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SACH HUONG DAN CHUAN KIEN THUC KI NANG TOAN 10 ( BGD ).pdf

SACH HUONG DAN CHUAN KIEN THUC KI NANG TOAN 10 ( BGD ).pdf

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BO GIAo Due vA DAo TAO

. . .

NGUYEN THE THACH (CHU BIEN)

NGUYEN HAl CHAu ~ QUACH Ttl CHudNG - NGUYEN TRUNG HIEU DoAN THE PHI$T - PHAM DUC QUANG - NGUYEN THJ QUY SUtJ

-

HUaNG DAN THUC HIEN

. .

~ K " - ~

CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG

MONTOAN

LOP 10

NHA XUAT BAN GIAo DVG VI~T NAM

LOI GIOI TIII~U

Nqay 5 thang 5 narn 2006, B9 truong B9 Giao due va Dao t<:10 oa ki Ouyet dinh so 16/2006/Q£)-BGDDT ve viec ban hanh Chuang trinh Giao due pho thong.

Chuang trlnh Giao due pho thong la ket qua cua su oieu chlnh, hoan thien, to chirc lai CaG chuang trinh oa oU<;1c ban hanh, lam can cu cho viec quan li, chi 0<:10, to chirc d<:1Y h9C va ki~m tra, danh qia a tat ca cac cap h9C, trl(dng h9C tren pharn vi ca ruroc.

Chuang trinh Giao due pho thong la mot ke hoach SL( pharn gam: - Myc tieu qiao due ;

- Pharn vi va cau true n9i dung qiao due ;

- Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va y~u cau ve thai 09 cua tung rnon h9C,

cap h9C;

- Phuonq phap va hinh tlurc t6 chirc qiao due ;

- Danh gia 'ket qua qiao due tltng rnon h9C CJ moi lop, cap h9C.

Trang Chuang trinh Giao due pho thong, Chuan kien thuc, kT nang au<;:lc th~ hien, cu th~ hoa a cac chu oe cua chuang trlnh rnon h9C, theo tung lop h9C ; dong thdi cOng oU<;:lc th~ hien a phan cuoi cua chuang trlnh moi cap h9C.

C6 th~ n6i : f)i~m m(ji cua Chuang trinh Giao due pho thong Ian nay la dua Chuan kien thirc, kT nang vao thanh phan cua Chuang trlnh Giao due pho thong, darn bao viec chi 0<:10 d<:1Y h9C, ki~m tra, danh gia theo Chuan kien truro, kT nang, tao nen sy' thong nhat trong .eel nuoc ; g6p phan khac phuc tlnh tranq qua tai trang giang d<:1Y, h9C tap ; qiarn thi~u d<:1Y them, h9C them.

Nhln chung, a cac trudng pho thong hi$n nay, buoc oau oa van dyng oU<;:lc Chuan kien thirc, kT nang trong giang d<:1Y, h9C tap, ki~m tra, danh gia ; song va tong th~, van chua dap Ctng diroc yeu cau cua ooi m(ji qiao due pho thong; can phai oU<;1C tiep tuc quan tam, chu tronq han rura.

Nharn g6p phan khac phuc han che nay, B9 Giao due va Dao t<:10 to chirc bien soan, xuat ban b9 tai li$u HU'Cing dan tht,IC hi~n Chuii'n kien thUt,

kr nang cho cac man h9C, lop h9C cua cac cap Ti~u h9C, Trung h9C co so va Trung hoc pho thong.

B9 tai ii$u nay diroc bien 50<:1n theo hu(jng chi tiet, tUdng minh cac yeu cau co ban, toi thi~u ve kien thuc, ki nang cua Chuan kien thuc, ki nang bang cac n¢i dung chon 19C trong sach qiao khoa, tao oieu kien thuan l<;:Ii han nua cho qiao 'lien va hoc sinh trong qua trlnh giang d<:1Y, h9C tap va ki~m tra, danh qia.

Cau true chung cua be? tai li~u gam hal philn chlnh :

PhBn tn« nhat : Gi(ji thieu chung ve Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuang trlnh Giao due pho thong;

PhDn tho bo! : Hu(jng dan thuc hien Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua Wng men h9C trong Chuang trlnh GiElO due pho thong.

B9 tal li$u : HU'Cing dan tht,IC hi~n Chua'n kien thUt, kr nang cac rnon h9C a Trung h9C co so va Trung h9C pho thong c6 sir tham gia bien soan, tham dinh, g6p y cua nhieu nha khoa h9C, nha sir pharn, cac can b9 nqhien cuu va chi 0<:10 chuyen rnon, cac qiao vien d<:1Y giOi a ala phironq.

Hi vonq rang, HLf6ng dan tht,1C hi~n Chua'n kien thUt, kr nang S8 ta b9 tai li$u hO'u ich ooi voi can b9 quan Ii qiao due, qlao vien va h9C sinh trong ca ruroc, Cac So Giao due va Dao t<:10 chi dao tri~n khai slJ' dyng b9 tal li$u va t<:10 oiau kien o~ cac co so qiao due, cac giao vien va h9C sinh thuc hien tot yeu cau ooi moi phuong phap d<:1Y h9C, ooi mol ki~m tra, danh qia, g6p phan tich cue, quan tronq vao viec nang cao chat IU<;:lng giao due trung h9C.

Lan oau tien oU<;1C xuat ban, bo tal li$u nay kh6 tranh khoi nhG'ng thieu s6t, han che. B9 Giao due va Dao t<:10 rat mong nhan OU<;1c nhG'ng y kien nhan xet, 06ng g6p cua cac thay co qiao va ban 09C gan xa a~ tal li$u oU<;:lc tiep tuc bo sung, hoan thien han cho Ian xuat ban sau.

BO GIAo Dl)C vA DAo TAO

3

A , K

PHAN THU NHAT

GIOI THI~U CHUNG VE CHuAN IGEN THUC, xt NANG CllA CHUONG TRINH GIAo D1)C PHQ THONG

1- GI01 THI£U CHUNG vB CHUAN

1. Chuan hi nhimg yeu cau, tieu chi (goi chung la yeu cau) tuan thu nhirng nguyen tac nhat dinh, diroc dung d~ lam thuoc do danh gia hoat dong, cong viec, san pham cua linh vue nao do. Dat diroc nhirng yeu cau cua chuan la dat diroc muc tieu mong muon cua chu the quan If heat dong, cong viec, san pham do.

Yeu cau la su cu the hoa.ichi tiet, urong minh Chuan, chi ra nhirng can ctr d~ danh gia chat lirong. Yeu cau co th~ duoc do thong qua chi so thirc hien. Yeu cau diroc xem nhu nhirng "chot kiern soar" d~ danh gia chat hrong dau vao, dau ra cling nhu qua trinh thuc hien.

2. Nlumg yeu cau co ban cua chuan

2.1. Chuan phai co tinh khach quan, nhin chung khong l~ thuoc van quan diem hay thai dQ chu quan cua nguoi sir dung Chuan.

2.2. Chuan phai co hieu hrc 6n dinh d ve pham vi Ian thoi gian ap dung, 2.3. Dam bao tinh kha thi, co nghia la Chuan do co th~ dat diroc (la trinh dQ hay mire dQ dung hoa hop if giira yeu cau phat trien a mire cao han voi nhirng thuc tien dang dien ra).

2.4. Dam bao tinh cu the, nrong minh va co chirc nang dinh lirong. 2.5. Dam bao khong mau thuan voi cac chuan khac trong cung linh vue hoac nhirng Iinh vue co lien quan.

II - CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG CllA CHUONG TRINH GlAo Dl)C PHO THONG

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai dQ cua Chuang trinh Giao due pho thong (CTGDPT) duoc th~ hien cu th~ trong cac chuang trinh man h9C, hoat dong giao due (goi chung la man h9C) va cac chuang trinh cap h9C.

Doi voi moi man h9C, moi cap h9C, muc tieu cua man h9C, cap h9C duoc cu the hoa thanh chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua chuang trinh mon h9C, chuong trinh cap h9C.

1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuang trinh mon hoc la cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua man h9C rna h9C sinh can phai va co th~ dat diroc sau moi dan vi kien thirc Cmoi bai, chu de, chu diem, rna dun).

Chudn kiln thuc, ki nang ctla mot don vi kiln tiua: la cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua dan vi kien thirc rna h9C sinh can phai va co th~ dat duoc,

Yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang th~ hien muc dfj can dat ve kiln thuc, ki nang.

Moi yeu cdu ve kien tlurc, ki nang co tM duoc chi tiit han bang nhirng yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang cu the, nrong minh han ; minh chirng bang nhirng vi du the hien duoc cit noi dung kien thirc, ki nang va mire do can dat ve kien thirc, ki nang.

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2. Chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang cua Chuong trinh cap 119C la cac yeu cau co ban, t6i thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua cac man h9C rna h9C sinh can phai va co thti dat duoc sau tung giai doan h9C tap trong cap h9C.

2.1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang 0 chuang trinh cac cap h9C de cap tai nhfrng yeu cau t6i thieu ve kien thuc, ki nang rna h9C sinh (HS) can va co th~ dat duoc sau khi hoan thanh chuang trinh giao due cua tirng lap h9C va cap h9C. Cac chuan nay cho thay y nghia quan trong ella viec gan ket, phoi hop giira cac man h9C nham U<;1t duoc muc lieu giao due cua cap h9C.

2.2. Viec th~ hien Chuan kien thirc, ki nang 0 cu6i chuang trinh cap h9C th~ hien hinh mau mong doi ve nguoi h9C sau moi cap h9C va can thiet cho cong tac quan If, chi dao, dao tao, boi dirong giao vien (GV).

2.3. Chuang trinh cap h9C da th~ hien chuan kien thrrc, ki nang khong phai d6i voi tirng man hoc rna d6i voi tirng Iinh vue hoc tap, Trong van ban ve chuang trinh cua cac cap h9C, cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang duoc bien soan thea tinh than :

a) Cac chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang khong diroc dira vao cho lung man hoc rieng biet rna cho tung Iinh vue hoc tap nham the; hien su gan ker giira cac man hoc va heat' dQng giao due trong nhiem vu thirc hien muc tieu cua cap hoc,

b) Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yell cau ve thai do diroc th~ hien trong chuang trinh cap hoc la cac chuan cua cap hoc, !UC la nhirng yeu cau elf th~ rna HS can dat diroc 0 cuoi cap hoc, Cach the hien nay tao mot tam nhin ve 51! phat trien ella nguoi hQC sau moi cap hoc, d6i chieu voi nhtrng gl rna muc tieu ella cap hQC da de ra.

3. Nhiing dac diem cua Chuan kien thirc, ki nang

3.1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang duoc chi tier, urong minh bang cac yell cau cu the, r5 rang ve kien thirc, ki nang.

3.2. Chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang co tfnh t6i thieu, nham dam bao moi HS can phai va co the; dat duoc nhirng yeu cau cu the nay.

3.3. Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang la thanh phan cua CTGDPT.

Trong CTGDPT, Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do doi voi ngiroi hoc diroc the hien, cu the hoa 0 cac chu de cua chtrong trinh man hoc thea tung lap va a cac Iinh vue hoc tap ; dong thai, Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang va yell cau ve thai do ciing diroc th~ hien a phan cuoi cua chuang trinh moi cap hoc.

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la thanh pluin ella CTGDPT. Viec chi dao day hoc, ki~m tra, danh gia thea Chuan kien thirc, ki nang sc tao nen sir thong nhat ; lam han che tinh trang day hoc qua tai, dira them nhieu noi dung nang ne, qua cao so voi chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang van day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia ; gop 'phan lam giam tieu eire cua d<;1Y them, hoc them; tao dieu kien co' ban, quan trong d~ co th~ t6 chirc giang day, hoc tap, kiem tra, danh gia va thi thea Chuan kien thirc. ki nang.

III - cAc MU'C DO VE KIEN THUC, KI NANG

Cac mire dQ ve kien thiic, ki nang duoc th~ hien cu th~ trong Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua CTGDPT.

Ve kien thirc : Yeu call HS phai nho, nam vtrng, hi~u r5 cac kien thtrc Co' ban rrong chuang trinh, sach giao khoa, do la nen tang virng vang d~ co the phat trien nang hrc nhan thtrc 0 cap cao hem.

Ve ki nang : Biet van dung cac kien thirc da hoc M tra loi cau hoi, giai bai tap, lam thirc hanh ; co ki nang tinh toan, ve hinh, dung bieu d6, ...

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Kien thirc, ki nang phai dira tren co S0 phat trien nang lire, tri tue HS 0 cac mire do, tv don gian den pink tap ; noi dung bao ham cac rmrc oQ khac nhau ella nhan thirc.

Mire dQ can dat duoc ve kien thirc duoc xac dinh thea 6 mere oQ : nhan bier, thong hieu, van dung, phan tich, danh gia va sang tao (e6 th~ tham khao them phan loai Nikko gum 4 mire 0(> : nhan biet, thong hieu, van dung 0 rmrc thap, van dung 0 mere eao).

1. Nhan biet : La SV nho lai cac dir lieu, thong tin eta c6 truce day; nghia la e6 th~ nhan biet thong tin, ghi nho, tai hien thong tin, nhac lai mot loat dii lieu, tv cac sir kien dan gian den cac If thuyet phirc tap. Day la mere do, yeu cau thap nhat ella' trinh etQ nhan there, the hien 6 eh6 HS e6 th~ va chi can nho hoac nhan ra khi duoc dira ra hoac dira tren nlurng thong tin e6 tinh dac thu ella mot khai niern, mot sir vat, mot hien tuong.

HS phat bieu dung mot dinh nghia, dinh li, dinh luat nhung chua

giai thich va van dung duoc cluing.

C6 th6 cu tht hoa mire de) nhan bier bang cac yell cau :

- Nhan ra, nho lai cac khai niern, dinh If, dinh luat, tinh chat.

- Nhan dang duoc (khong can giai thfeh) cac khai niern, hinh th6,

vi trf tuong etoi gitra cac doi tuong trong cac tinh huong dan gian,

- Liet ke, xac dinh cac vi tri wang doi, cac moi quan he ela biet giira cac yeu to, cac hien urong,

2. Thong hieu : La kha nang nam diroc, hieu duoc y nghia ella cac khai niem, sir vat, hien tuong ; giai thich, cluing minh clHQ'C y nghia ella cac khai niern, sV vat, hien nrong ; la mire etl) eao han nhan biet nhtrng la mere dQ thap nhat ella viec thau hieu su vat, hien tuong, lien quan den y nghia ella cac moi quan he gifra cac khai niern, thong tin rna HS eta hoc hoac eta biet. Dieu do co tht diroc Ih~ hien bang vice

chuyen thong tin tv dang nay sang dang khac, bang each giai thich thong tin (giai rhich hoac t6m tat) va bang each iroc IUQ'ng xu hircng urong lai (du bao cac h¢ qua hoac anh huong).

C6 th~ cu th~ hoa mire de) thong hieu hang cac yeu cau :

- Dien ta bang ngon ngii ca nhan de khai niem, dinh li, dinh luat, tinh chat, chuyen d6i duoc tir hinh thirc ngon ngii nay sang hinh thuc ngon ngfr khac (vi du : ttl lei sang cong thirc, kf hieu, so lieu va nguoc lai),

- Bi~u thi, minh hoa, giai thich duoc y nghia ella cac khai niern, hien urong, dinh nghia, dinh If, dinh luat.

- LVa chon, b6 sung, sap xep lai nhirng thong tin can thiet et~ giai quyet mot van de nao do.

- Sap xep lai cac y tra loi cau hoi hoac loi giiii bai toan thea cau true logic.

3. Van dung : La kha nang sir dung cac kien thirc eta h9C vao mot hoan canh cu th~ moi : van dung nhan bier, hieu bier thong tin et~ giai quyet Vall de et~t ra ; la kha nang doi hoi HS phai bier van dung kien thtrc, biet sir dung phirong phap, nguyen If hay y LUang d~ giai quyet mot van de nao d6.

Yeu cau Lip dung duoc cac quy Ule, phuong phap, khai niern, nguyen If, dinh If, dinh luat, cong there de giai quyet mot van de trong hoc tap hoac ella thuc tien. Day E\ mere dQ thong hieu eao han rmrc dQ thong hieu tren.

C6 th~ cu th~ hoa nurc d<) van dung bang cac yeu call : - So sanh cac phuong an giai quyet van de.

- PhM hien lui giai co mau thuan, sai lam va ehinh sua diroc.

- Giai quyet duoc nhtrng tinh huong moi bang each van dung cac

khai niern, dinh if, dinh lu<~L tlnh chXt eta biet.

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- Khai quat hoa, triru nrong hoa tir tinh huong don gian, don le quen thuoc sang tinh huong moi, phirc t<;1P hon,

4. Phan tich : La kha nang phan chia mot thong tin ra thanh cac phan thong tin nho sao cho c6 th~ hieu duoc cau tnic, t6 chirc cua n6 va thiet lap moi lien h~ phu thuoc Ian nhau gitra cluing.

Yeu cau chi ra diroc cac bo phan cau thanh, xac dinh duoc rnoi quan he giira cac bo pharr, nhan biet va hieu diroc nguyen If cau tnic cua cac bo phan cau thanh, Day la mire d9 cao han van dung VI n6 doi hoi su thau hieu ca ve noi dung Ian hinh thai cau true cua thong tin, sir vat, hien urong.

C6 th~ C1,1 th~ hoa mire d9 phan tfch bang cac yeu cau :

- Phan nch cac su kien, dtr kien thira, thieu hoac du d~ giai quyet

diroc van de. .

- Xac dinh duoc moi quan he gifra cac bo phan trong to an thl

- C1,1 th~ hoa diroc nhtrng van de triru tuong.

- Nhan biet va hieu diroc cau true cac bo phan cau thanh.

5. Danh gia : La kha nang xac dinh gia tri cua thong tin: binh xet, nhan dinh, xac dinh diroc gia tri cua mot nr nrong, mot noi dung kien thirc, mot plnrong phap, Day la mot biroc moi trong viec linh hoi kien thirc diroc dac tnrng bOi viec di sau vao ban chat cua doi nrong, su vat, hien urong. Viec danh gia dua tren cac tieu chi nhat dinh ; d6 c6 th~ la cac tieu chi ben trong (each t6 chirc) hoac cac tieu chi ben ngoai (phil hop voi muc dich).

Yeu cau xac dinh diroc cac tieu chi danh gia (ngiroi danh gia nr xac dinh hoac diroc cung cap cac tieu chi) va van dung diroc d~ danh gia.

C6 th~ C1,1 th~ hoa mire d9 danh gia bang cac yeu cau :

- Xac dinh diroc cac tieu chi danh gia va van dung d~ danh gia thong tin, sir vat, hien nrong, S\! kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh gia tri cua cac thong tin, nr lieu theo mot I111,1C dich, yeu cau xac dinh,

- Phan tich nhtrng yeu to, dtr kien da cho d~ danh gia sir thay d6i ve chat cua sir vat, S,! kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh diroc gia tri cua nhan to rnoi xuat hien khi thay d6i cac moi quan he cu.

Cac cong C1,1 danh gia c6 hieu qua phai giup xac dinh duoc ket qua hoc tap iJ moi cap d9 n6i tren d~ dira ra mot nhan dinh chinh xac ve nang lire cua nguoi diroc danh gia ve chuyen mon lien quan.

6. Sang tao : La kha nang t6ng hop, sap xep, thiet ke lai thong tin ; khai thac, b6 sung thong tin tir cac nguon ur lieu khac de sang lap mot hinh mau rnoi,

Yeu cau tao ra duoc mot hinh mau moi, mot mang hroi cac quan he triru tirong (so' do phan lap thong tin). Ket qua hoc tap trong linh vue nay nhan manh van cac hanh vi, nang lire sang tao, dac biet la trong viec hinh thanh cac cau tnic va mo hinh maio

C6 th~ C1,1 th~ hoa mire d¢ sang t<;10 bang cac yeu cau : - MiJ rong mot mo hinh ban dau thanh mo hinh moi.

- Khai quat hoa nhtrng van de rieng le, C1,1 th~ thanh van de tong

quat maio

- Ket hop nhieu yeu to rieng thanh mot tong th~ hoan chinh maio

- D,! doan, dir brio sir xuat hien nhan to moi khi thay d6i cac moi

quan he cu.

Day la rmrc d9 cao nhat cua nhan thirc, VI n6 chua dung cac yeu to cua nhirng mire d9 nhan thirc tren va dong thai cung phat trien chung.

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IV - CHUAN KIEN THllC, KI NANG CllA CHUONG TRINH GlAo Dl)C PHO THONG vUA LA cAN en, vUA LA Ml)C TIEU CllA GIANG DAY, HOC TAP, KLEM TRA, DANH GIA

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do cua CTGDPT bao dam tinh thong nhat, tinh kha thi, phil hop cua CTGDPT ; bao dam chat hrong va hieu qua cua qua trinh giao due.

1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la can err

1.1. Bien soan sach giao khoa (SGK) va cac tai lieu huang dan d<;1Y h9C, kiem tra, danh gia, d6i rnoi phirong phap d<;1Y h9C, d6i moi kiem tra, danh gia.

1.2. Chi dao, quan If, thanh tra, kiem tra viec thirc hien d<;1Y h9C, kiem tra, danh gia, sinh hoat chuyen mon, dao tao, boi dirong can bo quan If va GV.

1.3. Xac dinh muc tieu cua moi gia h9C, muc tieu cua qua trinh day h9C, dam bao chat hrong giao due,

104. Xac dinh muc tieu kiem tra, danh gia doi voi tirng bai kiem tra, bai thi ; danh gia ket qua giao due tung mon h9C, lap h9C, cap h9C.

2. Tai lieu Huang dan thuc hien Ch'uan kiln thuc, ki ndng diroc bien soan thea huang chi tiet cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuan kien thirc, ki nang bang cac noi dung chon 19C trong SGK.

Tai lieu giiip cac can bo quan If giao due, cac can bo chuyen mon, GV, HS nam vimg va thirc hien dung thea Chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

3. Yeu cau day hoc bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang 3.1. feu cdu chung

a) Can cu Chuan kien thirc, ki nang d~ xac dinh muc tieu bai hoc, Chii trong day h9C nham dar diroc cac yeu cau co ban va toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang, dam bao khong qua tai va khong qua l~ thuoc hoan toan vao SGK ; mire d¢ khai thac san kien thtrc, ki nang trong SGK phai phil hop voi kha nang tiep thu cua HS.

b) Sang tao ve phirong phap day h9C phat huy tinh chu dong, tich eire, tu giac hoc tap cua HS. Chu trong ren luyen plnrong phap nr duy, nang lire tir h9C, ur nghien CUll ; tao niem vui, hirng khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai d¢ nr tin trong h9C tap cho HS.

c) D<;1y h9C th~ hien moi quan he tich eire giira GV va HS, gifra HS voi HS ; tien hanh thong qua viec t6 chirc cac hoat dong h9C tap cua HS, ket hop giira h9C tap ca th~ voi h9C tap hop tac, lam viec thea nhom.

d) D<;1y hoc chii trong den viec ren luyen cac ki nang, nang lire hanh dong, van dung kien thirc, tang cirong thuc hanh va gan noi dung bai h9C voi thuc tien cuoc song.

e) D<;1y h9C chii trong den viec sir dung co hieu qua phirong tien, thiet bi day h9C diroc trang bi hoac do GV va HS nr lam ; quan tam irng dung cong nghe thong tin trong day h9C.

g) D<;1y h9C chii trong den viec dong vien, khuyen khich kip thai sir tien bo cua HS trong qua trinh h9C tap ; da dang noi dung, cac hinh thirc, each thirc danh gia va tang ctrong hieu qua viec danh gia.

3.2. feu cdu dOl voi can bo qudn li co sif gido due

a) Nam virng chu tnrong d6i moi giao due pho thong cua Dang, Nha mroc ; nam virng muc dich, yeu cau, noi dung d6i moi tM hien cu

9

the trong cac van ban chi dao cua Nganh, trong Chirong trinh va SGK, phuong phap day h9C (PPOH), sir dung phuong tien, thiet bi day h9C, hinh tlurc t6 clurc day h9C va danh giri k6t qua giao due.

b) Nam virng yeu cau day h9C bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang trong CTGOPT, dong thai tao dieu kien thuan loi cho GV, dong vien, khuyen khich GV tfch eire d6i moi PPOB.

c) C6 bien phap quan If, chi dao t6 chirc thuc hien d6i moi PPOH trong nha tnrong mot each hieu qua; thuong xuyen kiem tra, danh gia cac hoat dong day h9C thea dinh huang day hoc bam sat Chunn kien thirc, ki nang dong thai voi tich eire d6i moi PPOH.

d) Dong vien, khen thuong kip thai nhirng GV thuc hien c6 hieu qua dong thai voi phe binh, nhac nho nhirng ngiroi chua tich cue d6i moi PPOH, day qua tai do khong barn sat Chuan kien thtrc, ki nang.

3.3. Yeu cdu dOl VOl giao vien

a) Bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang de thiet ke' bai giang, voi muc tieu la dat duoc cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thuc, ki nang, day khong qua tai va khong qua 1~ thuoc hoan toan van SGK. Viec khai thac sau kien tlurc, ki nang phai phil hop voi kha nang tiep thu cua HS.

b) Thier ke, t6 chirc, huang dan HS thirc hien cac hoat dong h9C tap voi cac hinh thirc da dang, phong phil, e6 sue hap dcin phil hop voi dac tnrng bai h9C, voi dac diem va trinh do HS, vci dieu kien cu the cua lap, tnrong va dia phuong,

c) Dong vien, khuyen khich, tao co hoi va dieu kien cho HS duoc tham gia mot each tich cue, chu dong, sang tao van qua trinh kham pha, phat hien, de xuat va Iinh hoi kien thirc ; chu <; khai thac von kien thtrc, kinh nghiem, ki nang da c6 cua HS ; tao niem vui, hung khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai d¢ nr tin trong h9C tap eho HS ; giup HS phat trien t6i da nang hrc, tiern nang cua ban than.

d) Thier ke va lurong dan HS thirc hien cac dang cau hoi, bai tap phat tricn ur c1uy va ren luyen ki nang; huang dan sir dung cac thiet bi day h9C . t6 chirc e6 hieu quit cac gia thirc hanh ; huang dan HS e6 th6i quen van dung kien thirc eta h9C vao giai quyet cac van de thuc tien,

e) Slr dung cac phuong phap va hinh thirc t6 chirc day h9C mot each hop If, hieu qua, linh hoat, phil hop voi dac tnrng cua cap h9C, man hoc: noi dung, tinh chat cua bai h9C ; dac diem va trinh d(> HS ; thoi luong day h9C va cac dieu kien day h9C cu the cua tnrong, dia phuong.

4. Yeu cau kiern tra, danh gia bam sat Chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang

4.1. Quan niem ve' kiim tra, danlt gia

Kiem Ira va danh gia la hai khau trong mot quy trinh thong nhat nham xac dinh ket qua thirc hien muc tieu day h9C. Kiem tra la thu thap thong tin til rieng le den he thong ve ket qua thuc hien muc tieu day h9C ; danh gia Hi xac dinh rmrc d(l dat duoc vc thuc hien In\IC tieu day h9C.

Danh gia ket qua h9C tap thuc chat la vice xem xet mire d(> dat duoc ella hoat dong h9C cua HS so voi muc tieu de ra doi voi tirng man h9C, tirng lap h9C, cap h9C. Muc tieu ella moi man h9C diroc cu the hoa thanh cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang, Til cac chuan nay, khi tien hanh kiem tra, danh gia ket qua h9C tap man h9C can ph Ai thiet ke thanh nhirng tieu chi nham kiem tra diroc day du ca ve dinh tfnh va dinh luong ket qua h9C tap ella HS.

4.2. Hai chuc nang co ban ella kilm Ira, danl: gia a) Chirc nang xac dinh

- Xac dinh I11UC d¢ dat diroc trong viec thuc hien muc tieu day h9C, xac dinh mire d(> thuc hien Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua chuong

10

trinh giao due rna HS dat diroc khi ket thiic mot giai doan h9C tap (ket thuc mot bai, chuang, chu dc, chu diem, mo dun, 16p h9C, cap h9C).

~ Xac dinh doi hoi tinh chinh xac, khach quan, cong bang,

b) Chirc nang dieu khien : Phat hien nhirng mat t6t, mat chua t6t, kho khan, virong mac va xac dinh nguyen nhan, Ket qua danh gia 13 din cu d~ quyet dinh giai phap cai thien thuc trang, nang cao chat lirong, hieu qua day h9C va giao due thong qua vice d6i moi, toi uu hoa PPDH cua GY va huong dan HS bier nr danh gia M toi tru hoa phirong phap hoc tap. Thong qua clnrc nang nay, kiem tra, danh gia se la dieu kien can thiet :

~ Gitip GY nam duoc tinh hinh h9C tap, mire oQ phan hoa ve trinh dQ h9C lire cua HS trong lap, tu do c6 bien phap giup dO' HS yeu kern va boi duong HS gioi ; giup Gy'dieu chinh, hoan thien PPDH ;

~ Giup HS bier diroc kha nang h9C tap cua minh so voi yeu cau cua chuang trinh ; xac dinh nguyen nhan thanh cong cling nhu chua thanh cong, rir d6 dieu chinh phirong phap h9C tap ; phat trien ki nang tv danh gia ;

- Guip can bo quan If giao due de ra giai phap quan li phu hop de nang cao chat Iuong giao due ;

- Gitip cha me HS va cong dong bier duoc ket qua giao due cua tirng HS, tirng lap va cua ca: co' sa giao due.

4.3. }' eu cdu kiem Ira, ddnh gia

a) Kiem tra, danh gia phai cdn ell vilo Chudn kien thuc, ki nang cua tung man h9C a tirng lap ; cac yeu cau CO ban, tai thieu can dat ve kien tlnrc, ki nang cua HS sau moi giai doan, moi lap, moi cap h9C.

b) Chi dao, kiem tra viec thuc hien chirong trinh, ke hoach giang day, h9C t(lp cua cac nha tWOng ; tang wOng d6i mai kMu ki~m tra,

danh gia thirong xuyen, dinh ki ; dam bao chat hrong kiem tra, danh gia thirong xuyen, dinh ki chinh xac, khach qU£l11, cong bang; khong hinh thirc, d6i pho nhirng cling khong gay ap luc nang ne. Kiem tra thirong xuyen va dinh ki then hirong vira danh gia diroc dung Chuan kien thirc, ki nang, vira co kha nang phan hoa cao ; kiem tra kien tlnrc, ki nang CO ban, nang lire van dung kien thirc cua nguoi h9C, thay VI chi kiem tra h9C thuoc long, nho may m6c kien thirc.

c) Ap dung cac phuong phap phan tich hien dai d~ tang cirong tinh Wong duong cua cac de kiem tra, thi. Ker hop that hop li cac hinh thirc kiem tra, thi van dap, tu luan va trac nghiem nham han che 16i h9C tu, . hoc lech, h9C vet ; phat huy I1U diem va han che nhiroc diem cua moi hinh thirc.

d) Danh gia chinh xac, dung thuc trang : danh gia cao han thirc te se trier tieu dong lire phan dau viron len; nguoc lai, danh gia khat khc qua rmrc hoac thai do thieu than thien, khong thay duoc su tien bo, se uc che tinh cam, tri tue, giam vai tro tich cue, chu dong, sang tao cua HS.

e) Danh gia kip thai, c6 tac dung giao due va dong vien su tien bo cua HS, giup HS sira chua thieu s6t. Danh gia ca qua trinh Iinh hoi tri thirc ella HS, chii trong danh gia hanh dong, tinh cam cua HS : nghi va lam; nang hrc van dung vao thuc tien, the hien qua ling xir, giao tiep ; quan tam toi mire dQ hoat dong tich cue, chu dong cua HS trong tung tier h9C tiep thu tri thirc moi, on luyen cling nhu cac tier thuc hanh, thi nghiem.

g) Khi danh gia ket qua h9C tap, thanh tich hoc tap cua HS khong chi danh gia ket qua cu6i cling, rna can chii y ca qua trinh h9C tap, Can tao dieu kien cho HS cung tham gia xac dinh tieu chi danh gia ket qua h9c t~p vai yeu cau khong t~p trung van kha nang tai hi¢n tri thlic ma

II

chii trong kha nang van dung tri thirc trong viec giai quyet cac nhiem Vl,I phirc hop, C6 nhieu hinh tlurc va d<) phan hoa eao trong danh gia,

h) Khi danh gia hoar dong day hoc khong chi danh gia thanh tfch hoc tap cua HS, rna con bao gam danh gia ca qua trinh day hoc nham cai tien hoat dong day hoc. Clui trong plurong phap, ki thuat lay thong tin phan hoi tir HS M danh gia qua trinh day hoc,

i) Ket hop that hop if gifta danh gia dinh tinh va dinh luong : Can cu VaG dac di~m cua tirng mon hoc va hoat dong giao due a moi lop hoc, cap hoc, quy dinh danh gia bang diem ket hop voi nhan xet cua GV hay danh gia bang nhan xet.xep JO<;1i cua GV.

k) Ket hop danh giri trong va danh gia ngoai,

D~ e6 them cac kenh thong tin phan hoi khach quan, din ket hop hai hoa giira danh gia trong va danh gia ngoai :

- Tu danh gia cua HS voi danh gia cua ban hoc, cua GV, cua co sa giao due, cua gia dinh va cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua G V veri danh gia cua dong nghiep, cua HS, gia dinh HS, cua cac co quan quan if giao due va cua cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua CO sa giao due voi danh gia cua cac co quan quan if giao due va cua cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua nganh Giao due voi danh gia cua xii h<)i va danh gia quoc teo

1) Phai la dong hrc thuc dfrY dbi moi PPDH : Dbi moi PPDH va dbi moi kiem tra, danh gia la hai mat thong nhat hiru co eua qua trinh day hoc, la nhan to quan trong nhat dam bao chat ltrong day hoc.

4.4. Cdc tieu chi cua kiim tra, danh. gia

a) Dam bao tinh toan dien : Danh gia diroc cac mat kien thirc, ki nang, nang lire, y tlnrc, thai do, hanh vi cua HS.

b) Dam bao d<) tin cay : Tinh chinh xac, trung thtrc, minh bach, khach quan, cong bang trong danh giri, ph an anh diroc chat hrong thuc cua HS, cua cac CO sa giao due.

c) Dam bao tfnh kha thi : Noi dung, hinh thirc, each thirc, phirong tien tb chirc kiem tra, danh gia phai phil hop voi dieu kien HS, CO sa giao due, dac biet la phil hop voi muc tieu thea tirng rnon h9C.

d) Dam bao yeu cau phan hoa : Phan loai duoc chinh xac trinh d<), mire d<), nang lire nhan .thirc cua HS, co sa giao due ; can dam bao dai phan hoa rong du cho phan 10<;1i doi tuong,

e) Dam bao hieu qua: Danh gia diroc tat ca cac Iinh vue can danh gia HS, co sa giao due ; tlurc hien diroc day du cac rnuc tieu de ra ; t<;1O dong hrc dbi moi phuong phap day hoc, g6p ph an nang cao chat luong giao due.

12

~ ,

PHANTHUHAI

HuONG nAN THl)'C HI~N cHuAN IGEN THUC, xt NANG MQN ToAN THPT

N(n DUNG MON ToAN THPT

Noi dung mon Toan bao g6m nhirng kien thirc co ban vf, : - SO va cac phep tfnh tren tap hop so thirc, so plnrc.

- Menh de va tap hop ; cac bieu thirc dai so va lUQUg giac

phuong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy vebac hai) ; he phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai) ; bat phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy ve bac hai) va he bat phirong trinh bac nhat (mot an, hai an).

- Ham so, gi6i han, dao ham, nguyen ham, tich phan va tmg dung cua cluing.

- Cac quan h~ hinh h9C va mot so hinh thong dung (diem, dirong thang, mat phang. hinh tam giac, hinh tron, elip, hinh da dien, hinh tron xoay) ; phep doi hinh.va phep dong dang ; vecto va toa d¢,

- Mot so kien thtrc ban dau ve thong ke, t6 hop, xac suat.

KINANGCOBAN

- Thirc hien duoc cac phep tfnh luy thira, khai can, logarit tren tap so thuc va mot so phep tinh don gian tren tap so phirc.

- Khao sat diroc mot so ham so co ban: ham so bac hai, bac ba, ax + b

ham so bac bon trung phuong, ham so phan thirc y = d '

, a+

2

ax + bx + C h' ' 1 ' 'h' K - hs K lc it

Y = , am so uong giac, am so mu, am so ogan .

. ex + d

- Giai thanh thao phirong trinh, bat phuong trinh bac nhat, bac hai, he phirong trinh bac nhat, Giai duoc mot so h~ phirong trinh, he bat phuong trinh bac hai ; phuong trinh hrong giac ; phuong trinh, bat phirong trinh, he phuong trinh mil va logarit don gian.

- Giai diroc mot so bai toan ve bien d6i lUQUg giac, luy thira, mil, logarit, ve day so, ve gi6i han cua day so va ham so.

- Tinh duoc dao ham, nguyen ham, tich phan cua mot so ham so.

- Ve hinh ; ve bieu d6 ; do dac ; tinh d¢ dai, g6c, dien tich,

th~ tich. Viet phuong trinh duong thang, duong tron, elip, mat phang, mat duo

- Thu thap va XU If so lieu ; tinh toan ve t6 hop va xac suat.

- V oc lUQUg ket qua do dac va tinh toano

- Su dung cac cong cu do, ve, tinh toano

- Suy luan va clnrng minh.

- Giai toan va van dung kien thtrc toan hoc trong hQC tap va

dm song.

13

LOP
M~CH NOI DUNG CHU DE I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2. Dai IUQ11g va 2.1. D9 dai * * * * * *
do dai IUQ11g --
2.2. G6c + + * * *
I
2.3. Dien tich + + + * * * *
2.4. Th~ tfch + * * *
2.5. Kh6i hrong * * *
I 2.6. Thoi gian * * * * *
f---
2.7. V~n toe * *
2.8. Ti6n te * *
3. D~i so 3.1. Tap hop, menh d~ * *
3.2. Bi~u thirc dai so + + + * * * *
3.3. Ham so va d6 thi + + + * * * * *
3.4. Phuong trmh, + + + + + + * * * * *
h~ phirong trinh
3.5. Bat dang thirc, ",
+ + + T + + + * * *
bat phuong trinh
3.6. Luong giac I + * *
I
L_ 3.7. Day so, cap so c9I1g, + + + + + + I + *
I dip so nhan
1 15

M~CH NOI DUNG

CHU f)~

LOP

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

+

+

+

12

4. Giai tich

5. Hinh hoc

4.1. Gi6i han

- Gioi han cua day so

- Gi6i han cua ham so

- Ham so lien tue

*

*

*

4.2. Dao ham

*

*

4.3. Nguyen ham, tfch phan

5.1. Cac khai niern hinh hoc m6.~au

5.2. Dai cirong v~ duong thang va mat phang

5.3. Quan he song song - Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.4. Quan h~ vuong goc -Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.5. Da giac - Tam giac

- Tt'r giac

- Da giac

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

16

+

+

+

+

*

*

.*

*

*

+

+

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

- Trong khong gian

+

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

+

+

+

*

*

*

5.10. TO<;l d¢ I

+ *

- Trong mat phang j I

-- -------------------- --------- -------------------- --------- ---------- --------- --------- ---------- --------- ---------

- Trong khong gian *

5.11. Phep doi hinh

- Trong mat phang

LOP

MACH NOI DUNG CHU DE---~_;-

~-------------~------------------+_----+---2--+_--3--~-4--~--5--~--~~--~-8---~ __ 9 __ ,_ __ 10 __ ~--11--~-1-2~

5.6. DuOng tron, hlnh tron + + + + +

5.7. Hinh da dien

5.S. Hinh tron xoay

---------1--

5.9. Vecto

- Trong mat phang

- Trong kh6ng gian

5.12. Phep dong dang

- Trong mat phang

*

- Trong khong gian

~-------------+----~------------~----~-----+-----+-----+----~-----~------- -----+-----+----~----~-----~

6. Thong ke. 6.1. Thong ke

T6 hop. Xac suat

16020 Til hop

L --'-_6.3. Xae suat

! "DAN. rOAN LOP 10 A

+

+

+

17

*

*

*

*

*

,.. ,..., ,.. ? ....,.."

DAY HOC MOT SO NOI DUNG CUA CHUaNG TRINH MON TOAN

1. D~y hoc cac h~ thong so

a) D~t van de rna rong cac he thong s6 : tir thuc tien, nr noi bo toan hQC, phoi hop.

b) Day hoc nhirng khai niem so : s6 va phep toan, y nghia thirc te cua nhirng khai ni~111 s6.

c) D(_lY hoc phep tinh va quan he tlur tu : ren ki nang tinh toan, phat trien nang hrc trf tue, ngam hinh thanh quan niem ve call tnic.

d) D(_lY hoc nhirng tinh chat cua moi h~ th6ng so : N, Z, Q, R C.

e) H~ thong hoa sir phat trien cua khai niem s6 va 1a111 r6 (gioi thieu) phuong phap rna: rong 111¢t he thong so.

2. D~y h9c phironq trinh va bat phironq trinh

a) D(_lY hoc khai niem phuong trinh va nhimg khai niem co lien quan.

b) D(_lY hoc plnrong trinh dua vao ham menh de : quan niern ve dang thirc ; hieu dung thirc chat cua dau = trong phuong trinh (hinh thirc), ph an biet dau = trong phuong trinh va dau = trong bien d6i dong .nhat ; dieu kien xac dinh va nghiern phirong trinh,

c) Sir dung ngon ngfr cua If thuyet tap hop va logic toan (bien d6i nrong dirong, he qua, ket hop nghiern, ... ).

d) Day hQC giai phirong trinh,

e) Dien bien cua t~p nghiern khi bien d6i phuong trinh : mo' rong, thu hep, urong dU()'J1g.

f) Giai quyet phuong dien ngiT nghia (xem xet noi dung cua nhirng rnenh de loan hQC va nghia cua nhfrng each dat van de toan hoc) va phuong dien cu phap (x em xet cau tnic hinh thirc va su bien d6i hinh thirc nhlrng bieu thirc toan hoc, SI! lam viec theo nhirng quy tac xac dinh, theo thuat giai).

g) Day hoc giai bai loan bang each lap phirong trinh.

h) Thay duoc irng dung cua 10£111 hoc trong thuc te va viec toan h9C hoa cac bai toan co noi dung tlnrc tien.

i) PMt hien quan he gifra cac dai lirong.

k) Ki nang giai bai toan, trong tam la ki nang lap va giai phirong trinh.

3. D~y hoc ham so

a) Day hoc khai niem ham so : giai thich dinh nghia ham s6 dira vao bieu urong tap hopva cau true logic, minh hO<;1 khai niem bang cac vi du da dang.

b) D<;1y hoc khao sat ham s6 : tinh toan phuc vu khao sat, ve d6 thi, d9C d6 thi,

c) Phat trien ur duy ham: nr nnrng chu dao (phat hien, nghien ctru nhirng su nrong irng) ; thuc hien goi dong co ; hinh thanh bien tirong tien toi tri thirc vc su urong irng dan tri va tap luyen nhirng hoat dong an khop voi tri thirc phirong phap ve tu duy ham ; phan bac hoat dong ve tu duy ham (sir phirc t<;1P, mire d¢ doc lap cua hoat dong nhan thirc hoc sinh, mire d¢ thanh thao cua hoar dong).

d) Phat trien ur duy ham trong loan bo chuang trinh mon toan (theo cac mach toan),

18

2 !lOAN. TOANLdP10 R

4. D~y hoc dao ham va tlch phan

a) D<;1Y h9C ham s6 lien tuc : gidi han cua day s6 ; gioi han cua ham s6 ; ham so lien tuc,

b) Day h9C dao ham : hinh thanh khai niern ; d<;1Y h9C tim dao ham; d<;1Y h9C irng dung cua dao ham.

c) Day h9C nguyen ham va tich phan : hinh thanh khai niern ; d<;1Y h9C tim nguyen ham; khai niern tich phan ; tinh tich phan,

5. D~y hoc hinh hoc khong gian

a) Day h9C khai niem : hlnh thanh, cung co, van dung.

b) D<;1Y hoc cluing minh : goi dong co ; phuong phap suy luan va plurong phap clurng minh (xuoi, ngiroc lui) ; quy tac ket luan logic.

c) Hinh ve trong d<;1Y h9C hinh h9C khong gian : hinh bien dien, hinh viS tnrc quan trong day h9C.

6. D~y hoc vecto va toa dQ a) D<;1Y h9C vecto

- D<;1Y h9C khai niem vecto : mo ta tinh cung huang bang tnrc giac, si.'r dung vecto W do mot each fin tang, chu y lien mono

- D<;1Y h9C phep toan vecto : can dinh nghia phep toan, quy tac thirc hien phep toan, cac tinh chat co ban cua moi phep toano

- Day giai bai tap v6 vecto : chuyen ngon ngfr, sir dung cac phep toan.

b) D<;1y h9C toa d¢

- D<;1y h9C phirong phap toa d¢ trong mat phang : he toa d¢, lap va str dung phuong trinh dirong.

- D<;1y h9C phircng phap toa d¢ trong khong gian lien M voi hinh h9C phang : them phep tfnh tfch vecto (co huang).

c) D<;1y h9C giai bai tap bang toa do : lam quen voi nhirng each xac dinh toa d¢ cua nhirng yeu t6 hinh h9C ; quy trinh giai mot bai toan bang phuong phap toa d¢.

7. D~y hoc mach toan U'ng dl:lng

a) D<;1y h9C yeu t6 cua phirong phap s6

- Lam r5 moi lien h~ giira plurong phap so, thuat giai va may tfnh.

- Gioi thieu va cho sir dung mot s6 phuong phap s6 thong dung :

phirong phap lap (tim nghiem).

- Hinh thanh th6i quen lam tron s6 va viet s6 theo quy tilc chuan, b) Day h9C yeu t6 cua If thuyet toi uu

- Lam r5 nguon goc hoac y nghia thirc tien cua bai toan. (vi du : bai toan tim dirong di ngan nhat...).

- Cho HS giai toan t6i uu dira vao nhirng kien thirc toan h9C ph6

thong: bat dang thirc ; dao ham.

c) D<;1y hoc mot s6 yeu t6 cua xac suat thong ke

- D<;1y thong ke mo ta (ttl Tieu h9C den Trung h9C phd thong).

- D<;1y dai s6 t6 hop.

- Day mot s6 yeu t6 cua If thuyet xac suat : neu y nghia thong ke

cua xac suat,

8. D~y hoc mQt 56 yeu t6 cua Ii thuyet t~p hqp va logic toan

a) Lam r5 nhirng moi quan he gifra nhirng khai niem can cu vao nhirng moi quan h~ gitra nhirng tap hop : bieu thi nhirng rnoi quan h~ d6 bang bieu do Ven.

19

b) Yeu cau sir dung ki hieu cua tap hop va logic trong dien dat toan hQC ; yeu cau logic cua dinh nghia khai ni~111.

c) Phan tich cac thanh phan cua cluing minh va cac yeu cau logic urong img : luan de, luan ctr, luan chirng,

9. D~y hoc theo mach kien thirc toan

a) GV can hinh dung diroc 111<;1ch kien thirc trong chirong trinh toan o tnrong pho thong, cung nhu mach kien tlurc chay ngam trong Toan hoc M c6 th~ trinh bay dung khi d<;1Y hQC va qua do giup HS hieu va c6 th~ thac trien diroc kien rhirc da hoc. Din hinh dung va 19t ta cac mach doc, 111<;1ch ngang d~ c6 th~ irng dung, soi roi kien tlurc SO' cap boi kien thirc Toan cao cap va nguoc lai, chuyen hoa kien thirc Toan cao dip thanh sa cap (trong tnrong hop c6 the). HI16'ng dan HS sao cho qua viec hoc co diroc SO' do ve 111<;1ch kien thirc co trong chuang trinh. Clni )' bien phap tlnrc hien sao cho kha thi.

b) GY can giup HS hinh dung duoc he thong kien thirc d~ c6 th~ hinh dung h¢ thong bai tap, qua do hinh dung dtroc 111<;1ch kien thirc. Tir d6 biet each khai thac va van dung trong giai roan, hoc toan va nghien CUu Toan hoc.

c) Thong qua day hoc cac mach kien thirc, GV can :

- Ren luyen cho HS cac thao 14k nr duy : phan tich, tong hop, urong nr hoa, khai 'quat hoa, ~~c biet hoa, ...

- Giup HS each la111 giau kien thirc, nrc la d<;1Y tri thirc va day tri thirc phuong phap, Nhir the cung la day HS each suy nghi, day each sang tao.

- D<;lY HS each hoc, bier nr hoc,

- Phan bac hoat dong, tien toi phan hoa doi tuong.

- Day hQC huang toi phat trien.

d) Khi hinh dung duoc cac mach toan, GV c6 th~ nr la111 giau kien thirc, won toi biet ur sang tac bai tap.

Day hoc mach kien thirc can gan voi day hoc cac tinh huong di6n hinh trong mon toano

Qua vice tim hieu cac 111<;1ch kien thirc toan 0 tnrong pho thong,

GV can van dung diroc trong day hoc cac tinh huong di~n hinh nhu :

a) D<;1y hoc khai ni~111

b) Day hoc dinh If

c) D<;1), hoc bai tap

d) Day hoc on tap.

LUll Y tien hanh theo trinh nr, chang han : tiep can, hinh thanh, cung co, he thong hoa, ...

20

HuONG DAN THl)'C HI~N CHuAN I(IEN THlrC, 1(1 NANG MQN ToAN LOP 10

A - KIEN THUC CHUONG TRINH MON ToAN LOP 10 (Phan in nghieng, dam dann cho chuang trinli nang cao)

DAI s(j

1. Kien thirc co ban ve menh de, .chtrng minh bang phan chirng.

Tap hop, cac phep roan: hop, giao, hieu ella hai tap hop, Cac tap hop so. S6 grin dung, sai so.

2. On tap va b6 uic ve ham so. Ham s6 bac hai va do thi. Ham s6 y = Ixl.

3. Dai CHong ve phuong rrinh, he phirong trinh : cac khai niem co ban. Phuong trinh quy ve bac nhat, hac hai, Phuong trinh bac nhat hai An ; he phuong trinh bac nhat hai iin, ba iin.

4. Bat dang thtrc. Bat dang thirc giira trung blnh cong va trung binh nhan, bat dang thirc chua dau gia tri tuyet doi. Dau cua nhi thirc bac nhat, Bat phuong trinh va he bat phirong trinh bac nhat mot ~n, hai iin. Dau ella tam thirc bac hai. Bat plurong trinh bac hai.

5. G6c va cung IUQ'ng giac, gia tri Iuong giac cua chung : cong thirc cong ; cong thirc nhan doi ; cong tlurc bien dch tong thanh tfch ; cong tlurc bien d6i tfch thanh tong,

Bang phan b6 tan s6 - tdn suat, bang phan bo' tan so - tan suat ghep lap ; bieu do tan s6, tan suat hinh cot, duong gap khuc tan so, tan suat ; bieu do aln sua] hinh quat ; s6 trung binh, s6 trung V! va mot ; phuong sai va d9 lech chuan.

HINII HOC

l. Vecto . tdng, hieu ella hai vecto ; tfch cua vecto voi mot so' ;

, ;._.; . .

true, he true toa d9 ; toa d9 cua diem va toa d9 cua vecto.

2. Tfch vo huong cua hai vecto ; irng dung vao tam giac (dinh If eosin, dinh If sin, d9 dai duong trung tuyen, dien tich tam giac),

3. Phuong trinh duong thang (phirong trinh tong quat, phuong trinh tham s6). Khoang each va g6c. Phuong trinh dtrong tron, phirong trinh tiep tuyen cua duong tron, DUOng elip (dinh nghia, phirong trinh ehfnh tac, hinh dang).

21

B - HUONG DAN THl)'C HI~N CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG MON ToAN LOP 10 (Phdn in nghieng, dam danh cho chuang trinn nang cao)

Chuan kien thirc - k'i nang

Huong dan thirc hien

Kien thtrc co ban

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

I - M~NH DE. TAP HQP

1. M¢nh deva menh de' chua bien (menh M ; menh de chua bien ; phu dinh cua mot menh de ; menh de keo thea ; rnenh

" . . .

de dao ; hai menh de nrong dirong ; dieu

kien can, dieu kien du, dieu kien can va du).

Ve' kien thuc :

- Biet the nao la mot menh de, phu dinh cua mot rnenh de.

- Biet kf hieu phd bien (\7') va kf hieu ton tai (3) ; biet phu dinh "cac menh de co chua kf hieu phd bien (\7') va kf hieu ton tai (3).

- Biet duoc menh de phep keo theo, menh de urong dirong, menh de dao.

- Biet khai niem menh de chua bien.

1. Moi menh de (logic) phai hoac dung hoac sai. - Dang 1 : Nhan biet mot cau co la mot menh de

Mot menh de khong th~ vira dung, vira sai. Kf hay khong.

hieu menh de bOi cac chtr cai in hoa : P, Q,... _ Dang 2 : Phu dinh mot menh de ; xac dinh tinh dung, sai cua cac menh de.

- Dang 3 : Lap menh de keo thea va menh de nrong dirong til hai menh de da cho ; xac dinh diroc tinh dung sai cua menh de keo theo, menh de nrong dirong.

- Dang 4 : Lap menh de dao cua mot menh de cho tnroc.

Vi du. Trong cac cau sau day thi cau nao la menh de?

2. V oi moi gia tri cua bien x thuoc mot tap hop nao do, menh de chua bien P(x) tra thanh mot menh de.

+ "lOla mot so nguyen to".

+ "123 Ia mot so chia het cho 3". + "Ngay mai troi se nang".

+ "Hay di ra ngoai" !

22

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Kien thtrc co ban

HUOng dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

3. Menh de phu dinh P cua menh de P ia dung Vi du. Neu menh de phu dinh cua moi menh de khi va chi khi P sai va la sai khi va chi khi P sau va eho biet tinh dung sai cua moi menh de

dung. phu dinh do !

- "SO 11 la mot so nguyen to".

- "SO III ehia het eho 3".

Vai hai menh de P va Q

Q: "n khong la so nguyen".

a) Hay phat bieu menh de P ~ Q.

b) Phat bieu menh de dao cua menh de tren,

c) Xem xet tinh dung, sai cua cac menh de tren,

5. Menh de dao ella menh de P ~ Q la Q ~ P. Vi du. Cho hai tam giac ABC va A'B'C'. Xet hai

menh de: 6. Ta noi hai menh de P va Q la hai menh de

urong dirong neu hai menh de P ~ Q va P: "Tam giac ABC va tam giac A'B'C' bang nhau".

Q ~ P deu dung. Q : " Tam giac ABC va tam giac A'B'C' co dien tfch bang nhau".

7. Ki hieu \j doc la voi moi, Ki hieu :3 doc la

ton tai it nhat mot (hay co it nhat mot).

4. Menh de P ~ Q chi sai khi P dung va Q sai Vi du. Xet hai menh de:

- Lap diroc menh de keo thea va rnenlr de (trong moi tnrong hop khac P ~ Q deu dung) . P: "n la so vt: ti'' va

nrong dirong tir hai menh de cho tnroc.

Ve' ta nang:

- Xac dinh duoc mot cau eho tnroc co la menh de hay khong.

- Biet phu dinh cua mot menh de, xac dinh duoc tinh dung sai cua cac menh de trong nhirng tnrong hop dan gian,

- Xac dinh duoc tinh dung sai cua menh de keo thea ; menh de urong dirong.

- Biet lap menh de dao ella mot menh de eho tnroc,

a) Xet tinh dung sai ella menh de P ~ Q.

b) Xet tinh dung sai cua menh de Q ~ P.

c) Xet tinh dungsai cua menh de P ~ Q .

d) Lap menh de phu dinh va menh de dao cua m~nhdeP~Q.

23

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Hmrng dan thuc hien

D'.lI1g toan - Vi du - Luu Y

v [ dZI. Xet hai rnenh de :

P : "24 la s6 ehia het eho 2 va 3", Q : " 24 la so chi a het eho 6".

a) Xet tinh dung sai cua menh de P ~ Q.

b) Xet tinh dung sai cua menh de Q ~ P.

c) Menh de p Q Q e6 dung khong ?

Vi du, Lap menh de dao cua menh de sau

P : "M9t s6 nr nhien e6 tong cac chir s6 chi a het eho 3 thi s6 d6 chia her eho 3".

D~nh u . Dinh. li loan hoc Iii menh de' dung, thuong co dang A z:» B. Khi do, A duoc goi Iii GL4 THIEl' con B duoc so! Iii KET LU~N. Hay ta ciing noi A Iii DIEU Klf--w t)U dl co B, B Iii DIEU Klf;N CANdicoA.

Dinli li ddo :

Khi "A zz» B" Iii mot dinh li thi menh de ddo B zz» A co t/ui'dung hoac sa; ; trong truong hop B =:::> A Iii mot menh. de dung thi fa no; B z:» A Iii DINH Li DAO cua dinh li A =:::> B, con

A =:::>B Iii IJ/NH t i TIlU~N. Dieu kien din vii dll

_JNlll dong thoi C() dinh u thudn A zz» B vii dinh Ii ddo B =:::> A thi A <=> B Iii mf)t menli de dung.

~----------------------------- ----------.~------------------------------------~

2. Ap dung menh. de' viio ;';y IU(11l todn

I hoc (gid thief, kef ludn ; diiu kien can, dieu kien tJu, dilu kien cdn vii du).

Ve' kien thuc :

Phdn biet duoc gid thiet, kef luan cua mot dinh li, bie: duoc dUu kien can, dieu kien dll.

Ve'kinang:

_- Chung minb duoc mot so" menh. de' bong phuong pluip phdn cluing. '

24

- Dang 1: Nhdn biet dilll kien cdn, dieu kien du (xdc dinh dung dieu kien cdn, die'u kien du trong mot dinh li cho truoc ; Viet dinh. li cho truce dum dang dieu kien cdn, dieu kien du, dieu kien cdn vii du ... ).

- Dang 2 :

Chung minh dinb li bang phdn chung.

Vi du. Cho dinh. If : "Neu mo! tam giac co btnlt phuong ctia mot canh. bdng t6ng binh phuong cua hai canli kia thi tam giac do Iii tam gidc vuong, "

a) Viet gid thief, kef ludn cua dinh li tren.

b) Sit dung thudt ngii "dieu kien du" dl ph at bieu menlt detren.

---~----------------------------,---------------------------------------------------------------------------~

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Hirong dan tlurc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

f 3. Tap hop va cdc phep I~an tren IJp IWp

Khi do ta noi : A la dieu kien cdn va du dl co B, hay B la dieu kien ctin va du dl co A ; hay con

\noi : A kh; va chi khi B ; hoac noi : A neu va chi neu B, ...

Chung minn dinh. li A ~ B co thl theo mot trong cdc each sau :

Cach 1 : Chung minh true tiep, do la su dung cdc dii kien cho trong gid thief A (duac coi la dung), cdc kiln thuc dd biet va cac phep suy ludn toan hoc dl chung to rang B la dung.

Cach 2 : Chung minb gidn tiep. Cacb cluing minb gian tiep hay duac dung la CHUNG MINH BANG PHAN CHUNG. Theo each nay ta gid su ding A dung va B sai, tit do dung cdc dii kien cua gid thief, cdc kiln thuc da bief va cdc phep suy ludn todn hoc di di den mdu thudn, cluing to gid su tren la sai, suy ra dieu phdi chung minh.

c) Su dung thudt ngic "dieu kien cdn" di pluu biiu menh de'trhl.

d) Dinh li tren eo till ph at bilu dutii dang din va du duoc hay khong ?

Vi du. Cho cdc s6' thuc ab o» bI, bz thod man:

a} + az = 2bl·bz·

Chung minh rang eo it nluit mot trong hai bd: ddng thuc sau la dung:

b; ~ a}, bi ~ az·

Vi du. Chung minb rang neu tdng binb phuong cua hai s6' nguyen chia hel cho 3 thi hai so do ehia hel eho 3.

Vi du. Chung minli rang J3 la s6' v6 ti.

I (Khai niem t~~~ hop ; tap hop bang nhau ; tap can ; rap rong ; hop, giao ella hai tap hop ; ph an bu ella mot tap can ; mot so t~p can ella tap so thtrc).

V (! kien thuc :

-- Hitu duoc khai niem t~p hop, tap hop can, hai t~p hop bang nhau.

Tap hop 13. mot khai niem co ban ella toan hoc. Thong thtrong moi tap hop gom cac phan ur cung co chung mot hay mot vai tinh chat.

Tap hop thirong duoc eho bang each liet ke cac phan tir hoac chi ra tinh chat dac tnrng eho cac phan nr ella tap hop do. Tap hop thirong duoc kf hieu boi chir cai in hoa : A, B, C, ... phan nr ella tap hop diroc ki hieu bang chir cai thirong : a, b, C, ...

- Dang 1 : Bi~u dien tap hop bang cac each: liet ke cac phan tir ella tap hop hoac chi ra tinh chat dac tnrng ella tap hop, Sir dung cac ki hieu E, E, 0.

- Dong 2 : Xac dinh tap con ella mot rap hop ; Chung minh hai tap hop bang nhau. SU dung cac ki hieu c, ::J.

25

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

- V an dung cac khai niem ii;lp hop eon,

tap hop bang nhau vao giai bai tap. 5. Phep lay phan bu : Neu AcE thi

C EA = E \ A = {x I x E E va x ~ A}.

- Hieu cac phep loan : giao cua hai tap hop, hop cua hai tap hop, hieu cua hai tap hop, phan bu cua mot tap eon.

Ve' n nang:

- Sir dung dung cac kf hieu E, ~, c, ~, 0,A \B, CEA.

- Bier bieu dien tap hop bang cach : liet ke cac phan nr cua tap hop hoac chi ra tinh chat dac trung cua tap hop,

- Thuc hien diroc cac phep loan lay giao cua hai tap hop, hop cua hai tap hop, phan bu cua mot tap eon.

- Biet dira vao bieu d6 Yen de bieu dien giao cua hai tap hop, hop cua hai tap hop.

1. Tap A duoc goi la t~p eon cua tap B, ki hieu la A c B, neu moi phan ur cua A deu la phan ur cixs B.

2. Phep giao hai tap hop :

A n B = {x I x E A va x E B}. 3. Phep hop hai tap hop :

A u B = {x I x E A hoac x E B}.

4. Hieu cua hai tap hop :

A \ B = {x I x E A va x ~ B}.

6. Cac tap hop so :

Khoang :

• (a; b) = {x E ffi. I a < x < b}

• (a; +(0) = {x E ffi.1 a < x}

• (-00 ; b) = {x E ffi. I x < b}. Doan:

• [a; b] = {x E ffi.1 a ~ x ~ b}. Nira khoang :

• [a; b) = {x E ffi. I a ~ x < b}.

• (a; b] = {x E ffi. I a < x ~ b}.

• [a; +(0) = {x E ffi.1 a ~ x} ;

• ( - 00 ; bJ = {x E ffi. I x ~ b} ;

- Dang 3 : Thuc hien cac phep toan lay giao cua hai tap hop, hop cua hai rap hop, hieu cua hai tap hop, phan bu cua mot tap eon. Sir dung bieu d6

Yen. Sir dung cac ki hieu c,~, A \B, CEA.

- Dang 4 : Bieu dien cac tap hop so ; Xac dinh phep giao, hop, hieu, lay phan bu cua cac tap hop so. (Bier dung bieu d6 Yen M bieu dien cac phep toan tren tap hop ; Biet sir dung true so va cac kf hieu doan, khoang, mra khoang trong viec bieu dien tap so thirc).

Vi du . Viet cac tap hop sau thea each Iiet ke cac phan nr :

a) {x E ffi.1 (x2-2x+ 1)(x-3)=0}.

b) {x E N I x ~ 30 ; x la boi cua 3 hoac cua 5 } .

Vi du. Cho cac tap hop A = [- 3 ; I] ; B = [- 2; 2] ;

C = [- 2 ; + (0).

a) Trong cac tC\lp hop tren, tap hop nao la tap eon cua tap hop nao ? Tim phan bu cua cluing ?

b) Tim A n B; A u B; A u C ; A \ B ; B \ C. Vi du. Tim tat cd cac tt,ip hap X sao cho

{a;b} c X c {a;b;c;d}.

X co bao nhieu tap con khac rong ?

26

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

Tap s6 thuc :

• ( -00 ; 0] u [0; +(0) = (-00 ; +(0) = lR.

Vi du . Cho cac tap hop :

A = {x E lR 1- 5 ~ x ~ 4} ;

B={XElR 17~x<14};

C={XElR 1 x>2}; D={XElR Ix~4}.

a) Dung ki hieu doan, khoang, nita khoang ... d~ viet lai cac tap hop do.

b) Bi~u dien cac tap hop A, B, C, D tren true s6. e) Xae dinh A " B; A u B; A u C ; A \B ; B \ C ; A "D.

Vi du. Xac dinh cac ph an til cua tap hop

{x ElR l(x2-2x+I)(x-3)=0}.

Vi duo Cho cac tap hop

A = [- 3; I] ; B = [- 2; 2] va C = [- 2; + (0).

a) Cho biet tap hop nao la tap con cua tap hop khac, trong s6 cac tap hop tren ?

b) TIm A " B; A u B; A u C.

Vi du. Sap xep cac tap hop s6 sau day N * ; Z , N ; lR ; Q theo tlur W tap hop tnroc la tap hop con cua tap hop sau.

4. S6' gdn dung va sai s6' (SO gan dung; Sai so tuyet doi va sa; so tuong doi ; SO quy tron ; do chfnh xac cua s6 gan dung. Chft srI chdc va dang chudn cua so gdn dung; ki hieu khoa hoc cua mot s()' thap phdn}.

Cho a la s6 gan dung cua a. - Dang 1 : TIm s6 gan dung cua mot s6 voi dQ

I I chinh xac eho tnroc.

I. !1a = a - a diroc goi la sai s6 tuyet d6i cua

- Dang 2 : Sil dung may tinh bo nii d~ tinh cac s6 gan dung.

so gan dung a.

27

Kien thtrc CO' ban

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

l

2. Neu L111 :::; d thi d diroc goi la dC) chinh xac cua - Dang 3 : Xac dinh chit so chiic va each vitt

- chudn sf)' gdn dung.

56 gan dung a va quy uoc viet gon la a = a ± d.

la - al

3. tt s()' lal ' ki hieu LiuSa, duoc so! La sai S(J

tuong dOl cua so' gdn dung a (thuong duoc nluin voi 100% dl viet dum dang pluin tram).

4. Cach viet 56 quy tron cua 56 gan dung can ctr vao d¢ ehfnh xac eho tnroc : Cho s6 gan dung a voi d¢ chfnh xac d (tire la a = a ± d). Khi duoc yeu cau quy tron s6 a rna khong n6i r6 quy tron den hang nao thi ta quy tron a den hang eao nhat

rna d nho hon mot don V! ella hang c16.

5. Cho so' gdn dung a cua so a voi dt) chinh xac d. Trong so' a, mot chit so' duoc goi La chir so chac (hay dang tin) neu d khong vuot qua nua don vi cua hang co chit so' do.

6. Xet so' gdn dung a cua so'dung a.

+ Neu a La so' thdp phdn (khong phdi la so nguyen), duac viet dum dang chudn ma co k chit so' 0- phdn thtip phdn thi sai so'tuy¢t dOl ctia

a khong vuot qua ~ 10 -k, nghia ta

1 -k _ l-k

a - -2 10 :S a :S a + -10 .

L 2

__ . -"-- _l_. _j

V (' kicil thuc :

Hieu khai niern s6 gan dung. sal 56 tuyet doi va sai s()' tuong doi. 56 quy tron, chit so' chdc vd cacti viet chuan so' gdn dung, ki hieu khoa hoc cua SlY thap phdn.

Ve' ki nang :

- Bier tim 56 gan dung ella motso v¢i do chinh xac cho tnroc.

- Bier Slr dung may tinh bq tui d~ tfnh roan cac 56 gan dung.

28

- Dang 4 : Viet so' gdn dung dum dang ki hieu khoa hoc cua so'th(ip phdn.

Vi du. Cho s6 a = 13,6481.

a) Viet so quy tron cua a den hang phan tram.

b) Viet s6 quy tron cua a den hang phan chuc.

Vi du. Mt)t cdi san hinh chit nhdt voi chieu rong a= 2,56m ± O,O/m vd chieu dai b = 4,2m ± 0,02m. Chung minli rang chu vi P c~a san, ~a P = 13,5~m ± 0,06m. Viet sodo chu I iii P dum dang chudn.

Vi du. Biet rang toe dt) anlt sang trong chan khong la 300 OOOkm/s. Hoi trong mot nam (365 ngay) anti sang di duac trong chan khong mot khodng eden la bao nhieu ? Viet ket qua dum dang ki hieu khoa hoc.

Vi du. Ghi so' 0- dang ki hieu khoa hoc 7 12300000 = 1,23.10 ,

_ -1

0,256700 = 2,!l67.10 ,

2 123,987654321 ~ 1,24.10 .

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien tlnrc co him

HI16ng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LI1U Y

+ Neu a la so' nguyen duac viet duoi dang chudn a = A.I0k voi A E Z va kEN thi sai so'

I tuye: dOL cua a khong vuot qua ~ 10\ nghia la 1 k _ 1 k

a - "210 S; a S; a + "210 .

~--------------------------------~---------

II - HAM so BAc NHAT vA BAc HAl

1. Dai cuong ve' ham so' (D!nh nghia , I Cach cho ham so , Do thi cua ham so , I Ham so dong bien, nghich bien ; Ham so chan, ham so le),

v c· kien thuc :

- Hieu khai niern ham so, tap xac dinh cua ham so, do thi cua ham so.

- Hi6u khai niem ham so dong bien, nghich bien, ham so chan, le. Bier diroc tfnh chat doi xirng cua do thi ham so chan, do thi ham so le,

2. Ham so y = j(x) goi la dong bien (hay tang)

Vi du. TIm tap xac dinh cua cac ham so : tren khoang (a ; b) neu

a)y=~ ,

1. MQt ham so c6 th~ duoc cho bang :

a) Bang; b) Bieu d6 ;

c) Cong thiic ; d) Do thi.

- Dang 1 : 'TIm t~p xac dinh cua cac ham so don gian,

- Dang 2 : Chung minh ham so dong bien, ham so nghich bien.

- D~lI1g 3 : Cluing minh ham so chan, ham sole.

- Dang 4 : Xac dinh diroc mot diem nao d6 c6

thuoc mot do thi ham so cho tnroc hay khong.

b) y = ~ + J;+I ,

A -- I

V (! ki 1I(1ng :

I - Bier tim tap xac dinh cua cac ham so I don ui:

I em gJaI1.

I - Bier each ch(mg minh ham so dong

I, bien, ham so nghich bien, ham so chan. ham so le tren mot tap cho tnroc.

l_._. --L.. -- _L_ --1

Khi cho ham so bang cong thirc (rna khong chi r6 tap xac dinh cua n6) thi tap xac dinh D cua ham so y = j(x) la tap hop Ult d. cac so thirc x sao cho bieu thirc I(x) co nghia.

3. Ham so y = I(x) goi la nghich bien (hay giam) tren khoang (a ; b) neu

V xI' x2 E (a; b), xI< x2 => I(xI) > j(x2)'

4. Xet chieu bien thien cua mot ham so la tim cac khoang dong bien V~I cac khoang nghich bien cua n6. Ket qua duoc tong ket trong mot bang goi la bang bien thien.

29

c::': 1

c) \' = -.J4- x + ---.

- E-1

V f du Xet xem trong cac diem A(O; 1), E(l ; 0), C(-2 , -3), D(-3 , 19), diem nao thuoc do thi ham so y = I(x) = 2r2 + 1.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien tlurc C<1 ban

HUOng dan thirc hien

- Xac dinh dtroc me)t di~m nao do co 5. Ham so y = f(x) voi tap xac dinh D goi la ham thuoc mot do thi ham so cho truce hay s6 chan neu

khong. V xED thl-XED vaf(-x) = f(x).

D~ng toan - Vi du - LUll Y

---------------~

Vi dLJ. Xet tfnh dong bien, nghich bien cua ham

s6 sau day tren khoang da chi ra :

a) v = - 3x + 1 tren lR ;

b) y = 2.x2 tren (0 ; + 00) ;

c) y = .J2x - 1 tren tap xac dinh.

Vi dLJ. Xet tfnh chan, Ie cua ham s6:

a) y = 3x 4 - 2x2 + 7 ;

b) y = 6x3 -x;

c) y = 21xl + x2 ;

d) y = .J x - 4 + .J x + 4 ;

e) y = .J4 - x - .J4 + x.

2. On tdp va b6 sung vi ham so' 1. Ham s6 bac nhat y = ax + b, (a ::F- 0)

Y = ax + b va do thi etta no ; Do thi ham • Tap xac dinh lR ;

so' y = Ixl ' Do thi ham so y = lax + bl • Bang bien thien

~------------~~------------~

(a::F- 0).

Vi kien thuc :

- Hieu duoc su bien thien va do thi cua ham s6 bac nhat.

- Hieu each ve do thi ham s6 bac nhat va do thi ham s6 y = I x I ,

ham srI y = lax + bl (a ::F- 0). Biet diroc do thi ham s6 y = I x I nhan Oy lam true d6i xirng,

Do thi cua ham s6 chan nhan true tung lam true d6i xirng.

6. Ham s6 y = f(x) voi tap xac dinh D goi la ham so le neu

V xED thl-XED va fe-x) = - f(x).

Do thi cua ham s6 Ie nhan g6c toa d¢ lam tam d6i ximg.

a>O a<O
x -00 +00 X -00 +00
Y +00 Y +00
-: -.
-00 -00 - Dang 1 : Xac dinh chien bien thien va ve do thi cua ham s6 bac nhat.

- Dang 2 : Ve do thi ham s6 y = b ; y = I x I , do thi y = lax + bl·

- Dang 3 : Tim toa de) giao di~m cua hai duong thang co phuong trlnh cho truce.

- Dang 4: Khdo Silt Sf! bien thien va vi'do thi cua ham so' cho bOi cdc ham bdc nhd: tren cdc khodng khac nhau.

• Do thi la dirong thang khong song song va Vi dLJ. Cho ham s6 y = 3x + 5.

khong trung voi cac true toa d¢.

a) Lap bang bien thien va ve do thi cua ham s6 • De ve dirong thang y = ax + b chi din xac dinh

tren, hai diem khac nhau cua n6.

30

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien tlurc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

Ve' ki nang:

- Thanh thao viec xac dinh chieu bien • Tap xac dinh lR ;

2, Ham so hang y = b

thien va ve do thi cua ham so bac nhat,

- Ve diroc do thi y = b ; y = 1 xl, do thi y = lax + bl·

I - Biet each tim toa d9 giao di~m cua hai dirong thang co phuong trinh cho tnroc.

• Ham so hang la ham so chan.

• Do thi la mot dirong thang song song hoac trung voi true hoanh va cat true tung tai diem co toa do (0 ; b) .

3. Ham so y = Ixl

• Tap xac dinh lR ; - Khao sat duac sf! bien thien va vi'do

thi cua ham so eho bOi cdc ham bac nluit tren cdc khodng khac nhau.

• Ham so y = Ixl la ham so chan.

• Ham so dong bien tren khoang (0 ; + 00) va nghich bien tren khoang (- 00 ; 0).

4. Cacb ve- do thi ham so y = lax + bl

De' vi' do thi ham srI y = lax + bl ta:

• Vi' hai duang thling y = ax + b va y = -ax-b rdi xod di hai phdn duong thling tuim if phia duoi true hoanlt (cluing han do thi cua ham so

)' = 12x - 11 nhu hinh 1}.

yt

\1"5

I

0,5 \

--~~~.~~--~

o 0,5 x

-0,5

Hinh 1

31

b) Ve tren cung he true do thi a cau a) va do thi y = -1. Tim tren do thi toa do giao diem cua hai do thi y = 3x + 5 va y = - 1.

Vi du

a) vs do thi ham so y = 1 x I.

b) Tit do thi, hay tim gia tri nho nhat cua ham so y= Ixl·

Vi du. Tim toa d9 giao diem cua hai do thi y = x + 1 va y = 2x + 3.

Vi du. ve as thi y = 12x -11.

Vi du. Tim tap xdc dinh, lap bang bien thien va vi'do thi cua ham so

{3X + 1 khi - 2 ~ x ~ 0

y = -2x khi 0 < x ~ 1

2x + 1 khi 1 < x ~ 2.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

,------------------------------,--------------------------------------------------------------------------~

Kien tlurc co ban

HUOng dan tlurc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

}

1. Ham so bac hai y = ax- + bx + c, (a *- 0)

- Tap xac dinh lR ;

- Do thi cua ham so la mot duong parabol co

dinh la di~m 1(' - _!!__ . -~) co tru e doi x irng

Za ' 4a'

1, d' h' b

a uang tang x = - - .

2a

Parabol nay quay b~ 16m len tren neu a > 0 (h.2), quay be 16m xuong duoi neu a < 0 (h.3).

\

x

, J

3. Ham sa bdc hai Y = ax" + bx + c va do

thi clla no.

ve' kien thuc :

- Hieu duoc sir bien thien va do thi cua ham so bac hai tren R

vs n nang:

- Lap diroc bang bien thien cua ham so bac hai ; xac dinh diroc toa dodinh, true doi xirng, ve duoc do thi ham so bac hai.

- Doc duoc do thi cua ham 'so bac hai : tir do thi xac dinh diroc true doi ximg,

dinh cua parabol, cac gia tri cua x d~ y> 0; y < O.

- Tim duac phuong trinh parabol 2

y = ax + bx+ c

khi biet mot so'die'u kien xac dinh,

o ~

x

Hinh 2 : a > 0

Htnh 3: a < 0

2, Ring bien thien :

a>O

b

x

-00

2a

y

32

- Dang 1 : Lap dtroc bang bien thien cua ham so bac hai ; xac dinh diroc toa d¢ dinh, true doi xtrng, ve diroc do thi ham so bac hai.

- Dang 2 : Ve do thi ham so bac hai.

- Dang 3 : Doc do thi cua ham so bac hai : tir do

thi xac dinh true doi ximg, diem eire dai, diem eire tieu cua do thi, cac gia tri ella x My> 0 ; y <0.

- Dang 4 : Tim phuong trinh parabol

I y = ax2 + bx + c

khi bie: mot so'die'u kien xdc dinh.

Vi du. Lap bang bien thien cua ham so sau :

a) y. = x2 - 4x + 1 ;

b) y = - 2x2 - 3x + 7.

Vi duo Ve do thi cac ham so:

a) y = i - 4x + 3 ; e)y=-2i+x-l;

2

b) y = -x - 3x:

d) y = 3i + 1.

I Vi du

a) Ve parabol y = 3x2 - 2x -- 1.

b) Tir do thi, hay chi ra nhfrng gia tri cua x d~ y c O.

c) Tir do thi, hay tim gia tri nho nhat cua ham so.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

3. D~ ve dirong parabol y = ax2 + bx + c (a * 0) bitt rang parabol do thod man mot trong cdc

dieu kie n sa u :

• Xac dinh giao diem cua parabol v6i cac true c) Co true doi xung Iii duong thdng x = 1 vii di

toa do (neu co). qua cdc die"m M( -1 ; 2) ,. N(O ; 4).

a<O

Vi du. Viet phirong trinh parabol y = ai + bx + 2 biet rang parabol d6 :

a) Di qua hai diem A(l ; 5) va B (- 2; 8).

b) cit true hoanh tai cac diem co hoanh d¢ xl = 1 va X2 = 2.

Vi duo Tim phuong trinh parabol

2

Y = ax + bx + c

a) Di qua cdc die"m il:l(O , -1), N(1 , -1), P(-1 ; 1) ;

b) Di qua die"m M(O ; 1), vii co dinh D( - 2 ; 5) ;

Xac dinh them mot s6 diem thuoc do thi, Vi du. Lap bdng bien thien vii vi'do thi ella

Chang han, diem d6i xtrng v6i giao diem cua do {2 1 khi < 0

h' " x- lX_

thi v6i true tung qua true d6i ximg ella parabol. am so Y =

x-I khi x > O.

~. L_._D_u~.a_v_a_o __ ke_~_qLu_a_t_re_An~,~_v_e~p~a_r_ab_o __ l_' .-L ~

b

X

-00

2a

y

~.-------------------------------~-------------------------------------.------------------------------------~

-00

-00

ta thuc hien cac biroc sau :

• Xac dinh toa do dinh 1(- ;a ; - ~) ;

, b

• Ve truc d6i ximg d la dirong thang X = --2 ;

. a

III - PHUONG TRINH. HB PHUONG TRINH

I. Doi cuong ve' phuong trinh (Khai niern phuong trinh ; Nghiem ella plurong trinh ; Nghiern gan dung cua phirong trinh , Phuong trlnh tuong duong ; M¢t s6 phep

,--_ ..

3 HoAN ... TOAN UJP 10 . A

I. Phuong trinh an X la mot menh de chua bien - Dang 1 : Neu dieu kien cua :in de phirong trinh dang j(x) = g(x), trong do I(x) va g(x) la cac bieu co nghia (khong can giai cac dieu kien),

thirc cua x.

33

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thirc hien ~------------K-i-e-n--t-h-u-c-c-a-b-a-?n-------------r--------D--~n-g--to-a-'n-----V--i-d-~----l~-U'U--y-'----------

bien d6i urong dirong phirong trinh). 2_ Dieu kien xac dinh ella plnrong trinh (goi tat la -- D(,1I1g 2 : Bien d6i tirong dirong, bien d6i he

Phuong trinh h¢ qua dieu kien cua phirong trinh) la nhirng dieu kien qua phuong trinh , Xac dinh quan he tuong

Ve' hell tlua: : cua ~n x d~ cac bieu thirc trong plnroug trinh deu duong, h¢ qua cua cac phirong trinh,

- Hieu khai niern phuong trinh ; nghiern cua plurong trinh ; hai phuong trinh urong dirong.

4. Giai mot phuong trinh la tim t<\lp hop tat ca cac nghiem cua no (nghia la tim tap nghiem).

h' 5. Hai plnrong trinh c ua

I j(x) = g(x) (1) va/I (x) = gI(x) (2)

co' e) x-I = 2Jx + 2 "

duoc goi la urong dirong neu cluing tap x + 1

nghiern bang nhau (eo thti III tap rang).

Kf hieu : (1) ~ (2).

b) Nhan hoac chia hai ve cua phirong trinh voi II cung mot so khac 0 hoac voi cung mot bieu thirc . luon c6 gia tri khac O.

I .

7. Neu moi nghiern cua phirong trinh (1) cung la nghiern cua plurong trinh (2) thi ta noi plurong

L I trinh (2) la phuong trinh h¢ qua cua phirong trinh

1(1), ki hieu : (1) =;>(2).

I •

------------------------------~----- ----~---------

- Hitiu cac phep bien d6i nrong dirong phuong trinh.

- Biet khai niem phuong trinb tham so; phuang trinh nhieu an.

Ve'kinang:

- Bier neu dieu kien xac dinh cua phuong trinh (khong can giai cac dieu kien).

- Biet bien d6i nrong dirong phuong trinh.

- Dang 3 : Buoc dtiu lam quen VOl phuong I 3. Neu /(xo) = g(xo) thi Xo diroc goi la nghiern cua trinlt chua tham .'16' ; phuong trinh nhieu an. phuong trinh j(») = g(x).

x

b) x + 2 - = 2 ;

a) Cong hay trir hai ve cua phuong trinh voi cung .j; __ 1

mot so hay cung 1119t bieu thirc.

eo nghia.

6. Neu thuc hien cac phep bien d6i sau day tren mot phuong trinh ma khong lam thay d6i dieu kien xac dinh cua no thi ta diroc 11191 plurong trinh 111m nrong duong

34

Vi du. Neu dieu kien xac dinh cua cac phirong trinh a) ~x2 + 3x = x + 1 ,

b) rx~ + 1 = ~ + x ;

d) J x - m = x2 - 2mx + 1 .

Vi du . Gidi cac phuong trinh

a) x + 1 + 2 = 2x - 1 ,

x--l x-I

c) ~ (x2 - 3x -_. 4) = 0 ; d)J~~=~;

j;2--- .J 2 5x

e) x- - 4 + _~r + 3 = 4 - x + T'

Vi du. Trong cac cap phirong trinh sau, hay chi ra cac cap phuong trinh nrong duong

._-_j

3- H.DAN . loAN Lor 10 - B

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

hai ~n x, y la mot cap so thirc (xo ; Yo) tho a man Vi du. Tim cac nghiem (x; y) ciu: phuong trinh

phuong trinh d6, eon nghiern cua mot phirong x2 + i + 2x + 4 y = - 5.

trinh ba ~n x, y, 2 la mot b¢ ba so thuc (xo ; Yo ; 20)

(HD : bien ddi vt trdi thanh tdng 2 binh phuong). thoa man phuong trinh d6.

10. Trong mot phuong trinh (mot hoac nhieu (in), ngoai cdc chit dong vai tro fin stY con co thi co cdc chit cdi khac duoc xem nhu nhiing hang SlY va duoc so! ta tham so.

Gidi va bien ludn phuong trinh chua tham s{/ la xet xem kid nao phuong trinh do vo nghiem, khi nao co nghiem tllY theo cdc gui tri cua tham stY va chi ra cdc nghiem do.

Chang han, voi so nguyen dirong 11 tuy y ta co :

I(x) = g(x) => [/(x) r = [g(x) r .

8. Phuong trinh he qua co th~ co nghiem ngoai lai, nghiern d6 khong phai la nghiern cua phuong trinh ban dau, D~ loai nghiern ngoai lai ta phai thir lai nghiern tim duoc van plurong trinh ban dau,

9. Ngoai cac phuong trinh mot tin con c6 cac phuang trinli nhieu dn. Nghiern cua phirong trinh

a) ~l- 3x = 4 va i - 3x - 4 = O.

b) 6x - 12 = 0 va x = 2.

c) x(x2+2)=3(x2+2) va x=3.

d) x-I =3 va (x-l)2=9.

e) Ix+21=4va (x+2)2=I6.

Vi du. VOi gia tri nao cua m thi phuong trinh mx2 - 3( m + l)x + 5 = 0

nhdn x = 21a nghiem ?

--------------------------------1--------------------------------------~-------------------------------------4

2. Phuong trinh quy vi' phuong trinh bdc nhdt, bdc hai (Giai va bien luan phuong trinh ax + b = 0 , Giai va bien ludn

phirong trinh ai + bx + C = 0 ; Dog dung

l . Giai va bien luan phirong trinh ax + b = 0

(1)

-- Dang 1 :

Giai va bien ludn phuong trinh ax + b = 0 ;

Giai va bien ludn phirong trinh ax2 + bx + c = O.

35

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

dinh If Vi-et , Phuong trinh quy ve bac nhat, hac hai).

Ve' kiln thuc .'

- Hi~u each giili va bien ludn I trinh ax + b := 0 ; phuong trinh

ai + bx+ c= O.

- Hi~u each giai cac phuong trinh quy ve

?

dang ax + b = 0 , ax: + bx + c = 0

phirong trinh c6 An a mau so, phuong trinh c6 chua dan gia tri tuyet doi.

phuong

Ve' ki ndng .'

- Biet van dung dinh If Vi-et vao viec nharn nghiem cua phirong trinh bac hai, tim hai so khi biet tong va tfch cua cluing,

tim dieu kien cua tham s6~ de? phuong trinh thod miin die'u kien cho truce.

Kien thirc CO' ban

Htnrng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Heso

Ket luan

Phuong trinh (I) c6 nghiern

I ' b

duy n latx =--

a

a 7: 0

b 7: 0 Phuong tr1nh (1 ) v6 nghi¢m Phuong trinh (1) nghi¢m_Ji b=O

dung voi moi x.

2. Giai va bien luan phuong trinh bac hai

- Giai va bien ludn thanh thao phirong ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a 7: 0) (2).

trinh ax + b = O2, Phuon.g trinh I ,- -,-- ---,

Biet thirc

ax + bx + c - 0 I 2 Ket luan

- . I t-:. = b - 4ac

- Giai diroc cac phirong trinh quy ve bac f--.-----+----~----------1

Phuong trinh (2) c6 hai nghiem nhat, bac hai (phirong trinh c6 an a mau so,

phirong trinh chua dau gia tri tuyet doi ; t-:. > 0 -b ± -Ii.

plnrong trinh chua can don gian, phuong Xu =

trinh dira ve phirong trinh tfch).

a=O

Khi a 7: 0 phirong trinh (1) diroc goi la phuang trinh bdc nhdt mot an.

2a

~.--.-------~---~-~~~--~_,

Phuong trinh (2) c6 nghiern kep

A=O

b

\."=--

- 2a

- Dang 2 Giai cac phirong trinh quy ve bac nhat, bac hai ; phirong trinh c6 An a mau so , phuong trinh chua an trong dau gia tri tuyet doi ; phuong trinh dua ve phuong trinh tich. (Chi xet phuang trinh trung phuong, phuong trinh dua vi bdc hai hang each ddt dn phu don gidn .' dn phu la da thuc bdc nhdt, da thuc bdc hai hoac can bdc hai cua dn chinh, phuong trinh co dn J mdu (hue, phuong trinh quy vedang tich bang mot s(f phep bien ddi don gidn).

- Dang 3 .' Van dung dinh If Vi-et vao viec nham nghiem cua phuong trinh bac hai, tim hai so khi bier tong va tich cua chung, tim die'u kien cua tham stY di phuong trinlt thod mdn dieu kien cho truce.

- Dang 4.' Giai cac bai toan tlnrc te dira ve giai phirong trinh bac nhat, bac hai bang each lap phirong trinh.

- Dang 5 .' Giai gan dung phuong trinh bac hai ; giai phuong trinh bac hai bang may tinh bo nii.

Vi du. Giai va bien luan phirong trinh

mix - 2) = 3x + 1, veri m HI tham so.

[--------+--------_ .. _-------------_

- _t-:. <_O___ Phuong trlnh (2) v6 nghiem. I I Vi du. Gidi va bien ludn phuong trinh sau, vOi I

------ ----_j m IiI r: _so_"_: _

36

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien tlurc co ban

Hurmg dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi d1,l- LLlU Y

- Bier chuyen bai toan c6 noi dung thuc te ve bai toan giai duoc bang each lap plurong trinh hac nhat, bac hai.

- Bier giai phirong trinh bac hai c6 str ho tro ella may tfnh bo nii.

3. Dinh if Vi-et

• Neu phuong trinh (2) c6 hai nghiem xl' X2 thl

h c

Xl +X2=--'X1X2=-'

a a

• Ngiroc lai, neu hai so u va v c6 tong u + v = S va tich uv = P thi u va v la cac nghiern cua phuongtrinh

')

X~ -Sx+ P =0,

(dieu kien : S2 - 4P ~ 0).

4. Phuong trinh trung phuang

ax 4 + hx2 + c = 0, (a :I; 0) c6 th~ dua ve phuong trinh bac hai bang each dat t = x2, (i> 0).

5. C6 th~ khir dau gia tri tuyet dci trong phuang trinh chua dn trong ddu gid tri tuyet dOl nho sir dung dinh nghia

{ khi a ~ 0

lal = :a khi a < O.

Dac biet, ta c6 :

hoac

If(X)1 = Ig(x)1 ¢:> l' f(x) = g(x) f(x) = ,-g(x).

a) mx2 - 2mx + m + 1 = 0 ;

b) mx2 - x + 1 = O.

Vi duo Tim hai so c6 tong bang 15 va tfch bang -34.

Vi du. Tim m dlphuong trinh

x2 -em -5)x -2 = 0

/ hai hi th " - 1 1 4

co at ng tem Xl, X2 oa man - + - = .

Xl X2

37

Vi du. Giai cac phuong trinh :

2x 1

a) --- = 2 ;

x2 _ 1 x + 1

b) (x2 + 2xi - (3x + 2)2 = 0 ;

c) x4 - 8x2 - 9 = 0 ;

d) x2 + 5x -13x - 21- 5 = 0 ;

e) .J14x + 2 = ) x2 - 3x + 18 , 1) x2 + 2x + Ix + 11 - 5 = 0 ;

g) ) x2 + 3x + 5 = 2x2 + 6x - 5.

Vi du. MQt nguoi dung 300 nghin dong d~ dau tu cho san xuat thu congo Moi san pham ngtroi d6 dWK lai I 500 dong. Sau mot tuan, tinh ca von Ian lui ngiroi d6 c6 1 050 nghin dong. Hoi trong tuan d6, nguoi ay san xuat diroc bao nhieu san pham ?

Chuan kien thuc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

Kien thirc co ban

6. Khi giai phuong trtnh chua dn duoi ddu din Vi du. Mot cong ti van tai dir dinh dieu dong mot {hue bdc hai ta thuong binh phuong hai ve d~ I so 0 to cling loai de chuyen 22,4 tan hang. Neu khir dau can thirc va dua toi mot phirong trinh he moi 0 to cho them 1 ta so voi du dinh thi so 0 to qua. giam di 4 chiec, Hoi so 0 to cong ti du dinh dieu

dong d~ cho het so hang tren la bao nhieu ?

3. Phuong Trinh va h¢ phuong trinli bdc nhdt nhieu dn :

Phuong trinh ax + by = c ;

{alx + bly = cI

H~ phirong trinh ,

a2x + b2y =. c2

H~ phirong trinh

{alX + bly + CIZ = dl a2x + b2y + C2Z = d2 a3x + b3y + C3Z = d3·

Ve' kiln thuc :

Hi~u khai niem nghiem cua trinh bac nhat hai ~n, nghiern phirong trinh.

Ve'klnang:

phuong clla he

1. Phuong trinh bac nhat hai an co dang ax+ by= c,

- Dang 1 : Giai va bieu dien tap nghiern cua phuong trinh bac nhat hai ~n.

trong do a, b, c la cac so thirc da cho va a, b - Dang 2 : Giai va bien luan phirong trinh khong dong thai bang 0 ; x, y la cac an so.

• Co hai each giai he phuong trinh bac nhat hai ~n quen thuoc :

) PI hd h A' T' A h ' h ' de - Dang 5 : Giai he phuong trinh bac nhat ba an

a nuong p ap t e. U mot p uong tnn nao 0 . " , . _ ,. ,

, he b' A' thi At'< . ,< ki A" the don gian (co the co sir ho tro cua may tfnh bo

cua ~, leu ! mq an qua an la I'Ol e vao ,. .,

phirong trinh con lai d~ duoc phirong trinh bac I nii).

nhat mot an. , I-__,D~ng 6 ~. Giili m(>t~ so. ~ai ~oan ,co .~?i ~ung thuc b) Phuong phap congo Bien doi cho he so cua te bang cach dua ve Vl~C lap va giai he phuong mot ~n nao do trong hai phuong trinh ia hai so trinh bac nhat hai ~n, ba an. doi nhau roi cong tung ve hai phirong trinh lai d~ duoc phirong trinh bac nhat mot an.

2. H~ hai phuong trinh bac nhat hai an x, y co

{alx + hly = c1

dang , trong do ca hai plurong

a2x + b2y = c2

trinh deu la phuong trmh bac nhat hai ~n.

ax + by = c.

Giai h~ phuong trinh bac nhat hai :in

- Dang 3 : Gidi h¢ phuong trinh b(lc nhdt hai tin bang dinli thuc.

- Dang 4: Gidi va bien ludn h¢ phuong trinh bdc nhdt hai tin chua tham so:

- Giai diroc va bieu dien diroc tap nghiern cua phirong trinh bac nhat hai :.In.

- Dang 7 : Giai he phirong trinh bac nhat hai an, ba ~n co sir ho tro cua may tinh bo nii.

- Giai va bien ludn diroc phirong trinh 3. Dang tam giac cua he ba phuong trinh bac

ax + by = c. nhat ba ~n la : Vi dIJ· Giai phuong trinh 3x + y = 7.

38

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien tlurc co ban

Htrong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi dL.I - Luu Y

Vi duo Ba may trong mot gio' san xuat duoc I 95 sa~ ph,~rn. so s,an, ph~n: may, III I~m t;ong

2 gio nhieu hon so san pham may I va may II , lam trong mot gio la 10 san pham. S6 san pham • Cach gidi (theo phuong phap Gau-xo) : Khir may I lam trong 8 gio' dung bang s6 san pharn

dan ~n s6 M dira ve he phirong trinh dang tam may II lam trong 7 gio. Hoi trong mot gio, moi

giac. rmiy s<ln xuat duq'c bao nhiell sim ph~m ?

{alX + hly + CIZ = dl h2y + c2z = d2 C3Z = d3

- Gidi duoc h¢ phuong trinh. bac niuu hai a'n bang dinh. thuc.

- Gidi va bien ludn duoc h¢ phuong trinn bac nhdt hai an chua tham so:

- Giai duoc he phirong trinh bac nhat ba in don gian (co th~ dung may tinh bo nii).

- Biet chuyen bai to an c6 noi dung- thuc te ve bai toan giai diroc bang each lap va giai he phuong trinh bac nha~ hai ~n, ba ~n.

- Bier dung may tfnh bo nii ho tro tim nghiern cua he phuong trinh bac nhat hai ~n, ba ~n.

ho~c

ratX = d,

1J a2-\" + h2y = d2

a3x + h3y + c3z = d3·

• Cdch gidi :

Tir phuong trinh cuoi cua he (1) tinh diroc z, the gia tri z vita tim duoc vao plurong trinh thtr hai d~ tinh diroc y roi the ca gia tri y va z tim diroc vao phuong trinh dau tinh diroc x.

Tit phuong trinh dau cua he (2) tinh diroc x, the gia tri d6 vao phuong trinh thtr hai d~ tinh duoc y roi thay cac gia tri tim diroc d6 vao phuong trinh thir ba tinh duoc z.

4. H~ ba phirong trinh bac nhat ba ~n c6 dang :

I

'-----------

39

(1)

(2)

{3X - 2y = 6

Giai he phuong trinh 6

9x + 4y = - .

Vi duo

Gidi va bien ludn h¢ phuong trinh r2mx + 3y = 6 lx+y=m+1.

Vi du. Giai cac h¢ phuong trinh :

Vi du.

r3J:+4v-5z=8

a) J ;y -\- Z = 9

l z = 21 ;

[x + y -\- z = 2

b) i x + Y -\- 3z = 1

I 2x + v + 3z == -1.

, ~

Vi duo Mot doan xe gam 13 xe tac xi tai cho 36 tan xi rnang cho mot cong trinh xay dung. Doan xe chi gam c6 hai loai : xc cho 3 tan va xe cho 2.5 tan. Tinh s6 xe moi loai.

Huong dan thuc hien

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

D •. mg toan - Vi dl,l - Luu Y

Vi du, Giai he phuong trinh sau bang may tinh bo lui:

{2,5X + 4y = 8,5 6x + 4,2y = 5,5 ;

a)

{X - y + z = 7

x+y-z=l y + z - x = 3.

Vi du. Tim cdc nghiem nguyen cua phuang trinh 3x - 4y = 5.

b)

4. Mot so' h¢ phuong trinh btic hai hai tin don gidn.

V l kiln thuc :

- Hilu each gidi mot so' h¢ phuong trinh bac hai hai tin.

Ve' ki nang:

- Gidi duoc mot so' h¢ phuong trinh bdc hai hai tin : h¢ gom m~t phuang trinh bdc hai va mot phuong trinh btjc nhdt ,. h¢ phuong trinh ma moi phuong trinh cua h¢ khong d6i khi thay x bOi y, thay y bOi x.

- H¢ phuong trinh bdc hai hai {In gom mot phuong trinh bdc nhdt hai tin va mot phuong trinh bdc hai hai tin, co thi gidi theo phuong phap the: nghia ia tit phuong trinh bljc nhdt biiu dien mot tin theo tin kia, the' vao phuong trinh bdc hai cua h¢ di chuyin vi phuong trinh btjc hai co mot tin.

- H ¢ phuong trinh bdc hai doi xung la h¢ ma khi ta thay x bOi y va thay y bOi x thi h¢ dii cho khong thay d6i. Co thi gidi h¢ nay theo each dt;it tin phu S = x + y, P = x.y va bien d6i ve' h¢ phuong trinh trung gian voi hai dn S va P. V oi moi nghiem (S ,. P) ta gidi phuong trinh

X2 - sx + P = 0 di tim nghiem (x; y) tuong ung,

- Dang 1 : Gidi mot so' h¢ phuang trinh bljc hai hai dn :

+ H.¢ gom mot phuang trinh bdc hai va mot phuong trinh btic nluit ,.

+ H¢ phuong trinh bac hai dOl xung.

( Gidi duoc mot so' h¢ phuong trinh bdc hai hai tin : h¢ gom mot phuang trinh bac hai va mot phuong trinh bdc nhdt ,. h¢ phuong trinh ma moi phuong trinh cua h¢ khong d6i khi thay x bOi y, thay y bOi x ,. Chi xet cdc h¢ phuong trinh bac hai hai tin : h¢ gtlm mot phuong trinh bac hai va mot phuong trinh bdc nhat ,. h¢ phuong trinh dOl xung).

40

Chuan kien tlurc - ki nang

,---------------------------------,-----------------------------------------------------------------------~~----

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thtrc hien

IV - BAT DANG THUC. BAT PHVdNG TRINH

Ve' kien thuc .' 2. De chirng minh mot bat d~ng thirc ta co the sir

dung cac tinh chat cho trong bang sau : - Bier dinh nghia va cac tinh chat cua bat

dang thirc.

- Hitiu bat dang thirc giira trung binh cong va trung binh nhan cua hai so khong am.

1. Bat dang thuc

( Khai niem bat dang thirc va tinh chat ; Bat dang thirc chua dau gia tri tuyet doi ; Bat dang thirc giira trung - binh cong va trung binh nhan).

1. Dti so sanh hai so hoac hai bieu thirc A va B ta xet dau cua hieu A - B, khi do

A::O;B<=>A-B::O;O

A < B <=> A - B < O.

41

I Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

Vi du. Gidi cdc h¢ phuong trinh :

{x2 - 5x + 6 = 0 a)

x2 - 3x + 2 = 0;

b) {x - y = 3

x2 - 3xy + i + x + y = 0 ;

c) {x + y + xy = 5

x2 + i = 5;

{x2 - 2x = y + 2 d)

i - 2y = x + 2.

- Dang 1 .' Chung minh mot so bat dang thirc don gian (van dung dinh nghia va tinh chat cua hat dang thuc hodc dung phep bien dc3i tuang duang ).

- Dang 2 .' Chung minh mot so bat dang thirc hoac tim gia tri 16'11 nhat, gia tri nho nhat cua mot bieu thirc (van dung bat ddng thuc giiia trung binli cong va trung binh nhdn cua hai so', ba so).

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi dl,l - LU'U Y

----

- Dang 3 : Chirng minh mot sO' bat dang thirc

dan gian co chua gia tri tuyet doi.

- Dang 4 : Bieu dien cac diem tren true sO' thoa man cac bat dang thirc Ixl < a ; Ixl > a (voi a > 0).

Vi du . Chung minh ding:

a) ~ + !2 ?_ 2 voi a, b duong ; h a

b 2 ,2 l 0 ,. . b

) a + ) - a) ?_ VOl mot (1, ;

- Biet bat dting thuc giiia trung binb cong va trung binh nluin ctia ba so khong dm.

- Bier duoc mot s6 bat dang thirc eo clnra gia tri tuyet doi, nhu : \j x EO ffi. :

Dieu

Ten goi kien

~~--~------r---------~--~.----~

Bac cau a < b va b < c

=:>a<c ---------~------~ a<h

cs a+c c li+c

NQi dung

Cong hai ve bat dang thirc voi mot sO'

~--~------r--------------+--------

Nhan hai ve bat dang thirc voi mot sO'

a<h <=> ac < he

e>O

a<h

<=> ac > he

c<O

Cong hai bat dang tlnrc cung chieu

a < h}

c<d =:>a+c<h+d

Nhan hai bat dang thirc cung chieu

a < h}

e<d

=:> ac < bd

a >0, e>O

Nang hai ve ella bat dang thirc len mot

luy thira

a<h

<=> a2n+ 1 < h21l+ 1

*

~O-<-a-. -<-,-) ----I n E N

211 ,211

=:>a -c.n

Khai can hai ve ella mot bat dang thirc.

a>O

a<h

<=> v-; < Vb

Ixl ?_ 0; Ixl ?_ x ; Ixl ?_ -x.

Ixl ::; a <=> -a ::;x ::; a (a >0)

[X ?_ a

Ixl > a <=>

- x::;-a

la + hi ::; I(~I + Ihl·

(voi a·> 0)

Ve'kindng:

- Van dung diroc dinh nghia va tinh chat ella bat dang thirc hoac dung phep bien

. d6i urong dirong d~ cluing minh mot so bat dang thirc dan gian,

- Bier van dung bat dang thirc giua trung binh cong va hung binh nhan cua hai sO' khong am vao viec cluing minh mot sO' bat dang thirc hoac tim gia tri 16"n nhat, gia tri nho nhat ella mot bieu tlurc.

- Chung minh diroc mot sO' bat dang thirc dan gian eo chua gia tri tuyet doi,

e) (a + h{ ~ + * ) ?_ 4 voi a, b lA hai sO' duong ;

) ? 2 ]'

d) a- + b: + c 2: ab + he + ca voi a, b, c a

cac sO' thirc.

Vi du. Chung minb rdng :

a) (ab + cd)2 ::; (a2 + (2)(b2 + d2) voi moi so' a, b, c, d;

(1 1 11

b) (a+b+c)la+b+~)?_9

voi a, b, c La

cdc soduong ;

c) a + b + C -t- d >_ 4~ab'~d voi abc d la' cac

'- v<",

sf)' thuc khong am.

I Vi ~1.J. Chung minh rang voi moi sO' thuc a, b, c

ita co

la - el ::; la - hi + Ib - cl·

42

,-------------------------------~------------------------------------------.--------------------------------

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien tlurc co ban

HUO'ng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du=- Luu Y

- Biet bieu dien cac diem tren true so thoa man cac bat dang thirc

Ixl < a; Ixl >a (voi a > 0).

3. Cac bat dang thirc chira dau gia tri tuyet doi :

a>O

Vi du. Cho x> 2. TIm gia tri nho nhat cua bieu thirc

3 f(x) = x +--. x-2

Vi du. TIm gia tri 100 nhat, nho nhat cua ham so

y = .[;+3 + J6 - x.

2. Bdt phuong trinh (Khai niem bat plurong trinh ; Nghiem cua bat phirong

I trl~h ; ~~t ph~ong trinh tirong d~ong ,;

\ Phep bien doi nrong dirong eae bat phtrong trinh).

Ixl :s; a<=>- a :s; x :s; a

Ixl ~ a <=> x :s; - a hoac x ~ a

- Dang 1 : TIm dieu kien cua an d~ bat phuong trinh eo nghia.

- Dang 2 : Nhan biet hai bat phuong trinh co nrong dirong voi nhau khong.

4. Bat dang thirc giira trung binh cong va trung binh nhan :

1) V oi moi a ~ 0, b ~ 0, ta co :

a + b ~ J;;b.

2

D' h ' a + b '--;b' kh" hi kh' ang t ire --2- = -c ao xay ra I va e I I

a=b.

2) VOl moi a, b, c khong am ta co:

a + b + c 31b

3 ~ ss aoc,

Being thuc a + b + c ~ xdy ra khi , hi

3 = I va c

khi a = b = c.

Bat phirong trinh an x la menh de chira bien dang

j(x) < g(x) hoac j(x):S; g(x) (*)

(I(x) > g(x) hoac f(x) ~ g(x)),

43

HUOng dan thuc hien

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc C(1 ban

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Ve' kien thuc : trong do f(x) va g(x) la nhirng bieu thirc cua x.

_ Biet khai niem bat phuong trinh, Ngiroi ta cling goi f(x), g(x) nrong irng la ve trai, nghiern cua bat phirong trinh, ve phai cua bat phirong trinh (*). so thuc Xo sao

- Biet khai niern hai bat phuong trinh cho f(xo) < g(xo) hoac f(xo) ::; g(xo) Ia menh de nrong dirong, cac phep bien d6i nrong dung diroc goi la nghiern cua bat phirong trinh (*).

dirong bat phuong trinh. Giai bat phirong trinh la tim tap nghiem cua no.

Ve' ki nang: H¢ bat phirong trinh cln x gorn mot so bat phirong

trinh cln x rna ta phai tim nghiern chung cua - Neu diroc dieu kien xac dinh cua bat

cluing.

phirong trinh.

- Dang 3 : Van dung phep bien d6i nrong dirong bat phtrong trinh d~ dua mot bat phuong trinh da cho ve dang don gian hon.

Vi du. Cho bat phuong trinh :

~ x2 - 3x + 2 > x-I.

a) Neu dieu kien d~ bat plurong trinh do co nghia.

b) Trong cac so : 0 ; 1 ; 2 ; 3, so nao la nghiern cua bat phuong trinh tren ?

V i du. Xet xem hai bat phirong trinh sau co nrong dirong voi nhau khong :

a) (x + 7) (2r + 1) > (x + 7)2 va 2x + 1 > x + 7.

.3x - 5, 2

b) 2 > 7 va 3x - 5> 7(x + 1).

x + 1

1. Dieu kien cua mot bat plurong trinh la dieu kien rna an so phai thoa man d~ cac bieu thirc a hai ve cua bat phirong trinh co nghia.

2. Hai bat phirong trinh (M bat phirong trinh) dUQ'C goi la tuong duang voi nhau khi chung co cung tap nghiern.

3. Cac phep bien d6i bat phuong trmh :

- Nhan bier duoc hai bat phuong trinh co urong duong voi nhau khong trong tnrong hop don gian.

- Van dung diroc phep bien d6i tuong duong bat phirong trinh d~ dua mot bat phirong trinh da cho . ve dang don gian hon.

Kf hieu D la tap cac so thuc thoa man dieu kien Vi du. Gidi cdc bat phuong trinh :

cua bat phtrong trinh P(x) < Q(x). a) 12x - 11 ~ 3 ;

a) Phep cong :

Neuf(x) xac dinh tren D thi

P(x) < Q(x) <=> P(x) + j{x) < Q(x) + j(x). b) Phep nhan :

Neu Vx ED,f(x) > 0 thi

P(x) < Q(x) <=> P(x)f(x) < Q(x)j(x).

4

b) x + 1> --.

x+l

4. Chii y : Khi bien d6i cac bien thirc a hai ve cua mot bat phirong trinh, dieu kien cua bat phirong trinh thuong bi thay d6i. VI vay, M tim nghiem ella bat phuong trinh dii cho ta phai tim cac gia tri cua cln dong thai thoa man bat phirong trinh moi va dieu kien cua bat phirong trinh da cho.

44

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

~-----------------------------------r-------------------------------------

3. Ddu cua mot nhi thuc bdc nhat. Minh 1. Dau cua nhi thirc bac nhatj(x) = ax + b hO(1 bang do thi : Bdt phuang trinh 'bdc Ring xet dau

nhdt va h¢ hat phuong trinh bdc nhdt mot dn.

v if kien thuc :

- Hieu va nho diroc dinh If ve dau cua nhi

, . . .

thtrc bac nhat.

- Hi~u each giai bat plurong trinh bac

nhat, he bat phirong trinh bac nhat mot 12 Khi da . /. et do

:!. . • U au gia tn tuyet 01:

an. . .

" _ v I a) Bang khir dau gia tri tuyet doi

Ve kl nang:

- V an dung diroc dinh If -ve dau cua nhi thirc bac nhat d~ lap bang xet dau . tich I cac nhi thirc bac nhat, xac dinh t~p I nghiern eua cac bat phirong trinh dang tfch (rnoi thira so trong bat phuong trinh dang tich 1a 111<)1 nhi thirc bac nhat).

- et« gidi va bien ludn bat phuong b) Dong nhat thirc \x\2 = i, \Ix . trinh. bdc nhat mot an.

Neu \Ix ED,j(x) < 0 thi

P(x) < Q(x) Q P(x)f(x) > Q(x)j(x). c) Phep binh phuong :

Neu \Ix ED, P(x) 2 0 va Q(x) 2 0 thi P(x) < Q(x) Q p2(x) < Q2(x).

L-- ~ ~ ~

b I
x --00 -- +00 I
a
a>O - 0 + I
ax +b
a<O + 0 - b
x -00 -- ~
a
-- -
lax + b\ a>O - (ax + b) 0 ax+b
- (ax + -
a<O ax+b 0 45

- Dang 1 : V an dung dinh li ve dau cua nhi thirc bac nhat M lap bang xet dau tfch cac nhi thirc bac nhat.

- Dang 2 Xac dinh tap nghiern cua cac bat phuong trinh dang tich (moi thira so trong bat phuong trinh dang tlch Hi mot nhi thirc bac nhat).

- Dang 3 : Gidi va bien ludn bat phuang trinh bac nhdt mot dn. Giai he bat phuong trinh bac nhat mot an.

- Dang 4 Sir dung cac phep bien d6i urong dirong d~ bien ddi bat phuong trinh d3: eho vc dang ax + b > 0 hoac ax + b < 0 va tir do rut ra

I nghiem cua bat phuong trinh.

-- Dang 5 : Giai mot so bai toan thuc tien dan tai viec giiii bat phuong trinh.

\! i du. Xet dau bieu thirc

A = (2x -- 1 )(5 - x)(x - 7).

- Su dung duoc cac phep bien deli tirong duong d~ bien deli bat phirong trinh da cho ve dang (L'( + b > 0 hoac ax + b < 0 va tir d6 rut ra nghiern cua bat phirong trinh,

- Giai duoc mot so bai toan c6 noi dung thirc tien co th~ quy ve viec giai bat phirong trinh,

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc CO' ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Giai duoc he bat phuong trinh bac nhat 3. Gidi va bien ludn bat phuong trinh b~e nhd: Vi du. Giai cac bat plurong trinh :

mot ~n. mot dn

Gidi va bien ludn bat phuong trinh ax+b<O

(1)

1) Neu a > 0 thi tap nghiem cua (1) la

2) Neu a < 0 thi t~p nghiem cua (1) la

3) Ne'u a = 0 thi (1) tril thanb Ox < -b. Dodo

(1) v6 nghiem (S =0) neu b ;::: 0;

(1) nghiem dung voi moi x (S = JR) neu b < O.

4. D~ giai mot he bat phuong trinh mot ~n, ta thuong giai tirng bat phirong trinh cua he roi lay giao cua cac tap nghiem thu duoc.

46

) (3x - 1)(3 - x) 0

a < .

4x - 17 - ,

b) (x - 1)(4 - 2x)(5x - 3) ~ 0 ;

c) x2 - lOx + 9 ;::: O. x2 - 5x + 6

Vi du. Giai cac he bat phuong trinh :

{2X -7 > 0 a)

5x + 1 > 0 ;

r (2x + 3)(x - 1) > 0

b) .

L7x - 5 < O.

Vi du. Giai cac bat phirong trinh :

a) (3x - 1)2 - 9 < 0 ;

b) _2_;::: 3

1 - x 2x + 1 '

c) Ix - 21 ~ x.

Vi du. Gidi va bien ludn bat phuong trinh (m -1)x -1 > x + 2m.

Vi du. Xac dinh. m dl h¢ bat phuang trinh

v6 nghiem.

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

14. ,Kit plu((!l1~ trin~l h(iC"n/ui~ ~!ai dn, H¢ hell phuong trinh bdc nhat hai an.

Ve' kien thia: :

Hi~u khai niem bat phirong trinh, he bat phirong trinh bac nhat hai an,. nghiem va mien nghiern ella no.

Ve' ki nang:

Bi~u dien' duoc tap nghiern ella bat phuong trinh va he bat phuong trinh bac nhat hai an tren mat phang toa d¢.

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang tmin - Vi d1,l - Lu'U Y

~.-------------------------------+--------------.--------.--------------~----.------

Vi du. Gidi phuong trinh

Ix - 51 + Ix - 71 = 8.

Bat phirong trinh bac nhat hai an x, y co dang tong quat la ax + by < c hoac ax + by ::; C hoac ax + hy > c hoac ax + hy ~ C (*), trong do a, b, C Hi nhirng so thuc da: eho va a, b khong dong thai bang 0 con x va y la cac an so. Trong mat phang toa d¢ Oxy, tap hop cac di~m co toa d¢ la nghiem bat phuong trinh (*) duoc goi la mien nghiem cua no.

H~ bat phuong trinh bac nhat hai an x, y g6m mot so bat plnrong trinh bac nhat hai an x, y rna ta ph iii tim mien nghiem chung ella cluing.

1. Bieu dien hinh hoc tap nghiem ella bat phirong trinh ax + by ::; c (1), trong do a va b la hai so

khong dong thai bang 0 :

• Buac 1 : Tren mat phang toa d¢ Oxy, ve dirong thang tl : ax + by = c.

• Buac 2 : Lay mot diem Mo(xo ; Yo) ~ tl (ta thirong lay goc toa do 0).

!I i • Buac 3 : Tfnh axo + hyo va so sanh axo + byo {4X _ 5)' + 20 < 0

I II voi c.

x-,/v+5<0

I 0 Buac 4 : Ket luan :

I I ?' LX + 3y - 6 < O.

IL ~I_N_e_·u __ a._\o~+. __ h_yO_._<_c_t~h_l_n_u'a __ m_~_t_p_h_a-n_g __ ba_'_la_tl __ e_h_U_a~ ~

_ I diem Mo la mien nghiem ella ax + hy ::; c.

47

Vi du. Gidi bd: phuong trinh

Ix - 2m + 11 :s; 5.

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh mien nghiem ella bat phirong trinh va h~ bat phirong trinh hac nhat hai an tren mat phang toa do. tThua nhdn kef qud Trang mat phdng tog dr), moi duong thong d : ax + by + c = 0 cilia mat phang thanh hai nua mat phang. Mr)t trong hai nua mat phdng (khong ke' ba d) g()m cdc diem c6 tog dr) thad man bdt phuong trinh ax + by + c > 0, nua mdt phdng kia (khong ke' be! d) gam cdc die'm c6 tog do thad man bat phuong trinh ax + by + c < 0).

- Dang 2 : Ap dung vao bai toan kinh teo

Vi du. Xac dinh mien nghiem ella bat phirong trinh

2x - 3y + 1 > O.

Vi du. Xac dinh mien nghiern ella he bat phirong trinh

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Neu axo + byo > c thi nira mat phang e6 bo ~ khong chua diem M 0 la mien nghiern cua

ax + by :::; c.

2. Bo bo' mien nghiern cua bat phirong trinh (1) ta duoc mien nghiem cua bat phtrong trinh

ax+ by< c.

Mien nghiern cua cac bat phirong trinh ax + by ~ c va ax + by > C diroc xac dinh nrong nr.

3. Bien dien hinh hoc t~p nghiern cua he bat

, fax + by :::; c

Phuong trinh bac nhat hai an

. l I b' < I

ax+ y s. c .

Ve cac dirong thang ~: ax + by = c

va S : a'x + b'y = c'.

Bieu dien mien nghiern cua m6i bat phuong trinh va tim giao cua cluing,

4. Tim gia tri 100 nhat, gia tri nho nhat cua cac bi~u thirc dang F = ax + by, trong do x, y nghiem dung mot he bat phirong trinh bac nhat hai tin da eho.

Ve mien nghiern cua M bat phuong trinh da cho, do thirong la mot mien da giac, Tfnh gia tri cua F irng v6i (x ; y) la toa dQ cac dinh cua mien da giac nay roi so sanh cac ket qua. Tv d6 suy ra gia tri 100 nhat va gia tri nho nhat ella bieu thirc.

48

Vi du. C6 ba nh6m may A, B, C dung d~ san xuat ra hai loai san pham I va II. D~ san xuat mot don vi san pham moi loai phai Ian hrot dung cac may thuoc cac nh6m khac nhau. SO may trong mot nh6m va so may cua tirng nh6m can thiet d~ san xuat ra mot don V! san pham thuoc moi loai diroc eho trong bang sau :

So may So may trong rirng
trong nhorn d~ san xuat ra
;:c. mot don V! san pham
mor
nh6m LO<;1i I LO<;li II
10 2 2
4 0 2
12 2 4 Nh6m

A B C

MQt don V! san pharn I lai 3 nghin dong, mot don V! san ph am II lai 5 nghin dong. Hay lap phirong an d~ viec san xuat hai 10<;1i san pham tren co lai eao nhat.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

15. Ddu cua tam thuc bdc hai. Bdt phuong trinn bdc hai. Mf)t s{1 h¢ bd: phuong trinh bdc hai mot a'n sodon gidn. M f)t so' phuong trinh va bat phuong trinh quy ve'

bdc hai.

Ve' hen thuc : • Neu L1 = 0 thi f(x) luon cung dau voi he so a,

- Hi~u dinh if ve dau cua tam thirc bac voi nhfrng gia tri x 7:- - :a . hai.

V if ki nang:

- Ap dung duoc dinh if ve dau tam thirc bac hai d~ giai bat phirong trinh bac hai ; cac bat phirong trinh quy ve bac hai : bat phuong trinh dang tich, bat phirong trinh chua i'in 6 mau thirc.

- Gidi duoc mot so' h¢ bat phuong trinh bac hai mot dn sodon gidn.

- Bier ap dung viec gia! bat phtrong trinh bac hai d~ giai mot so bai toan lien quan den phuong trmh bac hai nhu : dieu kien d~ phirong trinh c6 nghiem, c6 hai nghiern trai dau,

- Gidi duac mf)t sr/ bat phuong trinh quy vi bac hai.

4- H.oAN . ToAN LOP 10 - A

HUOng Min thuc hien

Kien tlurc CO' ban

1. Dau cua tam thirc bac hai :

Cho f(x) = ax2 + bx + e, (a 7:- 0), L1 = b2 - 4ae.

• Neu L1 < 0 thi f(x) luon cung dau voi he so a, voi moi x E Itt

• Neu L1 > 0 thi f(x) = 0 c6 hai nghiern xI' x2

(quy uoc xI < x2)' Khi do, f(x) cung dau voi he so a khi x < xI hoac x > x2' trai dau voi he so a khi x I < x < x2'

2. Minh hoa hinh hoc dau tam tlnrc bac hai

j(x) = ax2 + bx + e, (a 7:- 0)

L1<0

L1=0

L1>0

a>O

y

a<O

o

/\

x

49

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

- Dang 1 : Xet dau tam tlnrc bac hai.

- Dang 2 : Ap dung dinh if ve dau tam thirc bac

hai d~ giai bat phirong trinh bac hai ; Mot so bat phirong trinh quy ve bac hai : bat phuong trinh dang tich, bat phuong trinh chua tin 6 mau thirc.

- Dang 3 : Gidi mot so' h¢ bat phuong trinh bac hai mot a'n sodon gidn.

- Dang 4 : Ap dung viec giai bat plnrong trinh bac hai d~ giai mot so bai toan lien quan den phirong trinh bac hai nhir : dieu kien d~ phirong trinh c6 nghiem, c6 hai nghiem trai dau,

- Dang 5 : Gidi mot so bat phuong trinh quy vi bac hai bang each d(it a'n phu thich hap.

Vi du. Xet dau cac tam thirc bac hai :

a) - 3x2 + 2x - 7 ;

b)x2-8x+1S.

Vi du. Giai cac bat phirong trinh :

a) - x2 + 6x - 9 > 0 ;

b) -12x2 + 3x + 1 < O.

Vi du. Gidi cdc bat phuong trinh : a) (2x -8)(x2 -4x + 3) > 0 ;

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc CC1 ban

Huong dan tlnrc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Vi du. Gidi h¢ biit phuong trinb :

{x2 - 12x + 32 > 0 a)

x2 - 13x + 22 < 0;

{5X2 - 7 x + 1 < 0 b)

3) m? + bx + c = 0 c6 cac nghiem duong khi va x2 - 9x + 30 < 0 ;

chi khi

b

-- > O.

a V 6i nhiing gia tri nao cua tham so m thi :

4) ax2 + bx + c = 0 c6 cac nghiern am khi va a) Phuong trinh dii eho co nghiem ;

chi khi b) Phuong trinh dii eho co hai nghiem trai ddu.

3. Mot so dieu kien nrong dirong :

Neu ai + bx + c la mot tam thirc bac hai (a =I:- 0) thi

1) ax2 + bx + c = 0 c6 nghiem khi va chi khi 2

L\ = b - 4ac :2 0 ;

2) ax2 + bx + c = 0 c6 hai nghiem trai dau khi va chi khi !:... < 0;

a

c

- > 0 a

c ->0 a

b

-- < O. a

50

1 1

b) --1 <--2 ;

x+ x+

2

5x -7x - 3

c) 2 > 1.

3x - 2x - 5

{X2 - 2x + 1 > 0 c)

_x2 + 2x + 3 > O.

Vi du. Cho phuong trinh 2

(m - 5)x - 4mx + m - 2 = O.

Vi du. Gidi cdc bat phuong trinh :

a) x2 - 3x + 21x - 11 > 0 ;

b) J x2 - 3x + 2 :2 x ;

c) x4 - 3x2 + 2 > O.

4- H.DAN .. ToAN L<jp 10 - [3

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien thtrc co ban

Hmmg dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

v - THONG KE

2 {a> 0

5)Vx, ax +bx+c>O<=>

~ < O.

2 {a> 0

6) Vx, ax +bx+c ~ 0 <=>

~ ::; O.

2 {a < 0

7)Vx, ax +bx+c<O<=>

~ < O.

2 {a> 0

8) V x, ax + bx + c ::; 0 <=>

~::; O.

Vi du. V6i gia tri nao ella m thi ham so sau luon xac dinh ?

y = ~ x2 - 2mx + m.

1. Bang phdn b6' tdn s6' - tdn sudt. Bang phdn bo tdn so - tdn sudt ghep lop,

V l kiln thuc :

- Hi~u cac khai niem : Tan so, tan suat ella moi gia tri trong day so lieu thong ke, bang ph an bo tan so - tan suat, bang ph an bo tan so - tan suat ghep lop,

Ve'kfnang:

1. Gia sir day n so lieu thong ke da eho e6 k gia - Dang 1 : Xac dinh tan so, tan suat ella moi gia tri khac nhau (k::; n). GQi xi Ia mot gia tri bat ki tri trong day so lieu thong ke. (V iec giai thieu noi

trong k gia tri do, ta e6 :

dung duac thuc hien dong thai vai viec khdo sat

cac bai todn thuc tiEn).

SOlan xuat hien gia tri xi trong day so lieu da eho

goi la tdn s6' ella gia tri do, ki hieu la ni'

So I, = ni diroc goi la tdn sudt ella gia tri xi' n

- Dang 2 : Xac dinh tan so, tan suat ella moi lap trong day so lieu thong ke phan lap. (Kh6ng yeu cdu : bier eden phdn lap ; bier ddy du cdc truang hop phdi ldp bang phdn b6' tdn s6' - tdn sudt ghep

- Xac dinh duoc tan so, tan suat ella moi 2. Gia sir day n so lieu thong ke da eho diroc ph an lap. Chu y den gia tri dai dien cua moi lop). gia tri trong day so lieu thong ke,

vao k lap (k < n). Xet lap thtr i (i = 1, 2, ... , k) 3 L b' h b" , , ,

ba h bo , , , - Dang : ap ang p an 0 tan so - tan suat

- Lap duoc ang p an 0 tan so - tan suat trong k lap do, ta e6 :

ghep lap khi da eho cac lap can phan ra. ghep lap khi da eho cac lap can phan ra.

51

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

• So ni cac so lieu thong ke thuoc lap thu i diroc Vi duo Chieu cao cua mot nhorn 30 hoc sinh

goi la tdn so' cua lop do. lap 10 diroc li¢t ke a bang sau (don vi : m) :

• So I, = !!i diroc goi la tdn sud! cua lap thir i. n

i

52

1,45 1,58 1,61 1,52 1,52 1,67
1,50 1,60 1,65 1,55 1,55 1,64
1,47 1,70 1,73 1,59 1,62 1,56
1,48 1,48 1,58 1,55 1,49 1,52
1,52 1,50 1,60 1,50 1,63 1,71
Hay lap bang phan bo' tan so - tan suat thea mau :
Chieu cao xi (m) Tan so Tan suat Cong

b) Hay lap bang phan bo' tan suat ghep lap voi cac lap la [1,45, 1,55) , [1,55 , 1,65) , [1,65; 1,75].

Vi du. Hay lap bang phan bo tan so - tan suat cua day so lieu thong ke sau :

24 ; 25 ; 26 ; 27 ; 27 ; 26 ; 25 ; 24; 25; 25 ; 27 ; 26; 26; 25 ; 25; 25; 24; 27; 26; 26; 26.

2. Bie'u do (Bieu do tan so, tan suat hinh cot ; Ducng gap khiic tan so, tan suat ; Bieu do hmh quat).

Ve' kiln thuc :

Hieu cac bieu do tan so, tan suat hinh cot, bieu do hinh quat va dirong gap khiic I tan suat,

I Ve' ta nang:

- Ve duoc bieu do tan suat hinh cot.

- Ve diroc dirong gap khiic "tan so, tan

suat.

- Doc diroc cac bieu do hinh cot, hinh qU<;1t.

Kien thirc CO' ban

HUOng dan thtrc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

1. Cach ve bieu do tan so, tan suat hinh cot : a) Cach ve bieu do tan suat hinh cot De mo ta bang ph an bo tan suat ghep lap va trinh bay cac so lieu thong ke, e6 the ve bieu do tan suat hinh cot nhir sau :

Chon he true toa d(> vuong g6e OX! v6i don vi tren true hoanh Ox la don vi ella dau hieu X diroc nghien ciru, don vi tren true tung Ojla 1 %. De do thi can doi, doi khi phai cat bo mot doan nao d6 ella true hoanh (hoac ella true tung) ;

Tren true hoanh, dat cac khoang e6 cac rmit bieu dien eho cac rmit ella cac lap 0 bang phan bo tan suat (do dai ella cac khoang bang b~ rong ella cac lap). Ta goi cac khoang va cac lap nay la nrong irng voi nhau. Lay cac khoang d6 lam canh

day, ve cac hinh chtr nhat e6 d(> dai ella cac dirong eao bang tan suat ella cac lap nrong irng va nam v~ phia chieu dirong cua true tung.

Cac hinh chir nhat vira ve diroc t<;10 thanh mot bieu do tan suat hinh cot,

b) Cach ve bien do tan so hinh cot nrong nr ve bieu do tan suat hinh cot, trong d6 thay true tan suat boi true tan so.

2. Duong gap klnic tan suat, tan so :

L_ Cling e6 the mo ta bang ph an bo tan suat ghep

lap bang each ve dirong gap khuc tan suat,

__ -----'- ---L- ------'

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

53

- DCJng 1 : Ve bieu do tan suat hinh cot.

- DCJng 2 : Ve duong gap khuc tan so, tan suat.

- DCJng 3 : Doc cac bieu do hinh cot, hinh quat,

Vi du. Ve bieu do hinh cot, dirong gap khiic tan suat nrong irng v6i ket qua ph an b) trong vi du 0 ph an tren.

Vi du. Cho bang phan be thuc nghiem tan suat ghep lap sau : Nhiet d(> trung binh ella thang 12 tai thanh pho Vinh til 1961 den 1990.

Cac lap ella x?
nhiet d(> X (0C) I Tan suatji (%)
[15; 17) 16 16,7
[17; 19) 18 43,3
[19;21) 20 36,7
[21 ; 23) 22 3,3
I Cong 100% Hay mo ta bang tren being each ve :

a) Bieu do tan suat hinh cot ;

b) Duong gap khuc tan suat,

Vi duo Cho bieu do hinh quat v~ CCi cau gia tri san xuat cong nghiep thea thanh phan kinh te (%) nam 2000 ella mroc ta nhu sau :

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thirc hien

Dang toan - VI du - LUll Y

a) Gia tri dai dien

Trong bang phan bo' ghep lop, ta got trung binh cong cua hai rmit lop thir i la gia tri dai dien cua

lop d6, kf hieu Ia ci'

b) Cach ve duong gap khiic tan suat

Tren mat phang toa d¢ Ox! (he toa d¢ Ox! dff n6i 0

tren), xac dinh cac diem (Cj ; fi) , 1 = 1, 2, 3, ... , k, Ghi chu

trong do, C i va fi Ian hrot la gia tri dai dien, tan (1) Khu vue doanh nghiep nha mroc suat cua cac lop cua bang ph an be (g6m k lop). (2) Khu vue ngoai quoc doanh

Ve cac doan thing noi diem (c, , fi) voi diem (Ci+! ; fi+l)' 1 = 1,2,3, ... , k - 1, ta thu diroc mot dirong gap khiic, goi la dirong gap khuc tan suat.

c) Cach ve dirong gap khuc tan so nrong ur ve dirong gap khiic tan suat, trong do thay true tan suat boi true tan so.

3. Doc bieu d6 tan suat, tan so hinh cot , Duong gap khiic tan suat, tan so ; Bi~u d6 hinh quat,

54

44,3 (3) ______,

I-----~

23,5 (2)

32,2 (1)

-

(3) Khu vue dau nr mroc ngoai,

Toe do tang tong san pham trong mroc cua mroc ta qua 20 nam (1986 - 2005) dff diroc th~ hien

. .

qua dirong gap khiic sau day

T6ng san pharn

1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 ThCli gian

Theo bdo Lao dong, s6'09!2006(7159) ngay 20 -4 -2006.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

1. S6 trung binh cong (hay s6 trung binh) • Cong thirc tfnh :

a) Truong hop bang phan b6 tan s6 va tan suat

_ 1 k k

x = - 'L>iXi = ''Ljixi = f1x1 + fzx2 + ... + f0k>

n i=l i=l

trong d6 ni, !,. Ian hrot la tan so, tan suat cua gia tri Xi;

n la so cac so lieu thong ke (n1 + n2 + ... + nk = n). b) Truong hop bang phan bo tan so va tan suat gheplap

trong do c., ni'!; Ian hrot la gia tri dai dien, tan so, tan suat cua lap thtr i ; n la so cac so lieu

thong ke (n1 + n2 + ... + nk = n).

Dua vao bieu do, hay lap bang thea mau sau :

Khu vtrc doanh nghiep nha mroc

Ti trong (%)

Cac thanh phan kinh te

Khu vue ngoai quoc doanh

Khu vue dau ur mroc ngoai

Cong

3. Sotrung binh, sotrung vi va mot V l kiln thia: :

Biet duoc mot so dac tnrng cua day s6 lieu (so trung binh, so trung vi, mot) va y nghia cua cluing.

Vi' ki nang:

Tim diroc so trung blnh, so trung vi. mot cua day so lieu thong ke (trong nhirng tinh huong da hoc),

55

- Dang bai tdp : Tim so trung binh, so trung vi. mot cua day so lieu thong ke (trong nhirng tinh huong da hoc).

Vi du. Diem thi hoc ki II mon Toan cua mot t6 hoc sinh lap lOA (quy iroc rang diem kiern tra hocki c6 th~ lam tron den 0,5 diem) duoc liet ke nlur sau:

2; 5; 7,5; 8; 5; 7; 6,5; 9; 4,5; 10.

a) Tinh di~m trung binh cua 10 hoc sinh d6 (chi lay den mot chi! so thap ph an sau khi da lam tron),

b) Tfnh so trung V! cua day so lieu tren,

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dlm thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

2. So trung V! :

So trung vi Me cua mot day gam n so lieu thong ke diroc sap tlnr nr khong giarn (hoac khong tang) Hi so dirng gitta day, neu n le ;

La trung binh cong cua hai so dung giira day

n

(trung binh cong cua so hang thtr 2" va so hang

thtr ~. + 1), neu n chan.

3. Mot:

Mot Mo la gia tri co tan so 100 nhat trong bang phan bo tan so.

Neu trong bang phan bo' tan so co hai gia tri c6 tan so bang nhau va 100 hon tan so cua cac gia tri khac thi hai gia tri do la hai mot.

4. Phuong sai va do /¢eh chudn eua ddy solieu thong ke.

Ve' kien thuc :

Biet khai niern phirong sai, d¢ lech chuan cua day so lieu thong ke va y nghia thong ke cua cluing.

Ve' ki nang:

Tim diroc phirong sai, d¢ lech chuan cua day so lieu thong ke.

1. Cong thirc tinh :

C6 thti tfnh phirong sai thea mot trong ba each sau:

each 1 : Tfnh thea tan so k

2 1" . -)2 d''" ,. b' ha bo "

sx=-L.,..ni(Xi-X OlVO"I angpan o tan so,

n i=!

k

s.; = _!_ Lni(Ci - xi doi v6i bang phan bo tan n i=!

so ghep lop.

- Dang bai tap : Tinh phirong sai, do lech chuan
cua day so lieu thong ke.
Vi du. Chieu cao cua mot nh6m 30 hoc sinh
lop 10 duoc liet ke i:J bang sau (don V! : m) :
1,45 1,58 1,61 1,52 1,52 1,67
1,50 1,60 1,65 1,55 1,55 1,64
1,47 1,70 1,73 1,59 1,62 1,56
1,48 1,48 1,58 1,55 1,49 1,52
1,52 1,50 1,60 1,50 1,63 1,71 56

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi d1,l- LUll Y

-------------~--------------

a) Hay lap bang phan bo' tan so ghep lap voi cac lap 13.: [1,45; 1,55); [1,55; 1,65); [1,65; 1,75]. I

b) Tfnh so trung binh cong ella bang phan bo tan I so ghep lap neu tren.

e) Tinh phuong sai ella bang phan bo tan so ghep lap neu tren.

Cach 2 : Tinh thea tan suat k

so; = Ifi(xi -xi doi voi bang phan bo tan suat,

i=1

k

s~ = IJ;·(ci - x)2 doi voi bang phan bo tan

i=1

suat ghep lap,

trong do ni' fi Ian hrot la tan so, tan suat ella gia tri xi trong bang phan bo tan so, tan suat (hay la tan so', tiln suar ella lap thir i trong bang phan bo tan so, tan suat ghep lap) ; n la so' cac so lieu I

thong ke (nl + n2 + ... + nk = n) ; x la so trung binh cong cua cac so lieu thong ke ; ci la gia tri dai dien cua lap tlui i.

Cach 3 : Su dung cong thirc s~ = x2 - (xi. 2. Y nghia va each sir dung phirong sai

Phuong sai duoc sir dung d~ danh gia mae d¢ phan tan cua cac so lieu thong ke (so voi so trung binh),

Khi hai day so lieu thong ke eo cung dan vi do va eo so trung binh bang nhau hoac xap xl nhau, day eo phuong sai cang nho thi mae d¢ ph an tan

I (~o v~i so trung binh) ella cac so lieu thong ke . eang It.

57

~---------------------------~-------------------------------------------------------------------------.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan thirc hien

3. D¢ lech chuan

D¢ lech chuan Sx la can bac hai cua phirong sai s;

Dang toan - VI du - Liru Y

Kien thirc co ban

D¢ lech chuan cfing diroc sir dung d~ danh gia mire d¢ phan tan cua cac so lieu thong ke (so voi so trung blnh).

each sir dung d¢ lech chuan hoan toan giong nhu each sir dung phirong sai.

Khi can chu y den don vi do, ta dung d¢ lech chuan Sx (vi Sx co cung don vi do voi dau hieu X diroc nghien ctru).

VI - GOC LUONG GIAC vA CONG THUC LUONG GIAC

1. Quan he gifra do va radian

° IT (180)°

1 = -rad, 1 rad = -

180 IT

- Dang 1 : D6i don vi goc tir do sang radian va ngiroc lai,

- Dang 2 : Tfnh d¢ dai cung tron khi biet so do

1. Goc va cung luang giac (D¢ va radian; So do cua goc va cung hrong giac , Duong tron hrong giac),

Ve' kien thuc : ?

Voi IT ~ 3,14 thi 1° ~ 0,01745 rad va ngiroc lai, cua cung.

- Biet hai don V! do goc la d¢ va radian. 1 rad ~ 57° 17'45". _ Dang 3 : Bi~u dien cung hrong giac va goc

-- Hieu khai niem dirong tron hrong giac : 2. D¢ dai I cua cung tron co so do a rad, ban luong giac tren dirong tron dinh huang.

goc va cung hron g giac ; so do cua goc kf h R l' I R ?

In a = a. Vi duo D6i so do cua cac goc sau day sang

va cung hrong giac.

3. so do cua cac cung hrong giac co diem dau A, radian:

I - ttu« duac h¢ thuc Sa-to cho cdc cung I"\- 1050; 108°; 57°30'.

I vagocLUqngg_I_Q_c_· Ld_i_e_ffi_c_u_6_1_B_I_a_:_s_d_A_B __ =_a __ +_k_"2_IT_,_k_E __ Z_,_tr_o_n_g_d_0-L ~

58

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

~------------------------------,-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HUOng dan thirc hien

Ve'klnang:

- Biet d6i don vi goc tir d¢ sang radian va nguoc lai.

- Tinh duoc d¢ dai cung tron khi biet so do cua cung.

- Biet each xac dinh diem cuoi cua mot cung luong giac va tia cuoi cua mot goc hrong giac hay mot ho goc hrong giac tren duong tron luong giac.

2. Gia tri IU9'ng gidc eua mot goc (eung) (Y nghia hinh hoc ; Bang cac gia tri hrong giac cua cac goc tlurong g~p ; Quan he giira cac gia tri hrong giac).

Ve' kiln thuc :

-- Hi~u khai niern gia tri hrong giac cua mot goc (cung) ; bang gia tri hrong giac cua mot so goc thirong gap,

l.'Tren dirong tron hrong giac goc A, cho cung - Dang 1 : Xac dinh gia tri hrong giac cua mot .

..--.. rv goc khi biet so do ella goc do.

AM co sd AM = a. The thi tung d¢ cua diem M

la sin a, hoanh d¢ cua diem M la cos a,

4. D~ bieu dien cung hrong giac co so do a tren dirong tron hrong giac, ta chon diem A(l ; 0) lam diem dau cua cung vi vay chi can xac dinh diem cuoi M tren duong tron hrong giac sao cho

..--.. r»

cung AM co sdAM = a.

5. Moi cung hrong giac CD irng voi mot goc Iuong giac (OC, OD) va ngiroc lai, So do cua cung Iirong giac va goc hrong giac nrong trng la trung nhau.

sm a, 0

tana = --(neu cos o v ), cosa

cosa ( ,. 0)

cota = -. - neu sm zz v .

sma

IT 3 rt

15' 4' 7'

Vi duo Mot dirong tron co ban kinh 10 em. Tim d¢ dai cua cac cung tren duong tron co so do :

rt

a) 18 ;

Kien thtrc co ban Dang toan - Vi d1,l - Luu Y

~--------------------------+------~~~--------------~---~~~~~~~~~~-~--

a la so do cua mot cung hrong giac tuy y co Vi du. D6i so do cac cung sau day fa d¢, ph lit,

diem dau A, diem cuoi B. Moi gia tri k irng voi giay : mot cung.

Neu viet so do bang d¢ thi ta co

0v ° °

sdAB = a + k360 , k E Z.

Vi du. Tren dirong tron lirong giac, hay bieu dien cac cung co so do :

300:. -1200', 6300' Tn -4n

- , 6' 3

Vi du. Tren mdt pluing toa d() cho duong trim luang gidc tam 0, die"m. gtk: A va cdc duang thdng y = x, y = - x. Goi M, N, P, Q la giao ella duong tron luong giac vai cac duang thdng do. Tim. so do cua cac cung luang giac co dilm. ddu fa A va diem cuoi la M, N, P, Q.

- Dang 2 : Xac dinh dau cac giri tri hrong giac cua cung AM khi di~m cuoi M nam a cac goc ph an nr khac nhau.

- Dang 3 : V ~n dung cac hang dang thirc hrong giac co ban gitra cac gia tri luong giac cua mot goc d~ tinh toan, cluing minh cac h~ thirc don gian,

L_ J_ -L __

59

------------------------,---------------------------------------------------------------------------~

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

- Hi~u diroc h~ thirc co ban gifra cac gia SU: dung cae ki hieu sina, cosa, tana, cola, ding

tri luong giac ella ITlQt goc, dung cdc ki hieu tga, cotga.

2. -1 :S sin a :S 1 ;

-1 :S cos a :S 1, v6i ITl9i a .

3, tan a khong xac dinh khi va chi khi n

a = 2 + kn, k E Z.

4. cot a khong xac dinh khi va chi khi a = ktt, k E Z.

5. cos a ;:::: 0 khi va chi khi di~ITl cuoi M thuoc goc phan ttr thir I va thtr IV cua mat phang toa d¢.

6. sin a ;:::: 0 khi va chi khi diem cuoi M thuoc goc ph an nr thir I va thir II cua mat phang toa do.

7. Tir dau cua sin a va cos a suy ra dau tan a va cot a theo quy tac nhan.

8. Cac hang dang thtrc hrong giac co ban:

. 2 2 1

sin a+ cos a= ;

1 + tan2 a = 1 __

eos2 a '

2 I

1 + cot a=--- ;

sin2 a

60

ella

- Dang 4 : Van dung cong thirc giira cac gia tri Iirong giac cua cac goc co lien quan dac biet : bu nhau, phu nhau, doi nhau, hon kern nhau goc rt vao viec tinh gia tri hrong giac ella goc bat ki hoac cluing minh cac dang thirc.

- Dang 5 : Chung minh mot bieu thuc khong phu thuoc vao bien cua ham so luang giac.

Vi du. Dung dinh nghia, xac dinh gia tri hrong giac ella goc :

Tt: -4n 180°', -

6' 3

Vi du

. -3 3n

a) Cho sma =5' rt < a < 2'

Tfnh cosa, tana, eota.

I n

b) Cho tana = -2 ; 2 < a < rt ,

Tinh sina, coszz.

Vi duo Chirng minh rang (v6i x la gia tri d~ cac bieu tlnrc co nghia) :

a) (cotx + tanx)2 - (eotx - tanx)2 = 4 ;

b) 4 . 4 1 2' 2

cos x - sm x = - sm x,

- Bier quan he gifra cac gia tri hrong giac cua cac goc co lien quan dac bier : bu nhau, phu nhau, doi nhau, hon kern nhau goc n,

-- Biet y nghia hinh hoc cua tang va

I cotang,

Ve'kinang - Xac dinh diroc gia tri luong giac ella mot goc khi biet so do cua goc do.

- Xac dinh diroc dau cac gia tri hrong

r» giac ella eung AM khi diem cuoi M nam

a cac goc phan nr khac.nhau,

- Van dung diroc cac hang d:1ng thtrc

IIU9'l1g giac co ban giira cac gia tri lirong giac cua mot goc d~ tinh toan, chirng I minh cac he thirc don gian.

- Van dung duoc cong thirc gifra cac gia tri luong giac ella cac goc co lien quan dac biet : bu nhau, phu nhau, doi nhau, hen kern nhau goc 1t vao viec tfnh gia tri hrong giac ella goc bat ki hoac clurng

I minh cac ding thirc. I

L tan a .cot a = 1. tan4200 ; sin870° ; cos( - 240°).

______________ • ~ Lil ~

Vi du. Tim gia tri cua

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hirong dan tlnrc hien

sin(-a) = - sma; tan(-a) = - tana ; cot(-a) = - cot( a).

10. Gia tri hrong giac cua cac cung bu nhau : sin(n-a)=sina;

cos( rt - a ) = - cos a ; tan(n-a)=-tana;

cot(n -a) = - cota ;

11. Gia tri hrong giac cua cac cung hon kern n : sin(a+n)=-sina;

cos( a + n) = - cos a ,

tan( a + n) = tan a ;

cot( a + n) = cot a ;

12. Gia tri hrong giac cua cac cung phu nhau :

sin( ~ - a ) = cos a ,

cos (~ - a ) = sin a ,

tan (~ - a ) = cot a ; cot (~ - a ) = tan a .

Kien tlnrc CO' ban

f-----------------4--------------------+------------------------_1

9. Gia tri hrong giac cua cac cung doi nhau :

cos(-a) = cosa ;

~-----------------~------------------~-------------------------~

61

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Vi du. Chung minh rang trong tam giac ABC ta co:

a) sin (A + B) = sin C ;

A+C B

b) tan 2 = cOll·

Vi du. Chung minh rang cdc bilu thuc sau khong phu tit uoc Vt10 x

A = 2(sin6x + cos6x) -3(sin4x + cos4x) ;

B.2 2.2 4

= sm x + cos xsm x + COS x.

Vi du. Chung minh rang vm eung x bat ki, ta eo :

a) sin ( x -t ~) = cos x

b) cos( X + -i = -sinx.

Chuan kien thrrc - ki nang

Huang dan thuc hien

Kien thtrc co ban

1. Cong thirc cong :

• cos (a-b) = cosacosb + sinasinb ;

• cos(a+b) = cosacosb - sinasinb ;

• sin(a-b) = sinacosb - cosasinb ;

• sin(a+b) = sinacosb + cosasinb ;

Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

Fe'kiln thuc : tan a - tanb

_ Hieu cong thirc tfnh sin, COSIn", tang, • tan(a-b) = 1 + tan a tan b '

co tang cua tong, hieu hai goc. tan a + tan b

• tan(a+b) = l-tanatanb'

3. Cong thuc luang giac. - Cong thtrc cong.

- Cong thirc nhan doi.

- Cong thirc bien d6i tich thanh tong.

- Cong thirc bien d6i tong thanh tich.

- Tit cac cong tlurc cong suy. ra cong thirc goc nhan doi.

-- Hieu cong thirc bien d6i tich thanh tong va cong thirc bien d6i tong thanh tich.

Ve' ki nang:

- Van dung diroc cong thirc tfnh sm, eosin, tang, cotang cua tong, hieu hai goc, cong thirc goc nhan doi de giai cac bai toan nhu tinh gia tri luong giac cua mot goc, nit gon nhirng bie"u thirc hrong giac dan gian va cluing minh mot ;0 dang

I thirc.

- Van dung diroc cong thirc bien d6i tich thanh tong, cong thirc bien d6i tong thanh tich vao mot so bai toan bien d6i, nit gon bieu thirc.

2. Cong thtrc nhan doi : • sin2a = 2sinacosa ;

2 ? ·2 2 2 1

• cos a = cos- a - sm a = cos a -

2tana

• tan2a = ---- 1- tan2 a

3. Cong thirc ha bac :

2

• cos a =

1 + eos2a 2

- Dang 1 : Tinh gia tri hrong giac cua mot goc,

- Dang 2 :

+ Chung minh cong thuc tinh sin, eosin, tang, cotang ctia tdng, hieu hai goc ; cong tlua: bien d6i tieh thank t6ng va cong thuc bien d6i t6ng thanb tieh.

+ V an dung diroc cong thirc tfnh sin, eosin, tang, cotang cua tong, hieu hai goc, cong thirc goc nhan doi de giai cac bai to an nhu tinh gia tri hrong giac cua mot goc, rut gon nhirng bieu thirc hrong giac dan gian va cluing minh mot so dang tlurc,

- Dang 3 : Van dung diroc cong thirc bien d6i tich thanh tong, cong thirc bien d6i tong thanh tich vao mot so bai toan bien d6i, nit gon bieu thirc.

Vi du. Tinh cos l OS'": tan l S",

Vi d T' h . 2 K • 1

I u. m sin a neu sma - cosa = 5'

Vi du. Clnrng minh rang :

) . 4 4 1 1. 22

a sm x + cos x = -"2 sin x;

b) cos 4x - sin 4x = cos2x .

2 1 - cos2a
• sm a= 2 ,
2 1 - cos2a
• tana= 1 + cos2a 62

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

~------------------------------,----------------------------------------------------------'-----------------,

HUOng dan thuc hien

J.-------------------------------------~------------ .. ------------.--------

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

• sinasinb = ~ [cos(a-b) - cos(a+b)] ;

• sinacosb = ~ [sin(a-b) + sin(a+b)]. 5. Cong thuc bien d6i tong thanh tich :

u+v u-v

• cosu + cosv = 2cos -2- cos -2-- ;

2. u+v. u-v

• cosu - cosv = - sm-2-- sm-2- ;

. . 2' u+v u-v

• smu + smv = sin -2-- cos -2-- ;

. . 2 u+v. u-v I

J.- _L_. __ sl_n_u_- __ sl_n_v_= __ c_o_s_-_-_2~~_SI_n~~_2~~_; l___ • . • .~

VII - VECTd

I 1. Cdc dinh nghia (Dinh nghia vecto ; D¢

I dai cua vecto ; Hai vecto CU?g phircng, cung huang; Hai vecto bang nhau ; Vecto - khong),

V i kiln thuc :

- Hi~u khai niem vecto, vecto-khong, d¢ (Uti vecto, hai vecto cung phuong, hai vecto bang nhau.

Kien thirc C(J ban

4. Cong thtrc bien d6i tfch thanh tong : 1

• cosacosb = 2" [cos(a-b) + cos(a+b)] ;

1. Vecto la mot doan thang co huang.

2. D~ xac dinh mot vecto can bier mot trong hai dieu kien sau :

- Diem dau va diem cuoi cua vecto ;

- D¢ dai va huang.

-+ -+

3. Hai vecto a va b duoc goi la cung phuong

neu gia cua chung song song hoac trung nhau.

63

Vi du. Bien d6i biiu thuc

sina + sinb + sin(a + b) thanh tieh.

1 Vi du. Chung minh sinIOo.sinSOo.sin70o = "8'

Vi du. V oi A, B, C Til cdc goc cua tam giac, chung minh :

'nA . B . C' 4 ABC

Sl + sm + sm = cosz- cosz-cosz-.

Vi du. Bien d6i tich sau thilnh f6ng

sin x sin 2x sin 3x.

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh mot vecto, SlJ cung phuong va huang cua hai vecto.

- Dang 2 : Chirng minh hai vecto bang nhau.

1- =. 3 : Khi cho ~ac ~~m A va vecto a, dung diem B sao cho AB = a .

Vi du. Cho hinh binh hanh ABCD, tam O. G9i M, N Ian hrot la trung diem cua AD. BC.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Htrong dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

~-----'------------------------------.-----------------------------------~

-- Biet diroc vecto - khong cung phuong va Neu hai vecto ; va b cung phirong thl cluing e6 a) C6 bao nhieu vecto khac vecto 6 e6 diem dau

cung lnrong voi moi vecto. the cung huang hoac nguoc huang. va diem cuoi la mot trong so cac diem A, B, C,

V C' ki ruing : 4. D9 dai cua mot vecto la khoang each giira D, 0, !vI, N.

-- Biet cluing minh hai vecto bang nhau. diem dau va diem cuoi cua vecto d6. b) Chi ra hai vecto c6 diem dau, diem cuoi lay

_ - - I-I I-I - - trong so cac diem A, B, C, D, 0,!vI, N rna

- Khi eho tnroc diem A va vecto a , dJ!I1g • a = b khi va chi khi a = b va a, b cung ___,

- cung phirong voi AB,

diroc diem B sao eho Ali = ;.

huong,

5. Voi moi diem A ta goi AA la vecto - khong,

-

Vecto - khong diroc kf hieu la 0 va quy uoc rang

161 = 0, vecto - khong cung phuong va cung huang voi moi vecto.

- cung htrong voi AB,

- nguoc htrong voi AB.

c) Chi ra cac vecto bang vecto M 0 , OB .

~.---------------------------------+------------------------------------~------------------------------------~

2. Td'ng va 'hi¢u hai vecta (T6ng hai vecto :

quy tac ba diem, quy tac hinh binh hanh, I tinh chat ; Vecto doi ; Hieu hai vecto).

Ve' kien thuc :

- Hitiu each xac dinh tong, hieu hai vecto ; quy tac ba diem, quy tat hinh binh hanh va cac tinh chat cua tong vecto (giao hoan, ket hop), tinh chat cua vecto- khong.

- Bier diroc I; + bl ~ H + Ibl·

1. T6ng cua hai vecto :

• Cho hai vecto ; va b. Lay mot diem A tuy y,

---+ -+ ---+ --+ --+ -. -----+

ve AB = a, BC = b. Khi d6 a + b = AC.

• V6i ba diem M, N, P tuy y ta luon e6 :

Mil + NP = MP (quy rae ba diem). • Ttr giac ABCD Ia hinh binh hanh, ta e6 :

Ali + AD = AC (quy de hinh binh hanh), 2. Vecto doi :

• Vecto b la vecta doi cua vecto ; neu Ibl = 1;1

- -

va a, b la hai vecto ngiroc huong. Kf hieu

- Dang 1 : Van dung duoc : quy tac ba diem, quy tac hinh binh hanh tim tong, hieu cua hai hoac nhieu vecto eho tnroc. Tinh dQ dai cua

--+ --+ -+ --+

a+b,a-b.

- Dang 2 : Tim vecto doi va hieu cua hai vecto.

- Dang 3 : Cluing minh cac dang thirc vecto (van

dung diroc quy tac trir DB - OC = CB vao chirng minh cac dang thirc vectc).

Vi du. Cho bon diem A, B, C, D. Clnrng minh rang :

- ----to ----+ -----t

AB + CD = AD + CB.

- -

b = -a.

64

-'--~---'--------------I

.1 . Chuan kien thirc - ki nang _~

rm~allg : -------------- . ~eu; la vecto doi ella vecto h thi vecto h Ia

I / ,'~ _~~.... _

I - Van dung duoc : guy tac ba diem, guy vecto doi ella a hay s- (--a) = a.

I de hinh binh hanh khi lay tong hai vecto

- -_._---_.- _ .. _._ .. _._-----_ ... - .. - .-- --.-~

HUO'ng dan thuc hi¢n I

-.--.-.----- ... ---.- .. --.- .. - ---_ .. _ .. _ .... _----1

D:,lI1g toau - Vi du- Luu )'

---.-._--.-_ .. -- .. --.--- - .. -- .. ---- .. ------1

Vi du. Cho tam gi;:ic deu ABC. canh a, Tinh do dai cac veeta AB - AC, AB + Ae,

clio tnroc.

• Moi vecto deu co duv nhat vee to' doi, Vectodoi Vi du. Cho sau didmM, N, P, Q, R, S bat ki.

- ~ ~ Chung minh ding

ella A.B la BA . Vecto doi ella 0 Ia 0 . I MP~ + -N-f1 + ',-J.e: = -J~4(: -to .i~-j,-; +,' -R)O-,'_',

I 3. ~Ii~~ ella~ hai v~eto' : ~ \) VI.) V

I·a-h=a+(-b);

\. Ta co : ~ - 2M = AS voi ba diem 0, A, B I bat kr (guy tac trir).

Ii 4. Tfnh chat eu: p~ep ~eQng cac vecto :

Voi cac vecto a, b , c bat ki ta co \. ~ + ,; = h + ; (tinh chat giao hoan) ;

I• (~; + h) + Z = ~ + (h + Z) (tinh chat ket c) JIA + JIB + IIC == 2HO. hop) ;

I. ~ + 6 = 6 + ~ = ~ (tinh chat ella vecto- khong) ;

L-~' ~ + (-;) = -;+ ; = 0 1-----------.----1

13. Tich vecta vai mot so (Dinh nghia tich 11. Dinh nghia tich cua mot vecto vai mot so - D~lI1g 1 : Xac dinh vecto h := k;; khi cho tnroc

vecto voi mot so ; Cac tinh chat cua tich _' ,~~ r' , _" -. I

/' ;t·' D'~ ki d' hai to I Cho so thirc k * 0 va vecto a * o. Ifch eua so k va vecto a.

I vecto VOl mo so; leu ien e ar vee v ~' ~

, cupg phuong :., Die~ ki,~n d~ ba di~rr: vecto a voi so thye k Ia mot vecto, kf hieu la k ": I - Dang 2 .- ~~ dl-;lI1f ki~~ rhirc ve \'e~~,(j d~, ehUn_g I t~~ang har,lg ; ste« thi mot vecto thea hat cung lurong v6i a neu k > 0, ngiroc huong VOl a I mmh : h,a diem thang nan,g, trung ?!cm c~a ~9t

i "eCUf.khong cung phUong). .' _ ".,' ~ , I~I d?<.tn thang, trong tam cua tam giac, hal diem

I Ve kien thuc : neu k < 0 va eo do dai bang Ikl al' trung nhau.

II - Hi~u. duoc dinh nghia tich vecto veri ~ ~ ~ ~ - D. ang 3 : Phan .tieh (bieu thi) mot vecta theo

Quy uoc : 0 a = 0, k 0 = 0 . .'

l_:_~~)t so, hat vectO' kllOng eung phuong .

- V an dung duoc guy tac trir

I

i

I d~ chtrng minh cac dang thirc vecto,

I

! I

OB - OC = CB

Vi du. Cho tam giac liBC co true tam H, tam duong (ron ngoai tiep O. Goi D Iii diem dOl xung VOl A qua O. Chung mirth ding:

a) Tit giac BDCH ta hinli binh hanh.

I

OA + OB + OC = 011.

b) OB + OC = AH. Tu do cluing minh

65

tam,

m ta c6 :

-~ ~

1) k(ma) = (km)a

~ ~ -

2)(k+m)a =ka +ma

~ ~

3) k(a +b )=ka +kb .

Hi~u tinh chat trung diem, tfnh chat trong

1- Biet dual' ~i~u ki~n d~ h~i vecto cung phuong : ba diem thang hang,

- Biet dint: li hilu thi mot vecto theo hai vecto kluing cung phuong.

Vc'kint'ing'

-

- Xac dinh diroc vecto b = k a khi cho

tnroc s6 thuc k va vecro ;; .

~ ~

3. Hai vecto a. b voi b -:t- 0 cung phuong khi vii • M Iii trung diem ella doan thang AB

chi khi c6 so k d~ ; = k b , s6 k tim duoc Iii duy M A + M B = 0

nhat.

ta c6 :

--+ --+ -+ -+

• k( a + h) = k a + k b

~ ~ ~

.(h+k)a =ha +ka;

- ~

.h(ka)=(hk)a;

~ ~

.la=a;

~ ~

(-l)a =-a ;

- -

kO = O.

I - F Hirong dan thuc hien

I Chu~n~~th~-hlnang ~--~~~~~~~~~--~~~~~~--~~~~~~~~~--~~

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

1- Biel ca~nh chilt_cu~ [ich -~ccta voi mot 2. Olc tinh chat cua phep nhan vecto voi mot s6 : - Dang 4 : Chung rninh dang thirc vecto co chua

I " V'" I" "h k tich ella vecto voi mo. t s6 " Xac dinh vi. tri cua so: oi moi vecto a, J va moi so tl trc x, V oi hai vecto a . b tuy y va voi moi s6 k, hEIR.

mot diem nho dang thirc vecto.

- Dang 5 : Si.'r dung tinh chat trung diem ella doan thang, trong tam ella tam giac d~ giai mot s6 bai roan hinh hoc.

~ _ rk=O

• k a = 0 ¢::> _ ~ a = O.

• A, B. C thang hang ¢::> AB = kAC .

- Bier dien dat bang vecto vt: ba diem AB = k AC , voi s6 k xac dinh.

thang hang, trung diem cua mot doan ~ M la trung diem cua doan thang AB thang, trong tam cua tam giac, hai d.i~m I [rung nhau d~ giai mot s6 bai roan hinh

hoc, <=> OA + OB = 20M

- Sir dung diroc tinh chat trung diem ella AM = MB

doan thang, trong tam cua tam giac d~

giai m¢t s6 bai loan hinh hQC. I (vai di~m 0 bat ki).

- -

Oa = 0 ;

4. Ap dung :

- ~ rlk = 0

.ka=O¢::> __

a = O.

• Ba diem phan bier A, B, C thang hang ¢::>

MA + MB = 0

66

OA + OB = 20M (voi diem 0 bat ki). AM = MB.

• G Iii trong tam cua tam grac ABC <=>

! -.~ ---+ --+ .--+ _--+ ~..... ---t __,.

I GA + GB + GC = 0 <=> OA + OB + OC = 30G

I voi diem 0 bat ki.

Vi du. GQi M, N Ian luot Iii trung diem ella cac doan thang AB, CD. Chung minh rang

2MN=AC+BD.

Vi duo Cho hinh binh hanh ABCD. Chirng minh rang

AB+ 2AC+AD= 3AC.

'';11\'' TOANldp10 fJ

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

HUOng dan thuc hien

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

---+ ---+

a) MB = -2MC ;

I, ~ 1~ 2~

~ ~ -4 +-~_A_M __ = __ 3_AB __ +_3_A_C_. ~

1. True toa dQ (true) la mot dirong thang tren d6 - Dang 1 : Bieu dien diem tren true, da xac dinh mot diem 0 goi la diem goc va mot

--< --< - Dang 2 : Tim toa dQ ella mot diem va dQ dai

vecto don vi e . Ki hieu : (0; e) hade Ox, ... dai S9 cua mot vecto tren true.

2. Cho M la mot diem tuy y tren true (0 ; ;). - Dang 3 : Tinh duoc dQ dai dai so ella mot

- Hieu khai niem true toa dQ, toa dQ cua ~ --< vecto khi bier toa do'. hal' diem dau rmit cu a no'.

Khi d6 e6 duy nhat mot so k sao eho OM = ke. v

veeta va ella diem tren truc. Ta goi so k d6 la tog do eua diem M dOl viii true

dd cho,

3. Cho hai diem A va B tren truc (0 ; ;). Khi d6 a) Hay bieu dien cac diem d6 tren true so.

~ --<

c6 duy nhat so a sao cho AB = ae. Ta goi so a b) Hay xdc dinh. d(j dai dai so' ctia cdc vecto

- Xac dinh duoc toa do ella diem, cua ~ ~ ~

d6 la d¢ dai dai so' cua vecto AB dOl viii true dd AB; AM ; MN.

• G la trong tam cua tam giac ABC

Vi du. Chung minh rang neu G va G' Ian hrot la trong tam cua cac tam giac ABC va A'B'C' thi

~-+-----+

<=> GA + GB + GC = 0

3GG'= AA' +BB' +CC'.

4. H~ true tog d¢ (Dinh nghia true toa dQ ; Toa dQ ella diem tren true toa do ; DQ dai dai so ella mot vecta tren mot true).

. . . .

Ve' kiln thuc :

- Bier khai niern dQ dai dai so cua mot vecto tren true va h¢ thuc Sa-lo.

Ve' n nang:

veeta tren true,

<=> OA + OS + DC = 30G (voi diem 0 bat ki).

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC. Goi M til mot dilm

--< --<

5. Cho hai vecto a va b khong cung phirong va thuoc doan BC sao cho MB = 2MC.

--<

x Ia mot vecta tuy y. Bao gio cling tim duoc cap Chung minh rang

--< --< --<

so thuc h va k duy nhat sao cho x = h a + kb.

Vi du. Tren mot true cho cac diem A, B, M, N Ian hrot c6 toa dQ la -4; 3 ; 5 ; -2.

cho, kf hieu : a = AB. - Tfnh diroc dQ dai dai so cua mot vecto

--<

4. Neu hai diem A va B tren true (0 ; e) c6

khi bier toa do hai diem dau miit cua n6.

toa dQ Ian hrot la a va b thi AB = b - a .

67

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thtrc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

5. H¢ thuc Sa-la :

H¢ thuc AB + BC = AC tuong duang vOi h¢

thuc AB + BC = AC.

~ - - -

- Hi~u diroc toa dQ cua vee to, cua diem • a = (al ; a2) ~ a = al i + a2 j . - Dang 3 : Chirng minh ba diem thang hang. hai

doi voi mot he true. • M e6 toa dQ la (x ; y) ~ OM = (x ; y) voi 0 la dirong thang song song bang toa dQ.

- Bier diroc bieu thirc toa dQ cua cac phep toan vecto, dQ dai vecto va khoang each giira hai diem, toa do trung diem cua doan thang va toa dQ trong tam cua tam

5. H¢ true toa d(J (Toa dQ cua vecto, Bieu thirc toa dQ cua cac phep to an vecto. TO<;1 dQ cua diem ; Toa de) trung di~m ella doan thang va toa de) trong tam ella tam giac).

Ve' kien thuc :

giac.

Ve' ki nang:

toa dQ hai dau rnut. Tinh toa dQ cua cac veeta

Chi xet h¢ tog d(J De'-cac vuong g6c (don vi tren _ _ _ ~ _

cdc true tog d(J hang nhau). u + v, u - v, ku.

1. TO<;1 do cua mot veeta, ella mot diem tren mat - Dang 2 : Tlnh do dai vecto va khoang each

phang toa dQ Oxy. giira hai diem.

Dung ki hieu Oxy hade (0, i , .i ).

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh toa dQ cua veeta neu biet

-- --

goc toa dQ ; x = OMI ' Y = OM2, trong d6, M], - Dang 4 : Xac dinh toa do trung diem cua doan

thang, toa do trong tam cua tam giac.

M2 Ian luot la chan dirong vuong g6e ha tit M

xuong Ox va Oy. Vi du. Tren mat phang vOi he toa de) da chon

• Neu A e6 toa dQ Ia (xA ; YA)' B e6 toa dQ la eho cac diem A(- 4; 1), B(2; 4) va C(2; - 2).

(xB ; YB) thi : a) Chirng minh rang A, B, C khong thing hang.

-. Tinh ehu vi cua tam giac ABC.

AB = (xB - xA ; YB - YA)·

- Tinh diroc toa dQ ella vecto neu biet toa dQ hai dau rmit, Sir dung diroc bieu thirc

toa dQ cua cac phep toan veeta.· 2. Cho ~ = (al ; a2)' h = (hi; h2), k E R ta e6

_ .. Tinh diroc dQ dai veeta va khoang each _ _

gitra hai diem, I a + b = (al + bl ; (/2 + b2),

- Xae ~inh diroc toa d¢ trung diem ella II ~ - h = (al - hi ; a2 - b2),

doan thang va toa dQ trong tam cua tam -

giac. k a = (ka I ; ka2)·

68

b) Xac dinh toa do trong tam G, true tam H, tam I dirong tron ngoai tiep cua tam giac ABC.

e) Tinh dQ dai dirong trung tuyen thuoc dinh A.

Vi du. Tren mdt phdng vot h¢ toa dq Oxy cho tam giac ABC, trong do A(l ; 2), B(5 ; 2) va C(l ; - 3).

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

~ --+ -t -~

Tir do suy ra ding hai vecto a va b (a "* 0) cimg

phuong khi vii chi khi co so thuc k thoa man

{bl = ka, . b2 = ka2

3. Neu I Iii trung diem ella doan thang AB thi :

xA + xB YA + YB

xI = 2 'YI = 2

Neu G Iii trong tam tam giac ABC thi :

xA+xB+xC YA+YB+YC

xG = , YG =

3 3

VIII - rtcr: VO HVdNG CVA HAl VECTd V A UNG Dl,JNG

1. Tieh v6 huang cua hai vecta (Gia tri 1. Gia tri hrong giac ella mot goc bat ki (tir 0° luong giac ella mot goc bat ki tir 0° den den 180°).

180° ; Gia tri hrong giac ella cac goc di[le biet : Goc giira hai vecto ; Tfch vt: hirong ella hai vecto ; Tinh chat ella tich vo hirong).

Ve' hen thuc :

- Hi~u duoc gia tri lirong giac ella goc bat kl tir 0° den 180°.

- Hi~u khai niem goc giira hai vecto, tfch vo huong ella hai vecto, cac tinh chat ella tich vo hirong, bieu thirc toa do ella tich vo hu6ng.

• Dinh nghia :

V oi moi goc a (0° ~ a ~ 180°) ta xac dinh duoc mot diem M tren mra dirong tron dan vi

--

(h. 1) sao eho xOM = a.

Gia str diem M co

y

toa do 1. M(xo; Yo). ~: ------.ly~~1

Hinhl ( i ~~L\

-Xo 0 Xo

a) Xiu: dinn toa d~ dilm D sao eho ABeD La hinn binh hanh.

b) Xae dinh. toa d~ ella dilm E La dilm dOl xung ella dilm A qua dilm B.

e) Tim toa d~ trong tam, tam dutmg tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC.

69

x

-+ -+ -+ --+ -+ -+ --+-

(k a). b = k( a . b ); a 1. b ~ a . b = O.

- Dang 1 : Tinh gia tri luong giac ella mot so goc dac bier ; Cho biet gia tri hrong giac cua mot goc a , tim cac gia tri luong giac con lai cua a ; Cho biet mot gia tri hrong giac cua goc a, xac dinh goc a do.

- Dang 2 : Tinh tich vo hirong cua hai vecto.

V ~n dung diroc cac tinh chat cua tich vo hirong

-+

cua hai vecto vao giai bai tap : voi cac vecto a,

-+ -+

b , c bat ki :

a.b=b.a;

--+ -* -+ -+_ -+-+

a .( b + c) = a. b + a . c ,

,-------------------------------,-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HUOng dan thuc hien

Chuan kien thrrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

I Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

- ttu« cong thuc hinh chieu. Ve' kl nang:

Khi d6 :

- Dang 3 : Tfnh d¢ dai cua mot vecto ; Tfnh Tung d¢ cua diem M goi la sin cua g6e a va I khoang each giira hai diem ; Tfnh g6e giira hai

vecto.

_ Xac dinh diroc g6e gifra hai vecto ; tinh diroc kf hieu la sin a = Yo ;

diroc tfch vo hirong cua hai vecto, Hoanh d¢ cua diem M goi la eosin cua g6e a va

- Tfnh duoc d¢ dai cua vecto va khoang duoc ki hieu Ia cos a = Xo ;

each gnra hai diem, Yo

Ti s6 -- voi Xo ;;j:. 0 goi la tang cua g6e a va - Dang 5 : Sit dung ding thuc hinh chieu gidi

- Van dung diroc cac tinh chat v~ tich vt: Xo mot S(Y bai tap don gidn.

huong cua hai vecto d~ giai bai tap.

Vi du. Tfnh 3sin135° + eos600 + 4sin1500.

- Dang 4 : Chirng minh dang thirc vecto lien quan den tich vo huong ; Chimg minh sir vuong g6e cua hai vecto ;

diroc ki hieu la tan a = Yo ;

" Xo

- V (in dung duoc cong thuc hinh chieu

vao gidi mot so' bai tdp don gidn. I T1 s6 Xo voi ;;j:. 0 goi la cotang cua goc a va V.i,d~: Cho g6~, tu ~ bi~t sinx = 0,2. Hay tinh cac

Yo Yo . gia tri luong grac eua goe x.

I d k' hi l' t Xo Vi duo Cho tam giac deu ABC eanh a, e6 trong

iroc 'I leu a co a = --. . ..

.. Yo I tam G.

2:, Gia tri hrong giac (GTLG) cua cac g6e dac 1) Tfnh cac tich vo lnrong : AS. CA, GA. GB

biet : theo a.

~ ___, ~ ___, ~
0° 30° 45° 2) Tfnh sine GA, GB) ; eos(AB, CG) ;
~ -~ -~ ___,
0 1 J2 I tan(GA, BG) ; eol(AB, BC).
~a - -
2 2 Vi du. Cho ! la trung diem cua doan thang AB.
sa 1 J3 )2 'V6idi~mMtuyy,tfnhMA.MB theoABvaMI.
- -
, 2 2 Vi du. Tren mat phdng toa d~ Oxy voi h¢ toa d~
L 1
tana 0 J3 1 dii chon, cho hai diem A(1 ; 3) va B(5 ; 1).
a) Tim toa d~ diem I thod mdn
J3 --
I eota II 1 --. ____, ____, ~
10 + IA - IB = o.

70 Hu6ng dan thl,fc hi¢n 1

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang ---1

\-- --+ K_ie_'n_t_h_u_c_c_C1_h_a_n . --+ D._<:l __ n._g._._t_o~n - Vi dl,l - LUll Y -J

b) Tim tren true hoanh dilm D sao cho goc I ADB la vuong.

e) Tim tap hop cdc diem M thod man

Vi du. Trong mat phang toa do Oxy cho ba diem

A (2; 1), B (8: 9) va C (5; -3). I

. a) Chirng minh A, B, C khong th~l1g hang.

b) Tinh :

- OIU vi ~ ABC.

- So do g6c A ella .t)_ ABC.

3. G6e gi fra hai vecto : I

~ ~ ~ - To,!- do tnrc tam H ella ~ ABC. I

Cho hai vecto a va b deu khac vecto O. Tu mot I

- Toa do diem D la giao ella dirong thang AB va

diem 0 bat ki ta ve OA = ~ va OB = b. Khi d6 true Oy. I

AoB voi so do tir 0° den 180° diroc goi la goc

~~ 60° I 90° 180°
sma J3 1 0
-
2
1 0 -1
eosa -
2
tana J3 II 0
1
eota J3 0 II ~ ~

giiia hai vecto a va h. Ki hieu g6e giira hai

--+ -+ -+-+

vecto a va b la (a , h).

4. Tich vo huang ella hai vecto

~ ~

- Dinh nghia : Cho hai vecto a va b khac vecto

~ ~ ~

O. Tich vo huang ella hai vecto a va b la mot

so, ki hieu la a. b , diroc xac dinh boi cong thirc sau:

~ . ,; = H ·ihl·eos( ~ ,h ).

'- --L . __ ..l . .. _

71

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi dl,l- Luu Y

-----.-----.------t-----------------------t------------------------j

........ ........ -+ -+

* Chit Y : Tir dinh nghia, voi a :;j; 0, b :;j; 0,

ta c6 :

-~ -+ -1---+

a.h=O<=>a.lh.

- Cac tfnh chat cua tfch vo huang:

- - -

V 6i ba vecto a, b , c bat ki va moi so tlnrc k

ta c6 :

a . b = b . a (tfnh chat giao hoan) ;

- -+ --+ -+-+--

a .( b + c ) = a . b + a . c (tinh chat phan phoi) ;

-+........ --+ -- ........ -+

(k a ). b = k( a . b ) = a .(k b ) ;

_2 -+2 -+-

a ;::::0; a =o<=> a=O;

-+ --+ 2 -2 -+ -+ -2

(a+h) =a +2a.b+h ,

-+ -+? -2 -+ -+ -2

(a-bt=a -2a.b+b ,

-+ -+ ........ -+ -2 -2

(a + b ).( a - b ) = a - b

- Bi6u thtrc toa d¢ cua tich vo huang :

- -

Trong mat phang toa d¢ (0 ; i ; j ) cho hai vecto

-+ -+

a = (al ; a2)' b = (hI; b2)·

Khi do, tfch vo huang a. b la :

72

~---C-h-u-ti-n-k-i-e-n-t-h-U-'C----k---l n-a-- n-g------.------------------H-U-6n-g-d-a-n-t-h-L_1-e-h-i-¢-n--.--------------- ~

Kien thirc CO' ban Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

~-----------------------------~~----------------------------------~-------------------------------

- (jflg dung cua tich vo huang :

~

• Tinh de) dai cua vecto. Cho a = (al ; a2)' khi d6 :

H = ~af + ai

• Tinli g6e giiia hai vecta. Cho hai vecto

~ ~ -

a = (al ; a2) va b = (hI; h2) khac 0, khi d6 :

") Cae lu! thuc luang trong tam giac 010 tam giac ABC c6 BC = a, CA = b, AB = e, - Dang 1 Ap dung dinh If eosin, dinh If sin, (Dinh If eosin ; Dinh If sin; D¢ dai dirong dirong cao AH = ha va cac duong trung tuyen cong tlnrc v( dO dai duong trung tuyen, cac cong

trung tuyen trong mot tam giac , Dien thirc tfnh dien rich M giili mot so bai toan c6 lien

AM = ma, BN = m.; CP = me d ' . , (Ch' . I'd' h li

tich tam giac ; Giai tam giac), quan en tam grac, \ ung nun 1 cac in I

1. Dinh If eosin : eosin, dinh H sin va mot so' cong (hue tinh dien

Ve' kiln thuc : 2 ') ?

a = b' + c: -2he cosA ; tieh tam giac).

- Hieu dinh If eosin, dinh If sm, cong 2 2 ) - Da ng 2· Chtrns minh cac he.', thirc v~ rnoi quan I

b = a + C- - 2ac cosB ; ., e-

thirc v~ d¢ dai dirong trung tuyen trong he giira cac yeu t6 trong tam giac. I

mot tam giac c2 = i + b2 - 2ab cosC.

. .' - Dang 3 Giai lam giac trong mot so tnrong I

- Biet (Hi~u) duoc mot so cong thuc tinh H~ qua: hop d{JL gd.n. (Yhl Crill gidi tam gidc trong mot

dien tich tam giac A b2 + e2 - a2 s(/ truong IWp nhu .' tinh duac ,cae c~nh :,a cdc I

cos = 2hc ' goc con lu! C/,a tam giac khi biet ba yell to trong i

- Bier mot so tnrong hop giai tam giac. 2 ') .., do co it nhdt mot YCl~ 16' vi canh (cluing han :

a + c: - b:

Ve' ki nang .' cosB = 2' cho truce de) dai ba canh cua tam giac ; cho

ac truac d(J da! mot canh va s6 do hai goc eua tam

- Ap dung dtroc dinh If eosin, dinh If sin, .., 2 2

I a" + b - (' giac, cho truac d(J dai hai canh va s(/ do goc

c~gili~~d¢dhld~~~~ruy~.~ __ c_o_sC_=_~~~~2~a~h~~~~ ~_x_e_n_g_i_a_a_h_ai!_~_'_lh_d_6_). ~

, ------------~--.-------------------------------.---------------------------------------------~

l Huang Min thirc hien

Chuan kien thlic - ki nang

Kien thirc CO' ban Dang toan - Vi du - LU'U Y

cac cong thirc tinh dien tich M giai mot 2. Dinh If sin: - Dang 4 : Van dung kien thirc giai tam giac vao

I s6 bai toan eo lien quan den tam giac. a _ b _ c _ 2R cac bai toan eo noi dung thuc tien. Ket hop voi

1_ Bier giai tam giac trong mot s6 rnrong sin A - sin B - sin C - viec sir dung may tinh bo tui khi giai toano

hop don gian. Biet van dung kien thirc (R la ban kfnh dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac Vi duo Cluing minh rang trong tam giac ABC

! giai tam giac vao de bai toan co noi ABC). ta co :

II' dung thu c tien. Ket hop voi vie. e sir dung

~ ':'1' a) a = bcosC + ceosB.

I may tinh bo lui khi giai toano I

I - Biet ap dung cdc cong thuc tinh dien

I tfch tam giac.

!

I

i

3. D9 dai dirong trung tuyen cua tam giac :

2 2(b2 + e2) - a2

ma= 4

4. Cong thirc tinh dien tich tam giac :

Dien tich S cua tam giac ABC diroc tinh theo cac cong thirc :

• S = _.!._ ab sinC = _.!._ be sinA = _.!._ ea sinB ;

2 2 2

• S = ~~. (voi R la ban kfnh dtrong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC) ;

I • S ::: PI" va r la ban kinh dirong tron noi tiep tam giac ABC) ;

I • S = ~ p(p- a)(p - h)(p - c) (cong thirc He-rang).

(p =. _.!._(a + b + C))

\. 2

74

h) sinA = sinBeosC + sinCeosB ;

e) a = ha (cotB + cotC).

ABC I

I

Vi duo Chung minh rang trong tam giac

h2 2 2 + e - a ta co : eotA = ------- 4S

Vi duo Tam giac ABC thod man he thuc

3 3 3

b + e - a 2 H- / h / A

. = a. ay tin goe .

b+e-a

Vi du. Cho tam giac ABC co a = J6 , b = 2 ; I e = J3 + 1. Tinh cac goc A, B, ban kfnh R cua dtrong tron ngoai tiep, trung tuyen Ina cua tam giac ABC.

Vi duo Hai dia diem A, Beach nhau boi mot ho ruroc. Ngiroi ta lily mot dia diem C va do duoc

goc BAC bang 75°, goc BCA bang 60°, doan AC dai 60 met.

Hay tinh khoang each tir A den B (h.2).

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Huong dan thuc hien

~------------------------------------,------------------------------------~

Kien tlurc co ban Dang toan - Vi du - Liru Y

IX - PHUDNG PHAp TOA DO TRONG MAT PIL.\NG

---------------------------------+-------------------------------------+--------------------------------------~

c

B

Hinh 2

Chung minh ding trong tam giac ABC

I vt s«

S = 2R2sinAsinBsinC.

1. Phuong trinh duang thang (Vecto phap tuyen ella dirong thang , Phuong trinh tong quat ella duong thang ; Vecto chi phuong ella duang th~ng , Phuong trinh tham sO' ella dirong thang , Dieu kien dti hai dtrong th~ng cat nhau, song song, trimg nhau, vuong goc voi nhau ;

I Khoang each tir mot diem den mot duong thang ; Goc giita hai duong thang).

I ve' kien thuc :

- Hi~u vecto phap tuyen, vecto chi phirong ella dirong thang.

1. Vecto U duoc goi la vecto chi phuong ella - Dang 1 : Viet phirong trinh tong quat, phuong dirong thang Ll neu ~ =1= 0 va gia ella ~ song trinh tham sO' ella dirong thing d di qua diem song hoac trung voi ~. M( Xo ; Yo) va co phirong eho tnroc hoac di qua

ChLJ y : Mot duong thang co vo sO' vecto chi I hai diem eho tnroc.

phuong, - Dang 2 : Tinh toa d() ella vecto phap tuyen neu 2. Phuong trinh tham so ella dirong thang Ll di biet toa d¢ ella vecto chi phuong ella mot dirong

qua diem Mo(xo ; Yo) va co vecto chi phirong thang va ngiroc lai,

... , {x=xo +tUl 2 2

U=(UI ;U2) 1a '(Ul +U2 =1= 0) (h.3)

y= Yo +tv:

75

- Dang 3: Chuyen d6i phirong trinh tong quat, phirong trinh tham sO' ella dirong thang.

- Dang 4 : Xet vi trf nrong deli giira hai dirong thang.

------_._--.-. -

f---------K-ie-'n-t-h-u-c-c-O-b-a-? n H_U_On_~_d_a_~ n.,--th_U_. C-h_i~Da~;~n ~51 du ~ ~~~~ 1

- Hieu each viet phuong trinh tong quat. I y I - D(jng 5 : Tinh khoang each tv mot diem den 1

phuong trinh tham so' ella dirong thang, I mot duong thang I

u/

- Hieu duoc dieu kien hai dirong thang I / / - D~lI1g 6 : Tinh so' do ella goc giira hai duong

cat nhau, song song, trung nhau, vuong /M thang.

goc voi nhau. I

Mo Vi du. Viet phuong trinh tong quat, phuong trinh

- Biet cong thuc tinh khoang each tu mot 0 V x I ' " ' -

tham so eua duong thang trong moi truong h9P I

diem den mot ducng thang ; goc giira hai -: I sau :

duong thang. I,

i a) Di qua diem A( 1 ; -2) va song song voi duong

thing 2\ - 3y ._ 3 = O.

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Hlnh 3

b) Di qua hai diem M(l ; - 1) va N(3 ; 2).

- Bitt dieu kien di hai diim + cung 13.

Phuong trinh duong thang 1'1 di qua diem phia hay -khdc phia dOL voi mot duong

thilng. M oCto; Yo) va co he so goc k Hi :

V l kT nang:

y - Yo = k(x - xo)·

c),Di qua diem P(2 ; 1) va vuong goc voi dirong I

~ thang x - Y + 5 = O.

- Viet duoc phuong trinh t6ng quat, 4. Neu 1'1 co vecto chi phuong U = (u1 ; u2) I

phuong trinh tham so cua duong thang d Vi du. 010 tam giac ABC, biet A(-- 4; 1), B(2 ; 4)

, di qua diem M( Xo ; Yo) va co phuong eho voi ul *- 0 thi he sO' goc ella 1'1 la k = :2 . I va e(2 ; .- 2).

I I

Neu '" co he s6 goc k thi '" co mol vecto chi I a) Tfnh cosA. I

- Tinh duoc toa do cua vecto phap tuyen phirong la ~ = (1 ; k). . b) Tinh khoang each tir diem eden duong thing I

AB. I

5. Vecto ~ duoc goi la vecta phdp tuven cua l , .. . " I

. V, duo Hal canlt eua hinh binb hann co phuong I

_ Bier chuyen doi phuong trinh tong quat, dirong thang 1'1 neu ~ *- 0 va n vuong goc voi I trinh x - 3y = 0 va 2x + 5y + 6 = O. M(Jt dinl: I

phuong trinh tham so cua duong thang. vecto chi phirong ella 1'1. I cua hinh binh hanb la ,4(4 ; -1). Viet phuong I

__ L- _l!rinh_~ai c(J-nlz con lai cua hinh b~~~ hanh d~

tnroc hoac di qua hai diem eho truce.

neu bier toa do ella vecto chi phuong cua mot duong thang va ngiroc lai.

76

Huong dan thuc hien

Chuan kien thtrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

- Su dung duoc cong thirc tinh khoang Chu y : Mot dirong thang co vt: so vecto phap Vi du. Cho duang thiing A : x - y + 2 = 0 va hai

each tit mot diem den mot duong thang, tuyen. die"m 0(0; 0), A(2 ; 0).

- Tinh duoc so do cua goc gilra hai dirong 6. Phuong trinh cua duong thang 11 di qua diem a) Chung to rdng hai die"m A va 0 tuim cung

thang, Mo(xo ; Yo) va co vecto phap tuyen ~ = (a .. b) miJt phia doi vOi duimg thiing A.

la : a(x - xo) + b(y -Yo) = 0, (a2 + b2 :t:. 0). b) Tim toa diJ cua diim 0' Ia die"m doi xung cua o qua S:

7. Phuong trinh ax + by + c = 0 v6i i + b2 :t:. °

c) Tim tren L1 die"m B sao cho diJ dai duang gap goi la phirong trmh tong quat cua dtrong thang

khuc OBA ngdn nhiit .

....

nhan n = (a; b) lam vecto phap tuyen,

8. Duong thang 11 cat Ox va Oy l~n hrct tai A( a ; 0) va B(O ; b) co phirong trinh thea doan

chan la ~ + ~ = 1 (a :t:. 0, b :t:. 0) (h. 4)

y

Hinh 4

6- H.oAN ... ToAN l()p 10 - A

77

Huang dan thirc hien

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc CO' ban Dang tOt in - Vi du - LUll Y

9. Vi tri nrong doi ella hai ducng thang Cho hai dirong thang :

~j : ajx + bjy + Cj = 0 ;

~2 : a2x + b2Y + c2 = o.

D~ xet vi tri wong doi ella hai dirong thang ~ j va ~ 2 ta xet s6 nghiem ella he phuong trinh

{aj x + bjy + cI = 0

(I) a2x + b2y + c2 = o.

• H~ (I) eo mot nghiern : ~ 1 cat ~ 2.

• H~ (I) vo nghiern : ~ 1 II ~2·

• H~ (I) eo vo s6 nghiern : ~ j == ~2 .

• Chu y : Neu a2b2c2 "# 0 thi :

~ 1 cat ~ 2 <=? ~ "# !l ;

a2 b2

abc <=?_I =_1 "#_1.

a2 b2 c2'

~ j II ~2

- -

~ j j_ ~2 <=? l1D,j ·1lD,2 = 0 <=? aja2 + bjb2 = o.

78

6- H.oAN .. ToAN UJP 10 - B

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

10. Goc giua hai dirong thang Cho hai dirong thang

L\I : alx + bly + ci = 0, co vecto phap tuyen

phap tuyen 112 = (a2 ; b2). Goc giira cluing diroc tfnh boi cong thirc

(--) 1 ~ ---<I I~·~I

cos L\I' L\2 = cos(nI' n2) = I~II~I

la1a2 + b1b21

- Jal + b12 .Jai + bi

11. Khoang each tir mot diem den mot dirong thang :

Khoang each tir mot diem Mo(xo ; Yo) den dirong thang L\ co plurong trinh : ax + by + c = ° diroc tinh boi cong thirc :

laxo + byo + cl

deMo, L\) = I .

'\I a2 + b2

2. Phuong trinh duang tron (Phuong trtnh dirong tron voi tam cho tnroc va ban kfnh cho tnroc , Nhan dang phirong trtnh dirong tron ; Phuong trinh tiep tuyen cua dirong tron).

1. Phuong trinh dirong tron

• Phuong trinh duong tron co tam I(a ; b) va ban kinh R la :

(x _a)2 + (y _b)2 = R2 (h.5).

- Dang I : Nhan dang mot phirong trinh bac hai la phuong trinh dirong tron ; Xac dinh diroc toa d¢ tam va d¢ dai ban kinh dirong tron khi biet phuong trinh cua no.

79

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

o

x

- Dang 2 : Viet phirong trinh dirong tron bier toa dQ tam l(a; b) va dQ dai ban kinh R.

- Dang 3 : Viet phirong trlnh tiep tuyen voi dtrong tron trong cac tnrong hop : Biet toa dQ cua tiep diem (tiep tuyen tai mot diem nam tren duong tron) ; biet tiep tuyen di qua diem M nam ngoai dirong tron ; biet tiep tuyen eo phirong eho tnroc.

HUOng dan thirc hien

Kien tlnrc co ban

M(x; y)

b ------~ {

I I I I I

Hlnh5

• Neu a2 + b2 - e > 0 thi phuong trinh 2 2

x + Y - 2ax - 2by + e = 0

la phirong trlnh cua duemg tron voi tam l(a ; b)

va ban kinh R = ~ a2 + b2 - e.

2. Phuong trinh tiep tuyen cua duong tron :

Tiep tuyen tai diem M o(xo ; Yo) cua duong tron tam l(a ; b) eo phuong trlnh :

(xo- a)(x -xo) + (yo -b)(y -Yo) = R2.

Ve' kiln thuc :

Hieu diroc each viet phirong trinh dirong tron.

Ve'kf nang:

- Viet duoc phtrong trinh dirong tron biet tam l(a ; b) va ban kfnh R. Xac dinh diroc tam va ban kfnh dirong tron khi bier phirong trinh dirong tron.

- Viet diroc phirong trinh tiep tuyen voi dirong tron trong cac tnrong hop : Biet toa dQ cua tiep diem (tiep tuyen tai mot diem nam tren dirong tronj : biet viet phuong trinh tiep tuyen di qua di~m M narn ngoai dtrong trim ; biet tiep tuyen co phirong cho trtroc.

y

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

a

Vi du. Viet phirong trinh dirong tron eo tam 1(1 ; - 2) va

a) Di qua diem A(3 ; 5).

b) Tiep xuc voi dirong thang eo phuong trinh x+y=l.

Vi du. Xac dinh toa dQ tam va dQ dai ban kinh cua dirong tron eo phirong trinh

2 2

x + Y - 4x - 6y + 9 = O.

Vi du. Cho dirong tron co phuong trinh

2 2 I

x + y - 4x + 8y - 5 = O. i

a) Viet phirong trinh tiep tuyen cua dirong tron tai diem A(-I ; 0).

b) Viet phirong trinh tiep tuyen cua dirong tron, bier rang no vuong goc voi dirong thang

x + 2y = O.

80

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

Vi du. Cho ba diem A(2 ; 6), B(-3 ; -4) va C(5 ; 0).

a) L(tp phuang trinh duong tron ngoai titp MBC.

b) Lap phuong trinh duong tron nt)i titp MBC.

\

3. Elip (Dinh nghia elip ; Phuong trinh Dinh. nghia elip fa tdp hap cac diim co t6ng chinh tac ella elip ; Mo ta hinh dang elip), khodng cacn den hai diim pluin bi¢t cho truce fa mot so khong d6i.

Ve' kien thuc :

- Biet dinh nghia elip.

- Biet phuong trinh chinh tac, hinh dang

ella elip.

Ve'kf nang:

- Tir phirong trinh chfnh uk ella e1ip :

x2 i

- + - = 1 (a > b > 0)

a2 b2

xac dinh duoc dQ dai true 100, true nho, tieu cu, tam sai ella elip; xac dinh duoc toa dQ cac tieu diem, giao diem ciia e1ip voi cac true toa do.

- Viet duoc phuong tnnh chinh tac cua e1ip khi eho cac yeu to xac dinh elip d6.

C6 gi6i thieu ve' SI! lien h¢ giiia duang tron va elip. - Trong mat phang Oxy eho hai diem F 1 (- e ; 0), F 2(e ; 0) va mot dQ dai khong d6i 2a (a > e > 0). E1ip (E) la tap hop cac diem M sao eho

FIM + F2M = Za.

Ta e6 the viet:

(E) = {M I FIM + F2M = 2a}.

Hinh 6

- Dang 1 : Tir phuong trinh chmh tac ella e1ip :

x2 2

2 + ; = 1 (a> b > 0)

a b

xac dinh dQ dai true 100, true nho, tieu cu, tam sai ella elip ; xac dinh diroc toa dQ cac tieu diem, giao diem ella e1ip voi cac true toa do.

- Dang 2 : Viet phirong trinh chinh tAe ella elip khi tho cac yeu to dll de xac dinh elip d6.

2 2

Vi du. Cho e1ip ;6 + Y9 = 1.

a) TIm toa do cac dinh va cac tieu diem ella elip.

b) Tfnh tam sai cua elip.

Vi du. Viet phuong trinh chfnh tac cua elip (E) biet :

a) (E) e6 dQ dai true 160 bang 10 va tieu cu bang 6.

b) (E) e6 do dai true 100 bang 8, tam sai e = ~ .

81

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thuc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

- Phuong trinh chinh tac cua elip (E) la :

2 2

x Y 2 2 2

-2 + -" = 1 (a = b + c ). a b-

- Cac yeu to cua elip (E) la :

• Hai tieu diem: FI(-e; 0), F2(e; 0);

• Bon dinh : AI(-a ; 0), A2(a ; 0), BI(O ; -b), B2(0; b) ;

• D¢ dai true 100 : AIA2 = 2a ;

• D¢ dai true nho : BIB2 = 2b ;

• Tieu cir : FIF2 = 2e (h.7). y

~_t-B_2_M(x; y)

AIr::--~A2 ~0__;y

x

Hinh 7

- Hinh dang cua elip (E) :

• (E) c6 hai true doi xirng la Ox, Oy va c6 tam doi xirng la goc to? d¢ ;

82

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Dang toan - Vi dl,l- LlIU Y

4. Hypebol (Dinh nghia hypebol ; Phuong trinh ehinh tile ella hypebol ; Mo td hinh dang hypebol).

V l kiln thuc :

- ttu« dinh nghia hypebol, phuang trinh ehinh tdc, biet hinh.. dang ella hypebol.

Ve' ki tuing :

- Tit phuong trinh ehinh tdc ella x2 i

hypebol - - - = l(a > 0, b > 0)

a2 b2

xae dinh. du</e toa dfj cdc tieu diem, giao dilm ella hypebol voi cdc true toa dfj, tieu elf, dfj dai true thuc, dfj dai true do, phuong trinh cdc duong tiem cdn, tam sa;' Ve duac hypebol.

- Viet duoc phuong trinh ehinh tile ella hypebol khi eho cdc yiu to xae dinh hypebol do.

each - Dang 2 : Viet phuong trinh ehinh tile ella hypebol khi eho cac yeu to' xac d!nh hypebol do.

• M9i diem cua elip (E) deu nam trong hinh chtr nhat c6 kich thiroc 2a va 2b gioi han boi cac dirong thang x = ± a, y = ± h. Hinh chfr nhat d6 goi la hinh chir nhat co sa cua elip (E).

Dinh. nghia hypebol la tap hap cdc diem co hieu khodng each din hai diem pluin biet eho truce [Q. mot so' khong d6i.

1. Dinh. nghia. Cho hai diem co dinh. F 1, F 2 vOi FIF2 = 2e (e > 0) va hang so 2a (a < c). Hypebol (H) la tap hop cdc diim M sao eho

IMFI - MF21 = 2a.

(H) = {M IIMFI - MF21 = 2a}.

F l' F 2 goi la cac tieu dilm, khodng F IF 2 = 2e gf1i [Q. tieu elf ella (H).

2. Phuong trinh ehinh tile ella hypebol :

x2 y2

2-2=1 (a>O,b>O).

a b

y

'\v~;y)

)0 \ x

Hinh 8

- Dang 1 : Tit phuong trinh chinb tile ella hypebol

x2 i

2 - 2 = 1 (a > 0, b > 0)

a b

xac dinh. toa dfj cdc tieu dilm, giao diem ella hypebol vOi cae true toa dfj, tieu elf, dfj dai true thuc, dfj dai true do, phuong trinh cac duang tiem can, tam sai.

2 2

Vi du. Cho hypebol (H) : ~6 - Y9 = 1. Xac d!nh

toa dfj cae dlnh, cac tieu diem, tinh tam sai, dfj dai true thuc, dfj dai true do ella (H).

Vi du. Viet phuong trinh ehinh tile ella hypebol (H) co mot tieu diim [Q. (5 ; 0) va dfj dai true thuc bang 8.

83

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thtrc co ban

Hirong dan thtrc hien

Dang too in - Vi du - LU'U Y

2 2 b2 0 Ia t' .# ,'" 0 0 l ' ,

c = a + ; a am uOI xung ; x, y a cac

true doi xung,

True thuc A IA2 = 2a ndm tren Ox. True do BIB2 = 2b nam tren Oy, Hai dinh : AI(-a; 0),A2(a; 0).

Hai lieu diem: F I( -c ; 0), F 2(c ; 0) ;

7" • C

i am Sat e =-.

a

Phuong trinh cdc canb cua hinh chit nhdt CO'Sd :

X= ±a,y= ±b.

Phuong trinh hai duong tiem can : y = ±!!._x. a

Ban kinh qua tieu diem M(xM ; YM) E (H) :

MF] = la + eXMI = la + : XMI ;

MF2 = la - eXMI = la - : xMI·

5. Parabol (D!nh nghia parabol ; Phuong trinh chinh tac cua parabol ; Mo ttl hinh dang parabol).

Ve' kiln thuc :

- uu« dinh. nghia , phuong trinh chinh tdc cua parabol. Biet j nghia cua tham so tieu, tieu dilm, duong chudn, hinh dang cua parabol.

Dinh nghia parabol la t~p hap cdc diem ma khodng cdclt tit dilm do den mot diem cho truoc bang khodng each. den mot duong thang cho truoc.

1. Cho dilm F co dinh. va mot duimg thdng co' dinl: L\ khong di qua F. Parabol (P) ta tdp hop cdc dilm M sao cho khodng cacb tit M den F bang khodng cacb tit M den L\.

(P)= {M I MF = d(M; M}.

- Dang 1 : Tit phuong trinh chinh tdc cua parabol / = 2px, (P > 0) xdc dinlt toa dr) tieu diem, phuong trinh duong chudn, vi parabol.

- Dang 2 : Viet phuong trinh chinh tdc cua parabol khi cho cac yeu to xdc dinh parabol do.

Vi duo Tim toa dr) tieu diem, phuong trinh duong chudn va vi parabol / = 4x.

84

Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thtrc co ban

Hirong dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - LUll Y

- Bilt duoc mot srI do thi y = ax2 (a :;rt 0) F gf!i la tieu diem, L1la duong chudn,

cling la mot parabol theo dinlt nghia p = d(F ; L1) > 0 gf!i la tham so tieu ciux (P).

tren.

v l ki nang:

- Tit phuong trinh chinh tdc cua parabol l = 2px, (P> 0) xac dinh duoc toa dl) tieu diem, phuong trinh duong

chudn. V If duoc parabol. .

- Viet duac phuong trinh chinh tdc cua parabol khi cho cdc ytu to' xac dinh. parabol do.

2. Phuong trinh chinb tdc cua parabol : l = 2px (p > 0) (h.9)

Y

(/MCX;Y)

Vi du. Viet phuang trinh chinh tdc cua parabol biet tieu diim la F(5 ; 0).

6. Ba duang conic ; Duong chudn cua ba duang conic

Ve' hen thuc :

- Biet duac khai niem duong chudn cua ba duong elip, hypebol, parabol.

hap cdc diem M sao cha - Dang 2 : Sit dung khai niem duong chudn cua ba duong conic vao gidi mot so' bai tdp don

x

- Dang 1 : Xac dinh. toa dl) lieu diim ; viet phuang trinh duong chudn cua cac duong conic.

gidn.

Hinh 9

f)inh : 0(0 ; 0) ; tham sdtieu p ; True doi xung : Ox;

tu« diem: F (~ ; 0) ,

f)' hudn t: P

uong c uan ts : x = -"2'

1. Dinh. nghia. Cho diim F co dinh, mot duong thdng L1 co' dinh. khong di qua F va mot so duang e.

Conic (flJ la tap MF

d(M; M = e.

85

1---------

! Chuan kien thirc - ki nang

Kien thirc co ban

Huong dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du - Luu Y

(fl) = { M I d(::~ M = e}.

Vi du. Xac dint: tieu dilm va duong chudn cua

cdc duang conic sau : 2

? a) y = 16x " Diem F goi la tieu diim, I1glJi la duong chudn

va e so! la tdm sai cua conic (fl).

2. Cho conic (fl) vOi tam sai e. Khi do :

Ve' ki nang: (fl) la elip <=> e < 1 ;

! Sa dung duoc khai niem duong chudn

(fl) la parabol <=> e = 1 ; cua ba duang elip, hypebol, parabol vao

gidi mot so bai tap dun gidn.. . (fl) la hypebol <=> e > 1.

3. Cho elip (E) :

- Biet duoc tinh chat chung cua ba duong conic : Cho diem F co dinh va duang thiing L1 khong di qua F. Tap hop nhiing

MF

dilm M sao cho ti so d(M;!1) = e (e la

mot so duong khong d(Ji) la mot conic.

x2 i

- + - = 1 (a > b > 0).

a2 b2

• Duong chudn I1J ung vOi tieu diem F 1 (-c ; 0) 2

, h ' h a a

co p uung trin : x = - - = - -.

e c

Duong chudn 112 ung voi tieu diem F 2(c ; 0) co

a a2

phuong trinh : x = - = -. e c

• V Oi moi diim M t~uqc (E) thi

MF. = MF2 = e < 1.

d(M ; 111) d(M ; 112)

86

Chuan kien tlnrc - ki nang

~----------------------------~---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Kien thirc co ban

HUOng dan thirc hien

Dang toan - Vi du-> LUll Y

4. Cho hypebol (H) : x2 i

- - - = 1 (a > 0, b > 0).

a2 b2

• Duong chudn ~l ung vOi tieu diim F 1 (-c ; 0) co phuong trinh :

a a2 X= -- = -- ;

e c

Duang chudn ~2 ung voi tieu dilm F 2(c ; 0) co

phuong trinh : .

a a2

x= - =-.

e c

r. V Oi moi dilm M thuoc (H) thi

. .

MFI MF2

d(M ; ~l) = d(M ; ~2) = e > 1.

87

TO CHUC THl)'C HI~N

I - YEU cAu CHUNG

Viec thuc hien chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua chirong trinh giao due ph6 thong man Toan can thea quan diem co ban : sat thirc, tnrc quan, dung chuan va deli moi,

SATTHljC

- Sat voi noi dung chuan, voi thuc te doi nrong va dieu kien giang day, voi thai luong eho phep ; bien soan du dang cac bai luyen tap nrong duong voi cac VI du neu trong chuan nham giup hoc sinh ren luyen ki nang giai toan dat chuan va phan hoa thea mire d(> yeu cau cua chirong trinh chuan vachirong trinh nang cao. Thuc hien chirong trinh ur chon cua bo man thea huong giup h9C sinh dat chuan tot hon,

- Chti trong cac vi du va bai toan co noi dung thirc tien doi song va gan voi cac man h9C khac (lam cho h9C sinh thay r6 Toan h9C gan voi cuoc song va lam quen voi viec ap dung tri thirc Toan h9C d~ giai cac bai toan thuc te, cac bai toan cua man h9C Vat li, Hoa h9C, Sinh h9C, ... )

TRljCQUAN

- Tiep can chuan bang phuong phap tnrc quan nham giam tfnh han lam, giam cac noi dung nang ne, dan gian hoa nhtrng van de phirc tap nhung khong lam mat tfnh chfnh xac va suy luan c6 li rna chuan de ra.

- Day va h9C kien thirc ki nang thea chuan tren co s6 dan dat tirng

buoc, qua nhfrng vi du rna ta khai niem mot each r6 rang, tranh ap d~t thieu tu nhien.

DUNGCHUAN

- Dam bao dung kien thirc, ki nang, mire do phirc tap cua dang toan minh hoa, nhirng hru y neu trong chuan,

- Tnroc het dam bao dat chuan hoa va ph an hoa thea mire d(> yeu cau cua chuong trinh chuan va chuang trmh nang cao ; han che cac vf du va bai tap phirc tap, doi hoi ki thuat va meo rmrc, noi dung kho cirng thieu nr nhien kh6 tiep thu, giam bot so hrong cong thirc can nho. Dam bao su gon, chat che va he thong kien thirc, ki nang rna chuan neu,

Theo chi dao day va h9C cua B9 GD&DT : Deli moi kiem tra danh gia thea chuan, deli moi cong cu kiem tra danh gia, deli moi thai hrong, deli moi thir nr thirc hien kien thirc ki nang chuan neu, deli moi phuong tien day h9C d~ deli moi phirong phap day h9C, tang ctrong tfnh chu dong cua hoc sinh trong gio h9C, giup h9C sinh tich CI!C, hirng thii h9C tap, TIm toi sang tao nhfrng each dira noi dung h9C tap mot each nhe nhang, d~ hieu, tu nhien rna van chinh xac. C<1n da dang hoa cac hoat dong thuc hien chuan (on lai kien thtrc, gioi thieu kien thirc moi, h9C tnroc 6 nha, lam tai lap, chia thea de tai, thirc hien ca nhan hay nh6m nho, ap dung ngay kien tlurc vita h9C, cau hoi trac nghiern khach quan, sir dung may tinh cam tay d~ giai toan ... ).

88

II - HUONG DAN THl)'C HI~N

VOIHQC SINH

- V 6i hoc sinh dai tra cua moi vung mien, noi dung duoc neu trong van ban nay la noi dung hoc tap bat buoc phai dat, khong han che noi dung hoc tap v6i hoc sinh co nhu cau hoc tap nang cao.

- V 6i nhirng hoc sinh co nhu cau hoc tap rna rong, nang cao hoac doi urong hoc sinh kha, gioi, co th~ tham khao Chirong trinh Nang cao hoac Clnrong trinh Chuyen cua BQ GD&DT ban hanh ; co th~ tham khao trong sach giao khoa hoac sach bai tap, sach tham khao noi dung chuyen rna nha tnrong tuyen chon hoac co th~ tt! hoc theo nang hrc ban than.

- o vimg thuan lei, hoc sinh can diroc tang cirong chat hrong hoc tap qua viec tiep can cac nguon thong tin, cac phirong tien cong nghe d~ cung co', rna rong, nang cao kien thirc.

- Chuan kien thtrc, ki nang cua Chuong trinh Trung hoc phd thong man Toan giup cac em hoc sinh ur hoc, ur kiem tra kien thirc, ki nang thea cac yeu cau co ban, t6i thieu cua kien thirc, ki nang man Toan rna hoc sinh can phai co va phai dat duoc qua hoc tap. HQc sinh nr hoc, nr kiem tra thea chuan kien thirc, ki nang qua hoc, kiern tra cac khai niem co ban, cac ki nang co ban, cac cong thirc can nho, cac phirong phap giai, cac dang toan, vi du minh hoa ... nrong irng v6i cac chu d~ cua chirong trinh ; tu nghien ngam noi dung hoc tap thea mot yeu cau, phong each rieng va v6i toe dQ phu hop. Tu hoc khong nhirng giup hoc sinh nr than nam noi dung hoc mot each chac chan va ben virng, xac dinh phirong phap hoc t~p va ki nang van dung tri thirc, ren luyen y chi va nang lire hoat dong sang tao ; tu than bu dap cho minh nhirng 10 hong ve kien thirc, dap U'ng v6i yeu cau cua chuong trinh. (Qua cac ho~t dQng hQc t~p : xay dt!Ilg ke ho~ch, t~p trung suc 1t!c va thm gian cho nQi dung trQng tam, quan trQng nhat, nQi dung con khuyet ho~c

I,

chua r6, tranh dan trai, ph an tan. N6 lire, nr lire nam noi dung hoc t~p thong qua: doc, tom tat tong hop, so sanh, phan 10~i ; nr lam bai tap, de ki~m tra. Tranh thu sir giup di) cua thay co giao, cua ban be va cua cha me, anh em trong gia dinh, trong dong ho).

VOl GIAO VIEN

- V oi giao vi en thi noi dung co ban neu trong van ban nay la can cu d~ soan bai, tien hanh day hoc, on tap va dira tren do d~ kiem tra danh gia ket qua hQC tap cua h9C sinh. Dam bao vira dat chudn vira phon hOG thea dac diem vung, mien cho cac d6i nrong h9C sinh khac nhau ; danh gia thea de ur luan, de TNKQ hoac hon hop gom ca bai toan W Iuan Ian bai toan TNKQ. On tap nham he thong hoa kien thirc da hoc, hoan thien ki nang giai bai tap, qua on t~p b6 khuyet cho nhimg phat hien thieu sot ve kien tlurc, ki nang, ve suy luan toan hoc thieu can ell' logic hoac chua hop 11 ; nho do tao cho tirng hoc sinh vimg tin van nang lire ban than co th~ dat ket qua t6t trong cac kl kiem tra danh gia va thi,

Viec on tap man Toan can dar toi hieu duoc ban chat va van dung duoc cac noi dung hoc ; .khi on if!p khong nen qua chu y van viec tim nhtrng thu thuat ghi nho duoc nnieu, mac du nh6 la co sa can cho viec giai cac bai toan, nhung khong GI:l ; boi VI viec nam virng cac each giai cac dang bai toan co ban cho nhieu kha nang dat ket qua t6t trong kiem tra, thi. Viec on tap giup ta nho noi dung hoc t6t han va thirc su hiiu Ich cho viec giai cac bai toano Sl.r quan trong cua viec on tap la a cho : giup h9C sinh h¢ thong hi vii nit ra nlurng dieu co ban, chu yeu, khai quat hoa cua nlumg kien lhu-c - ki nang dIT h9C d~ thay duoc sir nrong dong, tuong ung. dong dang, bien d6i ve hinh, khai niern, plnrong phap, dang toan ... trong chirong trinh man h9C cua mot noi dung, mot chu de, mot lop hay toan cap hoc,

- Giao vien 1moog dan on t~p can qu<in tri~t r6 : nhfmg cach on t~p d~u la nhfrng bi~u hi~n Cl,l th~ cua vi~c h~ thong hoa kien thuc thea

89

huang Him r6 cau true cua tung phan, tirng chuang, tirng mach kien thirc, tirng chu de hay toan the cua chuang trinh ; lam r6 vi trf cua moi kicn thirc va quan he giifa cac kien thirc ; tranh viec he thong hoa nang tinh hinh tlnrc nhu liet ke cac cong thirc, cac dinh If, cac dang toan d:'l hoc thea dung khuon rniiu va trinh tu nhir trong sach giao khoa. Cung voi viec huang dan hoc sinh he thong hoa kien thtrc, giao vi en giup hoc sinh sap xep cac bai t~p va phan chi a thanh cac dang bai tap d~ nam vfrng each giai chung eho titng dang chinh, dong thoi nhac lai va ghi ra diroc nhimg kien thirc, dinh If, cong thirc, suy luan d:'l hoc 0 lap duoi, nay thuong phai sir dung nhieu de giai toan 0 lap 10. Trong tinh hinh tlurc te hien nay, giao vien can tb chirc day va hQC chu dao ngay tir d<iu nam hQC, an t~p deu dansau tirng chuang, muc, giup hoc sinh til giai cac cau hoi va bai tap neu trong chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

- Giao vien can phai linhhoat trong viec day hoc, co th~ dan dat hoc sinh tiep can kien thirc, ki nang trinh bay theo phirong phap khac, each khac hoac thay boi vf du khac tuy thea doi urong, vung mien d~ thirc hien chuan phu hop v61 mire di) nhan thirc cua m6i loai doi tuong, Trong day hoc cling nhu kiem tra, danh gia, can hru y t61 cong cu may tinh cam tay nham giam tai ph an tfnh toan cling nhtr dbi m61 ca trinh bay loi giai Ian khau ra de va dap an nrong img yeu cau tinh dung hoac

tinh gan dung; khich le nhirng hoc sinh co each giai dung boi nhtrng kien thirc, ki nang co diroc do ban than n6 lire hoc tap.

VOl co QUAN, CAN BO QUAN Li GIAo Dl)C

- V61 cac co quan, can bo quan if giao due thi noi dung van ban neu trong cuon sach nay la can ell' toi thieu M danh gia, kiem rra viec day va hoc.

- Trong thanh tra, kiem tra day va hoc can quan triet tinh than:

+ Khuyen khich giao vi en sang tao linh hoat trong moi bai hoc, tiet hQC ; giao vien co th~ trinh bay day noi dung kien thirc nhu d:'l neu trong van ban, tuy nhien co th~ linh hoat trong each trinh bay (co th~ trinh bay theo phirong phap khac, each khac hoac thay boi vi du khac urong til ve rmrc do nhan thirc) ; kiem tra (hoac ra de thi) dung thea yeu cau mire di) d:'l de cap trong cuon sach v61 nhirng bai toan khac nrong dirong mire di) nhan thirc ;

+ 01n luu y t61 cong cu may tfnh cam tay nham giam tai ve ph an tfnh toan va d~ dbi m61 ca trinh bay loi giai Ian khau ra de va dap an nrong trng yeu cau tinh dung hoac tfnh gan dung ;

+ Khich Ie nhtrng hoc sinh co each giiii dung bOi nhirng kien thirc, ki nang co diroc do ban than n6 lire hoc tap,

90

TAl LI$U THAM KHla CHtNH

1. SGK, SGV Toan 10, 11, 12 - Chuang trinh nang cao - GS. Doan Quynh (T6ng Chu bien) va cac tac gia,

2. SGK, SGV Toan 10, 11, 12 - Clurong trinh chu:1n - PGS. Tran Van Hao (T6ng Chu bien) va cac tac gia.

3. Van ban chi dao cua BQ GD&DT lien quan : Chuong trinh Giao due ph6 thong man Toan, D6i moi phirong phap day h9C, D6i rnoi ra M kiem tra, Danh muc thiet bi day h9C Toan 10, 11, 12.

4. Huang dAn tlurc hanh Toan tren may tinh Casio, Vinacal fx-570MS.

5. Tai lieu ve hoi nghi tap h~an phuong phap day hoc Toan h9C phd thong, BQ Giao due va Dao tao, 12/2000.

6. De tai B94 - 27 - 01 - PP ve ddi moi phuong phap day h9C cac man khoa hoc tv nhien a tnrong THPf thea huang "hoar dong hoa nguoi h9C" - 1997.

7. Jean - Marc Denomme et Madelleine Roy : (Pour une pedagogic interactive). Tien toi mot phuong phap sir pham nrong tac (Ngiroi dich : Nguyen Quang Thuan- Tong Van Quan) - NXBTN - 2003.

I

8. Tran Kieu (Chu bien) va cong sv : Ddi moi phuong phap day h9C a

tnrong Trung h9C co sa - Vien Khoa hoc Giao due - 1997.

9. Geoffrey Petty : Day h9C ngay nay, Dir an Viet - Bi, 2002.

10. Robert Fisher : Day hoc tre, DV an Viet - Bi, 2002.

11. Wilbert J. McKeachie : Nhfrng thu thuat trong day h9C, DIJ an Viet - Bi, 2002.

12. Tran Ba Hoanh va cong su : Ap dung day va h9C tfch cue trong man Toan, DV an Viet - Bi, 2002.

13. Nguyen Ba Kim - Dinh Nho Chuang ... : Phuong phap day h9C man Toan - NXBGD - 1994.

14. Pham Gia Dire - Nguyen r .. 1<.mh Cang ... : Phuong phap day hoc man Toan - NXBGD - 1998.

15. De tai cap BQ rna so B 2002 - 49 - TD37 ve Dinh huang va cac giai phap ddi moi PPDH a tnrong ph6 thong - Vien Chien luoc va Chuong trmh Giao due, Hit N9i, 2004.

91

Ml)C Ll)C

Uri giOi thieu

phd" thit nhd:

GI6I THIEU CHUNG VE CHUAN KIEN THVC, KI NANG CUA CHWNG TRINH GlAo DUC PHO THONG

Phdn thu hai

'" A: A Jl ".!' " __

HUONG DAN THtfC HII;:N CHUAN KU;:N THlfC, KI NANG

MON ToAN THPT

HOONG DAN nnr: HI$N CHUAN KIEN THUt, KI NANG MON rOAN L(JP 10

A. Kien thirc chuang trinh man Toan lap 10

B. Huong dAn thirc hien Chuan kien thirc, ki nang man Toan lap 10 T6 chirc thirc hien

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Chiu trach nhiem xudt ban:

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Chu tich HDQT kiern Tong Giam doc NGO TRAN AI

Ph6 T6ng Giam doc kiern Tong bien tap NGUYEN QUY THAO

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T tf chuc ban thdo va chiu trach nhiem noi dung:

Ph6 vu tnrong Vl;l Giao due Trung h9C NGUYEN HAl CHAu Giam doc CTCP Dich V1,l xuat ban Giao due Ha NQi PHAN KE THAI

Bien tap n¢i dung:

LE THANH HANG

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Sua ban in:

. NGUYEN TH~ THANH

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CONG TY CO PHAN THIET KE VA PHA THANH SACH G1AO Dl)C

Nha xuat ban Giao dl;lC Vi~t Nam - BQ Giao dl;lC va Dao ~o giii' quyen cang b6 mc pharo.

HlfONG DAN TH{jC HltN CHUAN KIEN THUt, Ki NANG MON ToAN LOP 10

So dang ki KHXB: 641-2009/CXBi32-1124/(;» Ma so: TXT53H9 - BTH

In 7.CXlO cuon (Ql) 84TKjKH(9) kho 29 x 20,5 em In tai Xi nghiep in Hung Yen. SO in: 45/2CX)9

In xong va nop luu chieu thang II nam 2CX)9.

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