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SACH HUONG DAN CHUAN KIEN THUC KI NANG TOAN 12 ( BGD ).pdf

SACH HUONG DAN CHUAN KIEN THUC KI NANG TOAN 12 ( BGD ).pdf

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~ NHA XU~T BAN mAo Dt,JC VI~T NAM

Be) GIAO DlJC vA DAo TAO NGUYEN THE THACH (CHU BIEN)

NGUYEN HAl CHAU - QuAcH TlJ CHVONG - NGUYEN TRUNG HIEU DoAN THE PHI$T - PHAM DUC QUANG - NGUYEN TH~ QUY SUU

"""

HUONG DAN THUC HIEN

. .

~ A/ / """ ~

CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG

MONTOAN

LOP 12

NHA XUAT SAN GIAO Ol)C VI~T NAM

LOI GIOI THI~U

Nqay 5 thang 5 narn 2006, B9 trl10ng B9 Giao due va Dao tao d13 ki Quyet dinh so 16/2006/Q8-BG08T ve viec ban hanh Chironq trinh Giao due ph6 thong.

Chironq trinh Giao due ph6 thong la ket qua cua su dieu chlnh, hoan thien, t6 chirc lai cac chuonq trinh d13 diroc ban hanh, lam can cu cho viec quan If, chi dao, t6 chirc day h9C va kiem tra, danh gia 0 tat ca cac cap h9C, tnronq h9C tren pharn vi ca ruroc.

Chuang trinh Giao due ph6 thong la m9t ke hoach su pharn gom : - Muc tieu giao due ;

- Pham vi va cau true n9i dung giao due ;

- Chu§n kien thtrc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai d9 cua Wng rnon hoc,

Caph9C;'

- Phironq phap va hinh thtrc t6 chirc qiao due ;

- Danh qia ket qua qiao due tUng rnon hoc 0 moi lap, cap h9C.

Trong Chuang trinh Giao due ph6 thong, Chu§n kien thirc, ki nang dU<;1C the hien, Cl,l the hoa 0 cac chu de cua chuang trinh rnon h9C, theo tUng lap h9C ; dong thai cOng dU<;1C the hien 0 phan cuoi cua chuang trinh moi cap h9C.

Co the noi : 8iem mai cua Chuang trinh Giao due ph6 thong Ian nay la dua Chu§n kien thirc, ki nang vao thanh phan cua Chuang trinh Giao due ph6 thong, dam bao viec chi dao day h9C, kiem tra, danh gia theo Chuan kien thuc, ki nang, tao nen su thong nhat tronq ca ruroc ; gop phan khac phuc tinh tranq qua tai trong giang day, h9C tap ; giam thieu day them, h9C them.

Nhin chung, 0 cac tnronq ph6 thong hien nay, biroc dau d13 van dunq dU<;1c Chuan kien tlurc, kT nang trong giang day, h9C tap, kiem tra, danh gia ; song ve t6ng the, van chua dap ([ng dl1<;1c yeu cau cua d6i mai qiao due ph6 thOng; can phai dU<;1c tiep tuc quan tam, chu tronq han niia.

Nharn gop phan khac phuc han che nay, B9 Giao due va Dao tao t6 chuc bien soan, xuat ban b9 tal li~u HU'd'ng dan ttns: hi~n Chuan kien thfit;,

k'i nang cho cac men h9C, lap h9C cua cac cap Tieu hoc, Trung h9C co so va Trung h9C ph6 thOng.

B9 tai li~u nay diroc bien soan theo huang chi Mt, tuang minh cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thuc, ki nang cua Chuan kien thirc, ki nang bang cac n9i dung chon 19C trong sach qlao khoa, tao dieu kien thuan loi han niia cho qiao vien va h9C sinh trong qua trinh giang day, h9C tap va kiem tra, danh gia.

Cau true chung cua be} tiii li~u gam hai phan ehinh :

Phcfn th(f nhat : Giai thieu chung ve Chuan kien thirc, ki' nang cua Chuang trinh Giao due ph6 thong;

Phfin th(f hai : Huang dan thirc hi~n Chu§n kien thtrc, kT nang cua Wng rnon h9C trong Chuang trinh Giao due ph6 thong.

B9 tai li~u : HU'd'ng dan tht,fC hi~n Chuan kien thfit;, ki nang cac rnon h9C o Trunq hoc co so va Trung h9C ph6 thong co su tharn gia bien soan, th§m dinh, gop y cua nhieu nha khoa.hoc, nha su pharn, cac can b9 nghien cou va chi dao chuyen rnon, cac giao vien day gioi 0 dja phuang.

Hi vonq rang, HU'd'ng dan tht,fC hi~n Chuan kien ttuic, k'i nang S8 la b9 tai Ii~u hiiu fch doi vai can b9 quan If qiao due, qiao vien va h9C sinh trong ca ruroc. Cac So Giao due va Dao tao chi dao trien khai sii dunq b9 tai li~u va tao dieu ki~n de cac co so giao due, cac giao vien va h9C sinh thirc hien tot yeu cau d6i rnoi phuang phap day h9C, d6i mai kiem tra, danh gia, gop phan tlch eire, quan tronq vao vi~c nang cao chat IU<;1ng qiao due trung h9C.

Lan dau tien dU<;1c xuat ban, b9 tai Ii~u nay kho tranh khoi nhiing thieu sot, han che. B9 Giao due va Dao tao rat mong nhan dU<;1c nhiing y kien nhan xet, dong gop cua cac thay co qiao va ban d9C gan xa de tal lieu dU<;1C Mp tuc b6 sung, hoan thien han cho Ian xuat ban sau.

BO GIAo Dl,JC VA DAo TAO

3

pHAN THU NHAT

GIOI THI~U CHUNG vi CHuAN I(IEN THUC, 1(1 NANG CllA CHUONG TRiNH GIAo DUC PHO THONG

1- GI61 THleU CHUNG vE CHUAN

1. Chuan hi nhtrng yell cau, tieu chi (goi chung la yeu cau) tuan thu nhirng nguyen tac nhat dinh, diroc dung de lam thuoc do danh gia hoat dong, cong viec, san pham cua linh vue nao do. Dar diroc nhirng yeu cau cua chuan la dar diroc muc tieu mong muon cua chu the quan If hoat dong, cong viec, san p~Am do.

Yeu cau la sir cu the hoa, chi tier. nrong minh Chuan, chi ra nhirng can cu de danh gia chat hrong, Yeu cau co the dUQ'C do thong qua chi sO' thuc hien. Yeu cau duoc xem nhu nhfrng "chot kiem soar" de danh gia chat hrong dau vao, dau ra cling nhu qua trinh thirc hien.

2. Nhimg yell cau co ban cua chuan

2.1. ChuAH phai co tinh khach quan, nhin chung khong I¢ thuoc vao quan diem hay thai do chu quan cua ngiroi sir dung Chuan,

2.2. Chuan phai co hieu luc 6n dinh ca ve pham vi hill thoi gian ap dung, 2.3. Dam bao tfnh kha thi, co nghia la Chuan do co the dat dUQ'C (la trlnh d¢ hay rmrc d¢ dung hoa hop If giira yeu cau ph at trien a mire cao han voi nhtrng thirc tien dang dien ra).

2.4. Darn bao tinh cu the, nrong minh va co chirc nang dinh hrong. 2.5. Dam bao khong mau thuan voi cac chuan khac trong cung linh vue hoac nhirng Iinh virc co lien quan.

II - CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG CllA CHUONG TRINH

, ;( A

GIAO DUC PHO THONG

Chuan kien thrrc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do cua Chuang trinh Giao due ph6 thong (CTGDPT) duoc the hien cu the trong cac chuang trinh man hoc, hoat dong giao due (goi chung la man hQC) va cac chuang trinh cap hQC.

DO'i voi moi man hoc, moi cap hQC, muc tieu cua man hoc, cap hQC diroc cu the hoa thanh chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua chuang trinh man hoc, chuang trlnh cap hQC.

1. Chudn kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuong trinh mon hoc la cac yeu cau ca ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua man hoc rna hoc sinh can phai va co the dat dUQ'C sau moi dan V! kien thirc (moi bai, chu de, chu diem, rna dun).

Chudn kiln thuc, ki nang cua mot dun vi kiln thile la cac yeu cau co ban, tci thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua dan V! kien thirc rna hoc sinh can phai va co the dat dUQ'C.

Yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang the hien mile df) can dat ve kiln thuc, ki nang.

Moi yeu diu ve kien thirc, ki nang co the dUQ'C chi tilt hun bang nhimg yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang cu the, nrong minh han ; minh chimg bang nhfrng vi du the hien dUQ'C ca noi dung kien thtrc, ki nang va mire d¢ can dat ve kien thirc, ki nang.

5

2. Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang cua Chuong trinh dip hoc Hi cac yeu cau co ban, t6i thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua cac mon hQC rna hoc sinh can phai va co tM dat duoc sau timg giai dean hoc tap trong cap hQC.

2.1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang i:J chuang trmh cac cap hQC de cap t61 nhirng yeu cau t6i thieu v~ kien tlnrc, ki nang rna hoc sinh (HS) can va co th~ dat duoc sau khi hoan thanh chuang trinh giao due cua tirng lap hQC va cap hQC. Cac chuan nay cho thay y nghia quan trong cua viec gan ket, phoi hop giira cac mon hoc nharn dat duoc muc tieu giao due cua cap hQC.

2.2. Viec th~ hien Chuan kien thirc, ki nang i:J cu6i chuang trinh cap hQC th~ hien hinh mau mong doi ve nguoi hoc sau moi cap hQC va can thiet cho cong tac quan li, chi dao, dao tao, boi duong giao vien (GV).

2.3. Chuang trtnh cap hQC da th~ hien chuan kien thirc, ki nang khong phai d6i v61 tirng mon hoc rna doi v61 tirng Iinh vue hoc tap. Trong van ban v~ chuang trinh cua cac cap hQC, cac chuan kien tlurc, ki nang diroc bien soan theo tinh than:

a) Cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang khong duoc dua vao cho tirng mon hoc rieng bier rna cho tirng Iinh vue hoc t~p nham th~ hien su gan ket giira cac mon hQC va heat dong giao due trong nhiern vu thirc hien muc tieu cua cap hQC.

b) Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang va yeu cau v~ thai d<) duoc th~ hien trong chuang trinh cap hoc la cac chuan cua cap hQC, nrc la nhirng yeu cau cu th~ rna HS din dat duoc i:J cuoi cap hoc. Cach th~ hien nay tao mot Him nhin ve sir phat trien cua nguoi hoc sau moi cap hQC, doi chien voi nhtrng gl rna muc tieu cua cap hQC da de ra.

3. Nhtmg dac di~m cua Chuan kien thuc, ki nang

3.1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang duoc chi tiet, nrong minh bang cac yeu cau cu th~, ro rang v~ kien thirc, ki nang.

3.2. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang co tinh toi thieu, nham dam bao moi HS can phai va co th~ dat diroc nhtrng yeu cau cu th~ nay.

3.3. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la thanh phan cua CTGDPT.

Trong CTGDPT, Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau v~ thai d<) doi v61 ngiroi hoc diroc th~ hien, cu th~ hoa i:J cac chu de cua chuang trmh mon hoc thea tirng lap va i:J cac linh vue hoc tap ; dong thoi, Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau v~ thai d<) ciing diroc th~ hien i:J phan cuoi cua chuang trinh m6i cap hoc.

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la thanh phan cua CTGDPT. Viec chi dao day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia thea Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang se tao nen sl! thong nhat ; lam han che tmh trang day hQC qua tai, dua them nhieu noi dung nang n~, qua. cao so v61 chudn kien thirc, ki nang vao day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia ; gop phan lam giam tieu eire cua day them, hoc them; tao dieu kien co ban, quan trong d~ co th~ t6 chirc giang day, hoc tap, kiem tra, danh gia va thi theo Chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

III - cAc MUC DO vs KIEN THUC, KI NANG

Cac mire d<) ve kien thirc, ki nang diroc th~ hien cu th~ trong Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua CTGDPT.

Ve kien tlnrc : Yeu cau HS phai nho, nam virng, hieu ro cac kien tlurc co ban trong chuang trinh, sach giao khoa, do la nen tang vtrng Yang d~ co th~ phat trien nang luc nhan thirc i:J cap cao hon.

Ve ki nang : Biet van dung cac kien tlurc da hoc d~ tra 1m diu hoi, giai bai tap, lam thuc hanh ; co ki nang tfnh toan, vi: hinh, dung bieu do, ...

6

Kien thirc, ki nang phai dua tren eC1 sa phat trien nang lire. tri tue HS a cac mire do, tir dan gian den phirc tap ; noi dung bao ham cac mire d¢ khac nhau cua nhan tlurc.

Mtrc d<) can dat dUQ'e ve kien tlurc duoc xac dinh thea 6 mire d<) : nhan biet, thong hieu, van dung, phan tfch, danh gia va sang tao (co th~ tham khao them phan loai Nikko gom 4 mire d<) : nhan bier, thong hieu, van dung a mire thap, van dung a mire eao).

1. Nhan biet : La su nho lai cac dfr lieu, thong tin dff co tnroc day; nghia la co tM nhan biet thong tin, ghi nho, tai hien thong tin, nhac lai mot loat dii' lieu, tir cac su kien dan gian den cac If thuyet plnrc tap. Day la mire do, yeu cau thap nhat dla trinh d¢ nhan thirc, th~ hien a cho HS co th~ va chi can nho hoac nhan fa khi diroc dira ra hoac dua tren nhirng thong tin co tfnhdac thu cua mot khai niem, mot sir vat, mot hien urong.

HS phat bieu dung mot dinh nghia, dinh If, dinh luat nlurng chua

giai thfch va van dung duoc cluing.

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire d¢ nhan biet bang cac yeu cau :

- Nhan ra, nho lai cac khai niern, dinh If, dinh luat, tfnh chat.

- Nhan dang diroc (khong can giai thfch) cac khai niem, hlnh the,

vi tri nrong doi giira cac doi urong trong cac tlnh huong dan gian.

- Liet ke, xac dinh cac vi trf nrong doi, cac moi quan he dff biet giira cac yeu to, cac hien nrong.

2. Thong hieu : La kha nang nam duoc, hieu diroc y nghia cua cac khai niern, sir vat, hien nrong ; giai thfch, chirng minh diroc y nghia cua cac khai niem, su vat, hien nrong ; la mire dQ eao han nhan biet nhung la mire do thap nhat cua viec thau hieu sir vat, hien nrong, lien quan den y nghia cua cac moi quan he gifra cac khai niern, thong tin rna HS da hQe ho~e da biet. Di~u do co th~ duqc th~ hi~n bang vi~c

chuyen thong tin tu dang nay sang dang khac, bang each giai thich thong tin (giai thfch hoac tom tat) va bang each tree IU<JIlg xu huang wang lai (dir bao cac he quit hoac anh huang).

Co tM cu th~ hoa mire d¢ thong hieu bang cac yeu cau :

- Dien tit bang ngon ngtr ca nhan cac khai niem, dinh 11, dinh Iuat, tfnh chat, chuyen d6i duoc tir hinh thirc ngon ngtt nay sang hinh thirc ngon ngff khac (vi du : tu loi sang cong thirc, kf hieu, so lieu va ngiroc lai).

- Bieu thi, minh hoa, giai thfch diroc y nghia cua cac khai niem, hien nrong, dinh nghia, dinh If, dinh luat.

- Lira chon, b6 sung, sap xep lai nhfmg thong tin can thiet d~ giai quyet mot van d~ nao do.

- SAp xep lai cac y tra 1m cau hoi hoac 1m giai bai toan thea cau tnic logic.

3. V<Itn dung : La kha nang sir dung cac kien thuc dff hoc vao mot hoan canh cu th~ moi : -van dung nhan biet, hieu biet thong tin d~ giai quyet van d~ d~t ra ; la kha nang doi hoi HS phai bier van dung kien thirc, biet sir dung phirong phap, nguyen If hay y nrong d~ giai quyet mot van d~ nao do.

Yeu cau ap dung diroc cac quy tac, phirong phap, khai niem, nguyen If, dinh If, dinh luat, cong thirc d~ giai quyet mot van d~ trong hoc tap hoac cua tlurc tien. Day la mire d¢ thong hi~u eao han mire do thong hieu tren.

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire d¢ van dung bang cac yeu cau : - So sanh cac phirong an giai quyet van de.

- PMt hien Ioi giai co mau thuan, sai him va chinh sua duoc.

- Giai quyet diroc nhii'ng tlnh huong mm bang each v~n dl:lng cae

kMi ni~m, dinh If, dinh lu~t, tfnh chat dff biet.

7

- Khai quat hoa, triru nrong hoa til tinh huong dan gian, dan Ie quen thuoc sang tinh huong moi, phirc tap han.

4. Phan tich : La kha nang phan chi a mot thong tin ra thanh cac phan thong tin nho sao cho co th~ hieu duoc cau tnic, t6 chirc cua no va thiet lap moi lien he phu thuoc Ian nhau gitra chung.

Yeu cau chi ra diroc cac b¢ phan cau thanh, xac dinh dUQ'C moi quan h~ gitta cac b¢ phan, nhan biet va hieu diroc nguyen If cau tnic cua cac bo phan cau thanh. Day la mtrc d¢ cao han van dung VI no doi hoi su thau hieu ca ve n¢i dung IAn hinh thai cau tnic cua thong tin, SI! vat, hien nrong.

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire d¢ phan tich bang cac yeu cau :

- Phan tich cac su kien, dfi' kien thira, thieu hoac du d~ giai quyet

duoc van de.

- Xac dinh diroc moi quan he giira cac bo phan trong roan the.

- Cu th~ hoa diroc nhtrng van de trim urong.

- Nhan biet va hieu diroc cau true cac b¢ phan cau thanh,

5. Danh gia : La kha nang xac dinh gia tri cua thong tin: blnh xet, nhan dinh, xac dinh duoc gia tri cua mot W urong, mot noi dung kien thtrc, mot phuong phap. Day la mot biroc moi trong viec Iinh hoi kien rhirc diroc d~c trung boi viec di sau vao ban chat cua doi nrong, sir vat, hien nrong. Viec danh gia dua tren cac tieu chi nhat dinh ; do co the HI. cac tieu chi ben trong (each t6 chirc) hoac cac tieu chi ben ngoai (phu hop voi muc dich).

Yeu cau xac dinh duoc cac tieu chi danh gia (ngiroi danh gia nr xac dinh hoac diroc cung cap cac tieu chi) va van dung dUQ'C de danh gia,

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire d¢ danh gia bang cac yeu cau :

- Xac dinh duoc cac tieu chi danh gia va van dung de danh gia thong tin, sir vat, hien urong, sl! kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh gia tri cua cac thong tin, ur lieu theo mot muc dich, yeu cau xac dinh.

- Phan tfch nhirng yeu to, dfi' kien dii cho de danh gia su thay d6i ve chat cua su vat, sir kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh dUQ'C gia tri cua nhan to moi xuat hien khi thay d6i cac moi quan he cu.

Cac cong cu danh gia co hieu qua phai giup xac dinh diroc ket qua hoc tap 0 rnoi cap d¢ noi tren M dua ra mot nhan dinh chfnh xac ve nang lire ella nguoi duoc danh gia ve chuyen mon lien quan.

6. Sang tao : La kha nang t6ng hop, sap xep, thiet ke I<;1i thong tin; khai thac, b6 sung thong tin ttt cac nguon nr lieu khac d~ sang Iap mot hinh mau maio

Yeu cau tao ra diroc mot hinh mau moi, mot mang luai cac quan h~ triru nrong (sa do phan lap thong tin). Ket qua hoc tap trong Iinh vue nay nhan manh vao cac hanh vi, nang lire sang tao, dac biet la trong viec hinh thanh cac cau true va mo hinh moi,

Co th~ cu th~ hoa rmrc do sang tao bang cac yeu cau : - Mo rong mot mo hlnh ban dilu thanh mo hinh moi.

- Khai quat hoa nhfrng van de rieng le, cu the thanh van de tdng

quat moi.

- Ket hop nhieu yeu to rieng thanh mot tong the hoan chinh moi.

- Du dean, dl! bao sir xuat hien nhan to rnoi khi thay d6i cac moi

quan he cu.

Day la rmrc d¢ cao nhat cua nhan thirc, VI no chua dung cac yeu to cua nhtrng rmrc d¢ nhan thirc tren va dong thai cung phat tri~n cluing.

IV - CHUAN KlEN THUC, Ki NANG CllA CHUONG

;t " ... ...... ,

TRINH GlAo DVC PHO THONG VUA LA CAN CU,

vUA LA MUC TIEU CllA GIANG D~Y, HOC T~P,

/( .". ,

KIEM THA, DANH GIA

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai d¢ cua crGDPT bao dam tinh thong nhat, tfnh kha thi, phil hop cua crGDPT ; bao dam chat IUQl1g va hieu qua cua qua trinh giao due.

1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang lei can cu

1.1. Bien soan sach giao khoa (SGK) va cac tai lieu hirong din day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia, d6i moi phirong phap day hoc, d6i moi kiem tra, danh gia,

1.2. Chi dao, quan If, thanh tra, kiern tra viec thuc hien day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia, sinh hoat chuyen mon, dao tao, boi duong can bo quan If va GV.

1.3. Xac dinh muc lieu cua moi gio hoc, muc tieu cua qua trinh day hoc, dam bao chat IUQl1g giao due,

1.4. Xac dinh muc tieu kiem tra, danh gia doi voi tirng bai kiem tra, bai thi ; danh gia ket qua giao due timg mon hoc, lap hQC, cap hQC.

2. Tai lieu Huang ddn thuc hien Chudn kien thuc, ki ndng diroc bien soan theo hu6ng chi tiet cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuan kien thirc, ki nang bang cac noi dung chon IQc trong SGK.

Tai lieu giup cac can bo quan If giao due, cac can bo chuyen mon, GY, HS nam virng va thuc hien dung theo Chuan kien thiic, ki nang,

3. Yeu cau day hoc bam sat Chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang 3.1. Yeu cdu chung

a) Can cu Chuan kien thirc, ki nang d~ xac dinh muc tieu bai hQC.

Chii trong day hoc nham dat duoc cac yeu cau co ban va toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang, dam bao khong qua tai va khong qua l~ thuoc hoan toan vao SGK ; mire do khai thac sau kien thtrc, ki nang trong SGK phai phil hop voi kha nang tiep thu cua HS.

b) Sang tao ve phirong phap day hoc phat huy tfnh chu dong, tich Cl!C, W giac hoc tap cua HS. Clni trong ren luyen phirong phap tu duy, nang hrc ur hoc, nr nghien CUu ; tao niem vui, hirng khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai d¢ tu tin trong hoc tap cho HS.

c) Day hoc tM hien moi quan he tich eire giua GV va HS, gitra HS voi HS ; tien hanh thong qua viec t6 chirc cac hoat dong hoc tap cua HS, ket hop giira hQC tap ca th~ voi hoc tap hop tac, lain viec theo nhom.

d) Day hoc clni trong den viec ren luyen cac ki nang, nang lire hanh dong, van dung kien thirc, tang cirong thirc hanh va gan noi dung bai hoc voi thuc tien cuoc song.

e) Day hoc chii trong den viec sir dung co hieu qua phirong tien, thiet bi day hoc diroc trang bi hoac do GV va HS nr lam ; quan tam irng dung cong nghe thong tin trong day hoc,

g) Day hoc chii trong den viec dong vien, khuyen khich kip thai sl! tien bo cua HS trong qua trinh hoc tap ; da dang noi dung, cac hinh thirc, each thuc danh gia va tang cirong hieu qua viec danh gia.

3.2. Yeu cdu dOl vOi can bi) qudn Ii co su giao due

a) Nam virng chu tnrong d6i moi giao due ph6 thong cua Dang, Nha mroc ; nam virng muc dfch, yeu cau, noi dung ddi moi th~ hien CI:I

9

the trong cac van ban chi dao cua Nganh, trong Clurong trinh va SGK, phuong phap day hoc (PPDH), sir dung phuong tien, thiet bi day hQC, hinh thirc t6 chirc day hQC va danh gia ket qua giao due,

b) Nam vtrng yeu cau day hoc bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang trong CfGDPT, dong thoi tao dieu kien thuan loi cho GV, dong vien, khuyen khich GV tich cue d6i moi PPDH.

c) CO bien phap quan 11, chi dao t6 chirc thuc hien d6i moi PPDH trong nha tnrong mot each hieu qua; thuong xuyen kiem tra, danh gia cac hoat dong day hQC thea dinh hirong day hQC bam sat ChUAn kien thuc, ki nang dong thoi vru tfch C1JC d6i moi PPDH.

d) Dong vien, khen thirong kip thoi nhiing GV thuc hien c6 hieu qua dong thoi voi phe binh, nhac nho nhfrng ngiroi chua tich cue d6i moi PPDH, day qua tai do khong bam sat ChUAn kien thirc, ki nang.

3.3. Yeu cdu doi vOi giao vien

a) Bam sat ChUAn kien thuc, ki nang d~ thiet ke bai giang, voi muc tieu la dat duoc cac yeu cau co ban, t6i thieu ve kien thrrc, ki nang, day khong qua tai va khong qua l~ thuoc hoan roan vao SGK. Viec khai thac sau kien thirc, ki nang phai phu hop voi kha nang tiep thu cua HS.

b) Thier ke, t6 clute, huong dan HS thuc hien cac hoat dong hoc tap vru cac hlnh thirc da dang.phong plui, c6 sire hap dan phu hop voi dac tnrng bai hoc, voi dac diem va trinh d(> HS, voi dieu kien cu the cua lap, tnrong va dia plurong.

c) Dong vien, khuyen khich, tao co hoi va dieu kien cho HS duoc tham gia mot each tfch eire, chu dong, sang tao vao qua trinh kham pha, phat hien, de xuat va Iinh hoi kien thirc ; chu y khai thac von kien tlnrc, kinh nghiem, ki nang da c6 cua HS ; tao niem vui, hung khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai d¢ 1\! tin trong hoc tap cho HS ; giup HS phat trien toi da nang lire, tiem nang cua ban than.

d) Thier ke va huang dan HS thuc hien cac dang cau hoi, bai tap phat trien tu duy va ren luyen ki nang; huang dan sir dung cac thiet bi day hQC ; t6 clurc c6 hieu qua cac gia thuc hanh ; huang dan HS co thoi quen van dung kien thirc da hQC vao giai quyet cac van de thuc tien.

e) Sir dung cac phirong phap va hinh thirc t6 chirc day hoc mot each h<JP 11, hieu qua, linh hoat, phu h<JP voi d~c trung cua cap hQC, mon hQC ; noi dung, tinh chat cua bai hoc ; dac diem va trinh d¢ HS ; thoi luong day hoc va cac dieu kien day hoc cu th~ cua tnrong, dia plurong.

4. Yeu cau kiem tra, danh gta bam sat Chuan kien thuc, kinang

4.1. Quan niem vi !dim tra, ddnh' gia

Kiem tra va danh gia la hai khau trong mot quy trinh thong nhat nham xac dinh ket qua thuc hien muc tieu day hQC. Kiem tra la thu thap thong tin til rieng Ie den he thong ve ket qua th1JC hien muc tieu day hQC ; danh gia la xac dinh rmrc d(> dat dtroc ve tlnrc hien muc tieu day hQC.

Danh gia ket qua hQC tap thuc chat la viec xem xet rmrc d¢ dat duoc cua hoat dong hoc cua HS so vru muc tieu de ra doi vci tirng mon hoc, timg lap hQC, cap hQC. Muc tieu cua mei mon hoc duoc cu the hoa thanh cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang. Til cac chuan nay, khi tien hanh kiem tra, danh gia ket qua hQC tap mon hoc can phai thiet ke thanh nhiing tieu chi nham kiem tra duoc day du ca ve dinh tinh va dinh luong ket qua hQC tap cua HS.

4.2. Hai chuc nang Cf1 ban cua kiem tra, danh gia a) Chuc nang xac dinh

- Xac dinh mire d¢ dat diroc trong viec thuc hien muc tieu day hQC, xac d!nh milc d¢ th1!c hi~n Chuc1n kien thuc, ki nang cua chuong

10

trinh giao due rna HS dat duoc khi ket thiic mot giai doan hoc tap (ket thuc mot bai, chuong, chu de, chu diem, mo dun, lop hQC, cap hoc),

- Xac dinh doi hoi tfnh chfnh xac, khach quan, cong bang.

b) Chirc nang dieu khien : Phat hien nhirng mat t6t, mat chua t6t, kh6 khan, vuong mac va xac dinh nguyen nhan, Ket qua danh gia HI. can cir de quyet dinh giai phap cai thien thirc trang, nang cao chat IUQ'Ilg, hieu qua day hQC va giao due thong qua viec d6i moi, t6i iru hoa PPDH cua GV va hirong dan HS biet ur danh gia de t6i uu hoa phirong phap hoc tap. Thong qua chirc nang nay, kiem tra, danh gia se la dieu kien can thiet :

- Giiip GV nam diroc tinh hinh hQC tap, mire d(> phan hoa ve trinh d(> hoc lire cua HS trong lop, tir d6 c6 bien phap giiip dO' HS yeu kern va boi dirong HS gioi ; giiip GV dieu chinh, hom thien PPDH ;

- Giiip HS biet dtroc kha nang hoc tap cua minh so voi yeu cau cua clnrong .trmh ; xac dinh nguyen nhan thanh cong cling nhir chua thanh cong, tir d6 dieu chinh phirong phap hoc tap ; phat trien ki nang nr danh gia ;

- Giiip can bo qulin If giao due de ra giai phap quan If phil hop de nang cao chat IUQ'Ilg giao due ;

- Gitip cha me HS va cong dong bier duoc ket qua giao due cua tirng HS, tirng lop va cua ca CC1 sa giao due,

4.3. Yeu cdu kiem tra, danh gia

a) Kiem tra, danh gia phai can cu vao Chudn kiln thuc, ki nang cua tirng mon hoc a tirng lop ; cac yeu cau CC1 ban, t6i thieu can dat ve kien thirc, ki nang cua HS sau moi giai doan, moi lop, moi cap hQC.

b) Chi dao, kiem tra viec thuc hien chuong trinh, ke hoach giang day, hoc tap cua cac nha tnrong ; tang cirong d6i moi khau kiem tra,

danh gia rhirong xuyen, dinh ki ; dam bao chat IUQ'Ilg kicm tra, danh gia thirong xuyen, dinh ki chinh xac, khach quan, cong bang ; khong hinh thiic, d6i ph6 nhung cling khong gay ap lire nang ne. Kiem tra thirong xuyen va dinh ki thea htrong vita danh gia dtroc dung Chuan kien thirc, ki nang, vita c6 kha nang phan hoa cao ; kiem tra kien tlnrc, ki nang CC1 ban, nang lire van dung kien tlnrc cua nguoi hoc, thay vi chi kiern tra hoc thuoc long, nho may m6c kien thirc.

c) Ap dung cac phirong phap phan tfch hien dai de tang cirong tinh nrong dirong cua cac de kiem tra, thi. Ket hop that hop If cac hinh tlurc kiem tra, thi van dap, nr luan va trac nghiem nham han che 16i hoc tu, hoc lech, hoc vet ; phat huy uu diem va han che nhiroc diem cua moi hinh thirc,

d) Danh gia chinh xac, dung thirc trang : danh gia cao hon thirc te se trier tieu dong lire phan dau viron len; ngiroc lai, danh gia khat khe qua mire hoac thai d(> thieu than thien, khong thay duoc st! tien bo, se uc che tmh earn, trf tue, giam vai tro tich cue, chu dong, sang tao cua HS.

e) Danh gia kip thoi, c6 tac dung giao due va dong vien sir tien bo cua HS, giiip HS sua chua thieu s6t. Danh gia ca qua trinh Iinh hoi tri thirc cua HS, chii trong danh gia hanh dong, tinh cam cua HS: nghi va lam; nang lire van dung vao thirc tien, the hien qua irng xu, giao tiep ; quan tam toi rmrc do hoar dong tich cue, chu dong cua HS trong tirng tiet hoc tiep thu tri thirc moi, on luyen cling nhir cac tiet thuc hanh, thf nghiern,

g) Khi danh gia ket qua hoc tap, thanh tfch hoc tap cua HS khong chi danh gia ket qua cu6i cung, rna can chu y ca qua trinh hQC tap, Can tao dieu kien cho HS cung tham gia xac dinh tieu chi danh gia ket qua hoc t~p vai yeu du khong t~p trung vao kha nang tai hi¢n tri thuc rna

11

chu trong kha nang van dung tri tlurc trong viec giai quyet cac nhiem vu plurc hQ1). Co nhieu hinh thirc va dQ phan hoa cao trong danh gia.

h) Khi danh gia hoat dong day hoc khong chi danh gia thanh rich hoc tap cua HS, rna con bao gom danh gia ca qua trinh day hQC nham cai tien hoar dong day hoc. Chii trong phuong phap, ki thuat lay thong tin phan hoi tit HS de danh gia qua trtnh day hoc.

i) Ket hQ1) that hQ1) If giua danh gia dinh tinh va dinh IU<JI1g : Can cu vao d~c diem cua timg rnon hoc va hoar dong giao due a moi lop hQC, cap hQC, quy dinh danh gi~ bang diem ket hQ1) voi nhan xet cua GV hay danh gia bang nhan xet, xep IOC;li cua GV.

k) Ket hQ1) danh gia trong va danh gia ngoai.

D¢ co them cac kenh thong tin phan hoi khach quan, can ket hQ1) hai hoa gina danh gia trong va danh gia ngoai :

- Tu danh gia cua HS voi danh gia cua ban hoc, cua GV, cua co sa giao due, cua gia dlnh va cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua GV vm danh gia cua dong nghiep, cua HS, gia dinh HS, cua cac co quan quan lf giao due va cua cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua co s~ giao due voi danh gia cua cac co quan quan If giao due va cua cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua nganh Giao due v6i danh gia cua xa hoi va danh gia quoc teo

1) Phai Ia dong hrc thiic day d6i m6i PPDH : D6i moi PPDH va d6i m6i kiem tra, danh gia la hai mat thong nhat httu ca cua qua trinh day hoc, Ia nhan t6 quan trong nhat dam bao chat IU<JI1g day hoc.

4.4. Cdc lieu chi cua kie"m Ira, danh gia

a) Dam bao tfnh to an dien : Danh gia duoc cac mat kien tlurc, ki nang, nang lire, y thirc, thai do, hanh vi cua HS.

b) Dam bao dQ tin cay : Tinh chfnh xac, trung thuc, minh bach, khach quan, cong bang trong danh gia, phan anh dUQ'C chat IU<JI1g thirc cua HS, cua cac ca sa giao due,

c) Dam bao tfnh kha thi : NQi dung, hinh thirc, each thirc, phuong tien t6 chirc kiem tra, danh gia phai phil hQ1) v6i dieu kien HS, co sa giao due, dac bier la phil hQ1) voi muc tieu theo tirng mon hoc.

d) Dam bao yeu cau phan hoa: Phan IOC;li ducc chinh xac trinh de, mire do, nang lire nhan thirc cua hoc sinh, co sa giao due ; can dam bao dai phan hoa rong du cho phan loai doi tU<JI1g.

e) Dam bao hieu qua: Danh gia dUQ'C tat ca cac Iinh vue can danh gia HS, co sa giao due ; thirc hien dUQ'C day du cac muc tieu de ra ; tao dong luc d6i moi phuong phap day hoc, gop phan nang cao chat IU<JI1g giao due.

12

A ,

PHANTHUHAI

HuONG nAN THVC HItN CHuAN I<IEN THUC, 10 NANG MON ToAN THPT

N(n DUNG MON Tom THPT

Noi dung mon TOlin bao gom nhfmg kien thirc co ban ve : - SO va cac phep tfnh tren tap h<JP so thirc, so phirc.

- Menh de va tap h<JP ; cac bieu thuc dai so va IUQ'Ilg giac ;

phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy ve bac hai) ; he phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai) ; bat phuong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy ve bac hai) va he bat plurong trmh bac nhat (mot .1n, hai .1n).

- Ham so, gici han, dao ham, nguyen ham, tfch phan va trng dung cua cluing.

- Cac quan he hinh hoc va mot so hinh thong dung (diem, dirong thang, mat phang, huih tam giac, hlnh tron, clip, hlnh da dien. hlnh tron xoay) : phep doi hlnh va phcp dong dang : vecto va toa do.

- Mot so kien thirc ban dau ve thong ke, t6 h<JP, xac suat.

xt NANG co BAN

- Thuc hien duoc cac phep tfnhluy thira, khai can, logarit tren tap so thuc va mot so phep tinh don gian tren tap so phirc.

- Khao sat duoc mot so ham so co ban: ham so bac hai, bac ba, ham so bac bon trung phirong, ham so phan thirc y = ax + h , cx+ il

ax2 + bx + (' , ,

v = I' ham so luang giac, ham so mii, ham so logarit.

. ('X+l '

- Giai thanh thao phuong trmh, bat phirong trinh bac nhat, bac hai, he phuong trinh bac nhat. Giai diroc mot so he phirong trmh, h~ bat phirong trinh bac hai ; phirong trlnh IUQ'Ilg giac ; plurong trinh, bat phirong trinh, he phirong trinh mil va logarit don gian.

- Giai diroc mot so bai toan ve bien d6i IUQ'Ilg giac, luy thira, mii, logarit, ve day so, ve gici han cua day so va ham so.

- Tfnh diroc dao ham, nguyen ham, tich phan ella mot so ham so.

- Ve hinh ; ve bi~u do ; do dac ; tinh d<) dai, goc, dien tfch,

th~ tich. Viet phirong trmh duong thang, dmmg tron, elip, mat phang, mat cau.

- Thu thap va xu If so lieu ; tinh toan ve t6 h<JP va xac suat,

- Voc IUQ'Ilg ket qua do dac va tinh toano

- SU dung cac cong cu do, ve, tfnh toano

- Suy luan va chimg minh.

- Giai toan va van dung kien thuc toan hQC trong hQC t*p va

dm song.

13

,'l,.<' ...., '"

PRAM CHAT TU DUYVA THAI DO

- Kha nang quan sat, dir doan, suy luan hop If va suy luan logic.

- Cac thao tac tir duy co ban (phan tich, tong hop).

- Cac phfun chat tu duy, ~c biet la tu duy linh hoat, doc lap va sang tao,

- Kha nang dien dat chinh xac, ro rang y nrong cua minh va hi~u

duoc y tuong cua nguoi khac,

- PMt trien trf urong nrong khong gian.

- C6 Y thirc nr h9C, hung thu va nr tin trong h9C tap,

- C6 dire tinh trung thirc, can CU, virot kh6, dn than, chfnh xac, ki

luat, sang tao.

- CO Y thirc hop tac, tran trong thanh qua lao dong cua minh va cua nguoi khac.

- Nhan biet duoc vi: dep cua toan hoc va yeu thfch mon Toan.

GIOI THIaU ~CH KIEN THUC

.... '" , /! '"

CHUONG TRINH MaN TOAN PHO THONG

Gizi chu : + Cac yeu t6 kien tlnrc chuan bi. * H9C chinh thirc.

LC)P
MACH NOI DUNG CHU£)~
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1. S6 1.1. so tir nhien * * * * * *
1.2. so nguyen *
1.3. SO hiru ti
+ + * * *
- Phan s6
._-------- _-------- ---------- ---------- --------- ---------
- SO thap phan * * *
--------- - - - - -- ---- --------- --------- ---------- --------- ---------
- SO hiru ti *
1.4. SO thuc * *
1.5. SO plnrc * 14

LaP
M~CH NOI DUNG CHODE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2. D~i hrong va 2.1. DQ dai * * * * * *
do dai IUQ1lg 2.2. G6c *
+ + * *
2.3. Di~n tfch + + + * * * *
2.4. The tich + * * *
2.5. Khoi hrong * * *
2.6. Thm gian * * * * *
2.7. V~.t6c * *
2.8. Ti~n t~ * *
3. D~i so 3.1. Tap hop, menh d~ * *
3.2. Bieu thirc dai s6 + + + * * * *
3.3. Ham s6 va do thi + + + * * * * *
3.4. Phuong trinh, + + * * * * *
h~phuangtrlnh + + + +
3.5. Bat dAng thirc, + + + + * * *
bat phirong trinh + + +
3.6. LUQ'Ilg giac + * *
3.7. Day s6, cap s6 cong, + + + + + *
cap s6 nhan + + 15

M~CH NOI DUNG

CHO DI:

LaP

5

*

2

3

4

12

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

*

*

*

*

7

8

9

6

10

11

4. Giii tich

4.1. Gi6i han

- Gioi han cua day s6

- Gioi han cua ham sO

---------------------------+-~--+--~~ --------- ---------- --------- --------- ---------- --------- -------------------- --------- ---------

*

- Ham s6 lien tuc

*

*

4.2. Dao ham

*

4.3. Nguyen ham, tich phan

5. Hiob bQC

S.l. Cac khai niern hinh h9C madau

5.2. Dai cuong ve dirong thang va mat phang

*

*

5.3. Quan h~ song song - Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

*

5.4. Quan h~ vuong g6c - Trong mat phang

-~--~---- ---- .. _--- --._----- -------_. ---------- -_ .. _---- --._----- ---_.----- --------- _.------------------ --------- .. --.---.

- Trong khong gian

+

*

*

5.5. Da giac

- Tam giac

----~---- -.- ... _- ... -------- -.---.-.- .. __ .. _--- .. _----_. --------- ---_._---- --------- -.----------_.- .. _-- .- .. -_ .... ---_._.-

- Tu giac

--------- -.- .. _-- .. _-------_. -.-----.- ._----. __ . _._._---- _ -. -_ _-.-- --------- ------.-.--------_.- --------- ------.--

- Da giac

+

+

+

+

16

+

+

*

+

'"

*

*

+

*

*

+

12

LaP
MACH NOI DUNG CHUDE
2 3 4 5 6 7
5.6. Duong tron, hinh tron + + + + +
5.7. Hinh da dien +
5.8. Hinh tron xoay +
5.9. Vecto
- Trong mat phang 8

9

*

10

11

- Trong khong gian

5.10. TO<;l d¢

- Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.11. Phep doi hinh

- Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.12. Phep dong dang

- Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

+

*

+

+

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

6.1. Thong ke .

+

+

+

*

*

*

-----------.~-------------------- -------------------- --------- ---------. --------- _-------- -----_---- --------- -------------------- --------- ---------

*

*

*

6. Thong ke,

To hop. Xac suat

HII1IL.11IAII1!

6.2. T6 hop

6.3. Xac suat

17

*

*

*

*

A ~ A ? 'A"

DAY HOC MOT SO NOI DUNG CUA CHUaNG TRINH MaN TOAN

. .. .

1. D~y hec cac h, th6ng sO'

a) Dat VID1 d~ rna rong cac he thong so : tir thuc tien, nr noi bo roan hoc, phoi h<JP.

b) D':lY hoc nhirng khai niem so : s6 va phep toan, y nghia thuc t! cua nhtrng khai niem so.

c) D':lY hQC phep tfnh va quan he thu tl;l : ren ki nang tfnh toan, phat tri~n nang lire trf rue, ngam hinh thanh quan niem ve cau tnic,

d) Day hoc nhfmg tfnh chat cua m6i he thong so: N, Z, Q, JR, CC .

e) H¢ thong hoa sl! phat trien cua khai niem s6 va Hun ro (gioi thieu) phuong phap rna rong mot he thong so.

2. D~y hQc phltdng trinh va bat phltdng trinh

a) Day hoc khai niem phirong trinh va nhtrng khai niem co lien quan.

b) Day hQC phuong trinh dua vao ham menh d~ : quan niem ve d~g tlnrc ; hi~u dung thuc chat cua dau = trong phirong trinh (hlnh thirc), phan bier dau = trong phuong trinh va dau = trong bien d6i dong nhat ; dieu kien xac dinh va nghiem phirong trtnh,

c) Sir dung ngon ngff cua If thuyet tap h<JP va logic toan (bien d6i urong duong, h¢ qua, ket h<JP nghiem •... ).

d) Day hQC giai phuong trmh.

e) Dien bien cua tap nghiem khi bien d6i phuong trlnh : rna rong, thu hep, urong dirong.

f) Giai quyet plurong dien ngfr nghia (xem xet noi dung cua nhirng menh de toan hoc va nghia cua nhtmg each dat VID1 de roan hQC) va phuong dien cu phap (xem xet cau tnic hinh tlurc va su bien d6i hinh thirc nhitng bieu thirc toan hoc, sir lam viec theo nhfrng quy tilc xac dinh, theo thuat giai).

g) Day hoc giai bai toan bang each lap phirong trinh.

h) Thay diroc img dung cua toan hoc trong thuc t! va viec toan hoc hoa cac bai toan co noi dung thuc tien.

i) Phat hien quan he giua cac dai IU<;1ng.

k) Ki nang giai bai toan, trong tam Ia ki nang I*p va giai phirong trinh.

3. D~y hQc ham sO'

a) D':lY hQC khai niem ham so: giai thich dinh nghia ham so dua vao bieu urong tap h<JP va cau tnic logic, minh hoa khai niern bang cac vi du da dang.

b) Day hoc khao sat ham so : tfnh roan phuc vu khao sat, ve do thi, doc do thi.

c) Phat tri~n nr duy ham : ttr nrong chu dao (phat hien, nghien CUu nlumg sl! nrong img) ; thuc hien gci dong CO' ; hinh thanh bieu urong tien tm tri thirc ve su nrong img dan tri va tap luyen nhfrng hoat dong an kh6p vci tri thirc phirong phap v~ nr duy ham ; phan bac hoar dong ve nr duy ham (sir phirc tap, mire dQ doc l~p cua hoar dong nhan thirc hoc sinh, mire dQ thanh thao cua hoar dong).

d) Phat trien nr duy ham trong toan bo chuang trmh mon toan (theo cac mach toan).

18

4. DCilY hoc dao ham va tich phan

a) Day hoc ham so lien tuc : gioi han cua day s6 ; gioi han cua ham s6 ; ham s6 lien tuc.

b) Day hoc dao ham : hlnh thanh khai niern ; day hQC tim dao ham ; day hoc irng dung cua dao ham.

c) Day hoc nguyen ham va tfch phan : hinh thanh khai niern ; day hoc tim nguyen ham ; khai niem tich phan ; tinh tfch phan,

5. DCilY hoc hinh hoc khong gian

a) Day hoc khai niern : hlnh thanh, cung c6, van dung.

b) Day hoc cluing minh : goi dong CeJ ; phirong phap suy luan va phirong phap chimg minh (xuoi, nguoc lui) ; quy tac ket luan logic.

c) Hinh ve trong day hoc hlnh hoc khong gian : hlnh bieu dien, hinh ve tnrc quan trong day hoc.

6. DCilY hec vectd va toCil dQ a) Day hoc vecto

- Day hoc khai niern vecto : mo tii tinh cung huang bang tnrc giac, sir dung vecto ur do mot each An tang, chu y lien mono

- Day hoc phep toano vecto : can dinh nghia phep toan, quy tac thirc hien phep toan, cac tinh chat CeJ ban cua m6i phep toan.

- Day giai bai tap v~ vecto : chuyen ngon ngir, sir dung cac phep toano

b) Day hoc toa dQ

- Day hoc phirong phap toa dQ trong mat phang : he toa do, lap va sir dung phirong trinh duong.

- Day hoc phirong phap toa dQ trong khong gian lien he voi hinh hoc phang : them phep tinh tich vecto (co huang).

c) Day hoc giai bai tap bang toa dQ : lam quen vm nhfrng each xac dinh toa dQ cua nhirng yeu t6 hlnh hQC ; quy trlnh giai mot bai toan bang phirong phap toa dQ.

7. DCilY hQc mach toan U"ng d\lng

a) Day hoc yeu t6 cua phirong phap s6

- Lam ro m6i lien he giira phuong phap s6, thuat gia! va may tinh.

- Gioi thieu va cho sir dung mot s6 phuong phap s6 thong dung :

phuong phap lap (tim nghiem),

- Hlnh thanh thoi quen lam tron s6 va viet s6 thea quy tac chuan, b) Day hoc yeu t6 cua If thuyet t6i tru

- Lam ro nguon g6c hoac y nghia thirc tien cua bai toano (vi du : bai toan tim duong di ngan nhat ... ).

- Cho HS giai toan t6i uu dira vao nhtrng kien thtrc toan hQC phd

thong : bat dcing thirc ; dao ham.

c) Day hoc mot s6 yeu t6 cua xac suat th6ng ke

- Day th6ng ke mo tii (tir Tieu hoc den Trung hoc phd thong).

- Day dai s6 t6 hop.

Day mot s6 yeu t6 cua If thuyet xac suat : neu y nghia th6ng ke cua xac suat.

8. DCilY hec mQt so yeu to cua Ii thuyet ~p hqp va logic toan

a) Lam ro nhtrng m6i quan he giita nhimg khai niem can cu vao nhtrng m6i quan h~ gitta nhfmg tap hop : bieu thi nhimg m6i quan h~ do bang bieu do Ven.

19

b) Yeu cau sir dung ki hieu cua tap hop va logic trong dien dat toan hQC ; yeu cau logic cua dinh nghia khai niem.

c) Phan tfch cac thanh phan cua cluing minh va cac yeu cau logic nrong irng : luan de, luan cu, luan cluing.

9. D~y hQc theo mach kien thltc toim

a) GV can hinh dung diroc mach kien thirc trong chuang trtnh toan {j tnrong phd thong, cling nhu mach kien thirc chay ngam trong Toan hoc de co the trinh bay dung khi day hQC va qua do giup HS hieu va co tM thac trien diroc kien thirc da hoc. CAn hinh dung va IQt ta cac mach dQC, m~ch ngang de co the irng dung, soi roi kien thirc so cap bm kien thirc Toan cao cap va nguoc lai, chuyen hoa kien tlnrc Toan cao cap thanh so cap (trong tnrong hop co the). Hirong dan HS sao cho qua viec hQC co diroc so d6 ve mach kien thirc co trong chuang trtnh, Chu y bien phap thuc hien sao cho kha thi.

b) GV can giup HS hlnh dung duoc he thong kien thirc de co the hinh dung he thong bai tap, qua do hinh dung duoc mach kien thirc. Tic do biet each khai thac va van dung trong giai toan, hQC toan va nghien CUu Toan hQC.

c) Thong qua day hQC cac mach ki~n thirc, GV can :

- Ren luyen cho HS cac thao tac tu duy : phan tfch, tong hop, nrong tu hoa, khai quat hoa, d~c bier hoa, ...

- Giup HS each Hun giau kien thirc, nrc la day tri thirc va day tri thirc phuong phap, Nhu the cling la day HS each suy nghi, day each sang tao.

- Day HS each hoc, biet 1l,I hoc,

- Phan bac hoat dong, tien toi phan hoa doi urong.

- Day hQC huong tm phat trien,

d) Khi hinh dung duoc cac mach toan, GV co the W lam giau kien thirc, wan tm biet tu sang tac bai tap.

Day hQC mach kien thirc can gan voi day hoc cac tinh huang dien hinh trong mon toan.

Qua viec tim hieu cac mach kien thirc toan (j tnrong phd thong,

GV can van dung diroc trong day hoc cac tinh huong dien hinh nhu :

a) Day hoc khai niern

b) Day hoc dinh Ii

c) Day hQC bai .t~p

d) Day hoc on tap.

Liru y tien hanh theo trinh W, chang han : tiep can, hinh thanh, cung co, he thong hoa, ...

20

HuONG nAN THl)'C HI~N CHum IGEN THUC, xt NANG MON ToAN LOP 12

A - KIEN THUC CHUONG TRINH MON ToAN LOP 12

(Phdn in nghieng, dam dann cho chuang trtnh nang cao)

so

so phirc. Dang dai so va cac phep tinh cong, trir, nhan, chi a so phirc. Can btj_c hai cua so phuc. Giai phirong trinh bac hai. Dang IU(Y1lg giac cua so' phuc va ung dung.

D~ISO

Ham so luy thira, ham so mii va ham so logarit, Phuong trinh, bat phuong trinh mu va logarit don gian, Mt)t s{i h¢ phuang trinh mil, logarit don gidn.

GIAI rtca

1. llng dung dao ham de khao sat ham so. Duong tiem can dung, dirong tiem can ngang, duong tiem ctj_n xien cua do thi ham so. MQt so phep bien d6i don gian do thi, Su nrong giao cua hai do thi.

2. Nguyen ham. Tfch phan, llng dung tfch phan de tinh dien tfch va the tfch vat tM.

HINHHOC

1. Khoi da dien. Khoi da dien deu. The tfch cua khoi da dien,

2. Mat cau, mat tru, mat non va nrong giao cua cluing v6i mat phang. Mi;it tron xoay. Dien tfch mat cau. Dien tich xung quanh, dien tich roan phan cua hinh tru, hlnh non. The tfch cua khoi tru, khoi non.

3. TO<;l dQ trong khong gian. Phuong trinh mi;it cau. Phuong trinh mat phang, Phuong trinh duong thang trong khong gian. V! trf nrong doi giira : hai dirong thang, dtrong thang va mat phang, hai mat phang. Khoang each gifra : mot diem va mot dirong thang, mot dirong thang va mot mat phang, hai dirong thAng cheo nhau.

21

, ~ ",,l K , _...,

B - HUONG DAN THl)'C HIJ;:N CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG

MON ToAN LOP 12

(Phdn in nghieng, d4m dann cho chuang trinn nang cao)

CHU,(N

KI~N THOC - Kf NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HI!N CHU,(N

D~NG ToAN. vI DU. LUU Y

KI~N THOC CO BAN

, .... ..t 7 , .... _;: ..... A'

I. UNG Dl)NG D~O HAM DE KHAO SAT VA VE DO THJ eUA HAM SO

1. (fng dlJng d~o ham 1. Gi<\ siri(x) c6 dao ham tren khoang (a; b). Ta c6 : cap mqt df! xet sl/ bien a) Dieu kien du :

thi6n cuaham so

f'(x»O tren khoang (a;b) ~ f(x) d6ng bien tren

khoang (a; b). - Biet tinh don di~u cua ham 86.

f' ( x) < 0 tren khoang (a; b) ~ f( x) nghich bien tren Vi du. Xet tinh dong bien, nghich bien cua cac ham

so sau:

v l kien thuc :

- Bier moi lien h~ giiia tfnh dong bien, nghich bien cua khoang (a; b).

mot ham so va 9~U dao ham b) Dieu kien can :

cap mot cua n6. Ve'kinang:

Biet each xet tfnh dong bien, nghich bien cua mot ham so tren mot khoang dua vao d~u dao ham cap mot cua n6.

f(x) d6ng bien tren khoang (a; b) ~ f'(x) ~ 0 tren khoang (a; b).

i( x) nghich bien tren khoang (a; b) ~ f' ( x ) ~ 0 tren khoang (a; b).

2. Phuong phap tim cac khoang dong bien, nghich bien cua mot ham so :

- TIm t~p xac dinh D cua ham so.

22

1. Xet tfnh dong bien, nghich bien cua mot ham so.

2. Dira vao tinh chat dong bien, nghich bien cua ham so clnmg minh mot so bat d~g thuc don gian,

3. Sir dung tinh don dieu cua ham so d~ giai phuong trmh, bat phirong trinh.

a) y = x3 - 3x2 - x + 3 ;

b) y = 2x3 - 6x + 2 ;

c) y = x 4 - 2x2 + 3 ;

d) = 3x + 1

y 1 '

-x

x + 1

e) y = x -1 ;

f) x2 - x + 1

y=

x-I

Dinh nghia DI' AU ki An du' de:! 1. TIm di~m cu. c trio cua ham SA.

. . c ~ Cho ham s6 y = fix) xac dinh va lien rue tren khoang (a ; b) v

ham s6 co cu. c tri. 2 T' h

(co the a la -00; b la +00) va di~m Xo E (a; b). . In Yeo; Ycr·

Ve' kien thuc :

3. Xac dinh tham s6 d~ ham' s6 dat ..

a) Neu t6n tai s6 h > 0 sao cho !(x) < !(Xo) voi rnoi cue tn tar

- Biet cac khai niem di~m di~m Xo.

cue dai, diem cue ti~u, diem x E (xo - h ; Xo + h) va x * Xo thl ta n6i ham s6 fix) dat

cue tri cua ham s6. cue dai tai xo.

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

2. eVe tri ella ham so

HUaNG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

Binh nghia

Vi du. Chsmg minh rdng

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

- Tfnh y', giai phirong trinh y' = O.

- Lap bang xet dau y'.

- Sir dung dieu kien du cua tfnh don dieu de ket luan.

Chu y : Trong dieu kien du, neu 1'( x) = 0 tai mot s6 hlhI han diem thuoc khoang (a;b) thl ket luan van dung.

1t cosr c x -'2

vOi moi x thu~c khodng ( ~ ; 1t )Vi d'!-. ChUng minh rdng :

x ~ sin x , '\I x ~ o.

HD : Xet x> 1 va xet 0::;; x ::;; 1 vOi ham so f(x) = x - sinx.

Vi d'!-. Gidi phulTng trinh :

sin x - x = o.

HD : Xet x ~ 0, sri d,!-ng vi du tre«, r6i xet x ::;; 0 ~ -x ~ 0, srid,!-ng vi d,!- tren.

Vi d'!-. Gidi phulTng trinh, IHft phllUng trinh diplg : f(u) = f(v), f(u) ::;; f(v),

trong d6 f la ham so dlTn ~u.

23

CHU~N

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HIEN CHU~N

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vf DU. LUU Y

- Biet cac dieu kien dii dt co b) Neu t6n tai s6 h > 0 sao eho f(x) > f(xo) voi moi

diem eire tr] cua ham s6.

X E (xo - h ; Xo + h) va x:to Xo thi ta noi ham s6f(x) dat cue tiiu tai xo.

Ve' ki nang :

Biet each tim diem cue tri cua Dinh Ii 1 V i du. Tim cac diem eire tri cua cac ham s6 sau :

ham s6. Gia sir ham s6 y = j(x) lien tuc tren khoang K = (..to - h;..to + h) a) y = }(l _ x)2; va co dao ham tren K hoac tren K \ {xo}, voi h > o. Khi do:

, {f'(X»O,'I;;/XE(Xo-h;XO) a) Neu

f'(x) <0, '1;;/ X E (xo ;Xo + h)

thl Xo Ia diem cue dai euaf(x).

{f' (x) < 0, '1;;/ X E (xo - h ; xo) b)Neu

f' (x) > 0, V X E (xo ; Xo + h)

thi Xo la diem cue tieu euaf(x). Bioh u 2

Gia sir ham s6 y = f(x) co dao ham cap hai trong khoang (xo - h; Xo + h) voi h > O. Khi do:

{f'(xo)= 0

a)Neu

J"(xo) > 0

thi Xo la diem cue tieu euaf(x).

b) Neu {f'(xo) = 0

J"(xo) < 0

thi Xo la diem eire dai euaf(x).

1 c) y = x + - ; x

d) y = sinx + eosx.

Vi du. Cho ham sfi

y = x2 - 2mx + Sm + 3,

vOi m ta tham so. V Oi gia tri nao ctia m thi ham so dii cho co cue tri tai x = 2 ?

Vi du. Tinh khoang each gifra diem eire dai va diem

• /! , d A' h· h' A' ~ 3 2 2

eire neu eua 0 t ! am so : y = .r - x + .

24

HUONG DAN THUC HIEN CHUAN

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

Vi du. Tim cac gia tri cua m d~ x = 1 la di~m eire tieu cua ham s6

Quy tac tim cue tr] cua ham s6 Y = f ( x) :

x2 - mx + m -1

y = x + 1

Vi du. Cho ham so

QUYTAcI

1. Tim tap xac dinh.

2. Tfnh f'(x). Tim cac diem tai do f'(x) bang 0 hoac f'(x) khong xac dinh.

3. Lap bang bien thien.

4. Tir bang bien thien suy ra cac diem cue trio

x2 + 2x

Y = l'

x-

(1)

a) Tinh khodng cach giua hai diim cue tri cua do thi ham s{) (1).

b) Viel phuang trinh dtamg thdng di qua hai diim cue tri cua do thi ham so (1).

QUY TAc II

1. Tim tap xac dinh,

2. Tmhf'(x). Giai phuong trlnhf'(x) =0 vakihieu x (i= 1, 2, ... ,n) la cac nghiem cua no.

3. Tfnhf"(x) vaj"(x)_

Luu ' Y.

each xac dinh tham so d~ ham so dat eire tri tai Xo

4. Dua vao dau cua f"(Xi) suy ra tfnh chat cue tri cua cho tnroc :

- Tim tap xac dinh D cua ham so.

- Tfnh f'(x)

diem.e;

- Do f(x) dat cue tri tai Xo nen f' ( xo) = 0 hoac f'(x) khong xac dinh tai xo. Tir do suy ra m.

- The gia tri m tim diroc vao f' ( x) d~ kiem tra. Neu f' (x) d6i dau khi x qua Xo thl ham so co eire tri tai x = xo, suy ra m Ia gia tri can tim.

25

CHU,{N

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

KI~N THUC CO BAN

HUONG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

3. Gia tri IOn nhat, gia tri O,nh nghia nhe, nhat ella ham so

Bi€t cac khai niem gia tri 100 'Vx ED va :3xo ED sao ehof(xo) = M. nhat, gia tri nho nhat ella ham so tren mot ~p h<JP s6.

Ve' kiln thuc .'

Ve' ki nang .'

Biet each tim gia tri 100 nhat, gia tri nhc nh~t (neu e6) ella, ham s6 tren mot doan, mot khoang.

Vi dl;l. Tim gia tri ttin nhtit, gUi tri nho nhtit coo ham so 3. Tim s6100 nhat M va s6 nho nhat m trong cac s6 tren.

Tae6

Cho ham s6 y = fix) e6 t~p xac dinh D.

- 56 MIa gia tri 100 nhar ellaf(x) tren D neu : fix) ~ M

Kf hieu M = maxj(x).

D

- 56. m la gia tri nho nhat ella f(x) tren D neu : fix) ~ m 'Vx E D va :3xo ED sao ehof(Xo) = m. Kf hieu m = minj(x).

. D

Ojnh Ii

y = j ( x) lien tuc tren doan [a; b] thl tdn tai :

max j(x), min j(x),

[a;b] [a;b]

Ctichtim

1. Tim cac diem xl.x2 ..... xn tren khoang (a ; b) rna tai d6f'(x) bang 0 ho~ej'(x) khong xac dinh,

2. Tfnhj(a).j(xl ).j(x2), ... .j(xn).j(b).

M = maxj(x), m = minj(x).

[a;b) [a;bJ

26

1. Tim gia tri 100 nhat (GUN), gia tri nho nhat (GTNN) ella ham s6 tren mot doan, mot khoang, tren mor t~p eho tnroc, tren tap xac dinh.

2. lhg dung vao viec giro phuong trinh, bat phuong trmh,

Vi du. Tim gia tri 100 nhar va gia tri nho nhar (neu e6) ella ham s6 :

a)y =x3 - 3i - 9x+ 35 tren doan [- 4; 4].

b) y = ~4-x2 +x.

Vi du. Tim gUi trj ttin nhdt va gUi tri nho nhdt cua ham so y = .../6 - 3x tren dOf:ln [ -1 ; 1].

y = J2 cos2x + 4sinx

tren dOf:ln [ 0; ~ l

Vi du. Tim gUi tri ttin nhtit va gia tri nho nhtit cua ham so

y = .../3 + x + .J6 - x ,

HUaNG DAN THVC HI~N CHuAN

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - KI NANG

KI~N THOC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

Vi du. Tim cac gia tri cua m dl phuong trinh sau co nghiem

x2 - ~4 - x2 = m.

HD: IJiJ,ttinphf!. t = ~4 - x2• Vidl!-

1. Tfnh d(> dai cac canh cua hlnh chii' nhat co chu vi nho nhat trong so cac hlnh chii' nhat co ding dien

tfch 48m2.

2. Tfnh cac canh cua hinh chit nhat co chu vi nho nhat trong tat cit cac hlnh chtr nhat co dien tfch Ia a

(m2), (a> 0).

4. eo th] cua ham so va Cong thirc chuyen h~ toa d(> trong phep tinh tien thea Ap dung phep linh titn dl vi' do thi fir 46 th] cho

phep tlnh tien h9 toCll de? vecto Oi(m ; n). tnaic.

+ Chuyin phuang trinh 4uimg cong sang h? to~ 4p mOi, nh~n xet 4u{lc tinh chlit 46 thj.

Vi du. Vi' do thi cua cac ham so sau bdng each' tj.nh tien do thi cua cac ham so dO bitt:

) ( 1)2, .lA' hi h' .' 2

a y = x + til ao t ~ am so y = x ;

2 2

b) x 5 'A"h'h' .' x

y = ""2 - til ao t. ~ am so y = ""2'

Vi du: ChUng minh riing dO Ih! ham sO Y = x3 - 3x + 2 nhan dilm 1(0; 2) ta tam doi xung,

{x = X + m y y
y = Y + n. -----! --1M
y
I
I
I
I
n I XI
I
I
I
I
0 m x Ve' kien thuc :

ttu« phep linh tien h~ tot} d~ va cong thuc d6i ~O{l d~ qua phep linh tien do,

----~r-----~~~-----X

Ve'klndng:

V t;in dung dllf!C phep tinb tien h~ toa d~ dl bitt dllf!C mot so' tinb chat cua do thi.

----~~----~~-------x

27

CHUAN

KI~N THtJC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HISN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU V

5. eltdng ti~m c~n cua do th] ham so. einh nghia va each tim cac dltdng ti~m c~n dung, ti~m c~n ngang, ti~m c;jn xien.

Ve' kien thuc :

Bier khai niem dueng tiem can dung, duong tiem can ngang, dirong tiem qin xien cua d6 thi,

Ve' ki nang :

Tim diroc .dirong tiem can dimg, tiem can ngang, tiem c~n xien cua d6 thi ham s6.

) _ x + 2

e y - I 2 .

"x -1 hoac lim [f(x)-(ax+b)] =0 thl dirong thang y = ax + b

Vi du. Tim tiem can dUng, tiem can xien cua do thj

ham stY

Ti~m can

Kf hieu (C) la d6 thi cua ham s6 y = fix]. 1. Tiem cdn dung

Neu lim f ( x ) = + 00 x--+x;

(x--+xo)

hoac lim f ( x ) = - 00 x--+x;

• (x--+xo)

thl dirong thang x = Xo la tiem can dirng cua (C). 2. Ti~m cdn ngang

Neu lim f ( x ) = Yo

x--++oo

hoac lim f(x) = Yo

x--+-ro

thi dirong thang y = Yo la tiern can ngang cua (C).

3. Tiem can xien

Neu lim [f(x)-(ax+b)] =0

x--++oo

x--+-oo

(voi a:l: 0) la tiem can xien ella (C).

28

Sir dung kien thirc ve gioi han : + Tim tiem can dung

+ Tim tiem can ngang

+ Tim tiem can xien

+ Tim tiem can cua do thi ham stY vo ti.

V i du. Tim dirong tiem can dung, tiem can ngang cua d6 thi cac ham s6 sau :

) 3x - 2

a y- ~-- 2x + 1 '

b) y = '~+ 3 , x -4

) .r + 5

e y=---x + 3 '

x2 - x + 1

d) y = 2 '

-,t' + 4

3x2 - 2x + 4 y=

2x + 1

HUaNG DAN THVC HI~N CHUAN

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - KI NANG

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

Vi du. Tim cdc tiem can cua do thi ham s(/ x2 - x-I

a)y=----·

x-I '

b) y = x - ~ x2 - X + 1.

Luu y :

rv. h ti . A A ? h' h hii htru ti P(x) v.ac urn tiem can eua am pant ire uu u y = Q(x)

- Tiem can dirng :

+ Giai phirong trinh Q(x) = O.

+ Neu phirong trinh Q(x) = 0 vo nghiern thi ket luan ham s6 da eho khong co tiem can dirng,

+ Neu phirong trmh Q(x) = 0 co nghiem la x = xi thi

, .' P(x)

tmh lim -Q ).

X-Hi (x

Neu l' P(x) h l' P(x) h'

1m -- = +00 oac 1m -- = -00 t 1

X-H, Q(x) X-Hi Q(x)

x = Xi la dirong tiern can dirng cua do thi ham s6.

N' li P(x) hi kh I' d '

eu im -- * +00 t 1 X = .r. ong a irong

X-Hi Q(x) - I

tiem can dirng cua do thi ham s6. - Tiem can ngang :

+ Neu bac cua P ( x) < bac cua Q ( x) thi true hoanh Ox la dirong tiem can ngang cua ham s6.

29

CHUAN

KI~N THliC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HIEN CHUAN

KI~N THliC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

30

+ Neu bac ella p(x) = bac ella Q(x) thi y = ~o la

o

duong tiem can ngang ella ham so, trong do ao, ho tU<1I1g irng la h~ so ella hang til eo bac eao nhat ella P ( x) va Q ( x ).

- Tiem cfjn xien :

+ Nill IHjc coo P(x) = 1 + IHjc coo Q(x) thi tiem cfjn xien ltl duimg thdng co phuong trinh y = ax + b

,_ () _ PI (x) , . PI (x) _

nell f x - ax + b + Q(x) va x~oo Q(x) - o.

- Tiem can xien cua do thi ham so v6 ti co dang y = ax + b, tim dufJ'c bdng cach tinn

a = lim f(x) va b = lim [f(x) - ax].

x -+:too X x-+:too

Trong thuc hanh, nguoi ta thuang pluii tinh

I· f(x) b:- , h kh ? d; ' d' h 00 V"

nn -- ang cac u ang vo in -. 11l

x-+:too X 00

can bfjc chan cdn chu y : fA2 = IAI, do vfjy phdi xet hai truang hf!IJ x ---+ +<X> va x ---+ -00.

Khi 'h I' f(x) b:- , h kh? d. '

I tin a = im -- ang cac u ang vo

x-+:too X

00

dinh. 00 - 00, ngum ta thuong dua ve' dang 00 nhti

vi~c nhan vOi bi/ll thitc lien hf!IJ.

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

KI~N THUC CO BAN

HUaNG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

- Biet SCi d6 khao sat va ve d6

-T~nhy'.

thi ham s6 (tim tap xac dinh, - Tim cac nghiem cua phirong trinh y' = ° va cac diem

tiem ctj.n xien (neu co).

4 2

Y = ax + bx + c (a '* 0), d) Lap bang bien thien

y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d (a '* 0),

3. Do thi

ax + b . •

y = d (c '* 0, ad -be '* 0), Dua vao being bien thien va cac yeu t6 xac dinh 6 tren de

cx + Vi du. Khao sat va ve d6 thi cac ham s6 sau :

ve d6 thi.

2

ax + bx + c ( d' Chu y'

y = trong 0

mx+ n

a, b, c, m, n to. cac so' cho truce va am ~O).

6. Khao sat va ve do th] ella ham so. Giao di~m ella hai do th], 51! tiep xue ella hai dllClng eong.

Ve' kiln thuc :

xet chieu bien thien, tim eire tri, tim tiem can, lap bang bien thien, ve d6 thi).

Ve'kinang':

- Biet each khao sat va ve d6

thi cua cac ham s6

- Dung d6 thi ham s6 de bien luan s6 nghiem cua c) Tim cac gioi han tai +00 va -00, tai cac diem rna ham mot phirong trmh.

s6 khong xac dinh va tim cac tiem c~n dung, ngang va

I. Sa do khao sat va ve do thi cua ham sa y = f ( x )

1. Tim tap xac dinh cua ham s6 va xet tfnh chan - Ie, tuan hoan.

2. S., bien thien

a) Chieu bien thien

rna tai do y' khong xac dinh.

- Xet dau y' va suy ra chien bien thien cua ham s6. b) Tim cue tri

- Neu ham s6 Ia tuan hoan voi chu ki T thi chi can ve d6

thi tren mot chu ki r6i tinh tien d6 thi song song vm Ox theo cac doan kT (k = ... , -3, -2, -1, 1,2,3, ... ).

31

- Tim tap xac dinh, tap gia tri cua mot ham s6.

- Khao sat va ve d6 thi cua ham s6 :

y=ax4+bx2+c (a,*O),

y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d (a '* 0),

ax+ b y= cx+ d

(c '* 0, ad - be '* 0),

ax2 + bx + c

y= (am ~O)

mx w n

trong do a, b, c, m, n lQ. cdc so cho truce.

- Tim diem u6n cua d6 thi ham s6 bac ba, bac b6n.

- Viet phirong trinh tiep tuyen cua d6 thi ham s6 (tai mot diem thuoc d6 thi ham s6, di qua mot diem cho tnroc, biet he s6 goc),

- Viet phuang trinh titp tuyen chung cua hai duimg cong tai diim chung.

X4 2 3

a)y= T-x 2'

b) y = - } + 3x + 1 ;

) _ 4x + 1

c y - 2x - 3 '

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HI eN CHUAN

KI~N THOC CO BAN

- Bier each bien Iuan so nghiem cua mot phirong trinh bang do thi.

- Biet each viet phirong trlnh tiep tuyen cua do thi ham so tai mot diem thuoc do thi ham so.

- Bitt cach viit phuong trinh tiip tuyin chung cua hai duang cong tai tiip diem.

- De ve do thi them ehfnh xac :

+ Tfnh them toa dQ mot so diem, dac bier nen tfnh cac giao diem cua do thi voi cac true toa do.

+ LUll Y tfnh chat doi xirng (qua true, qua tam ... ) cua do thi.

II. Khao sat mot s6 ham s6 da thirc va phan thirc Ham bac ba

y = ax3 + hx2 + ex + d (a :1= 0). • y' la mot tam tlurc bac hai :

+ Neu y' co hai nghiem phan biet thi se d6i dau hai Ian khi qua nghiem cua no, khi do do thi eo hai diem eire trio

+ Neu y' co nghiem kep hoac vo nghiern thl khong d6i dau, do do do thi khong eo diem cue trio

• y" ltl miJt nhi thuc bt;ic nhat luon d6i dtiu qua nghiem cua no nen co miJt diem udn.

Do thi nhan diem uon lam tam dOl xung,

- Do thi ham so bac 3 thuong co mot trong bon dang nhu hlnh diroi day

y y YlJ ' Y
r f / \ ff\ f'\
If 0 Vx ~ V \x ( 0 x 0 \ x
a>O a<O a>O a<O
32 D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

d) = 3x2 - 2x + 4

y 2x + I '

e) y = -x 4 + 5x2 - 4 ;

x

f)y=-; x -I

1

g) y = x + 1 + --1 . x+

Vi du

a) Khao sat va ve do thi ham so 3 3 2 y=x +_X.

b) Bien luan so nghiem cua phirong trinh

x3 + 1/ + m =0

tuy theo gia tri cua tham so m .

Vi du . Cho ham so

y = x4 - 2x2 + I.

a) Khao sat su bien thien va ve do thi ham so.

b) Dua vao do thi bien luan so nghiem cua phirong trinh

X4 - 2x2 = m.

e) Viet phuong trinh tiep tuyen cua do thi ham so di qua diem M(.J2 ; 1).

CHUAN

KIEN THOC - Ki NANG

HUONG DAN THUC HI~N CHUAN

KiEN THOC CO BAN

Ham so bac bon trung phirong

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

• y' = 4ax3 + 2bx = 2x (2ax2 + b ).

+ Neu a, b cung dau thl y' co mot nghiem va d6i dau mot Ian qua nghiern cua no nen chi co mot diem eire tri,

+ Neu a, b trai dau thi y' co ba nghiern phan biet va d6i dau ba Ian khi qua cac nghiern cua no nen do thi co ba di~m eire tri.

• y" = 12ax2 + 2b.

+ Neu a, b cung ddu thi y" khong do·i ddu nen do thi khong co die"m uon.

Vidl:l

a) Khdo sat va vi'do thi ham so'

x2 - 2x + 4 y=

x-2

b) Tim m de" duang thdng

d( m) : y = mx + 2 - 2m

cat do thi cua ham so (1) tai hai dilm phdn biet.

Vi du . Chung minh rdng do thi hai ham sosau tiip xuc nhau tai mot dilm, viet phuong trinh tiip tuyen chung cua chung tai dilm do :

352

Y = x + 4 x - 2 ; y = x + x - 2.

(1)

+ Neu a, b trdi ddu thi y" co hai nghiem ph tin bi¢t va Vi du. Cho ham so d6i dau hai ldn khi qua cdc nghiem clia no nen do thi co hai die"m uon.

+ Do thi nhan Oy lam true d6i xirng, a) Tinh khodng caci: giua hai dilm cue tri clia do

+ Do thi ham s6 trung phirong tlurong co mot trong bon thi ham so (1).

dang nlur hlnh diroi day

. y y

\ I

\ /~ J (\ (\

va V x I ~lI \ x

\y / ;~

~V x I a \ x

x2 + 2x

y= •

x-I

(1)

b) Viii phuang trinh duong thdng di qua hai die"m cue tri clia do thi ham so (1).

.. .

Luu y :

S., tuong giao ella cac do thi

3-Illnt .. lOlNl!

a>O

a<O

a>O

a<O

33

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - KI NANG

KI~N THUC CO BAN

HUONG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

Ham s6 phan thirc

() ax+b Y = f x =

ex + d

(c "* O,ad - be "* 0).

, ad - be

Y =

(ex + d)2

D

=----:-

2 .

(ex + d)

+ Neu D > 0 ~ y' > 0 V X E D1• + Neu D < 0 ~ y' < 0 V X E D1•

- Tiem cdn

a I' .

+ y = - a tiem can ngang ;

('

d I' . d'

+ x = -- a tiem can llng.

('

Bang bien thien

d

X -00

--

c

y'

+00

~a

c

y a

c~

-00

34

1. Bien luan s6 giao di~m ciia hai do thi

a) Giao diem cua hai dirong cong (C1) : y =j(x) va (C2) :y=g(x).

- Lap phirong trinh tim hoanh dQ giao diem

f(x) = g(x) (*)

+ Giai va bien luan (*) + Ket luan :

( *) co bao nhieu nghiem thi (C1) va (C2) co bay nhieu giao diem.

2. Viet phmmg trinh tiep tuyen

Phuong trinh tiep tuyen tai diem M o(xo ; Yo) cua duang cong y = f(x) co dang y - Yo = f'(xo)(x - xo).

3. Hai duong cong y = f(x) va y = g(x) tiep xuc VU; nhau khi va chi khi h~ phuong trinh

{f(X) = g(x) f'(x) = g'(x)

co nghiem. Nghiem do chinh ia hoanh' di) giao dilm cua hai duang congo

4. Lei giai bai toan "khao sat ham so" khong yeu cau ve do thi ham s6 do.

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

hoac

d

X -00

--

c

y'

+

+

a

->:

-00

y

a~

c

D6' thi co dang nhu hlnh sau

y

o (

x

x

Ham so phan thuc

= f ( ) = ax2 + bx + c

Y x a'x+b'

(aa' :I:- 0, tit va mdu khong

co nghiem chung}.

• y = ax + fJ + ,rp b" rp E R ax+

• Tap mc dinh D, = lR \ {- b:}, y' = a - rp.a' 2

a (a'x+b')

b' - Tiem can dung : x = ---;- ;

. , a

=Tiem cdn xien : y = ax + fJ,

35

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

KI~N THOC CO BAN

HUaNG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

- D6 thi thuang co mot trong bon dang nhu sau (ve theo tiem cdn] :

y \j
0 V~ x
jr\
a:>O a>O

a<O

a<O

Luu y :

- Trong clurong "Ung dung dao ham d~ khao sat va ve do thi cua ham so" : yeu cau moi hoc sinh deu hoc kien thirc v~ diem u6n ; rieng v6i hoc sinh hoc theo chirong trlnh nang cao co hoc them cac kien thirc ki nang v~ Phep tinb titn h~ toa d(> va cong thuc d6i toa d(> qua phep tinh. tien do. Sf! tiep xuc ctia hai duang cong (die'u kien cdn va du dl hai duong cong tiep xuc nhau), V {in dung duoc phep #nh tien h~ toa d(> dl bilt dul)'c m(>t so tinh chat cua do thi. Tiem can xien cua do thi ham so.

- Khi tim tiem can ngang phai xet ca hai gici han lim f(x); lim f(x) , do thi ham s6 co tiem can ngang khi co It nhat mot trong hai gi6i han

x~-oo x~+oo

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

do la hfru han (nrong tu cho tiem can xien), Khi tim tiem can dimg phai xet ca hai gioi han lim f(x); lim f(x) voi cac diem Xu sao cho co It

- +

X~Xo X~Xo

nhat mot trong hai gioi han do la -00 hoac +00.

II. HAM s6 LuY THUA, HAM so MO vA HAM s6 LOGARIT

1. Luy thLta

Loy thira vOi so mu nguyen

Dinh nghia luy thira vci s6 - Lily thira voi s6 mil nguyen duong : mil nguyen, s6 mil hiru ti, s6 Cho a E JR., n E N*, khi do

mil thirc. Cac tinh Chill. r--n ----, a = ~

n ,MIa s()

36

- Rut gon bieu thirc co luy thira voi s6 mil nguyen, s6 mil hiru ti, s6 mil thuc.

- Tinh gia tri bieu thirc co luy thira voi s6 mil nguyen, s6 mil hiru ti, s6 mil thirc.

- Chung minh he thirc co luy thira voi s6 mil nguyen, s6 mil hiru ti, s6 mil thirc.

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

KI~N THUC CO BAN

HUaNG DAN THUC HIEN CHUAN

Ve' kien thuc :

- Bier cac khai niem luy thira vai s6 mil nguyen cua mot s6 thirc, luy thira voi s6 mil hitu ti va luy thira voi s6 mil thuc cua mot s6 thuc dirong.

- Biet cac tfnh chat cua luy thira voi so mil nguyen, luy thira voi s6 mil htru ti va luy thira vci s6 mil thirc.

Ve'kinang:

- Biet dung cac tfnh chat cua luy thira de dan gian bieu tlnrc, so sanh nhiing bieu thirc co chua luy thira,

- Lily thira voi so mil nguyen am, lily thira voi s6 mil 0 :

Cho a ::F- 0, 11 E N* , guy uac

la-" = 7;aO = 11

Can bac n

Cho s6 thirc b va s6 nguyen dirong 11 ~ 2.

- SO a dircc goi la can bac 11 cua s6 b neu an = b.

- Khi 11 le, b E lR : Ton tai duy nhat rib ;

- Khi 11 chan :

+ b < 0: Khong ton tai can bac 11 cua b.

+ b = 0 : Co mot can ifO = o.

{rib > 0

+ b > 0 : Co hai can .r:

-t:.Jb < O.

Loy thira vm so mu huu ti

m

Cho s6 thirc a > 0 va s6 hitu ti r = -, trong do m E Z,

. • 11

n E N*. Khi do

37

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

- So sanh nhfrng bieu tlurc co chua luy thira (dira vao tfnh chat cua luy thira).

Vi du. Cluing to rang

( 1 )-0,75 5

16 +0,25 2 = 40.

Vi du. Rut gon bieu thirc

voi a > O.

, . , ( 1 )2.J5 ( 1 )3.fi

Vi du. Chung mmh rang 3 < 3

(31 )./3 va'(-31 ).fi

V i du . So sanh cac cap s6 sau :

Vi du. Cho x = 1 + 2a va y = 1 + 2 -rI. Tinh y theo x.

CHUAN

KISN THOC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THIJC HI eN CHUAN

KI~N THOC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

2. Logarit

Dinh nghia logarit co s6 a (a> 0, a :# 1) cua mot so duong. Cac tinh chat co ban ella logarit, Logarit thap phan, SO e va logarit W nhien,

Luy thira vOi so mfi v6 ti

Gilt sir a la mot s6 dirong, a Ul mot so vo ti va (rn) Ia mor day s6 hiiu ti sao cho

lim ';1 = a. "~+<Xl

Khi do laa = lim arn I l n~~

Cac t~nh chat

Cho a, b > 0; a, P E lR • Khi do

a

a u-ft

-=a

aP

Vi dl;l. Rut g~n bie"u thue

Vidl;l. Tinh

A == )4 + )10 + 2JS + )4 - )10 + 2JS. B == 4 3+.Ji .21-.J2 .2 -4 -.Ji .

Vi du. Tim dieu /dfn cria CO' so' a bilt 5

03 > 02•

Djnh nghia : - Tinh met s6 bieu thtrc chua logarit don gian dua

V 6i hai s6 dirong a, b (a * I). SO a nghiem dung dAng vao dinh nghia.

* Neu a > 1 thi aU > aft khi va chi khi a > p.

* Neu 0 < a <1 thi aa < aP khi va chi khi a > p.

thtic aU == b duoc goi Iii logarit eC1 so a ella b va kf hieu Iii log a b

a = log, b <=> aU = b ( a, b > 0, a :# 1).

38

- Giai cac bai tll\p bien d6i, bieu dien, so sanh, tinh toan cac bieu tfnrc chua logarit dua vao cac tfnh chat cua logarit.

- Chung minh he thtic, giai phuong trinh.

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

Ve' kiln thuc :

- Biet khai niem logarit co s6 a (a> 0, a ::F- 1) ella mot s6 dirong.

- Bier cac tfnh chat ella logarit (so sanh hai logarit cung co so, quy t!c tfnh logarit, d6i co s6 ella logarit).

- Biet cac khai niem logarit thap phan va logarit nr nhien,

Ve' ki nang :

- Biet van dung dinh nghia de tfnh mot s6 bieu thuc chua logarit don gian.

- Biet van dung cac tfnh chat ella logarit vao cac bai tap bien d6i, tfnh roan cac bieu thuc chua logarit,

HUaNG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

Tinh chat

Quy tAc tinh

+ V & a, q, ~ > 0, a e 1 thl :

log, ( q ~) = log a q + log, ~ bi

log , ~ = log; q - log, ~

1

log, b = -loga b.

+ V oi a, b > 0, a ::F- 1 va a E R, n E N* thl : log; b" = a log, b

log, t(b = _!_ log; b.

n

+ V & a, b, c > 0, a ::F- 1, c ::F- 1 thl :

10 b = loge b

ga loge a

1

log, b = I (b ::F- 1)

ogha

1

log a b = -loga b (a ::F- 0)

a a

Ki hieu logarit thap phan, logarit tu nhien

loglO x = Igx hay loglO x = logx,

con loge x = In x.

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

Vi du. Chimg to rang

log..!.. 2 1

a)3 27 =_. 8 '

2 b) log , 6.logg 9.10g6 2 = 3.

Vi du. Don gian cac bien thirc sau :

I

(1 )"210g34 . a) "9 '

b) 4log2 log.j2 4.

Vi du. Bieu dien log30 8 qua log30 5 va log3o 3.

Vi du. Cho a = Iogj l S, b = logj lf). Hay tfnh log..j3 50 thea a va b.

Vi du. So sanh cac s6 sau :

a) log, 5 va log? 4 ;

b) logO,3 2 va logs 3 ;

c) log I 9 va log , 10.

"3 "3

Vi du. Tim x neu

log2 (log3 (log4 x)) = o.

Vi du. Chung minh rling vu; a, b, c ia sdduong va a ¢l, ta co:

39

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - KI NANG

HUaNG DAN THVC HISN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

3. Ham so luy thua, Ham Ham s6 mii : so mu, Ham sologarit

Dinh nghia, tfnh chat, dao ham va do thi.

y = aX (a > 0, a *" I) .

Tap xac dinh : lR

a> I

+ y' = ( aX)' = aX In a > 0 voi moi x E lR . + Ham so dong bien tren R.

+ Iim o" = +00, lirn c" = 0

x~+ao x~-oo

+ Bang bien thien

y 0 +00

+ Do thi

y

y =aX (a> 1)

V l kiln thuc :

- Biet khai niem va tfnh chat cua ham so luy thira, ham so mti, ham so Iogarit.

- Biet cong tlurc tfnh dao hamcua cac ham soluy thira, ham so mti, ham so logarit,

- Biet diroc dang do thi cua cac ham so luy thira, ham so mil, ham so logarit.

Vlklniing:

- Biet van dung tfnh chat cua cac ham so mii, ham so logarit

vao viec so sanh hai so, hai bieu thirc chua mil va logarit.

- Bier ve do thi cac ham so luy thira, ham so mil, ham so logarit.

a --

__/ i

1

x

o

40

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

- Van dung tfnh chat cua ham so mii, ham so logarit vao viec so sanh hai so, hai bieu tlurc chua mil va logarit.

- Ve do thi ham so luy thira, ham so mfi, ham so logarit.

- Tinh dao ham cac ham so luy thira, mil, logarit va ham so hop cua cluing.

V i du. Ve do thi cua cac ham so sau :

a) y = 2x;

b) y = 2x-4.

Vi du. Ve do thi cac ham so sau : a) y = log I x ;

2

b)y= log . x-I.

2

Vi du. Tfnh dao ham cua cac ham so sau :

a) y = 2xex + 3sin 2x ;

b) y = 5x2 - In x + 8eosx.

Vi du. Tinh dao ham ella cac ham so:

a) y = ecos2x ;

b) y = x + Inlsinx + cos r],

CHUAN

KI~N THOC .... Ki NANG

- Tfnh diroc dao ham cac ham s6luy thira, mil va logarit.

HUaNG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

KI~N THOC CO BAN

O<a<1

, (x)' t ,..

+ y = a = a" In a < 0 VO'l mQI x E R

+ Ham so nghich bien tren R + lim aX = 0, lim a' = +00.

X .... H·<X) x~-ao

+ Bang bien thien

xl~

----.. 0

+ Do thi

y

Do thi cua ham s6 mil co tiem can ngang Ia Ox, luon di qua cac diem (0; 1), (1 ; a) va nam phfa tren true hoanh,

Ham so Iogarit

y = log, x (a > 0 va a ;j:. 1).

~ ~ax (O<a< 1)

,

o 1 x

41

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

Vi du. Tinh dao ham cua cac ham so sau:

a) y = 2cOSX ;

b) y = log2sin3 x;

• 2 c) Y = 3sm -,

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HI eN CHUAN

KI~N THOC CO BAN

Tap xac dinh : (0 ; + 00 ).

a> 1

+ (logax),=_I_>O voi moi XE(O;+oo). xlna

+ Ham s6 dong bien tren (0 ; + 00 ).

+ lim log , x = +00,

x-++oo

lim log , x = -00. x-+o+

+ Bang bien thien

+ D6 thi

y

1----~

°1:1 a

y = logaX

(a> 1)

x

42

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - KI NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vI DU. LUU Y

O<a<l

+ (IOgax)'=-II_<O voi moi XE(O;+OO). x na

+ Ham s6 nghich bien tren (0 ; + 00 ). + lim log; x = -00,

X~-taJ

lim log, x = +00. x~o+

+ Bang bien thien

+ D6 thi

oa ~ x

-

y = logax

(0 < a < 1)

D6 thi c6 tiem can dimg la Oy, luon di qua cac diem (1 ; 0), ( a ; 1) va nam phfa ben phai true tung.

43

CHU,{N

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THVC HISN CHUAN

KI~N THOC CO BAN

Ham soluy thira

- Ham so y = xa v6i a E lR duoc goi la ham soluy thira.

- Tap xac dinh cua y = xa tuy thuoc vao gia tri cua a ,

cu th~:

+ La lR khi a nguyen dirong ;

+ La lR \ {a} khi a nguyen Am hoac a= 0;

+ La (0; + 0Cl) khi a khong nguyen.

- Dao ham cua y = xa voi X > 0 la : (xa)' = axa-I•

- Tinh chat: xet tren (0; + 0Cl )

+ a> 0 : ham so dong bien + a < 0 ham so nghich bien + a> 0 : khong co tiem can

+ a < 0 : tiem can ngang la Ox , tiem can dimg la Oy. -Do thi

+ Do thi di qua diem (1; 1)

y

o 1

x

44

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vI DU. LUU Y

Dao ham cua ham hop

~--~------------~

( ell)' = ell. u '

Bang dao ham

(Ioga Ixl)' = -11-

x na

( all )' = all. u ' In a

(Ioga lui)' = ~II'

u. na

(a)' a-I,

II = au .u

45

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

KI~N THOC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

4.Ph~ngtrinh,h~phUDhg trinh, bat phLtdng trinh mu va logarit

Ve' ki nang :

- Giai diroc phuong trinh, bat phirong trlnh mil bang cac phirong phap : dira ve luy thira cung co so, logarit hoa, dung An s6 phu, sir dung tfnh chat cua ham s6. '

- Giai diroc phirong trinh, bat phirong trinh logarit bang cac phirong phap : dua ve logarit co cung co s6, mil hoa, dung An s6 phu, sir dung tfnh chat ciia ham s6.

- Gidi du(/c mot so h~ phuang trinh mil, 16garit dan gidn.

Phuong trinh mii

- Phuong trinh mil co bdn

aX = b (a > 0, a '* 1).

Neu b $ ° thi phirong trinh vo nghiem.

Neu b > ° thl phuong trinh co nghiem duy nhat x = log, b.

- Phuong trinh mil dan gidn :

a) Phuong trinh co the dira ve phirong trinh mil co ban bang each ap dung cac phirong phap :

- Dira ve cung mot co s6 ;

-D~t An phu ;

- Lay logarit hai ve (logarit hoa),

b) Phuong trinh co thi gidi bang phuang phap do thi. =Phuang trinh mil dan gidn :

c) Phuong trinh co thi gidi bdng cach ap dung tinh + Aa2x + Ba" + C = 0, (a > 0, a,* 1). chat clla ham si)' mil.

Phuong trlnh logarit

- Phuong trinh logarit co ban

log, x = b (a > 0, a '* 1) luon co nghiem duy nhat

h

x=a.

46

+ Giai phirong trinh, bat phirong trinh mil : Phuong trinh co ban, phuong phap dira ve cung mot co s6, phirong phap logarit hoa, phirong phap d~t An phu, phuang phap ham so:

+ Giai phirong trinh, bat phirong trinh logarit Phuong trinh co ban, phirong phap dira ve cung mot co so, phirong phap mil hoa, phirong phap d~t An phu, phuang phap ham so.

+ Gidi m~t so h~ phuong trinh mil, 16garit dan gidn.

f{x) _

+ a - b, (a > 0, a '* 1, b > 0).

+ aaf{x) + pbf{x) + ycf{x) = 0, (a, b, c > 0; a, b, c'* 1). + aaf{x) + pbf{x) + c = 0, (a, b>O; a,b '* 1).

CHuAN

KI~N THtJC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HI eN CHuAN

KI~N THtJC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vI DU. LUU Y

- Phuong trinh logarit dan gidn

a) Phuong trinh co the dira ve phirong trinh logarit co ban bang each ap dung cac phirong phap :

- Dira ve cung mot co s6 ;

- D~t an phu :

- Mil hoa hai ve.

b) Phuong trinh co thigidi bling phuang phap do thi.

- Phuong trinh logarit dan gidn :

+ log , f ( x ) = b (a > 0, a :t: 1).

+ f (toga x) = ° (a > 0, a :t: 1).

+ logaf(x) = logag(x) (a>O,a:t: 1).

- Bat phuang trinh mil dan gidn :

+ Aa2x + Ba x+ C :S: 0, (a> 0, a:t: 1). c) Phuong trinh co thi gidi bling cach ap dung linh

.. chat cua ham s616garit.

eta».

- Phan 100 each giai phirong trinh logarit Ia dua vao tfnh chat : Logarit cua hai s6 dirong theo cung mot co s6 la bang nhau khi va chi khi hai s6 do bang nhau.

- Khi mot phirong trinh logarit chua nhieu co s6 khac nhau thi nen quy cluing ve cung mot co s6 bang each sir dung cac cong thirc, quy tac bien d6i.

47

+ aaf(x) + jJhf(x) +ACf(x) ~O, (a, b, c > 0; a, b, c:t: 1).

+ aaf{x) + jJbf{x) + r ~ O,(a, b > O;a,b:t: 1). - Bat phuang trinh logarit dan gidn :

1) log , I (x) > 0, a > 1 ;

2) log , I(x) > 0, ° < a < 1 ;

3) logal(x) < 0, a> 1 ;

4) log; f ( x) < 0, ° < a < 1 ; 5) f [log , x) ~ 0, a > 0, a :t: 1.

Vi du. Giai phirong trinh

ur-3 ~(~r7

CHUAN· HUONG DAN THVC HleN CHUAN
KI~N THUC - Ki NANG KI~N THUC CO BAN D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y
Bat phirong trinh mii Vi du. Giai phuong trinh
Bat phuang trinli mil CO ban: s ... + 12x = 13x.
Dang 1: aX > h (a > 0, a =/. 1) V i du. Giai bat phirong trinh
T(ip nghiem 9X - 5. 3x + 6 < O.
aX > b a>1 O<a<1 Vi du. Giai bat phirong trinh
2
h~O 1R 1R logo,5 (4x + 11) < logo,5 (x + 6x + 8).
Vi du. Giai cac phirong trinh, bat phirong trinh sau :
b>O (log., b ; +00) (-00 ; log., b) a) (0,3fX-2 = 1 ;
Dang 2 : aX ~ b (a > 0 , a=/.1) b) log3(5x + 3) = 2 ;
T(ip nghiem ( 1 r'~2x~J = 7x+1 .
c) -
aX ~ b 7 ,
a>1 O<a<1
h~O 1R 1R d) 2.1 e - 17.4x + 8 = 0 ;
e) log , (x - 5) + log2 (x + 2) = 3 ;
h>O [log., b ; +00) (-00 ; log., h] f) _lg3 x + 2lg2 x = 2 - 19 x ;
x
Dang 3 : a' < b (a>O,a:;tl) -
g) 2x - 32 = 1 ;
Tap nghiem h) 2.\2+3.1-4 > 4x-1 ;
a" < b a>1 O<a<1 i) log2(x - 2) - 2> 61og1 ..j3x - 5
,
X
h~O 0 0
j) logs (x + 3) > log2 X
h>O (-00 ; log a b) (log , b ; +00) (HD : d~t t = log2 x). 48

CHUAN HUONG DAN THUC HI~N CHUAN
KIEN THOC - Ki NANG
KIEN THOC CO BAN D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y
Dang 4 : a" S b (a>O,a:.=l) Vi du. Gidi cdc h¢ phuong trinh :
Tap nghiem a) {3X + 3' ~ 5
aX S b x-y=2;
a>1 O<a<1 fOg" x - log, y _ =1
-- b)
bsO 0 0 4y + x -12 - o.
b>O (-00 ; log , b) [log., b ; +00) Vi du. Gidi cdc h¢ phuong trinh sau :
{X+y~1
a)
", Bat phuong trlnh Iogarit 2x - 2Y = 2;
Bdt phuang trinli logarit co bdn {,Ogx(3X + Sy) ~ 2
b)
Dang 1 : log , x > b (a>O,a:;t=l) logy(3y + 5x) = 2.
log , x > b a>1 O<a<1 Luu y :
Nghiem (ah ; +00) (0; ah) Bdt phuong trinh mil dan gidn :
* D~ giai cac bat phirong trinh mil, ta co th~ bien d6i

Dang 2 : log a x ~ b (a > 0, a :;t= 1) d~ dua v6 bat phirong trinh mil co ban hoac bat
phuong trinh dai so.
log., x ~ b a>1 O<a<1 Khi giai bat phirong trinh mil, co th~ ap dung tfnh
Nghiem [ah ; + 00) (0; ah) chat dong bien hoac nghich bien cua ham so mil :
Dang 3 : log , x < h (a > 0, a :;t= 1) + {a!(X) > ag(x) <c> {f(X) > g(x)
a>1 a>1
log a x < b a>1 O<a<1 + {a[(X) > ag(,) <c> {f(X) < g(x)
Nghiem (0; ah) (ah ; +00)
O<a<1 O<a<1 1-IIJ1IL.11lAH11

49

CHUAN

KI~N THliC - KI NANG

HUaNG DAN THVC HISN CHUAN

KI~N rauc CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

a>l

O<a<l

Nghiem

50

* Bat phuong trinh f ( aX) 2 0

each gidi .' Dat An phu t = a", dira bat phirong trinh ve he

{ t > 0

J(t) 2 O.

* Bat phirong trinh af( x) 2 b

co the giai bang plnrong phap lay logarit ca hai ve. Bdt phuong trinh logarit dan gian

* D~ giai cac bat phirong trinh logarit, ta co th~ bien d6i de dira ve bat phuong trinh logarit C<1 ban hoac bat phirong trinh dai so.

Khi giai bat plnrong trinh logarit, co th~ ap dung cac tinh chat dong bien hoac nghich bien cua ham so logarit

{IOgaf(X) > logag(x) {g(x) > 0

+ Q a>l

a>l f(x»g(x)

{IOgaf(x) > logag(x) {J(X) > 0

+ Q O<a<l

O<a<l f(x)<g(x)

* f [log, x) 2 0, trong do f la mot ham so nao do. Co the giai bang phirong phap : Dat t = log, x, giai bat phirong trinh f ( t) 2 0, sau do giai bat phuong trinh logarit wang img.

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

HUONG DAN THijC HI~N CHUAN

Luu y :

:_ Khong xet cac phirong trinh, bat phirong trinh chira tham so cung nhir cac phirong trinh, bat phirong trinh chua An dong thoi a eo so va so mii, hay chira An dong thai a eo so va bieu thirc diroi dau logarit (Vi du. Giai phirong trinh log, (x + 2).logx 2 = 1).

=Hoc sinh hoc theo chuang trinh nang cao con duac hoc phuong phap sa dung tfnh chat cua ham s{/ mii, logarit di gidi phuang trinh, bat phuong trinh mii, logarit ; gidi ml)t so h~ phuang trinh mii, logarit dun gidn.

III. NGUYEN HAM, TICH pRAN vA lING DUNG

1. Nguyen ham

Dinh nghia va cac tinh ch~t cua nguyen ham. Ki hieu ho cac nguyen ham cua mot ham so. Bang nguyen ham cua mot so ham so so cap. Phuong phap d6i bien so. Phuong phap tinh nguyen ham tirng phan,

Ve' hen thuc :

- Hi~u khai niem nguyen ham cua mot ham so.

- Bier cac tinh chat eo ban cua nguyen ham.

Ve' ki nang:

- Tim diroc nguyen ham cua mot so ham so nrong doi

Dinh nghia, Cho ham so f(x) xac dinh tren K (K la khoang, doan hay nira khoang). Ham so F(x) diroc goi la

nguyen ham cua ham so f(x) tren K neu F'(x) = t(x) voi moi x E K.

Dinh n

1) Neu F(x) la mot nguyen ham cua ham so fix) tren K thi voi moi hang so C, ham so Gtx) = F(x) + C cung la mot nguyen ham euaf(x) tren K.

2) Ngiroc lai, neu F(x) la mot nguyen ham cua ham so j(x) tren K thi moi nguyen ham cua f(x) tren K deu eo dang F(x) + C voi CIa mot hang so.

Ki hieu ho nguyen ham cua f( x) la f t (x)dx . Khi do

f t(x)dx = F(x) + C, C E R

Tinh chat

a) (f f(x)dx)' = f(x)

51

- Tim nguyen ham cua mot so ham so don gian bang each sir dung dinh nghia, tinh chat va bang nguyen ham eo ban.

- Tim nguyen ham cua mot so ham so thea each tfnh nguyen ham timg phan,

- Tim nguyen ham cua mot so ham so bang each sir dung phirong phap d6i bien so (khi da chi ro each d6i bien so va khong d6i bien so qua mot Ian).

Vi du. Tim f (e2x + 5)3e2xdx.

Vi du. Tim f xsin2x dx.

Vi du. Tim f.J 1 dx

3x + 1

(Huang dan : dat u = 3x + 1).

CHUAN

KI~N THliC - Kf NANG

don gian dua vao bang nguyen ham va each tfnh nguyen ham tirng phan,

- Sir dung diroc phirong phap d6i bien s6 (khi da chi r6 each d6i bien s6 va khong d6i bien s6 qua mot Ian) d~ tfnh nguyen ham.

KI~N THliC CO BAN

HUONG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

S., ton tai nguyen ham

MQi ham s6f(x) lien tuc tren K deu co nguyen ham tren K. Vi du. TIm cac nguyen ham sau :

Bang nguyen ham cua mc)t s6 ham s6 thuOng gap a) f (I + 2x)3 dx ;

f Odx = C b) f sin2 x.cosx.dx ;

f dx = x + C c) f (1 - ~ ). cos x.dx ;

va f J' ( x ) dx = t (x) + C.

b) fkf(x)dx = kft(x)dx (klahAngs6khacO).

c) f (J( x )±g(x ))dx = f t(x )dx ± f g(x )dx.

d) f f(t)dt = F(t) + C.

=> f f [ U (x) ] U' (x) dx = F [ U (x) ] + C.

a+l

fxadx = _x_ + C a + 1

f ~ dx = In Ixl + C

f eXdx = eX + C

(a "* -1)

f X aX

a dx=-+C Ina

(a > 0, a "* 1)

f cosxdx = sinx + C

52

Vi du. TIm f sin2 ~x.

Vi du . TIm nguyen ham F(x) cua cac ham s6 sau : a) f(x) = 3x2 - ~ + 4ex bie] rang F(O) = 1;

x

b) f(x) = sin2x.cos3x + 3tan2 x biet rang F(1t) = O.

f dx

e) 2 ;

x -4

f x + 1

f) dx .

x2 + 2x + 2 '

3

g) f x: 2 dx.

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HI~N CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

f sinxdx = -cosx + C

f_l_2-dx = tan x + C cos x

f+dx = -cotx + C Sill X

Ng\lyen ham ella ham hQ11 (vOi u = u(x))

f Odu = C

f du = u + C

a+l

fuadu = _u_ + C a + 1

f ~u = In lui + C

f eUdu = ell + C

fOil du = :::_ + C (0 > 0, 0 * 1) lnu

f cosudu = sinu + C

f sinudu = -cosu + C

f_l_2- du = tanu + C

cos u

(a * -1)

f + du = - cot u + C Sill U

53

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

Luu y : Phuong phap tim nguyen ham

a) Phuong phap dua ve' cac nguyen ham co ban:

- Bieu dien ham s6 f ( x) dum dang

f ( x) = aft ( x) + bh ( x ) + ...

trong do ta da bier nguyen ham cua cac ham so' ft (x), h ( x ) ... fa : Ft ( x ), F2 ( x ), ...

Khi do co:

F ( x) = aFt (x) + bF2 ( x) + ... + C.

b) Phuong phdp dbi bien so': Phuong phap nay dua vao :

Dinh Ii. Neu f t(t)dt = F(t) + C va t = u(x) la ham s6 co dao ham lien tuc, thl

f t(u(x)) u'(x)dx = F(u(x)) + C.

H¢ qua: Neu u(x) = ax + b (a ;to) thi

ft(ax+h)dx= ~F(OX+h)+C, (0 * 0).

c) Phuong phdp tim nguyen ham tung phdn : dira vao dinh If sau

Neu hai ham s6 u ( x) va v ( x) co dao ham lien tuc tren K thi

f u(x)v'(x)dx = u(x)v(x) - f u'(x)v(x)dx

hay viet gon la

f udv = uv -f vdu.

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

HUONG DAN THUC HI~N CHUAN

KI~N THOC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

2. Tich phan

Dien tich hinh thang congo Dinh nghia va cac tfnh chat cua tfch phan. Phuong phap tinh tich phan timg phan va phirong phap d6i bien so de tfnh tfch phan,

Ve' kiln thuc :

- Biet khai niem ve dien tfch . hinh thang congo

D~nh nghia

- Cho ham so f(x) lien tuc tren doan [a; h]. Gia sir F(x) la mot nguyen ham cua f (x) tren dOI;Ul [a; h]. Hieu so F (h) - F ( a) diroc goi la tfch phan tir a den b (hay tfch phan xac dinh tren doan [a; h]) cua ham so f (x) , kf hieu la

- Tfnh tfch phan cua mot so ham so wang doi dan gian dua vao dinh nghia hoac bang phtrong phap tinh tich phan timg phan.

- Ap dung phirong phap d6i bien so (khi da chi r6 each d6i bien so va khong d6i bien so qua mot Ian) de tfnh tfch phan,

2 2

V' d T' h J x - 2x d

I u. In 3 x.

1 x

b

J f(x)dx.

1t 2

Vi du. Tinh J sin2xsin 7x dx.

a

h b

- Biet dinh nghia tich phan V~y ta co J f(x)dx = F(b) - F(a) (hay F(x) ).

cua ham so lien tuc bang cong a a

tlnrc Niu-ton - Lai-bo-nit.

- Biet cac tinh chat cua tichphan,

Ve'k,nang:

- Tinh diroc tich phan cua mot so ham so nrong doi dan gian bang dinh nghia hoac phirong phap tfnh tich phan timg phan.

- Sir dung diroc phirong phap d6i bien so (khi da chi r6 each d6i bien so va khong d6i bien so qua mot Ian) de tinh

1t

2 1

vis T' h J 2 d

I u. In (x _ 2)(x + 3) X.

-1

2

Vi du. Tinh J rx;z dx 1

tHuang dcln : d~t u = x + 2). 1

Vi duo Tinh J 2x + 1 dx

. -1 ~x2 + x + 1

(Htamg dan: dijt u = x2 + x + 1).

- Khi a = b , ta quy uac

a

J f(x) dx = O.

a

- Khi a> b, ta quy uac

h a

J f(x)dx = -J f{x)dx.

a

b

Chu y : Tfch phan khong phu thuoc vao chit dung lam bien so trong dau tich phan, nrc la

b b

Jf(x)dx. hay Jf(t)dt .... deu bang F(h)-F(a).

1t

Vi du. Tlnh J (ecosx + x) sin xdx. o

a

a

54

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - KI NANG

HUONG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

Tinh chat

h h

a) f kf(x)dx = kf t(x)dx (k: hang so),

a

a

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

tfch phan,

h h h

b) f[f(x) ± g(x)}Jx = f f(x)dx ± f g(x)dx.

a

a

a

b c b

c) [t(X)dX = ft(x)dx+ ft(x)dx, a < c < h.

a

Mo rong :

b c1 ('2 b

f t(x) dx = f t(x) dx + f t(x)dx + ... + f t(x)dx

a

c

a a ~ ~

(trong do a < cl < c2 < ... < cn < h).

Phuong phap tinh tich phan

a) Phuong phdp db; bien so'

D inh li 1. Cho ham s6 f(x) lien tuc tren doan [a ; b]. Gia

sir ham 56 x = q1 (t) co dao ham lien tuc tren doan [a ; p] va

q1( a) = a, q1(p) = h. Hon ntra, a ::; (ti.,t) ::; b, vi E [a; P]' Khido

h P

f f(x)dx ~rriJ(t )rp'(t )dt.

a a

Dinh Ii 2. Cho ham s6f(x) lien tuc tren dOl;U1 [a ; b]. Neu

ham s6 u = u (x) co dao ham lien tuc tren doan [a; h],

a ::; u ( x) s p, V X E [a ; h] sao cho

t(x) = g(u(x))u'(x)

55

Vi du. Tfnh cac tfch phan sau :

1t

a) f sin ( : - x ) dx ;

o

2

b) f x( x - 1)2 dx ;

o

2

c) III - xldx ;

o

1t

I

d) I xsinx.dx ; o

e) 'r ~3x x+ 1 dx ; o e

o dx

f) I .

x2 - 3x + 2 ' -1

1t

g) I sinxcos3xdx. o

Vi du. Tfnh cac tfch phan sau : 1

a) I ex2 2x.dx ; o

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUONG DAN THUC HI eN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

3. Ung d\Jng hinh ~9C Dien tich hlnh phang

clIa tich phan - Neu hinh phang duoc gi6i han boi do thi cua ham so t ( x) lien tuc tren doan [a; h], true hoanh va hai dirong thang x = a, x = b, thi dien tfch S cua no diroc tfnh thea cong thirc

Ve' kien thuc :

Biet cac cong thtrc tfnh dien tfch hinh phang, the tfch vat the, tM tfch khdi trim xoay nho tfch phan.

trong do g ( u) lien tuc tren doan [a ; fJ] thi

b u(h)

J t(x)dx = J g(u )du.

a u(a)

Khi a > fJ thi ta xet doan [fJ; a].

b) Phuong phdp tinh tich phdn tung phdn

Dinh.li. Neu u(x) va v(x) la hai ham so co dao ham lien tuc tren doan [a; h] thi

h Ih h

f u(x)v'(x)dx = u(x)v(x) a - f u'(x)v(x)dx

a a

hay

b b b

f udv = uvl -f vdu.

a a a

b

S = flt(x)ldx.

a

56

1

b) f~ 1 - x2 .dx ; o

e

c) f x2lnx.dx ; 1

1

d) f x3 ~ dx (HD : d~t t = ~ ). o

Vi du. Tinh cdc tich phan sau : 1

a) f xe2x-1dx ; o

It 2

b) f xsin2 xdx ; o

1t 2

c) f eX sin x dx. o

- Tinh dien tich mot so hinh phang nho tfch phan.

- Tfnh the tfch mot so khoi nho tfch phan,

V i du. Tinh dien tfch hinh ph ling gioi han boi parabol co phuong trinh y = 2 - x2 , Y = 0 va duong thang y = -x. Vi du. Tfnh the tich vat the tron xoay do hlnh ph ling gi6i han boi true hoanh va parabol co phirong trinh

y =x(4 -x)

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

Ve' ki nang:

Tinh diroc dien tfch mot so hinh phang, th~ tich mot so khoi tron xoay nho tich phan,

HUONG DAN THUC HI~N CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

y

x

- Neu hinh phang duoc gioi han bffi do thi cua hai ham so y = j (x), y = g ( x) lien tuc tren doan [a; b] va hai dirong thang x = a, x = b, thl dien tich S cua no diroc tfnh theo cong thirc

h

S = flj(x) - g(x)ldx.

a

Th~ tich v~t th~

Gioi han vat th~ V bci hai mat phang song song, vuong goc voi true hoanh, dt true hoanh tai hai diem co hoanh do x = a ; x = b (a ::; b) va S(x) la dien tich thiet dien

57

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

quay quanh true hoanh,

Vi du. Tinh dien tich hinh phang gici han boi cac dirong :

a) x = -1 ; x = 3 ; y = 0; y = x4 + 2x2 + 3.

b) y = x2 - 2 ; y = - 3x + 2.

c) y = x2 - 12x + 36; y = 6x - x2.

Vi du. Tfnh th~ tfch khoi tron xoay do hinh phang gioi han boi cac dirong sau quay quanh true Ox :

a) y = - x2 + 1 ; y = O.

b) y = sin x . y = O· x = 0 . x = 1t

2' , , 4'

c) y = In x; y = 0; x = e.

CHuAN

KI~N THOC - KI NANG

HUaNG CAN THUC HIEN CHUAN

b

V = f S(x)dx

KI~N THOC CO BAN

C~NG ToAN. vi CU. LUU V

cua V vuong goc voi Ox tai x E [a ; h]. The tfch cua V diroc cho b6i cong thirc

a

(voi Six) la ham s6 khong am, lien tuc tren doan [a; h]).

Th~ tich khoi tron xoay

Cho hinh phang giro han b6i do thi cua ham s6 f ( x) lien '. tuc tren doan [a; h], true Ox va hai dirong thang x = a ; x = b quay quanh true Ox, ta diroc khoi tron xoay. The tfch cua kh6i nay diroc cho b6i cong thirc

b

V = 1tf f2(x) dx.

Luu y :

Cho hinh phdng giOi han hOi duimg cong x = g(y) vOi g ta ham so lien tuc tren doan [c ; d], true Oy va hai duimg thdng y = c ; y = d quay quanh true Oy, ta duac khoi tron xoay. Thi tich cua khoi nay dUflc cho hOi cong thuc

a

y

x

58

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HI~N CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vI DU. LUU Y

Luu y :

- Cac tfch phan cua ham/(x) tren doan [a; h] deu co chung mot gia thiet : Ham/(x) xac dinh va lien tuc tren doan [a ; h], dieu do dAn toi viec loai nhfrng bai tap cho tinh tich phan cua ham s6 hoac khong xac dinh a can tich phan hoac khong xac dinh a mot diem, doan, ... nao do trong doan lay tich phan.

- H (JC sinh hoc theo chuang trinh nang cao con duoc hoc each tinh thi tich khlJi tron xoay nhdn true tung tam true nho tich phan.

IV.SOPHUC

1. D~ng d~i so cua so ph(rc. BU~u diin hinh hQc cua so phirc. Cac phep

Soi

i Hi mot s6 rna P = -1

- Tim luy thira nguyen cua i.

- Thirc hien cac phep toan cong, trir, nhan va chi a hai

s6 phirc.

- Tim so phirc nghich dao cua z = a + hi.

- Tim s'6 plurc lien hop cua mot s6 phirc.

- Tim modun va acgumen cua mot so phirc.

- Tim bieu dien hlnh hQC cua mot tap s6 plnrc.

Vi du. Tinh :

Luy thira cua i tinh cQng, trLt, nhan, chia

so ph(rc

- Bier each bieu dien hinh

- MQt bieu thirc dang a + hi, trong do a, b Ia cac s6

hoc cua s6 phirc, mod un cua

s6 phirc, s6 phiic lien hop. thirc, i2 = -1 diroc goi la mot s()' phuc. Khi do a goi la

V l kien thia: :

- Biet dang dai s6 cua so plnrc.

Vlklniing:

- Thirc hien diroc cac phep tinh cong, trir, nhan, chia s6 plnrc,

T ' ·0 1.1 ··2 1.3 ··4 1

a co : I = , 1 = I , I = - , I =; -I , 1 = .

M? A ·4k 1 .. 4k+1 . ·4k+2 '.2 1

(J rQng : I =, I = 1 , 1 = 1 = - ,

·4k+3 ·3 .

I = I = -I .

So phuc

a) 5 + 2i - 3(-7 + 6i) ; b)(2-J3i)(~ +J3i);

phdn thuc, b goi la phdn do cua so phirc. SO phuc a + hi

diroc goi la so phtrc dang dai s6. c) (1 + J2 i)2 ;

- Neu b = 0 thi khi do a + Oi la mot s6 thirc. d) 2 -15i

- Neu a = 0 va b "* 0 till khi do 0 + hi la mot s6 thuan ao. 3 + 2i .

59

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

HUONG DAN THUC HI~N CHUAN

KI~N THOC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

b) 4; - (-7 + 3;) ; Trenmat phang toa dQ, moi diem M(a ; b) bieu dien mot

86 plnrc z = a + bi. c) (2 - 3i)(5 + 7i) ;

Hai s6 phirc bang nhau

Hai 86 plnrc la bang nhau khi va chi khi phan thirc bang nhau va phan ao bang nhau

{a = c

a + hi = c + di ~

b = d.

Bi~u di~n hinh hoc s6 phtrc

Vi du. Tim phan thuc, phan ao, modun va 86 phirc lien hop cua rnoi s6 phirc sau :

a) Z = 3 + Zi ;

b) Z = -4 + 2i.

Vi du. Thirc hien phep tfnh a) (2 - 3i) + (-4 + i) ;

d) .l:!_ .

1 .,

- 1

Modun cua s6 phtrc

Modun cua s6 plurc z = x + yi (kf hieu Izl) bang khoang e) (3i + 1)3. each til g6c toa dQ den diem M ( x ; y) ; hay Ul bang dQ

____,

dai cua vecto OM. Neu khoang each nay Ia r thl :

r = IOM'I = I z I = I x + yi 1= J x2 + i.

S6 phtrc lien hep

S6 phtic lien hop cua z = a + bi Ia Z = a - bi. Tfch cua cluing la s6 thirc : z. ~ = a2 + b2 '= 1~12 = Izl2 .

Chu y : zi . z2 = zi . z2'

Cac phep toan voi hai so phirc C:J dang dai s6

V6'i hai s6 phiic zi = al + qi, z2 = a2 + ~i, ta co cac phep toan sau :

Vi du. Cho z = a - 2i , z ' = 4 + bi (a, b E JR). Tim dUu kien clla a, b dl tich z.z' la so thuc, la so thudn do.

60

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

KI~N THOC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU V

2. Giai phU'dng trinh b~c hai Vdi h~ so thuc, Can b;1c hai cua S(J ph lit. Giai phU'dng trinh b~c hai vdi h~ so phirc.

Phep cong

Phep trir

Phep nhan

zl·z2 = (ala2 - h1h2) + (a1h2 + a2hdi.

(Thirc hien phep nhan hai s6 plnrc nrong ur nhu nhan hai nhi thirc va thay P = -1 ).

Phep chia

a + hi (a + hi)(c - di)

Can bac hai cua s6 plnrc

- Cho sri phuc w. ust so phuc z thod man i = w duoc goi fa ml)t din btu: hai clla w.

- Neu so phuc (x + yi) fa can bac hai ella so phuc z = a + bi thi x va y fa nghiem ella h¢

{x2 _ y2 = a 2xy = b.

61

- Tim can bac hai cua s6 thuc am, can bac hai ella sophitc.

- Giai phirong trinh bac hai va quy v~ bac hai voi he s6 thirc va co nghiem phirc.

- Gidi phuong trinh bac hai vot h¢ so phuc az2 + bz + e = O.

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUONG DAN THVC HleN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vI DU. LUU Y

Vi kiln thuc :

- SO thirc a < 0 co cac can bac hai la ±i M.

- Bier khai niem can bac hai

cua so plurc.

_ Biet each gidi phtrong trinh Phuong trinh bac hai v6i h~ so thuc bac hai voi he so thirc va co

nghiem phirc. Phu<1I1g trinh bac hai

- Biel cong thuc tinh nghiem ella phuong trinh btJe hai vot h¢ sophue.

Ve'kinang:

- Bier each tinh can bac hai cua so phirc.

Biet tim nghiern phirc cua phirong trinh bac hai vm h~ so thirc (neu ~ < 0).

- Gidi duoc phuong trinh btJe hai vOi h¢ so phuc.

2

ax + hx + c = 0

voi a: b,c E lR ; a * 0 ; II = h2 - 4ac co nghiem nhu sau :

Vi du. Tinh din btJe hai ella cdc so'phue sau

3 + 4i; 5 -12i.

Vi du. Giai cac phirong trinh sau (tren tap so phirc) :

a) x2 + x + 1 = 0 ;

b) x2 - 3x + 4 - 6i = 0 ; e) 2x2 + ix -4 -2i = O.

Vi du. Tun can bac hai cua cac so sau (tren tap so phirc)

.. - Neu II = 0 thi phirong trinh co mot nghiem kep a) - 4 ; b) - 11.

h

x =--

2a'

- Neu II > 0 thi phuong trinh co hai nghiem thirc

-h ± .J:i

xl,2 =--- 2a

- Neu ~ < 0 thi phirong trinh co hai nghiem plnrc

-h±i~

x12 =

, 2a

62

Vi du. Tim din bac hai ella eae so' phuc sau

a) z = -7 + 24i ;

b) z = 1- i.Ji

Vi du. Giai cac plnrong trinh (tren tap so phirc) :

a) 3x2 - x + 2 = 0 ;

b) 3x2.J2 - 2x.J3 + .J2 = o.

Vi du. Gidi cdc phuang trinh sau (tren tap so phuc)

a) x2 - (3 - i)x + 4 - 3i = 0 ;

b) 3ix2 - 2x - 4 + i = 0 ; e) x4 - 2x2 - 3 = O.

CHUAN

KI~N THliC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HIEN CHUAN

KI~N THliC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

Vid~.Chophuongtrlnh:

x2 - 3x + 5 = O.

GQi z, Z' la nghiem cua plurong trinh tren. Hay tinh gia tri cua cac bieu tlnrc sau

a) z + z ' ;

b) 2, ,2

z z + zz .

Vi du. Phdn ticb thimh nhdn tii bilu thuc sau

A = a4 + 4b2.

3. D~ng lut;mg giBe eua Acgumen cua mot s6 plnrc ;

so phl1t va ling dlJng. . Aegumen ella so phuc Z = x + yi la stY do ella goc luang giac tia ddu Ox, tia cuoi OM, voi M = (x ; y) va 0 fa goc toa dt). Ne'u aegumen ella z fa a thi:

- Bilu dien duoc so phuc tu dang dai so thanh. dang ltamg giac va nguoc lai.

- Thuc hien nhdn, ehia va can btj,e hai cac so phite dum dang luang giac.

-Ap dung cong thtic Moa-vra.

Vi du. Viel so 1 + i dum dang luang giac roi tinh (1 + i)15.

Ve' kien thuc :

- Biel dang luang giac ella so phuc.

. y x y

sma = -, cosa = -, tana = -.

r r X

- Biet cong thuc Moa-vra va

ung dung, Dang IUQ11g giac cua s6 phirc :

So phuc z = x + yi co dang luang giac la

vs n nang:

z = r ( cos a + i sin a)

Vi du. Hay tim dang luang gidc ella so' phuc z, z,- z, .!., trong do: z = 1 - iJ3.

z

- Bie: each nhdn, ehia cdc so phuc dum dang luang gidc. trong do r la modun ella z va a fa aegumen ella z,

- Bie: each bieu dien cos3a, Nhan va chia s6 phtrc 0 dang IUQ11g giac :

( . )10

Vi du . Tinh 1 ~ i .

sin4a, ... qua cosa va sina.

Neu zl=rl(cosal+isinad va z2=r2(cosa2+isina2) la hai so phuc if dang luong gidc thi :

zl Z2 = r1 r2 [ cos (al + a2) + i sin (al + a2) J.

Vi du. Bilu dien cos4x theo sin x, cos x.

63

CHUAN

KIEN THOC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THVC HISN CHUAN

KIEN THOC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

Can bac hai cua so phtrc a dang IU(_1Ilg giac :

Can btJ-c hai cua so phuc z = r (cos a + i sin a) fa

r( a .. a)

",r cos2 + lsm2

va Fr( cos ( ~ +It) + iSin( ~ +It) J-

Cong thtrc Moa-vro :

Ne'u z = r ( cos a + i sin a) fa mi)t srI phuc if dang luang giac va n fa mot so nguyen duong thi

z" = rn(cosna + iSinna).

Luu y :

.

- Hoc sinh hoc theo chuong trinh nang cao con duoc hoc kiln thuc ki nang lien quan : can brJ_c hai cua so phuc ; cong thuc tinh nghiem

clla phuang trinh bac hai voi h~ so phuc ; acgumen va dang luang gidc cua so phuc ; cong thuc Moa-vra va tmg dung ; bi!u diin duoc so' phuc tit dang dai so sang dang luang giac va nguoc lai ; each. nhdn, chia cdc so' phuc duoi dang luang giac ; tinh can bac hai cua so' phuc ; gidi phuang trinh btJ-c hai vOi h~ sophuc ; bi!u diin cos3a, sin4a, ... qua cosa va sina.

64

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

KI~N THUC CO BAN

HUONG DAN THVC HI~N CHUAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

- Moi canh cua mot mien da giac la canh chung cua dung hai mien da giac.

- Biet khai niem khoi lang

tru, khoi chop, khoi chop cut, khoi da dien.

1. Khai ni~m va khoi da di~n. Khoi lang tru, khoi chop. Phan chia va I~p ghep cac khoi da di~n.

Ve' kienthuc :

- Biet phep doi ximg qua mat phAng va s~ b~ng nhau cua hai khoi da dien.

5A-HDnl_ . .TD!Nll

Hinh da dien la hlnh diroc tao thanh tit mot so hiru han - Chirng minh tinh chat lien quan den so dinh, canh,

cac mien da giac thoa man hai tfch chat : mat cua mot khoi da dien,

- Hai mien da giac bat ki hoac khong co diem chung - Chung minh hai da dien bang nhau.

hoac co mot dinh chung, hoac co mot canh chung.

.: Nhfrng diem khong thuoc khoi da dien diroc goi la b) Chi ra each chia hlnh hop do thanh cac hinh chop. diem ngoai cua khoi da dien.

- Nhirng diem thuoc khoi da dien nhung khong thuoc hinh da dien nrong irng v6i khoi da dien ay goi la diem trong cua khoi da dien,

Moi mien da giac nhu tren diroc goi la mot mat cua da dien, Cac dinh, cac canh cua cac mien da giac ay thea thir ur cling diroc goi la dinh, canh cua da dien.

MQt da dien chia khong gian thanh hai phan, mot phan co the chua tron mot dirong thang con phan kia thi khong, Phan co the chua tron mot dirong thang diroc goi la mien ngoai, con phan kia goi la mien trong cua da dien do.

Kho] da dien la phan khong gian do mot hinh da dien gioi han cung v6i mien trong cua no (k~ ca hlnh da dien do).

65

- Phan chia, Hip ghep cac khoi da dien, Biet phan chi a mot khoi chop, khoi lang tru thanh mot so khoi tu dien cho tnroc.

vt a«

Hay phan chi a mot khoi tu dien thanh bon khoi nr dien bOi hai mat phang.

Vid~

Hay pluin chia kho; h(Jp thani: 6 kho; tit d;¢n ma cac dinh cua cac khoi tit dien trung v6i dlnh cua kho; hop. (HD : Chia khol h(Jp hOi mat m(lt cheo thanh. hai lang tru tam giac).

Vi du. Cho hinh hQpABCD.A'B'C'D'

a) Chi ra each chi a hinh hop do thanh 2 lang tru ; 4 lang tru,

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUONG DAN THVC HIEN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

2. Gidi thleu khoi da dien

. .

deu.

Gi6i thieu phep vi tu va su dong dang cua hai khiJi da dien deu cung loai.

Ve' hen thuc :

- Biet khai niem khoi da dien deu,

- Biel 5 loai khoi da dien deu.

- Bitt ttnb doi xung qua mat

phdng cua khoi tit dien deu, lxu dien diu. va hinh IIJp phuong.

- Tap hop cac diem trong chfnh Hi mien trong cua khoi da dien.

- Tap hop cac diem ngoai chfnh Iii mien ngoai cua khoi da dien.

M6i khoi da dien diroc hoan toan xac dinh thea hlnh da dien wong img vci no vii dao lai.

Phan chia va hip ghep cac kh6i da dien : Neu mot khoi da dien (H) Iii hop cua hai khoi da dien (HI)' (H 2) sao cho (HI) vii (H 2) khong co diem trong nao chung, thi ta noi co th~ chia diroc khoi da dien (H) thanh hai khoi da

dien (HI) vii (H 2)' hay co th~ HIp ghep diroc hai khoi (HI) vii (H2) voi nhau d~ diroc khoi da dien (H).

Kh6i da dien loi : Khoi da dien (H) diroc goi Iii khot da dien lai neu doan thang noi hai diem bar kl cua (H) luon luon thuoc (H). Khi do, hinh da dien (H) diroc goi Iii

goc, dQ dai ... cua khoi da

- Tfnh cac yeu t6 dien deu,

- Cluing minh tfnh chat cua khoi da dien deu.

hinh da di¢n ldi.

- Cluing minh mot khoi da dien Iii khoi da dien deu, MQt khoi da dien Iii 16i khi vii chi khi mien trong cua no

luon narn ve mot phfa d6i voi m6i mat phang chua mot Luu j :

mat cia no.

Kh6i da dien dell : MQt khoi da dien 16i diroc goi Iii khoi da dien de'u loai {p ,- q} neu :

- M6i mat cua no Iii mot da giac deu p canh ;

- M6i dinh cua no Iii dinh chung cua dung q mat.

Dinh Ii Co nam loai kh6i da dien deu, Do Iii

. . . '"

cac khoi da dien deu : loai {3 ; 3}, loai {4 ; 3}, loai

{3 ; 4}, loai {5 ; 3 }, loai {3 ; 5}.

Tuy thea s6 mat cua cluing, nam loai khoi da dien deu k~ tren thea thu W diroc goi Iii khoi tu dien deu,

66

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUONG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

_ Biet phep vi tu trong Khoi da dien deu eo cac mat la nhtrng da giac deu va khoi i~p phuong, khoi bat dien deu, khoi rmroi hai

khong gian. bang nhau. mat deu va khoi hai rmroi mat deu,

5B-l1J11l.1IWI1!

67

D~NG ToAN. vI DU. LUU Y

Vi du Cho mot khoi tu dien deu, hay cluing minh rang:

a) Cac trong tam cua cac mat cua no ia cac dinh cua mot khoi tu dien deu,

b) Cac trung diem cua cac canh cua no la cac dinh cua mot kh6i bat dien deu.

Vi du : Hai dinh cua mot khOl bat dien diu cho truce goi ta hai dinh doi dien neu cluing khong cung thuoc mot canb cua khoi do. Doan thdng noi hai diirh doi dien duac goi ta duong cheo cua khoi bat dien diu. Chung minh rdng trong khoi bat dien diu:

a) Ba dUOng cheo cOt nhau tai trung diem coo "wi duong.

b) Ba duang cheo doi mot vuong goc vOi nhau.

c) Ba duimg cheo bang nhau. vt a«

Cho tu dien ABCD, goi G, M, N, P, Q ldn luot ta trong tam cua tu dien va trong tam cua cdc tam giac BCD, ACD, ABD, ABC. Chung minh rang phep vi tu tam G ti so' vi tu k = -3 bien tu dien MNPQ thann tu dien ABCD.

CHUAN

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KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vI DU. LUU Y

3. Khai niem va thi tich

• ?

khoi da di~n. The tich

khoi hQp chft nh~t. Cong thlic tinh thi tich khoi lang trl;l va khoi chop.

- Th~ tfch cua khoi hop chir nhat bang tfch ba kfch tluroc - Tinh th~ tfch khoi hop chtr nhat, khoi lang tru va

cua n6. khoi chop.

V=abe.

- The tfch khoi ch6p c6 dien tfch day B va chien cao h la 1

V= "3B.h.

- Dung phuong phap th~ tfch d~ giai toan hinh hQC.

- Tim ti so th~ tfch cua hai khoi da dien.

Vi du

Ve' kien thuc :

- Bier khai niem v~ th~ tich khoi da dien,

- Biet cong thirc tfnh tM tfch cua khoi lang tru va khoi ch6p.

- Th~ tfch khoi lang tru c6 dien tfch day B va chieu Cho hinh ch6p ttl giac deu SABCD cd canh day bang a,

cao h la g6c SAC bang 45°. Tfnh th~ tfch khoi ch6p S.ABCD.

V=B.h

Vi du

Cho khoi hop MNPQ.M'N'P'Q' c6 th~ tfch V. Tfnh tM tich cua khoi tu dien P'MNP theo V.

Vi du. Tren canh PQ cua tu dien MNPQ lay diem I

sao cho PI = .!.. PQ. Cho biet ti so th~ tfch cua hai

3

khoi tu dien MNIQ va MNIP.

Vidlf

Cho lang tru ABC.A 'B'C' co canb ben AA' tao voi mij,t day goc 60°, BC = a va hinh chop A.A 'B'C' La hinh chop de'u. Tinb thi tich khoi lang tru thea a.

Luu y :

- Ti so th~ tfch cua hai khoi da dien dong dang bang lap phirong ti so dong dang.

Ve' ki nang:

Tfnh duoc th~ tfch cua khoi lang tru va khoi ch6p.

68

Luu y :

- Viec tinh the tfch cac kh6i da dien gan v6'i viec phan chia va lap ghep cac kh6i da dien de tinh diroc the tich cac kh6i da dien co hlnh phirc tap,

-HfJc sinh hoc theo chuang trinh. nang cao con duoc hoc vi': Phep doi xung qua mijt phdng va su bdng nhau cua hai khoi da di~n ; them

cdc khol da di~n deu lQ thfjp nhi dien deu va nhi thfjp dien deu. Tinh dOl xting qua mijt phdng cua khoi tu dien deu, bat dien de'u va hinh lap phuang. Phep vi tl! trong k~ong gian.

VI. M!T,cAu, M!T TRl), M!T NON

- Chirng minh nhieu diem nam tren mot mat cau.

- Neu OM < r thi ta noi rang diem M nam trong mat cau

- Tinh dien tich mat cau, the tfch kh6i cau.

Cong thirc tinh dien tich mat S(O; r). . .

a' hA' h khoi , - Mat cau ngoa i tiep hinh chop, hinh lang tru.

c u, t ~ tic I cau. - Neu OM> r thl ta noi rang diem M nam ngoai mat cau

S( 0 ; r). - Tim tarn va tfnh ban kinh hinh cau ngoai tiep tu dien, hlnh cau ngoai tiep hinh chop.

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

1. M~t C3U

Giao cua mat cau va mat phang, M~t phang kinh, dirong tron Ian. Mat phang tiep xuc voi mat cau.

Giao cua m~t cau voi dinmg thiing.

Tiep tuyen cua mat cau,

HUONG DAN THUC HISN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vI DU. LUU Y

- Cho kh6i chop SABC. Tren cac dtrong thang SA, SB, SC Ian hrot lay ba diem A', B', C' khac S. Khi do

VS,A'B'C' _ SA' SB' SC'

VS.ABC - SA . SB . SC .

M~t can : Tap hQ'P tat ca nhiing diem M trong khong gian each mot di~m 0 c6 dinh mot khoang bang r khong d6i diroc goi la mat cau tam 0 ban kinh r va thirong diroc ki hieu la mat cau S( 0 ; r).

Cho mat cau S(O; r) va diem M tuy y trong khong gian:

- Xac dinh tam va ban kinh cua mat cau theo dieu kien cho tnroc,

- Xac dinh vi trf tU<1I1g d6i giua mat cau va mat phang.

- Xac dinh vi tri tU<1I1g d6i gifra mat cau va dirong thang,

- Neu OM = r thi ta noi di~m M nam tren mat cau S(O ; r).

69

CHUAN

KI~N THlrC - Ki NANG

Ve' kien thuc :

- Hieu cac khai niem mat cau, mat phang kinh, dirong tron 1611, mat phang tiep xiic v6i mat cau, tiep tuyen cua

mat cau.

KI~N THlrC CO BAN

HUONG DAN THVC HleN CHUAN

Giao cua mat C3U va mat phang

Cho mat cau S(O ; r) va mat phang (P). GQi d(O, (P» = h la khoang each tir tarn 0 cua mat cau toi mat phang (P).

Ta co cac tnrong hop :

_ Biet cong thirc tfnh dien - Neu h > r thi mat phang (P) khong cat mat cau.

tich mat cau, th~ tich khoi - Neu h = r thl mat phang (P) tiep xuc mat cau

cau. diem H. Ta co OH .L (P).

Ve' ki nang :

Tinh diroc dien tfch mat cau, tron co ban kfnh r' = ~r2 - h2 . th~ tfch khor cau.

'. - Neu h < r thi mat phang (P) cat mat cau theo dtrong

- Dac biet khi h = 0 thi mat phang (P) cat mat cau theo

mot dirong tron 1611 co ban kfnh r' = r.

Giao cua mat C3U v6i duong thang, Tiep tuyen cua mat c3U

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. lUU Y

Vi du. Cho hinh chop deu SABCD co canh day bang a, goc SAC bang 60°. Xac dinh tam va tfnh ban kinh mat cau di qua cac dinh cua hinh chop S.ABCD.

Vi du. Cho hinh lang tru tam giac deu co tat cit cac canh deu bang a. Tfnh dien tich cua mat cau di qua 6

dinh cua hinh lang tru.

Vi du. Cho tu dien SABC co SA j_ (ABC), MBC tai can, (SAB) .L (SBC) va SA = AB = a. Tinb dien ticb

m(Jt cdu ngoai tiip uc dien.

Vi du. MQt mat cau ban kinh R di qua 8 dinh cua hinh lap phirong ABCDA'B'C'D'.

a) Tfnh canh cua hinh lap phuong do theo R.

b) M(Jt jJhdng kinh chua canb AB cdt hinh ltJ-p phuang theo mt)t thitt dien. Tinh di~n tich cua thilt dien tao thanh.

Cho m~t cau S( 0 ; r) va duong thang ~. Ta eo cac tnrong hop : Luu j :

- Tnrong hop ~ di qua tarn 0 cua mat cau thi ~ cat mat cau rai hai diem A, B v6i AB = 2r.

- Truong hop ~ khong di qua tam 0 cua mat cau, ta goi d Ia khoang each tir tarn 0 den dirong thang ~, khi do :

+ Neu d < r thi dirong thang ~ cat mat cau tai hai diemM, N.

70

- Qua mot diem A bat ki tren mat cau S( 0 ; r) co v6 so tiep tuyen v6i mat cdu do. Tat cit cac tiep tuyen nay deu vuong goc v6i ban kinh OA cua mat cau va deu nam trong mat phang tiep xuc v6i mat cau S(O; r) tai A. M~t phang tiep xuc nay vuong goc voi dirong thang OA tai A.

- Qua mot diem M nam ngoai mat cau S( 0 ; r) eo v6 s6 tiep tuyen v6i mat cau dff eho. Khi do dQ dai cac

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUONG DAN THVC HIEN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

doan thang n6i diem M voi cac tiep diem deu bang nhau. Tat ca cac doan thang nay tao nen mot mat non tron xoay co dinh la M va co dirong tron day nam tren mat cau.

+ Neu d = r thi dirong thang ~ tiep xiic voi mat cau tai mot diem H. (H goi la tiep diem va dirong thang ~ diroc goi la tiep tuyen).

+ Neu d > r thi dirong th~g ~ khong cat mat cau. Dien tich mat can va th~ tich khoi can

- Goi S la dien tfch mat cau ban kinh r, ta co:

S = 41tr2.

Th.:' fch V ' kh ... · , ba kf h r V 4 3

- e tic cua OI diu an In r a: = 3'1t,. .

Chu y : Dien tich dirong tron 1611 cua mat cau ban kinh r la s = rt ,.2 nen S = 4s.

2. Khai ni~m ve m~t tren xoay

M~t trim xoay

Trong khong gian cho mat phang (P) chua mot dirong thang ~ va mot duong ~. Khi quay mat phang (P) xung quanh ~ goc 3600 thi tap hop cac diem cua dirong ~ tao nen mot mat tron xoay nhan ~ lam tI1,1c. Duong ~ sinh ra mat tron xoay nen goi la duang sinh cua mat tron xoay do.

Tfnh chat cua mat trim xoay

- Neu cat mat tron xoay bOi mot mat phang vuong goc voi tI1,1c ~, ta diroc giao tuyen la mot dirong tron co tam tren ~.

- M6i diem M tren mat tron xoay deu nam tren mot dirong tron thuoc mat tron xoay va dtrong tron nay co tam thuoc tI1,1C tron xoay ~.

Ve' kien thuc :

Biet khai niem mat tron xoay.

71

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

KI~N THOC CO BAN

HUaNG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

3. M~t non. Giao ella m~t Dinh nghIa. Trong mat phang (P) cho hai dirong thang ~ - Cluing minh mot dirong thang thuoc mot mat non non vOi m~t phing. Di~n va d cat nhau tai diem 0 tao thanh g6c a (voi 0° < a < 90°). tron xoay.

?

tieh xung quanh eua Mat tron xoay sinh ra bOi dirong thang d khi quay mat +Tim thiet dien cua mot mat phang voi khoi non.

hinh non. •

phang (P) xung quanh true ~ goc 360° goi la mdt n6n - Tfnh dien tfch xung quanh va the tfch cua khoi non.

Ve' kien thuc :

Biet khai niem mat non va cong thirc tfnh dien tfch xung quanh cua hlnh non.

Ve' ki nang:

Tinh diroc dien tich xung quanh cua hlnh non.

trim xoay dlnh 0 co goc cr dinh bang 2a. Ngiroi ta tlurong goi tat mat non tron xoay la mat non. Dtrong thang ~ goi la true cua mat non, duong thang d goi la duang sinh cua mat non do.

72

Vi du. Cho mot mat phang (P) va duong thang d di qua mot diem co dinh va tao voi (P) mQI goc a (voi 0° < a < 90°) khong ddi. Chimg minh rang d luon thuoc mot mat non co dinh.

Vi du. Cho khoi non co chien cao la 12, ban kfnh day la 5. MQt mat phang di qua dinh cua khoi non va hai

dirong sinh cat day theo day cung co dQ dai 13 J2 . Cho biet dQ dai cac canh va dien tfch thiet dien tao thanh.

Vi du. Cho mot hlnh non co dirong cao bang 12cm, ban kfnh day bang 16cm. Tfnh dien tfch xung quanh cua hlnh non do.

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - KI NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HI eN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU 'if

Tinh chat

a) Neu cat mat non tron xoay dinh 0 boi mat phang di qua dinh 0, ta co cac tnrong hQP sau day:

- Mat phang cat mat non theo hai dirong sinh.

- Mat phang tiep xuc vci mat non theo mot dirong sinh.

Trong tnrong hQP nay ngiroi ta goi mat phang do la tiep dien cua mat non.

. - M~t phang chi co mot diem 0 chung duy nhat vci mat non, ngoai ra khong co mot diem chung nao khac,

b) Neu cat mat non tron xoay dinh 0 boi mat phang (P) khong di qua dinh 0, ta co cac tnrong hQP sau day:

- Neu mat phang (P) cat moi dirong sinh cua mat non, ta diroc giao tuyen la mot duong elip hoac la mot dirong tron (neu mat phang (P) vuong goc voi true L\ cua mat non).

- Neu mat phang (P) song song voi chi mot dirong sinh cua mat non, ta duoc giao tuyen la mot dUOng parabol.

- Neu mat phang (P) song song v& hai dirong sinh cua mat non, ta diroc giao tuyen la hai nhanh cua mot dirong hypebol.

Hlnh non trim xoay va kh6i non trim xoay

Cho tam giac OIM vuong tai I. Khi quay tam giac do xung quanh canh goc vuong 01 thi dirong gap khuc OMI tao thanh mot hlnh goi la hinh non trim xoay (hay hlnh non). Hinh tron tam I ban kinh 1M goi la mdt day, diem

Vi du. Cho hinh chop ill giac deu S.ABCD co canh day bang a, goc SAB bang 30°. Tfnh dien tich xung quanh va the tfch cua hinh non dinh 0, day la dirong tron ngoai tiep ttl' giac ABCD.

Vi du. Cat mf)t hinh non bUi mijt phdng di qua true cua no, ta duoc thilt dien ta tam giac co mf)t goc

bang 120° va duong cao thuoc goc do co df) dai bang a. Tinh dien tich xung quanh cua hinh non do.

73

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

KI~N THOC CO BAN

HUaNG DAN THUC HIEN CHUAN

D~NG ToAN. vI DU. LUU Y

4. M~t tru, Giao cua m~t trl;l vdi m~t phing. Di~n

?

tich xung quanh cua

hinh tru,

Vi' kiln thuc :

Bier khai niern mat tru , kh6i tru va cong thirc tinh dien tfch

o goi Ia dlnh, d¢ dai 01 goi la chieu cao va d¢ dai OM goi la duang sinh cua hinh non do.

Khol non tron xoay (hay khol n6n) la phan khong gian diroc gioi han bCri mot hinh non tron xoay k~ ca hlnh non do.

Dien tich xung quanh ella hlnh non

GQi Sxq la dien tfch xung quanhcua hlnh non co ban kinh dirong tron day bang r va co d¢ dai dirong sinh bang I, ta

co cong thirc : Sxq = ttrl.

Dien tich toan phan cua hlnh non bang dien tfch xung quanh cua hlnh non cong them dien tfch day cua hlnh non.

Th~ tich khoi non

GQi V la th~ tich cua kh6i non tron xoay co chien cao h

va dien tich day la B. Ta co cong thirc V = ~ Bh . Neu ban

kinh day bang r ta co V = ~1t1.2h.

Dinh nghia. Trong mat phang (P) cho hai duong th~ng ~ va 1 song song voi nhau, each nhau mot khoang bang r.

Khi quay mat phang (P) xung quanh true ~ goc 3600 thl dirong thang 1 sinh ra mdt tru tron xoay va diroc goi tat la mat tru. Duong thang ~ goi la true cua mat tru va dirong thang 1 goi la duang sinh cua mat tru do.

74

- Chung minh mot dirong thang thuoc mot mat tru tron xoay.

- Tim thiet dien cua mot mat phang voi kh6i tru.

- Tinh dien tfch xung quanh va th~ tich cua kh6i tru,

Vi du. Cho mat phang (P) va mot dirong tron tam 0 tren do. Diem M di dong tren (0). Duong thang d di

CHUAN

KI~N THlIC - Ki NANG

KI~N THlIC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

qua M va vuong g6c voi mat phang (P). Chung minh rang duong thang d luon thuoc mot mat tru c6 dinh.

xung quanh cua hinh tru, cong thirc tinh th~ tich cua khoi tru.

Bier thiet dien cua mot mat phang voi hlnh tru, khoi tru.

R

"VI /

M I I I I I I

--"t--_

" I .... ,

...

"k,/: / I T

Vi du. Mot khoi tru c6 chieu cao bang 12 va ban kfnh day bang 5. Mot mat phang song song voi true va each true mot khoang la 3 cat kh6i tru theo thiet dien la hinh gi ? Cho biet dien tfch cua thiet dien d6.

Ve' ki nang:

Tinh duoc dien tfch xung quanh cua hinh tru, th~ tfch cua khoi tru,

Vi du. Mot mat phang di qua true cua mot khoi tru cat khoi d6 theo mot hlnh vuong canh a. Tfnh theo a dien tich xung quanh va th~ tfch cua kh6i tru d6.

2r

Tanh chat

a) Neu cat mat tru tron xoay b&i mat phang (P) vuong Vi du. Cho hinh tru co ban kinh R va duong cao g6c voi true L\ thi ta diroc mot dirong tron e6 tam tren L\ 2R, so sdnh. dien tich xung quanh cua hinh tru va va c6 ban kinh bang r. Nguai ta cling goi ria ban kinh dien tich mijt can co cung ban kinh.

cua mat tru do.

b) Neu cat mat tru tron xoay bci mot mat phang (a) khong vuong g6c voi true L\ nhirng cat t~t ca cac dirong sinh, ta diroc giao tuyen la dirong elip.

c) Neu M la mot diem bat ki nam tren mat tru tron xoay c6 true la L\ va c6 ban kinh r thl dirong thang I' di qua M va song song v6i L\ se nam tren mat tru d6 va nhu vay, I' la mot dirong sinh cua mat tru da cho.

d) Mot mat phang (a) song song voi true L\ cua mat tru tron xoay va each L\ mot khoang bang h. Neu h < r thi (a) cat mat tru theo hai dirong sinh, neu h = r thl mat phang

75

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HI~N CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

(a) tiep xuc voi mat tru thea mot dirong sinh, con neu h > r thi mat phang (a) khong cat mat tru.

Hinh tru trim xoay va khoi tru trim xoay

Ta hay xet hinh chir nhat ABCD. Khi quay hinh do xung quanh dirong thang chua mot canh goc 360°, vi du canh AB, thi dirong gap khuc ADCB tao thanh mot hinh goi la hinh tru tron xoay (hay hlnh tru).

Khi 'quay quanh AB, hai canh AD va BC se vach ra hai hinh tron bang nhau goi la hai day cua hlnh tru, con canh CD la duong sinh vach ra mdt xung quanh cua hinh tru. Khoang each AB gifra hai mat phang song song chua hai day la chien cao cua hinh tru,

Kh61 tru tron xoay la phan khong gian diroc gioi han boi mot hinh tru tron xoay k~ cii hinh tru do. Khoi tru tron xoay con duoc goi tilt la khot tru. Ta goi mdt day, chieu cao, duang sinh cua mot hinh tru thea thir nr la mat day, chieu cao, duong sinh cua khoi tru nrong img.

Dien tich xung quanh cua hinh tru

Neu goi Sxq la dien tich xung quanh cua hinh tru co ban kfnh day bang r va co duong sinh bang I, ta co cong

tlnrc : Sxq = 2m/.

Dien tich toan phan cua hinh tru bang dien tich xung quanh cua hinh tru do cong voi dien tich hai day cua hlnh tru.

76

,----------------------,--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

HUONG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

KI~N THOC CO BAN

The tich hinh tru

GQi V Hi th~ tich khoi tru tron xoay co chieu cao h va co dien tich day la B. Ta co cong thirc V = Biz. Neu ban kinh

d' b~ , V 2,

ay ang r, ta co = 1t1"1.

VII. PHUONG PHAP TO~ DO TRONG KHONG GIAN

1--------------------------------------------,..------------------------------_._-------

- Tfnh toa dQ cua tong, hieu cua hai vecto, tich cua vecto vci mot so.

H¢ true toa dQ De-cac vuong goc trong khong gian gom

ba true X 'Ox, y'Oy, :'0: vuong goc voi nhau tirng doi - Chung minh h¢ thirc vecto.

1. H~ to~ dQ trong khong H~ toa de) trong khong gian

Luu y :

Can phan bier ba khai niern mat tron xoay, hinh tron xoay va khoi tron xoay. V6'i mat cau, ngoai each xay dung nho true quay va duong sinh, hoc sinh con diroc tiep can voi dinh nghia mat cau la tap hop nhirng di~m M trong khong gian each diem 0 co dinh mot khoang khong d6i R (R > 0). Can tranh sai sot khi ve hinh bieu dien cua mat cau noi tiep, ngoai tiep cac hinh da dien.

gian

TO<;1 dQ cua mot vecto. Bieu thirc toa dQ cua cac phep roan vecto. TO<;1 dQ cua diem. Khoang each giira hai diem. Phuong trinh mat cau. Tich co huang cua hai vecta.

Ve' kien thuc :

- Bier cac khai niem he toa dQ trong khong gian, toa dQ cua mot vecto, toa dQ cua diem, bieu thirc toa dQ cua cac phep toan vecto, khoang each giira hai diem.

i·IIIl11L.OO1!

Trong khong gian Oxy:, diem M tuy y, co duy nhat bo ba - Xac dinh toa dQ tam va tinh ban kinh cua mat cau

" h co p lnrong trinh cho tnroc.

so x, y,: sao c 0

mot. GQi 1, J, klan hrot la cac vecta dan vi tren cac true x'Ox , y'Oy, :'0:. Diem 0 diroc goi Ia goc toa dQ. Cac mat phang Os», Oyz, Ozx doi mot vuong goc voi nhau duoc goi la cac mdt phdng 10« del.

Khong gian g~n voi he toa dQ Oxyz diroc goi la khong gian Oxyz,

Toa de) cua mot diem

- ..... -+ -+

OM = xi + y j + zk .

77

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

- Tfnh tich vo lurong va ap dung tim goc, cluing minh vuong goc, ...

. - Tinh tich co huang cua hai vecta. Tinh dien tich hinb binh hanh, thi tich khoi ht)p bang each dung tich co huang cua hai vecta.

- Tinh khoang each gitra hai diem co toa dQ cho tnroc.

- Viet _phuong trinh mat cau.

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - Ki NANG

KI~N THOC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

_,

Trong khong gian Oxyz cho vecto a. Co duy nhat bo ba _, _,

vecto voi mot s6 ; tfnh diroc h) Tinh a . b .

tf h . huon' . , hai ta' so aI' a2, a3 sao cho

IC vo g cua ai vec .

Bi~u tlnrc toa dQ cua cac phep toan vecto

- Hnh diroc khoang each _

giiia hai diem co toa de:) cho :rong khong gian Oxyz, cho hai vecto a = (al ; a2 ; a3)'

tnroc. b = (hI; h2 ; h3) va mot s6 k. Khi do ta co :

- Bie] khai niem va mot s6 ling dung cua tich vecto (tfch co huang ciia hai vecto).

- Biet phuong trinh mat cau.

Ve' ki nang :

- Tfnh diroc toa de:) cua tong, hieu cua hai vecto, tich cua

- Tinh duoc tich co huang cua hai vecta. Tinh duoc dien tich hinh binh hanh, thi tich khol hi)p bdng each dung tich co huang cua hai

vecta.

- Xac dinh diroc toa de:) tarn va tim diroc de:) dai ban kfnh cua mat du co phirong trinh cho tnroc.

- Viet diroc phuong trinh mat duo

Bo (x ; y ; z) goi la toa d9 cua diem M d6i voi he true toa de:) OAYZ dli cho. Ta viet:

M = (x; y ; z) hoac M(x; y; z).

Nhu vay co urong ling 1 - 1 giira moi diem M trong khong gian voi mot bo ba s6 (x; y ; z).

Toa dQ cua mot vecto

- - - -

a = al i + a2J + a-ik,

-

Khi do bo (al ; a2 ; a3) diroc goi Ia IOf! d9 eua vecta a

d6i voi h~ toa de:) 0AYZ cho tnroc. Ta viet:

- -

a = (al;a2;a3) hay a(al;a2;a3)'

- -

a + b = (ai + bl ; a2 + h2 ; a3 + h3)

- -

a - h = (al - hI ; a2 - h2 ; a3 - h3)

-

ka = (kal ; ka2 ; ka3)'

78

Vi du. Cho ba vecto

-

a = ( 1 ; -2; 4),

-

b = ( -5; 2; 3),

-

c = ( -1 ; 1 ; 2).

a) Tinh toa de:) cua vecto

d=2a +3h-c

-

Vi du. Cho a = (1; 2 ; 3) va b = (5; - 1 ; 0). Xac

dinh. vecta c sao cho c .L a va c .L b.

Vi du. Trong khong gian Oxyz cho hinh hi)p ABCD.A 'B'C'D', biet A(-1 ; 1 ; 2), B(1 ; 0 ; 1), D(-I; 1; 0),A'(2; -1; -2).

a) Tinh dien tich day ABeD.

b) Tinh thi tich ctia hinh hi)p.

c) Tinh di) dai duong cao cua hinh hi)p xuat phat titdlnh A'.

CHUAN

KIt:N THUC - Ki NANG

KIt:N THUC CO BAN

HUONG DAN THUC HISN CHUAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

Chu y:

_. _.

a) a = b <=> al = b, ; «: = b2 ; a3 = b3 ;

_.

b) 0 = (0 ; 0 ; 0) ;

- - - -

c) a va b cung plnrong (b =I:- 0) <=> co mot so k sao cho

al = kb i ; a2 = kb2; a3 = kh3 ;

Bi~u thrrc toa de) ella tich vo huong va cac irng dung a) Tfch vo huang: trong khong gian Oxyz cho hai vecto

_. _.

a = (al ; a2 ; a3), b = (bl ; b2 ; b3).

Taco

a.b = alq + a2b2 + a3b3' b) D<) dai ella mot vecto :

_.

Cho vecto a = (al ; a2 ; a3)' ta co

1 .... 1 F ~ 2 2 2

a = s[a.a = al + a2 + a3 .

c) Khoang each giifa hai diem A = (x A ; Y A ; Z A) va B(XB ; YB ; zB) la

IABI = )(XB - xA)2 + (YB - YA)2 + (zB - ZA)2.

79

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THUC HI~N CHUAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

KI~N THUC CO BAN

_.

d) GQi qJ la goc giira hai vecto a(al; a2 ; a3) va

_.

bib; ;~;b3)· Taco:

_. _. a.b

cosqJ= cos(a, b) = 1~1.lbl

_. _.

va a .L b ¢::> albl + a2b2 + a3b3 = o.

Bieu thirc toa de) cua tich vecto va cac irng dung a) Dinh nghia

Ki hieu ; = ~ 1\ b ho(lc ; = [~, bJ

Luu y :

+ Dien tich hinh binh hanh ABCD :

S ABCD = lAB 1\ ADI· + Dien tich tam giac ABC:

SABC = ~ lAB 1\ MI·

+ Thitich hinh hljp ABCD.A1B1C1D1

b) Tinh chat

v = I(AB 1\ AD)·AA;I·

+ Thl tich hinh chop A.BCD

--+ --+ - --+

+ a va b cung phuong thi a 1\ b = O.

80

HUONG DAN THUC HI~N CHUAN

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vI DU. LUU V

Vi du. Xac dinh toa d(> tam va tinh ban kinh cua cac mat cau co phirong trinh sau day:

a) x2 + l + i - 8x + 2y + 1 = 0 ;

b)} + l + / + 4x + 8y - 2z - 4 = o.

+ (~ J\ h) j_~, (~J\ h) L h I~ J\ hi = 1~llhlsin(~, h).

+ ;,;,;; dong phcing ¢:> (; J\ ;).;; = o.

Vi du. Viet phirong trinh mat cau trong moi tnrong + Dl chung minh ~, h, ; khong dong phcing, can hop sau :

a) Co dirong kinh la doan thang AB voi A(1 ; 2 ; -3) va B( - 2 ; 3 ; 5).

b) Di qua b6n diem 0(0; 0 ; 0), A(2 ; 2; 3), B(1 ; 2; - 4), C(1 ; - 3; - 1).

c) Di qua diem A(1 ; 2 ; 3) va tilp xuc v6i cac true tOt;ld9·

d) Co tam lQ diem 1(-1 ; 2 ; 3) va cat m~t phcing Oxy theo m9t duang Iron co duong kinh bdng 8.

chung minh

(~ J\ h).; :¢' o.

PhU01lg trinh mat C3U

Trong khong gian Oxyz, mat cau tam /(a ; b ; c) ban kinh r co phirong trinh la :

(x - a)2 + (y - b)2 + (z - ci = r2

hoac

222 2222

x + Y + z - 2ax - 2by - 2cz + a + b + C = r .

N.gU<;1c lai, phuong trlnh

x2 + l + / + 2Ax + 2By + 2Cz + D = 0

voi A 2 + B2 + C2 - D > 0 la phirong trlnh cua m~t cau tam /(-A;-B;-C), ban kfnh r > ~A2+B2+C2_D.

81

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - KI NANG

HUONG DAN THVC HISN CHUAN

KI~N THUC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

2. Phllt1ng trinh m~t phing Phuong trlnh t6ng quat cua mat phang

- Lap phirong trinh tong quat cua mat phang :

- Phuong trinh mdt phdng ( a) di qua ba diem khong

thdng hang.

- Phuong trinh mdt phdng (a) qua diem M(xo; Yo; zo) va song song v6i mdt phdng (/3) : Ax + By + Cz + D = O.

-

- Hai vecto khong cung phirong a = (al ; «: ; a3)'

Vee to' phap tuyen cua mat phang. Phuong trinh tong quat cua mat phang. Dieu kien d~ hai mat phang song song, vuong goc, Khoang each tir mot diem den mot mat phang.

-

b = (bl ; b2 ; b3) co gia song song hoac nam trong mat

phang (a) thi (a) co mot vecto phap tuyen la :

- - -

n=a/\b

= (a2b3 - a3b2 ; a3bl - alb3 ; alb2 - a2bl)' - Phuong trinh mdt phang (a) qua duong thdng d va

- Phuong trinh cua mat phang (a) di qua diem M o(Xo ; Yo ; zo) vuong gac v6i mdt phdng (/3) : Ax + By + C z + D = O.

Ve' hen thuc : ·va nhan vecto ~ (A ; B ; C) khac 0 lam vecto phap - Xet vi trf wang d6i cua hai mat phang.

- Hi~u khai niem vecto phap tuyen la : - Tinh khoang each tir mot di~m den mot mat phang,

tuyen cua mat phang. A(x -xo) + B(y - Yo) + C(z - zo) = O. - Khoang each giifa hai mat phang song song.

- Biet phirong trinh t6ng quat cua mat phang, dieu kien

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 thi no co mot vecto phap tuyen la

vuong goc hoac song song --+

cua hai mat phang, cong thirc n (A ; B ; C).

tfnh khoang each tir mot diem den mot mat phang.

- Neu mat phang (a) co phirong trinh tong quat la

- Neu mat phang (a) cat cac true toa dQ Ox, Oy, Oz theo Vi du. Viet phirong trinh mat phang di qua ba diem thir tu tai cac diem A(a ; 0 ; 0), B(O ; b ; 0), C(O ; 0 ; c) A(- 1 ; 2; 3), B(2 ; - 4; 3), C(4 ; 5 ; 6).

voi a~c "* 0 thi (a) co phirong trinh theo doan chan Hi : x+Y+'::'=1.

abc

Ve' ki nang:

- Xac dinh diroc vecto phap tuyen cua mat phang,

- Bier each viet phuong trinh tong quat cua mat phang va tfnh diroc khoang each tir mot diem den mot mat phang.

Vi du. Viet phirong trinh mat phang di qua hai diem A(3 ; 1 ; -1), B(2 ; - 1 ; 4) va vuong goc voi mat phang 2x - y + 3z - 1 = O.

Dieu kien d~ hai mat phang song song, vuong g6e

Cho hai mat phang (at) va (~) co phuong trinh tong quat hill luot la :

Vi du. Tfnh khoang each nr diem A(3 ; - 4 ; 5) den mat phang x + 5y - z + 7 = O.

82

HUaNG DAN THIJC HI eN CHUAN

CHUAN

KI~N THIlC - Ki NANG

KI~N THIlC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

A)x+B)y+Clz+DI =0 A2x + B2Y + C2z + D2 = O.

~ --+

GQi n) (A); BI; C) va n2 (A2; B2; C2) Ia cac vecto phap Vi du. Cho A(t ; 2 ; 3) va B( -3 ; 4 ; -5). Viet phuong

trinh mfjt phdng thod man mt)t trong cac die'u

tuyen cua (al) va (~), ta co :

{~ --+

n - kn • (al)II(~)¢:? 1- 2

. DI "* kD2·

kien sau :

a) Song song v6i AB, true Ox va di qua goc toa dt) .

b) Di qua A, B va song song v6i true Oy.

c) lJi qua A, B va vuong g6c v6i mfjt phdng x + y -10 = O.

_,. - _,. ---+

• (a) .L (~) ¢:? nl .L n2 ¢:? nl.n2 = 0

¢:? A)A2 + BIB2 + C1C2 = O.

Chu y :

~ --+

- (al) cat(~) ¢:? nl "* k~.

{-;; = k;;;

- (al) == (a2) ¢:?

D) = kD2.

Khoang each tit mot di~m den mc)t mat phang

Trong khong gran Oxyz, khoang each ttl diem M o(Xo ; Yo ; zo) den mat phang

(a) : At + By + Cz + D = 0 duqc tinh hoi cong thirc : _ IAxo + Byo + CZo + DI

d(Mo,(a» - I .

-vA2+B2+C2

83

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

?

3. Phut1ng trinh dU'dng thang

Phuong trinh tham so cua dirong thang. Dieu kien d~ hai dirong thang cheo nhau, cat nhau, song song hoac

KI~N THUC CO BAN

HUONG DAN THUC HI eN CHUAN

~ co phirong trinh tham so Hi :

vuong goc vci nhau. {X = -o + tal

Ve' kiln thia: : Y = Yo + ta2

Biet phirong trinh tham s6 cua z = Zo + fa3.

dirong thang, dieu kien d~ hai . ,

dirong thang cheo nhau, car 2. Cho dirong thang ~ di qua diem Mo(xo ; Yo ; zo) va

nhau, song song hoac vuong nhan vecto ~ (al ; a2 ; a3) vm ala2a3 ;1:. 0 lam vecto chi

goc voi nhau, phirong.

Ve' ki nang :

- Biet each viet phirong trinh tham so cua dirong th~g.

- Biet each sir dung phuong trinh cua hai dtrong th~g d~ xac dinh vi trf nrong d6i cua hai dirong thang do.

PhU(JDg trinh tham s6 va phuong trlnh chfnh Hie

l. Cho dirong thang ~ di qua diem Mo(xo ; Yo ; zo) va - Viet phirong trinh tham so, phirong trinh chinh tac cua dirong thang.

Vi du. Viet plurong trinh tham so cua dirong thang di Mo(xo ; Yo ; zo), Mo'(xo' ; Yo' ; zo') va co vecto chi phirong qua hai diem A(4; 1 ; _ 2) va B(2 ; - 1 ; 9).

Ian hrot la

~ co phirong trinh chinh tae Hi

X - Xo = y - Yo = z - Zo

Vieu. kien d~ hai dUOng thang song song, trimg nhau, cat nhau hoac cheo nhau

Cho hai duong thang d va d Ian hrot di qua hai diem

84

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

- Sir dung phirong trinh cua hai dirong thang de xac dinh vi trf nrong d6i cua hai dirong thang do.

- Xac dinh vi trf nrong d6i giira dirong thang va mat phang,

- Cach tim giao diem cua dirong thang va mat phang.

- Tinh khodng cacb tit ml)t dilm M den ml)t duang

thdng d.

- Viet phuang trinh hinh chieu cua ml)t duong thdng d xudng mi,it phdng (a).

- Tinh khodng cacb giiia hai duong thdng cheo nhau.

- Lap phuang trinh duimg vuong goc chung cua hai duong thdng cheo nhau.

CHUAN

KI~N THUC - Ki NANG

HUaNG DAN THVC HI~N CHUAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

KI~N THUC CO BAN

~ - ~ ~ -

a = (al; a2; a3), a' = (aJ'; a2'; a3')' Dat n = a 1\ a',

ta eo cac dieu kien sau :

+ d II d' ¢::) {~ = 0

Mo (ztd'.

Vi du. Viet phirong trinh tham so- cua duong thang di qua diem A (3 ; 2 ; - I) va song song voi dmmg thang

x-I y+I z

-2-=-=3= 4'

{~ ~

. n =0

+d=d'¢::)

Mo Ed'.

Vi du. Xet vi tri nrong doi cua hai duong thang : d1 : x + 4 = y + 1 = z - 2

2 3 5

{~ ~

n:,t:O

+ddtd' ¢::) ~

~.MoM~ = O.

d2: {:: :t_ 41

z = 3 + 5t.

Vi du. Viet phuong trinh dUO'ng thdng ta hinh chieu ella duong thdng

{X = 3 + 51

y = -1 + I z = 4 + I

tren miJ,t phdng 2x - 2y + 3z - 5 = O.

+ d va d' cheo nhau ¢::) ~.MoM~ *- O.

-~ --

+dj_d'¢::) a. a' =0.

Dieu kien d~ mot duong thAng song song, cat hoac vuong g6c vcJi mat phdng

Cho dirong thiing d di qua diem M o(xo ; Yo ; zo) va eo vecto chi phirong Ia ~ = (al ; a2 ; a3)' va eho mat phang

(a) : Ax + By + Cz + D = O.

Vi du. Tinh khodng each giiia hai duong thdng a, b trong mai truong htfP sau

{X = 3 + I

1) a,' y = 1- 1 Z = 2 + 21

~

GQi n (A ; B ; C) Ia vecto phap tuyen cua (a). Ta eo cac

dieu kien sau :

+ d II (a) ¢::) {~.~ = 0 Mo (zt (a).

85

CHUAN

KI~N THOC - KI NANG

KI~N THOC CO BAN

HuONG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

D~NG TOAN. vi DU. LUU Y

+ d c (a) ~ {~.~ = ° Mo E (a).

-+ -+

+dcat(a)~ n. a *0.

-+ -+

+ d.l (a) ~ n = k. a.

86

b: {:: ~t~ 3t'

z = 3t'.

2) a: x - 2 = y + 1 = .:_

3 4 2

x-7 y-l z-3 b: -3- = -4- =-2-'

Luu y :

Tinh khoang each

- Trong khong gian Oxyz, d~ tinh khoang each tir di~m M den dirong thang ~, ta thuc hien cac buoc :

+ Viet phirong trinh mat phang (a) chua M va vuong g6c v&~.

+ Tim giao di~m H cua ~ vci mat phang (a).

+ Khoang each tir M den ~ chinh la dQ dai doan MH

d(M,M=MH.

- D~ tinh khoang each gifra mot dirong thAng ~ va mot mat phang (a) song song vOl A ta thuc hien cac buoc :

+ Lay mot di~m Mo(xo ; Yo; zo) tuy y tren A.

+ Khoang each giira .:1 va (a) chfnh la khoang each tir diem Moden mat phang (a)

d(.:1, (a)) = deMo, (a)).

- D~ tfnh khoang each gitta hai dirong thang cheo nhau .:1 va A', ta thuc hien cac biroc :

+ Viet phirong trinh mat phang (a) chua .:1 va song song v&.:1'.

+ UIY mot diem Mo'(xo'; Yo'; zo') tuy y tren A'.

+ Khoang each gitra .:1 va .:1' chfnh la khoang each tir diem M 0' den mat phang (a)

d(.:1, .:1') = deMo', (a)).

HUONG DAN THUC HleN CHUAN

CHUAN

KIEN THLrC - KI NANG

KIEN THLrC CO BAN

D~NG ToAN. vi DU. LUU Y

Luu y :

- HQc sinh nao cling phai bier them each tim vecto phap tuyen cua mat phang nho tim tich co huang cua hai vecto khong cung phirong, co gia song song hoac nam tren mat phang.

- HQc sinh nao cling diroc tiep can vci viec lap phirong trinh cua mat phang trong cac tnrong hop : mat phang di qua g6c toa dQ ; mat phang song song hoac chua cac true Ox (hoac Oy hoac Oz) ; mat phang song song hoac trung v& mot mat phang toa dQ (Oxy) (hoac (Oyz) hoac (Ozx)) ; mat phang di qua ca ba diem A(a ; 0 ; 0), B(O ; b ; 0), C(O ; 0 ; c) voi abc :f:= O.

- Viec tinh khoang each giira hai dirong thang cheo nhau d va d diroc dira ve tim khoang each tir mot diem den mot mat phang, cu th~ : viet phirong trinh mat phang (a) chua dirong thang d va song song voi dirong thang d, sau do tim khoang each tir mot diem M bat ki thuoc d toi mat phang (a). Khoang each do chinh la khoang each giira d va d.

- H oc sinh hoc theo chuang trinh. nang cao con duoc till' can voi : cong thuc tinh khodng each tu mot diem dln mfjt duimg thdng ; cong thuc tinh khodng each gift a hai duang thdng ; mfjt so ung dung cua tich vecta (tinh duoc dien tich hints binh lianh, thi tich khoi hfjp bang each dung tich co huang cua hai vecta ; viet phuong trinh hinh chien cua duang thdng tren mat phdng,

'---- ___.J

87

TO CHUC THUCHIEN

. .

1- YEU cAu CHUNG

Viec thuc hien chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua chuang trinh giao due ph6 thong mon Toan can theo quan di~m co ban : sat thuc, tnrc quan, dung chuan va d6i m6i.

sATTHl/C

- Sat voi noi dung chuan, voi thirc te d6i tUCJl1g va dieu kien giang day, vci thai IUCJl1g cho phep ; bien soan du dang cac bai luyen tap nrong duong voi cac vi du neu trongchuan nham giup hoc sinh ren luyen ki nang giai roan dat chuan va phan hoa theo rmrc dQ yeu cau cua chuang trlnh chuan va chuang trlnh nang cao. Thirc hien chuang trinh nr chon cua bo mon theo huang gnip hoc sinh dat chuan t6t han.

- Chii trong cac vi du va bai toan c6 noi dung thirc tien dm s6ng va gan v6i cac mon hoc khac (lam cho hQC sinh thay ro Toan hoc gan voi cuoc s6ng va lam quen v6i viec ap dung tri thirc Toan hoc d~ giai cac bai toan thirc te, cac bai toan cua mon hoc V ~t If, Hoa hoc, Sinh hQC, ... )

TRl/CQUAN

- Tiep can chuan bang phuong phap tnrc quan nham giam tfnh han lam, giam cac noi dung nang ne, dan gian hoa nhiing van de phirc tap nhung khong lam mat tfnh chfnh xac va suy luan c6 If rna chuan de ra.

- Day va hQC kien thirc ki nang theo chuan tren co sa dAn dAt tirng

biroc, qua nhirng vi du mo ta khai niem mot each ro rang, tranh ap d~t thieu tl;l nhien.

, /l

DUNGCHUAN

- Dam bao dung kien thtrc, ki nang, mire dQ phirc tap cua dang toan minh hoa, nhirng hru y neu trong chuan.

- Tnroc het dam bao dat chuan hoa va phan hoa theo mire dQ yeu cau cua chuang trinh chuan va chirong trinh nang cao ; han che cac vi du va bai tap phtrc tap, doi hoi ki thuat va meo rmrc, noi dung kho cirng thieu nr nhien kh6 tiep thu, giam bot s6 IUCJl1g cong tlurc can nho. Dam bao su gon, chat che va he thong kien thirc, ki nang rna chuan neu,

Theo chi dao day va hoc cua BQ GD&DT : D6i moi kiem tra danh gia theo chuan, d6i moi cong cu kiem tra danh gia, d6i moi thoi IUCJl1g, d6i moi tlnr tu thuc hien kien thirc ki nang chuan neu, d6i moi phuong tien day hoc d~ d6i moi phirong phap day hoc, tang cirong tfnh chu dong cua hoc sinh trong gio hoc, giup hoc sinh tfch eire, himg thu hQC tap. Tim toi sang tao nhfrng each dua noi dung hoc tap mot each nhe nhang, d~ hieu, W nhien rna vAn chfnh xac, CAn da dang hoa cac hoat dong thirc hien chuan (on lai kien thirc, gioi thieu kien tlurc moi, hoc tnroc a nha, lam tai lap, chia theo de tai, thuc hien ca nhan hay nh6m nho, ap dung ngay kien thirc vira hoc, cau hoi trac nghiern khach quan, sir dung may tinh cam tay d~ giai roan " .),

88

II - HUONG nAN THlJC HI~N

VOl HOC SINH

- V 6'i hoc sinh dai tra cua moi vung mien, noi dung diroc neu trong van ban nay la noi dung h9C tap bat buoc phai dat, khong han che noi dung h9C tap voi h9C sinh co nhu cau h9C tap nang cao.

- V 6'i nlnrng h9C sinh co nhu cau h9C tap rna rong, nang cao hoac d6i nrong h9C sinh kha, gioi, co th~ tham khao Chirong trinh Nang cao hoac Clurong trlnh Chuyen cua B¢ GD&DT ban hanh ; co tM tham khao trong sach giao khoa hoac sach bai tap, sach tham khao noi dung chuyen rna nha tnrong tuyen chon hoac co th~ ur h9C thea nang hrc

ban than. .

- 6 vimg thuan loi, h9C sinh can diroc tang cirong chert hrong h9C tap qua viec tiep can cac nguon thong tin, cac phirong tien cong nghe d~ cung c6, rna rong, nang cao kien thirc.

- Chuan. kien thtrc, ki nang cua Chirong trinh Trung h9C phd thong mon Toan giiip cac em h9C sinh 1t! h9C, nr kiem tra kien thirc, ki nang thea cac yeu cau CC1 ban, t6i thieu cua kien thirc, ki nang mon Toan rna h9C sinh can phai co va ph iii dat diroc qua h9C tap. H9C sinh nr h9C, nr kiem tra thea chuan kien thirc, ki nang qua h9C, kiem tra cac khai niem CC1 ban, cac ki nang CC1 ban, cac cong thirc can nho, cac phirong phap giai, cac dang toan, vi du minh hoa ... nrong irng voi cac chu de cua chirong trinh ; nr nghien ngjim noi dung h9C tap thea mot yeu cau, phong each rieng va voi t6c do phil hop. Tu h9C khong nhirng giup h9C sinh nr than nam noi dung h9C mot each chac chan va ben vimg, xac dinh phirong phap h9C tap va ki nang van dung tri thirc, ren luyen y chi va nang hrc hoat dong sang tao ; nr than bu d~p cho minh nhirng 16 hong ve kien thirc, dap irng voi yeu cau cua clurong trinh. (Qua cac hoat dong h9C tap : xay dung ke hoach, tap trung sire lire va thai gian cho n¢i dung tr9ng tam, quan tr9ng nhat, n¢i dung con khuyet ho~c

chua ro, tranh dan trai, phan tan. N6 lire, tt! lire nam noi dung hoc tap thong qua : doc, tom t~t tong hop, so sanh, phan loai ; nr lam bai tap, de kiem tra. Tranh thu st! giup do cua thay co giao, cua ban be va cua cha me, anh em trong gia dinh, trong dong ho),

VOl GIAo VIEN

- V oi giao vien thi noi dung CC1 ban neu trong van ban nay la can cir d~ soan bai, tien hanh day h9C, on tap va dua tren do d~ kiem tra danh gia ket qua h9C tap cua h9C sinh. Dam bao vita dat chudn vita ph/in haft thea d~c diem vung, mien cho cac d6i nrong hoc sinh khac nhau ; danh gia thea de tu luan, de TNKQ hoac h6n hop gom ca bai toan nr Iuan IAn bai roan TNKQ. On tap nham he th6ng hoa kien thirc da h9C, hoan thien ki nang giai bai tap, qua on tap b6 khuyet cho nhtmg phat hien thieu sot ve kien thirc, ki nang, ve suy luan toan h9C thieu can cu logic hoac chua hop Ii ; nho do tao cho nmg h9C sinh vimg tin vao nang hrc ban than co th~ dat ket qua t6t trong cac ki kiem tra danh gia va thi.

Viec on tap mon Toan din dat toi hieu diroc ban chat va van dung diroc cac noi dung h9C ;. khi on tap khong nen qua chii y vao viec tim nhirng thu thuat ghi nho diroc nhieu, mac du nho la CC1 sa can cho viec giai cac bai toan, nhung khong du ; boi vi viec nam virng cac each giai cac dang bai toan CC1 ban cho nhieu kha nang dat ket qua t6t trong kiem tra, thi. Viec on tap giup ta nho noi dung h9C t6t hon va thirc st! hiru ich cho viec giai cac bai toano Su quan trong cua viec on tap la a ch6 : giiip h9C sinh he thong lai va rut ra nhtmg dieu CC1 ban, chu yeu, khai quat hoa cua nhirng kien thirc - ki nang dii h9C d~ thay diroc su nrong dong, nrong img, dong dang, bien d6i ve hinh, khai niem, phirong phap, dang toan ... trong clurong trinh mon h9C cua mot noi dung, mot chu de, mot lap hay toan cap h9C.

- Giao vi en huang dAn on tap can quan trier ro : nhtmg each on tap deu la nhfrng bi~u hi~n Cl,l th~ cua vi~c h~ th6ng hoa kien thuc thea

89

huang lam ro cau tnic cua tirng phan, timg chuang, tirng mach kien tlurc, tirng chu de hay roan th~ cua chuang trinh ; lam ro V! trf cua moi kien thirc va quan he gitra cac kien thirc ; tranh viec he thong hoa nang tfnh hinh thirc nhir liet ke cac cong thirc, cac dinh If, cac dang toan dii h9C theo dung khuon mau va trinh nr nhu trong sach giao khoa. Cling voi viec huang dfill h9C sinh he thong hoa kien tlurc, giao vien giup hoc sinh sap xep cac bai tap va phan chia thrum cac dang bai tap d~ nam vtrng each giai chung cho tirng dang chinh, dong thai nhac lai va ghi ra diroc nhirng kien tlurc, dinh If, cong thirc, suy luan dii h9C 0 lap diroi, nay thirong phai sir dung nhieu de giai toan 0 lap 12. Trong tinh hinh thuc te hien nay, giao vien can t6 chirc day va h9C chu dao ngay tir dau nam h9C, on tap deu dan sau timg chuang, muc, giup h9C sinh ur giai cac cau hoi va bai tap neu trong chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

- Giao vien can phai linh .~O<,lt trong viec day hoc, co the dfill dar h9C sinh tiep can kien thirc, ki nang trinh bay theo phirong phap khac, each khac hoac thay boi vi du khac tuy theo d6i nrong, vung mien d~ thirc hien chuan phu hop voi mire dQ nhan thirc cua moi loai doi nrong. Trong day h9C cling nhu kiem tra, danh gia, can luu y toi cong cu may tfnh cam tay nham giarn tai phan tfnh toan cling nhu d6i moi ca trinh bay loi giai Ifill khau ra de va dap an nrong img yeu cau tfnh dung hoac

tfnh gan dung ; khfch le nhtmg h9C sinh co each giai dung boi nhfrng kien thirc, ki nang co diroc do ban than n6 hrc h9C tap.

VOl co QUAN, CAN BO QUAN LI GIAo D{)C

- V 6i cac co quan, can bo quan If giao due thi noi dung van ban neu trong cuon sach nay la can err toi thieu d~ danh gia, kiem tra viec day va h9C.

- Trong thanh tra, kiem tra day va h9C can quan trier tinh than :

+ Khuyen khfch giao vien sang tao linh hoat trong moi bai h9C, tier h9C ; giao vien co th~ trinh bay day noi dung kien thirc nhir dii neu trong van ban, tuy nhien co th~ linh hoat trong each trinh bay (co th~ trinh bay theo phirong phap khac, each khac hoac thay boi vi du khac nrong tu ve rmrc dQ nhan thirc) ; kiem tra (hoac ra de thi) dung theo yeu can mire do da de cap trong cuon sach voi nhirng bai toan khac nrong duong mire do nhan thirc ;

+ Can hru y toi cong cu may tfnh cam tay nham giam tai ve phan tfnh toan va de d6i moi ca trinh bay loi giai lfin khau ra de va dap an nrong irng yeu cau tfnh dung hoac tfnh gan dung ;

+ Khfch le nhtmg h9C sinh co each giai dung boi nlumg kien thirc, ki nang co diroc do ban than n6 hrc h9C tap.

90

TAl LI$U THAM KHAD CHINH

1. SOK, SOV Toan 10, 11, 12 - among trinh nang cao - Gs. Doan Quynh (T6ng Chu bien) va cac tac gia.

2. SOK, SOV Toan 10, 11, 12 - Chuong trmh chuan - PGS. Tcln Van Hao (T6ng Chu bien) va cac tac gia.

3. Van ban chi dao cua B¢ GD&DT lien quan : Chuong trmh Giao due pho thong mon Toan, D6i moi phuong phap day h9C, D6i moi ra de kiem tra, Danh muc thiet bi -day hoc Toan 10, 11, 12.

4. Huang dan thuc hanh Toan tren may tinh Casio, Vinacal fx-570MS. 5 .. Tai lieu ve hoi nghi tap huan phirong phap day hoc Toan hoc phd thong, B¢ Giao due va Dao tao, 12/2000.

6. De tai 894 - 27 - 01 - PP ve d6i moi phuong phap day hoc cac mon khoa hoc nr nhien a tnrong THPT theo huang "hoat dong hoa nguoi h9C" - 1997.

7. Jean - Marc Denomme et Madelleine Roy: (Pour une pedagogic interactive). Tien tai mot phirong phap sir pham nrong tac (Nguoi dich : Nguyen Quang Thuan- Tong Van Quan) - NXBTN - 2003.

8. Tran Kieu (Chu bien) va cong su : D6i moi phirong phap day hoc a

tnreng Trung hoc co sa - Vien Khoa h9C Giao due - 1997.

9. Geoffrey Petty: Day h9C ngay nay, Du an Viet - Bi, 2002.

10. Robert Fisher: Day hoc tre, Dir an Viet - Bi, 2002.

11. Wilbert J. McKeachie : Nhimg thu thuat trong day hoc, Dir an Viet - Bi, 2002.

12. Tran Ba Hoanh va cong su : Ap dung day va hoc tfch eire trong mon Toan, Du an Viet - Bi, 2002.

13. Nguyen Ba Kim - Dinh Nho Chirong ... : Phuong phap day hoc mon Toan - NXBGD - 1994.

14. Pham Gia Dire - Nguyen Manh Cang ... : Phuong phap day hoc mon Toan - NXBGD -1998.

15. De tai cap B¢ rna so B 2002 - 49 - TD37 ve Dinh huang va cac giai phap d6i moi PPDH a tnrong ph6 thong - Vien Chien hroc va Chirong trinh Giao due, Ha Noi, 2004.

91

Ml)C Ll)C

Trang

Uri giOi thieu

Phdn thit nh(i't

"A ~ ~ K ,_.

GWI THII;:U CHUNG VE CHUAN KIEN rnrr; KI NANG

CVA CHUONG TRINH GlAo Dt)C PHO TI:-IaNG

Phdn thit hai

HuONG DAN THl/C HI~N CHUAN KIEN THUt, KI NANG MaN ToAN THPT

HuJNG DAN THOC HlEN CHUAN KIEN THOC, KI NANG MON TOAN L<JP 12

A. Kien thirc chtrong trinh mon Toan lap 12

B. Huang dan thirc hien Chuan kien thirc, ki nang mon Toan lap 12 T6 chuc thirc hien

3

5

13

21 22 88

Chill trdch nhiem xudt bdn :

Chu tich HUQT kiem Tdng Giam doc NGD TI~AN AI

Pho T6ng Giam doc kiem Tong bien tap NGUYEN QUY THAO

T6 chuc ban tluio \'([ chill trach nhiem 1U?i dung :

Ph6 V~ twang V~ Giao due Trung h9C NGUYEN HAl cuxu Giam doc CTCP Dich vu xuat ban Giao due Ha NQi PHAN KE THAI

Bien tdp n9i dung:

PHAN MINH NGUY~T

Trinh hay bia :

LWCHfUONG

Sua bdn in .NGUYEN TH! THANH

Chebdn :

CDNG TY c6 PHAN THIET KE V A PHAT HANH sAcH GlAo DVC

Nha xuiit bim Giao d~c Vi¢t Nam - Bi? Giao d~c va Dao t~o gill" quyen c6ng b6 tac ph~m.

HUONG DAN THl)'C Hl¢N CHUAN KlEN TH(JC, Ki NANG MaN TO AN LOP 12

So dang ki KHXB : 641-2009/CXB/46-1l24/GD Mil so: TZTS3H9 - f>TH

In 7.000 ban (QD84TK), kh6 29 x 20,5 em. In tai C6ng ti e6 phan in Phuc Yen.

So in : 110. In xong va nop liru chieu thang 11 nam 2009.

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