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y To provide force for propelling the aircraft in air.

The engine is divided in three categories'


(i) Turbo jet (ii) Turbo propulsion (iii) Ram jet.

y It is operate at low altitude
with moderate speed.

y The main advantage of jet
engine it eliminate the
y It is suitable at high
altitude and high speed.
y In case of turbo jet
engine hot exhaust gas
with high velocity give
forward thrust to the
y If gas coming out with
1800 kmph speed and
the speed of aircraft is
900 kmph.
y It can be used at high
altitude with more
y The performance is same as
jet engine but here
propeller is provided.
y It can be used at high and
medium altitude also.
y It does not have any moving
y The fuel flow and
combution is continuous.
y It can be fly with speed 1200
to 1250 kmph.
y It is same as ramjet
engine but it is not
depend on oxygen in
y It carries its own supply
of oxygen.
y It can moved at high
speed 4000 kmph.
y It has highes fuel
consuption as compared
to othe engine
y Flaps increase the wing surface
or curve generating more lift
with the same speed.
y They are very used on low
speed operations, mainly
during landings and take offs.
y There are several types of flaps:
y Plain Flap
y Split Flap
y Flap Zap or Slotted
y Flap Fowler
y Flap Multi-Fowler
y It includes the cabin and/or cockpit, which contains
seats for the occupants and the controls for the
y In addition, the fuselage may also provide room for
cargo and attachment points for the other major
airplane components. Some aircraft utilize an open
truss structure. The truss-type fuselage is constructed
of steel or aluminum tubing.
y Strength and rigidity is achieved by welding the tubing
together into a series of triangular shapes, called

y A propeller is a device which transmits power by
converting it into thrust for propulsion of a vehicle such
as an airplane, ship, or submarine though a fluid such as
water or air, by rotating two or more twisted blades
about a central shaft, in a manner analogous to rotating a
screw through a solid.
y The blades of a propeller act as rotating wings, and
produce force through application of both Bernoulli's
principle and Newton's third law, generating a difference
in pressure between the forward and rear surfaces of the
airfoil-shaped blades'.



 ! "
y The landing gear system which is provided to support
aircraft while in contact with the ground is called
tricycle undercarriage
y The main purposes
(a) to enable easy maneuvering
(b) to permit smooth landing.

y It is provided to support
machine in the air.
y It is flat or curved surface.
y The term aerofoil is used for
wing like structure.
y It is designed to obtain
reaction upon its surface
form the air through
which it moves.
y The wing is slightly curved
and small angle of
incidence to the
ÿ M  ! M
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[ Airport capacity
[ Aircraft speed
[ Aircraft weight and wheel arrangement
[ Fuel spilling
[ et blast
[ Minimum circling radius
[ Minimum turning radius
[ Noise
[ Range
[ Size of aircraft
[ Take off and landing distances
[ Type of propulsion
[ Tyre pressure and contact area.
½  !
r Number of passengers, baggage, cargo and fuel that can
be accommodated.

2)   # 
r This is defined two ways î $ î  
r   :It means the speed of aircraft related to
medium in which it is travelling. Ex. Suppose aircraft
speed : 500 km.p.h, Wind speed : 50 km.p.h ( Opposite
to aircraft)
So, aircraft speed = 500 Ȃ 50 = 450 km.p.h
r $ % It means speed of aircraft related to
D  & 
r Aircraft weight contains weight of different components
of aircraft.
r Aircraft weight play important role in designing the
pavement thickness and length of runway.
r Wheel arrangement is also required to take load of

G' #

r The spilling of fuel and lubricants is usually found on

hanger and loading apron.
r Spilling should be minimum.
r Fuel spilling affects on bituminous material of pavement.
r Turbo jet and turbo prop aircraft eject hot exhaust gases at high
r The velocity of jet blast is 300 km.p.h so it is inconvenience to
r Several types of blast fence are available to serve an effective
measure for diverting the smoke ejected from blast.
r Cement concrete pavement are provided to get effect of jet blast.
y Certain minimum circling radius is required in space for
aircraft to take smooth turn.
y It depends on type of aircraft, traffic volume and weather
y Minimum turning radius of aircraft to decide the radius of taxiway
and position of hangers and apron.
Ô) %
y the noise and efforts are made to bring it to the minimum
possible level.
y The major source of noise is machinery noise and primary jet.
y The major noise is produced at the time of landing and take
off due to jet.
y The sound is measured by sound level meter and it indicats
the total amount of source at that location.
y The unit of sound is Db.
y The distance that an aircraft can fly without refueling is known
as the range.
y Factor affecting on range is pay load, meteorological
conditions during flight, speed , fuel, wind, flight altitude and
amount of reserve fuel.
y If pay load is increase range is decrease.
½ 6    
y The take off and landing distance for an aircraft will help in
determine minimum runway length.
The distance depends on
(a) altitude of the airport
(b) gradient of the runway
(c) intensity and direction of wind.
(d) manner of landing and take off.
(e) temperature
(f) weight of the aircraft at the time of landing and take off.
# M  M$
y Channelization
y Fuel spilling
y High pressure tyres and small contact area
y High velocities
y Hot blasts
y Noise
y Proposing effect
y Pumping of the joints
y Sucking effect.
M M !
½(a) Central govt aerodromes
(b) Privately owned licenced aerodromes
2. (a) state govt aerodromes ( exservicable condition)
(b) State govt. aerodromes ( not maintained in
servicible condition)
3. Airforce aerodromes available for limited use.
M M 
y The airports are classified by ICAO in two catageris
y (i) The code letters A to E are used based on runway
length , width of runway, and maximum logitudinal
y (ii) The numbers 1 to 7 given based on wheel load and
tyre pressure.
" % &