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cuv ANT iNAINTE FOREWORD

The Structural Eurocodes 1. Short History"

The idea to develop models for an intemstionsl set of Codes for structural design was born 1974 based on an agreement between several technical-scientific organisations.

The activities of these organisations in the field of co-ordination of principles, agreement on technical matters and prestsnderdisstion were and are outstanding importsnceIor intcmstionsl standardisation. They comprise experts Iiom many countries serving the exchange of scientific findings and practical experiences:

Without the obligation for fonnulating mandatory rules, state-of-the-art reports are elaborated, and also-as far as possible and necessary-recommendations' for corresponding tiuure roles (e.g. Model Codes).

There would be not internetionsl standardisation without the preparatory work and . without the mutual agreement in these organisations.

Euroeodurile structurale 1. Scurt Istortc'"

Idea de a initia elaborarea unor norme intemationale pentru proiectarea structurilor s-a nascut in 1974, si are la baza cooperarea dintre cateva organizatii profesional-· stiintifice, cu activitate bine cunoscuta, in domeniul constructiilor,

Activitatea acestor organizatii, in domeniul coordonarii principiilor, agrementarii tehnice ~i prestandardizarii a fost ~i este de 0 importanta deosebita pentru standardizarea internationala, Experti din multe liri. ce fac parte din aceste organizatii, schimba opinii in legatura cu munca ~tiinjifica ~i experienta practica,

Fara obligatia de a formula reguli, acestea elaboreaza rapoarte ~i.pe cat posibil, recomandari de calcul ~i proiectare. Standardizarea internationala nu este posibila :tara 0 pregatire prealabila ~i :tara conventii mutuale intre asemenea organizatii,

in sectorul constructiilor, urmatoarele organizatii sunt implicate in elaborarea normelor de calcul ~i de proiectare:

IABSE-Asociapa Intemationala pentru Poduri ~i Structuri Ingineresti

Clls-Consiliul International pentru X'ercetare, Studiu ~i Documentare in domeniul Constructiilor

.Rll.Elvl-Asociatia Intemationala pentru Testarea RILEM-Intemational Association of the Testing ~i Cercetarea in Laborator a Materialelor ~i and Research Laboratories for Materials and

Constructiilor . Constructions

CEB-ComitetuI Euro-International pentru Beton CEB-Euro-Intemational Committee for Concrete FIP-Federatia Internationala pentru Beton FIP-Intemational Federation for Prestressed

Precomprimat Concrete

ECCS-Conventia Europeana pentru Constructii ECCS-European Convention for Constructional

Metalice . Steelworks

JCSS-ComitetuI pentru Siguranta Structurilor JeSS-Joint Committee on Structural Safety

ISSMFE-Societatea Internationala pentru ISSMFE-Intemational Society for Soil

Mecanica Pamanturilor ~i Ingineria 'Fundatiilor. Mechanics, and Foundation Engineering.

Regulile de baza pentru calculul structurilor au close co-operation the common basic roles for

fost realizate printr-o stransacooperare in cadrul structural design were developed in the JCSS. JCSS. S-au formulat conditiile de siguranta ~i Requirements for safety and serviceability of exploatare pe baza conceptului de rise, in functie structures based on the principle of risk in terms de criteriile de fiabilitate ale structurilor, Aceste of reliability conditions were formulated: It was conditii au asigurat baza . comuna a normelor de the aim to use these roles as a common basis for

calcul. the material-related design codes .

In the construction sector, the following associations involved in this preparatory work in particular:

IABSE-Intemational Association for Bridg« and Structural Engineering

CIB-International Council for Building

Research, Studies and Documentation

. (1) G. Breitschaft, L Oesthmd,M. Kersken-Bradly, The Structural Eurocodes-Conceptual Approach. !ABSE Conference on- Structural Eurocodes, Davos 1'992.'

I

Some of the organisations, such as > CEB, CIB, ECSS and parts of ISSMFE, developed then models or recommendations for the materialrelated design codes based on the agreed common roles as mentioned above.

In acest mod, s-au creat premizele necesare Thus the technical basis was prepared lor a intocmirii ~i elaborarii "Eurocodurilor tormal establishment of the "Structural Structurale", urmarindu-se 0 armonizare a Eurocodes" with the aim of a two-dimensional

principiilor cadru pe doua directii, respectiv: hsrmonisetion:

-de-a lungul granitelor statelor participante la -scross the borders of states, .

Pe aceasta baza, unele dintre organizatiile implicate, respectiv CEB, CIB, ECSS ~i 0 parte din ISSMFE, au realizat modele sau recomandari pentru normele de cal cul.

actiuni ~i, .

-intre diferite materiale de constructii, metode de constructie, tipuri de cladiri §i constructii ingineresti.

Aceste criterii de armonizare au favorizat compatibilizarea normelor intre ele §i obtinerea unor nivele de fiabilitate comparabile.

La sfarsitul deceniului sapte, Comisia Comunitatii Europene a Iuat initiativa elaborarii Eurocodurilor, folosind activitatea de pregatire mentionata anterior.

Sub eondueereaComitetului Conducator din eadrul Comisiei CE (CEC), primul proiect individual de tip Eurocode (pentru structuri metaliee) a fost pregatit de un grup tehnic de lueru in concordanta eu principiile de baza ale standardizarii, adica cu 0 participarea cuprinzatoare $i reprezentativa a organizatiilor expert §i a specialistilor,

2. Baza legala(l)

Conditiile de infiinjare - §i principiile de functionarea Comunitatii Economice Europene a fost stabilita prin Tratatul de la Roma, in 1957. Incepand din 1985, acest tratat a fost modificat $i completat, printr-o serie de decizii in vederea creariiPietei Europene Unicepana in 1992.

Prin Actul European Unic din 1981, s-au pus bazele initierii procesului de armonizare la myel comunitar a regulilor $i normelor tehnice ca premiza a eliminarii barierelor existente, din acest punct de vedere, in cadrul Iiberei circulatii a marfurilor ~i a schimbului de servicii ..

. Pentru . a realiza §i impune asemenea masuri, Comunitatea Europeana acjioneaza in plan juridic printr-o Directiva a Consiliului, Prin Directiva Consiliului se definesc cerintele esentiale la nivelul produselor sau a instalatiilor, urmand ca, ulterior sa· fie elaborate specificatii tehnice ~i standarde . de catre Organizatia Europeana de' Standardizare . (CEN/CENELEC):

. Dupa adoptarea acestor norme, in urma votului

II

-between different construction materials, construction methods, types of building and civil engineering works,

to achieve full consistency and competibility of the various codes with each other and to obtain comparable safety levels.

Already at the end of the seventies the Commission of the European Communities took the initiative for elaborating the Eurocodes by using the above preparatory work

Directed by a Steering Committee chaired by the EC Commission (CEC) the first drafts of the individual Eurocodes were prepared by technical working groups in accordance with · the basic

principles of standardisation, i.e. with

comprehensive participation ot": expert

organisations and professions.

2. Legal BackgroundJ)

The, Roman Treaties of 1957 establishing the European Economic Community have been modified and amended since 1985 by essential decision taken in order to create the conditions I for completing the Iatemsl Market until 1992.

On the basis of the European Single. Act of 1987 it was intended to . initiate a comprehensive hsrmonisetion of technical rules and regulations in order to remove-among oth~r things-technical barriers to the tree movement of goods and to the exchange of services.

For realising measures of this kind, the European Community disposes of the legal instrument of the .. Council Directive. A Council Directive defines the essential requirements for the range of products or plants to be regulated and refers, for the rest, to European technical speciticstions . consisting, in general, of European standards . established by the European Standard Orgsnisstion CENICENELEC. After adoption

/"

. exprimat in cadrul Consiliul de Ministrii, printr-o Directiva a' Consiliul acestea se transpun in legi nationale ale statelor membre.

in sectorul constructiilor, armonizarea lanivel

..

european se realizeaza prin urmatoarele

documente:

-Directiva Lucrarilor Publice 89/4401EEC si

-Directiva referitoare Ia Servicii (Proiect)

Acestea stabilesc amt principiile de functionare ale pietei in' domeniul constructiilor, cat §i criteriile de elaborare a normelor tehnice,

Directiva Consiliul referitoare la interpretarea/corelarea legilor, normelor §l decretelor din .tarile membre ale uniunii, in legatura cu industria de constructii este de prima importanja,

. Ea se aplica intregului "sectorul de constructii" si, defineste de la inceput principalele cerinte in urmatoarele domenii:

-rezistenta §i stabilitate

- siguranta la foe

- igiena, sanatate .. §.i mediuinconjurator

-siguranta in exploatare

- protectia impotriva zgomotului

-economia energiei §i retinerea caldurii,

Directiva Consiliului cu privire la industria de constructii obliga statele membre sa ia masuri pentru ca specificatiile tehnice europene, sa g~vina valabile in aceste tari, urmand ca standardele §i normativele nationale 9prespunzatoare sa fie retrase din folosinta dupa

. perioada stabilita,

date de CEC. catre CEN pentru armomzarea .. standardelor se bazeaza pe asa (\Il1lJmit:e1e Documente Interpretative.

Consiliului defineste prin aceste ;;,O(iticoolente . interpretative specificatiile tehnice ironene in felul urmator:

...... uu u'.., armonizate, elaborate de CEN sau

'IJ...:..i.:..J...:., pe baza unor mandate date de catre

""V'LAlli>.La. Comunitajii Europene (CEC) sau;

. tehnice europene, rezultate in urma statelor membre, in cazul in. care armonizate nu exists,

. cu "Noua metodologie pentru tehnica si standardizare" adoptata Consiliului in mai 1985, actiunea

.,

within Council. of Ministers by weighted voting, a Council Directive has to be transposed intonational Jaw of the Member States.

In the construction sector,

-tbe Public Works Directive 891440/EEC and

-the Service Directive (Draft)

are thus important for the bsrmonisstion of technical rules, as in the request for tenders and placing of orders on public construction works and engineering services the bsrmonised European technical specifications have to' be used as a technical basis.

The Council Directive on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to constructions products (CPD 891J06IEECj is of central importance.

Itepplies to the whole "construction sector" and defines right at the beginning the essential requirements in the following fields:

-mecbsnicsl resistance and stability

-safety in case oFfire

-hygiene, health and the environment

-safety in use

-protection against noise

-energy economy and heat retention.

The Council Directive on Building Products obliges the Member States to take care that these European technical specifications become valid in their relevant countries and to withdraw their corresponding national standards orrules after a certain period ot'tmasitioo:

The mandates given by the CEC to CEN for the establishment ofa hrfmnonised stsndsrd are based on the relevant "Interpretative Documents':

The Council Directive on Building Products defines in these interpretative documents the European technical specifications

-as bsrmonised sta.e.dards established by CEN or CENELEC, respectively; on behalf of a mandate given by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) or;

-ss European technical approvals issued by the relevant approval bodies nominated by the Member States incases where bsrmonised standards do not or not yetpxist.

With reference' to the so-celled "New Approach to technical bsrmonisstion and standards" adopted by a Council Resolution of May 1985

m

de realizare a Eurocodurilor a fost trecuta la sfarsitul anului 1989 in responsabilitatea Comitetului European de Standardizare. In mai 1990 CEN se creaza un nou Comitet Tehnic, CEN/TC 250-"Eurocodurile Structurale". Acestui comitet, ia fost dat mandatul pentru elaborarea Standardelor Europene pentru Constructii, avand ca obiect de activitate:

"Standardizarea regulilor si metodelor (de proiectare a structurilor pentru cladiri 'si constructii ingineresti tinand seama de legatura dintre normele de calcul, comportarea materiale si tehnologia de executie si control."

Programului TC 250 se bazeaza in principal pe urmatoarele date initiale:

-pregatirea activitatilor preparatorii realizate la nivelul organizatiilor profesional-stiintifice internationale in sectorul constructiilor;

-normele de" referinta ale Organizatiei

Internationale pentru Standardizare (ISO); -deciziilor luate de catre Comunitatea Europeana in Iegatura cu crearea Pietei Europene Unice, la care au aderat si tarile membre din Asoeiatia Europeana a Liberului Schimb (EFTA).

3. Programul EUROCODE in cadrul CENffC250

Programul de lucru al CENffC250 se desfasoara conform' Documentelui Interpretativ ID I, mentionat anterior si 'in cadrul cooperarii dintre CEC si CEN. Printre-altele, in Documentul

Interpretativ ID 1 se stipuleaza: .

"Eurocodurile vor servi .ca norme de referinta, fiind supuse recunoasterii autoritatilor din statele

membre, si areca scop: ~ ,

a) furnizarea criteriilor esentiale de verificare a structurilor pentru cladiri si lucrari ingineresti; .

b) asigura baza tehnico-legala contractelor specifice de executie a lucrarilor de constructii si serviciilor ingineresti .

c) asigura cadrul redactarii specificatiilor tehnice pentru materiale si produse utilizate m constructii., "

"Programul EUROCODE furnizeaza in cadrul unui sistem coerent si cuprinzator de norme, metode de proiectare variate sialte elemente specifice de proiectare jmportante-in practica, acoperind toate tipurile de cladiri si lucrari ingineresti.irealizate din materiale de constructii

diverse.'." '

, Programul EUROCODE prevede, in total noua

IV

the Iiuther development of the Eurocodes was trsnsterred, at the end of 1989, to the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN). In May 1990 CEN created a new Technical Committee, CENITC 250- "Structural Eurocodes ': This Committee was given the mandate to elaborate Codes of Practice within the following scope:

"Standardisation of structural design rules for building and CiVIl engineering works taking Into account the relationship between design roles and the assumption to be made for materials, execution and control" , The creation of TC 250 was mainly initiated by

and based Oil, respectively .

-the preparatory work done by iatemstional technical-scientific organisations In the construction sector;

-the relevant standards. of the Intemstionsl Organisation for Standardisation (ISO); -decisioas taken in the European Community with respect, to the creation of the European Iatemsl Market, which was joined by the Member States of the . European Free Trade Association (EFTA).

3. The EUROCODE progrsmme In CENffC250

The working programme complies with the given conditions of the above-mentioned Interpretative document ID 1 and is based on a special; agreement between eEe and CEN. Amongother things, the following is specified:

"The EUROCODES are intended to serve as reterence documents to be recognised by the authorities of the Member States for the following purposes:

a) as a means to prove compliance of buiJding and civil engineering works with the essential

requirements; .

b) as a basis for specif}7ng contracts for the execution of construction works and related engineering services;

c) as a Iitunework: for drawing' up Iuumonised technical specifications for construction

-l ••

products.: '

"The EUROeODE programme provides for a consistent and comprehensive system of structural design standards covering all types of building and civil engineering works in. the different construction materiels, the various construction methods and other aspects of design which arc of general practical importance ....• , The EUROeODE programme provides for a

EUROCODEI

pentru actiuni in constructii EUROCODE2

pentru structuri din beton, beton annat si beton precomprimat

EUROCODE3

pentru structuri metalice EUROCODE4

pentru structuri mixte EUROCODE5

pentru structuri din lemn EUROCODE6

pentru structuri din zidarie EUROCODE7

pentru fundatii si inginerie geotehnica . EUROCODE8

pentru structuri amplasate in zone seismice EUROCODE9

pentru structuri din aluminiu.

In textul Eurocodurilor se face distinctie intre principiile de. baza si regulile de aplicare. Aplicarea unui EUROCODE necesita intotdeauna respectarea principiilor, in timp ce

: regulile de aplicare pot fi inlocuite, in cazuri ;particulare, prin reguli sau metode echivalente daca se arata ca acestea respecta principiile. In fel se asigura 0 mai mare flexibilitate in permitandu-se alternative in cadrul

-. prima etapa, normativele si partile lor se publica ca Norme Europene sau Prestandarde (ENV).' In 1992, 1 a EC2, EC3, EC4 si EC5 a fost pusa circulatie, in aceasta forma. Prima parte a ~LI.LJ.L:. 1 s-a publicat in versiunea ENV V"".VUHILJ'" 1994. Dupa 0 perioadade testare, organiza conversia prestandardelor m europene (EN) .

• '"', ... <& ........ de conversie din ENV in EN

de conversie din ENV in EN este zentata in figura 1.

realizarii conversiei, diferitele )c(JIQun' au' fost organizate in patru grupe, de , Ia D. Timpul de conversie pentru fiecare dat mai jos,

normelor in vederea converslel

total set of nine volumes following classification:

EUROCODEI

for actions on structures (design loads) EUROCODE2

for concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures

EUROCODE3

for steel structures

EUROCODE4

to the

for composite steel and concrete structures EUROCODE5

for timber structures EUROCODE6

for masonry structures EUROCODE7

for foundations and geotechnical engineering EUROCODE8

for structures in seismic zones EUROCODE9

for aluminium structures.

In the' texts of the. EUROCODES distinction is made- between basic principles and rules for application. Compliance with a EUROCODE always necessitates the observance of the principles, whereas the rules for application can be replaced in the individual case by equivalent sltcmstives if it is shown that they satiszy the principles. It is thus intended to provide a more flexible use by allowing deviations within the

scope of the EUROCODE. _

In s first '. step, tbe individual Codes snd their . relevant parts are' published as European Prestsndsrds (ENV). fil. 1992 BUROCODE 2, EUROCODE 3, EUROCODE '" and probablj" EUROCODE 5-Part 1 one of each-was already svsilsble. The first parts of EUROCODE 1 was published in' ENV version on October 1994. After a test.period; their transposition into EN standards is planned

4. ·Planning for conversion from ENVs to ENs The flowchart of conversion scheme Iiom ENVs to ENs is shown in Figure l.

The different EUROCODES were organised into four groups, Iiom A to D, in order to manage the conversion activity. The time planning, for each group, is given below.

Groups of related parts for para/leI conversion

Group A -Basic bUIldings design and seismic

This group comprises the parts dealing the

actiunile de calcul, prevederi generale Basis of Design, essential loading (actions)

v

si specifice pentru constructiile din beton si otel, pre cum si prevederi suplimentare pentru calculul la seism a constructiilor (vezi tabelul 1).

considerations, the general and building rules for concrete and steel construction and supplementary rules for earthquake resistance of buildings (see Table 1).

, ,
Tabelul l-Grupa A-Norrne generale de proiectarea a cladirilor si proiectarea antiseism
(Group A -Bssic buildings design and seismic)
Nr.EN Titlul prescurtat Sinteza observatiilor "Perioada de conversie (luni)
ENNo. Brief Title dupa ancheta (2 ani) "Conversion Period (months)
Result of2 y!- Enquiry
EN 1991-1 Bazele proiectarii AUG 96 24
Basis of design
EN 1991-2-1 Densitati, etc. JUNE 97 24
Densities etc.
EN 1991-2-3 Incarcari din zap ada JUNE 97 24
Snow loads
EN 1991-2-4 Incarcari din vant JUNE 97 24
Wind loads
EN i992-1-1 S tructuri beton-Generalitati OCT 95 40
Concrete-General
EN 1993-1-1 ' Structuri otel-Generalitati ' OCT 95 40
Steel-General
EN 1994-1-1 Structuri mixte-Generalitati , OCT 95 41
Composite-General
EN 1998-1-1 Seism-Generalitati MAY 97 28
Seismic-General
EN 1998-1-2 Seism-Cladiri MAY 97 28
Seismic-Buildings -
EN 1998-1-3 Seism-Materiale MAY 97 28
Seismic-Materials
EN 1998-5 Scism- Fundatii MAY 97 28
Seismic-Foundations Tabelul 2-G~p~ B-Alte"paw generale .si parti eu privire la productia de beton pentru constructii "
(GroupB-Other general parts and parts related to concrete products for bUlldings)
Nr.EN Titlul prescurtat Sinteza observatiilor *Perioada de conversie (luni)
ENNo. Brief Title dupa ancheta (2 ani) "Conversion Period (months)
Result of2 yr. Enquiry
EN 1992-1-3 Beton preeomprimat 18
Precast concrete MAY 97
EN 1992-1-4 Beton usor 18
. Lightweight concrete MAY 97
EN 1992-1-5 Toroane in constructii 18
Tendons in buildings MAY 97
EN 1992-1-6 Betonul simplu 18
Plain concrete MAY 97
EN 1995-1~1 Lemn-Generalitati 36
Timber-General AUG 96
EN 1996-1-1 Zidarie -Generalitati 35
Masonry-General SEPT
EN 1997-1 Geotehnica-Generalitati 31
, Geotechnics-Geneml MAY 97 VI

% 0
-Ii ~~.~~.CI) >
~ I-- ~~~o~~~
N ~o u IZO'
- Er.f-i~0 S
Q..0f- U
Q..
gffi ~oda
.® %f- 00
0~0~Er.0 .
~~~"'~~ i:A ,.
['I - - N
UlO >I:Q -
OU l:QoIdUl - Figura 1 -Planul de conversie din ENV EN (PlsnningIor conversion Iiom ENVs to ENs)

VII

Tabelul 3-Grupa C-Caleulul Rezistentei la foe a structurilor
(Group C-DesigIJ_for structural resistance to fire)
Nr.EN Titlul prescurtat Sinteza observatiilor "Perioada de conversie (luni)
ENNo. Brief Title dupa ancheta (2 ani) "Conversion Period
Result of 2 yr. Enquiry (months)
EN 1991-2-2- Actiunea focului OCT 97 22
Fire actions
EN 1992-1-2 Beton-Proiectarea la foe OCT 97 22
Concrete-Fire part
EN 1993-1-2 Otel -Proiectarea la foe OCT 97 22
Steel-Fire part
EN 1994-1-2 Mixte-Proiectarea la foe OCT 97 22
Composite-Fire part
EN 1995-1-2 Lemn-Proiectarea la foe OCT 97 22
Timber-Fire part
EN 1996-1-2 Zidarie -Proieetarea la foe OCT 97 22
Masonry-Fire part Tabelul 4-Grupa D-Poduri
(Group D-Bridges)
Rezultatele *Perioada de conversie
EN TitJu prescurtst Publicarea ENV anchetei (luni)
BriefTitJe ENV Published Result of "Conversion Period
Enquiry (EST) (Months)
EN 1991-2-5 Actiuni tennice FEB 97 SEPT 99 24
Thermal actions
EN 1991-2-6 Incarcari din constructie FEB 97 SEPT 99 24
Construction loads
EN 1991-2-7 Incarcari aecidentale FEB 97 SEPT 99 24
Accidental loads . .,,..
EN 1991-3 Incarcari din trafic MAR 95 OCT 97 24
~ Traflic loads
EN 1992-2 Poduri din beton AUG 96 MAR 99 36
Concrete bridges
EN 1993-2 Poduri din otel SEPT 97 APR 00 36
, Steel bridges _
EN 1994-2 Poduri mixte - OCT 97 MAY 00 36
Composite bridges
EN 1995-2 Poduri din lemn AUG97 _ MAR 00 30
. Timber bridges ' .
(.', ,.;..: ~- .. , . !'
EN 1998-2 Actiunea seismului DEC 94 JULY 97 34
Bridges (Seismic) Alte proiecte Others

Urmatoarele parti ale prestandardelor The following EUROCODE prestsndsrd parts are

EUROCODE nu sunt incluse in grupele de mai not included in the above groups and generally sus si se oeupa ingeneral de structuri speciale; deal with specialist structures and/or have ENV

acesteavor pax:eurge sau nu perioada ENV. development period.

vm

Proieete Prestsndsrd

Titlul Title

Rezultatele anchetei Results of

Actiuni asupra silozurilor si rezervoarelor Actions on silos and tanks

Silozuri si rezervoare din otel

Steel silos and tanks

Silozuri, rezervoare si conducte (Seism) Silos, tanks and pipelines (Seismic) Actiuni -Macarale si masini Actions-cranes and machinery

Structuri suport din otel pentru macarale Steel crane supporting structures Fundatii din beton

Concrete foundations

Pile din otel

Steel piling

Geotehnica- fucerdiri experimentale Geotechnics-Lsborstory tests Geotehnica- fucerdiri pe teren Geotechnics-Field tests

Turnuri, stalpi inalti si cosuri de fum.din otel Steel towers, masts and chimneys

Turnuri, stalpi inalti si cosuri de fum (Seism) Towers-masts and chimneys (Seismic)

Beton-Rezervoare . _

Concrete- Water containment structures Elemente din otel cu pereti subtiri formate la rece Cold Iormed steel in structures

Structuri din otel inoxidabil

Stainless steel in structures

Incarcari laterale pe zidarii

Lateral loading on masonry

Tipuri de zidarii

Selection of masonry units

Reguli simplificatoare pentru zidarii Simplified roles for masonry

Consolidarea si intretinerea constructiilor (Seism) Strengthening snd repsir of buildings (Seismic) Calculul structurilor din aluminiu-Generalitati.. . Design of aluminium slloystructures-Geneml Calculul structurilor din aluminiu-Proiectarea la foe Design of aluminium alloy structures-Fire design

luminiu speciale si oboseala

° and r<JJn,rn,,,,

ENV 1991-4

DEC 97

ENV 1993-4

APR 99

ENV 1998-4

NOV 99

SEPT 99

ENV 1991-5

ENV 1993-6

AUG 00

SEPT 99

ENV 1992-3

SEPT 99

ENV 1993-5

JULy 99

ENV 1997-2

JULy 99

ENVJ997-3

APR 00

ENV 1993-3

ENV·1998-3

APR 99

ENV·1992-4

MAR 00

NOV 98

APR 99

1993-1-4

AUG 00

AUG 00

AUG 00

MAR 98

MAY 00

MAY 00

MAY 00

"Tbe conversion periods appear disparate due to the need to reflect the varying size and complexity of the ENV documents-the anticipated volume/gravity of National comments at 2 year Enquiry Stage and the extent of editing and translation work necessary.

conversie variaza datorita . complexitatii diferite a ENV; se asteapta volumele cu ~;;n'ilp.cmale dupa 0 ancheta de doi ani si

perioada de traducere si editare.

IX

5. Prolectul TEMPUS-Ph are CME 01198 Principalul obiectiv al acestui proiect a fost de a publica si de a raspandi Ia institutiile importante din Romania cinci volume cu exemple si comentarii pentru cinci Eurocoduri Structurale. Tabelul 6 arata Eurocodurile selectate pentru aceasta activitate, institutiile care au fost implicate si editorii volumelor,

S. TEMPUS-Phare CME 01198 Project

The main outcome of this project was to propose, publish and disseminate in Romanian relevant institution of five volumes with worked examples on several Structural EUROCODES. Table 6 shows the selected EUROCODES for this activity, the invited institution and the volume editors.

Tabelul 6-EUROCODURILE selectate si institutiile partenere implicate
(Selected EUROCODES and involvement of partner institution)
EUROCODE Institutii implicate (Involved institutions) Editorii volumelor
UE RO(*) (Volume editors)
C.Bob(upT)
EC2 UL,NTUA, UN UPT, UTC-N, UTI A. Ghersi (UN)
A. Plumiere (UL)
C. Trezos (NTUA)
D. Dubina (UPT)
EC3 UL,NTUA, UN UPT 1. Rondal (UL)
I. Vayas (NTUA)
EC4 INSA UPT, UTC-N, UTI Vc.Pacurar (UTC-N)
1.~.Aribert(INS~)
EC7 LCPC,CUL,TUB UTCB I. Manoliu (UTCB)
A. Marcu (UTCB)
D. Lungu (UTCB)
EC8 UL, UN, NTUA, TUB UTCB, UPT F. Mazzolani{Ubl)
S. Savidis (UTE)
Legend: Ul.-University of Liege; NTUA-National Technical University of Athens; UN-University of
Naples; INSA-Rennes; CUL-City University London; LCPC-Laboratoire Central des Ponts et
Chausses; TUB-TU Berlin; UPT - "Politehnica" University of Timisoara; UTC-N- Technical
University of Cluj-Napoca; UTCB-Technical University of Construction Bucharest; UTI-Technical
University ofIasi Coordonatorul si contractantul proiectului The Project Co-ordination and Contractor adreseaza sincere multumiri tuturor autorilor address their sincere thanks to all the implicati in aceasta activitate dificila, care are ca contributions involved in a such heavy work, rezultat fmal public area a mai mult de 1600 de which provides as a final results. more then 1500 pagini cu aplicatii si comentarii utile si pages with very interesting and useful interesante (presupunem noi) privitoare la EUROCODE applications and commentaries. normele EUROCODE. Evidentiem in mod They are especially grateful to the volume editors deosebit activitatea depusa de catre editorii de for the specific management and for their volume, pentru _ organizarea si coordonarea scientific co-ordination of the related --. working stiintifica a echipelor de "lucru. De asemenea, groups. We also wish to acknowledge the dorirn sa multumim pe aceasta cale Comisiei support of European Commission for publishing

- Europene pentru asigurarea suportului financiar this volume of great interest for - structural si a cadrului necesar in vederea publicarii acestor engineering activity in Romania.

volume de mare interes pentru activitatea de

constructii din Romania.

-Prof. Dan Dublna Prof. Jacques Rondal ...

The "Politehnica" University of Tlmlsoara The University of Liege

x

CUPRINS

PREFACE

Pag. 7

9

9 12 17

'30

3 PRINCIPll PRIVIND STABILI- BASIS OF ACTION CALCULATION 36

TATEA INCARCARILOR

CONTENTS

1 PREFATA

IN BASIS OF DESIGN IN EUROPEAN NORMS

2 BAZELE PROIECTARU

NORMELEEUROPENE

2.1 Eurocodurile, Concepte de baza 2.2 Conceptul general de proiectare

2.3 Bazele proiectarii in EC2 81 ST AS 10107/0-90

Eurocode~ Conceptual approach Basis of design. General concept

Basis of design in EC2 and Romanian Norm

Structural analysis in EC2

{2.4 Calculul structurilor in EC2

Stari limita ultime

Stari limita de exploatare Exemple de calcul

Ultimate limit states Serviceability limit states Design examples

INCOVOIERE AXIALA

FORTA BENDING AND LONGITUDINAL FORCE

CU

Ipoteze simplificatoare

Discutie asupra diagramei

deformatii specifice

Sectiuni dreptunghiulare Sectiuni T

Sectiuni circulare si inelare Exemple de calcul

Basic assumption

de Discussion on strain diagram

Rectangular sections Flanged sections

Circular and ring-shaped sections Design examples

36 39 40

50

50 51

52 67 69 71

STAREA LIMITA ULTIMA ULTIMATE I;JMIT STATE 83

DATORITA DEFORMATIILOR INFLUENCED BY STRUCTURAL

STRUCTURALE DEFORMATIONS

Introducere

Clasificarea structurilor si elementelor

. structurale

Date specifice pentru diferite tipuri de structuri

Stalpi izolati

Exemple de calcul

Introduction

Classification of structures and structural elements,

Specific data for differera=types of structures

Isolated columns

Design examples

CALCULUL . . PLACILOR DE ANALYSIS OF SLAB SYSTEM

BETONARMAT

Domeniu

Metode de calcul acceptabile

Calculul liniar cu sau fara redistribuire

Area

Acceptable methods of analysis

Linear analysis . with or without redistribution

Plastic methods of analysis

Numerical methods of non-linear analysis Practical methods of analysis

Design examples

Metode de calcul plastic

Metode numerice de calcul neliniar Metode practice de calcul Exemple decalcul

...

83 84

85

89 96,

108

108 109 109

110 111 111 118

1

7 PROCEDEUL MODELELOR DE THE STRUT-AND-TIE BARE

7.1 Introducere

7.2 Zone de tip B si 0

7.3 Procedeul de proiectare

7.4 Dimensionarea barelor si nodurilor 7.5 Exemple de calcul

Introduction

The structure's Band D-regions Design procedures

Dimensioning the struts, ties and nodes Design Examples

LA

FORTA CHECK TO SHEAR FORCE

8 CALCULUL

TAIETOARE

8.1 Generalitati. Ipoteze de calcul .

8.2 Determinarea fortei taietoare de calcul 8.3 Principii de verificare la forta taietoare 8.4 Dispozitii constructive

8.5 Exemple de calcul

8.6 Strapungerea

8.7 Exemple de calcul

9 TORSIUNE

9.1 Principii de calcul 9.2 Torsiune pura

9.3 Calculul sectiunilor compuse

9.4 Torsiunea in cadrul .complexe

9.5 Exemple de calcul

solicitarilor

10 DURABILITATEA 10; 1 Introducere

10.2 Mecanismele deteriorarii 10.3 Clasele de expunere

10.4 Proiectare si executie

10.5 Un model al coroziunii armaturilor

11 REZISTENTA LA FOC

11.1 Securitatea la incendiu si rezistenta la

foe

11.2 Curba temperatura-timp 11.3 Actiuni

11.4 Valorile de calcul pentru

«: caracteristicile de rezistenta si

deformare ale betonului si armaturii 11.5 Metode de verificare a rezistentei la foe

11.6 Exemple de calcul

General. Basic assumptions Design shear force

Design method for shear Detailing provisions Examples

Punching shear

Examples

TORSION Design principles Pure torsion

Pure torsion design for the section of complex shape

Combined effects of actions

Design examples

DURABIliTY Introduction Deterioration mechanisms Exposure classes

Design and execution

A model of reinforcement corrosion

FIRE RESISTANCE

Fire security and fire resistance

Time-temperature curve Actions

Design values of strength and deformation characteristic for concrete, \_. and. reinforcement

Verification methods for fire resistance

Design examples

136

136 136 137 138 142

155

155 156 158 167 167 178 -179

186 186 186 191

192

195

211 211 212 216 218 221

224 224

224 226 .

228

230

242

12 CONTROLUL FISURARII CRACK CONTROL OF COI!,CRETE 247

STRUCTURILOR DIN BETON STRUCTURES

12.1 Consideratii generale 12.2 Arii minime de armare

12.3 Calculul deschideriifisurilor

General considerations Minimum reinforcement areas Calculation of crack width

241 248 252

12.4 Limitarea eforturilor conditii de Limitation of stress under serviceability

serviciu condition

12.5 Controlul fisurarii fara calculul direct Control of cracking without direct calculation

12.6 Exemple numerice Numerical examples 262

13 CONTROLUL DEFORMATIILOR CONTROL OF DEFORMATIONS AT 276

LA STRUCTURILEDIN BETON CONCRETE STRUCTURES

13.1 Aspecte privind problema Aspects regarding the problem of 276

deformatiilor deformations

13.2 Controlul deformatiilor fara calcul Deformation control without calculation

13.3 Controlul deformatiilor prin calcul Deflection control by calculation

13.4 Exemple de calcul Numerical examples

14 PROIECTAREA STRUCTU- DESIGN OF PRE-STRESSED 292

RILOR DIN BETON PRE- CONCRETE STRUCTURES FOR

COMPRIMAT LA INCOVOIERE, BENDING, SHEAR AND TORSION

FORTA TAIETOARE SI

TORSIUNE

Consideratii teoretice General aspects

Elemente precomprimate incovoiate l Bending pre-stressed concrete member

pentru starea limita de rezistenta design in the ultimate limit state

Proiectarea in. starea limita de Ultimate limit state design for shear rezistenta la forta taietoare

Starea limita de rezistenta la torsiune Starea limita de exploatare

.... .Proiectarea unui element de beton preeomprimat cu armatura preintinsa

Ultimate limit state design for torsion Serviceability limit state design

Design of pre-stressing. member with pretensioned tendons

DETAIUNG PROVISIONS General

Steel for reinforced concrete Pre-stressing units Structural members

provocate de Limitation of damage due to. accidental

'irf~~&.L""'L""Upentru beton armat 7Chlenlente de pretensionare ~I,e,JJl1en[e structurale defectelor

actions .

279 280 ' 284

292 294

294

295 295 300

316 316 318 330 332 346

3

AUTORII VOLUMULUI - AUTHORS

Cap. 2 Prof. Corneliu BOB - Timisoara

Cap. 3 Prof. Ovidiu MIRSU, Ing. Liana BOB - Timisoara

Cap. 4 Prof. Tudor CLIPIT - Timisoara, Prof. Constantin TREZOS - Athens

Cap. 5 Prof. loan CADAR - Timisoara, Prof. Doina NOUR - Iasi

Cap. 6 Prof. Anton lONESCU, Ing. Calm MIRCEA - Cluj-Napoca

Prof. Valeriu STOIAN, Ing. Luminita FEKETE - Timisoara

Dr. ing. Agneta TUDOR - Timisoara, Prof. Andre PLUMIER - Liege

Ing. Aurora FLOREA - Timisoara,

Prof. lldiko BUCUR, Ing. Calm MIRCEA-Cluj-Napoca

Prof. Corneliu BOB - Timisoara

Prof. Cornel FURDUI - Timisoara

Prof. Nicolae FLOREA - Iasi

Dr. ing. Stefan IOSIP-MOT. Dr. ing. Cornel JIV A - Timisoara

Prof. Traian ONET. Prof. Cornelia MAGUREANU - Cluj-Napoca

pro ing. Aurel IRHASIU- Timisoara

Ing. Emilian lORGOV AN

5

1. PREFATA 1. PREFACE

. Betonul este un material unic, fiind eel mai Concrete is ubiquitous and unique; it is the

folosit la edificarea constructiilor. Aceasta most used building and construction material. This realitate ridica importante intrebari despre cum pot raises important questions of how concrete should fi proiectate, realizate si' pastrate in viitor be designed, constructed and kept with all constructiile de beton annat ·la costuri aeceptabile requirements for cost effective use in the short and pentru diferite perioade de utilizare si, in acelasi long term. Equally, it must also be aesthetic timp, avand un aspect estetic multumitor, Pe de presentation In structures and yet encourage

.... alta .parte sunt necesare eforturi pentru incurajarea further radical development.

. viitoarelcr dezvoltari in domeniu, A possible answer at these questions and. other

·)!·Un posibil raspuns la aceste probleme cat si la future aspects could he obtained from the altele care mai pot sa apara in viitor il reprezinta . European Regulation System for concrete i:)"H.""'Uo,u european de normative pentru structurile Structures.

beton, The present volume contains both numerical Prezentul volum contine un apreciabil numar Examples and corresponding theory in accordance exemple de calcul si teoria specifica fiecarui with Eurocode 2 -EC2 -"Design of concrete

~ .. 'nv'£. ambele in concordanta cu prevederile din Structures".

;urc)coIQuI2 -EC 2- "Proiectarea structurilor din The chapters of the book were prepared by

authors which are staff members of:

-"Politehnica" University of Timisoara, Romania

-Technical University of Cluj-Napoca,

Romania

-"Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iassy, Romania

-National Technical University of Athens, Greece

-University of Liege, Belgium

This volume intends to make Eurocode 2 familiar to a wider circle of engineers from Romania and not only. For this reason the book was written in Romanian and English .. The book briefly follows the corresponding chapters of Eurocode 2. The presentation referred not only to the provisions of EC2, but also to the relevant provisions of the existing Romanian Code and other European National Norms on concrete. structures. Special attention was paid to some subjects like: Basis of Actions Calculation; Strut and Tie Method; Fire Resistance. Such chapters, only scantily treated in EC2, will help the readers in understanding the other subjects of the book.

The authors used, as it was possible, the symbols, notations and units from the Eurocode 2. The Formulas, Tables, Figures and References have been numbered, separately. to each chapter. The numbers of the chapters, formulas, figures and tables from EC2 and other' references are written in "italics" .

The editors wish to thank all that contributed to

~~~'v£u" care au conceput capitolele prezentei apartin de corpurile profesorale de la aatoarere scoli de constructii:

i1ivcm;itau~ "Politehnica" Timisoara niversitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca

Tlh'PrC~itl'lltp.$l Tehnica "Gheorghe Asachi" din

Tehnica Nationala din Atena,

ersitatea Tehnica din Liege, Belgia

volum se intentioneaza sa se faca

¥uu ' n .. prevederi ale Eurocodului 2

cere de ingineri din Romania si nu acest considerent lucrarea este scrisa in si engleza. Capitolele din carte se . la cele existente in EC 2. de asemenea, referiri la

din normele romanesti si cele privind structurile din beton speciala s-a acordat si unor fi: Bazele pentru calculul sistemelor de bare; Rezistenta abordate succint in EC 2. mai buna receptare a intregului

atat cat a fost posibil, si unitatile de masura din tabelele, figurile si lista .p.umerotate pentru fiecare la numerotarea • figurllor si tabelelor din

7

EC2 si alte surse bibliografice sunt scrise In "italic",

Editorii doresc sa multumeasca tuturor celor care au contribuit la reusita realizarii acestei carti: autori, participanti la Seminarul de la Timisoara din Iulie 1996, sponsori, colectivul de tiparire si prof. o. MIRSU pentru sprijinul acordat la verificarea manuscrisului lucrarii. Totodata isi exprima speranta unei primiri corespunzatoare a volumului dill partea cititorilor.

Timisoara, November 1996

the success of the Book, the authors, the participants to the Timisoara Seminar in July 1996, the sponsors, the publishers. Particular thanks must be given to prof. o. MIRSU for his final check of the manuscript. Finally, they hope that the present volume will find a corresponding approval by the readers.

Prof. Corneliu BOB

pentru Geotehnica SI

2. BASIS OF DESIGN IN EUROPEAN NORMS

the uly liar his ipe mg

2.BAZELE PROIECT ARII IN NORMELE EUROPENE

2.1 EUROCODURILE. CONCEPTE DE BAZA

2.1 EUROCODES. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

In the construction sector, the following associations are involved in the preparatory work for international standardisation:

Ideea realizarii unor modele pentru un set de "Coduri Internationale", in vederea proiectarii tuturor tipurilor de St:ructuri pentru constructii a aparut in 1974 si s-a bazat pe 0 . intelegere intre mai multe organizatii tehnico-stiintifice. La actrvname initiale de realizare a codurilor internationale au fost .\LlLIJu ... ' .... - urmatoarele organizatii stiintifice[2.7]:

CEB-Euro-Intemational Committee for Concrete

Internationala pentru Beton Precomprimat

FIP-Irliernational Federation for Prestressed Concrete

IABSE-International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering

cm-International Council for Building Research, Studies and Documentation

Internationala a Laboratoarelor de ~elrceltan pentru Materiale si Constructii

RILEM-International Assoc. of the Testing and Research Lab. for Materials and Constructions

ECCS-European Convention for Constructional Steelworks

nit pentru Siguranta Structurilor

ICSS-Joint Committee and Structural Safety

eurocodunlor pentru structuri a avut, inca bidimensional (geografic si europene cat si pentru diferite tIietode de executie si tipuri de ela;S~)i;ijthp'i·s ... a . urmarit obtinerea unei coduri de proiectare in vederea .tle'sl'gUtantacomparabile [2.5].

. al~iJ relaborarii Eurocodurilor pentru .. clfreiparticipa Ia aceste activitati,

, ,;-<r,

ISSMFE-International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

The ··technical . basis was prepared for a formal establishment of the "Structural

Eurocodes" with a two-

dimensional harmonisation:

. across the border of states, between different construction materials, construction methods and types of buildings and civil engineering works [2.5].

9

Etape ale elaborarii Eurocodului EC 2

The political and legal background for Structural Eurocodes . are presented in Table. '2.1 ; more attention is paid to. Eurocode 2

The objectiv of the future European Regulation System was born in 1976.

The work on EC2 started in 1979 and was originally based on

1----+-------------------1 the CEBIFIP ModelCode 1978

initiaza A CEC Comission established

in 1981 the programme for a total set of eight volumes (EC9 was

1------1--------------------1 later decided) of Eurocodes:

1979 Incepe elaborarea Eurocodului EC2 avand la baza .

Co.dul Mo.del CEBIFIP 1978 EC 1: for actions on structures

1981 0 comisie aCEC stabileste programul pentru opt . EC2: for concrete.reiforced Eurocoduri (EC9 a fost propus pentru elaborare mai concrete and prestressed concrete

tarziu): structures

EC1: Bazele proiectarii si actiunii in constructii EC3: for steel structures

. EC2: Structuri de beton, beton armat si beton EC4: for composite steel and

precomprimat concrete structures

EC3: Structuri de otel EC5 for timber structures

EC4: Structuri compuse otel-beton EC6: for masonry structures

EC5: .Structuri de lemn EC7: for foundations and

EC6: Structuri de zidarie geotechnical structures

EC7: Fundatii si inginerie geotehnica EC8: for structures in seismic

EC8: Structuri in zone seismice zones

EC9: Structuri de aluminiu EC9: for aluminium structures

1984' Elaborarea priinului "Raport tehnic" al EC2 A first draft for EC2 was

I-- __ +- ~ published in 1984.

1987 -CEC "da. mandat" Comisiei Europene de In 1985: partly very detailed Standardizare CEN pentru stabilirea unor standarde comments have been elaborated

armonizate J and were assessed in 1986 and

-Elabo.rarea primelo.r comentarii ale EC2 1987 by the Editorial Group for

I

1989 Elaborarea si apro.barea rapo.rtului final ptr. EC2 EC2.

1990 CEN creeaza "Comitetul tehnic CENffC 250 A revised final Draft was

Eurocoduri pentru structuri cu 9 subcomitete SC approved in 1989. In 1990 Sub-.

mandatate a definitiva Eurocodurile, Committee 2(SC2) of TC250 of

.' CEN was formed,

1991 Ec2 este elaborat in forma unui "Prestandard EC2 . was insued in form of an

EuropeanENV', aprobat de SC2 European Pre-Standard ENV at the end .of 1?~Land EC2-Partl. have been elaborated in 1992.

1------------1--------------------------------------------------- ..... --1

1992 EC2-Partea 1 "Reglementari generale si regulipentru In Figure 2.1 future regulation'

Co.nstructii: este definitiva . system for concrete structures is '

In figura 2.1 . este prezentata schema de alcatuire privind presented. It is concerned with the reglementarile tehniceeuropene pentru beton. Acestea se refera essential requirements for la- cerintele . esentiale • privind rezistenta, explo.atarea· si resistance, . serviceability and

durabilitatea structurilor de .beton, durability of concrete structure.

Eurocodul 2, parte a sistemului de reglernentari europene, are drept obiect cerintele esentiale privind rezistenta, exploatarea si durabilitatea constructiilor de beton armat si . beton precomprimat, Unele dintre secventele rnai importante ale elaborarii eurocodurilor in general si Eurocodului 2(EC2) in special sunt prezentate in tabelul 2.1.

Tabel2.l

Anul

Organizatii si obiective

1976

Comisia Comunitatii Europene (CEC) obiectivul armonizarii normelor tehnice

10

1 I 1

n

,-----,

I I

__ ....J

:d :U IS

:d :e

VI VI m wc

..... _

:::>~ u·5

:::> CD ....

- ....

t.n~

ClI

- VI

~ClI g-:;

0= u ..,_"'O

0:5

ClI .... C o > ....

'" ~ W ClI

UJ =

.d

<n
.... OJ
en
:::J -0
-0
0 ....
za, CD d

.C

ClI

:::> ClI

~-o. c:::; W.§:§§

c:otno...U

IS

on -0 C cucn w ~C co 0"0 ..cc::

c:: '" =-

d d d

f'J c::
L.,) 0
In W
<, ..<::i
c::> <..:) c::
LO 3: :0
c-s
L.,) ....
..- 0
:z ._
= - en
in :::E g c::
c:lQ....._o
w=_
-r c:::> V> -
== c:: u
~ ~<..:) a :::J
u
L.,) => -
-' <..:) V>
..- 0 c::
w:z: a
c::>-- ......
::.:;:::>
= "-= U
WJ :::::tc)cur.....,)
L.,) ~3C~~ :::J a.
'- :::J
'-' <:I
:::> "-
en
E '" en
:::J .... E "0 c:: 0
.... 8~QJ c...:..:: ClI
"E ClI - _-
.... OJ :::> .... .... '-
ClI a.m. .... 0 0 c
~ c.. . c:.!::: <.::>3: a.. Q...
c:::> E'- VI
:z: - """u I.!J ~ OJ
UJ w:Z;""""G,J-- '-
W ..-L..I..JLnt-Clc""')Q,. <..:)
;;:: 0.:. t:n c::

u o

C.

= ......

W

:z: u.,I c...>

tehnice europene pentru beton t<''''"",'np~l'' Regulation system for concrete

ClI '"
cu '"
.!:! "'C) :=
E c:: E
c:: E :::> E
.:c:: u
cu a cu 0
U en '-'
0 - -0
~.~ '" c::
._ c:: :=0
E..c; E '-'
<:I ClI <:I '"
W 0- W V)
W W
,_ V)
.<!
..-
c::>
= .----,

.-1 :

·1 I

.... ~

;;" -S.v;...~

........ L.... .:::J"'_.>o. ClIc::-U::

z g OJ~-

··L.I.J_U~O

---I

.J

L ~

2.2"Bi\SIS OF DESIGN. GENERA CONCEPT{2.5)

In concordanta cu ECl, Cap. 2. 1., comun hlillfor [',i':A_Ccording to EC 1, Chap.2.1 eurocodurilor, proiectarea, constructia- si intretinerea, vorsttUcnires shall be designed asigura: .' -cbnstruct~d and maintained tc

i ~thi¥ve:~' '.

-performante adecvate sub toate actiunile posibile; ;." .... -.",:-~.!!2.9n aqequately under al

-durabilitate adecvata in corelatie cu costurile de mentinere . ~2'p~,~!~~¥tions;

sub influenta tuturor actiunilor; .',,-~dH.RY.e' adequate durabilitj

-in cazul unor actiuni exceptionale, avariile care rezulta sa nu inrelan'89 t.~ maintenance costs; aiba un caracter disproportionat fata de cele care apar din alte..,,-!igt'l\~js~breqiienpy damaged solicitari. disp~<?k2rtion~tely tothe original caus~. in the caSe of exception ill hazards, .. ,~

In.fi:in~ti()n(jf economic and social . consequences _ of failure lliereare:

Class 1: Low risk .'

2.2 CONCEPTUL GENERAL DE PROIECTARE

In functie de consecintele economice si sociale ce apar la rupere exista trei clase de rise:

Clasa 1: Rise scazut cu consecinte economice si sociale mici sau neglijabile

Clasa 2: Rise mediu cu consecinte economice si sociale considerabile

Clasa 3: Rise ridicat cu consecinte economice si sociale

foarte man

2.2.1. Principiile de proiectare la starile Iimita

Starile Iimita sunt imaginate a fi marginile unui domeniu in interiorul caruia structura satisface eriteriul de proiectare, Starile limita sunt definite a fi:

Starile Iimita ultime, care sunt asociate cu colapsul sau alte forme ale ruperii structurii,

Startle Iimita de exploatare, corespunzand stadiului dincolo de care cerintele privind 0 exploatare normala nu mai sunt satisfacute,

Pentru starile limita ultime si pentru cele de exploatare, Ia care depasirea uneia cauzeaza 0 degradare permanenta, cerintele de proiectare, pentruuncazsimplu, sunt:

s, ~ a, (2.1)

valoarea de proiectare a efectului actiunii fiind:

Sd.=S(Fd,ad,fd) (2.2)

weare:

F d este valoarea de proiectare a unei actiuni,

aa-valoarea de proieetare a unei marimi geometrice,

fd-valoarea de proiectare a unci proprietati a materialului;

, Class 2: Medium risk

Class 3: High risk

2.2.1. Principles of limit state design

Limit states are the

boundaries of a domain within which the: . structure is assumed to satisfy the design criteria and are classified into:

Ultimate limit states which are those associated with collapse or with other forms of structural failure.

SerViceability limit state are those associated with, specified service criteria for normal use.

.; .. "._., .,,~,.r . "

For the ultimate limit state and those serviceability limit states, where.the passage .of'a limit state causes. a permanent

'damage, the design requirements

may be witten by equation (2.1) and (2.2)for the simplest case.

where:

"'''Fd is the design value of an action,

~ is the design value of geometrical quantity.

fd is the design value of material property;

1. d, to

Pentru celelalte cazuri ale starilor limita de exploatare, conditia de proiectare poate fi scrisa: s, =S(Fd,ad,fd)~C

(2.4)

design value Rd of the resistance may be obtained from equation (2.3)

In . other cases of

serviceability limit states the design requirements can be written by equation (2.4), where:

·Sd is the design value of an action effect relevant for the serviceability limit state as a deflection, the intensity of vibrations, a crack with etc., .

C is a limit condition corresponding to the action effect s,

A comparison between

Romanian Norm, STAS

10107/0-90 and EC2 concerning the limit states is presented in Table 2.2. There are three main differences:

-the principle of classification

-no more requirements in

Romanian Norm concerning the durability; ,

-inclined crack theory for shear resistance in Romanian Norm ..

,L

iar valoarea de proiectare a rezistentei este:

R, = R(ad,fd)

tIl

in care:

Sd este valoarea de proiectare a unui efect relevant pentru starile limita de exploatare, cum ar fi deformatiile, intensitatea deschiderea fisurilor etc.;

ty

"

:d al al

limita corespunzatoare efectului actiunii Sd

Id re

. tabelul 2.2 se prezinta, comparativ, startle limita dupa romanesc STAS 10107/0-90 si dupa prevederile din .Se constata, urmatoarele diferente:

model diferit a1 clasificarii starilor limita;

ibsenta din standardul romanesc a prevederilor referitoare la elementelor;

calculul la taiere se pastreaza teoria rezistentei in

te

Ie in ~d Id

caracteristica Q ~ combinata 'V 0 Q It frecventa W I Qrr.:

cvasi permanenta 'V 2 Q It

2.2.2 Basic variables

Actions are classified in

function of;

a) Time variation: -permanent actions ~

-variable actions with the

values: characteristic Qk. combination 'V oQIt. . frequent

'VIQk. quasi-permanent 'V2Qk

-accidental actions Ak

;h th

-::actiunipermanente: G It - valoare medie

accidentale.A, - valoareunica

lor in spatiu: actiuni fixe si actiuni b) Spatial variation: fixed and

free actions;

structurii: actiuni statice si actiuni c) Structural response: static

and dynamic actions

Starile limita Limit state

, Tabel2.2

EC2'1992

STAS 10107/0-90

, /1. Stari.limita ultima ultimate limit state

Stari limita"

"2. Stari limita de exploatare serviceability limit state 1. Stari Iimita ultime:

-pierderea echilibrului partial sau total al unei structuri; loss of equilibrium of the structure or only

part of it . .

-cedarea prin exces de' deformatii, rupere, pierderea stabilitatii ale unei parti sau intregii structuri (inclusiv reazemele si fundatiile); failure by excessive. deformation, rupture or loss of stability

2. Stari Iimita de exploatare:

-deformatii ori deplasari care afecteaza aparent ori efectiv utilizarea structurii care cauzeaza avarii elementelor de fmisaj sau nestructurale; deformations or deflections wich affect the appearence or effective use of the structure or cause damage to finishes or non-structural elements;

-vibratii care cauzeaza discomfort oamenilor, distrugerea structurii sau constructiei in ansamblu ori limitari functionarii normale; vibration which causes discomfort to people, damage to the building or its contents;

-fisuri ale betonului care afecteaza durabilitatea, permeabilitatea sau/si aspectul; cracking of the concret which' is likely to affect appearance, durability or water tightness adver;

-degradari ale betonului in prezenta unei coroziuni agresive care conduc la micsorarea durabilitatii; damaging of concrete in the presence of excessive compression which is likely to lead to loss 0 durabili .

1. Starea limita de rezistenta in sectiuni normale a elementelor solicitate la incovoiere compresiune excentrica SI intindere excentrica.

Ultimate limit state for elements resistance subjected to bending and axial load

2. Starea Iimita de rezistenta in sectiuni incIinate.

Ultimate limit state for shear resistance (Inclined crack theory).

'4. Starea limita de oboseala Serviceability limit state for fatigue,

3. Starea Iimita de rezistenta a elementelor solicitate la incovoiere eu torsiune.

Ultimate limit state for torsion resistance

5'. Starea limita de fisurare Serviceability limit state for cracking

6. Starea limita de deformatii Serviceability limit state for deformations

Proprietatile materialelor sunt definite de valorile Material properties are,

caracteristice, notate fk,eare corespund unui fractil ales pentru represented / by their

. distributia statistica a unei proprietati.particulare .a.materialului ,ch:;uac.teristic.y~ue, _Jk •. which, (eel mai folosit este fractilul 5%). 0 valoare caracteristica este corresponds to an a priori asociata cu rezultatele determinarilor experimentale, efectuate specified fractile of the assumed pe epruvete. Exemplificari privind stabilirea proprietatilor statistical distribution of

betonului si armaturilor vor fi prezentate la paragraful 2.3.1. particular' property of material (usually 5%); procedures for the den erminatioi of characteristic values shall

specified (see 2.3.1).

Geometrical data

deviate from the specified in function of:

Datele geometrice sunt afectate de deviatiile, mai mari sau mai mici, de la valorile inscrise intr-un proiect, Aceste deviatii pot fi concentrate in urmatoarele treigrupe:

14

ie

(2.5) (2.6) (2.7)

-the overall shape and size of the structural system

-the shape of the components

-the shape and size of cross

sections, support areas,

connections etc.

The geometrical

represented by

characteristic values, 8.k. usually correspond to specified by the designer.

data are their which these

-deviatii ale formei . si dimensiunilor geometrice ale structurii;

-forma elementelor componente ale structurii;

-forma si dimensiunile sectiunilor transversale, suprafata

reazernelor, legaturile diverse.

geometrice sunt reprezentate de valorile

notate Cl!c. care corespund, in general, celor i,.m,entlOl1lale in proiecte.

a eu

Valorile de proieetare

efectuarea calculelor privind determinarea eforturilor a elementelor, variabilele de baza sunt in proiectare cu valorile de calcul (de proiectare)

2.2.3. Design values

The basic variables are introduced into the calculation model with their design values.

Fd =Y (Fit;

fd = 11 . fit; I Y m ad = alt; ±.rut

F d for actions

fd for material properties ~ for geometrical data ;_

See equations (2.5), (2.6) and (2.7) where:

d sunt valorile de calcul ale actiunilor, proprietatilor . si respectiv datelor geometrice;

sunt valorile caracteristice ale actiunilor, materialului si datelor geometrice;

factori specifici pentru actiuni si proprietatile

Fit; ,fit; , a It; are characteristic

values of actions, material properties and geometric data

Y (. Y ~ are specific factors for actions and material properties; :M -additive geometrical data tl.. are _ conversion factors from laboratory data to those which are used in a structure design.

geometnce aditionale

. conversie,' prin care valoarea determinata prin

laborator este convertita la una care apare m

ultime, combinatiile considerate sunt: si eomblnatii accidentale,

2.2.4. Combination of the actions

Actions shall be combined so that . they produce- the· most unfavourable effect on the structure for the' limit state considered.

For the ultimate limit state there are: fundamental combinations and accidental combinations.

valoarea deproiectare a For

fundamental

combinate incat sa produca efectul eel ~0.4'IJ.L'" . structurilor in cazul starilor limita

+ LYQ'VoQk.i +YpPk sunt date in tabelul 2.3

combinations, the design value (2.8) Sd is evaluated by the loads

given in equation (2.8)

(Table 2.3).

Valorile coeficientilor de siguranta pentru combinatii fundamentale Numerical values of specified factors for fundamental !

combinations

Tabel2.3

Coeficienti de siguranta Safety Efect nefavorabil Unfavourable Efect favorabil Favourablt.
coefficients effect effect
Actiuni permanente, Gle Yo=1.35 , Yo=1.0
Permanent action
Actiuni variabile, QIe Yo=1.50 Yo=1.0
Variable .actions
Forta de precomprimare, Pie yp=1.2 sau (or) 1.0 yp=0.9 sau (or) 1.0
Prestressingforce In cazul combinatiilor accidentale, valoarea de proiectare a efectuluiactiunii Sd este:

in care:

YOA=l sau este dat in normative nationale;

Ge-valoarea caracteristica a actiunilor permanente;

<al-valoarea caracteristica a uneia (cea mai importanta) actiune variabila;

<ai-valOri caracteristice ale altor actiuni variabile;

AJc-valoarea de proiectare, dependenta de timp, a - actiunilor indirecte (actiunea seismica);

"'0;0/1.1."'1.2 -factori de combinare a actiunilor (vezi Cap. 3)

Pentru starile limita de - exploatare exista trei tipuri de combinatii:

-Combinatii rare, folosite in cazurile in care la depasirea unei stan limita se cauzeaza 0 degradare Iocala permanenta sau 0 deformatie neacceptabila;

-Combinatii frecvente, folosite in cazurile in care la depasirea unei stari limita se cauzeaza degradari locale, deformatii mari sau vibratii care sunt temporare

-Combinatii cvasi-permanente folosite pentru efecte de lunga durata importante.

For accidental combinations, the design value Sd is evaluated by the loads given in equation (2.9) where:

YOA=l or from National Norms;

GK-characteristic value of permanent actions; QJc.l-characteristic value of one( the main) variable action; QJc.j-characteristic values of the other variable actions; - Alt""time dependent design

value of J!!~ect actions

(seismic action);

"'0. "'1.1. '" 1.2 factors of actions (see Chap.

For the serviceability states there are three types combinations:

-The rare combinations used mainly in those cases excedance of a limit state a permanent local dam,age

permanent -

deformation.

.. The frequent are used mainly in those whenexcedance . of a _ -

causes local damage,

deformations or

which are temporary .

.. The combinations long _ term importance.

2.3. BAZELE PROIECTARU IN EC:2 SI STAS 10107/0-90

Armonizarea dintre normele europene, in cazul 'analizei de

fata Eurocodul 2 si standardul romanesc STAS 10107/0, ,),presupune atat cunoasterea prestandardului european' cat si ... 111""'''~·~ in evidenta a diferentelor si asemanarilor care exista aceste norme. La acest deziderat isi propune sa raspunda

:qII1tpaJrau:a care urmeaza a. fi prezentata si care se refera, in nncipat, la proprietatile materialelor, dar si la starea de eforturi Nu. ... .a.V .•. LU' ..... ·,.· pentru proiectarea la starile limita ultime la ,l"n,"n1,prp si forta axiala,

as, :ed on

rezistentelor caracteristice si de calcul ale cu precizarea factorilor specifici, sunt prezentate in (in EC2 valorile din tabel sunt date in sectiunile 3.1

tal

of

of

Rezistentete caracteristice:

Rck = (0.87 - 0.002Rbk)Rbic

= 135;Ybi = 150

2.3. BASIS OF DESIGN IN EC2 AND ROMANIAN NORM

The issue of EC2 is' a first important step to harmonise Romanian regulations for design and construction of concrete structure. Some comparisons between EC2 and Romanian Norm STAS 10107/0-92 are presented concerning: material properties, design stress-strain curves, strain and stress distribution at the ultimate limit state etc.

2.3.1. Materfal-properties 2.3.1.1. Concrete

The definition of the

characteristic and' design value of concrete strength are presented in Table 2.4 (EC2: 3.1 and 4.2.1).

fem (Rb) is average value of concrete compressive strength

fclc (Rbk) is the charact, 28 days compressive strength measured on cylinders fet or on cubes Rt,t;

Ret . is the characteristic

compressive strength calculated as cylinders strength from cube strength;

fctm is the mean tensile strength in uniaxial tension;

fcd(Rc) is the design value of concrete compressive strength;

Yc(Ybc) is partial safety

coefficient for concrete.

In Figure 2.2 the definition of the characteristic . strength is shown.

n is number of samples; s is standard deviation;

fco.os and fcO.9s are fractiles for mimmum (5%) and maximum (95%) values.

025fcdcO.OS LRd =

In figura 2.2 este prezentat modul de definire a rezistentelor

caracteristice (minime) in care: n este numarul de epruvete; s este deviatia standard;

fco.os si fco.95 sunt fractilii pentru valorile minime (5%) si

maxime (95%) .

From Table 2.4 it can be seer the necessity of a transformatior factor for cube strength tc characteristic compressive strength.

In Fig. 2.3 is shown the relationship between cube and cylinder strength of concrete; the correspondence between EC2 and Romanian Norm concerning concrete class C as well as Be is also illustrated.

Se observa valorile diferite ale factorilor specifici cat si necesitatea introducerii factorului de conversie pentru valoarea deterrninata pe cuburi a rezistentei la compresiune a betonului; in normele romanesti rezistenta la .compresiune a betonului se determina pe cuburi, in timp ce in structura compresiunea este de tipul rezistentei prismatice (cilindrice). Corelatia dintre rezistenta cubiea si rezistenta eilindrica cu punerea in evidenta a claselor de beton dupa cele doua standarde, este redata in in fig 2.3.

In conforrnitate cu tabelul 4.8 din EC2 rezistenta la forte taietoare (efortul unitar tangential de calcul) pentru elemente fara armare la forte taietoare este:

The basic design shear strength of members without shear reinforcement (Table '4.8

· 6/ Ee2) are given by formula (2.10)

(2.10)

Valorile de proiectare pentru efortul unitar de lunecare, in cazul unor conditii bune de aderenta sunt:

The design values for the ultimate bond stress for bond conditions are: -formula (2.11) for plain bars

036.Ji:

fbd = ck ; bare netede

Yc

225fcdcoos

fbd = . ; bare profilate

Yc

(2.11)

(2.12)

-formula (2.12) for high DOntl. .bars

Design value of strength' derived from the

values by applying

appropriate partial safety for concrete (see equation

The values of strength modulus of elasticity are in Table 2.5 (from Table Eel and Table 3 of

, 10107/0-90) and Fig. 2.4.

The difference between

, ,

Valorile de' calcul ale rezistentelor se deduc din valorile caracteristice prin aplicarea unui coeficient partial de siguranta Y pentru beton conform relatiei (2.6).

Valorile rezistentelor (conform tab. 3.1 din EC2 si tab 3 din STAS 101 07/0-90) sunt redate in tabelul 2.5 si figura 2.4. Deosebireaesentiala dintre cele doua norme este evidentiata de modalitatea diferita de stabilire a modulului de elasticitate . a betonului: in normele romanesti se determina modulul de elasticitate tangent la diagrama efort unitar-deformatie specifica; in' EC2 se stabileste 0 valoare secanta a modulului de elasticitate, in conformitate cu formula data in tab. 2.5.

In acest fel se explica valorile mai mici ale modulului de elasticitate dupa EC2 fata de STAS '10107/0-90 pentru valori mai ridicate ale claselor de betoane.

two norms concerning modulus 'of elasticity Romanian Norm define modulus by the tangent stress-strain diagram; In modulus is defined by from Table 2.5 as a secant, stress-strain diagram.

18

.en .on to lye

d ~ c OJ > u OJ L

4-

s=r~i~1(fei -fem}

fe D.os( fck} = fem -1.65 S fe 0.95 = fem + 1.65 s

1,65'SI

.

. J.

fe 0.95

.ear out 4.8

Fig 2.2 Definirea rezistentelor caracteristice Definition of the characteristic strenght

C 50/60

C 45/55

C 40/50

C 35/45

25/30

L.) CD

40 -R ezistentn cubicu Cube strenght'

~""'¥.~".~ H.£.1""""L ... cubica-rezistenta cilindrica '1'JT1(IM·C'I1Hl n",'u,m ... cube and cylinder strength

V"l ~ 0
C'i 0 00 M ..... 0'1 M 0
0 0 V"l V"l M ~ 0
V V"l N V"l t"-
U M
~ M
E- O
V"l 00
- V"l M 0 00 t"- 0'\ 0 \00 V"l 0
V"l V"l V V"l M N ..,; 0 ot"- V t"-
V M \0 C:OC:O
U M
V"l e- OO V"l
- 0 V"l V"l \0 V"l0 0
0 0 00 ..0 00
V V N ..,; 0\0 \0
"<:t' N M C:OC:O M
U
~ ~ M 0,0 \0
.s V"l V"l V"l M ~ N N V'O 0
M "<:t' M N ..,; 0'V"l .... V"l
U M N M C:OC:O M
III U
.....
ti <,
M V 0 \1")0
s::: - 0 00 0 0'\ 00 0 M V"l 00 V"l
0 0 r- M M N C'i N M 0 O"<:t' N V
U M M 0 N C:OC:O
U M
.... ~ t"-- 0 0 00 M.
t: V"l \0 00 M 0 MO 0
~O M 0 M V"l ..,;
~ N M N ..... M 0 0 o"<:t' '¢
..... C:OC:O N
~ U M
.S M 0 \1")0 V"l
0 N 14'"\. 0'\ 0 NO 0
00 0 0:::>
N N M M ..- N OM M
.- 0'\ C:OC:O N
N
r-- O 00 \0
1.0 V 0:::> ~ M 14'"\ 0 N\I") 0
.... N M I V"l ON
.- ...... .- t"- C:LC:O ....
~ N
-.
~ .- 0 \1")0 14'"\
- N 0 ~ .... 0 _0 0
0 NI4'"\ .- N CO N I 0 ON M N
t: .- .... .... \0 C:OC:O ....
~ U N
s:::
~ 00
.... 14'"\ 14'"\ 14'"\
0 .... 00 .-
c:oc:o .-
II)
s:: d
.-
s:: ~
s rn
'N
. .8 e
CIS '"3
0
S ta
0
§
rn
.-
.~
.g E ( KN )

b mmL

..

LEGENDA'

STAS 10107/0 EC 2

5 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Be

16 20 25

20 25 30

12 15

30 37

35 45

40 50

45 55

c

Fig. 2.4 Valorile rezistentelor si moduli lor de elasticitate Values of strength and modulus of elasticity

generaJa a diagramei efort unitar defonnatie specifica cazul solicitarii la compresiune este prezentata in fig.

(fig. 4.2 dupa EC2): diagrama idealizata cat si diagrama proiectare a structurilor de beton arrnat suntdate printrmodel materna tic exprimand 0 diagrama rectangularbolica (Functia 4.2 a EC2). Conform standardului ST AS l07/0-90 se foloseste aceeasi diagrama rectangular ica. Ecuatiile care" reprezinta partea curba a diagramelor

diferite ca forma de scriere, dar continutul este acelasi. care apar se refera Ia valorile diferite ale factorilor ifici, In conformitate cu EC2, este posibila si utilizarea unei.curbe 1"1"""1(' 'h' ce de forma celei din fig. 2.6, care este mai apropiata realitate.

The' general form of the stress-strain diagram for uniaxial compression is shown schematically in Figure 2.5 (Fig. 4.2 of Ee2): .idealised diagram as well as design diagram for structural analysis are given by

; a mathematical model expressed by a parabolic rectangular diagram (Function 4.2 of Ee2).

From Romanian" ST AS

10107/0-90 the same parabolic rectangular diagram" is used - Fig.2.6.

Valorilee-; pentru sectiuni dreptunghiulare

The vallies Cell for reclan ular cross sections Tabel 2.6

Clasa betonului C12/15 C16120 C20125 C25/30 C30137

At first appearance there is a difference between mathematical formulations of the parabolic rectangular diagram in the two

norms, but the formulas give the same values

An actual stress-strain diagram is also used from EC2 (Figure 2.6a). Such diagram can be used to the second order analysis of

concrete structures.

The ultimate limit strain Eel! val ues tor concrete classes are given in Table 2.6.

6'el Re (fed)

T- =-_Oio~~~~ta-- f"

. /--- I Idealised diagram 1 ck

;/-<- ~ = 1000 Eb (250 s, -1 }fek I

~ II I

~lt ~~ --=~~~O~ia~g~r_am __ d~pe~n~t~ru~~

t cOc d

proiec are

Design diagram I

I EC2-92I I

I

deformatia specifica limita a betonului Eel! 2.6 pentru clasele de beton.

-3.2

Ecu, %0 -3.6 -3.5 -3.4 -3.3

Clasa betonului C35/45 C40/45 C45/55 C50/60

Eel .. %., -3.1 -3.0 -2.9 -2.8

~------------r----------+---------~----+-~Eb

0.001 0.002 0.003 0.0035

"b. [E b 0/00 J + E (0 I )

-R-=- 2 b 100

C

STAS

10107/0 -90

0.001 0.002 0.003 0.0035 tb

. . ( ~ 8c.35 )( < Be 35 )

Fig. 2.5 Diagrame caracteristice efort unitar-deformatie specifica pentru solicitare la compresiune

Stress-strain diagrams/or uniaxial compression

22

a al Ie

:m Ire

d of

simplificore

~mplifi cation

--- ~.-(>-.._, --,

I I

I I

I I

0'e k n - n2

T= 1+(k-2)n

n = te / Eel

Ec1= -0.0022

k = (1.1Ec nom}·Eclfc

.

0.4 fe

V---~------r-----+----Ec

Eel Ecu

Fig. 2.6 Diagrama curbilinie efort-unitar deformatie specifica Actual stress-strain diagram

cientul lui Poisson pentru deformatii in domeniul se ia egal cu 0.2 iar daca se admite fisurarea betonului atunci coeficientul se poate presupune zero.

Poison's ratio for elastic strain is 0.2. if cracking is permitted for concrete in tension it may be zero.

The coefficient of thermal expansion may be taken equal to

10x 10-6 PC. '

cientul de dilatare liniara la temperatura se ia egal cu

o-6rc. '

Deformatiile dependente de timp, curgerea lenta si Time dependent

.f-n ....... ",h· a de contractie sunt prezentate in tabelul 2.7 si tabelul deformations, creep and

shrinkage strains. are given In Tables 2.7 and 2.8.

Tabel2.7

Atmosfera umeda

RH=80%

Tabel2.8

Umiditate relativa Relative humidity %

Raport specific: 2Ac/u. mm (National size)

. area

Doua clase de duetilitate se definesc:

Rezistenta reprezinta valoarea nominala a efortului caracteristic de curgere (fvlc) data in NI mnr'.

2.3.1.2. Reinforcing steel

Section 3.2 of EC2 classify the products according to: grade (fvlc), class (ductility), size, surface characteristics and weldability.

Grade denote the value of the specified characteristic yield stress (fvlc) in N/mm2•

Two classes of ductility are

defined: -High (H)

-Normal (N)

For structural analysis in ultimate limit state, the plastic approach may be used for 'very ductile structural elements with high ductility steel. Using linear analysis with redistribution, the condition related to the steel. allowing the omission of an explicit check on the rational capacity of critical zones is (2.14) where 0 is the ratio of the redistribution moment to the initial moment

Surface eharactersties are defined as:

-ribbed bars with high bond action

-plain smooth bars with low bond action

Stress-strain diagram is shown in Fig. 2.7 from EC2 and Romanian Norm, Some differences there are between the specific factors and ultimate limit strains.

Properties of reinforcing steel grade S500Hand 8S00Nof various product from ENV 10080 are presented in Table 2.9a.

In Table 2.9b the properties of steel S420H after DIN 488- BSt 4208 and PC60 after Romanian Norms are presented.

2.3.1.2. Armatura pentru beton armat

In conformitate cu sectiunea 3.2 a EC2 produsele sunt clasificate dupa: rezistenta (notata fvll), clasa (indicand caracteristicile de ductilitate), diametru, caracteristicile suprafetei si sudabilitate,

-inalta (H): EupS.O% cu (ft/f,,)p 1.08 (2.13)

-normala (N): EuP2.S% cu (ft/fy)p1.0S

Pentru analiza postelastica a structurilor la starile limita ultime se admite calculul plastic pentru structuri cu elemente ductile la care se foloseste un otel de inalta ductilitate ... Pentru analiza Iiniara cu admiterea redistributiilor, conditia care se pune otelului folosit (seneglijeaza verificarea capacitatilor de rotire a zonelor critice) este:

s ~ 0.7 pentru clasa H si

o ~ 0.8S pentru clasa N, unde

(2.14)

oeste raportul dintre momentul incovoietor redistribuit la momentul incovoietor dinaintea redistributiei.

Caraeterisncile suprafetei sunt definite de:

-bare profilate cuaderenta sporita;

-bare netede cu aderenta redusa,

Diagrama caraeteristica efort unitar-deformatie speelflea este prezentata in fig. 2.7 atat dupa EC2 cat si dupa STAS 10107/0-90. Se constata diferente numai in ceea ce priv~st~ valorile diferite ale factorilor specifici cat si ale deformatiilor

specifice limita, .

In tabelul 2.9a sunt prezentate proprietatile armaturilor S500H si SSOON in conformitate cu ENVlO080.

. Pentrucomparatie proprietatile otelului S420H. dupa DIN 488, notat Bst 4208 si aleotelului PC60 sunt prezentate in tabelul 2.9b.

24.

ify .de

ze, nd

he .ld

Ire

In :ic ry th ar le :1, In al IS le le

re

w

is d e e e

:1 .(

I e

s

r

IEC2-19921

E ::> 500/00 pentru mare

ou R

ductilitate cu + >1.08 ok

~u> 250/00 pentru ductilitcte

normnld cu ~ot > 1.05

ok.

a).

~: pentru combinujii fundamentale

1.00: pentru combinatii

'----I •

ncci dentate

(farti cut rem ur )

t(fs) =

~----------------------~-+----~E

ISTAS 10107/0-90,1

1.2SRo +-------------_--=-

---

--

. ----- STNS

1.0SRo ..__---:.-~-.-.-.-.-.

Ro+--~~--------------------~

Role

fa

~ _{'IL15,: OB 37; P C '52;60

00 1. 2 : S T N 8

1---.J

Eou = 100/00 qrupnri de incarcari

obisnuite I

E~u = SOD/~O gr~paride incardiri'ma = 1 : pentru vnlori de boz5 cu octiuni seismice

STNS

b) .

Eau = 150100 = Ro i r,

Fig. 2.7 Diagrame caracteristice efort unitar-deformatie specifica ale armaturilor pentru beton armat

Stress-strain diagrams for reinforcing steel

Proprietatile armaturilor de rezistenta si clasa S500H si S500N conform ENV 10080

Properties of reinforcingsteel Tabe12.9a
1 Forma produsului Bare Spire, lite Plase sudate pi)
Product/arm Bars Coils Welded Fabric
2 Rezistenta otelului S500H S500N S500K S500N S500H S500N
Steel grade
3 Diametrul (nun) 61a 40 6la 16 6 la 16 4 Ia 16 61a 16 4la 16 -
Nominal size to to to to to to
4 Limita de curgere fv 500 500 500 500 500 500 0.95
(Nzmnr')
Yield strength
5 Raportul (tt/fy)1c 1.08 1.03 or l.08 1.03 or 1.08 1.03 or 0.95
Ratio 1.05 1.05 1.05
6 Alungire totala la form 5 2 or 5 20r 5 2 or 0.95
maxima(%) 2.5 2.5 2.5
Total elongation at max. ,
force.
7 Aptitudinea la incovoiere Table 3 Table 3 Table 3 Table 3 Table 3 Table 3
(Incercare Ia desdoire) ENV ENV ENV ENV ENV ENV
Suitable for bending
(Rebend test)
8 Rezistenta la oboseala 200 J.) 200 200 200 100 100
(N/nun2)
Fatigue strength
9 Rezistenta sudurilor (N) - - - - O.3jyi;A O.3fy.tA 0.95
Strength Qf welded joints
10 Deviatia permisibila a ±4.5 ±4.5 ±4.5 ±4.5 ±4.5 ±4.5 0.95
maselor(%)
Permissible deviation _." .. ,
from nominal mass 1) Valori pentru probabilitatea p; w= l-a=0.95 sau 0.90

Values for lfrobability '.

2) 150 N/mm pentru diametru for diameter >20mm A-Aria sectiunii transversale a firelor mai groase Nominal cross sectional area of thicker wire

. Proprietatile armaturilor derezistenta si clasa S420HsiPC60

Properties ofrein/orcingsteel S420H and PC60 . Tabel2.9b
Proprietatile Diametrul (mm) Limita decurgere Limita de rupere Alungirea totala
Properties Nominal size fYk (N/mro2) (N/mm2) Ia forta maxima
Yield strength Tensile strength (%).
Total elongation
at max. force
S420H 6Ia28 420 500 10
PC60 61a 12 420' 590 5
14la28 . 405 ,26 ;,'

I ,

·3. Armaturi pentru beton precomprimat

cu EC2, sectiunea 3.3 produsele pentru beton se clasifica dupa: rezistenta (fpo,Ue si fpk), clase nrncanu comportarea la relaxare), diametru si caracteristicile

este definita fie de valoarea efortului unitar ,resPUIlZa'toare unei deformatii specifice de 0.1 % (fpo,lk) fie de efortului unitar maxim (fp0 date in N/mm2; aceste

sunt specificate ca si valori caracteristice prin indicele k 8) ,

EC2 exista trei clase de relaxare (fig.2.9):

1: sarme si toroane cu relaxare mare

IJ'n1,.,"'IT cu ENlO138-1, curbele de relaxare sub incarcari vor la 0 temperatura nominala de 20°C, pentru 0 perioada 1000 ore la 0 incarcare initiala de 70% din forta reala de

duetilirate adecvata este necesara fiind stipulata atat alungire minima Ia forta maxima (3.5% pentru .fire si cat si prin cerinte pentru incovoiere date de incercarea . desdoire pentru fire si gatuirea la rupere pentru fire si

•. Armaturile pentru beton precomprimat vor rezista, fara la doua milioane de cicluri de solicitare, care se h""'''pu," a atinge eforturi maxime de 70% din rezistenta reala a

'-'U.U. .... e&.:>A' .... U." si caracteristicile derezistenta ale sarmelor

la rece sunt date in' tabelul 2.10a, intre care: rezistenta la forta caracteristica si maxima de rupere,' forta

reS1:>UI:LZalCOare deformatiei de 0.1 % etc.' "

tabelul 2.10b sunt prezentate unele caracteristici ~"-'4'>L"""'a.a' la intindere si forta caracteristica de rupere) pentru sarme trase la rece fabricate in Romania.

2.3.1.3. Prestressing steel

According EC2, section 3,3 the products are classified according to grade ((fpo,lk and fpk), class, size and surface characteristics.

Grade denote the value of the 0.1% proof stress (fpo,a) and the value of the tensile strength (fplc) in 'N/mm2; these values are specified in terms of characteristics values by . k (Fig.2.8)

Three classes of relaxation are defined (Fig. 2.9.):

Class 1: wire, and strands, high relaxation

Class 2libid., low relaxation Class J~.J,ars

According to EN 1013 8-1, curves are established at 20°C, for 1000h and initial load of 70% of breaking load.

Adequate ductility is

assumed by specified minimum elongation at maximum load (3.5% for wire and strand) and by requirements for bendability in reverse bends testing for wire and constriction at break for wire and strand •

Material shall withstand

without failure two million cycles of stress fluctuation down from a maximum stress of 70% of the actual strength.

Dimensions and properties of stress relived cold drawn wires are given in Table 2.10a: tensile

strength,' characteristic and.

mmnnum breaking' load,

characteristic proof load of 0.1 % etc.

'10 table 2.10b the tensile strength and . characteristic breaking load of Romanian cold drawn wire are presented.

28

--- ---- -- -- -- ----

2

3

1

Fig 2.8 Diagrama (j - e Diagram (j - e

• % din @'po
12 . 6'p este efortul initial Clasa 1
a - ini tinl
C1J 10 I
t.-
o I
x 8
a I .clasa 3
C1J 6 I
c:::
4 4.5 ClOSG 2
2 l.SI.
0 1·0
0 60 70 80% G'p/fpk Fig. 2.9 Clasele de relaxare Classes of relaxation

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

lEu

N - - 00 I:-- _- M on N on N

~o\doOo\d",;.nMNdo

_NNN-.r-.ron\oI:--O\-

"'E on on 0\ 0\ I:-- I:-- 00 \0 on ENNMMVVon\oI:----

..tddddddddd +

.-
.....
CIl c:.;,
Q)
a ~
.1::::
8 ~
e s:::
.... .S!
0 s:::
- t:::s
~ E::
0
CIl .~
Q) 0
-a tl
....
0 . _
....
. - .~
.....
CIl "-
....
.... ~
8 ~
~ ~
..s::
0 u
Q) ~
-
Q) E::
:§ ~ .0 o

-

e
u
"0 ot:
.S bo
.5)~ 00 0
as ... N I:-- I:--
- ... ,
s~~ .,.. -.r -.r
--
c ._
.l2 2
·is ~
u
~
u
"0
~z·~"l:3
'':: ~ 1.:; !;l
.~ .._,. -_ --S
... ti ~ 0 .,.. 0
.l2~"'t: I:-- IX! v
, N 0\
(,J '<.,)-_ .,..
s~~~ M V \0
U c.ot: ...
as2\.)ooC:l
t::-
0
"'" 000

,~~~

-- -

0000 NI:--NI:-- 1:--\0\0.,..

.- - --

29

capitolele urmatoare,

2.3.2. Distributia eforturilor unitare pentru proieetarea 2.3.2. Stress distribution for sectiunilor

Starile Iimita ultime pentru incovoiere cu forta axiala presupun 0 diagrama rectangulara pentru distributia eforturilor unitare asa cum se arata in fig. 2.10. De asemenea se poate utiliza si o alta distributie dupa cum se va exemplifica in

In conformitate cu EC2 coeficientii specifici distributiei eforturilor unitare sunt ¥c ca si coeficient partial de siguranta pentru beton iar ex este un coeficient care ia in considerare efectul de lunga durata asupra rezistentei Ia compresiune si efectul nefavorabil rezultand din modul de aplicare a incarcarii, Factorul aditional de reducere ex poate fi considerat a fi 0.85 pentru compresiune, dar acesta poate fi redus la 0.80 cand zona comprimata descreste in latime in directia fibrei cele mai comprimate.

cross-section design

According to EC2

4.2.1.3.3(12), in ultimate limit state check for bending and axial forces it is possible to use a rectangular stress distribution as

. given in figure 2.10.

From EC2 the coefficients for stress distribution are ¥c as the partial coefficient for concrete and ex is a coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength and of unfavourable .. effects . resulting from the way the load is applied; it can be assumed to be"0.85or it should be reduced to 0.80:

According to STAS 10107/0- 90 the same rectangular stress distribution is used. The differences between the two norms are only in notations: the actual depth of the neutral axis is x from EC2 and x =1.25x from STASI0I07/0-90; the height of the rectangular stress is 0.8x from EC2 and x from Romanian Norm (see Figure 2.10).

In conformitate cu normele romanesti STAS.1 0107/0-90 se presupune pentru zona comprimata tot 0 diagrama uniforma a eforturilor unitare, Diferenta care apare intre cele doua norme este numai de ordinul notatiilor astfel: adancimea reala a axei neutre este notata x in EC2 si x = 125x in ST AS 1 0107/0-90; inaltimea diagramei dreptunghiulare a eforturilor unitare este 0.8x dupa EC2 si notata cu x dupa Normele romanesti -STAS 10107/0-90 (fig.2.10)

2.4 CALCULUL STRUCTURILOR IN EUROCODUL EO

Calculul structurilorin conformitate cu EC2 (Sectiunea 2.5) ia in considerare patru metode care se bazeaza pe comportarea idealizata folosita:

2.4 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN EUROCODE2

For structural analysis four methods are available in EC2 (Section 2.5) based on common behavioural idealisation used:

-elastic behaviour;

-elastic behaviour with

limited redistribution;

-plastic behaviour including strut and tie models;

-non-linear behaviour

-cornportarea elastica;

-comportarea elastica cu redistributii limitate;

-comportarea plastica incluzand si procedeul modelului de

bare" . ..,.'

-comportarea neliniara

Proiectarea in concordanta cu Teoria Elastidtam. bazata pe

o comportare elastica, considera incarcari caracteristice si coeficienti partiali de siguranta pentru actiuni si conduce la calculul eforturilor sectionale (momente incovoietoare si forte) pe baza unei legi constitutive elastice:

Design according to the Theory of Elasticity. based on elastic behaviour. with characteristic loads and partial safety coefficients for actions means that one first calculates forces and moments using an elastic constitutive law (2.15).

>}"

:2 lit al a

is

)f .g I:

,

it

)-

is

.e o e .S n f. x n

r l 1

E=-0.0035

Lb k

1 1

8

fc k J,fcrJ=cl ~ (iRe)

0.8x

x-

J

r

aC= 0.85 ( 0.80 ) - efecful

de [unga durutf

J

r

Fig. 2.10 Starea limita pentru incovoiere eu forta axiala Ultimate limit state/or bending and axial force

x

.; AoZG'a'Z

r------I Eai I STAS 10107-0 I .....,.__..... AojG'ai

1'-----4 Eon 1--- A an B'an

:t::t:.=;::=~E~a _tt::-- A a G' a

Ebi

Ala Ita Aol~l

1

-,f-- -_.-+-. -- -_'_'~

(2.15)

With the exception of the modulus of elasticity, this constitutive relations is material independent and linear.

In a second step the different /'1 cross-sections are designed with realistic non-linear constitutive laws for steel and concrete

characteristic material

parameters are considered.

(Fig.2.11)

A limited redistribution of elastic moments is possible if a few requirements are fulfilled . guaranteeing a minimum of ductility resp. rotation capacity at locations of maximum moments.

The differential equations, neglecting normal forces, for the beam for the elastic behaviour are (2.16)

In the case of Non-linear Design the differential equations for the beam, neglecting normal forces, that one has to substitute the elastic relation by the nonlinear moment-curvature relation (Fig. 2.11) and. equation (2.17)

. will result, in which:

M, is the moment of the internal stress;

Ma is the moment due to loads.

In relatiile de mai sus, cu exceptia modulului de elasticitate, corelatiile sunt liniare si independente de material. In treapta a doua a calculului, proiectarea diferitelor sectiuni transversale se bazeaza pe legi specifice neliniare pentru otel si beton, in conformitate cu diagramele prezentate anterior (vezi fig. 2.11). In calcul se vor considera parametri caracteristici pentru material si coeficienti partiali de siguranta pentru rezistenta.

Calculul printr-o redlstributie Ilmitata a momentelor incovoietoare elastice este posibil in conditiile in care este garantata 0 minimum de ductilitate adica 0 capacitate de rotire suficienta in zona momentelor incovoietoare maxime.

Ecuatia diferntiala pentru 0 grinda la care se neglijeaza forta axiala, in domeniul elastic este:

(2.16)

Pentru cazul proleetarii nellniare ecuatia diferentiala, pentru acelasi caz, se bazeaza pe relatia neliniara momentcurbura (fig.2.ll)

si deci

Mi==fCYI) p=[itI)] II

(2.17)

in care:

M, este momentul incovoietor al eforturilor interioare;

M, este momentul incovoietor rezultat din actiunea fortelor exterioare.

Avantajele si dezavantaiele celor doua metode sunt [2.6]:

Advantages and

disadvantages of . the two methods are [2.6]:

Teoria elasticltatf! -Este usor de aplicat; .

-Se aplica principiul suprapunerii efectelor;

, The theory of ~Iasticity -Is easy to handle;

-Allows superposition to be

applied;

-Changes of the

reinforcement do not influence the internal force and moment distribution

- The serviceability range is rather well approximated;

The ultimate limit state is not covered correctly (Fig. 2.12)

-Modificarea armaturilor nu influenteaza distributia fortelor interioare si momentelor incovoietoare;

-Domeniul de exploatare este suficient de bine aproximat;

-Starea limita ultima nu este corect apreciata (fig. 12).

32

the
his
1al
ent
ith
lye ~
ete
ial
!d.
of
~a
ed
of
:ty
m
IS,
le
ur
lr
1S
a1
te
1.,-
In
7)
e
0 M

- v'> 11 R

Fig. 2.11 Diagrama caracteristica si coreJatia moment-curbura Constitutive law and moment curvature relation

Analiza liniara Linear analysis

portontri aei ty

~ ::::::;;o:=a, ~. y

d o

v

Fig. 2.12 Relatii pentru proiectare liniara si neliniara Relations for linear and nonlinear design

33

Proiectarea pe baza unci comportari neliniare

-Of era rezultate corecte atat pentru starile limita de serviciu cat si pentru starile limita ultime,

A complete non-linear

design

-Gives correct results for the serviceability as well as for the ultimate limit state;

-Reinforcement influences

the distribution of intern forces and moments;

-The principle of

superposition is no longer valid and load combinations have to be considered;

-Demands numerical means and in general a computer.

Plastic method of analysis without any direct.·· check on rotation capacity may be used for the ultimate· limit state if appropriate ductility conditions are met.

The theory of plasticity is based on [2.6]:

-Armaturile influenteaza distributia eforturilor interioareforte axiale si momente incovoietoare:

-Principiul suprapunerii efectelor nu mai este valabil, combinatiile de incarcari trebuind a fi luate in considerare;

-Pentru aplicare necesita calcule numerice si prezenta calculatorului.

Analiza prin metoda plastica se poate utiliza fara 0 verificare directa a capacitatii de rotire pentru sterile Iimita ultimein conditiile in care conditii specifice de ductilitate sum realizte,

Aplicarea acestei teorii se bazeaza pe cele doua teorii limitative care sunt [2.6]:

Teorema 1:

Limita inferioara a capacitatii portante a structurii este data de sistemul de incarcari (forte) care apartine unei stari de eforturi admisibile fara a fi violate conditiile de curgere.

Theorem 1: A load system which belongs to an admissible stress state, not violating yield conditions, is a lower bound for the bearing capacity of the structure.

Theorem 2: A load system being in equilibrium in a kinematic admissible state of "motion is an upper bound for the bearing capacity of the structure.

.. The method of plasticity is very simple and can be applied easily when a calculation by hand is intended.

Plastic methods are safe methods, m ." the sense of Theorem t. as a .. state of equilibrium is grvmg not violating yield conditions. The Hillerborg strip method for plates belongs to the same class. The yield line theory according to Theorem 2 gives only an upper bound solution; the real bearing capacity of the plate may be smaller.

Teorema2:

Limitasuperioara a capacitatii portante a structurii este data de sistemul de forte, in echilibru, actio nand pe sistemul cinematic in starea de deplasare admisa,

Calculul plastic reprezinta un procedeu simplu si poate fi aplicat usor cand se utilizeaza un calcul manual.

Metodele de calcul plastic reprezinta metode sigure in conformitate cu Teorema 1 atata timp cat, in conditii de echilibru, nu sunt violate conditiile de curgere, In aceeasi clasa de probleme face parte si metoda fasillor. denumita Hillerborg, Pe de alta parte teoria Ilniilor' de rupere, apartinand Teoremei 2 da solutia pentru limita superioara a capacitatii portante; capacitatea portanta reala a placilor poate fi mai mica

34

Metoda modelelor de bare pentru calculul diafragmelor, .aJ.V''''''& ca si a regiunilor specifice ale grinzilor si consolelor o aplicatie speciala a metodei plastice, similar fasiilor a lui Hillerborg. Prin alegera unuisistem de

cu 0 suficienta .ductilitate-conform teoremei l-se poate o solutie sigura,

The use of strut-and-tie method to investigate walls and in plane loaded plates as well as the D-regions of beams and corbels is a special application of the method of plasticity. similar to the Hillerborg strip method. By properly selected truss system provided with sufficient ductility a safe solution may be reached. -

(REFERENCES)

Avak, R.: Stahlbetonbau in Beispielen, Teil l, Wernet: Verlag, 1994

Beeby, A. W.: EC2 -Design for Ultimate Limit States, IABSE Conference, Davos 1992

3. Bieger, K. W. s.a.: Stahlbeton und Spannbetontragwerke nach Eurocode 2, Zweite Auflage, Springer Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, Januar 1995

Bob, C., Vayas, I.: Seminar on Eurocode 2, Timisoara, March 1994; Klidarithmos, Athens Breirschaft, G;: The structural Eurocodes, Conceptual Approach; IABSE Conference, Davos,1992

Eibl, I.: Structural Analysis, IABSE Conference, Davos, 1992 Lambotte, H.: EC2 -Material Data, IABSE Conference, Davos, 1992

Litzner, H.U.: -Overview -Basic Design Concept, IABSE Conference, Davos, 1992

Ramm, W.: Unterlagen zum Praxisseminar Grundlagen und Anvendung des EC2, Teil 1, Universitat Kaiserslautern Bauingenieurwesen 1992

Commission of the European Comunities.. Industrial Processes Building and Civil Engineering, Eurocode No.2: Design of Concrete Structures

British Cement Association: Concise Eurocode for the Design of Concrete Buildings, July 1993

Institutul Roman de Standardizare: STAS 100107/0-90, Calculul si alcatuirea-elementelor structurale din beton, beton annat si beton precomprimat

Deutscher Beton -Verein E.V.: Beispiele zur Bemessung von Betontraywerken nach EC2, Bauverlay GMBH, WEISBADEN und BERLIN, 1994

35

3. PRINCIPII PRIVIND STABILIREA INCARCARItOR - 3. BASIS OF ACTION

EC2 CALCULATION-EC2

3.1 STAR! UMITA ULTIME

3.1.1 Grupari de Incarcari fundamentale

Conditia de proiectare Ia starile Iimita ultime (Relatia 2.1) se exprima detaliat pentru - gruparile de incarcari fundamentale astfel:

in care:

s, =f(~YGPkj +Yo . .[ Qk.1 + tt1jl,.;Qk) ]+YPPk) n, = f(fck, /1 c;fYk /1 s;fplt; /1 s)

G k ,P k -valoarea caracteristica a incarcarii permanente, respectiv din precomprimare

Qk.l-valoarea caracteristica a unei incarcari varabile (de ex.: incarcare utila, zapada, vant etc.)

Qk i -valoarea caracteristica a celorlalte incarcari variabile

fck, • fyk .fplt; -valoarea caracteristica a rezistentei la compresiune a betonului, rezistenta de curgere a armaturii nepretensionate, respectiv a rezistentei Ia intindere a armaturii pretensionate

1 G ,1 Q ,1 p -coeficienti partiali de siguranta ai incarcarilor permanente, variabile, respectiv din precomprimare

OBSERVATIA 1: Pentru incarcarile permanente (greutatea proprie, impingerea pamantului) sunt prevazute, in-Tabelul 3.1.

doua valori 1 G : .

-valoarea nefavorabila (1 G = 135) se considera cand efectul incarcarilor variabile este sporit prin actiunile permanente;

-valoarea favorabila (1 G = 1.00) se considera cand efectul incarcarilor variabile este diminuat de actiunile permanente.

36

(3.1)

3.1 UL TlMATE LIMIT STATES

3.1.1 The fundamental

combination of actions

When considering the

ultimate limit states, it shall be verified by the condition from subclause 2, or for the fundamental combination of actions defined in EC2-2.3.2.2 [3.4], written in a symbolic form

'(3.1). where:

Gii,Pk -characteristic value of a' permanent action and a prestressing force respectively Qk.l-characteristic value of

one of the variable actions (e.g.: imposed load. snow load, wind) 'Qk,i -characteristic value of

the other variable actions

fclt ' fYk , fplt; -characteristic

value of the compressive strength of concrete, the yield strength of reinforcing steel- and of· the prestressing steel respectively'

110'" 1 Q a 1 p , -partial safety factors for permanent and variable actions or for actions associated with prestressing (Table 3.1. from EC2 -2.3.3.1)

NOTE 1: In the Table 3.1, (Ee2 .;.2.3.2:3.P(l)), two values of 'Y G are given:

-adverse value ('Y G == 1.35) is considered when the permanent actions shall increase the effect of the variable actions;

-beneficial value ('Y G = 1.00 ) is for those that decrease the effect of the variable actions.

La grinzi continue, fara console sau la cadre Y G nu variaza, Exceptie fac, de ex., actiunile unor incarcari permanente diferite

Exemplul In aceste cazuri se tine seama de remarca

din tabel.

Tabe13.1

For continuous beams

without cantilevers the same design value of the self-weight may be applied to all spans (EC2-2.3.2. 3.P(4)). Exception: the different action of permanent loads (see Example 3.2).

For a continuous beam with cantilevers (see Example 3.1), beneficial and adverse parts of a permanent action need to be considered:

-for the negative moment at cantilever: Y G = 1.35;

-for the positive moment at the first mid-span Y G,inf = 0.9

for the cantilever, Y G so = 1.1 for

. , p

the coriiinuous beam (EC2- 2.3.3.1(1)).

La 0 grinda continua cu consola lunga (vezi Exemplul 3.1) aplica diferite valori Y G in functie de sectiunea de calcul:

f ? 1

-pentru momentul negativ de pe reazemul consolei:

G = 1.35;

-pentru momentul pozitiv din primul camp: Y G.inf = 0.9 la

.1U~,u."'.L..,a proprie a consolei si Y G.SUP = 1.1 la greutatea proprie ,a

continue. Suplimentar se verifica daca nu este mai considerarea unui coeficient unic Y G = 1.3 5 sau

Y G = 1.00 pentru grinda si consola,

Y c ,1 s -coeficienti partiali de siguranta pentru . beton, respectiv armatura (Tabelul 3.2);

\jI oj -coeficienti de simultaneitate (Tabelul3.3);

1 c' 1 s -partial safety factors for concrete and steel respectively {Table 3.2; from EC2-2. 3. 3. 2Y

\jI o,i -combination factors

(Table 3.3, from [3.6] Table Rl)

1.35

Precomprimare Prestrssing (Yp)

*) 1 G,sup = 1.10 and-

Permanent

(1G)

1.50

1.00

1 G.inf =: 0.90 -for the adverse and beneficial effect from a

. special permanent load

respectively (EC2-2. 3. 3. 1 (3)

Efect

1.00 .:

1.00

"'Ii<) for a linear calculation, the factor for adverse effects shall be reduced by 120%1 (i.e. 1Q = 120)(EC2-2.3.3.1 (6)

>II) 'Y G,sup = 1.1 0 si 1 G.inf = 0.90 -pentru cazul efectului

. nefavorabil, respectiv favorabil al unei incarcari permanente independente (vezi OBSERVATIA de mai sus);

U) 1 Q,IND = 120 -pentru calculul linear, coeficientul in

cazul efectului nefavorabil sereduce cu 120%1.

Coeficienti partiali de siguranta ai materialelor

Partial safety factors for materials Tabel3.2
Combinatii Beton Armatura
Combinations Concrete Reinforcement
Yc Ys
Fundamentala 1.50 1.15
Fundamental combination
Speciala 1.30 1.00
Special combination Coeficienti de simultaneitate

Combinationfactors Tabel3.3
Coeficienti
\ Incarcare variabila Factors
Variable actions '1'0 '1'1 '1'2
a) Incarcari utile pe plansee:
-incaperi delocuit.birouri; magazine pana Ia 50m2;
coridoare; balcoane; inca peri in spitale 0.7 0.5 0.3
Imposed loads for: houses; offices; shops
(max50m2); main passages; balconys; hospitals
-sali pentru festivitati; garaje si parcari (cladiri);
sali de gimnastica; tribune; coridoare in cladiri pentru
invatamant; biblioteci;arhive 0.8 0.8 0.5
Lecture rooms, garrages and parkings, sport
halls, main passages for schools. libraries; archives
rooms
-sali de expozitii si comerciale; magazine si
. depozite 0.8 0.8 0.8
Exhibition halls and warehouses; storage yards
b)Vant 0.6 0.5 0.0
Wind'
cj-Zapada 0.7 0.2 0.0 .
Snow \ /
. ') d) Teate celelalte .. incarcari 0.8 0.7 0.5
Other loads OBSERVATIA 2: La cladiri obisnuite se poate renunta, chiar si in cazul mai multor . incarcari, la coeficientii de simultaneitate, utilizandu-se un coeficient partial de siguranta .mediu Y Q = 1.35 pentrutoate incarcarile variabile Ch,i' daca

15QIt,l nu depaseste valoarea.obtinuta.

3.1.2 Orupar] de Inearcari speeiale

Conditia de proiectare la starile limita ultime se exprima detaliat pentru gruparile speciale astfel:

Sd" = f(LGk.j +Ad +'VI.IQk,1 + L'V:UQk,i +p.) s

i>1

(3.2)

38

NOTE 2: For ordinary buildings an average combination factor Y Q = 135 is

used for all variable actions Qk,i' if 15Qk.1 is under obtained value.

3~1.2 Special combinations of actions

For a limit state of rupture or excessive deformation. in the case of special' combination of actions. it shall be verified by (3.2)

Combinatii cvasi-permaneate ...... "',LLlU' ...... •• fisurilor sau a sagetilor)

E. = {LG.+P. +L(",,,Q.,)J

(de ex.: limitarea 3.2.3 Quasi-permanent

combinations (i.e.: to avoid excessive crack width or (3.5) deformations)

Expression (3.5)

where:

Ad -characteristic value of an

accidental load (impact,

explosion, earthquake)

NOTES:

-The partial safety factors for loads are y = 1.

. -The loads due to temperature effects. shrinkage. soil settlement etc, are expressed by

'" 2 = 05 (if the influence. of these loads is smaller than of Qk.I)·

-The partial safety factor for concrete is y ck = 1,3. .

in care:

A~ -valoarea caracteristica a incarcarii accidentale (de ex.: explozie, seism etc.)

OBSERVATII:

-Coeficientii partiali de siguranta ai incarcarilor se considera, general, y = 1 .

Incarcarile date de variatii de temperatura, contractii, tasarea reazemeior etc., se iau in considerare ca actiuni exterioare si se arecteaza cu coeficientul de simultaneitate "'2 = 05 (numai influenta acestor incarcari este mai mica decat cea a

ID~;ar-\';<:UH variabile Qk,I)'

, -Coeficientul partial de siguranta pentru beton se considera =13.

STAR! LIMITA DE EXPLOATARE

3.2 SERVICEABILITY·· LIMIT

STATES

For the verifications (Ee2, sub-clause 2.3,4) three combinations of actions are defined by the following expressions:

Calculul la starile limita de exploatare se face pe baza a trei _..,VAUVJ·lUU."U'· de incarcari, exprimate prin urmatoarele relatii:

1 Cembinatii cu freeventa redusa (de ex: pentru eforturi peri col de fisurare in lungul elementului)

Ed = .J L: G k + Pk + Qk,l + ~ ('" o'iQk'i)] (3.3)

'l 1>1

3.2.1 Rare combinations (e.g. for stresses from longitudinal cracks) .

Expression (3.3)

Cembinani cu frecventa ridicata (pentru armatura de. in zona comprimata)

Ed = JL:Gk +Pk + "'1.IQk.1 + ~("'2,iQkJ] (3.4)

"L 1>1

3.2.2 Frequent combinations (e.g.: for, the prestressing

reinforcement m the -

compression .. zone)

Expression (3.4)'

·OBSERVAm:

combinatiile de incarcari (3.3), (3.4), (3.5) se limiteaza o caracteristica a materialului (de ex.: limitarea eforturilor), . valoarea unei marimi caracteristice a constructiei sau a (de ex.: limitarea valorii sagetii, respectiv a ,"'., .... llJ.U . ..,AU fisurilor).

NOTES:

-The load combinations (3.3). (3.4) and (3.5) are chosen either for the limitation of a material characteristic (e.g. stress). or for the limitation of element or structure characteristics (e.g. deflection. crack width) Ee2; 2.3.4.

39

-Si in cazul starilor Iirnita de exploatare, Ia cladiri obisnuite se poate renunta la coeficientii de simultaneitate, considerandu-se pentru incarcarile variabile valoarea cea mai mare dintre

O.9LQk.,· sau Q~.I'

-For serviceability limit

states, in the case of ordinary buildings, it can be used either

O.9LQk.i or o..

- Valorile coeflcientilor de sirnultaneitate II' o.i ' 'P I.i ' 11'1.i se -The values of factors

iau din Tabelul 3.3. 'P n.i > \jJ l.i' \1' 2.i are obtained from Table 3.3.

3.3 EXEMPLEDE CALCUL Exemplul Ll

Grinda transversal a a planseului unei sali de gimnastica (peste subsol); dimensiunile si schernele statice si de incarcare ale grinzii analizate sunt prezentate in figurile de mai jos. (Nu sau reprezentat fortele ce se transmit direct la stalpi si ziduri.)

SALA DE GIHNASTICA

, ...

4.00

1

1

SECT. I-I

Incarcari .permanen te

., ,

400 I 400

• 800

400 -t··

800

G k.1 »G It,.'! -valoarea caracteristica a incarcarii permanente provenite din greutatea proprie a rigleisi din partea aferenta de placa, in zona sam de gimnastica, respectiv a coridorului si balconului;

40

3.3 DESIGN EXAMPLES Example Ll

A transversal beam of a RIC Floor for a sport hall is presented. Geometrical dimensions as well as load scheme are presented in the Figure. The loads directly transmitted to the column and' walls 'are not represented.

BALCON

1

1

Permanent actions

G k.i • G It,.'! . -characteristic

. value: of permanent action from self-weight of secondary beam and afferent plate; it actsin sport halls and main passage and balcony respectively;

( r

G le,3 -valoarea caracteristica a incarcarii permanente provenite din greutatea proprie a grinzii longitudinale;

Action zone
QIe).QIe.2 sala 0.8 0.8 0.5 Table 3.4 obtained from
hall Table 3.3
Q",3.Qk,4 coridor si 0,7 0.5 0.3
balcon
passage and -characteristic value of permanent action from selfweight of the longitudinal beam;

G le,04 -characteristic value of

permanent action from the selfweight of the longitudinal beam and the wall between sport hall and main passage;

G~ 4 -characteristic value of

. .

permanent action from selfweight of the longitudinal edge beam and the attic.,

G le,4 -valoarea caracteristica provenite din greutatea proprie peretele dintre sala si coridor;

a incarcarii permanente a grinzii longitudinale si

G~,4 -valoarea caracteristica a incarcarii permanente din greutatea proprie a grinzii longitudinale marginale a aticului.

Incarcari variablle

Variable actions

9.:.3 =MIeN

~--,.. _ _,1~1 _ • .:.:lOrI:.,l.,_=::;::81eN::.;: :.::;Im:,.., .....-.2u.::.~ --,,!Ot.4 =l~.,=4kNIm ; : .;_ il': ; I

1t :is:

800

400 ~ 400 l 400 _~

L 800 -.i..- 400 _J.

Qk,l' Q".2 -valoarea caracteristica a incarcarii variabile din incarcarea utila ce se transmite riglei transversale intermediul placii, in zona salii de gimnastica, respectiv a ui si balconului;

Q Ie I , Q Ie 2 -characteristic value of variable action from imposed load which acton plate and is transmitted to transversal girder in zone of sport hall and main passage and balcony respectively;

Qk,) ,QIe,4 -characteristic value of variable action from imposed load which is transmittl ed to transversal girder by longitudinal beams.

Q k 3 ' Q Ie " -valoarea caracteristica a incarcarii variabile din incarcarea utila ce se transmite riglei transversale intermediul grinzilor longitudinale;

Zona de '1'0 '1'1 '1'2

. actinune

the variable actions Tabe13.4

41

A. Stari Iimita ultime

I. Grupare de incarcari fundamentale (Relatia 3.1)

a) In.carcari permanente

-cu efect favorabil: Y G -Tabelul Ll (caz nerelevant pentru exemplul de fata)

122kN

2114kN 13kN

IIkN

; ! I I I i l

A 1f-8 ............... ~ ............. """*i ,",,*,"1 ... I_...I ~..;.! _: ...,;1......,.~ __ ...... ..&"'kN/m

I _8 _ C

Y G0Ie,1 = 1.00·11.0kN 1m = 11.OkN I m

Y GO 1t,2 = 1.00 , 13.0kN I m = 13,OkN 1m

Y G 0 Ie,l = 1.00 , 1 22.0kN 1m = 122.0kN I m Y G G It," = 1.00, 284.0kN I m = 284.0kN I m Y GGle,s = 1.00·90.0kN I m = 90.0kN I m

-cu efect nefavorabil: Y G -Tabelul 3.1 (pentru determinarea solicitarilor in majoritatea sectiunilor grinzii)

3113.40kN

I 64.70kN

14.11SItN .

Y GO 1t,2 = 135 . 13.0kN I m=17 55kN I m

Y GGIt 3 = 135 . 122.0kN 1m = 164.70kN I m Y G G 1t.4 = 135· 284.0kN I m = 383.4kN I m Y GO'It,. = 135· 90.0kN I m = 12150kN I m

-varianta pentru calculul momentului incovoietor maxim in campul2

31241tN

134.2kN 12.11tN .

A k- ....... ......I.-=!-' ..................... ~""""-.J""., ................... ""lf- ........... &......lA.8kN/m

I _8 _ C

Y G,sup 0 1t,I = 1.1. 1 1.0kN I m= 12.lkN I m

Y Gsup0It,2 = 1.1·13.0~ I m = 143kN I m

Y GsupGit-,3 = 1.1. 122.0kN = 1342kN

Y G sup 0 It,. = 1.1 ·284.0kN = 312.4 leN

\ -

Y Ginf0It,2= 0.9 . 13.0kN I m = 11.7kN 1m

Y GinrO'k,4 = 0.9, 90.0kN = 81.0kN b) Incarcari variabile .

- (Q 1t,I + Q It,) - variabila principala:

Y Q -Tabelul 3,1;0/ 0,2' 'I' 0,4 - Tabelul Ld

42

A. Ultimate limit state

I. Fundamental combination (F ormula 3.1 )

a) Permanent actions

-with beneficial effect: Y G - Table 3.1 (this case is not relevant for the example)

-with adverse effect: Y G - Table 3.1 (for the determination of the sectional stresses in the most of the beam sections)

-variant for the span moment 2

-s

b) Variable actions

-(Qltl +Qlc3)~main variable

. . ..

action: Y Q -Table 3.1; 0/ 0,2; 0/ 0.4 - Table 3.4

(i) Incarcare sala gimnastica

(ii) Incarcare coridor

!16.8kN

. 4.2k:N1m

I II; !1

x X

A B

2 _

c

(iii) Incarcare balcon

4.2k:N/m

X B

X A

2

Y QQt.1 = 15· ROkN I m = 12.0kN I m Y QQk.3 = 15· 64.OkN = 96.0kN

Y Q\jIo.2Qk,2 = 15·0.7 ·4.0kN 1m = 42kN 1m Y Q\jIO.4QIc.4 = 15·0.7 ·16.0kN = 16.8kN

ll. Grupare de incareari fundamentale (Relatia 3.1)

Incarcari permanente

Idem A.I.a) .

1~) Incarcari variabile

', (Qk' + Qk 4) - variabila principala:

~ .

Y Q - Tabelul3.1; \jI 0.1,0/ 0.3 - Tabelul 3.4

(ii) Incarcare coridor

X A

X B

C

6JcN_Im...,., --:--:---"!124k:N

(iii) Incarcare balcon

x . . 1 'A 2'· :A

A 76.8k:N B·. C

(i) Incarcar sala ~~ca t 31_

J:' ," .~. .: 2 t

"f QQk.2 = 15· 4.0kN I m = 6.0kN I m "fQQt.4 = 15·16.0kN'::::i 24.0kN

Q\jIO.iQt.1 ::::: 15·0.8·8.0kN Im= 9.6kN 1m . "f Q \jI 0.3QIc,3 = 15 ·0.8· 64.OkN ~ 76.8kN

! 16.8k:N

(I) Loads on

Sport Hall

(ii) Loads on the main passage

(iii) Loads on the balcony

ll. Fundamental combination

(Formula 3.1)

a) Permanent actions Idem ALa)

b) Variable actions -(Qk; +Qk ... )~main

variable action:

Y Q -Table , 3.1; 'I' o,l>\jI o~Table 3.4

(ii) Loads on the main passage

(iii) Loads on the balcony .

en Loads on the Sport Hall

B. Star! Iimita de exploatare

I. Combinatie cu frecventa ridicata:

incarcari permanente + incarcari variabile ( Q Ie,! + Q Ie.l -

variabila principala)

(Expresia 3.4)

a) Incarcari permanente

284kN

122kN

Gle I = 11.0kN I m Gt") = 13.0kN/m GIc•3 = 122.0kN

G t,4 = 284.0kN G'1e.4 = 90:0kN

b) Incarcari variabile

- (Q 1e.1 + Q 1e.3) - variabila principala:

'V ;, •• '1'1,3' '1'2.2' 'I' 2,4 ~Tabelul3.4

SI.2kN '.

I' . i.. • i2S.6kN

* .6.4kN/m _

K c

A

K 2

B

.K .A

X B

2 A c

r-' ............... ......,r-""'_ ....... _ ............. ~I~.~=kN=jlm5::~,=r·8kN.·

.K A 2 A ABC

'1'1.1 ·Qt,1 = 0.8·8.0kN/m=6.4kN/m '1'1.3 • QIe.3 = 0.8· 64.0kN = 512kN

'1'2.2 ·Qic,2 = 0..)·4.0kNI m = 12kN I m

. '1'2.4 • Qt.4= 03 ·16.0lcN I m = 4.8lcN I m

B. Serviceability limit states I. Frequent combination permanent actions + variable

actions (QIc.I+Qk,3- main

variable action)

(Expression 3.4)

a) Permanent actions

b) Variable actions

- (Q 1e.1 + Q Ie.]) - main variable

action:

'1'1.1' '1'1.3 • 'I' 2,2' 'I' 2,4 Table 3.4

U. Combinatie cu frecventa ridlcatai incarcari permanente+lncarcari variabile

variabila principala)

U" Frequent combination:

( Q le,2 + Q le.4 - • permanent actions + variable

actions (Qk.2 + Q k.4 -main

variable action)

(Expresion 3.4)

(Expresia 3.4)

44

... "

a) Incarcari permanente Idem

b) Incarcari variabile

, - (Qk,2 + Qk,4) - variabila principala:

0/1,2,0/1,4,0/2,1,0/2,3 - Tabelul 3.4

I gleN

1 . ~1eN1m

':k

X B

Lio

A

2

Ii f2~ :1i 116kN

2 OK

ABC

0/1.2 . Qk,2 = 05· 4.0kN I m = 2.0kN I m

0/1,4 . Q k,4 = 05· 16.0kN = 8kN

0/2,1 . Qk,l = 05· 8.0kN I m = 4.0kN I m 0/2,3 ·QIc,3 = OS· 64.0kN = 32.0kN

m. Combinatie quasi-permanentae

incarcari permanente+incarcari variabile

(Expresia 3.5) a) Incarcari permanente

Idem B.I.a)

b) Incarcari variabile 0/2,1,0/2.2.0/2,3.0/2,4 - Tabelul 3.4

r-- __ _,t .... 2_~-.,.., -:~=kN':"': lm':':;I'-' ~~f61eN

ok ' 2

OK C

B

X B

r·8~.21eN1m

'I " j j i

2

x c

1.21eN1m b··gleN

~----~~----~~~!

Liol X 2 X

ABC

0/2,1 . Qt,l = 05· 8.0kN I m = 4.0kN I m

0/2,2 . Qk;2 = 0.3 ·4.0kN I m = 12kN lta

\jJ 2,3 • Qk,3 = 05, 64.0kN :::: 32.0kN

'V 2.4 • Q 1<,4 == 0.3 ' 16.0kN = 4.8kN '

a) Permanent actions Idem B.I.a)

b) Variable actions.

- (Q" 2 + Q" .. ) - main variable

, ,

. action:

0/12.0/14.0/2 P 0/23 -Table 3.4

, ~ , ,

m. Quasi-permanent combination: .

permanent actions+variable actions

. (Expression 3,5) a) Permanent actions

. Idem B.I.a)_

b) Variable actions 0/2,1.0/2.2' \jI2,3' \jI2,4 -Table 3.4

45

Exemplul 3.3.2

Zid de sprijin din beton, pe care

fonoabsorbant (cazul autostrazilor),

reprezcnlalc in Figura.

este fixat un perete

avand incarcarile

A :: 110 _!!_

a m

...

5.20

Incarcari permanente

G k I' G k .. -valori caracteristice ale componentelor greutatii

,-,' -_ .

proprii a zidului de sprijin;

Gk•3-valoarea caracteristica a incarcarii permanente - provenite din greutatea proprie a pamantului;

. • ,- .1 ,- •

G ~ ., -valoarea caracteristica a impingerii laterale rezultate din greutatea proprie a pamantului

Incarcari varia bile Qk.l-valoarea. caracteristica a

. . ...

unpmgeru

Iaterale

pamantului rezultata din incarcarea utila;

Qk.2 -valoarea caracteristica a actiunii vantului

Inearcare speciala [accidentala)

Ad -impactul asupraperetelui fonoabsorbant

46

Example 3.3.2

A RIC abutment wall is considered. It is used for a highway and has a sound absorbing wall. The loads are presented in the Figure.

a

Permanent actions

G k.l ' G k.4 -characteristic values of the abutment wall selfweight components.;

G kJ -characteristic value of

permanent . action from selfweight of earth;

G k,2 -characteristic value of

earth pressure resulting from self-weight of earth.

Variable actions Qk,l-characteristic value of

earth pressure resulting from the imposed loads;

Qk.2 -characteristic value of

wind load

Accidental action

Ad -impact on. the absorbing

wall

Coeficienti de simultaneitate
pentru incarcarile variabile
Combination the variable actions Tabel3.5
Incarcare variabila Provenienta 0/0 \III 0/2
Variable action
impingerea Table obtained from
pamantului Table 3.3
Qt.1 din inc. utila 0.8 0,7 0.5
earth
from
imposed
loads
Qt.2 vantwind 0.6 0.5 0.0 f

f

f

J :>

In cele ce urmeaza, se prezinta cateva combinatii posibile de incarcari la starea limita a capacitatii portante pentru:

- Verificarea sectiunii de incastrare a zidului de sprijin

-Pierderea stabilitatii in jurul punctului D

3.3.2.1 Verificarea sectiunii de incastrare

A. Grupari de incareari fundamentale (Relatia 3.1).

1. Incarcari permanente cu efect nefavorabil

G t.I' G k,2 )+incarcari variabile (Qk.l-variabila principala):

r G si r Q -Tabelul Ll

r G (Gk,1 + Gk,1) + 1 Q (Qk.l + 'V 0.1' Qk,2)= =1.35(120+110)+1.50(210+0.6·10 )=634.5kN/m

2. Incarcari permanente cu efect nefavorabil

•.. " G k,l • G k,1 )+incarcari varia bile (Qk,1 -variabila principala):

1 G si 1 Q -Tabelul Ll

1G(Gk.1 +Gk,1)+1Q(Qk,1 +'VO,I'Qk .• =

= L35(120+11O)+1.50(10+0.8·210)=577.5kN/m

3. Incarcari permanente cu efect favorabil

(G k,I' G k,1 )+incarcari variabile (Qt,) -variabila principala):

r G si·1 Q -Tabelul3.i

1G (G k.J + G k,2) -t r Q (Qk,1 + 'V 0,2 . Qk,1 = =1.00(120+110)+1.50(210+0.6,10 )=554.0kN/m"

4. Incarcari permanente cu efect favorabil

(G 1t,1' G ".2 j+incarcari variabile (Qt,2 -variabila principala): .

r G si r Q -Tabelul Ll .

r G (Gk,1 + Gk,2) + 1 Q(Qk.2 + \jI 0,1' Qk,l= =1.00(120+110)+1.50(10+0.8· 0)=497.0kN/m

Some possible combinations for ultimate limit states are presented:

-The checking of the restraint cross section of the abutment walL

-The lost of stability all around point D.

3.3.2.1 The checking of the restraint cross section

A. Fundamental combinations (Formula 3.1)

1. . Permanent actions with adverse effect + variable

actions( Qk I -main variable

action):

1 G and 1 Q -Table 3.1

2. Permanent. actions . with adverse effect + variable' actions (Qk.2 -main variable action):

r G and r Q -Table 3 . .1

3. Permanent actions with beneficial effect + variable actions( QIc,I -main variable action):

'Y G and 'Y Q .. Table 3.1

4. Permanent actions with beneficial effect + variable

actions( Qk,2 -main

variable

action):

r G and 'Y Q -Table 3.1

5. Incarcari permanente independente( G le,l -efect favorabil; G ".2 -efect nefavorabilj+incarcari variabile (Qk,l-variabila principal a ):

Y Gcsup si Y a,inf - Tabelul 3.1 (*); Y Q - Tabelul 3.1

Y G.suP • G ",2 + Y G,inf . G 1e,I + Y Q (Q".I + 'JI 0,2 . Qu = UO·11O+0.9 ·120+1.5(210+0.6·10 )=553.0kN/m B. Grupari de incarcari speciale

(Relatia 3.2)

6. Incarcari permanente (G 1e.1 • G lc,2 Y + incarcarea variabila

principal a QIe.1 (QIc.2 se neglijeazal+incarcarea exceptionala Ad:

'V 1,1- Tabelul3.5

(Gk.1 + Gk,2) + 'JI1,1Qk,1 +Ad = =(120+110)+0.7 ·2IO+O+11O=487.0kN/m

7. Incarcari permanente (G ".1 ' G lc,2) + incarcari variabile

(Q",2 -variabila principal a) + incarcarea exceptionala Ad :

'V 1,2 si 'JI u:- Tabelul3.5

(G",I +G",2)+ 'JI1,2 QIe,2 +'JI2,1 ·Q .. ,I =Ad= =(120+110)+05·10+ 05·210+110=450kN/m

3.3.2.2 PIERDEREA ST ABrr.ITATll IN JURUL PUNCTULUI D

~Grupare de lncareari fundamentale (Relatia 3.1)

Incarcari permanente independente (G Ie ., -efect nefavorabil;

GIe.1.Gt.J.Gk:,4-efect favorabilj+ incarcari "variabile (Qk:,1 variabila principal a): " Y G,sup • Y G,inf si Yo - Tabelul 3.1

Se verifica conditia:

m care:

Edst -incarcarea de destabilizare a constructiei (rasturnare)

Est -incarcarea ce asigura stabilitatea constructiei

Edst ~ Y G,sup • G k,2 + Y"o (Q .. ,I + Yo,2 • Qk,2) =

=1.1 ·110+15(210+ 0.6·10) = 445.0kN/m

Est = Y GJnf(Gk,1 + Gk,3 + Gk,4) =

=0.9(120+ 390+ 130)= 576.0kN/m

Edst =445kN/m < Est =576.0kN/m

48.

(3.6)

5. Independent permanent actions + variable actions/ Q ",! - main variable action):

Y G inc-Table 3.1(*);

Y Q -Table 3.1

B. Special combinations actions

(Formula 3.2)

6. Permanent actions + the main variable action Q",I (QIc,2=O) + accidental load

Ad:

'JII,I -Table 3.5

7. Permanent actions + variable actions (Q",2 -main

variable actions) + accidental action Ad: 'V 1,2 and 'V 2,1- Table 3.5

3.3.2.2 mE LOST OF STABILITY ALL AROUND POINT D

A. Fundamental combination " (Formula 3.1)

Independent permanent

actions ( G" ') - adverse effect;

G k I ,Gt.J.Gic,4- beneficial effect) + variable actions (Qk:,1 main variable action) (EC2-2.3.2.J

prj): Y G,sup • Y G,w si Y 0 -Table 3.1

The condition (3.6) from EC2-2. 3. 2. 1 to be verified.

. where:

Edst -load for destabilisation Est -load for a safety stability

B. Grupare de incarcari speciala

B. Special combination actions

Se verifica si in acest caz, conditia (3.6) Edsl = G k.2 + '1'1,1 Qk.1 + Ad =

=110+ 0.7 ·210+ 110 = 367kN/m

Est = Gk,l + Glc,3 + Glc,4 = 120+390+130=640kN/m

Edsl =367kN/m < Est =640kN/m

(Formula 3.2)

Permanent actions ( G k,2 -

adverse effect; G k,l ,Gk,3,Gk,4- beneficial effect)+ the main variable action Qk.1 (Qu=O) + accidental action A.J (EC2- 2.3.2.2 P(2)):

'1'1.1 -Table 3.5

The condition (3.6) is to be checked.

(Relatia 3.2)

Incarcari permanente (G k.2 -efect nefavorabil; G le,l , Gk,], Gk,4-

efect favorabilj+ incarcare variabila principal a Qk,l (Qk.2-Se neglijeazaj+incarcarea exceptionala

'1'1,1- Tabelul 3.5

RAFIE (REFERENCES)

~

A vak.R: Stahlbetonbau in Beispielen, DIN 1045 und EUROP AISCHE NORMUNG (2.;

neubearbeitete und erweiterte Auflage). Werner-Verlag GmbH Dusseldorf, 1994

Bieger K. - W (Hrsg): Stahlbeton- und Spannbetontragwerke nach EUROCODE2. Erlauterungen und Anwendungen (Zweite Auflage). Springer Verlag. Hannover, 1995

Bob C., Vayas I.: Seminar on Eurocode2. Design of Concrete Structures. Timisoara, March

1994 .

Ramm W.: Unterlagen zum Praxisseminar: Grundlagen und Anwendung des EC2, Teil l. Universitat Kaiserslautern Bauingenieurwesen, 1992

***: Eurocode No.2: Design of Concrete Structures. Part 1:" General Rules and. Rules for

Buildings, October 1989 . _ .

***: Beispiele zur Bemessung von Betontragwerken nach EC2. DIN V ENV 1992. Eurocode

2. Deutscher Beton-Verein E.V., Wiesbaden s

. ***: Deutscher Ausschup fur Stahlbeton: Richtlinie zur Anwendung von EC2-Planung von Stahlbeton- und Spannbetontragwerken Teil 1: Grundlagen und Anwendungsregeln fur den Hochbau, Fassung April 1993

4. INCOVOIERE CU FORT A AXIALA

4.1. IPOTEZE SIMPLIFICATOARE

Calculul la starea limita ultima se face pe baza 'urrnatoarelor ipoteze simplificatoare (fig. 4.1):

- ipoteza sectiunilor plane;

- cornpatibilitatea deformatiilor specifice ale betonului st

armaturii;

- rezistenta la intinderea betonului se neglijeaza;

- adoptarea unei diagrame parabolice sau parabola

dreptunghi pentru distributia eforturilor unitare de compresiune in beton in functie de marimea deformatiei specifice in fibra cea mai comprirnata;

- deformatiile specifice in armatura se limiteaza la 10.0 0/00;

- pentru sectiuni supuse Ia compresiune axiala, deformatia

specifica al betonului se lirniteaza la 2 0/00;

. - pentru sectiuni cu axa neutra plasata in sectiune, deformatia specifica . a betonului se limiteaza la 3.5 0/00; pentru cazuri intermediare deformatia specifica la cornpresiune se obtine presupunind valoarea de 2 0/00 la 0 distanta de 317 din inaltimea sectiunii, distanta masurata de la fibra cea mai comprimata;

- forta axiala poate fi .neglijata daca nu depaseste ·O.OSfckAc• Ac fiind aria sectiunii transversale.

As2

--~) C;;1 ~ fYd Fsl == Asl G'Sl

Fig. 4.1 Diagram eforturilor unitare. Stress diagram Pentrucalculul la actiunea momentului incovoietor si a fortei axiale se au in vedere curbele caracteristice ale materialelor

, ,~ .'

prezentate in figura 4.2.

Calculul sectiunilor poate 'insemna:

- dimensionare (determinarea ariei de armatura);

- determinarea capacitatii portante,

Dimensionarea armaturilor se face. pe baza ipotezelor de rnai sus, cu ajutorul tabelelor sau diagramelor, in limp ce pentru de -

terminarea capacitatii portante se pot folosi si relatii de calcul derivind din ecuatiile de echilibru static si din utilizarea ipotezei sectiunilor plane.

Coeficientul 0.85 de reducere a rezistentei (a compresiune se ia in coformitate cu 2.3.2.

50

4. BENDING AND LONGITUDINAL FORCE

4.1. I1ASIC ASSUMPTIONS

The section calculation for the ultimate limit stateshould be made by the following assumptions (Fig. 4.1):

- plane sections remain plane;

the strain in bonded reinforcement, whether in tension or compression. is the same as that in the surrounding concrete;

- the tensile strength of concrete is ignored;

- the stress diagram in concrete in compression can be a parabole/parabole - rectangular curve, depending on maximum strain; coefficient 0.S5 according to 2.3.2.

- the reinforcement tensile strain is limited- to 10.0 0/00;

- for sections subjected to pure compression, the compressive strain in concrete is limited to 20/00;

- for sections not fully in compression, the limiting compressive .. strain is taken as 3.5 0/00; in intermediate situations the ultimate strain diagram is defined by assuming that the strain is 2 0/00 at a level of 317 of the depth of the section from the more compressed face;

- longitudinal forces may be ignored if they do not exceed O.OSfck times the area of the section.

The section calculation is based on the design stress-strain diagrams from Figure 4.2.

The resistance of sections or necessary reinforcements can be computed by tables or diagrams, based on assumptions from 4. l, while the resistance can

-0.85 fed =-0.85 fek Ire CONCRETE

BETON

I

G'c =1000 Ee (250 Ee+1H 0.85 fed)

fyd = fYk /t; ARMATURA REINFORCEMENT

-0.002 -0.0035 Ec Eyd 0.010 Es

----- diograma cnructeristicd - churncteristic diagram

diograma de colcut design di agrom

~

Fig. 4.2 Diagramele caracteristice ale materialelor, a - E diagram of materials

be also obtained from

equilibrium conditions.

4.2. DlSCUSSION- ON STRAIN DIAGRAM

Failure of the' section

subjected to Nd and M, is represented by strain diagram (Fig. c 4.3). There are 3 compulsory points -A, B and C - for strain diagram.

There are the following surfaces:

DOMAIN 1 - point A

The ultimate strain of steel is 0.010. Section AA' represents pure tension. The Iine-will be rotated . around point A due to bending moment. Domain Ia: pure tension or eccentric tension

. with small eccentricity; section completely cracked. Domain Ib: bending with eccentric tension or compression with' great eccentricity. The neutral axis is 'in' the section. Concrete IS crushed only for line AB.

DOMAIN 2 - point B

Main characteristic: crushing of compressed concrete (Ed =0.035). Section is subjected to Mil with/without Nd• Section is rotated around point B due to decreasing of bending moment. Domain 2a: yielding of tension reinforcement. Domain 2b: no economical solution - O~Esl<EYd' .

4. 2. DISCUTIE ASUPRA DlAGRAMEI DE DEFORMATII SPECIFICE

Cedarea unei sectiuni sup use la incovoiere cu forta axiala , este ilustrata de diagrama deformatiilor specifice, care trebuie

, treaca in mod obligatoriu prin cele trei puncte A, B,. sau C

'prezentate in figura 4.3 (regula celor trei pivoti).

Se disting urmatoarele domenii:

DOMENIUL 1 - pivot A

Deformatia specifica ultima a armaturii este 0.010. Dreapta , reprezinta intinderea centrica. Aparitia unui moment incovoietor produce rotirea sectiuniivinrjurul : pivotului A:

',' Subdomeniul Ia reprezinta intinderea centrica sau cea excentrica cu excentricitate mica. Sectiunea este fisurata in

"intregime. Subdomeniul I b reprezinta intinderea excentrica cu excen tncitate maresau incovoierea, Axa neutra este in sectiune. Capacitatea portanta a. betonului este epuizata numai daca sectiunea se suprapune peste linia AB.

DOMENIUL 2 - pivot B

Acest domeniu este caracterizat prin epuizarea capacitatii portante a betonului cornprimat (Ed = 0.035). Sectiunca este supusa unui moment incovoietor si eventual" unei forte de , "compresiune. Sectiunea se roteste in jurul pivotului B pe , masura reducerii excentricitatii fortei. Subdomeniul 2a:

deformatia specifica a armaturii este cuprinsa intre 0.010 si . EYd=fviEs- si deci c;sl=fylI. Subdomeniul 2b: deformatia specifica a armaturii este cuprinsa intre Evil si 0 si deci C;sl~ fyd- Armatura Asl nu este folosita la capacitatea ei maxima (solutie neeconomica). Subdomeniul 2c: toate armaturile sunt comprimate, 0 mica parte a sectiunii fiind intinsa.

DOMENIUL 3 - pivot C

Se produce epuizarea capacitatii portante a betonului.

. Sectiunea este sup usa unei cornpresiuni cu excentricitate redusa (eventual nula). Pe masura reducerii excentricitatii sectiunile se rotesc in jurul pivotului C. Axa neutra este in afara sectiunii.

Domain 2c: all

reinforcements are in

compression, a small part of the section is in tension.

DOMAIN 3 - point C

This case is characterised by crushing of compressed concrete. Section is subjected to

compression with small

eccentricity or to pure

compression. Decreasing of

eccentricity leads to rotation around point C. Neutral axis is outside of the section.

o 0 B

h

2c _i_h 7

Asl INTINOERE (0/011) "'II I

TENSION 10

I COMPRESIUNE

I I I ... (%o)

EYd"'fydl'EsZ.O 3.5 COMPRESSION

Fig. 4.3 Diagrama deformatiilor specifice. Strain diagram

4.3. SECTIUNI DREPTUNGHIULARE 4.3.1.Rezultanta compresiunilor dinbeton

'(fL;

4.3. liEcr ANGULAR SECTIONS

4.3.1. Concrete internal

compressive force

The " intensity of internal compressive force in concrete is obtained assuming an average stress O'm on the depth of compressed concrete (Fig. 4.4):

- relationship (4.1) for section not fully in compression;

- relationship (4.2) for section fully in. compression

(4.3) This force is acting at 'a level (4.4) given by whichever . of relationships (4.3) or (4.4) is appropriate (Fig. 4.4).

,.-- 2-~_:_Ec-=-=2 ~:__i5%:J tl

cl.; 10. e/h' ~ ~._ -I.. aXil. neu

.. -+- D + neutrnl ci

. Evaluarea rezultantei eforturilor unitarea de compresiune din beton - Fe • precum si pozitia acesteia se face luind in considerare un efort unitar mediu am , uniform distribuit pe inaltimea zonei cornprimate (Fig. 4.4):

- axa neutra in sectiune

Fe = 0'111 b X = al (0.85 fed) b X - axa neutra in afara sectiunii Fe = O'm b h = al (p.85fed) b h

Aceasta forta actioneaza 13. un nivel dat de (fig. 4.4): a = S· X - axa neutra in sectiune

e - axa neutra in afara sectiunii

(4.1 )

(4.2)

'0.8

4.3.2. Solutia economica de armare

Atingerea simultana a rezistentelor de calcul ale celor doua materiale (~'d; fed) are loc atunci cind se ajunge la dreapta B - B' in diagrama deforrnatiilor specifice din figura 4.5. In acest caz sectiunea simplu armata are capacitatea portanta Miim •

Pozitia axei neutre este :

,): X lim 0.0035

'::>Iim = d = 0.0035 + Eyd

h

b

Fig. 4.5 Sectiune dreptunghiulara

Rectangular section

A vind in vedere E, = 200000 N/mm2 si fVd = 400/1.15 N/mm2 pentru S400, precum si fVd = 50011.15 N/mm2 pentru S500 rezulta:

- pentru S400

EVd = 0.00174 si Slim = 0.668 - pentru S500

EVd = 0.00218 si Slim = 0.617

Relatia pcntru momcntul incovoietor limita este:

Mlim = Fe (d 7" a) = .. U, (0.85 fcd) b Xlim (d - S· Xlim)

(4.6a, b)

(4.7a, b)

(4.8a)

sau

Mlim = UI (0.85 fcd)Slim(l':' S' Slim)bd2fcd = J-Llimbd2 fed (4.8b) Luind in considerare pentru Ee2 = 0.0035 din figura 4Aa

rezulla UI = 0.81 si S'i = 00415.

In aceste conditii se obtine:

J-Llim =-(0.688 - 0.286 Slim) Slim

respectiv :

J-Llim = 0332 pentru S400 J-Llim = 03] 6 pentru S500

(4.8c) (4.8d)

4.3.3. Elemente incovoiate (grinzi, placi)

Elernetele incovoiate sunt in general simplu armate. Daca . din diferitc motive- folosirea rational a a armaturilor sau alcatuiri constructive - este necesara dubla annarc atunci se recurge Ia 0 armare nesimetrica ..

Pentru calcul sectiunilor dreptunghiulare se pot folosi tabele sau diagrame specificc, Perechea de valori Nd si M, sc inlocuieste cuperecheade valori Nd si Msel actionind la nivelul armaturii Asl (fig. 4.6) si avindin vedere:

(4.5)

4.3.2. Economical reinforcing

Limit line between surfaces 2a and 2b (Fig. 4.3) represents an economical solution because for both materials the design strengths are reached. There is a specific value of resisting moment - M1im (Fig. 4.5) .

. \ Mlim J

- Z= b -n

Neutral axis depth is given by (4.5).

Taking into account E, = 200000 N/mm2 and fVd =

2·· .

400/1.15 N/mm for S400, and

also fVeI = 500/1.15 N/mm2 for S?OO the following values are obtained:

- for S400 : (4.6a, b)

- for S500 : (4.7a, b)

The relationship (4.8) gives value ofM1im and J-Llim.

For stress diagram

represented in Figure 4.5, the following values are obtained from Figure4Aa: U = 0.81 ;S' = 0.415 and finally J-Llim according to (4.8c,d).

4.3.3. Bent elements (beams, slabs)

.Bent elements generally are singly reinforced. For different reasons as economical using of steel or detailing provisions, unsymmetrical double reinforcement may be used.

Tables or diagrams are used for section design.

AS2

Ee2

Fs2

Fs2

Fig. 4.6 Translatia eforturilor. Restatement of efforts

• sensurile pozitive ale eforturilor - conform figurii 4.6;

• Msd = M, - Nd Ysl (4.9)

Se calculeaza:

(4.10)

Daca Jlsd ~ JlIiIl1 sectiunea rezista ca simplu armata, in caz contrar fiind necesara dubla armare. Daca nu se foloseste dubla arrnare se ajunge la situatia neeconomica O'sl< f~d (subdomeniul 2b din figura 4.3).

4.3.3.1. Utilizarea diagramei CEll.

Din diagrarna redata in figura 4.7 se obtin urmatoarele valori: l:; = z/d; S = x/d; v = Felbdfed; Esl; Ee2 si Es2 (numai pentru Ilsd > -J.I.lim).

Armare simpla: Jlsd ~ Jllim

Se calculeaza (Jsl = Esl Es si z = l; d

. . I (M )

A =-- -.&+N

51 0' z d

sl

Armare dubla: J.l.sd > Jllim

Secalculeaza (Jsl = Esl Es. O's2 = Es2 E, si z = l; d

A == _!_,_(M1im + Msd - Mlilll + N····)· (4 .. 12a)

sl 0' z d -d d

d ].

(4.11)

(4.12b)

Valorile Esl si l; se determina din diagrama pentru valoarea Jllim.

4.3.3.2. Utilizarea tabelelor CEll Armare simpla: Jlsd ~ JlUuil

Din tabelul-l.I se determina coeficientul ro si de asemenea l; = z/d; S = x/d; E~I; EeZ 'si o'sl.

In order to use such tables/diagrams pair Nd and Md must be replaced by pair Nd and Msd acting at the level of reinforcement Asl (Fig. 4.6).' Positive direction of efforts - according to Figure 4.6. Msd according to (4.9)

If Ilsd (4.10) ~ Jllim (4.9) then the singly reinforced section is able to resists to pair Nd and Md , else double reinforcing must be used. If singly reinforcement is used for Ilsd > Jllim then surface 2b in Figure 4.3 is obtained.

4.3.3.1. Design' by CEB

diagram

The following values are obtained from Figure 4.7:' S . = z/d; S = x/d; v::::; Felbdfed; E51; Eez and Es2 (Ilsd > Jllim).

Singly reinforcing: J.l.sd ~ Jllim Using O'si = Esl E, and z ,; l; d reinforcement area is given by (4.11).

Double reinforcing: J.l.sd > Jllim Using O'si = Esl E,; Z.= S d and .

O's2 = Es2 E, reinforcement areas . are given by (4.12).

Values Esl and l; must be determined from diagram depending on Jllim .

4.3.3.2. Design by CEB tables' Singly reinforcing: Jlsd ~ Jllim The following values are obtained from Table 4.1:

Fig. 4.7 Diagrama CEB. CEB diagram

coefficient co and also l; = z/d; ~ (4.13) = x/d; Esl; Eel and 0'51· Reinforcement area is given by (4.13).

Double reinforcing: Jlsd > J.Llim Coefficients COl and CO2 are obtained from Table 4.2 and finally reinforcements area are given by (4.14)

Aria de annatura este:

fcd Nd

As, =oobdf+[

yd yd

Armare dubla: Jlsd > J.Llim

In functie de Jlsd si d2/d din tabelul 4.2 se determinaro, si CO2, ariile de annatura fiind:

fcd . Nd As, =co,bdf+[

yd yd

. f

AS2 = co2bd fed yd

(4. 14a)

(4.14b)

4.3.4. Stilpi

Armarea simetrica este varianta curenta de alcatuire a stilpilor.

4.3.4. Columns

The symmetrically reinforced sections usually are used in column detailing.

4.3.4.1. Mono-axially bending Design of reinforced columns is based on interaction between Nd and Md. This interaction can be plotted into the diagrams or can be printed into the tables.

4.3.4.1. Compresiune excentrfca dreapta

Dimensionarea armaturilor se face pe baza intcractiunii dintre eforturile section ale Nd si MIl. interactiune ce poate fi transpusa grafic (fig. 4.8)sautabelar (tabelul 4.3).

Se calculeaza:

Nd .

. Vii = --._. SI

hhfcd

(4.15;4.1

dJ

.....

.8 o > o u

.S

dJ

.....

C'3

'0

> o u

.S

i

.e--

J

~ I-~---f

~ ~ ,-r--------h

~ r ~d'_ c{_;;;:..J"

-

dJ

.c ---

mO-M N"1'lIltQ ..,.",¢'Cf'.-r

cidcci

.qo \Il (0·,...... c:i) """0)0'»0 q''q'vtnlt)

00000

co .- M to 00 _M"1'V"I(Q

---_ .. -

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cioooo

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~ m---- §~ 2~

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-- ---

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tnm..,.NN OJUlNOIU)

MMMN-N

MtnQt.,..cn M 0 ...... U"lN

NN_:-="':

tn-,....N

q~"!"1

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o 0,0 0 0,.0 0 0 0 0 ~~",!LC'!a.q "!Ul~U"!"l MMMMM MMMMM I I •• I • I •• I

- 0 O't.CO co m 0 _ M (D c.DOlm-M tIl(QON"I" NNNMM '1'1~~~ oooco 00000

In functie de aceste valori si de d11h = d21h din diagrame (fig. 4.8) sau tabelul 4.3 se determina coeficientul rolol. Diagramele furnizeaza si informatii des pre Esl si Ed.

Aria de armatura este:

respectiv:

~6 ..

~ g:;~~

-0" 3 'f''''I' ... ,. -, cidoci

,....,mON..,,.....a>O-r. ...z "'T Ul tR III

00000

Ul «.0 ....... m

0:3 2088 ci do co

at-NMv "'tf' to,..... a) m 00000 COOOO

::!?

'Cl :3

3

-(O,t.nM,'_

"ltq~qf"1

---NN • • • I •

,.... ,.... ro co 'OCI" U1 ..... m_M

doc"';_:

. . . . .

"I~

(4. I 7a)

(4.l7b)

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riMMriri

•••••

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OONtnOMtOmM U)U)U)(Q"'"

oereoo

ONe",

,....-co_

""'COCOm

0000

Coefficient rotot is obtained from diagrams (Fig. 4.8) or table (Table 4.3) depending on VtI (4.15), fJ.tI (4.16) and ti11h = d21h.

Reinforcement area is given by (4.17a; b).

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",,,,,,,,,q-JJN

""'0-. ..... 0'" """""""'''' • e .....

NNNN'"

.". ... ~"'O "I""..., .... '" · .. .. .. .

NNN~N

..... 0. ..... c=\ 11'\ '" ." """ ..... ., .. . . .. .

"'tuN",'"

1C.., ..... .Ao ,'"'II _rv"'''''' .... .. .. . . . 'VN""NN

"",o-.~OoO __ N·" .....

· . . ..

NNNNN

.., .... n...,,_ n __ Nfo"\

· . .. . .

N"""NN

4.,,..,,.,,,,,,,1».. ..0 ............ '0 eo • II • • .. ""\II "',,", "'" "

_ ...... ......,00.., .n .a ............ nt\ .. · . . .. .

ruN"'''''''

-O""' ..... """'n..

""_".." .....

.. .

''''''''''''''''

........... 1\10001 :.t'\ '" -e .Q ..... · .. .. ...

"'''IN'''''''

""'n.I ...... """., .., V'\ ..,.. ..n .c

· . .. . . .-y."." tv "',

- .-'\"" .....

..# "''''' . .",

· . . . . "'NNNN

...,"",.". ....... 0.. to'\_." .... ""."" · .. .. . ..

""" '" N hII

...,,,.....,.,....""'\- "' ....

.... ,n_f)l'" 1'<"\ ., '"

· . .. ... .

N"'NN'" "'N'NNN

'X'...,.Qo.U'\_ o...CCl_N · . . .. _NN"'N \

' ..... 0-...; n..o ""'~n __

· . . .. . __ IV"''''

""~o-..,.......... 0.0_

· . . . . ___ N""

..... 0. ..... 0<0 A"" 0- ":'l.")

.. . . . . ___ fUN

.-0""'0-""'_ e-, 111".., 0. 0

· . . . . !",:, .. ~.~~_N

"'0. ..... 0<0 ............ "'0 "'" 0- · . . . .

-----

~ .,,_,II'\-

000 -.. 0.

· . .. . ..

-----

...... 0: ..... -:.0 44,...1P')¥JI

· . . . . --_._-

.., .... 0--\."\_ "'..0.." ...... ..,."" · . . . .

-----

"""0- '"' O..c "".,.. o ..... ,._ .. . . . . .-_--.-,

"'" .- ...... - ..., v • ..o.o .....

· . . . . -----

...... t> "" ('4 "" -.,Jt...r..r\...,. .. ,

· . .. .. -----

..oN"O~ONr"'\ ......... ...,

· . . ..

NNNNN

_ ., e.I"

'" N ..., _,

· . . . . "'ruN"''''

.o", .. .""n.. _NN..,..,

• • II •• "'N~"'''N

- .......... .,., __ NN .....

· . . . .

NN ..... NN

...,,,,"0.,,.,,,, ,", __ IUN

.. . . .. "'!'IoN"''''

_ ...... "'0-...,. nO __ N

· . . . .

N",IVNN

...... N.., ..... 0. 0.'11:>-':':' __

· . . .. _N-"'IN'",

,. ............. 0-."# ?oo~....,..;J_

.. . . . . __ NNN

""''''ro ..... o. -00- C"o ~") C"_

· . . . . ___ NN

"' ......... 0' ~ ",,·00- 0. ~ · . . . . -_ ..... _ ......

...... ,.., • .t9 ... ,"'\ ...... .., ",0. e::o ••••

----(10/1

""4'<""0.'" .......... ..,,'IJ!) 0.

.. .. . ..

-----

.,JI'_"') 0'_""" 0.,"\ oJ _.-

I> • • It It

NW't""l""'toO'\

".1II\_..oN """"" ..... ;')· . . . .

N"""""""'''''''

Jl'O<O_ .....

""..,. 0.0

· .

:u""\llN ~

0..11\_..0'" ..... "'Oo..o...::t

.. . .. . ..

NNNN .....

...... ""4." ..... ....... w.a no.. .....

· .... ",,,,,,,,NN

C"'!"'_ ...... N .......... 0'It't1lA,... · . . . .

N"''''NN

"'0."'· ......

.." '" ...

· .

'" "" N "''''

C' .. ""- '"

..n .Q ....,

· .

N",N°NN

"'..,..0"' .....

"'00-0 ......

· .

N",,,,NN

c-. '" _ '"

"'''''", ''''

.. . . . .

",,,,"',,,N

.,.. 0.0 A'·"

.... "''''' ..,..

· .

N"'NN",

a~-""'''''

' "'V'\ 0

· ..

",,,,NN'"

",_..0",'0 ""..,.., "" "'......

. N.~NNN

cOO- .......... ""to'\..,....,."" e • • • • "'"N"'NN

.",_ft",-G ..,.."'....,....,. ...... · .... """'#\INN

C'ON ...... rrl NN....,..,. ....

· ...... """'NNN

"'_ .... ,...-0 _NN"""" · . . . . "'''',.. .. NN

CoON ............ _-","I""" · ..... ,. .. ","'NN

""_ ........ ,,-:0. D~~"'''' · . . . .

N h ..... ,." '"

-l

C-ONect"'t

nV.' _N

· .

I'\ot"'f"' .. ,.."N

~..<II..:I' -,.,... N"'''''' ..... ..g • II • • •

"""'''''' ...... '''''''''

tlO"""~V'\o -"'''',.., .... .. .. .. .. ..

DOf\""'''''' ..... 1'<''\

"'" I'III"lI .... C) U'IIr. --"'''' ....

· .

.." ..., ..., .,.

""'1)0.",_ .') __ N",

....... ,.,.."" ..... ""'''''

~~ ......... .". __ .... n_NN

· . . . . ""' ........... "" .....

.., ...... 000 t.ft._ ..... n ..... _N · .. . .. ..

N ...... ~ ..... '"

-0. .... 0. 0.0..0-_

· .

"",N""" ""

.,..., C)rt. ""_ ~C'ho..f"' _ .. . . . .

NN~"""'"

..., 0-"'" O...n .,."O-CC'l · . . . .

NN"''''' .....

80 .... 0"' _ ...... CIOn. th("'t · . . . . ","'NAI"""

...... 0-..,..0."'" ............. 0. n.· . . . . ""''''AI'''",

"-.kO""_ ·0 ..... '0...,0\.

· . . . . ~. '" '" '" At

"'C'Joo V\n <0 ..0 -0 .e- an an · ....

,N r:~ .. f'!tI.~~,..,

fIQ""t.,.a-o_ "'-0 ............ .", · .. . . ..

NNNNN

..,0..11'\_"" '" an <r() ....... ,..._ · . .. . . r..aN""."'",

0. "" t_" -0 "... .... "'.0-0 ...... • •• .t .•

"''''NAt'''

.., 0- "'_ ..... .......... "'..0 -0 · ....

NNNNI'\I

O-V-U..oN ..., .... "''''..0 · . .. . .

NNNNN'

-,#, .. "'_ ..... ...... .., ...... ""'" · . . . .

NNnlNN

Co>"' ..... ooC!I N N ..... ~ ..... lI\ .. .. . . .

NNNNN

- ... ~ .,

· . .......

-<I '" eo .... .... ..,

· . . ........ '"

- ..... "".,., "''''' ...... · .. . . """""..r\"""

"" ". 110 ,.,.. 0- N ...... ""' ......... .. . . . . """"'II'tIP'lfi"\

- ....... ._._"" ... N"''''''''' ..... · . . . .

...... "" '""" '" .....

..t')N.,~O_ NN""",

· .. . . . ...,..,.."""' ..... ..._

.......... ""'0...., __ "IN,...,

· .... """,,,,...,,,,,,,,,

..... N..,..,..,. _~ __ N'"

· .

...... ""'''''''' ".

"' ...... Wt 0. ... 00 __ ""

· .

........ .., ...,

..... "'.., .... 1':) ...... O...;t..-N

· .

fV ~""""

N~""'o.U'\ "0.,.--,0.· . . . . ,.. ... ~~.""""' .

...... ", ... -...0 .. ..,0...,..0_

· .....

NNN""~

N 1O""''''''~ 00 •• go.. (h.'c,:,

• • e •• ,. ... NNN ....

...... ~o-...,C..... ACOo..!:.J .•

· .

NNNf':'I""

NeG ..... C'''' ........... co 0- 0- .. e" ••• NNNNN

...... ""0>-""_ .0 ............ coo. ..... , ...

NNNNN

""' ... oIn..n ......OOO ...... ,ao .. .; . . . .

NNNNN

eo.., 0-.""'_ "'...,..., ...... eo e, •••• NNNNN

o

",--<I ...........

· .. ............

0...0 .....

._._ ....

· .

...,,"""' "'"

"'_ ........... 10 N""."..., ..... · ..... ._....,...,.,., . ..."...,..

"="""N"~ NNtoo" ..... ...,..

· . . . . tooI\,"" "'~ ""

-0.- "" 00-

- '" "" ....

· . . . .

.... ""''''' .... ''''

_ ...... Ncn .... __NN .... .. . . . . ""'"-.IP"'\~ .....

'ON ........... ~ ::),.-..-NN

. ..

"'" .,. . ..,.. .

- ...... ""., .., C."O __ N

· . . . . t'\ """ ........... """

ooON-C...,oOo~O_'_ .. . . . .. , .... ..,.. ..... "" '"

"' ...... "" no. .,_, 4>0' DCI_

· ... ' . "-IN"" "'" ""

...... ""<...,.0 ·.cg..~O_ · ....

NNN"'''''

N M

" n

N

" U

..

• N

N .. M .. ..

.. " ..

.. .. .. II .. .. .. .. .. .. .. U .. ..

_M .. II .. ..

- " II

II H .. ... .. .. II .. II

... ...

· ....

o oft "., ...... "' ........... ...,. • • e • .............. "'"

" • II

..

'*'_ ..... """tG N ..... "" ........... • • e .•.• .... """" ..........

.'" oft '" .., oJ/? ".. NN ................

• e • .. • • 1"'\"""..,.. .... ""''''"'

'0_ ..... "'0.."" _1\1"''''' ..... ..,. · .. . . . . ........ ..,.."""""'"

II

-_MM " - - MN H

H ~O~O~ C~O~O _C~O~ a~o~o ~O_O~ O~O~O ~onO~O" ~~~ON ~~a"'~ ~ON-~ ~N~~O ~~~ON ~~aN~ haN~~O"

___ • .., ." '" N .......... ,.... ... , ..... "" ....,..... V'II lI"\ '" 111\ ..() .0 .0 4........... ...... ...... no cO 00 GO 0- 0. 0. C)o. c.» ..

•• It

_ ..

"

OIU'\O\f\O ~I""'''''O ::;r,Q":,.,J_

· . .

0:;

· .. .. . .

· . .

· .....

..... It

63

4.3.4.2. Comprcsiuue cxcentrica oblica 4.3.4.2.1. Calcuhd exact

Dimensionarea armaturilor se face cu ajutorul diagramelor de interactiune Nd - MYd - Mzd care sunt reprezcntute in Iigura 4.10. Aceste diagrume de interactiune sunt reprezcntate pentru tipurile de arrnari din figura 4.9.

4.3.4.2. Bi-axially bending 4.3.4.2.1. Exact design

Reinforcement design is

based on interaction between Nd• Myu and Mz<.l • This interaction is plotted .into the diagrams (Fig. 4. to) depending on reinforcing way (Fig. 4.9).

Zd , ~" d
Myd
... ~
N ~
d1 " As.iotl2

b l

1

0)

d)

. Fig. 4.9 Compresiune excentrica oblica. Columns with by-axially bending Reduced. values Vd, IlVd and Ilzd are used as input datu for diagrams.

For reinforcing system.

according to Figures 4.9a and- 4.9b, if IlYd ~ Ilzd then III = J.1yd and 112 = Ilzd else III =!J.zd and 112 = Ilyd . For reinforcing system:. according to Figures 4.9c III

!J.yd and 112 = !J.zd ""

Coefficient .. IDlol is obtained "

from diagrams (Fig. 4.10) and finally reinforcement area is given by (4.19).

Se calculeaza coeficientii:

N.. M ..

v .. = bhf~ ,Ilytl = bh2t:"

. - M ..

SI Il<:.d _= b2 hf

c d

Daca !J.Vd ~ !J.zd atunci pentru moduriIe de armare din figura 4.9a si 4.9b se considera III = !J.yd si!J.2 =!J.zd-, altfel III = Ilzd Sl 112 = Ilyd

Pentru modul de arm are din figura 4.9c III = Ilyd si 112 ~ Ilzd Din diagramele figurii 4.10 se 'determina coeficientul 00101 , rezultind in final

(4.18a, b, c)

(4.19)

4.3.4.2.2. Calculul aproximativ

Pentru calculul simplificat al elementelor supuse la compresiune excentrica oblica exista doua metode date in British Concise Eurocode 2 [4.3].

Prima metoda (ar- mai exacta, dar mai laborioasa si pe care se bazeaza si normele rornanesti - pomeste de Ia prevederile din CP II 0 si are in vedere satisfacerea conditiei;

( .)a ( )

M· M a.

M:- " + M: . ~I-

4.3.4.2.2. Approximate design

" Two simple methods are

given in British" Concise

Eurocode 2 [4.3].

The first method (al,

technically more accurate but less convenient, is taken from CPIIO. The present Romanian code is based on the same idea. This method assumes repeated checks in order to satisfy condition (4.20), where: MYd and Mzd are design bending moments;" Muy "and Muz are maximum moment capacity,

(4.20)

" unde:

Myd si Mzd sunt momentele incovoietoare de calcul;

Myu si Mzu sunt capacitatile portante in raport cu cele doua CL'{e luind in considerare forta axiala Nd;

Coeficientul (In se .determina din tabelul 4.4 in functie de NdlNud;

64

52 ci

..

0.0 0-

:;:;.0

II .J: ....

-0

52 ci

..

0.0 0-

:;:;.0

.. .J:

-

-0

65 .. ·t.

t

S500

d,/h = ull b = 0.10

As.tot/2

.':;;>-~!-,-~,!+-L.JJ!.~-~-~=--b_~ flz .flz

0)0

,. Fig. 4.1 Oc Diagram de interactiune N - My - Ms-: N - My - M, interaction diagram

Nud == (0.85fcd)Ac·+ fydAs . . assuming axial force Nd and

Coeficientul p. Coefficient p . Tabel 4.4 bending about the major/minor

axis only; an is related to NdlNud as given in Table 4.4; Nud = (0.85fcd)Ac + fydAs

an The second method (b), a more

A doua metoda. (bl > mai putin exacta - este preluata din approximate one, is taken from BS no si se bazeaza pe dimensionarea Ia uii--momentBS 11 0 'and stipulates to design incovoietor marit si actionind dupa 0 singura axa. Moinentul to an increased bending moment

incovoietor modificat seobtinedin una din urmatoarele relatii: about a single axis. The

. h···. .' modified moment is given by

My = My +Pb:.Mz pentru My/h' ~ Mz/b' (4.21a) whichever of relationships

. , b' (4.21 a) or (4.21 b) is more

M, = M, + P~My pentru My/h' < Mz/b' (4.21b) appropriate. Coefficient P is

Coeficientul P se obtine din figura 4.11, unde de asemenea obtained from Figure 4.11. For

se dau semnificatiile termenilor b' .si h'. b' and hsee also figure 4.1 l.

NlNud'

1.67

0.4

~0.8

0.6

~0.2

. "

. 1.33

2.00

1.00

66'

1.0

13
~ ~
h h
<,
~
-
<, -
r-.
........
<, ~
'---- --- --- f--- -- -- ---
I
I
0.75 0.8

0.6

0.4 0.3 0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4 0.5 0.6

0.3

0.7 0,8

Fig. 4.11 Coeficientul p pentru calculul simplificat la compresiune excentrica oblica Coefficient P for simplified design of columns with bi-axially bending

~A. SECTIUNI T

4A.1. Determinarea rezultantei compresiunilor din beton

4.4. FLANGED SECTIONS

4.4.1. Concrete internal

compressive force

Calculation of flanged

sections of beams is based on the same stress diagram, like in Figure 4.6 and on the same pair Nd and Msd acting at the level of tension reinforcement . As1• Concrete internal compressive force calculation . is' based on Figure 4.12.

Calculul sectiunilor T apartinind grinzilor se bazeaza pe . aceeasi diagrama de eforturi unitare ca cea din figura 4.6 si pe leasi valori Nd si Msd actionind la nivelul centrului de J;,"ULU',,, al armaturii intinse.

Determinare fortei de compresiune Fe se bazeaza pe figura 4.12.

b

(lxa neutrfi . --neutral a-Xis

Fe = Fel - Fe2 . 0.1; s;:::::> f(Ec2) 1

Fel = a.l(O.85fed)AI I din Fig. 4.4

Fe2 = a2(O.85fed)A2 0.2; S~ :::::> f(Ehf) J

Fig. 4. Rezultantacompresiunilor in beton cazul sectiuni T.

Internal compressive force in the concrete of flanged sections.

Ai =bx

A2 = (b :. bw)(x - hr)

fJ I c
I' J I ! I .<E--

F ... Mdt" .... +Nc1 Fc
- - ~r I" \_'
h d . Z
Ysl
Asl /YtNd Fsl
, . ~- ...
I " 4.4.2. Calcul scctiuuilor

Pentru dimensionarea ariei de armatura se calculeza:

Mstl

~lstl =bd1f (4.22)

cd

precurn si valorile h,/d si b/b., care caracterizeaza sectiunea T (fig. 4.13).

Cu aceste valori se determina coeficientii J1lim si co tabelul 4.5.

Armare simpla: J1s11 :::;; ~Llilli Aria de armatura este:

A I = tobd (tl + N tl.

S fytl fytl

(4.23)

Armarc dubla: J1s11 > ~Llilli

Se calculeaza Ll~L = ~lstl - ~llilll apoi ariile armaturilor:

. ( . Ll~L .J. fcd Nd

As, = W'im + I-d1/d bd fyd + fyd

A - LlJ1 bd fCd

s1 - I-d2/d f~

Coeficientul Wlim se obtine din tabelul 4.5.

(4.24)

(4.25a)

(4.25b)

4.4.3. Cazul particular al sectiunilor T cind bIb", ~ 5

Atunei cind b/b., ~ 5 se accepta diagrama de eforturi unitare din Iigura 4; 13, care presupune ca eforturile unitare de compresiune sunt distribuite numai pe grosimea plaeii.

I l b L

h 1 1 ~

l

bw l

1 .Fig. 4.13 SeetiuniTcu blbw~ 5

Flanged section with b/b.; ~ 5 Se porneste de la relatiile de echilibru static:

Fsi =N, + Fe

Msd = Fe(d - hrl2)

1

(4.26a) . (4.26b)

rezultind:

Msd Nt!

As, = (d -hr/2)fyd+ fyd

Se cere respectarea conditiei:

M

acd = (d-hc/;)bhr S ossr;

(4.27)

(4.28)

68

4.4.2. Section calculation

Reduced value J1sd is

calculeted by (4.22). In order to use Table 4.5 held and b/b., are also necessary.

See Figure 4.13. Coefficients J1lim and ware obtained from Table 4.5.

Singly reinforcing: J1sd :::;; ~Iiln Reinforcement area is given by (4.23).

Double reinforcing: ~sd > J1liln Difference between J1sd and.

J1lim is given by (4.24) and finally .• area of reinforcements are given by (4.25). Coefficient uo.s, obtained from Table 4.5.

4.4.3. Flanged section wi b/bw ~ 5

Stress diagram from Figure 4.13 is accepted for case of large 'flanges (b/b., ~ 5).

-d-hf/2

Reinforcement area (4.27) is obtained starting from equilibrium conditions (4.26a,b). Condition (4.28) also must be satisfied.

sectiunilor

Design of flanged sections

4.5

",/d s 0.05 ",/d • ().1 0

1001) '" bib.. • 1000 ... . bIb ...

_____________________________ 3_. 2. 1.0 .5., __ ~3 2

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.0l! 0.10

0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20

0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.30

0.32

20 <II 65

20 41 53 91

20 20 21

41 41 42

53 53 53

87 85 04

114 110 107

145 137 131 166 155

199 179

237 206

. 233

261 291 3:13 357 394

434

21 21 21 21 21

42 42 42 42 42

li3 63 63 63 63

84 84 85 85 85

111 108 108 107 107

130.. 134 . 132 131

164 158 lS5

200 180 179

220 206

259 233

2Gl 291 :123 357 394

434

10

h,/d·0.15

10001.1 bib..·

5

21 21 21 21 21

42 42 42 42 42

63 63 63 53 63

85 85 85 85 85

107 107 107· 107 107

130 130 t30 130 131 157 155 155 155

192 184 182 179

219 211 '206

244 233

283 261

291 323 357 394

4~4

lit ...

l000 .... t ...

IIr ...

1000 ""2 ...

0.070 0.099 0.138 0.10G 0.330

84 125 180 ,249 455

0.069 0.096 0.133 0.178 0.316

01 119 170 233 424

0.106 0.131 0.164 0.205 0.330

122 1li9 208 270 455

0.104 0.120 0.159 0.198 0.316

119 153 190 254 424

0.139 0.160 0.189 0.224 0.330

160 192 237 291 455

0.138 0.157 0.184 0.217 0.J16

IS] 187 226 276, 424

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10

0.12 0.14 0;16 0.18 0.20

0.22 0.24, 0.26 0.20 0.30

0.32

h,/d • 0.20 h,/d • 0.30 hlld - 0.40

1000.... bib,. - 1000.... bib.. • 1000... bib", -

10 5 3 2 '_0 5 3 2, ~----~10----~5----~3----~2 __ --~-

21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21

42 112 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,~ ~

85 85' 85 85 85 05 85 . 05 85 85 85 85 85 85

101 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107

131 131 131 131 131 131 131 131 131 131 131

154 154 154 154 155 HiS 155 155 155 155 155

100 179 179 179 179 179 179 179 179 179 179

210 207 206 :106 206 206 206 206 206 206

241 236 233 232 232 233 23J 233 '233

270 261 261 261 261 261 261

309 291 293 292 291

323 320 323

J57 357

J94 394

4~ 434

21 42 63 85

107

131 155 179 206 233

131 131 lJl

155 155 ISS

179 179 179

206 206 ,206

233 233 233

261 261 , 261 261

291 291 291 291

322 322 322 323

357 357 357

396

261 291 323 357 394

434

lit ... lOOowt...

0.171 0.188 0.212 0.241

198 227 265 312

0.169 0.IB,6 0.207 0.234

195 221 255 297

0.330 455

0.316 424

0.228 0.239 0.254 0.273 0.330

27.5 295 322 355 455

0.227 0.236 0.250 ,0.266 0.316

272 209 311 J40 424

0.279 0.205

354 367

0.273 0.270

343 352

0.293 0.302

381 400

0.204 0.292

J64 379

0.330 455

0.31G 424

SECTIUNI CIRCULARE SI INELARE

(4.3 Ia, b)

Calculul ariei totale de armatura pentru sectiunile circulare si

lare (fig.4.J 6) se face cu relatia: .

, f

As.,~ = OOlotAc foo (4.29)

yd

unde Ac este aria sectiunii de beton

Ac = n:r - pentru sectiuni circulare (4.30a)

Ac = 1tf2[ 1 - (ri/r)2] - pentru sectiuni inelare (4.30b)

Coeficientul 00101 se determina dindiagrarnele de interactiune - Nd din figurile 4.14 si 4.15 in functie de coeficientii:

4.5. CIRCULAR AND RING - SHAPED SECTIONS

Area of total reinforcement is obtained from relationship (4.29) with Ac according to (4.30).

'Coefficient OOlot is obtained from interaction diagrams (Fig. 4.15 and 4.16), depending on VI! (4.31a) and Jll! (4.31b) and also

on ddh for circular sections or r/r and d/(r-ri) = 0.5 for rmg - shaped sections.

o

~E~ Nf~
~. ; ::;U
- ,.
~~ ~. _,.... a
f Ul
d
:i.e - ~ . ..
~
11] "'1::::'3 .._-
I
-J.. a ....
a 'S..
1.(' .. Ul "0
s en
a
t"'-
o 0 0
J- ~- ..
...
---.
.:..- -- --1--1--1---1

.

~~~'----~--i~r~1"7£?~~'~~~~~74~74~~·~~"~~

~.

au .. ···Yell

=- ~

-

-:'

~t c,
NI~
..... 2 ~).
~} l-
!l_- .. .
fI:~ q_'3
- - "').
ll.(' ~
a
o' :§
3- d'
'< 0' 00 ~ .. en.t:

-

-0

"4t'r--;--r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

.

~~!

. .....

70

Fig. 4.16 Sectiune circulara si inelara Circular and ringed - shaped sections

de ddh pentru sectiunea circulara, respectiv de r/r si d/(r-rj) = pentru sectiunea inelara,

Pentru sectiunile circulare coeficientul (OIO( se poate calcula si relatia:

(Olol = KI Jld + K2 (4.32)

"n~'T""PI1'"' KI si K2 determinindu-se din diagrama prezentata in 4.17.

In toate exemplele de calcul privind incovoierea cu forta s-au folosit urmatoarele materiale:

.' . 2

C20 =::>. fck = 20 N/mm

. = fcklyc = 2011.5 = 13.33 N/mm2 = 13.33.103 kN/m2 = 3 kN/cm2

'S500 =::> fyk = 500 N/mnl

fyd= fyklys = 50011.15 = 435 Nzrnnr' = 435.103 kN/m2 = 43.5 Icm2

.' Eyd = 1000 fyd IEs = 1000·4351200000 = 2.18 0/00

. Sectiuni dreptunghiulare 4.6.1.1

ent incovolat simplu armat - dimensionare

. dimensionarea annaturii sectiunii caracterizata prin:

I/d2/d = 0.3010.50/0:05/0~0510.45 m sl = 100kNm/-500kN/O.20 m

se calculeaza cu relatia (4.9):

= 100 - (-500)·0.20 = 200 kNm

_ ·200

----;:----.---::- = 0247< "I' = 0316 ~ simpla

030.0.452 .1333.103 ,... tm

ell diagrama CEB - pet. 4.3.3.1. figura 4.7 rezulta:

0.82 ~ z = 0.82·0.45 = 0.369 m

= 4.450/00 > Eyd = 2.18 0/00 ~ O'sl = [yd

== -3.50/00 .

I .( 200» ,

= 43.5 0369";" 500 ::;: 0.97cnr .

5 4

K1, K2
·0
.0 f.-" ..",.- ............. ~
.......
.0 -

.0

0 . K:z
-
- ~ ~vd
- -
-0.5 -1.0 -1.5
0 . I
ri . 4.17 Coeficientii K andK 3 2 1.

o -1.

g I 2

Coefficients KJ and K2 Coefficient ffilot for circular sections also can be calculated by (4.32) with KI arid K2 from Figure 4.17 [4.5]. >

4.6. DESIGNING EXAMPLES

The following materials were used for examples concerning bending with axial force:

C20 and S500

For strengths see the left side of the page.

4.6.1. Rectangular sections Example 4. 6.1.1

Flexure - singly reinforced design

Input data:

b/h/d1/d2/d and MdlNd/Ysl Output data: reinforcement area Msd according to (4.9) .

~~d > = 0.247 <J.1lim =0.316 -4 singly reinforced": .

CEB Diagram - 4.3.3.1.

From Figure 4.7 result:

S = 0.82; Esl = 4.45 0/00; Ec2 = - 3.50/00

Finally ASI is obtained.

Internal forces Fe and Fs1are also computed.

/

Se mai poate obtine v = 0.301 si apoi

Fe = 0.301.0.30.0.45.13.33.103 == 542 kN Fsi = 0.97·43.5 = 42 kN Fsi - Fe =42 -'542 = -500 kN Dimensionarea cu tabelul CEB - pet. 4.3.3.2

In functie de J.!sd = 0.247 din tabelul e.l se determina : 0) = 0.302; esl = 4.48 0/00 si O"sl = 435 N/mm2

1333 -500 .,

A = 0302·30·45--.+--= 0.9gem-

s 435 435

N = 500 -+ Fsi = 42

Exemplul 4. 6.1.2 -

Element ineovoiat dublu armat - dimensionare

Se cere dimensionarea armaturii sectiunii caracterizata prin: blhJd1/d2/d = 0.30/0.50/0.05/0.05/0.45 m .

~lNiYsl= 200kNmI-500kN/0.20 m

Msd se calculeaza cu relatia (4.9):

Msd = 200 - (-500)-0.20 = 300 kNm

300

J.!sd = 030.0.452 .1333.103 = 0370> J.!lim = 0316 ~ dubla armare

d2/d = 0.05/0.45 = 0.11

Dimensionare cu diagrama CEB - pet 4.3.3.1. Din figura 4.7 rezulta pentru J.!lim = 0.316:

l; = 0.755 ~ z = 0.755·0.45 = 0.34 m

€sf = 2.330/00 > Evd = 2.18 %o·~ O"sl = fyd

I es21 = 2.330/00> Eyd = 2.18 0/00 ~ 0"s2 = fyd Eel = -3.5 0/00

Din relatia (4.8b) rezulta:

Mlim = 0.316.0.30.0.452.13.33.103 = 255.9 kNm b.M = 300 - 255.9 = 44.1 kNm

- l-f2559 44J ] ')

AsI =a 034 + 0.45-0.05 +(-500) = 834em-

. . I 44J 2

As2 = 435 0.45-0.05 =253c~

Dimensionarea cu tabelul CEB - pet 4.3.3.2

Infunctie de J.!sd = 0.370 si d2/d = 0.11 din tabelul 4.2 se

detennina : -

0)1 = 0.486 si ffi2 = 0.062

1333 -500

As. = 0.4859·30·45 435 + 435= 8.61cm2

.. . 1333

AS2 =0.0617·30·45 435 =255cm2

Exemplul 4. 6.1.3

Element incovoiat simplu armat - capacitate portanta Se cere capacitatea portanta a sectiunii caracterizata prin: blhld1/d = 0.25/0.50/0.05/0.45 III

. . .. 2

NiAsl/YSI = -100kN/9.42cm 10.20 m

Axial equilibrium is OK!

CEB Table - 4.3.3.2

Depending on J.!sd from Table 4. 0) = 0.302; Esl = 4.48 0100 and = 435 N/mm2 are obtained finally As I. too

Example 4. 6.1. 2

Flexure - double reinforcing design

Input data:

blhJddd2/d and ~lNd/Ysl Output data: reinforcement area Msd according to (4.9).

f..Lsd, z. := 0.370 > J.!lim = 0.316 double reinforcing

CEB Diagram - 4.3.3.1. From Figure 4.7 result:

l; , Esl ;Es2 , Eel

Mlim results from (4.8b); b.M is computed.

Finally Asl and As2 are obtained.

CEB Table - pet 4.3.3.2 Coefficients 0)1 and ffi2 obtained from Table depending on-Jlsd andd2/d~

Example 4. 6.1.3

Flexure - singly reinforcing - resisting bending moment Input data:

blhJd,/d and Nd/AsI/Ysl

Rezolvare cu tabelul CEB (tabel 4.1). Pomind de le relatia (4.13) se calculeaza:

•• 9.42·43.5-(-100)

0)= 25.45.133 :::: 034

Din tabelul4.1 se determina JlRs:::: 0.27 VAUJ.U,"" de la relatia (4.10) se calculeaza:

= 0.27.0.25.0.452.13.33.103:::: 182.2 kNm POlrmIlC1 de le relatia (4.9) se obtine:

= 182.2 + (-100}0.20 = 162.2 kNm

<>'7rl"",.·rp cu relatii de calcul

fortelor cere: Nd

= Fsi + Nd= 410 + 100 =510 kN

relatia (4.1) se determina pozitia axei neutre presupunind = 3.50/00 si deci a. = 0.81 (din figura 4.4):

510

0.81.0.85.1333.103 = 022m

conditia de compatibilitate a deformatiilor rezulta : .45-022

= 35 022 = 3.660/00 > Eyd = 2.18 0/00 ~ O'sl =fyd

.IiVL ... • .. ia rezultantei Fe este data de relatia (4.3), cu l;'=0.45 din 4.4 avind in vedere Ea = 3~5 0/00.

=0.45·0.22 = 0.094

de pirghie al eforturilor interioare este: = d - a = 0.45 - 0.094 = 0.359

;ap:aci'tat(:a portanta rezulta din conditia de echilibru in raport Fs1•

:;:: Fez - NdYsl = 510:0.36 - 100·0.20 = 163 kNm

Output data; MRd

Solving by CEB Table.

Coefficient eo is obtained starting from (4.13).

From Table 4.1 coefficient JlRs == 0.27 is obtained depending on 0). Resisting moment results from (4.9).

Solving by relationships It is assumed:

Esl > Eyd = 2.180100 -+ O'sl =fyd Axial equilibrium requires:

Fe = Fsi + Na= 410 +-100 =510 kN

Assuming Eci= 3.5 0/00' and a = 0.81 (Fig. 4.4) from (4..1) results x = 0.22in..

There is' otained:" .

Esl = 3:66 o/~o > z.r 8' 0/00

Finally MRd = 163 kNm .is

obtained from' moment

equilibrium condition with

respect to ~sl.

Example 4. 6.1.4

&;1 .. "", .... "".1&& incovoiat dublu annat - capacitate portanta Flexure - deublereiaforciag -

,resi$ting ,bending moment·

cere capacitatea portanta a sectiunii caracterizata prin: Input data:

Id2/d = 0.30/0.50/0.05/0.05/0.45 m blhldd'd2/d and Nd/Asl/YsI/As2

/YsI/As2= -150kN/9.42cm2/0.20 ml9.42 cm2 -Output data: Mm'

P'Ul,,,,,,,r .. cu relatiile de echilibru. Solving by equilibrium

presupune x = O.13m 'equations

.... C!111T\1'ln1T· ui £a = 3.5 0/00. se calculeaza deformatiile specifice First trial: x = 0.13 m .

doua armaturi: ., -Depending on-Ea = 35 0/00 and

0.45- 013 . . . x . result, Est. Es2 .. and

013 = 8.620/00 -+ O'sl = fye! reinforcement stresses O'sl and

. 013-0.05 .. 0's2

= 35 013 = 215 0/00 < 2.18 0/00 dec! Internal forces Fsl, Fs2 and Fe are

215. . computed.

52 = 1000200000 = 430N 1 mm 2 < fye!

= 9.42·43.5 = 409.8 kN

= 9.42·43.0 = 405.1 kN

figura 4.4 rezulta 0.1= 0.81 pentru Eel = 3.50/00 si deci: = 0.81·(0.85·'1.333)-30·13 =358kN

Echilibrul longitudinal al fortelor cere: £e;

Nd + Fsi = Fe + Fs2" Fs2

Nd + Fsl = ISO + 409.8' = 560 kN

Fe; + Fs2 = 358 + 405.1 = 763 kN N Fsi

Se constata ca Nd + Fsi < Fe; + Fs2 deci X trebuie redus

Se presupune x= 0.105 m

Presupunind Ec;2 = 3.5 0/00, se calculeaza deformatiile specifice in cele doua armaturi.

0.45 - 0.1 05 . .

Esl = 0.105 = 1150/00 > 100/00

in consecinta se adopta Esl = 10 0/00 sise calculeaza calelalte deformatii specifice: '

0.105

Ee2 = 0.45 _ 0.1 05 = 3.04 0/00 0.105- 0.05

Es2 = 3.04 0.105 = 1590/00

159 ')

crs2 = 1000200000 = 319~ I mm:

Fsl = 9.42·43.5 '= 409.8 kN' Fs2 = 9.42·31.9 = 300 kN

Din figura 4.4rezultaex == 0.78pentru Ee2 = 3.04 0/00 si deci:

. Fe = 0.78·(0.85·1~333)-30.JO.5 = 262.3 kN Se constata ca Nd + FSI = Fe + Fs2 -4 OK! Din figura 4.ftse obtine ~'= 0.406 si deci:

a = 0.406·0.150 = 0.042 si z = 0.45 - 0.042 = 0.408 m

Din ecuatia de .momente in raport cu armatura intinsa rezulta:

MRd = 262.3·0.408 +300·(0.45 - 0.05) - 150·0.20 = 197kNm

Exemplul 4. 6.1.5

Stilp - compresiune exeentrica dreapta - dhnensionare

_ ... J ~

Se cere armarea simetrica a sectiunii caracterizata prin: p/h/d1/d2 = 0.5QI0:7(j/0.0510.05 m

MqlNd = 480kNmI-1960kN' .'

drlh = d21h = 0:051.70 '= 0.071

Coeficientii Vd si ii<t se calculeaza cu relatiile (4.15; 4.16):

Vd = ~1960 3 ~ -0.600

050· 0.70·1333·10·

480· ,

I:1d = 050.0.702.1333-103 =0.147

Din figura 4.8 rezulta 00t0t = 0.18 pentru d11h = 0.05, respectiv 00t0t = 0.20 pentru drlh == 0.10 si prin interpolare intre valorile anterioare rezulta Wtot = 0.188 pentru drlh = 0.071

Aria totala de armatura este

50·70·1333 2

As,lllt = 0.188 435 20.4cm

iar in final As! = As2 = 10.2 cm2 ..

No equilibrium of forces:

Nd + Fsi < Fe +Fs2

A new trial is necessary: x=0.105m

Starting from ee2 = 3.5 0/00 there is obtained Esl > 100/00. It is assumed Esl = 10 0/00 Ee2 = 3.04 0/00 and Es2 = 1 2.18 0/00 are resulted. . Coefficient ex =: 0.78 and 0.406 are obtained from 4.4 depending onEc;2 = 3.04 Axial equilibrium is satisfied:

Nd + Fsl= Fe + Fs2 -4 OK!

.Position ofF e - a and the arm: - z are computed. Moment equilibrium with respect· to reinforcements leads to 197kNm.

Example 4. 6.1.5 Column - mono-axial OeJilOln2. - design

Input data:

blhld1/d2 and ~lNd

Output data: '

Asl =Au

The following values computed: d11h= d2!h, v~ and 1ld·(4~'16). Figure4-.S,giv~s<Ptot =:=:" 0.18, dllh = 0.05 and 00t0t = 0.20 dllh = 0.10.

Finally CI>tot= 0.188· for d11h 0.071 is obtained and reinforcement area As.tot and As! = As2= 10.1 cm2, too.

Exemplul4. 6.1.6 '

Stilp - compresiune excentrica dreapta - Incovoietor capabil

Se cere capacitatea portanta a sectiunii caracterizate prin:· blh/d1/d2 = 0.2510.40/0.04/0.04 m

.. 2 2

Nd/As1/As2= - 800 kN/ll.40 em 111.40 em

As.tot = 22.80 cm2

Cu relatiile (4. 17a) si (4.15) se calculeaza

22.8.0 435= O. 44

25.4.0 1333 7

v = -800 = -0.600

025· 0.40· 1333· 103

figura 4.8 rezulta J.lRd = 0.332 si in final capacitatea portanta pomind de la relatia (4.16)

= 0.332.0.25.0.402.13.33.103 = 177.2 kNm

·...:. ... '".Ill .. llIu .. 4. 6.1.7

- compresiune excentrica obliea - dlmensionare

cere armarea sectiunii caracterizata prin:

lib) = 0.30/0.40/.0 . .04/.0 . .03 m

d = 11.0 kNml45 kNmI-8DDkN

relatiile (4.18a, b, c) se calculeaza coeficientii:

v = . -8.0.0 = ;_()500

d 0.3.0. 0.40 .1333 ~ 103

110 ~ .

J.1yd = 03.0. 0.402 .1333.1.03= 0172

45 .

0302.0.4D~1333.1D3 ~ .0.094

si se folosesc diagramele din figura 4.10. Pentru modul de armare din figura 4.9a:

Deoarece J.1vd > J.lzd -+. J.lI = J.l.vd = 0.172 si J.l2 = J.lzd = .0 . .094 VdT.o.4 -+ Oltot =.0.34; Vd= .0.6 -+ IDtot = .0.31

A~cipentru Vd= 0.5 -+ ,o:>tot =.0.325

Aria de armatura se obtine.dir, relatia (4.19):

. . 1333 ., .,

As•tot = D325.3D'~D435 =11.95cm-

Pentru modul de armare dinfigura 4.9b:

Deoarece J.lyd> J.1zd -+ J.ll = J.lyel = .0.172 si J.12 = J.lzd = .0 . .094 '1Vd = .0.4-+ Oltot== .0.45; Vel = .0.6 -+ IDtot = .0.55

.deci pentru va= .0.5-+ Ci>tot. =.05.0

. Aria de armatura se obtine din relatia (1.19):

. 1333 . 2

As,lot = 0.5.0.0·3.0· 4.0 435 = 1838cm

Pentru modul de armare din figura 4.9c:

Ill;:::: J.lVd = .0.172 si J.l2 ;:::: J.lzd :::;; .0 . .094

Vd:;:: .0.4 ~ IDtot = D.40~ Vd = .0.6 ~ IDtot = .0.48 decipentru Vd = .0.5 ~ IDtot =.0.44

Example; 4. 6.1.6

Column - mono-axial bending - resisting bending moment

Input data:

blh/d1/d2 and Nd/AsdAs2 Output data:

MRd

There are computed IDtot (4 .17 a)

and Vd (4.15). .

Coefficient J.1d results from Figure 4.8 and finally MRd = 177.2kNm (4.16). '.

Exampl~4.6.1.7 .

CoIulridfi,;. bi-axial bending - design

Input data:

'blhld1lbl and MydiMzdl Nil Output data: . . Reinforcement area, .

, Reinforcing systemas ·in Figure 4;9a

J.lyd > J.17:d ~ J.l1 = J.Lyd = 0.172

and J.lf= Jizd = .0.094

Vd = 0.4 -+ Oltot ;:::: .0.34; Vel = .0.6 .-+ IDtot = .0.31 .

'and Vd = .0.5-+ IDtot = .0.:325 Reinforcement area is:

As•tot = 11.95 cm2•

Reinforcing system as 'in Figure

'4.9b .

J.lyd > J.1zd -~ J.ll = J.lyd == DJ72

and J.l2 = J.lzd = .0 . .094 .

Vd =.0.4-+ fPtot ~ .0.45; Vd '=.0.6

,~Oltot=. Q155

and Vd = .0.5 -+ IDiot = .0.5.0 Reinforcement area, is: .

As.tot = .18.3$;,cm2 ,

Reinforcing system as in Figure

4.9c '

.J.ll= J.lyd = .0.172 and 112 = J.lzd =

.0.094 . ,.

Vd = .0.4 -+ IDtOt= 0.4.0; Vd = .0.6 4 IDtot ,= 0.48

IDtot. = 0:44

Aria de armatura se obtine din relatia (4.19):

1333' ')

As•lot = 0.440·30· 435 = 16.08cm-

ExempluI4.6.1.8

Stilp = compresiune excentrica oblica - dimensionare

Se cere armarea sectiunii caracterizata prin: blhldllbl = 0.3010.4010.04/0.03 m MvdlMzdlNd = 64 kNml64 kNmI-640kN

Cu relatiile (4.18a, b, c) se calculeaza coeficientii: 800

Yd = 030.0.40.1333.103 = 0500 110

Jlyd = 030.0.402.1333.103 = 0172

45 .

Jlzd = 0302 • 0.40.1333.103 = 0.094

si se folosesc diagramele dinfigura 4.10. Pentru modul de armare din figura 4.9a:

Deoarece Jlvd < Jlzd ~ JlI = Jlzd = 0.133 si 112 = Jlvd = 0.100 COtor = 0.266 .

Aria de armatura se obtine dinrelatia (4.19):

. 1333 .,

As•tot =026&·30·40 435 =9.87cm-

Pentru modul de armare din figura 4.9b:

Deoarece Jlvd < Jlzd ~ Jll = Jlzd = 0.133 si Jl2 = Jlvd = 0.100 00t0t = 0.34 .

Aria de armatura se obtine din.relatia

A ~tot =034.30.401333 = 1256cm2

s, . 435

Sectiunea nu se poate anna conform modului de armare din figura 4.9c.

Exemphil 4. 6.1.9

Stilp - compresinne exeeatriea oblica - capacitate portanta, in raport cu 0 axa

Se cere capacitatea portanta MzRd a sectiunii caracterizata prin: blhld11 d2 = 0.35/0.4510.03510.045m

NdlMvd = -420kN/190kNm.

As = 19.63 cm2 (4025)

Se calculeaza coeficientii:

. '19.63 435 .

IDtot = 35.451333 =0.406

'. 420

Yd :::: 035.0.45.1333.103 =0200 .' 190·' .

Ilyd :::: 035.0.452.1333.103 :::: 0201 Se presupune Jlvd > ~ si deci III =

Reinforcement area is:

As,tt,t = 16.08 cm2

Example 4. 6.1.8 Column - bi-axial design Input data: blhldllb, and Mvi zdl Nd Output data:

Reinforcement area The following values obtained from (4.18a, b, c):

Yd. Jlzd , and Jlyd Diagrams from Figure 4.10 used. .

Reinforcing system as' in 4.9a.

IlYd < Jlzd ~ Jll = Jlzd =

afid~j12 = Jlvd = 0.100 COwt = 0.266 Reinforcement area is 9 .87 cm2~ Reinforcing system as in 4.9b Jlyd <!lzd ~ Jll = Jlzd = 0.1 and Jl2 = Jlyd = 0.100 ·COtot = 0.34 Reinforcement area 12.56 cm2• Reinforcing system as in 4.9c can not be used.

Example 4.6.1.9

Column - bi-axial bending' resisting bending

about a single axis

Input data:

blh/dll d2. NdlMyd and As Output data:

MzRd

The'. following values. result']

based on lnpurdata As' •. COtot, 'vd and Jlyd

1.t is assumed Jlyd > Ilzd. therefo .. re '.'

r' " ' , ,

JlI = 0.201.

Din figura 4.1O.rezwta J.l2 = 0.1 < J.l1 = 0.201 si deci J.lzRd = 0.104

Conform relatiei (4.18c) rezulta:

"MzRd = 0~104·0.352·0.45·13.33·103 = 76.4 kNm

4.6.1.10.

Stilp - eompresiune excentriea oblica - dimensionare prin metoda simplificata (a)

" se cere armarea sectiunii caracterizata prin: b/hld1lhl = 0.30/0AO/0.04/0.03 m MydlMzdlNd = 110 kNml45 kNmI-750kN

Incercarea 1 ~ 4020 ~ As•tot = 12.56 cm2

:Nud = (O.85fcd)Ac+ fy~s = (O.85.13.33.103}0.30.0.40 + 43.5·12.56 =1907 kN

Cu Nt Nud = 75011907 = 0.39 din tabelul 4.4 rezulta an = 1.3135

. alorile Mj, si Muz se calculeaza conform Exemplului 4.6.1.6

, cum unneaza:

" .,' 12.56 435

O)tot = 30. 40 . 1333 = 0342

" , 750

d == 030.0.40.1333.103 = 0.469

Figura 4.8 rezultind J.ld = 0.222 si =0.222·0.30·0.4~·13.33·103 = 142 kNm = 0.222·([3~·0.40·13.33·1cr = 106.5 kNm de verificare (4.20) este:

( 45 )1.3135 .

+ 106.5 == 1.037 > 1, deci As•tot trebuie marit.

tncercarea 2 ~ 4022~ As•tot= 15.20 cm2 ;Nud = (O.85fcd)Ac + =(0.85.13.33-103)·0.30.0.40, + 43.5·1.5.20 = 2022 kN

NI Nud = 75012022 = 0.371 din tabelul .4.4 rezulta an =

1520 435·· -

30.40 . 1333 = 0.413 si v d = 0.469 - ca mai sus.

Figura 4.8 rezulta J.ld = 0.248 iii =0.248·0.30·0.4~·13.33·103= 158.7 kNm

= 0.248·0.3~·0.40·1333;lif= 119 kNmde'ahrfarura este corespunzatoare deoarece:

110 )l:281 (45 )J.28l .'

58.7 + 119 =0913<1

- compresiune exeentrica oblica - dimensionare prin a metoda simplificata (b)

, r~";~ hlJ' .. i;" \"',i ,':;'< -t~-;>.; ;.

cere armarea sectiunii caracterizata prin:

U""'J'"'''' /h .. ",'=~;lO:rb~~;1:f~~~750kN

Coefficient J.l2 = 0.104 < J.l1 = 0.201 results from Figure 4.10 and according to (4. 18c) and finally MzRd is obtained.

Example 4. 6.1.10

Column - bi-axial bending - design by simplified method

(a) -'

Input data:

b/h/d1lh1 and Mydl zdl Nd Output data:

Reinforcement area

1 st trial ~ 4020 ~ As.,tot. =

12.56 cm2 . .

The following values ate computed: Nud' and NI Nud. Coefficient an results nom Table 4.4. Bending momentsMj, and Muz are' computed according to Example 4.6.1~6. Condition (4.20) is not satisfied.

2nd trial.'~ 4022 ~'As = 15.20

cm2 '

The following - values are computed: Nod and NlNud. Coefficient an results from Table 4.4. Bending momentsMuy and Muz, are computed according to Example 4.6. Condition (4.20) is satisfied

Example 4. 6.1.11

.Column - bi-axial bending - design by ,simplifi.ed"'inethod

(b)':',,, . .! ; fof"',: .

Input data:

b/hl b.~/h' and Mydl ¥zdlNd . Output data: Reinforcement area "

My 110 ·M 45

Deoarece -, ==--==305.6>-.z =--=169.8

h 036 b 0.265

in continuare se lucreaza cu relatia (4.21 a)

~== 750 3 =0313

bhfck 030 . 0.40 . 20 . 10

Din figura 4.11 rezulta f3 = 0.715 si deci

. 036

My = 110 + 0.715· 0.265 ·45 = 153.7kNm

Dimensionarea se face conform exemplului 4.6.1.5.

= 750 . = 0.402'

v 035.0.40.1333. 103 '

= 153.7 = 024

J.!d 030.0.402 .1333.103 .

din figura 4.8 rezulta COtot = 0.35

1333 .,

As tot = 035·30·40-· -. = 12.87cm-

. 435

4.6.2.Se~tiuni T Exemplul 4. 6.2.1

Element incovoiatsimplu annat - dimensionare

>

Se cere armarea sectiunii caracterizata prin:

bw/hlb/hc= 0.20/0.55/1.75/0.10 m

dl/d2/Ysl = 0.05/ 0.05/ 0.36 m

MdlNd = 140kNmI-50kN

Rezolvare cu ajutorul tabelului 4.5 (pet, 4.4.2.)

Se calculaza htld = 0.10/0.50 = 0.20 si b/b; = 1.75/0.20 = 8.75 Msd se calculeaza cu relatia (4.9):

Msd = 140 - (-50)-0.36 = 158 kNm

158 .

J.!sd = 1.75.0502.1333.103 = 0.027

Din tabelul 4.5 se determina coeficientul J.!lim = 0.173 si se constata ca J.!sd < J.!lim deci se poate utiliza. simpla armarea. Din acelas !abel rezulta co = 0.02835, aria de armatura rezultind din relatia (4.23):

0.02835 ·175·50 ·1333· -50 2

ASI = 435 + 435 = 6.45cm

Rezolvare conform cazului particular b/b; > 5 (pet, 4.4.3.) Aria de armatura se obtinedin relatia (4.27):

. 158 -50 .,

ASI = (050-010/2)..435 +435 = 692cm-

. Conditia (4.28) devine-

. 158

O"al 175.0.10.( 050;-Q.l0/2) 2·1<Y <D.85. 1133· 1<Y =1133·1<YkNhil

Exe~pluI4. 6.2.2

Element lncovoiat dublu arm at - dlmensionare

Se cere annarea sectiuniicaracterizata prin:

bwlhlbthc= 0.20/0.5511. 75/0,1P m .

18;.

Relationship (4.21 a) IS

. M M

by z

ecauseT>~

Coefficient P is obtained Figure 4.1 I. Design reinforcement is ~.l"UQ" the following bending U.lV'U.I. c UI M~ == 153.7kNm according Example 4.6.1.5.

4~(i.2, Flanged. sections Eflfuple 4. 6.2.1 ' Flexure - smgly em·Jor'cm design I

Input data:

bw/h/b/hc• dl/d2/Ysl and MiNd Output data:

Reinforcement area Solving according using of Table 4.5

There are computed

following values htld, b/b; and f.,lsd .'

Coefficients J.1lim· and co obtained from Table. 4.5

J.1sd,< J.!lirn -+ singly reUtllorcuul" Asl'· is computed according

(4.23). '

Solving according t9 4.4.3 I large flange Asl is computed a~cQrding (4.27). . Condition .' '(4.28)

satisfied.

'll:xample 4., 6.2.,2. Flexure - double reinforcing - design

,fuJ;:mt data: .

Pw/blb/hc, dl/d2/Ysl and~lNd

I, . ," I t-, ' .i"" :',_;:' " /~'

d1/d2/Ysl = 0.0510.0510.36 m MalNd = 500kNmI-1550kN

Se calculeazah-d = 0.10/0.50 = si b/b; = 1.75/0.20 =8.75

Msd se calculeaza cu relatia (4.9):

:Msd = 500 - (-1 550}0.36 = 1058 kNm

= 1058 = 81

J.1sd 1.75.0.502.13.33.103 0.1 4

'Din tabelul 4.5 se determina coeficientul J.!lim = 0.173 si se constata ca J.!sd > J.!lim decieste necesara dubla armarea, Din tabel rezulta IDlim = 0.2015.

relatia (4.24) se obtine:

AJ.1 = 0.1814 - 0.173 = 0.00~4

Aliile de armatura se calculeaza cu relatiile (4.258., b):.

, =(02015+ 0.0084 ).175.501333 + -1550 =20.9cm2

.' SI 1- 0.05/050 435 435

0.0084 1333 2

1- 0.05/050175.50 435. = 25cm

,&;JA"au. .. ,,, ..... 4. 6.2.3

. Element incovoiat simplu armat - capacitate portanta

cere capacitatea portanta a sectiunii caracterizata prin: bw/h/blhr= 0.2010.4510.6010.08 m

d1/d2/Ysl = 0.051 0.051 0.22 m

, '2

Nd/AsJ= -165 kN/14.73 em

cu ajutorul tabelului 4.5

uJ..u.u ...... de la relatia (4.23) se calculeaza coeficientul 14.73·435-(-165)

= 60.40.1333 . = 0252

de asemenea htld = 0.08/0.40 = 0.20 si blbw = 0.6010.20 = 3.0 functie de acesti coeficienti rezulta J.!Rs = 0.2055

= 0.2055.0.60.0.402.13.33.103 = 263 kNm

si in final

= 263 - 165·0.22 = 226 kNm cu ecuatii de echilibru incercare: x = 0.20 m ' considera &c2 = 3.5 0/00 rezultind

0.40-020

£51 = 35 020 = 35 0/00 > Eyd = 2.18 0/00

0.40-020

£h( = 35 0.40 = 1.75 0/00

Deoarece Esl > Evd rezulta 0'51 = fyd, respectivFa = 14.73,43.5 =

Din figura 4.4 se determina coeficientul a. dupa cum urmeaza: = 3.50 0/00 ~ a.1 = 0.81

Ehf= 1.750/00 ~ a.2 = 0.62

rezultind conform figurii 4.12:

Fel = 0.81 {0.85·13.33·103}0.60·0.20= 1101 kN

Fa = 0.62{0.85· 13.33· 1 03).0.40.(0.20 - 0.08) = 337 kN Fe = 1101 - 337 kN = 764 kN

Output data:

Area of reinforcements

There are computed the following values htld. blbw Msd and J.!sd

Coefficients J.1lim and IDlim are obtained from Table 4.5

J.!sd > J.!lim ~ double reinforcing ASl and As2 are computed according to (4.258., b)

Example 4. 6.2.3

Flexure - singly reinforcing - resisting bending moment Input data:

bwlhlblhr. dJ/d2/Ysl and Nd/Asl Output data:

MRd

Solving by Table 4.5.

Coefficient COtot is" computed based on relationship (4.23). Also htld andb/b; are computed, too .

. Coefficient' 'J.!Rs"~ 0.2055 is obtained from Table, 4 .. 5. Resistant bending moments MRs andMRd are obtained starting from J.!Rs.

Solving -by : equilibrium

conditions. t:

First trial: x = 0.20 m Eel = 3.5 0/00

Strains Est and Ebf are computed. Reinforcement stress is O'sl = fyd because Esl > Eyd.· Tensile, force in reinforcement is F~I = 641 kN. From Figure 4.4 result:

Eel = 3.50 0/00 ~ a. = 0.81 Ehr= 1.75 0/00 ~ a. = 0.62 and according to Figure 4.12:

Fel = 1101 kN Fc2 = 337 kN

Fe = 1101 - 337 kN = 764 kN

Echilibrul fortelor cere Fsi + Nd = Fe constatindu - se ca Fsi + Ne!= 641 + 165 = 806 > Fe = 764 fiind necesara marirea lui x.

Incercarea a doua: x = 0.21 m Fel

N {F~

Fsi

Se considera Ea = 3.5 0/00 rezultind E 51 si Ehf

Esl > Eye! -). O"sl = fyel 4 Fsl = 14.73·43.5 = 641 kN Ehf= 1.660/004 a = 0.601

Fel = 0.81.(0.85.13.33.103).0.60.0.21= 1156 kN Fe2 = 0.601.(0.85.13.33·103}0.40·0.13= 354 kN Fe=1156-354kN = 802 kN

Se constata ca Fsl -+: Na == Fe

Din figura 4.4 se determina coeficientul ~. _ dupa cum urmeaza:

Ea = 3.500/00 4 ~' =~ 0.415 respectiv a = 0.415·0.205 = 0.085 si Zl = 0.40 .. 0.085 = 0.315 m

Ehf= 1.660/00 4 ~'= 0.36 respectiv a = 0.36·0.13 = 0.047 m si Z2 = (0.40 .. 0.08) .. 0.047 = 0.27 m

In final MRd = 1156·0.315 - 354·0.27-165·0.22 = 232kNm

4.6.3. Seetiuni circulare Exemplul 4.6.3.1

Stili> - dimensionare

Se' cerearmarea sectiunii caracterizata prin:

h/di= 0.4510.045 m

~/Nd = 190kNmI-I060 kN Ac = 1t·0.452/4 = 0.159 m2 -

Se calculeaza coeficientii (4.31a, b):

-1060

Vd = 0.159.1333.103 -050

190 -

J.l.d = 0.159.0.45.1333.103 - 020 Din figura 4.15 rezulta OOtot= 0.55 Aria totala de armatura este (4.29):

- 1333 _ .,

As•trA =055·1590 435 =26.8cm-

Din figura 4.17 se obtin coeficientii:

kl = 4.47 si k2 = .. 0.31 din relatia (4.32)rezultind coeficientul:

OOtot= 4.47·0.20 + ( .. 0.31) = 0.584 care conduce la 0 arie de armatura:

1333

As•1Ot = 0584 ·1590 435 = 285cm 2 (+6%)

Exemplui 4.6.3.2

Stilp .. capacitate portanta

Secere MRd pentru sectiunea caracterizata prin: hid. = 0.40/0.04 m _

N,,=-800kN

-As.tot = 31.41 cm2

80

Fsi + Nd = 641 + 165 = 806 No longitudinal equilibrium. Second trial: x = 0.21 m

Sa = 3.5 0/00

esl > eyd 4 O"sl = fyd 4 Fsl = 641 kN

Ehf= 1.660/00 4 a = 0.601 Fel = 1156 kN

Fa = 354 kN

Fe = 1156 .. 354 kN == 802 kN Fsl + Nd == Fe 4 longitudinal equilibrium.

From Figure 4.4 result: -

Ea = 3.50 0/00 4~' = 0.415 Ehf = 1.66 0/00 4 ~ '= 0.16

and lever arms ZI = 0.40 .. 0.085 = 0.315 m and.z- = (0.40 .. 0.08) .. 0.047 = 0.27 m

Finally resistant moment obtained MRd =232 kNm.

4.6.3. Circular sections Example 4.6.3.1 Column - design

Input data:

hid. and ~/Nd

Output data: Reinforcement area Section area is 0.159 m2• Coefficients Vd and J.I.d computed according to (4.31 a,b). Coefficient Oltot= 0.55 is obtained from Figure 4.15. ,~

Reinforcement area is obtained from relationship (4.29):

As.tot = 26.8 cm2•

Coefficient OOtot can be computed by relationship (4.32).

Depending on Vd = .. 0.50 coefficients kl = 4.47 and k2 =- 0.31 are obtained from 4.17. . - --' -.- -

Using COtot= 0.584 reinforcement area is As.tot = 28.5 cm2•

Example 4.6.3.2 Column - resisting moment

Input data: h/d], Nd, As.,tot Output data: MRd

(

Ac == n·0.402/4 = 0.126 m2 .

.. , Cu' relatia (4.31 a) 'se calculeaza coeficientul: -800

Vd == 0.126.1333. ::::-0.476

uu ..... u de la relatia (4.29) se calculeaza:

31.41 435 .

rota! = 1260 1333 = 0.81

figura 4.15 se obtine coeficientul J.I.d = 0.261 si in final: = 0.261.0.126.0.40.13.33.103 = 175 kNm

se obtine din relatia ( 4.31 b)

. Stilp - dimensionare

cere armarea sectiunii caracterizata prin:

I = 0.50/0.3510.07 m

d = 1200kNmI-IOOO kN

= n(0.50l - 0.352) = 0.400 m2

d 0.07

r-rj 050-035 = 0.467 == 05

Utilizind relatia (4.31) se calculeaza:

-1000 . .

Vd = 0.40.1333.103 = -0.188

. = . . 1000 . = 0225

J.1d 0.40. (2. 050).1333.103

Din figura 4.16 rezulta COtot = 0.517 si in final cu relatia (4.29):

1333 .,

= 0517· 4000 435 = 63.4cm-

Se cere MRd pentru sectiunea caracterizata prin: r/ri/d = 0.4010.28/0.06 m

Nd=-800kN

As•tot = 31.4~ em2 . Ac = n(0.402 - 0.282) = 0.256 ml

d 0.06

r-rj 0.40-028= 05

Se calculeaza

-800

Vd = 0256.1333.1333.103 =-0234 cu relatia (4.31a)

. 3141 435 . .

ro'04 = 2560 1333 = 0.40 cu relatia (4.2_9)

Din figura 4.16 seobtine J.1Rd = 0.20 si deci

MRd = 0.20.0.256.(2.0.40) 13.33.103 = 546kNm

Section areais 0.126 m2• ' Coefficients . v d . and rotot are computed according to (4 .31 a) and (4.29).

Coefficient J.I.d = 0.261 is obtained from Figure 4.15 depending on Vd and rowt. Resisting bending moment MRd = 175 kNm is obtained by relationship ( 4.31 b).

;1 1 .. 1'1.·

:1:

Ii

1'1 !f 'I:

h

I r

4.6.4. Ringed - shaped sections Example 4.6.4.1

Column - design

Input data:

r/t/d. and MdlNd

Output data: Reinforcement area Coefficient rowt = 0.517 is obtained from Figure 4.16

din d

depen g on Ac, --. Vd and r-rj

J.1d.

Reinforcement area As.t04 = 63.4 cml is computed by relationship

(4.29). .

Example 4.6.4.2

Column - resisting "- bending moment

Input data: r/rj/d, Nd and As•t04., Output data: MRd

Coefficient Jl.Rd = 0.20 IS obtained from Figure 4.16

i . d

depending on Ac. --. Vd and

r-rj

ffit04 = 0.40.

Resisting bending moment MRd = 546 kNm is obtained by relationship (4.31b).

81

82

BIBLIOGRAFIE (REFERENCES)

4.1. "'** Eurocode No.2 - Design of Concrete Structures; Part 1 - General Rules and Rules Buildings; Final Text after harmonisation with French and German version, 1991

4.2. "':Ie'" Concrete Structures Euro - Design Handbook; Ernest & Sohn; Karlsruhe, 1994

4.3. *"'''' Concise Eurocode for the Design of Concrete Buildings; Eurocode No.2 - Design Concrete Structures..Part I - General Rules and Rules for Buildings; Published by Cement Association; 1993

4.4. Tasios T., Yannopoulos P., Trezos C., Tsoukantas S. - Reinforced Concrete (in Greek; greceste); National Technical University of Athens; 1994

4.5. Tasios T., Yannopoulos P., -Design of Reinforced Concrete Sections under Bending Axial Force; National Technical University of Athens (in Greek; in greceste); 198J

4.6. "'*'Ie Beton -Kalender, Ernest&Sohn, 1994

STAREA LIMIT A ULTIMA

...., ... '-JL.~TnLOR STRUCTURALE

DATORITA 5. ULTIMATE LIMIT

STATE INFLUENCED BY STRUCTURAL DEFORMATIONS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents some aspects about the specific stability problem with concrete member, and comments upon

the model column method which gives satisfactory results for standard situations of columns in

building.

Design shall (Ee2 4.3.5.2 ) ensure that:

-loss of static equilibrium (locally or for the structure as a whole) does not occur; .

-the resistance of individual 9ross section subjected to the bending (M) and longitudinal force (N) are not exceeded c

The structural behaviour shall be considered in any direction.

Possible uncertainties should be considered.

Apart from exceptional cases,

the" effect of structural-

deformations inf1uencingthe ultimate limit state of compression members have to be ,co~_idered mainly with

colUInIlS. ' "

Isolated columns can be: -isolated columns (Fig.S.la,b)

typical for prefabricated

structures) (Ee2 4.3.5.3.4(1));

, -columns. in frames' with for design purposes are locked at as isolated elements (Fig. S.lc) (Ee24.3.5.5.1).

Acest capitol prezinta 0 serie de aspecte specifice privind ;,O'U.JLU ..... ''' .. .elementelor comprimate, in general si comenteaza metoca modelului de staIp care da bune rezultate in situatiile IT<lTln,.n ale stalpilor de cladiri.

Calculul stabilitatii structurale (cu considerarea efectelor de y.,""LU.WL II) trebuie.sa asigure (Ee2 4.3.5.2):

-sa nu apara pierderea echilibrului static (local sau global)

nu fie depasita rezistenta sectiunilor transversale la cu forta axiala, pentru cele mai defavorabile ~':'''LLU'cLL&.I.'''''' de actiuni la starea limita ultima.

Efectul deformatiilor in starea limita ultima a elementelor comprimate afecteaza, in" afara unor cazuri exceptionale, in QIJ ... ' ......... staIpii.

Stalpii izolati pot fi.:

-elemente comprimate(fig. 5.1 a.b), (exemplu tipic pentru .......... JJLL prefabricati) (Ee24.3.5.3.4(1))

, ,'" -elemente comprimate: care sunt parti integrate ale structuruor in cadre, dar sunt considerate izolate din motive de

"~,,, ...... (fig, 5.1c si d), (Ee24.3.5.5.1); .

83

", """ ~/ a) .

b L

Fig. 5.1 Stalpi izolati Isolate columns

Deplasarile structurale afecteaza si starea limita a grinzilor prin . flambaj lateral (estecazuI ce apare la montarea prefabricatelor cand elernentele de contravantuire nu sunt inca fixate). .

In general. din motive de econornie, proiectarea clcmcntelor comprimate, . cu sau lara incovoiere, pentru care efectele de torsiune pot fi neglijate, se face astfel ineat efectele de ordinul IT safle cat mai reduse.

Aceste efecte se neglijeaza (conform EC2 2.5.1.4. (2) daca cresterea momentelor ide ... ordinul I datorita .. deplasarilor _ nu depaseste 10% (EC2 4.3.5.1; 4.3.5.3; A3.2).

5.2. CLASIFICAREA STRUCTURILOR SI ELEMENTELOR STRUcrURALE

Structurile sau elementele structurale pot fi clasificate ca: contravantuite sau - necontravantuite si ca: deplasabile si nedeplasabile depinzarid de efectele de ordinul II datorita

. deplasarilor laterale.{EC24.3.5.3.1).

Similar, stalpii izolati sunt clasificati: stalpi zvelti;

stalpi nezvelti.

Elemente de cuntravantuire sf structuri contravantuite

Un element de contravantuire este un element structural incastrat in fundatie (complet sau partial), suficient de rigid pentru atransmite fundatiei cel putin ·90% din incarcarile

84

c).

d).

Structural deflections can affect the ultimate limit state beams with resist to buckling (is the case during installation of eletW~i1ts as long as brae elements are not yet fixed).

In general, due to economical reasons the mem subjected to compression with' without bending, for which effects of torsion can neglected, be designed in such way, that second order are only" very limited.

They may be accepted to 2.5.1.4(2) in general neglected they remain smaller thanI 0%the first order action effects 4.3.5.1, 4.3.5.3, A3.2.

5.2 CLASSIFICATION

STRUCTURES STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

Structure and

members m~y be classified braced or unbraced and as or non sway depending of second order effects": . 4.3.5.3. 1}. Similarly,

columns may be classified as slender columns and columns in .... non-sway structures.

Bracing elements

braced structures A bracing element should be ..••. sufficiently stiff to attach and . transmit to the foundations at,

ori.:;wnta!e ce actioneaza pe structura (Ee24.3.5.3.2).

scopul evitarii fortelor orizontale in subansamblurile comravantune (de exemplu stalpi) elementele de contravantuire calculate pentru a rezista la toate incarcarile orizontale actioneaza structura (l00%).

Structuri nedeplasabile (Ee24.3.5.3.3) ,

Structurile sau elementele structurale cu sau fara COIlt:n:LvanUll1fl, pentru care influenta deplasarii nodurilor asupra 1ll\.1U .. '.U.''''.lV.l si fortelor de calcul pot fi neglijate sunt clasificate structuri nedeplasabile; este cazul contravantuirii cu pereti sau nuclee.

Cadrele pot' fi' considerate ca structuri nedeplasabile daca de ordinul I ale imbinarilor nu maresc efectele calculate fara considerarea acestor deplasari cu mai de 10%.

DATE SPECIFICE PENTRU DIFERITE TIPURI DE STRUCTURI

Cadre nedeplasabile (Ee2 4.3.5.5; A.3.2.1)

Pentru 0 distributie nesimetrica a elementelor a elementelor contravantuire in cladire, cadrele contravantuite sunt nedeplasabile, cand rigiditatea laterala a elementelor de contravantuire satisface urmatoarele conditii :

Criteriul 1:

-pentru n ~ 3 h~ .JFv I EemIc ~ 02 + O.lm

-pentru .n 2!4 htlJ4.JFy I EemIc ~ 0.6

(5.1) (5.2)

unde:

n -numarul de etaje;

htlJ4 inaltimea totala a structurii masurata de la suprafata superioara a fundatiei sau de la stratul nedeformabil (m);

EemIc suma rigiditatilor nominale la incovoiere ale tuturor elementelor verticale de contravantuire .definite de EC2 4.3.5.3.2(1) .ce actioneaza in' directia ·considerata. Efortulde intindere in serviciu este . ~ fet ODS (definit in EC2 3.1.2.3).

.. ..

Pentru sectiunile de rigiditati variabile se poate utiliza 0 rigiditate echivalenta,

F, suma incarcarilor verticale (ce actioneaza pe elementele

de contravantuire si pe ansamblu) in serviciu (y F = I) .

Daca relatiile 5.1 si 5.2 nu sunt satisfacute structura este deplasabila,

least 90% all horizontal loads.

Bracing elements transmit all horizontal loads to the foundation and stabilise the braced sub-assembly.

Non-sway structures (Ee2 4.3.5.3.3)

At non-sway structures the influence of joint displacements may be neglected.

Bracing elements are

substantial shear walls or care structures.

. Frames may be considered as not-sway if the first order displacements do not increase the effects of actions calculated without considering these displacement by more than 10%.

5.3 SPECIFIC DATA FOR

DIFFERENT TYPES OF

STRUCTURES

Non-sway frames (Ee2 4.3.5.5)

Non-sway frames are defined by the conditions 5.1 si 5.2 (criteria 1).

-for n~3 Equation (5.1)

-for n 2! 3 Equation (5.2)

where:

n -number of storey

htot -total height- of the structure

,

,EernIe -nominal bent rigidity of' the all ,verticalbrncing .elements in the-plane under consideration. ' Tensile stress

:S fet.o.os .

Fv -total vertical loads

The structure is sway if the conditions 5.1 and 5.2 are not satisfied.

85

Criteriui 2:

Cadrele fara elemente de contravantuire pot fi considerate structuri nedeplasabile, daca pentru fiecare element al cadrului

IN Sdl ~ 0.71N Sd.ml = 0.7y FFv In· (5.3)

unde:

N sa -forta axiala de calcul

N Sd m -forta medie axiala

n -numarul de elemente verticale pe un eta], iar x :S "'lim = max(25,151 Fu)

. unde:

v, =NSd I A Jed (5.4)

V u -coeficientul fortei longitudinale a elementului,

Ae -aria sectiunii transversale de beton,

fed -rezistenta de calcul a betonului fed = fet 115 .

Elementele comprimate nedeplasabile individuale se vor calcula pentru fortele orizontale si verticale considerand si imperfectiunile geometrice.

Limite de zveltete pentru cadre

In fig. 5~2 sunt definite limitele de zveltete pentru cadre.

Ipoteze de calcul

-diagrama efort unitar-deformatie specifica pentru beton (din Ee2 4.2. 1. 3. 3. a) trebuie utilizata cuf, si Ec din expresiile:

fc = fed = fem I y e (5.5)

E e = E ed = E em I y e (5.6)

iar pentru factorul de siguranta se aplica (Ee2 A.3.1.P(J) si Ee2 A.3. 1. 6).

-se neglijeaza aportul betonului intins dintre fisuri (ipoteza

acoperitoare) (Ee2 A. 3. 5. 7);. .

-sectiunile plane se considera ca raman plane (Ee24.3.1.2; A3. 5. 5);

-se utilizeaza pentru armaturi aceeasi diagrama cu .cea pentru calculul sectiunii transversale (Ee24.2.2.3.2)

-pentru simplificare, efectul curgerii lente se neglijeaza daca cresterea momentului incovoietor de ordinul I datorita deformatiei de curgere lenta nu depaseste 10% (Ee2 A.3A.8). Cand este necesar se pot evalua efectele curgerii lente folosind metodele aproximative bazate pe Ee2 2.5.5 sau alternativ prin modificarea relatiei efort deformatie pentru beton sau prin corectarea . excentricitatilor aditionale sau a inclnatiei neintentionate (definitiva in. Ee2. 2.5.1). Daca nu este stabilit altfel, coeficientii de siguranta dati in EC2 A; 3.1 se utilizeaza la

calculul deformatiei de curgere lenta, . . .

··;86 .

Frames are considered nonsway structures if the criteria 2 is respected (see Equations 5.3 and 5.4)

where:

N Sd -design axial force

N Sd.m . -the mean value of axial force

n -number of vertical elemnts of one storey and ",:S "'lim

V II -the longitudinal force coefficient for the element

Ac -total cross-sectional area of a concrete section

fed -design value of concrete cylinder compressive strength

fet -characteristic com-

pressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days

Slender limits for frames See figure 5.2.

Computation hypothesis -stress-strain diagram for concrete may be utilise fc and E, of the Equations (5.5) and (5.6).

y c -partial safety factor for concrete properties may be obtained from EC2 A.3.1.P(3) andA3.1.6

-is neglected the concrete among cracks Ee2 A.3.5. 7 -plane sections remain plane after deformatioZ\ Ee2 4.3.1.2; A. 3. 5.5;

-steeldiagram (EC24,3.5.4) is designed stress-strain diagram

for reinforcing steel, .

-creep . effects may be

neglected '(EC2 A. 3.4. 8) if they remain smaller than 10% of the first order moments effects;

non-sway buildings, creep deformations may normally be disregarded;

-for multistorey buildings (h>22m) partial safety factors for actions Y F • for the quasipermanent actions are:

Y F = l.I pentru structuri static nedeterminate Y F = l.l for static un-

Y F = 12 pentru structuri static determinate si . elemente determinate structures

'Y F = 12 for determinate

structures and structural

_ -in cladirile rigide, deformatiile de curgere lenta ale elementelor comprimate zvelte legate monolit de placi sau grinzi la ambele capete se ignora, in mod normal.

-la cladiri multietajate (h;::: 22 rn) se reduce coeficientul Y F

pentru incarcarile cvasipermanente astfel:

50-+--_

elements

I I II I I II I I I II II f)

. ,

-

-

"_.._' ~

-_

-_

-

Cadre deplasabile (EClA.3.5)

Se calculeaza utilizand datele stabilite in Ee2 4.3.5.4 si Ee2 4.

Daca este necesar, din motive de stabilitate structurala se iau -consideratie atat imperfectiunile geometrice echivalente, cat

iile la curgere lenta, _

pot utiliza si metode simplificate cu conditia asigurarii ui de siguranta cerut (Ee2 A.3.5.2).

cadre cu forma regulata pot fi utilizate metode lIJU ........ U .... de exemplu, care introduc incarcari orizontale in sau momente incovoietoare mai mari sl care iau in

v - u

0,5

\0

Fig. 5.2 Limite de zveltete pentru cadre Slender limits for frames

Sway-frames (ECl A.3.5) Sway-frames are computed according to Ee2 4.3.5A and Ee2 A.3.4.

If it is necessary for structural stability. the geometrical equivalent imperfections also the creep deformations may be considered (Ee2 A.3.5.2J.

Simplified design.methods for regulated frames may. be utilised; for ex.: by increasing

Imperfections are given for frame structures by relation (5.8) and for isolated members by

1 relation (5.10).

v ~ 400 pentrustructuri unde efectele de ordinul IT sunt .. Second order may be

nesemnificative, neglected .

.. \0-' .'

v ~ -. 1_ pentru cazul in care efectele de ordinul IT trebuie . -Second order must be

200 ... .

considered.

considerare efectul de ordinul II In plus fata . de efectele 'imperfectiunilor geometrice.

-un exemplu: cadrele cu grinzi si stalpi de rigiditati nominale aproximativ egale si un coeficient mediu de zveltete

Am ~ max(50,20,/v;) (5.7)

-daca coeficientul mediu de zveltete este depasit se face referire Ia literatura de specialitate pentru a fi in conformitate cu (EC2 A.3.5.1 st 2).

Imperfectiuni (figura 5.3)

Vel Vo.
Val Va2
VAl VAl 1
-+ +-
mm mrrl m'rTI: I

1

In II'

a, = (VCI + Vo + VCJ)V HB = (VBI + VBl + VBJ)v HA = (VAl + VA2 + VAJ)v

Fig. 5.3 Imperfectiuni Imperfections

Se datoreaza inexactitatilor si incertitudinilor dimensionale legate de pozitia si directia de actiune a incarcarilor axiale (EC2 2.5.1.3 si 4.3.5.4).

Pentru structurile in. cadre 0 inclinare v a ansamblului structurii complete (elemente de contravantuire si ansamblu contravantuit) se defineste cu relatia:

/ ·1

v = 10M (5.8)

unde:

I este inaltimea totala a structurii,

Iuatein considerate.

horizontal loads or (considering the effects geometrical imperfections

For example, frames beams and columns with aoorox equal nominal stiffnesses and mean slenderness as (5.7) regular frames. If A m is zreater than (5.7) reference should made to appropriate literature.

Imperfections (Figure 5.3)

VSl

Imperfections are due to the dimensional inaccurancies ECl 2.5.1.3 and uncertains in the position and line of action of the axial loads ECl·4.3.5.4.

For frame structures an inclination v of the complete structure (bracing elements and braced sub-assembly) from the vertical in defined from (5,8).

- ~}

, Cand elementele verticale unde;

V When the vertical members

work together, inclination of the structure is an V (rel. 5.9).

a = n

(5.9)

.. for 2 storeys -for 4 storeys

For the isolated elements

taking into account the

equivalent geometrical

imperfections by increasing longitudinal force eccentricity with an additional eccentricity ea (5.10) where:

10 denotes the effective length of the isolated element (EC2 4.3.5.3.5)

Horizontal impenections ~e replaced with an equivalent force (horizontal).

-pentru 2 niveluri o , = 0.87

-pentru 4 niveluri an =0.82

elemente izolate, imperfectiunile geometrice rvaiente pot fi introduse prin cresterea excentricitatii fortei IOIU~l1UQ]tnaLe cu 0 excentricitate aditionala em ce actioneaza in directia cea mai defavorabila

(5.10)

unde:

10 este lungimea efectiva de flambaj (EC24.3.5.3.5)

v este dat de relatia (5.8) ,

Imperfectiunile (deviatiile fata de orizontala) pot fi inlocuite o form echivalenta orizontala care trebuie introdusa in '.au<;u.u:.u structurii,

STALPI IZOLATI (ECl4.3.5.5.3) Zveltetea stalpilor izolati

5.4 ISOLA TED COLUMNS (ECl 4.3.5.5.3)

Slenderness of isolated columns

Isolated columns may be considered slender if (5.11):

Stalpii izolati sunt considerati zvelti daca coeficientul de zveltete A. ='l~ al stalpului considerat:

1

where v u -the longitudinal unde v u este coeficientul fortei longitudinale a elementului

force coefficient from (5.4)' este dat de relatia (5.4).

(5.11)

Lungimea efectivade"flambaj: 10

Inaltimea sau lungimea efectiva (de flambaj 10) a elementului vertical este in general derivata dinteoria flambajului elastic.

Lungimea efectiva 10 a stalpului se calculeaza cu relatia :

10 ~ 13 ·ICQI rs.uo

si poate fi determinata prin intermediul figurii 5.4, in care coefici~nt,ii K.A si KBindica rigiditatea incastrarii de la capetele

stalpului: ' ,

Effective length of column 10

Computation of the. effective length of the column 10 is (5.lla) and is established from Figure 5.4.

Computation . of the' KA 'and (5.12) KB coefficients (rel. 5.12).

in care:

Ecm -modulul de elasticitate al betonului,

leol. lb momentele de inertie a sectiunii debeton pentru stalp, respectiv grinda,

leol -inaltimea stalpului masurata intre sectiunile teoretice de incastrare,

leff -deschiderea efectiva a grinzii, . '

a -factor ce ia in considerare conditiile de incastrare ale

where:

Ecm -modulus of elasticity of

concrete, -

leol. lb -second moment of area of a column orbeam,

leol .. height of the column measured between centres of

restraint, -

grinzilor, Ia capatul opus.

Astfel:

a. =·1 cand capatul opus este incastrat elastic sau rigid, a. = 0.5 cand capatul opus este Iiber sau se roteste,

a. = 0 pentru 0 grinda in consola,

Din nornogramele (fig. 5.4) pentru structuri nedeplasabile (a)

si deplasabile (b) rezulta:

-daca KA = co (liber sa se roteasca)

-daca KIJ = 0 (rigiditate restransa) 10/1<:01=0.7

-daca K,,=KB=l 1011<:01=0.78

.-uzual K>l .1011<:01=0;78 .. 1.0

Pentru structuri deplasabile: -daca KA=KB=110/Icol=1.3

K .

A 50.0 10.0 5.0 3.0

I __ I _-t--t:o-:::--I..;;".z;;.. 2. 0

~ =r

-....:j-_. -<. ~-11oJ 1.0

..:.!~ O.B

..

....

-

-

- ......

.. ..

--~~

.. .....

_-

0.0

0.5 a).

KS 50.0 10.0 5.0 3.0

2.0

0.6

0.2 . 0.1

1.0 0.8 0.6

0.4

letT -effective span of a a. -factor taking into acco the conditions of restraint of beam at the opposite end.

Variation of the lolleol different values of KA and (non-sway and sway is presented in Figure 5.4 Romanian version.

KA

100 CD

j~

20

10

8

6

4

2

1.5

5 4

3

2

0.0

o

b).

Fig. 5.4 Nomograme pentru structuri nedeplasabile (a) si deplasabile (b)

. Nomograms for non-sway frame {a) and sway-frame (b)

at· b). I c).

!

--. .....
......
: iA
I .....
IA
~
' .....
....
"',.. "i,> ",.. ",. Acr

Fig .. 5~5 Elemente comprimate zvelte izolate Isolated slender compressed elements

,-' . "

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