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Cong Nghe Xu Ly Nuoc Thai

Cong Nghe Xu Ly Nuoc Thai

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Published by: Laivu Tai on Aug 28, 2010
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mAN vAN NH.

AN NGOTHlNGA

TRAN VAN NHAN - NGO TH! NGA

GIAo TRiNH

eONG NGHE

XU L Y Nude THAI

NHA XUAT BAN KHOA H9C vA KY THU~T HA NQI. 2002

60 - 601

Ma 56: ------------- 978 - 29 - 16/11/2001

KHKT - 99

LOinoi dCiu

Giao trlnh ~Cang ngh~ xu Iy nuoc tho!" nay duoc bien soon theo de cuong man hoc chinh thuc cunq ten cuo nganh C6ng ngh~ M6i truong, Truong DQi hoc Bach Khoa Ha NOi, nham eung cap cho sinh vien nhQng klen thuc co ban ve rnoi truono nucc vc cong ngh~ xu Iy nUDC thai. c::Ong coc tiep con boo v~ mol truong.

Ironq tam cue gioo trlnh 10 co so cue ccc phuong ph6p 50 dl.,mg trong cong ngh~ xu Iy nuoc thai vo ccc tinh toon conq ngh$. Giao trlnh cOng danh mot phon thich dang giGi thi~u tlap con giai quvet van de nucc thai cong nghi$p vo xu Iy nuoc thai cuo mot 56 nganh cong nghi$p.

Giao trint( nay cOng c6 the lam toi li~u thom khao eho hoc vien coo hoc nganh C6ng ngh$ Moi truong vo coc can bo nghien cuu trong ITnh vue xlily nucc thai.

Do bien soon Ian dou, giao trinh khong tronh khol thieu s6t. Chung toi rat mong nh¢n duoc nhOng y kien dong g6p cue bon doc vo dong nghi~p de giao trinh duoc sua chOa, bci sung cho Ian tal ban sou.

Ha N¢i. mua Xudn 7999 Cae tcc gia

3

MVC LVC

Clu((IIlK I, SV 0 NHIEM MOl TRUONG NUdC

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:) Uri JUii dall

1.1. He thong nuoc va moi tnrong L L I. Nlroc lrong !U nhicn 1.1.2. Su o nhicm nucc

1.2. Phan loai va ciic dac unh cuu mrcc lh:ii I .2. I. Phun loui IlW'Il' 111 .ii

1_2.2. ell- unh d1,tl lkh: trung cua mroc tluii

1.3. \1(1\ s(i lIlCll1g~l-i quan [rung cuu IllfUC thai LU. lliun luung chat ran

1.3.2. Il.un hrong ox)' hoa tan

U.3. Nhu cau ox)' sinh hoa

1.3.4. Nhu cau oxy hou hoc

l.3.S. Cic ch:"(t dinh duong

1.3.6. Chi til! chat hrong YC vi sinh cua ruroc

13.7. Cac lac nhan U(lC hai vii. cue hop chi! lien quan vc mal sinh thai 1.4. NWJC II1.ii sinh hoa;

1.5. N udc th ~I i cong ngh icp

1.6. Nuoc lh~ii do ih;

I .7. Anh lurong cu a nuoc thai doi vci cac nguon ticp nhan mroc J .7.1, Suo 6 uhiern ruroc song

1.7.2. Anh luroug cua 0 nhiern den ruroc ho

1.7.3. Anh lurong cua sir 6 nhiem d6i veri nuoc bi~n l.8. Quart I)' chat IU9ng mroc

1.9. Kicm soil (1 nhiem moi mrong nucc Bili tap

Tai lieu thalli khuo

C/u((JIlK 11. eAC PHUONG PHAp XU l Y NUDe THAI

2.1, MlJU'tiU

2.2. Phan loai de qua trinh va phuong phap xu 15' mrcc thai 2.3. Kinh t6" XlI 15' nucc thai

2.4. Lam sach ruroc thai bang de phuong pluip co hoc 2.4.1. Loc qua song chan hoac luoi chan

2.4.2. Dieu hoa hru hrong 79

2.4.3. Qua trlnh lang 81

2.4.3 .1. Phan tlch qua Irlnh I dng ella cac hal ran trong 0\10e thai S 1

2.4.:l.2. Be lang cal 95

2.4.3.3. Cie loai b~ Ling 98

2.4.3.4. Tach cac tap char n6i 100

2.4.4. Loc 104

2.4.5. Tach cac hat ran 10 lung diroi tac dung ella hrc ly tam va lire nen 114

2.4.5. I. Xyclon thuy life 114

2.4.5.2. May Iy lam 117

2.5. Cae phirong phap h6a I)' IIX

2.5.1. Dong II,l va k(:o II! liS

2.5.2. Tuyen n6i 125

2.5.3. Hap phu 132

2.5.4. Truo deli ion 141

2.5.5. Cac qua Irlnh tach bang rnang I 5 I

2.5.5.1. l1l;'im thau ngiroc 152

2.5.5.2. Situ loc 159

2.'1.5.3. Tham t.ich va dicn th:lm tach 161

2.5.6. Lie phirong phap dien h6a 163

2.5.6.I.Oxy hoa cua anal va khir cua catot 162

2.5.6.2. Dong II} dien 167

2.5.6.3. Tuy6n n6i bang dien 168

2.6. C;ac phuong ph.ip hou hoc 169

2.6. I. Phuong pluip trung hoa 169

2.6.1.1. Trung hoa bang tron lim chat thai 169

2,6.1.2. Trung hoa bang b6 sung cac lac nhan hoa hoc 169

2.6.1.3. Trung hoa rurcc thai axil bang each Inc qua vat lieu c6 lac dung 172

trung hoa

2.6. 1.4. Trung hou bang khi axil 174

2.6.2. Phuong phap ox)' hoa va khir 175

2.7. Xu ly rnroc thai hang c.ic plnrong phap sinh h9C 181

6

2.7.1. Nguyen Iy chung cua qua trlnh oxy noa sinh hoa 181

2.7.2. Sir phat trien cua te bao va dong hQC eua phan ling len men 182

2.7.3. Anh hirong cu a cac yeu t6 khac nhau len t6e d¢ oxy h6a sinh h6a 186

2.704. Cau true cua cac chilt 6 nhiern va bun hoat tfnh 189

2.704.1. Qua trinh oxy h6a sinh h6a va dill true cua mot s6 hop chat hiru co 189

trong mroc thai cong nghiep

2.7.4.2. Cac dang va call true ella cac loai vi sinh v~t tham gia xu 11 190

ruroc thai

2.7.5. Cac plnrong phap hieu khi 191

2.7.5.1. XU 11 mroc thai trong cac cong trinh nhan tao 191

2.7.5.2. Lam sach ruroc thai lrong dieu kien ur nhien 211

2.7.6. Phuong phap yern khi 214

2.8. XU ly hon hop mroc thai sinh hoat va nucc thai cong nghicp 221

2.9. XU Iy bun can 222

2.10. C6.c vall uc co ban trong pnan tfeh va thie"t ke cong trinh xu Iy mroc thai 224

Rai hIp 229

Tai li~u tham khao 230

Chuang Ill. xu LV Nu6e THAI ellA MOT s6 NGANH e6NG NGHI~P 235

3.1. sit dung mroc trong sfl.l1 xuat va ruroc thai cong nghiep 235

3.2. Phuong phap tiep r~n giai quyet van de ruroc thai cong nghiep 245

3.3. Nghien CUu tlnh kha thi ve xu Iy mroc thai 3.3.1. Xac dinh hru urong rnroc thai

3.3.2. Lily mau va phan tich mau 3.3.3. Baa quan mau

3.4. Nuoc thai trong cong nghiep phiin bon h6a hoc

304.1. Cong nghe san xu[t phan darn va nguon goc rnroc thai

3.4.2. Cong nghe san xuar phan phophat (phan Ian) va nguon phat sinh mroc thai

3.4.3. Cong ngne san xuat phan kali

i

248 248 253 257 258 258 261

3.404. Due tlnh mroc thai cua nganh cong nghiep phan bon - Tac dong cua cluing toi moi tnrong

263 264 '

7

3.4.5. XU I)' lllf{Je thai nganh phan bon hoa hoc 267

3.5. Nuoc thai trong cong nghiep thuoc da 271

3.5.1. Cong nghe thuoc da 27 1

.1.5.2. Nguou pluit sinh mrcc thai, dac tfnh rnroc thai ella cong nghe thuoc da va 213

lac dong ella ehung toi rnoi tnrong

3.5.3. Cac plnrong phap giam thi~u 6 nhiem va xU I)' mroc [h,li nganh thuoc da 271:(

3.6. Nuoc thai trong cong nghiep del nhuorn 280

3.6.1. Cong nghe san xuat va nguon phat sinh ruroc thai 21:(0

3.6.2. Cac nguon gay 6 nhicm, d:le tfnh mroc thai nganh d<;t nhuom va de lac 2RS

dClllg tCii moi tnrong

3.6.3. Cdc phirong phap ngan ngira, giam thicu () nhicm va xu I}' nuoc tha: 288

nganh dct nhuom

3.63. I. Cac phirong phap ngiill ngira, giam thiCu 2SI:(

3.6.3.2. Cac plurong phap xU Iy mroc thili dct nhuom 291

3.7. Nuoc thar cua cong nghiep giay 296

3.7.1. Glllg nghe san xuat giay 296

3.7.2. Cue nguon phat sinh nuoc thai va dac tinh nuoc Ihili troug nganh giay 30 I

3.7.3. Cdc bien phap giam thiCu rnroc thai trong cong nghiep giay 305

3.7.4. Cac bien phap xu I}' mroc thai trong cong nghiep giay 306

3.8. Nucc thai ella cong nghc san xuat bia 310

3.8.l. Tong quan :; 10

3.8.2. Cong nghe san xu:!t bia 3 10

3.8.3. Cac nguon phat sinh rnroc thai va d~e unh ruroc thai cong righiep san 312

xuat bia

3.8.4. Cac bien phap ngan ngira, giarn thif!u va xu 19 nuoc thai 315

3.9. Nmic thai cua nganh cong nghiep luyen kim, gia cong kim loai 317

3.9.1. Cong llghe luyen gang va luyeu tncp 317

3.9.2. Cac nguon ruroc thai va d~e tmh ruroc thai cua cong nghc Iuyen kim dell 318

3.9.3. Cong ngh¢ luyen kim mau va cac nguon thai 322

3.9.4. Cong nghe gia cong kim loai va cac nguon nuoc th,\i 323

3.9.5. Phuong phap xu 19 mroc thai cong nghe luyen kim va gia cong kim loai 325

Tal lieu tharn khao 330

Chuang I

su 6 NHIEM MOl TRUONG NUde

1.1. He THONG NUDe vA MOl TRUONG

1.1.1. Nuoc hong tv nhlen

Niroc l:! tiu san chung cua nhan loai, Iii nguon gee ella sir song, Iil. moi trlf(r!lg [rung Lit', dien fa ciic qua trinh song, Nurre dong vai tro quyet dinh trong viec dam b{1O cuoc song cua can ngu0i.

So voi cac chat long thong thuong khac. rnroc co nlurng tinh chat khiic thuong. Sau day la mot so tinh chat dac hi¢t quan trong cua mroc,

KIll;; luong rieug

Nuoc Iii. chat long duy nhat no ra khi dong bang. Thuc te, khoi hrong ricng cua ninrc ion !lhat Cr 4"C. Dicu d6 co nghia la a nhiet d¢ Ion hon hoac durri nhiet do nay khlii luqng ricng cua uuoc deu nhe hon, VI Yay hang n6i tren ruroc. Tfnh chat nay cung dUll dc'll hicn nrong phan tang nhiet trong de ho mroc ...

Nlli¢t dung I'iellg

Nhiet dung ricng cuu mroc (- 4184 l/kg.lIC) cao hon de chat long khac, Ira umoniac, Do tfnh ehal nay nircc duoc dun nong hoac lam nguoi cham han hau he'\ cac chat Ji'mg khac, Nho do mroc c6 tac dung Elm on hoa khi hau cac vung gan nguon rnroc vii. c6 chirc nang hao v¢ su s6ng khoi sir bien dong d¢t ngot ve nhiet,

Nhi¢t bay hoi

Nhict hay hoi cua mroc bang 2258~kJlkg, cao nhat so voi tat d. cac chat long kh.ic.

Dieu nay co nghia la hoi mroc tich lu)' luong nhier ian va duoc giai phong khi ugung ttl. Nho unh chat nay cua rnroc rna ta co the' noi rnroc Iii. yeu to chinh anh huong toi khi hall ella Tnii Dal.

Niroc hoa tan nhieu chat han bat ky mot dung m6i nolo. Do d6 n6 la rnoi truong co hicu qua cho vice van chuyen cac chat dinh dtrong hoa tan t6i cac mo va cac CIJ quan ella

9

co the song cung nhu IOlJ-i trir cac chat thai cua chung. NUDc cling tham gia vao vice van chuyen cac chat tan khap sinh quyen.

trong khl quyen

Di ehuyen nuoc

Cop nuoc bang nuoc met

Hoi nucc thoot ra tli thye v¢t bay hoi nuoc luc dlo

Xu Iy

PhOn phoi nuac

SI.) boy hoi cue nuoc to dQi duong

.-----, _____ J

rhcinhph6'

-- - --,

T oi 5U dl,mg gion ti8p nuoc thai do

Co s6 nghi ngoi gi6itrl

T6i 50 dVng gian tiep

-- -

-- Bien

Ciro song

Hinh 1.1. V6ng tucn noon cuo nuoc voi toe dong cuo nhan sinh

Qua trinh van dong cua mroc trong II! nhien duoc mo la boi vong man hoan eua ruroc nhu 1'1 hinh LL NUDe hoe hoi lu dai duong throe khong khi bien mang VaG uat lien, cung voi hoi mroc bee hoi lu nude trong dal lien va thoat fa nr thue V~I lam lang ut? am trong khi quyen, cuoi cung ngung tu thanh mua hoac tuyet roi xuong doll, hoa nhap van cac dong

10

ruroc mat, duoc sinh vat sU: dung hoac bay hoi tro lai khf quyen, Cac dong ruroc ngiim vii mille mat cnay ra bien d~ tham gia vao vong tuan hoan,

Con ngiroi sir dung mroc phuc vu cho nhieu muc dich khac nhau nhu gino Ih'1l1g van tai, luai lieu trong nang nghiep, lam thuy dien, eung cap mroc eho sinh hoat, lam [lgUyen lieu va de lac nhan trao d6i nhict trong cong _nghi¢p hoac sir dung lam cac phu\!l\g lien sinh noat giiii trf v:v ...

Trang cong nghiep, nhieu nguyen lieu co Iht thay the duoc cho nhau, ricog nmrc chua e6 gl thay Ihe' duoc. Trang qua trinh sir dung mroc, 'eon nguoi dii can thiep V11(1 v,'lI1g tuan hO:111 cua mroc, lao nen cac vong Wan hoan nhan If!.O cua mroc nhu minh hoa 11C;1 I 11'1 n 11 I. I . M6t s6 cong dong dan cu da: nit mrcc ngam hoac lay rnroc mal de cap mroc ell" Sillh hoat. Sau khi xu Iy, nuoc duoc phan phci den cac ho lieu dung sinh heat vii. cong nghi~'p. NUDe thai diroc lim gam lai trong he thong cong va ducc chuycn den nha may Xi:T 19 Ifll\')C khi lhai Irtj l<;Ii nguon tiep nhan DUDe. Qua trlnh pha loang va lam such trong nr nhien ('j lby sc coli thien them chat hrong nuoc. M6t vong tuan hoan luang lI.J nhu vay cung se xay r,\ voi cac thanh pho narn b ha ILfU.

T 6ng trO luong nu6e
1386 tri$u kmJ
• 1
_l 1
J Nu6e bien 97.3% I Nu6e ng9t 2.7% I
I
t
GiO lQi 0 dong
Nuoe bay hoi voo khi quyen bang/bang ha 77.2";
Ll53000 kmJ Inom

Li07700 km3/nom Nu6e ngom/d6t 22,~%
(90%) Ho/dom 0.35%
Khi quyen
~ Mua. tuyet I 0.0.:.%
Trong song. suoi 0.01%


11
Bay hoi 72000 km3/nom Hinh 1.2. Tong trO IUQng nuoc vo su phon bo nuoc tren Tr6i Oat

II

NI1l1 vay vong tuan hoan nhan lao cua mroc trong sa do thuy hoc IU nhicn s0 han gom: 1. Khai tluic. xu Iy va phan ph6i rnroc: 2. 11m gom mroc thai. xu Iy va thai tro lai nuoc he I1l.H bang pha loiing: 3. Su IU lam sach It! nhicn trong song: va 4. l.4P lai so do nay t;,li c.ic thanh pho (; ha hru.

T6ng Irit IU9ng niroc tren Trtii DAt va cac dang Ion tai cua n6 dircc trinh bay kh.ii quat iren 1111111 1.2.

Viet Nam la nude eli nguon (iii nguyen nude kha doi dao, Chi tlnh rieng cac song etl til icu (Eli tir 10 km In'! len oil. ell I(Ji 2500 s6ng. Luong dong cluiy del ra bien hang nam kho.iug \}()O km', irong do hon 90'lc chay ru vinh Ric b6 va bien Dong. Nguon nu{Jc ng"[llil dang diroc dicu Ira. nghicn ciru mot each roan dien. Luong ruroc binh quan dau nguoi d'.11 I ("li 17.(lOO m'Jnfll1l. Hicn nay moi chi khai thac dat duoc khoang tren 500 mlJ nguoi. nam 11 J.

1.1.2. $1,1 6 nhiern nuec

Niroc IlT nhien la mroc diroc hlnh thanh d s6 IU9ng va chat lirong duoi anh huong cuu de qu.i trrnh III nhien, khong co tac dong cua nhan sinh. Do lac dong cua nhan sinh, ruroc nr nhicn hi nhicm hin boi ciic chat khac nhau din den kel qua Iii. lam anh huong den chat luong ella Ill).

C;\C khuynh huang thay d(;i chat hrong cua mroc duo: anh huang cue hout (!('mg cuu con ngu(Ji bao gom :

- Giani 11() pH cuu mroc ngot do {} nhiem boi H2S04• HNO, lit khf quyen va mroc th.ii rlmg nghicp, tang ham hrong sot va NO,- trong rnroc,

- Tang ham hrong cac ion Ca, Mg, Si ... trong ruroc ngam va mroc song do mroc mua hoil tan, phong hou cac quang cacbonat,

- Tang ham hrong cac ion kim loai nang trong mroc It! nhien, tnroc he'! la Pb, Cd, Hg.

A~. Zn va d cue anion PO/, NO;, NOl- ..• ,

- Tang ham Iirong cue muoi trong mroc be m~1 va runic ugam do chuug di vao moi lwimg mroc cung nuoc thai, tit khf quycn va tic de ehal thai nin,

- Tang ham hroug cac hop chat hfru CCI, truce hel iii de chat kh6 bi phan huy sinh hoc (cue chal hoat dong be mat, thuoc trir silu ... ).

- Giam hong do oxy hoa Ian trong mroc ur nhien do cac qua trlnh oxy hod lien quun ICri qua trinh phi duang (eutrophication) cac nguon chua mroc va khoang hoa cac hop ehSl hiru co ...

- Giam (t() trong cua ruroc. Tang kha nang nguy hiem ella 0 nhiem mroc III nhien do cue nguyen t{i phong xa.

Cac chi ucu quan trong cua rnroc can diroc xem xet trong cap mroc Iii do pH, do trong, dfl cuug, ham hrong sal, mangan va cac chi so coli.

11

Cac nnh chat d:)c tnrng cua ruroc thai gam: pH, hum hrong chat ran, nhu call ox)' sinh hoa BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) hoac nhu dIU oxy hoa hoc COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), cac dang nito. photpho. dau rrur, mui, mau, cac kim loai n(mg ll'llllg mroc thai cong nghicp ...

Viec tluii mroc thai chi qua xu IS' hang cac phirong phap thong thuong d~ dri), nh.uih qua trlnh phi dtroug do str phat Iri~n bung 06 UJa tao va de thuc V~I khac, jilin gi.irn chil Iw,1Il1,! mroc, can Iro viec sir dung lai ruroc va cac hoat dong nghi ngoi giai 11'(. Do do ngay nay dir phat Iric'o va ling dung them cac phirong phap xu I}; cap ha vao cac day chuycu xu I y runic vu runic thai.

CO' so d6 nam virug ky thuat cup nuoc va kiem soar \1 nhiem runrc [a nhfrng kicu tlun: ve hoa [JOe. sinh hoc, thuy hrc hoc va thuy hoc nlur minh hoa trcu hinh 1.1.

Hoo h9C

Thuy luc hoc

Sinh hoc

!

1

Cap nuoc vo rhu gam nuoc thai

Thuy hoc

Cong ngh$ xu Iy nuoc

Chat il.,long nuoc vc I:; nhiem mol truong nuoc

Cong ngh$ xu 1'1 nuoc thai

I

Xu Iy bang phuong phcp ccp bo

S0 d!,mg IQi nuoc

Hinh 1.3. So do quan hi;! CLIO coc linh vue khoo hoc eo ban voi cong ngh$ xu 1'1 nucc vo nuoc thai

11

1.2. PHAN LOA.I vA eAe oAe TfNH eUA NUDe THAI

1.2.1. Phon IOQi nUDe thai

Nguoi ta dinh nghia ruroc thai la chat long diroc thai fa sau qua trlnh sir dung cua con nguoi va d5 bi thay dcii tfnh chat ban dail cua -chung. Thong thirong rnroc thai duoc phan loai theo nguon goe phat sinh fa chung. 06 cung la co S0 cho vice lua chon cac bien pnap hoac cong nghe xu IY. Thea each phan loai nay, co cac loai mrcc thai dudi day.

N unc thd i si lilt hoat

Nuoc thai sinh hO~1 Iii. nuoc thai tu cac khu dan cu, khu vue heat dong thuong maio cong so, mrong hoc va cue C(1 sa nrong ur khac.

Nuoc thdi ('ong nhiep (hay con goi lit DUOC thai SaD xuat)

Niroc thai cong nhiep la Duck thai til cac nha may dang hoat dong. co cit nuoc thai sinh hoat nhung trong d6 mroc thai cong righiep la chu ycu,

N II"Ik tluim qua

Day la ruroc mira tham vao he thong cong bang nhieu each khac nhau qua cac khop noi, cac 6ng co khuyet tat noac thanh cua ho ga hay he ngirci.

Nuac thdi tIl nhien.

Nude rnua diroc xern nhu rnnrc thai II! nhien, d nhlrng thanh rho hien dai, runic thai ur nhien dUQc thu gam thea mot he thong thoat rieng,

Nuac Ihai do thf

Nude thai do thi la thuat ngu chung chi chat long trong h¢ thong c6ng thoiit cuu IlH~)1 thanh rho. Do Iii. h6n hop cua cac loai rnroc thai k~ tren,

Cac tinh chat dij.c [rung cua mroc thai sinh hoat va nude thai cong ngniep Sl' LllIUC: trinh bay a cac muc rieng.

Thea quan diem qulin Iy moi tnrong, cac nguon gay a nhiern nuoc can dU\JC phan thanh hai loai: nguon xac dinh va nguon khong xac dinh,

Cac nguon xac dinh baa gem rnroc thai de. thi va mroc thai cong nghiep, Clc elLI c6ng xa mroc mua va uh ca cac nguon thai vao nguon tiep nhan nude e6 t6 chirc qUJ he thong e6ng va kenh thai.

Cac nguon khong xac djnh baa gam rnroc chay troi tren be mat d,ocl, mroc mua va cac nguon rnroc phan tin khac, SI! phan loai nay rat e6 (ch khi de cap tci cac van de dicu cninh kiernsoat 6 nhiem,

14

Cac nguon xac dinh tlurong c6 thi! dinh hrong va kiem soat tnroc khi th.ii. nguoc lai cac nguon khong xac dinh tlurong rdt kh6 quan IY. Ole nguon {} nhiern khong X;IC dinh gay ra cac van de sau:

- X6i rnon dat va van chuycn sa Ling dan den hau qua Ia thay deli ehb a V;l guy :inh huang xau den cac loai thuy sinh, lap day cac.dong song, vue chua, gay kho khan, tang chi phi cho viec xu ly mroc va giam chat luong nucc cho mue dfeh sir dung.

- Cac chat dinh dirong nhu nita va photpho giai ph6ng tir phan b6n va chat thai dong v~t kfch thlch sir phat trien cua thuc vat va vi khuan trong rnroc dan den hicn tuoug phi duong,

- Tfch Il,I cac kim loai nang nhir kern, dong, thuy ngan ... tir cac chat duoc sLr dung trong bao ve thirc vat, san, han chi va nhieu qua trrnh khac,

- Cac hoa chat doc hai: chu yeu 1<'1 cac h6a chat bao ve thirc vat,

Ngoai ra, mroc chay troi tren be mat uat qua cac khu vue chan nuoi gia sue co the' chua hrong hID chat thai dong vat se dong gop mot luang quan trong cac chat Sll' dung oxy va chat ran 10' lung, gay 6 nhiern moi tnrong mroc,

Bang 1.1 cho nang do IU0ng d6i cua cac chat gay 6 nhiern trong de nguon kh6ng x.ic djnh. Bang 1.1. Nang de:> tuong doi ccc chat goy 6 nhiem trong ccc nguan

kh6ng xoc dinh (8)

N

Chelt boo ve thuc vQt

Nguon 6 nhi~m SS Chelt Kim
kh6ng xcc dinh c(Jn BOD dinh 1091
16ng dUCng d¢c
NUQC mua thOnh pho M L- M L H Nguon b$nh

D¢ men TDS

H

L

M

H

N

N - L

N

N

N

xcy dvng

L

N

N

Khai rno

N

N

M-H

H

N-H

San xuot cay trong co L

tuel tieu

L- M

N· L

M-H

H

N

H

Chan nu6i

M

N - L

M

H

N - L

L-H N-L

Trang rung

N

L

N - L

N

N

L

N

Thu hooch rung

M-H L-M L-M

N

N

N

N

M-H L-H

Tich dQng bun trong s6ng

H

H

M

L

"Nen tv nhi~n"

N

N-L N-H N-H N·M

L-H L-H

M

N-M

Gh! cllll: N = khong dang kti; L = thap: M = rrung blnh: H = cao,

Axit

N

Nhi$t

N

N

N

N

H

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N N

N

15

1.2.2. Cac tlnh chat dQC hung cue nUdc thai

D0 quan Iy chat luang moi truang mroc duoc tol, ciing nhu thiet ke, lira chon coug nghc va thicr bi xtr Iy hop ly, can hieu rfl han chat cua runrc thai. Tfnh chat vat l~·. thanh phan hoa hoc va sinh hoc cung nguon g6c phat sinh ra chiing diroc lict ke trong hilng 1.2. Ciic thanh phan quan trong cua mroc thai lien quan \(Ti cong nghc xu I)' duoc trrnh hay troug h,ing 1.3.

6 day chi xin giDi thieu melt vai thong so chfnh cua nuoc thai c6 lien quart nhieu ({ji su o nluern cua cac nguon chua mroc va cong nghe xu I)' rnroc thai. Cac thong 56 kluic c6 the tham khao trong cac tai lieu ve hoa hoc moi tnrong hoac cac plurcng phap chuan dung trong phau uch nuoc va mroc thai do APHA, AWWA va WPCP ella My xuat ban.

1.3. M(n 56 THONG 56 QUAN TRQNG ellA NUOC THAI

1.3.1, Hom IUQng chat ran

Tong chal ran Iii. thanh phan vat 11 dac tnrng quan trong nhat cua nucc thai. N6 bao gam cac chat fan n6i, 10 lirng, keo va Ian. Do do khi phan tlch. tong chat ran l!Wjt xuc dinh Iii phan con lai sau khi cho bay hoi mAu ruroc hoac rnroc thai trcn bep each Ihu)'. ticp d() say kho () nhict do l03()C cho t{ji khi trong luong khong dLii. Ham Iucng cac ell[lt ran 1,lng duoc la nhirng hat rill1 SC lang xu6ng day blnh hinh con (goi 1ft pheu Irnhop) uong 60 pluit, duoc unh bang rnl/l. Chi tieu nay la mot phep do gan dung lirong bun s0 duoc klur trong lang sa cap.

Theo kfch thiroc ciia hat ran. tOng chat nin diroc phan thanh cac loai : chat ran III lung, chat ran keo va chat fan tan nhu trlnn bay trcn hlnh 1.4. De X3c dinh ham luang chat ran 10 lung thuong dung girly loc Whatman GF/C, co ktch thU0C 16 khoang 1,2 urn.

_Chat ran tan Chat ran keo _Chat ran 10 lung_
Kich thucc hot, urn
10-5 10-<1 10.3 10.2 10.1 10 100
10"8 10-7 10'6 10.5 10-<1 10.3 10.2 10.1 kich muoc hot. mm

_ Khu bang dong tI,J

Lang dUQC _

Hinh 1.4. Phon 100i chat r6n trong nu6c thai

16

Bong 1.2. C6c tinh chat v¢t Iy, ho6 noc va sinh hoc d¢c trung cue nuoc thai vc nguon gee cuo chung (7)

Tinh chat

• Cac tinh chat v¢t Iy : -Mou

- Mui

- Chotlon

- Nhi$tdQ

• Thanh phon boo h9C ' Nguon goc huG co.

- Cocbonhvdrot

- Mo, dOu, dau nh6n

- Thu6c tlU sou

- Phenol

- Protein

- Coc chat hoot d¢ng be m¢t

- Coc chat kboc

Nguon goe vo co .' - D¢ kiem

-Cloruo

- Coc kim 109i n¢ng

- Nita

-pH

- PhotphO

- Luu huYnh

- Cae chat ooc

- Cac khi:

H2S CHA 02

• Thanh phon sinh hac Coc d¢ng vot

Ibuc vet

Sinh v¢t nguyen sinh Yirut

Ngubn ph6t sinh

- Chat thai sinh hoot vo cong nghi$p, 51) phon ro tl) nhien chat hOu co

- SI.,l thoi rue chat thai vo coc ch6t thai cOng nghi$p

- C6p nucc cho sinh hoot, coc ehat thai sinh hoot vc

san xuat x61 rnon dot. dong thom. eh6y VaG h$ thong congo

- Cac chat thai sinh hoot va san xuot

- Coc chat thai sinh hoot. thuonq mot vo san xuot

- Coc cbot thai sinh hoot. thuonq rnoi vo san xuot

- Ch6t thai nOng nghi$p

- Chat thai cong nghi$p

- Coc chat thai sinh t")oQt vo thuong mol

- Cae chct thai sinh hoot va san xu6t

- PhOn ra tu nhien coc chat hOu co

- Nuoc thai sinh hoot. eop nuoc sinh hoot. qua trlnh thom cuo nuoc ngOm

- Cop nucc sinh hoot, ccc chat thai sinh hoot. quo

trinh tham cuo nuoc ng6m. coc chat 10m rnern nucc - Coc ehat thai eong nghi$p

- Ccc chat thai sinh hO<:;lt vo nong nghi$p

- Cae ehot thai cOng nghiol;!p

- Coc eh6t thai sinh hoot vo eong nghi$p

- Cop nuoc sinh hoot. nucc thai sinh hoot vo eong

nghi$p

- Coc chat thai eong nghi$p

- PhOn huy coc chat thai sinh hoot

- PhOn huy ccc ehat thai sinh hOc;Jt

- Cop nuoc sinh hoot. 51) tham cuo nuoc be m¢t

- Coc dong nucc he va nhc may xu tV

- Cae dong nuoc he va nhO may xu r;r

- Cae chdt thai sinh hoot va nha may xu tV

- Coc ehat thai sinh hoot

17

Bong 1.3. Coc thonh phon quon trQng trong nuoc thai lien quan toi eong ngh$ xl.! Iy (7)

Thanh phon

Ghi chu

Coc chat hOu co phcn Gam protein. cacbonhydrat vo chat bee Ccc chat hGu co huy sinh h9C phan huy sinh h9C duoc do b6ng chi tieu BOD vo COD. Neu thai chung true tiep vee moi truang . qua trinh on dinh Sinh h9C cue chung c6 the dan den giam IUQng oxy trong nu6e tv nhien vo dan den nguyen nhcn gay mOi. vi.

Coc chat ran vO co hoo Coc th6nh phon vO eo nhu conxl. natri. sunfat co mot nuoc tan thai sinh hoot trong quo trinh su dt,mg nuoc. Neu nuoc thai d6 muon su dt,mg l<;Ii thi ph6i khu be chOng.

Coc chat ran 10 lung

Coc nhon to gay b$nh

Coc chat dinh dUang

Coo chat hOu co tro

Kim 100i n¢ng

Ccc chat ran 10 lung co the dan den' tang kha n6ng lOng bun vo dii§u ki$n ky khl khi thoi nu6c thOi khong quo xu Iii vee mol tru6ng nucc.

Rat nhieu b$nh eo the Ian truven qua ccc vi khuon g.~y b$nh lrong nuoc thoi.

Co nita vo photpho cOng voi cacbon la nhOng chat dinh dUang chinh cho su phot trien cuo sinh Vol. Khi thai chung vee mOi Ruang nuoc. coc chct dinh duong nay co the don den su phct trien cue coc sinh v¢t ng06i y muon liang moi truang nuoc, Con khi thai chung voi mot IUQng du vco dot se 16m 0 nhi~m nuoc ngam.

Ccc nhelt hOu co n6y kh6ng bi phon huy bol coc phuong phop xu Iy nuoc thai thOng thuang. Vi du dien hlnh 10 cho! hoot d¢ng be mot, phenol vo m¢t so hoc chot boo v$ trong n6ng nghi$p.

Cdc kim 100i n¢ng thuang nhi~m voo nguan nuoc do coc hoot d(>ng cOng nghi$p, chung can duoc khu ro khoi nuoc thai.

M6i loai ch:l:t ran tren deu c6 th~ diroc phan loai tiep tren co sO tinh bay hoi cua churig II nhiet d¢ 550 ± salle. Phan hiru co se bi oxy hoa thanh khf 0 nhiet d¢ nay, phun vo co con

lai Ill. phan tro. Nlur vay thuat ngu "chat ran 10 hrng bay hoi" la ham IUQ"I1g chat hiru co, con "chat ran 10 lirng co dinh" nrong trng voi ham IUQ"I1g vb co cua chat ran 10 lirng.

1.3.2. Hom IUQng oxy hoo tan DO (Dissolved oxygen)

Mot trong nhimg chi lieu quan trong nhat cua rnroc Ill. ham IUQ"I1g oxy hoa tan, VI oxy khong the thieu dtroc doi voi t.1"t ca cac sinh vat song trim can cung nhu dirof runic. Oxy duy trl qua trlnh trao d6i chat, sinh fa nang lUQ"I1g cho su sinh tnrong, sinh san va tai san xuat.

18

Nong do oxy hoa tan \oi thieu doi voi cdc loai cti hoar d6ng rnanh nhir ca hoi Iii 5+8 mg/l, elm rloi voi loai ca co nhu cau oxy thap nhu ca chep Iii ~ mg/!.

Ox), b chat khi kho hoa tan trong ruroc. khong tac dung voi mroc ve miH )1\1<\ hoc. D{) hoa ian cua no phu thuoc vao cac yeu t6 nhu up SUUI, nhiet d¢ va cac d~e tfnh ella nuoc (cac thanh phan hoa hoc. vi sinh. thuy sinh song trong ruroc ... ). Nang d¢ baa hoa cua oxy trong ruroc 0 nhiet do cho tnroc co th~ tfnh then dinh luat Henry. Nong do nay thtrong nam trong khoang 8 +15 mg/l a nhiet do blnh thuong.

Cac nguon mroc mat do co be m~1 ihoang ticp xuc true tiep voi khong khf nen thuimg co ham luang ox)' hoa tan cuo. Qui Irinh quang hop va ho hap cua cac loai thuy sinh cling lam thay d6i ham hrong oxy hoa tan trong mroc mal. Cac nguon runic ngam thuong co ham luong ox)' hoa tan thap do cac phan img oxy hoa khir xay ra trong long uat lieu thu nhieu DXy.

Khi thai cac chat thai S11 dung oxy vao cac nguon rnroc, qua trinh oxy ho.i chung se lam gdm nong do oxy hoi tan trong de nguon rnroc nay, tharn chi co the de dou sir s6ng cuu de loai d eung nhu sinh v~t song trong rnroc,

D~ xac dinh nong d¢ oxy hoa tan trong nu6"c nguon cung nhu trong rnroc lhui, ngU"oi tu thuong dung phuong phap ill! (hay con goi la phirong phap Winkler). Phuong phap phan uch nay dua vao qua trinh ox)' hoa Mn2+ thanh Mn~+ trong moi tnrong kiem va Mnh lai co kha nang oxy hoa l thanh b ur do (rung rnoi trirong axil. Nhu Yay luong h diroc giai phong urong duong voi hrong oxy hoa tan co trong mroc, Luong iOt nay duoc xtic dinh bang phuoug phap chuan d6 voi dung dich natri Ihiosunfat (Na2 S:!Ol).

Cac pnan ung hoa hoc xay ra nhu sau : - Ncu khong co oxy trong mall ruroc:

Mn2+ + 20H' -+ Mn(OHh ~

(l.I)

(trang)

- Neu co ox)' trong rnau rnroc:

2+ 1

Mn + 20K + "2 O2

(J .2)

(nau)

sau do hoa tan kei tua tren bang axit H2SO4 darn d~c :

Mn02 + 2I" + 4 H+ -+ Mn2+ + 12 + 211:0

0.3)

- Dong kin nut lac it nhat trong 10 giay de phan ung xay ra holm toan, roi lay 200 ml dung dich nay dem chuan del veri dung dich O,025N Na1SlO, :

chi th]

b + 2Na2 Si)l -+ NalS~Oh + 2Nal

(1.4)

tinh bilt

khong mau

19

K€t qua 1 ml dung dich chudn nrong duong 1 mg/l oxy hoa tan.

- De dam baa d¢ chfnh xac cao cua ket qua phan tfch, can chu y mot s6 di~lll sau: a. Tranh hap thu them khong khi trong qua trinh lay rnau.

b. Can c6 dinh mau ngay tren hien tnreng de tranh mat oxy trong qua trtnh van chuyen do khuech tan va sir thay d6i nhiet docung nhu cac heat dong cua vi khuan hieu khi, bang each eu 300 ml mau them vao 0,7 ml H2S04 d~m dac va I ml dung dich 2 g NaN, trong 100 ml rnroc cat, gill miu trong dieu kien khong e6 anh sang va nhiet do 0+5"C.

e. xu Iy mau tnroc khi phan tfch de IO,!-i trir anh huong ella mot so tac nhan oxy hoa nhu N02 - va Fe-1+ eo kha nang oxy hoa r thanh 12 Him cho ker qua cao hon gia If! thuc hoac cac tac nhan klur nhu Fe2+, SiO,,-, ~ .... eo the khir h thanh r lam eho ket qua thap han gia tri thirc,

Hien nay ngiroi da san xuat diroc cac may do DO (Oxygen meter) co d¢ chinh xac cao phuc vu nghien CUu va quan trlk rnoi tnrong. Viec xac dinh {hong so ve ham hrong oxy hoa tan co y nghia quan trong trong viec duy tri dieu kien hieu khf cua rnroc tl! nhicn va qua trinh phan huy hieu khf trong qua trlnh xu ly mroc thai. M~I khac ham IU9'Og oxy hoa Ian eon HI co sa cua phep phan tich xac dinh nhu cau oxy sinh hoa, D6 la thong s6 quan trong de danh gia mire d¢ 0 nhiem cua mroc thai, Ngoai ra oxy eon III yeu -to quan Ir90g trong kiern sO<11 an mon sat thep, d~c biet Iii h~ thong dirong 60g phan phoi rnroc.

1.3.3. Nhu cou oxy sinh ho6 BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)

Nhu cau oxy sinh hoa lil chi lieu thong dung nhat de xac dinh rrurc d¢ 0 nhicm cua mnic thai do thi va chat thai trong ruroc thai cua cong nghiep,

BOD duoc dinh nghia la IU9'Og oxy vi sinh v~{ da su dung trong qua trlnh oxy hoa cac chat hitu eo. Phirong trinh t6ng qual ella phan img nay nhu sau :

vi khu:'in

Chat hGu co + O2 --)0 CO2 + H20 + t€bao moi + san pham eo dinh (1.5)

Trang moi tnrong mroc, khi qua trlnh oxy hoa sinh hoc xay ra thl cac vi sinh v~t sir dung oxy hoa Ian. Vi vay xac dinh t6ng hrong oxy hoa tan can thiet eho qua trinh phan huy sinh hoc la cong viec quan trong de danh gia anh hirong ella mot dong thai doi voi nguon mroc,

BOD bieu thi IU9'Og cac chat hiIu co trong niroc co the bi phan huy bang cac vi sinh vat. Trang ky thuat rnoi tnrong chi tieu BOD duoc dung rong ral d~ :

I. Xac dinh gao dung IU9'Og oxy CM thiet de 6n dinh sinh h9C cac chat hihi co co Irong ruroc thai.

2. Xac dinh kfch thiroc thiet bi xu IY.

20

3. Xac djnh hieu suat xir Iy cua mot s6 qua trlnh.

4. Xac dinh su chap thuan tuan theo nl-tfrng quy dinh cho phep thai chat thai.

Trong thirc t€ ngiroi ta kMng tM xac dinh hrong oxy can thi€t de phan huy hoan roan chat hihI co vl nhu the ton qua nhieu thoi gian rna chi xac dinh hrong oxy can thiet lrong :; ngay dau a nhiet dO u zo'c, ky hieu BOO.~. chi tieu nay d3 dtroc chuAn hoa va sit dung 0 hAu khap cac rnroc tren the gioi. Thf nghiem xac dinh BOD:; tien hanh nhu sau :

OlD mot lirong nhat dinh mau rnroc thai vao chai phan tfch ox)' hoa tan c6 the tich bang 300 rnl, pha loang toi the tich tren bang dung dich pha loang (rnroc cAt c6 be) sung mot s6 nguyen t6 dinh duong nhu N, P, K, Fe ... va bao hoa ox)') theo ty It nhu hu6ng dan trong tai Iieu "Cac plurong phap chuan de phan tfch m~ac va mroc thai" va d6ng nut kin. U chai mau trong til hoac phong t6i a 20°e. Xac dinh nong d\) oxy hoa tan trong mau ban dau va sau ngay tlnr 5. Hieu s6 giiia hai nong d9 oxy hoa tan nay la BOD.,\. VI BOD:; ciia cac chat thai dien hlnh tmrong bang vai tram ing/! va d<? baa hoa ox)' trong ruroc a zo'c bang 9,1 rng/l, do d6 thuong can pha losng mall M sao cho nong dO oxy hoa tan cuoi cung a ngay, tM 5 100 hem O. Khi d6 k!t qua thi nghiem moi c6 nghia, Gia tri BOD:; dUQ'C Hnh theo c6ng tlurc sau :

(1.6)

trong d6:

D, - nong d9 oxy hoa tan cua mau rnrcc thai pha loang tnroc khi ii, mg/l;

O2 - nong d9 oxy hoa tan cua mau mroc thai pha Ioang sau 5 ngay u a zo'c, mg/l; P - ty s6 pha loang va diroc tfnh nhu sau:

th~ tich m6u nuoc thai dem phOn fich

p=

tOng th~ fich nu6c thai Clem phOn fich vo nu6c pho loonq

Trong mot vai tnrong hop can bO sung them vi sinh v~t vao mroc pha loang de dim bao chdc chan dil mat d¢ vi sinh V~I cho qua trlnh phan huy, Trong tnrong hop d6, BOD:; diroc tlnh theo cong thirc sau:

BOD, = (01 ~ D2) - (El - B2 ). F , mg/l P

0.7)

trong d6:

01 - nong d9 oxy hoa tan cua mau mrcc thai pha loang c6 cffy vi khuan ngay sau khi chuan bi rnau xong de U, rng/l:

O2 - nong d9 oxy hoa tan cua mau mroc thai pha loang c6 cay vi khuan sau 5 ngay u a 20{)e, mg/l:

21

BI - nong do oxy hoa tan cua rnroc pha loang co cay vi khuan tnroc khi dem U. mg/I; B2 - noug do oxy hail tan cua ruroc pha loang e6 cay vi khuan sau khi u, mg/l;

F - Iy so giCi"a Iht tieh chat long b6 sung vi khuan trong mau va trong ocii chirng. nghia la bang;

% hay ml chat long bel sung vi khu6n tronq DI

F=

.% hay ml chat long bel sung vi khu6n trong BI

Hien nay nguai la dii san xua; dune may do BOD dt phan tich nhanh. Do qua iruiu oxy hoa sinh hoc xay fa rat cham va ken dai. [rang khoang thai gian 20 ugay, khoiing 95+99% cac chat hiiu eo cacbon bi oxy hoa va trong 5 ngay dau lien xac dinh BOD Cel khoang 60+70% cac chat hOU co nay bi ox)' hoa, Nhict do 20lle la nhiet de) lrung binh uong nam o cac ruroc co khi hau on hoa va no cung de dum: tai dien lai trong IU U. Neu ticn hanh u mau a cac nhiet do khac nhau sf' eho kct qua BOD, khac nhau VI 16e J() ph.in ung sinh hoc phu tnuoc van nhiet J6. Dovay, mot 56 ruroc rl khu vue nhiet d(Ji dli oung thong s6 BOD1 (nghia ia mau phan uch diroc U a 30lle trong 3 ngay).

Nghien ciru dong hoc cua phdn ung BOD da chirng minh duoc rang, hau hct cluing Iii cac phan ung bac mot, Dieu do eo nghia la 16e d~) cua phan irng I}' [6 voi luang chal hiru co co trong nuoc. Neu gia thiet ~ 111 ham hrong BOD ling thoi ginn t va k Iil. hang s(i \(ie (ft) phan irng, khi do co the viet:

dll ~=-kll dl

TIch phan (l.8) diroc: !

In L, o:-kt o

( 1.9)

..!:..L 0: e -kl = IO-Kt lo

trong 1.16: L.la ham luong BOD dng vci thoi di~m 1= 0 (nghia Iii. tong BOD hay BOD cuo:

( 1.10)

cung cua pha cacbon),

M6i quan he giua k (co so e) va K (eo s6 10) nhu sau :

k

K= -~

2,303

Luong BOD con lai (; thai diem I sc bang: ~ =~.e·kl

con luong BOD da bi vi khuan sir dung den thoi diem I bat k5' sc bang:

BOD, = Y, = ~l- L = Lo (1- e")

( 1.1 I)

( 1.12)

(! .13)

Cac moi quan h¢ phu thuoc cua bieu thirc (1.1 0) va (1. 13) diroc minh hO;;L tren hlnh 1. 5.

Hang 56 toe d(> k cua phan img BOD Iii. thong so bieu thi toe dQ pnan huy sinh noc de ch:11 lulu C{1 trong mnrc thai. vi khi k tang. t6c dQ sir dung oxy lang. mac du tbng BOD cuci cling khong thay dcli. Toe d¢ phan ling phu thuoc vao nhieu yeu t6 nhu ban chat cua chat thai. kha nang phan huy chat thai cua vi sinh vat va nhict 06.

L,

BOD,

BOD con IQi

a)

t

BOD,

Lo = BOD cu6i cung pho cacbon

Oxy do su dl.,mg

h)

5

t

Hinh 1.5. Duong cong Iy tuong nhu cau oxy sinh h6a pha cacbon a - BOD c6n lcl: b • LUQng oxy dO Mu thl,l

Thoi gian. ngay

Thoi gian, ng6y

Toe d() phan huy sinh h9C chat:m.aI tang khi nhiet d¢ tang. De bieu thj mei quan he giira nhiet d9 va hang sot6c d¢ phan ling k ngubi ta tmrong sir dung cong tmrc sau :

23

k ::: k20 .9 (T. 20)

(1.14)

trong do:

k20 - hang s6 t6c d¢ phan ung a nhiet d¢ chuan 201l C: k - hang 56 t6c d¢ b nhiet do TIc; -

8 - h~ 56 nhiet d¢ (muong lay bang 1 ,047).

Oxy do su dl,mg

CBOD - Nhu cou 0"1:'{ sinh h6c phc cacbon

BOD cuol cling _______ p~(J_ (;Cl,?b,?~_

NBOD - Nhu cau oxy sinh , , ,h()Cl_ph(). ~.i!O_

o

5

10

15

20

Thoi gien, ngoy

Hinh 1.6. Duong cong nhu cou oxy sinh h6a pha cocoon vo pha nita

d tren ta dii. gia thiet chi co qua trlnh oxy hoa sinh hoc phan cacbon cua chat thai, nhimg cung e6 kM nang tang them nhu cau oxy sinh hoa do qua trinh oxy hoa cac hop chat nito, Nhu v~y thirc t€ dirong cong BOD se e6 hai pha: pha eaebon va pha nita nhu tren hlnh 1.6. Dieu can chii y la nhu cau oxy sinh hoa pha nita (NBOD) bat d'ftu trong khoing ngay thli 5 den 8, VI vay qua trinh nitrat hoa khong anh hmmg toi ke't qua cua thi nghiem phan tfch BODs. Khi phan tfch phirong trlnh phan ung oxy hoa cac hQP chat chua nita eho phep ta xac dinh hrong oxy tieu t6n eho qua trinh nitrat hoa,

Sang 1.4. MQt s6 gi6 tr] di~n hlnh cuo k20

M6u k. ngay·l
Nu6c cOng 0.35 +0)0
Nu6c cong dO xu Iy tOt 0.10+ 0.25
Nu6c sOng bj 0 nhi~m 0.10 + 0,25 Trang thuc t€ phuong phap phan tich BOD c6 nhung han che sau :

1. y~u cau mat d¢ vi sinh vattrong rnau phan tich can du Ion va cac vi sinh vat b(~ sung vao mau can duoc thich nghi voi moi tnrong.

2. Khi chat thai eo chua cac chat doc hai can xu Iy so bo truce khi phan uch, dtlllg thai can chu y giam anh hirong cua cac vi sinh vat nitrat hoa.

3. Phep phan tich BOD ehi do duoc ham hrong cac chat hOU co c6 the bi phan huy bang eon dirong sinh hoc.

4. Thf nghiern khong e6 gia tri can bang sau khi cac chat hOU whoa tan trong dung dich da bi su dung,

5. Thai gian phan ttch qua dai, phai sau 5 ngay moi co ket qua.

1.3.4. Nhu Cc.u oxy hoc h9C COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)

Chi s6 nay diroc dung rong rai d~ bieu thi noa ham hrong chat hOU co trong mroc lh.ai va rmrc do 0 nniern ruroc tu nhien, COD duoc dinh ngnia Iii h.J'(,1I1g oxy can thiet eho qua trinh oxy h6a noa hoc cac chat hfru co trong rnau mroc tnanh CO2 va rnroc, Luang oxy nay nrong dirong voiharn IUQ'Ilg eMtt hiru co co the: bi oxy hoa duoc xac dinh khi sir dung mot tac nhan oxy hoa hoa hoc manh trong rnoi IWOng axil. Phuong phap ph6 bien nhat de: xac djnh COD la phuong phap bicromat va eo che cua no thea phuong trinh phan ung sau:

( 1.15)

Luang CrlOt du ducc chuan d¢ bang dung dich FAS (Fe(NH4h(S04)2) va sir dung dung dich ferroin lam ehat chi thi, Di~m ket thtic chuan do la diem khi dung dich chuycn ur rnau xanh lam sang m~u nau do nhat thea phan (mg. sau:

6Fe + Cr2072. + 14W 6Feh + 2Cr'+ + 7H20 0.16)

Ham IUQ'Ilg COD diroc doh theo cong thtic :

COD = _..;..(A_-_B....;.)_xN_x_8_OO_O_, mg/l ml mAu

(1.17)

trong d6:

A~ {h~ tlch dung dich FPS lieu ton cho chuan d<';t dung dich trang, ml:

B - th~ tfch dung dich FAS tieu ton eho chuan dO dung dieh mau, ml:

N - nong do dirong hrong cua dung dich FAS; 8000 la he s6 chuyen d6i ke't qua sang mg 02iJ.

Chi s6 COD bi~u thi ca lirong cac chat hiru co khong the bi oxy h6a bang vi sinh vat, do do n6 co gia tri eao hem BOD. Phep phan rich COD co uu diim la cho ket qua nhanh (he! knoang 3 gio) nen da khac phuc diroc nhuoc diem cua phep do BOD. D6i voi nhieu

25

loui chat thai. gili'a chi s6 COD va BOD c6 mCli nrong quan nhat dinh voi nhuu. Vi V[IY khi thiet lap dune moi quan he urong quan nay co the: S11 dung phep do COD de: van hanh vii kicm scat hoat dong ciia~# nha may xu Iy ruroc that. Hien nay tren thi tnrong ua co ban de nuiy phan tfch COD i~hanh (COD Reactor).

Ngoai cac chi sO' COD va BOD nguoi ta dlll dung mot vai chi so kluic uc: do ham hrong cac chat hiru IX! t~oni.(nuDc nhu tong cacbon hfru Cl1 TOC (Total Organic Cacbon) va nhu cau oxy theo 1)' thuyct ThOD (Theoretical Oxygen Demand). TOe chi diroc dung khi ham hrong cal.' chat hfru co trong ruroc ral nho, con -11100 chfnh lit hrong oxy can Ihiet u6 oxy hod hoan toan phan hfru C0 trong chat thai thanh CO! va nuoc va chi co the: linh duoc khi biet cong thirc ho,\ hoe cua cac ehlil hfru cu. Vi thanh phan cua nuoc thai rat phuc t'.IP non khong th6 unh duoc nnu cau oxy theo 15' thuyet. Trong thuc te' chi so nay e6 the tinh gan olinI.', tren Cl1 sa chi so COD. Til cac philn uch tren cho ta thay Iuon c6 day:

11100 > COD> BOD ,·",.i > BOD,

1.3.5. Cac chat dinh dlfong

1.3.5.1. Hiim lu(mg nita

Nito va photpho la nhirng nguyen t6 chu yeu can thiei cho die sinh vat nguyen sinh va thuc vnt phut trien va chung duoc biet tai nhu 1ft nhfrng chat dinh dufmg hoac kich thich sinh hoc, Nito co the Ion tai 0 cac dang chu yeu sau :

Nita hfru co (N-HC), nito amoniac (N-NH~). nito nitru (N-NO]), nitu nitrat (N-NO,) va N2 ur do . Vi nita la nguyen 10 chfnh X:lY dung Ie baa tong hop protein nen s() lieu ve chi tieu nitu 80 ral can [hiel d6 XUI: dinh kha nang co the xu Iy m61 loai nuoc thai uao d6 b:mg cal.' qua truth sinh hoc. Trong tnrong hop khong du nitrr, c6 the b6 sung them de: chat thai d6 tra ncn co kha nang xu 19 bang phirong phap sinh hoc.

Chi lieu ham hrong nita trong ruroc cling: duoc xcm nhu 1ft. chat chi thi tinh trang () nhicm cua ruroc vi NH, II! do Ill. sin pham phan huy cac chat chua protein, nghia 12ll~ dieu kieu hicu khi xay fa qua trrnh oxy hoa thea trmh II! sau:

Ory hcc

Protein

0.1 IS)

NH3 nitrosomonas

NCh

nitrobacter

Tong uito la t6ng cdc ham JUI.mg nito lnru co. N-NH,. N-N02 va N-NO,. Ham \uclllg nito huu err JW)C x.ic dinh bang pmrong phap Kindal (Kjcldahl l, T(jng nito Kindal Ii tong cua niter hiru co va nita amoniac, Chi tieu N-NH, thuOng duoc xac dinh bang phirong phap

2f)

so mau hose chuan do, con cac chi lieu N-N02 va N-NO, duoc xac dinh hang de phUn'l.lg phap so mall.

Nito khoug nhfrng chi co the gay ["[I de van ac phi dmmg, rna khi chi ticu N-N(X trong mnrc cap cho sinh hoat vuot qua 45 mg NO:JI cung co the: gay fa rnrii de doa nghiem trong doi voi sire khoc con ngiroi. M~c du han than nitrat khong phai la chat nguy hicm. Tuy nhien, troll!', duong ruot tre nho thuong lim thay loai vi khuan co th6 chuycn hoa nitrut thanh nitrit, Nitrit nay co ,Ii hrc voi hong diu trong rnau manh hem oxy, khi n{) thay the oxy se tao thanh methemoglobin. hop chat nay khong the nhan oxy va gay fa bcnh xunh xao ('j Ire nho trncthcmoglobincrnia), tharn chi co the gay ur vong.

1.3.5.2. Hasn [mfllt.: photph»

Ngay nay ngurri ta quail tam nhieu hen den vice kiem scat ham llt(!ng cue Iwp chut photpho troug ruroc mat, trong nuoc thai sinh hout va nmtc thai coug righiep thai van ngu"tm nuoc, Vi nguyen 16 nay lil mot trong nhimg nguyen nnan chinh gay ra Slf ph.it trien "bung n6" ella uio (j- mot so nguon nude mat. Photpho trong ruroc va nuoc thai thuong ton tai 0 cac dang onhophotphat (PO/', HPO/, H2P<)~, H,P04) hay polyphotphut [Na,(P01)ol va photphut hfru co.

Orthophotphat co the xac dinh bang prurong phap so mau voi thuoc thula NH.!Mo04 va SnCI:" con polyphotphat va photphat hilu co can chuycn hoa thanh orthophotphat qua phdn img vai axit sau d(i xac dinh bang phuong phap so rnau noi tren.

Chi ticu photpho co )' nghia quan trong trong cap ruroc de kiern soat SJ! hlnh tnanh can ri, an rnon va xu I}' mroc thai bang cac phtrong phap sinh h9C.

/.3.5.3. Ham luang sunfat

Ion sunfut thirong eo trong nUl1C cap sinh hout cung nhu trong ruroc thai. Luu huynh cung lil mol nguyen to can thiet cho qua trlnh lfing hop protein va dum: giai phong fa uung qua truth phan huy cluing. Sunfut bi kmr sinh hoc (1 dieu kicn ky khi theo phan ung sau :

Chat hfru C(1 + so/ ---~

Vi khuan

!..y!..hi

( 1.19)

\ 1.20)

Khf H1S duoc giii phong vao khong khi tren be mat mroc thai trong he thong dan. MI)t phan khi nay tich II,l tai cac hoc he m~t nham ella ong dan va co tht bj OXY ho.i sinh hoc thanh H2SO4• lam an mon de ong dan. Mat khac. khf H2S phat sinh rnui kht'J chiu va doc hai cho con ngub'i ,1 noi xu ly ruroc thai,

Nurre uong co chua sunfat ij ham hrong eao sc co tac dong tay nhe d(ii vrri ngLllli.

Nhuug nong 09 giai han ella SO/" trong mroc cap cho sinh boat khong diroc vl101 ljlla 250

27

mg/l, VI no cung la nguyen nhan gay dong can cimg trong cac noi hen va thie] bi trao deli nhiet.

1.3.6. Chi thi chat IUC;:lng ve vi sinh cua nuoc

NUDc 130 mot phirong tien Ian truyen cac nguon benh va trong thirc te cac benh lay Ian qua moi tnrong nUDC 130 nguyen nhan chfnh gay fa benh t~t va nr vong, nhal 130 a cac rnroc dang phat trien. 6 cac mroc nay, benh tat d.1 lam t6n that toi 35% ticrn nang suc lao dong. Cac tac nhan gay benh thuong diroc bai tiet ra trong phan cua ngiroi benh, bao gom cac nhorn chfnh sau: cac vi khuan, virut, dong vat don baa (protozoon - protozoa), giun ky sinh (parasitic worms). Ba berth do cac vi khusn cua nguon mroc thuong Mp nhat la sot thuong him (typhoid fever) do salmonella typhosa gay ra; benh ta Chau A (Asiatic cholera) do vibro comma gay ra va I)' khuan que (Bacilary dysentery) do shigella dysenteriae gay ra. Cac bcnh nay thirong thay a nhilng khu vue c6 thai phan ngiroi mot each tuy tien, Qua trlnh Ian truyen benh c6 th~ tnrc titp til nguoi benh, hay gian tiep qua con trung trung gian, hoac qua thuc pham va qua sit dung nUDC bi nhiem ban.

Chat IU9ng ve mat vi sinh ella mroc thuong diroc bieu thi bang nong d9 cua vi khuan chi thi - d6 1.1 nhfrng vi khuan khong gAy benh va ve nguyen tac d6 1.1 nhorn true khuan (coliform), Thong s6 diroc sir dung rong rill nhat 1.1 chi so coli.

Cac vi khuan dang tnrc khuan d~c tnrng gam escherichia coli va fecal streptococci (enterococci). Chung s6ng trong dtrong ruot cua nguoi va diroc thai ra voi s6 hrong 16n trong philo nguoi va cac dong v~t rnau nong khac (trung blnh khoang 50 trieu coliforrns trong 100 ml). Nuoc thai sinh hoat chua qua xir Iy thirong chua tren 3 trieu coli/IOO ml. Cac tieu chuan mrcc u6ng thuong dinh fO sl.! an toan v~ sinh bang mot phirong phap xet nghicm xac dinh rna khong phat hien fa 0 rmrc trung binh 11\ kh6ng virot qua 1 coliform/lOO ml.

Trong khao sat chat hrong ruroc, dieu can thiet Iii phai xac dinh s6 vi khuan coliform de xcm lieu c6 dat tieu chuan hay khong, 0 day thirong sir dung ky thuat len men d~ dern doan chimg, xac nhan nhii'ng ket qua dirong va cac xet nghiern fecal coliform. KCl qui cua phep phan tfch nay rtuoc bieu thj nhu la s6 xac sudt cao nhat MPN (Most Probale Number) VI viec dem cac ker qua dirong dua tren philo tich thong ke cua cac bo 6ng nghiem trong mot loat cac day pha Ioang. Theo dinh nghia MPN co lien quan tai mot the tlch mau bang 100 ml. Dieu do c6 nghia 130 khi MPN = 10 nrc la co 10 coliforms (rang 100 ml mroc,

Tuy t6ng 56 coliform thirong ducc sir dung nhu mot chi s6 chat hrong cua mroc ve mat ve sinh, nhimg 0 di'eu kien khf hau nhiet deri, tham s6 nay chua e6 day du y nghia ve mat ve sinh do nhflng nguyen nhan sau :

ThU nhdt fd co rat nhieu loai vi khuan coliform ton tai tl.! nhien trong Mt, VI vay mat do cao cac vi khuftn coliform ciia ruroc tl.! nhien giau dinh duong co tM kh6ng e6 y nghia ve mat vc sinh.

28

Thu hai iii. cac vi khuAn coliform co xu huong phat trien trong mroc tl1 nhien vii tham chi trong d. cac cong doan xli Iy nucc thai (tnroc khi khir trung) trong dieu kien nhiet o6i. Vi nhieu vi khuan cua nr nhien co !he sinh tnrong a nhiet d9 cao, do do cluing thirong gay nhieu k€t qua phan tlch t6ng so coliform - Iii. xet nghiern tien hanh 0 3SIIc. Chfnh vi val' \'J dieu kien khf hau nhiet doi, dua vao so lieu ve tong s6 coliform de din den nhfrng ket luan sal. De khac phuc uieu nay, ngirci ta da sir dung d. chi so fecal coliform lam mol chi so chat IUQI1g cua mroc ve mat ve sinh. Ky thuat xac dinh s6 fecal coliform ding urong It! nhu d6i vai xac dinh tong s6 coliform, chi khac a ch6 qua trinh u. duoc tien hanh a uhiet 0(1 cao han 44,S11c.

Ngoai vi khudn fecal coliform, fecal streptococci (dien hlnh Iii streptococcus luecalis), clostridia (dien hlnh la clostridium perfringens), pseudomonas aeruginosa va mot s6 loai cua lactobacilli thirong xuyen c6 mat trong duong ruot cua ngiroi. Vi vay, doi khi chung cung duoc sir dung Hun cac vi knuan chi thi. Dang tiec lit tat ca cac vi khuan chi thi tren cung ton tai trong phan dong vat va dieu nay de tao nen su ram Hill ve nguon g6c nhiem ban do pnan cua nguoi hay dong vat, De giiii quyet van d'c nay, ngiroi ta thuong xcI nghiem fecal streptococci (FS) cung voi s6 fecal coliform (FC). Vi ty s6 FC;FS trong phan nguoi thuong bang 4,4 trong khi d6 trong phan dong v~t ty s6 nay nho han 1. Do do, co th~ can ell vao ty s6 FC;FS de xac dinh nguon g6c su nhiern ban la do pnan nguoi hay dong vat. Nhimg neu ty so d6 nam trong khoang 1 den 2 thl khong the ket Iuan mot each chac chan dtroc. Biei duoc nguon goc cua 51,1' nhiern bdn HI. buoc co ban {rang qua trlnh dua ra cac bien phap quan 1y char lirong ruroc.

1.3.7. Cae tCic nh6n dQC hQi va cec hQp chat lien quon ve mQt sinh thai 1.3.7.1. Trihalogenmetan (THM)

Trihalogenmetan diroc tao thanh khi cac nguyen t6 hoa hoc trong nhom halogen (clo, brom, iod) tac dung voi cac hop chat hftu co, Trang xu Iy mroc va mroc thai, dieu quan lam chu yeu d6i voi TI-IM la cloroform (CHCh), bromodidomctan, clorodibrornometan va bromoform (CHBr~).

Ngiroi ta nghi ngc rang cac TI-IM la nguyen nhan gay ung thu. Clo sir dung de khir trung rnroc va rnroc thii co the tac dung voi mot s6 hop chat hftu Cd tao thanh de hydrocacbon hoa, nhfrng hop cha"t nay cung c6 !he gay ung thu. Chinh VI Iy do nay rna nhieu sir Iva chon cac chat khac nhau Hun chdt khir trung thay the do da: duoc nghien CUll t}' mi va ap dung (Drinking Water Research Division, 1981).

1.3.7,2. Cae ht;1P ehl.fJ hftu co

Qua trmh cong nghiep noa va phat trien cong nghe da din den s6 luang de hop chat hihi co thai vao rnoi tnrong ngay cang tang. Trang hau het cac hop chat d6, cluing ta C{)II biet rat It vc tac dong cua chung d6i vci con ngu'ai. VI du, cac hop chat dfi ducc xac dinh 0 vung ho 100 la nguon cung cap mroc cho khoang 2/3 dan s6 Canada va hang trieu dan My.

29

""lhieu cac hop chat nay diroc hiet d5. gay ung thu cho dong val. Hicn nay hoa chat diroc bict ky hon eft c6 Ie la dioxin. 6 Canada, nguoi ta e6 the phat hien ra chung trong nunc cap trong vai phut. Gan day dioxin da phat hien duoc trong sua me l1 tinh Quebec. Canada,

Tuy nhien, ciing can thay rang trong th~p ky vira qua, cac phirong pluip phan Itch nhanh, tien lien da ha [hap giai han kharn phatoi ihieu cua nhieu hop chat.

1.3,7,3. Cae kim loa; nlJ.llg

Hau hel cac kim loai n[mg ton tai trong mnrc (; dang ion. chung co nguon goc phat sinh do cac hoar d(mg cua con ngiroi, Chung ell rnoi lien.quan, do _Ilnh doc h ai ella chun g doi voi cac vi sinh V~I. va eu6i cuug 111. can nguoi. Cac chat nay gem ascn. hari. cadrni. crorn, &1I1g. chi. thuy ngan, niken. sclcn. bac va kern. Chung phat sinh ur nhicu nguon gee khac nhau. chu ycu la do cac hoat dong cong nghiep. Vi du, kern do cac nha may son, muc in; thuy ngan vii kern do thuoc trir sau.v.v ... Do cluing khong phan ra nen cac kim loui n;}ng tlch tu trong cac chuoi thirc an cua h¢ sinh thai. Qua trinh nay bat dl:1U voi nong db thap cua cac kim loai nang ton tai trong nuoc hoac can lang, rN sau do diroc tfch II,! nhanh trong cac thirc vat va dong vat song diroi nude. Tiep den cac sinh vat khac sir dung cac thuc, dong V(II nay Him thirc an trong chuoi thrrc an dan ltCn nong d0 cac kim loai nang diroc tich lu trong co the sinh vat LdJ nen call han. Cu6i cung den sinh v~1 bac cao nhat trong chuoi thuc an. nong do kim loai nang dll. Ian dt gay ra doc hai, Truong hop nhiern doc hang loat tluu lien trong lich sir hicn dai la benh Minamata xay ra nam 1950 (J Nhat, do ngu dan ij vung vinh Minamata d5 an phai ca e6 chua ham Iuong thuy ngan cao do mo: nha may nhua thai VaG vinh,

1.3.7.4, Cac hoa chat bdo v¢ thuc v.;it (Pesticides)

Cac h6a chat bao ve thuc vat baa gom: Ihu6e trir sau (insecticides), thuoc tnr nain (fungicides), thuoc di¢t co (herbicides) va thu6e diet tao (algieides). Mac dau vay. trong thuc t6 thuat ngu: h6a chat b<'1.0 v? thirc vat van tlurong diroc hieu va goi la thuoc In! S[IU.

Thu6e trir sau gorn c6 cac hydrocacbon clo hoa nhu eldrin, clordanc, hop chat DDT, dieldrin, heptaclo, metoxyclo, toxaphene, nexachlorobcnzen (BCH). Cac phoiphat hiru co nhu diazinon, malathion, parathion ... Tnuoc diet co gam cacbamat (Carbyl); c.ic hydrocacbon cia hoa: 2,4 - 0, 1,3.5 - T, Silvex. Thu6e di¢t nam gom dong sunfat, Ierbam, ziram, Thu6c diet tao cnu yeu 111. cac hop chat dong.

RAt nhieu loai thuDe trir sau tnroc day nhu DDT. toxaphene va dieldrin la thuoc cac hop chat hydrocacbon clo hoa, Chung la nhimg hop chat ben trong moi tnrong ur nhien va nrong IU nhu cac kim loai nang cluing uch tu trong cac chuoi thirc an ella h¢ sinh thai, Cac nhuyen Ihe an bang each loc m91 hrong mroc 1611 da cho thay cluing chira mot ham hrong DDT cao han trong moi tnrong nuoc xung quanh hang trieu ran. san hrong DDT toi nhling nam 60 khoang 100 000 tan / nam, Do !hOi gian ban phan cua DDT e6 the tai 20 nam, vi vay mac du tren thirc tethuoc DDT d[ bj cam su dung a nhieu ruroc nrnrng mo: lirong Ian

30

thu6c nay se vfin con trong rnoi tnrong nhieu nam vc sau. Trong Iuc d6 co cac dau hieu cho thay cac he sinh thai duoc phuc hoi khi khong su dung them thuoc DDT nth vao cac he sinh thai d6. Vi du, s6 hrong de loai ehim a My di tang len dang k~ tit khi (1 day nguoi tu ngirng su dung thu6c IN siu DDT.

Cac thu6c tnr sau photphat huu co phan ril nhanh hon rat nhieu nhung gia thanh lai dat hon.

Tir dau nhimg nam 50, oa c6 nhfrng nghien crru bat dau xac dinh bin chat cua cac van de chat hrong runic do cac thuoc bao v~ thuc vat gay fa. Nuoc Ill' cac vuug (fat canh uic nong nghiep oil la mot nguon chinh gay ra sir nhiern bin thu6c trir sau 0 mile thap Jeij Vl'Ji mroc mat.

1.4. NUQC THAI SINH HO~T

Luong ruroc thai sinh hoar dao dong trong pharn vi rat Ian. IUS' thuoc V;1O nnrc song va cac th6i qucn cua nguoi dan, co thci uoc rinh hang 80% luong mroc diroc cap. d My va Canada la noi co nhu cau cap mroc Ian nen luang rnroc thai trurong tai 200 - 400 l/nguoi.ngay (so lieu 1979). GiUa IUQng rnroc thai va tai trong chat thai cua chung bieu thi bang cac chat lang hoac BOD .. c6 mot m6i nrong quan nhA"t dinh. Tai trong chat thai trung blnh tfnh thea dau ngiroi iJ dieu kien cua Due voi nhu cau Cap ruroc 150 I/nguai.ngay, duoc trmh bay trong bang 1.5.

D~c tnrng cua rnroc thai sinh hO~1 la thuong chua nhieu tap chat khac nhau, trong do khoang 52% la cac chat hfru co, 48% la cac chat vb co va rno: s6 Ian vi sinh vat, Phan Ion de vi sinh v~t trong rnroc thai thirong a dang cac virut va vi khuan gay benh nhu ta. Iy', thuong han .... Dong thoi trong ruroc thai ding clura cac vi khuan khong co hai co lac dung phan huy cac chat thai. Bang 1.6 phan loai rmrc d¢ 6 nhiern thea thanh phan hoa hoc ditn hinh cua ruroc thai sinh heat.

sang 1.5. Toi tr<;mg chat thai trung binh mot ng6y tinh theo dau nguoi (3)

T6ng chat thai, Chat thai hCru co, Chat thai vO co,
cee chOt gjnguai. ng6y gjnguoi. ngay gjnguoi. ngay
Tong luqng ehat thai 190 110 80
Coc chat ton 100 50 50
Cae ch6t khong ton 90 60 30
Chat 16ng 60 40 20
Chotkh6nglang 30 20 10 31

Bang 1.6. Thanh phon nuoc thai sinh hoot phon tieh theo coc phuong ph6p cuo APHA (3)

Cec chat . Muc d9 6 nhiem
n¢n_g trung blnh thop
Tong chat ran. mg/I •
1000 500 200
. Chat ran hoo ton. mg/I 700 350 120
. Chat ran kh6ng ton. mg/I 300 150 8
Tong chat ran 10 lung. mg/I 600 350 120
Chat fan lang mill 12 8 4
BODs. mg/I 300 200 100
OX'{ hoc ton. mg/I 0 0 0
Tong nita, mg/I 85 50 25
Nita hOu co, mg/I 35 20 10
Nita omonioc 50 30 15
Nito N02, mg/I 0,1 0,05 °
Nito NO,. mg/l 0.4 0.20 0.1
Cloruo. mg/I 175 100 15
D6 kiem. mg CaC03/1 200 100 50
Chat beo. mg/I 40 20 0
Tong photpho (theo Pl. mg/I " 8 . Nuoc thai sinh heat co thanh phan voi cac gia tri dien hinh nhu sau: COD:= 500 mg/l; BOD~ := 250 mg/l; SS := 220 mg/l; photpho = 8 mg/l: nito NH, va nita hfru co = 40 mg/l; pH = 6,8; TS = 720 mg/l.

Nhu vay ruroc thai sinh hoat c6 ham hrong cac chat dinh direng kha cao, doi khi wert d. yeu cau cho qua trlnh xu iy sinh h9C. Thong thuong cac qua trlnh xii Iy sinh noc can cac chat dinh dmmg thea ty l¢ sau: BOD~ : N : P = 100 : 5 : 1 (nghia ia 100 mg/l BOD." 5 mg/l N va i mg/I P). M¢I tinh chat d~e trung nira cua mroc thai sinh hoat la kh6ng phai tAt d. cac chat hfru co dcu co the bi phan huy boi cac vi sinh vl!.t va knoang 20 den 40% BOD thoat ra khoi cac qua trinh xu [9 sinh h9C cling v6i bun.

32

1.5. NUOCTHAI CONG NGHI~P

Trong eOng nghiep, nude duq'C sir dung nhu III mot loai nguyen lieu tho, hoac phuong tien san xuat (mroc eho cac qua trlnh) va phuc Vl,I eho cac muc dfch truyen nhiet, Nude cap eho san xuat co th! Idy tit mang edp mrec sinh hoat chung hoac Idy true tiep tir nguon nude ngam hay mroc m~t neu xf nghiep co he th6ng -xu ly mroc rieng, Nhu cau v'e cap nude va hrong mroc thai trong san xuat phu thuoc vao nhieu yeu t6. Ltru hrong nUC1e thai cua cac xi nghiep cong nghiep diroc xac dinh ehu yeu bbi d~e tfnh san pham diroc san xudt.

Bang 1.7. Nhu ccu cap nu6c vo Iuu IUQng nu6c th6i trong m¢t so nganh

cOng nghi~p (3)

Ngcnh cOng nghltp

Tinh cho

Nhu cau cap nu6c

LUll luQng nu6cthal

Nhu cau cap nUClc tinh trin mc}t cOng nhan, m3/nam

San xuat bo suo 1 T. sOa 5 + 6 fit 5+6 Ht 900

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• • •••••••••••••••••• ~~~.~ ~h+~~~.~ •••••••••• "... • ••••••• ~~+++~~~~ ••••• r.rrrh++~ •••••••••••••••••••••••••• r' ++~~.~.~. ~rr~~~~+~~~~~

San xuot xo ph6ng va 300

ch6tt6y ruo

Nha may db hOp rou T, sen 4,5+ 1.5 105

qua ph6m

•••••••••••••••••• ~ ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~ •• U~~~ ••••• ~.r.++n~~~........ ~ 'U~~~.~ •••• rrr~++n~~. • •••••••• "." "~~~"" "~ •• ~r~~~++~~~ ••• r" rrr~h+~~~~.~ ••• r~~~~~_~.~""""""""""". ~_~_~ ••

Gi6y

~~~~ •••• "~~~~++~+~~~~~.~.~~~+++u~~~~ ••••• ~~.+++n~~.. • •• rrrU' .~ " " " " " " " " "uu ++~~~~~" ~" " r" " ••••• " " " " " " " "~~~+++++~~.~ •••• rrr~++n~~" ~~ " " " " " " •••• " • " " " " " " " " " " ~~+++~~ •• ~ ". " " " " " " " " • " " " ~" ~"

Gl6y tr6ng 1 T 300 m3

SQibOng 120

~+~~" ~~".""""""". r •• """""~""" r" ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ••• r~~~~++~ "~"" ~." rrr+r ••• """"""""" """"."""""""""""" "~~~+~~ ~ •••••• rrrr~~++"""""""""""""""'" """"""""""" r~~+++~~~~""""""""."""""""""""""""""""

DuQC 34

San xu6tbia

Tinh che duong

San xu6t nuoc khoong va nuoc chanh

Gi6y khOng tOy trang'

Gi6y t6y trang

D$t

SQi nhOn too

Xia nghl~p toy tr6ng

Hoc ch6t

Xi m6ng

11bla

l l.cu cai

duong

IT

1 T

1 T, sen ph6m

1 T, sQI

150+200

5.6511t

10-:-20 m3

100m3

1000

10000

450

20 ()(X)

4500+7500

1600

1200 + 2500

33

Ngoai ra, trlnh d¢ cong nghe san xuat (lac hau hay nien dai) va khoi luang san xuat (nang suat) cua xi nghiep ding co y nghia quan trong. LUll luang tinh eho mot dun vi san pham c6 the ral khac nnau. LUll hrong ruroc thai sim xuat lai dao dong rat Ion. Boi vay cac so lieu neu trong cac tai lieu tlurong khong tin dinh va 0 nhieu xi nghiep lai e6 kha nang ti':l kiem luang rnroc cilp do sit dung he thong tuan hoan rnroc trong san xuat. Trong lung tnrong hop cu the. din 16 ernie tfnh toan va kh'ao Silt hrong mroc thai, <1 nlurng nha may khong sit dung tuan hoan mroc thai thl hrong nuoc thai iroc tfnh bang 85.;-95'}' uuoc diroc cap. Bang 1.7 cung cap mot s6 56 lieu so b¢ cho thay mire dao dong 100 ve luu hrong don vi rnroc thai tren mot don vi san pharn.

Thanh phan ruroc thai san xuat rilt da dang, tharn chi ngay trong mot nganh cong nghiep, 56 lieu cung co the thay doi dang ke do mire do noan thien ella cong nghe still xu[\t hoac dieu kicn rnoi tnrong. Trang tirng tnrong hop eu the. can sir dung cac nguon tai lieu thich hop. Can eli vao thanh pnan va kh6i IU(1ng mroc thai rna hra chon c6ng nght va cac ky' thuat xu lY. sang 1.8 cung cap mot s6 so lieu ve thanh phan mroc thai cua mot ~O nganh cong nghiep.

Bang 1.8. Tlnh chat doc trung cue nuoc thai mot s6 nganh c6ng nghi$p (5)

Cae chi th~u

Son xual ciorophenol

Chi bien sue

Son xuCit Ihll hQp

D~t sol 16n9 hcp

BOD5. mg/I

----_ ... ,.",' .. , .. --- ..... "." .... --.

COD. mg/I

4300

------- ~ --

5400

Chat ran 10 lung, m\j/I I

............... -.----_ .

Nita. mgN/1

..... -.----_.~~ .. ,',.,., ~ ----_ -. -.". ,. , .. ~ --- , ~~----.- ----- ,. ~.~~ .. ----- -----~~~ .

Photpho. mgP/I 12 16 0

---------- ------ ------- " ,~.~~----- ----~~~. , --- _ --_ .. _ .

pH 7 7 5

Tong chat ran. mgtl

1000

1900

1600

300

1400

2100

3300

1000

150

1500

3300

8000

2000

30

53000

50

1200

._---- ~~~~~~- - -.~--~~~ - - -- -- -.-----.- ..

o

500

o

7

Dou mo. mg/I

.. ·Nhi$t·d¢:·oC · ·· · ·29·· · ····· ·28 · i·7

Cloruo. mg/I 27000

----_ ---_ -.- -- ~~~--~ ----- ~~ -~~ --- -- ~~ , .

Phenol. mg/l 140

N6i chung rnroc thai tir cac nha may che bien Ih,!c pharn c6 ham luang nita va photpho du cho qua trlnh xu [9 sinh hoc, trong khi d6 ham hrong cac chat dinh duong nay trong mroc thai cua cac nganh san xuat khac lai qua thap so voi nhu diu phat tricn cua vi sinh val. Ngoai ra mroc thai 0 cac nha may hoa chat eon rhuong chua mot so chat doc can duoc xU: 19 so bo de khu cac doc to d6 tnroc khi thai vao h¢ thong nuoc thai khu vue,

Trang tnrong hop xu 19 chung, cac chat thai cong nghiep bi~u thi luu hrong va khoi hrong BOD qua so dan nrong duong. Bang 1.9 cho mot s6 vi du v'e su qui d6i nay.

34

Bang 1.9. Tuong quon chat thai san xuat voi chat thai sinh hoot do s6 dan' tuang duong thai ro

Ngenh san xuct Tinh cho sen xuct So den tllong dllong
Nha may soc (kh6ng san xuct phomat) 100 I suo 30 - 80
Loma 1 be" 2.51Qn 70 - 200
1000 kg th!t 150 - 450
Nh6 may bia 1000 I bia 150-400
NhO may son xuot tinh bot 1 T ng6 500 - 1000
Nha may da 1 Tda 1000 - 4000
NhO may che bien len 1 T len 2000 - 5000
Phon xuong tay 1 t son pham 1000 - 4000
Nho may nhu¢m co thuoc nhu¢m chua 1 T v¢t li$u 2000 - 3000
luu huynh
.~
Nh6 may gi¢t Tl vol gi¢t 370 - 1000
51.,1 ro ri dou kho6ng 1 T dou 12000 1.6_ NUOC THAI £>0 TH!

Tfnh gan dung, mroc thai do th! thirong gom khoang 50 % la ruroc thai sinh hoat, 14% la cue 10,:!i ruroc tharn va 36 % ia mroc thai san xuat. O1ng can luu y rang, nhu cau cap mroc va ruroc thai do thj a cac rnroc cong nghiep phat trien cao hon nIl nhieu so voi cac mroc dang phat tri6n (bang UO).

Luu luang nude thai do thi phu thuoc rat nhieu van dieu kien khf hau va cac tfnh chat d~e tnrng cua thanh ph6. Khoang 65 den 85 % luong rnroc cap eho mol nguoi Ira thanh mroc thai. Luu hrong va ham hrong cac chat thai ella mroc thai do thi thuong dao dong trong pham vi rat J6n nhu minh hoa tren hlnh 1.7. Luu luong nude thai ella cac thanh pho nho bien dong tir gia tri nho nhft bang 20% QrfJ den gia tri 16n nhat bang 250% Qrn, con doi voi cac thanh pho 16n 51! dao dong d6 ur 50 o/c Qrn den 200 % QTB. Luu hrong nude thai [On nhat trong ngay van Iuc 10 - 12 gill tnra va Chap nhat van khoang .5 gill sang. Ham hrong BOD va chat ran 10 lung e6 dang dirong cong gan gi6ng nhu dirong eong luu hrong Q (lis).

35

100 :.:z

...... 90

-,

,

/

0
0 2 4- 6 8 10 12 14- 16 18 20 22 24
Thol gian frons I'Jgay I gia-
") 36
~
d2
-..
~
g2B
.....
'- 24- 3
Q ,.,-_-.....L.. __
~ 20 I - __
-_
-.....;
~ ISOD frung binh f7 s/s
6.'6
~ "- ,Nang rio BOD
~ 12
" '
<,
' ........... _-/,
a
0 , __ 16 20 22 24
Thdi gian frong ngay I gid
Hinh,1.7. $1,1 bien d¢ng thee thoi gian treng ngoy cue nuoc thai do thj 36

Lull hrong va tfnh eh!t mroc thai dl"> thi con thay ddi theo mila, giila ngay lam viec va ngay nghi trong tulm cling elm diroc tfnh den khi danh gia sl,i' bi€n d~ng luu hrong va nong d¢ chat gay I"> nhiem,

Bang 1.10. MOe su dt,Jng nuoc (} m¢t sO d6 th! trlln the g;o; (3)

NuCic 010 donh Nom M(fc tlAu dung I/ngUQi.ngay
PhOn Lan Hensinki 1963 Trung blnh 360
Phop Khu vue nOng thOn 1963 Trung blnh 126
Thanh ph6 245
Nauy Oslo 1963 T 6ng Mu dung trung blnh 580
Ri~ng s6n xu6t cOng nghi$p 230
Ao Vi~n 1969 T6ng tl~u dOng trung blnh 313
Lon nh6t 416
Thuy Dien Stockholm 1961 Ti~u dung Ion nh6t 422
Tn.mg blnh 337
Trong sinh hoot 198
COng nghi$p 102
Cho coc nhu ceu khac 37
Basel 1968 Trung blnh 720
Thuy Si Zurich 1961 Trung blnh 420
My Los Angeles 1960 Trung blnh 630
Chicago 1960 Trung blnh 875 1.7. ANH HUONG ClIA NUOC THAI £)61 VOl cAc NGUON TIEP NH~N NUOC

1.7.1. sv a nhlim nuCsc sOng

Ngirci ta thirong sir dung cac dong song d~ pha Ioang nUCtc thai. Tuy thuoc vao kha nang til lam sach eiia dong song, nghia la kha nang dong hoa cac eh!t thai rna dong song co th~ phuc hoi Iai eh!t hrong ban d"a.u cua n6. KM nang nay diroc xac dinh bbi cac tfnh eh!t d~e tnrng cua dong song, k~ d. dieu kien khf hau.

Qua trinh tl! lam sach cac chat thai hoa hoc hoan toan phu tnuoc vao luu t6e cua dong song. Trong qua trlnh di chuyen xu6ng ha luu, nong d.Q cac cUt nay giam r!t nhanh do hrong ruroc trong luu vue chay vao song tang len. C6 nhieu hoa chat phan U'ng va tieu tan do b!lp thu hoac phan fa sinh hoc, Cac vi khuan trong mroc thai sinh hoat bi giam v"e s6

37

luang do pha loang, tnrcc het do dieu kien m6i tnrong khong thuan loicho sir phat tri~n cua cluing nhu thieu dinh duong, tac dong cua nhiet dq va quan he ella cac sinh vat trong chuoi thirc an.

Vung tron ruroc thai voi rnroc song Iii. vung khong the: tninh khoi bi 6 nhiem, Vi vung nay c6 Ih~ tao nen mot vung ngan chan su di chuycn cua ca va de sinh vat song durri 11116e nen can dUQ'e gici han b rrurc t6i thi~u. Neu nhu tren cung m6t dong song co my 1 ;;0 diem thai gAn nhau thl vung tron nay can diroc ho trf nam doc theo cung mot phia tao cho cac sinh vat song r.laoi rnroc mot dong di chuyen lien we iJ phia bb d6i dien,

Nang do cua chat gay 0 nhiern sau khi tron rnroc thai voi mroc song co the; tinh theo cong tlurc ( 1.21):

(1 -21)

trong do:

C - nong do chat 0 nhiern trong dong song tai di6m thai:

QI - hru IUQ'l1g dong song;

C1 - nong d\) cua chat gay () nhiem trong dong QI:

Q2 - luu IUQ'ng cim ruroc thai xa vao song;

C2 - nong do chat 0 nhiem trong dong nUNC thai Q2'

1.7.1.1. S If 6 nhiem do cac cha.t hiiu C(1

Rilt nhieu ehftt thai trong ruroc thai sinh hoar va cong nghicp chua cue ehi1t hiru co khi bi vi sinh V~I phan huy lam giam nang dQ oxy hoa tan cua mroc song, Khi nang ,j() oxy hoa tan giam xu6ng duoi 4 hoac 5 mg/l, cac 10m thuy sinh bat d'il.u giarn. VI vay chi so nang d¢ oxy hoa tan Iii. mot chi s6 quan trong nhat d~ danh gia chat luong mroc song.

Toe do qua trinh 60 dinh sinh hoc Ill. ham s6 cua thai gian va nhiet d¢. Toe d(\ loai oxy siS tang khi nhiet do tang. Niroc song ducc b6 sung oxy tnroc ht't la do qua trinh hap thu oxy tir khong khf. Nhu vay cac yeu t6 chi phci qua trlnh II.J lam sach cua mot dong song d6i vai cac chat thai hfru co s6 Iii. hru hrong dong chay, thai gian chay xuoi, nhiet d¢ mroc, qua trlnh tai sinh oxy bang hap thu,

Mot dong song bi nhiem bin do cue eh!t hfru CO duoc chia thanh bon vung thea dong chay nlur tren hinh 1.8. Vung ngay sau diem thai Iii. vung ph fin ra, 6 day nong d6 oxy hoa tan giarn rat nhanh do cac vi khuan dasll" dung de phan huy de hop chat hiru co trong chat thai. Tiep den la vung phan huy manh cac chat hfru co, nang d¢ oxy hoa tan giam tai rmrc thap nhat. Trong vung nay thirong xay fa ca qua trlnh phan huy ky khi bun iJ day song, phat sinh mui hoi th6i. D1I.y la moi tnrong khong thuan loi eho cac dong v(l.t bac cao nhu ca sinh song. Nguoc II!-i, vi khuan va narn phat trien manh nhd sir phan huy cac hop chal hfru co lam giam BOD va tang ham lirong amoniae. 0 vung tai sinh, toe do hap thu oxy 16n hon toe

38

d¢ sir dung oxy nen nong d¢ oxy hoa tan lang dan. 0 day amoniac diroc cac vi sinh V~I nitrat hoa. Cac loai giap xac va cac loai ca c6 kha nang chiu dung.v.v ... tai XU,x1 hien va tao phat lrien manh do ham hrong cac chat dinh dirong vo co nr qua trinh pharr huy cac chat hfru co lang len., Vung cuoi cung [a vung ruroc sach. Nong d¢ oxy hoa Ian dtroc phuc hoi tro lai hang mire ban dau. con chat hiru Cl1 hau nhu da bi phan huy h61. M6i Irtroog IllJOC 0: day dam bao cho su song binh thuong cua cac loai thirc v~1 va dong vat,

Xo chat thai Vung Vung phon Vung Vung

hOu co !(--p"""h-:6-n"::::r-O~~-"h-:u--'y=-m':"'0-.n""'h-""*--t:-:6:-:-i --:si-=nh:"""""-*-n-uo-=-- c-so=-, C--:h-~

DOdau

BODdau ~Qi.Q.a~_~

Duong cong nOng dO O'ICY

Nhu cau oy:.; sinh h60

Amonioc

Tao

_- .......

/.-- T60 ....

/'

Hinh 1.8. Anh huang cuo 6 nhil§m do ccc chot huu co t6i chct [uQng dong s6ng

..._~----

Thoi gion hooc khoong coch ______,.

39

1.7.1.2. su« thue d"img cong nang d~ oxy hod Ian

C6 ra:t nhieu yeu t6 anh huang toi nong d¢ oxy hoa tan trong- mroc song nhu IU9'J1g cac cMt thru su dung oxy, qua tr1nh quang hop cira tlurc vat, qua trlnh h6 hAp cua cac loai thiiy sinh s6ng trong do, su b6 sung oxy do cac nhanh song hoa nhap vao va qua trlnn hap thu oxy til khf quyen.v.v ... Thiet lap mot mO hmh chinh xac mo ill anh huang cua IAI ca cac yeu t6 tren va m6i nrong lac ghra chung la m¢t viec vO cung kho khan, vi vay cac m6 hlnh deu chi mang tinh gan dung.

M6 hlnh dan gian nhat ve cac nguon oxy trong mroc song t~p trung van hai qua trlnh chlnh: khir oxy bbi cac vi sinh v~t trong qua trlnh phan huy sinh hoc va be) sung oxy van mroc thong qua qua trinh hap thu tit kh6ng khi, Trong rno hlnh nay ngum ta gia thiet rang;

1. Nuoc thai duoc thai lien tuc van song tai mot dia diem cho tnroc,

2. Niroc song va mroc thai cung chay xuoi dong va diroc tron &u tai 1111 d. mat cat ngang cua dong song,

3. Khong co sir khuech tan chat thai theo hirong dong chay, nghia la dong chay la dong

day. .

Gia thiet t6c dQ 10,!-i oxy tai ba:t ky vi tri nao tren song d~u ty I¢. v6'i BOD" con lai tai

di~m d6, co nghia la :

Toe d¢ 10,!-i oxy = - k'j.L

( 1.22)

trong d6 :

k', - hang s6 t6c dQ loai oxy (l/ngay), phu thuoc van loai cha:t thai phan huy, r" ... L - BOD con Iai sau t ngay tfnh tit thai diem chat thai d6 thai vao song, mg/l.

D~t bieu tlnrc (1.12) van (1.22) ta c6:

-t'l!

T6c dQ IO,!-i oxy = -k'I,LJ. e

trong do L) la BOD t6ng cua pha cacbon, mg/l.

Gia thiel t6c d¢ b6 sung oxy tY l¢ v& hieu s6 gitra nong dl> bao hoa oxy hoa tan (00*) va nong dl> thirc cua oxy hoa tan tai vj trl da cho (DO), co nghia la:

(1.23 )

T6c d¢ bO sung oxy = k'2D

(1.24)

trong do:

k'2 - hang s6t6c dQ b6 sung oxy, l/ngay;

o - nong d¢ oxy thieu hut tai thoi diem t bAt ky :

D = (DO* - DO)

Hang s6 k'2 phu thuoc rat nhieu vao di'eu kien cu the cua dong song, MQt dong song (hoac h'o mroc) nong, chay nhanh se c6 hang s6 t6c dQ biS sung oxy cao hon mot dong song (hoac ho nuoc) chay cham, Gia tri k'2 dU'qc xac dinh qua nghien ctru dong chay cua song

40

bang phuong phap danh dau. Trong tnrong hop khong thi nghien crru khao sat diroc co the tfnh theo cong thirc tong quat sau:

k' = 3,9. Ul12 [(1,037) (T -20) 1112

2 H)12

(1.25)

trong d6 :

k'2 - hang s6 t6e d¢ be> sung oxy, I/ngay;

U - van t6c trung binh cua dong song, rn/s:

H - chieu sau trung blnh cua song, m:

T - nhiet d¢ ella mroc, "c.

M¢t so' gia tri dien hlnh ella k'2 diroc eho trong bang 1.11. Hang s6 t6c d(J b6 sung oxy (; cac nhiet d¢ khac co the tfnh thea cong tlurc ( 1.14) voi h¢ so nniet &9 8 = 1,024.

Bang 1.11. M¢t s6 gi6 tr] dien hinh cue k'z 0 200C cho mot 56 nquon nuoc (Vesilind P.A, Peirce J.J, Weiner R.F, 1988)

NguOn nuac Khoang 916 Ir! eua k'2 a 2rfc
Coc ho nuoc nh6 c6 xooy nguqc 0.10 - 0.23
Dong sOng ch6y ch¢m va coc he nuoc Ion 0,23 - 0.35
Song Ion c6 t6e d¢ chaY th6p 0,35 - 0,46
SOng Ion co t6c d¢ ch6y blnh thuong 0.46 - 0,65
Cae sOng ch6y nhanh 0,65 - 1,15
SOng ch6y xocv >1.15 Oie qua trinh loaioxy va b6 sung oxy iA cac qua trlnh xay ra o6ng thai tren mot dong song. Vi vay khi k~t hop hai bieu thue (1.23) va (1.24) eho ta bh~u thirc bieu thi t6e d9 tang nong d¢ oxy thieu hut:

dD , -kit ,

Tt=k1·Loe -k2·D

Giai phuong trlnh (1.26) ta nhan diroc:

D -'- k\ .t., (-k'll -k'21) D -k'2t

- e -e + oe

k'2-k\

Dn - nong di? oxy thieu hut ban dau t<;li diem tron mroc thai vao rnroc song.

Bieu thirc (1.27) duoc goi la bteu tlurc nong di? oxy hoa tan ella Streeter - Phelp (1925). Trong bieu tlurc nay t la khoang thai gian dong hon hop ehat thai va rurcc song di chuyen tir dil~m thai e6 x = 0, t = 0 16i vi trf khao sat ..

(1.26)

( 1.27)

41

Trong tnrong hop k';: = k', SC c6:

0= (k'ILol + Do) e ~"

(1.28)

Neu dong song co tiet dien mi}.t cat ngang kh6ng d(')i, toe d6 dong chay U va khoang each tir diem thai toi diem khao sat Iii x ;= U.t. Khi d6 bien thirc (1.27) co lhi': viet nhir sau:

(1.29)

Hicu sci giua nang do oxy bao hoa 00* vtri nang d9 oxy thieu hut tfnh theo cong thuc ( I .27) hoac ( I .29) III nang do oxy hoa tan tai cac dit'm khao sat, Iii. ham s6 cua thai gian va khoang each xuoi dong. 8(l thi cua ham so nay diroc trinh bay tren hinh 1.9. Vi trf (hoac thai diem) tai till nang do oxy hoa tan dat gia tri nho nhat goi la diffm toi han, Tai diem nay toe do loai oxy bang toe do bei sung oxy va sau diem d6 hrong oxy bb sung vuot qua hrong oxy da bi SlT dung, dan dan dong song tai sinh vi dat nang d9 oxy hoa tan ban dau cua no.

Xa chat thai hOu co

v¢nt6c.u

~--_.=f=

x=o

t = 0

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Hinh 1.9. Duong cong nong d¢ oxy hoo tan thea Streeter - Phelp

Vj trl ella diem tai han co tam quan trong trong giam sat chat hrong nuoc song, vi tai vi trf d6 dong song a trang thai xau nhat._Diem toi han diroc tinh theo ~6ng thirc sau:

42

(1.30)

irong d6 tlh Iii. thoi gian toi han, la khoang thoi gian di chuyen cua dong chill thai loi diem n(lng do oxy hoa Ian a rrnrc tnap nhat tinh thea ngay,

Anh huong cua nhiet dO tai duong eong nong do oxy hoa tan lit dac bict quan trong vl khi nhiet d¢ tang, toe dl) loai oxy se tang trong khi d6 do hoa Ian oxy lai gium, djn den dat t6i diem gi6i han sam hem. Ngoai nmrng y6u t6 chinh nhu dll XCI khi mo 1<1 mal cal cua mor dong song can tfnh den till ca nhimg yeu 16 ua neu ('l tren. Sau khi xac dinh kha nang II~ng hop ella mol dong song bang kiem Ira lai cac yeu t6 IU lam sach, ta e6 the" du doan I:'ti trong chat 111M 0 nhirng dicu kien ihuy hoc khac nhau rna dong song co Iht chiu dung.

1.7.2. Anh huang cue 6 nhiem den nu6c ho

- Anh huang cua sir 6 nhiem doi voi rnroc ho khac voi anh huang cua 6 nhicrn doi v(1i niroc song ve mot so khia canh, Yeu t6 quan ttong nhat can duqc u6 cap trong dam h(l hoc (Limnology) Iii. anh sang vii. nhiet d,).

- Anh sang ehinh la nguon nang luong trong cac phan ling quang hop, Vi vay su xuyen thau cua anh sang vao mroc hb co vai tro v6 cung quan trong, SU xuyen thau cua anh sang nay theo ham so logarit. Vi UlI, a do sau 0,3048 m, anh sang co cirong d,) 1\ =. 10000 tootcandlcs, a 0,6096 rn chi con 12 = 1000 Iootcandlcs, d 0,9144 m tht h = 100 Iootcandlcs va d dq sau 1,2192 m chi con 14 = 10 footcandles,

Nhu Yay phan ling quang hop chi dien ra i:J lap rnrcc nha! dinb gan mal thoang.

Nhiet di) co anh huong rill 1611 d6i vdi dbi song cua mot ho, Do nhiing tfnh chat aac bitt cua ruroc nhu p, C nen tao ra 51! phan lang va dlln nniet kern nhung giii' nhiet ral t61. Nhiet d6 ell J mroc ho dao dong rAt manh thea mua nhu rno til 6 hinh 1.10 a va diiirn uon cu U uUftng cong goi Itt diem thay d6i d¢t ngot nhiet d9 mroc,

Khi thoi tiet lanh, lap ruroc phla tren bat dau lann tn'l nen nang han va chim xuong duai tao thanh sir deli hru trung ho IS. 51! roi nghich dao (fall turnover). Hien urong nghic]: dao cling thuong xay ra trong mua xuan (spring turnover).

Cac phan ling sinh hoa trong ho tl! nhien co the rninh hoa nhu tren hinh 1.1 Ob, Dong vao ho III song se cung cap cho bo nguon C, P, N hoac sinh vat nang lirong cao vh cac http chat nang hrong thap. Tao - thirc v~t troi n6i (phytoplankton) sir dung nguon nang luong - anh sang mat trrri va cac chat dinh dUOng C, N, P tcing hop nen cac hop chilt nang hrong cao - Day Iii. mat xich dau tien trong chu6i thirc an trong moi tnrong nunc ho.

Trong ho khong bi 6 nhiern, viec b6 sung C, P, N urong d6i nho se han che nang sua; tao va nang suat loan hI) he sinh thai, Nhung khi C, P, N cilp vao ho voi hrong Ian va du thira so v6i nhu diu se dan den sLJ" phat trien bung nei khong kiem soat duoc cua cluing va

41

ngtrci ta goi ia SII "no hoa cua mroc". Hien urong 6 nhiern nay cua hb do du thira cac chAt dinh duong gay fa goi ia hien t11QTlg phi duong,

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Hinh 1.10. M6i quan M phu tnuoc dif3n hinh

giQa cnleu sou va nhi$t d¢ trong he (a) vo so de h$ sinh thai he (b)

44

..

Nhu v~y qua trinh phi dUOng co lien quan tnrc tiep den chul'li thirc an trong moi tnrong ruroc, Chfnh su tfch tu bun lAng va cac chat hfru co trong hb la nguyen ohm gay ra qua trlnh nay. Qua trlnh phi duiID.g c6 the minh hoa torn tilt nhu tren hinh 1.11. Mot h6 tre thirong d~c trung bOi ham hrong chat dinh dUOng trong nu'ClC va nang suat thuc v~t tha:p (oligotrophic). Do cac dong chay khac nhau ve ho mang theo cac chat dinh dirong dan dan lam cho h'o c6 mire dinh dirong trung binh (mezotrophic), Blnh thtrong hrong thuc v~t phat trien can bang vCli hrong dong v4t trong chuoi thirc an v~ bi gioi han boi ham luong cac ch1it dinh duOng. Trill qua mot thai gian, su tjch tu cac manh hiiu co va bun da day nhanh sl,l' phat trien cac sinh v~t dUCIi rnroc. h'o tro nen giau dinh dirong, Do cac chat ran, bun lang xu6ng day h'o va sl,l' phat trien manh cua cac loai thuc vat co re a ven bo lam cho h6 mroc ngay cang Iro nen nong hon va ro~t tnoang bi thu hep dan, OJ' nhu the, h'o mrcc d'ftn dan chuyen thanh darn ra.y roi thanh Mt kho,

Qua trlnh phi dUOng la mot qua trmh tu nhien, c6 the xay ra trong hang nghin narn.

Tuy nhien, toe d¢ cua qui trlnh nay co the tang nhanh chi trong vai thap ky do anh huang cac hoat dong cua can nguo'i.

Nunc thai dO thi, rnroc thai san xua! va nunc til cac vung da:t canh tac.du thira phan bon dli lam tang them cac eha:t dinh duOng, kfch thieh su phat trien ella tao va giarn chat IUQ'Ilg rnroc. SI! "phil trien bung n6" cua tao lam eho rnroc trb nen due, Tao du tmra chet kel thanh kh6i troi n6i tren m~t mroc, khi phan huy phat sinh mui va lam giam nong d¢ oxy hoa tan trong ruroc hO, ann huang true tiep tm dbi s6ng cua mot s6lo~j ca.

C6 nhieu yeu to' kiem soat qua trinh sinh tnrong cua tao, bao gom anh sang. cac chili dinh dtrong ... Lirong anh sang tao co the nhan duqe se lien quan (Cli tfnh trong suet cua mroc rna d¢ trong do Iai la ham s6 ella roue dinh duOng. Tuy anh sang la mot yeu to' han ehe sinh tnrong ella tao, song th4t kh6 c6 the nghi duqc each kiem soar de han che qua trinh phi duOng.

cae cMI dinh dUOng d6i vCli tao bao gom C, N, P, S, Ca, Mg, K. Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co v.v. Theo dinh lu4t t6i thieu cua Liebig, each kiem soat qua truth phi dutmg nhanh nhat 13. nhan dang dinh dUOng gi6i han sinh tnrong cua tao va giam nong d¢ cua eMt dinh dui'mg d6. Phuong phap thirc tien duy nhat de kiem soar qua trinh phi duong la tl)p trung kiem soar nong d¢ photpho trong mroc,

De minh hoa dieu nay, co the xem xet plurong trirth Quang hop cua tao do Stumm va Morgan (1981) dira ra:

l06C02 + 16NOJ' + HP042• + 122H20 + 18H+ -7 C1 OJ-i26JOI j(,N I J' + 13802 ( 1.31)

Til can bang phirong trinh tren nguoi la rut ra Iy so:

N=16xI4=72

P Ix3l '

45

Nhir va y, d~ san XUa! mot hrong tao tren can Iuong nito gap 7,2 Ian hrong phot pho.

Tuy nhien I~" It NIP trong rnroc noi chung lit tren 20. Dieu do chi ra rang, phoipho lit chat dinh dufmg gioi han, Ngircc lai, khi Iy It NIP bang hoac nho hon 5 phan anh mot he bi gioi nan boi dinh duang nito (Thomann va Mueller. 1987).

Sa wyer (1947) cho ding, nang dCl photpho tren 0,015 mg/l v it nang del ni to t ren 0.3 mg/l Iii. du gay ra "sir phat trien bung n()"cua tao. CGng tren co S0 d6, gan day Vollenweider ( 1975) elm rang, nang u¢ photpho bang OJ}! 0 rng/l 1a chap nhan diroc d6i voi rnroc h(,") va 0,020 mg/l sc gay ra du Ihira photpho,

Mac du kiem soat nang do cac chat dinh dirong 111 bien phap de phong hien nrong phl durmg hieu qua nhat nhung trong thirc 16 bien phap nay rat kho thirc hicn. DoS han che nhimg anh hirong xau cua cac hi) ntroc giau dinh duong, nguoi ta dti sir dung mot so bien phap tam thoi nnu khuay tron nhan lao. thu hoach tao, dung hoa chat (CUS04) va tJ.O dong chay xier. Tuy nhien. khi dung hoa chat de kiem scat sir phat trien cua lao can chu }' toi gi(ji han CUS04 e6 th~ gay ngo doc cho ca.

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Dat kh6

1.7,3, Anh huang cue SI/ 6 nhh3m d6i v6i nuoc bien

Tnroc day ngiro: ta nghi rang. bien va dai dirong rong IOn bao la :;c chang bao giiJ bi () nhicm, Nhung ngay nay nguoi ta dii nhan tlurc duoc rang dieu do khong phai nhu vay. BioSn va dai dirong cling co the bi 6 nhiern va co the danh gia nlnrng anh huong co hai do nhirng dong cua con ngiroi gay ra,

Nuoc trong dai dirong la mol dung dich rat phirc lap va co nhiing bang clnrng cho thay thanh phan cua chung thay d6i ral it trong hang trieu nam qua. Do s11 6n dinh nay rna

46

cac sinh vat bien duoc thuan hoa eao va khong chiu diroc su thay d(;i cua moi tnrong, Nhu vay dai duong ding la h¢ sinh thai de hong va dC: bi 0 nhiem.

Ball (j{) dia htnh cua dai dtrong cho thay, co hai phan rieng biet khi chung ta nghicn ctru vt bien va dai duong . them luc dia va de dai duong sau, Them luc dia, dac hie! cac khu vue gan cac elm song chinh la nguon cung cap thirc an. khai that: thuy san. Khu VUe nay dang tiep nhan tai trong (j nhiern Ian nhm, Nnieu cira song ehinh gan ngu thuong ail bi o nhiem den rrurc toi te, Mot s6 vung hien 100n nhir Bantic, Dia Trung Hili cung dang hi de doa Iro nen hu hai vinh vien.

Mac du u My vii. nhieu quoc gia khac dii han chc mal each ngnicm ngat vice thiij mTOC thai vao bien. nhung tren the gioi van con nhieu thanh pho con thai nuoc thai chua qua xu Iy vao rnoi tnrong nay. Niroc thai thuong dum; dan trong mot he thong 6ng ra xa bo va thai qua cac dau khuech tan de dat mire pha loang loi cia. Tuy 'lay, cac cuoc tranh luan vall con tiep we neu sir dung bi~n lam noi thai mroc thai thi nhirng hau qua lau dai gi co tht xay ra?

1.8. QUAN LV CHAT LUONG NUOC

De: quan 19 moi tnrong nuoc, cac quoc gia trcn the gioi cia xay dung nhirng dao luat rieng cho van de nay'. Nam 1965, QW)!.: hoi M5' dil thong qua dao luat ve chat hrong mroc (Water Quality ALI). Quan Iy chat hrong ruroc chu yeu Iii. nham [iii sir dung mroc du la tnrc tiep hay guin tiep, Nhimg nghien ciru khu vue dai han (50 nam) co Ih~ eung cap cho ra mot khuon kh6 t6 chiic xay dung cac he thong tcing hop cua nue'lc va mroc thai. Mue lieu chinh cua ke hoach t6ng th~ Iil. danh gia cac nha may xu I~' ruroc va mroc thai, tien hanh nhCrng ngnien ciru vt cac van de bal thuong va duy tri, hoan thien cac tieu chuan chat hrong nude.

Trong quan Iy moi tnrong nuoc, nguoi ta tlnrong su dung cac h¢ thong tieu chuan sau:

1. Tieu chuan mroc cho cac rnuc dich sir dung khac nhau.

2. Tieu chuan dong thai (Effluent Standard). 3, Tieu chuan dong song (Stream Standard).

Hlnh 1.12 gioi thieu cac ticu chuan da duoc thiet l~p lien quan toi sir dung va xu I~'

ruroc,

Tieu chuan chat hrong nude eho cac muc dich su dung khac nhau iJ My duoc tom t{tl trong bang 1.12. Tieu chuan rnroc ucng va mroc cap cho mot s6 nganh cong nghicp diroc lam hroc trong bang 1.13 va 1.14, Cac bing nr U5 loi 1.21 gici thieu mol sCi tieu chuan dong song va dong thai cua Viet Nam va mot s6 ruroc,

Quan ly thco tieu chuan dong thai nghia la kiem soat de dam baa sao cho cac chat gay o nhiem trong dong thai ra nr de nha may thap hem ticu chuan quy dinh. Nhucc di~m phuong phap tiep can nay la khong ki&m soat diroc tong luang chat gay () nhiem xa vao dong song. Neu mot nna may 160 va mot nha may nho cung chiu mire din xu I~' nmrc thai nhu nhau thi lirong chat gay 6 nhiern do nha may Ian thai ra van Ian han nhieu,

47

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Hinh 1.12. So do minh h90 coc tieu chuOn chat tUQng nuoc dung de qucn ty mot h$ thong t6ng hop nuoc vo nuoc thai

Nhirng tieu chuan dong thai duc;K: xay dung dua tren co sa y nghia kinh Ie, tfnh hien thuc cua viec xu 19 nhieu han la bao v¢ tuyet d6i an loan d6i voi m¢t dong song.

Tuy nhien, phuong phap nay e6 uu dit~m la co the kiem soat mot each d~ dang he thong cac lieu chuan dong thai.

Quan 19 theo tieu chuan dong song la can eu tren su thiet l~p h¢ thong phan IO,!-i hoac tieu chudn ehfit hrong cua dong song rna nguoi ta dfeu tiet viec xa mroc thai van dong song, sao cho duy trl diroc chat hrong cua dong song nhu dii quy dinh trong tieu chUAn hoac trong phan loai. Nhu vay, co quan di~u tiet viec xa rnroc thai van song can nghe 9 kien cua dan cluing cung nhu cac CCi quan dai dien cao nhat e6 quyen loi trong viec sir dung mroc,

Lfu diem chfnh cua phuong phap tiep can nay Iii phong ngira duge 51! (') nhiem qua rmrc, khong can de 9 den IO,!-i cong nghiep nao dii thai fa. Dong thci n6 cling cho phep cong chung xay dung rnuc tieu cho nien t<_l.i va nrong lai.

48

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Daumo

Nu6c lam nguQi

100

475mg CaCO)/1

H06 ch6t

D¢pH

Axit cacbon xam thuc. mg/I

Do cling toan phon

T6ng ham luong muOi. mg!1

Clorua.mg!1

Sot. mg!1

Mongan, mg!1

Silic. mg/I

Dong. mg/I

Canxi. mg!1

Bicacbonat. mg/I

Chat ran tan. mg/I

72-9.5

< 20

< 3000

< 1000

< 1

< 0,15

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D~t

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200

2,6

50

1000

5,5-9

1000 mg CoCO)/1

500

10

2

250

600

2500

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1600

15

85

220

480

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6-8

4,6 - 9,4

Bang 1.15. Gi6 tr! gi6i hon cho phep cuo coc thOng s6 va nong d¢ c6e chat o nhiem trong nuoc mot theo TCVN 5942 - 1995

50mg CaCO)!1

0.3

0.05

25

0,5

150

Thong so Cdn vi Gi6 hi gl61 he;,"
A 8
pH - 6 - 8.5 5.5-9
80D5 (20°C) mgtl <4 < 25
COD mg/I >10 > 35
Oxy hoo tan mgtl ;:>:6 ;:>:2
Chat ran 10 lung mgtl 20 80
Asen mg/l 0,05 0.1
Bari mg/I 1 4
...
Codmi mg/l 0.01 0.D2 Chi mgtl 0,05 0.1
Crom(V1) mgtl 0,05 0.05
Crom (III) mgji 0.1 1
DOng mgtl. 0.1 1
Kem mgjl 1 2
Mangan mg/I 0.1 0.8
Niken mg/I o.i 1
Sat mgtl 1 2
Thuy ngan mgtl 0.001 0,002
ThiEk mg/l 1 2
Amoniac (tinh theo N) mg/I 0,05 1
Florua mgjl 1 1,5
Nitrat (tinh theo N) mgJI 10 15
Nitrit (tinh thea N) mg/I D.01 0,05
Xyanua mg/I 0,01 0,05
Phenol (t6ng so) mgjl O.C(J1 0.02
OC'lu, mO mgjl kh6ng 0,:)
Chat tay nro mgJI 0,5 0,5
Coliform MPN/l00ml 5000 10000
T6ng h6a chat boo v$ tnuc v¢t (tTl.) mg/I D,15 0.15
DOD
DDT mg/l 0.01 0.01
T6ng hoot d¢ ph6ng XQ a Bqjl 0.1 0.1
Tong hoot d¢ ph6ng xo p Bq/i 1.0 1.0 Chi eM:

- CQt A ap dung d6i v6i nu6c m~t co the dung lam nguon nuoc cap sinh hoat (nhirng pnai qua 4uli trlnh xu 19 theo qui dinh),

- CQt B lip dung doi v6i nu6c m~t dilng cho cac muc dtch khac. Nuoc dung cho nong nghi¢p va nuoi trong thuy san co quy djnh rieng.

54

Bang 1.16. Nu6c thai c6ng nghi~p. Gi6 tr\ gi6i hen coc th6ng 56 va nong d¢ chat () nhiem thea TCVN 5945 - 1995

IT ThOng 56 Conv1 Gio Irj 9101 hc;m
A B C
1 Nhio?t d¢ °c 40 40 45
2 pH 6-9 5,5-9 5-9
3 BOD5 (20°C) mgJI 20 50 100
4 COD mgJI 50 100 -l00
5 Chell ran 10 lung mg/I 50 100 200
6 Asen mg/I 0,05 0,1 0,5
7 Cadmi mgJI am om 0,5
8 Chi mg/I 0,1 0,5 1
9 Clodu mg/I 1 2 2
10 Cram (VI) mgtl 0,05 0,1 o.s
11 Cram (III) mgJI 0,2 1 2
12 DOu mO khoang mgJI KPHD 1 5
13 Dau d¢ng thl.,lC v¢t mg/I 5 10 30
14 Dong mg/I 0.2 -1 5
15 Kem mgJI 1 2 5
16 Mangan mgJI 02 1 5
17 Niken mg/I 0.2 1 2
18 Phatpha hOu co mgJI 0,2 OE 1
19 Phatpho tong s6 mgJI 4 6 8
20 sOt mg/l 1 5 10
21 Tetrocloetvlen mg/l 0,02 0,1 0,1
22 Thiec mgtl 0,2 1 5
23 Thuy ngan mg/l 0,005 0,005 0.Q1
24 Tong nito mg/I 30 60 60
25 Tricloetylen mg/l 0,05 0,3 0,3
26 Amoniac (tinh thea N) mg/l 0,1 1 10 55

27 Flerua mgjl 1 2 5
28 Phenol mgjl 0.001 0.05 1
29 Sulfuo mgjl 0.2 0.5 1
30 Xyonuo mgjl 0.05 0.1 0.2
31 Coliform MPNj100 ml 5000 10000 -
32 Tong hoot d¢ ph6ng xQ II Bqjl 0.1 0.1 -
33 T 6ng hoot d¢ ph6ng XQ p Bqjl 1.0 1.0 - Chidui _.

KPHD : khong phat hien duoc

Nuoc thai cling nghi¢p co gia tr] cac th()ng so va nong dO dc chat:

S; gia tf! qui dinh cua cQI A co the d6 vim nuoc duoc dung 111m nguon cap nircc sinh hoar,

:; gi;\ tf! qui djnh trong cQt B chi duoc do vao nuoc dung cho giao th6ng thuy, tm'ii ticu. hoi k)i. thuy si\n, trong trot,

B s; X S; C - d6 vim noi qui dinh

> C - khong duoc pnep do vao not qui dinh

BOng 1.17. Ileu chuon dong thai xc v60 nguon nuoc m¢t (Thl,lY Si)

Thong so Nang dQ c\lc dQI cno phep hong dong xc.
BOD 30/20 .
chet ron 10 lung (SS) 20-30
Gi6 tr] permongonat 90/60 .
Cdc chot doc:
CN 0.1
er+6 OJ
Hg 0.1
Cd 1.0
As LO
Pb 1.0
Sunfuo( tinh thea S) 0.1
Clo hoot d¢ng 0.5
Dau. mO 20
Kho6ng chat 10
Phenol 0.05
Nhi$t d¢ 30°C
Coc dung mOi hOu co V~t Gllicllll.'

Tal d cac giil tT! tru pH va nhiet d¢ deu do d mg/l:

'" so d'Au la gia tri Ian nhat. s6 tM hai \a gia Irj trung binh 24 gic,

56

Sang 1. t 8. Coc tieu chu6n chung cue ccc song trong quan Iy mol truonq nu6c 0 Anh

Cac thOng so Nong d9 cve dQi cho phep trong dong xc.
Chat ran 10 lung 30 mg/I
BOD 20 mg/I
PV 4 gio 20 mg/I
Xyonua (tinh thea HCN)
Xyanuo hco tan don thuOn 0.1 mg/l
H9P chat xtonuo bo sung 0.1 mg/I
Sunfua (S) 0.1 mgJI
Clo tv do 1.Omg/1
DOuma 5.0 mg/l
Tong kim 10Qi d¢c 0,5 mg/l
Phenol 0.5 mgJI
Nhi$t d¢ 20°C
pH 6-9 BOng 1.19. Coc tieu ehuOn dong thai thuong rnol eho phep do b¢ C6ng nghi$p Thai Lan quy dlnh

ThOng 56 chlliAu
BOD~ (200C) Tol do 20 ppm hocc khOng VU9t qua 60 ppm tuy thu¢c vco
dieu kl$n dio tV cue diem xc chat thai
Chat ran 10 lung T6i do 30 ppm hOQc nhu bang duai day
Chat rOn hco ton T 61 do 2000 ppm
pH Giuo 5-9
Gia trt permangonot T6i do 60 ppm
Sunfuo (tinh bang H2S) T6i do 1 ppm
Xyonuo (tinh bong HCN) T6i do02 ppm
Hac in Khong
Formondehit T6i do 1 ppm
, -
Phenol vc cresol T61 do 1 ppm
Cia tu do T6i do 1 ppm 57

Crom

Asen

Dong Thuy ngan

Cadimi

Caban

Selen

Chi

Niken

Thu6c di$t con trung Coc chat ph6ng XQ

Nhi$t d¢

Mou vo rnui

r6i daS ppm r6i do 0,5 ppm rai do 025 ppm Tai do 1,0 ppm

T6i do 0.005 ppm Tai do om ppm T 6i do 1.0 ppm T 6i do 0,02 ppm rai do 0.2 ppm Tai do 0.2 ppm

KhOng KhOng T6ido

KhOng bi phon d6i khl tr¢n v6i nguon Mp nhon nu6c

Bang 1.20. Nguy~n toe chi coo cho vi$c donh glo coc dong th6i nuoc th6i do cue nghe co cue Kelantan ban h6nh

1. Cac chat fan
0/ Coc chat ran trong dong thoi can co kich thuoc kh6ng VUQt qua 1 mm
b/ Tong cac chat ran 10 lung can khOng vuot quo 400 ppm
ct Coc chat ran noo tan - Can khOng VUQt qua 1500 ppm
d/ Tong coc chat ran - Can khOng VUQt qua 1900 ppm
2. DQ dl,lC
Can truy~n 10% anh song qua m¢t mau 30.5 cm (12 inches) - trong m¢t cot nuoc 7,6 ern,
3. BOD
0/ BOD (5 ngay. 20oC) can khOng vuot quo 100 ppm.
b/ Nang d¢ oxy hoo tan !rong nguon nucc ti.&p nh¢n nuoc thai can khong bi ki$t duai 50%
nang d¢ boo boo blnh thuang. 5H

Bang 1.21. Coc tieu chcdn dong thai cong nghi$p do duoc phs chuon vo thuc hi$n cAn DQ

Glbl hQn eho phep xa dong thai Gi61 hQn eho
phep eho nu6e
Cae th6ngso e6ng nghltp m¢:t trong dot
lien
Vao nuoc m(lt Vao eong L~n be rnct Nube dung eho
trong dot lien eong eong dot d4 dot cap nuoc eong
eQng. ve sinh
BOD5, mg/I 30(1) 500 500 3
Oxy hoc tan, % boo - - - 4
hoa
pH 5.5 -9,0 5,5 -9,0 5,5 -9,0 6.0 ~ 9,0
Tong chl''it ron 10 lung
lee quo lubi 850 urn,
mg/I 100 60D
- -
Tong chat ron va co
hoo tan, mg/l - 2100 (2) 2100 -
Nhi~td9 khOng vUQI qua 45°C
Acfc tQi Mt di~n
bat ky cua dong
sOng trong phorn vi
15 m each cue th6i
Dou, rno (mg/I) 10 100 30' -;
Ccc hop chat phenol
tinh thea C6H60H. mg/I 1.0 ~5 - 0,001
Xyanua. tinh thea CN.
mg/I 0.2 2,0 - ODl
Suntua 11nh thea S. mg/I .2,0 - - -
Flarua 11nh thea F. mg/l 2,0 - - 1,5
Tong cia duo mg/I 1.0 - - Bang 1.21 (ti~p)

Thuoc tru sou kh6ng - - -
Asen (tinh thea As) - - - 02
Bari (tfnh thea Ba) - - - -
_'-mg/i '"
Cadmi (tinh thea Cd) - - -
Cram (tinh thea Cr) kh6ng quol mg/I 2 - 0,06
Dong (tinh thea Cu) - 3 -
Chi (tinh thea Pb) - , 1 0,1
Th0y ngan (tinh thea
Hg) - - - -
Niken (tfnh thea Nil - 2 -
Selen (tinh thea Se) - - - 0,05
8Qc (tinh thea Ag) - - -
Kem (tinh thea Zn) "5 -
- -
Bo (tinh thea 8),
mgJi - 2.0 (2) 2 -
Sunfot (tinh thea 504), "000(2)
mg/I - 1000 - Chi clui :

(I) C6 1M tho phcp 1m 100 ppm trong nhilng tnrong hop nMt dinh co nhung ly do chinh dang khong the dat dircc gim han nay,

(2) Nhung yeu dtu nay sc chi ap dung suu khi xu [y nuoc cong dircc thai [en be m~l deil de nroi lieu,

Hien tai a My eiing van ton tai hai tl1100g phai ({UM 19 moi tnrong rnroc:

- Quill 15' chat lirong dong song thea nguyen tac cimg nhac thea cac IU~1 dinh ve tfnh chat dong thai. dong song.

- Quan Iy linh dong cot sao dam baa chat hrong dong song. Cac ca. the: tl.! quyct dinh mire dQ can XlI Iy doi voi cac dong thai.

~ #.... = .... .... 41

1.9. KIEM SOAT 0 NHIEM MOl TRUONG NUOC

Trong phan nay chung toi chi trlnh hay knai quat ve cac giai phap lua chon khac nhau cho thu gom, XlI 15' va thai ruroc thai de: kiem scat su a nhiem rnroc. De hieu sau va chi tiet hon vc cac cong nghe xu Iy thong thuong c6 th~ tham khao trong tai lieu "Wastewater Engineering, Metcalf & Eddy" (1991). Bang 1.22 trinh bay mot s6 giai phap lua chon de kiem scat 0 nhiem mroc,

60

Nguyen Iy

8ang 1.22. C6e gie'll ph6p kiEim soot 6 nhiem nucc (Keese & Bower. 1968)

8. Giam chat thai 7. Thu hoi v¢t li$u

sou phat sinh

A. Giam sl,1 phOt sinh chat thai

C. Cai thi$n kha nang dong h6a cue nguon tiep nh¢n nuoc

Phllong phap Vi dl,l

l.Iuon hoon nuoc trong nh6 Thu gom nuoc lam ngu9i de tuon

may noon vo tai su dl,1ng

2.Tach fitmg dong co nang d9 chat gay 0 nhi~m cao

3. lOQi tru chat thai

4. Thay deli IOQi nguy~n li$u thO 0 dOu voo

5. Thay dOi qu6 trinh cong ngh$ san xuat

6.Thay deli ho¢c cai bien san pham dOu fa

8. San xu6t san pham phl,1

Q. Xu IV chat thai

10. T6i su dl,1ng dong i'hai

11 . 66 sung nUDC pha loang 12. Me nhi~u dOu fa cho he chua

Khu coc chat thai ran bong coc phuong ti$n thu cong hay co khi vo thai ri€Jng bi$t m¢t ccch de dong.

Su dvng bO thai cue cOng nghi$p nOng san d~ nu6i gio sue (lay vo duo 16m thuc on cho IOn)

C6 the 16 van d~ kho

06i tll chiet su6t bong 6p iI.,IC song bang dung moi trong cong nghi$p dou thl,1c v¢t d~ dot duoc hleu su6t chiet dOu coo va giom toi IUQng v~ dOu trong dong thai

Ccc chat toy rue voi ham lUang photpho thOp han. thoy doi v¢t lieu boo bl. tll lool thai be song c6 the thu hoi tuan hcon trong cOng nghi$p d6ng boo vo dong choi

Thu gom xo qua C9 trong cong nghi$p dOu C9. phOi kho lam nhien li$u dot 10 hoi

Ket nco chon nuOi -trong trot thanh the theing nhat nhu h$ chon nuoi gia cam. gia sOc. son xuat tr-ue vQt thuy sinh vo c6y treng.

Muong oxy noo. ho oxy hoo co sue khl, ho on djnh ch6t thai, xu IV bong dot. ddt ng¢p.

Nuoi treng thuc v¢t thuy sinh. U. tuol ti~u vo lam mau me dat. son xuat khi sinh hoc.

61

- -
13. Khu6y tr¢n nuoc trong he
chua
14. Tai thOng khi coc dong
ch6y
15. PhOn b6 lc;Ji dong thai
D. NhOng bi$n 16. Xu IV hco h9C trong be/he Dung ccc hoc chOt nhu AI2(SO~)3 de
phop dung dan chua k~t tuc photpho
ve sinh thai
17. Giam nang d¢ sinh kh6i Duo coc d¢ng v¢t an co voo an co
nuoe hay phun thuoc di$t eo de
kiem soot tao vo co. D6i voi cac ruroc dang phat trien, nguyen lae giam su phil sinh chat thai va nang cao hieu qua. thu hbi chat thai Iii. phuong huong thfch hop va kha thi nhat, Trang hau hel cac khao sat cho thay, cac chit ga.y 6 nhiem diroc thai ra nhieu hon theo tinh toan dinh rmrc. Neu lien hanh kicm soat 6 nhiem mroc theo plurong phap 1-3 cua nguyen Iy A. tai hrong chili gAy 6 nhiem duoc giam mot each dang ke va Iy so chi phi - loi ich trong tnrong ncp nay co trien vqng rit t6t dep. Neu dau Itt nhieu theo plurong phap 5-6 thi tinh trang 6 nhiem sc thay deli. tharn chi rit d¢t ngot,

62

sAl TAP

1. De danh gia chat hrong rnroc thai 6 dau vao ciia mot nha may xu Iy mroc thai, ngiroi ta da lAy mot miu de phan tfeh va e6 diroc ket qua phan tfeh nhu sau:

- Kh6i hrong hi cua dia nung 62,006 g

- Kh6i hrong dia nung va mau sau khi bay hoi a I05°e d~ nguoi Mn nniet

do trong phong 62,039 g

- Kh6i hrong dia va mau sau khi dot a 550()e 62,036 g

- Kh6i hrong ella giay loc Whatman GF!e 1.540 g

- Phan mau con lai tren gi:'iy 1ge va sau khi say kho a 1050e 1,552 g

- Phan mau con lai Ir211 giay IY'- sau khi d61 b 5-"oue

Hay tfnh cac d~e tfnh ve chtlt rao cua mroc thai tren: 15-1-9 g

a. Nong d¢ t6ng eMI ran (TS)

b. Nong d¢ t6ng chat ran bay hoi (TVS)

c. TOng eha:t fan 10 li'rng (TSS)

d. Nong dl'> t6ng chat ran 10 hrng bay hoi (YSS)

e. TOng chAt ran hoa tan (IDS)

Biet ding hrong timg rnau dem phan tfeh bang 50 ml.

2. Trong xac dinh chi s6 BOD, ngum ta dii. tron 6 ml mroc thai voi 294 ml mroc pha loang co nang d¢ oxy hoa tan bang 8,6 mg/l. Sau 5 ngay u (] 201ie, ham hrong oxy hoa tan cua hon hop d6 la 5,4 mg/l. Gia thiet rang ham hreng oxy hoa tan ban dau cua mroc thai bang O, Tinh BOD ella mroc thai.

3. Gi6. If! BOO~ cua mot mau rurcc thai diroc xac djnh bang 40 mg/l. Nong d¢ oxy hoa tan ella rnroc de pha loii.ng dung trong phan tich BOD bang 9,0 mg/l, con cua h6n hop nuoc d6 sau khi II bang 2,74 mg/l, Trong phep phan uch nguoi ta dii. sir dung lirong mau mroc thai bang 40 ml va pha ioii.ng trong chai chuyen dung phan nch BOD c6 the ttch bang 300 ml. Hii.y uac tinh nong dQ oxy hoa tan ban dau trong miu ruroc thai.

4. Gill. tr] BOD5 (] 20()e ella mot mau mroc thai bang 210 mg/l. Hoi gia tri BOD eu6i cung cua mau d6 bang bao nhieu? Neu dem mau ruroc thai do II 0 30"C thi gia tri BOD, bang bao nhieu, biet k2() = Oj3 ngay" .

5. Gia tri BOD, (; 20"e cua ba mau rnroc thai khac nhau bang 250 mgfl nlurng gia tri k20 ella chung bang 0,12; 0,16 va 0,20 ngay', Hay xac djnh BOD roan phan (cu6i cung) cua timg mau.

63

TAllI~U THAM KHAo

L Nguyhl Ngoc Sinh & cong st! (1984). M6i tnrong va tai nguyen Viet Narn, Nha XU;}t ban Khoa hoc va Ky thuat Ha Noi,

'") E.F. Geldreich (1976). Fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus density relationships in waste discharges and receiving waters, CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. October, pp. 349 - 369.

:1. urz ( ! 989) Waste Water Technology Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

4. AK. Biswas & A.Arl.1l" (eds) (1989). Treatment and Reuse of Sewage Effluents for Irrigation, Butterworth Scientific, Guildford, U.K

S. M.J. Hammer (1977). Water and Wastewater Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

6. A.v.Kreesc, B.T Bower (1968). Managing water quality. Economics, technology, institutions. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

7. Metcal] & Eddy, inc, (1991). Wastewater engineering. Treatment, disposal, reuse, Me, Graw ' Hill Book Co., New York, N.Y.

8. P./I..Vesilird, Ll Peirce, R.F.Weiner (1988). Environmental engineering, Buuerworths, Boston,

9. WI/O I:'MRO (1987). Wastewater stabilization ponds, principles of planning and practizc: WHO EMRO Technical publication No. 10, World Heath Organization Regional Office for the Eastern. Mediterranean. Alexandria, Egypt.

64

6. Cac gia tri BOD hai va lam ngay cua mot mau nuoc thai duoc xac dinh bang B002 = 125 mg/l va BOOK = 225 mg/l. Hay xac dinh BOD, voi gia tniet phan tmg BOD do lit phan irng b~e mot,

7. Kel qua phan tfch mau mroc cua mot dong song (; 26"C diroc 16m t.al trong bang sau:

T,ngay 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
y,mg/I 0 3" 5,4 7 8.3 9 9,6 9,8 10 10,1 Tfnh hang s6 toe d6 phan img k a 20°C va BOD cuoi ella gia doan mot bang each si'r dung plnrong pnap blnh phirong nho nhat. Biet he s6 nhiet d() e:::: 1,047.

8. Khi phan tech mot rnau rnroc thai cong ngniep cho ket qua nhu sau:

C-hihi co:::: 300 mg/l; N-hihl co:::: 25 mg/l

N-NH, :::: 15 mg/I; N-N02:::: IS mg/l

Hay su dung cac thong lin tren M u6"e tinh BOD loan phan,

9. Gia tri COD cua mot rnau mroc Ihai duoc xac dinh bang 450 mgll. Hoi bao nhieu mg/l Cr10/ dii su dung trong phan irng,

10. K€t qua phan nch BOD" 20"C ella mot mau nUC1c thai diroc ghi lai nhu sau:

Thai gian, ngay BOD, mg/l Thai gian, ngay BOD, mg/l
0 0 11 63
1 10 12 69
2 18 13 74
3 23 14 77
4 26 16 82
5 29 18 85
6 31 20 87
7 32 25 89
8 33 30 90
9 46 40 90
10 56 T[nh:

- Nhu cau oxy loan phan ella pha cacbon (CBGD) va pha nito (NBOO).

- Hang s6 toe dQ phan ung (ke) cua pha cacbon va (kN) cua pha nito,

65

11. Mot co quan quan ly moi tnrong d~ nghi xem xet tfnh hoan thien cua chuong trlnh kiem soat mui do ho xay dung, Hay cho biet nhimg van de chfnn dill diroc de e~p (rang qua trlnh xem xet?

12. Gia thiet mot dong song e6 hang s6 toe do b6 sung oxy kl bang 0,4 l/ngay va chay voi t6e d¢ trung bmh 8 km/h. 0 diem xi ruroc thai, rnroc song bao hoa oxy voi nang d¢ bang 10 mg/l. Liru hrong cua mroc thai so voi luu t6e cua dong song Iii. qua nho, VI vay hon hop cua cluing tai diem xa co nang d¢ oxy e6 th~ xem nhu bao hoa va nguci ta xac djnh duoc BOD bang 20 mg/l. Hang s6 van toe loai oxy bang 0,2 I/ngay. Hay xac djnh DO l1 ha 1l1U each diem xa 48 km.

13. Xac dinh BODI va BOD toan phan pha cae bon cua mot loai ruroc thai co BOD, = 200 mg/l, biet hang so toe d¢ phan ling bang 0,23 l/ngay.

66

Chuang 2

., ,. ." ; ')

CAC PHUONG PHAP XU L Y NUOC THAI

. '"

2.1. MOOAU

Khi nen van minh nhan 10'.1i phat trien, cac do thi mQC len va dU'qe mo rong mot each nhanh chong. VI vay, rnroc thai sinh hoat va cac eh~t thai cong nghiep tit cac thanh rho g,~y ra S,! {') nhiern nang ne d6i voi rnoi tnrong ruroc va ngay cang tro thanh van de clip bach mang tinh chat xii hQi va ehinh tri cua cong dong,

Ngay tit nhimg ngay SO' khai cua ky thuat xay dimg, 6 Anh, My va mot so rnroc chau Au khac, ky thuat ve sinh da phat trilin a nlumg noi co the trurc hien dircc ve mat kinh te, xii hoi va ehinh tri de xu 19 mroc thai, sao cho giam dircc anh hirong tieu cue cua no d6i voi cac nguon mroc. Ngay nay hAu het cac nuoc dii eo lu~t ngay cang chat che d6i voi viec thai rnroc thai n6i chung va mroc thai cong nghiep n6i rieng, Nguci ta ding nhan thirc sau sac rang, khong the giai quyet tot van de niroc thai neu khong c6 su hop tac chat ehe gitra cac ky su cong nghe san xuat vci cac chuyen gia ve cong nghe mroc va rnroc thai. Tuy nhien, ' day la van de vt: cling rong va phirc tap. Trang khuon kh6 cua giao trinh ve cong nghe xu 19 rnroc thai, 0 day chi de cap den cac phuong phap va qua trmh ehinh su dung d~ xu If rnroc thai, cung cac co sa khoa hoc cua chung v it tfnh loan cong nghe phuc Vl,I eho thiet k€ cac cong trinh xu 15'.

2.2. PHAN LO~I cAc QuA TRiNH v); PHUONG PHAp XU' LV NUDC THAI

Nu6c thai thirong chua rat nhieu tap chat e6 ban eh;1"t khac nhau. Vi vay, muc dich cua xu I)' rnroc thai la khir cac tap chat do sao eho nuoc sau khi xu 19 dat lieu chudn chat hrong a rmrc chap nhan diroc thea cac chi lieu dii d~t ra. Cac tieu chudn chat hrong d6 tlnrong phu thuoc vao muc dfch va each thrrc str dung: ruroc se diroc tai su dung hay thai thiing vao cac nguon tiep nhan mroc, D~ dat duO'c rnuc dich tren, trong cong nghe xu 19 rnroc thai da sir: dung nhieu qua trlnh khac nhau nmr minh hoa tren hinh 2.1.

67

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68

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...:

Hinh 2.2 trlnh bay so dO nguyen Iy cong nghe thirong dung xu Iy nUDC thai. Theo chlil luong mroc dat diroc, cac qua trmh xu Iy duqc nhom lai thanh cac cong dean: xu Iy cap J,

xu Iy cap II va xu Iy cap III. .

• Xir Iy clip I gom cac qua trinh xu Iy so bo va Iang, bat d'a.u ti:r song (hoac luCri) chan va ket thuc sau lang cap I. Cong doan nay c6 nhiem vu khir cac v~t ran n6i co kfch thUDC 160 va cac tap chat ran co the lang ra khoi mroc th3l de bao v¢ born va dirong 6ng. Hau het cac cha't ran 10 limg lang a be Bing cap I. d day thuong gam cac qua trinh 19C qua song (hoac hroi) chan, lang, tuyen nOi, tach dau mo va trung hoa,

• Xir 19 cap II gam cac qua trlnh sinh h9C (doi khi ca qua trlnh h6a h9C) c6 lac dung khir hau het cac tap chat hii'u co hoa tan c6 the phan huy bang con dirong sinh hoc, nghia la khir BOD. D6 la cac qua trmh: hoat hoa bun, loc sinh hoc hay oxy h6a'sinh hoc trong cac ho (hb sinh h9C) va phan huy yem khi. Ta.'1 cit cac qua trlnh nay d~u sir dung kM nang cua cac vi sinh var chuyen h6a de chat thai httu co v"e dang 6n dinh va nang luong thap.

• Xir 19 cap III ttnrong gorn cac qua trlnh: vi 19c, ket tua h6a h9C va dong tv, hap phu bang than hoat tfnh, trao dOi ion, tham thau nguoc, dien tham tfch, cac qua trinh khir cac chat dinh dtrong, clo hoa va ozon hoa .

Xu fY cap I

Xu Iy cap II

Xuly cap III

XulYsab¢~

Nuoc thai vao

2

TQP chat

COt sCi

so cop

BOn hoot tinh

[Q--+~nthai

Hinh 2.2. So db nguy~n IV va coc muc d¢ Xli Iy nuOc th6i

1. Thanh ho¢c lu6i chOn: 2. sa lOng cat: 3. B~ lOng cop I: 4, Xu Iy cop II (hoot h6a bun hooc IQc sinh hQC): 5. Be lang cap ll: 6. B~ tlep xuc cia; 7, sa lOng lam d¢c bun;

8. B~ ti~u huy bOn y~m khi: 9, Thl~t bj tach nuoc (IQC khung ban ho¢c IQC bOng tai ... )

69

8

5

5

8

5

- nudefha';

----- bun tha/

---- bun !<.Ion hoon

Hinh 2.3. So do vo toon conh nho may xu Iy nuoc thai cue Housatonic (C6ng sudt thh3t ke 36 000 m3/ngay)

1. Be lang cat co sue khi; 2. May nghi~n; 3. Be lang cap I; 4. Aeroten;

5. Be lang cap ll: 6. Be tiep xuc clo; 7. Born; 8. Be xu Iy bun yem khi:; 9. LQc bang

70

3

Dong ra

.. •

nvdc tho;-

bun ho.;zt linh fvan hoon

Hinh 2.4. So do cono ngh$ vo toon conh nha may xu Iy nucc thai d leominster (Cong such thiet ke 41 850 m3/ngay)

1. Be tiep nh¢n nuoc thOi; 2 M lang cot c6 sue khl; 3. Be khuCiy tT¢n vc keo ty;

4. Be lang cap I; 5. Be aeroten; 6. Be lang cap II; 7. Be thong khl be) sung va tiep xuc cia: 8. Be chua bun; 9. Be chua ccc chat thai; 10. Nha dieu hanh va hanh chlnh.

71

Ngay nay, nhieu rnroc doi hoi rrurc do lam sacn cao hon xir 19 thong thuong. VI vay, cac nha may xii' 19 ruroc thai thtrong e6 them cong doan xii Iy cap III hay con goi Ill. cong doan lam sach cu6i cung, Cong doan nay co nhiing muc dich sau :

- Khir trier de cac chat dinh dufmg N, P va Kcon lai trong ruroc thai sau xir Iy mu cap.

Cac nguyen t6 nay lit nhiing yeu t6 dan den sl!. phat trh~n hung n6 cua mot s6 vi sinh val, dac bitt la tao trong cac nguon nuoc;

- Thong khf It! nnien b6 sung;

- Bao vt: rnroc ngam trong truong hop nude thai da qua xu 19 tham nhap vao;

- Baa dam an loan cho nguon tiep nhan ruroc thai voi nhtrng yeu cau sach d~c biet,

Viec hra chon cac phuong phap lam sach mroc thai illy thuoc VaG rmrc d¢ sach can thiet, co the tham khao bing 2.1.

Bang 2.1. Hi$u suot lam soch cuo coc eong doon kh6c nhau trong xu Iy nuoc thoi cap I vo cap II (5)

C6ng dOQn Hitu suat khl.i "tic thanh ph"bn trong nuoc thai,"'o
BOD COD 55 T6ng N - hCru N-NH3
photpho co
Song chan - - - - - -
Be lang cot 0- 5c 0- 5c o _lOe - - -
lang cap I 30-40 30 -40 50-65 10 - 20 10 - 20 10 - 20
HOQt h60 bun (co di13n) 80-95 80-85 80-90 10- 25 15-50 8 - 15
toe sinh hoc:
- Moi truong loc b6ng do. 65-80 60-80 60-85 8 - 12 15-50 8 - 15
tee d¢ IOc coo
- MOi truong toe b6ng 65-85 65-85 65 - 85 8-12 15-50 8 - 15
nhuo. toc dO 19C CI.,lC coo
Dio sinh hoc Mp xuc 80 - 85 80-85 80-85 10 - 25 15-20 8 - 15
(RBCs)
Clo noo - - - - - - Chi ellil: c - su- dung gia tri cao nha"t khi b¢ phan rita khong lam viec,

Cac qua trlnh xu 19 bang Mt. ngay nay duqc goi chung trong thu~t ngu "de h¢ thong tv nhien", H¢ thong nay kel h9'P cac co che xir 19 v~t 19, h6a h9C va sinh hoc de xu ly nUDC thai toi chat hrong urong W hoac t6t bon xu 19 cap III [5]. Viec Iva chon cac phuong phap xu Iy phu thuoc van d~c tfnh cua rnroc thai va tieu chuan eMt hrong dong thai can dat,

Doi v6i cac rnroc dang phat trien, phirong phap truch hop nhat la cac h¢ thong ho 6n dinn chal thai (Biswas & Arar, 1988; WHO EMRO, 1987). Dong hrc chmh cua qua trinh

72

trong cac ho oxy h6a nay ia nang hrong mat troi giup cac vi sinh v~t u,l nhien gam tao, vi khuan va sinh v~t n6i phan huy cac chat hiiu CCJ va khir cac vi khuan gay benh trong nude

thai.

Nguoi ta cho fang cac nha may xu 1y nude thai can dat cac lieu chuan sau : BOD, :;; 15 mg/l, SS:;; 15 mg/l va t6ng P S Img/l (Vesilind etal.1988).

Nhln chung uit d cac plurong phap va qua trlnh xu 1y nude thai d'eu dua tren eo S0 cac qua trlnh v~lly, hoa hoc va sinh h9C, Cac he thong xu 1y chat thai duqc thiet il),p {huang baa gam hang 10<;l1 cac qua trlnh tren ket hop thea trat 11,T cong nghe IUy tnuoc vao dac tfnh nude thai, tieu chudn dong ra va cac dieu kien CI,I the khac, Hlnh 2.3 va 2.4 minh hoa mot vai so do va loan canh mot s6 nha may xu Iy ruroc thai.

~ .,,,. ; .,

2.3. KINH TE XU LV NUOC THAI

6 My, chi phi xu ly nude thai diroc uoe tfnh bang khoang 0,20 USD/lOOO gal on (1 galon = 3,7854 lit) hay 0,05 USD/talt [Ramalho, 19771.

50
.-.
"0
Q)
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Q)
,8
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1:
a.
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0 BOn hoot tlnh
20
LQC
10 20

40

60

80

100

Hi$u suot khu ccc tQP chat %

Hinh 2.5. M6i quan h$ giOa tong chi phi vo IOQi Qua trlnh xu Iy (7)

73

Ve nguyen tac, ta eo th~ xu Iy rnroc thai thanh rnroc u6ng duoc bang each SlI dung cac qua trlnh XlI 15' tinh vi. song xet ve k:inh te thl khong th~ SlI dung cac phuong phap do vao thuc teo

Trang danh gia cac qua trmh xu Iy rnrcc thai, dieu quan trong Iii. ude tfnh ti s6 chi phf - loi feh gifra chi phi hu fa M nang cao chat lucmg rnroc thai va loi kh thu diroc tir viec xu I}' de dat chat hrong cu th6 cua mroc thai do. can bang kinh t€ cua cac qua trlnh XlI Iy nude thai duoc minh hoa tren hlnh 2.5.

Viec tai sir dung ruroc bang tuan hoan lien quan Mn su kiem soat mroc thai trong noi bo nha may. Khi hra chon ty s6 tuan hoan ruroc thai cho nrng rnrong hop eu the trong tfnh can bang kinh tiS can xem xet den cac yeu to sau :

I. Chi phi mroc tho Slr dung trong nha may;

2. Chi phi xU I}' nude thai thich hop eho nhfrng yeu diu ve chat hrong cua qua trlnh:

3. Chi phi xu 15' ruroc thai tnroc khi thai vao nguon ruroc nhu song, h'6 ...

"" #'.,:.". ;

2.4. LAM S~CH NUOC THAI BANG CAC PHUONG PHAP CO HOC

Nuoc thai cong nghiep cung nhir mroc thai sinh heat tmrong chua cac chat Ian va khong tan [1 dang nat lo lung. Cac tap chat lo hmg co th6 i:J dang fan va long, chung 1<;10 vrri runic thanh h¢ huyen phu, TUy thuoc vao kfch thuae h<;lt, cac he huyen phii duoc chia thanh ba nhorn nhu minh hoa tren hlnh 1.4 (clurong I).

De tach cac hat 10 lung ra khoi nude thai, thuong nguoi 1a SlI dung cac qua trlnh thuy ClJ (girin doan hoac lien tuc): IQc qua song chan hoac hnri, lang diroi tac dung cua lire trong tnrong hoac hrc Iy tam va loc, Viec hra chon plurong phap XlI 19 tuy thuoc vao kfeh thiroc hat. tfnh chat hoa Iy, nong de) hat 10 hmg, liru hrong rnroc thai va mire d9 lam sach can thiet.

2.4.1, L9c qua song chan hOQc lubi chan

Day la buck xu 15' srr bo, Muc dfch cua qua trlnh ill khir 1at ca cac tap V~I co the" gay ra sir co trong qua truth van hanh h¢ thong xu Iy rnroc thai nhu lam tac born, dirong ong hoac kenh din. Day Iii. biroc quan trong dam baa an roan va dieu kien lam viec thuan loi cho cit h¢ thong.

Trang xir 19 rnrcc thai do thi, thuong dung cac song chan de IQC ruroc va dung may nghien nho cac v~t bi gii'i' lai, COn trong xu 19 mroc thai cong nghiep ngiroi ta dij.t them hmi chan.

2.4.1.1. Song chdn

Niroc thai dira toi cong trlnh lam sach truce het phai qua song chan rae. Tai song chao, cac tap vat tho nhu gic, rae, vo d'6 hop, cac mau da, go va cac v~t thai khac dircc gii'i' lai.

74

Song chan (;0 the: dat co dinh hoac di dong. cung c6 lh~ la t6 hap cung vci may nghien nho. Th6ng dung han d 13. cac song chan co dinh, Cac song chan duoc lam bang kim loai, d~t a cira vao cua kenh dan. nghieng mot g6c 60 -{- 75°. Thanh song chan c6 the: co tie't dien tron, vu6ng hoac hbn hap. Thanh song chan voi tiet dien tron c6 tro luc nho nhat nlurng nhanh 1.1\ uk bi'1i cac vat hi giG" lai. Do d6 thong dung han d. la thanh c6 tiel dien hon hop, canh vuong goc () phia sau vii. canh tron a phfa tnroc huong doi dien voi dong chay, Tren cac hlnh 2.6 va hlnh 2.7 minh hoa cac loai song chan veri cac phuong thirc cao hii khac nhau.

Dua vim khoang each giua cac thanh, ngubi ta ehia song chan thanh hai loai: song chan lhl) co khoang each giil'a cac thanh tir 60 dc'nlOO mm va song chan min e6 khoang each gil:Ta cac thanh tiT 10 den 25 mm. De tinh kich tluroc song chan, dua vao toe d() rnroc thai chay qua khe gnra cac thanh, thuong Ifty bang 0,8 den 1 m/s va chap nhan gin ihiet ::lot;( dien tfch song chan hj hit kin.

Van toe dong chay [rUlIC song chan din khong cne b mire tir 0,6 rn/s trb len de tninh lang cal. TOn that lip suat cua dong thai khi di qua song chan co the tlnh thea cong thirc sau: v2p

hp == ~- (2.1)

2g

-1

( s) 3

:; = ~ b sin a

(2.2)

trong do:

h, - tcin thai lip suai, m;

v - van toe dong chay tnroc song chan, m/s:

p - he so tfnh den tang tro hrc do song chan hi bit kin boi v~t thai (thirong lay P "" ::I); :; . Iro hrc eye bo cua song chan;

g - gia tee trong tnrong, g = 9,8 m/s':

s - chieu day thanh chan (thuong bang 8. 10 hoac 15 mm), m: b - khoang each giua cac thanh, m;

a - goc nghieng cua song chan so vai mal phang ngang;

~ - yeu t6 hinh dang cua thanh chan. Gia If! ciia ~ illY nhu diroi dAy :

10

10

10

10

10

10

I ~ =10

o

~ '" 2A2

1.035

0.92

1.83

1.67

0)6

1.79

75

Khi xac dinh kfch thirec song chan can ttnh eho dieu kien mua mira voi mire mroc cao nhat,

Nhiing v~t thai cao ra nr song chan diroc dern di xu 19 tiep, Dien nang lieu ton cho cac bo phan cao, van chuyen va nghien khoang 1 kW/IOOO m~ ruroc thai. Doi voi loai song chan ket hop voi may nghien nho, cac vat tMi ~au khi nghien khong din tach fa khoi mrcc thai.

Thanh chan

aJ

~~-.

"jf!::-.-.-

'"'-'.

r.

.

.;

b)

Hinh 2.6. Ccc loot song chan

a, Song ch6n ceo roc bOng thu cOng; b. Song chan coo roc bang co gl61

76

Dons 'lao

Hinh 2.7. Lu6i chon co g6n may.nghien

1. D¢ng eo: 2. May nghi~n; 3_ Cae hot ran Ion: 4. HQt ran nho

2.4.1.2. Luoi l(JC

De klur cac chat lo hrng co kich thuoc nno hoac cac san pham co gia tri, thirong sir dung Ium 19C nhu a hlnh 2.8. Luci co kfch thiroc 16 tit 0,5 den 1 mm. Khi tang tr6ng quay, tlnrong voi van toe 0,1 den 0,5 mis, rnroc thai diroc 19C qua be mat trong hay ngoai.. lily thuoc vao sir b6 trf duong din mroc thai vao. Cac v~t thai diroc cao ra khoi mat luai bang M thong cao. Loai hroi loc nay hay diroc dung trong cac h¢ thong xu ly ruroc thai cua cong nghiep det, gi!\,y va da,

T6n thAt ap sua; dong chay qua JUDi chan thirong dircc cac nha chi tao cung cap kern thea thiet bi, hoac e6 the doh thea cong thirc sau:

1 ( Q )2

h ----

p - 2g C.A

(2.3)

trong do:

. C - h¢ so thai;

Q - hru hrong rnroc thai di qua IUai loc. m-~/s;

A- dien tfch nMP ehim htru Ich ella luoi loc, m': g - gia toe trong tnrong, g = 9,8 m/s2;

hp - tt'ln that ap suat, m.

Gill. tri ella C va A phu thuoc vao cac thong s6 thiet ke nhu kfch thucc go, khe, duemg kfnh 16 IUai, ket cau, phan tram dien tfch be m~t lum lam viec hihI hieu va duoc xac dinh bang th1!C nghiern, Gill. tri C dien hlnh cho luai 19C sach bang 0,60.

Thiel ke

Dien tich hiiu Ich ella tam chan cho cac loai song chan diroc tfnh thea cong thirc sau:

F = Q max c

U

(2.4)

77

trong do:

F, - t6ng dien tfeh htru (ch;

Qm", - luu hrong 16n nhal cua nunc thai;

u - van toe cua chat long chay qua khe tam chan (thuong lay III 0,8 den 0,1 m/s).

z

-

Hinh 2.8. ll10i chon hinh trong (H$ thong GEIGER)

1. Cuo dOn nuoc thai voo: 2. Cue d6n nuoc thai ro; 3. Cue thco v¢t ron: d. Cuo thoo con: 5. Thung quay vai luoi IQc; 6. V6i phun nuoc rue. 7. M6ng thu gam nuoc rue

Sau dily Ill. mot s6 gia trj dien htnn dung trong thiet ke tAm chan loai song, do b1l. ran bang thu cong hoac co gioi,

Cae thong sO Ph~ng ph6p ceo be
Thu cOng Cagi6i
Kich thu6c thonh chan
- chieu r¢ng. mm 5 + 15 5+ 15
- chieu sou 25 + 75 25 -s- 75
- kho6ng coch giua coc thonh.mm 25 +50 15 + 75
- g6c nghieng. do 30 +45 0+30
V¢n t6c d6ng truce tOm chon. m/s 0.3+ 0.6 0.6 + 1.0
Tr61l,lc cho phep, mm 150 150 78

2.4.2 t>ieu hoa luu IUQng

Dieu hoa hru nrong duqc dung de duy trl dong thai van gan nhu khong d6i, khtk phuc nhlrng van de van hanh do su dao dong hru hrong nu6c thai gay fa va nang eao hieu suat ella cac qua trinh 0 cuoi day chuyen xu 1Y. Cac ky thuat dieu hoa duqc img dung eho timg mrong hop phu thuoc vao di).e tfnh cua h¢ thong thu gom rurcc thai. Cac phuong an b6 tri b~ dieu hoa luu nrong co thi la dieu hoa tren dong thai (hlnh 2.9a) hay ngoai dong thai xu Iy (hlnh 2.9b).

Phuong an dieu hoa tren dong thai co the lam giam dang ke dao dong thanh phan Mac thai di vao cac cong doan phfa sau, con phuong an dieu hoa ngoai dong thai chi giam diroc mot ph an nho su dao dong do.

V! tri t6t nhat de b6 trt be dlCU hoa din diroc xac dinh cu thi eho timg h¢ th6ng xu IY.

VI tinh ttli Ull cua no phu tnuoc vao loai xu Iy, dl}.c tfnh cua hi; th6ng thu gam va di).e tinh cua mroc thai.

D~ xac dinh the tich can thie! ciia be dieu hoa co the su dung phirong phap 06 thi tren co sa thl!(; nghiern ve quan he giCra the ticn tfch Iuy cua luu luong nude thai 0 dong van thea thoi gian. Hlnh 2. iO minh hoa bang 06 thi hai tnrong hop dien hinh. D~ xac dinh the uch can thiet, ve duong tiep tuyen voi duong cong the tich dong vao song song voi duong hm hrong trung bmh hang ngay co diem xuat phil tir g6e tea do. 1M tfeh can thiet khi d6 se bang khoang each theo chieu thing dung tir tiep diem den dirong thing bieu dien luu hrong trung blnh hang ngay (truong hop a) hoac bang khoang each giCra hai tiep diem thea chieu thang dirng song song voi true tung (tnrong hop b).

Be dieu noa thirong duqc thiet ke voi chieu sau IiI" 1,5 den 2 m. The tfch cua be dieu

hoa e6 th~ tinh theo cong thuc sau :

V - Q"d d -

kn In--·

k , -I

trong do:

k = Cm"~ - Cll>

n Cd - Cth

Q - hru hrong rnroc thai, m"/h; k, - h¢ s6 dap tat dao dong:

'd - thci gian thai d¢t bien, h;

C"", .. 4b, Cor - gii tri cue dai, trung blnh va cho phep nong dQ cac ehllt gay G nhiern, glm·1•

Khi kn ~ 5, the tich be dieu hoa duoc tinh thea cong thirc sau:

Vd= ku.Q.'d

The tich be dieu hoa dung d~ d~p tat su dao d¢ng eo ehu ky cua thanh phan cac eMt <'> nhiem se diroc tfnh theo cong thirc sau:

V<lck = 0,16 kn.Q"d

79

E OJ C -0

o

80

Th~ tlch cbn thilit cuab4

£luang cong th~ tfch"

tlch lOy dong vao

a

24 a

Thoi- gian fronS ngoy, gii

------

24

12

a)

12 b)

Hinh 2.10. So do xoc d!nh the tlch can thiet cue be dieu hoo

2.4.3. Qua trinh lang

2.4.3.1. Phtin tich qua trinh ldng clla cac h{lt I'dn trong nuee thdi

Trang xu Iy nuoc thai, qua tr1nh lang dlfqe su dung de loai cac tap chat a dang huyen phu mo fa khoi mroc. St,r lang cua cac hat xay ra dum tic dung cua trong hrc. De tien hanh qua trinh nay ngtroi ta thuong dung cac loai be lang khac nhau nhu minh hoa tren hinh 2.11. Trang cong nghe xu Iy mroc thai, thea chuc nang,' cac be lang diroc phan thanh: be lang cat, be lang cap I va b~ lang trong (cAp II). Be lang cAp I co nhiem vu tach cac chAt ran hOU co (60%) va cac chat ran khac, con ~ ling c!ip II c6 nhiern vu tach bun sinh hoc ra khoi nuoc thai, Cac be lang deu phili thea man yeu cau : co nieu suat U.ng cao va xil bun de dang.

Nude thai n6i chung thuong III h¢ di the da phan tan hop the khong ben. Trong qua trlnh lang. kich tmroc. mat d¢, hlnh dang cua cac hat va d tfnh chat vat 19 cua h~ bi thay d6i. Ngoai ra, khi hoa nhap vao mroc thai co thanh phan hoa hoc khac nhau ciing c6 the tao thanh cac chAt ran, trong d6 co cac chat dong tu. Nhilng qua trlnh nay se lam anh huang toi hlnh dang va kich thucc h~t, gAy plurc tap cho viec thiE:"! l~p qui luat thue cua qua trlnn lang.

81

2

3

a)

c)

fJdnftins

d)

NUde fhei

bJ

2

,.·Iti<'c

-

thai

e)

Hlnh2.11., Coc 1001 b~ 16ng a. B~ lang ngang ;

1. ranh d6n nu6c thai vco: 2. buOng lang; 3. ranh d6n nuac thai ro: 4. h6 t¢p trung bun c¢n b. M lang dung:

1. thOn tru: '2. 6ng trung tOm; 3. ranh g6p nu6c trong; 4. day hinh cOn ,c. B~ I¢lng thep phuong Q¢ln klnh ;

1. thOn b~; 2. rOnh g6p nuOc trong; 3. b¢ ph¢n phOn ph6i nu6c thai; 4, buOng giO d1Au k~n tinh cho b~ lang; 5. b¢ ph¢n gQt (coo bO) d. ThIAt bi lang IOQi 6ng ;

e.ThlAt b! lang \ot;li tOm nghi~ng:

1. thenh thiAt b!; 2. tam nghilmg; 3. phOn gom c¢n lang.

82

Cac tfnh chat ella Mac thai khac nhieu .so voi mroc sach, N6 e6 kh6i hrong rieng va d¢ nhot eao. D9 nhot va kh6i Iirong rieng cua mroc thai chl chtra cac hat ran duoc tfnh theo cac cong tlurc sau:

lin I = f.4,(1 + 2,5 Co) Pn'='p + Pr(1-E)

(2.5) (2.6)

trong do:

!loll' I-l<l - d¢ nhot dong luc hoc ella mroc thill va mroc sach, Pa.s; C) - nong dO the tfch ella cac hat 10 hmg, kg/m':

p, Pm - kh6i hrong rieng eiia mroc sach va mroc thai. kg/m':

s - phan thl! tfch ella pha long. E diroc tinh theo cong thirc sau:

e= VL

VI. +VR

VI., VI{ - the tich cua pha long va pha ran trong rnroc thai, mol.

Tuy thuoc vao nong d¢ va kha nang tac d¢ng urong h6 Ian nhau giila cac hat ran, co tM xay ra ba loai lang chinh (hay eon goi la vung lang) sau: lang rieng re timg hat: lang keo W va lang vung baa gam lang t~p the va lang ehen, nhu torn tat trong bang 2.2.

(2.7)

Do qua trlnh lang co tlIn quan trong di_ic bier trong xir ly mroc thai, vi vay cac loai lang tren se diroc phan tfeh mot each rieng bi¢l .

Ung ioai l

Co so cua qua trlnh lang loai nay ta cac dinh lu~t cO dien: dinh lU~l Newton va Stockes voi giB. thi€t hat lang e6 dang htnh diu. Khi lang e6 cac Il1e sau rae dong len h~l: -

Lire trong trirong:

Fg = p\'.v.g

Lire Archimedes:

F, = pl.v.g uje rna sat;

trong d6 :

Ph, PI - kh6i Iirong rieng ella hat ran va chat long; v - the tfch ella hat eh[ft nm :

1td'

v=-

6

83

d - dUOng kinh hat ran;

g - gia 16<: trong tnrong, g = 9,8 m/s2;

W - van toe urong d6i cua har ran so vci eMI long;

CLl - he s6 rna sal khong thu nguyen do hrc can Newton; S - dien tfch tiet dien ngang cua hal ran :

S = 1td- 4

Bang 2.2. Coc 10<;li lang trong xu Iy nuoc thai

LOQi lang I MO fa qua trinh I Ong dl,lng I Nell XC.v fa
I
LOng tung I 06 10 qua trinh lOng cue coc hot trong h5n toot cat, s6i ra kh6i nuoc
hot ri~ng re I t)oP huy~n phu 0 nbng d¢ th6p. Cac hot thai.
(lang 100i I) . I
long hoon tocn ri~ng bi~t khOng c6 tee d¢ng
-=1ua IQi voi nhou
Lang keo h,1 I D61a qua trinh lang cuo coc hQf kElt tv trong LOQI m¢t phOn ch6t ron 10
(lang loai II) hOn hop huy~n phu hoi loOng, do coc hot ran lung trong xu IV nuoc thai
kel hop loi vot nhau lam tang kh6i luong hot I chua xu IV trong coc
lang vo 16ng nhanh han. cong trinh xu IV lang so
cop vc phbn tren cue b,§
thO c6p, coc 100i bong
keo tu noo hoc frong coc
be lang cOng duoe khO
bang 100i lang nay
i .ang vung 0610 qua trinh lang ceo cOc hQt 10 lung trong XCry ro 6 coc cOng trinh
I
! 16ng 1(' -i III) hOn nco huy~n pnu co nOng d¢ trung binh, I lOng tnu c6p Mp ngay
. 16ng top the Irong do Iljc tuang tee giOo coc hot can tro I sou cOng trinh xu IV sinh
SU lOng cuo coc hot b~n cC;lnh. VI vt;v coc hOC
hot co xu huang vOn 6 loi cung m¢t vi tTi vol
nhou thonh m¢t kh6i cOng long xu6ng. too
I-long chen thonh m¢t mOt phOn coch giuo pho 16ng vc
pha r6n 6 phio tr~n khoi hot ran lang.
DolO qua trinh lang cuo coc hat trong hOn Thu6ng xCry ro trong lop
I hop huvem phu e6 nOng do;. 0 muc lQO nen dUal cuo khoi bun nom
mot ccu true. tQi do coc hat ran 16ng Mp chi sOu 6 day 'Too:::.6 lAn.g
, do su nen ep cuo e6u nuc d6. St,J nen ep nay thO c6p hay thi~t bi lorn
xav fa 16 do trang luong cue coc hot ran lI~n dOc bun.
Mp mern voo bell su 16ng cue chung tu lap
16ng 6 phio tren. Toe d¢ 16ng chen nh6 han
t6e d¢ 16ng tv do, do xu6t hi€Jn d6ng ehOt
16ng di nguQc 16n Va d¢ nhot Ion cue m6i
truOng. 84

Thea dinh luat Newton ta co :

m. dW = F _ F - F.

dt g n I

(2.8)

trong do:

m - khoi hrong ella hilt [lin; t - thai gian:

W - van toe lang cua hat :

W=W1

. dW

Sau khoang thai gian ngan ban d}u, gia toe chuyen dong se bang khOng ( dt = 0 ) va

van toe lang sc khong d6i.

Thay gili tri cua cac lire vao (2.8) va giai pmrong trinh tren, ta e6 van toe lang:

(2.9)

va cho cac hat hlnh cau:

(2.10)

H¢ so Co phu tnuoc vao che dQ thuy dong cua dong ehtlt long ban quanh hat rna d~e tnmg hOi chudn 56 Reynold (Re = d.WI.pJ~I' "day ~I la dO nh6t ella ehtlt long). Quan h¢ phu thuoc nay bieu thi gan dung bang cong thirc tong qual sau :

(2.11 )

Bang 2.3. H$ 56 ma S6tCD 0 c6c ch~ d¢ tnuy d¢ng kh6c nhou

b
Khu vye b n Co=-
Ren
D!nh lu¢t Sfockes 24 1.0 24
Re<2 -
Re
Chuy~nMp 18.5 0.6 18.5
2 < Re <; 500 --
ReO.6
Newton 0.4 Oil 0.4
Re > 500 85

v~ t6c lang ciia cac hat hlnh cau iJ vung dinh luat Stockes trong xu If mrcc thai duqc tfnh bang cOng thuc cua Stockes:

W "" _!_ Ph - PI d2

I • g.

18 J..i.l

Hlnh 2.12 trlnh bay nguyen Iy mot be lang-Iy urong,

Vung nuac thai VQO

Q

(2.12)

Vung nuoc trong ra

Vung lang

Q

-

B'

H

B

Vung bun c¢n

IE-----L----~

Hinh 2.12. L6ng don chiec trong be 16ng 19 tvong'

Trong thiet k€ b~ lang thtrong chon hat vm van t6c lang gioi han WI sao cho tilt ca cac hat c6 van t6c lang IOn hem hoac.bang WI SI! diroc tach ra khoi chA"! long. H<,Lt ran d6 SI! chinh la h<,L1 di vao vunglang tai diem A va lang vm v~ t6c du de t6i vung bun c~ tai diem B. Nhu v~y hat ran nay roi qua chieu sau H trong khoang thm gian 1., ,nghia Ill:

H

to =WI

M~t khac, cting trong thm gian d6 hat ran da di qua mot quang duong L theo chien nam ngang v&i van t6c W ng- Do d6:

v6i :

(2.13)

L

to=--

W"~

(2.14)

W :::_g_

n~ B.H

trong do : Q - hru luqng dong vao; B - chieu ngang be lang.

86

· .

D~t (2.13) va (2.14) bang nhau. Tu d6 rut ra :

WI =_g_= Q LB A

(2.15)

trong d6 A - dien tfch m~( cat ngang cua vung lang.

D6i voi mot nang suat xu 19 cho tnroc Q. chi c6 nhiing hat c6 v~ t6c lang Ian WI sf: bi khu hoan toan, con cac hat c6 van t6c lang Wp < Wt se khong duqc khir n!'u chang duge dua vao vung lang a phfa tren t~idiem A, vi trong khoang thm gian 10 cluing khong dat toi day cua vung lang (theo duemg AB'). Song neu cac hat di vao vung lang b dl;! sau nho hon hoac bang h va h = Wp.to thl chung se duge loai ra khOi cMt long (dubng A'B). Do d6 pnan cac hat c6 v~ t6e lang W p c6 the diroc khu se. diroc xac dinh bOi dai hrong ~ = W p/WI.

T6ng phan cac hat bi khu (R) sf: bang:

(2.16)

Trong bieu thirc (2.16). Wp Ia. bien trong khoang 0$ Wp s WI v6i Wp = f(X), trong d6 (1- x,) ia. phan cac hat co v~ t6e lang 160 hem hoac bang WI' COn trong thanh phan thu hai 180 phan cac hat c6 v~ tOc lang nho hem WI ducc khu va dugc xac dinh bang tfch phan 00 th] (dien tich gach cheo tren hlnh 2.l3).

~ In ---------------------------------

~~ ~=~

~'5 c:g 'g-o

;02 Xc

>c

:g.~

06

-o.c

~~

ff.

V¢n t6c 16ng, W

Hlnh 2.13, DUClng cong phOn ffch qu6 trinh lOng rl6ng r~ cuo m¢t huyi~m phu

Ung lm,Ii 2

Khi nbng dQ cac hat ran trong dung dich nrong d6i th!P. chung se lang khong gi6ng . nhau va se k€t hop lai v6i nhau trong qua trlnh lang, AM huemg nay chi 06 the xac dinh hang th\!C nghiem,

87

De xac dinh dJ!.c ttnn LIng cua hOn hop huyen phu cac hat keo tu, ngiroi ta sir dung cot . lang c6 chieu cao bang chieu sau thuc cua be lang. Ket qua trnrc nghiem co the khai quat nhu tren hmh 2.14.

Gil str thai gian luu la 12, chieu sau h~, khi do lOng hieu sua:t khir cua be lang se diroc tinh thea cong thue sau :

(2, t 7)

. ChiE'lu sOu
V6il6y
m6u
h·;
h2
~13
h.t

D.6m
h5
~I ,oE-- t, O.15m

\

t~

Thai gian

Hinh 2,14. Cot t6ng va duong cong lOng cuo c6e hot keo 1\1

Ldng loa! 3

Khi nong do chat ran 1(1 hmg trong he thong cao han 500 mgll thuong xay ra lang vung (lang loai 3) baa gorn: lang tap the va lang nen,

Loai lang nay xay ra cung voi lang dan hat va lang keo III va co d~c diem [a cac hat rAt gao nhau, Khi hat lang xuong chiem cho cua cMt long va dong chat long bi thay the' di len se can tro lam giam van tee lang cua hat khac, Do mat dQ hat ran cao nen lang vung thuong dan de'n lang d. kho, vCij be m~t phan each r6 r¢1 gifra khoi chat ran . long va rnroc trong. Trong qua trlnh lang dilin hlnh, co the quan sat rAI ro 4 vung lang nhu a hlnh 2.15.

Sll' thay dOi vung lang thea thoi gian duoc minh hoa tren hlnh 2.16.

M~t phan each I chuyen dong xuong phia dum v& van toe lang WI ::: canst. ngiroc lai mat phan each 2 di chuyen len tren voi van t6c khong dOi W va tai then diem 12 hai vung phan each va vung nen se gap nhau. Tai thoi diem nay hon hop bun da lang. long co nang

88

d~ dong deu C2 dlIQ'C goi la nong d~ rai han va qua trlnn nen bat <fa.u. Bun bat dau dlIQ'C lam d~c bang qua trlnh Jang, cuoi cling dar tai nong d~ cu6i Cu. V~ toc lang tai thot di~m t2 Iii W2 chfnh la g6c nghieng cua dirong tiep tuyen voi dl1bng cong lang tai c2, b day W2 < WI.

Chi~u sou

.......................................... 1--""

Vung lang chen

Vung nucc trong

........................................... +---1

Vung lang don h<;lt

........................................... 1----1

Vung lang keo "h,l

Vung lang nan

~----

ThO! gian

lang 10<;li 1

lang 10<;li 2

} . LOng lool3

Hinh 2.15. So do coc vung lang doi voi bun hoot tlnh

j \.

a) ,=0

Co

M¢t ph6n

~-------.---~

Qua trinh lam nang

HQp nhOt m¢t phOn each 1 \102

A

Qua trinh 10m d¢c

Hinh 2.16. Lang vung 0 coc thai diem khae nhau

A VU"Q nuoc trong; B - Vung phon each; C - Vung frung gian.; D . Vung nen

89

Qua trlnh thiet ke'be lang Hun viec 0 dieu kien lang vung bao gorn :

1. Tinh dien tfch be mat toi thMu can thiet de gan trong, tach bun ra khoi nu6c;

2. Tfnh dien tfch ~ m",,' 16i thieu de lam d~ bun Mn nong d¢ yeu cau:

3. Lay dien tich lon nhat cua hai dien uch tren de thiet ke dien tfch he mat can thiet cho thiet bi lang.

- Cac thong s6 can thiet tren de tiMt ki be lang dua vao cac s6 lieu thuc nghiem ve qua trlnh lang cua bun hoat tfnh trong 6ng lang hinh tru e6 chia d¢ va the tich bang 1000 rnl v6'i chieu caD chuan 0.34 m : tai thoi diem t = 0 nong d¢ hat nm dong deu trong toan the tfch binh va bang c". Be m~t phan each 1 se hinh thanh sau m¢t thoi gian va di chuyen xuong diroi thea thai gian.

- DuOng cong lang cua bun hoar tfnh duoc minh hoa tren hlnh 2.17.

A

Ho

L6ng dOng tv

h

dh

n , =-=W,

- dt -

L6ng nan

ThCli gian 16ng. phOt

t

Hinh 2.17. DUClng cong I~ng cue bun hoot finh

Dien tfeh toi thieu can thiet de gl!l1 trong pnu thuoc vao van t6c lang WI va diroc tfnh tit cong thuc (2.15), nghia 111.:

(2.18)

trong d6 :

Au - dien tfeh hi! lang trong, m':

Q - hru hrong mroc thai, m3/h; WI - van toe lang. m/h;

90

v~ toe lang WI cua bun hoat tfnh dll'qc xac dinh bang plnrong phap 06 thi tir hlnh 2.17:

W = dh = OA =~

I dt OB t

Dien tich toi thieu can thiet de lam dij.c bun duoc tfnh nhu sau:

Biet rang qua trlnh Hun dac bun bang lang bat GaU tir thoi diem t::: t2 (hinh 2.16c).

Nang d¢ SS trong vnng bun c6 chieu cao H2 bang C2• Qua trlnh Hun d<}.e bun thuc hien khi bun dtroc nen dat 1m nong d¢ yell cau C. b dong bun thai (hinh 2.16d). Thai gian du tinh cho qua trlnh nay 111. t, va chien cao vung bun bang Hu.

(2.19)

Tu can bang vl!-t lieu, neu bo qua hrong SS con lai trong vung mroc trong, ta c6 :

hay:

e)AH()::: C2AI-h::: CuAHu C()Ho::: C2H2::: CuHu

(2.20) (2.21 )

Luong rnrcc duoc ep ra va thai ra qua vach chay tran diroc tfnh theo cling thirc:

(2.22)

Knoang thai gian de thai hrong mroc nay 111. hieu s6 (t. - h).

E Ho
o
L
o
'0
()
t:
<0
J::. HI
0..
;0.
E
0
0
U H2
:J
AD
z
o
Hu

0 t2 tu Thoi glan lang. phOt Hinh 2.16. Do thi xoc dinh tu Liru t6c tnmg binh Q' chay qua vach trw se la:

(2.23)

91

va :

(2.24)

V~ t6c lang W 2 tai thai diem l2 diroc xac dinh bang 06 th] nhu minh hoa tren hmh 2.17:

W t - Hl - H2

2:= gal - --'-_--=-

t2

d dieu kien dong lien tuc, van t6c chat Long qua vach trim khong the 16'0 hem W 2 khi qua trinh lam dl},C bang !ling vung xay ra, Khi do. hru t6c Q' 0 thoi diem 12 se bang:

(2.25)

Q':= AW2 == A{H1 - Hz) tz

Thay Q' tinh thea (2.26) vao bieu trurc (2.24) ta c6 :

H1 - Hu = Hj - H1

tu-t:! t1

(2.26)

(2.27)

Bieu thirc nay la co so M xac dinh t, bang 06 thi nhu minh hoa tren hlnh 2.18. Cac bUC1C xac dinh lu nhu sau :

I. Ve duoog tiep tuyen voi dUCmg cong lang tai C2; 2. Tir can bang v~t chat (2.21) xac dinh :

3. Dat gia tri H" len true tung va nr d6 ve dirong song song vai true hoanh cho t& khi cat dtrong tiep tuyen voi C1. Tir giao diem cua hai dirong do ha dU'bng vuong goc vci true hoanh se nhi)n diroc gin tri cua lu.

Dien t(ch be mat t6i thieu Al can thiet de I1Ull d:}.c bang lang dttqc xac dinh nrnr sau:

V~ t6c trung blnh tao thanh lap c6 nong d6 c" la:

(2.29)

vi c"Hu == c.,H", khi do (2.29) co the viet lai la:

(2.30)

d dieu kien dong lien tuc va trang thai 6n din-h. van toe tao thanh lap c6 nong dl) C, se bang van t6c di vao cua dong chat thai huyen phil. (QC.,). Do do:

92

(2.31 )

va:

(2.32)

The nch can thiit cho bun lang trong lang nen ciing c6 the xac dinh !II thf nghiem lang tren thea cong thu.e sau :

H - H == (H - H ) -i(t-t2)

I ~ 2 ~ e

(2.33)

trong d6:

H, - chieu cao bun 0 thoi diem t;

H", - chieu cao bun sau khoang thai gian dai (vi du 24 h); H2 - chieu cao lap bun a thai di~m 12;

i-hang s6 e6 gia tri d~c trirng cho nmg loai bun.

Nniet do cua mroc cling anh huong toi van t6e lang cua cac hat ran 10 lirng, Bang 2.4 cho van t6c lang ella cat trong nude 0 nhiet d¢ khac nhau.

Trong thi61 k€ cac be lang, can cu de Huh kich thuoc be 11'1. van t6e dong Iran (nrong duong vci van t6e lang be mat), chieu sau thanh be: va thbi gian luu,

Van 16c dong tran diroc tlnh theo cong thirc (2.34):

(2.34)

trong d6:

W" - van t6c dong tran, m3/m2.ng1'l.Y:

Q -luu Iirong trung blnh hang ngay, m'/ng1'l.y; A - t6ng dien tich be mat be, m',

6 dAy dien tich be mi).l tinh toan A chua k~ Mn dien uch mi).l gieng phan phoi dong vao 0 giua hoac mang din thoat, Luu hrong trung bmh la hru hrong dong Iran 0 be lang so cap, bang ehfnh luu luong dong vao vi c6 the bo qua the tich bun thao ra tit day be. Con a be lang tha ca:p thl d6 chfnh 11'1. luu hrong dong ra.

Dai hrong W" con dtroc goi 11'1. tai hrong thuy h,rc (till luong rieng tren mot dan V! dien tfch),

Thoi gian luu dUQC tinh thea cong thac (2.35): t=24 V

Q

(2.35)

93

trong do :

t - thai gian luu, h;

V - the tieh be lang. m';

Q - luu hrong trung binh, mJ/ngay:

Thai gian luu phai dli de lang mot kh6i IUQIlg 16n eh~t lo limg va de cho mroc thai khOng eu6n thea cac chat rim can tach ra ngoai b€ lang,

~ m~t If thuyet eho thAy, nang suat be lang khong phu thuoc vao chieu s;1u ciia be.

Chi'eu sau ciia b€ til. chieu sau rnroc do lit day be 1m dinh vach chay tran,

BOng 2.4. V¢n t6c lang cuo c6f.trong nu6c 6 nhi$t d¢ kh6c nhou

Duong V¢n t6c lang, mm/s I Duong . V¢n t6c 16ng. mm/s
Idnh hot, klnh hQt.
mm sOe loDe lSuC 20Dc mm soc IODC 150e 2rfC
3,50 240.5 245,5 250.5 255.5 0.275 21.55 23}8 26.0 28,82
3.00 225,5 227.5 232,5 237,5 0.25 18A5 20,5 22.55 24.6
'2.50 204.2 209,2 214.2 219.2 0,20 12.85 14.5 16,15 17,8
2.00 182.5 187,5 192.5 197,5 0.15 7.87 9.15 10A2 11.69
1.75 168,2 173.2 178.2 183.2 0.14 6,92 8.12 9.32 10.52
1.50 151,5 156.5 161,5 166.5 0.13 600 7,15 8.30 9.45
1.25 133.0 138.0 143.0 148,0 0.125 5.52 6,64 7,77 8,90
1.00 112,0 116,85 121.7 126.55 0.12 5,1 6,175 7,25 8,325
0.90 103.2 107.9 112,6 117.2 0.11 4,55 SAO 6.25 7.10
0.85 98.4 102.95 107.5 112.05 0.10 3.85 4.6 5.35 6.10
0.80 93,65 98.08 102,92 106.92 oms 3M 4,14 4,84 5,54
0,775 91.3 95.65 100,0 104.35 0.0925 3,34 3,97 4,60 5.23
0}5 88.1 92.3 96,5 100.7 0.Q900 3.15 3.75 4.35 4.95
0.70 81.6 85.7 89.8 93.9 0.D85 2.82 3,36 3,90 4.44
0.65 74.8 78.75 82.7 86.65 0,080 2.525 3,005 3.485 3.965
0.60 67.8 71.55 75.3 79.05 0.075 2.245 2,665 3,085 3.505
0,50 53.35 56.68 60,0 63,32 0.070 1,940 2.32 2.70 3,08
0.40 39] 42,6 45,5 48.4 0.0685 1,847 2.217 2,587 2.957
0,375 36.2 39.0 41.8 44,6 0.069 1.682 2.007 2,332 2.657
0.35 32.4 35.05 37.7 40.35 0,0615 1,51 1.805 2.10 2,395
0.325 28] 31.2 33.7 36.2 0.060 lASS 1.73 2.005 2,28
0,30 25,1 27.45 29.7 32,15 0,057 1.325 1,57 1.815 2,06 94

Till hrong thuy 19c cua vach tran la tlnrong s6 giua hru hrong mroc chay tran trung blnh hang ngay vai tong dQ dill cua vach tran, dai hrong nay duqc tinh thea m3;m ngay,

Trong thuc t~, van toe U.ng hoac van tOc n6i len duc;1c xac dinh bang thirc nghiem, con tii hrong thuy lire lay trong cac tai lieu. Theo G12 (1989), d6i voi thm. tiet kho W" ;:;: 18 m/h: con d6i voi thoi uer dm W" ;:;: 36 m/h. Vi y~y kfch thu6c cua M lang thirong diroc tinh qua tii trong thuy hrc va tho! gian hru,

Hien nay, hai loai be bing dircc sir dung trong cong nghe xu Iy rnroc thai la be tang cat va cac loai be lang dung trong lang dp I va dp II.

2.4.3.2, Bi 14ng cat

Be lang cat thirong diroc thiet ke de tach cac tap chS:t ran vO co khOng tan co kfch thiroc tit 0,2 den 2 mm ra khoi mroc thai, Dieu d6 dam bao cho cac thiet bi co khi (nhir cac loai born) khOng bi cat, soi bao mon: tranh tic cac dtrong 6ng dan va cac rum huang xau cung viec tang tai luqng vO Ich eho cac thiet bi xu Iy sinh hQC.

Theo nguyen Iy lam viec, nguoi ta chia be lang cat thanh hai loai: be lang ngang va be tang dUng,

sang 2,5, Coc thong sO dien hinh thi~t k~ be 16ng e6t IOQi ngang (5)

Cae thOng s6 Gia hi
Khoang Oi~n hlnh
ThOi gian luu, 5 45-90 60
V¢n t6c dong ch6y, m/s 0.25-0A 0,3
V¢n tOc 16ng de tach hot, m/phOt
- duong klnh 021 mm 1,0-1,3 1.15
- duong kinh 0,15 mm 0,6 - 0,9 0.75
T6n th6t 6p su6t 6 fi~t di~n kiem soot. 30 - 40 36
% chl~u sOu k~nh ba 16ng
H<;m dlnh cho phep 51,1 xoay 6 cOa 2Hm- O,5L
VQOVa cOa ra Ghi chu :

a. NEu kh6i lugng rieng ella h<!-t ran nho han 2,65 nhieu, dlll chon v~ t6c lrutg nh6 han;

b. Cho tiel di¢n kitm soat kenh Parshall:

e. Hm • chi'eu sau Ian nMt cua bt IM.s cat; d. L - chfeu dlli 19 thuyet ella hi! JaIlg cat.

se lang cat ngang la m¢t kenh hU e6 tiet dien hlnh ehii' nh~t, hlnh tam giac hOi!-c parabol (hlnh 2.19). Chi~u dai be thuemg roy thuoc vao chieu sau cm thiet, v~ t6c lang va ti€t dien kiem soat be. Clfeu sau be nam trong khoang tit 0,25 d€n I m, Ti I¢ giua chien rong va chieu sau sau B/H = 1:2. V~ t6c dong cbAy trong be khOng duqe vuot qua 0,3 mls.

95

Voi t6e dQ nhu vay eho phep cac hat cal, soi va cac hat vo co khac lang xu6ng day, con hau het cac hat him co nhe va nho di qua b~ theo dong ra ngoai,

Thuc re be lang cal thuong diroc thiet ke hai ngan de Iuan phien nhau Hun viec va cao can, VI¢e cao can c6 the tien hanh bang thu cong hoac co gi6i tuy thuoc vao qui mo cua be. Nhfulg s6li¢u dac trirng thiet ke be lang cal loai ngang c6 eho trong bang 2.5. Thiet ke' chi tiet be lang cat ngang e6 the tham khao a cac tai lieu [1,5 .6}.

,

A

B-B

ill

b)

Hinh 2.19. Be \6ng cat 10Qi ngong

a. Coo bun bOng thu cOng: 1. Ranh thaa con: 2. Giang chOo nuoc thco con: b. Ceo bun bang co glol: 1. Bang coo: 2. May nOng

96

T

Hinh 2.20. M lang cat c6 sue khi

B6 lang cal co sue khf (hmh 2.20) dircc pMI trien dua tren co sa cac hat cal tfch tu l<lt vai nhau trong dong chuyen dong xoay 6c tao boi dong khl, bang each sue khi van mot phta cua be tao cho dong ruroc thai chuyen dong thea qui dao tron va xoan DC quanh true thea huang dong chay, Do van t6c ngang trong vong xoay Ian nen cac hat hfru co vin duoc giu lai con cac thanh phan nang hon tach ra tAp trung a ranh can day be. Be lang cal c6 sue khf can c6 chieu sau it nhlit bling 2 m de tao nen vong quay tron c6 hieu.qua va t'y s6 giira chieu rong va chieu sau be vao khoang 1.5,1. Diu phan phoi khf d~t each day be mot khoang tiI 0,45 Mn 0,6 m. Cac thong s6 dien hinh cho viec thiet ke be lang cal c6 sue khi c6 cho trong bang 2.6.

Can c11 vao cac yeu t6: hru hrong ruroc thai va nong d¢ cac chit IO' hrng de chon be lang cat thlch hop. Thong dung nhat van la hi lang cat loai ngang.

Sang 2.6. Coc thOng s6 eMn hinh thi~t ke b~ lang cat (5)

Cae thOng s6 Glatr1
Kh06ng Di~n hinh
Klch tnuoc:
- chieu sOu. m 2-5
- chleu dol. m 7.5 - 20
- chieu r¢ng, m 2,5 -7,0
TV so chieu r¢ng I chieu sOu 1:1 + 5:1 1,5: 1
ThOl gian luu khi luu IUQng co gla trl Ion nh6t phOt 2-5 3
COp kh6ng khi. mJ 1m chieu doi phOt 0.15 - 0,45 0,3
lUQng cot vc yang cot, mJnif m' 0,004 - 0.200 0.Q15 97

2.4.3.3. Cae loai bildng

Cac b~ lang co nhiem V1,l lang cac hat ran nho hon 0,2 mm. Be lang co nhieu loai knac nhau va hien thong dung non c.i 111 cac b~ lang lien tuc, Bun lang duoc tach ra khoi mroc ngay sau khi lang, co the bang phirong phap thu cong hoac co gici,

Qua trinh lang chiu anh hirong cua cac yeu t6 chinh sau : hru hrong mroc thai. thai gian lang (hay thai gian hru), kh6i hrong rieng va tai urong tfnh thea chat ran 10 hrng, tai hrong thuy lire, 51! keo tu cac hat ran, van t6c dong chay trong be, SI! nen bun d~e. nhiet do cua rurcc thai va klch tluroc b~ lang,

Theo cnieu cua dong chay, cac be lang dll'Qe pnan thanh: be lang ngang va b~ lang dung. Trong xu Jy nude thai e6ng nghiep, b~ Lang ngang eo th~ duoc xay dung mot bac hoac nhieu bac,

a. Blliing ngang

IX! lang ngang e6 k€t cAu nhir tren hlnh 2 -21. IX! lang ngang c6 the duoc lam bang cac v~t lieu khac nhau nhu betong, betong e6t thep, gach hoac hang dAt tuy thuoc vao kfch tluroc, yeu cau cua qua trmh lang va dieu kien kinh tl!.

Trong be lang ngang, dong nude thai chay thea phirong nam ngang qua be'. Ngubi ta chia dong chay va qua trlnh lang thanh 4 vung: vung hoat dong la vung quan trong nhat cua be' lang; vung bun (vung Il10g dong) 18. vung bun lang tap trung; vung trung gian: tai day rnroc thai va bun Ian Ion voi nhau; eu6i cung Ill. vung an toano

u,g voi qua trlnh cua dong chay tren, be !iillg ding e6 the dircc ehia thanh 4 vung: vung mroc thai vao; - vung lang hoac vung tach; vung xa mroc ra va vung bun.

Vung nu&c thdi vao co clurc nang pb1ln ph6i deu dong mroc thai vao bC lang thea loan bi? tiet dien cat ngang dong chay, sao eho khong eo hien nrong xoay a vung lang.

Vung Idng chiem nan het tbe tfch be', lang trong vung nay tuan thea dinh lu(l.t Stoekes.

M9t yeu cau fllt quan trong la duy trl dieu kien chay dong trong be'. Dieu kien nay the hien qua chuan s6 Reynold. Tit d6 cho thay, de eo nhiing dieu kien tren ben viing, be lang can c6 ban kfnh thuy 1t!1: thfeh hop. D6i voi be lang ngang di~u do e6 nghia la be can nho va nong. Trong time te dieu nay khong the chap nhan dUC1e vl nhiing Iy do kinh teo

Vung xd IlUde ra c6 chuc nang thao nude trong ra m~1 each 6n dinh,

Vung bun qin can diroc trang bi cac phuong tien thao bun bang phirong phap thuy hrc hay co khi nhu minh noa tren hmh 2.21.·

Cac be' lang ngang thuong e6 chien sau H tit 1,5 den 4 m, chieu dai bang (8 7 12)H chien rong kenh tit 3 den 6 m. De phan ph6i deu nuoc ngiroi ta thucng ehia be thanh nhieu ngan bang cac vach ngan. Cac be lang ngang thuong diroc su dung khi luu hrong nude tha tren 15000 m-l/ngay. Hieu suat lang dat 60%. V~ t6e dong chay cua mroc thai trong bt lang thirong duqc chon khong IOn hon 0,0 I m/s, con tbm gian hru tir I den 3 gio,

98

I

~

3

~

-

2

o DO DO

dong

fa

a)

3 2

Hinh 2.21, Be lang ngang a, lOQi coo bun bOng bang tah

1 . Cue phcn dong vco. 2. Vach chon dong voo. 3. B¢ ph¢n gom vang; 4. voch dieu chlnh dong ra; 5. V6ch chon; 6. Bang to! coo bun:

7. H6 chua bun; 8. 6ng dOn·bun ra.

b, lOQi coo bun bOng xe di d¢ng :

1. Cuo dOn nuoc thai voo: 2. M long; 3, Xe coo bun; 4. Mang gom vang; 5. vcch Chon; 6. Cua dOn ouoc trong ra; 7, H6 chua bun; 8. 6ng dOn bun roo

99

b. Blking dUng

SO' cfe:. nguyen [y lam viec cua bt! Hillg dung duoc minh hoa tren hinh 2.22. ~ ling c6 dang hinh hop hoac hinh tru voi day hlnh ch6p. Nuoc thai dugc dua vao ong phan phdi a tam be voi van toe khong qua 30 mm/s. Niroc thii chuyen dong theo phuong dUng nr durri len tren toi vach tran voi van tee 0,5 - 0,6 m/s. Thai gian mroc hru lai trong be tlr 45 den 120 phut va dugc xa ra ngoai bang ap lire thuy tinh. Chieu cao vung lang tir 4 den 5 m. Trong b~ lang, cac hat chuyen dong cung voi ruroc tir dtroi len tren v6i van t6e W va lang dinri tac dong cua trong luc vci van tac WI. Do d6 cac hat co kich ihiroc khac nhau se chiem nhirng vi trl khac nhau trong bt! lang. Khi WI> W, cac hat se lang nhanh; khi WI < W chung se bi cuon thea dong chay len tren, Hieu suat lang cua be lang dimg trurong thap han bt Ling ngang tu 10 den 20%.

c. Be'lang theo phuang ban kinh

Loai be nay co tiet dien hinh tron (hlnh 2.23), dUlmg kinh 16 den 40 m (co khi toi 60 m). Chieu sau phan ruroc chay 1,5 den 5 m, con ty l¢ dirong killh!chieu sau tir 6 den 30. Day be co d¢ doc i ;::. 0,02 ve tam de thu can, Niroc thai diroc dan van b€ thea chieu IU lam ra thanh he: va ducc thu van rnang I~p trung roi d.in ra ngoai. Can ling xu6ng day diroc t~p trung lai dt dua ra ngoai nho he thong gat can quay tron, Thor gkl mroc thi.i luu lai trong be: khoang 85 den 90 phut, Hieu su!t lilng d~t 60%. &; lang thea phuong ban kinh duoc frog dung cho cac tram xu [y co luu hrong IU 20.000 m~/ngay dern trb len.

De lang hicu suat lang nguoi ta tim each tang van t6c lang. Dieu nay e6 the dat diroc bang each tang duong kinh cdc hat lang bang dong tu va keo II!- hoac giam dQ nhot eua ruroc bang tang nhiet d¢ eOa mroc, Ngoai fa cilng e6 the tang be mat lang va tien hanh qua trmh lang trong 16p rnong chat long. Dieu nay diroc thirc hien trong cac be lang loai 6ng boac loai tarn. o chieu sau nho, qua trlnh lang xay ra trong thoi gian ngan, khoang 4 den 10 phut va eho pnep giam duoc kich tluroc be lang.

Cac eng cua b~ lang tlurong e6 dirong kfnh 20 den 50 mm va chieu dai 0.6 den I m.

Ole 6ng diroc d~\ nghieng vci mot g6e 5" den 60".

2.4.3.4, Tach cae tap chat ntIi

Trong mot so 10,!-i rnroc thai san xuat co chua dau, rna co kh6i hrong rieng nho hon nuoc, D6 111. nhfrng chat noi, cluing se gay anh huang xau Wi cac cong trinh thoat mroc (mang lu6i va de cong trmh xir ly). Vi vay, nguoi ta phai thu hoi nhimg eh1\t nay tnroc khi xa vao he thong thoat ruroc sinh hoat va san xua; ac chat rna se b~t kin [0 hong gitra cac hat vat lieu 19c trong cac be: 19c sinh h9C ... va chiing cfing se phi huy eau true bun hoat tfnh trong be aero ten, gay kh6 khan trong qua trlnh len men can.

Theo tieu chuan dong thai, khong eho phep xi ruroc thii chua dau, mB vao nguon tiep nhan rurcc vi cluing se tao thanh mot lap mang mong phu [en dien ticn m~t mroc kha 16'0, gay kh6 khan cho qua trmh http thu oxy cua khong khf vao mroc. [am cho qua trinh ur lam

100

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