimtof r.8ialit)', I.t ho!ds tllat la !'l.gua,ge is cu~t ura Ily de'~8rmin.ed. (Eli}

SIlII"iet~' .Ataifly large number of people WI'M} live [Il. tneserne territory, 8re relativel,lI' IntlepeMent of peop~e i1Jut:S,iOE: tileir area, and, parH(;ipa~e illl, 8, IDQillIm'Bn DlJlWre. (5.3)

Sodio~~lIlhl<,~ 'The systeiJl].a~ic study of how t;.io.logy aft·eel,,", hl1ltlan social be h,a~icl!'; (:5.5)

SlI!Ibcultu~e Asegrnent of s,ueiaty th8l: shares,. a di$'l:rm;:'ti~El pattern of mores, rolkw,aY:i;;, allld: values tha'~ differlli from 'the paUem a!the laJg)l;!r SO!:fBty. 15S)

S),mllli:loi A. g.eS:~1J reo obJ':e,c,'i:", OT ""o,rd th.at 'forms the b8.S is of hum;ti'l1 co rnmtmi~atiOr1l. (6.2)

1'Cec.hlllltD!llogy Ciultu.ral irl,fbrmatioln about hoW to jj5~tihe m8iteri\i3l~ resources Of the env'itonment to sati sfy< h m'Tl.ari IfI eeo s aridl ,de s~,res. [5.'7}

V,olli:e A 1::0 Ilec.tli~ [;o:r1t>ep'tiltl:il of what LS oo.n5idere:d .~od, i::!esirn ble., <lIml pmpE:F'-Or Ibad, uno'esl:reiJle, a:!lG impJt(Dp~.r-llrl ill 9ulture. (~5~


1., Wihkli~' the fiJlli:iWlililljg ~'s an aspect D'f Cul/tlillre'? 31., iI E(iJillic IH~ok

1:1., '~l1e 1l!i~riDliic att~.cliulJ'l Bent bl~he ftl:il\g (If tI1.~ U nitelli StareS e, slang WlI!!llI~,

dl. illil (If ttte a;tJ;glO'B

2~,. PEople's mrfi,eds fo:r rood. 8heltJ3f, !lliIit:l.dloihing Sire ex:amples oJ what Gecorge

M mlmoo!:. re~:Blrred to :es. 3 •. nOf.IiIIS.,

1:1 •. J'olkwilYll,

Cf., ~l1Ilrnral ullilli'L!eI1H31Is. 01 •. ~l1Ilrnt.ll plr.acticE!s,

·3;. Wihal t:e:rrn iiI'- Sil,i):IiD[Dg~~t8 USB: ta r@ier tD "ttiJle i>ro~~s~b.~ wi'iich ,13 cultUtFlll1. item

:l!jliFel!lds from growp ID ~IJUlllJiI'So;G[Bl'y tOSOCLBtyi?

Ill., dilJLJlSiol~

b., gloll~lizati0n C:., in nOWiltion

~., ~llIlwral rrel'ati'o'ilOm

4. The ,a Il'flIffllr,8lnce of S:ta!rbu,c.~s" CO·ffll~l:I()uilliS. In Oh in!l is. iii Si~ ot what ,l3SIl'BCt crf cU~~llIre,?

31., in novation

b .. globalization

,1:1:. difliu:1lion

d. aul.b!Jra I, rel:il~~iSlI1il

s. Wh[[)ir1 DHh~ 'mllowing: slatE:liflfil!liti'l iSb'WIB' ,a~ClllrE~~Ig; tlllJle ~,ajJjr.Whort I!rl'tIlDth'E:Si]S'ii' ,iii. lalnls,ual@: srmlll:l~ dteScr~bes reill:ify,

b,. lBlnlg~alg~ d[le·g n,gt ~ra'~SiI1l1~~ 5tlllr~OWell relart~d: m ~Il!c~. C'. lBlnls,ualg~ liI~ce.J:le,1lbhDI:,I\g;ht

d. lBlnlg~alge i& n ~,t 81m, 8(1:'<ilnn ~11l of a ',c\!II'tu ~!I IWI~i~~rs.EIt

'6. WhlJ::i'It 01" !)I;Je loll!m'ing :>tEltlllliFlel'l!~ ab.l:)ut nom s if> c:or~;?

al. ~olll~ do, m,llthlllowmorms iPiaU Situation,s> ~n 80mB ca~~s., '~ey >e!l'a!lile !I n[Jnn lle~usillhey,kli10w 'it il} Vi'eat..q!l' enfo.rr:eod'..

b. ~n some ~nsWm;es. bBIl@~ior tliJiat ilppell I'll t·o, 1IiiOI'BtB 8D.ci@W$ !'lmmSliHlI(I' a.cl;uill:l~ replr'es~liIIt iildliierelJ,c~ 'ttl '~liill mamTli$ '[lif ::II p::IIITil:'W lair IIlFOU IJI.

'C'. N(lrms, al~ \'ig.larte<l ~!i11 seme i:ns.t(m(;e~ bE:~au:SB cnenotm ro:nlt1GIl'l wifm i;ll!lofrl~r, d. all,lll~ the abo'olB

J. ~'l'hi c:hl or~~e rnll®wing stBteilif!te~:iB ,ab!lutllal'wes ~s c:or~c:l1 !II. Ifal'ues :neuer chalm[ge_

Ill. Tihe 1o\8ilues )]II iI &'lJlllIre mil)' ch,8In'ga. bl!J.t most remill3~1iI reI18ti\lll'I~ sbli,olle dunim,g 81n~ one flemon s liifelimll"

II:. \talues are ,cons.~fiItl~' chang.ing; sociol'ogis1s Vliew 1iIi1emEls, being !;'sri u mSiEIble. d. alii of the .aborre



Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

8" Wh i~h 'of tJ;Jlfr ~o'lIl}Wilhg ~fms dElscribes ih'~ set ,of cuitu !'all, 1J~~i,efl>Bnd lloraic~jCes tM;a~

h,eUI1l W mBiin~in powerful!. sociBII, ~COliW!Ill~, and politic,jli int~r@Ul'? 'II. ml[lfe:>

lb. 110 lIliinBI~it ideo log;~ ill. tiO,n:s.ensus,

!d. \,aJ'wes

9. Terrorist gmulPsB re- ,flxa,m pl~s Qf a, cubli8ll!1nrn.ersa~.

Ibl. s!JIib>cu 1~~lrles,

:1 :!L" :1,2.

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

01. dom'li:mani ilileolD8ies.

:1.0. ~'I1IilIBt islJie terlilil I~s.ed 'oItheli\ iJliIB [lIlaoos B p rilJlrity en u:rJdel'StBI~dHng-,[]the:r

GUI:tl!lfe'~,li8the:r thafl di~m iSSirll~ them as, "SIDr'Bnge" @r He:roti~"'?' 81. etJilin DC 81mtriSilfti

b. Gul:tl!l![esl!loa~

c. GUI:tl!l!fSlli Fe,la'Ji",iSiIfti III. GUI:tl!l!fSlI: WIU,8

_________ ,BHl gestures, objects, Bm:l/or wor'll!s lh,n fO!l'FrlWhe b!lsi-s ()f hl!JII'fl,an ,colil'llTi'uni€:B~i®n. __ ~_~_~_~'is the Ipm cess (If flntwdm:ing a Iilew idea or OliljBct: to a eu ItWFe.

:1,3. Ths Ibow SndB!'K!w.lJie BllJtJllil'lu[]li~e, !ln~ the te'je'lli&i(ln l:ire alill BCIlBmple!l o~· _

14. SocioliJ,g,ifl'!s· 8Sso~~all.ed wiUl the P08fSPBclirue em ph Bstrnlihat 11In~uliI~ 1Iud s,ymllO,ls [JIffllF 11 PQwlil.rfl!Jll 'III'.ay lor iii S,U'bi;:u IWn;: to fIil'Bli'r1WUIiI its itl~nfi;ty.

:1 S" "Put O!il ,sQ!!iflB {;.I'e'an lll'il;1Uies [or d~nm.~.r" ,EI nd "llmu: s~IBllt Ii1.g.t k!m~ are b~'!I1 ~liI!p~les (]If f,o,wn!!H n!'l IJS, CofJ~irure,

:116" Th'B LlIIiI~reci Stailles ml81S S~f>D:liIg a~il!l<S-t murder, treB'SITI'I i .. an di odl~~ 'folm8 or lIDuseUhM Ihm been ilnsti~~,ti®n8i1 ired imof~mTiIl:1 nons,

:17. Fil>o:m a>!lliI) pe<r,spe'~. thedu mfiuslli1.Udeolow has m.a:j,olSo>ciiBl sT[JILfiea,m:t. Nohnly dlo SI sGlr:iety~ IiIiI olll poweilfilill il'if))IlIIPS .'and in~1i,tl!irl:]o:ns

ronliml 'l'res>lthl3 nd p~pelit1f:. m D>raillililport8'!i1Il. tliJlB'j oontrol tlii B means @i pm dllJf;lj[]H,

:1,S., GDwI~h::rcu Il'WI~3< (c_g_. hfippillS), a Fe typjcs Ily ~(lPllll\fir slmongliliie ~" \!Iho, ha'o'B' tIh B 11111 st imlre.5tfl1111Jlt in tm B 'B~is~l~g ,cl!illtu rBI,

:1'9" A pBWD,n ,B~pe riel')l!:@S wlill;ll'll Ire Dr she re,B~~ djso~e.fl,t'Bd, UJr];cBrWll1l, IllwtO~ pl:SICB, e,VB'n 'fe>!llrf,u I. \!Ih,en umrnemBd

W'jl,i!I'lJ,Il~:Jiuifill ®~ ~'ilJqlljs ;JiIIIl1<InD ,51 ~un[!.l;iBl~l:Il!UUlla ,IT :s,mJwg T i'SliIlmu !j I ~~S~uI[]gJJ'&:I'a'tuil PI :s!illo!+U<lI1IW!;-Elr : UIJ~&i'!.{lUUII Z 1. ~SI(lQuMS n ~(O) (1'T :(~) s ~(I!) i!!i' ~(q) ,L ~{IP) :til .:'(:w~ s :(Q} t :~El' E:(Q) z .:(Il~ 1 ~~!U'It

The N'a.mesake (Mira Nair~ 2007)

An Iindia:n couple, emigrates from !Cal'cuUa. to. NeW ':furk !City to is'tai1:a new life a,M a new .family. TMiif firStib.orn SCUll, G.e~'01 Gang.ull rKal iPenn,). grows up t,ejecting his pa FeInts , Ben&a'll culture, 5ve,n 'l:h:ougl1. 'most of'thefsliTlil'r"'s g,CHlial ties are to ij'th,er Ben,l[l,alis. IHle aoo,pts c,oll'D,quial A.iITleric,an speecn,. chOoses ,a wealtfiy Caucasian \1;',0 man For his ,gjrlfriem:l, a,nd rectll'lilS:tens tiimselr·Nick.,~ lFie.n hisf,eNier's :'iLJ.ooe,n de8'~h 1iT1a i!:es, !l1Ii'lTI r,e,Inrnl,< il'i.s r.elationSI1.ip ~o 'l:M Ben!l!,all c,ulttJr,EL

il'1iS movie IS riFe Witl9 exarTiJp~es or cu~tUreS:EH'ln from a s,Dci'ol,ogical pofint of' view,. Look 'For the s,beMs ill'll Whi,eI9Go,gol's parents suffer cu~tu.re shoeGlsfter ll1Io'l.lin.~ to NeW York C~ty. W,st,tn for .examples Of biHngllallsm <Is, Gogol sp:eaks 'to !liS,fISlMfi!Y. swit:c.niing bac:kBnd forth from IEn.gli.slh to Bengali.

F0:r "101111' ,CoIslllierafioll!l

. 1.. WnaitaT"€, !SNJlme of tl1,e ~:lffel~Mees o@twe8n {~ogol's parents' v~lues and tfH(~s.E'l of hts C:alllcasian giirlfrj,end?

2. How is lfarliguage used: iri! ·'the film to r'eir'lmrcE! 'feelUngs ota shared culture?

lLa,[1lk~. gee.ky ThOma's· lBui'l'dMhe·FI're {Evan Adams') 8110, iElIt.l1leti,e ViCtor Jo'Se Pin (Ada,1I1'l Be-a,eh.l 1~'iJe () FiI,8 Coeur CI' Alene Indi8l1ll reservation in loa M. 1l'l1omas's pa,reiflJt:s dieilll, in afire wh,en l"Ie was a MiDy; ifile was sa,ved b~' Vietor's, tather:. After lte8Fill,~, tMt Victor's 'fs'bher l1a's, diedl irj ~F1oenli);.. tone two oecRile to 'ta,kea 'mad trlip to learn more a.bout the man \liM playedl su,ens pi\lota~ roie irl the'i~ 1~'iJes. At first Vietor does, 'not went his lIl,erd,~' sidekicK'S C"omp,an'1,lbut Thomas 11M ss'ife,d enQU~,h money to i:JankNJII tone trip .. TitelMio grow closer as they IleaI'll more aitiout tMmselves aMI their ~ost p,atriEif,en.

1i1his mO'l,l~e ptnhays, th,e suttcu~tUre or co rlItempDr8Fli C08!Jro·Ai.enre Indfai1S Wt!io I~""e In the ITllains'trei3rTl cU'lture cl'lJt il\lo~d on to their Native, Amenica:fiI murns andvsI>iJes,. Watch faF lne i!l(N:~:ne I,n wl1icl1 Vidor tells inomas !loW to act H properly stoic ," diem or'! st:fstl ng hOW m emlbers:oHhe~rib>e ,re i'nforne the M,fmS otth,iOiir 'SuMulture .

[lFfirY,~'l!Ir Of)ns;derm:~arn

.1 .. Whet [nf'O'rm:a1 n.OI'1fTlI:S. Df ··the Coeur d',Alene c.ulU.otB da€!sllie lI'TiIoviesl1 QiW1

2. How do lhomas and Vi,c:tm deal witl1 the r,eprrEserrlations of :Natlve Amte,ri:e:an tribiOll people preserllteci in malnatream flilms and, :tel!®vi$ion?


Socialization and the Life Course

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb g, Soc:iilllizerti;Mi'lnd 1Ii!~ i1rext

Edi~iml lLife ICiOtl[SI':

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1


Charisse is a tltird~genera,tion grmJt~landit'l3lUJtt

lifu, }.Ie iJ>ha A.1 01'11:,'l .. H eT gl'tl 1:1 dp a l'en ts mo'ved in,t,Q Q'tauela:nd WUIL CJl,ClTi$:~:e ':~: tll,,~n~U'enage jarJur w/u.·n tAt:! netghborhoo,d,first ,ol·u~u,d to African .. Ame:l"'i,ca:n,,~:.

g, Soc:iilllizerti;M ,find 1Ii!~ lLife ICi[] [l[sl':


" Charisse ., . ls sixteen and IIIiVes with her mother and ymjn~r sister, D!eanru~.,all::ross the s!treet from o5t Mary's Catholk: CI1LHCh and School. Charisse's moiher is a per· sOl'll'lel assistantet a Ch:ic8igQ uni\i\e:rsity" and is ta~if1g il::IaSS€sthern lo get her bachelor':S dlBgree. Mr. Balker is a Chiic01gofil~€ffght€l:, While her fatnler and mother are sepersted, Charisse sees her f:atJer malny ti'me5 a '!jlffiek at the aterschQol basket· bBllII hour tlillat he slUlpervis€s ail: St Mary"s gym" He and Charisse's mother are 011 vmy gpod terms, and Oha!~S5e has ,i;li lov:if1g relatf:Olllismlip wiith hotih parents. Mr:Balker is as adive as any paremJt mu:ldI 00, atilem:iillgthe fatil:er/daughl:er dances at Charisse's hig~1 sehool, never missiim[g a bilE! peoormano8:r and vi:sittil1g his. daughters ofie'f1,

U:lvu\ca UIP, UIUL A,MOH'~ nA,

Oha:r:isse and! her sister a~ie being raised by the neiighborhood family in addition to the:ir biioiogicai p!arents."'We [are] real clese, U ~e a II eur neilghiboffi know us because my dad grew up

over hers, Since tnle '60s: ChslllssE! ls a ~11~rd-g€'n~ratio,n GIF(Jrwlandiite lust i!jlke ~,eiisihal Mums. Her gl'andparents moved irltv Gr.:l)\IIi3!liallid wiith Ciharisse's ithelill·teenagEl 1father wheif1 the liu!igJ'lbn~hood fi!rst opene:d to Af:rii.,ca flI Americ~H"IS" . . . !Now Ch:ar:is:s€ is benfl:f:itingl'rom the hi:endls herfamily has made OVE!r their years of residence iin Growliandl, espedaHly thl~ members of St. lMa ~y's church, who play the ro lie lof SUHQgp!ite

This, excerpt from. Black Pi:ck~t Pences: P~'i:v ilege a I'Jd Peril ,m~~o:r~g the Black Middle Clas'5desn'ibe.s the upbringing of <I young: resident of Groveland!. a dose-knit African American community in Chic<JI;go. The anther, sociologist Mary f!attiUo-MoCoy, became acquainted with Charisse wbile livingin the Grovdand nelghborbood, where she Was doing ethnographic:re.seatch, Charisse's childhood is, similar to that of other fOll!ths in rllanyrespeds .. Regardless .of face or social class, a yOlllI!lg person's development invnlves a. host ofintluences, from parents, g1!'aI:ndpare:n.ts> and sib:I.iJI.g:sto friends and classmates, teachers and. school adminisu<ltors., :neighbors and >l;:fu.urcbgoelfs.--ey;en ymlthsw.holieqll1,ent the' local mall, Yet in some ways,. Charisse's development is slPe~ dficaJlyi.l'ltlUlelwed. by her face and social class .. (':0 mact with family and community members, fm instance', has undoubted.l.y prepared her to deal wi~h prejudice and the scarcity of pm;,i1tiv~ iuxl.ges of Afl'lcan An].enmns inthemedia (W.Wuson

716 et al, 2IJ(6).

parents. When Chalris:se w.as in el~m{tntary school atSt Malry's, her late paternall ,grn;ru::imoilher was tnle 8<chool seGf>Eltary, and 8<0 the Baker giirhi were ailways !urlder tllie 'watchfull 1Bl/€i. of ttheilr ,gralilJollilother aswtlill as tnle staff, wtIo W€H! thei:r ~:f1d'fIl1otl!er's fni'ends;, AllId if] the eveninlg5 CharisSiE!'S motmler wOllJlld bring her ami her sister to cho~r practice, wheretli,eoy alccumul!aood an enSiemb:le of motlliers and t8ithl:1ffi.

After St, Marys elem@nta~y school, CnlarLs:se went en tn St. ~f1i@S Ca.tholii,c H:igh ScllioO'I ID.rgiirils, her fath,ets G:hoic€. St Agnes is I:ocaood in a suburb of Chicago cmd iis a selild, ilnte:gffit'ed Carthollic :SChool where tOO percent of the girls grac:h.:lait€ and over 95 pe;r'cent go. onl to collegt1 ... ,

Mlosi!: of Chari:sse'S close friendis welilt to St Mary's and lf10wgp 10 St A~f1IBS witl, niE!lI, b ut her dm,ice of ba¥f,riend1.sshows medest .signs ar rebellio:n .... Many of Gnlari.sse'smale interests a~n61' ollder ithalf1 she, and irfegula:r:ly emploo/ed-alttH:l'l!JIgh som€f ,are ilf1 and out of schoQ~I" She me.ets many off ij,;gim hanging out ,Eiil:i[he maili. On€ evening". mgmbelS oWtil1e dhmch's yotJrth Icheilr sat around milking abouti:heir ml:atiionshlips. Chari5S€ [:00001 while tEilliking about her present iboylriend, who had j'lUlst gradllJlaited frmm hiiW1schlool but d,idl net IhavE! a job ,Emu wars IUlnC€t1ai'lfJ aooulf: :hl!Sfuwf€L. Butt in the mrddl'e off tnlal tn:ougn:t; Clhmiss{t spontaneous!ly chanlged her atl:€ln~ioIlliS· to a. rmw young mol'] that sIl€ had! just met "Char:issEt c'hail1g€s boyf,riendls il ike shE! changes her cllothes," her sister

jioked, im:H:catillg1Jhe impe:tuolUS

nature of adolescent ~1!8Iti:onshiips.

cWhHe thles€vo~.l1ng men are net in g,angs or sel:li:ng d!n,I1~, many of them do not seem to share Ghmiisse's strong career

goals, snd dil:igefllce ln attalirliing til€! m, Some of theim W'OlUlld !1ottga rtn~11 e apprQv~.11 of her parents, H(lw· @Veir, this flUIU Ilist of bQ~riends has nlot clomi§d Cha~iss€':sfocus. "

{PrJ'Wllo-MeCDY 1999:1 DO-J02J .kdi!llllill~<lI1 IlIif()rnlJithl~n l'IbOrut tl!lIs~jCBrlPt ean h [l fou~d onNl11!1 OflIJFI~ L8arllll~,~ C!liwM ,(Ill~·i'l''''',imllli'la_fllll1'l!~CMi!rlm~.

Sociologists., in genera!l]. are interested in the 1P<lUem~5 of behavior and. attitudes jhat enle~ge thmu;ghollt the life course, from infilncy to 10M. age .. These pa tterns arepart of the lifelong process of sCII::iillzamon) in which penpleJeam the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate formembers of aparticula» cuitwre, Socializatien OCCllly.stfu.ooiugh humaninteraefiens that begin in infancy and contDul!le threugh retirerneet, We learn a g]jeat deal! (ron] those people most important ill aur lives->immediate £a:rn:iAy members, bestfriends, and teachers, But we abo learn (mi.]] people: we see' on the street, on television, on the Internet, and il1film~, and .IlCiagazines. FrOIn a :miJClAOsocio]ogrcal perspective, socialization helps ustn discover how to behave "properly" andwhat to expect £ro.m otbers if we follow (or chalI.enge} society's norms <Ind. values. From <I! macrosociological perspective, socialization. provides for the transmission o:f a. culture from one ge:n~r;a.ltion. tothe next, <lind tbere1tJ.y for the longterm continuance of ill society,

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


' •.... " ..


g, Soc:iilllizerti;M ,find 1Ii!~ lLife ICiOtl[SI':

Sociallzation also shapes our self-images. Por example, in the United States, a per.sol] who is viewed as "teo heilivy" or "tno short" does not mnforrlll to the ideal cul tural standard. ofphysical attmc1tD.veness. This kind of unfavorable evaluationcan :significandy Influence the perscn's self-esteem, ln this sense, socialiaation experiences Gin helpto shape O1!Lf personalities, In e,reryday speech. the term [l}cil'oofli!llity~s used tn referto a person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and. behavior,

How much of a person's, pe.rso.md:ity is shap ed by culture. as opposed. to inborn trairts? In what 'lII<11's. does socia.~ilati.{}n continue

@ The McGraill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

into aduhbood?\%o are file most powerful agents OF socializa- 77 tion? In this chapterwe wiil examine the role of secializationin

human development, W'e will begin by anaMY-Ling theinteraction of heredity with environmental factors" We will pay particular artention tehow people develop perceptions, fedings> and. beliefs abouttliemselves. The cha]pler will also explore (he lifelong nature of the socialization pmGess, aswell as important agents of socialization], among them the family> schools, :peel'S" themedia, and tedhno]ogy; .Fi:nruly" the Social Policy section will fecns em. the socialization. experience of g;mup child. eate forY'Olmg children.

The Role of Sociall izal'ion

Wha.tn)akesu.s~ whow,e~I'e? Is l,t fb~ gen~s we,l'l'~ hom with, Dr the envrrcmneet ]111. which we grow IIlp. Researchers have i:Fadi:iti.oJll.1IUy dashed oyer the relativeimpnrtance of biologiGa[ iaherjtance and envirenmema! factors III h1!1IDan development-c-a conflict called! the J:lutUJ<::: vei'SUS nurUlre (or hBred~t]' versus em1irm1.ment) debate. "1{)day~ most sccial scientists have moved beyond this debate, ach1.ow~.e;dgi:flg instead the interaction of these variables in shaping human developrnem, However,w,e tan. better appreciate how 1ber,editry BInd envieonmental factors interact and influence the :soc:iaJizatt:D.on. proces,s if we first examine situations inwhich one fador operates almost entirely withou t the other (Homan,s 19'79).

Social Environment:

The Impact of lsolation

Inthe 1994 movieNdt Jodie Foster [played a young; weman hiddenfrom birth by bel: mother in a backwoods cabin ... Raised witbout normal human contact; Nell crouches like an. animal, sczeams 'wihUy; and speaks er sings, in aIanguage all her own. "111.i$ movie was drawn from theactual acceunt of an emaciated :U6-ye:aJT-oldbo>yw]m appeared ]]]yst.eriousTyin 1822 in. the lmVJ:1 sqrn.ar,e of Nu:re~.llhe~g, Ge:[]]]anl.y {,LiP,'iOIl 1994).

I:sa.bell€!l1lI:nd G:sU';e: fwo·Casies Some viewers Ii.lJdlY have~ound the story ofNeLI difficu]tto believe.but the painful childl!:QOodi of Isshellewas all too real.For the first six y,ears .of her life" Isabelle lived in am'Jiost total seclusion in a darkened. mom. She hadlittle contact with other people, with. the exception of her mother, who could neither speak nor bear, lsa.lDdle's mother's parents had been su deeply ashamed of Isabelle's illegitimate birththat they l~elPt herhidden awayfr-Oi[ll theworld, Ohio anthcrities finally G1SOOVered the child in 1935,wben ha.hell:l!e'.snnoth~]f escaped from. heir parentshorne, taking her d,aughter with her.

\'Vfuen she was discovered airtag;e six, Isabelle could not speak;. she cculdmerely raake various c[ioaking sounds, Her onl.}' eomrmmieatirms willh. her motherwere .~imp~e gestures. lsahelle hsd been .largely d,e1Piriv,~d of thetypical interactions and sceialiaation experiences of childhood, Since shehad seen few people; she showed. a sltI'O]]g fear of strangel:.!i and reacted almost like a w.ild m:a.i:mal when confronted with an unfamiliar person, .ft.r; she became accustomed 00' seeing certain i]].div:idual~.fuer reaction changed to one of IJ;'Jt1l:re!]]e ap~Jthy~ At fu'St~ observers believed that Isabelle was deaf but she £001] began tnreart to nearby SOU1lG.s. On tes.ts ofmaJtl..1lri.ttYI s.he soo.red. at thele"illt.~ of an. in.fan! ratllJ!er t]lirul a six-rear-old,

Specialists developed a sy,st:enla tic trnining programto help Isabelle adapt to human rdati.o.nsh.ijp:!i and soeializatiaa .. M~er a. few days of training, she made her first attempt to verbalize; Although she started .slowly, Isabelle quickly passed thmugb six years, of development In. a. little over itX-'Vomm.1ths shewas speaking i,TI complete sentences, Nine months later she could identi:fy both words and sentences, Before Isabelle reached age nine, she wasready to attend school with othee chi.ldpen. By age 14 she was in sixth g[;a:de, doing wellin school, and enlOtionall.yw.e:U. adjusted,

Yet without am oJPportm:nity to experience sm:laJiza~i.on in her first six years, Isabelle had beenhardly humanin the social sense when she wasfirst discovered, Her inability to coramueicate at the time of her diSCClvery--desp.u.t'e he!" physical and. cognitive potenrialte learn=-andher remarkable pmg:re$S over the next few yea['.~ underscore the impact of seciafizatinn 0]] human dev'elopr.nellt (K. Davis li 940, 1947).

Unfortuuately, other children who have been locked away or .seveljeJy .Fl:eg~.ected. have netfared so well as Isabelle .. Inmany instances, the consequences of so dal isolatlen fu aveproved.much more damaging . .fm example, in t970 <I. l4·-year-old. Californian named Genie was discovered i!ll. aroom where she had been confined since age 2:0montbs. During her years of isclation, no f.ucnily member had spoken to her" .nOlI: could she hear anything other than S'Wea:r]ng. Since therewas no television or radio in. her home, she had never heard the sounds of normalhuman speech .. One yew: after beginning extensive therapy, Gewe':$ g:rruUIl1a:r resembled that of a typi:CE!] lS~n]ontfu-oid, Though she [Hade 1U!~ther advances with ccntinued rtherapy, she never achieved fun languageability; Today 'Gen:i'e. now ill her early 50.s; lives in a home fm developmentally disabled adults, Figure 4-] on p:!il.ge 7S shows <II. S,k.etdl Geniel1l1a.de 'Of her teacher five years after she was discovered (Curtiss 1977, ] 935; Rymer 1993).

Isabelle's and. Geni:e~s experiences are m]port~Dlt to researchers because there me. only <II few cas.es of children reared in tota] isolation, Unfortunately) however. there a:rernBIJfY cases of childrenraised in extremely neglectful social eireumstances, Recently, attention has focused on infants andfOung. children. &"011] orphanages in the :fmm.erly commnnist coumries of Eastern Burope .. []]I Romanian. orphanages, babies once lay intheir cribs for 18 to 20 hours a day, curled E!.ga.inst their feeding bettles <lind l:eGeivi:ng little' adult care, Such. minimal attention continued. fOf the first five yeus of their lives. Many ofthem we lie fea:rful of human. contact and pronetc urrpredictahle antisocial behavior,

This :situal.tiolll ClIme to light as fm:ni.lie~ in Nmth.Jirnll.erlal aind . . Eu.!iope began adopting thm.Asands of the chjldrerl .. '[he adjlllrStrrlent


g, Soc:iilllizerti;M ,find 1Ii!~ lLife ICiOtl[SI':


SCl'!j I"CI!': Cut tiss 1977:.2 ?4·,

This SK.€;wl'l was madle in [97:5. ~y G,ElJlli:e-ilJ gir~ 1I/ho had bee'llil i5'l)la~edfor mllllSlt of' h:er:14 years, ~.mti~she was diis'cQVelfBd by <lluthorit[es ilnl :HI70. ln her d!raw~lIilg, her IingtJlis.tfrtend (0111 tjhe I:elt) plays the pfaHlll' whiJ,e IG,enle listens, Gellie W13S [8 \'IIh en sha drew lllilis pil]t~re,"

problems, for about 20pemea:at of themwere often sn ruamatic that the adopting families :suffelied guilty fears ofbei.ng Ill -fit adoptive parents, M.my of them have asked for assistance in.dealDUg withllh.e children, Slowly, efforts arebeingmade to introduce the deprived youngsters~ofeel1Rg$ of attachment that they have never experienced befm,e (G~TIza et al, ] 999; Cmig Smith 20(6).

[ncre<I!sulIgl.y, researchers are emphasizing the .rm(por1tanoe of the eadiest socialization. experieares fm' children whogJiowup in IlnOIe normal envirrmmeurs, Wem)'w know thatit is not enough to CEllce' fm an ill]:funfs physical. meeds; :piCI.Iief.9l;sml!1St also concern l!:henlsel'ifes,'Wi:t~] dtl~&:eiil's social ,devek'pl!ueni:. If, for exaniple" childre.n. are discouraged from :b;a.>ringllTiends everu as toddlers,

@ The McGraill'l'-Hjll1 C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

tbeywill.. miss outt on sacialinaeractionawith peers that are critical for emoti 0 nal growth.

p"j'Rlftte St!udties Studies of a[IJimdi]~, raisedin iw,.I.<I!.t:io]]. also sllqp(poFtfhe impnrtance nfsecializatien in development, HarTY Harlow ( 1971); 031 .. researcher at the pzimatelaeoratory ofthe Unive"l'Sllty I(Jf Wismns.:il'l,. cnnductedtests with rhesus monkeys that had been raised a'way&om theil~ mothers and ,awayfroilli contactwith other monkeys, A:.<;W(lS the easewitb Isabelle, the rhes[]sl1.lI.onkeysrdl.ised inisolation were fearful and e<I:sllly&.ightened.. They did netmate, and the females who were a:rtifidanyins.-em.in.ateQ. became .albus;i.ve mothers, Apparen1ill.y,.i.so]aUm:n. had had a. d<lmagingeffect on the monkeys,

A creative aspect of Harlow's experimentation WilS hisuse of "artificial mothers." In one such experimerrt, Harlow preseuted monkeys raised inisolation with 11.\\"0 substitute mothers-c-one eloth-ceveredreplica and cne covered with.wire that had. the ability to offer milk, Monkey a.f~eT 1JI10[l.keYWoE:ll.t ~otthe wire mother fo.r the life-giving nllll:"},,E't spent nnnch more time clinging to the more motheelike clothmodel, It appears that the infant r!fl!onlbey~~ devdo[ped. greater social attachmentsfrom [hellE need for warmth, comtort, and intimacy thanfrom their need £o.~.' milk.

VVhil'e the isolation studies jim it discussedmay seen] .~Q suggest. that heredity canbedisarissed <is a f~rtor .in the !II(.) cial developmen t or mUlTl;!!11!> and animals, stndies oftwins provide insigh t intn afascinating interplaybetween be]fed:i~a~l' and. environmeueal rn,ctofl!;.

use you r soc io logica I imagination

Whlat events ~n your Ilire have had a strollig in1illLlence on who you ,811m?'

The lnfluence of Heredity

Identical twins. Oskar Stohr and Jack Yufe were !lleparated soon af~t their birth and raised 0]1 diffe:[~-· ent cnntinents, in. very different cultural . .setting:s.

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IDespi1.elme striking ph,ys!cclll wesemb!alno,e be~e'l;!liii tffile5'eid~l!rlti:l;:a! lwilns, t]ml:lFI;! are IiJIndiClUiltell:lly marw

diffe re nees, liie5eiCIlrclili p,()ints to :SO!lll ill boeha'o'iorn~ s~mU<liritie:s l!:ietJMeenl twins, buti itlte h~[)nd tmlelgk.eflesses found cl!lllQng ~Qntw'insnMings,

Oskar was reared as a. strict Catholic by his maternal grandmother .in the Sudetenlaed of Czechoslovak:ia. As a member of the Hitler Youtbmovement in Nazi GernlaIli.y~ he learnedto hate kws. In contrast, .hi.s brothEl: lack WEI$ reared in T[inidad by the twins' Jewislhfuthel'. Jack joilled. au Israeli kibbutz (<Ii ,mI1!fctive settlement) at age 1. 7 and 13ter served in the Israeli aa::m:y.V\!ben the twins wer-e reunited inmiddle age;. however; some startling similaeities emerged: They beth wore wire-rimened g1aS<!le.s and mustaehes, Tll.,ey both IilQed. :$picy foods and sweet liqueurs, wel:e ahsent -miaded, flll1s.hed the toilet before using it, stored. rubber bands (lID] their wrists, and dipredi. buttered toast in their Gofifee (Holden 1980}.

The [wins also D.lfferro in. maayimpnrtaut r-espects: Jac::Kl.WS a. workah.alic;, Oskar en}oyed leisure-time activities. Oskat was <I. traditionalist who was dom:ineering toward women; Fack was apolitical liberal who vrosmuch mere <l!cteptm:g of feminissn, Final]y, Jack·V\i'aS. ex1tremely preud ofbeing Jew.idt; wbile Oskar nevermentionedlris Je:wi:sh heritage (Heiden 1987).

OskaI and. J,Kk areprime examples efthe interpla "f 'of heredity and environment, .FlOr a number of yean., the Minnesota Twin Fa.u]i1y Study has been foUo'!;v:ing pairs rOE identicaltwins reared apart to determine what similarities, .i.E <In],;, I::]:~.ey show in personality traits.behavior; and. intelligence. PF,elimi:nuTyre..'luhs fromthe availahle twin studies indicate that both genetic factors and socialization experiences areiafluenrial in. human deve1op~ merrt, Certain cha.racteristics, such astemperamenrs, voice patterns, and. nervous. habits, appear to be strikingly similareven in twins rear-ed apart. :Slllggesti.ngthat these qualities mOllY be linked to .he:mdi.t<li:ry causes, However, identicaltwins reared apart differ far mOire in. th.eir attitudes.vahres, chosen mates.and even . drinking habits; these q ualiitiJes,.i;t would. seem, are influeneed by envimnmental factors In examining clusters of personalirytraits aI'l10ng such twins, researchershave found.marked similaritiesin their tendency toward .]ead.e:m:ship or dcminance, but sig;lJIi:fica.ut differences in their need for intimacy, comfort, and assistance,

Resea:rchen have also been. impressed with the similar scnres onintelligence tests of twins reared apart in r(mgfdy similar so cial settings. Most of the jdenticod twins regi..s!er scores even closer

than those that would be expected if the same person took. a test twice, At the seme time, however" tdentica] twins brought up in drm11l1 ticaUy dijJerm~ t 'social elJiv:ll'o["IIilents. scorequite differently Oil inlel].igenoel!ests.-;a finding that supports file impact of socialization. auhuman developmeat (Joseph 2.004:~ Kronstadt 2008a; McGue and 'Bouchard 1998; Minnesota Center fm Twin and Fam.iiy Research 20(9).

'We need to be cautious in reviewing studies oftwin pairs and other relevant research .. W.ldlely n.uoadcastfindi:nl}':! have often been based on prelimineryanalysis of extremely 1Im,aU samples, for example, one study (not invelvingtwin pairs) was frequ.entl.y cited as mn:iinTl.ID.,g genet ic lrn.ks.v1uhhe11ii1.vi.or: Yet the researchers

bad jn retract tbeir conclusions .after t~]ey Increased the sample and . reelassifled two of the original cases, Aftel.' those changes, the initialfindings Wf:lferlG' Iongerva.l:i.d ..

Crifics add. tftl.atstudies of twin pairs have not provided satisfactoil.l' information concerning the extentto which separated identicaftwins may have had contact w:iti:o. earn othez, even thOough th.ey wereraised apart, Such L[Dternctio.l]~,>,-especi a lly if they we're extensive-e-cnuld callinto question the validity of the twin studtes, As this debate CO]It]UU.eSj we can certainly anticipate nnmerous efforts to repficatethe research and. clarify the intelrp.iay between heredity and environmenral factersin human development [Horgan 1993; Plnmin 1989},

The Self and Socialization

We all bavevarious perceptions. feelings, and beliefs about who we are and wfu at weare like. How do we iQOl1lle to devd.op- themi Do they change as we age?

We were ]]OUDOl"n witl~. these understandings, Building on the work. of George Herbert Mead (l9Mb). sodologi$ts recognize that nur concept of who we n-e.the r.e1t em.erges as we interact with others, The seU is a. distinct identity that sets us apart from others, It isnota static phenomenon, but continnes to develop and d.1ange th:D:1Dlllghout om lives.

Sociologis.ts and psychologists alike have expressedinterest in how the individual develops andmodifies the sense o,f. selfas aresult of so cial interaction. The work of so ciologists Charles Hcrton Cooley and George Herbert. Mead~lP'.i.onBers of'the interactionist approach, has been !E£]peciruly useful in furtheriageur understanding oflthesei.mpurta1'1t issues,

SociologicalApproaches to the Self

COO\'e:y.~ lODki.ng-G:.las5 Self In tile ready 1900$,. Charles Horton CooLey advanced the beljef that we learn who we are by interacting with others, Our viewef ourselves, then, comes.not onlyfrmn direct cnntemplstinn 'of eur personal qjualities but alsofrem our tlnp:res,s ions of how others perceive IlS. 'CooIey used the :phrase l()okm,g~grnas:s s.e.1!f to emphasize that the self is the product of om' sccial interactions,

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like spoken. languages, symb 0]5 vary from c:w.ture to culture, and even. from one subcultureto another, In North Ame:dc<l, raising nne's eyebrows lJ1a-y cormmmicate astonishment or doubt.In Peru, the same gestu:re means "mtuney" or "pay me," and nUll)" coustitute aaunspoken request for a bribe. In the Pacific island nation of Tonga, raised eyebrows

" .ss 1'1 . )' (II.~~ ].]. l t'9l'i'!.

mean yre.:s or . agree .1lL1i..iLe' ..;]' u"

11re .Pla, Stage Mead was among the first to analyze~he relationship of symbol s to secializatien, As children develop skin in commnnicaring through symbols, they grad.lilaJ:1y becomemore aware of social relati.ons.b:ips. As <I. result, during the play stage, r:heyb egin to pretend to be other people. Just as an actor "becomes" 1!i. charactiC:f"a child. becomes

hi .

a doctnr, parent" superhero, or SIp captaur,

Meacl., in fact, noted that <In impartant aspect of tn:ep]ary stage is :[\oh~_;p]<Iying .. I~Il~c bIkWg is the proGess of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined view-

point. Foresample, throughthis ]process a. ymm"g child win g['admillly learn when it is best to-ask <I. p<H'ent formvoQ,rs .. If the p~.r,~nl:usl.JlaUy comes home fromwork in <L bad. mood, the childwill wait until after dinner, when the parent is mnre relaxed. and. approachable.

'T.h,e ,Game Stafe In Me<IId'slla.in:d. stage,. the game stage. tile child of about age eight or nine nolonger just pi,a.ys roles but begiT.as to consider several task-> arsd reletionsbips Siluw.tt<!.noolllsly. At this point in devElo[pment; children grasp not only their own social positinns but also those of ethers arnund them-just as in a football game the p~ay:e.:r.s Jli]'Lmt understandtheir ownand ev,:e.;ryone else's pnsiticns .. Consider a gly.i. or boy who .1s, .~art of a scout troop out (Ina. weekend hike in the mnuntsins, The ehild mnstunderstand what he or she is expected to dobutmust also recognise the respomihi.litles of other scouts as w,e~ as theleaders, Thisis the fin~1 ,s.tage of develepment under Mead'smodel; the child can no'w l:es:!D'L)nd to numerousmembers of the social environment.

Mead uses the term g:ene:ral!ized otlJeJi to re£e:r to W,e a.trutl[1des, vlewpcints, and expeetarlons of society <IS a Wh.OI!E that a. child. takes into account in. his Oil' her behavior; Sim]ply put) this concept sugg~f>ts that when an individual aJcls,he or shetakesinto arcuunf an entire grQup' ofpeople, For example, a child w.ilLnot act mmteolll.slymeI\ely to please a particularparend. Rather, the child. comesto understand that en urtesy is a widespread social value endorsed by pa[ien ts.teachers, and religiousleaders.

At the gaBle stage" childsen can take a more sophisticated.view of people <l!nd the social environment, Tbey now lmiler.'ltand what specific nccupationaand social. positinns are and .no ]010].ger equase Mr,WillJliaII.lIs Oll.l}}' with the role o.f"]]brar[an') .m Ms. Sanchez onl.y with "principal;" It has become clear itO, the child that Mr, 'Wi11iaIl.lIs can be a librarian, aparent, and amarathon runner at the same time <lind that 1vfs, Ssncbes is, one of many principals in om society; Thus, the child has reached anew.~evd. of sophistication in observations 'Of individuals and.institations,

Table 4-1 summ .• rrizes the three stages of self eutlined by Gem:ge Herb ert Mei;H:L

Cihlild rellil imitate the' peoplearound tharn I. !E!sp,eoillny fllmi~y rnem t;ler5~h&y c!lJ.lliltill u:allll:y i,lmWlr<:l et with! 1 d Urilllilg th,e pmp<'l,~t(lry sti'l'g,e de.scrlhec:l by GeolrgE! !iI!erD!J;l!ri: M eiCJl~t

The process of developing a self-ideill:ity or self-concept has dU'ee phases . First, we ima.gine how we present ourse.l.ves·~o. others-c-to relatives, friends, even strangers Gin the stseet, Then we imagine how others, evaluate us (arUractivE,i:l]teUigelllt, shy, or strange), Fiua11'y.we develop SOHl!e sort IOf feeling illboul ourselves,snch <I.S respect or shame, as a result of these impressisats

(('.ooley 1902~ M .. Howard 1989'l. . ... ..

A subtle but critical aspect of Cooler's .Iooki.ng-glass self is that the self results f~.'On]. an individual'st'imaginarion" of how othersview him. Of her, A. .. aresult, we can develop self-identities 'based. DO] fn:cor:p~e.ct perceptions of I:mw others see us. A student [[my read s~m]],gly to. ill teacher's criticism and. decide (wDiongFy) that the instmrtor views the student as stupid. This. mispereeption may be canverted in to a negative sdf~identtity througb the fuUowing pl1ot.,e~.; {I} the teacher criti.ci2edme, {2}theteacfue:r [[lJU5,t think that I'm stupid, (:Jj) I am stupid, Yet sdf-identit]eSilll1e: also subject tn chEl.nge:. If the student receives an .A <1It the end. of the course, he or :5he:ltv:ill.l?'wlbl3.b.~.yno .I.o.ngerfed stupid,

M'e.ad~'Sta:ges of tl:lle ,:S~l,f George Herbert .Mead. contT.i:nl,,]ed OJ(}~ey's exploration ofinteractionist theory; Mead (1934; 19Ma) developed a useful I'llodel. of the process byw.hich the self emerges, definedhy tbree d]stinct stages; the preparatery stage, the play

stage, and the g,1!i.llle stage, .

TIJie P~'epti!T~t[l1"y Stlil;ge DlIlIringth.eprepamtfJr}, s.ta;ge,chikLren anerd.y rrnit<l!.tel:Rl!e people arrmnd them, e'spec]aUy familymemhers with whom they continually interact. Thus, a small child w:in bang OJ] a. piece of woodwhilea parent ]s engaged. in car~entry work, or will hy to threwa ban if an elder sibling is doing s:onearlby.

As tbey gtUW older" childrenbecome more adept at using; SYffiD ob,i.l]cluding the ge:sI:IL1.les andwords that form tbebasis ~fbu[mm communication, By interacting with. relatises and friends, <IS well as by w<Ilk.i:o.i]]lg cartnons ontelevision and looking at picture books" child.reI! in the ·pre'p3rntory stage begin. to understand symbols. They win ccntinueto use this form. of communicarion throughout their RIves.

M;e,ad:Jl1eDl'yof the SeJf Mead is best knovm. for IDS tthe:ory of the self Ac',omrling, to .Mead. (l964'b)" the self begins <lett a pr.ivileged. central position in <II. person's world. YDLIlng ch:iJidren picture

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Self Present?


themselves as the [0(1]5 of everything around them . and find it difficUL1t ltD censider the perspedives of others . For example, when shown a mountain scene' and asked~o describe what an 0 bserver onthe opposite side of the mountain migh t see (such as. a lake or hikers), young children dlescr.ilbe only objects visiblefromtheir own.vantage point. This childheed tendency to place ourselvesat the center of events never entirely disappears, Manypeo[ple with a fea]' of flying: autnmatically assumetbat if any plane goes down, it willbethe one they <liIe on. And whoreads the horoscope section in. the paper without loo.ki:ng at their own horoscope fi:n:t~· \\f]]y else dowe buy~otteil'tic:lrets,.if we do not .i.m;agu1e oueselves

.. . ?


Nonetheless, as people mature. the self changes and begins to reflect greater concern about the reactions of others, Parents.friends, (0 -wnrkees, coaches, and teachers are often among those who play amajor role in sJa.ap:ing 3. pen01o's self The term s~,gnifi!mnn olthers is used to refer tothose individuals who me I'l10St important in the development of the self. Many young people. for eX<IIn1p1e,findilllemsdv,es drawn to the same kind. of work their parent'S engage in (H .. Su]liva:n. [1.'9153] :] 968).

@ The McGraill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

surnrrungup 8.1


ell i 111 tm iml>estJme ;a:01tions of others.

IC~lIdtakes tna role. of a :sin~l:e other, as if hie (J'r :she we~e tile other.

!Child DOlfll$id,ers. the roles:

I[d 000 or more !DUners :simu litane(lHs~.


Whell i1'Id ultt:s. lit! l[agh i;inldi smile, child Iiauighs a nd smi~e;s ..

Clllul:d fi rst M kes' the role of d'Dctnr, then the ro Ie of p~tieH!t.

In galille lJ]Chide-and~se~k:. child tqlkes; il1ll:01!l1!;:co~.!1t til e fl9les af both Imider and slE!leker.

In some instances, studies of signiflcant others have g.enera ted oontmversy among researchersr Por example, S!I)rne researchers have contended that Bb.ckadolescents are more "peer-oriented" than their \"'bite oaunterparts because of pre'sumed weaknesses in Black families, Howev.eT. ll1vec;tigations indicate that thE$en.uty conchisions were based DEl Iimired studies .£ocusing on less. affluent Blacks. In fact, thereappears to b e little difference lEI who Blacks ;an.d Whites from similar ecenomicbackgrcunds regardas their significant others (Giordano et al, 1993; Juhasz :I. 989').

use your sociological imagination

How do yo:u viiew YOlllrs~lf :a~¥ou :inIt€f1:H;t witih o~h€'r:s around you? How do .YilUI thiimlk you formed ilhIJ5 view of youffi1eW?

A. prospectirve emplnyer rel!Ji:ews. <lIn <Ilp'plil[J<llntsql!i<;illific@tion:s furtru'E! job. TO!JIffiseillil tliil!E!rnselves illl a positivemai!lI!i.lIE!~ .• bothiil.iltervie~ver.ulidlappl~i[;allitm<l~resorttoimpiliessr.(J.[Im;1lI1..ag.em.ent <lInd fi!ice-wor~ ·hm 1;;;ilmi'l}$ described by tl1einteraetin[lisl; Ef\ling G,(I,ftman.

Gotfma'.n:Ptesenta'fj·oill of ftJ:e ·Sielf How do we manage nur "self"? How do we display lin o~h.ers who we are? Erving Ooffirllan, a sociologlst associated witfu the in.temctJonist perspective, s:uggested thatn'.lany of our daily activities involve artemptstc mnvey Impressirma ofwho we are. His observations help us tounderstand Itbe· sometimes subtle yet critical VY'<lYS in which welearn to presen t ourselves socially; They also Offei" concrete examples of this aspect of soeializarian ..

E<II.l!'ly in life, the individual learns to slant his or her presentation of the self t]]l. order to create distinctive appearances and :smtisfy particular audiences, Goffman (1959) referred Ito this altering: of the presentation of the self <1$ :iml't[>es~ si,oIII lnaIllag~D1.c:.nt . Box 4-li on page 82 descrihes an everyday example of this coucept-Ithe~y students behave <IHer receiving their exam grades

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cOfiFJml1i'h~l'tmy. For their part. Aces offersyrnpa," ttly ami SUlpport to tille diss!il'lils'fied IBombel'S ami e'!J8r:l r8iijoIl8,~nle tlhe~f own !'~llcky" high scores, To help Hombers sar'o!'e 'fa:ce, Aces may emlPlli,aslze U1e difficulty and iUlnfa:~me$ of tth'!1! e~amurlatJioll.

Bo.mb,er-Bamb<er encounteJ"Stl3l1d to. be closed, reflecti Nit!! the group effoit to wa~~ Off 'the feamdl disdain of athe,I'S" "MI:, wiWin. 'th,e .sa~ety oOif ttJe!!ie encounters, Bombers openly sllUlffi tlli~~rr disappo~ln~ment ,and ei'1l,~~ge ill expr\!l;ssions ,or

'lYPes Of nu man. irntemGtion, eHm'fS at~il"fiIP:resr son man a_gem,arnt ~11!!' most i rnt:eIlSie \Wien. gtatus ditfe!rel'l'tialls 8,m pra:nounorad, 8!S liln encountem b@!~weetlJ 'lJhe hi~h-'srollin.~ ,Aces a,i'i,dl 'l:Bl,e I'Qw:sc;orung Bom!:! em.

(ltff Gou,l'SIe" ,mr,ade compfirlSOi'iiS are riot the only 'OCicifisnon when s:tt:lde!riI'ts ei'lga~ in impresS:~Of1 mal1agement f!trnoth,e:rS:lUdy haJ$sh!W.l'Dl, tM.t srudell'ts' perceptions OIf hrrw ofl!elnfellow stud:ei"l~ work OIlJt C2Ii'l! a,~so jnfl~ei'il'(}e. tlJi,e~r ~oc;~a,~ er:J,~ou:n~eIrS, lin aithler~c terms, a bomber WOLJldI beSiomeOfle w!1o ,dioesnl work: out; en ace would be someone wtm WOIf'ks halrd Sf ph~r!(;a~ nn~H'~s~. At ~h,es:tu,d:el'lt lounge,ltIen, [b,a.mberbomber ~rJ,counr~rs, might ~Invo~v"@ i'lon<3'~~e!trc S'tt:ld'el'lts be!~tllin\g those WhlLlo spend a lot oftlme working milt •. At '[h,9 If'ecre,1iItl!QI'I ceMlt,er,. ace-ace e'IiICOUi'i'leli"S m~gt!Jt ~nvollve stucsnt atihlletes snar~ng tmining t~ps.

Wh,en you iilrnd feU'QwGI1iIssma'~es get an eX1iIm bacik.r you pmlla biy react differently d@pend~f1g on. the gm des '[hat you a,n cI they e8irne,d.lh~s tCllm~ th"iCno.n is ps rt of {mpress!o.i!:I mlB,,n~m:eii'lt, as soc~o~ogists Daniel Alba!> 8ind Che:ryl Aloas h,a~ demollstJ'a'ted. 1I1elWO, explor,e(i the s,t:ru~t,egl,es college students use to ,r:re~re desJlmd aplpearsnces aft:elr flece~vi I1lg '~eir grad,as on exa ms, A~lb,a:s. an.d AIMs: divided '~hese e:nroruntm IMlttI 'U'i ree c.atega,~es: th()1tie lttet'We!l!!tn S'UJ!d,eii'ts 'I'l\ho haive iii II r,eceived ih~g~~gI'ades (AJDrh~loe ,encoun" ts rs),;mhose between stmler:r1tS wh!o, hav:e r,eceived h~Wh ~r.3idesa no tlhose wh,Q, have reoeived ~ow ow e'!Ioefn 'F1MII MIg gra,d.es (A.ce-Bombew e,nC01lJIU,e:rs}: ariJ:i'tti,ooe berwe,en stu de til 1;5 who Ill9!lJe am r>eceived low ,gr,ades (Born t}elr~Bornber el1.coUl'ltem) ..

,A.ce~ACle eifilGQUtUe<,rs !DCCUIF in1il mther open ~unoQiSiJl' ere I' bec!aluse ttl ere is Clo.mfol'tin sti 8 riflg a hl.~' ma:rik. wl'~nano~h,er high aeh~~ver. It is eVei'l! MDepWb~e- m"d,ola:t,e 'U'ie I!'IOrm of mad:~s'w and hrag when a mOllg oth'e1r Aces, 51 nee as one SllIJdent mdm~Ued, "It's much 8:aslelF m admit a Ih~gl1. rns rk to someone Wino has dcme: betttew tB'i a 1'1 yQIiJ, or i?dt ie\as'~ .:I1!l well."

A!C~B'Limber encoi.linte~ aN! often sensl'!;iive. jE!,o'mibers ,ge'rl,erii9illyaUernpt to i1l'oid such exchanges, because: "YOH .. , ,emer~ liooki.l'lg like th,e dumb one," or "f~e~ ~ike y,DU arre iazy ow unrel la b~E!!;" Wihen for,De dl into inter.adlol'ls w~th Aoos, Bombers work to appEl.a r ,~a'D~Ous arid

\Vlte11./iJrcul into i1U:emc,tio~~8 wili~ Aces, .Hombe:r." l!Jork

£0 ,aPl:Ju~:r graCfiJ,l~.W and c,ang:ral ulatory ..

mUl~lJal se:If.-jJH:y '~hiltth'!3Y themselves c,a~11 ~pi'ty paltie<s;~Th ('!.'j de',,rjse 'fece",s,avrng, excu sss for'tlli'E!!rlr poor perij)i1'I:!.2I.~C4E!" such as ~Ir wasn't 'f.eel~i1\g well an week" or "II hadfnur If};amS, am:lkw papers dlle[h,8~ w,eel'(;' Ilhihe grade disl~bulllon in a rsass includes pa nicu~a riy I,ow scores, Hnmbers may blam!l!!~he pmfessob", a.UacMll'lIg him or ner as Eli sadisr, o3i slave diWer, or simplyfli'il ililrr:ornpe:tei"it

As is e'!iiidenUmrnl;ti.e!lle deroriptiClI'lS, stl.Jd.ents' impte5siJol'l mana,g~m~%nt :stra'mg:1es conf:O:Fm to soctery"s ~1n~ormaJi norms re~n:l~ng modesty !alflld cOMr,d:enEitioi'il for l,esss:t:I.co@:!lsflu~ Ipee~". lin classroem SOe1thMlg$, as ~nIDe wa,r~place fli'ld in oWelr


1. How do, you reaet '~.oIDose who~.eve reDei·ved h,~gh,elr Oil" I'CiWi!l!l'gmde~ than lfO'U'f oe lfOUI en~ge inllTllPr,es.sijoll ma'na.gemen.r? How \lj,QUlci you Hike Q~hers~Qo reactto y,our g/r8ide?

.2, Wha't socil,al norms govern stlJdents' ~mpr.eSr slon mal:1l,1iIgeme'I1l'~ :stmtegies?

ln an;aAyzing such eveJfyday sorialinteractiens, Goffm.aJII. makes so IJiJiUJly explicit 'Parallels to tfue t~:u~at,eT thatbis view has, been. termed the d:raJIl1altm:g:kal flJlP'I'DiUili. Aoooullmg to this perspective" people resemble performersin action, .Fen example, a clerk may try ~o appearbusier thanhe or she actIJaMy is if if! supervisee-happens to be watching. A custnmer in a. :s.i.!lJgles' barmay try to look as ifhe !,)F sbei:!iW,;JIiti.ng for aparticular person to arriee,

Goffi:n<llIl: (1959) also drew attention to' another aspect of ~he sdf-face~wo:rk. How eften do YOlu initiate some kind. of fa(:e-s,avlng behavior when. you feel embarrassed .[11' .rejec:;t,ed? In responsJe to. a rejection at the singles'bar, aperso]]n:uay eng~ge

• . .c:, . 1(' Il.. ...•.. «'Tt.· . . ']-1 . .. , . .'. :"

in race- wor llJy S<l}'1ng" .. nererea .. y IS]] t an mterestmg per-

son Inthis entire cnrwd}' We fed the need to maiataina ]proper image of the self if we <He to con tinue !lloci.an inteI<lctiolJ].

[n sonu~ ruHl!]tl!;:$,.p~ople ,~,[lgag;e in eJa.borate dec~pti!Ons to aVDid losing fa c:e , ]n Japan], for e:x:ampk, where lifetime ,emp]oyanent has until reoently !been fhenomll, "c!CIllljpa:nIY ]Jj]en'" thrown. out of wnr kb,y il. de:ep em nomic reGeM~i!On Iinay fe'iglJl.emploryment, 1"isi[lg as USUall i]]. the [!)].o[·.niiJ!g], dorming, slI.itand tie, and heading £o~.~ the business ,district, But instead of go.ing tO~J!e

ffi··'1l. . ". '.' .,~. .'Il. '·1' k.··; ·H"iL.··· "]L"n-

o ce, hl!ey c:m1:gl~g:i!te al: p~:lIIces SUCu a'S '0. ~y() S. Jw'I'ya . llUIa:ry,

where they pass the tume ]b,Yljeading before retUIlling h.o]]]e <Ilt the 1ll:5l11<ill h.our, Mi;lJlJY of these [nen ale trying to protect faln-· ilvml,erlllber, ... who wOIlJ.TIdhe :s11a:[l11OO if neig·· hbcw.s djsmvered the

£ami~.y breadwinnerwas unemployed, Others are deceiving their wives; and famili!E:s as we']] (Frendll 20(0),

Goffn.a:ll's work on the self represents a ]ogic<ill pm:g:ression of sceiolngical studies begun by Cooley <lind .Mead 0 nhow personditty is, aDq uired through social:i.zati,(}[11 and. how we m.anage the presentation of fiI,e selfto others. Gooley stressed the prncess by which we create :;I self;: Mead. toc:use-d on how the self develops as "Vie learn to interact with ethers; Goffman emphasizedthewars in whichwe consciously create images ()£ ourselves for others ..

Psychological Approaches to the Self PsyeJmlogists, have shared the interestof CooJey~ Meadl, andether soeiologists in !the tdevelop'.m.entt of the self, Early work inpsychoIo,gy, sud] as that of Sigmund Freud (1856--1939), stressed theD:io[e ofoI!libo[ll d.r.ive,s-amo.ng the1U~be dr~ve fOil' .se:X:LIl;[~. grnti:6.cation.-in. ch:1llll1ding human beh<llVlm. .Mme mce:I.lJt1y, psydu::Dl.ogists sud:! 03!S Jean Piaget 11.1!.vt: empl1 a:.s:iz..ed. the .sta:ges th:rtmg,h wb.ich1Tm:n:nm:a. beings progress 3S the s,elf de'V'f1ops.

Like Charles Hmton Coo[ey and George Herbert. Mead!. Freud believed tbElt H~e sdf is a ~~od<ll product, and ~ha t a.sp eels, of one's pelfllondity are influenced. by Qthe[~ people (especially one's pnEo:tts,)., Ho:we'!le~~~l,mlike Cooley and Mead]. he suggested. that ruhe .sd:f has components that work in 01Clpos:i:tion to' ,each oth.er .. Ac;col!dmg to FIeud. our .na~ura]~m:pl!ll'live instincts are in rnns1tant ,conflict

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surnrrungup ,83


Key COM eepts

,iJ n d Contributions

Major Po:int£ of Thi20lry

iCha~es 11I'l)wt.on COOhll!( 1816;4-1.9:2'9

soc;ro~ogist (USA~

Gel]rgE!! Hemelrit Mead 18153-BlJl

sQa:ro~o,~jst (USA~

Eruing GlJffma n

:19Q~2- HI8:'2

soc;Ia~o~j5t {U:SA~

S.gmu mid Freud :1856-193'9 jlIsY{)iholjjh!ernpist. (.A:ustriii:l'}

.Jie~lJm Ph;lget 1'B.9'tI-Hl81J [hilt:! psyctto IQfJlst

{Sw itzerla IiiIdJ

The self IGener.;lli2:edl OUier

!mp~ston 1'J]i;ll'lag,elillell~ DI'<Iillri lIturgi,[]al allPro~ch Fe!'[}'8-work


with societalconstraims, Part OfUlS se-ekslimitlesspIe1LSure, while another part fuvonra.tiona]. behavior. By interacting with others,we learnjhe expectations of soci!e1ty and then select behavior most apprcpriate to <Clur own culture. (Of COUIse> as Etreud. wa'S well aware, we sometimes dListortreality and behave inati!o:[Ia.lly..J

Research on newbornbabies by the SwiQi .ch:ild. psychologist Jean Piaget { ] ~9&-19l80) has underscored the importaetce nfsecial interactDon,s in. developing a sense Qf sclf. Piar:get found thatnewborns have no selfin the sense ofa ]ookil]g-'g~.as8 image . .Kn:micaUy,t]],01l1g!b> they are quite self-centered; they demand that all attention he directed toward. them, Newborns have not yet separatedthemselses from the universe of which they sre a part, For the. ... ebehies.the

b "vouand ;" L. . ... , • ...lL ... .11 ~.' d ] .. ,':"; ,"

p. rase yOLll, an .rne .~ las no meru:alBg;ullf:Y unaerstan ,on.y me,

However, as theymature, children are g;radually socialized into social .reLat]onshlp~" even w~itrnn their ratber :sill-Ceil!tet~dworH

. In his well- known Ciogruthf):etlru.eot)' of devdop.mc::rn.t!. 'Pi,aget ( ] 954) iden tilled four stages in the development of children's thought processes, In the first, or stZ:1~sorimotor. stage, YOl.l.ID.g, children usetheir senses to make discoveries . For example; through tOI[~(:hing they discover thattheir hands, ate actually a pad. of

•. L 1. D '" .'L .:Ii " I' .1! "~d

tnemsetves, ·llumgme $ecO:nu, .or pre(l,e.mtr,ow;i~, stage, emu ren

begirD. tn I,He words and symbols to dlistinguish objects and ideas, The milestone in thethird, or concrete operO!tioual. stage is that children en.g;age in. morelogical thinking. Tbey learn that even wh.en. a formless lump ofcl<lr.y is shaped into a snake, it is still the ,':l<lme d.ay; P:i:naUy; in1!llllf: feurth, or lClrm~ oper:tltim'uJl~ stage, adolescents become c<lpabte of sophisticated abstract thought and can deal with ideas and values in a logieel manner;

P.i.<II.get suggested thatmoral development becomes an importantpart of socializatien as. children dev(e]op the ability tothink mOi1eabstractly.Wh.eID. children learn the rules of a §iJ]ue such. as checkers or jacks, they are learning to obey soeietalnorma.Thnse under age ,eight dispEay a. rather basic level of moralitry:, rules are rules, and. there is no concept of "extenuating circumstances," As they mature, children become capable of greate~" autonomy and beg]]] to' experience morn] dilemmas and. doubt!, as to what con-

. ' b ~ "

sntutes proper .. ehaviar,

Sta~:s of develClpm,erilt 1110t dis:triln:ct; fe,eI1ill'iig£ towardl o ur$€'lives aeili.elo ped tlmrolLlgh i!n1It.e ~ mDOIII wit~ otlhers

Ih re,8 dlstilffi(c,t :stages of d~l[lp rn!Emt; self de.\I'e!trlps i3JS: ()f,ri~dren grasp the role$ of atffiiers in the!i r IliilJErs

Se:lf d1e1ilelnped U!r(ll!llg~ t!ie impreS:~(lIl.s. WE! CiOli\ieY tIlL ethers and to ,gf{llLlPS

Seilf i nll uenesd by pall'ellts and by r'fij001]!ii i1:Irillli!s, sueh as 'the dri!JE! for se~ua I gr;at~fi[~tion

fDIUlf stages I]{ cuglli.tiv{l: de~hoiPment; IllUl'rall, de1f~IQP.1iT! ent lin kM to Sl!)ci~ n~ltil)n

AGco[~di.ng to J ean Piaget, soci.:[~. interaction is the kef to devel-, opment . .A:~ children grow n~d.e:r~~beypaf increasing attention to how other people think and wbyth:e<}' ad in. particular ways. In order to, develop a distinctperS01];lllittyc, each of us needs opportunities to interactwith others .. A:£ we saw earlier" Isabelle-was deprived. of the chance fOir normal social interactionsvand the ClOl1Seqlllencesw,ere severe (Kitrhener l'991).

We have seen, that anumber of thinkerscousidered .social. interactien the key to tile deve10pment of <In individual's sense of self, .As is generalli:.y true.we can bestunderstand this topic: by drawing on <I. ·va:riety of theory and. research .. Tahle 4-2 5IJ1Il.lIm;arises therich literature, both sncio]ogic<lJ 'and ps;,'cbo~ogical~ on the development ofthe self.

Agent,s of Socia lization .

As we haee seen, the culture of the United States is defined by .mtber gmdua] movements flUlJll O.ll·e stage of soeializatien 10 the next, The conrinuiogandlifelong SOclallia1tl:cm pmoess involves many different social. £m;ces that influence DIU lives and. alter our self-images,

Til. t: • ~ • .i! . ' '. f· . _1' , • ..t.

u!Eu.anuuy~s.ul,e most nnportant .a.gen t sn soeianzanon m tne

United Stil~es,.,espe)[iaU:y f():r,cfu:n.~!(h,en. In this chapter, we']] also aLS-

• 'IL, f "1' '·':L 1L RL

cuss SIX other ageIDts, 0 .. soc~a[Z<ltiLon~UH:: SCnOOu" tne peer group.

the mass media and. fec}[Hology. tbewcrkplace. religion, ::lind. the state, We'll explore the role of religionin socialszing ym,llllg people into society's norms and values mmel1Ldl.y in Chapter 15.


C~ '1'.]' , . A "L .~." • d'·j· 1L.l t ~ d . nuaren m. nUSH ecmmumues are raise .. In. a n.lgu y 5 rucrure ..

and. disciplined manner .. But till.e}' are not immune to the temptations posed. by their peers in. thenon-Atniah world-~~.rebellloL1s~~ acts such. <I,!; d.<LJ1ci.[I!.g" dr]nl~i]]lg~ a]]ld.~idiU]g in can. Stilt Amisb families don'[ become too coneemed; tbey .kn.ow the strong influence theyultimately exert over their offspring .. The same is true fm all families, [tis temptingto say that the peer group 0.1"

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On <I b iJS}' o(Dmmerci<ll~ stre:et inl B;;;JII1ilg;<illore, Ind la, ped'~stJrii:!ns dJresSied in trraditiolflJ::!l I garb :str!IJIl~ paSl!: a shop tlilidl bi~llbol[lm 03ldMerHsilfl\il We£tel1fll fas~io~s, :5odaliizatiOnl comes,from c!JI1:JUJra~ illl1lfiil!lill,m::e'S as W.~ml as from family OIndmfmds, IntDda,y's gIIobal[zed 'W[llidi, Western medlaf!.xposiIl' [;1iiI i ldren to CiLllUiJl'a I !{~ I Uf'S thOlU~eilr pa rents, ~ Il1!d oilier <ilutJho rilles may n at '~minace,

even, the media really raisechildren these days" especially when the spotlight fulls OIl.YOU11g people involved in ~hootiI1Lg sprees and. hate nII!1Je:s., Almost a1llava:itilb]e :research.ho,wever, shows that the role of Itfuefu[:n.i.~y in so clalizing a child. cannot be overestimated (Matthews 2007; W. Wil1:i;a[l],:s]998).

The lifelong Pl:{}ce.s,s of learning begins shortly after birth Si.nce newborns can tleaJf, see, smell, taste" and. weI heat, cnld, and psin, theyare mmtanlly orienting themselves to the sur-

.lI.:: .1',:1 H b " . "_1]1: fa'·1 1L

b:OUlJUlng. wurlU. Human . ·euJl.gs" ,e5pecI~U!J!.y •. , fin .yo:nen] eers,

constitute an importan t part of their social environment. People mirrister to. the ballly'li needs by feeding, d.ellfismg, Q31rrYlng, and mm£o.rtingtl:ie ba'by,

Cu,'fur;al l:n:fJu'!El,ru:;-,es; As both Charles Horton 'Coo.ley and George Herbert Mead. noted, the development of the self is a critical aspect of tbe eady years. of one's life, How cbildren develop this .sense of self can. wry from one societvto another, however, For example; most parents in the United States, do not. send six-year-clds to schoolllJ[J£lIlpe:rvised, Btllt that is tbe norm in Iapan, where parents push their children to connnute to school on. their own. fmm an ear ry age. In cities like Tokyo,fust~ graders must learn to negotiate buses, ~ulDways; and. long 'W<IIks, To ensure their safety; parents carefully lay out rules: never talk:

to steangerstcheck with iii statien attendant if you get (III at the Wliong stop; if youm.iss yOUT stop .'ll<l!f 0.[1. to the end of the line, then calli; take stairs, not escalatnrs; don't fa]] .. sleep .. Some parents equip the children wiili. cell phones or pagel"'>. One par:en t acknowledges that sheworries, "but after they ate 6, children are supposed to start being; independent &0]]11 the mother, If yon'n:~ still takingyour child tn school after the first month, everyone looks at you fun:my)' (Tolhe~rt 2.000:.17),

As we coasider tbe family's Ide in sccializatkm.we need tcrememloertbat children do not play a passive role .. The'}, are active agents, influencing and. al tering the fmlli.ties; schocls.arrd communities of which they are :0;1 part

J1u'~ Jmp~u=t ,of Racfii i51'.nd Gelld'e.r In the United States, social develepmentincludes exposmre to c ultural assumptions regarding, g;ender and race, !,]ack parents, for eJC<Inlpl:e. have learned that children as ),oung as :!IIge two canabsorb negative rllessages about Blacks. in children's books, toys, and television showa=-all of which are designed primarilyferWh ite consumers, At the same time, Black children are exposed more orten than nthers to the inner- city youth gang culruee. Because most macks, even those who are middle class, live neer veEy poor neighborhoods, children su.r:;:1] as Ch.aJ.Iisse (see the chapter-opening excerpt) are susceptible to' thes-e influences" despite their parents' stl~ongfamily vall lies (linn andPoussain t 19'99; PattilloMcCoy 19'99).

The term !gendll.'!r l!oh: refers to expectatiensregardingtbe jp'.mper behavice, attitudes, and aetivities olf males and fem ales. For example, we traditionally thinle of''''toughne.ss'' asmasculfne=-and desirable only inmen=-wlailewe view "tenderness" as feminine. Asw:e will see in Chapter l~. other cultures do not necessarily assign these qualities to each gender inthe way that om culture do~s. The existence of gender roles does not ]mp~.y that inevitaMy" males and females will assume certainmles, 110r does .it imply thatthose roles are quite distinct fmm one another. Rather, gendel! l[{)I'es emphasize the fact that males and, femalesare not genetieany precietennln'ed to occupy certaiurnles,

As tthe]:l'fin:tt.l!<lity agents of dlildh.oom . .'locia1:iza.tron, ]:l!9l.!,enb; phiy a critical role ill gmirnng childrenintn those ge[ldel~ roles deemed appropriate in a society; Oth:er a.dlli~ts. older siblings; the mass media, a:ndreligi:Olls andeducationakjastitutions also have a noticeable impact on a child's socialization into feminine and. [!)]8lScllll.ine nOrJ]]S:. A culture or subculture tI]ay requirethat one sex: or the ether take ~rimary["e.spomib.m1Iyfor the seeializatlon of chi]drellj eccnomic support ofil:hefa:m:i.ly, Of .religi.ou5 nrintellectual leadership, III ,~.ame sncieties, girls m-e socialized luai:rilyby t11elr mothers andlboys by their fathers-s-au arrangement that mayprevent girl:s from Ieaming critical survival skills .. In. South }\Sia, fathers teach their SOl1S to swim wO prepare them for a. life· as fiahermea; girls typic~n.r do not Jearn to swim, 'VV'h:e'Jl] a dea,dly tsimami hit the mast of Soufh Asia in 2{)04,lTIaJl1iymor-emen survived tlMIJ] womef.!.

lnteractionists remind lJ]S that socialization concerning not only maseulinity <lind femininity but also. marriege and. pa~.·enthoodbegins ill childhood. as <II. part 'Of familylife, Children observe their parents asthey expliess affection, deal with finances, quarrel. complain :about in-laws, and 50 fCllfl:h. Their lealmi.l1,g representsan informal: process (1£ anticipatary social:ization in which they devdo:p a tentative .model. of wluil:beingm.al~.rie<d1 and being <I. parent are like, (We will explore ~~oci.<l]izatiQn for marriage and paren thood more funy in Chapter ] 4. )

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IRalk:ef~r Avr,amovT'fL has !been !l'!iOrk~IIl~,ait. '~liie Child CaJre Law De!llter In' S,am Franl(li\sco s~nce 2003,. Tlhe ceRter uses ~ega i too~~o,~o~ter~he d~ve~QP~ ment of qllallity, a·!1ordablle en I~d em re, with Ute goa~ ah:!xpan.ding child care optrcHilS, partlcu!arly r'OIF low-income faimHie,s" A.se :!l'Ulpport rpemOl1l 'f6rthe oenter's, a!l:i!cHneys, Avram.o\i'nl1 manages gra nts, (j\ilBrneeS the ce!i'Ti~elr's publlica:tiolil~" a'nd ssts up confer,elllCJes 811ldi 'IDra~lfIlti'1gseS$h:lll'il'S. One of Mr most II'nIP0 rtal1ltt tasks has been to ,orgEln~e a worlkil'il:f~, group [hat brings tOgethU1!lf peeple from a II pam of t)he ciMld ,ealH~ ClQmmun ~~~ 'T)'va documellts tlhatl!::omeol,l[ o~ tlllTs forum Inform tlhe ,['),rg,aNlizat[or1J's WOf~ 'row tihe ye:ai r;" she e::<plallls".

AViI'aJmovilZ graduatedl [rom DJdj.;)]n~on Co.llege, ~1Il 20cm, She fi1S~ becam,e inter'~sted in ~oC!lo~oB.Y when she took a ~ocHal ailla~s~ course, ThougH she ,8nhoyed her qlJa~~!:lve pClUIFSes most. she! ['GlU1,d h!3iF qU8M~tive cOUlir:seS~l,Jr:l" "'~n tl1:s;t we gotm do :SUi!rve,ys. af peeple 'Dn cannlPus. I'Ve allw81f1l enjoyed neldWork;~he Inotes. AVimmovilis moot memoralblecouliSil! was, Of'il,~ that .gave liier~e ,o',p;POfWlllily to l11te{fJCI w~~h m~~r:arlt~allTll1W,Q{f'ke!lS~m Bill entires-em,eSWf, "I learned eli1llllogmplhy 8['iJd! IhC!1N to W('J:i1< W[rllh pl;'mple of d~ftlemnt. cll~l,IUrn.g, lit changed my ~il~e~ ~he say.s;.

Avramo.vitz findis 'Il'hat the sldilis shs le81fi1led ln !hew SOCil,nlog:i OQour:sElS ar,e EI: ~t llellP' to he~' on the lob."S'ar:io~,o,g)i taru'.~ht me 110w to WOltik


m.el1e did you learn the national antheml 'VVbo ti!llugh t yon about the berces of the Amezican Rev,olution? \'V'h.of])fWel'e you first tested cmyuur:knowledge of YOll1l! culturel Likethe family, schools have an. explicit mandate to socialize people in the United Statesespeda1]YGl1i.ldren-intn the norms and values of au I culture,

As cmlilrd theorists Samuel Bowles and. Herbert Ginti.s (1976.) have observed, . sehools in tJilis counrry foster competition threugh built -in sy5tems of reward and punishment, such <IS, grades and evaluations 'by teachers, Censeq uentJ.y, a c]]j]d"ivh.o is experiencing dLfficul:tytrying tn learn anew skin can SO[Jj]t"times come to feel stupid and unsuccessful. However, as the selfmatuzes, ebildrea become capable ofincr,e:asi:ngly realistic assessments of tbeirintellectual, ]physical. and 50Gi.d abilities.

Fu:nctionaJists point out that schools. as agents of socialization, fulfill the6u:nction. of teaching children. the values and custnms of tbelarger society. ('.L'!inBi.cl theorists agree" hut add that schools can reinforce the divisive aspects of !';ocrel:y. e;;pecially those of social class, For example; high,e:r ed ucation in the United States is c.os:tly despite the existence offinancial aid prog;r.;'llus,. Students from affluent backgrounds therefore have an <JI.dV<LlI]tHl.g~ lID g<liin.i.ng accessto universities audpmfessional training, At the same time, less affluen! young peopleml.ay never receive the preparation that would qualify thernfor the best - paying and mest prestigious jobs. The contrast between the functionalist and conflictveews of education will be discussedin more detailin Chapter 16.

1[11 other cultu.res aswell, schools serve socializatiee functinns, Until. tile overthrew of Saddam Hussein In 2Q03.the sixth -grade texfb Doh used in Iraqi schools concentrated almost entl:l:ely on them.ilitary and its values of .[0Y:<I]ty, honer, and sacrifice. Childreu were taught thattheir enemies were ban, the

wm, people, , , and how 00 'l!ll~mk ciiNcally. U t1Hlr1;tlht me iII,OliN to listen a,l'Id fiiruj tlhe slories t~att peop~eam ~elll!ngr she e:xp~aiIilS. Before ~oin,ing 'tlii!f1J Chil,di eme ILaw C'E!llieIF, A\lramo'!,l~tz worked <:IS a cOIUIIl:5!eMr 'lOw women w110 w~r,e· faclrng oRfIlimJU issues" "My [b..a,r:k:grOlJlrnd ill ,euhllliogra.plh'y help,ed me ,tQ tal~ 'totth,ese w.omen and Us~e{n effect:I'V'ely;' she noms. "':1 was Elble 11."0 Ihelp, tn!!lliny W1Q,melll by understalndTn:g; !!ind be.ililg,ab~e to '~xpmss tihe~r n.eMs tOItI~ attoWi"H~YS we worl-:Jeo w~tih."'

AvramO'IJiitz ls @'nttlJLJs;ia;s~c albOl:ll her work a,nd Mr ability ttl make ,8 d iffere{!'Ioein 1(].[nI811' people's liv.ri!S,. Maylbe th at rs. Wiltys:h1e looks; 'rolW,ardi t.o s[Umrm,eIF1lf~ th.e cen·tslrr when l:tJie :!l.t~ft welcomes severa II I,aw stUlOe.Ilt,S.ii9is u!1t!!rns. "~t is realily ne~t to see people~e:arn .6IflIod: get jazzed about child! care issU'e's~ shes.ays.


1, What m~gh:t be, same ,olf 'We broad!, 111ol'IIg-t'emJ effects of thi'B cenrets w,o,rkt4l expallCi ern I "ell ~are options? E:x]p,l,aln.

:;)" IB'r;!sidi,BS tiHl! Maw, \!ithilt olt! er 1P'f\Qres5~()rliS. m~gml b~nefitrlfoml)he skiills a soc~,o,l!o,g)i ma}or has to ,oner?

lint her ~:H[]tIiigan home I' a },Ol]ng gi~ LiIi511lar:f;5 R<I(l<Inll1ll!, S rnodleSl:iy dressed doll made ,esp.ed1!l~y fo!" MIl]slim Illhildren. Bet<llUSe gillis learn r1Il:milit tllremsehi'llcs and their sochJi! rl!D~es by playing with dolls, haVing iii dlol~ tha~ fl1!presl:!nts.1!hieir O~\ln ltle,rnagE!! is importallit to tllilem.

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g, Soc:iilllizerti;M ,find 1Ii!~ lLife ICi[] [l[sl':


What makes high seheol girls Jlopular?

Aceordl nrg to college men;

A.cccrdi~g to college women:

What makes high school bo,ys ,popullalf?

A.c:cnrding to college men:

Accord i ng te college women:

1.IPh,ysf:oal attra:ctNen!E!$S

N(,n~: S:tude.fiLOS al L!CWI! fo.n.{)~ ... ij]!l iLtrn.ill~[fN.~ie~ were asked in whkl:l w~y& <lJdo·I,~~.:ellJ't:!; .in thl~i:r hlgJ'II sehcolshad g~:ilil,~d 'P:l't"stlg,C' '\,~·ud,. their peers:

Conldl U[!i~~.trsity, L[mi;s:i~n~ 's'~iltc Undyenity, SQiU Lileilslerrn 1L,{ll:li:!ll8.l:l~.LJtl.i~ ... ~:r'!iity, Slate Un L~l:'.r~H:y of Ne'w Y0d: ;;11 AUiMQJY. S:t,at~ Uni.v,~r:i;[l}' nf New York et. Stony Bn:mk, Ui~j; ... e[lli'l:y oH;,t:rHlIl~~" and U[l.iVC'fll,ity '[l{N~w H~:l'l'llJslh:uk,

S(!o!jrre: SuHiflt et a], 2001 :411·5"

United States, Israe] audits supperters, and NATO, llie European mifitary alliance. Within months of the l'egim.e;s, faU, the curriculnm.had been rewritten to remove indectzinatiun on behalf of Hussein, his army; and his Baath Socialist .Party (Man 20(3)..

Peer Group

Ask B-year-o.lds who matters most in their lives and they are Iikelyto answer "friends," i\S a child grows 'old.er. the fam- 8:ly becomes somewhat less fmportant in social devdopI!].ent. Instead, peer gmupi!> increasingly assume the role of .~ad's significant others. VVirthin. the p eer gmilJp. ymmgpeople associate with. others who are alPpFoximat:ely theiz 0","'111 age. and .. wiho often enjoy <I similar social status (Gi!oro.<IJl(1o 2003}.

We C<L11 see how lmpoetam peer gmu.p,s <lIe to ytn.:mgpeople when their sociallives are strained byw:U" or disaster, In Baghdad" tthe overthrow of Saddarn Hussein has pmfolJIldly change-a teenagers' world, casting doubt on their future, Some )'Dung:people have lest relatives oe friends, otfu,errs have becomeinvolved with fundamentalist groufls or fled with their families to safer countries. Those YOlilths who are left behind can suffer intense loneliness and boredom .. Confinedtotheirhomes by crime andterrorism, those fartuTIarte ,enolllgm.iboha\l'f' coraputers tumtn Internet chat reems orimmerse ~he[J'K.,elves in their studies, Through e-mail, they strugg~e to maintain old friendships interrupted

by wartime dislc calion. (Si<I.uden 2(04).

Gende:r d:i:fferenoes!!.re .l1ot.e'!No:r1thy among adolescents, Boys and girls are

soc:iaLiz;ed by their parents, peel:s, and. the mediato ide:nttil}r many of the same paths to popularitj, but to dli:f~ fer·en.t degrees, Table 4-3 cmnparl!s male and female m.lleg,e students' reports of bow girlls andboys they knew became popular in high sehool, The two grolJlps named. n:I]<3!ny o:f the same' paths~Q popularity but gave them a ditferent order of importance,

\\!hi~e neither [nE[IJ nm\vomen named sexual

act:ivity~ drug use, or alcohol useas one of the top five p!3iths, col!1ege men were .much.mO])e~i.kdytllm:D. women to mention those hehavi01S as a means to becoming pO'lPulaI,. for botl,. boyssnd g~ds,

2 .. Grndes/~~tEmgerule

3. rHpU f:arity witihl gi rls

4. Generall s~].cialbjlity

3., GeReml oociability

4., PIlYs1iGai attra:(rti'J.!ll1!lfIes:5

5. Car

Mass Media and Technology

Inthe past flO y,ean,. me:dia.i.n:novatio1'l,s-ra.dlo,,9.notiOi.n. pictures, recorded IlClUS1c:, television," and the Iutemet- =have become important agents of socialization, Television, and i.l:l!crea.singly the Internet, are critical fo,r-ces inthe socializatinn of children in the Unlted States, OI!.e national slIl1"veyi:ndicates that 68 percent of U.S. children have a television in tbeirbedreom, and nearly half of all. 'youths age.\] 2 to IS use the Internet every day (Figure 4-2)..

These media, however, are not always iii .ne,gl'rtive socialiaing influence. 'J':'dev:i.sion progmms and even commercials can introduce young people to unfamiliar lifestyles and cu]tnres. Not only do children inthe United State's leamabout life 11] "faraway



].lotI!: .I!!~lied u~ ;Ii r.lEid(Jl1i1ll t,t:prc~Jt'.n.I,~ti~\!e- ~~.Ilipl~ of 2,,03 2pt:(lp~e ~,u:ri,l~}'l!:tIi l3~lwe~il. OC~DbtT. .2'003 art':l M~rd~ 2004,

S~HjJ't't, .Rl.,deout et. Oill. 2:00:5~7 .

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

g, Soc:iilllizerti;M ,find 1Ii!~ lLife ICiOtl[SI':

lands," but inner-city ,enihhenl!eaID. a.ltlout the lives of £n.m. childr-en],and vice versa. The same thing happens in. other countries,

Seciolegists and nther social scientists have begun to censider the impact of technolngy 01'1 socialization, They mepar6cularl.y intere-sted ill tl.l!e' online frieudship networks, like Facebook. Does this ''Val'' of ccrmmmlcating resemble fa . ce-to-faceirrteractinn, or d!Oes it represent a rsew fnrna of social interaction] Box. 4:-2 01'1 page 88, explores the significance of this social phenomenon,

Not just in industrial nations. but in. A&i.~a and ather developing <lreas,people :have been socialized intorelying onnew communica tions technologies. Not long ago. if Zadhe Iyo]]].be wanted totalkto his mother, he had to II!1!;aLke an eig;h.t-day trip from. the capital city of Kinshasa mp the COIII.go Rive-r by boatto therural town wherehewas bom. Now both he andhis mother


@ The McGraill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

'Thi:sgiirl:'s day dl(leSliii't 'elm!:! W~IE!!1Jii school lets out So mamJY t~N:!nl[!glE!:rs !lOW W(i,ra.; aftter saimoo,l, !rllie !O'o rkpl:ace has becoflillealliotih:er i mportanrl: a,gFlnt ofsoci.1l!izatinn for ~1iI::1 o~esl[]lE!nts.

have access to a cell phone, and [hey send text messages to each other daily;. Iyombe and. his mather are not atypical .. AJ!.t1:mug~.lI. cell phones

aren't cheap) 1.4: billion owner,~ in. developing COlIIJ:Dt:rie5 have come to consider them. a necessity, 'Ibday~ there are more cell phones In developing nations than. in industrial naticns=-the first time in .history that developing ]UltjOIIIS have outpaced the developed wodd .in the adoption of a telecommunications tedl.no1.ogy (1<.. SuUiVElu 20(6).


le:;u:rning to behave appropriatelyin an odC1!lpatim:q is a fundamental aspect ofhumau secialiaation .. In the United. Stalte:s, wml\::.ingfnll-time cnnfirms adult status; it indicates that nne has passed out of ad.a.iescenGe, I[!I a sense. socialization into-an occupation can represembcrh a harsh. reality {~1 have to, work in QIdey to buy food and pay the :r,ene'} and the realisation of am ambitien ("I've always wanted to be an airline pilot") (W~ Moere 1968:Sfi2.).

Itused to be that going towork beganwi th the end of mn formed. schooling, but that is no longerthe case]. atleastnot in the United States. MOI1e andmore young F eople wmk today, and not j"!"]S~ :6m~ aparent or relative, Adolescents getu;::~Uy seek jobs lID order to make spendingmouey; 80 percent ofbigh school seniors say that Tilde Of none of what they earn goes to fanlily expenses. Theseteens rarely tOlQk on their e~.nploy.nl!eul: as ameans of exploring vocational interests or g.eUing on- the- jobtraming,

SO!O.ne observers feel that the i:nCl:easi.ng number of teenagers whe are working earlier ill life and for ]D[lgecrh;Ql,lLf'sarefind~ ing the workplace almost as. important an. agent of sccialization <IS ~ s choolIn fact, a mrmher of edncators complain that student time art '!t\l'or k is adversdy affecting sdmolwmk. The level of teenage employment in the United States is the highest a.mong industrial countries, wh:id1. may provide one explanation for why US. high school studentslag behind those in other enunt ries on intemational achievemeettests,

Soci.a]iza.tioD1 in the workplace changes when it involves a more pennanent s.h:ifl from an. after-school job tcfull-tiete employment, Occupational sooali7:.ar.tti.Olt canbe rnest inrense dLUing the transition from school to job, hut it centirmes thrnugbout one's work

his~o:ry: Technologi.cal advances may ilter the requiJienlle.n.t~ 'Of the position and. necessitate some degree of resocialization, Toda.y" men andwnmen change oecapations, emphJyel1'i" 0][ places of work many times durtIlg their adlJ!1lt yens. Occnpational socialization. (jO:[Itinues,~hen. throughout a :per~on'.s yea:rs :in the labormarket,

Co]lege studen ts today recegnize that occupational sociali.zatio.n.is not secialization into nnelifetime occupation, They anticipate going. through a number of j o bs The BUIea!,.] of labor Statistics (2{106)h<ls found that from ages 18 to -1.0],ili.e WlP'ical pe~r:so]]. helds II different jobs. This high rate of turnover in. employment applies to both rnenand wnmen, land to these with a college degree as well <IS those with a higl] schoel diploma.

Rei igio n and the State

[ncr,easIngl),; social scientisrsare .remg.n:izung the impertanee of both government ('~the state") ancil!eligion as agents of socialization .• because oftheir impact on the life mUIse, Traditinnally; familymembers have served as the primary caregivers in our culture, but In. the 20th century, the fa:mi~.rs prnteetive functionwas steadily transferred to outside agencies such <11$ ItlOspi.ta]:s"n:nental health clinics. and. child care centers. Many of these agencies are run by tl~.'e state or by groups affiliated.wifh certainreligiems,

Both govemment and organized Deiigi(lID.ha.ve impacted tbelife course Ill!" reinstituting some of the .ri~es of ]xlssa,g,e once observed. in :agdc:u1tmoil. cemmunities and ea:dy industrial societies, .For example, religiollim~gani:nti.ons stipulate ce.rU.I:I.CJ. traditional rites that :ralay bringtogether allthe members of an extended fam.ii1Y. even if they never meet for any other reason, And governenent .reguJations stipulate the ages, at which a pel:''>O]] may drive a car. drink alcohol, vote in elections, marry wi1ihou.t parental perrnissinn, work overtime, and! retire. These regulatiens do not constitote strict rites of passage: most 1 S-year-,oldls choosenot to vote. and. most peoplechoose their age uf'retirement without reference togovemment dict!!t,es.

In. the .sodal 'Policy section at the end. of this chapter, we will seetbat gov'e:rnment is under pressure 1:.0 become a provider


g, Soc:iilllizerti;M ,find 1Ii!~ lLife ICiOtl[SI':


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~z Online Socializ'n~: A New

ant of ~octallz.at on

sel'f-~njiuPi (see ~he npeninlg Of Ch.a.pllllor 2), ssting disorders." and I[).'~'hef so~ialllll' dllsappmved bei'la,violi'S.

OrllHne, lnerworks~s,pBcially those th,at ilndFcetite how man.y "'mends" ,an um:ii'rlidlJall has-cen aiso be seen ~ir1 terms, of soetal cap~t8L :In. fact, "'M,ell1dlnf Is OtlH3, if not !:.he, mall'llSlcrlvilty 01'1 some o.niine sites. Often :tile nUimlbeli' of 'frieru:ls a: perso.l'1l :soc;ia,~Hzes with becomes the subject of bOaJstln:g. By e-ld:'~ll1sloli1, il'il,d,ruldluals may ruse 'th@oSt! g~tesm ssarch 'for "fMiI8:nds"who ma,y plrove h ~ I pflJll '~Q ~1'rI1E!lm in futL!l r,e efldealvnrs. Becom~ ng aware of new OIPportunil;ies, eUtl,elr $Ilc:~a'~ cr eeonomic, ~h:roLlghFrielril,d!Sls a signJ1il!l:~m nt I) Bll1efit of social capital.

Researchem ha1Je looked at tlle Irela'UOl1:shJp belw~,en th~ d~s:play ofrl'iE!n,dis Qll'illin,e and :~he numlbelF of real"1Nor~d frlends IP eop~,e sociallm w~~h ,. a nod: tla:ve proposed two com pe,tl rig ~'ypothsses, Jlu:;cornijllg m the :social enhancement hypothesis (~the ruch get rfr:herr")., thooe who aM popt.i~alr 0111 i n,efOi'ther ~r!cre,a:SJe tiheir pOPlJIlMty throLJg~ onlille n~l:'!No.rldng simes, Jlu::CO'i'l:i~lng, to tM soc:ifill ,eODTIIP emlam:Eon hypothesiS nhe poor g11!,[ richer"}, Itmwever, socia!l ril,etwoli< users, 'try to Iincrease tiheir popu~!3ir~ty online to eornpassa·[,~. f,o:r ~i"ladequ~r~ POIP,ullarlt,y !o'l'fl~ne.lh,€! socia~ comperns.atlolrl hypothesiS, if,()orre;r;t, W'OiUlld baan E!Xa.mIP,le of impreoollQ.ll management. Researeh to date Sl!Jpp0rts @1,em!:l!I'iI'~. of bo'~h hypotheses; n.eT'~'her ihylP o'@1esis fu ny defii'iHastthe parlic~pants ~r! ,online nerworkifl1it sites.

.A I'iI€W meens of social Inetw'Oi'killgJ fwiiiter:, @merge,[j recenl:JI~, III way of lira eking people online., ll'wltter alll,ows memlJ·el~ 'to re.cewe Velflj bwlef ~l'IIstal1t m,essagesrmfll'lrrien.ds aild acqlUiaUlflialnCes, \'.I\ho may s~gnal the~r wlhe~(!!~ aMuts 01" r,emark 0111 wMtl:tley are doing (I~ see-

Ing. This~Qorm Qf neitrWmk:ing ls even mors p8.ss~etl1laJl1U1.!'3: orrigjna.~ socna~ netwa,Flkin,g; sit~:S, Once- a member .filgl'e,es to ,fJCCtS'Plt a tweerJrom someom,s, !:heal,ern:; kee'p ,coming.,

'\J~ewedr1FOm a SOC'ieta ~ persp ective,socia~iiZill1g onUII1E! can Mve both pos~t1ve alne ne.ga:tlVe 'functions, For m,embemQf some 1TI~lrgjml,~nzed populatiol1s, ~t Is a way t:o sm::~,fill- 12'(2 w~tl1 Ilike-m~nded peoplle. For leX8imlPl~,. MuslGms In G:reat Brutain oon,ne,~[ wnU'i, 'rli'iemls on,~ine to leam him"I'~Qo 1"I.E!lfftglile t!hlMllJg~a soc:lety~n wh ich thieY~Qorm a d Istl I':iICr m in m~w. !For other peopll'E!l, such as mem-

bel'S O'f 'We NalilS ~n, G~rmalny ,!:l,nd ttn,e Mafj8J In. Ifta.~y,Cln.llifle lnet'.'llOml ng 1:5 a W8;Y to pmciLa I m aillegiance:w sQcialiv olb~Iiil(;tlOt:iabh~ O~nil:8itiOns.

Govemmem.s fm·wn. on suclh onlill1e

older. As a result, onl~ne g,ociall~zli'llg Us Mcom~i'IIg I'I"ilJlIOh, I,es:!l ilige"~iP~cllii,(}-1'I"i Of@; 11~l!socia~~Zil rng in ttl e rea~ worild. lMor,eo~elF,this n.ew alg'e!1.t of so(;~alliza!iotll can COl1tinue tu Tn:fIUlIE!iflOO people dHClU,~hoilJt the I~~f! course.

Th.ougJ'l tI'Iese' fllM:works oHer at.tm,ctil/e QiPportulnl1Jles for peoplle to $Qcla~i2e wmllClth~ ers, tMy a~M raise COilClelFrns abollJt pruvillcy ,find sec mil)': Unllike 'Face4'04ace .socialimtion,. in Wth~ch peDp~e. l1I,esltate to discllose pemonal in~orma~oln to srtm,D1gers. onnrn,e InteractiOn tern,dis: to be mom open. Looking at pe:opf,els online profiles, W'e can see an amaiZUri;g ,amol,lnt oJ pel'S'o,tlI,al informatij.mil~miUc:h more tlhaln :~he typ~carl mga.n~!!at~on win diIScl,os.e about members .. For example, academic i'nS!itlil'ljOl1S, wh~ch are ~o'IJermled by th,@ IFamu~ Edlucflit!on Ri~hts :!Ind Privi\l,cyAct (FIRM) of 1914, willi disc~ose onlyth,e barest Qf d,etaills albout s,tudents. lin conl:mst. mHII ons Qifh Igll scl1loo,1 .fill"ld c:o~II,eW! studen:1;s. reveal Stiglliifica'I1[. amoums af p'@fsonal

dhJ~'! thai lU,{,uHI bou: mWil) "[ricuil» rW wdj~, i dua] Ii tt» -{ f!H {II ~o JJ~ .'t ttl ~fI It nn ~ 1'/ ~'Ol wi (u;,iiflf.

Membei'Ship Ifl! tl'ie oniline Mei,al In~M1)rks Facebook, Fri'8I11Ci1steIF,81I11.di 1M}'"SpaC!8. has grown expmnerrt~a ny Dn recent ye:@i'S" .Ili;tl'irst, YQ,IJ ng adrLJllts monopolized Vhese socii311 Il1etwolrKs. IIFId,eed, Fa,ceoook was cr,eat;e:d In, .2004 as I3i w·ay for students am iii 51 ngle c:ampu:sto b'ecome acqu1illn~ed wl.th one alno~her !before i1lIclllJa~~y meeting. No:w th'!3:re are wei ~ over it. 50 m umon protflies: online, mOI'Bttul A 70 percen:r of 'ttl,em rr,om outside [he' IUMed States. Soc:iolo~ists 0lIr@ il'il~erested ln UiI,ese new social ll~t\i\iOrns not because of the soplhils:tlICfiI'tedr,ech tlIol,Qgy ti1a:l.suppo,rrs them, Ibut because cd th@lr social sign r~ca nee, Much lilke fSlce~W-'r:aoo @t:i,r:ounte:rs wiU, schoo~nna'~es, ow 're~~ow w,orkl~lrs.,

onlili1e so G~a I ei'ilco Yi nters ser\!l@ as FIG U R E .A

an a:![erllt of secla I.nza,tl en, They iillnecr both II1I,e deve~opmern ot the self and 'tI1e ~deI1lMficatJ1oll1 of :sIgnificant otl1ers, 'esiPecial~y amiQ.l"Ig YOllJ~11S, for whom ,o,.IiII~n.e' social !iI,etV!rorrlKs ,sIre a pM~cl.llal~~ domina,n:t 8ige<n:t of sOC'ia11Iza1jQlI1,

E'I.i\E!f1I ~111 the br~e'~ history of

online 1iI,~two,rkung, soClJ,ol,ogists can ~ee $o{:ial tremISl,. For ~mph~, oldelF IP·eDp~e are now Ir:r,ea~lng Ipro'" files on these Sites. As Figure A show'Sr tihernis Sltlllll a C~@i!l1r corre~ation. b,~tween 8ige alnd oD1~il1e plMfile:s~ YOilJin~e~ people ar,('! much, mQ,r,~ like~y than o~der peoplle 'to be

onillne" H(I~r, Uhefa..S'reSl:~,grow~llg 8i@'!!gt'Oups are tlI,owth1,0SoE! over 30, jtH::lud~l1g thoOse who alre much.

in~orma~on ol]llne .. As IF~gure B s!hows, many jf not most students state their relationships;ta~ tIJS, om::illjj:81tloFl, ~nt@mslS (often term ed "passlons"), 81ml s.exu,811 m~er;rta'~lot1J ~ntheur Ofll~lle pmme's-alll ,of w!1~chare COflis~demd plFiivileged in~orma~on under FERPA. Studen~s mav also aJdm~t. to drinking, d:rUlg use, SMlJall promlscu;uty,










NrJi!l!~ D~til C(J·UrttJ:d i:i~ May .2(1011 a:[ltll~n:lltJ:d IJ~ nod uJI: :P<ll'I:icup·iI.t1hi 1,t.\c~u,Se of ttltk!!l.l .l;luMot'.Hru:s, gtiNe.-.utull.g ~1:Jj~I!.q re,~e~rd'l ..

SOuIT.e:Lenh",rrt .J ()09,.I."


I Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb I g, Soc:iilllizerti;Mi'lnd 1Ii!~

Edi~iml lLife ICiOtl[SI':

I i1rext




I @ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

Qlrgall1~Zl1l1g, seeing it as d:ysfunctiional, am] periodli!l::all!y nnor:Jilo,rltlese si~es t:Qse,e W~t3;1:iher 81fllj Ilaws !have bee,n violated.


Nlam,€! I======================::f.

AC<I,dl!!!mic classlfieation 1---------------------- ...... ].

GI!!!Tld~r I ~_J

1. I!)o ~you 1i1S't. YO'Lw"Mends" on ail anlilne sociaJl n,etw'O!I'I(Jing s~te? If se, \il\hat is your motiv,ii'I~ t~an for d'o.~ng so? !How millJch SOc:Eflllr:a.piMI do you 't!h~lnlo:. ¥oL:lr list mpmseflts?

2. Whic!h of tn,ri! dlFalwibads O'f olnlliilne sociall ti1,etwomll"!l~hP rlvacy ls psss, e:id:rem~:st ,Q,rg·a,l1Ilzi ng-concerns ~Qou more.f Do you ijhitnlk~heact"anta,ge;s of on Urle socia,l ne'~~ wmk,in,g outweigh t!he disflidvanwges?

~"'millil ]


i"riend n~tworl!;: I--------------------__..]

picture I



Birthday 1 1,1

Hom(!townt5ta~.1!! 1 111

IfH9Ih SC'bODI 1 1

RI!,la,t.io.I!!!01I i,p .51:.011: us """"------------------------------------11

11 cld rl!!_~§ fnf·C!rm ittio'n 1 ..... 1

Il1tllllrl!s'l:s I-...~----------------..J

Po'lili!l:~I, VlllWS 1 ..... 1

Clilb.!iilnd]obs 1-... 1

COlJr5~ .!!ichedUille I----------------IIJ


10' 20 30 41D .5(1 M A.bo·ut me 1- _


1------------- .....

S,oUJrces: [lolilladTIl 2[1.09; N, Ellli:SD:rJ~1 BL 2007; F'alc~b[)[)k 21)(19; G~il1tile :2009; HUl'lil:ll:e.~ allld RliIllllirez 2.008:; Lenhart 2009: Zywi~;fI amil [)1!,nows,ki 200~L





Nate:; Ba8e,J of! 8. rev it'I'f i;l f.2 (!lO om ~illlt:pmft~t"'pL]!it!t:cl b.y ,r:nU;:ge 1lt!ld,ItIiJh Ur.i.Fa.:eho~k. .. ~1rI [Otmiilliolil [)tlIl'iric;:nloei IiJerwor,b, miljo~~, hUj:ir!.~'IQII",n~r;H.1[~~, iliid ,d1,!h~ <In.d, j:o'bil- c""'ii.S dt,llwn. frur!i~i:i!1(lrt th~_i!l[HiC :pj}~i:bl~ n~l4, S{)~[j'~·t!; .A,dnp,~.ed .fr!fllti. Sti.1lZIi!1Ui:! 2(10i: !Pi,gi:lft! L


of child care.whichweuld give .it a new and. direct mh~ in the socialization of infants and young children,

use you r soc ia logica I lmag.inat,fo.i1

You am Muslim (or another r€!'lligioll1l tthat is diierent from yom own),Hlow does yQlI,:IIT 8elf~conCE!pt dlifef frnrn UII~ one YOILII d!welopedl as a chiilld?

Soc.ialization throUlgholit th,e Life Course

The Life Course

Amongtl1 .. e Kota people of the Congo 1:[11. Africa, adlQ]E1'ic:e:n1ts paintthemselves blue, Mex.ican American girls. go on a dily]ong religious retreat before dancing the n.rght away: Egyptian mothers step .over theirnewbommfants seventimes, and. students at the Naval Academy t11m,w their bats in the air, These are <I]] ways

of celebrating rites ef :P1i1SS<1:.ge, a means of dramatizing and validating changes in aperson's status. Rites of passa,ge can mark <II. separation, as in a gnuill1aJtrcm c:el~,eTIl!(:my~ or an incorpnretirm, as in aniniriatinn into an organization (Gennep [1909]:n 960).

Rites of passage al~ aWQi.ri.dw.ide social phenemenon, The Kota rite marks the passage to adulthood. The colorblue, view~d as the color of death, symbolizes the death of childhood. Hispanic gjrls celebrate T1:'ilCh]:[lg womanhocd with <I. quit:l:cf,ll7n.em ae[elTmuy at age 1 :5 ... Inthe 'Cuban. AmeF]C3nCOmnlunity ofMiam.i, tbepopulaeity of the IqJ,linc~m1~m supports <I network of pnty p'Jann.eli's~ eaterers, dress designers, and the Miss Quin!Ceilli.er.a Latina pageant •. F\or thousands of years. Egyptian. mothers have wekomed their newborns tn the world in the Soboa uer'f:mcmy by st,epping over the seven-day-old infant seven times, And Naval Academy seniors celebrate their gmdlllationfi1uII] l!.JoUege by h.·m1ing their bats skywa.rd~

These specific ceremonies mark:. 5tage.'ii of developmerrt in file life course. I'h.ey indicate that the pWGess of soclal]zatiml eentin ues 1througb an stages of the life cycle,. In fad, some researchen have chosen to concentrate on socialization as a 1ifelong pm.ces..s. Sod.o1ogists and otber social scientistswho take such <II. Ufc· (:omrsc: <illPPr.ooill.dh.look dosdy at the sncial factors that inliluence people th.rouglh.ou.t their lives], from birthtn death.jncluding gender and. income. They lremgnize that bioJlOlgicaJ change's mold but do not dictate !hllLllUl]]heh.~v.i.or.

g, Soc:iilllizerti;M ,find 1Ii,~ lLife ICiOtl[SI':


@ The McGraill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1


Several life events marl the passage to adulthood. Of mUIse, these turning points V'U~r from nne Slociel:y and even one gener:.. ation to the next, Aco:n:fiing to a national ;~mrl{,ey done in 2002:" in: the United Sta:l:oeslti1.ek!ey event seen]:'> to he tbeco:n:JlI:pletion of fonill.al s!Chooli.~.1!g (Table 4,-4), On average, Ame!;C<ll1sexped~his mi1e..stonel:o occm bra person's 23rd birthday. Other major events in the life course; such as ~.et[ing married .or becoming: a parent" are expected to fClllow three orfour years later, Interestingly, COI'llpClr<lti.vdy~w survey responden tsiden tified.marriage andparentflOOG. asimportant.milestones (S .. Pu:rstenlberg et at 20(4).

Oneres;l,lliJ.t of these stagger.ed. steps toindependenceis thatin the United. States, unlike some other societies, thereis rIO clear dividing line Ibetwrel]ado]es,cence and adultb.oQd:. NowadEl.YSj.rew young people fi:nish schoel, getrmarr:ied, and. leave home <It about tthe same age, dead}' establishing their transition to adulthood. The terms rm~th1wmj and! 81'Hergi 11,g (;!d~dt}im)d have been coined. to describethe pl'O,.I!Onged. amlbig;Il1ous status that young people in. their .20s experienee (Cote .2000; Christian Smith 2(07) ..

We encounter some of the mnst rufficmltt socialization challenges (and. rites of passage) in the later years of lite. Assessing nne's accomplishments, coping 'With d.ec.lining physical abilities, experiencing retirement, and facing the in.evitability (If death nmy read ito painful .. adijustme[lt"l .. OM. age isfurther [o.m.pliclI.tedi by tm.,e[!l.egatilve way that many societies. includingthe United. States, view and treat the elderly, The cemmon stereotypes of the elderly as helpless and dependent may wciJ: weaken an. olderperson's self-image. Hewever, many older people continneta Iead active.productive, fulfilled lives,whl!f;~1fue:r in. the paid labor fQnoe or as retirees.

A. yot.lI1g ~;:IiI::he' woman ulildlel;goffiS a mu:d(:lillg [;eremmll~ tr;a,diiijoHi;llIy tired 111m rites Df pOIS5illgEl S!LIl(:hI as. Pi!lI berty sndin S4'l me eases \'IIEiddings.

6m~ dleath, Two types of socialization OC;CU:f ;311: many peiats thraughout the life cnursec anricipatnry socializaticn and resocialization,

.A1:iIH.dl'l!If~o:nty sociiliuzattiun refers topmcesses of secializatfon in which a: person rehearses £mful:ure positions, occupations, and soda] relationships, A culture can functienmere effi.cie:r.ndy and smood[ly if members became acquainted with the .TlOll.l11S; values. and behavior associated. with <L social position before actwtlly assuming that statns, Preparation for manyaspects 'Of adult life begins with anticipatory socialization dur.L[I.g childI"load and adolescence, aud oantinues.tbreughout OlJlJ lives <IS we prepare for new responsfbilities,

Anticipatory Socialization and R,esodalizatinn

Tbe development ofa social. Slelf isl.irtel;aUy a ]ifd.ong. b;a:llIsforIlnation. that begins In the crib and eontinnesas oneprepare'5


Percentage of People Who Vraw Everl't as ExtremelyJQUJite Important



Life Event

Expected Age

IFinl;;! Ilensll ind epeim:!lerliDekom pa renm/ g)J amua 115


:n.2 22.3 24,.6 25~7 26.2

Gapa b il ity (jof 6'1J1pportin,g <II fa IliI i:ly MOIrr~a\ge


8:2.3 ~3.2

f:,h}~'e~ B8c~etl Oil. the .~ 002 Ge-n,ittilJ S,wcl~.~ SIj.t~'eV of :~ .,~9$ ·p~(lt'~eS(l'!j I"t'j!': T" Sn:dth 2J[J tXt

Thirnk. about lit

wU1y d.id 80 feW respondents ,cilJlFI!Sici.e'!r m8trriage and pIB1F@.ntJhiDod. to be import:fl.!1It m,llesloJM!lS,'? Whioh miles:tDnes do you ti1lflnk are most important?'

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


g, Soc:iilllizerti;M ,find 1Ii!~ lLife ICiOtl[SI':

IPrisoWlB are lJIE!rIters of reSIOcia I ilaltion, where people are placed unel er jllFessure tod i:!:icard o I lEI beharuiQr patterns and accept ne\~ [i'liilieS, These p'risoneJs are I'eamilnlg, to use vl.eilgh,j:s ill release Ul nsiOll1 an d exerttJiM:liirr sn n€!th-a sm:iCEdiy a:o()eptahle rnsthed of hi1llildiing alltiso c-iall imp UI5'e5,

YOou can see the process OhJlti!cipal!OlfY social:izatlon take place when high :$c:1:1001 students start to considerwhat colleges they may attend. Traditionally, this task mean t looking atpubhcatians tecei.ved. lID the mail or makingcampus visits" Hewever; wrtth new tecbn.ology> IJL'lOre and more students are [I. sing the Web to begin their college experience. Colleges are investingmere time and Inoney in developing attractive Web sites th:D1DUgh. which students can 'lake virtual camprn tours and hear audio dips of everything frorn the (iol~.ege' anthem to a sample zoology lecture,

O.:x:a::;]onilllly:, CIISSUII.1Iin,g a .new sodal or ocrn.patim:m]positlon requires us tor,miearw <In established 'Orientation .. iR.esooalihi!J.nan refers 1:0 the pI"OGess of discan:IiIlg :ID:r.I.:11er behavior pattems and <II,c-c.e:pttmg new ones as jpiSi.lt of C1llllians.1.Don in one's li.te'. o.neinresocializatien occurs during an explicit effor:t to transform an individual, as happens in I(:£Oi.rm s.chooir;,i:herapy-gmup.s"prisom.> Idigious (]Q[lIversron se;Ring~, aIldll)o~rtical .i:ndoGtrimE!.tron camps,. The pmGe,&s of resoeialiaarion ttypi,caIlyinvolves considerable stress for the indiv:iduaJ.-nll1cfu more so than secialisation .lin general, or even anticipstory socialization (GeaLS 2004).

Child C,are around the Wor~d

@ The McGraill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

Resocialization is particularly effec tive when. i.tt OCClilU within a. total institution, Erving Goffman (] 961 ) coined the term tlJtal .ulIsthulion. to refer to an institutionfhat r-egulates all aspects efa person's life under O! single authority]. such asa prison.jhe military]. a mental hospital, er a convent, Because thetotal institution. is generally cut off f]j1m:n the rest of society, it prnvides for au' the needs of its members. Quite lite:rally~ the crew of a. merchant vessel at sea beeomes part ef a total! institution, So elaborate are its requirements. :50 all-enccmpassing its a ctivlitt:i!!;s, a total institution often represents 031. miniature society,

Go.:ffi'Il;<ln ( 1961) identified fourcommon traits 'of total institutinns;

• All aspects of life <lire condnctedin the same place under the control of a single au.tfu.m:ity.

'. A[J!.f activities within the institution are conducted in file c.ornpany of others in the same cl.n;:m:nstaIl:ce::k ....... :for esample, am1Y recruits o:r novices in a. CQio]'Vent.

'. The aurhorities devise rules and. schedule activities wifhout mnsult:ing~he particip;aJ]lb.

~ AU aspects of~ife within ill total institution are designed to fulfillthe purpose of the organization. Thns, all activities in <I monastery might be centered on prayer and. eoeununion with God, (Davies 19'89;, P. Rose et al, 1979}

People often lose their individuality within total instituti F ~ ~.. ,. . nons .. '0[' eXa1C1Jlp~.e" a.per:so.n e:[lcerlng pns:Q]] may expenence

the humiliatian nf ;3 deg:ri!i!d.aHo.1Il ,oell'ettl1lo.ny ashe or she is stripped of clothing, jeweh'Y; and other personalpossessions, From this point 0111, scheduled daily routines @iUOW for little or 1:110 persnnal initiative, The individual becomes secondary and rather invisible in. the overbearing social environment ( Garhnl<elISI56) .


The Issue

The rise in:!. s;i.ng]e-pa:r,entf.uni]i:es" increased job cppertunities fur WOme,[I, and. the need for additional family income have <Ill. propelled anincreasing rmmher of mot hers of YOlUlg, children. into the paid labor force nf the United States .. 'vV1),O takes care of fh:e' chi]d:r:en ef these wnmen during work hOiurs?

Preschoolers Itypi.rnUy ar-e . not cared for by their parent s, Seventy-three percent of employed mutherxdepend on. others to care for their cbil.d:t:en, and ]0 percent ofmothers 'who CIIJe:dt. employed have reguler care arrangements .. 1.1'1 fad. children underage five are more Hlkeny to be cared for on <I dlilily basis by

In Israel, Ai.sheh and Blizamn a nu.rsery for 2:9 Israeli and Palestinian chiklren, a.ge.s fourte S]X, Aisheh, who is 'a~estinia.n~ SJP eaks .. to the cbikl.lJen in Ara]b,ge, Eliza, who is Jewish; speaks to them. in Hebrew; The result: a bilingual, binatienal classroom that supports both Arab and. [ewish culture-a fit .... "E tQr Israel.

This unusual educational setting underscores the importance of early childbood secializetion outside the heme, Chi]d care pmg;ra.ms are .not just babysittmg services; they have an enormons influence nn the develnpUlent of young; d1ildr.en-an influeeee that hasbeen growing with: the movement of more and morewomen into the paid.Iahcr force,

g, Soc:iilllizerti;M ,find 1Ii!~ lLife ICiOtl[SI':


@ The McGraill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

their gFand:pil:rents than by their parents. Over :a third of them me cared for by nonrelatives in [I]!l[sery schools, Head. Start [plogranl.l'l, day!care centers,tul1lliy day care, and other arrangenrents (Bureau of the Census 20Ugc).

Pewpeople in the United. States Dig' elsewhere can afford the 1l!lXlI1ry of h.av:ing OJ, parent stay atheme, or of paying for l1ig,h.- quality live-ill child. care. For nlllli,Qi.llS of mothers and fathers" findmg: the right kind. of child care is a challenge both to parentingand to thepm:ketbook.

Researchers bave foundd:a.at hi.gh-qualiity 'ciIild care centers do not adversely affect the socialization of cbildren; in fact, goad. dEly care benefits cbildren, The value of preschon] prograras was d.o cumented in a series of studies conducted In the United States. Researchers found! no signifi.cant differences ininfants who had received. extenslwn.Qnmate!·.n<ll care compared with those who had been cared for .solely by their mothers, They also reported that mere and. more infants ill the United. States <Ire being placed in. dlild care outside the home, and that overall, the qum.ty of these arrangements is better thaehasbeen found inprevious studies. II: is difficult, howevento generalize about child care, since there is 5·0' much va.riab.ility among daly care providers, and. even among govemmentpolicies 6.'\0.[11 one state to another (Loeb et al, 2004; Ludwig and. Sawhill 2007;. NICHD 200n,

At present> the federal government supports child care tilrol[]gh subsidizedprograms, whidl tm'get ]ow-in(:ome fiUllilies, and income tax credits which benefit families with more moderate Jncomes, The ammal expenditure to assist lowincome parents is about $12 bilfion; the expenditure to .supportmere affluent parentsis $58 billion [Cushing-Daniels and. Zect]ewski 20(8).

Clmildl"eln p.lay !lIt the CcmmlUlllLCal"e dli:'l,~ care center iln Pelrtim, Au:straliiOl, The AIJ31:ri!li!llim govermnefllt silllbsi'dize'$ dli~dffi!lli'S atl)E!J!ildalnce at dalY care <;ilnlJi a~r"S(lhmll programs from biirID'h to ag;et2.

Typically, food servers,me.'lsengen. and g:<lfS station attenda:ntsmake more :rnOB]'ey than the 1.2 million childlca:re workers in the United States, who avera~ge $9.05 pet hour. Not .surprisingly, turnover <IIITlOng employees. in child care centers runs at a.ocm.t 30 percent Fer ye~:r (Bueeau of the Census .:U)OiSa:'Ia.ble 596; Clawson and. 'Geystd 2002;, NACGRM 2008).

Po.1 ilcy ~ nitiatlves

Policies reg,arding child. care outside the horne vmy Hrroughmi.t tbewerld •. As figure 4-;3 shows, the (:OS[ of child care as a: proportion of one's income can vary drn:rnatiGIUy, but <It least it i;s available in industrial nations, Most developing naticns do not have the economic baseto pn:nride subsidized child care. Thus, wmking mothers re1y1~:rgely on relatives or taketheir children ito work. 1.11 die oompa:rattivd:y wea[1thyindlllS.tFi~]jZied countries ofWesteI'nl Enrepe, governmem provides child care <1$ abasic service, at liltl!e or no expensete parents. But even those uQ1.l:rttries.with tax-suOsidiZierlprograms;oocEI$io.nal!lyfall short of the need for high~qUJality child care.

ViJ'herl.]po[]cyn.lalers decide that child care is desirable, they must determine the deg["rEe to which taxpayers should subsidize it. In Sweden. and Denmark, one-half to two-thirds of preschonlers were in govemment-subsidized dliM cari;: full-time ill lNJ03. In the United States.where government subsidies are very limited> the total cost of child care can ,easily run between $9,]00 and $B,2nOper family pe:ryear (Immervoll and. Barber 20051; NAGCRM 2007:2h

We have a lung war to go in n],a'king high-quelity ehjld care more affordable and. accessible, not just in. the United State8 but throughout the wm[d. [n an attemptto reduce government

Sociological lnslghts

Studies that assess the ql,]03ility of child care outside the horne reflect the micra level of ;i;lHalys]s and the interest of interactionists in the impact of face-to-face interaetien .. These studies also explore mscm-level Implicatiens for the functiening of social institutions l:ike the fi!1l.l'TIily •. But some of theissues surrounding day care-have also been of interest to those who take the conflict perspective.

[11 !the United States, high-quality day careis not equally available to all families •. Paeents in wealthy eommunities have an easier time finding ,etay care dUD] these in POO'F or wor.ki]].gclass comnsunities, Fi.nclil"lgaffordabJe: child care is also a probtell], Viewed. from a conflict perspective, child care costs ar:r-e an especially serious burden for Iower-class families, The poorest families spend 2:; percent oftheir inceme for preschool child. care, whil.e faIliliHes who are not poor~:my only 6 peroem O'F less of their income .

. Feminist theorists f:{;1i:H) the concern of conflict theorists 1thathigh-qUlaIity child care receiees little government Slllpport because i.t ia regarded as "meJely <.I. wayto let WOI!l'le'U work!} Nearly all child care workers (95 percent) are women; [u'IalITY' find tbemselees dn ]!ow-statll!S. ]]'IIinlmlu:J]~w;a)ge jobs.


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

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n II reunlfication has reduced. the options previousIy opento East. German mothers, who had become accustomedto :gmrernment -su pported child. care. Experts in. child development V.i!EW such reports as iii. vivid reminder of the need fur greater government and. private-sector support £0[" child care (Hank 200] ~ L. King rr 998)t.

Let:'s, Discuss

L. ,.ve:r'e you ever ill a day eareprog:rnm? Do you. recall the experience as good or bad?h.1l general., do ),0111. think it is desaable to e"Xpose yOllIngcl~ild:[en to the sociafizing in fluence of day GOlfe?

2. 1[11. the view of uo:nt1iCl theorists" child care receives little government support because it is "n'lerely a way to let women work;" Can youthink of otthe:r eaplanationsi


S~JJ.!rut Da!l! coUec,teti by ttll!::: O[.W:l1~~9 ti~lu. for .E Cr) Mi:!l.LC C [l-r.J:pe'.ri~l:ion 8.u.d 1Dt:\r·d0ll'mC'1'l t. (0 tEeD) ill .:l!CH:b2 arB] re pO['i.e~.in Im me['~)}11 mu:!l . .&at:b~e 2005"

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N~w Z@<a,l:alllJ(!

spending, France is consideril.lIg cutfing back the budget.s of subsidized nurseries, eventhough w.a.iting lists exist and. the Frenchpublic heartily disapproves of cutbacks. In. <Germany.

3,. Sholl;ll]d the costs of day care pmg:rCl.ms he paid by government, by the private sector, or entirely by parent.~?

getti nginlvlolved

To get i:l1VOilV€dI in the debate over d,ary Gi:lIr€, visitthi:s book's Onll~ne .~eaming Ce~l1llter, ll'lIh,k:'h 'Offers Ilillllks to re'I,EMant weh sites,

WWW. m h he .com/sch aefe r12 e



Soda~~Zl'ItiQlt is. the 'PFore.~i; dttou,~h\ ... ~]c!h. p~opl.e ~.~nt[l the crl'tti:ttl:nde.s., V1ilue's~ a.lid. adioDs ;Ipp'!!'Opr~1l~,,"foi' memhers ofapatti.cubt GI:iJh:iFe., T.~ it> tihaJ=!'l(!t examinesthe tole of :sud:il.i.z_:a;tio[J i[l :hw:tHI,m develapm.el1t; thlE' way in which :peop~", develop pe~t~J?tim:l!il, f~e~i1l!:g1jl 1i.md bel~f:fi; alb ~)ttl:: them . ..ehr,~; d]ei:~roidoi[l-g' I13Jh[[e of the ~<jjQd1ili:'l;atuonp[Oct"-ss; and] the ~:mpothitl'~ a.gi2'r.lt~ of s{Jcial:uzalti.Ol1..

L Sodall;za:dM aff~ds the O've:r:ill. t'll~rurn.lrtad:il[.e-$ of a !.>_ocietYi it. . abo shapes tlleirnagesdlat W'eho.ld ~}f 9~H":SellJe;sc.

2:. fle:re;d:it}f ;'loci e'Qviron:me'n:lit:al.f:aClDf!l i.n'l:~ract i.n i.ri.Guerici[lg the r;o,~i!!11]zatioPi pmas;s,

3. hi. the €':lIly M9()lOs" C:1:1aI:de-sHotfo[l;Co.o~.ey advanced the b.eiief m,at wele;;l111 Wh9 w,?a:r~ by il1~et;l.dingwiilillth~Ts" a pb~I1DIlDiE~O[l h~ t1iiH.ep! rhernu:Okmg-:gla.li:S .!ielf.:,

4. Georg,~ H~rhe[t M.f'<Id, best klll:CIiw.1l fOil ~h:us ~bBOl'y M the self, r[\o. posed that ;;Is peop~Em,atiUte> theIr se.l.ve-.~ begi 11 tore[le(~ their tm:iJCe:U:1 about reactiomji feoin uthers-b~l~. g~'De.f.'tI:1i_rl ,Dlhen,;an.d s:iP.~fa:(;3II'{ olheu~

5. Er\!':iang Gof.fr'l1~m hIDi sh()wl1 that ill man}' of our (llliiy ~cti:riti~, w,e try ({], cCIl::'lveydistii:lcturnpn?J;SlOIflS of who we <ire,a pWteS& he ~;JiU£ld .i.ttipi . .:e$~hlJil :ilili:m:<lg;eme:n:t.

6. As ~+U~ ptimary ag<l nts of. !iocializ3ti,on"paJ€[I!t~:play a cr:iti.c .. drfllein gtvidin-gchildr,f<['i. into thrn;~ lelfltb~'r .to·lei> diee:medappmpri.ate :iiFi 11. liodety,

7. .lLike the f.unily, ~'j(''h(]O~Ii. in the 1;J[I]t'ed Stilt""!> .~:a¥t: 11[1 i:lXplic~l ill :;1[1.date t'n goti,:Ii~iZle' peoph:l-- a~pec:U3ny dili~dre]],_""uj]tl} the r.lOIi'tt1~ .. and ·value.s Df O~t 'Lu.il1::t:u~e,

8,Peer g.[OIUPS <1I.mdme mass m,e'd(L1" e~ped<l]1rt~Ie¥.isio.I!l~d the Internet', ;an~u.mf'm'lil[J!.t a~ents of .~G_ci31izil.tiuIl Wi[ illdQI.Il~ce:nltt> .

Sl, s.ociali.zal:uori. J[) t:h,ew~'l!tkp!Oi("e 'b€g;]].~\ ... itbp;i:rt .. tnme ernploymenl: wh]~~ wear!;€ In l';tb.O{)~ and C;OPll~ujf'S ~s we. work fun4im~ ;md. cha.rig.e jobs tb:roug;hout our ~~ve~.

III. I~ligi}Dln. and the :state ibEip ~ tile sOGua.lizatiO!l piJOCeSlS hy regu I:!tjn~ U1el iKe i(O!1IS~ amd.i[l[lilne'l:ich:rg. our ViEw50fa:P'Pmpri ate bebav:Dur mt pa["l:icu}a[ ~gie5;.

I L Sm:i<lli,,:atiorr pm'G:eedl~. th:[ou,ghou~ the ~.i:k ~OIIue. Some ~odeties. marh stage. .. uf de''!,IIe'I.opmelll.t ''''il:hf{}l'.m:d f~MS Ofp}3S!!i3i~e. ][1 the culture ofthe lJn:ited Sta.t~{l, ,$~gn]fiica.l'lt eW'fln:liif;ls; suchas m}:;tJc[iag~ and. pa.renlillood t>f'itV(': to ch.iiII\lge .~.p~l1S![U].'!i: s;tarh,l:S;,

.1.2. As mlJ'lrl!' and more mothers ef ym.mg ch.iId;ren hl'l'lle enteredthe laher m,aikE'~, the d.e:mal1.d .r:ot child t<lre hasincree . sed dJrn.m at~;[3.~ly~ p;(H;iIl:g :p(lI~Cy qiLtesftiollH: ru.t maol'natiO[i& Mound the w,U!ild.


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1


Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

g, Soc:iilllizerti;M ,find 1Ii!~ lLife ICi[] [l[sl':

1, S~.lI!Ollildi :suclalm5t:Oltch be: conductsd en Issues nlll:~. a-s the in[liIJi, etlC!2 ~f b~r~d:i:ty ,al:l,d]. e1lliv.i:rnrUtlll?tH, ew.1:i tho,ugb marly irfv~~tis.atr:!'I'li hd:iev>e th\lll' this typ,~ of 'llI'laly:s:i:s i~pOte11J'i:tiJ~y: ,detrimental ~:o 11ltg,e [L1JI.mbea1; ·of pf.'op.I!~?

,Anili:ld,pator'¥ s,odaliz8,tillllOn ProceSs,es· of social,i!Z8ition Inwhic'h a person rehe1:use.sfo r 'fLlttJl',e pos ition.iO , ,[HCl[:U p.B1!:'~ortS, and s.oc ia I relatfionsn iplS., ~pag.e 90}

CIIl,WfI~Uve:tIruMr:¥ o~ deveiolIlmrell!lt The the,I;l'rY that ,(;hH!dN~IfI~ tllnwghl pro~te:5:l,estl!roJigh Jo.ur s:ta~es M D:e"'e~lDpmeflt, (83)

DegJr,ad':at]]on Ice:re,ml1lfl¥ Afl aspect lof the socjafization pmQe~.s within !,;>ome tolal jns.tii~lIJtjons, in Wili!]n. pe,ople ~re subjected to hmnilr8tLng ri'l:LJi3I~5. (91.)

I!:ilr,:a.,"a~lllrgJh:,!i~ ,liJpprlllOllIel1. A. ~ie:"" of 50ci8iJ If'!teracti>o:rn fn Whkh people awe Se'8 n ;a;s~he,:S!'tri'c:al poe liD rmers; (82)

Iffice,w'fi:I'lii. 11le e,ffor~s IpeopLe Imake to mailnta'i:!'! the proper image and ,av{M~ public emlbarK8SS[fU;:nt.(B2J

Gender mille, hpectation,s, rega'(iDing~h8 proper l!J<eha'iirQ~,atl:ihides; and activities of mBI'8S 8Ilidif,e1rnales. ~g4)

Cem::,ralized other i:!1e a:tlJtiil::les,'oriewppfints, ,a rid eX!P'eC:t.!litions [)if s()c:iel~ i'I:S awnole 'that <I on il!fl,t.a:kes; into itlccOlHtl: in his or her b.e tU:lYior, {S(})

Ilmplril513ffiDf'II mal1llag,ementThe altering oHn,e pf'!E'SEmtatiDn !iJf the self in mde:r to create distindJiveapp8arance.~ElI!l(:l1 SEltJlsfy particlWl'ar 8uolie~'De8" (gi}

l:.ilfecilll!iirs,e ~l!Ipmaeh Are:sea.rch 'O'r.b~fltElt~0f1 kll wt'!k,t~ l!>oeii~]il.agig1s and oille.r s>oc.f'Eili 5dentfists .look ,r::IQSe!:r8~ the S,OCi8It"H:;~ors that i'l'1lfliuence Ileop~e t:hro'U:gMU~~heir ti",e~,irom b~rth to 'Death, (89)

1,., Wh~clil of tmle klllo\!lirng ~[]ci!llil :sei~ntists 'Used:!Jl1,e IP,hlltisetlJlllkiJ1'El"Elass: S~lnil

lemph8£ireiJraltdie ~elf 'is tli1e ~ro"'ud of ®ulr s'()~i\S1 i nterllctions WiUl OOIie,r ~eople? a. GiB'IlJ:&e H,B:ro.e.ri: Mead,

iii. Charles Hort,[],n Cocl:e:,o

e. El"iIHmrg Go:f!m8in

d .• Jealil Pia.get

2:,. 1,(11 wlliEll he I;a lied lite pl.<iy S~ii,ge ot sm:illlilaHon,GIElllfg,e HBWo.llrl: :Mllad' ElSllE;I'Ha1 th'8Jt pe(];pl~Ellnrlen~II~' assume Ihll peiiSpgl;:l!ires, of .oth,Br:s, ~l1ere~~ ~rililb~fng: ~eliJfl tn re5~0m:1 'from tlil at irnagfnelll Viflwl:min[, niLs, Ilmce~8 il> reriiirreJ:l to' ,1318

a. r[lllB tEllki'~g.

b.th'B< g~:rieralrl)edmhBf, e.th'B< ~ignlj'fiicilm other;

d. ill'lillllr'BS!S'ltl!'l !:1il'sn agJllrl!lll'lll.

3:. G;e'llJ:&e H,B:ro.IH'i: iMead, fiE; ~e£t Imm!lDror htis. theory of wlil8lt? a. preo'&B:I'ltEltion;of the s,elr

iii. cOg,llitrue develop,lnent

e, Ul:e ~B,n'

d. imp,r,B5Sij()1'l1 1ifl8,n8iEemelru~

,4. Suppose iI IOile~ tn:es 1[] i;lIPI!I!:!Bir HlusiBr ttrban ~ B nr stl,eBcUlillil~ is will B:n EI ;!lw:pElJO'iS);lr har;lp~flo!l ta ibe 'IIatcMliIg. El"i'ing: GOf1iIilUiIIl w{luld s~ullil~ Iitlis be:liIa~ior froiil'l \!Ihlal!. illlllrll!BiCh?

a.Fu ni:ti[]ln{lHll;t


e. psy~tl olegiC'.all d. iililreraGti'Olnilii~

!:i,. ,~cro:rd'ing m I!::h,il:d p!l~Ch!)I{I!list Jean p~8:g,et's roillHiti~'e tl1:e;[l:r~ of dereli}flme,nt, Iclilll'l!jjren tre~1'I I'IJ IlJiSlB w®rds ,8 nd .!:..ymltJ [Ills tlJl,d:igtingu ish objEl'l::ts. and ~d!18f-i Eluring, whldl1stsg)l ill the de1.1€lo flm Bntof the,IIWlllgIlt flF!Jce~'&!

a. tl1:e itBlrI&Ilriimomr ~t8ie

iii. tl1:e j1re[] flB;f.13tioimal ~!llge

~. tl1:e ,[;()Iil;Crere ojil!1ra;liio:n,all st.agjl d. tl1:efurmall ofle.ratio llIal ~tage

.2. IJr.awDng (]11l.E..nrmg Goffinw's dr:aJm':itmgi.cal ap~roach> discuss bow t[til~oUowi[lg~WlUf!'!i en~a~l1' iriimpress]on. managemenaathletes, cone8ein;st[llctD.[~>pa:lte'flts, pliy.si,cians, a uti poli.ticiarns.

3.. How liw,wd i1Arl!t::~imil!aii5ts and ton:f.I:i(t~l:iJoo1:i1lr5 diUet.W their alJ:i!ai.y~ si(; of socialization by the m:i.Slii n'iedi,:f!

Lookili!lg.glass ,self ,A coneept that. empha~iz.eSlrn&sE!lhillS the prodlut:t or ~ur sot:lal i,nterl:lcti,M5, ,. P'9)

Peii'somJlit:y .A person's 'typIcal patterns of ,8t1:il:uoles, needs, charaeieris. tks, and ibe'h<liv!o:r, (77}

Res~lGiia~il<'ltffiIH'IThe p,F!Jc.eSll: of ,eI i 5Gar~ ing 'form,e r behaviOr patlerlll':1l <il1l.d1 at:ceptin:g neW ones as part of Ii;! '~mll,siUDn iTl! one's, Iil'~e .. {9"1)

RftiCl ~f IPIiiI:B:5Pi~e A ri1ual marking t~E: s)(ml:ml~c tran5iti0'rlfrolll one sQ,t:ial pots.iti'iJIl to BMtfiel', (S9)

Role tali,;i:ngi/le p:rtlceSSOr rnlie~Hall!i'8SSI1J !'fling ~h!e p ers pedj.ire of another a "'1;1 'Fesponeiing, f~QII'!1 ttnat im.Bgil1~dj 'vi.ewplDint. (arC))

Seu .A dlisfiiitl ilDentii~ that sets IIJS apartfliOIil"t otilers. {lSll'

SIDgnlificant otliuer Afl ind:ivid ue I who IS most imIII ortant in 'the de\'8 10 prn en.1: cd the sell.SllJch i3i.S8 parent, fri~nd, or teacher; (S1)

SQciiamlzatlo:lll Tile lif,etung' ptn'][;ess jill Which peoplE: lear,~11Ie a ttitudeiS , '",alues, and tien'av]ors ilIppmpriate. for m,embe.rs, of So particu!:ar ebJUme. (7'6)

"im.am i!I!I5'~~u~h~DI All ilfl!stitUti:o.i1 that 'i'legLJlate,SiSI.!'1 aspect:;; O'f a per50n's life under iii l8ifngSe aut!iontY. smitla.s a prii50111 Ute "military, EI Imental hots plta I, o'r iii e,OIlV€:Ii)t. (91}

6" On tl'lie fiJrs'! dilly ,[If tl8.s:ictJili~lill'lg il'l tlil8 .army, i!llr,ecrui~.Ih,a:g M,iis ,cil\lliI,ian I!:tloUves ile pllaceJ:l wj~!1'1 army "greens," has hiS mlsM SIil'8"'OO on, IloS8'S. liIIis. flri:!JaICY, Bml1 finds thEit Iile must wlS8'S C@iIT'1fllWln a'i ~tJ!Bthimo 1iIiI, AI:ltlilese tiI:u milii8,ting ,a clilSities a:r,e p81r1: of'

1iJ., Ib B~:lnlil'lg; a si~n ilic\ll'li~ ;ottliier .. b, ~mpmSlliD,n m,8lr1Sjlijlment

e, a d'e<!1radr8Jti!l'l"i ,DBlr,Bllililo~

01., fac;B'wOl'~"

7'. 'I,I'i1'i;lti(lh SOl::i~l~ ilmstl~!illlOn If;; con'!'>rOBlrifld til ~eMl!ll m :J5[ im pmtam 8:~enl 011

8.(II:ialiZlil~ion il'll UJef iJ'mlitlfd SUit~Si e~I1'B!Ch8Ilr folr chi:ldlr'E:n'? !iI., the fElllil1lily

h., the :}l:hllJ;[I~

c., !h,e!p ellr, grou 11 OJ., the l!1IlilSS media

IlL ibeli.enn gender role IrBfel'S toOl

iii., the ~tJli9IDIDc8,1: faU '~hat we <llrB millie tlr reml:llill" b, a rnle~I'IBt is gFwml ·tGl us ItJ~ a teaciher,

e, a rnl<ll~I'IBt is gFwliltGl us llil a IlIlla,)i.

01., e~.pBmatiu,m~ Fe'g8 rdi'nill,~hill pmlper o.e:havior, ,atHtl!Ld:es, and Inti~itfes of IIiIiIBlle,~ alndlrem81Ie~.

9. W'hii(lh SOI:!i(];rogfcElI !pemp Bc,ti'!lB IE:.iITli~phasiz:esMlall}Chl[]{I~~ i!;lill!ll U!I1ILledGtatels<

fuste:rCDrrl pB'tilti:!lO thlUugh built";im srslfilill ~ i:J[- .,el!lilrdEmd pi!lJn i:;;hm~nt? iii., the fU:l1cti{ilnilli~,t Ii'Ersp~ ~Ii!/!ll

b., the i;i[] nflicl ,p Brsl1ecti\lE

c., !h,e inl{:rra!:1ioni$.pel'SlleC~'i\e OJ., !h,e !P~!fl;h'IJ]@gJicilllllersl!lec~lve

1:0. W:hii:::h ofth e fo1l'owilng; [;taltEme:lililSa o.olutreenllg,ers in :Ba~hd;Sld' is true? iii., 1M,!, Ihillo'e Io~t mucil1 oftlilelr IP 8err IIlf!)U fI Ell!Jle 'led~Mh lind reI008ibi[]H., b. ibe,!, 1'Ii11o'e lo~t peers wh() ha~le j'oi~iedl {win dlam Blnffilli~t grU'WIPs,

c., If th:B:i' 6W1iI II romp,l!Iter~ t~,e~ use it ~n an atlem P'~W [;t:;jl~ ilil, conlr.3icl l!Ii~hl th,e:ir lPFe-w:sr peer groWljiI.

01., alII ufUJe 8,liDmre

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


::1L2 _ 1f'1j fl\!'tl'l'1i'J:ijl~ spe"e.dm! 'Ule term ~ is used to IreJefW a ll'e,r~lln~ ty~rC81Ip'8ttfms. of attitud1ei:h ne e!lils. (:harBde(is~Tcs. 8,m d be!il,a\!iOf,

::ILl. Slltlll:lfes (If t:win~ ralis!Ei~ aps rI: s'(jgE~gt that tmth !lml unnUlflm:e hum81H dffill3'llJpmelllll:.

g, Soc:iilllizerti;M ,find 1Ii!~ lLife ICiOtl[SI':

:t 7., Prepilrationror main\!, aspects oJ alllll.!llt ~iT'B' !Il BgilllS 'i'li~h .ll1}~[8nza,hlJ;n diU ring' ChildlhlJo~ a ndad olel!lcElnr:e a ndC[)lilItinll.!lifiS thm1ug!Thout 0'Ulr ~i~s 8JUI.e;

prepare fm ne'll Ir~1l D1'Is:iI:Dil~ae&,

::lS. RBS(f!t'jl1l~iz:a!lorl iE; ~a!rticu~~r~~ @m1l>qhre wlmen itoccu!'S, 'iIIi~hulii a[rlJ) ilil~tillliti:I;I'IiI,

:1'9" Th'B pe:rsp'emil!e empM~sizes ~he role of s~hlllolcll il'l tel{lch~ilg title lIal:ues. and custems (]if ~he 18rgerso~iety,

J:a;J1iI OZ :~Sllilluo!l~unl 6,[ ~I~®!l 'S U ~A.it!t@d'FiIJUIi 8t.~ :Mtor,o 4;)K,,'d: ,!n :~~I:I~O l!l!l,,"~!J!! U~!~"n~ lia!il1lJ ~u 8:l1J!~!S vl~~U\lWU!JJrAuao :"u!ill'ai,aq U :~l!l8UOs:J~d IT: UU~illl!18pOS rt :~.p) nt :(Q~ .fij ~~p) B : (8'1 l;{:J,) 9 :(q) 1Ij. ~tl!ll' V ~I(:J} €' :'(Il) '(;' :(q) .~ gaoMSiW\i


@ The Md3raiIN-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

]be Wr,est,Ier

(Darren, Aronofsky, 200B)c

The Q,eparted(Martin scorsese. 2006)

frank costdo Uack NictJoison},an oI'gElrr[zedi.trime i:Joss ill soulh B03' t'C:rl, is, 1.1 n:d'e r inve:iiti'gati E! n ~. the Mas,sachuseU.s BUi,t€: Po i1OlIE:. 'to hlifiwate f'rank'l$ 5,yndit:ate,~he <l,gelrlcyal$s;i~n;&a new r'e:'eruil:. named lBia~y GO'~iingalrl (!Leoll1il1mO DiGBIIHi!o). Meanwhile, Fr,ank ~endl$ 'One o,f hiis m,er]'1 Coml1lSLile ~ IVi<iI!1 (Matt D:amElil " '~o ~oveJt!¥ gat;!1erl nte i l'tgence on tile pol iC1El. A$ b,o'ijn sid'e~ rea.lize th'ElY haue flFait'orS in their !1fiitls:~!.~!le '~o ImpCls,~ors tJ)l to :;rv,oid e:r.;polslure"

fhrl$ 'll'J,Ocvie ca!lta~l1& an, e:xampl.e of the !E1o~kii~g.gla:;;s selft iI;lF the de'!tei'opme R~ of self.identity ~n re latil!l'l1I to S nei 6i1: gmups. BEN::a u sIS: Bi!ly GOsingalrJI Was rai'sed by d~\torced parents, DnE: workin,g eMs,s and tl'ieEl,the,r midcile clas8i. he grew up wilil dUBI identi1l.ie:S1 conwref.e wiil:h dlis'tiri'l::'tW'Elacc~'nts. Pa.y p;!'Iliiic'U lar a:tte'll timll t,o 'tin e :li'l::ell e in wni~h 8 i 11.1' h'lite r'itiews, yoI' the underroV'e,r job,

l~u:r YOUlf ICoil1isideratioD,

L, How d'DB:S Btl~'y Cos,Ugan p:re~ent hiis ~s!eW' Ln different social sitJU~ti [) ns?

2. IGive it!1lree @;.:;amples of ilmpresslon mM:ageme'nU by tn.e two iJodemov~r ~gent5, and expl!ain .".,,11)1' tJl1e~ used! the strategy to SIJ pport a particu la r sodal ~d~ ntity,

\!VorRp,ia'!JJIE: baha .... ior d~IP~,!"Ids IJI~ soeia! expeet!3i~ions,. ancl T~e W.r;elSU~[f oft:ers an intim';,i'~e I)lort:rayal O'f~h8 pre:ss,LJni'~$ or soda I it'8iion, lin, rnultip~e oG;cupaUons. Fla I1dV "Th,e Fla rn" Rob iln i;iQ!'l (M icJ~e'y Ro LI,r~e lisa pru{el$sior;:a! wrestler Wno,se I'N~:~daJi' was '~ri 11!lie :19S0,~t but who still com~etes in file 20flLls. RaIlldy 'fOM1~B r'elli3itionshi~ wit:h 'C~sSi.d:l' (Marrsa TOiTI,eJ), "",ho wo:rks as ,a:11I e:O::I;I'~ic d:al!1c'e:r to support her VO'U.lJig son. As '~he two m~e m idcl !eag~! . .s.o[;ieta~ FIIo.rm's fome them to C:IJIFIIsid,~,!" neW 'oc!I::LJ lil'ati9>n Ii :Bln~ idelltiU1es.

rh~ Wre:stfer shoWs how ~f!·dlvidu!3iU& ~.Hlcl,erg,o processes of re~QciaJIizatio:J1 BS they pass 'I':t'II,rQugh tile Infe .I;:o.uffi,e .. lNakh for ~ne ste,ne in ~l1icl1 Ro:!Indi.'I' I3JsceptJs. aiLlii~~ilme jOb at i!:I SLJP~rmarke'tt .delli, CmlIT~e'f a'l'i:er ,Mlringa$:B wr,esUertB:nd~I'f,!::.I1 str!JJ,ggl~8s '~ot::ope wirllh ~is new ldentiity. Note MW Ro:!Indi.'I' I3Jndl 'CElssidy prese,nt dltfer:ent"se!ves" on the jdb Bnd 0'".

Ill'\00r ¥(I'I!if c,on&iderail:~QifI

:t. WhlSlt. m ighr be some of th e,jfac:Hl.fS 'I:I!llat contll1lJute to R~n1Idy and, Cass,idy's soci;~I:lzt:ltiml'r

2 .• How {lould' you IiJ,SIe Meads :theory of the seU to understand til e ,1:I(;l:iOI15. of the lila iln 011 a meters ill'l thls film?

Sociallnteractio,n and Social Structure

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1


Af~f!7' Less th{l11 three ,day.'!' i~tM fl~i:~ b1!t(lr,.e,dN.Ul~'ion, S,l):n~,!3 ofrh,(J ~~t;u{lent.'I' 'J',ole'l> laying In'isor~ giMl//'tlS have J'J1o'Uulfru beYl)'rul UU1't p,l(1;yacr-t'lig. 'ThfJ~/.h(l.t1e ·inte'J'.naiiz!3d tke l~,o,s.tflity, n.egaf:!Vt affe,cr., tlnd mind-ses: cfw t'uctl:l 'fl.-' tic of :~~~wu reai jJ n::s:on gu ards.

Ii. Soc:iillllnre!!'IiIJm1iilo,n ,iUld :So";iall S:~~ull1!lJ:r;e

,As each uf tmle bllind· iiolde-d pnsoners ls eSlCO ned down thef ~ght off steps in hont of .lerdan Halll into our littile ja'ill, l)urglJlard!s order them ~o stl'iip and Tema in slia:r:Jidilng Inaked! wi~h their arms OLJ~h8id a~~nlst the waH and Ilegs spread arl!1;llrt, They hold that unec rnJortabl€ poS'iUonmr a Iiong time asthe g~a rds iigmlore them because: ithey are busy witthli3!5t-miinu~e cho~'S, like pa!cking; aw,ay the pri;sanms' beilongings.fior sarek€epiing,. fi~lng upttle,i r guanlis qua rter8,Eilnci mrangilng b~d8 in thei:ht€!;B Q@lIs, Beforr,E; being giv~f] nlis: Uilliform." '[tach priaoner ls sprayed w;ith l;Iowdm; all€g~d to be a delmJS€!if,. to rid 'hrm .of Iliic::€ Wat might be b FOI!JI!l;flt in to mntaminate Q.ur jalill ... , . The :humiiliiartio.n of being a prisoner has b!8guln, much as it do €'s in many instiitul;iolll!sfmm miliita:ry' booot camps to prisons, hospiitahs'r and II00w··le\!I@:11 jobs.. , .




The morning snlift: Domes on in the :mi!ddle of ttnle niight, . .2 A.~" , , . The priSlone:rsare sound asleep, Som~ are :snoring ~nl their dark" cr:amped cells. Sl!Jlddelril;~ thl€ sllenceis shattemd. loud wthiistJl.r5'S sh~i!ek,. voices yell!, "Up am:! at 'ern" "Wark€i Lip amid geit Ol!Jlt he're fbr the cOILmit! ~ ".okay, yous:leeping be.auti,@.5, it's time to S€6 if you I'earned IhO'W to DOUlnt" Di3IZ!ed prisoners line up against the wal:1 and COlJlTlit offll mindlessly as tn.e thlreeg~la:rdii\ a:lt€:male in aomi:ng !u p wr~h new var,ia'UQIl!S.

1.1.'1: this Shldiy, directed and described by social psychologistPhilip Zimbardo, college students adoptedtbe patterns IQf social interaction expected! of guarrlls and prisonerswhentlseywere placed in a mock. prism] .. So c:i.ok.lgist:s use the term rsocid imh:~acUQn. tto refer to [be ways, in which people .J:1es::p>O!1.1J:ito one another" whether face-to-face or over thetelepbone or on. the computer .. In the mock prisen; social jnteraetions between guards and JP'risoneu were highly inrpeesonal, '[111":: guardsaddl"essed. the prisoners by number rather than n<1!11I1:e. and they wore reflective sunglasses thatmade eye contactimpossible,

As, in many real-life priscns, the simulated prison at Stanford.Univleuity had ;<I. social structure in. wfu:i.ch gUEI:rd,s .held virttuilily tntal LOn.tm]. over prisoners, Theterm 5!oda] strucnrre eefers to the Viray in which a society is; organized into pl'edicttaihle relationahips, The social structure of Zimbarde'srneck prison

ifH3:unf.[uenced howtbe guardsanrl prisoners interacted. Zimbardn

on count thlemes.ltH~ COWlit and ills attelllJdan~ push-ups alllJd jump~ng jacks I,ar fai!li!Jlres c(]llllt~nu~ on snd on for neal1lYi3i Vil€Cirj mlou[. Fina1Ily!. the plisoliliers a,r,e ordered b!iJlGk. to sleep-until rev,@iilllB a few nlows latet.,,,.

I[By Tiiiliesday] au r p~ilson€'FS a ~'e: InoWi ITllg raWdiy and bl.ealY-eyed, and OUT lit:lJe prison is begiirrmilllJg to smelllli'~e a men's toi,let in a New York subway stabion .. Se;EtlTls thalt some gua rds hav~ mads toilet viisi'm a priviI@ge to be awarded iinfrequently and Inever after lights out Durinlg the night, plris~ners ha'llle to urinate and defiecateillli buckets lin tmleir c611:S, and some gualms re:ruS€ to a lIowtih em to be: emptl,€!d tiU mmlflillg, Comp~laints are com illig fast a Ilid fu,~iousily from many IOf fue p ri:.sone~ ....

Afterl,@ss fhanthree days 'iITlm this bizarre situarition, some of tlllE! students rolh~·'Playing p,lis!]'!rI gllJlands. have moved far beyond mere pl.ar.racting.liher 111 ave' liITlrtemalliz:edthehostillit_Y~llleg.ative aiect, snd mindset (:ha racterll&ic 'of some real prison guams, as is evid em from thelir shrift. reports, ~Btrosp€cth.l'e d i'a,~i'€s, and persona II reflections.

The dep,~rsonlalliarUon .of the prisoners and the .s.preadiing €3<tent ot dehumaneatlnn are begirmling to affect [Ofl!8 01 the gl!Jlardls), too: ~A.:5; ~ got. angriief and angrier,11 didn't question this beihav~Qr as much, II eoujdn't iet lt aff.ect me, SIO II sta ned ih idii ng mysellf d€:€1P€f beillind my role" ~t 'was the only way off not hmUng yourselit ~ WaS r,eallly lest ani what was lhapp,@n~ng but didn't evtlITlI think about quitting,"

B.lamilig the vi,ctjms for th~ir

sony oondiitiom;-creaw€!Id by om 1la!illure til p'roviide adeqlLlaw shower and s'all"li!tatiQIIrI fa(:mties-bL;N::ame oomman among thl€ staff. We see ~hii~ Vile:tim blame in opeiratio;n as, [the guard!] Dompllarins, "l gotij,ri3d! of :9Eleing the prisO:tHns ln rags, smellli,ng bad, and! the priso ml stink:' ,,,

(lfmbardo 2Qi[J 7b:40, 41,. 52, 53, 8Q~ se)' AdltIfrti6nm 1~r.crffi11l1tI6i':1 ~bOf~l d11~oo:e(l!g5l C3n bl! f~.\lm(l 0<111 thQ QIIII~I1IQ lAt~m~ng 'C;9n~r at wWili_rnl1!l~.~O>fll/scl1JaJ:l~iltf12~_

and his oolfeagues (21003:546) note that it wu !I. real prison "in the minds of the j allen and. ili.eir captives," His simulated prison expemnent, mrst conducted. more than 30 yeaTS ago, bas subsequently been repeated (with similar fi[!.d:i~.lIg.s) both in the United States aed in otlli'e~r eountzies.

Zinllbardl,ls experiment took on. new relevance ]:1]: 2004. in thewakeof shockiagrevelaticns of prisoner abuse at. the u.s.run Abu Ghraib .miillitary facility in. Iraq, Graphic '~~ttolPhr photos" showed U.S. soldiers: humil:iati.l]gn<lk~d Iraqi prisoners and threatening to attack them vvitll police dogs" nne structure 'of the wartime prisoo, coupled with intense pressure 011 military intdligerli.ce offic:ersto secure infcrmatian regarding termrist plots, cmluuihlltea. to the breakdown. in the g;D1ar-(i.s'hehaviol". But Zimbardo himself noted that the guards' depraved conduct couldhave been predicted si.1Tl]pJy OIl the basis offu:i.s research, So strong W<I:S public reaction to the Abu {~b:mib~ICaI'lda] thatin

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

Ii. Soc:iillllnre!!'IiIJm1iilo,n ,iUld :So";iall S:~~ull1!lJ:r;e

20051, during his first weekin office, President Baraek Obama declared that henceforth jnterrogators wiU use only nonceercive metho ds for questioning suspected terrorists (Zimbardo 2007a).

The two concepts of social interaction and social structureare central to sociological. study. They are d.o.sely related to secialization {see Chapter 4t the process through which. people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate to their culture .vV'he.llI. the students in Zim b;a.:tdd'$ experiment erstered themock prison.~dl!,e'Y began a. proe::ess of resocialization. Inthat process. th.ey adjusted. to a new social structure and learned newrules fer social interactio n,

. ]11 this chapter we will study social structure and. its: effed 0]1 our social inter<J!ctions. '\Nha.~ determine s <II person's status in society? How do our soeialroles affect


In .Limba rdots mOIl]);; pris10n experlment, a g)!Uard orc,ew.s pnscnars toiilft!;l IlIP <Jg<:ilinst thew~I!I', TIl,e social inlte~a(fti(m,5 fiosterlelIll hy the p riso~'s :sooi~[!1 stiru:ctulre q uiekli~ ~elIll tn a li}reaMI(!w n in the glU!a mis' and prusoners' b'eliiiavim.

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjll1 C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

om secialineeraerlensl What is the place of

•. ~. If'f .~I .- 11.. L'I ]-.

soc:~.a~ lLl1 .. :S.l uurms sllle aastne li:lIlJil.y, re 1-

,g;io.n,. and gpvermTlerlti]] our social structure? ''''1et.m begin by consideringhew socia.l. ]]lI!e.ra.ctiiOUS shape the !Way we view the ....orld around us, Nex.t,!We·j;] fQCUS 011 the five basic dement s of social structnre: statuses, social l~O~.es. ,groups,. social networks, and. social insti tntions such <IS the fa.mi.ly. relig:i9f11.i;lnd. gQver.nm,ent.\¥e'.U. also touch OIII a new element of social structure, 'virt~H~l tvorlds,We'U see that fund~o[lilists, confEet theorists, and in teractionists approach theseinstitutions quite differently .. FinaLUy:, well mIUpal~e ouzmodern social strurture with simpler fcrms, using typologies devd.oped. loy Emile' Durlsheim, ferdinand. T6.l1l1i.,es. and Gerhard. Lenski, The Social . Policy section at the end of the chapter focuse s on the debate over-how best-if at ~l-Ito regulate the Internet,

Soc.iallnteraction and Reanty

di.iIereutliy" At thi.s point <li:$ a result of .]]]creaJ.sed secialinterartionwitls tattoaed people, tattoos look perfectly at home to us in <I IlI;lIJn.O er of setti.~lIi~'

The nature of socialinteraction and what constimtes reality va:ries acresscultures .. [,[JJ Western. societies, with theiremphasis on romantic Iove, couples s,ee. marriage as a relationship as weI.!. as a social status, .. Fmnl Valentine's Day f1[owers to more informal,

everyday gestures, professions of love are an. expected part

of marriage, In Iapan, however, marriage is considered. more a soe:ia] statua than a. :relationship.. Although many or mos1t Japanese couples undoubtedly dn love each other, .sayin,g "Lleve you" doesuot eome easily to them, especially not to' :hlJls·bi:U~iid,S" Nor do mestlmsbands call their wives by name (they prefer "Mother")

or look tneIliJi in the eyes. In 2006" in. an. effort 10 ch.<l:ng:e these restrictive customs; some Japanese

men :formed the Devoted Husband Organization. whichhas been $ponsorin,g a new noiid<llYi. Bdov1ed Wive,!; Day. Recently, tthe group 'o:~:gBnized an evem ealled Shout Your Wive £nm]. the Middle of a Cabbage Pateh Day, Dozens of men :stood. in a cabbage patch north of Tokyo and. shouted "'I love you! "~CI their wives, seme of whom had never heard their husbands say those worm (K-':ID.lIbaJyashr 20:(8).

The abilityto define social realityreffiech <I g.l!HIil.p'S power within a society .. In fact, one ofthe

most crucial aspects of the relatios» s hip between dominaut and. subordinategrnups is the ability oflli.edominant or m.ajorlity gmiUp to define a SOGi,etysvalues. Sociologist Williu]. L Thomas (:li 923). an early critic of theories of racial and g:ender differe]l,ces.~ recognized that the "definition of the situation"

When someone in a crowd. shoves you, do you. automati. cally .plllsh back? Or do you consider the circurnstanees of the incident andthe aHruude 'Of the: instigator before you react? CI.13IlGeS are Y01l1 dothe latter, AccO]x:i]I!Igto socielegist Herbert Blumer {[ 969:79). the distinctive ,cha[cacteris1:~c of socialinteraction ,mlOJJlg people is that "human beings interpret

or 'define" each other's actions instead of Inerdy reacting to each other's actions," Inotherwords, our respouse to. someone's behavior is based. on the me'!:l:niJiog weattachto his 01' her actions. Reality :is shaped by our perceptions, evaluations, <lind definitions,

These meanings typically reflect th'f:: norms <lind valu.es 'OF the dominant culture <lind our socialization ezperiences witbin that culture .. As.interactionists emphasize ,~he meanings that we attach to people's behavior are shaped. by om' iuteractions with. {hel'll and. withthe larger seci ~ ety, Social r,eality is. literally constructed £W]]]l our social interactions (Belger and Luckmann 19(6).

How do we define om so Glall:1e<lllity? Coasider someth.i]JI.g as srnlJpl,e as how we regard tattoos," At onetime, most of us ill the United States eensidered tattoos weird OI~ooky. 'We associated them with fr:iI'lge eountercultural gmups, such aspunk

rockers" hiker ga:lJIgcs, <lind. skinheads .. P!lTIong manypeople,

a tattoo elicited an automatic negative response, No'w, however, snmany penple bavetattoos-im:ludmg so ciet.y1str-endsette:rs. <lind major: sperts figures=-end th.e ritual o:fg:etting atatto 0 Jus become S'D legitrmired. that mainstream culture reg.ards tattoos


5, Sa::liillllln:.mc:tioA,and ~i" :5IIu;:bin


could naoldtbe Wnking and ]p e:rson.aH.ty of the Individnal .. '10hit~ ing from an intesactionist perspective, Thomas observed. that people r.-eS;POD.1Id. not on~y~o the objective features, of a ]person or situation] hut also-to the mecming that ]person or situationhas for ~h,eI'K1 .. For example, in Philip Zimbarde's mock 'prison experiment, student "guards" and. "prisoners'taecepted the definition of the situation (im::ludi.ng; the traditional roles and bebavior assndatedwir1fh being a guard or ptiscner) and acted. a{H:m:ll.i.ng~y.

A'S w,e' have seen throughnut the past .50. years-first in. the civil t:i.gh.tsm.ovem.ent of the ~] 96r(Jli\ and SEJ!1Ce then amtuag such grcmps aswomen, the elderly, gaysaJJ]d.l!e,~bialJ!s,a[ld people with di.sa.lb,.i.lit:ie~an. important aspect of the pm cess of social change il]jvolve~,red.efi.nil1g or recenstructing sod<JJ. I,eality .. Men] bers of suborcl.imrte groups chalikng~ traditional definitions and begin ~o perceive and experience real1.ty in <I. new way:. An esample of this challenge canbe seenia the career OhVOD.·.M. chm:npioniJKlx,er Muhammad A~i

Ali !began .. his G,u:ee~·wm.ki:ng fo![ a 'VV].lite male syndicate., which sponsored his early matches when he was kI[OM]. as Cassius Oay~ Soo.n.hOiweVe[~~he yOUlng boxer rebelled against those who would keep hun air his race down. He broke the old stereotypes nf jhe s,elf-effacin,g .R~ack a thlete, .i.nf.~:i.sti'[lg 011 his ();wn political views (il(K::iuding .refu'ii]ng to serve in the Vietnam War), his D'Wl1 .. re.l:i.gio~]. (Bl8Jck Muslinrj.andhis OWll name (Mmhamm<lld Ali). Not only did Alichangethe world of sports; he also. helped ~o alter theworld of race relations, Viewed from a ~~ociojogj.caJ perspective" tbea, AI.i was redefining social reality by rebelling aWl.in:stt the racist tJllnki:I1I~: andttenl'].i.n!O~ogy that restricted him and otber African Americans ..

Ellaments of Social Structure

AJ] social inteeaction takes place wrili.i.n <I. social stnuetnre, including those interactions that redefine ~od;al.li',ea]ity . .For pm.·puses 'of study, we can break down anf social structure into five el!ements,: statuses, social .. roles, groups,. social networks, and . social institutions, These elements make u]p social. structure justas a. f0111l.1l-· dation, ·W'3US, and ,ceilings make up a building'S structure, The elements of soclal structure are developed. througb the lifelong process IQf socialization descrjbed in Chapter 4.


We normally think of aperson's "status" ashaving to do with influence, wealth, and fame, However, sociologists ID.Sle' the term status.to refer to any of the full :range of socially defined pnsitizms w:ithjn a large group or sodetr.&om. the lowest to' the hi.gl1.est Witbin om society. apel'Son C<JiTI occupy the status of president of the United States], tl"uitpicl:e.r. 'SO]] or daughter; violinist, teenager, resident of Minneapolis, dental technician, OF neighbor .. A person G1I!. hold a number of statuses at the same time ..

Ascribed and .Achi'eved Statt,ls Sodo.log;i$ts view sorne statuses <!$tisC1ibed and othen, as; ~dr:iewit (Figure 5-I ). An ascribed!. storms is a.ssig[ledi. to a iPe:rsoi[l by soclety"vithout regafd forthe person's unique talents or rharacteristies, Ge:ne:rnllY:i the assignment takes place at birth; thus, a person's racial backgKQUnd" g.ender, and age are a1IJ!. ccnsi . dered ascribed statuses, Though. these characteristics <lI.ve biological in migbt,they CIte significam mainliy because of the socled meanings they have in Ol!H cnltuee, Conflict

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjlll C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1



~o It,@i11'1; latina



'1Ii1ln k ill t:U!IIIII't :It

The you rlig we man in tJlli s fI~L1rFe-" m@ ~-OOOti pies malny positions in S9Giety, £laGh of Which 1!'I\!\O.lves dlisrtir'lct statuses, How would you defun.e your s.tat!!jses7 Which h~ve the mO$tiijfilUlerlo>e in your life?

theorists areespecially interested. in ascribed statuses, since they oft:'e:n:a conferprivileges or .I.:efle:ct a person's membership in i:JI. subordinate g:n1OUp. The social meanings of rat~.e!::hni!c.]ty; and. gendey will be analyzed more fuJI}' in Chaptess I I and 12.

ln most casJes"we can dolittle 1:0 changean ascribed status hut we Gin attempt to change the traditional constraints associatedwith itf'or example, the Gray Pantbers-c-an activist Po.l.i.ti.c;a~ group founded in. 1971 to work. for the rights of older people-ehavetried .~omodifY society's negative and! confining stereotypes of the ,elderly. As aresult of theirworkand that of other g;rollJ.]Ptl supporting o.lder citizent'i" the ascribed. status of~'.senim citizen" is no. .longer as difficult for mi.mol1;s of older people.

A ·1~ ...a. lm e de . ... .. ·'·11 . 1L . . I .. .. ~ .1Jl ;UCHlLJeu status . oes not .neCe5sanry ulilve the same sOCla~

meaning in. every seciety, In a cross-cultural study, sociologist Gary Huang (] 988) confirmed the long-held view that ,respect tor the elderly is an important cultural norm in China.In many

-·L· t: "1.11"" . . d : .. 'full··' -~F'- .." . 1d

eases, tme prelu O.,tlL IS used respectfu .r; C<I.!IJl.Lnl.g someone 0,

teacher" or "old person" is like ,calling a judge in the Un~.ted

S " honor" H' . . . ." hatne . II ..,.

tates your .. DHDr, .. 1 uangpomts, out t .: ,a~ posrtive age- semority

language distinctions are UnCOffi]]l].QiiJ. i.11l '¢]l'e United. Slates.; cnnsequently.we view the term old man asmore ocf an insult than a celebration of seniOi[·itfano.li.visdnm,

Unlike ascribed statuses, an acllieved. st:nttus comes fo us largely threugh om own efforts. 'Both. "computer programmer"

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


Ii. Soc:iillllnre!!'IiIJm1iilo,n ,iUld :So";iall S:~~ull1!lJ:r;e

Ascrib,~cl status may tlltel':s'~aI: wiW a person's j]jchi>e'lJ\~dl status. A5lb~s neerman ~reets a re·~d(mt, t~e wmkels [!ctilreved statuls as a kl.w-wage workev (omb"liiIlElswith ~is ethnic s'l;.atills as an African Americarll, an idE!nility tJruat malny in Ufis sQci:ety consider 'loci he lower lhallllln.;;llt of whites.

d-'~ " , d;' 1-. " 'd' , .. ',' ~'I-' ,,.; ~~.

<I:n[pHSOll gua.n. are 1!Cu~eve " statuses, as m:-eI<llWfe:r;. I?~a-

nist," "sororitymembee" "cenvict," and "social worker," We must do something to ~,cq[l,lir-e <till achieved st<l.t;us.-go to scilool,ilEaEn <II skill, establish a. friendship, invent <II new product But as we wi.!.1 see in th.e next section, nnr ascribed :status hea.vily m1Iu,e:rKes. our achieved status. Being male.for example, would! decrease. the 1ikeI:i:hood that we would consider child care as a. career.

Masmlf'Status Each person .fuo~.d'$ Ina:ny different and sometimes ccnflicting statuses; SOfITD,e malY connote higher social position and some, lower position, How, then, do others view one's overaU social posi~]on.? AccOl1d:ing to sociologist Bverett Hughes (]945)l societies deal wirthino:m.sist:encies by agreeing that certain statuses are mcreimpertanc than otherr s, A Jmil1st:ev :5~3iJtl!!l;S is a status that dominates others and thereby diete["nlinesape:rS.OIl~S generalp osition in so ciety; Por example, Arthur Ashe, who died of AIDS in. l'993,.1l.ad a remarkahle caret'[ <IS a tennis s(:<I!r:. but at the end ofhis life, his statusas a well-known personality with AIDS mayhave outweighed his statuses as <II. retired. athlete, author, and political activist. Throughout the world, n1:EU]f pe~:)ple with disabilities find that their status as. disabled receives undue weight:, oveirshadowing their actual ability tn perform s!llcce.<osfu]1y in meaningful employment (Box 5- I on page' [02).

Oursoci,ety gives suchimportance to' race ameli gel].d.er that they often dominate ourl:ives. These ascribed statuses frequently inflneuce 01l1t achieved status, The Btack activist Malcolm X (1925-196S);, an. eloquent and cuntroversial advocate of Black powe:r and Blackpside during fheea.rly]9:60s, recalled that his feelings and perspectives changed drm:uatic<li]]Y while in eighth grade, VV],]Jenfu:is _English. teacher, ::II. Vilhite: man, advised. him that his goa] ofbecominga lawyerwas "no r-eaJi:stic goal for a nigger" and ell.tomagedhhl1 instead to become <1_ carpenter, M:a1c:01m X (1964-':37) found that bis position as a Black man

@ The McGrailh'-Hjll1 C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

(ascribed status) was an obstaclete his dream of hemming a lawyer (a.cfuieved status), Ir:L the United. States, the ascribed statuses Df raceand gender can tUl:idinn as master statuses that have an important i::n:lpac:t 0.11 one's potentialto achieve a desiredprofessional and socia.l. status.

Social Roles

What Am Social Roles1 TI:Ui'ugh.out enr lives. we acquirewhet seeiolegists call social roles, ASClcia~ :r,om.eis at s;et of expectations fo:r people who OCG[[!P¥ <II given social positicn or status, Thus, in. the United Sta.te-i~> we lE'xpedthat ,cab drivers !iirin know bow to get around <I city~ that receptionists will. he l':ie'Iiabl.e in handJ!ing: phone messages" and. tb.atpoliue officerswill take actien if they see a eitizen beingttfureatened_. With each distincfive sOD; a ] status-whether ascribed or adli.eved-----uome particulaerole expectatinns .. However, acmalperformancevariesfrem individua]_to .inrnviduaL One

secretary ,may assume extensive administrativeresponsibilifies, whii.e another [11I;<IY fiOCllHl on clerical duties, S:imlhld.y. in _'P'hifip ZimbaJrdD':s: mock prison experinaent, some students werebrutal M1.d sadistic guards; others were not.

Roles are a significant cemponent of social strucnne. Viewed. 1JI'Oll. -a. functimJlalliistpe~tspedive,ro.]es conteihutete a . society's stability by enab1inglnembers to anticipate the behavior IQf otherg and. topattem their OW]] actians acuQl!'dingl.y: Yet social roles call also be: dysfu]]c1t1Q:na] if tbfyrestr,lctpeople'$ interactions and. relationships.If we view a person only as a "poliJce officer" or "'Sl1!.pe.tv:ism::'itw:iUbe di:fficu]t~o f~l<lite to him or her as a friend or :l1eig,hbm:,

lRo~e Conflict Inn,gine the delicate situation of <I. wmTI"UJl who bas worked. fora decade on an a,ssellJ'l:biy line in an electrical plant, and has recently been named. supervisor of he! unit. How is th~s wnman expected to relate In .her ]ong~i:me&ie:ndls and ('0- wm1k!ers? Should she still. go outto lunch w.llIh them, as shehas done almost daily tor y,ears? Is it lrer responsihility to recnmmend the :firing of <III, old :friend. wbo eannet keepup with tbe demands of fh,e <J:ssem:bly li_l.lid

Ro~~e loo.lIIffidt occurs when incompatible expectetioos arise &0111 two Qr more social positions held by the same person. Fulfillment of the roles associated. with one statusmay direct]y vIolatetll.e roles linked to a second status" In the example just given, thenewlypmm oted SUp eTVi~mwmmQS.tlikdy experiencea sharp conflict between her social <llJ]d ot.,elllpal]o.[la] roles, Such TI::;I,~emnt1:icts call for important ethical choices. The new supervisoe will have to make a d:iftin[]t decision about how mucb <I.negl<lff.lce she owes her friend and how I111UCn she ewes her emp'.~oyers,whoh:!!.ve given hey supervisory Iesp0.ll.sibil:ities.

An.other type of role conflict occurs when. individuals move intn cccupaticuathat are not ecrmnon 3Ill0ng people with their ascribed status .. Male prescho 01. teachers and femalepolice


Ii. Soc:iillllnre!!'IiIJm1iilo,n ,iUld :So";iall S:~~ull1!lJ:r;e


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjll1 C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1


DisabiUt II

Master tatus


Wh'81i1 offlr:~a~s In New Hampshire mcru.ired 81 h8ind~cap access ramp 'f~:r a mOILJlllmiti1 :she~ter, Uley wem IlcHc:uled. Wh.o ceulo c~rmb a, ITI0!J,ni" taln In at wh,selciham c:r~IDics ask.ed, lin the sumI'I'H3tf af .2000 U'111:U eha I ~eng~ im peilled severnl intre'p~d c~rml:llefS, some in wheelle:1li8lirs, to' malk.'€! 8 12~··ht()(j rtF-elk over tF(Iclks 81nd Foughbralll so ~hat 'U1ey GOU,ld ,efl't,er 'blle s.:lleIMr' 11i1~rrLtlmjjh. ,M !9i result ,o:~ such feats, Ster,eotypes ,o,i the disabtled ~re ~radllila Ily 'fa II ~ng away. Buttihe st2lruu!S,of ~d isabllmj" s:rolll GElrr~es a stigma"

Throughout hIsWI:)' iElndarolUml UN1l world, peO'pl!E w~~h di'Salb,ili~les, h,iSI'!.IIe beeiil 5Libjec~ed ttl cl'1ueia i'll!d Il:iJlhlllma n trea~me;rlt. For «:!lam ple, In the 20th Ic:e:rntul)'; the d~sablled 'weit'f! 'rreqL:l,el1t~y vi,~w{!d ss SLtl tlh LH1f'I~n cr,eatl.l'res,whO' w-ere a, men.a,r:e to 9C1C~~. I f1I 11 apa i'il mOJie&ia f1I 16,00 n womel'l 'Wlth d~s®lbilitles we~B in\lolli~'~riIV st.e~illll~ed wi~h. go\!'" eminent 1I1PIProvili rnull H;)c4·5tD 19~Hi Sweden 09ipolo~redror title same actiontalken a~irrls,t 62,000 Qff ~l'S ciitizerrls inUlie J1970s"

Sucih It}latatrlUly hostile l~atm!i3'n~ of peoplle wij'~h diSiaJbulitl,es, has ,gtiv~i'll 'w;fy 'to ,S! med~Cal m:od~J" II:iJ 'il/hidhth,e disEl,bledare vie'1j\,1i1l,d; es chmnic pa,ti e'I1I'I,'s, Iln,c:rre,8Is1rrlgly, Ihowever, peoplle. CQtllCl81111led w~t~, ~he ~U~hts O'fMle disabled Ihave cfi'ltlQlz~d this mod'sl ss well. III"J, Wei ~'!Jie'l'l! U is 'U1e tUti1lleCe5Si9i1'jl !lnd d~scrlmitnat(lry barrlers pwe:sej'lJ'~ ~i'i, the ~nl).Iiroi'lmei'lt~bp:th physJcalaM irIUirudinal...dl!hat .sta,n d ~n 'thH~ W8l~ of people with d~salbllities, nnoretl1.an: f'U1rY b~oll,ogicalllimlta~lomL ApplVifig a. eM' (lgMs modej~ i;'lllt,t1l.1ists empha,o !lii2e ~hat[t1Jt(l!SJe witth diisillbHli[ies f'8,ce wide5ipmiill.lI

ptre]bJdioo, d~$Crimil1a,tlol1" and sefJreg~tion. For exa,mp~e" rnost votJItng places are linaocesslb~e to wheelchair users and fail to pm'!J~dI'!l balll'o,'~ that C~f1 be ~Jsed byU1ose, IUti1abl,e 1:.0 re,ad print

Dmwing onms e@r~ier WOtrk 'O''!' Erving Go'ff'~ man, con[r!!'mp'Otriitry :sociololf!~S,'1S IlEl.V12 sll\!1;ge5ted ttJat socIety a.'ti:.af:hes, 8JSlt~~maIDo\ ma.nyrorrms of d~salblm~ a s'U.~mla, 'bhat I'eads to lP'n~jilJdnr:ial treatmsnt, Pe!ilp~'e with dls·abilil;ie:s h,equr'i!ntlly obSierve~nar tihe flondiisabl,ed see rnsm Oti1lly as blitndl, W\hee~(;haiw users, ilti1di so forth, r:atl'i€!r tnan as oomple:;;: human l1ein,gs with ItiH:JividuiiIIl srrefl:f!!M and! 'f.iJeakines!5es, ~ho:\je blindlness or Wise of a Wihee~ch~ir ~s merely one sspect of tl1eir ~Ives.

WIj]'I!!I~d an employee wM ellite[e[jtl1t~ rOOI[] see 11 me m iJe:r (If 11 ~o nSIlU~til!iig te:tllm ow ~ man iilm 13 wfuiee~chail'? [)i;sabm1ry often fluJllilctkH1S

as i'I Iill aster status.

IE!mp~oymenl, hoLtlsin\g, educaUon, ,1II11Id aeeess to pllJbliC iouUdling5.

In .1rl/~(HI Ui,Ij'L dum J (), (J() 0 ~UWI dJ ~. J ll. d.stlll,' .'l !L~ H't fL WI 1~"'tllWn/i/.'" (~nll';_! d 7f lill

,~VI l j ~I'" Ht u/Jfj j"rH'HJ j.·.mt 19..;: s to j ~ ~,.


r, noes yOLJtr campus preseflltt b8lrrters W dis" <!ib~ed students,? If ~O, wha:t kifH:lS o~ b,fljrri,~rs~ proSUCifll~, alti'~udtitllal, or both?, De5{;rb:= some ofrh.em.

2. Why do y1)U 'llillnk I'1ltQ,ndlisEl,llled peoplese,~ d~sall:Jtm~y as th@, most ~mpClrtant cha rae= teristl!c ,o,f a disalbll,edllPlEli'Son? Wlhat can be done 'to h,ell!p' people' see beyondlllhe. '\!'Iihe,e~~ cihairr and the :see~ng-e¥e dog?

Aithougl1 d~s!r:~imunatio!i1 against the d~saMed Deems aroulldl the 'i\OCH~d. attitI!Jde9 iBtre c!ha ngitrl~l. The A fritr::.a f1I nation O'f BO'tswa na hills plans to ass~st ~ts disab~edr mast of whom Hve in r,ui'all alre~$ and li1eed $p~CI~~ 3er'l.l~Oes for mobillity and economic de'!.llellopmel'1lt. In many cou ~trles, dllsa hll nty tnigtns acthiistts aJre ts rg:et~ iflg tssuss essential to Qvercamitng thIs master S1~Wg: SJld becomiti1~ a full CitJiZ<Efl, inclu.d~i'Ig

.s~urOBS; AltJrechl2004, Eia,lmIaw .200,8, G'offman 18153, [I. MUrpolil.:r 1997; lVe<w,sday 1997; S~ih;;lerer 2{)10: 4tl7-4l!.2; !S:hapoim' 19H3.

R'O'G' Stra'in' Role mn:~ict describes the situation 'of <I pe.rson dealing with the chalITenge of OC(ulP'yi.'D1lg:hvQ social positions simultaneously .. However. even a single position Gin cause problems, Sociolog;i.stl! use thetermrele stnmtll. to describe the diffi.culty that arises when the same socia] pesition lrll"l!poses conflicti,ng demands and expectations,

People who belong tnminerity cultures may experience rote strain while wntkingin the mainstream culture. Criminolegist Larry Gould {.2002:)o interviewed officers oftfJe' Na.vajo Nation Police Department about their relations wi tth conven tionallaw enfurcement officials, such as sheriffs and . .FEn <l!gen~s. Besides en:forrmg the ],;JV!.f; Navajo Nation officers practice an alremative EmIlI of justice known as Peacemaking.Jn which. they seek recoaeiliaticobetween the parties to iii. crime, The offi.cer.s expressed. great confidence in Peacemaking, but worried that if they did. not make arrests, othee law enfnreement officials would think they were too snfil:j, or: "just taking care of their own:' Reg;ard[e.s:s of the strength of their: tries to traditional Na'.'il3jo ways1 alll felt the

. f' 1L " . . sid . ·d- ",. N' . n ,'~ , 'r. T .". , ., ... ,;

st~.caHI. 0 . ~,Je:l.l]g COIl~I· ere too f, <Jiva}o or not 1.'laV~}O enougu ..

use you r soclologi ca I i.magination

n you were a male IIllurse, w;hat aspects of role I(:onfliict m:ight}!'01ll experi'Ei'IIlI!De? rNJ·O\IV limagine YOUI are a p~Qfes," sienal boxer and a woman. What t(:ol"ltliic:ting rolle m::pecwtito!ns might that ,ilill\l'ol:v·e:? in both cases, mlo!;!l 'Weill do you~hiinlk ytlllJl would h,andlle ,FOI!e oon1ll:ict?

officers experience this type IQf role cnnflict, In the latter case, rem.ale officeranrusr strjve to reconcile their wurkplace role in law enfor-cement with the societalview of a woman's role, which does not embrace IKlany skills needed in police work. And. while' femalepolice Offi.CC:IS encouuter sexual . .l~,nas.sIneJltj, as women do throughout the labor force, t~.li,ey must <I!]So deal with t}u;:: "code of sil!enoe." an. i.nfollluiiI.nmln thal:])Credu.des their implicating .:fellow officers inw.mngdl.Qing (FletcJ~er 1995;

10.2 S. Mal'tin 1994).

~ ,I' E<~'''. f"1L'ft··, h" 'L,' 'k' ',f- " ,,"~1' '.1'

.nO.rEil' ul't v . en; w .. en we tu.nn· 0<. aSS'U.rmng a SOChill [10 .e;

we Coem on the p.reparation m.'ld an ticipa~m~f socializatiun 11.

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


Ii. SOC:iillllnre!!'IiIJm1iiloln ,iUld :So";iall S:~~ull1!lJ:r'e

A.c:cording to :sooi(]I[]~ist !Helen Rose Fuchs BDaugiru, rl[]lle exm is :aklur-st<Ii~ll! precess, Is tnls u.linsewall tn tih:ei'irst or theml!llrtl:ti stai~ of Ohi'iHilgilllg geiflld:ers?

person undergnes fur that role. Such is true if a peB.-son is about tobeeome an. attorney; 1:11 chef, a s.pouse, 'or a parent, Yf::t until rerently, social scientists have given little atrention to the adjustmeats involved in te'a']!t1'lg social roles,

Sociologist Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh (19'88) developed the term rele exitto describe theprccesr s of disengag;ement nom a rcde that is centralto one's fldf-identity in orderto establish a new role andidentity, Drawing on interviews with ]85 peopleal'lCiong them. ex-convicts, divorced 111!en and. women, recoeering alcohelies, eX.-TllU1.S, £o'.~~lner doctora.retirees, and. traasexuals->Ebaugh (herseTIf <I. fermer 11111n) studied the P]1Ocess. efveluutarily exiting fronl. significant social roles ..

Ebaughhas offered OJ, four-stage model of role exit. The first :stagebegiI!l.s with a(Jub,t. The perSOI1! experiences firu:stmttion" ]burnomt,. or simplYLInbappi:neSi!ilwitb anaccustomed status and the roles associated with ·~.~H::· social position .. The secnnd stage involves a .5eatch fm'~lte~'~~atiiles. A pers.p;n who is U:n1];iilPPY wi til his or her career maytake aleave of absence; <!u llmhappily married couple may be;ginwha t they see as> a ~ernpomry sepa:ra tion,

Thethird stage of role eat istlre .~h::;t,i.on stagt: or departur~e.

Ebaugh found that the vast major.rty of her respondents could i.dentifya dear turning point that made them. feel it was essential to take fin a I action andleave their jobs. end their nsarriages, or eI!lg~ge in. another type of role exit, Twenty percent of respondents saw their role exit <II.S a gradua]~ ,evo.lu.t:iona:ry process that had no single turning point.

The last .stage 'Of role exit invo.lves the cre'(,Jtioiftof (1, n!l!'l1! ideutity. M.a.ny of you participated in a eole ex:it whenyou made the transition from high school to, mUege. You lett 'behind the role

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjll1 C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

of off.spring .tj.ving at home and. took on the role ofa somewh at independentcollege student living with peersin a donn .. Soeiolo.,gist Ira Si].y'er (_] 9'915) has studied the central role that material objects P]<IY in this transition, '[be objects students chonse to leave at home (like :stuffed animals andl dolls) at-e assoeiatedwith their prior idemities, Tbey ll:lay remain deep~.y attachedto those

lL..'iL. ....:I._. '1-._ . . . f t, '. "'d

olLJ~J,ects> but en not want them to. iJ't:' seen as rmt a..tuell'new 1· en-

tities a[ mllege, The olbj,ects they bringwithjhem sy.mbome how they now see themselves and how theywisJI. tobe perceived. iPods d!:Ii.d.\I!ldi.l! posters, for exaul]:p]e. are calculatedto say, ·~Thi.s is me."


In. so ciological terms, a g~1U1P is any number of people with.

" 'J- al d ~ ,_" _.,.ll "' ~ .' th

SW.1Il ar norms, v' ues, an , expeoLalLIOIJlS"""nOlIllLeracL W['L .'. one

all1otlJ.er on a.regular basis. The members of a wOW.en's basketball. team.a hospital's business offi.ce, a synagogu.e, Oil' a symphony orcbestracenstltute a glAOUp. Hcwever.tlre residents of a suburb would not be considered <I group, since they rarelyinseraet with one another at one time ..

Groups ph'ya vita] part ina soci . .e'ty;s social structure. Much of our social. interactioctakes .place witlrin g:mups and is influenced by their norms and sanctlons, Being a teenager ora retiredperSO]] takes on speeialmeanings when we interact within gmujpS designed for people with that particularstatus, The expectations asscciatedwith.many social roles, including theseaccompanying the statuses of brother. sister, and studeet, beccrne more deaJ.dy defined in the contest of a group.

Social Institutions

The massmedia, the government, tbeeeonomy, the faRIlI.]ly, <lind tbe' hearth care system are diU examples of social institutions found in our society; Social MsIt1tuDonSOIre organtledpaJUer:ns oflbdiefs and. behavior centered. on basic S>G ciill needs, such. asreplacing personnel (t]],efu1]]ii.y) andpreservlllg orde:r [the gaver.[Iwent)..

A dose look at secial institutions gives socioh~)gistsi.IIlsight into the structure ofa secietj; Censiderreligicn, for example, The institution of religion adaptsto the segment of ~~odety that it serves .. Chm.cfu. work has very differerrt meanings for ministers W11Q· se:r-v,e a skidrowarea and thosewho !IeI'Ve a suhurban middleclass m.rn:muni.1ty. ReHgi:OIJ1~]eadel'." assigned to' a skidrow missien will {ocus ontendingto tbe ill lind providing food and shelter. In. contrast, clergy In affluent suburbs willbe occupIed. with enunseling those cansiderirsgmarrisge and. divorce, <Arranging ycmili activities, and overseeing cultural events (Schaefer 200gh).

F-unctioln:alist 'V'lew One Wiry to understand social institutions is to see: howthey fuUHI essential fanetions, Anthropologist David E Aber~.e and his colleagues (].950) <lind StOc;io]ogists Raymond. Made and. Calvin Bradford. (:I. 979 )~.laryei.del1tifl.ed five m:;lj:or tasks, er functional prerequIsites,~nat a society or relativelypermanent gmu.p must aeoamplish if it isto survive;

~t .ReplCiGll'l,g pf;I'SOm~;eJ, Any grolll F' or ~oci,ety must replace pe:r~ sonnel when Ul:ey die, Ieave, or become incaparhated .. This task is aecompltshed through such meaJTIS as immigration, annexation of neighboring g19aups"a{;quisi~ion. of slaves, or sexual reproduction. The Shakers, i!II religiollls sect that earne 10 the United States in. 1774, ate a conspicuous example of a gmlllp that has failed tn replacepersonnel, The]! religious heliefs commit t1~.,e' Sh.ake:rs tocelibacy; to survive the gromp



Ii. SOC:iillllnre!!'IiIJm1iiloln ,iUld :So";iall S:~~ull1!lJ:r'e


must recruit newmembers, Atfir,$1!, the Shakers proved quite succcessmA.in. a.ttracting naembers.reaching <II. peak arE about 6~~OOO I:l1!emb ers in the United States during the 1.840s:. As of zoos, however], the on~y Shaker enmlTluJ1J.ityleft in thiscountry was a faem in Mainewith foul" merahers=-one man and. du:ee women (Sabbmthd:ay lake 2008).

2. Te{lcf~.rn:g new recfui~:s:., No gmup or sociel:y can survive if :GIlan!, of [Its members reject the grouFfs established

l' L' _j ib "'l'"t' 'TIl' C:..J" d

~J·e.ui!l.v"]Qir aua :respomn hl ies, ". ,u:S.IJnum.g Oi~.' pro auc-

ing new members is not sufficient; the group or sociely must also eElCCH.iI.Iage recruits to learn andaccept its values and. customs, Such learningcan take place fnmlL1Uy, witth:i.Ul schools (where learning is :<1 manifest function), or in:forrlll.:l!My:. through interaction in peer groups, (where instructicn is a lateru fuaetion),

3. 'pf1)ducif~g ,m~d ,distr-ibuti;';lg good;s and serV'ices.iU:Dy 11::1alively permanent group a!1: oo{;:iety mustprovide and rnstrihUllte desired. goods,ulId . services !to itsmembers . . Each societvestablishes R set of rules s for the allncation offinancial and ether resources, The groupmust sa:.tisfy tfl!e needs ofmest members to some ex.tent,. er it 'Win risk the possibility of di:srnn1tenl:<IJ],m Ultinl~.l:dy dlsoeder,

4,. .Presenfing, 0 ute!': Thruughout the world, indigenous and. aboriginal peoples have struggled to protect themselves from. outside invaders, with varying degrees of :SUCDess. :F<i:i]ue to preserve order and defend ag~ti.nst conquest leads to the death not O]l~y of a. people. but of a culhHie,

5, .Pr-mrid'ing ~~~d rn:CliJ~JCiirr.il'~g a sense O{p1.f'fpOSe_ People must fee.l motivated tn continne asmembers of a g;ncOL]P or society In erder to Cill61ltfue tint four requirements .. On January 20, 2009., in the midst ofwha~w()iuM :pmve the worst eecnomic crisis since the G])eat Depression, 2m:il1ion }\:rl1leriams crowded the Nal:~o.llill Ma.n to witness the inauguration of President Barack Oba:D1l1<l] theru.'lt.Afrk:an American to be elected 1:0 tbenation's highest ofil'ke. The celebration, <111 expression of both pateiotism and. Black pride, mnvinred people of all! :races that change\1!ffispo~silbE.e and better times lay ahead, Paced wifh hug:e]~.yoffs andmassive home~ored.oiliureSj. .AnleFlaJinS heardthe new presid.enfs call to servetheir natinn, . Patriotism and racial pride, then, can. help people to develop and maintain 3. sense of purpose . .For others, tribal identities, .reli:giou:~V<II.lues, air personal nlorru: codes are especiallymeaningfuk '10lbat:t'vler the metivatcr; in aJny society there remains one enmmon and critical r,eaHty~ if anm.div.i.dual does not have <I sense of ptnpose.be or she has little reason tn contribute to a society's survival.

This list of functional p:re.teqnisites does not .sp~cify 'l,OW a society and its ecrrespnnding social institutions will [perfonTl eaelrtask ... Fm example, one society mar protect itself feorn external attack by amassing a frightening arsenal of weapiJnry·, white another mary make determined ef£orts 1:0 remainneutral in wmJd politics andtopromote cooperative r,datio11.si:dp:s with its neighbors. No matter what itspartlcu1Eir "~t:rategyj any society or relatively permanent grou.p must attempt to :satisfy all

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjll1 C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

What do we make oHhi£gwlJP, pl:iiotogra~hd on tns BmoklYIl wate·rrfmn~ Oil Se'ptemher 11,2001? De plll(ilt:o~r,1lplrn,~r \'I.Iho snappedthe phote imm,ed:iiatelll'

rea lize~tJrniCrt Ii'e ambig.u QIJJIS soen:e WDJUll,d UQUlbh;l JIDl Blilry \i'iewers.. Not Ilmitil 2(106 W<lS it d!liS:piiJlyed; <JlnI]tl1,err yealr paased before ~t W.lM5 PlJQI~shediillll a hook.IPuhi1c rleactJiGJl1Il W~Eie swifl:: some p,e()lp,l,e c!Jitk:iz.ed whalt iCIlpip ea red to be .1! grOUlpr of yo LJn~ adlu Its lellljoyirruJi!' themsed;ves asthe 'Wortd Tra:de Center bl,lmedl; oth ers spa€:1li lated tnat the imi1le~~

had tJee:n malllliipclJl:altied.llnl reality, 'tfuie peol~le in the photo weN:~ Illo,f uncolllCerne,1l or dliiSialit::eote(l, Ilm w;;;Js·lhee im,a\~ m;;m,ipl!iI<ltedl. The If'lJlllllfIg worn@m si1itiJiilJi! ollitliiJe wall !MaS actu ally deeB:p'I~ touched, beea use !mer mothie r \l'lijrked for M i nou Ya 1m asa il;;i, the W0II1d Trade Gt!nt:ers ill reh l!I;e.a£, TIl if!> grllU P seen e was eiJUigJitjiilOst. als tI'IIe cou ple stQPped~J} speek wit!m thJFee str<JllIlgers al:mut till!:! triCIig~d¥ that was Mnlloldliiml,lfl across the 1i,1/eI[, tis: they ta I ked, a m:l from ti rlili~ to time stopped to hel pwo rker.o who 'Mere tJyiffii~ to g'et

·ltD B rQolldYIl r. t.hese 5.tr('I f1ge~ e'J,i'Qlveo latn ,11 s€oonJdal)'groMp thln;mgilll thek sh ered eXiPe rie rICes ( Fri'B:na :200 7; Hoeil1k.elf:2 006; MastJlr 20tH; Sipi5-er :2006~.

these hmeJio(rJI<;JI.l pl)eTeq uisites £m survival ]f it falls on even one eendifion, the society runs the risk of ex.tincl:ion.

C,nDR',c[' View Conflict theorists do not agree with the functronruistappl]ioac:h. to social instinrticns, Although. proponents of both perspectives agree that socialinstiturlnas are org:a[Jiized.~CI meet basic social needs.cnnflict theorists object to the idea that the outcome is necessarily efficient <lnd desirahle .

1:1:r0l][I <I conflfctperspective, the present organizatien of social institutions is no accident .. Major institutions, Sl[J,ch. as ediucatj!ol'l, help tomaintain the privileges of the most powerful individuals and. groupswithin a Slooety"while ecntributing tnthe powerlessness of others. 'fo give one example, public schocls in the United. States; arefinancedlargelyth rougbproperty taxes, This Hl"angeanent aUows more affluent areasto provide their children "vitth better-equipped schools and better-paid teachers thanlowincome areas am affb.IDcL As <I result.children from p]iosperous communitiesarebetfer :p:repa:red. to compete academically than ehildrenfrom imp overished commnnities, The structure of the nation's educational syst:em permits and even promotes such unequal treatment of sehoolchildren,

('.AJ'nfliic~ theoristsargue that secialinstitutinns such as education have m:a.i:nl),en::niF.y conservative nature, VVithO'l]!.t question,

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml


Ii. Soc:iillllnre!!'IiIJm1iiloln ,iUld :So";iall S:~~ull1!lJ:r;e

Wa'o!'illig fftii3gs and ,dres£ed ilm r:ed, white, and blLJe, lIile1!rly 2 million Amerrcans: calmel~gether to' celehrate tlhre inlllJ\g,!Jra~ion (If Presidelliit BiClirrack rObllmral,th.e IllatioCii ':Sfi rst Afri>C'an Am eri;mll'l plr:esidielfll, ililil JanlWary :2 OO~lr. 1111 tiJ:e IIll idSit 1)1 a de:epetrli!'llg ecenemle arid! financii1!1 crisis, Obllma'sele,oW:m ti1r(lug1i1t hope to Amerinans of an races, "elllin~, them till n'l1!ilfltain <;II sensa of' PLJfPose IInlnH farce of adversity.

it has been difficult to implementeducational reforms t1),at pmmote equal oppor.tunity-w.hetfu.er bilingual education, schocl desegregation, or maiestreaming of students with dlSiii:bil.iti.e,~. From a functionalist perspective, social chaEII.g:e canbe dlysfunctional, since it o!ltenl.eaJ.d$~o i.nsta.hility. However, from a cnnflict view, wh.y should we preserve the existing social structure if it is unfaiz and diacriminatoryi

Social institutions also operate in genderedand racist environments, as canfliet theorists •. 01.$ well. as femlIDjs[s and interactionists, have pointed out. In schools, offices:; and government institutions, assurnptfnns about what people can do reflect the sexism andracism oflfue larger society .. POI' mstance, many peo,ple assume that women cannot make tough decisions=-even those il]~!f. top echelons ef corparate managemem, Others assume that all Black students at elite colleges represent affirmative action admissions .. Inequality based on gender. economic sta1l1I,s., race, Bind eth.nidty thrives in such aneavironment-cto which we might add diserimmation based .011 a!@e, physical. disabiAity, and sexual orientation, The trU!ili of this assertion can be seen inroutine decisions by employers on howto advertise jobs;

@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjll1 C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

S'()cial instilLrtiQrl5 ~ect tile W1!~ w.e tlll'Im<;l1Je. How might ttJ@se ~en,s sodallli!Zilrlg at a !illii3 II in S!I;lUi\;h Ko rea iirutera ct d ifferentlly in schQol1 or art horne?

CIS well a~ .. whether 10 provide fr.i:nrg;e benefits such aschild cme andparentalleave,

In'te.racti'OrAist Vi'ew Social iustitutions affect nur everyday lbehiilv:iO[;~ wh.etther wei!U~e driving down the street 01' waiting in a long ;.'lh{Jpping line. Sodo]ogisl: Mitchell Duneier (]9S'1,4aj ] 9'94b) studied the social lb ehavior of the word pl'OceSJlo:rs, <l.U women, wn,owork ill. the service center of <I large Chicago law firm ... Duneier was interested in the informal social nrmns that emerged in t.his: werk environment and the rich social network these female employees created ..

The Net.work Center, as it is called. isa single, wlnd.owless mom. in at .]a:rge office Du]]ding wh!ere the ]dlW firm nccupies seven IlIno.~.,,,. The center is :staffed by two shilfrs of word proces.sor:.~> who work either fDOlTI 4:;00 p.m .. to I11idlnight 01'b:01111 midnight to :8:0(} a.m, Each wnrdpmc-essor works in a. cubicle with just enough room for her keyboard.terminad, printer, and telephcne, Work assignments for the word. pmc:essors are placed in acentral basket andthen completed according to. precise jpmceduIies.

At first gla:n.ce, we might think. that these WOID]en labor with little social contact, apart from Iimitedbreaks and. oCCl3Isi.ol]al. conversations.with their supervisor, Hnwever, drawing 011 the interacrionistperspecrive, Duneierleamed that despitewerk ~ ingin a large 'offi!Lej, these women find private moments to talk (oftten. in. the halls 01' outside thewashroom) and. share a critical view ofthe lawfi:rm's attorneys and day-sbift secretaries, Indeed, the word pmcessors routinely suggest that their assign:u1!.e]]rl:s represent worktb;at the "lazy" seeretaries sheuldhave completed durieg the normal wor:kdiiily~ Duneier {] 9940) tells of one word. processorwho resented. the lawyers' superier attitude andpointed]y refused. to recognize m speak with ally attorney- who wOluM not address, b.er by name.

Interaefienist theorists emphasize that our socielbehaviur is conditioned by the roles and statuses we accept, the gWiUpS tnwhich we beleng, and the institutiens within which we funetien, For example, the social roles assoeiated with being a. judge occerwithin the ]arger context of the criminal justice system. The status of j iJdge stands in re'latiOif:l to other statuses, such as, C1Homey"plaintiff, diehendant. and. witness, as wen as to the socie]

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Ii. Soc:iillllnre!!'IiIJm1iilo,n ,iUld :So";iall S:~~ull1!lJ:r;e

'institutien of government, ,A1th.0 lIlgJo.. courts OllCN:[, jails .have gl3eat synllIDolk importance, the judicial systen'l derives its continued significance frDinJl the roles people caTry Ol~t in secial interacdons (Beu'gel" and Lnckmann 19(6).

la,ble 5-1 summarizes the three [!I]<Ijo~." sociological pers;pectives onsecial institmions,


GrOllliPs d.o [lot merely serve to define ether elements of th,e social structure, suchas roles and statuses, they "],50 link the indivfdual with. the larger society, '\¥e ~ll belong to a number of differeD]'!: gmUl]piS, and thrnugh OIU: <lI.cquainta:nces make connections with peoph~ in diffen~.nt secialcircles These connections are known as i8I. SiOclw!Il.dwork-a. series of social :relationship, s that links a perso[1 directly to others" andtnreeghtbem indirectly to, :still. more people.

Socia] networks can center on vi.rtu<lUyany activity"uom. sharing job lI!l.£on.naJtlon to exdl;a:~]ging news and gossip. or even sharing SIf::X •. ln the mid- I 9905, sodologj:s1ts Peter Bearman, lames Moody> and Katherine Stuvel (2,O(M) studiedromantic relatiooships <It ahigliI school wI1Uh about 1 ~OOO student$ .. Th!er found that ahout 61 percent of the girlshad been sexually active over ttll!e' past 18 months. Among the sexuaUy active respondents.jhe researchers C011Hlted. only 6.3 steady couples, or pairs with no other partners A. mueblarger gmup of 288 students-calmost a. Iilii.rd of thesanrple=wasiueolvedin 3. free-fl.o,wi.n,g network of relationships.

This research on high SChOQ~ei".S> sexual acti.vity; an example of applied :sod.oJog:y; has dear lmplications fur pu.blic: health, Box 5-£: describes a similar but longer-term smdy that used network analysis to illform govermnent efforts to' discourage .sum.king.


Essellrl:ialfu 1111Jtio 1"15

Involvement in social nerwcrks=-commonly lIlOW[I as l~ernrofkiHg----i$ esped.aUy valuable in finding em ployment, Albert Einstein was successful ]nfi.ndi:ng a job on~y when a classmates father put hirn in touch with his future enrployer, These kinds of COIl taets=-even thesethatare weak and distant----canbe crucial in establishing socialnetwer ks and .. Ifa.clltil:<liting the transmission of infermation.

In the workplace, nehvo.i·king pays offn]n~-e for men than for women because of the traditional presen.ce of men in leadership positions" One survey of executives found that 63 percent of the men used.netwcrking te findnewjoba, compared to ·4,] p ercen t. of tlle women. Women we,re more likely th<JIH men torely on [l~si:fied advertisements to Jliud jobs, StiU, WOlDen at aFt levels of the paid. labor fume are beginningto mallie effective use of social nd.'IIII'o:n:li::s. Now that job advertisements have la:rgel.ymig:n:ated to the Internet, new research is needed OJ] whether gen.del: dliffe:rences persist in in- per.son <lind online networking, (L FI.y11:n 2008; Henly 1999).

Virtual Worlds,

hoday, with recent advances in!:ec.h:llo]ogy, people can maintain their social networks electmnically; they don't need. face-to-face c~ntacl:s.~'1ethe:r th:ro1l1,gh text-messaging, handheld devioes" or social n.e'ftlworki:lJ]g site s like Pacebook, a :signifj!GIHt :!l11101mt IOf networking OOCtUS online. Adolescents can now interact freely with dista[ltb:iellds.,ev'e'fl undes dose. S,CD:lIll:iJrly by parents or teachers, WitllHlIlt leaving their cubicles, employees with a. taste fer al:dventUI~ call ,escape their work envimnrnents. In. Box. 4·-2. (page 8S)we considered the iUlIF<JJ.ct of online social netwnrks 01] the process of socialization, Fa.celbook and MySpace are O]]~y the first stage in the creation of alternafive forms of .Jreality through new t,echno.l!ogy. Box 5- ;) rm page lL 03 examines the establishmen t of a whole new society, rnUed the Second Li{e~vi[mid world,

Virtual Iife ean and does migrateiut:a reallife .. In. 1.007> c01- lege housing om.ciEib became wurriedwben freshnren <md. their pEirent:s began checking outthe Paeebonk profiles 'Of prosp eetive roommates. SOOI'1; mUeges were fidding :reg.uests for new roommates before stu.ulents evenarrived on Camplll!!. C0911ce:L"nSIA'ent fal" beyond tastes inmusic; the reservations expresser] most 'Often by parents included apctentialroommate's race, religion, and sexual orientation {CoUura 20{)7).

Online scclalization may not necessarily reinforcepeople's prej udices, however. Researchers at .P,e'IlH.sylvania State University argue that participating in the Second Life workll opens ILI.S up topeople from different cultural and .lingui"'tic barkgruunds. In their view> online [l~ielildships an10ng avatars rill!!,}" enhance crosscuiltl!U<!l eacounters and.friendsaips in the first Hfe-that is, the realworld {Diehl and 'tins 200g).

Schaefer: :So~ioliDgf. 1i2tb Edi~iml

Ii. Soc:iillllnre!!'IiIJm1iilo,n ,iUld :So";iall S:~~ull1!lJ:r;e


@ The Md3raill'l'-Hjll1 C[]mpanf:es.2[1][1

etw rl(s

d Smokin


Overl!iH3 past t'IJIIog€H1H!!I'atioltlS" 'the im:;ijd:e'.r:Joe of smoldl1g, ln 'i1e ILhlJted Sta~es has decm.aood s~gnil'icaJntlly, Schro~a,rs IUfr,re b®elllt~ying to rCi:et'!3[mine the l'e8cSOns foritl,is Slhiil in bena,vi(llIF, Gelr~ tainlly 'thi@ hea,~ttI bl!!n~fits of qU!ftl rlIg must h:a:lb3' ~ 11'~ilJerilced m 8,I1,Y people. B LJt smo~irng, Is a 11 aclrd:h::tiv,8 betiillVliolF tnat ts diffj,cnJ it t'O S'~op. COll,lld sOMe:U!lI!1\g more 'flaln pOr'~~irltla~ h,eallth beMfi'lS II Ire behind its ste f!iP ortlel ~n~f'

lollindl out, researchers repeatedlly aJs~es:sedI IDe smOrking Ilalbits rOf 12,rQ'fH subjects: of a IIOrllg"terimJ SUf'!Jey of hiealit !health. From fle be" gjni1ii'lg,~h'(W ,examined the ffl~e O'f soci,al n,etworks In respondents' smoking. INot su rpri.si n\~ly, tihe.~ foun d that socHa~ nel'Wmks lYpi,r:a ~~y Iii n ~edl IDos@ Wtho either smo~~d cr did not smoKe.lI1€! two g;)'OILlIP!S lraro~y mixed.

O\llew U1~ ITJro,r,e 'thEm thlree' d,~cad,es. 9ince~h fs S!Ulrvey Ib,e,ga n, reses rcn,e:r'S SilJi'il! ma r~ed eha n,g9s ln res:pnl'!lrd:et':r~' smOKil1:g ben,81vior .. ~~~holUgfi1rh8\ slize of ~heilr ~am~lly alfldWen'ld:shTp clllJster.s rem9Jined tl'1lil same" ill many c:11IJ5;ters, members 'oomny ,9iballdifj,n,~dsmolkiM. lI'ii!l 'fUmliflg$;ug~ ~es,tsljuH who~e ,groups of '~liendsOlnd r'ami~y welt'e quitting wgerh.@r.

litle' E!,c:comipanying 'fif)lJlte sh.O'WS 'tI1,e same soc~~1 ne('WOifk fit th,e be~nl"ll~nig aJrld end OI~ the sm~'s ;30"yei3ir span. As JI"I1~ght be e>:.:pecterd:, :~01Jp Imembeffilhip and th,e links 'that COI1I'i1,ects,d msmbers chEilrng~d over tinn€!. Mme mmarkablJe was the dec:Ii.I'iI,e or ourr~ghtt.dl;satp:lleara,l'iloe of smokiil1g ~Itl some clus.b@ffi.The remaifl~ng smolkers., esP'E!clalilly l1ea.vy smokell'5i" were mi3irgil'l9,1 iLed~ tha;[ .. hs, their ties ttl Qltlher members of the tn~lWonk dI'G!c!liined:.

Social pressum 00 qilJil. smoki"g seems: '00 IlJlndel'!lf! t11'8se Chim~5,. lMo~ably, r[i£!nds but 1'I0't l1e~ghbors Qlftl!ioge Who qUllit were irl'Auernced. by a IpeISQ~n"S dec~jo!ll t'O stop .smoki~g .. Alma.i"ig'fr[emls, smoKil'llg cessatton by one person decre~sedl the dhafloss, that the 'D,ther'-'llOu~d 'Da.ntinue '00 smoke bJ' se [percent .Amo:ng Sl~~I~itlgsJ the rls!k ofth,~ orMIF per'OOn Cli!nllnllJ~l"Igro smo!lmrel~ b,Y

P, Netw(Jrrik cf Smokers and Non-Smokers, 19711l1ld 2000

.!I .... ~ ...


'. . 'III ....... ".It ~ •

.' .


. ~I-:~

" ...


25, pe:rcerrl, ifIInd amollg spouses, by 67 peroenl. Among co"work.er:sat smallfirms,fh,e dmpll1 Ute cJhanC@'$ rOf one' smol\(~ng after the otEl,er Stopped was :3 4 pe'rcel1t

~tndlVtidua~s.lBe(:allJse this ims:lgh:t. mays:iso p~,o/(!ie lll~.efljl in IOtthelF are.siS Qrf prlJbl~G heaU~" researchern are now plannlng 'to 1f'l1,I\8s:tigate ti'l'e treh31~ tiOlllShip be:~~efl sOicial Ilelwnrks and 01) e~i:ty, dI.ri iii kii'!,g, and d ru:gabilJse.

In mall Y t lust c (.)', tJJ ,'milt r.\ tr,rully Ir/wwlmltd ,jjh.'.iltt!

-i u; Imdrt.~ 'I'll';!.!,! ,r.' rlWI Yj 1.1)/1 !.!,HHI,h r'l tnLl1tl., !lud I;w~jl.i

1( l j't {!uit IlII,!! r(t~l rill. r


1,. 111. your e.'i:!jJ'G!l'ience, do sn1Ql!l.ers E1rnd tlIorn:smokers tend to cluster ~n .sepilfrfite gro'l!Ips? Have you ~\!Ielrltl'ie:d, ~O' quit SmtOldlng,aml if 00" d~d yam cl uster of Iliencls and 'f,liImi~y Mlp Or' Ih~t'I,d!er you?

2. l!J,es!ides· public he:al~h c8Impaijgns:, what !o~hera.pp~"\c:atlon:s cal"l yD'L:I thilnlk: ofJ~1' &)CrS~ rlI,etwoMk resea rch:?

Thi9stu,dy' showsl:tia't 50cia~ tiletworrik:s ~irIf1u~ eflce th,e way people beliJ8\.!1B. ~n thiS case, ~hey strer!.gtllel1,i1'!,d, theIr members,' 1N~lllpG\l'ileii' ttl qult smOiking. The pm cth::all" ora.pp~~,ed, implic6l~rOn of the research is ~hat IPllibiic h,ealltlh programs mat plFomOih~ smoldng c:essaUon, shoUJ,lld tar~ ~,et 'friendsh.ip gl'rOL:lp~ or oOrup~es ra'thelt' than

So'u'rCfl": .i::hlristalkis iEI'n~FWi'ller ;:lOOS, !{(lI'Elta2008~ It Smi~h and Chr:i!llak;is 2008:· Ft Steilll 2(H)8"

.fin;lUy~\liI1IJa] networks ciIn.~lIdlP' I!Q pl~eser\'e resl-warld networks interrupted by war and ether dislocations, In 2003, the deployment of u.s .. troeps in the Middle Eastincreasedmany people'areliance (lIIiJ e-mail. Today, dli.gital. ph.o~o::> and. sound fHes accom pa.n}'" e-mail messages between soldiers CIIIld theiz families aad friends. G~!'l, can even view s:ibli.ngs' graduations or c:hil.dren'sbil"thd.ayp<I:rti.,es 1iViE; via Webu:tns. And U.S .. soldiers and Iraqi citizenshave begun. to post their epinions of the W,~II~ in Iraq in. (lIliJline jOl!U1UIl$ called Web Rog.!S, or blogs, Though critics are skeptical of the identity of soane of the authors, these postings have become yet another snurce of news about the war (Faitfu 200S;. OlCm:moI" .2J)04; Sisson 1.1)07).

Soci'al Structur,e in Global Pers,:pective

Modern. societies are 001'TIplex, especially ooll1pared. '~O earlier social arraugements. Sociologists ~[!I1il,e D U!Ikh,einl" Ferdinand Torutie,s., and Gerhard Lenski developed w<t)'R to t'D.ntrns1t: modern societies with simpler fonns, of social structure.

Durkheirn's Mechanical and Organic Solidarity

In his Div:i'siou @f Labor (lI893J] 9'33), D ur kheim mguedth:<l.t social structure depends on the div:i:sio.lloflal:JQI in a society-in. other WQIiQSj. on themannerinwhich tasks are performed, ThI,K~;

a task such. las p.rovidin,g foed GIn be carried out almost totally l07'

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