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SACH HUONG DAN CHUAN KIEN THUC KI NANG TOAN 11 ( BGD ).pdf

SACH HUONG DAN CHUAN KIEN THUC KI NANG TOAN 11 ( BGD ).pdf

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BO GIAO Dl)C vA nAo TAO NGUYEN THE THACH (CHU BIEN

)

NGUYEN HAl CHAu - QUACH TV CHUONG - NGUYEN TRUNG HIEU DoAN THE PHI~T - PHAM DUC QUANG - NGUYEN TH~ QUY SUtJ

,...,

HU6NG DAN THUC HIEN

J! K /.,...,.",

CHUAN KIEN THtrC, KI NANG

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MONTOAN

L6p 11

NHA XUAT BAN GIAo Dl,JC VI~T NAM

LOI GIro THI~U

Nqay 5 thanq 5 narn 2006, B(> trLtang B(> Giao cue va Dao tao da kf Ouyet dlnh so 16/2006/Q8-BGD8T ve viec ban hanh Chtronq trinh Giao duc ph6 thong.

ChLtClng trinh Giao due ph6 thong la ket qua cua sir dieu chlnh, hoan thien, t6 chirc l<;li cac chuonq trinh da diroc ban hanh, lam can cu cho viec quan If, chi dao, t6 chirc day hoc va kiem tra, danh qia a tat ca cac cap hoc, tnronq hoc tren pharn vi ca nuoc,

ChLtClng trinh Giao due ph6 thong ta mot ke hoach SLt pharn gam: - Muc tieu qiao due ;

- Pharn vi va cau true n(>i dung giao due ;

- Chu~n kien thrrc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai d(> cua tllng man hoc,

cap hoc :

- Phuonq phap va hinh thrrc t6 chrrc qiao due ;

- Danh gia ket qua qiao due tllng man hoc a m6i Idp, cap hoc.

Trang Chuonq trinh Giao due ph6 thong, Chu~n kien thuc, ki' nang dLt<;1C the hien, cu the hoa a cac chu de cua chLtClng trinh man hoc, thea tllng Idp hoc ; dang thoi cOng dLt<;1C the hien a phan cUOi cua chironq trinh m6i cap hoc,

C6 the n6i : 8iem mdi cua Chuonq trinh Giao due ph6 thong Ian nay ta dira ChuEin kien thuc, ki nang vim thanh phan cua Chuonq trinh Giao due ph6 thong, dam baa viec chi dao day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia thea Chuan kien thirc, ki nang, tao nen sl,f thong nhat trong ca nLtdc ; g6p ph an khik phuc tinh tranq qua tai trong giang day, hoc tap ; giam thieu day them, hoc them.

Nhin chung, a cac tnronq ph6 thong hien nay, bLtdc dau da van dt,mg dLt<;1c Chuan kien thirc, ki nang trong giang day, hoc tap, kiem tra, danh qla ; song ve t6ng the, v~m crura dap Ctng duoc yeu cau cua d6i mdi qiao due ph6 thong; can phai dLt<;1C tiep tuc quan tam, chu tronq hen rnra.

Nharn g6p phan khac phuc han che nay, B(> Giao due va 8ao t<;lO t6 chuc bien sO<;ln, xuat ban b(> tai li$u Huring dan thl,lt hi~n Chua'n kien thtit;,

ki nang cho cac man hoc, lop hoc cua cac cap Tieu hoc, Trung hoc CCI sa va Trung hoc ph6 thong.

B(> tai li$u nay diroc bien soan thea hLtdng chi tiet, tLtdng minh cac yeu cau CCI ban, toi thieu ve kien trurc, ki nang cua Chuan kien thtrc, ki' nang bang cac n(>i dung chon loc trong sach qiao khoa, tao dieu kien thuan l<;1i hon nO'a cho qiao vien va hoc sinh trong qua trinh giang day, hoc tap va kiem tra, danh gia.

Cau true chung cua bQ tal li~u gem hai phan ehinh :

Phan tnc nhat : Gidi thieu chung ve ChuEin kien truro, ki nang cua Chtronq trinh Giao due ph6 thong;

Ptuin thtJ hai : HLtdng dan thuc hien Chu~n kien trurc, ki nang cua tllng man hoc trong ChLtClng trinh Giao due ph6 thong.

B(> tal Ii$u : Huring dan thl,lt hi~n Chua'n kien truk; ki nang cac man hoc a Trung hoc CCI sa va Trung hoc ph6 thong c6 su tharn gia bien soan, th~m dinh, g6p y cua nhieu nha khoa hoc, nha SLt pham, cac can b(> nqhien cCtu va chi dao chuyen man, cac qiao vien day giOi a dla phuonq,

Hi vonq rang, Huring dan thl,lt hi~n Chua'n kien thtit;, ki nang se la b(> tai Ii$u hO'u fch doi voi can b(> quan If qiao due, qiao vien va hoc sinh trong ca nuoc. Cac So Giao due va Dao tao chi dao trien khai sU' dunq b(> tai li$u va tao dieu kien de cac CCI SO qiao due, cac giao vien va hoc sinh thirc hien tot yeu cau d6i moi phLtClng phap day hoc, d6i rnoi kiem tra, danh qia, g6p phan tich eire, quan tronq vao viec nang cao chat ILt<;1ng qiao due trung hoc,

l.an dau tien dLt<;1c xuat ban, b(> tal li$u nay kh6 tranh khoi nhO'ng thieu s6t, han che. B(> Giao due va Dao tao rat mong nhan dLt<;1c nhO'ng y kien nhan xet, d6ng g6p cua cac thay co qiao va ban doc gan xa de tai li$u dLt<;1C tiep tuc b6 sung, hoan thien hen cho Ian xuat ban sau.

BO GIAo DlJC v A DAo TAO

3

A , ~

PHAN THU NHAT

GIOI THI~U CHUNG vi CHuAN I(IEN THUC, xt NANG CVA CHUONG TRINH GlAo DlJC PHO THONG

, A ~ ~

1- GIOI THI:e;U CHUNG VE CHUAN

1. Chuan 13. nlurng yeu cau, tieu chi (goi chung la yeu cau) tuan thu nhirng nguyen tac nhat dinh, duoc dung de lam thiroc do danh gia hoat dong, cong viec, san pham cua Iinh vue nao do. Dat duoc nhirng yeu cau cua chuan la dat dUQ'C muc tieu mong muon cua chu the quan If hoat dong, cong viec, san pham do.

Yeu cau la sir cu tM hoa, chi tier, nrong minh Chuan, chi ra nhirng can cir de danh gia chat hrong. Yeu cau co the dUQ'C do thong qua chi so thirc hien. Yeu cau diroc xem nhu nhimg "chot kiem soar" de danh gia chat hrong dau vao, dau ra ciing nhu qua trmh thuc hien.

2. Nhtmg yeu cau co ban cua chudn

2.1. Chuan phai co tinh khach quan, nhin chung khong le thuoc vao quan diem hay thai d¢ chu quan cua ngiroi sir dung Chuan.

2.2. Chuan phai co hieu hrc 6n dinhca v~ pham vi hill thoi gian ap dung. 2.3. Dam bao tinh kha thi, co nghia la Chuan do co the dat diroc (la trinh d¢ hay rrnrc d¢ dung hoa hop If giira yeu cau phat trien 6 mire cao han voi nhimg thirc tien dang dien ra).

2.4. Dam bao tinh cu the, nrong minh va co chirc nang dinh lirong. 2.5. Dam bao khongrnau thuan voi cac chuan khac trong cung linh vue hoac nhirng Iinh vue co lien quan.

;( ,.:' , -....? ...

II - CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG CUA CHUONG TRINH

GIAo DUC PHO THONG

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau v~ thai do cua Chuang trinh Giao due phd thong (CTGDPT) duoc the hien cu tM trong cac chuang trinh mon hoc, hoat dong giao due (goi chung la mon hQC) va cac chuang trinh cap hQC.

Doi voi m6i mon hoc, moi cap hQC, muc tieu cua mon hQC, cap hQC diroc cu the hoa thanh chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua chuang trinh mon hoc, chuang trinh cap hQC.

1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuang trinh rnon hoc la cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu v~ kien thirc, ki nang cua mon hoc rna hoc sinh can phai va co the dat diroc sau m6i dan vi kien thirc (moi bai, chu de, chu diem, mo dun).

Chudn kien thuc, ki nang cua mot dun vi kien thuc la cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu v~ kien thirc, ki nang cua dan vi kien tlnrc rna hoc sinh can phai va co the dat diroc.

Yeu cdu v~ kien thirc, ki nang the hien mire d9 can dat v~ kien thuc, ki nang,

M6i yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang co tM diroc chi tiet hun bang nhfrng yeu cdu v~ kien thirc, ki nang cu the, nrong minh han ; minh clnrng bang nhirng vi du the hien dUQ'C ca noi dung kien thirc, ki nang va rmrc do can dat ve kien thirc, ki nang.

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2. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuong trinh dip hoc la cac yeu cau co ban, tci thieu ve kien thtrc, ki nang cua cac man hoc rna hoc sinh can phai va co th~ dat duoc sau tirng giai doan hoc tap trong cap hoc.

2.1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang 6 chuang trinh cac cap hoc de cap toi nhirng yeu cau toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang rna hoc sinh (HS) can va co the dat diroc sau khi hoan thanh chuang trinh giao due cua tirng lap hoc va cap hoc, Cac chuan nay eho thay y nghia quan trong cua viec gan ket, phoi hop giira cac man hoc nham dat diroc muc tieu giao due cua cap hoc.

2.2. Viec the hien Chuan kien thirc, ki nang 6 cuoi chuang trinh cap hoc the hien hinh mau mong doi ve ngiroi hoc sau m6i cap hoc va can thiet cho cong tac quan Ii, chi dao, dao tao, boi duong giao vi en (GV).

2.3. Chuang trinh cap hoc dii the hien chuan kien thirc, ki nang khong phai doi voi tirng man hoc rna doi voi timg Iinh vue hoc tap. Trong van ban ve chuang trinh cua cac cap hoc, cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang diroc bien soan theo tinh than :

a) Cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang khong duoc dua VaG eho tirng man hoc rieng bier rna eho tirng linh vue hoc tap nham the hien su gan ket gifra cac man hoc va hoat dong giao due trong nhiern vu thirc hien muc tieu cua cap hoc.

b) Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do diroc the hien trong chuang trinh cap hoc la cac chuan cua cap hoc, tire la nhfrng yeu cau cu the rna HS can dat duoc 6 cuoi cap hoc. Cach th~ hien nay tao mot tam nhin ve su ph at trien cua nguoi hoc sau m6i cap hoc, dci chieu voi nhirng gi rna muc tieu cua cap hoc dii de ra.

3. Nhimg dac diem cua Chuan kien thirc, ki nang

3.1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang duoc chi tiet, nrong minh bang cac yeu cau cu the, r6 rang ve kien thirc, ki nang.

3.2. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang co tinh toi thieu, nham dam bao moi HS can phai va co the dat diroc nhtrng yeu cau cu the nay.

3.3. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la thanh phan cua CTGDPT.

Trong CTGDPT, Chuan kien thtrc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do doi voi nguoi hoc diroc the hien, cu the hoa 6 cac chu de cua chuang trinh man hoc thea tirng lap va 6 cac Iinh vue hoc tap ; dong thai, Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do cung diroc the hien 6 phan cuoi cua chuang trinh moi cap hoc.

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la thanh phan cua CTGDPT. Viec chi dao day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia thea Chuan kien thirc, ki nang se tao nen sir thong nhat ; lam han che tinh trang day hoc qua tai, dua them nhieu noi dung nang ne, qua eao so voi chuan kien thirc, ki nang VaG day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia ; gop phan lam giam tieu eire cua day them, hoc them; tao dieu kien co ban, quan trong de co th~ t6 chirc giang day, hoc tap, kiem tra, danh gia va thi thea Chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

III - cAe Mue DO vB KIEN TRue, KI NANG

Cac mire d¢ ve kien thirc, ki nang duoc the hien cu the trong Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua CTGDPT.

Ve kien tlnrc : Yeu cau HS phai nho, nam virng, hieu r6 cac kien thirc CO ban trong chuang trinh, sach giao khoa, do la nen tang virng yang de co the phat trien nang lire nhan thirc 6 cap eao han.

Ve ki nang : Biet van dung cac kien thirc da hoc de tra loi cau hoi, giai bai tap, lam thirc hanh ; co ki nang tinh roan, ve hinh, dung bieu do, ...

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Kien thirc, ki nang phai dua tren co sa phat trien nang lire, tri tue HS a cac mire do, tir don gian den phirc t<;1P ; noi dung bao ham cac mire d¢ khac nhau cua nhan thirc.

Mire de) can dat duoc ve kien tlurc diroc xac dinh thea 6 mire d¢ : nhan bier, thong hieu, van dung, phan tich, danh gia va sang tao (eo the tham khao them phan 10<;1i Nikko gam 4 mire d¢ : nhan bier, thong hieu, van dung a mire thap, van dung a mire eao).

1. Nhan bier : La su nho lai cac dfr lieu, thong tin da eo tnroc day; nghia la eo the nhan bier thong tin, ghi nho, tai hien thong tin, nhac lai mot 10<;1t dfr lieu, tir cac sir kien don gian den cac If thuyet phirc tap. Day la rmrc d¢, yeu cau thap nhat cua trinh d¢ nhan thirc, the hien a cho HS eo th~ va chi can nho hoac nhan ra khi diroc dira ra hoac dira tren nhfrng thong tin eo tinh d~e thu cua mot khai niem, mot sir vat, mot hien urong.

HS ph at bieu dung mot dinh nghia, dinh If, dinh luat nhirng chua

giai thich va van dung diroc cluing.

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire d¢ nhan bier bang cac yeu cau :

- Nhan ra, nho lai cac khai niern, dinh Ii, dinh luat, tinh chat,

- Nhan dang duoc (khong can giai thich) cac khai niern, hinh th~,

vi tri urong doi giira cac dci nrong trong cac tinh huong don gian.

- Liet ke, xac dinh cac vi tri nrong doi, cac moi quan he da biet giira cac yeu to, cac hien nrong.

2. Thong hieu : La kha nang nam diroc, hieu duoc y nghia cua cac khai niern, su vat, hien nrong ; giai thich, chirng minh duoc y nghia cua cac khai niern, su vat, hien nrong ; la mire do eao hon nhan biet nhung la rrurc d¢ thap nhat cua viec thau hieu su vat, hien nrong, lien quan den y nghia cua cac moi quan h~ gifra eae khai ni~m, thong tin rna HS da hge ho~e da biet. Dieu do co th~ duqe the hi~n b:lng vi~e

chuyen thong tin tir dang nay sang dang khac, bang each giai thich thong tin (giai thieh hoac tom tat) va bang each uoc lirong xu huang nrong lai (du bao cac he qua hoac anh huang).

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire d¢ thong hieu bang cac yeu cau :

- Dien ta bang ngon ngir ca nhan cac khai niern, dinh Ii, dinh luat, tinh chat, chuyen d6i diroc tir hinh thirc ngon ngfr nay sang hlnh thirc ngon ngir khac (vi du : tir lei sang cong thirc, ki hieu, so lieu va nguoc lai).

- Bieu thi, minh hoa, giai thich diroc y nghia cua cac khai niern, hien nrong, dinh nghia, dinh li, dinh luat.

- Lira chon, b6 sung, sap xep lai nhirng thong tin can thiet d~ giai quyet mot van de nao do.

- Sap xep lai cac y tra lei cau hoi hoac loi giai bai toan thea cau true logic.

3. Van dung : La kha nang sir dung cac kien thirc da h9C vao mot hoan canh cu th~ moi : van dung nhan bier, hieu bier thong tin d~ giai quyet van de dat ra ; la kha nang doi hoi HS phai bier van dung kien thirc, bier sir dung phuong phap, nguyen If hay y nrong d~ giai quyet mot van de nao do.

Yeu cau ap dung diroc cac quy tac, plurong phap, khai niem, nguyen Ii, dinh li, dinh luat, cong thirc d~ giai quyet mot van de trong hoc tap hoac cua thirc tien. Day la mire d¢ thong hieu eao hon rmrc d¢ thong hieu tren.

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire do van dung bang cac yeu cau : - So sanh cac phirong an giai quyet van de.

- PMt hien loi giai eo mau thuan, sai lam va chinh sua diroc.

- Giai quyet duqe nhfrng tlnh huong mm b:lng cach v~n dl,lng cae

khai ni~m, dinh Ii, dinh lu~t, tinh ehat da biet.

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- Khai quat hoa, triru nrong hoa tir tinh huong don gian, don Ie quen thuoc sang tinh huong moi, phirc tap hon.

4. Phan tich : La kha nang phan ehia mot thong tin ra thanh cac phan thong tin nho sao eho co the hieu duoc cau true, t6 chirc cua no va thiet lap rnoi lien he phu thuoc Ian nhau gitra cluing,

Yeu cau chi ra diroc cac bo phan cau thanh, xac dinh duoc moi quan he giira cac bo phan, nhan biet va hieu diroc nguyen If cau true cua cac bo phan cau thanh. Day la mire d¢ eao hon van dung vi no doi hoi sir thau hieu ca ve noi dung Ian hinh thai cau true cua thong tin, su vat, hien nrong,

Co the cu the hoa mire do phan tich bang cac yeu cau :

- Phan tfch cac sir kien, du· kien thira, thieu hoac du de giai quyet

diroc van de.

- Xac dinh diroc moi quan he giira cac bo phan trong toan tM.

- Cu tM hoa duoc nhttng van de triru nrong.

- Nhan bier va hieu duoc cau true cac bo phan cau thanh,

5. Danh gia : La kha nang xac dinh gia tri cua thong tin : binh xet, nhan dinh, xac dinh diroc gia tri cua mot nr nrong, mot noi dung kien tlnrc, mot phirong phap. Day Ia mot biroc moi trong viec Iinh hoi kien thirc diroc dac tnrng boi viec di sau vao ban chat cua d6i nrong, sir vat, hien nrong. Viec danh gia dua tren cac tieu chi nhat dinh ; do co the la cac tieu chi ben trong (each t6 clnrc) hoac cac tieu chi ben ngoai (phil hop voi muc dich).

Yeu cau xac dinh diroc cac tieu chi danh gia (ngiroi danh gia nr xac dinh hoac dtroc eung cap cac tieu chi) va van dung diroc de danh gia.

Co the cu the hoa mire d¢ danh gia bang cac yeu cau :

- Xac dinh duoc cac tieu chi danh gia va van dung de danh gia thong tin, sir vat, hien urong, su kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh gia tri cua cac thong tin, ur lieu thea mot muc dich, yeu cau xac dinh.

- Phan tfch nhfrng yeu to', dtr kien da: eho de danh gia sir thay d6i ve chat cua su vat, sir kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh duoc gia tri cua nhan to' moi xuat hien khi thay d6i cac moi quan he cu.

Cac cong cu danh gia co hieu qua phai giup xac dinh diroc ket qua hoc tap 6 moi cap d¢ noi tren de dira ra mot nhan dinh chfnh xac ve nang hrc cua nguoi diroc danh gia ve chuyen mon lien quan.

6. Sang tao : La kha nang tong hop, sap xep, thiet ke lai thong tin; khai thac, b6 sung thong tin tir cac nguon ur lieu khac de sang lap mot hinh mau moi,

Yeu cau tao ra diroc mot hinh mau moi, mot mang hroi cac quan he trw urong (sa do phan lap thong tin). Ket qua hoc tap trong Iinh vue nay nhan manh vao cac hanh vi, nang lire sang tao, dac biet Ia trong viec hinh thanh cac cau true va mo hinh moi.

Co the cu the hoa mire d¢ sang tao bang cac yeu cau : - M6 rong mot mo hinh ban dau thanh mo hinh maio

- Khai quat hoa nhtrng van de rieng le, cu the thanh van de tong

quat moi.

- Ket hop nhieu yeu to' rieng thanh mot tong the hoan ehinh maio

- Du doan, du bao sir xuat hien nhan to' moi khi thay d6i cac moi

quan he cu.

Day Ia mire d¢ eao nhat cua nhan tlnrc, vi no chua dung cac yeu to' cua nhtrng mire d¢ nhan thirc tren va dong thoi cung phat trien cluing.

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IV - CHUAN KIEN THUC, Ki NANG CllA CHUONG TRINH GrAo DUC PHO THONG viTA LA cAN CU, viTA LA MUC TIEU CllA GIANG D~Y, HOC T!P, KIEM TRA, DANH GrA

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau v6 thai do cua CTGDPT bao dam tinh thong nhat, tinh kha thi, phu hop cua CTGDPT ; bao dam chat hrong va hieu qua cua qua trinh giao due.

1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang hi can cir

1.1. Bien soan sach giao khoa (SGK) va cac tai lieu huang dan day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia, d6i moi phuong phap day hoc, d6i moi kiem tra, danh gia.

1.2. Chi dao, quan Ii, thanh tra, kiem tra viec thirc hien day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia, sinh hoat chuyen mon, dao tao, boi dutmg can bo quan If va GV.

1.3. Xac dinh muc tieu cua moi gi« hoc, muc tieu cua qua trinh day hoc, dam bao chat hrong giao due.

1.4. Xac dinh muc tieu kiem tra, danh gia doi voi tirng bai kiem tra, bai thi ; danh gia ket qua giao due tirng mon hoc, lop hQC, cap hQC.

2. Tai lieu HUOng dan thuc hien Chudn kien thuc, ki nang duoc bien soan theo huang chi tiet cac yeu cau CCi ban, toi thieu v6 kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuan kien thirc, ki nang bang cac noi dung chon IQc trong SGK.

Tai lieu giup cac can bo quan If giao due, cac can b¢ chuyen mon, GV, HS nam vtrng va thirc hien dung theo Chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

3. Yeu cau day hoc bam sat Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang 3.1. Yeu cdu chung

a) Can cir Chuan kien thirc, ki nang d~ xac dinh muc tieu bai hoc.

Chu trong day hoc nham dat diroc cac yeu cau CCi ban va toi thieu v6 kien thirc, ki nang, dam bao khong qua tai va khong qua l~ thuoc hoan roan vao SGK ; mire do khai thac sau kien thirc, ki nang trong SGK phai phu hop voi kha nang tiep thu cua HS.

b) sang tao v6 phirong phap day hoc phat huy tfnh chu dong, tich eire, W giac hoc tap cua HS. Chii trong ren luyen phirong phap nr duy, nang 11!c W hoc, nr nghien CUll ; tao niem vui, hirng khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai do ur tin trong hoc tap cho HS.

c) Day hoc th~ hien moi quan he tich eire giira GV va HS, gitra HS voi HS ; tien hanh thong qua viec t6 chirc cac hoat dong hoc tap cua HS, ket hop giira hQC tap ca th~ voi hoc tap hop tac, lam viec theo nhom.

d) Day hoc chti trong den viec ren luyen cac ki nang, nang 11!c hanh dong, van dung kien thirc, tang cirong thuc hanh va gan noi dung bai hoc voi thuc tien cuoc song.

e) Day hoc chu trong den viec sir dung co hieu qua phirong tien, thiet bi day hoc diroc trang bi hoac do GV va HS nr lam ; quan tam irng dung cong nghe thong tin trong day hoc.

g) Day hoc chii trong den viec dong vien, khuyen khich kip thai sl! tien bo cua HS trong qua trinh hQC tap ; da dang noi dung, cac hlnh thirc, each thirc danh gia va tang cuong hieu qua viec danh gia,

3.2. Yeu cdu dOl vOi can bi) qudn li co sa giao due

a) Nam virng chu tnrong d6i moi giao due phd thong cua Dang, Nha mroc ; nam virng muc dich, yeu cau, noi dung d6i moi th~ hien cu

9

tM trong cac van ban chi dao cua Nganh, trong Chuong trinh va SGK, phuong phap day hoc (PPDH), sir dung phuong tien, thiet bi day hoc, hinh thirc t6 chirc day hoc va danh gia ket qua giao due,

b) Nam vitng yeu cau day hoc bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang trong CTGDPT, dong thai tao dieu kien thuan 1<;>1 cho GV, dong vien, khuyen khich GV tich eire d6i rnoi PPDH.

c) Co bien phap quan Ii, chi dao t6 chirc thuc hien d6i maiPPDH trong nha tnrong mot each hieu qua; thirong xuyen kiem tra, danh gia cac hoat dong day hoc thea dinh huang day hoc bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang dong thai voi tich cue d6i moi PPDH.

d) Dong vien, khen thirong kip thai nhirng GV thirc hien co hieu qua dong thai voi phe binh, nhac nho nhtrng nguoi chua tich eire d6i moi PPDH, day qua tai do khong bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

3.3. feu cdu doi voi giao vien

a) Bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang d~ thiet ke bai giang, voi muc tieu la dat duoc cac yeu cau co ban, t6i thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang, day khong qua tai va khong qua l~ thuoc hoan toan vao SGK. Viec khai thac sau kien thirc, ki nang phai phu hop voi kha nang tiep thu cua HS.

b) Thier ke, t6 chirc, huang dan HS tlurc hien cac hoat dong hoc tap vm cac hinh thirc da dang, phong phu, co sire hap dan phu hop voi dac tnrng bai hoc, voi dac diem va trinh dq HS, voi dieu kien cu the cua lap, tnrong va dia phirong.

c) Dong vien, khuyen khich, tao CO hoi va dieu kien cho HS diroc tham gia mot each tich eire, chu dong, sang tao vao qua trinh kharn pha, phat hien, de xuat va Iinh hoi kien thirc ; chu y khai thac v6n kien thirc, kinh nghiern, ki nang da co cua HS ; tao niem vui, lurng khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai do nr tin trong h<;>c t~p cho HS ; giup HS ph at tri~n t6i da nang l,!c, tiem nang clla ban than.

d) Thier ke' va huang dan HS thirc hien cac dang cau hoi, bai tap phat trien nr duy va ren luyen ki nang; huang dan str dung cac thiet bi day hoc ; t6 chirc co hieu qua cac gio' tlurc hanh ; huang dan HS c6 thoi quen van dung kien thirc da hoc vao giai quyet cac van de thirc tien.

e) Str dung cac plnrong phap va hinh thirc t6 chirc day hoc mot each hop li, hieu qua, linh hoat, phu hop vci dac tnrng cua cap hoc, mon hoc ; noi dung, tinh chat cua bai hoc ; dac diem va trinh dq HS ; thai hrong day hoc va cac dieu kien day hoc cu the cua tnrong, dia plnrong,

4. Yell Call kiem tra, danh gia bam sat Chudn kien thirc, ki nang

4.1. Quan niem ve' kilm tra, danh gia

Kiem tra va danh gia la hai khau trong mot quy trinh thong nhat nham xac dinh ket qua thuc hien muc tieu day hoc. Kiem tra la thu thap thong tin tir rieng le den he thong ve ket qua thirc hien muc tieu day hoc ; danh gia la xac dinh mire do dat duoc ve thirc hien muc tieu day hoc.

Danh gia ket qua hoc tap thuc chat Ia viec xem xet mire dq dat diroc cua hoat dong hoc cua HS so voi muc tieu de ra d6i voi tirng mon hoc, tirng lap hoc, cap hoc. Muc tieu cua moi mon hoc duoc cu the hoa thanh cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang. Tir cac chuan nay, khi tien hanh kiern tra, danh gia ket qua hoc tap mon hoc can phai thiet ke' thanh nhimg tieu chi nham kiem tra diroc day dll ca ve dinh tinh va dinh luong ket qua hoc tap cua HS.

4.2. Hai chuc nang co ban cua kilm tra, ddnh. gia a) Chirc nang xac dinh

- Xac dinh muc dq dC;lt dugc trong vi¢c th,!c hi¢n ml)c tieu dC;ly h<;>c, xac dinh muc dq th,!c hi~n Chu~n kien thuc, k'i nang clla chuong

10

trinh giao due rna HS dat diroc khi ket thuc mot giai doan h9C tap (ket thtic mot bai, chuang, chu de, chu diem, rno dun, lap h9C, cap h9C).

- Xac dinh doi hoi tinh chinh xac, khach quan, cong bang.

b) Chirc nang dieu khien : Phat hien nhirng mat tot, mat chua tot, kho khan, vuong mac va xac dinh nguyen nhan. Ket qua danh gia la can cir d~ quyet dinh giai phap cai thien thuc trang, nang cao chat luong, hieu qua day h9C va giao due thong qua viec d6i moi, toi iru hoa PPDH cua GY va huang dan HS biet nr danh gia d~ toi uu hoa phirong phap h9C tap. Thong qua chirc nang nay, kiem tra, danh gia se la dieu kien can thiet :

- Giup GY nam diroc tinh hinh h9C tap, mire do ph an hoa ve trinh d¢ h9C lire cua HS trong lap, tir d6 c6 bien phap giup dO' HS yeu kern va boi dutmg HS gioi ; giup GY' dieu chinh, hoan thien PPDH ;

- Giup HS bier diroc kha nang h9C tap cua minh so voi yeu cau cua chuang trinh ; xac dinh nguyen nhan thanh cong ciing nhtr chua thanh cong, tir d6 dieu chinh phirong phap h9C tap ; phat trien ki nang tu danh gia ;

- Giup can bo quan If giao due de ra giai phap quan If phu hop d~ nang cao chat lirong giao due ;

- Giiip cha me HS va cong dong biet diroc ket qua giao due cua tirng HS, tirng lap va cua d co sa giao due.

4.3. feu cdu kiem tra, ddnh. gia

a) Kiem tra, danh gia phai din etc vao Chudn kien thuc, ki nang cua timg mon h9C a tirng lap ; cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu can dat ve kien thirc, ki nang cua HS sau moi giai doan, moi lap, moi cap hoc.

b) Chi dao, kiem tra viec thuc hien chuang trinh, ke' hoach giang day, h9C tap cua cac nha tnrong ; tang cuong d6i moi khau kiem tra,

danh gia thirong xuyen, dinh ki ; dam bao chat luong kiem tra, danh gia thuong xuyen, dinh ki chinh xac, khach quan, cong bang; khong hinh thirc, doi pho nhung cling khong gay ap hrc nang ne, Ki~m tra thuong xuyen va dinh ki thea huang vira danh gia diroc dung Chuan kien thirc, ki nang, vira co kha nang phan hoa cao ; kiem tra kien thirc, ki nang co ban, nang lire van dung kien thirc cua nguoi h9C, thay vi chi kiem tra h9C thuoc long, nho may m6c kien thirc.

c) Ap dung cac phirong phap phan tich hien dai d~ tang cuong tfnh wang dirong cua cac d~ kiem tra, thi. Ket hop that hop If cac hinh thirc kiem tra, thi van dap, nr luan va trac nghiern nham han che loi hoc tu, h9C lech, h9C vet ; phat huy tru diem va han che nhuoc diem cua moi hinh thirc.

d) Danh gia chinh xac, dung thirc trang : danh gia cao han thirc te se triet tieu dong hrc phan dau viron len; ngiroc lai, danh gia khat khe qua rmrc hoac thai d¢ thieu than thien, khong thay duoc sir tien bo, se uc che tinh cam, trf rue, giam vai tro tich eire, chu dong, sang tao cua HS.

e) Danh gia kip thai, co tac dung giao due va dong vien su tien bo cua HS, giup HS sua chua thieu s6t. Danh gia ca qua trinh Iinh hoi tri tlurc cua HS, chu trong danh gia hanh dong, tinh cam cua HS : nghi va lam; nang hrc van dung van thuc tien, th~ hien qua irng xu, giao tiep ; quan tam toi mire d¢ hoat dong tich eire, chu dong cua HS trong tung tiet h9C tiep thu tri thtrc rnoi, on luyen cling nhu cac tier tlnrc hanh, thf nghiem.

g) Khi danh gia ket qua h9C tap, thanh tich h9C tap cua HS khong chi danh gia ket qua cuoi cling, rna can chu y ca qua trinh h9C tap. 01n tao dieu kien cho HS cling tharn gia xac dinh tieu chi danh gia ket qua h9C tap voi yeu cau khong t~p trung van kha nang tai hi~n tri thuc rna

11

chu trong kha nang van dung tri thirc trong viec giai quyet cac nhiem vu phirc hop. C6 nhieu hmh thirc va d¢ phan hoa cao trong danh gia.

h) Khi danh gia hoat dong day h9C khong chi danh gia thanh tich h9C tap cua HS, rna con bao gorn danh gia ca qua trinh day h9C nham cai tien hoat dong day h9C. Chti trong phirong phap, ki thuat lay thong tin phan hoi tir HS de danh gia qua trinh day h9C.

i) Ket hop that hop If giira danh gia dinh tinh va dinh hrong : Can cu vao dac diem cua tirng mon h9C va hoat dong giao due a moi lop h9C, cap h9C, quy dinh danh gia bang diem ket hop voi nhan xet cua GV hay danh gia bang nhan xet, xep IO';1i cua GV.

k) Ket hop danh gia trong va danh gia ngoai,

De c6 them cac kenh thong tin phan hoi khach quan, din ket hop hai hoa giira danh gia trong va danh gia ngoai :

- TI! danh gia cua HS voi danh gia cua ban h9C, cua GV, cua co sa giao due, cua gia dinh va cong dong.

- TI! danh gia cua GV vci danh gia cua dong nghiep, cua HS, gia dinh HS, cua cac co quan quan If giao due va cua cong dong.

- TI! danh gia cua co sa giao due voi danh gia cua cac co quan quan If giao due va cua cong dong.

- TI! danh gia cua nganh Giao due voi danh gia cua xa hoi va danh gia quoc teo

1) Phai la dong II!C thiic dAy d6i moi PPDH : D6i moi PPDH va d6i moi kiem tra, danh gia la hai mat thong nhat hiru co cua qua trinh day h9C, la nhan to quan trong nhat dam bao chat hrong day h9C.

4.4. Cac tieu ehi eua kilm tra, ddnh. gia

a) Dam bao tinh toan dien : Danh gia duoc cac mat kien thirc, ki nang, nang lire, y thirc, thai d¢, hanh vi cua HS.

b) Dam bao d¢ tin cay : Tinh chinh xac, trung thirc, minh bach, khach quan, cong bang trong danh gia, phan anh diroc chat lirong thirc cua HS, cua cac co sa giao due.

c) Dam bao tinh kha thi : Noi dung, hinh thirc, each thirc, phirong tien t6 chirc kiem tra, danh gia phai phil hop voi dieu kien HS, co sa giao due, dac bier la phil hop vci muc tieu thea tirng mon h9C.

d) Dam bao yeu cau ph an hoa: Phan 10';1i diroc chfnh xac trinh d¢, rmrc d¢, nang lire nhan 'thuc cua h9C sinh, co sa giao due ; can dam bao dai phan hoa rong du cho phan 10';1i doi nrong.

e) Dam bao hieu qua : Danh gia duoc tat ca cac linh virc can danh gia HS, co sa giao due ; thuc hien diroc day du cac muc tieu d~ ra ; t';10 dong lire d6i moi phuong phap day h9C, g6p phan nang cao chat luong giao due,

12

pHANTHUHAI

HuONG nAN 'rnuc HI~N cHuAN I(IEN THUC, 1<1 NANG MON ToAN THPT

N(n DUNG MON ToAN THPT

Noi dung mon Toan bao gom nhiing kien thirc co ban v~ : - SO va cac phep tfnh tren tap hop so thuc, so phirc.

- Menh d~ va tap hop ; cac bieu thirc dai so va Iirong giac ;

phirong trmh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy v~ bac hai) ; he phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai) ; bat phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy v~ bac hai) va he bat phirong trmh bac nhat (mot fin, hai an).

- Ham so, gioi han, dao ham, nguyen ham, tfch phan va irng dung cua cluing.

- Cac quan he htnh h9C va mot so hinh thong dung (diem, dtrong thang, mat phang, hinh tam giac, hinh tron, elip, hinh da dien, hinh tron xoay) ; phep doi hinh va phep dong dang ; vecto va toa d(>.

- Mot so kien thirc ban dau v~ thong ke, t6 hop, xac suat.

KI NANG CO BAN

- Tlurc hien diroc cac phep tinh luy thira, khai can, logarit tren tap so tlurc va mot so phep tinh dan gian tren tap so phirc.

- Khao sat diroc mot so ham so co ban : ham so bac hai, bac ba,

h' ' b ' , h h' ' lui ax + b

am so ac bon trung p irong, am so phan t ire y = d '

ex +

2

ax + bx + C h' ' 1 . , h' '- h' " I' .

Y = d ' am so irong grac, am so mu, am so ogant.

ex +

- Giai thanh thao phirong trmh, bat phuong trmh bac nhat, bac hai, he phirong trinh bac nhat. Giai duoc mot so he phirong trinh, he bat phirong trinh bac hai ; phirong trinh lirong giac ; phirong trinh, bat phirong trinh, he phirong trinh mii va logarit dan gian.

- Giai diroc mot so bai toan v~ bien d6i hrong giac, luy thira, mii, logarit, v~ day so, v~ gioi han cua day so va ham so.

- Tinh diroc dao ham, nguyen ham, tfch phan cua mot so. ham so.

- Ve hinh ; ve bieu d6 ; do dac ; tinh d(> dai, goc, dien tich,

th~ tfch. Viet phirong trinh dirong thang, dirong tron, elip, mat phang, mat cau.

- Thu thap va XU If so lieu ; tinh toan v~ t6 hop va xac suat,

- Vac lirong ket qua do dac va tfnh toano

- Su dung cac cong cu do, ve, tinh toano

- Suy luan va cluing minh.

- Giai to an va van dung kien thirc toan h9C trong h9C tap va

dffi song.

13

PHAMCHATTUDUyvATHAIDQ

- Kha nang quan sat, du doan, suy luan hop If va suy luan logic.

- Cac thao tac nr duy co ban (phan tich, tong hop).

- Cac phfun chat ttl duy, d*c biet la ttl duy linh hoat, doc lap va sang tao,

- Kha nang dien dat chinh xac, r6 rang y wang cua minh va hieu

duoc y wang cua nguci khac.

- PMt trien trf wang nrong khong gian.

Ghi dill: + Cac yeu t6 kien thuc chuan bi . . * HQc chfnh thirc.

- C6 Y thirc ur hoc, himg thii va ur tin trong hoc tap.

- C6 due tfnh trung thirc, can cu, vuot kh6, cAn than, chinh xac, ki

luat, sang tao,

- C6 Y thirc hop tac, tran trong thanh qua lao dong cua minh va cua nguai khac.

- Nhan biet diroc ve dep cua toan hoc va yeu thfch mon Toan.

GI61 TRIEU MACH KIEN THUC

... ".. " j( ....

CHUONG TRINH MON TOAN PHO THONG

M~CH NOI DUNG

CHUDE

LOP

2

3

*

1. So

1.1. so tlJ nhien

*

1.2. ~ nguyen

*

*

*

11

12

8

9

10

4

5

6

7

*

*

*

*

1.3. SO hfru ti . - Phan so

- SO thap phan

- SO hfru ti

+

+

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

1.4. SO thuc

1.5. SO phtrc

*

14

LOP
MACH NOI DUNG CHUDE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2. D<;li IUQ'ng va 2.1. D(> dai * * * * * *
do dai IUQ'ng 2.2. G6c * * *
+ +
2.3. Dien tich + + + * * * *
2.4. Th~ tich + * * *
2.5. Kh6i IU9'l1g * * *
2.6. Thai gian * * * * *
2.7. Van toe * *
2.8. Tien t~ * *
3. D<;li s6 3.1. Tap hop, rnenh de * *
3.2. Bi~u thirc dai s6 + + + * * * *
3.3. Ham s6 va d6 thi + + + * * * * *
3.4. Phuong trinh, + + + + + * * * * *
he phirong trinh +
3.5. ·Bat dang t~uc, + + + + + + + * * *
bat phuong trinh
3.6. LU9'l1g giac + * *
3.7. Day so, cap s6 cong, + + + + + *
cap s6 nhan + + 15

M~CH NOI DUNG

CHO DE

LOP

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

+

+

+

12

4. Ghii tich

s. Hlnh hoc

4.1. Gi6i han

- Gi6i han cua day so

- Gi6i han cua ham so

- Ham so lien tuc

*

*

*

4.2. Dao ham

*

*

4.3. Nguyen ham, tieh phan

5.1. Cac khai niem hinh hoc mo dau

5.2. D~i cirong ve dirong thang va mat phang

5.3. Quan he song song - Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.4. Quan he vuong gee - Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.5. Da giac - Tam giac

- Til giac

- Da giac

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

16

+

+

+

+

*

*

*

*

*

+

+

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

MACH NOI DUNG

2· HDTHT11· A

CHUDE

2 T 3

+

+

5.6. Dtrong tron, hinh tron

+

*

5.7. IDnh da dien

LOP

6

7

12

4

5

+

+

+

+

5.8. Hinh tron xoay

+

*

5.9. Vecto

.. Trong mat phang *

- Trong khong gian

8

10

11

*

*

*

9

*

*

*

5.10. Toa do

- Trong mat phang

+

*

- Trong khong gian

-------------,------------------- -------------------- _-------- ---------- --------- _-------- ---------- --------- -------------------- --------- ---------

*

5.11. Phep doi hlnh

- Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

+

*

*

5.] 2. Phep dong dang

- Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

6.1. Thong ke

+

*

*

*

+

+

*

6.2. T6 hop

*

6.3. Xac suat

6. Thong ke, l TO h<)p. xse suat

_____ _L ~ ~ J_ J ~ L_ L_ L_ __ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

17

*

" "..(. " ? '-""

DAY HOC MOT-SO NOI DUNG CUA CI-IUONG TRINH MaN TOAN

1. D~y hoc cac h~ thong so

a) D~t van d~ rna rong cac he thong so : tir thirc tien, tir noi bo toan hoc, phoi hop.

b) Day hoc nhirng khai niem so : s6 va phep toan, y nghia thirc te cua nhtmg khai niern so.

c) D<;lY hoc phep tfnh va quan he thtr ur : ren ki nang tinh to an, phat trien nang hrc tri tue, ngam hlnh thanh quan niem v~ cau tnic,

d) D<;lY hoc nhirng tinh chat cua mci he thong so: N, Z, Q, lR, C .

e) H¢ thong hoa sir phat 'frien cua khai niern so va lam ro (gioi thieu) phirong phap rna rong mot he thong so.

2. D~y hcc phU'dng trinh va bat phU'dng trinh

a) D<;lY hoc khai niem phirong trinh va nhirng khai niem co lien quan.

b) D<;lY hoc phirong trinh dua vao ham menh d~ : quan niem v~ dang thirc ; hieu dung thuc chat cua dau = trong phirong trinh (hinh thirc), phan biet dau = trong plurong trinh va dau = trong bien d6i dong nhat ; dieu kien xac dinh va nghiern plnrong trinh.

c) Sir dung ngon nglr cua li thuyet tap hop va logic toan (bien d6i nrong dirong, he qua, ket hop nghiem, ... ).

d) D<;lY hQC giai phirong trinh,

e) Dien bien cua tap nghiem khi bien d6i phirong trinh : rna rong, thu hep, nrong dirong.

f) Giai quyet phirong dien ngfr nghia (xem xet noi dung cua nhfrng rnenh d~ to an hQC va nghia cua nhimg each dat van d~ toan hQC) va phirong dien cu phap (xem xet cau tnic hinh thtrc va su bien d6i hinh thirc nhtrng bieu thirc to an hoc, sir lam viec theo nhtrng quy tile xac dinh, theo thuat giai).

g) Day hoc giai bai toan bang each lap phirong trmh.

h) Thay duoc img dung cua toan hoc trong thuc te va viec to an hoc hoa cac bai toan co noi dung thirc tien.

i) PMt hien quan he giira cac dai hrong.

k) Ki nang giai bai roan, trong tam la ki nang Iap va giai phirong trinh.

3. D~y hoc ham so

a) Day hoc khai niern ham so : giai thich dinh nghia ham so dua vao bi~u nrong tap hop va cau tnic logic, minh hoa khai niem bang cac vi du da dang,

b) Day hoc khao sat ham so : tinh roan phuc vu khao sat, ve do thi, doc do thi,

c) Phat trien nr duy ham : tu nrong chu dao (phat hien, nghien ciru nhirng sir nrong irng) ; thirc hien gqi dong cO' ; hinh thanh bieu nrong tien tai tri thirc v~ sir nrong irng don tri va tap luyen nhimg hoat dong an khop v6i tri thirc phuong phap v~ ur duy ham ; phan bac hoat dong v~ nr duy ham (sir phirc tap, mire do doc lap cua hoat dong nhan thirc hoc sinh, mire d¢ thanh thao cua hoat dong),

d) Phat trien tu duy ham trong toan bo chuong trinh mon roan (theo cac mach toan).

18

2· HDTHT11- El

4. D~y hoc dao ham va tich phan

a) Day hoc ham so lien tuc : gi6i han cua day so ; gi6i han cua ham so ; ham so lien tuc.

b) Day hoc dao ham : hinh thanh khai niem ; day hoc tim dao ham ; day hoc irng dung cua dao ham.

c) Day hoc nguyen ham va tich phan : hinh thanh khai niem ; day hoc tim nguyen ham; khai niern tich phan ; tinh tich phan,

5. D~y hoc hinh hoc khong gian

a) Day hoc khai niern : hinh thanh, cung co, van dung.

b) Day hoc chirng minh : gei dong CO ; phuong phap suy luan va phirong phap cluing minh (xuoi, ngiroc lui) ; quy tac ket luan logic.

c) Hinh ve trong day hoc hinh hoc khong gian : hinh bieu dien, hinh ,-:e true quan trong day hoc,

6. D~y hoc vecto va toa dQ a) Day hoc vecto

- Day hoc khai niern vecto : mo ta tinh cung huang bang tnrc giac, sir dung vecto ur do mot each an tang, chu y lien mono

- Day hoc phep toan -vecto : can dinh nghia phep toan, quy tac thuc hien phep toan, cac tinh chat co ban cua moi phep toano

- Day giai bai tap v~ vecto : chuyen ngon ngir, sir dung cac phep toano

- b) Day hoc toa d¢

- Day hoc phuong phap toa do trong mat phang : he toa do, lap

va sir dung phirong trinh dirong.

- Day hoc phirong phap toa d¢ trong khong gian lien he voi hinh hoc phang : them phep tinh tich vecto (co huang).

c) Day hoc giai bai tap bang toa d¢ : lam quen v6i nhfrng each xac dinh toa do cua nhtrng yeu to hinh hoc ; quy trinh giai mot bai toan bang plurong phap toa do.

7. D~y hoc mach toan (mg dl;Jng

a) Day hoc yeu to cua phuong phap so

- Lam r6 moi lien he giua phuong phap so, thuat giai va may tinh.

-r-r- Gi6i thieu va cho sir dung mot so phirong phap so thong dung :

phirong phap lap (tim nghiem).

- Hinh thanh thoi quen lam tron so va viet so theo quy tic chuan. b) Day hoc yeu to cua If thuyet toi uu

- Lam r6 nguon goc hoac y nghia thuc tien cua bai toano (vi du : bai toan tim duong di ngan nhat...).

- Cho HS giai to an toi uu dira vao nhirng kien thirc toan hoc phd

thong: bat ding thirc ; dao ham.

c) Day hoc mot so yeu to cua xac suat thong ke

- Day thong ke mo ta (nr Ti~u hoc den Trung hoc phd thong).

- Day dai so td hop,

Day mot so yeu to cua If thuyet xac suat : neu y nghia thong ke cua xac suat.

8. D~y hoc mQt so yeu to cua Ii thuyet t~p hep va logic toan

a) Lam ro nhirng moi quan he giira nhirng khai niem can cir vao nhirng moi quan he gitra nhirng tap hop : bieu thi nhfrng moi quan he do bang bieu do Yen.

19

b) Yeu cau sir dung ki hieu cua tap hop va logic trong dien dat toan hQC ; yeu cau logic cua dinh nghia khai niern.

c) Phan tfch cac thanh ph an cua chirng minh va cac yeu cau logic urong irng : luan de, luan err, luan cluing.

9. D~y hoc theo mach kien thirc toan

a) GV can hinh dung diroc mach kien thirc trong chirong trinh toan a tnrong phd thong, cling nhir mach kien thirc chay ngam trong Toan hoc d~ co th~ trinh bay dung khi day hQC va qua do giiip HS hieu va co the thac trien diroc kien thirc da hoc, Can hinh dung va lot tei cac mach doc, mach ngang d~ co th~ img dung, soi roi kien thirc sa cap bm kien thirc Toan cao cap va ngiroc lai, chuyen hoa kien thirc Toan cao cap thanh sa cap (trong tnrong hop co the). HUCmg dAn HS sao eho qua viec hoc co diroc sa do ve mach kien thirc co trong chuong trinh. Chu y bien rhap thirc hien sao cho kha thi.

b) GV can giiip HS hinh dung duoc he thong kien thirc d~ co the hinh dung he thong bai tap, qua do hinh dung diroc mach kien thirc. Tit do biet each khai thac va van dung trong giai toan, hoc toan va nghien CUu Toan hoc,

c) Thong qua day hoc cac mach kien thirc, GV can :

- Ren luyen cho HS .cac thao tac tir duy : phan tfch, tong hop, nrong nr hoa, khai quat hoa, dac biet hoa, ...

- Giup HS each lam giau kien thirc, nrc Hi day tri thirc va day tri thirc phuong phap, Nhir the cling la day HS each suy nghi, day each sang tao,

- Day HS each hoc, biet ur hoc,

- Phan bac hoat dong, tien toi phan hoa doi urong.

- Day hoc huang toi phat trien.

d) Khi hinh dung duoc cac mach roan, GV co th~ tir lam giau kien thirc, vuon t61 biet nr sang tac bai tap.

Day hoc mach kien thirc can gan voi day hoc cac Huh huong di~n hmh trong mon toano

Qua viec tim hieu cac mach kien thirc to an a tnrong phd thong,

GV can van dung diroc trong day hoc cac tinh huong dien hinh nhu :

a) Day hoc khai niem

b) Day hoc dinh If

c) Day hoc bai tap

d) Day hoc on tap.

Luu y tien hanh theo trinh nr, chang han : tiep can, hinh thanh, cung co, he thong hoa, ...

20

HuONG nAN THl)'C HI~N CHuAN I(IEN THUC, 1<1 NANG M()N ToAN LOP I I

A - KIEN THllC CHHONG TRINH MON ToAN LOP 11 tPndn in nghieng, dam dann cho chuang trinli nang cao)

D~s6

1. Cac ham so hrong giac (dinh nghia, tinh tuan hoan, sir bien thien, d6 thi), Phuong trinh hrong giac co ban. Phuong trinh bac hai doi v6i mot ham so hrong giac, Phuong trinh asin.:r + bcosx = c. Phuong trmh thuan nhat bac hai doi voi sinx va cosx. Mi)t so dang phuong trinh luang gidc don gidn.

2. Phuong phap quy nC;lp toan hoc. Day so. Cap so cong, Cap so nhan.

GIAITICH

1. Gioi han cua day so, gioi han cua ham so. MOt so dinh If v~ gioi han cua day so. ham so. Cac dang vo dinh, Ham so lien tuc. MOt so dinh If v~ ham so lien tuc,

2. Dao ham. Y nghia hinh h9C va y nghia co hQC cua dao ham. Cac quy tac tinh dao ham. Vi phan, Dao ham cap cao.

HINHHOC

1. Phep doi hinh trong mat phang (phep doi xirng true, phep doi xirng tam, phep tinh tien, phep quay), hai hinh bang nhau.

Phep dong dang trong mat phang (phep vi tv, phep dong dang), hai hinh dong dang.

2. Dirong thang va mat phang trong khong gian. ~i trf nrong doi gitra hai dirong, thang trong khong gian. Duong thang va mat phang song song. Hai mat phang song song. Hinh lang tru va hinh hop, Phep chien song song. Hinh bieu dien cua hinh khong gran.

3. Vecto va phep to an vecto trong khong gian. Hai dirong thang vuong goc, Duong thang vuong goc voi mat phang, Phep chien vuong goc. Dinh li ba dirong vuong g?oc. Goc gitra dU?"ng thang va mat phang. Goc giira hai mat phang, Hai m~t phang vuong goc. Khoang each (tir mot diem den mot dirong thang, den mot mat ph ling ; giira duong thang va mat phang song song; gitra hai mat phang song song; giira hai dirong thang cheo nhau). Hinh lang tru drrng, hinh hop chir nhat, hinh lap plnrong, Hinh chop, hinh chop deu va hinh chop cut deu.

i( ~ ,..,

TO HoP XAC SUAT

Quy tac cong, quy tac nhan. Chinh hop, hoan vi, t6 hop (khong lap). Nhi tlnrc Niu-ton. Phep thir va bien co. Dinh nghia xac suat. Cac quy tac tinh xac suat. Bien ngtiu nhien rai rae.

~

21

B - HUONG DAN THljC HIJtN CHUAN KlEN THUC, KI NANG MON ToAN LOP 11

(Phdn in nghieng, dam danh cho chuang trinh nang cao}

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

1. HAM SO LUQNG GrAc v A PHUONG TRINH LUQNG GrAc

. _ .

1. Ham soluang giac (Dinh nghia ; Tinh

tuan hoan ; SI! bien thien ; Do thi),

Ve' hen thuc : Hieu diroc khainiem ham s6 hrong giac (cua bien s6 thirc),

Ve'klnang:

- Xac dinh diroc : tap xac dinh ; tap gia tI1 ; tfnh chat chan, le ; tinh tuan hoan ; chu ki ; khoang dong bien, nghich bien cua cac ham s6 y = sinx ; y = cosx ; y = tanx ; y = cotx.

- Ve duoc do thi cua cac ham s6 y = sinx ; y = cosx ; y = tanx ; y = cotx.

• y = sinx la ham s6 le, do thi cua n6 d6i xirng - Tim tap gia tI1 cua ham s6.

qua g6c toa d<) (hinh 1). - Ham s6 da cho la chan hay le ?

................... _ .......

1. Ham s6 sin va ham s6 eosin

sin: IR ~ IR

x t---4 Y = sinx ;

eosin : IR ~ IR

x t---4 Y = cOSX.

• Tap xac dinh cua hai ham s6 nay la IR .

- Dang 1 : Tim tap xac dinh ; tap gia tI1 ; tinh chat chan, Ie ; tinh tuan hoan ; chu ki ; khoang dong bien, nghich bien cua cac ham s6 y = sinr ;

Y = cosx ; y = tanx ; y = cotx.

- Dang 2 : Ve do thi cua cac ham s6 y = sinx ; y = cosx ; y = tanx ; y = cotx.

Vi du. Cho ham s6 y = -sinx.

- Tim tap xac dinh cua ham s6.

- Ham s6 da cho c6 la ham s6 tuan hoan khong ? Neu tuan hoan hay cho biet chu ki ?

- Xac dinh cac khoang dong bien, nghich bien cua ham s6 d6 ?

• v oi moi x E IR ta c6 :

-1 ~ sinx~ 1 ; -1 s cosr s; 1.

y

" 1~

x

Hinh 1

22

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

x

Huong dan tlurc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. Luu Y

d) y = -cotx. • Do thi ham so y = cosx diroc suy ra tir do thi

ham so y = sinx qua phep tinh tien song song voi

true hoanh thea vecto (-; ; 0 ).

2. Ham so tang va ham so cotang,

• Ham so tang la ham so diroc xac dinh boi cong thirc :

• y = cosx la ham so chan, do thi cua no doi xirng qua true tung (hinh 2).

y

_ 31l''\. / "- /31!

2' ~------ -------~ -2 -1

Hinh2

• Cli hai ham so y = sinx va y = eosx deu la ham so tuan hoan voi chu kl 2n; sin(x + 2n) = sinx, cos(x + 2n) = cosx, \:;fx E lR.

sinx y=tanx= -cos x

23

Vi du. Ve do thi cua cac ham so sau : a) y = 2sinx ;

b)·y = -2cosx ;

c) y = -tanx ;

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Huang dan thuc hi~n chuan

24

L- ~ _L ~

cosx ,. ic di h

y = cotx = -.- voi tap xac m

smx

D = 1R \ {kJr,k E z],

• Ham s6 y = tanx (hinh 3) va y = cotx (hinh 4) Ia nhirng ham s6 Ie va tuan hoan voi chu ki n .

y

x

Kien thirc co ban Da,tng toano Vi dl,l. Luu Y

~------------------------------+-----------------------------------

voi tap xac dinh

D = 1R \ {; + kn; k E Z} .

• Ham s6 cotang la ham s6 diroc xac dinh boi cong thirc :

o~ )

(-n n

2

Hinh3

Chudn kien thuc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

x

Vi du. Gidi va minh hoa tren duong trim luong giac nghiem cua moi phtamg trinb sau

a) sinx = 0,789.

b) 2sinx = 1.

Kien thtlC CO' ban Dang toano Vi du, Luu y

y

2. Phuong trinh luang giac ca ban (Cac phuong trinh hrong giacco ban; Cong thirc nghiem ; Minh ko« tren duang tron lutmg gUic).

Ve' kien thuc Biet diroc phirong trinh hrong giac co ban : sinr > m ; eosx = m ;

tanx = m ; eotx = m va cong thirc nghiem, va

V l ki nang : Giai thanh thao phirong trinh hrong giac co ban. Biet sir dung may tinh bo nii h6 tro tim nghiem phirong trinh hrong giac co ban.

Hinh4

1. Phuong trinh sinx = a

• Neu rl > 1 : Phuong trinh (1) vo nghiem.

• Neu rl s 1 : D~t a = sin o , phirong trinh (1) co

cac nghiern x = tp + k2 7r , k E Z

x= 7r -<p +k27r,kE Z.

Ta con viet:

[X = aresina + k27r, k E Z

(1) ¢:> (aresina la

x = 7r - aresina + k27r, k E Z

, d r 7r 7r] ,. ? , b' )

goc thuoc oan L -"2;"2 ' rna sm eua no ang a .

(1) - Dang bai tap : Giai phirong trinh hrong giac eo ban ; Sir dung may tinh bo nii h6 tro tim nghiem plnrong trinh hrong giac co ban.

25

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Liru Y

* Chu y:

• Neu so do ella f(J diroc tinh bang dQ thi nghiem

? [x =f(J+k3600

eua (1) co dang :

x = 180° -f(J+ k3600 , k E Z.

• T6ng quat, voi fix) va g(x) fa hai biiu thuc eua x, ta eo : Phuong trinh sinf(x) = sing(x) tuang duang vai

[f(X) = g(x) + k21l,k E Z f(x) = 1l - g(x) + k21l,k E Z.

Vi du. Giai cac phuong trinh :

a) cos x = -1 ;

b) cos x = 0,123.

2. Phuong trinh eosx = a

Vi du. Giai cac phirong trlnh : (2) a) tanx = Jj ;

• Neu lal > 1 : Phuong trinh v6 nghiem.

• Neu lal s 1 : D~t a = cos tp , phirong trinh (2) co cac nghiem

x= ± f(J +k2ll,k E Z.

Taeon viet:

(2) <=> x = ± areeosa + k2 7Z", k E Z (areeosa la g6c thuoc doan [0 ; zr ], rna eosin ella no bang a).

* Chu y:

• Neu so do ella f(J diroc tinh bang dQ thi nghiem ella (2) co dang :

x = ± f(J + k3600, k e Z.

26

b) tanx = 20.

Vi du. Giro cac phirong trinh : 1

a) eotx = Jj ;

b) eotx = 5,6789.

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

(3)

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien tlurc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu y

• T6ng quat, vClif(x) va g(x) fa hai biiu thuc eua x, ta co : Phuong trinh eosj(x) = eosg(x) tuang duang voi

f(x) = ±g(x) + k2TC, k e z.

3. Phuong trinh tanx = a

VOi moi a E R, phirong trinh (3) luon co nghiem

x = aretana + k TC , k E Z

(aretana la goc thuoc khoang (- ~ ; ~), co tang cua no bang a).

Neu rp la goc thoa man tan rp = a thi nghiern cua (3) la :

x = rp + k TC, k e Z.

* Chii y:

• Neu s6 do cua rp diroc tinh bang do thi nghiern cua (3) co dang : x = rp + k180°, k E Z.

• Phuong trinh tarif(x) = tang(x) tuang duang vai j(x)=g(X)+kTC,kE Z.

4. Phuong trinh eotx = a

VOi moi a e R, phirong trinh (4) luon co nghiem x = arceota + kTC, k e Z

(areeota la goc thuoc khoang (0; TC), co cotang bang a).

27

(4)

Neu tp la goc thoa man cot rp = a thi nghiem cua (4) la : x = tp + k Jr , k E Z.

* Chu y:

• Neu so do cua rp diroc tfnh bang do thi nghiem cua (4) co dang : x = tp + k180o, kE Z .

• Phuong trlnh coif(x) = cotg(x) tuang duang viii j(x)=g(x)+kJr,kE Z.

~------~----------------~~--~----~------~~--~~~~~--~~--~r----------'--------------------------1

3. M¢t s6' phuang trinh luang giac thuang 1. Phuong trinh bac nhat doi voi mot ham so - Dang bai tap Giai phuong trinh thuoc

gt'jp (Phuong trinh bac nhat, bac hai doi voi luong giac cac dang : plurong trinh bac nhat, bac hai doi

mot ham so hrong giac ; 'Phuoog trinh voi mot ham so hrong giac , phirong trinh

asinx + bcosx = e ; Mi)t so phuong trinh • Phuong trinh bac nhat doi voi mot ham so asinx + bcosx = c ; phirong trmh thuan nhat bac

luang giac khac). lirong giac co dang : at + b = 0, trong do a , b la hai dci voi sinx va cosx; phuang trinh dang

Ve' kiln thuc : Biet duoc dang va each giai cac hang so (a -:j; 0) va t la mot trong cac ham sO' a(sinx ± cosx) + bsinxcosx = 0 ; phuong trinh phuong trinh : bac nhat, bac hai doi vci hrong giac (y = sinx, y = cosx, y = tarn, y = cotx). co' sa dung cong thuc bien d6i di gidi (if dang

mot ham so luong giac: asinx + bcosx = c : • each giai : Bien d6i, dira phuong trinh dii cho dun gidn) ; mot so phuong trinh luang gidc

phirong trmh thuan nhat bac hai doi voi khac.

v~ plurong trinh hrong giac co ban. sinx va cosx ; phuong trinh dang

Vi du. Giai phuong trinh a(sinx ± cosx) + bsinxcosx = 0 ; phuang 2. Phuong trinh bac hai doi v6i mot ham so hrong

trinh co sit dung congO thuc bien d6i di giac

gidi (if dang dun gidn). • Phuong trinh asin2 x + bsinx + c = 0, (a -:j; 0) :

Ve' ki nang: Giai diroc phirong trinh thuoc a) 2cos2 x - 3cosx + 1 = 0 ;

cac dang neu tren, Dat t = sinx, It I :so; 1, dua v~ phirong trinh bac hai

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huang dan thuc hien chuan

Kien tlnrc co ban Dang toan, Vi du. LUll Y

3sinx - 2 = O.

Vi du. Giai cac phirong trinh :

b) sin2x - (1 + .J3 )sinxeosx +.J3 eos2x = O. doi voi t : a/ + bt + c = O. Giai phirong trinh tim

t roi tir do tim x (hru Y dieu kien I~ :so; 1 de co the loai ngay cac gia tri t khong thfch hQ'P).

28

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Vi du. Giai cac phirong trinh :

a) 5siox + 12eosx = 13 ;

b) sinx + J3eosx = 1.

Kien thuc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu y

• Phuong trinh aeos2 x + bcosx + c = 0, (a "* 0): Vi du. Giai cac phirong trinh :

D~t t = eosx, It I ~ 1. a) sinx + sin2x + sin3x = 0 ;

• Phuong trmh atan2 x + btanx + c = 0, (a "* 0): b) sin2x.sin5x = sin3x.sin4x ;

Dat t = tanx. c) (sinx + cosx) - 6sinxcosx = 2 ;

Ph ' h 2 b ° ( 0) d)' 2 • 23 2' 22

• irong tnn aeot x + cotx + c = , a*- : sm x + sin x = sm x.

Dat t = eotx.

3. Phuong trinh bac nhat d6i v6i sinr va cosx :

asinx + bcosx = c (a*- 0, b "* 0). (1)

Phuong phap chung d6 giai :

• Su dung cong thirc bien d6i

asinx + bcesx =) a2 + b2 sin(x + tp ),

dira phirong trinh (1) ve plnrong trinh hrong giac co ban

c

eos(x - qJ ) = r . va2 + b2

• Sit dung cong thuc linh sinx va cosx theo x

t= tan- :

2

. 2t 1- t2

smr = --2 ' COSX = 2 ' dua phuang trinh

1+t 1+t

(1) vephuong trinh bac hai dOl voi t.

29

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban D~ng toano Vi dt,I. LUll Y

r-------------------------------~-----------------------------

4. Phuong trinh thudn nluit bac hai dOl VOl sinx Vi du. Giai cac phuong trinh :

Va cosx:

• Phuong trinh asin2x + bsinxcosx + ccos2x = 0, trong do a, b, c la cdc hang so: VOl a ::I; 0 hoac b ::1;0 hoac c ::1;0.

Phuong phap gidi : Chia hai vi ella phuong trinh cho cos2 x (vOl die'u kien cosx ::I; 0) di dua phuang trinh vi phuong trinh dOl VOl tanx,

hoac chia hai ve' ella phuang trinh cho sin2 x (vOl die'u kien sinr e 0) di dua phuang trinb vi phuang trinh doi VOl cotx.

* Chit j : Doi VOl phuong trinh

asin2x + bsinxcosx + ccos2x = d, (a, b, c, dE JR, a2 + b2 + c2 ::I; 0) ta eo thi quy ve' gidi phuong trinh thudn nhdt bac hai dOl VOl sinx va cosx bdng each viet d du6t dang

d = d(sin2x + cos2x).

a) sin2 x + (1 + J3 )sinxcosx + J3cos2 x = 0 ;

b) sin2 x - 5sinxcosx + 3 = O.

II. TO HOP. KHAr NI$M xAc SUAT

1. Da! so't6 h9P (Quy tac cong va ,guy tac 1. Quy tac cong va guy tac nhan nhan ; Chinh hop ; Hoan vi ; T6 hop ; Nhi

• Quy tac cong : thirc Niu-ton).

Ve' kiln thuc : Biet guy tac cong va guy tac nhan ; hoan vi, chinh hop, t6 hop chap k cua n phan tll' ; cong thirc nhi thirc Niu-ton

(a + bf.

Gia sir doi nrong X co m each chon khac nhau, doi urong Y co n each chon khac nhau va khong co each chon doi urong X nao trung v6i moi each chon 'doi nrong Y. Khi do co m + n each chon mot trong hai doi nrong ay.

- Dang 1 : Giai cac bai toan co van dung guy tac cong va guy tac nhan ; Tinh so cac hoan vi, chinh hop, t6 hop chap k cua n phan nr,

- Dang 2 : Khai trien nhi thirc Niu-ton voi mot so mii cu the; Tim he so ella} trong khai trien nhi thirc Niu-ton thanh da thirc.

30

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

Ve'kTnang:

Hirong dan thuc hien chuan

Ki hieu s6 phan nr cua tap hop A la n(A). Gia sir

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan, Vi du, Luu Y

- Biroc dau van dung diroc quy tac cong va A va B la cac tap hop hfru han, khong giao nhau quy t~c nhan,

- Tfnh diroc s6 cac hoan vi, chinh hop, t6

hop chap k cua n phan nr, * Chu y : Cong thue (1) eo thi mu rt)ng theo a) Don nam, don nfr ?

hai huong : - Biet khai trien nhi thirc Niu-ton voi mot

s6 mii cu the.

- TIm duoc he s6 cua xk trong khai trien nhi thirc Niu-ton thanh da tlurc.

• Khi do : n(A u B) = n(A) + n(B).

a) Neu A va B la hai tap hap hiiu han bat ki thi n(A uB) = n(A) + n(B) -n(A r-B).

(1)

Vi du. Mot d¢i thi dau bong ban gom 8 van dong vien nam va 7 van dong vien nii'. Hoi co bao nhieu each cir ngjiu nhien van dong vien thi dau :

b) D6i narn - nir ?

Vi du. Cho cac chit s6 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5. Hoi co bao nhieu s6 ur nhien co 5 chii s6 doi mot khac nhau diroc thanh lap til cac chit s6 da cho ?

doi mt)t khong giao nhau thi

b) ss« AI' ... , Am la cac t~p hop hiiu han tuy s. Vi du. Hoi co bao nhieu each chia ngau nhien mot lop co 40 hoc sinh thanh cac nhom hoc tap rna moi nhom co 8 hoc sinh?

Gia sir co hai hanh dong duoc tlurc hien lien tiep. a) Co bao nhieu khd nang lQy duac 10 vien bi Hanh dong thir nhat co m ket qua. Thg vci moi cung mau ?

ket qua cua hanh dong thir nhat, hanh dong thir b) Co bao nhieu khd nang lay duoc 10 vien bi, trong do eo it nhat 2 vien bi mau xanh ?

e) Co bao nhieu khd nang my dUQ'e 10 vien bi trong do eo dung 2 vien bi mau xanh ?

* Chu y : Quy tile nhdn it tren eo thi mu rt)ng

n(AI u A2 u ... u AmJ = n(AJ + n(AV + ... + n(AmJ.

• Quy tac nhan

hai co n ket qua. Khi do co m.n ket qua cua hai hanh dong lien tiep do.

eho nhieu hanb dt)ng lien tiep.

2. Hoan vi, chinh hop, t6 hop (khong lap) :

Cho tap hop A gom n phan tir (n ~ 1).

31

Vi du. Mt)t ht)p eo chua 20 vien bi mau do, 30 vien bi mau xanh va 40 vien bi mau vang, Lay btU ki tu ht)p dolO vien bi. Khi do:

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huang dan thuc hien chuan

Kien tlnrc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. LUll Y

• M6i su sap xep n philo nr cua A thea tlur nr nao do duoc goi la mot hoan vi cua tap hQP A.

S6 cac hoan V! cua tap hQP A duoc kf hieu la P nr ta eo

Pn=n.(n -1) ... 2.1 =n!.

• M6i each lay fa k philo nr cua A (1 ~ k ~ n) va xep thea mot thir ur nao do diroc goi la mot chinn hop chap k cua n philo tiro

S6 cac chinh hQP chap k cua n philo tir duoc kf

hi I' Ak ' Ak n!

ieu an' ta eo n =

. (n - k)!

(i:J day, quy mJe O! = 1).

• M6i each lay fa mot tap eon gom k philo nr cua A (0 ~ k ~ n) diroc goi la mot 16 hap chap k cua n philo tiro Coi (2) la t6 hQP chap 0 cua tap hQP eo n philo tiro

S6 cac t6 hQP chap k cua n philo nr duoc ki hieu

1, c: ' c: n!

an' ta eo n = .

k!(n - k)!

3. Cong thirc nhi thtrc Niu-ton

• Khai trien nhi thirc (a+b)n, thea cong thirc

( b)n CO n C1 n-1b c: n-kbk

a+ = na + na + ... + na +

32

Vi du

a) Khai trien nhi thirc (2x + 1)10 thanh da thtrc.

b) Tim he sO cua ~/ trong khai trien nhi thirc (2x + 1 y 0 thanh da thirc.

HUOng dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, Luu Y

• Trong ve phai cua cong thirc (*), ta c6 : a) SO cac hang nr Ul n + 1 ;

b) SO hang (hang nr) thir k + 1 la C~ an -k bk , k = 0, 1, ... n (quy iroc aO = 1 v6i a ::f::. 0).

c) SO mu cua a giam dan tit n den 0, so mil cua b tang dan tit ° den n dong thoi tong so mii cua a va b trong moi hang nr luon bang n.

d) Hai hang nr nrong img dirng each hang tir dau va hang nr cuoi mot khoang bang nhau thi c6 cung he so.

Vi du

a) Cluing minh

C~ + C~ + C~ + ... + C~ = 2n . b) Chung minh :

o 2 4 C2n

C2n + C2n + C2n + ... + 2n

I 3 C5 C2n-1

= C2n + C2n + 2n + ... + 2n •

Vi du. Chung minh fling:

) c: = cr: .

ann '

kkk-I b) Cn = Cn_1 + Cn-I.

2. Xlie sudt (Phep thir va bien co ; Xac suat cua bien co va cac tfnh chat co ban cua xac suat ; Cong 'thtrc cong xac suat, cong thirc nhan xac suat ; Bien c{/ df)c l(ip).

Ve' kien thuc :

- Biet duoc : Phep thir ngau nhien ; khong gian mau ; bien co lien quan den phep tlnr ngau nhien. Dinh nghia c6 dien, dinh nghia thong ke xac suat cua bien co.

- Biet diroc cac khai niern : Bien co hop ; Bien co xung khac ; Bien co doi ; Bien co giao ; Bien co doc lap ;

- Biet tinh chat :

- Dang 1. Xac dinh : phep thir ngau nhien ; khong gian mau ; bien co lien quan den phep thir ngau nhien,

- Dang 2. V (in dung quy tdc cong xac sudt, quy tdc nhtin xac sua! trong cdc bai tap dun gidn.

- Dang 3. Su dung may tinh bo nii h6 tro tinh xac suat,

Vi du. Gieo ngau nhien mot con sue sac (dong chat).

a) Hay mo ta khong gian mdu ;

b) Xac dinh bien co' "xuat hien mat c6 so le cham".

1. Phep thir va bien co

Tap hop moi ket qua c6 th~ xay ra cua mot phep thir duoc goi la khong gian mdu cua phep thir va duoc ki hieu la n. Ta chi xet cac phep thir v6i khong gian mau n Hi tap hiru han,

P(0) = ° ; pen) = 1 ;

3· HDTHi11· A

33

,--------------------------------,-----------------------------------------------------------------------------~

Huong dim thuc hien chuan I

Kien thuc cO' ban D~ng tmin. Vi dl;l. LlIU y --l

Moi t~p con A ella 0 diroc goi la mot bien c6'. Vi du. Gieo ngau nhien hai con sue sac. Tfuhi Tap 0 duoc goi la bien ('(j' khong the', tap n I xac suat cua bien co : "Tong so cham tren mat

duoc goi lit bien co' chdc chan. I xuat hien cua hai con sue sac bang 8" .

Neu khi phep thir diroc tien. hanh rna ket qua cua II

no la mot ph an tu cua A thi ta noi rang bien co A

xay ra, hay phep thir la thuan loi cho A. I

Bien co A :: 0 \ A diroc goi la bien co'dol cua A.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

0::;; peA)::;; L

- Bier (khong cluing minh) dinh If cong xac suat va dinh If nhan xac suat,

Ve' ki nang:

- Xac dinh duoc : phep tlur ngau nhien ; khong gian mau ; bien co lien quan den phep tlnr ngau nhien.

- Biet van dung quy tac cong xac suat, quy tac nhan xac suat trong bai tap don gian,

- Bier sir dung may tinh 1:>0 nii ho tro tinh xac suat.

A va B doi nhau ~ A = B .

A xay ra khi va chi khi A khong xay ra.

Bien co A u B xay ra khi va chi khi A hoac B I xay fa. I

Bien co A n B xay ra khi va chi khi A va B cung I xay ra.

Neu A n B = 0 thi A va B duoc goi la hai bien cdxung khdc.

2. Xac suat ella bien co

Neu A Hi bien co lien quan den phep thir chi co mot so hitu han cac ket qua dong kha nang xuat hien thi ti so

peA) = n(A) nCO)

duoc goi la xdc sua! cua bien co A. Xac suat co cac tinh chat sau :

a) 0 .5'P(A) sI, VA ;

b) P(O) = 1 ;

34

3 - HDTHT~~· B

Hirong dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

c) Neu A va B Ia hai bien co xung khac cung lien quan toi mot phep tlnr thi

peA u B) = peA) + PCB) (cong thuc cong xdc sudt).

Mo rong : V Oi hai bien co A va B bat ki cung lien quan den mot phep thir thi

peA u B) = peA) + PCB) - peA (l B).

3. Bien co dt)c lap, cong thuc nhdn xac suat. H ai bien co A va B ducc goi ta dt)c lap, neu sf! xdy ra cua mot trong hai bien co khong dnb huong den xac suat xdy ra cua bien co kia.

Nguoi ta chung minh dUf/c rdng A va B dt)c ltJ,p khi va chi khi peA nB) = P(A).P(B) (cong thuc nhdn xac sudt).

Neu P(A).P(B) ;to thi A va B dt)c I4p c» A va B dt)c I4p ¢:::> A va Ii dt)c I4p ¢:::> A va Ii dt)c 14p.

~.--------~_'----------------------4------ _

3. Bien ngdu nhien rai rae (Khai niem 1. Khai niem bien ngtiu nhien rUi rae

bien ngdu nhien roi rae ; Phdn bo xac Dai luang X duoc goi la mot bien ngau nhien sud; cua bien ngau nhien roi rae ; Ki

roo rae neu no nhan gia tri bang so thuoc mot vlJng toan, phuang sai, dt) l¢ch chudn cua

bien ngdu nhien roi rf,lc). ttJ,p hop hiiu han nao do va gia tri ay ta ngdu

nhien, khong du doan truce duoc.

Ve' kien thuc :

Bie: duoc : Khai niem bien ngdu nhien roi rae ; Phdn bo xac suat cua bien ngau nhien roi rae. Ki vong ; Phuong sai ; Dt) l¢ch chudn ciia bien ngdu nhien roi rae.

- Dang 1 : Lap va doc bang phtin bo' xac sud: cua bien ngau nhien roi rae voi mot stiit gia trio

- Dang 2 : Tinh : Phuong sai ; Dt) l¢ch chudn cua bien ngdu nhien roi rae.

Vi du. Mt)t ht)p chua 8 vien bi do va 6 vien bi xanh. Lay biit ki tu ht)p do 4 vien bi. Goi X la so vien bi xanh duac chon ra trong so' cac vien bi.

a) Mo td khong gian mdu ;

2. Phtin bo' xac sua: cua bien ngdu nhien rai rae

Gid sit X la mot bien ngdu nhien roi rae nhdn cdc gid tri {XI 'X2 , ... ,Xn} • DI hilu ro hun ve' x, ta

~.--------------------------------~-----------------------------------~------------------------------------~

35

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan tlnrc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. LU'U Y

Vi ki nang :

- LiJp va doc duoc bang ph an btl xac sud: cua bien ngdu nhien rOi rae vOi mot so it gia tri.

- Tinh duac : Phuong sai ; lJ(J I~ch chudn cua bien ngdu nhien rai rae trong bai tap.

thuong quan tam den xac sua: dl X nhan gia try xk tuc la cdc siJ P(X = xk) = Pk voi k = 1, 2, ... , n. Cac thong tin vi X nhu viJy duoc trinh bay duOi dang bang sau day:

I ; I ;: I ;: I ::: I ;: I

Bang 1

Bang 1 duoc gfJi la bang phan b6 xac suat cua bien.ngau nhien rro rae X.

Trong bang 1, tling cdc so' if dong thu hai bang

PI + P2 + ... + Pn = 1.

3. Ki vong

Cho X la bien ngdu nhien roi rae vOi tiJp gia try ta {Xl 'X2 , ... ,Xn}' Ki vong cua X, ki hieu la E(X), la mot so duac tinh theo cong thuc

n

E(X) = XIPI + X2P2 + ... +XnPn = LXi Pi , i=l

a do Pi = P(X = Xi)' (i = 1, 2, ... , n). 4. Phuong sai

Cho X la bien ngau nhien roi rae vOi tap gia try la {Xl 'X2 , ... ,Xn}. Phurmg sai clla X, ki hieu la V(X), la m(Jt so duoc tinh theo cong thuc

b) Tinh gia tri cua bien ngau nhien X ;

c) Tinh : Phuong sai, d(J I~ch chudn cua bien ngdu nhien rOi rae X.

36

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan tlnrc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan, Vi du. LUll Y

n

2" 2

... + (Xn -Ji) Pn = L)Xi - Ji} Pi'

i=l

ii do Pi = P(X = Xi), (i = 1, 2, ... , n) va Ji = E(X). 5. fJi) I¢eh chudn

Can btJ.e hai cua phuang sai, ki hieu la (J (X), duac goi la de) lech chuan cua X, nghia la

(J (X) = .jV(X) .

III. DAy so. CAP so CQNG. CAP so NHAN

1. Phuong phdp quy nap todn h9C (Gi6i thieu phirong phap quy nap roan hoc va cac vi du ap dung).

V l kien thuc :

Hieu diroc plurong phap quy nap toan hQC. Ve'klnang:

Biet each giai mot so bai toan don gian bang quy nap,

1. De cluing minh mot menh de Ia dung voi moi n E N* bang phirong phap quy nap toan hoc, ta tien hanh hai biroc :

Biroc 1 : Kiem tra rang menh de do dung v6i n = 1. Biroc 2 : Gia sir menh de da cho dung v6i mot so nr nhien bat ki n = k, (k ~ 1) (ta goi la gia thiet quy nap) va cluing minh Tang no cling dung voi n=k+l.

2. Trong tnrong hop phai chirng minh menh de la dung v6i moi so nr nhien n ~ p (p la so nr nhien Ian hem 1) thi :

.6 biroc 1, ta kiern tra menh de do dung v6i n = p. • 6 biroc 2, ta gia thiet menh de da cho dung v6i mot so W nhien bat ki n = k (k ~ p) va chirng minh rang no cling dung voi n = k + 1.

- Dang bai tap : Giai mot so bai roan don gian bang phirong phap quy nap.

Vi du. Chung minh

n3 + lIn chia het cho 6 voi "in E x'.

*

Vi du. Chimg minh rang v6i "in EN, ta co

2 2 2 2 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

1 +2 +3 + ... +n = 6

Vi du. Cho so thuc

x> -1. Chung minh rdng : (1 + xf ~ 1 + nx vOi moi so nguyen duang n.

37

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Htrong dan tlurc hien chuan

Kien thirc C<1 ban Dang toan. Vi du. LUll Y

3. Chu y : Phep thir v6i mot so hUU han so tu nhien, tuy khong phai Hi chimg minh, nhirng eho phep ta du doan duoc ket qua. Ket qua nay chi la gia thiet, va de chimg minh ta co the dung phirong phap quy nap toan hoc.

2. Day so' (Day so ; Day so tang, day so giam ; Day so bi chan).

Ve' kiln thia: :

- Biet duoc : Khai niem day so ; each eho day so (boi cong thirc tong quat ; bci he thirc truy hoi ; bang rna t.1) ; day so hUU han, va han,

- Biet tinh tang, giam, bi chan ella mot day so.

Ve'klnang:

- Xac dinh diroc cac so hang ella day so ; Tim cong thirc bieu dien so hang tong quat ella day so.

- Xet diroc tfnh tang, giam, bi chan ella day so.

1. Dtnh nghia

a) Moi ham so u xac dinh tren tap so N* duoc goi la day so vo han (goi tat la day so).

*

u: N ~ IR

n f----t u(n).

Dat u(n) = Un va goi no Ia so' hang thu n ella day so (un).

Doi khi ngiroi ta ding goi no la so' hang t6ng quat ella day so (un)'

b) Moi ham so u xac dinh tren tap

*

M = {I, 2, 3, ... , m}, v6i mEN ,duQ'e goi la day

so' hiiu han.

2. each eho mot day so

a) Day so eho bang cong thirc ella so hang tong quat

Khi do Un = I(n), trong do 1 la mot ham so xac dinh tren N* .

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh cac so hang ella day so ; Tim cong thirc bieu dien so hang tong quat ella day so.

- Dang 2 : Xet tfnh tang, giam, bi chan ella day so.

Vi du. Trong cac day so duoc cho du6i day, hay chi' ra day hUU han, day vo han, day tang, day giam, day bi chan :

a) 2, 5, 8, 11.

b) 1,3,5, 7, ... , 2n + 1, ... 1 2 3

c) -,-,-, ...

2 5 10

d) 1, -1 , 1 , -1, 1, - 1, ...

38

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. LU'U Y

Day H1 each kha thong dung (giong nhu ham so) va neu bier gia tri cua n (hay cling chfnh la so tlnr

nr cua so hang) thi ta co th~ tim ngay diroc un"

b) Day so eho bing phirong phap mo ta

Ngiroi ta eho mot menh d~ mo ta each xac dinh cac so hang lien tiep cua day so. Trong mot so

tnrong hop, khong th~ tim ngay diroc Un voi n tuy y.

c) Day so eho bing cong thirc truy hoi (hay quy nap)

• Cho so hang tlnr nhat U J (hoac mot viii so hang dau) .

• Voi n ~ 2, eho mot cong thirc tinh un neu biet un-l (hoac mot vai so hang dimg ngay tnroc do). Cac cong thirc co th~ la :

{U1 = a

hoac

un = !(un_l),n ~ 2 .

{U1 = a, ~ = b

un = !(un-l,un-2)' n ~ 3. 3. Day so tang, day so giam

• Day so Un diroc goi la tang neu un+l > Un voi

• ~T*

mot n E 1~ ;

• Day so Un diroc goi la gidm neu un+l < un voi

• ~T*

mot n E l~ ;

39

Vi duo Chung minh rdng day s{/ (un), VOl U = 2n + 3 Ia mot day so gidm va hi chan.

n 3n + 2· . .

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

HUOng dan tlnrc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan, Vi du. LUll Y

+ Neu un+l < 1 voi moi n E fl thi day sO' da cho

un

la day sO' giam,

4. Day sO' bi chan

• Day sO' (un) duoc goi la hi chan tren neu ton tai

, * Vi du. Xet xem trong cac day so sau, day sO' nao

so M sao cho Un ~ M, \j n EN. la day sO' bi chan :

• Day sO' (un) diroc goi la hi chan dum neu ton tai

• Cac day sO' tang va day sO' gidm diroc goi chung la day sO' don dieu.

• Phuong phap khao sat tinh dan dieu : * Phuong phap 1 : Xet hieu

+ Neu H > 0 voi moi n E N* thi day sO' da cho la day sO' tang.

+ Neu H < 0 voi moi n E N* thi day sO' da cho la day sO' giam.

, w*

* Phuong phap 2 : Neu un > 0 voi moi n E 1'1

thi lap ti sO' Un + 1 , roi so sanh voi 1.

Un

+ Neu Un+l > 1 v& moi n E N* thi day sO' da

cho la day sO' tang.

40

Vi du. Xdc d;nh so'thl!c a di day so (un), voi U = an + 3 la :

n 3n + 2

a) Mt)t day so tang;

b) Mt)t day so' gidm.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huang dan tlurc hien chuan

SO m sao cho Un ;::: m, 'If n E N* .

Kien thirc C(J ban Dang toan, Vi du. Luu Y

3. Cdp 56' cong (SO hang t6ng quat cua cap so cong ; T6ng n so hang diu cua mot cap so cong).

Ve' kien thuc : Biet duoc : - Khai niem cap so cong,

- Tinh chat uk = Uk-I; Uk+l; k e: 2.

- SO hang tong quat Un"

- T6ng S n cua n so hang diu tien cua cap

so cong,

Ve' ki nang : Tim diroc cac yeu to ~on lai khi cho biet ba trong nam yeu to UI' Un' n, d,Sn"

• Day so duoc goi la hi chdn, neu no vira bi chan

tren vira bi cha n diroi, nrc la ton tao i hai so m, M b) \-I E ~T*

un = n, v n 1'1;

*

sao eho : m ::; Un ::; M, 'If n EN.

* Luu y : Cac dau "=" neu tren khong nhat thiet phai xay ra.

1. Dinh nghia : Cho day so (un).

(Un) IiI cap 56' cong <=> un+l = Un + d voi n E N*, d la hang so.

H~ qua:

Cong sai d = un+l - un" 2. SO hang tong quat :

Un = ul + (n -1) d (n> 2).

3. nnh chat :

_ uk-l + uk+l *

Uk - , voi k>: 2, n E N

2

hay uk-l + uk+l = 2uk . 4. Tong n so hang diu:

S - n(ul + u,) J\o.-T*

n - , n E 1'1

2

41

n *

a) un = --, 'If n EN,

n+l

n *

e) Un = (-1) .n, 'If n EN.

- Dang 1 : Tim cac yeu to eon lai cua cap so cong khi eho biet ba trong nam yeu to UI' un' n, d,Sn"

- Dang 2 : Chung minh m(Jt day so'ta cap so cong,

V i du. Cho cap so cong voi cac so hang ban diu la 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, ... xse dinh uI' d va tfnh Un' S; theo n.

Vi du. Cho cap so cong rna so hang diu la 1 va tong cua 10 so hang diu tien la 100. Tim so hang t6ng quat cua cap so cong do.

Vi du. Hay tim so hang tling quat cua cap so cong (Un), biet rdng

U23 - U17 =30 va

2 2

U 23 + U 17 = 450.

* Luu y : Khi giai cac bai toan v~ cap so cong, ta tlurong gap nam dai hrong la uI' d, un' n, Sn"

Hirong dan thuc hien chuan

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan. Vi du. Luu Y

Can bier it nhat ba trong nam dai hrong do moi tinh duoc cac dai hrong con lai.

S = n[2u1 + (n - 1)d]

n 2

hoac

4. Cap s6' nhdn (SO hang tong quat cua cap s6 nhan ; Tong n s6 hang dau cua mot cap s6 nhan),

Ve' kiln thuc : Bier diroc : - Khai niem cap s6 nhan.

T' h ha 2 k 2

- m c at uk = uk-l·uk+l; ~ .

- Dang 1 : Tim diroc cac yeu t6 con lai cua cap s6 nhan khi cho biet it nhat ba trong nam yeu t6

Ul' Un' n, q, s;

1. Dinh nghia : Cho day s6 (un).

*

(un) la cap s6 nhan <=> Un+l = unq , voi n EN.

H~ qua: Cong boi q = un+l .

Un

=Dang 2 :

Chung minh mot day so ta cap so nhan.

Vi du. Cho mot cap s6 nhan voi cac s6 hang ban dau la 1,4, 16,64, ... Xac dinh Uj, q va tinh «; Sn thea n.

Vi du. Cho mot cap s6 nhan rna s6 hang dau la 1 va tong cua nam s6 hang dau tien la 341. Tim s6 hang tong quat cua cap s6 nhan do.

Vi du. Cho mot day so (un) xac dinh hili Ul = 1 va un+l = SUn+ 8 vOi moi n ~1. Chung minh rdng day so' (vn), vOi vn = un + 2 la mot cap so nhan. Tim so hang t6ng quat cua cap so nhdn do.

2. SO hang tong quat:

- SO hang tong quat Un"

- T6ng sn cua n s6 hang dau tien cua cap 3. Tinh chat:

s6 nhan.

Ve' ki nang : Tim diroc cac yeu t6 con lai khi cho biet it nhat ba trong nam yeu t6 ul' hay ~lkl = )Uk-lUk+l (k ~ 2).

4. T6ng n s6 hang dau tien :

s, = ul (qn -1) ,(q:l; 1). q -1

Dac biet, neu q = 1 thi S; = nUl.

IV. GI6I HAN

1. Giai han eua day s6' (Khai niern gi6i han cua day s6 ; Mot s6 dinh If v~ gi6i han cua day s6 ; T6ng cua cap s6 nhan lui vo han ;

1. Gi6i han hiru han. 1 1

- Dang 1 : Van dung : lim- = 0 ; lim I = 0 ;

• lim un = 0 khi va chi khi ~nlluon nho hon n "n

n~-too

42

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Hirong dan tlurc hien chuan

Kien thue CO' ban Dang toano Vi du. Ltru Y

- Biet khai niem gioi han cua day so 2. Gioi han vo eire (thong qua vi du cu the).

- Bier (khong chrrng minh) :

Day so dan toi vo eire).

Ve' kiln (hue:

+ Neu lim«, = L thi limiuni = L.

mot so dirong nho tuy y eho tnroc, k~ tir mot so hang nao do tro di.

• lim v = a ~ lim (v - a) = O.

n n

n -++-00 n -++00

• lim un = + 00 khi va chi khi Un luon Ian han n-++-oo

mot so dirong Ian tuy y cho tnroc, k~ tir mot so hang nao do tra di.

limqn = 0 voi iqi < 1 d~ tim gioi han cua mot so day so dan gian .

- Dang 2 : Tim tcing cua mot cap so nhan lui vo han.

n

Vi du. Cho day (un) voi U = - vOi n la so n 3n

• lim un =-00 ~ lim (-un) = +00.

+ Neu lime, = L, un ~ 0 voi moi n thi n-++-oo n~+oo

L ~ 0 va lim';;:: = JL . * Luu y : Thay eho lim un = a,

n~+OO

nguyen duong,

a) Chung minh rdng : un+l ~ ~ ;

un 3

= a, b) Bang phuong phap quy nap chung minh

Ve'klnang:

B'·' • d I' 1 0 l' 1 0

- let v~n l,lng: lm- = ; 1m ,- = ;

n -Jn

limqn = 0 voi ~i < 1 d~ tim gici han cua

mot so day so dan gian,

, . (2)n

rang 0 < un ~ '3

c) Chung minh day s{I (un) co gioi han. Vidl;l

) T' h I' n + 1

a III lm--;

n

2

b) Tinh lim n2 + 1 n + n

Vi du. Tinh tong cua mot cap so nhan lui vo han eo cac so hang dau la :

111

1, -, -, -, ...

248

lim un = ±oo, n~+oo

lima, =±oo.

ta viet tat

3. Cac gioi han dac bier :

a) lim_!_ = o· Iim-l = 0 .

, k '

n n

nguyen dirong.

b) limqn = 0 neu iqi < 1 ,

limnk = +00 voi k

lime" = + 00 neu q > 1. - Tim diroc tong cua mot cap so nhan lui

vo han. c) lime = c (c la hang so).

4. Dinh If v~ gioi han hiru han

a) Neu lim un = a va Iimv; = b, thi :

43

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hurmg dan thuc hien chuan

• lim(u + v ) = a + b .

n n '

Kien thtrc CO ban Dang toano Vi du, Luu y

• lim(u - v ) = a +b :

n n '

• lim un =!!._ (neu b -:f:. 0) ; Vn b

b) Neu Un ~ 0 voi moi 11 E rt va lim un = a, thi

limF" =Fa.

5. Dinh If lien he giita gioi han hitu han va gioi han vt: cue

a) Neu lims, = a va limv, = ±oo thi lim un = O. vn

b) Neulimun= a > O.Iimv, = 0 va Vn > 0 voi

. h' 1· un

mQl 11 t 1 Im- = + 00 .

Vn

c) Neu lima; = + 00 va limv, = a> 0 thi

44

vt « T' hI· [J112 + 1 - 211J

I u. In tm .

. 2n + 1

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

UI

S = Ul + u2 + u3 + ... + Un + ... = --. l-q

lim(x2 - 3x + 4). x~2

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano VI du. Luu Y

2. Gioi han cua ham sc/ (Dinh nghia ; MQt so dinh If v~ gioi han cua ham so ; Mb rong khai niern gioi han cua ham so (gioi han mot ben) ; Cac dang vo dinh).

V l kien thuc :

- Bier khai niem gioi han cua ham so. Gioi han mot ben.

- Biet (khong clurng minh) :

+ Neu lim f(x) = L thi lim If(x)1 = ILl.

X~Xo X~Xo

+ Neu lim f(x) = L, f(x) ? 0 voi» =I:- Xo X~Xo

thlL? 0 va lim ~f(x) = Ji.

X~Xo

+ Dinh If v~ gioi han : lim [f(x) ± g(x)] ,

X~Xo

. [ ]. f(x)

lim f(x).g(x) , hm -- .

X~Xo X~Xo g(x)

6. Cap so nhan lui vo han

• Cdp sa' nhdn lui va han la cap so nhan vo han co cong boi q thoa man Iql < 1 .

• Cong thirc tfnh t6ng S cua cap so nhan lui vo han (Un) :

1. Gioi han hitu han

• Cho khoang K, Xo E K va ham so f(x) xac dinh tren K (hoac K \ {xo}).

- Dang 1 : Sit dung dinh nghia gioi han cda ham so cluing minh ham so co gioi han hoac khong co gioi han.

lim f(x) = L khi va chi khi voi day so (Xn) bat - Dang 2 : Tinh :

X~Xo

ki, Xn E K\ {xo} va Xn -+ Xo thi lim f(xn) = L.

n~-too

• Gioi han cua ham so tai mot diem.

. . ,

• Gioi han mot ben cua ham so tai mot diem.

. . . .

• Cho ham so y = fix) xac dinh tren khoang (xo ; b). lim f(x)= L khi va chi khi voi day so (xn) bat x~x;

ki, Xo < Xn < b va x, -+ Xo, ta co limf(xn) = L.

• Gioi han cua ham so tai ±oo. o 00

• Mot so gioi han dang - ; - .

, .. 0 00

Vi du

• Cho ham so y = fix) xac dinh tren khoang (a ; xo).

Tinh lim f(x)= L khi va chi khi voi day so (Xn) bat

kl, a < xn < Xo va xn -+ xu' ta co Iimj'(x,) = L.

45

,--------------- ----.---------------------------_._------------,

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

Hurmg dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. Luu y

v l ki nang: Trong mot so tnrong hop don • Cho ham so y = f(x) xac dinh tren khoang Vi du

gian, tfnh diroc : ( )

a; +00 . Tfnh

- Gioi han cua ham so tai mot diem.

- Gioi han mot ben.

- Gioi han cua ham so tai ±oo.

o 00

- Mot so gioi han dang - . - . 00 - 00 .

. .. 0' 00 '

lim f(x)= L khi va chi khi voi day so (Xn) bat

x-Hoo Vi du

1. 2x2 - 5x + 1

lim f(x)= L khi va chi khi voi day so (xn) bat a) im ,

x~-<Xl x~ -<Xl 3x2 + 1

ki, Xn > a va Xn ~ + 00, thi limj'(x;') = L.

• Cho ham so y = f(x) xac dinh tren khoang (-00 ; a ).

ki, xn < a va Xn ~ -00, thi limf(xn) = L.

2. Gioi han vo eire

lim (2x2 - 3x + 5) .

Tfnh

')

. x~ - 5x + 4

hm 2

x~1 x-I

Vi duo Tfnh

2

b) lim x -/x + 4

x~+oo x-1

Sau day la hai trong nhieu loai gioi han vo eire Vi du

• Cho khoang K, Xo E K va ham so F(X) xac dinh _ {2IXI-l voi x ~ -2

J' f(x)- I

trenK(ho~cK\lxo}). V2x2 +1 voi x>-2.

Tim cdc gioi han sau (nlu co) :

46

Tinh

lim (x - Jx2 + 1).

x~ +00

khac nhau:

• Cho ham so fix) xac dinh tren khoang (a ; + 00 ). lim f(x)= -00 khi va chi khi voi day so (xn)

x~+oo

Vidu

Tinh

Vi du. Cho ham so

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang ~ Huong dan thuc hien chuan
Kien thirc C(J ban Dang toano VI du, Liru y
lim f(x) = + 00 khi va chi khi voi day so (xn) bat lim f(x) ; lim f(x) , lim f(x) .
X-->Xo x-->( -2)- x-~(-2t x-->( -2)
ki, xn E K\ {xo} va xn -t xo, ta co
limf(xn) = +00.
Nhdn xet : f(x) co gioi han +00 khi va chi khi
- f(x) co gioi han - 00 .
3. Cac gioi han dac biet
a) lim x=xo; t
I X-->Xo
b) lim c = c. ; i
x-~Xo I
c) lim c = c : I
X-->±OO I
I C
d) lim -= 0;
I x-->±oox
e) lim k ,. k ~ d
x = + CXl VCII 'nguyen irong.
x-->-too
f) lim x k = - 00, neu k la so Ie ;
X-->--<Xl
I
g) lim xk = + 00, neu k lit so chan.
X-->--<Xl 47

Chuan kien thirc - kl nang

Kien thirc co ban

Htrong dan thuc hien chuan

Dang toano Vi du. Luu y

4. Dinh If v~ gi6i han htru han Dinh If 1 :

a) Neu lim f(x) = L va lim g(x) = M, thi :

X-+Xo X-+Xo

• lim [f(x)+g(x)]=L+M;

X-+Xo

lim [f(x) - g(x)] = L - M;

X-+Xo

• lim [.t(x).g(x)]=L.M;

X-+-'iJ

1· f(x) L ( "M 0)

• 1m -- = - neu ~ ;

X-+Xo g(x) M

b) Neuf(x) z O va lim f(x) = L, thi L ~ 0 va

X-+Xo

lim .Jf(x) = JL.

X-+Xo

(Dau cuaf(x) diroc xet tren khoang dang tim gi6i han, v6i x ~ xo)'

* C hu y : Dinh If 1 vAn dung khi x -+ + 00 hoac

x -+ -00.

Dinh If 2 :

lim f(x) = L <=> lim f(x)= lim f(x)= L.

X-+Xo x-+i X-+~

48

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

4· HDTHT11· A

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc CO' ban Dang toan, Vi du. Liru Y

5. Quy Hie v6 gi6i han vo eire

lim f(x) = L; lim g(x) = ±oo.

X~Xo X~Xo

a) Quy tae tim gi6i han cua tfchf(x).g(x).

lim f(x) lim g(x) lim f(x).g(x)
x~.:to X~Xo X~Xo
L>O +00 +00
-00 -00
L<O +00 -00
-00 +00 b) Q " . ,. h ? h f (x)

uy tac tim gun an eua t trong --.

g(x)

lim f(x) lim 8(X) Dau r f(x)
lm--
X~Xo x-txo cua f(x) X~Xo g(x)
L ±oo Tuyy 0
L>O 0 + +00
- -00
L<O 0 + -00
- +00 (Dau cua g(x) xet tren mot khoang K nao do dang tinh gioi han, v6i x :;t. xo).

49

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, LUll Y

3. Ham so' bin tuc (Dinh nghia ham so lien tuc tai mot diem, ham s6 lien tuc tren mot khoang ; Mot s6 dinh If ve ham so lien tuc),

Ve' kiln thuc : Biet diroc

- Dinh li ve : Ham da thirc, phan thirc hiru ti lien tuc tren tap xac dinh cua cluing.

=Dinh. li (giti tri trung gian) : Gid sa ham so' .f(x) lien tuc tren doan fa ,. b]. Neu .f(a) -:f:. .f(b) Ihi voi moi so thuc M tuim gifta .f(a) va .f(b), ton tai it nhd: mot diim c E (a; b) sao cho .f(c) = M.

Ve'kznang:

1. Ham s6 lien tuc - Dang 1 : Xet tinh lien tuc cua mot s6 ham s6

• Cho ham s6 y = f(x) xac dinh tren khoang K va dan gian :

- Dinh nghia ham s6 lien tuc (tai mot y = fix) lien tuc tai Xo khi va chi khi • Tren mot khoang ;

diem, tren mot khoang), lim f(x)= f(xo).

- Dinh If ve : T6ng, hieu, tich, thucng cac x~Xo

ham so lien tuc, • y = f(x) lien tuc tren mot khoang neu no lien • Tren tap xac dinh cua no.

nghiem trong mot khoang cho tnroc (dua vao dinh If : Neu ham s6 f(x) lien tuc tren doan Nhc}11 xet : D6 thi cua ham s6 lien tuc tren mot

[a ; b] vaf(a)f(b) < 0 thl phuong trlnhf(x) = 0 khoang duoc bieu thi bci mot "dirong lien net"

B· "'t irn d ic di h If ,. t " 't co it nhat mo. t nghie m nam trong khoang (a ; b)).

- Ie g ung cac in 1 not ren xe tren khoang do.

tinh lien tuc cua mot ham s6 dan gian,

tuc tai moi di~m thuoc khoang do.

• y = f(x) lien tuc tren doan [a ; b] neu no lien tuc tren khoang (a ; b) va

lim f(x)=f(a), lim f(x)=f(b).

x--+a+ x--+h-

2. Cac dinh u - Bier chirng minh mot phirong trinh co

nghiern dua vao dinh If gia tri trung gian. Dinh If 1 :

a) Ham s6 da thirc lien tuc tren toan bo tap s6 thirc JR.

b) Ham s6 phan thirc hfru ti va ham s6 hrong giac lien tuc tren tirng khoang cua tap xac dinh cua cluing.

50

• Tai mot diem ;

• Tren mot doan ;

- Dang 2 : Cluing minh mot phirong trinh co

___ . . L_ ~ ~

Vi du. Xet tfnh lien tuc cua ham s6 f(x) =} - 3i tai x = 2.

Vi du. Xet tinh lien tuc cua ham s6

f(x) = x + 1 tai x = O. x-I

4· HCTHT11· B

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toano Vi du, Luu Y

Dinh If 3 : Neu ham s6 y = f(x) lien tuc tren doan [a; b] vaf(a)f(b) < 0 thi t6n tai it nhat mot diem Vi du, Chung minh rang phirong trinh

x2cosx + xsinx + 1 = 0 Suy ra: Neu ham s6f(x) lien tuc tren doan [a; b] khoang (0; tt ).

vaf(a)f(b) < 0 thi phirong trinhf(x) = 0 co it nhat

Dinh If 2 : Gia sir y = f(x) va y = g(x) la hai ham s6 lien tuc tai diem xo. Khi do :

a) Cac ham s6

f(x)+g(x), f(x)-g(x) va f(x).g(x) ding lien tuc tai di~mxo ;

bj He ,f(x) 1·' . d·;! "" g() 0

am so -- len tuc tal iem '"'" neu y,,:I: ;

g(x) .. --u '-U

c E(a; b) sao chof(e) = O.

mot nghiem nam trong khoang (a; b).

Vi du. Chtrng minh rang ham s6

{x2 - 3x + 2

voi x:l: 2

f(x) = x-I 2

voi x= 2

lien tuc tai x = 2.

Vi du, Xet tinh lien tuc cua ham s6

{X2 -5x +6 " 3

---- neu x s

y= x-3

5 neu x= S.

co

nghiem

thuoc

V. DA.O HAM

1. Khai niem dao ham (Dinh nghia ; Cach

tfnh ; y nghia hinh h9C va y nghia vat If cua 1. Dinh nghia

dao ham). Cho ham s6 y = f(x) xac dinh tren (a , Xo E (a; b), Xo + fu E (a; b).

Ve' kien thuc :

- Biet dinh nghia dao ham (tai mot diem, tren mot khoang),

Neu ton tai gici han (hftu han)

1· f(Xo + fu) - f(xo)

1m

fu~o fu

- Dang 1 : Tfnh dao ham cua ham Iuy thira, b), ham da thirc bac 2 hoac bac 3 dua vao dinh nghia,

51

Chunn kien tlnrc - ki nang

HUO'ng dan tlnrc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. Vi du, LUll Y

- Bier y nghia vat If va hinh h9C cua dao thi gici han nay diroc goi la dao ham cua ham so ham.

- Biet tim van toe tire thoi cua mot chuyen 2. Quy tac tfnh dao ham bang dinh nghia dong co plurong trinh S = f(t):

Ve'kl nang:

- Tfnh diroc dao ham cua ham luy thira, ham da thirc bac 2 hoac 3 thea dinh nghia ;

- Lap duoc phuong trmh tiep tuyen cua do thi ham so tai mot diem thuoc do thi .do ;

f(x) tai xo, ki hieu laj'(xo) hay y'(xo)·

f'( ) - 1· f(Xo + At) - f(xo)

Xo - im

Lll~O At

= lim f(x) - f(.xa) .

x~->:o x - Xo

Buac 1 : V 6i At la so gia cua doi so tai xo, tfnh

~ y = f(xo+ At ) - f(xo) ;

Buac 2 : Lap ti so ~y ;

. At

Buoc 3 : Tfnh lim ~y .

Lll~OAt

* Chu y : trong dinh nghia va quy tac tren day, thay Xo boi x ta se co dinh nghia va quy tac tinh dao ham cua ham so y = f(x) tai diem x E (a ; b).

3. Quan he giira tinh lien tuc va S1;1' co dao ham:

Neuf(x) co dao ham tai Xo thif(x) lien tuc tai xo. Nhirng dieu ngiroc lai thi chua chac dii dung.

- Dang 3 : Tim van toe nrc thai cua mot chuyen dong co plnrong trtnh S = f(t).

Vi du. Cho y = 5x2 + 3x + 1, tinh y'(2). Vi du. Cho y = x2 - 3x, tim y'(x).

Vi du. Viet phuong trinh tiep tuyen vOi do thi ham s6 y = x2, biet rang :

a) Tiep di~m co hoanh dQ la 2.

b) Tiep di~m co tung dQ la 4.

c) H~ s6 goc cua tiep tuyen bang 3.

V i du. Mot chat diem chuyen dong co phirong trinh S = 3t2 + 5t + 1 (t tinh thea giay, S tinh bang met). Tinh van toe cua chat diem do tai thoi diem t = 15 (v tfnh bang mls).

52

Ve' ki nang : Tinh diroc dao ham ella ham 1

so duoc eho i:J cac da ng n6i tren. • ( J; )' = r (x > 0).

2....; x

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

2. Cdc quy tdc tinh dao ham (Dao ham ella tong, hieu, tich, thirong ella cac ham s6 ; Dao ham ella ham hop),

Ve' kiln thuc : Biet quy tile tinh dao ham ella tong, hieu, tich, thirong cac ham s6 ; ham hop va dao ham ella ham hop,

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

dao ham thi

Dang toano Vi du, Luu y

Kien thirc eo ban

4. Y nghia hinh hoc cua dao ham

Neu ton tai thi f'(xo) la he s6 g6e cua tiep tuyen cua do thi ham s6 y = f(x) tai diem M o(xo ; f(xo»· Khi d6 phirong trinh tiep tuyen cua do thi ham s6

tai Mo la

y - Yo = f'(xo) (x - xo)' 5, Y nghia co hoc cua dao ham

v(t) = s'(t) la van t6e nrc thoi cua chuyen dong s = s(t) tai thoi diem t.

1. Cong thirc

• (c)' = 0 (e = eonst) ;

- Dang bai tap : Tfnh dao ham ella ham s6 diroc eho i:J cac dang : T6ng, hieu, tich, thirong cua cac ham s6 ; ham so hop (khong qua ba lim, dang y = fIu(t(x»]).

( n), n=l *

.x =nx (nEN,xElR);

2 Ph' , , Vi d T' h d ham ci x2 -3x+l

. ep toan : Voi U, V va W la cac ham s6 e6 I u. III ao am euay = ----

.. x2+x+l

• (U + V - W), = U+ V'- W;

• (UV)' = U'V + UV';

Vi du. Tinh dao ham cua y = (x2 + x)10 .

53

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan tlnrc hien chuan

• (kU)' = kU' (k = eonst) ;

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, Luu y

,

(1) V'

• - =--.

V v2

3. Dao ham cua ham hop :

Vi du. Tinh dao ham ella

a) y = (3x + 1)(i + 2)(3x5 + 6) ;

( 3 JIO

b) y = x - 5x + 1

x2 + 7x + 9

3. Vi phdn Ve' hen thuc :

Biet diroc dy = y'dx. Ve' ki nang:

Tfnh duoc

- Vi phan cua mot ham so.

1. Dinh nghia

Cho ham so y = fix) xac dinh tren (a ; b) va co - Dang 1 : Tfnh vi phan cua mot ham so. dao ham tai x E (a ; b). Gia sir Ax la so gia cua x

sao ehox+ Ax E (a; b).

Tfeh f'(x). Ax (hay y'. Ax) diroc goi la vi phan mot diem.

- Dang 2 : Tinh gia tri gan dung cua ham so tai

dy = df(x) = f'(x)dx.

2. Thg dung cua vi phan vao phep tfnh gan dung f(xo + Ax ) ~f(xo) + f'(xo) Ax .

Vi du. Cho ham so f(x) = x3. Tfnh vi phan cua ham so tai diem x = 2 irng voi Ax = 0,01.

Vi du. Cho Y =2x3 - 3x + 1. Tfnh dy.

Vi du. Tinh gan dung gia tri cua sin 45°30'.

- Gia tri gan dung cua ham so tai mot cua ham so f(x) tai x, img voi so gia Ar , ki hieu

diem. . la df(x) hay dye

* C hu y : Vi dx = Ax eho nen

54

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

- Tfnh duoc dao ham cua mot so ham so Iirong giac.

(1 - COS2X.COS3X)

Vi du. lim 2 .

x~o X

Kien thtrc CO' ban Dang toano Vi du, LUll Y

1· smx 1 "

- Dang 1 : V an dung im -- = trong V1~C

x~o x

tim mot so gi6i han dang 2. dan gian,

. .. 0

4. Dao ham eua cdc ham soluong gidc Ve' kien thuc .'

, li smx 1

- Biet diroc 1m -- = .

. x~o X

Cong tlurc tinh :

1· smx - 1 . • 1m-- - , x~o X

- Biet duoc dao ham cua ham so hrong • (sinx)' = cosx ;

giac. Ve'kinang .'

. sinx , "

- Biet van dung lim -- = 1 trong mot so

x~o x

• (cosr)' = - sinx;

)' 1

• (tanx =--2-;

cos x

- Dang 2 : Tinh dao ham cua mot so ham so hrong giac .

o .,'

gi6i han dang - dan gran.

. . 0

• (cotr)' = __ 1_. sin2 x

1 - cos3x

Vi du. Tfnh lim 2

x~o x

via«. Cho Y = tan(3x) , tinh y'(x). Vi du. Cho y = tan(sinx), tinh y'(x).

5. Dao ham cap hai, dao ham cap cao (Dinh nghia, each tinh, y nghia hinh hQC va co hoc cua dao ham cap. hai ; Dinh. nghia dao ham cap cao).

Ve' kiln thuc .'

Biet diroc

1. Dinh nghia dao ham cap hai

Gia sir ham so f(x) co dao ham f'(x). Neu f'(x) cling co dao ham thi ta goi dao ham cua no la dao ham cap hai cuaf(x) va ki hieu 1af"(x) .'

(f'(x»' = f"(x).

- Dang 1 : Tinh dao ham cap hai cua mot so ham so.

- Dang 2 : Tinh gia toe nrc thoi cua mot chuyen dong co phirong trmh s = f(t) cho tnroc.

- Dinh nghia, each tinh, y nghia hinh hoc 2. Ynghia co hoc cua dao ham cap hai _ Dang 3 : Tinh dao ham cap cao cua mot so

va co hoc cua dao ham cap hai. Dao ham cap hai s"(t) la gia tdc tuc thoi cua ham so.

- Dinh. nghia dao ham cap cao. chuyen dong s = f(t) tai thoi diem t.

55

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thirc hien chuan

,

In) = [/n-l) ] ' (n E N, n ~ 2).

Vi du. ChoJ(x) =}, tinh : a) J"(x) ;

b)/5)(x).

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan. Vi du, LUll Y

Ve' ki nang:

Tfnh diroc

- Dao ham cap hai ella mot s6 ham so.

- Dao ham cap cao cua mf)t .'16 ham so.

- Gia toe nrc thoi ella mot chuyen dong co

phirong trinh s = J(t) eho tnroc.

3. Dinh. nghia dao ham cap cao

Cho ham s6 f co dao ham toi cap n - 1 ( vUi

In -1)

n EN, n ~ 2) la .

Neu In - 1) la ham s6 co dao ham thi dao ham ctia no duoc goi lil dao ham cap n cua ham s6 f va ki hieu lain). Noi cacb khac,

Vi du. Mot chuyen dong co phirong trinh S = (3 + 4t2 + 5 (t tinh bang giay ). Tinh gia t6e ella chuyen dong tai thoi di~m t = 2.

Df!,O ham cap n cua ham s6 y = J(x) con duac ki hieu la/n).

Theo dinh nghia ta co

(J"(x»'= J"'(x) ho~cf3)(x)

56

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. Vi du, LU'U Y

VI. PHEP DOr HINH V A PHEP DONG DANG TRONG MAT PHANG

1. Phep bien hinli

Ve' kien thuc : Biet diroc dinh nghia phep bien hinh.

Ve' ki nang : Bier mot quy t:ie nrong irng la phep bien hlnh, Dl!I1g diroc anh cua mot diem qua phep bien hinh dii eho.

Dinh nghia :

Quy tac dat nrong ling m6i diem M cua mat phang voi mot diem xac dinh duy nhat M' cua mat phang d6 diroc goi la phep bien hinh trong mat phang.

Ta thirong ki hieu phep bien hinh Ia F va viet F(M) = M' hay M' = F(M), khi d6 diem M' diroc goi la anh cua diem M qua phep bien hmh F.

Phep bien hinh bien moi diem cua mat phang thanh chfnh n6 diroc goi la phep dong nhdt.

Neu H la mot hinh nao d6 trong mat phang thl ta kf hieu H = F(H) la tap cac diem M' = F(M), vci moi diem M thuoc H. Khi d6 ta n6i F bien hinh H thanh H, hay hinh H la anh cua hinh H qua phep bien hinh F.

De cluing minh hinh H la anh cua hinh H qua phep bien hinh F ta e6 the cluing minh : V Oi diemM tuy y

ME H¢::;.M' =F(M) EH.

- Dang 1 : Nhan biet mot quy t:ie nrong ling la phep bien hinh.

- Dang 2 : Dl!I1g anh cua mot diem qua phep bien hinh dii eho.

Vi du. Trong mat phang, eho dirong thang d. V oi moi diem M thuoc mat phang ta dat nrong ling voi diem M' la hinh chieu vuong g6e cua diem M tren dirong thang d (goi la phep chieu vuong g6e).

+ Dl!I1g anh cua diem M theo phep chieu d6. + Phep chieu d6 e6 la phep bien hinh khong ?

2. Phep dOl xung true (Dinh nghia ; Tinh chat; True d6i xirng cua mot hmh).

57

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Hinh5

Dang toan, Vi du, LU'U Y

Kien thirc co ban

Ve' kiln thuc :

Biet diroc :

- Dinh nghia cua phep d6i ximg true.

- Phep d6i ximg true co cac tinh chat cua

phep doi htnh.

- True d6i xirng cua mot hinh, hinh co true d6i xirng.

- Bieu thirc toa dQ cua phep d6i xirng qua moi true toa dQ.

Ve' ki nang:

- Dl!I1g diroc anh cua mot diem, mot doan thang, mot tam giac qua phep d6i xirng true.

- Viet diroc bi~u thirc toa dQ cua mot diem d6i xirng voi diem da cho qua true Ox hoac Oy.

- Xac dinh diroc true ~6i xirng cua mot hinh,

- Dang 1 : Dung anh cua mot diem qua phep d6i xirng true,

1. Dinh nghia

Trong mat phang cho dirong thang d. Phep bien hinh bien moi diem M thuoc d thanh chinh no

. ,

bien moi diem M khong thuoc d thanh diem M' sao cho d 130 dirong trung tnrc cua doan thang MM' diroc goi 130 phep dOl' xung qua duong thdng d hay phep dOl xung true d (hinh 5).

- Dang 2 : Dung phep dOl xung true di gidi mot so bai todn tim ttJp hap diim, bai toan dung hinh.

- Dang 3 Xac dinh true doi xirng cua mot hinh.

•••••••••• "'!..

, , , ,

, " , ,

................................ , ..

, I

, I

, I

, I

,

, I

"

. ...........................•

Vi du. Trong mat phang cho dirong thang d va tam giac ABC. Dl!I1g anh cua tam giac ABC qua phep doi xirng true d.

Phep d6i ximg qua true d thirong diroc ki hieu 1aDd·

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC, co true tam H va diim HI ta diim doi xung cua H qua canh Be. Chung minh rang HI thut)c duang trim ngoai tiip tam giac dii cho.

Nhir vay : M' = DiM) <=> MoM' = - MoM, voi Mo 130 hinh chieu vuong goc cua M tren d.

2. True d6i xirng cua mot hinh

Dirong thang d duoc goi 130 true d6i xirng cua hinh H neu Del bien H thanh chinh no. Khi do H duoc goi 130 hinh co true d6i xirng.

Vi du

a) Cho diem M(1 ; 2). Xac dinh toa do cua cac diem M' va M" nrong irng 130 ~ac di~m 'd6i xirng cua M qua cac true Ox, Oy.

58

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan tlnrc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toan, Vi du. Luu Y

3. Bieu thirc toa dQ

Trong mat phang toa d¢ Oxy, voi moi diem M = (x; y) goi M' = DiM) = (x'; y').

Neu chon d Ia true Ox, thi

{x: = x

y = -yo

Neu chon d 13. true Oy, thi

t::;x

4. Tfnh chat: Phep d6i xirng true :

• Bao toan khoang each giira hai diem bat ki ;

• Bien mot dirong thang thanh duong thang ;

• Bien mot doan thang thanh doan thang bang doan thang dfl cho ;

• Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac bang tam giac dfl cho;

• Bien mot dirong tron thanh dirong tron co cung ban kinh.

b) Cho duong thdng d co phuong trinh y = 2x+3. Viet phuong trinh duang thiing d' doi xung vOi duong thiing d qua true Oy.

Vi du. Trong s6 cac hinh sau : Tam giac can, hinh vuong, hinh chtr nhat, hinh tron, hlnh thang vuong, ... hinh nao co true d6i xirng ? Chi ra cdc true dOl xung (niu co) cua hinh.

Vi du. Trong mat phiing eho duong thiing d va hai di€m A, B i'1 vi cung phia m(lt phiing co bo La d. Xac dinh di€m M thuoc d sao eho MA + MB nho nhtit.

3. Phep dol xung tam (Dinh nghia ; Tinh chili; Tam d6i ximg cua mot hinh).

59

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUO'ng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan, Vi du. LUll Y

Ve' kiln thuc :

Biet duoc :

- Dinh nghia ella phep doi ximg tam.

- Phep doi xirng tam co cac tinh chat ella

phep doi hinh.

1. Dinh nghia

Cho diem I. Phep bien hinh bien di~m I thanh chinh no, bien moi diem M khac I thanh M' sao eho I la trung diem ella doan thang MM' diroc goi la phep dOl xung tam /.

- Tam doi xirng ella mot hinh, hinh co tam

doi xirng. Phep doi xirng tam I tlurong diroc ki hieu la D I·

- Bieu tlnrc toa d(> ella phep doi xirng qua Tit dinh nghia suy fa :

~ ___,

goc toa d(>. M' = D /M) ~ 1M' = - 1M.

V l ki nang: Tit d6 suy fa :

- Dung drroc anh ella mot diem, mot doan • Neu M == I thi M' == /.

thang, mot tam giac qua phep doi xirng

- Dang 1 : Dung anh ella mot hinh qua phep doi xirng tam.

- Dang 2 : Dung phep doi xung tam dl gidi mot so bai toan tim ttJp hap dilm, bai todn dung hinh.

- Dang 3 hinh.

Xac dinh tam doi xirng ella mot

• Neu M khong trung vci I thi M' = DlM) ~ I la trung diem ellaMM'.

2. Tam doi ximg ella mot hinh. Diem I duoc goi la tam dOl xung ella hinh H neu phep doi xirng tam I bien hinh H thanh chfnh no. Khi do H diroc - Xac dinh diroc tam doi ximg ella mot goi la hinh co tam dol xung,

hinh.

3. Bieu thirc toa do

tam.

- Xac dinh diroc bieu thirc toa d(> ella mot diem doi xirng voi diem da eho qua goc toa do.

Vi du. Cho di~m 0 va cac diem A, B, C khong thang hang. Hay dung anh ella tam giac ABC qua phep doi xirng tam O.

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC, co true tam H. G(Ji I ta trung dilm canb BC. Bilt rang

D/ : H -+ HI. Chung minh rang HI thtuk:

Trong mat phang toa d(> Oxy, eho di~m I = (xo ; Yo), duong tron ngoai titp A ABC.

goi M = (x; y) va M' = D/(M) = (x' ; y').

{X' = 2Y~ - x

Khi do --v

y' = 2yo - y.

60

Vi du. Cho diem M(1 , 3), xac dinh toa d(> ella diem M' la diem doi xirng ella M qua goc toa do,

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien tlurc co ban D~ng tmin. Vi d.,. Lrru y

4. Cac tinh chat:

Phep doi xirng tam

• Bao toan khoang each gitra hai diem bat ki ;

• Bien mot dirong thang thanh duong thang song song hoac trung vci dirong thang da eho ;

• Bien mot doan thang thanh doan thang bang doan thang da eho ;

• Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac bang tam giac da eho;

• Bien mot dirong tron thanh dirong tron co cung ban kinh.

Vi du. Cho vi du ve' hinh ma no co VO sotam dOl xung,

Vi du. Cho goc nhon xOy va dilm A nam trong goc do. Hay dung duong thdng d di qua dilm A va cat Ox, Oy tuong ung tai B va C sao eho A la trung dilm ella Be.

4. Phep tinh tien (Dinh nghia ; Tinh chat;

Bieu thirc toa do). 1. Dinh nghia

Ve' hen thuc :

Biet diroc

- Dinh nghia cua phep tinh tien.

- Phep tinh tien co cac tinh chat cua phep

doi hinh,

- Bi~u thirc toa do cua phep tinh tien. Ve'klnang:

Dl!I1g diroc anh cua mot diem, mot doan thang, mot tam giac, mot dirong tron qua phep tinh tien.

-

Trong mat phang eho vecto v. Phep bien hinh tinh tien,

bien moi diem M thanh diem M sao eho MM = ~

-

duoc goi la phep tinh tien theo vecto v (hinh 6).

B

Hinh 6

- Dang 1 : Dl!I1g anh cua mot hmh qua phep

- Dang 2 : Dung phep tinh tien dl gidi mt)t so' bai toan tim t~p hop dilm, bai toan dung hinh,

-

Vi du. Cho vecto vi- 0 va cac diem : A, B, C

khong thang hang. Dl!I1g anh cua tam giac ABC qua phep tinh tien theo vecto v.

61

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Huang dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. LUll Y

Ia 1'..,.

Phep tinh tien thea vecto ~ thirong diroc kf hieu Vi du. Cho truce duang tron tam 0 va hai diim A, B. Diim N ch~y tren (0). Tim ttJ.p hop

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC, goi M, N, P theo thu tt! la trung dilm cila cdc canb BC, CA,

AB. Gl)i o; I] tuong ung la tam duang tron ngoai titp va n9i titp tam giac APN. Goi O2, h tuong ung la tam duong tron ngoai tiip va n9i tiip tam giac PBM. Goi 03' 13 tuang ung

• Bao toan khoang each giira hai diem bat kl ; ia tam duong tron ngoai tiep va noi tiip tam

• Bien mot dtrong thang thanh duong thing song giac MCN.

song hoac trung v6i dtrong thing dll cho ; a) Xac dinh. dnh cua Il ANP qua phep t!nh

• Bien mot doan thang thanh doan thang bang tien ~N'

doan thang dll cho ; b) Chung minh : ~q0203 = M/213.

--+ ....

Nhu vay T~ (M) =M' ~ MM' =v.

* Nhdn xet : Phep tinh tien thea vecto-khong chinh la phep d6ng nhdt,

2. Bieu tlurc toa d¢ cua phep tinh tien

Trong mat phang toa d¢ Oxy, cho diem M = (x; y), ~ =(a ; b). GQi diem M' = 1'.., (M) = (x' ; y').

{X' = x + a Khido

y' = y + b.

3. Cac tfnh chat

Phep tinh tien

• Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac bang tam giac da cho;

• Bien mot dirong tron thanh duong tron co cung ban kinh.

62

diim M sao cho AB = NM .

Vi du. Cho diem MU ; 2). Xac dinh toa d¢ diem M' la anh cua M qua phep tinh tien thea vecto v = (5; 7).

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. Luu y

5. Khai niem vephep quay Ve' kien thuc :

Biet diroc

- Dinh nghia cua phep quay.

- Phep quay co cac tinh chat cua phep doi

hinh.

Ve' ki ruing : Dl!11g diroc anh cua mot diem, mot doan thang, mot tam giac qua phep quay.

a) Goc quay 60° ngiroc chieu kim dong ho. • Phep quay tam 0 goc quay a = (2k+ 1) 7r voi k

nguyen, chinh la phep d6i xirng tam O. b) Goc quay 90° thea chien kim dong ho.

• Phep quay tam 0 goc quay a = 2k 7r voi k nguyen, chinh la phep dong nhat.

1. Dinh nghia

Cho diem 0 va goc hrong giac a . Phep bien hinh bien 0 thanh chinh no, bien moi diem M khac 0 thanh diem M' sao cho OM' = OM va goc hrong giac (OM; OM') bang a duoc goi la phep quay tam O£oca.

Diem 0 diroc goi la tam quay, a duoc goi la goc quay.

Phep quay tam 0 goc a thuong diroc ki hieu la ~O,a)·

Nhdn xet :

2. Cac tinh chat Phep quay

• Bao toan khoang each gifra hai diem bat ki ;

• Bien mot dirong thang thanh dtrong thang ;

• Bien mot doan thang thanh doan thang bang doan thang da cho ;

- Dang 1 : Dl!11g anh cua mot hinh qua phep quay.

- Dang 2 : Sa dung phep quay de' chung minh mot so bai toan hinh hoc.

- Dang 3 : Dung phep quay de' gidi mot so bai toan tim tap hop diim, bai toan dung hinh.

Vi du. Cho cac diem 0, A, B, C trong do A, B, C khong thang hang. Dl!11g anh cua tam giac ABC qua phep quay tam 0 va co

Vi du. Cho nua duong tron duong kinh AB, diim M chay tren cung AB. Ltiy BM lam canb dung ra phia ngoai duong tron hinh vuong BMCN. Tim trJ-p hap die'm N.

Vi du. Cho Ll ABC co 3 goc nhon. Tim diim M trong tam giac sao cho

MA + MB + MC nho nhtit.

63

Chudn kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban

Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

• Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac bang tam * Chu y : Gia sir phep quay tam I goc a bien

giac dft cho ; dtrong thang d thanh duong thang d.

Khi do • Bien mot dtrong tron thanh mot duong tron co

cung ban kinh. st

• Neu 0 < a ::; -thi goc giua d va d bang a ; 2

• Neu Jr < a < Jr thi goc gifra d va d bang 2

Jr -a.

• Neu thirc hien lien tiep hai phep dOi hinh thi - Dang 3 : Chung minh hai tu giac bang nhau ;

- Neu thuc hien lien tiep hai phep doi hinh diroc mot phep doi hlnh, hai hinh tron bang nhau.

thi ta diroc mot phep doi hinh, 2. Tfnh chat

6. Khdi niem vi phep doi hinh va hai hinh bdng nhau

Vi kien thuc :

Bier diroc :

- Khai niem v~ phep dci hlnh.

- Phep tinh tien, d6i xirng true, d6i xirng tam, phep quay la phep doi hinh.

- Phep doi hinh : bien ba diem thang hang thanh ba diem thang hang va tlnr nr giira cac diem diroc bao roan ; bien dirong thang thanh direng thfulg ; bien tia thanh tia ; bien doan thang thanh doan thang bang no ; bien tam giac thanh tam giac bang no ; bien goc

1. Dinh nghia - Dang 1 : Xac dinh anh cua mot hinh qua phep

Phep doi hinh la phep bien hinh bao toan khoang doi hinh.

each giira hai diem bat ki.

Nhdn xet : =Dang 2 : Cdc bai todn vi moi lien quan giiia

• Cac phep tinh tien, d6i xirng true, d6i xirng tam m(Jt so phep difi hinh quen biet.

va phep quay deu la nhfrng phep doi hinh.

Phep doi hinh

a) Bien ba diem thang hang thanh ba diem thang hang va bao toan thii nr gifra ba diem ay ;

b) Bien mot duong thang thanh mot dirong thang, bien tia thanh tia, bien doan thang thanh doan thang bang no ;

Vi du. Qua phep doi hinh, tnrc tam, trong tam, ... cua tam giac co diroc bien thanh tnrc tam, trong tam, ... cua tam giac anh khong ?

Vi du. Hai tit giac tOi ABCD va A'B'C'D' co A.B = A'B', BC = B'C', CD = C'D', DA = D'A'

64

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Hurmg dan th .... c hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. Luu Y

thrum goc bang no ; bien dirong tron thanh dirong tron co cung ban kfnh.

- Khai niem hai hinh bang nhau.

Ve'kinang:

- Buoc dau van dung phep doi hinh trong bai tap don gian.

c) Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac bang tam va goc BAC bdng goc B'A'C'. Chung minh giac da cho, bien mot goc thanh goc bang goc da rdng hai t{r giac do bang nhau.

cho;

d) Bien mot dtrong tron thanh cung ban kinh,

3. Hai hinh bang nhau

dirong tron co

Dinh nghia : Hai hinh diroc goi la bang nhau neu - Nhan bier diroc hai nr giac bang nhau : co mot phep doi hinh bien hinh nay thanh hinh

hai hinh tron bang nhau. ki

ia.

- Dang 3 : V (in dung tinh chd; ella phep vi tu 1) Gia sir M', N theo thti' nr la anh cua M, N qua trong gidi toano

- Phep vi nr co tinh chat cua phep dong phep vi ur ti s6 k. Khi do

dang. ---< ~

a) M'N'=k.MN ;

b)M'N =lkl.MN.

7. Phep vi tu (Dinh nghia ; Tirih chat; TAm vi nr cua hai dirong tron).

Ve' hen thuc :

Biet diroc

- Dinh nghia phep vi tu (bien hai di~m M, N Ian lirot thrum haidiem M', N thi

{---< ____,

M'N' =kMN

M'N' = IkIMN)·

- Anh cua mot dirong tron qua mot phep vi nr.

Ve'kinang:

- Dung diroc anh cua mot di~m, mot doan thang, mot dtrong tron, ... qua mot phep vi tu,

1. Dinh nghia

Trong mat phang, cho di~m I va mot s6 k '::F- o. Phep bien hinh bien moi diem M thanh diem M

---+ ___,

sao cho 1M' = k.IM diroc goi la phep vi tu tam I,

ti s6' k.

2. Tinh chat

2) Phep vi nr ti s6 k

- Dang 1 : Dung anh cua mot diem, mot doan thang, mot dirong tron, ... qua mot phep vi nr,

- Dang 2 : Tim tarn vi nr cua hai dirong tron.

Vi du. Cho diem 0, va cac di~m A, B, C khong thAng hang. Dung anh cua tam giac ABC qua phep vi nr tarn 0 ti s6 2.

a) Bien ba di~m thAng hang thanh ba di~m thang

Vi du. Tam gidc ABC n~i tilp duong tron tam hang va bao toan thir nr giira cac diem ay ;

0, ban kinh R. Cac dinh B, C co dinh con

5- HDTHT11· A

65

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang Huong dan thirc hien chuan
Kien tlnrc co ban Dang toan. Vi du, Liru y
- Biroc dau van dung duoc tinh chat cua b) Bien mot duong thang thanh mot dtrong thang dinh A chay tren (0), tim tap hop trong tam G
phep vi nr trong bai tap. song song hoac trung v6i dirong thang da cho, cua tam gidc do.
bien tia thanh tia, bien doan thang thanh doan
thang ; Vi du. Dung anh cua dirong tron (I; 2) qua phep
c) Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac dong dang vi tu tam 0 ti so 3, bier rang 01 = 4.
v6i tam giac da cho, bien mot goc thanh goc
bang goc da cho ;
d) Bien mot dirong tron co ban kinh R thanh Vi du. Cho tnroc hai dirong tron (0; 2) va (0' ; 1)
dirong tron co ban kinh IkIR. 6 ngoai nhau. Phep vi tu nao bien dirong tron
nay thanh dirong tron kia.
3. Tam vi nr cua hai dirong tron
Djnh li : V6i hai dirong tron bat ki luon co mot Vi du. Tam giac ABC co H, G, 0 tuong ung Iii
phep vi ur bien dirong tron nay thanh duong tron true tam, trong tam, tam duong tron ngoai
kia. tiep. Chung minh H, G, 0 thdng hang (bang
Tam cua phep vi ur noi tren diroc goi la tam vi tu phep vi tu).
cua hai dirong tron.
Cho hai dirong tron phan biet (I ; R) va (f ; R').
Co ba tnrong hop xay ra :
• Neu I trung voi f va R f R' thi phep vi tu tam I
ti so !!_ va phep vi nr tam I ti so - R' bien dirong
R . . R
tron (I ; R) thanh dirong tron (I ; R') .
• N eu I khdc vai f va R ;j:. R' thi phep vi nr tam 0
, '" k R' , h ' . '0' -' k R'
u so = Ii. va p ep V! ur tam 1 11 so 1 = - Ii.
se bien dirong tron (I ; R) thanh dirong tron 66

5· HDTHT11· B

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan, Vi du. Luu y

(f ; R'). Ta goi ° La tam vi tu ngoai con 01 La tam vi tu trong cua hai duong tron noi tren .

• Neu / khac f va R = R' thi chi co phep vi ur tam

01 ti s6 k = - R = -1 bien dirong tron (/ ; R)

R

thanh dirong tron (f ; R'). Do chfnh la phep d6i

xirng tam 01•

8. Khdi niem vi' phep dong dang va hai

hinli dong dang 1. Dinh nghia

V i' hen thuc :

- Khai niern phep dong dang.

- Ph~p dong dang : bien ba diem thang

hang thanh ba diem thang hang va bao toan Nhdn xet :

thir nr gitta cac diem ; bien dirong thang • Phep doi hinh Ia phep dong dang ti s6 1. thanh dirong thang , bien mot tam giac

thanh tam giac dong dang vai no ; bien • Phep vi nr ti s6 k la phep dong dang ti s6 Ikl. dirong tron thanh duong tron.

L_ ~ . _L ~

Biet diroc :

- Hai hinh dong dang, Vi' ki nang:

- Biroc dau van dung phep dong dang trong bai tap,

- Nhan biet duoc hai hinh dong dang.

- Dang 1 : Dung anh cua mot hlnh qua mot phep dong dang,

Phep bien hinh F diroc goi la phep dong dang ti s6 k (k > 0) neu vai hai diem M, N bat ki va anh M', N' nrong ling cua cluing, ta luon co

- Dang 2 : Tim phep dong dang bien hinh nay thanh hinh kia.

M'N'=k.MN.

- Dang 3 : V (in dung phep dong dang trong gidi toan.

• Neu thuc hien lien tiep hai phep dong dang thi duoc mot phep dong dang.

Vi du. Qua phep dong dang, tnrc tam, trong tam, ... cua tam giac co diroc bien thanh tnrc tam, trong tam, ... cua tam giac anh khong ?

2. Tfnh chat Phep dong dang ti s6 k :

a) Bien ba diem thang hang thanh ba diem thang Vi du. Dilm C chay tren nua duang trim hang va bao toan thii nr gitra ba diem ay ; duong kinh AB. Tren tia AC lay diim D

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Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. Luu Y

b) Bien mot dirong thang thanh mot duong thang, ndm vephia ngoai ella nua htnb tron, sao eho bien tia thanh tia, bien doan thing thanh doan CD = Be.

thang ; Tim ttJp hop diim D.

c) Bien mot tam giac thanh tam giac dong dang

voi tam giac da cho, bien mot goc thanh goc

bang goc da cho ;

d) Bien mot dirong tron co ban kinh R thanh dirong tron co ban kinh kR.

3. IDnh dong dang

Hai hinh diroc goi la dong dang voi nhau neu co mot phep dong dang bien hinh nay thanh hinh kia.

?? .

VII. DUONG THANG vA MAT PHANG TRONG KHONG GIAN. QUAN H~ SONG SONG

Tinh chat 3 : Neu mot dirong thing co hai diem

phan biet thuoc mot mat phang thi moi diem cua - Dang 3 : Tim giao diem cua dtrong thang va

dirong thing deu thuoc mat phang do. mat phang,

+ Co mot va chi mot mat phang di qua ba Tinh chat 4 : Co bon diem khong cung thuoc mot

diem khong thing hang cho tnroc, mat phang.

1. Dai cuang vi duang thling va mat phling (Mo diu ve hinh hoc khong gian ; Cac tinh chat thira nhan , Ba each xac dinh mat phang ; Hinh chop va hinh tu dien),

V i kiln thuc :

- Biet cac tinh chat thira nhan :

+ Co bon diem khong cung thuoc mot mat phang.

1. Cac tinh chat thira nhan - Dang 1 : Ve hinh bieu dien cua mot hinh

Tinh chat 1 : Co mot va chi mot dirong thing di chop, hinh hop.

qua hai diem phan biet,

- Dang 2 : Xac dinh giao tuyen cua hai mat Tinh chat 2 : Co mot va chi mot mat phang di phang.

qua ba diem khong thang hang.

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Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban

Dang toan. Vi du. LUll Y

Vi du. Ve hinh bieu dien cua hinh chop nr giac, Chi ra dinh, canh ben, canh day, mat ben, mat MQt mat phang hoan toan diroc xac dinh khi biet : day cua hinh chop do.

1. No di qua ba di~m khong thing hang; Vi du. Cho hlnh chop S.ABCD co day la tu giac

- Biet diroc khai niem hinh chop ; hinh tu ,

dien. 2. No di qua mot diem va chua mot duong thang Mi. Xac dinh giao tuyen cua hai mat phang

khong di qua di~m do. (SAC) va (SBD).

- Ve diroc hinh bieu dien cua mot s6 hinh 3. No chua hai dirong thang cat nhau.

khong gian dan gian. - Ki hieu

- Xac dinh diroc dinh, canh ben, ,

dtrong thang cat nhau dj va d2• canh day, mat ben, mat day cua hinh chop.

+ Neu mot dirong thang co hai diem phan bier thuoc mot mat phang thi moi diem cua duong thang deu thuoc mat phang do.

+ Neu hai mat phang phan biet co mot di~m chung thi chung co mot di~m chung khac.

+ Tren moi mat phang, cac ket qua da biet trong hinh hoc phang deu dung.

- Biet diroc ba each xac dinh mat 'phang (qua ba diem khong thang hang; qua mot dirong thAng va mot diem khong thuoc dirong thang do ; qua hai ducmg thang cat nhau).

Ve'klnang:

~ Xac dinh diroc : giao tuyen cua hai mat phang ; giao diem cua dirong thang va mat phang,

- Biet sir dung giao tuyen cua hai mat phang cluing minh ba di~m thang hang trong khong gian.

Tinh chat 5 : Neu hai mat phang phan biet co mot diem chung thi no con co mot diem chung khac nira.

Tir do suy ra : Neu hai mat phang phan biet co mot diem chung thi chung se co mot duong thang chung di qua diem chung ay.

Tinh chat 6: Tren moi mat phang, cac ket qua da biet trong hinh hoc phang d~u dung.

2. Cach xac dinh mat phang

• (ABC) bieu thi mat phang xac dinh bOi ba diem phan biet khong thang hang A, B, C.

• (M, d) bieu thi mat phang xac dinh bci dirong thing d va diem M khong nam tren d.

• (dj, d2) bieu thi mat phang xac dinh boi hai

- Dang 4 : Su dung giao tuyen cua hai mat phang chirng minh ba diem thang hang trong khong gian.

- Dang 5 : Suy ludn dua vao cac tinh chat thua nhan

69

Vi du. Cho hinh chop S.ABCD co day la hinh vuong, GQi M la trung diem cua Sc. Xac dinh giao diem cua AM v6i mat phang (SBD).

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC i1 ngoai mat phang (P), cac canh cua no keo dai cat mat phang (P) nrong irng tai D, E, F. Clnrng minh ba diem D, E, F thang hang.

Hirong dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan. Vi du. Luu Y

3. Hinh ch6p va hinh nr dien a) Hinh chop:

Trong mat phang (a) cho da giac loi AjA2 ... AnDi~m S nam ngoai (a). Lan hrot noi S voi cac dinh Aj, A2, ... , An' ta diroc n tam giac SAjA2, SA2A3, ... , SA~j. Hlnh gorn da giac AjA2 .. .An va n tam giac SAjA2, SA2A3, ... , SA~j diroc goi Ia hinh ch6p, ki hieu la S.AjA2 .. .Aw

b) Hinh tu dien

Cho bon diem A, B, C, D khong dong phang. Hinh gom bon tam giac ABC, ABD, ACD, va BCD diroc goi la hlnh ni dien, ki hieu la ABCD.

Vi du. Nguoi ta thuong noi "viing nhu kieng ba chan" tai sao ?

Vi duo Cho hinh lap phuong ABCD. A 'B'C'D' co M, N, P theo tkfr tu ta trung diim cua cdc canh BC, CD, A'B'. Xtic dinb giao tuyln cua ';'ijt phdng di qua M, N, P vOl cac mijt cua hinh l~p phuang.

Vi duo Cho hinh chop S.ABe. Tren canh SA IA'y hai diem phan bier M va N. Chirng minh rang BM va eN la hai dirong thang khong cit nhau.

2. Hai duang thdng cheo nhau va hai duong thdng song song (Vi trf nrong doi gitra hai dirong th~g ; Hai dirong thang song song).

Ve' kiln thuc :

- Bier diroc khai niem hai dirong thang : trung nhau, song song, cat nhau, cheo nhau trong khong gian ;

- Bier (co chung minh) dinh If : "Neu hai mat phang phan biet Ian hrot chua hai dirong thang song song rna cat nhau tht

1. Vi trf nrong doi cua hai dirong thang trong - Dang 1 : Xac dinh vi trf wong doi giira hai

khong gian duong thang,

Cho hai dirong thang a va b trong khong gian.

Truong hop 1 : C6 mot mat phang chua a va b. Khi d6, xay ra mot trong ba kha nang sau :

- Dang 2 : Xac dinh giao tuyen cua hai mat phang.

1) a va b edt nhau tai diem M, ta kf hieu

a (l b = M ; - Dang 3 : Chimg minh hai dtrong thang song

2) a va b song song voi nhau, ta ki hieu a lib song; Chirng minh hai dtrong thang cheo nhau. hoac b 1/ a;

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Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

giao tuyen cua cluing song song (hoac 3) a va b trung nhau, ta ki hieu a = b. trung) voi mot trong hai duong do".

Tnrong hop 2 : khong co mat phang nao chua ca

Ve' ki nang: a va b , khi do ta noi a va b cheo nhau.

- Xac dinh diroc vi tri nrong d6i gifra hai 2. Cac dinh If va tfnh chat duong thang.

- Biet each cluing minh hai dtrong thang song song.

- Bier dua vao dinh If tren xac dinh giao tuyen hai mat phang trong mot s6 tnrong

hop don gian, .

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien tlnrc CO' ban

Dang toano Vi du. LU'U Y

1) Trong khong gian, qua mot diem khong nam tren dirong thang cho tnroc, co mot va chi mot duong thang song song voi dirong thang da cho ..

2) Neu ba mat phang phan biet doi mot cat nhau theo ba giao tuyen phan biet thi ba giao tuyen ay hoac dong quy hoac doi mot song song voi nhau. (Dinh 11 ve giao tuyen cua ba mat phang),

3) Neu hai mat phang phan biet liln hrot chua hai dirong thang song song thi giao tuyen 'cua chiing (neu co) ciing song song voi hai duong thang do hoac trung voi mot trong hai dirong thang do.

4) Hai duong thang phan biet cung song song voi dirong thang tlnr ba thi song song voi nhau.

Vi du. Hinh chop S.ABCD co day la hmh binh hanh,

a) Cac diem M, N nrong img la trung diem cua SC, SD, khi do cac dirong thang AB va M N co song song voi nhau khong ?

b) Cac dtrong thang SC va AB la hai dirong thang song song, cat nhau, cheo nhau, hay trung nhau ?

Vi du. Hinh chop S.ABCD co day la hinh binh hanh, xac dinh giao tuyen cua hai mat phang (SAB) va (SCD).

Vi du. Tren canh AB cua ni dien ABCD, lay hai diem phan biet M, N. Chung minh rang CM, DN la hai dirong thang cheo nhau.

Vi du. Hinh chop S.ABCD co day la hinh binh hanh. GQi M va N urong irng la trung diem cua SB va sc. Chung minh rang MN song song voi AD.

Vi du. Cho hai duong thdng cheo nhau a va h. C () hay khong hai duong thdng cat nhau c va d va moi duong diu cat cd hai duang thdng dii cho.

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Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan tlurc hien chuan

Kien tlurc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Ltru Y

3. Duong thdng va mat phdng song song V l kiln thuc :

- Bier diroc khai niern va dieu kien dirong thang song song voi mat phang.

- Biet (khong cluing minh) dinh If : " Neu dirong thang a song song voi mat phang (P) thl moi mat phang (Q) chua a va dt (P) thi cat theo grao tuyen song song voi a".

Ve'klnang:

- Xac dinh duoc vi tri nrong doi gifra dirong thang va mat phang.

- . Biet each ve mot dirong thang song song vci mot mat phang , cluing minh mot dirong thang song song v& mot mat phang,

- Biet dira vao cac dinh If tren xac dinh giao tuyen hai mat phang trong mot so tnrong hop don gian.

1. Vi tri nrong doi cua dirong thang va mat phang Gitra dirong thang d va mat phang (a) co ba tnrong hop v6 vi tri urong doi nhu sau :

1) d va (a) edt nhau tai M, ki hieu

d n (a) = {M} ; 2) d song song voi (a) , ki hieu

d II (a) hay (a) II d ; 3) d ndm trong (a), ki hieu

de (a). 2. Dinh If va tinh chat

1) Neu dirong thang d khong nam trong mat phang (a) va d song song voi dirong thang d

nam trong (a) thi d song song voi (a)

{d ex. (a)

dlld' => dll(a).

d' c (a)

2) Cho dirong thang d song song voi mat phangt«). Neu mat phang (fJ) chua d va cat

(a) theo giao tuyen d thi d song song voi d

{dll(a)

(fJ):=J d =>d// d.

(fJ) n (a) = d'

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh vi trf nrong doi gitra dirong thang va mat phang.

- Dang 2 : Chimg minh mot dirong thang song song voi mot mat phang,

- Dang 3 : Xac dinh giao tuyen hai mat phang trong mot so tnrong hop don gian ; Dung thiet dien song song voi mot dirong thang.

Vi du. Cho hinh lap phirong ABCD. A'B'C'D', chi ra tren hinh ve cac dirong thang :

+ Song song voi mat phang (A'B'C'D'); + Cat mat phang (BCC'B') ;

+ Nam trong (thuoc) mat phang (ABCD).

Vi du. Cho hinh ch6p S.ABCD c6 day la hinh thoi.

a) Chirng minh AB song song vci mat phang (SCD).

b) G9i M la trung diem cua SC, xac dinh giao tuyen cua mat phang (BAM) va (SCD).

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Chuan kien thirc - kl nang

Huong dan tlurc hien chuan

Kien tlurc co ban Dang toano Vi du, Luu y

3) Neu hai mat phang phan biet cung song song v6i mot dirong thang thi giao tuyen cua cluing (neu co) cung song song v6i dirong thang do.

{(a)lld

({3)lld => dlld'

(a) n ({3) = d'

4) Cho hai dirong thang cheo nhau. Co duy nhat mot mat phang chua duong thang nay va song song v6i dirong thang kia.

Vi du. Cho tit dien ABCD va M la trung diim cua canb AD. Mijt phdng (P) di qua dilm M va dong thai song song voi AC va BD. Xac dinb giao tuyen cua (P) vOi cac mijt clla tit dien dii cho.

- Dinh li Ta-ler (thuan va dao) trong khong 2. Dinh If va tinh chat

gran. 1) Neu mat phang (a) chua hai dirong thang cat

- Khai niem hinh lang tru, hinh hop,

4. Hai mdt phdng song song. Hinh lang tru va hinh hop

Ve' kiln thuc ':

Biet diroc :

- Khai niem va dieu kien hai mat phang song song.

- Khai niem hinh chop cut, Ve'klnang:

- Bier each chimg minh hai mat phang song song.

1. Dinh nghia - Dang 1 : Ve hinh bieu dien cua mot hinh

Hai mat phang (a) va ({3) dUQ'C goi la song chop, chop cut, lang tru,

song v6i nhau neu cluing khong co diem chung, ki hieu (a)11 (13) hay (13) II(a).

(a) II (/3) <=> (a) n ({3) = 0.

nhau a, b va hai dirong thang nay cung song song v6i mat phang (13) thi mat phang (a) song song trong hinh chop. voi mat phang (/3) .

(

a c (a), b c (a)

-< a cat b

=> (a) II (fJ).

- Dang 2 : Clnrng minh hai mat phang song song v6i nhau.

- Dang 3 : Xac dinh thilt dien tao bOi mijt phdng (a) voi m9t hinh chop khi cho biet

(a) song song vOi mot mat phdng nao do

Vi du

a) Ve hlnh bieu dien cua hinh lang tru v6i day la tam giac.

\.. a II (fJ), b II (fJ)

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HUOng dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. LUll Y

b) Ve hinh bieu dien cua hinh chop cut voi day la tam giac deu. Chi ra tren hinh ve mat day, mat ben, canh day, canh ben cua chop cut do.

H¢ qua: Neu mat phang (a) chua hai dirong thang cat nhau la a va b, mat phang ({3) chua hai dtrcng thang cat nhau la a' va b' dong thai a II a', b II b' thi mat phang (a) song song voi mat

ph~ng(f3) .

2) Qua mot diem nam ngoai mot mat phang cho tnroc co mot va chi mot mat phang song song voi mat phang dii cho.

H¢ qua 1 :

Neu dirong thang d song song voi mat phang (a) thi trong (a) co mot dirong thang song song voi d va qua d co duy nhat mot mat phang song song vOi(a) .

H¢ qua 2 :

Hai mat phang phan bier cung song song voi mat phang thir ba thi song song voi nhau.

H¢ qua 3 :

Cho diem A khong nam trong mat phang (a) . MQi dirong thang di qua A va song song vci (a) deu narn trong mat phang di qua A va song song vOi(a) .

3) Cho hai mat phang song song voi nhau. Neu mot mat phang cat mat phang nay thi cling cat mat phang kia va hai giao tuyen song song voi nhau.

- Ve duoc hinh bieu dien cua hinh hop ; hinh lang tru, hinh chop co day la tam giac, tu giac,

- Ve diroc hinh bieu dien cua hinh chop cut voi day la tam giac, nr giac.

Vi du. Cho hinh lap phirong ABCD. A'B'C'D'.

a) Mat phang (A'B'C'D') co cat mat phang (ABCD) khong ?

b) Cluing minh rang (AB'D') II (BDC').

Vi du. Cho hinh lap phirong ABCD. A'B'C'D'. Xac dinh giao tuyen cua mat phang (P) di qua trung diem M cua canh BB' va (P) song song voi (ABCD).

Vi du. Cho lang tru ABC.A 'B'C'co M la trung diim cua CAl. M(lt phdng (P) di qua diim M va dong thai song song vOi AB' va BC'. Xac dinh. thiet dien cua hinh lang tru khi cat hOi m(lt phdng (P).

Vi du. Cho tit dien ABCD. Cac diim M, N theo thit tu chay tren cdc canh AD va BC sao

hAM CN cn« . h ' M I

c 0 -- = -. ung mtn rang N uon

AD CB

song song voi mot m(lt phdng co dinh.

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Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Huong dan tlnrc hien chuan

Kien tlnrc co ban Dang toano Vi du. LUll Y

H¢ qua:

Hai mat phang song song chan tren hai cat tuyen song song nhilng doan thang being nhau.

4) Dinh If Ta-let thuan : Ba mat phang doi mot song song dinh ra tren hai cat tuyen bat ki nhfrng doan thang nrong ling ti l~.

3. Hinh lang tru va hinh chop cut 1) Hinh lang tru

Cho hai mat phang song song (a) va (a'). Tren (a) cho da giac loi A]A2 .. .An. Qua cac dinh Aj. A2, ... , An ta ve cac dirong thang song song v6i nhau va cat (a') IAn hrot tai A'], A']. ... , A 'n-

Hinh gom hai da giac A]A2··.An' A']A'2 ... A'n va cac hlnh bmh hanh A]A']A'2A2' A2A'2A'3A3' ... r A~'~']A] diroc goi la hinh lang tru va ki hieu la A]A2···An- A'] A'2 ... A'n-

Lang tru co day la hinh binh hanh diroc goi la hinh hQP.

2) Hinh chop cut

Cho hinh chop S.A]A2··.An- MQt mat phang khong qua dinh, song song v6i mat phang day

cua hinh chop cat cac canh SA], SA2, ... , SAn

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Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan. Vi du, LUll Y

Ian hrot tai A\, A'2' ... , A'w Hlnh tao boi thiet dien A'jA'2 ... A'n va day AjA2 ... An cua hinh chop cung voi cac t11 giac A'jA'2A2Aj, A'2A'3A3A2' ... , A'~'jAjAn goi Ia hinli chop cut, kf hieu la A'jA'2 ... A'w AjA2··.Aw

- Khai niern hinh bieu dien cua mot hmh tai diem M' xac dinh,

khong gian. Diem M' duoc goi la hinh chieu song song cua

Ve' ki nang : diem M tren mat phang (a) theo plnrong ~ .

5. Phep chieu song song. Hinh bieu dien eLla mot hinh khong gian

Ve' kiln thuc :

Bier diroc :

- Khai niern phep chieu song song.

- Xac dinh diroc phirong chieu mat phang chieu trong mot phep chieu song song. Dung diroc anh cua mot diem, mot doan thang, mot tam giac, mot dirong tron qua mot phep chieu song song.

- Ve diroc hinh bieu dien cua mot hlnh khong gian.

1. Phep chieu song song - Dang 1 : Xac dinh hinh chieu cua mot hinh

Cho mat phang (a) va dirong thang ~ cat (a) . phang qua phep chieu song song.

V m moi diem M trong khong gian, dirong thang - Dang 2 : Ve hinh bieu dien cua mot hinh di qua M va song song hoac trung voi ~ cat (a) khong gian.

Mat phang (a) diroc goi la mat phang chieu, phirong cua duong thang ~ diroc goi la phirong chien.

Phep dat wong irng moi diem M trong khong gian voi hmh chieu M' cua no tren mat phang (a) duoc got la phep chieu song song len

(a) theo phirong ~ .

2. Cac tfnh chat cua phep chieu song song (voi duemg th~ng va do~ th~g khong song song hoac trung voi phuong chieu),

Vi du. Xac dinh hinh chieu cua mot dirong thang qua phep chieu song song trong cac tnrong hop :

- Duong thang do song song voi phirong chieu.

- Duong thang do khong song song vci phirong

chien.

Vi du. Hinh chieu song song cua mot hinh binh hanh co la mot hinh binh hanh khong ?

Vi du. Ve hinh bieu dien cua : tam giac deu, hinh thang vuong, hinh binh hanh, hinh thoi.

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Chuan kien thirc - kl nang

HUOng dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu y

1) Phep chieu song song bien ba diem thang hang thanh ba diem thang hang va khong lam thay d6i thu nr ba diem do ;

2) Phep chieu song song bien dirong thang thanh dirong thang, bien tia thanh tia, bien doan thang thanh doan thang ;

3) Phep chieu song song bien hai dirong thang song song thanh hai dirong thang song song hoac trung nhau.

4) Phep chieu song song khong lam thay d6i ti so do dai ella hai doan thang nam tren hai dirong thing song song hoac cling nam tren mot dirong thang.

3. Hinh bieu dien ella mot so hmh khong gian tren mat phang

1) Mot tam giac bat ki bao gic cling co the eoi la hinh bieu dien ella mot tam giac tuy y eho tnroc (co the la tam giac deu, tam giac can, tam giac vuong, ... ).

2) Mot hinh binh hanh bat ki bao gia cling co the eoi Ia hinh bieu dien ella mot hinh binh hanh tuy y eho tnroc (co the la hinh bmh hanh, hinh vuong, hinh chfr nhat, hinh thoi, ... ).

3) Mot hinh thang bat ki bao gic cling co the eoi la hinh bieu dien ella mot hinh thang tuy y eho tnroc, mien la ti so do dai hai day ella hinh bieu

77

Vi du. Vi' hinh bieu dien cua mot luc giac diu n(ji titp mot duong tron.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hmmg dan thuc hien chuan

Kien tlurc co ban

dien phai bang ti so dQ dai hai day cua hinh da eho.

4) Ngiroi ta thirong dung hinh elip de bieu dien hinh tron,

Dang toan. Vi du, Luu Y

VIII. VECTd TRONG KHONG GrAN. QUAN H~ VUONG GOC TRONG KHONG GrAN

- Quy tao hinh hop de cong vecto trong Kf hieu AB chi vecto eo di~m dfiu A, diem cuoi

khong gian. --+ --+ --+ --+

B. Vecto eon diroc kf hieu la a, b, x, y, '"

- Khai niem va dieu kien dong phang cua

ba vecto trong khong gian.

1. Veet(f trong khong gian (Vee to .; Cong vecto ; Nhan vecto v6i mot so; Dieu kien dong phang cua ba vecto ; Tfch vo hu6ng cua hai vecto).

Ve' kien thuc : Biet diroc

Ve'krnang:

- Xac dinh diroc goc gitra hai vecto trong khong gian.

- Van dung diroc : phep cong, trir ; nhan vecto v6i mot so, tich vo hirong cua hai vecto ; sir being nhau cua hai vecto trong khong gian.

- Bier each xet sir dong phang hoac khong dong phang cua ba vecto trong khong gian.

I. Oie dinh nghia

1) Vecto, gia va dQ dai ella vecto

• Veet(f trong khong gian la mot doan thang eo hu6ng.

• GiG eua vecta la dirong thang di qua diem dau va diem cuoi cua vecto do.

Hai vecto diroc goi la cung phuong neu gia cua chiing song song hoac trung nhau. Hai vecto cung phirong thi eo the cung huang hoac nguoc huang,

• Dt) dai hay rna dun cua vecta la do dai cua doan thang eo hai dau rmit la diem dau va diem cuoi cua vecto do. Vecto eo dQ dai being 1 duoc goi la vecta don vi. Ta kf hieu do dai vecto la

IABI. Nhu vay IABI = AB.

78

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh cac yeu to cua vecto ; Xac dinh goc giira hai vecto trong khong gian.

- Dang 2 : Chung minh cac dang thirc v~ vecto.

- Dang 3 : Xet sir dong phang hoac khong dong phang cua ba vecto trong khong gian.

Vi du. Cho tam giac deu ABC canh a, goi M la trung diem cua BC.

a) Cho biet dQ dai cua vecto AB.

b) Xac dinh g6e giira hai vecto AB va BC.

Vi du. Cho nr dien ABCD, goi G la trong tam tam giac BCD, chirng minh rang

---+ ---+ ---+ ---+

AB +AC +AD = 3AG.

I

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien tlurc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. Luu y

r- ------------------------------+_--------~~------------------------+_----------------------------------~

2) Hai vecto being nhau, vecto-khong

-+ -+

• Hai vecto a va b duoc goi la being nhau neu Vi du. Cho tu dien ABCD. Goi I, J urong irng la

cluing c~ c~ng do dai va cung lnrong. Khi do ta trung diem cua AB, CD. Cluing minh rang AC ,

kf hieu a = b . ED, Jj la cac vecto dong phang.

• "Yecto-khong" la mot vecto dac bier co diem

dau va diem cuoi trung nhau, nghia la voi rnoi

diem A tuy y ta co M = 6 va khi do moi dirong thang di qua diem A deu chua vecto M . Quy iroc

Vi du. Trong khong gian, cho tam giac ABC, chung minh rang neu diim M thuoc mdt

phdng (ABC) thi OM = xOA + yOB + zOC

moi vecto 6 deu being nhau, co dQ dai being 0 va voi moi diim 0 va x + y + z = 1. cung plnrong, cung lurong voi moi vecto, Do do

ta viet M = BB voi moi diem A, B tuy y. 2. Phep cong va phep tru vecta

1) Dtnh nghia

-+ ....

• Cho hai vecto a va b. Trong khong gian lay

mot diem A tuy y, dung AS = ~ va BC = b. Vecto AC diroc goi la tdng cua hai vecto ~ va b , va duoc kf hieu

-----+ - ---+ ~ -+

AC= AB + BC = a +b .

.... -+

• Vecto b la vecto doi cua a neu

Ibl = I~I va ~, h ngiroc hu6ng voi nhau, kf hieu

-+ -+

b=-a.

-+ -+ --+ --+

.a-b=a+(-b).

79

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HU'6ng d~n thuc hien chuan

2) Tinh chat

Kien tlurc co ban Dang toan, Vi du, LU'U Y

V 6i cac vecto a, b, c bat ki ta co

...... --to -+ ......

• a + b = b + a (tinh chat giao hoan) ;

-+-+ -+ -+ ............

• (a+b)+ c = a+(b+e)(tinhchatkethqp);

--to --to --to --to --to

• a + 0 = 0 + a = a (tinh chat cua

vecto-khong) ;

-+ -+ -+ -+ -+

• a+(-a)=-a +a=O.

3) Cac quy tac can nho khi tfnh toan a) Quy tde ba diem

V6i ba diem A, B, C bat ki ta co:

AB+ BC=AC ;

BC= AC - AB;

BC = AC + (- AB) = AC + BA = BA + AC. b) Quy tde hinli binh hanli

v oi hlnh blnh hanh ABCD ta co :

--+ ____, --+

AC= AB +AD.

e) Quy tde hinli h9P

Cho hlnh hop ABCD.A'B'C'D' v6i AB, AD, AA' la ba quill co chung dinh A va AC' la duong cheo, ta co:

AC'= AB + AD +AA'.

80

HUOng dan thirc hien chuan

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du, Luu Y

d) Mif rang quy tac ba diim

Cho n diem Aj, A2, ... , An bat ki, ta co:

3. Phep nhdn vee to voi mot so'

I) Dinh nghia, Cho s6 thuc k "#- 0 va vecto

~ ~ ~

a "#- 0 . Tich cua s6 k vci vecto a la mot veeto', ki

~ ~

hieu la k a , cung huang voi a neu k > 0, nguoc

huang voi ~ neu k < 0 va eo do dai bang Ikl.I~I.

2) Tfnh chat. V& moi vecto a, b va moi s6 thuc m, n ta eo:

- -+ - -+

• m( a + b ) = m a + m b ;

~ ~ ~

• (m + n) a = m a + n a ;

.... ~

• m(na) = (mn) a ;

.1.a=a;

~ ~

.(-l)a=-a;

• o. a=O ;

.... ~

• k.O =0.

81

6· HDTHT11· A

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Huang dim thirc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. Luu y

4. Dieu kien dong phang cua ba vecto

1) Khai niem ve sir d6ng phang cua ba vecto trong khong gian

Cho ba vecto ~, b, ~ deu khac vecto 0 trong khong gian. Tit mot diem 0 bat kl ta dung cac

--+ -+ ---+ -+ ----+ -+

vecto OA =a, OB = b ve. OC = c. Khi d6 xay

ra hai tnrong hop sau :

• Neu cac dirong thang OA, OB, OC khong cung nam trong mot mat phang, ta n6i ba vecto

~, b, ~ khong dong phang .

• Neu cac dirong thang OA, OB, OC cung nam trong mot mat phang thl ta n6i ba vecto ~, b, ~ dong phang.

2) Dtnh nghia

Trong khong gian, ba vecto duoc goi la dong phdng neu cac gia cua cluing cung song song v6i mot mat phang.

3) Dieu kien de ba vecto dong phang

Dinh If 1. Trong khong gian cho hai vecto khong

........ ....

cung phuong a va b va mot vecto c . Khi d6, ba

vecto ~, b, ~ dong phang khi va chi khi c6 duy nhat cap s6 thirc m, n sao cho

.... .... ....

c=ma +nb.

82

6· HDTHT11· B

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Hu6ng dftn thuc hien chuan

_.,. -+ -+ -+

x =ma +nh +pc.

Dang toano Vi du. Ltru Y

- Khai niem vecto chiphirong cua dirong

thang. hai vecto ~ va ~ , ki hieu ( ~ , ~ ).

- Khai niern va dieu kien hai dirong thang 2) Tich vo hirong - Dang 3 : Chung minh hai dirong th~g vuong

vuong goc voi nhau. Tfch vo hirong cua hai vecto ~ va ~ (deu khac goc v6i nhau.

Ve' ki nang: vecto ()) trong khong gian 130 mot s6, dtroc kf

Vi du. Cho tam giac deu ABC canh a, goi M 130 trung diem cua BC.

2. Hai duang thling vuong gac (Vecto chi phirong cua dtrong thang ; Goc gitra hai dirong thang ; Hai duong ih~g vuong goc).

Ve' kien thue :

Biet diroc

- Khai niem goc giira hai dtrong thang.

- Xac dinh diroc vecto chi phuong cua dirong thang ; goc gifra hai dirong thang.

- Biet cluing minh hai duong thang vuong goc v6i nhau.

Kien thirc co ban

4) Phan tich (bieu thi) mot vecto thea ba vecto khong dong phang

Dinh u 2. Cho ~, b, ~ 130 ba vecto khong dong phang. V 6i moi vecto ; trong khong gian ta deu tim diroc duy nhat mot bo ba s6 thirc m, n, p sao eho

1. Tfch vo hirong cua hai vecto trong khong gian 1) Goc giira hai vecto

Cho ~ va ~ 130 hai vecto trong khong gian. re

---t -+ -+ -+

mot diem A bat kl dung AB = u, AC = v . Khi

d6 ta goi BAC (0° s BAC s 180°) Ia goc gitta

- Dang 1 : Tinh tich vo huong cua hai vecto. Su dung tich vo hmmg d~ tfnh d¢ dai cua doan thang (hoac tinh khoang each gifra hai diem)

. trong khong gian.

- Dang 2 : Xac dinh vecto chi phirong ~ua dirong thang ; Tfnh goc giira hai dirong thang trong khong gian.

-+ -+ -

Ta co : (u , v ) = BAC .

hieu 130 ~ . ~ va xac dinh boi :

~ . ~ = 14.FI. eos( ~ , ~ ).

a) Tinh AB. Be.

b) Cho bier IAMI.

Neu ~ = () hoac ~ = () thi ta quy U<Je ~. ~ = O.

83

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban

Dang toano Vi du. LU'U Y

• M9t dirong thing d trong khong gian hoan toan thi AB ..L CD, AC ..L BD,AD ..L BC. diroc xac dinh khi biet mot diem A thuoc d va

3) Tfnh chat

V 6i ba vecto a, b , c bat ki trong khong gian va voi moi s6 tlurc k ta co :

• a . b =b. a (nnh chat giao hoan) ;

~ --+ -+ --+ --+ -.--+

«aLb +c) =a.b +a.c (tinh chat phan phoi

doi voi phep cong vecto) ;

• (k a). b = k( a . b) = a .k b ;

~2

• a ~ 0;

-2 -+--+

·a=O<=>a=O.

4) Vecto chi phuong ella dirong thang

~ ~

• Vecto a :I; 0 diroc goi la vecta chi phuang cua

dirong thang d neu gia cua vecto a song song hoac trung v6i dirong thang d.

~

• Neu vecto a la vecta chi phuang cua duong

thang d thi vecto k; voi k :I; 0 cung la vecto chi phirong cua d.

-

mot vecto chi phuong a cua d.

84

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC, tim mot vecto chi phuongeuaduangth~g

a) Chua canh BC.

b) Chua trung tuyenAM.

Vi du. Cho hinh lap phirong ABCD. A'B'C'D'. Xac dinh goc giira cac duong thang AB' va CD'.

Vi duo Cho hinh lap phuong ABCD.A'B'C'D'. Chung minh rang AB' vuong goc v6i CD'.

Vi du. Chung minh rang neu b II c rna a vuong goc voi b thi a vuong goc voi c.

Vi du. Cho hinh tit dien ABCD. Chung minh rdng : neu

- ----+ ----+ ---+

AB.AC = AC.AD

= AD.AB

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HU'6ng dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toano Vi du. LU'U Y

5) Mot so irng dung cua tich vo huong • Tinh do dai cua doan thang AB :

AB = IABI = ~AB2 .

-+ -+ -to-+

• Xac dinh g6c gitra hai vecto II va v la (u, v)

I thea cong tlurc : cos(~;, ~) = I~:~I.

-to -+ --+-+

• II .L V ¢::> u . v = o.

2. G6e giira hai dirong thang

Goc giiia hai duang thdng a va b trong khong gian la g6c gitra hai dirong thang a' va b' cung di qua mot diem bat kl dong thoi nrong irng song song voi a va b.

3. Hai dirong thang vuong g6e

• Hai dirong thang a va b diroc goi la vuong goc voi nhau neu g6c gitra chung bang 900• Ta kf hieu a .L b hoac b .L a.

~ ~

• Neu u va v lein IU<;1l: HI. cac vecto chi phirong

cua hai dirong thang a va b thi

a .L b ¢::> u . v = o.

• Neu a II b va e vuong g6c vrri mot trong hai duong thang do thi c vuong g6c voi dirong thang con lai,

85

Chuan kien thtrc - ki.nang

Huong d~n thuc hien chuan

Kien thtrc CO' ban

Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

- Xac dinh duoc vecto phap tuyen ella mot 1) C6 duy nhat mot mat phang di qua mot diem mat phang. eho tnroc va vuong g6e voi mot dirong thang eho

- Xac dinh diroc g6e gitra dirong thang va 4. Lien he gitra tinh vuong g6e va tinh song song b) Chi ra mot vecto phap tuyen ella mat phang

mat phang. ella dirong thang va mat phang trong khong gian (ABeD).

3. Duong thdng vuong goc voi mdt phdng (Duong thang vuong g6e voi mat phang ; Vecto phap tuyen ella mat phang ; Phep chieu vuong g6e ; Dinh Ii ba dirong vuong g6e ; G6e giira dirong thang va mat phang).

V l kien thuc :

Biet duoc :

- Dinh nghia va dieu kien dirong thang vuong g6e voi mat phang.

- Khai niem phep chieu vuong' g6e.

- Khai niem mat phang trung tnrc ella mot

dOI;U1 rhang.:

Ve'kTnang:

- Biet each cluing minh : mot dtrong thang vuong g6e voi mat phang , mot duong thang vuong g6e voi mot dirong thang.

- Xac dinh diroc hinh chieu vuong g6e ella mot diem, mot dirong thang, mot tam giac,

- Biroc dau van dung diroc dinh If ba dirong vuong g6e.

ella dirong thang d con diroc goi la mot vecto

phap tuyen ella mat phang (a). _ Dl;U1g 3 : Van dung dinh li ba dirong vuong

2. Dieu kien d~ duong thang vuong g6e v6'i mat g6e van giai toan.

ph~g

1. Duong th~g vuong g6e voi mat phang

Duong thang d diroc goi la vuong goc vai mdt phdng (a) neu d vuong g6e voi moi dirong thang

nam trong (a) .

Khi d6 ta n6i (a) vuong goe voi d va ki hieu d ..L (a) hoac (a)..L d ; moi vecto chi phirong

Neu dirong thang d vuong g6e voi hai dirong thang cat nhau nam trong mat phang (a) thi d

vuong g6e voi (a).

3. Tinh chat

tnroc.

2) C6 duy nhat mot dirong thang di qua mot di~m eho tnroc va vuong g6e voi mot mat phang eho tnroc,

86

- Dang 1 : Clumg minh : mot dirong th~g vuong g6e voi mat phang ; mot duong thang vuong g6e voi mot dirong thang,

- Dl;U1g 2 : Xac dinh vecto phap tuyen ella mot mat phang ; Xac dinh hinh chieu vuong g6e ella mot diem, mot dirong thang, mot tam giac.

- Dl;U1g 4 : Xac dinh g6e giira dirong thang va mat phang.

- Dl;U1g 5 : Cac bai toan van dung m6i lien he giira tinh song song va tinh vuong g6e ella dirong thang va mat phang.

Vi du. Cho hlnh eh6p S.ABeD e6 day la hinh binh hanh va cac canh ben bang nhau. GQi 0 la giao ella hai dirong cheo ella day.

a) Chung minh rang SO vuong g6e voi (ABeD).

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong diin thuc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban

Dang toan, Vi d u. Luu Y

- Biet xet moi lien he giira tinh song song va tinh vuong goc cua duong thang va mat phang.

1) Cho hai dirong M1~g song song. Mat phang nao vuong goc voi l1u<mg thang nay thl ding vuong goc voi dirong thang kia.

2) Hai dirong thang phan biet cung vuong goc voi mot mat phang thl song song voi nhau.

3) Cho hai mat phang song song. Duong th~g nao vuong goc voi mat phang nay thi cling vuong goc voi mat phang kia.

4) Hai mat phang phan biet cung vuong goc voi mot duong thang thi song song voi nhau.

5) Cho dirong thang a va mat phang (a) song song vci nhau. Duong thang nao vuong goc vci (a) thi cung vuong goc voi a.

6) Neu mot dirong thang va mot mat phang (khong chua dirong thang do) cung vuong goc voi mot dirong thang khac thi cluing song song voi nhau.

5. Phep chieu vuong goc va dinh If ba dirong vuong goc

1) Dinh nghia, Cho dirong thang d vuong goc voi mat phang (a). Phep chieu song song theo

phirong d len mat phang (a) diroc goi la phep chieu vuong goc len mdt phdng(a).

2) Dinh If ba dirong vuong goc,

Cho duong thang a nam trong mat phang (a) va b la dirong th~g khong thuoc (a) dong thai

V i du. Qua phep chieu vuong goc hai goc bang nhau co bang nhau khong ?

Vi du. Cho hinh chop S.ABC, co SA vuong goc vci day va day la tam giac vuong tai B.

a) Clnrng minh rang SB vuong goc voi CB.

b) Xac dinh goc gitra SB va (ABC).

c) Xac dinh hmh chien vuong goc cua C tren (SAB).

Vi du. Cho hinh tft dien DABC co OA, OB, DC doi mot vuong goc vUi nhau. Chung minh rang H La hinh chieu vuong goc ella D tren (ABC) thi H La true tam tam giac ABC.

Vi du. Cho tft dien ABCD, xae dinh diim D sao eho OA = OB = DC = OD.

87

Chuan kien thirc - ki. nang

4. Hai mdt phdng vuong goc (Goc gitra hai mat phang ; Hai mat phang vuong goc ; Hinh lang tru dirng ; Hinh hop chir nhat ; Hinh lap phirong ; Hinh chop deu va hinh chop cut deu).

Ve' kien thuc :

Biet duoc :

Huong dan thuc hien chuan

Kien tlnrc co ban

Dang toano Vi du. LUll Y

khong vuong goc voi (a). GQi b' la hinh chieu vuong goc cua b len (a) . Khi do a vuong goc vci b khi va chi khi a vuong goc voi b'.

3) Goc gifra dirong thang va mat phang

Cho dtrong thang d va mat phang (a) , Ta co dinh nghia :

• Neu duong thang d vuong g6c voi mat phang (a) thi ta noi rang goc giira dirong thang d va

mat phang (a) bang 90° .

• Neu duong thang d khong vuong goc voi mat phang (a) thi goc giira d va hinh chieu d cua no

tren (a) diroc goi la goc giiia duong thdng d va mdt phling(a).

* Luu y : so do (bang do) cua goc gifra dtrong thang va mat phang la mot s6 khong fun va

khong VUQ't qua 90°.

1. Goc gitta hai mat phang - Dang 1 : Xac d!nh goc giira hai mat phang.

Goc giiia hai mdt phdng la goc gitra hai dirong - Dang 2 : Chirng minh hai mat phang vuong

thang Ian hrot vuong goc v6i hai mat phang do. goc.

Neu hai mat phang song song hoac trung nhau _ Dang 3 : Van dung tfnh chat cua lang tru thi ta noi rang goc gifra hai mat phang do dirng, hinh hop, hinh chop deu, chop cut deu

bang 0°. vao giai mot s6 bai toan,

88

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huang dan tlnrc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban

- KMi niern goc giira hai mat phang, • Xac dinh goc gitra hai mat phang cat nhau :

- KMi niem va dieu kien hai mat phang Cho hai mat phang (a) va (,8)cat nhau thea Vi du. Cho hinh chop S.ABeD co SA vuong goc

vuong goc. giao tuyen c. Tir mot diem I bat ki tren c ta dung voi day va day la hmh chir nhat,

- Tfnh chat hinh lang tru dirng, lang tru dirong thang a trong (a) vuong goc voi c va a) Xac dinh goc gifra mat phang (SeB) va deu, hinh hop dirng, hinh hop chfr nhat, dung dirong thang b trong (13) vuong goc voi c. (ABeD).

hinh lap phirong. Khi do goc gitra (a) va (,8) la goc gitra hai b) Clnrng minh : (SAB) .L (SAD).

- KMi niern hinh chop deu va chop cut dirong thang a va b.

deu.

• Dien tich hinh chieu cua da giac :

Vi ki nang: S' = S.cos rp

- Xac dinh dUC1. c goc gifra hai mat phang, ('" S [' di ti. h d. ., ~ t () S' ['

vai : a ten tc a gtac nam rong a, a + Hinh hop chir nhat Ia lang tru dirng ;

- Biet chirng minh hai mat ph ling vuong dien ticb hinh chieu vuong goc cua da giac do

goc. tren (,8), rp la goc gift a (a) va (,8) ). + Lang tru la hinh hop ;

- Van dung diroc tinh chat cua lang tru 2. Hai mat phang vuong goc dirng, hinh hop, hinh chop deu, chop cut 1) Dinh nghia

deu van giai mot s6 bai tap. Hai mat phang (a) va (,8) diroc goi la vuong goc voi nhau neu goc gitra hai mat ph ling do la mot goc vuong.

Khi do ta kf hieu (a) .L (13) hoac (,8) .L (a) .

2) Tinh chat

Dang toan, Vi du. Luu Y

V i du. Cho bier menh d~ nao sau day la dung + Hinh hop la lang tru dirng ;

+ Co lang tru khong la hinh hop.

Vi du. Hinh chop S.ABe co day la tam giac deu va cac canh ben bang nhau co la hinh chop deu khong ? VI sao?

Vi du. Hinh chop cut tam giac co hai day la tam giac deu co phai la hinh chop cut deu khong ?

a) Dieu kien can va dll de hai mat phang vuong goc voi nhau la mat ph ling nay chua mot dirong

thang vuong goc voi matphang kia. Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC va mij,t phdng (P).

b) Neu hai mat ph ling vuong goc voi nhau thi bat Biet goc giiia (P) va (ABC) latp . Hinh chien cir dirong thang nao nam trong mat phang nay va (vuong goc) cua tam giac ABC tren (P) la tam

89

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Huong dan thirc hien chuan

Kien thirc co ban Dang toano Vi du. Luu Y

vuong goc voi giao tuyen thi vuong goc voi mat phang kia.

c) Cho hai mat phang (a) va (13) vuong goc voi nhau. Neu til mot diem thuoc mat phang (a) ta dung mot dirong thang vuong goc voi mat phang (13) thi dirong thang nay nam trong mat

phang (a).

d) Neu hai mat phang cat nhau va cung vuong goc voi mot mat phang thi giao tuyen cua cluing vuong goc voi mat phang do.

3. Hinh lang tru dimg, hinh hop chir nhat, hinh lap phirong

Hinh. lang tru dung Ia hinh lang tru co cac canh ben vuong goc vili cac mat day.

Hinh hr)p chii nhdt la hinh lang tru dirng co day la hinh chfr nhat,

Hinh ldp phuang la hlnh lang tru dirng co day la hinh vuong va cac mat ben deu la hinh vuong.

4. Hinh chop deu va hinh chop cut deu

Hinh chop de'u la hinh chop co day la mot da giac d~u va chan cua dirong cao trimg voi tam cua da giac day.

Phan cua hinh chop deu nam gitra day va mot thiet dien song song voi day cM Hlt eli cac canh ben cua hinh chop deu do diroc goi la hinh chop cut deu,

Hai day cua hlnh chop cut deu la hai da giac deu, dong dang voi nhau.

90

giac A'B'C'. Goi S va S' theo thu tu fa di~n tieh eua cdc tam giac ABC va A' B' C'.

Chung minh :

S' = S. cos e .

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

HUOng d~n tlurc hien chuan

Kien tlnrc co ban Dang toan, Vi du. Luu Y

2) Khoang each til' mot diem 0 den mat phang song song voi n6 ; - Khoang each til' mot diem den mot mat

phang, (a) la khoang each gitta hai diem 0 va H, voi

5. Khodng cach (Khoang each til' mot diem den mot dirong thang, den mot mat phang ; Khoang each gifra hai dirong thang cheo nhau ; Khoang each gitra duong thang va mat phang ; Khoang each gitra hai mat phang).

V l kien thuc - ki nang:

Biet va xac dinh diroc :

- Khoang each til' mot diem den mot duong thang.

- Khoang each giita hai dirong thang.

H la hlnh chieu vuong g6c cua 0 tren (a), ki • Khoang each gitra hai mat phang song song ;

1. Dinh nghia

1) Cho mot diem 0 va dirong thang a khong di qua O. Trong mat phang xac dinh bffi diem 0 va dirong thang a goi H la hinh chieu cua diem 0 tren a. Khi d6, khoang each gitra hai diem 0 va H dUQ'C goi la khoang each til' diem 0 den dirong thang a. Ki hieu la d(O, a).

Nhu vdy : d(O, a) = OH.

hieu la - Khoang each gitra dirong thang va mat

phang song song.

d(O ,(a».

song.

- Khoang each gitta hai mat phang song Nhu v~y d(O, (a» = OH.

3) Khoang each gifra dirong thang a va mar

- Duong vuong g6c chung cua hai dirong phang (a) song song vci a la khoang each til' • Khoang each gitta hai dirong thang cheo nhau. thang cheo nhau.

mot diem bat ki thuoc a toi mat phang (a), ki - Khoang each gitra hai dirong thang cheo

hieu la nhau.

Nhu v~y dia, (a» = OH, trong do ° thuoc a con

+ Xac dinh khoang each gitta diem A va mat

H fa hinh chieu cua diim 0 tren (a). phang (CDD'C).

d(a,(a) ).

- Dang bai tap : Tinh :

• Khoang each til' mot diem den mot duong thang ;

• Khoang each giira hai duong thang ;

• Khoang each giira dirong thang va mat phang

• Duong vuong g6c chung cua hai dirong thang cheo nhau;

Vi du. Cho hinh lap phirong ABCD. A'B'CD'.

+ Xac dinh khoang each gitta diem A va dtrong thfuIg Be.

91

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien chuan

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toan. Vi du. LUll Y

4) Khoang each giira hai mat phang song song + Xac dinh khoang each gitra duong thang AA' (a) va (/3) , kf hieu d( (a), (/3)), la khoang each va dtrong thang C'C.

tir mot di~m bat ki cua mat phang nay den mat + Xac dinh khoang each gitra dirong thang AD

phang kia. va mat phang (BCCB').

d( (a), (/3» = d(M, (/3») voi ME (a). d( (a) ,(fJ» = deN, (a») voi N E (/3).

+ Xac dinh khoang each gitra mat phang (ABB'A') va mat phang (CDD'C).

+ Xac dinh khoang each giira dirong thang AB Nhu v9Y d( (a), (fJ) = MH, trong do M thuoc

va dirong thang CC.

(a) con H fa hinh chieu cua ditm M tren (fJ) .

5) Khoang each gifta hai duong thang cheo nhau

* Luu y:

la dQ dai cua doan vuong goc chung cua hai

dirong thang do.

1) Tinh khoang each co th~ ap dung tnrc tiep dinh nghia hoac tinh gian tiep. Chang han, co

th~ tinh duoc dirong cao cua mot tam giac (khoang each tir dinh toi day) neu biet dien tich va so do do dai canh day cua tam giac do.

2) Phai xac dinh diroc cac yeu to can co d~ tinh khoang each tnroc khi thirc hien viec tinh toano

92

TO CHUC THl)'C HI~N

I - YEU cAu CHUNG

Viec thuc hien chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua chirong trinh giao due pho thong man Toan can thea quan diem co ban : sat thirc, tnrc quan, dung chuan va d6i moi.

SATTHlJC

- Sat voi noi dung chuan, voi thirc te doi WQ'Ilg va dieu kien giang day, voi thai IUQ'Ilg cho phep ; bien soan du dang cac bai luyen tap wong dirong voi cac vi du neu trong chuan nham giup hoc sinh ren luyen ki nang giai toan dat chuan va phan hoa thea mire do yeu cau cua chirong trinh chuan ~a clurong trinh nang cao. Thuc hien chirong trinh nr chon cua bo .mon thea huang giiip hoc sinh dat chuan tot hon.

- Chti trong cac vi du va bai toan c6 noi dung thirc tien dci song va gan voi cac man hoc khac (lam cho hoc sinh thay ro Toan hoc gan vci cuoc song va lam quen voi viec ap dung tri thirc Toan hQC de giai cac bai toan thirc te, cac bai roan cua man hoc Vat If Hoa hoc

. .' . ,

Sinh hoc, ... )

TRlJC QUAN

- Tiep can chuan bang phuong phap tnrc quan nham giam tfnh han lam, giam cac noi dung nang ne, don gian hoa nhfrng van d~ plurc tap nlurng khong lam mat tinh chinh xac va suy luan c6 If rna chuan d~ ra.

- Day va hQC kien thirc ki nang theo chuan tren ca s6 dan dat tirng

biroc, qua nhtrng vi du rna ta khai niem mot each r6 rang, tranh ap d~t thieu nr nhien,

DUNGCHUAN

- Dam bao dung kien thirc, ki nang, mire dQ plnrc tap cua dang to an minh hoa, nhirng hru y neu trong chuan.

- Tnroc het dam bao dat chuan hoa va phan hoa thea mire do yeu cau cua chirong trinh chuan va chtrong trmh nang cao ; han che ~ac vi du va bai tap plnrc tap, doi hoi ki thuat va meo mire, noi dung kho cirng thieu nr nhien kh6 tiep thu, giam bat so IUQ'Ilg cong thirc can nho. Dam bao sir gon, chat che va h~ thong kien thirc, ki nang rna chuan neu.

DOl MOl

Theo chi dao day va hoc cua BQ GD&DT : D6i moi kiem tra danh gia theo chuan, d6i moi cong cu kiem tra danh gia, d6i moi thai IUQ'Ilg, d6i moi tlur tu thirc hien kien thirc ki nang chuan neu, d6i moi phirong tien day hQC de d6i moi phirong phap day hoc, tang cirong tfnh chu dong cua hoc sinh trong gio hoc, giiip hoc sinh tich eire, hirng thii hoc tap. Tim toi sang tao nhirng each dua noi dung hoc tap mot each nhe nhang, d~ hieu, nr nhien rna vAn chinh xac, Can da dang hoa cac hoat dong thuc hien chuan (on lai kien thirc, gioi thieu kien thirc moi, hoc tnroc 6 nha, lam tai lap, chia thea d~ tai, thuc hien ca nhan hay nh6m nho, ap dung ngay kien thirc vira hoc, cau hoi trac nghiem khach quan, su dung may tinh cam tay de giai toan ... ).

II - HUONG DAN rmrc HI~N

VOl HQC SINH

- V m hoc sinh dai tra cua moi vung mien, noi dung duoc neu tro~g ~an ban nay la noi dung hoc tap bat buoc phai dat, khong han che nQI dung hoc tap vci hoc sinh c6 nhu cau hoc tap nang cao.

93

- V oi nhtrng hoc sinh c6 nhu cau hoc tap rna rong, nang cao hoac d6i nrong hoc sinh kha, gioi, c6 th~ tham khao Chirong trinh Nang cao hoac Chuong trinh Chuyen cua BQ GD&DT ban hanh ; c6 tM tham khao trong sach giao khoa hoac sach bai tap, sach tham khao noi dung chuyen rna nha tnrong tuyen chon hoac c6 th~ tu hoc theo nang lire ban than.

- 6 vung thuan loi, hoc sinh can duoc tang cirong chat hrong hoc tap qua viec tiep can cac nguon thong tin, cac phirong tien cong nghe d~ cung c6, rna rong, nang cao kien thuc.

- Chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang cua Chirong trinh Trung hoc pho thong mon Toan giup cac em hoc sinh W hoc, W kiem tra kien thirc, ki nang theo cac yeu cdu co ban, t6i thieu cua kien thirc, ki nang mon Toan rna hoc sinh can phai c6 va phai dat diroc qua hoc tap, HQc sinh W hoc, W kiem tra theo chuan kien thirc, ki nang qua hoc, kiem tra cac khai niem co ban, cac ki nang co ban, cac cong thirc can nho, cac phirong phap giai, cac dang toan, vi du minh hoa '" nrong img vci cac chu d~ cua chirong trinh ; W nghien ngam noi dung hoc tap theo mot yeu cau, phong each rieng va vci t6c dQ phu hop. Tu hoc khong nhtrng giiip hoc sinh nr than nam noi dung hoc mot each chac chan va ben vimg, xac dinh phirong phap hoc tap va ki nang van dung tri thirc, ren luyen y chi va nang lire hoat dong sang tao ; W than bu dap cho mmh nhfrng 16 hong v~ kien thirc, dap irng voi yeu cau cua chirong trinh. (Qua cac hoat dong hoc tap : xay dung ke hoach, t~p trung strc lire va thoi gian cho nQi dung trQng tam, quan trQng nhat, nQi dung con khuyet ho~c chua r6, tranh dan trai, pi}an tan. N6 h,rc, W ll!'c nfun nQi dung hQc t~p th6ng qua : dQc, t6m tat t6ng hQ'p, s~ sanh, phan lo~i ; tl!' lam bai t~p, d6 ki~m tra. Tranh thu sl!' giup dO' cua thay c6 giao, cua b~ be va cua cha my, anh em trong gia dlnh, trong dong hQ).

VOl GIAO VIEN

- V m giao vien thl nQi dung co ban neu trong van ban nay la can cu d~ so~n bai, tien hanh d~y hQc, 6n t~p va dl!'a tren d6 d~ ki~m tra danh gia ket qua hQC t~p cua hQc sinh. Dam bao vira dqt chudn vita

phdn hod theo dac diem vung, mien cho cac d6i urong hoc sinh khac nhau ; danh gia theo de nr luan, d6 TNKQ hoac h6n hop gom ca bai toan ur luan Ian bai toan TNKQ. On tap nham he thong hoa kien thee d3: hoc, hoan thien ki nang giai bai tap, qua on tap b6 khuyet cho nhtmg phat hien thieu s6t v6 kien thiic, ki nang, ve suy luan toan hQC thieu can cu logic hoac chua hop If ; nho d6 tao cho timg hQC sinh vtmg tin vao nang lire ban than c6 th~ dat ket qua t6t trong cac ki kiem tra danh gia va thi.

Viec on tap mon Toan can dat tm hieu duoc ban chat va van dung diroc cac noi dung hoc ; khi on tap khong nen qua chii y vao viec tim nhirng thu thuat ghi nho diroc nhieu, mac du nho la co sa can cho viec giai cac bai toan, nlnrng khong du ; bOi VI viec nam virng cac each giai cac dang bai toan co ban cho nhieu kha nang dat ket qua t6t trong kiem tra, thi. Viec on tap giup ta nho noi dung hoc t6t hon va thirc su htru Ich cho viec giai cac bai toan. Su quan trong cua viec on t~p la a ch6 : giiip hoc sinh he thong lai va rut ra nhfrng dieu co ban, chii yeu, khai quat hoa cua nhirng kien thirc - ki nang d3: hoc d~ thay dtroc su nrong dong, nrong irng, dong dang, bien d6i v6 hlnh, khai niem, phirong phap, dang toan., trong chirong trinh mon hoc cua mot noi dung, mot chu d~, mot lap hay toan cap hoc.

- Giao vien huang dan on tap can quan trier r6 : nhtrng each on tap d6u la nhtrng bi~u hien cu th~ cua viec he thong hoa kien thirc theo huang lam r6 cau tnic cua tirng phan, timg chirong, tirng mach kien tlnrc, timg chu d6 hay toan th~ cua clnrong trinh ; lam r6 vi trf cua moi kien thirc va quan he gitra cac kien tlnrc ; tranh viec he thong hoa n~g tinh hlnh thuc nhu li¢t ke cac c6ng thuc, cac dinh If, cac d~g toan d3: hQc theo dung khu6n mau va trinh tl!' nhu trong sach giao khoa. Cung vm vi¢c huang dan hQc sinh h¢ th6ng hoa kien thuc, giao vien giup hQc sinh sap xep cac bai t~p va phan chia thanh cac d~g bai t~p d~ nfun vfing cach giai chung cho tUng d~g chinh, dong thffi nhac l~i va ghi ra dUQ'C nhfing kien thuc, dinh If, c6ng thuc, suy lu~ d3: hQC a lap dum, nay thuemg phai sir dl;lng nhieu d~ giai toan a lap 11. Trong tinh hlnh thl!'c te hi¢n nay, giao vien can t6 chuc d~y va hQC chu dao ngay tit dau nam hQC, 6n t~p deu d~ sau tUng chuoog, ml;lc, giup hQc sinh tl!' giai cac cau hoi va bai t~p neu trong chuAn kien thuc, ki nang.

94

- Giao vien can phai linh hoat trong viec day hoc, co th~ dan dill hoc sinh tiep can kien thirc, ki nang trinh bay theo phirong phap khac, each khac hoac thay boi vi du khac tuy theo doi nrong, vung mien d~ tlnrc hien chuan phu hop voi mire dQ nhan thirc cua moi Ioai doi nrong. Trong day hoc cung nhu kiem tra, danh gia, can luu y toi cong cu may tfnh cam tay nham giam tai phan tfnh toan cung nhu d6i moi ca trinh bay loi giai Ian khau ra d~ va dap an nrong irng yeu cau tinh dung hoac tinh gan dung ; khfch l~ nhirng hoc sinh co each giai dung bci nhirng kien tlnrc, ki nang co diroc do ban than no hrc hoc tap,

VOl co QUAN, CAN B(> QUAN LI GIAo Dl)C

- V m cac CC1 quan, can bo quan if giao due thi noi dung van ban neu trong cuon sach nay Ia can cu toi thieu d~ danh gia, kiem tra viec day va hQC.

- Trong thanh tra, kiem tra day va hQC can quan trier tinh than

+ Khuyen khich giao vien sang tao linh hoat trong moi bai hoc, tiet hQC ; giao vien co th~ trinh bay day noi dung kien thirc nhu dll neu trong van ban, tuy nhien co th~ linh hoat trong each trinh bay (co th~ trinh bay theo phirong phap khac, each khac hoac thay bOi vi du khac urong ur v~ rmrc dQ nhan thirc) ; kiem tra (hoac ra d~ thi) dung theo yeu cau mire dQ dll d~ cap trong cuon sach voi nhirng bai toan khac nrong dirong mire dQ nhan thirc ;

+ Can luu y toi cong cu may tinh earn tay nham giam tai v~ phan tfnh toan va d~ d6i moi ca trinh bay Uri giai Ian khau ra de va dap an nrong tmg yeu cau tfnh dung hoac tfnh g.m dung ;

+ Khfch l~ nhimg hoc sinh co each giai dung bOi nhirng kien thirc, ki nang co diroc do ban than no hrc hoc tap.

TAl LI$U THAM KHla CHiNH

1. ~K, ~v Toan 10, 11, 12 - Chuong trinh nang cao - GS. DOOn Quynh (Tong Chu bien) va cac tac gia,

2. ~K, ~V Toan 10, 11, 12 - among trinh chuan - PGS. Tran Van Hao (Tong Chu bien) va cac tac gia.

3. Van ban chi dao cua B(> GD&DT lien quan : Chuong trinh giao due phd thong mon Toan, D6i moi phuong phap day h9C, D6i moi ra de kiem tra, Danh muc thiet bi day h9C Toan 10, 11, 12.

4. Huang da.n thirc hanh Toan tren may tinh Casio, Vinacal fx-570MS.

5. Hi lieu ve hoi nghi tap huan phirong phap day h9C Toan h9C phd thong, B<) Giao due va Dao tao, 12/2000.

6. De tai B94 - 27 - 01 - PP ve d6i moi phuong phap day h9C cac mon khoa h9C nr nhien 0 tnrong THPT thea huang "hoat dong hoa ngiroi h9C· - 1997.

7. Jean - Marc Denomme et Madelleine Roy: (Pour une pedagogic interactive).

Tien toi mot phirong phap str pham nrong tac (Ngiroi dich : Nguyen Quang Thuan - Tong Van Quan) - NXBTN - 2003.

8. Tran Kieu (Chu bien) va cong SlJ : D6i moi phirong phap day h9C 0 tnrong

Trung h9C co so - Vien Khoa h9C Giao due - 1997.

9. Geoffrey Petty: D<;lY hoc ngay nay, DlJ an Viet - Bi, 2002.

10. Robert Fisher: D<;lY h9C tre, DlJ an Viet - Bi, 2002.

11. Wilbert J. McKeachie : Nhimg thu thuat trong day h9C, DlJ an Viet - Bi, 2002.

12. Tran Ba Hoanh va cong slJ : Ap dung day va h9C tfch eire trong mon Toan, DlJ an Viet - Bi, 2002.

13. Nguyen Ba Kim - Dinh Nho Chirong ... : Phuong phap day h9C mon Toan - NXBGD -1994.

14. Pham Gia Dire - Nguyen Manh Cang ... : Phuong phap day h9C mon Toan - NXBGD - 1998.

15. De tai cap B<) rna so B 2002 - 49 - TD37 ve Dinh huang va cac giai phap d6i moi PPDH 0 tnrong phd thong - Vien Chien hroc va Chirong trinh Giao due, Ha N<)i, 2004.

95

Ml)C Ll)C

Uri gim thieu

Trang 3

Phdn thit nhat

GlOI THIEU CHUNG VE CHUAN KIEN THUC·, KI NANG CVA CHWNG TRINH GlAo Dl}C PHO THONG

Pluin thit hai

HWNG DAN rnu: HI~N CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG MON ToAN THPT

Huang dan thuc hien Chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang mon Toan lop 11 A - Kien tlnrc chirong trinh mon Toan lop 11

B - Huang dan thirc hien Chuan kien thirc,

ki nang mon Toan lop 11

T6 chirc thuc hien

5

13 21 21

22 93

Chiu trach nhiem xudt han:

Chu tich HDQT kiem Tong Giarn d6c NG~ TRAN AI

Ph6 TCing Giam doc kiem TCing bien t~p NGUYEN QUY THAO

T 6 chile han thdo va chiu tracn nhiem n9i dung:

Pho Vl;I tnrong Vl;I Giao due Trung hoc NGUYEN HAl CHAu Giam doc CTCP Djch Vl;I xuat ban Giao due Ha N¢i PHAN KE THAI

Bien tdp nai dung:

NGUYEN NGQC TO - NGUYEN TRQNG THI~P

Trinh hay hia :

LutJ CHI DONG

Sita han in:

NGUYEN TH~ THANH

Che'bdn :

CONG TY CO PHAN THIET KE V A PHAT HANH sAcH GIAo Dl}C

Nha xuat biin Giao dl;lC Vi¢t Nam - B¢ Giao dl;lC va Dao ~o giiI quyen cong b6 tac philm.

HlfONG DAN THl!C HI~N CHUAN KJEN THUC, K1 NANG MON ToAN LOP 11

S6 dang ky KHXB : 641-2009/CXB/39-1124/GD. Mil s6 : TYT91H9 - DTH

In 7.000 ban (QD 84TK); khd 29 x 20.5 em.

In tai Nha may in BTfM. S6 in: 1073

In xong va nop hru chien thangIl nam 2009.

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