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Tai Lieu Hoc Tap Ve Cac Phuong Phap Tinh Tich Phan

Tai Lieu Hoc Tap Ve Cac Phuong Phap Tinh Tich Phan

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Phan thli nhat

" ,,' ?,..', ,..

CAC LI THUYET co BAN VE TICH PHAN

1- Li THUYET

1. Nguyen ham

1.1. Dinh nghia nguyen ham, ho nguyen ham (tich phdn khong xac dinh) Ham so F(x) duoc goi la nguyen ham ella ham so j(x) tren khoang «(1 ; h) neu voi moi x E «(1; b), ta co F' (x) =f(x),

Ham so F(x) duoc goi la nguyen ham ella ham so j(x) tren doan [a; h] neu voi moi x E [a; h] ta co F' (x) =f(x), cac dang thirc F' (a) = jta) ; F' (b) = j(h) duoc hieu la

I, F(x) - F(a) f( z) 'I' F(x) - F(b) feb)

im = a va im =,

x-)(/ x-a ' x-)/J- x=b .

Neu ham s6 j(x) co mot nguyen ham F(x) thi no co vo s6 nguyen ham va tat ca cac nguyen ham do deu co dang F(x) + C, trong do C la hang s6 tuy Y (vi

,

(F(x)+C) =f(x)) nen F(x) + C goi la ho nguyen ham ella f(x) , Ngiroi ta ki

hieu ho tat ca cac nguyen ham cua ham s6f(x) la ff(x)dx (doc la tich phan bat dinh euaf(x) hay ho cac nguyen ham euaf(x)),

1.2. Cac tinh chat eo ban ella nguyen ham

a) fkl(x)dx = k ff(x)dx (k la hang s6, l: * 0)

b) [f(x)±g(x)Jdx = ff(x)dx± frt(x)dx

,

c) [f f (x) dxJ = f ( x )

d) d [ f f ( x ) dxJ = f ( x ) dx

5

e) If ( x ) dx = F ( x ) + C => If ( t ) dt = F (t ) + C g) Id(f(x))=f(x)+C.

2. rich phon

2.1. Dinh nghia tich phan (tich phdn xac dinhv

Gia sir f(x) la ham so lien tuc tren mot khoang H, a va b la hai so bat ki thuoc H, F(x) la mot nguyen ham cuaj(x) tren H. Hieu so F(b) - F(a) diroc goi b

la tich phan tir a den b cua f(x) va dtroc kf hieu la If (x )dx. Tfch phan nay con

a

duoc goi la tich phan xac dinh vi ket qua cua n6 la mot hang so. b

Cong thirc NEWTON-LEIBNITZ: If(x)dx=F(x)1 : =F(b)-F(a)

a

(la mot trong nhirng cong thirc tinh quan trong dung de tfnh tich ph an khi ta da tim duoc nguyen ham cua ham so f(x) , n6i each khac viec tinh tich phan nho cong thirc nay la mot phep toan noi dai cua phep tim nguyen ham, nhung khong phai voi cong thirc nay ta se tfnh diroc moi tich phan cho du tich ph an d6 la rat dan gian),

2.2. Cac tinh chat co ban cua tich phan

Gia Slr cac ham j(x), g(x) lien tuc tren khoang H va a, b, C la ba so bat ki thuoc H.

b h

a) I kf (x) dx = k If (x) dx (k la hang so)

a

a

b b b

b) [f(x)±g(x)Jdx= If(x)dx± fg(x)dx

a

a

a

a

c) ff(x)dx = 0

a

6

a b

d) ff(x)dx = - ff(x)dx

b a

b c b

e) ff(x)dx = ff(x)dx+ ff(x)dx

a

a

c

b b b

g) ff(x)dx= ff(t)dt= ff(u)du=F(b)-F(a)

a

a

a

b

h)f(x) ~ 0 tren doan [a; b] => ff( x )dx ~ 0

a

b b

i)f(x) ~ g(x) tren doan [a; b] => ff( x )dx ~ fg( x)dx

a a

b

k)m ~f(x) ~ Mtrendo~n [a; b]=>m(b-a)~ ff(x)dx~M(b-a)

a

t

n) t bien thien tren doan [a; b] => G (t ) = f f ( x ) dx Ul mot nguyen ham

a

cuaf(t) va G(a) = o.

II - cAc PHUONG PHAp TiNH TicH PHAN

Tnroc khi gioi thieu cac phuong phap tinh tich phan cluing toi d~ cap toi each thirc sir dung bang nguyen ham. Tren mat phuong phap luan thi cluing ta deu coi day khong phai la mot phirong phap tinh rna Ia ki thuat duong nhien hoc sinh phai biet neu muon tinh tich phan, nhirng tren thirc te thi do hoc sinh THPT dang giai nhirng bai to an tinh tich phan don gian nen chung toi danh phan dAu cua cac phuong phap de d~ cap tm each thirc sir dung bang nguyen ham.

De cac em c6 tM nang cao diroc ki nang nay thl cluing ta can nho being nguyen ham cua cac ham s6 sa cap thuong gap, Bang nay nhieu hoc sinh n6i la kh6 nho, nhirng neu chung ta chi can luu y rang being nguyen ham diroc suy ra tir bang dao ham cac ham s6 sa cap co ban thi cac em se rat de hoc va tiep thu duoc ngay.

7

BANG cAc NGUYEN HAM co BAN

Bang dao ham Bang nguyen ham (tltdng lrng)
I Idx=x+C
(x) =1 .
I I /x+l
xcx+l I
I ex oX ( a = const . a 7:- -1 ) !
= XU (a = const . a 7:- -1) x dx=--+C I
-- I a+l

I
I 1 Idx = Inlxl+C
(In I xl) = -
x X
I Iexdx = e' +C
(ex) = eX
I I X aX
[ I:~:I J (0<a7:-1)
=ax (O<a7:- 1) a dx=-
Ina
I I cos xdx = sin x + C
(sin x) = cosx
I I sin xdx = - cos x + C
(-cosx) =SInX
I 1 dx
(tan x) = I 2 = tan x+C
,2
cos x cos X
I 1 f dx
(-cotx) = -- --=-cotx+C
. 2 sin2 x
SIn X Khi sir dung bang nguyen ham cac em nen linh hoat va dac biet phai ket hop voi cac tinh chat cua tich ph an cung mot so bien doi pho bien thi se de dang giai quyet duoc cac bai toan v6 tim ho nguyen ham (tich phan bat dinh) hoac tfnh tich phan (tfch phan xac dinh) rna hinh thirc cua no Ia kha phirc tap.

nos 1 :

I 3G 3

'r:: /_ f3'\/x -:Y2x~ +x -3d ( 0)

11m - I x x> .

x-c x

8

Bili 2:

Tim I = f( x2 + 2x + 3 t dx.

Gidi:

1= f(x2+2x+3tdx= f(x4+4x2+9+4x3+6x2+12x)dx .'i 4 3

=~+~+9X+X4 +2x3 +6x2 +c.

5 3

Nhung trong qua trinh ap dung phuong phap nay cac em h9C sinh khong diroc lam dung rna rong bang nguyen ham VI neu lam nhir vay cac em se rat d~ bi trir diem trang cac ki thi VI bang dao ham nay da diroc quy dinh tai sach giao khoa lop 12. DO'n cir trang mot so sach thirong ghi cong tlnrc

f dx I 1 1 x - al c " hur h' h " diN'

2 2 = - n -- + va eac em t UO'l1g t ay ay va ap ung uon, eu

x -(l 2a x+a

nhu vay cac em se bi trir diem VI cong thirc nay khong diroc ghi trong sach giao khoa (mac db no hoan toan dung). VI vay khi giai quyet bai toan co dang

f 2 dx 2 thi phai thuc hien Wang tu bai 3 duoi day.

x -a

Bili 3:

f dx

Tim 1= ") .

x- -4

Gidi :

1= f dx = f dx =_!_ n_I_-_1-JdK

x2 - 4 ( x - 2)( x + 2) 4 J l x - 2 x + 2 .

= _!_ [ fd (x - 2) _ fd (x + 2) 1 = _!_ In 1 x - 21 + C.

4 x-2 x+2 4 x+2

9

1. Su dl:ln9 vi phon ham so

Cling nhu viec sir dung bang nguyen ham thi viec dung vi phan ham so ta thirong khong coi do 1a mot phuong phap rna dirong nhien 'khi tfnh tich phan h9C sinh phai bier sir dung, Tuy nhien trong phan trinh bay nay thi chung toi lai dira no nlur la mot phirong phap sir dung CO' ban VI tinh phd bien etta no.

Trong clurong trinh sach giao khoa cac em da: lam quen voi khai niern vi phan cua mot ham so va irng dung cua no trong tinh gan dung. Nhung de d~

hieu thi ta chi can nho cong thirc tinh vi phan nhu sau d[f(x)] = f' (x )dx .

Sir dung vi pharr la mot each thirc rna rong bang nguyen ham. Co nghia h9C sinh nen hieu neu co mot cong thirc trong bang nguyen ham Hi fdx = x + C thl

ta se co cong thirc nrong irng la f«r (x) = f (x) + C (vi du :

fd(sinx) = sinx+C; fd( x+x2) = x+ x2 +C).

Mo rong ra thi sir dung vi phan con dua cac bai toan phirc tap ve cac dang

quen thuoc (VI du : bai toan tinh 1= f 2 dx neu nhln nhanh tht thay

4x -4x-3

khong co gl quen thuoc nhirng neu ta bien d6i mot chut thi cac em se thay

_ f dx - f dx _ _!_ r d ( 2x - 1 )

1- 2 - 2 - J 2·

4x - 4x - 3 (2x -1) - 4 2 (2x -1) - 4

Luc nay ta deu de dang nhan biet day Ia bai toan f 2 dx 2 rat quen thuoc

x -a

va each giai no hoan toan nrong tv bai 3 da: giai a tren). Cac bai toan sau se th~ hien r5 han luan diem nay.

Bili4 :

f dx

TIm 1= .

x.1nx.1n(lnx)

Gidi :

dx d ( In (In x) )

1= f = f =lnI1n(lnx)I+c.

x.1nx.ln(ln x) 1n(ln x)

10

Bili 5 :

2 3

Tinh tich phan I = f( 1- 3x )2008 dx.

I 3

Gidi :

2 2

3 3

1= f(1-3x)2008 dx =-! f(1-3x)2008 d(I-3x)

I 3 I

3 3

- ( 1 - 3x )2009 ~ _ 1

3.2009 I - 6027

3

Bai 6: (De' thi vao Dai hoc Rich khoa Ha N(Ji ndm 2000 -khot A)

Tim I = f dx (x :;t: - 71:4 + k271:) .

J2. + sin x - cos x

Gidi :

Bili 7:

In3 xd

Tinh tich ph an I = f e x 3.

o ~(eX + 1)

Gidi :

11

BiLi 8:

-i=:',

fV.r-x-'

TIm 1 = . 4 dx.

x

Gidi:

= _ _!_ r( ~-I)~d(_1 _1)= -3.f}:j +c.

2 J~ x- x2 8

Bai 9: a) (De' thi tuye'n sinh dai hoc, cao dang ndm 2003 -klu5z B)

IT

41-2sin2 x

Tinh tich ph an 1 = f ' dx.

() 1 + sm2x

Gidi:

IT

IT

IT

4fl-2sin2 x 4f cos2x 14fd(l+sin2x)

1= dx = dx =-

() 1 + sin 2x 0 1 + sin 2x 2 () 1 + sin 2x

IT

= _!_ In (1 + sin 2x) 4 = _!_ In 2.

2 2

o

h) (D(?' thi tut nghiep trung hoc phd thong khong phdn han ndm 20(6)

IT

') . 2

T' h ich h I ~f sm x d

In tic P an = 2 x.

o 4-cos x

Gidi :

IT

? 1 (4 ,2) IT

- G -cos x 4

Ta d~ thay 1 = f ') = In 14 - cos2 xl 2 = In -.

o 4 +cos" x 3

o

12

c) (De' thi fr){ nghiep trung hoc phd thong khong phdn han ndm 20()7) (' 2

Tfnh tfch ph an 1 = fin x dx , x

I

Gidi:

. (' I 3 Ie 1

Ta de thay 1= fln2 xd(lnx)=~1 =

I 3 I 3

d) (De' thi fllye'n sinh dai hoc, cao dang ndm 2005 =kho! D)

71 2

Tinh tich ph an 1 = f( (,Sin X + cos x) cos xdx,

o

Giai :

71 ...,

Ta d~ thay 1 = 1 (esin x. cos x + C0~2 x )dx duoc tach: o

71

71

71

2. I 2 1 2 1t

1 = feSInXd(sinx)+- fdx+- fcos2xd(2x)=e+--1.

() 20 40 4

Nhu vay qua cac bai tap tir bai 4 den bai 9 thi ta thay sir dung vi phan co vai tro quan trong nhir the nao trong qua trinh tinh tich phan, no co the ap dung cho tfnh tich phan cho cac loai ham sa cap htru ti, vo ti, hrong giac va ham sieu viet, Cac em h9C sinh can luyen tap ki d~ co th~ sir dung mot each thuan thuc.

2. Phuong phcp dc5i bien

V6 mat ban chat day la mot trong cac plurong phap tfnh tich ph an co ban nhat, viec d6i bien ve ban chat la dira mot tich phan phirc tap ve mot tinh phan dan gian hem. Tuy nhien cac em h9C sinh can hru y la d6i bien phai tuan thea nguyen tac chung cua no, thong thirong cac em hay d6i bien cu th~ nhtr sau :

b

Gia sir ta muon tinh ff(x)dx trong truong hop voi bien x, ham sofphvc

a

tap khong tinh diroc nguyen ham, thl ta thay bien x bang bien t boi mot trong hai quy tac :

13

* Quy tde 1 : Dat x = Iz(t) ~ dx = Iz'(t)dt.

Bien d6if(x)dx thea tva dt, gia sUf(x)dx = g(t)dt.

D6i can hem) = a ; hen) = b, h(t) la ham so co dao ham lien tuc tren doan

. . .' .

chua m, n.

1/1

= G(n) - G(m).

h n n

Khi do: ff(x)dx = f g(t)dt = G(t)

a

In

(voi G(t) la mot nguyen ham cua get)).

* Quy tde 2 : Dat T = u(x)~ dt = u'(x)dx.

Bien d6if(x)dx thea tva dt, gia suJtx)dx = v(t)dt.

D6i can u(a) = a, u(b) = f3, u(x) co dao ham lien tuc tren doan chua a, f3.

h P

Khi do : ff(x)dx= fv(t)dt=V(t)I~ =V(f3)-V(a)

a a

(voi V(t) la mot nguyen ham cua v(t)).

Tuy nhien hai quy tac tren chi la nhirng cong thirc a diroi dang khai quat, tren thuc te khi thirc hien viec d6i bien thi cac em h9C sinh can nam virng mot so quy dinh co tinh chat nhu cac ki thuat khi lam cac bai cu th~ la :

2.1. Bien phap hrong giac hoa

Bili 10: (Dr!' thi Dr:zi hoc Su pham Hd Nr)i ruim 2000 =kluii B)

a

Tinh tlch phan I = Jx2~ a2 - x2 dx (a la hang so dirong). o

Gidi :

Dat x = asint ~ dx = acostdt (voi t E (_ 7t ; 7t)).

. 2 2

D6i can x = 0 ~ t = 0 . x = a ~ t = 7t. Khi do :

. , 2

2 2

1 = fa2 sin2 t~a2 _a2 sin2 t.acostdt = f-' sin2 tcos2 tdt

o 0

14

7T

7T

7T

7T

a4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2

I = - I sin 2 2tdt = «. I (1- cos 4t ) dt = «. f dt - e: f cos 4td ( 4t )

4 0 8 0 8 0 320

Theo nhtr vi du tren thi ta co the rut ra mot nhan xet quan trong la : D6i voi mot s6 bai tinh tfch phan rna ham s6 dtroi dau tich phan chua mot can bac 2 va dai IUQ'ng ben trong can co nhirng hinh thirc nhat dinh nao do thi ta co th~ d6i bien duoi dang IUQ'ng giac hoa gi6ng nhir bai 10 d~ nham muc dfch true can. Chung toi gioi thieu cu tM mot vai each d~t ph6 bien sau :

b

- Neu tinh f f( ~x2 - m2 )dx thi d~t x = --'!!:.__. cost a

b

- Neu tfnh If( ~ m2 - x2 )dX thi dat x = msint.

a

b

- Neu tinh If ( ~ a2 + m2 ) dx thi d~t X = mtant.

a

b

- Neu tfnh ff( )x-x2 )dX thi d~t X = sin 2 t.

a

- Neu tinh ffU:~;)dx!h' dat X = mcos2t

Cac em co th~ suy rong ra cho mot s6 bai to an khac. Tuy nhien phep IUQ'ng giac hoa nay khong chi thirc hien voi bai co chua can rna con co th~ thirc hien 6 dang khac nhir cac vi du sau

BiJi 11 :

I

Tinh tfch phan I = f dx 2 o (x2 + 1)

15

Gidi:

Dat x = tanz c> dx = (1 + tan 2 t)dr.

D6i can x = 0 ~ r = 0 ; x = 1 ~ r = ~. Khi d6 4

7t

7t

7t

7t

-

4 (1 + tan 2 t )dr 4 1 4 1 4

I = f 2 = f cos2 tdt = 2. f dt +"4 f cos 2td (2t)

() (I + tan 2 r ) 0 () 0

7t

= ( ~ t + Si: 2r) 4 = _7t ; 2 .

()

Trong thirc te con bien phap hrong giac hoa khac dung cho cac bai tinh tich phan ham luong giac.

2.2. Bien phap hiru ti hoa

Ngoai viec true can bang bien phap hrong giac hoa nhu tren ta c6 th~ true can bang bien phap hiru tl hoa thea cac ghi nho sau :

~

• Nell ham s(/ duai ddu ticli phdn co dang : f f (/~ axil + h }IX ddt

a

axil + b = rill .

Bai 12: a) (De' thi D(li hoc SI( pham Hd N(Ji II ndm 20()() -kluJ'i A) 2

Tinh tich ph an I = f b· I x 1 + x3

Gidi:

Dat 1 + x3 = r2 ~ 3x2 dx = 2tdt.

D6i can x = 1 ~ t = J2 ; x = 2 ~ t = 3. Khi d6

1 = ~ f ~ = _!_ [ f d ( t - 1) _ f d (t + 1)] = _!_ In 1~13

3 J2 t: - 1 3.Ji r - 1 Ji t + I 3 t + 1 fi

= _!_[In _!_ -In( J2 _1)2],

3 2

16

b) (De' thi tu ye'n sinh dai hoc, cao dang ruim 2004 - khoi A) 2

Tinh tich ph an I = f ~

IX+ x-I

Huang dan d~t t = ~.

K " 11

et qua 1= --41n2.

3

a

g(x) = t k (k Id bo! seJ' chung nho nhdt ciia m, n). sss 13 :

Tim I = f ~ dx ( x > 0) .

3 x2 +4j;

Gidi :

Dat x = ,6 => dx = 6t5 dt (t> 0). Khi do

I =6ft2dt =6ft2 -16 +6fl6dt =6f(t-4)d(t-4)+96fd(t+4)

t+4 t+4 t+4 t+4

= 3(t-4)2 + 961n/t+4/ +C = 3( ~ _4)2 + 961n( ~ + 4 )+C .

• M (Jt sdchu .y khac

1) Khong phai bai tinh tich phan nao co cau tao hinh thirc ham gi6ng nhu tren thi ap dung nguyen tac d6i bien nhir tren cling dung, rna nhieu khi ta phai sir dung cac bien phap khac

Bilil4 :

2

Tinh tich ph an I = f ~.

I x+ x -1

Huang dan:

Day la bai toan mang dau hieu cua ca hai hinh thirc hrong giac hoa va hfru ({

ti hoa (dang f f ('1 axil + b ) dx) nhir dil neu tren nlurng neu h9C sinh sir dung

u

17

viec dbi bien la x = _1_ hoac d~t J x2 -1 = t thea huang dan thi se khong

cost

giai duoc bai toan hoac rat phirc tap. D~ giai bai toan nay thi chi can sir dung

nhan bieu thirc lien hop x - ~ vao cit nr va mau so la'se duoc tinh duoc tich phan het sue dan gian.

Gidi:

2

Nhtr vay hai nguyen tac tren chua th~ khai -quat het tat cit cac dang bai toan ve tfnh tfch phan doi voi ham vo ti rna tuy theo hinh thirc cau tao cua bai toan ve tinh tfch ph an rna cac em linh hoat sir dung cac bien phap khac nhir nhan bi~u thirc lien hop, tach tich phan, tich ph an tirng phan, vi phan ...

2) Cac em co th~ dbi bien nhieu Ian trong qua trinh tinh

Bili 15 :

Tinh tich phan / = f ~dX (0 < a < 1).

o~~·

Gidi:

DiH xfx = t ~ fxdx =~dt

. 3

Dbi can x = 0 ~ t = 0; x = a ~ t = aFa. Khi do /_ ~ aJ;; dt

- 3 f Ja2 _t2 Dat t = asinu ~ dt = acosudu.

Dbi can t = 0 ~ II = 0 ; t = aFa ~ II = arcsin J:z. Khi do

arcsin J;; . I

I = ~ f du = 2 aresm \/ a .

3 0 3

18

3) D6i bien khong chi thirc hien voi cac bai tinh tich phan cho ham vo ti rna con ap dung cho ham lirong giac theo hai loai sau :

Loai 1 : C 6 nhiing nhan dang nhdt djnh di dbi bien.

Bili 16 :

n

2

Tfnh tich ph an I = f dx .

2+cosx o

Gidi :

x 2dt 1-12

Dat tan -2 = 1 => dx = --2 ' cos x = --2 .

l+t 1+1

D6i can x = 11: => (= 1 ; x = 0 => 1 = O. Khi do

. 2

2d1

I I

I = J 1 + t2 = J 2dt .

1- t2 t2 + 3

0 + 2 0

1 + (2

D:;tt t = J3 tan II => dt = J3 (1 + tan2 U )du.

D6i can t = 0 => u = 0 . t = 1 => u = 11: • Khi do

. , 6

1t

2 6 2 1t 11:

1 = J3 I du = J3 11 8 = 3J3 .

b

Qua bai toan nay cac em co tM de thay neu gap dang Jf(sinx,cosx)dx

a

hi " d " d- x d 2dt ,'" d ' hii

t 1 cac em nen sir ung viec at tan -2 = t => x = --2 roi ap ung cong t ire

l+t

1 - t2. 2t d:! h ,/ b" , ", h ha dai "h ' d '

cos x = --2 ' SIn x = --2 e c uyen ai toan ve tic p an ar so n U VI Y. tren,

l+t l+t

cac em co the giai Bili 6 : De' thi Dai h9C Bach khoa Ha N(Ji ndm 2000 - khdi A :

19

Tfnh 1 = J J2 . dx thea each nay. M6' rong them cac em co th~ giAi

2 +S1OX-COSX

b

J.r( sin'" x.cos" x )dx(m,n E Z) voi nhan dang :

a

* Neu m, n chan thi ta co th~ dat tanx = t hoac cotx = t hoac sir dung cac

cong thirc ha bac,

* Neu m, n Ie thl ta co th~ d~t sinx = t hoac cosx = t. * Neu mchan, n Ie thi ta co th~ dat sinx = t.

* Neu m le, n chan thi ta co th~ dat cosx = t.

Nhfrng bai to an vi du cho dang nay cluing toi se d~ cap 6' phan II trong cac bai giai da phuong phap.

Loai 2 : Bien dbi dd'ddi bien

Bai 17: a) (Dc' thi tuye'n sinh dai hoc, cao dang ndm 2008 -klufi B)

: sin( x-:)

1= J dx.

o sin2x+2(1+sinx+cosx)

Tinh tich phan :

aiu .

D~t f = sin x + cos x ~ dt = ( cos x - sin x) dx = -J2 sin ( x - : ) dx.

D6i can x = 0 ~ t = 1 . x = 1t ~ t = J2 . Khi do

. '4

: sin(x _1"[) J2 J2

1= J 4 2 dx=2 J df 2 =2 J(t+lr2d(t+l)

o(sinx+cosx+l) J2 I (t+l) J2

1 J2 4-3J2

= ==

J2(t+l) I

4

b) (De' thi tllyd'n sinh dai h9C, cao dang nam 2008 - khdi A)

-~

6 4

T' h lch ha 1 J tan x d

10 tic P an = X.

o cos2x

20

Huong dAn : d~t tanx :::: t.

K" 'I 1013 11 ( r::)

et qua :::: ---- n 2-,,3 .

27 2

c) (De' thi tuyen sinh dai hoc, cao ddng ruim 2006 -kh()! A)

n

2 . 2

T' h ich ha 1 f Sin X d

In nc P an = -J x .

2 4' 2

o COS x+ Sin x

Huang dan : dat 1 + 3sin2x:::: t.

K' -, 1 2

et qua :::: -.

3

d) (Dc' thi tuye'n sinh dai hoc, cao ddng ndm 2006 - khoi A)

7t

2 . 2

T' h ich h 1 I Sin X d

In tic P an = / x .

o -vcos2 x+4sin2 x

Huang dan : dat 1 + 3sin2x:::: 1.

K' -, 1 2

er qua :::: -.

3

e) (Dc' thi luye'n sinh dai hoc, cao ddng ndm 2005 -kho! A)

7t

T' h ich ha 1 2fsin 2x + sin x d

In tIC P an:::: / x .

o ,,1 + 3cosx

HU6'ng dan : dat ~h + 3 cos x :::: t.

, 'I 34

Ket qua ::::-.

27

j) (Dc' thi tuye'n sinh dai h9C, cao ddng ndm 2005 - khoi B)

7t

~-

2 . 2

T' h ich ha 1 Ism x.cosXd

In tIC P an :::: X •

o 1 + cosx

Huang dan : dat 1 + cosx :::: t.

Ket qua I:::: 21n2 - 1.

21

Nhu vay cac em cling thay nhirng d~ thi tuyen sinh dai h9C nhirng nam gan day thl phuong phap d6i bien cho cac ham hrong giac sir dung rat nhieu Ian, tuy cac bai toan la khac nhau nhirng bien phap thuc hien thi tirong nr nhir bai 17 va mau chot cua cac bai giai nay la cac em chi can nam vtrnghe thong cac cong thirc luong giac M bien d6i thi se thanh congo

4) Ngoai ra thi d6i bien con sir dung cho cac ham khac nhu ham hiru ti, ham sieu viet, nhir cac bai tap sau

Bai 18: (De' (hi D(1i hoc Thuy loi ruim 1999)

J3 2

Tfnh tich phan 1 = f 4 x ~ 1 dx .

I X +x +1

Gidi:

Chia ca nr so va mau so cho x2

1 1

D~H x - - = t => d(x - - ) = dt.

x x

D6i can x = 1 => t = 0 ; x = J3 => t = ~. Khi d6 2

J3 dt

1 = f t2 + 3 . o

D~t t = J3 tan 11 => dt = J3 (1 + tan2 II )du.

2 2

D6i can t = 0 => 11 = 0 . t = r;; => 11 = arctan - .

. , ,,3 3

2 2
arctan- 2
/=_1 3 1 arctan- arctan --
f 3 3
du= J3u = J3
J3
0 0 22

Bili 19:

In 2 2x 'J X

T' h ich h A I f e + se d

In tic P an = x .

e2x + 3e·' + 2

o

Gidi:

Dat eX = t => e ' dx = dt.

D6i can x = 0 => 1 = 1 ; x = In2 => 1 = 2. Khi do

In2(eX +3)eXdx 2 (t+3)dt 1 2 2t+3 32 dt

1= J e2x +3ex +2 = !t2+3t+2 =2 !t2+3t+2dl+2 !(t+l)(t+2)

~_I_ y(12 +31+2) +2[Sd(t+l) _ Sd(t+2)]

2 I t2 + 3t + 2 2 I t + lit + 2

=_!_inlt2+3t+212 +llnl/+112 =_!_[ln2+31n2.].

2 I 2 1+2 I 2 8

5) TLr cac bai: 15, 16, 18, cac em hoc sinh deu d~ dang nhan thay neu ta dat kep thi cac bai toan nay se don gian hon rat nhieu, don cir nhir bai 15 neu

cac em dat xJ;; = a sin II thl bai toan se rat ngan.

T6ng ket phan d6i bien:

TLr cac guy tac giai, ki thuat giai CCi ban va nhirng chu y tren, chung ta can tong ket chung phuong phap d6i bien nay mot each khai quat nhat nhu sau :

b

Gia sir ta muon tinh ff(x)dx trong tnrcng hop voi bien x, ham sofphuc

a

tap khong tinh diroc nguyen ham, thi ta thay bien x bang bien t thea cac buoc sau:

Butte I : D~t vex) = h(t)=> v'(x)dx= h'(t)dt(vai vex), h(t) la ham tuy y thea sir tfnh toan cua hoc sinh va no co th~ ia cac loai ham so cap).

Buac 2 : Bien d6i j(x)dx thea t va dt, gia sU.f(x)dx = g(t)dt.

Buac 3 : D6i can : d~ co duoc khi x = a thi t = m va x = h thi t = n (biroc nay cling co th~ kh6ng co neu day chi la bai tim ho nguyen ham).

23

1/1

=G(n)-G(m) (V6iG(t)HI

h /I /I

Buoc 4 : D6i bien: ff(x)dx = f g(t)dt = G(t)

a

1/1

mot nguyen ham ella g(t».

Neu siX dung diroc tong ket nay thi cac em se khai quat diroc phuongphap d6i bien nay hon so voi str dung hai quy t~c nhu da trinh bay trong phan dau ella phuong phap nay. Trang qua trinh sir dung phirong phap d6i bien cluing toi cling khuyen cac em khong nen lam dung phuong phap nay thay cho phuong phap sir dung vi phan VI cling thong qua cac bai tap, cac em cling phan nao nhan ra tinh han che ella no, do la dai hon so voi viec ap dung vi phan va co nhieu bai phai d~t cac dieu kien thich irng.

3. Phuong phcp tich phon tung phon

v« mat ban chat day la mot phuong phap nham tach bieu thirc duoi dau tich phan thanh hai phan, Cl,1 the ve mat If thuyet la :

b

Gia sir ta muon tinh ff(x)dx trong tnrong hop bien x la ham sofphuc tap

a

khong tinh duoc nguyen ham, thi

Buac 1 : Ta tach f(x)dx thanh hai phan la II va dv, gia siX II = u(x) va dv = g(x)dx (dx luon thuoc dv).

B[(6'c 2 : Tir do ta tinh du = u' (x) dx, v la mot nguyen ham ella g(x).

b b b

Buac 3 : Ap dung cong thirc ff(x)dx = llV - fVdu.

a

a a

Bili 20: (De' (hi Dai hoc An ninh ndm 1999 -kht/i D)

TI

Tinh tfch phan 1 = f x2 sin xdx . o

Gidi :

{X2 = u {dU = 2xdx

Dat =>

. sinxdx = dv v = -cosx

, 24

TC TC

1= _X2 cosx + f2x cos xdx. o ()

{2X = II {dll = 2dx

Dat =>

. COS xdx = dv v = sin x

TC TC TC

I = 71:2 + 2x sin x - f 2 sin xdx = 71:2 + 2 cos x = 71:2 - 4.

o 0 0

Nhu bai tap tren thi viec sir dung tich phan tirng phan co th~ ap dung nhieu Ian trong mot bai tinh tich phan, neu ham so diroi dau tich phan co dang (x4.sinx) thi cac em can phai ap dung cong thirc tich phan tirng phan 4 Ian, viec nay cac em ur rna- rong, Ben canh do ta cling nhan thay neu sau mot vai Ian ap dung cong thirc tich tfch phan rna lai diroc tfch phan ban dau thi cac em nen thuc hien viec giai phuong trinh nhu bai tap sau :

Bili 21 :

err.

Tinh tich pharr 1= f cos(lnx)dx.

I

Gidi :

{ () { -sin(lnx)dx

_ cos In x = II du =

D~ => x

dx=dv

V=X

en eIt

l=xcos(lnx) + fSin(lnx)dx.

I

{. () { cos (In x) dl

_ Sin In x = u du = .

D~t => x

dx=tlv

V=X

e1t en

1=-eTC-l+xsin(lnx) - fcos(lnx)dx=-e-x -1-1.

I I

_eTC -1 21 = _eTC -I => I = --- 2

25

Qua 2 bai tap thi ta nhan thay diem mau chot cua viec Slr dung plnrong phap tich phan tung ph an la dat Iirong nao bang u va hrong can lai bang dv VI neu nhir dat khong dung thi khong the giai duoc bai toan nay. Thong qua kinh nghiern thi chung toi dira ra mot s6 dang co ban nhir sau :

b

- Neu ff (x) In" xdx thi dat lnnx = 1I conf(x)dx = dv (n E N*)

a

b b

- Neu If (X) sin xdx (hoac If (x) cos xdx ) thi dat .I(x) = 1I can sinxdx = dv

a

a

(hoac cosxdx = dv).

b h

- Neu I eX cos xdx (hoac f e' sin xdx) thi dat eX = u can cosxdx = dv

a

a

(hoac sinx dx = dv). b

- Neu If (x) eX dx thi dat .f(x) = u con e ' dx = dv.

(/

h b

Neu I sin(ln x )dx (hoac I cos(ln x )dx) thi dat sin(lnx) = II (hoac

a

a

cos(lnx) = II), con dx = dv.

b

- Neu I~alx2 + b.x + CI dx thi dat ~alx2 + b.» + CI = 1I can dx = dv.

a

b d b dx

- Neu f+ (hoac f )(n E u.»> 2) thi d~t

a SIn x a cos" X

1

--- = II (hoac . 11-2

SIn X

1 dx dx

---2- = U ) con --2 - = dv (hoac --2- = dv ).

COSIl- x sin x cos x

Cac em co th~ tham khao bien phap d~t nay qua viec giai:

Vi du l : (De' thi tuy~n sinh dai hoc, cao ddng ndm 2006 - khdi D)

I

Tinh tich phan 1= S(x - 2)e2x dx . o

26

_ {(X-2)=U

Hirong dan : dat 2

e "dx = dv

2

K" "I 5 -3e

etqua =---

4

Vi du 2: (De' thi lllyei'n sinh dai hoc, cao dang ndm 2007 - khoi D)

c

Tinh tich phan I = f x3 In2 xdx , I

_ {In2 x = u

Huang dan : dat

x3dx = dv

4

K' , I 5e-l et qua =---

32

Nhtrng nhirng dang tren day khong phai la tat ca cac bai tap VI thuc te con co nhirng bai tap khac dang tren nlurng van sir dung diroc tfch ph an tirng phan, nen ve nguyen tac h9C sinh chi can nho viec dung tfch ph an tirng phan phai dam bao sao cho tich phan moi sinh ra theo cong thirc tich phan tirng phan phai dan gian han ve tinh toan so voi tich ph an ban dau. Chang han :

Bili 22 :

a) Tinh I =

f-_x--dx.

1 + cos2x

Gidi:

Ta col =

f-_x--dx.

2cos2 x

{x=U

du+ dx

Dat dx =>

. ~dv t~tanx

cos2 x

1 ( f ) 1 ( fd ( cos x) J 1

I = - x. tan x - tan xdx = - x. tan x + = - ( x. tan x + In I xl) + C .

2 2 cosx 2

27

h) (De' thi flyt nghiep (rung hoc phi! thong ndm hoc 2004 - 20(5)

1t

2

Tinh tich phan I = f(x+sin2 x)cosxdx. ()

{ ,2

H' d" d- x+sm X=U

irong an: <;\t

cosxdx = dv

K" "I n 2

et qua = _--.

2 3

c) De' thi tllye'n sinh dai hoc, cao ddng ndm 2004 - khoi D 3

Tfnh tich phan 1= fln(x2 - x)dx . 2

{ 2

," In x - x = II

Huang dan : dat ( )

dx=i dv

Ket qua 1= 3In 3 - 2.

Viec sir dung tich phan nrng ph an cac em cung can phai dung mot each sang tao nhir phai biet ket hop voi phirong phap sir dung vi phan, d6i bien hoac can bien d6i truce khi ap dung tlch ph an tirng phan M tranh viec phai sir dung nhieu Ian cong tlurc nay nhir ba bai tap sau.

BiLi 23: (De' thi D(1i hoc Kie11 true Hit N(Ji flam 1999)

1t

2 0

T' h 'I h I f sin" x . ,3 d

m tlC1P an = e smx.cos xx.

o

Gidi:

1t

1t

1t

28

_ {Sin2 x = II {dll = d( sin2 X)

Dat ,2 ( ) =>

, eSln "d sin2 x = dv v = esin2 x

[ 7[ 1

7[ 7[ 2

f 1 sin2x 2 1 . 2 . sin2x 2 f Sin2xd( . 2)

= - e - - SIn xe - e sm X

2 2

o 10 0

7[ 7[

__ csin2 x 2. 1.. 2 sin2 x 2. e - 2

--sm xc' =

2 2

o

o

Bai toan nay neu khong sir dung vi phan ket hop voi tich phan tirng phan thi se rat dai.

Bili 24:

[

Tfnh tich phan f = f cos~dx.

7[2 [-

4

Gidi :

D<)t ~ =t~O<=>x=1_t2 =>dx=-2tdt. 2

, n n

D6i can x = 1 - - => t = -; x = 1 => t = O.

. 4 2

7[

o 2

f = f-2t cos tdt = 2 ftcostdt.

7[ 0

2

{t = 1I {dll = dt

Dat =>

. costdt = dv v = sint

7[

o

2 f = 2t sin t 2 - 2 f sin tdt = n + 2 cos t 2 = n - 2.

o

o

7[

7[

29

Bai toan nay de co the nhan dang va ap dung tich phan tung phan thi truce het ta phai d6i bien.

Bai 25 : (De' thi Dai hoc Cong doan flam 1999)

IT

2

Tinh tfch phan 1 = f (2x -1) cos2 xdx.

o

Gidi:

IT

I = f ( 2x - 1) ( 1 + cos 2x ) dx

o 2

IT

IT

( 1)' "

= x - 2 ~ + f(x -!)COS2XdX.

2 () 2

()

{1 {dll = dx

X--=ll

Dat 2 => 1

. v=-sin2x.

cos 2xdx = dv 2

IT

1 ( 7t -1 )2 1 1 2f .

1=- - ---- sm2xd(2x).

2 2 8 4()

IT

I=!( 7t _1)2 -! +!cos2x 2 =!( 7t _1)2 -~. 88488 ()

Bai toan nay neu ta khong ha bac cos 2 x thi ta phai tich phan tirng phan 2 Ian va se phtrc tap han rat nhieu.

30

4. each thuc tach tich phon

Tren mat phuong phap luan thi day khong phai la mot phuong phap tinh rna no chi la mot ki thuat bien d6i giup cluing ta chuyen mot, tich phan phirc tap thanh nhieu tich phan don gian hon. Tuy nhien trong mot sO' bai loan thi viec tach tich phan lai la mau chot d~ giai quyet bai toan VI vay chung toi dua mot sO' each thirc tach quen thuoc vao phan cac phuong phap tinh tich phan d~ cac em de h~ thong hoa kien thirc. Ban chat cua viec tach a day cluing ta nen hieu mot each dan gian la viec ap dung tinh chat

b b b

f[ f ( x ) ± g ( x ) ] dx = f f ( x )dx ± f s ( x ) dx

a

a

a

rna tnroc do ta su dung mot trong cac ki thuat sau :

a) Slt dung cong thuc ve' tach phdn tlua: di tach ham phdn thuc duoi ddu tich phdn thanh nhieu ham nho,

b) Them bot di mot luang nao do vaa ham s{/ duai ddu tich phdn nhdm tach ham do thanh. nhieu ham nho,

Tren co SO do tao nhieu tich phan nho don gian han.

4.1. Thir nhat ve cong thirc tach phan tlnrc

Ta de nhan thay chi ap dung cho phan thirc to'i gian (tire la bac cua nr nho han bac cua mau, con neu khi gap bai to an eo bac cua nr 100 hon hoac bang bac cua mau thi ta chi viec lay nr so chia eho mau so, cac em se de dang co diroc phan thirc toi gian), Cling trong gioi han chuong trinh toan sa cap thi cluing toi chi trinh bay cong thirc tach phan thtrc hay su dung rna thai va no cu the gam nhtrng buoc sau :

Buac 1 : Cac em dira tren hlnh thtrc cua phan thirc rna dau bai da cho d~ phan tich ra nhieu ph an thirc nho theo guy luat sau :

f{x) Al A2

____ __o_-"---- = + + ...

II/ (2 )" (ax + b)1Il (ax + b)IIl-1

( ax + b) ex + dx + e

Bnx+Cn ( *)

... + (2 ) m.n E N

ex +dx+e

31

Buoc 2 : Cac em tim AI' A2 .. .Am; BI ,B2 ... B/1; CI ,C2 ... CII bang phirong phap dong nhat thirc til s6 ella 2 ve, nrc la cac em quy dong phan thirc ave phai (ve vita tach) r6i nh6m nhimg d6i s6 x cling bac mot nh6m, tiep d6 cho he s6 cua nhfrng d6i s6 cung bac a hai ve bang nhau ta duoc mot he nhieu phirong trinh, nhieu an. Giai he nay se tim duoc AI,A2 .. .Am;BI,B2 .. .BII;CI,C2 ... CII. Tren CO sa d6 cac em dJ tach ph an thirc ban dau thanh (m + n) phan thirc nho. Cac em cling c6 the tim AI' A2 ... A,II; BI ,B2 ... BII; CI ,C2 ... CII bang each khac rna cluing toi se trlnh bay a phan thtr hai.

Day la mot c6ng cu rat t6t va hieu qua va hay diroc sil dung cho cac ham phan thirc, cu th~ ta xet bai toan sau :

Bai 26 :

I

Tinh tich phan I = f ( Xi .

o x2 + 1 (x-2)

Gidi :

* Tach phan thirc :

Btroc 1 : Theo cong thtrc tach phan thirc ta c6

x A Bx+C

--:--------:---- = -- + ---

( x2 + 1) ( x - 2) x - 2 x2 + 1 .

Buoc 2 : Quy dong roi bo mau s6 chung (x - 2) (x2 + 1) hai ve ta diroc :

x= (A+B)x2 +(C-2B)x+(A-2C).

Dong nhat 2 ve ta diroc he phirong trinh

{A + B = 0 {A = -B

C - 2B = 1 ~ C = 2B + 1 ~

A-2C=0 -B-4B-2=0

B= -2 5

A=~ 5

C=_!_ 5

* Nhir vay tfch phan 1 se tach thanh hai tich phan nho

32

I I (2 l)d I d( 2) I I

J=~ J~+-=! J x- x =~ J x- -_!_ J2xdx +_!_ J~

5 0 x - 2 5 0 x2 + 1 5 0 x - 2 5 0 x2 + 1 5 () x2 + 1

2 I Ild(X2+1) 11 dx

J =-Inlx-21 -- J 2 +- J-2-'

5 0 50 x +1 50x +1

Dar x = tant=> dx = (1 + tan2 r )dt.

D;!· A 0 0 1 . 1t

01 can x = => t = : x = => t = -.

. 4

1t

2 1 2 I 1 4 ( 1 + tan 2 t) dt

J = - - In 2 - - In (x + 1 ) I 0 + - J 2

5 5 50 1 + tan t

1t

2 1 1 4J -3 1t -3 1t

J = --In 2 --In 2 + - dt = -In 2 + - = -In 2 + -.

5 5 5 () 5 4.5 5 20

Cac em nen hru y trong qua trinh giai cac d~ thi dai h9C thi nhieu hie d6 bai da huang dan viec tach phan thirc roi va cac em nen coi do Ia nhirng huang dan tach chuan va khong can so sanh voi cong thirc tach xem da dung chua, ke ca trong tnrong hop viec huang dan nay so vci cong thirc tach la con thieu, chang han :

Bai 27 :

a) Xac dinh cac hang so A, B sao cho

3x+l A B

3= 3+ 2'

(x+l) (x+l) (x+l)

b) DVa vao ket qua tren, tim ho nguyen ham cua ham so

j.) 3x + 1

{x = ---

(x + 1)3

3x+ 1

Nhir vay theo huang dan a muc a) thl so voi cong thirc tach tich

(x+ If

phan nhir cluing toi da trinh bay a tren thi thieu lirong S_. Tuy nhien cac em x+l

33

khong nen them vao VI a day bai toan dil tinh toan rang sau khi tach thi C = 0 va ta chi can dan gian thuc hien dung thea huang dan.

3x + 1 A 13 _ _ _, _

a) :) =l + 2 . Quy dong mau thirc chung roi bo mau 2

(x + 1)- (x + 1 )- (x + 1 )

ve ta diroc tv so urong img cho hai ve la : 3x + 1 = Bx + (A + B) tir do dong nhar thirc ta co he sau

{B=3 {A=-2

A+B=I<=> 13=3

b) Tfnh ho nguyen ham cua f(x) : Theo muc a) ta tach f(x) thanh hai ph an thirc nho va nrong img ta tach thanh hai tich phan

I = f f ( x ) dx = f - 2dx 3 + f 3dx 2

(x+l) (x+l)

=-2 f(x+lr3 d(x+I)+3 f(x+lr2 d(x+l) -2(x+lr2 3(x+lrl

= + +c.

-2

-I

1 3

V~yI= ,-( )+c.

(x+lt .r +!

Trong pharn vi quyen sach nay thl cluing toi cling muon rna rong han cho cac em hoc sinh mot so cong thirc tach nira rna sau nay cac em nen thuoc VI tinh pho bien cua no

Cong tlurc a :

f(x) 1 r f(x)

(X/II - a) ( XIII - h) = a - b (XIII - a)

f(x) 1 *

( ) (a,b E lR,m EN).

xlll-b

Cong thuc b :

asinx + bcosx = A csin x + d cosx + 13 ccosx -d sin x .

c sin x + d cos x c sin x + d cos x c sin x + d cos x

Doi voi cong thtrc nay thi cac em hru y phan thirc thu nhat co tv so la mau so con phan thirc thir hai co tv so la dao ham cap 1 cua mau so, cac em cling

34

tim A, B bang phuong phap dong nhat nr s6 hai ve nrong tI! nhir cong thirc tach phan thirc.

Cong thuc c :

a sin x + b cos x + e A e sin x + d cos x + e B e cos x - d sin x

-------= + +

c sin x + d cos x + h c sin x + d cos x + h e sin x + d cos x + II

+C------esin x + d cosx + h

D6i voi cong thirc nay thi ph an thirc cling duoc tach thanh ba ph an thirc nho rna hai ph an thirc dau co nguyen tac gi6ng nhir cong thuc b con ph an thirc thii' ba co tit s6 la 1.

Cac em co th~ xem mot s6 bai tap sau d~ hieu r5 han ve no :

Bili 28 :

I

Tinh tich phan I = f 4 dx 2 .

OX -3x -4

I

I ~ f ( )( ) va thea cong IMe a thi I so duoc phan tach thanh

o x2 + 1 x2-4

hai tich ph an CI:I th~ la

1= J 4 dx 2 = _!_[ J ~/x - J ~x ] = _!_ J 2dx - _!_ J ~x = A + B.

OX - 3x - 4 5 0 x - 4 0 x + 1 50 x - 4 5 () x + 1

* Gidi A (ta tiep tuc lai ap dung cong thuc a)

A ~H(X-2~(X+2) ~H[I xd:2 -1 x~2l

=_1 [Jd(X-2) _ Jd(X+2)] =_1 Inlx-211 = -ln3

20 0 x - 2 0 x + 2 20 x + 2 0 20

* Gidi B

D~t x = tant ~ dx = (1 + tan2 t )dt.

1t D6i can x = 0 ~ ,= 0 ; x = 1 ~ t = -.

. 4

35

4 Khid6:B=-!_ Jdt=-!_, 4

5 () 5

()

20

V, 1 -71:-ln3

ay = 20

Bai 29 : (Dc' thi Dai hoc T eli chink kc' toan ndm J 999)

T' h ich I' 1 2J sin x + 7 cos x + 6 I

In tic plan = , ex,

() 4 Sin X + 3 cos x + 5

Gidi:

Theo cong thuc e

sin x + 7 cos x + 6 A 4 sin x + 3 cos x + 5 B 4 cos x - 3 sin x

-------= + +

4sin x + 3cos x + 5 4sin x + 3cosx + 5 4sinx + 3cosx + 5

+C------- 4sin x + 3cosx + 5

<=> sin x+ 7 cosx +6 = (4A -3B)sinx+{3A +4B)cosx+{5A +C)

{4A -3B = 1

<=> 3A + 4B = 7 <=> A = B = C = 1. 5A+C = 6

2J 2Jd(4sinx+3coSX+5) 2J dx

=>1= dx+ dx+ -----

4 sin X' + 3 cos x + 5 4 SI' n x + 3 cos x + 5

o 0' -' 0

It

1 = [x+ InI4sinx+3cosx+5IJ 2 +J = 71: + In~+J 2 8

o

[It 1

2 d'

" J .x

vm = ,

J 4sin x + 3cosx+5

* Gidi J

x 2dt

DiH tan- = l => dx = --,

'2 1 + f2

36

D6i can x = 0 ~ t = 0: x = 7t ~ t = 1 .

. 2

_ If dt _ If -2 (t+2fl I 1

J -- 2 - (t+2) d(t+2) = =

o(t+2) 0 ·-1 0 6

7t 9 1

Yayl = -+In-+-.

. 2 8 6

Tuy nhien cac cong thuc a, h, c 6 tren khong phai la da khai quat her vice tach rna trong nhieu bai loan (dac bier la tich phan ham luong giac). Do vay nhieu khi bai toan bai thirong dua ra cac cong thirc tach rieng biet cho tung loai ham cu the, don cir

Bili 30 : (De' th i D(li hoc Bach khoa H d N ~)i ndm 1999)

Tim hai so A, B d~ ham so hex) = sin 2x c6 the bieu dien diroc duoi

(2 + sin x)2

dang :

()

II (x) = Acosx 2 + Bc~sx ,tud6tfnhtfchphanl= f h(x)dx.

(2+sinx) 2+sInx -TC

2

Nhir vay bai toan nay de bai da huong dan mot phirong phap tach cu tht va ta chi viec sir dung quy dong mau thirc chung cho hai ve roi dong nhat hai nr so ta se duoc :

2 sin x cos x = (A + 2B) cos x + B sin x cos x <=> {A + 2B = 0 <=> {A =-4

(2 + sin x)2 (2 + sin x)2 B = 2 B = 2.

o 0 0

f h(x)dx = f -4c~sxd~ + f 2cos.xdx

-TC -TC (2 + Sin x) -TC 2 + Sin X

222

o 2 Of d(2+sinx)

= -4 f (2 + sin x f d (2 + sin x) + 2

2 +sin x

-TC -TC

2

2

37

4.2. Thtr hai ve them, bot di mot lirong d~ tach phan thirc

Theo quan diem cua cluing toi thl day la mot phan doi hoi cac em hoc sinh phai eo each nhin nit thong minh ve bai toan do va viec them bot nay phai dam bao sao eho sau khi them bot ta phai tach ra duoc nhieu tich phan don gian hon. e.u 31 :

Tfnh 1 = f dx. (v6i x:;t: 0).

x( 1+ x20()8)

Ta hoan toan nhan thay neu M nguyen dang nhir vay thi ta khong the tach phan thtrc nay duoc ke d cac em da eo kien thirc ve he thong cac cong thirc tach 6 tren. Muon lam bai toan nay bang phirong phap them bot thea cong thirc,

ta phai nhan ca nr va mau cua ham diroi dau tich phan voi x 2007 (Mot thao tac them, bot) thi cac em moi eo the ap dung cong thuc a 6 muc 4.1 6 tren

f(x) =-I-f f(x) - f(x) 1 ( b ~ f\j*)

( XiII _ a) ( XIII _ b) a - b (XiII _ a) ( s'" _ b) a, E ,m E .

Tuy nhien trong pham vi nay cluing toi se khong chtra each nay rna muon de cap eho cac em mot each them, bot sang tao hon

( x2008 + I _ x2008 ) dx ( 1 + x2008 ) (x2008 )

I ~ f x ( I + x2(108 ) ~ f x ( I + x2008 ) dx - f x ( I + x2(Xl8) dx

( 20(7)d

1= fdx -f x x =lnlxl __ l_ln(1+x2008)+C.

x ( 1 + x2008 ) 2008

Cac em cfing khong nen may moe la viec them bot nay chi danh eho cac ham phan thirc (them bot vao tir so de tach phan thirc) rna cluing ta can phai hieu rong hon la ap dung eho cit cac ham tir ham da tlnrc, ham luong giac, ham logarit - ham so mii, ham vo ti nhir cac bai tap sau

Bid 32:

I

Tinh tich ph an 1= fX(I-x)IOdx. o

38

Gidi:

, ,

J =- f[(I-x)-l](I-x)'O dx= ~(l-X)" -(I-x)'O]d(I-X)

00'

J=[(l-X)'2 _(I-X)"]' =

12 II 0 132

BiLi 33 :

Tinh tfch ph an J =

,

f dx

I 1+ Xo .

J3

Gidi:

Ta nhan thay 1 + Xo = (x2 + I)(x4 - x2 + 1) do vay ta se thuc hien them b61 tren nr so de tach thanh cac tich phan tinh duoc

J =_!_ f (x4 _x2 +1)+x2 _(x4 -1) Ix

2, (x2+I)(x4-x2+1)

J3

J = _!_ f _!!!_+ f x2 dx- f (x2 -l)(x2 + 1) dx

2 ,x2+1 ,(x2+1)(x4-x2+1) , (x2+1)(x4-x2+I)

J3 J3 Ii

J=~[A+B-C].

,

* Tfnh A = f ~x

, x + I

J3

I 2

Dat x = tant~dx = =s:" = (tan t+ I)dt.

cos t

;!. 1 7t 7t

DOl can x = - ~ t = - . x = I ~ l = -.

. F3 6 ' 4

n

n

A=

f _!!!_ = f(tan2 t+ l)dl = fdt = 7t _ 7t =~.

,x2+1 7r (tan2t+1) 7r 4 6 12

J3 6 6

39

* Tinh B =

/. 3)

(vor t = X .

1 2 ~

Dat t = tanu=>dt = --2-du = (tan u+ l)du => dU=-2-'

cos II t + 1

v , J3 J3 1t

DOl din t = -- => u = arctan - . t = 1 => II = -.

. 9 9 ' 4

1t

B - !_ If _!!!_ - !_ 4J

- 3 r-« t2 + 1 - 3

~3 J3

arctan---

9 9

1 4 du =-u

3

11: 1 J3

=---arctan-.

J3 12 3 9

arcran->

9

* Tlnh C =

444

J3 dt 113 dt J3 dt

C= J-2 =- J-- J-

2 t -3 2J3 2 r-J3 2 t+J3

4 = _I_In t-J3 13 2J3 t+J3 2

= _~,/(2-:) =_ J3,n[7(7-4f35J.

2,,3 2 + 3 6

Yay 1= !_{11: -!_arctan J3 + J3ln[7(7-4J3)J}.

. 2 6 3 9 6

Bai 34 :

Tfnh 1= J dx .

sin ( x + ~ )sin ( x + ; )

40

Gidi :

J~ r[(x+:)-(X+j)]dX

. (1C 1C) . ( 1C). ( 1C)

SIn 6 - 3 SIn X + 6 SIn X + 3

Sin( x+ ;)

=-21n . ( 1C) +c.

SIn x+

6 I

Bili 35 :

Tfnh 1= f dx . eX +20

Gidi :

1 l d (/ + 20 ) J 1 [ ]

=- fdx- f =- x-ln(ex +20) +C.

20 eX +20 20

Cac em cling nen hru y them bot chi mang tinh ki thuat bien d6i rna khong phai err dung n6 la se giai xong bai toan, chiing toi mot Ian nira nhan rnanh ding khi lam bai cac em can linh hoat hon khi ket hop n6 voi cac phtrong phap khac nhu d6i bien, tich phan tirng phan ... thi hieu qua moi cao, vf du :

41

Bai 36 : (I)(i thi tllye'n sinh dai II(}(', cao dang ndm 2006 - khoi B)

InS d

Tinh tfch phan I = f. X •

e' +2e-x -3 In 3

Gidi :

InS xd

Ta nhan voi e' van ca t~ llin mau [hi I = f ( 2" e x x) tiep do [a dat In3 e +2-3e

Dat : e' = t => dt = e' dx.

D6i can x = In3 => t = 3 : x = In5 => t = 5.

I = Sf dt = Sr(_1 __ 1 tt = Inl!-=l:lls= ln~

(t-I)(t-2) !It-2 t-If /-1 3 2'

3 3

5. Phuong phop su dlJng tich phon lien ket

Day diroc coi la each thirc tfnh tfch phan dac biet, ban chat cua phuong phap nay la tim ra mot tich phan lien ket voi tich phan rna dau bai dii cho, sao cho khi hai tfch phan nay hop nhat voi nhau thong qua phep cong dai so thi ta se diroc nhtrng tfch phan dan gian han v~ each thirc tinh.

Viec tim tich ph an lien ket co 2 each tim chinh

5.1. Ta tu tich phan lien ket dua tren su quan sat tich phan rna dau bai da cho

Bili 37 :

Tfnh I = f sin xdx sinx + cosx

Gidi :

D~ tinh tich phan I thi ta co nhieu each tinh, tuy nhien neu cac em tv Iva chon tich ph an

f cos xdx '., f C

.1=. roIlay/+i= dx s= x+

smx+cosx

(I)

42

va lay

,J _ / -_ f( cos x - sin x )dx fd ( sin x + cos x) I . I

------= =r ln sm x+cos x +D

sinx+cosx sinx+cosx

(2)

Ta lay: (1) - (2)=> 2/ = - Injsin x-t cos.cl-t x + E => / =_!_(-lnlsinx+cosxl+x)+F 2

V6'i C, D, E, F la cac hang so bat kl.

5.1. Dung each d6i can dac biet d~ tim tich phan lien ket

Tir bai 37 ta nhan thay J chinh la tich ph an lien ket cua I. Tuy nhien viec tim ra tich phan lien ket nhieu khi rat kh6 nen khi tich phan d6 c6 can thi ta c6 th~ thong qua ki thuat d6i bien dac biet rna tim ra diroc tfch ph an lien ket.

Bili 38 :

T' h ' h h' / 2f cos xdx

In tic P an =. .

o sm.v-r cos ,r

Cia; :

rt

Dat x = --f => dx = -dt.

. 2

.,. 7t 7t

DOl can x = 0 => f = - ; x = - => f = O.

. 2 2

7t coS(7t-t)dl 7t 7t

2 2 2 sin tdt 2 sin xdf

/ = f . (7t) ( 7t ) = f cos t + SIn f = of cos x + sin x = J

o SIn - t + cos - I 0

2 2

b b

(ap dung tlnh chat ff(x)dx= ff(t)dt)

a

a

7t

2 7t 7t

Lay / + J = 2/ = f dx = - => / = -.

o 2 4

43

6. Cae phuong phop va each truro giai khoc

6.1. Phuong phap d6i bien dua vito hinh thirc ton tai ella hai can ella bai tich phan

2

The / h . ',. b" / 1 I cos xdx hi / / h' "

ong qua cac giai ai toan =. t 1 cac em co t e mo rong

o smx+cosx

cho nhieu bai tich ph an rna ham so dtroi dau tfch phan co nhieu loai ham ker hop voi nhau rna phirong phap tfch phan tung phan khong dat hieu qua. Cu th~

//I

thi cac em co th~ can err vao can cua tich phan rna d6i bien (neu If (x) dx thi ()

//I

dat x = m - t va neu I f(x)dx thi dat x = - t ; m > 0) roi sir dung tinh chat

-//I

b /J

If (x ~/x = If (l)dt d~ chuyen tir bien t ve bien x, tiep do lay tfch phan moi

a (/

hinh thanh cong dai so voi tich ph an ban dau se tao ra tfch phan moi rat don gian ve bien phap tinh nhtr mot so bai toan sau :

Bai 39: (De'tlli H()(' vien Cong ngh¢ buu chinh viin thong ndm 1999)

1 4

Tfnh tich phan 1 = I x dx . 1+ 2x -I

Gidi :

D<:itX=-1 ~dx=-dt.

D6i can x = -1 ~ t = 1 ; x = I ~ t = -1.

1 4 -I 4. I, 4 1 r 4 1 'i 1

1 = f x dx = I t d(-t) = I 2 t dt = I 2' x dx ~ 21 = I x4dx = ~

1+ 2x 1 + r' 1 + 2' 1 + 2x 5

-I 1 -I -I -I -I

1

~/=-.

5

44

Bai 40:

1

Tinh tich phan 1 = fIn ( x + ~ x2 + 2008 ) dx. -I

Gidi :

D~t.cr = - f ~ dx = - dt.

D6i can x = -1 ~ t = I ; x = 1 ~ f = -1.

1= -jIn(-f+~(-t)2+2008)(-dt)=

1

= fIn ( ~ t2 + 2008 - t) dt = fIn [ I 2 2008 J dt

-I -I \i f + 2008 + f

1

= f [ In 2008 +In ( ~ f2 + 2008 + t ) ] dt -I

1 1

= fln(2008}lt- fIn(~t2+2008+f)dt

-I -I

1 1

= In 2008 f dt - fIn ( ~ x2 + 2008 + x) dx = 2In 2008 -I

-I -I

~ 21 = 21n 2008 ~ I = In 2008 .

Bai 41 :

1!f xsin xdx Tinh tich phan I =

o ~l + cos2 x

cuu .

Dat x = 1t - f ~ dx = =dt.

D6i can x = 0 ~ t = 1t ; X = 1t ~ f = O.

1 = y 1t - t) sin ( 1t - t) dt = 1t 1 sin tdt -1 t sin tdt

() ~ 1 + cos2 ( 1t - t) 0 ~ 1 + cos2 t 0 ~ 1 + cos2 t

=1t1 sinxdx -I.

o ~l + cos2 x

45

~ 21 = TC 1 sinxdx

o JI +cos2 x

1 = TC 1 -d ( cos x) 20 Jl +cos2 x

du Dat cosx = tanu ~ d(cosx) = --2-.

cos l/

D"· 0 TC TC

01 can x = ~ II = - : x = TC ~ It = - - .

. 4 4

n

dl{

n

n

n

1 = TC 4f cos2 It = TC 4f du TC 4f cos udl( TC 4f d (sin u)

2 nJI+tan21{ 2 nCOSlI=2" nl-sin2u=-2" n(sinu-l)(sinll+l)

4 4 4 4

1= -TC[ 1d(Sinll-ll_1d(Sinll+ll]= -TClnls~nlt-ll:

4 _ n (Sill lI-I) _ n (Sill II + 1) 4 Sill II + 1 -47[

4 4

1 = -TC [In 1 - J2 +ln 1 + J2] = -TC In ( 1- J2t

4 1+J2 I-J2 4 (l+J2t

= -TCln J2-1 = -TCln(3-2J2).

2 1+J2 2

6.2. Giai cac bai tinh tich phan thong qua cac dang thirc

Tren thuc te ta thirong gap nhirng bai chirng minh mot dang thirc tich phan va qua d6 trng dung d~ tinh mot tich phan khac. Thong thuong nhieu khi h9C sinh hay cam thay kh6 doi vci dang bai tap nay nhung chung toi e6 th~ gQ'i Y cho cac em nhir sau : Chung ta luon diroc sir dung ket qua cua dang thirc d~ lam bai toan va day sc la phuong phap ngan nhat.

Bai 42:

1) j{x) lien tuc va thoa manf(x) = ftm + n - x) V x va a, b cho tnroc. Chung minh ding

46

" "

f m+n f

xf(x)dx = -2- f(x)dx.

III III

271 3

2) Tfnh tich ph an 1 = f x.cos4 x.sinxdx.

71

3

Gidi :

1) D~t m + n - x = t ~ dx = -dt.

D6i can x = m ~ t = n ; x = n ~ t = m.

"" ""

fXf(x)dx= f(m+n-t)f(m+n-t)dt= f(m+n)f(t)dt- ftf(t)dt

"I

//I

III

III

n n

= f(m+n)f(x)dx- fxf(x)dx

//I

III

n "" ( + )"

~2 f4(x)dx=(m+n) ff(x)cix~ fXf(x)dx= m 2 n ff(x)cix(dpcm).

1/1 1/1 III III

2) D~tj(x) = cos4x.sinx thi

f( n + 2n - x) = f( n - x) = cos4(n - x)sin(n - x) = cos4 xsin x = f(x). 3 3

Ta ap dung dang thirc 6 muc 1) thi :

1=

271 271 271

3 3 3

f 4· d n f 4 . d n f 4 d

x.cos x.smx x=2" cos xsmx x=-2" cos x (cosx)

71 71 71
3 3 3
rt cos5 x 271
3 n
= =
2 5 71 160
3 6.3. Bien d6i t6i gian cac ham s6 dum dan tich phan

Trong khi tinh tich phan thi ki thuat co ban d~ thuc hien duoc mot bai tinh nhanh va hieu qua do la viec phai dua VaG dac diem rieng cua tung loai ham

47

duoi dau tlch phan d~ rut gon n6. Don cir neu gap mot tich ph an cua ham luong giac thi viec str dung he thong cong thirc luong giac d~ rut gon la mot phuong phap hay Slr dung,

Bai 43 : (D(}' thi Dni hoc Sa pham Ha N{Ji /I ndm 2000 - khoi A)

1t

2

Tinh tfch phan I = f( cosiO x+sinlo x-cos4 xsin4 x )dx.

o

Gidi : Ta c6

(COSiO x + sinlo x - cos4 xsin4 x) =

( 4 . 4)( 6 . 6 )

= cos x-sm x cos x-sm x

2 ( ,., . 2)( 4 . 4 2· 2 )

= cos x cos- x-sm x cos x+sm .r t cos xsm x

=cos2 2x(1-cos2xsin2 x)=COS22X(I-±sin22x)

=cos22x--1 sin24x= l+cos4x __ I_(I-cos8x)

16 2 32

15 1 1

= -+-cos4x+-cos8x.

32 2 32

TC

TC

TC

152 12 12

1=-- fdx+- fcos4xdx+- fcos8xdx

32 0 2 () 32 0

15 TC 1 2 1 2

=-x 6+- fcos4xd(4x)+- fcos8xd(8x)

32 80 2560

TC

TC

TC TC

1571: 1.2 1. 2 1571:

=--+-sm4x +--sm8x =--.

M 8 ~6 M

o

o

48

7. Phuong phap tinh tich phon co chua tr! tuy~t doi

Trang qua trinh tinh tich ph an thi ta tlurong hay gap nhirng tfch phan co chua tri tuyet doi. Can err vao hinh thirc cua bai toan thi ta chia thanh 2 loai

b

Loai 1 : Tri tuyet doi co dang ff(x)dx (la ca tich ph an thuoc tri tuyet

a

doi) tuy nhien day la dang don gian nen cluing toi khong d~ cap phirong phap b

giai VI cac em hoc sinh chi can tinh tich ph an f f (x) dx va ket qua tim diroc

a

phai khong am.

Loai 2 : La dang tich ph an rna tri tuyet doi ton tai trong ham so diroi dau tich phan. D~ giai dang nay thibien phap chu yeu la cac em hoc sinh nen pha tri tuyet doi roi can cu vao can cua tich ph an va tinh chat

bed b

ff(x)dx = ff(x)dx+ ff(x)dx+ ff(x)dx voi c < d; c, d e (a,h)

a a c d

M tach tich phan ban dau thanh nhieu tfch phan nho khong chua tri tuyet doi nhir cac bai sau :

Bai 44 :

2

a) Tinh tich ph an 1= f[x+II-xl-lx+2IJdx.

-I

Gidi :

Ta lap bang xet dau

I-x

+

o

x

-IX)

-2

-1

1

2

x+2

o

+

1 2 1 2

I = n x + I - x - x - 2] dx + f[ x + x - I - x - 2] dx = f ( -x - I) dx + f ( x - 3) dx

-I 1 -I 1

1 2 ( X + 1)2 ( X _ 3 )21 7

=- f(X+l)d(X+l)+lf(X-3)d(X-3)=- 2 ~I+ 2 f= ~ .

-I

49

b) (D(;' thi fuyln sinh dai hoc, cao ddng ndm 2003 -kllol D) 2

Tinh tich ph an I = ~x2 - xl dx . ()

Dap so : I = I.

Bai 45 : (D(!' thi Dai hoc M rJ dia chdt ndm 2()()())

TC

Tfnh tfch ph an I = f ~tan2 x + cot2 x - 2dx.

TC

6

ciu .

TC

TC

3 J 3

1= f (tanx--cotx)2dx = fltanx-cotxldx

TC 6

TC

6

TC

TC

TC

= 3fl2 ~os 2xl dx = 4f2 ~os 2x dx _ 3f2 ~os 2x dx

s102x s102x s102x

TC TC TC

664

TC TC

4fd sin 2x 3fd sin 2x 1 I ' 2 I TC4 1 I ' 2 I TC3- 21 2

= - = n sm x - n sm x = n-.

sin 2x sin 2x TC TC 13

TC TC 6 4 -

6 4

Nhu vay ta nhan thay tich phan co chua tri tuyet doi co th~ ton tai doc lap hoac ham chua trong cac bai toan chua can thtrc va khi khai can ta can phai sir dung tri tuyet doi. Khi pha tri tuyet doi thi tuy theo loai ham rna ap dung cac each thirc thich hop dan cir nhir doi voi ham luong giac thi cac em can sir dung duong tron luong giac.

8. rich phon ham co chuo thorn so

Cac ban hoc sinh co th~ hieu day Ia tfch phan rna ham s6 duoi dau tich pharr co chua tham so, Tuy nhien cac em cling phai biet each phan cluing thanh 3 Ioai chinh nhtr sau :

50

8.1. Loai 1 : Tham so trong bai tinh tich phan nay khong mang tinh chat bien luan

Bai 46 :

Tinh 1= f( m + 2) x2008 dx (voi m HI tham so E IR ).

2009

K" "I (m+2)x C

et qua = + .

2009

Ta de thay day la ket qua cua bai to an va ta hoan to an khong phai bien luan gl doi voi m ca VI m khong lam anh hirong den ket qua cua bai toan khi no thay d6i.

8.2. Loai 2 : Tham so 0 day bi~u thl mot bai toan tinh tich phan co quy luat

Bai 47 :

1

Tinh tfch phan III = f( 1- x2 r dx (n E N*). o

Gidi :

{ ( )11 { (2 )11-1

Dat 1I = 1I = ,1-, x2 ~ du = -2nx 1- x dx

dv==dx v=x

III = X (1- x2)" 1 + 2n fx2 (1- x2 ),,-1 dx

o 0

1 1 1

=-2n f(l-x2 -1)(I-x2)"-1 dx=-2n f(l-x2)" dx+ 211 f(1-x2)"-1 dx 000

= -211111 + 211/11_1

~ III = __l:_!!__ 111_1 (\7'n ;:: 2). 2n+ 1

Cho n cac gia tri tir n den 2 thl :

51

2n

1/1 =--1/1_1 2n+ 1

2n-2

1/1_1 = -_ 1/1_2 211-1

4 12=-/1

5

I I 2

II = f( 1- x2) dx =-.

o 3

Nhan cac dang thirc tung ve thi ta duoc

(2n)(211-2) .. .4.2 2/1 (n)(n-1) ... 2.1 2/1.n!

I - - = ----,--,----

/I - (2n+1)(2n-1) ... 5.3 - (2n+1)(2n-l) ... 5.3.1 1.3 ... (2n-1)(2n+1)·

Nhu vay bai toan nay la mot dang rat kh6 (vi neu binh thuong cac em phai dung plurong phap tich phan tung phan rat nhieu Ian va so Ian sir dung tich phan tirng phan tuy theo mil n bang bao nhieu), VI vay muon giai diroc cac bai dang nay cac em can nhan bier each giai tong quat cua bai toan nay la tich phan tirng phan hay tach mil va sir dung each tinh quy luat.

D~ giup cac em c6 each nhln tong quat han chung toi dira ra cac biroc giai t6m tat dang nay nhir sau :

Buac I : Su dung phirong phap giai tong quat nhir d1:l phan tich (} tren nhung chi dung 1 Ian d~ tfnh 1/1 thea 1/1_1 ;1/1-2;1/1-3 ... va n (trong bai tren la

2n 1/1 =--1/1_1 (\fn~2) 2n + 1

Buac 2 : Tuy thea dieu kien cua n rna dau bai di1 cho d~ tinh 1/1 voi n nho

(1)

*

nhat (trong bai tren do (n EN) nen n nho nhat la n = 1 va

I 2 I 2

II = f( 1- x ) dx = -)

o 3

Buac 3 : Tir (1) va (2) ta d1:l tao thanh cong tlnrc truy hoi cho 1/1 (mot dang

(2)

cong thirc rna ta hieu khai quat la muon tinh diroc I 4 thi phai tinh diroc I 3 hoac

52

muon tinh 12 thi ta can phai tinh duoc II ... nrc la muon tfnh duoc / II voi n bat ki thi ta phai tfnh dUQ'C I II-I (/11-2 ... ) ) va ta chi viec bien d6i cong thirc truy hoi nay v~ cong thirc tong quat (mot cong thirc c6 dang ham so rna ta muon tfnh mot I II voi fl bat ki thl ta chi viec thay gia tri cua n nay vao cong thirc Ia c6

ngay ket qua) dua vao quy luat cua n6 thi cac em de dang tfnh duoc tfch ph an rna dau bai yeu cau (trong bai tren d6 ia bien phap thay the cho n cac gia tri tv n den 2 roi nhan cac dang thirc tung ve thl ta duoc

(21Z )(2n - 2 ) .. .4.2 211 (n)( n -I ) ... 2.1 211.n!

I - _. - )

11- (211+1)(211-1) ... 5.3 - (2n+I)(2n-I) ... 5.3.1 -1.3 ... (211-1)(211+1) .

Tuy nhien trong qua trinh tinh toan thi khong nen lam dung phuong phap nay rna phai quan sat d~ sir dung phirong phap thich hop dan cir nhu bai toan sau

Bili 48:

I

T' h ' h ha I f 2008· I

In tic P an = x SInX(X.

-I

Neu bai nay ta giai theo plurong phap tfch phan tung phan ta se thay ia viec gan nhu khong thuc hien duoc VI ta phai nrng phan 2008 Ian, do vay thirong cac I

em nghi ngay day phai tlnh tich phan III = f XII sin xdx (voi 11 Ia tham so bieu -I

thi tfnh quy luat wang nr nhu bai 47, tren co' sCi d6 thay 11 = 2008) tuy nhien day la mot sai lam VI thuc te bai toan giai dan gian nhir sau :

D~t x = -( ~ dx = -dt.

D6i can x = -1 ~ (= 1 ; x = 1 ~ t = -I.

-I I I

I = - f ( -I )2008 sine -{ )dt = - f {2008 sin tdt = - f x2008 sin xdx = - /

I -I -I

~/=O.

53

8.3. Loai 3 : Tham so 0 day bi~u thi mot bai toan rna 0 do ta phai chia cac truong hop tuy theo sir bien thien cua tham so d~ tinh tich phan (g(Ji (iit fa bien ludn)

Bai 49 : (De' T hi Dqti h(JC N goai thuang ruim J 994 )

7t

2· d

T' h 'h ha I S smx.cosx. x (b 0)

m tic p an = a, 7= •

() J a2 cos2 x + b2 sin2 x

Gidi :

Do dieu kien la a, b 7= 0 nen ta nhan thay bai toan dtroc chia thanh 2 twang hop,

Truong hap J " Neu a2 = b2:

7t

7t

I 2ssinx.cosx.dX I . 2 2 1

= =-Sln x =-

o j;2 21al' 21al'

o

(1)

Truong IWp 2 " Neu a2 7= b2 :

D~tt = a2 cos2 x + b2 sin2 x =>d( = 2( b2 - a2 )sinx.cosx.dx.

D:I· A 0 2 7t b2

01 can x = => t = a . x = - => t = .

. , 2

(2)

Tuy nhien neu ban h9C sinh nao co each nhln nhan don gian thi deu de sai lam khi cho fling ket qua (2) la ket qua khai quat VI ket qua (1) chi la mot trang

thai cua (2) khi Ihl = lal. Tuy nhien day la mot sai lam pho bien VI neu ta khong

b2

phan chia tnrong hop thi ngay lui phep bien d6i I ~ (I ) f d~ thl dii lam

2 b2 - a2 2.....;t

a

tich ph~n I vo nghia. Do vay nhat thiet bai to an nay phai duoc phan chia thanh 2 twang hop.

54

Nhirng bai toan vira c6 chua tri tuyet doi lai vira c6 chua tham so thi viec bien luan gan nhir la yeu to nhan dang chinh.

Bai 50: (De' thi Hoc vien Ngdn hang ndm /999 -khol D, K) 2

Tinh tich ph an / = ~x2 - (a + 1) x + al dx (trong d6 a Ia mot so cho tnroc).

I

Gidi:

2 2

/= ~(x-l)(x-a)ldx= f(x-l)[x-aldx,

I

-00

a

o

+

Gin err van bang xet dau tren thi ta chia bai to an thanh 3 twang hop Truong hop / : a -::; 1 :

Trong twang hop nay thi \:j x E [1; 2] => x - a > 0 nen

2 2

1= f(x-l)(x-a)dx= f(x2-x-ax+a)dx

I I

x3 x2 ax2 2 5 - 3a

=(-----+ax) =

3 2 2 I 6

Truong hap 2 : a ~ 2

Trong twang hop nay tht \:j x E [1; 2] => x - a < 0 nen

2 2

1=- f(x -1)(x - a )dx = - f( x2 - x - ax + a )dx

I I

x3 x2 ax2 2 3a-5

=-(-----+ax) =

3 2 2 6

Truong hap 3 : 1 < a < 2 :

Trong truong hop nay thi ta tach thanh 2 tich phan

55

a 2

1=- f(x-l)(x-a)dx+ f(x-l)(x-a)dx

I a

a a

= - f( X2 - X - ax + a) dx + f( x2 - X - ax + a) dx

I I

5 - 3a (a _1)3

I = -- + -'-----'--

6 3

Nhu vay doi voi tich ph an co chua tharn so thi viec cac em h9C sinh can quan sat ki d~ nhan dang n6 xern thuoc loai nao trong 3 loai rna chung toi drr trinh bay (j tren Ia rill quan trong VI n6 se quyet dinh phirong phap tlurc hien tiep theo. Tuy nhien cac em nen hru y dol voi loai 2 (mot loai rat kh6) thi d~ bai lu6n phai cho dieu kien cua tharn so n thuoc tap so nguyen hoac so nguyen duong hoac so nr nhien VI neu kh6ng bai toan se khong th~ bien c6ng thirc truy hoi thanh c6ng tlnrc tong quat diroc. Con doi voi IOC;li 1 va loai 3 thi tharn so thuong kh6ng c6 dieu kien cling nhu hay xuat hien nhieu tharn so trong mot bai tfnh tich phan.

* Tren day ld 08 phuang phap va each thuc tfnh tich ph an cd tinh C(1 bdn nhdt voi 50 bai toan minh hoa dung cho cac bai tinh tich ph an phd bien trong chuang trinh toan THPT. Cdc phuang phdp va each thuc tinh d day cac em luu y la no chi co gia tri khi minh nhdn dang dung ciing nhu phdi biet ker hop tong the' nhieu phuang phap va each thuc thi mai co hieu qud cao. Cdc phuang phdp va each thuc tinh d day duac phdn chia vai mot ranh giai rat mong nen mot h9C sinh muon lam tot thi cdn phdi biei her cdc phuang phdp tranli viec cdc em coi phuong phdp nay la quail trong hun phuang phdp kia hodc chi nen hie! phuong phdp nay elm khong biet dp dung phuong phdp khdc.

56

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