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Agadzhanov Ocherki Istorii Oguzov i Turkmen Srednei Azii IX XIII Vv

Agadzhanov Ocherki Istorii Oguzov i Turkmen Srednei Azii IX XIII Vv

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C. r.

ArA)UI<AHOB

.J' OQEPKH "CTOPHH

'" OrY30B J1 TYPI{MEH CPE,IJ,HEH A3HH IX - XIII BB.

AWXABAJl 1969

'i"I'l>I(MEHHCTAlI CCP hlllblM,TJAP AKAnEMI111CM 1lI. BATblPOB AD:bIHLlAKbl TAPblX HHCTHTYThl

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BE TYPKMEHllEPYlHVlH TAPbIXbIHbll-l OLIEPKllEPYI

rccp bl.t\·llbITl noppecnonnenr-urcnu, rapux bl.IJ!.IM.'fapblllblfl ,'0l'''01'0[ .\ .. \. POCIllKOBblI-( pe_'\'"(~H"Cbl 6".1."

,hIJlh[,I\> 11J:lIiHPlII bl Aur ra c ar. 19fi9

AKAJlEMI151 HAliK TYPKMEHCI(OFI CCI' HHCTHTYT HCTOPHH HM. 1lI. BATblPOBA

c. r. ArAn)l(AHOB

OYEPKH HCTOPHH OrY30B H TYPKMEH CPEDHEA A3HH IX--XIJI BB.

Ilon pe,a;aKIlHcH ,iJ.OKTOpa HCl'OpntlCCKIIX nayx, ',:,eHa·'wppeCnOHl{ell1"a AH TCCf> A. A. f>«CJ151KOBA

113.l1.ATEJIbCTIlO .hIJlbIM.

AwxaoaJ\ 1969

B npe,AJIaraeMOH KHHre uccaenyercs KOi\InJIeKC np06neM HCTOPHH

npenxoa rypKMeHCKOrO napona, 3HaQHreJlbHOe Mecro B MOHorpaq,HH aaHHMalOr np06J1eMbl COlJ,H3nbHO-3KOHoMHQeCKorO crpos H BOeHHO-1l0' JIHrHQeCKOH ucropaa orysos H TypKMeli. CneUH3J1bH3R rnasa MOHorp3- <PHH nOCBSUlJ,eHa npOHtCXO>KJl.eHHIO CeJlb.ll>KyRH.aO~ H CeJlbJl>KYKCKOMY )lBHl'KeHHIO X-XI BB. npHSO)lHrCH Oll8pK HCrOp"'" rocynapcraa CbfPJlapbHHCKHX oryaos, curpaaureno salKHYfO POJlh B HcrOP"H Cpe.llHeli A3H" "BOCTOliHOIi Eoponbl. 3aXJlIOlHlreJIbH3H raaaa MOHorpactmH nocaauiena Hcropn.1.IeCKHM cYJI.h6aM orY3QB H rypxxen 8 CQ.cr3Be rocynapcraa Cenb.lJ)KYKK)lOB H nocne MOHrOJlbCKoro -HaWeCT-BUR ua CpenHfOlO A3HfO.

Mouorpaoaa paccuarana H3 npenOAaB3TeJIeH, ~iaY4Hb1X paeornnROB, crvneuros It WHPOKHIi xpyr 1:JH'rareJleH.

IlPEJJ.HCJlOBHE

Ilpennaraexaa KHHra nOCBHmeR3 OrY3aM H T)'pKMeH3M Cpenaeft A3Hff IX··-XIIJ BB.' XPOHOJlOrH4eCKI1e p3Mlm MOHorpa(I'11l1 00.V,JlOBJleHbl He oouleii HCTopH4eCKoif nepHO.l(H33UHeH, a COCT05lHHeM !jl3KTH- 4eC.Koro M3Tepll3J1a. PaOOTa OXBaTblBaeT BpeM5I OT nepaux ynoxruuaHllll orY30B B apaoo-nepcancxnx llCT04HllK3X no uocrerrexaoro acvesHOBeHHH HX HMeHH co crpannn HCTOPHH Cpenneir A311H nocne MOHroascxoro uamecrsnu.

OrY3CKHe nneueaa OK333J1H OOJlbWOe BJlH5IHHe H3 XO.l( HCTopH4eCKHX COOblTHH B Cpenuea A3HH H BOCT04HOH Eapone B IX-X BB. Bnaronapn Oop330BaHHlo B cepennne Xl B. oowHpnoii nepxcanu CeJlb.l(>KYKH.l(OB' oryss; H TypKMeHbl CTaJIII HrpaTb B3lKHYIO pons 1I0'lTH ua ecex MYCYJlbM3HCKOM' Bocroxe. nOHBJleHUe CeJlb.l(>KYKOB na MlIpOBOH apeue H3MeHlWO, no o6pa3HoMY asrpanceumo K. MapKca, see «01'HoweHHH B Ilepennes A3HH» (253, C. 109). fJlaBHblM OOP330M 31'0 OblJlO CB5I3aHO C WHPOKlIM pacnpocrpaneunev npa CeJlb.l(lKYKH.l(aX (peO}l3J1bHOrO HHCTH1'YT3 HKTa. «TOJlbKO TYPKH, -- nncan <P. 3UreJlbC, HMe51 B BH.l(Y CeJIb.l(>KYKOB,- snepnue BBeJlH H3 BOCTOKe B aanoenanHblX HAlII crpanax He4TO HanO.l(OOHe noxeurnuscro (jJeO.l(3J1H3Ma» (467, c. 165).

1 B HaCTOHLUeH paoore He paCCMaTpHBaeTCH sonpoc 0 COOTHOWCHHH Me>K.lY orY3aMH Cpe.nHefi: H UeHTpaJ1bHOt'J A3HW', nOCI<OJ1bKY on BblXOAHT aa paMKH H36paHIIUH rexsr. J1cCJ1e.ll083HHe 3T0l1 npoeneau J( TOMY }Ke l<paHHe ocnO}KHJleTCH H3-3a (';]OPHOCT" sonpoca 06 3THo-nOJlHTH4eCKHX CB$l3f1X Me}KAY orY3aMH, TOKY3-ry3aMH H yflrypaMH. B HCTOPHI.JOCI{Oi1 J1HT~paType na 3TOT Cl.JeT HMeeTCfl HeMaJ10 pa3J1HlJHblX aar nsnoe, HO HeT odruenpuanron TOQ"" apeuns (545; 589; 594; 621; 632; 707).

2 B ny6J1HKyeMoH KHHre TepMHHOM «ceJlb)J.}KYKH.llbl» 0003HaQaeTCH JlHHaCTlfllcCKaH <jJaMHJ1IHI, non ynpaanenaex xoropon HaXO.llHJ1HCb nneuena Ce~'b.ll}KyK08. nocnenaee H83BaHHe npanaraerca I{ ori'eenaneaaro nneaen. OCHOBHoe 3THHQeCKOe H.l.PO xoroporo COCTOHJ10 "3 orY308 " TypKMel-I.

3 ,UaHHhIU TepMHH ynoTpe6J1HeTCH HaMH ne B Y31{Ql\I peJ1HrH03IIOM, a WHPO!{I)M KYJlhTYPHO-JIOJIHTHI.JeCKOM 3HaQeU"". I'eorpatpasecxu OH pacnpocrpanaercn na CTP3- HbI, uexorna BXoilHBWHe B COCTaB apaecxoro xanatpara (cp, 725, c. 6).

06paSOB3HHe llMnepl!1I CeJJbJVKYKllilOB IIBIIJlOCb KpynHblM 3T3nOM B ilaJlbHeihneM pa3BI!THH q,eOilaJlbHblX oraouiennf B CpeilHeii A311H, aa BJlHJKHeM H Cpenaev BocTOKe, B 3aKaBKa3be II MaJloII A3HH. STO rpaannoaaoe C06blTHe HMeJlO II npyrne BalKHbIe 06"eKTHBHO-HCTOPHqeCKHe nOCJJeilCTBHlI .z:tJlIl CTpaH Bocroxa. TypKMeHbI II orysu, yurenIJHJe n XI--XIII BB.B 3aKaBKa3be H MaJlYIO A3HIO, lIPHWIJJI: ysacrae B q,OPMHPOB3HIIH asepeaanacaacxoro H TypeUKorO naponee. OrY3- CKHe nneaeaa, OCTaBWHeCli B npeneaax Cpeaaea A3I1H, Hpana II A<jJraHHCTaHa, !!BHJIHCb BalKHblM CJJaraeMblM .B KOHCOJIH.z:taUHH rypxMeHCKoii HapO.z:tHOCTH. 3Ha'lHTeJIbHble 3THH'IeCKHe rpyrrm .. 1 oryacxoro rrpOHCXOlK.z:teHHlI BJlHJIHCb B COCTaB Ka3aXOB, Y36eKOB, xapaxannaxoa. 6aWKllp, rarap, OrY3CKall npoonexa IIMeeT, CJJe.z:tOBaTeJIbHO, OTHOIIleHHe K UeJIOMY psny TIOPK01l3bI'IHblX saponos COBeTCKoro H aapyoeacaoro Bocroxa. Pa3pa60TKa .z:taHHoII np06JIeMbI ooperaer 60JIbIIlYlO 3Ha'IHMOCTb He TOJIbKO iI.111 HCTOPHH Cpe.z:tHeii, HO H Ilepennes H MaJIO!I

A3HH. .

Ha3BaHHe eorys» nOJIY'lHJIO IIlHpOKoe pacrrpocTpaHeHHe B C penHeii A3HH Ha'lHHa!! C IX-X BB. O'leDH.z:tHO, 3TO 6blJIO CJIe.z:tCTBHeM pasrpova orY3aMH neueaeaccxoro COlO3a nnexea H 06pa30saHHIl .z:teplK:1· Bbl CbIp.z:taPbHHCKHX 1I6ry. B KOHue IX B. oryssr HaHeCJJII neueaerax npn co.z:teiicTBlln xasap COKpywHTeJIbHOe nopaxenae H OBJIa.z:teJIII IIX 3eMJIIlMH MelKilY YpaJIOM II Bo.nroa. C 3TOii nopu :\0 cepeuuusi XI B. nOJIIITII'IeCKall rerexoaaa na 06WllPHOM npocrpaucrse crenuoa rrOJIOCbI Cpenaea A311H HaXO,ll,HJIaCb B pyxax orY3CKHX BOlK,lI,ei\.

OrY3aMH B Cpenaea A311H HMeHOBaJIHCb TIOPKOIl3bI'IHbIe, npeaMymecTBeHHO xosesue nnexena, lKHBIIlHe lIaH60JIee KOMnaKTHO B Ilpaxacnna, HH30Bb!lX Cup-Zlapsa H Ilpaapanse'. EOJIbIIlIIHCTBO 3THX IlJIeMeH BXO.l(HJIO B X-XI BB. B COCTaB rocynapcrna 1I6ry, CTOJIlIuel1 KOTOPPfO 6blJI r. 5!HrHKeHT. Cpenn orY30B, ocoeenao KO'leBbIX H noxyKO'leBbIX, .z:tOMHllllpOBaJI MOHrOJIOH,lI,Hblii pacousm THn. Typxuenaxa aasuaanacs JIIIIIlb 'IaCTb orY30B, KOTopaH aCCHMIIJIHpODaJI acs C eaponeOH.z:tlJbIM, npenaymecreeano HpaHO!!3bI'IHbIM HaceJIeHHeM Cpenaek A3HH. Hasaaaae «TypKMeH» npHJIaraJIOCb TaKlKe K OT,lI,eJIbHblM, BepOllTHO, MeTHcHpOBallHbIM 3THH'IeCKIIM rpynnax xaJIaJi){{eii H KapJIYKoB (626; 627; 716).

Cpeaaesexoeue orysu H TypKMellbl 6bI.1H ,lI,OBOJIbHO 6JIII3KIIMH, lIO lie a6COJIIOTHO lI,lI,elITH'IHbIMH Hap9,l1,aMH. OrY30B HeJIb3!! C'IHTaTb e,ll,IIHCTBeHHbIMH npeAKaMII COBpeMeHHblX TypKMeH, OCHOBHoe H.l(PO KOTOPbIX Cq,OPMHPOB3JIOCb H3 TIOpKII3HpOBaHHbIX rrOTOMKOB npeanero HH,lI,Oesponencxoro HaCeJIeHHlI crenen H oa3HCOB 3aKacrrHH. OAnaKO 3THH'1eCKHe I\OMrrOHeHTbl oryacxoro npOHCXO}({,lI,eHHlI curpanu 'Ipe3BbI'IaiiHO BalKHYIO pOJIb B <jJOpMHpOB3HHII TYPKMeHCKOH HapO.z:tHOCTH.

I PC3IoMHpyeM3H HH?f{C TOQKa 3peHMH 0 COOTHOllJeHHH TepMHHOB «orya» H O('fypKMCH» GOJIee nOJl.p06HO Jl3JlO)KeHa aBTopOM B ero CT8TbSlX H naysnux noxnaaax. Ilonsrrxa OCBeTUl'b .9THOreHe3 orY3DB M TypKMeH caenaaa H3MH B CnellHaJIbHOM Jl.O~ KJI3J1,e na nepaox BCE'COr03HOI'I{ COBemaliHHonpOHCXO>K.lleHHHTypKMeHCKorOHapo.na (8 coasropcrse c A. A. POCJIHl<OBblM H A. K. Kappsreesm). OCHOBHble np06JIC:Mbl 9THHQeCI{QH HCTOPHH orY3DB paccaorpeasr 8BTOPOM B ADKJI8,ne H3 TIOPKOJIOfHqeCKOii KOHq,epeHII.HH, COCTOHBUJeiic. B arcae 1967 r. B JIeHHHrpa)(e (eM. 21; 25; 26; 196).

6

B lTy6Jlf!1(ye~lOiI paoore )(eJlaeTCII nonurxa Bb!flC[[HTb apean p3Ccenenna, rrOKa33Tb OCHOBHble 'IepTb! 06!l1:eCTBeHllOrO H [[OJlHTH'!CCKOrO CTP05l, npocnenars IlCTOpH'IeeKHe cY)(b6bl orY30B H TypKMeH Cpe)\Hcii A3HH B IX--XIII BB.' np06.1CM3 06p330BaHHH TYPKMeHCKO!! naponaoCTH, OKOHq3Te,lbHoe <jJOPMHpOB3Hlle KOTopOJI BhlXOilHT 33 xponononrsecxue p3MKH !!36paHHoH TeMbI, 6y.~eT ocseuteua HaMH B cneunansHOH MOHorpa<jJHH.

B xonc HCC"le)(OBaHH5I npo6JleM HeTopHH orysou H TypKMeH CpenHel' A3!!H B IX-XIII OB. npHXO)(HJlOCb H3T3.1KHoaTbCH H3 cepseauue TPY)(HOCTH. [Jl3BHbIM 06pa30M 3'1'0 06'bllCHlIeTCll COCTOSIHHeM acronH!1KOBellqeeKOH 633b1 H Hep3BHOMepIWH H3YQCHHOCThiO pa3.nHQHh1X acne!{TOB Jl36p3HHOH TeMbl. Ocooeuao ,PY/IHO 6bwo npu ocaeutenna acTOpllQeCKHX cy)(e6 orY30B H TypKMeH' XI-XIII en. Orp3HHQHTbClI reorp adiaxecxuraa paMKaMH rry6mlKyeMoii KHHrH. B p3ccMaTpIIB3eMb!V nepnozt He C.~OMHJlIlCb euie 3THllQeCKHe II 1l0JlHTH'leCKHe rpannusr, KOTOpb!e cymeCTBYIOT B' aacroaruee apenn. n03TOMY B pariore IlCnOJlb3YIOTCSI H31l60,lee xapaxrepnue <jJaKTbl 0 TypKMeH3x H orysax Hpana, CUPIlIl, HpaK3, 3aKaBK33bH H MaJloH A3!H[ XI-XIII BR. H3Y'IeHHe 3TUX q,3KTOB H3 ocnose Cp3BHl!Te,1bHo-HCTOpnQeCKOrO MeTO" na nosaonaer Bbl5lBIlTb o611IHe aaxonouepuocrn B nOJIHTHQeCKOM H coUHaJlbHO-3KOHOMHQeCI{QM CTpOC orY30B H rypioren Hcc.1eilycMoii 3)10XII.

B 113Jl.3B3CMOM xnnre HMCH3 coocrsennue, reorparpnuecxne H )(PYrile TepMUllb! )(allbl 6e3 q,oHeTHQeCKOil rpancnrrrepauan no 'IIlCTO rexHH'IeCKHM npHQHHaM2: Ha3B3HIlSl pyxonncaux cO'lHHeHHI, H ornensnux ny6JlllK3UHii H3 apaticxou, nepCH)(CKOM 11 rypenxov fl3blK3X npaaeneHb! B PYCCKOH TpaHcKpHIllIIlH. CCb!JlKH na IlcnoJlb30B3HHYlO JlHTepaTVPY 11 HCTO'lIlHKH nansr B caMOM TeKCTe ny6J1IlKyeMoH MOHorpaq,HH. Flepaas UII<jJpa B xpyrnux cI{Q6K3x npu nOM 03Ha'iaeTllOp5!)(KOBbIH HOMep noaeureanoro B KOHI,e paeorsi 6H6J1HOrp3q,Il'!ecI{Qro crrHCK3. 33TeM B CCb!JlKe YK3SblBUIOTCSI cTpaHHUbI, a pllMCI{a5! undipa 0603H3- naer COOTBeTCTBYlOmllH TOM U,1H BbrnYCK IICnOJlb30B3HHOi! nnreparypa

H MCTOqHHKOB. ' I

CqllT310 npHIITHb!M )(OJlrOM npaaecrn 6J13ro)(3PHOCTb GBOHM KOJl-"Cr3M - COTPY)(UIlK3M HHCTIlTYTa HCTOPHH 11M. Ill. 03Tl>IPOB3 AH TCCP, IIpllHHBIIIIlM axrnanoe ysacrae B o6cYM)(eHHH ny6JlllKyeMoii ](HHrH. Ocoeenao npnanarenes A. A. POCJlSlKOBY, cnoc06CTBOBaBlUeMy np06YM)(eH1H0 BO MHe etue n crynensecxne ronsr cepseanoro HHTepeca K orY3CKOH np06J1eMaTHKe. [Jly60KYIO 6J1aro)(apHOCTb nsrpascato HaYQHblM COTpY)(H!fJ{aM. JIOHHA AH CCCP B. A. POMO)(HHV, C. r. KJlHUlTOPHOMY, K. H. I0363UlllHY 11 O. I'. OOJlb1ll3KOBY aa noneansre COBeTbI npa nanacanna npeanaraexoa paooru. DOJlbUlYIO npIl3H3,eJlbHOCTb Bblpa>K31O B. H. OeJlSleBY, H. n. MIlK,lp;o-M3KJ13K' 11 O. I!>. AKHMYlll!{IlHY aa YKa33HHe H3 cmtcxn psna BOCTO'lHblX HCTOpuxo-reorpaoasecxax CO'lIlHeHIlH, XpaHHmHXCH B HHA AH CCCP.

I B 1f3.n,aBaeMYJO paeorv He FlKJI104eH3 rnaaa 0 BOCCT8HHH orV30B BeCHOH

] 153 r. nporaa CeJlb,lUKYKHllcKHX BJI3CTeH Xopacana. n3HHblii sonpoc 6b1J1 paCCI\IOTpea 3BTOPOM B ero KaHllHll3TCKOfi JUICCepT3UHH, nO)lfOTOBneHHoH K H3,!laHHIO oraeasnof' KHHroit

2 no 3TOH me npHtIHHe He y.![anOCb npasaasao ,Haeip3Tb H33BaHHH OT)leJlbHbJX paGoT sa HJfOCTpaBHblX H3b11{3X, OCQQeHH(l Iia Typeu.~OM) a T3K)f{e nexoropue 6YKBbI apaecxoro wpHljlTa.

B B EJI. E.H H E. HCTOPHOrPAtIIH'IECKHR 0630P

I1JIeMeHa orysos H TypKMeH Cpennea AaHH AOSOJIbHO paao npnBJIeKJIH BHHMaHHe cpeAHeBeKOBbIX XPOHHCTOS, nYTeweCTseHHHKOB, reorparpoa H JIHHrBHCTOB. BOJIbWoii nnrepec K HHM npOlIBHJIH He TOJlhKO BOCTO'lHble, HO H aananaue HCTOPHKH, oc06eHHO B· :;l!10XY KpeCTOBblX nOXOAOB (552; 152). CpMH OTHOCHTeJIbHO 60JIbWOfO xpyra HCTO'lHHKOB no H36paHHoii TeMe nenyntee MeCTO 3aHIlMalOT CO'lHHeHHlI, narnrcanaue na apaocxox, npancxax II TIOPKCKIIX sssncax'. XapaxTepHcTIIKa 60JIbWHHCTBa "THX IICTO'lHIIKOB naaa B. B. BapTOJIb.II.OM (65), B. H. BeJIlIeBblM H A. A. POMaCKeSH'IeM (265), H. 10. Kpa'lKOBCKHM (221), K. Ka9HoM (535). 3Ha'lIITeJIbHOe MeCTO 11M OTBeAeHO II B cnenaansnux rpynax no MYCYJIbMaHCKoii ncropnorparpnn K. BpoKeJIbMaHa (520), K. Crops (742), X. fu66a (114), <1>. P03eHraJIH (725), B. IIInYJIJIepa (740).

I-laJIII'Iue CTO.~b 06WUPHOii JIUTeparypbI lIa6aBJIlleT Hac 01' He06- X0.II.UlllOCTII OCTaHaBJIHBaTbClI nOAP06HO na Ka>K.II.OM HCTO'lHHKe. B npeanaraexox 0630pe rJIaBHOe BHHMaHlle YAeJIlIeTClI HaH60JIee Ba>KHbI)'! llCTO'lHIlKaM, nOMOralOIl(HM YlICHHTb cOOTBercTBYIOIUHe pa3AeJIbI KHHfll. Paccxarpaaaexue HCTO'lHHKH <jJYHKUHOHaJIbHO nOApa3AeJIlIIOTCll aa HeCKOJIbKO 60JIbWHX xareropna. Cpe.II.H HHX MO>KHO BbIAeJIIITb. KO~!DJIeKCbl HCTOpH'IeCKHX u reorpaqiauecxax rpynos, AOKYMeHransaue C60PHHKH, 9HUHKJIOneAH'IeCKHe H <jJHJIOJIOrH'IeCKHe CO'lHHe-

HHB. •

HCTOPHRO' B cpeancsexcaon apa60-nepCH.II.CKOii acropnorpa-

reorpacjlHQe- cjJHH nepaue cBeAeHHlI 0 nJIeMeHaX orY30B H rypxuen

eRHe TPYJlbI npnaeneuu B HCTO'lHHKaX IX-X BB. naHH·all nopa IX--X DB. 3HaMeHyeTcll nporpeCCOM B pa3JIH'IHblX OTpaCJIlIX Ha-

yKH H KYJIbTYpbl CTpaH MYCYJIbMaHcKoro BOCTOKa; BOJIb!UHe ycnexa 6bIJIlI AOCTHfHYTbI H B 06JIaCTH pa3BIlBaSWHXClI B recaoa CB1I3H IICTO-

I nHCbMeHHble HCTOqHHKH aa BOCTOqHblX 93b1KaX COCT3BJt91OT OCHOBHYIO 6aay .Il,JlH BOCC03)laHHH HCTOPHH -OrY30S H TypKMeH IX-XIII DB. STHOrpalPHtteCKHe H ueurecreeaaue naMSlTHHKH KpaHHe M3nOQHCJIeHHbI H paCCM3rpHB8lOTCSl H8MH B COOfBeTcTBylO~11X rJl8BaX MOHorpa<j>UH,

paxo-reorpadiauecxax 3HaHHH. C031\aeTCH pHI\ xpynnsrx TPYI\OB seeotiutero H pernoaansaoro aanpaaneaxa, pa3BHBaIOTO! xecrnue HCTOpasecxae U1KOJlbl. B 3Ha'lHTeJJbHOii xepe 3TOMY cnoc06CTBOBa.1 pacnan apaecxoro xanatpara, npHBel\U1Hii K B03pOlKl\eHHIO KYJlbTYPbl nOKOpeaaux HapOI\OB. HaH60Jlee KpynHblMH nenrpaan HaYKH HBJlHJlHCb 3KOHOMHQeCKH paaaurue CTOJlHQHble ropona Hpaxa, Ernnra, Hpana, Cpenaea A3HH. OCHOBHblM Cpel\CTBOM KYJlbTYPHOro 06mem15I CJlYlKHII apa6cKuii 1I3b1K, Yl\eplKaBmHH CBOIO rereMOHHIO na HeCKOJlbKO BeKOB. Hcropaorpaona na 3TOM H3blKe pa3BHBaJ1aCb nOJ\ BJlHHHHeM CHHTe3a nJleMeHHblX CKa3aHIJii IJ reueanonnt apatioa, xaaacsoa mrreparypu, crapux 3nlJ'IeCKHX TpaJ\HI1Hii npauuea, cHplJiiues H npyrux Hapo.'I.OB (114; 725).

B IX--X BB. oc06eHHO 60JlbUlIJX ycnexos .!I.OCTHfJl3 apatioaauvHall reorpadiasecxaa HaYKa. nepeacanasuras snoxv csoero pacusera. CymeCTBeHHYIO pons B STOM cerrpana npe.!l.WeCTBYIOUlHe aparicxne 3aOOeBaHHJI, rrpaKTIJ'IeCKHe 3 ana '1[1 aI\MHHHCTpaTHoBHO·-HallorOBoro ynpaanenas, HHTeHcutjJHKaUH'lI cyxonvraoa H xopcxon TOprOBJlH. He06- XOI\HMOCTb 06eCneQeHHlI BHeUlHeii 6e30uaCHOCTH, 3KcnaHCHOHHCTCKHe II MHCCHOHepCKHe YCTpeMJleHHlI CTHMYJlHpOBaJlH HaKOnJleHHe HHtjJOp· MaUHH 0 COCel\HHX aaponax (221). 3Ha'lHTeJlbHblii asrepec naxauaer npOllBJIHTbCH H K TIOPKOll3bl'lHblM JIJleMeHaM Cpenaek A3HH, KOTopaH CJlYlKHJla OI\I!HM H3 tjJopnOCToB HCJlaMa. B IX B. B none 3peHHlI apa6oH3bl'lHb1X HCTOPHKOB II reorpaqioa nonanaror H orysu, craeume aKTHBHoii CIIJloii na rpanauax Xopesva, Maaepanuaxp a H Xopacana.

B apa601l3bl'IHb1X IICTOpH'leCKHX npOH3Bel\eHHlIX nanrionee pannue CBeJ\eHlIlI 0 nneaenax oryson npnseaenu B rpy ae 11611 ,UlKa6l1pa an-Banaaypa (+892). Ero CO'lIlHeHHe nOI\ Ha3BaHHeM «KIITa6 tjJYTYX aJl-6YJll\aH» reHeTII'leCKIi BOCXOI\HT K »caspy «](IIHr nOXOJ\OB» (114; 725). 11CTOpH'leCKllii TPYI\ BaJlaaYPII cOXpaHIIJlCli 1\0 nanmx ILHeil ,~lIll1b B coxpaureuuon penaxunn (659). Banasypn BeCbMa penxo CCbl.naeTC5! na npel\U1ecTBYIOIUIiX aBTopOB, HO cpena ero nepBOHCTO'lHIIKOB Ha3BaH plll\ aascaux, yrpauemiax ceii'lac IICTOplI'leCKlIX nponseeneHlIIt ABTop «KIITa6 QlYTYX an-oynnaa» OTJlII'laJiClI CTpeMJleHlleM K nOCJle.!l.OBaTeJlbHOMY H3J10lKeHHIO C06blTllii II KpHTII'leCKIiM nOILXO.!l.OM K orriopy tjJaKTII'leCKOrO MaTepHilJla. B ueJJOM ero TPY;!. lIBJJlIeTC5! BnOJlHe H3.u:elKHb1M IICTO'lHHKOM, 3aCJlYlKIIBlllHM npll3HaHlie B aapy- 6elKHOH II COBeTCKoii HCTOpliorpatjJHII.

B TOM xce IX B. H3BeCTli1I 0 nJIeMeHaX oryaon nOHBJIlIlOTCH II B apa601l3bl'lHblX reorparpnvecxax CO'lIlHeHIIHX. OI\HO 113 nepaux yncMHHaHHii orysoa B raxoro poaa HCTO'lHHKaX COl\ep,](IITCH B «KIlTa6 akMaCaJlIIK Ba-Jl-MaMaJlIlK» 116H Xopnanoexa (820-912). ::lTO npoH3BC.!l.eHHe OTHOCIiTCli K cnenaqianecxoxy narrpannemno onncarensHoii reorparpnn -- «HaYKe 0 nyrsx II rOCYJ\apCTBax» (221. c. 19).

DJlIl3KIIMH no xcaapy K TPYJ\Y 116H Xopnanriexa HBIIHIOTCli CO'lHHeHlIlI VlaKy611 (+892) II KYl\aMb!H6H ,UlKatjJapa (+922~-948). VlaKy6H 6blJJ He TOJlbKO reorparpoa, HO II HCTOPHKOM nparuarauecxoro HanpaBJIeHIIH, nblTaBUlHMClI Y5!CIIIITb rrpll'lIlHHYIO 06YCJlOBJleHHOCTb CO- 6blTIiH. OI\HaKO Hall60JlbUlee snaueaae .Il.JlH aauren rexsr IIMeeT ero

9

reorpadiauecxnf Tpyft «l(llTa6 aJI-6y.1)laH». 8TO npoaaseneuae OKOH'leno B 891 r. II OCHosaHO rJIaBHblM 06pa30M na paccrrpocHblX )laHHbIX, ncnyseaasrx BO BpeMl! MHoroJIeTHIlX nYTelllecTBIlH anropa (221, c. 151; 520, I, c. 226). f'laKy61l TU\aTeJIbHO conOCTaBJIliJI 0)lHIl1l3BeCTHli c APYJ"HMH, oT6paCbIBaH nenocrosepasre cBeAeHHH. Covnuenae f'laKY- 6H lIBJmeTCH ueHHbIM HCrO'lHIlKOM, ccnepxcaunrx 06ll1HPHblii HCTOPllI<O-3THorpa«f!HQeCKHii MaTepllaJI. npHBO)lHMble HM CBe)leHHlI 3HaQIlreJIbHO pacurapsnor nanrn n03HaHHH 0 TIOpKax, B TOM '!HCJIe oryaax Cpe)lHeii A3Hll.

Cpenn pacca arpnaaeaoro KOMnJIeKCa HCTO'iHHKOB cnenver na- 3BaTb H «KHTa6 ax6ap a.1-6YJIlI.aH» 116H aJJ-<PaKHxa (543; 357). TlpoH3Be)leHHe 3TO nauucano OKO,10 903 1". H COKpameHO B nepsoa ucrsep- 1"H XI B. (395, I; 774, c. 11). OAHaKo HapH.lI.Y (1 KpaTKoii AO Hac nouina H 60JIee nonaas penaKIUHI, coxpaauaruaaca B xeurxencxou cnncxe (98). CO'lHHeHHe i16H aJI-<PaKHxa npasanaexcar K 3aHllMaTeJIbHOJJHTepaTypHoMY aanpaaneumo onucareasuoa reorparpna. OTJIll'!HTeJIbHOii 'lepTOH )!aHHOrO rpyna lIBJIlleTCH 6eCCHc-reMHOCTb H3JIOlKeHllH II J.l.OBOJIbHO omYTHMbIl1 KOMrrHJIHTHBHblH xapaxrep. Hecvorpn na .'lTO, CO'JHHeHlle 116H aJI-¢31mxa 3aCJIYlKilBaeT cavoro npHCTaJIbHOrO BHHMaHHH. B «KHTa6 ax6ap aJI-6YJI.!l.aH» conepxcarcs Ba)KHble flCTOpnxo-reorpadnmecxae CBe.!l.eHIIlI, OTCYTCTBYlOmIle B npyrax HCT04HfIxax. 130JIblllOH anrepec npeacranmnor rJIaBbI 0 TIOPKCKIIX nJIeMeHaX, HX 6blTe, npanax II 06b1QaHx. npHXOAllTC51 JIHIIIb COlKaJIeTb, 'ITO nepBOMCTO'lHHKH srnx Jl3BeCTIIii euie He,ll.OCTaT04HO BbJHCHeHbl (98; 26.5; 774). Oc060e 3Ha'!eHHe AJIi! Hameli TeMbl HMeeT npasonaxoe i16H aJI·<PaI\HXOM llCTOpHQeCKOe npenaaue 0 TaK Ha3bIBaeMOM )lOlKAeBOM KaMHe. 116H aJI-¢aKHX CCblJIaeTCH npn STOM na paCCK33bl A6Y-JI-A6- 6aca HCbl M6H MyxaMMa.!l.a n6H i1Cb! 3"~-MapBa3Hl II JJ:aYAa H6H AJIn an-Banrncn, HaMeCTHllKa Xopacana (167, :no 171). nOCJIeJ.l.HHH, cyns no TeKcTY MellixeAcKoil pYKonMCI1, 6blJI cospeMeHHHKOM npantrrena 113 )!HHaCTHIl CaMaHH)!OB - 11CMaHJIa M6n Axsrana (892-907).

Paccxas A6Y-JI-A66aca MapBa3J1 nenerca co CJIOll O.!l.IlOrO 113 orY3CKHx uapeanuea no HMeHH l3a,lKIIK. nOMMMO CO'lI1HeHlIlI 116H aJI<paKlIxa 31'0 npenamre CO.!l.eplKlITClI B rpynax I-IaAlKII6a XaMaAaHH (XII B.) II AMJlHa Pa3H (XVI B.).OABaKO B ,<AAlKaH6 aJI-MaXJIYK3T» H «Xaqrr HKJIHN!» npHBO)lllTCH )leTaJIII, OTCYTCTBYIDmHe B «I(HTa6 ax- 6ap aJI-6YJI.!l.aH». HaA)!{II6 X·aMa,ll.aHM H AMHH Pa3H, sepoaruo, nons- 30BaJIIICb 60JIee 06UIHPHOli, qeM npencraaneunan B MellixeACKOM cnzcxe, penaxunea npOH3Be)leHHlI H6H aJI-<PaKHxa (207; 273).

nOqTH O)!HOBpeMeHHo C rrponaaeneuaex H6H aJI-<paKHxa B uaqaJIe X B. 116H PYCTe narmcan MHorOTOMlloe 3Hl.\HKJIOne)lIl'leCKOe co'IHHeHHe. O)lHaKO 113 3TOro 06ll1HpHOrO TpYAa COXpaHHJICfl JIHllIb o,lHH TOM C aCTpOHOMHqeCKHM BBeAeHHeM H. HCTopIIKo-reorpa«f!H4ecKHM onucaanex IIKJIIIMOB (265, C. 21). Coxuneaae 116H Pycre no)! Ha3BaHHeM «KuTa6 3JI-aJIal( au-aarpncas 6bIJIO 3aKOH'IeHO scxope rrOCJIe 903 r.

I 11. 10. Kpa4Ko,BcKHH CKnOHeH HYMaTb, 410 non 3THM HMeHeM cxpueaercs IB.eCTUbI!' aareparop IX B. A6Y-JI-A66ac lllKatjIap HOU AXMaJ! an-Mapsaaa (221, c. 127).

10

(221, c. 159). PaccMaTpHsaeMbIH rpyn UeJIHKOM OCHOBaH Ha KHHlKHbIX HCTO'lHHK3X, HO 31'0 He CHHlKaeT ern J(OCTOHHCTB. H6H PYCTe KpOIIOT.nHBO co6pa.n MHOl!(eCTBO ueaaux <j:>aKTOB H3 npOH3BeJ(eHHH pas.nH'IHbIX nYTeweCTBeHHHKon H reorpaipoa (520, I, c. 227). Bonsmoe snauenae TurelOT ero pasnenu 0 TIOPK05I3bI'IHbIX nneaenax H naceneaHbIX HMH 3eM.nHX (160; 449).

lleCilToe cronerae 5IBH.nOCb anoreex B HCTOPHH pa3BHTHH reorpadJH'IeCKHX 3HaHHH B crpaaax Mycy.nbM3HCKOro BOCTOK3. Ocorieaao 60.nbwHe ycnexa 6bmH )],OCTHrHYTbI B o6.nacTH xaprorpatpna H ormcaTe.nbHoH reorparpna. C03)]'aeTcH TaK Ha3blBaeMbill ATJl3C HCJlaMa, B03- HHKWIIH IIO)]' aenocpeacreeuuux B.nH5IHHeM crapux upancxax Tpa)],11- llllil (221. c. 170). O)],HO 113 nepsux c06paHHH TaKHX xapr C nOHCHI1'1'e,1bHbIM TeKCTOM conepacanocs B HallHcaHHOM OKO.nO 920 r. cot'HliellHIl A6y 3ailM an-Ba.rxu (850--934). [eorpacjJlI'IecKHHTpYII BaJIXII 1I0)],BeprcH 06pa60TKe H 6bl.n nOllOJIHeH HOBbIMH <j:>aKTH'IeCKHMH CBe)],eHHlIMH MelK)],Y 930 H 933 r. (221, c. 196)_ ABTOPOM sroro nepepa- 60TaHHoro rpyna non H33BaHHeM «KI!Ta6 aJl-MaCaJlHK Ba-JI-MaM3J1HI(» OWl A6y Hcxax aJI-HCTaxpH. Ilpoaaaenenne HCTaxpH il CBOIO ouepens 6blJIO orpenaxrapoaano H )],onOJlHeHO B X B. A6Y-Jl-KacHMOM H6H Xayxanex. CO'lHHeHHe H6H Xayxana B nepaox napnaare nocnsuteno 3MHPY CHPHH H3 )],HHacTIIH XaM)l,aHH)l,OB CaH<j:> a)]'-llaYJle (+967). Bropas penaxuas 31'OrO TOY!\3 6bJ.n ~ COCTaBJlena noannee, sepoarno, OKOJIO 977 r. B CHllHJIHH (520; I, c. 229; 221, c. 199). HCCJle)]'oB3HHHMH ae rye H H. X. Kpaxepca noxasauo. 4TO 11611 XaYKaJl HCnOJlb30BaJI nOJlHblll, a He COKp3meHHblH B3pH8HT lIpOH3Be)],eHlIH HCTaxpH. IlepBOH3'l3J1bBaH pe!(3KIIHH 3TOro rpvna COXp3H1lJ1arb B nepCH)]'CKO-T3)l,lKHKCKHX nepesonax C apa6CIW[,0 Op"rHH8Jra (272; 405; 559). B 3THX nepesonax HMelOTCH CBe)],eHIIH, xoropsre OTCYTCTBYIOT B ziourenurax )10 H3C pyxonncax conaneann HCTaxpH. 118HHble nepcaacxo-ranacnccxax BCPCHfi BOCXO)],HTK nOJlHOH peIlIlKL\HH rpyaa HCT8XPH, I<OTOPOll nonssoaancs H6H XaYKaJl (265, c. 27). B 3THX BepCH1!X conepncarca BalKHble )],JlH naurea TeMbl 113BeCTH5I 0 nJIeMeH3X orY30B, lKlIBWHX B' .'lOJlIIHe Csrp-Ilapsn I! Ill amcuof 06J18CTH.

Cpenn reorpaousecxnx COtll1HeHHH X B .• aarmcanaux H3 apariC«OM 113bIKC, CJIe)],yeT oc060 nune.mrn, }KHBOll paCCKa3 nyreurecrnenHllJWB. Ilponsseneaaa 31'01'0 pona, OTHOCHmHeCH K Jl(aHpy onacareasHoil reorpadian, HBJlHIOTClI L\eHfIbl~lf{ IICTOpH'leCKHMH nepBOHCTO'lHHKaMH. O)]'HHM H3 TaKHX HCTO'lHHKOB 1!BJlHeTCH )]'aBHO H3BeCTHaH B OTe'leCTBeHHoH acropaorpaqmu (575) «Knnra» Axvana H6H <lJallJI3H3. B 921--922 rr. OH npanaa yuacme B nOCOJ[bCTBe X3,1H<j:>a 3JI-MYKTa)],Mpa B BOJlJl(CKYIO Bynrapmo. [JIaBOH 3TOH )]'IJIlJlOMaTH'leCKOH MIICCHH, B IWTOPYIO BXO)],HJI H6H <lJa)]'JlaH, 6bIJI uaanaxes Cycaa ap-Pac-

CII (206; 208; 770). .

ITocJIe uoaapauienaa nOCOJlbCTBa B Barnan xannqiy 6blJI npenCT3BJIeH OTtJeT, COCT3BJleHHblH H6B <lJa)]'JlaHoM. B 331111CKe onncaa MapwpyT nYTewecTBHH xepes Hpan, Xopacaa, MaBepaHHaxp H Xopeaa B KaMcKYIO BYJIrapHIO. ITOCOJIbCTBO Cycaaa ap-Pacca, H3np3BJlllHCb H3 Xopesx a B cTpaHY 6YJlra p, npOeX3JIO no 1{Q'IeBbHM orY30B

11

I! HblHeUIHeM 3anan;HOM Kasaxcratre. H6H <Pa)(JlaH B caoefr «I(Hl1re» naer OTJlH4alOlUeeCH 60JlblllOH MeTKOCTblO Ha6J1IO)(eHI1H nO)(p06HOe OnHCal111e nOBCe)(l1eB110rO 6b1Ta OrY30B. B ero OT4eTe CO)(eplKaTCIi TaK· lKe aaaeuarensnue )(aHHble O· COUHaJlbHbIX OTHOllleI1H51X, nOJlHTH4e· CKOM crpoe H X0311HCTBe K04eBbIX orY30B X sexa.

COBpeMeHHHKOM. 116H <Pai\JlaHa 6bW CTpal1CTBOBaTeJlb H 6po)(SI' 4HH n03T A6y .uYJlacp (221, c. 186). OH nexoropoe BpeMIi CJlYlKHJI npa naope CaMaHH)(CKOrO sMHpa Hacpa II 11611 AXMa)(a (914-942). A6y )lYJlat!J OKOJlO 942 r. OTIlpaBHJlCIi B nYTeweCTBHe 113 MaBepaHl1axpa II I(HTa~ 11 I1H)(HIO. IJoe3)(Ka 6b1J1a, Bep051THO, CB513aHa C npl16bITHeM B Byxapy KHTaHCKoro nOCOJlbCTBa. 04eBI1)(HO, A6y llYJlacp conposoac)(aJl B 06paTIlbIii nyrs STY )(Hn.~OMaTH4ecKylO MHCCI1IO (220, c. 280, 281). I1YTewecTBeHHHK OCTaBHJI 3anHcKY C onncaanex caoero Mapw· PYTa sepea 3eMJlI1 orysoa, KapJlYKOB, neueaeroa 11 )(PYrHX TlOpKO' 113b1411bIX nneven (359).

B I1CTOpl14eCKOH .nareparype Ha4HI1all C npournoro CTOJleTlI5l nonroe BpeMIi rOCnO)lcTBOBaJlo. CKenTH'ieCKOe ornomeane K «Tlocna- 111110» A6y .uYJlacpa. B. B. Fpnropses, nanpnvep, C4H1'aJl, 4TO .9TOT CTpaHCTBOBaTeJlb aanacan CBOIO «3anHcKY» no cnyxav, C 4YlKIIX CJlOB (123, C. 3), apryxearupys CBOIO ouenxy «rIoCJlaHH51» A6v llyJlacpa B 4aCTHOCTI1 1'eM, 4TO TOT noueuraer orY30B K BOCTOKY OT Bvxapu. TaK351 JlOK3J1I1SauHII, no ero MHeHIlIO, npOTIIBope4HT )l3HHbIM ncex OC· T3J1bHbIX apa6CKIIX reorpa cpOB. O)(HaKO B. B. Fpnropses He npanan BO BHIIM3HHe TOT cpaKT. 4TO rpynna orY3CKIIX nneuen 0611T3J1a B X B. B Cexrnpevse'. 04eBIln;1l0, no 3eM."<lM .9TIIX orysos II npoexan A6y ]ly. Jlacp, HanpaBJlII51Cb 113 Byxapu B I(IITaii.

O)(HIIM 113 BbI)(alOlUIIXCIi apa6CKIIX nYTeweCTBel1HIIKOB X B. 6bIJI A6Y·JI·Xacal1 aJl·MacY)(1I (+956). B MO.10)(bIe rO)(bI 011 crpaacraoaa,n no 11 paay, 3aTeM n06bIBaJl B I1H)(III1, na UeHJlofie, B Knrae, XopacaHe, Cnpnn, Erarrre (485; 486). MacY)(H COCTaBI1J1 B 944 r. TpH)(uaTII' TOMI1YIO acropaxo-reorpaoasecxyro 3HUIIKJlOne)llllO non Ha3BaHHeM «Ax6ap as-aanan» (725, c. 411) . .uo naurero BpeMeHH 113. nee coxpaHHJlIICb JlHWb KpaTKHe H3BJle4eHII51 II COKp3lUeHHble 06pa60TKH. I( IIX 411CJlY OTHOCIITCII «MYPY)(lK 33'33xa6», KOTOPblii 6bIJI 3aKOH4eH B 947 r. H nepepaoorau B 950 r. (265, c. 25). Hesanoaro )10 CMepTII MacY)(1I narrncan «I(IITa6 aT-TaH6HX» - aHaJlIITH4eCKIIH VK33aTeJlb C )(06aB' JleHH51MH K npelKHIIM Tpy)(3M (520, I, c. 143-145). rIpoH3Be)(eHHII M3CY)(1I OCHOB3HbI na JlH4HbIX H36J1IOi\eHIIIIX, P3CCK333X xynnos, nyTemeCTBeHHHKOB II nucsxemnax HCT04HIIK3X'. B ero TPYll3X npnnenea p51,ll oparanansaux HCTOPHKo-3THorpacpH4ecKHx csenenna 0 nnexenax orY30B Cpennen A3HH. OqeBII,llHO, 3TH> nannue 6blJlII naxonnenu II.M B 914-915 rr. B xone ero cTpaHcTBoBaHHH no I1paHY H XOP3C3HY (486, c. 514). MacY1l1I rnnuer, 4TO OH nnasan H3 A6ecKYHa B TariapaCTaH, rne c06paJI P33JIH4Hble CBe,lleHHII y xynuos H BJl31leJIbueB MOp' CKHX Kopa6JIeH (661, I, c. 274).

I H. H. Flaarycos ClIHTaJl, 'ITO onacaaaexue A6y .uYJlacpOM oryasr )l{H.;'m B UeHTpa.nbHO" A3HH (328; cp. 790).

2 Cpena HMX 6blJlM npOH3Be.lleHHH 116H Xapnaneexa U .ll.lKaiixaH)I (221, c. 179).

12

Hcropaxc-reorpaqia-reciore .l(amible, OCHOBaHHbie sa JIH1JHblX ua- 6JIIOAeHHlIX. 3aHHMalOT ewe 60JIee aaxoroe MeCTO B CO'lHHeHHH A6y A6AaJIJIaXa aJI-MaKAHcH (947-1000). )!(alKAa n03HaHHlI AaJIbHHX crpan 3aCTaBHJIa ero 06'beXaTb 60JIbWHIlCTBO MycYJIbMaHCKHx 06JIacTeM Bocroxa, B 986 r. MaKAHcH 3aKOH'IHJI D nepsou aapaanre npoH3BeAeHHe HOi( Ha3BaHHeM «Axcan aT-TaKaCHM IjJH MapHljJaT an-axaJIHM». Cnycrs npH6JIH3HTeJIbHO TpH rona OH COCTaBHJI HOBYIO penaxU:HIO csoero TpY,ll,a, nOCBlITHB ero ljJaTHMHACKHM npaaarensv Erarrra (520, I, c. 230). B npeAHCJIOBHH K «Axcaa aT-TaKaCHM» OH nonaepr KpHTHKe TPY,ll,bI npe,ll,WeCTBeHHHKoB H cnenan nonurxy HcnpaBHTb HX oWH6KH. MaKAHcH, napany C MaTepHaJIaMH coocreennux nYTeJIIeCTBHM, HCnOJIb30BaJI cooouieaas pa3JIH'IHblX HHqJOpMaTopoB H «KHHrH, II!IHAeHHbIe B uapcxax apxasax» (221, c. 211). CO'lHHeHHe MaK,ll,HCH lIBJIlIeTCli OAHHM H3 cauux ueaaux npOH3Be,ll,eHHM cpeaneaexoaoa apa- 60H3bl'1HOtI reorpaqiusecxoa nareparypu. OC06blii unrepec AJIH Hac npencraanaer conepxcauieeca B TpYAe MaK,ll,HCH nepsoe B MYCYJIbMaHCKHX HCTO'lHHKaX ynoMHHaHHe TypKMeH (66, c. 548).

B X B., aapsny C npOH3BeAeHHlIMH aa apa6CKOM 1I3bIKe, n0llBJIlI"e1'ClI pliA CO'lHHeHHH sa <PaPCH (napa): I(PynHbIMH nenrpaaa HaY'IHOM MblCJIH nOM HMO 5aCPbI, l(yljJbl, Barnana CTaHOBliTCli HHJIIanyp,. Byxapa, Cr apua Ypreasr. Ilepsue HCTOpH'IeCKHe rpyna aa nepcnncxoa H TaAlKHKCKOM 1I3blKaX npeACTaBJIliJIH c060ii nepeaonu C aparicxoro (651; 740). OAHaKo B AaJIbHeiiweM B03HHKaIOT oparaaaneasre HCTOpH'IeCKHe, reorparpnsrecxae, 3HU:HKJIOneAH'IeCKHe cosaaeana na rpapca, B X B. Be3Hp caMaHH,ll,a Hacpa H6H AXM311.1t (914-943) aanacan rpyn non uaaaanaex «1(1l-ra6 aJI-MaCaJIHK Ba-JI-MaMaJIHK». CTOJIeTHSI He nouiaaana TBopeHHlI ,UlKaiixaHH, xoropoe ceasac 6e3B03Bpa-rHO yrpa'1eHO'. K. BpoKeJIbMaH CtIHTaJI, 'ITO 31'0 npoassenenne 6bIJIO aasepureHO MelKAY 892 H 907 r., 'ITO spsn JIH COOTBercTBye1' ,ll,eiiCTBHTeJIbHOCTH (520, I, c. 228). B. B. Baproasn H H. 10. Kpauxoscxaa nOKa3aJIH, 'ITO ,UlKaiixaHH HanHCaJI CBoii TpYA He panee 922 r. (64, c. 42; 221, c. 222) . .ulKaiixaHII, no CJIOBaM MaKAHcH, cotipan 06WHPHYIO HHIjJOp· MaU:HIO 0 crpanax H aaponax, conpenensaax C Masepaanaxpou H Xopacaaou. OH npH3Ba'JI K ce6e HH03eMHbIX nocnoa H xynuoa H CTaJI paccnpaunrears 06 HX crpanax II senyuiax TYAa roproaux noporax. MaKAHcH CBIIAeTeJIbCTByeT, 'ITO B TpYAe ,UlKaiixaHII ynoMIIHanllCb caMble ornanennue H ManOH3BeCTHble OCTaHOBKII H aaceneasue nYHKTbI (695, c. 12-14). Oc06eHHO nO,ll,p06HO 11M 6blJIII onacaau AOJIHHbl, XOJIMbl, ropu H pexa, HaXO,ll,HBWHeCli na 3THX xapaaaanux nYTHx. IlpoH3BeAeHH<" ,UlKaiixaHH, no YTBeplKAeHHIO MaK,ll,HCII, COCTOllJIO H3 cexa TOMOB, HO HapSiAY C nonaoa cyniecraosana H coxpaurennaa penaxuua «I(IITao MaCaJIIIK aJl-MaMaJIHK» (221, c. 219-224).

1 B 40-_x, ronax rcxyurero CTO~leTHSI B acypnane «Apaana» IlOHSUJlHCb crarsa M. X. Illauxa 0 PYKOIIHCH npoaaseneans ,LJ.)I{aHX3HH, XpaH5IUlefICH B Ka6YJIbCKOM MY3ee. He6oJIbllJ851 3aMeTKa 0 HaXO.!I.Ke B Aq,raHHcT8He TPYJl.a .LJ.>K8HXaHH nCA aa- 3BaUHfM «AuIKaJI aJI-3J1aM» UJlD «MaCaJlHK 8JI-MaMa.nHK» 6b1J1a ony6.nHKoBaHa P. $paeM, Onnaxo, KaK noxasan B. <1>, MHHOPCKHH, Ka6YJIbCKHH cnHCOK HBJlHeTCH He lIeM HHhlM, l<aK DAHOH 83 nepCHAcKHX sepcaa covaueaaa Hcraxpn (735~ 577; 685).

riPH nanncaaisa csoero rpyna l1lKa~xaHH, BepOHTHO, rrOJlb30B,W' CH raxsce Ot(HOllMeHHbIM C0411HeHHeM 116H Xopnaaoexa (265, c. 17-18). OTpbIBKII 113 reorpaljJll'leCKOrO npoassenesas ,lllKailxaHH cOXpaHIIJIHCb B rpyaax 60JIee rr03AHllX cpeAHeBeKOBbIX aBTopOB. bO.~blllHe II.HTaTbI H3 «KHTa6 MaCaJIHK aJI·MaMaJIHK» npaaeneau B CO· 'lHHeHHHX rapAH3H, MapBa3U, I-l!lPHCH. reorpaIjJH'IeCKu,H TpYA ,lllKaii· xann 6bIJI raiose HCIIOJIb30BaH HeH3BeCTHblM aBTopOM "XYIJ,YA 'aJI' aJIaM», cOCTaBJIeHHbIM OKOJIO 982 r. I1CCJleIJ,OBaHHlIMH B. B. BapronsIJ,a H B. <1>. MHHopcKoro YCT3HOBJleHO, 'ITO 3TO CO'lHHeHHe OCHOBDHO na HeCKOJlbKHX IIepBOHCTO'lHHKaX (450; 680). Ilpexcne scero B HeM 'IYBCTByeTclI 3aBHCHMOCTb OT TPY;(OB Banxa, Hcraxpn, 116H Pycre. U)(HHM H3 HCTO'lHHKOB cBeIJ,eIJHH asropa "XYIJ,YA an-anan» 0 rtopxax Cpenaea A3HH lIBHJlOCb yrpaxenuoe IIpOH3BeIJ,eHHe ,lllKaiixaHH (688, c.262).

OTJlH'IHTeJlbHoii. '1epTOH paccxorpeanoro asture KOMIIJleKCa HC' TO'lHHKOB lIBJl5IeTClI C03HaTeJIbHOe OrpaHH'Ie,HHe xpyra OIIHCblBaeMbIX crpan 06J1aCTlIMH pacnpocrpaaenas HCJlaMa. HaH60Jlee pensedmo 3TO IIpOCJIelKHBaeTclI ,B TpYIJ,aX apa601l3b1'1HblX reorpatpoa KJlaCCHQe· CKOH WKOJlbI (221, c. 205). n03TOMY B HHX cOIJ,eplKHTCl! B o6ll(eil CJlOlKHOCTH He3Ha~HTeJlbHOe KOJllI'leCTBO CBeIJ,eHHH 0 IIJleMeHaX orY30B H TypKMeH. I1CKJIlO'IeHHe COcTaBJll!IOT, IIOlKaJlyii, JlHWb 3aIIHCKH IIyTeweCTBeHHHKOB, ocooeano 116H <1>a)(JlaHa, OCTaBHBwero IIoIJ,p06110e OIIHcaHHe IIOBceIJ,HeBIIOro 6b1Ta orY30B. B uearpe IIoBecTBoBaHHH ocT3JlbHbIX 3BTOPOB H3XOIJ,lITCH IIpeHMYll(ecTBeHHo MycYJlbMaHCKHe Ha· PO,!(bI. Korna »ce OHH YIIoMHHalOT 0 IIJleMeHaX «neaepnux», B TOM '1Hc· ne 06 orysax, rJIaSHOe BHHMarme cOCpeIJ,OTO'lHBalOT na pacnpocrpaHeHIIH HCJIaMa B HX crpane. C )(pyroii CTOPOHbI, B 3THX HCTO'lHHj.<ax 3H3'1HTeJlbHbIiI IIHTepeC IIpOSlBJlSleTCH K $opIIocTaM, CJIYlKHBWHM IIYHK' TaMH ToprOBJlH H BoeHHbIX CTOJlKHOBeHHH C KapJlYKaMH, orY3aMH H IJ,PYrHMH TIOpK3MH na rp3HHII.aX Xope3M3, Maaepaanaxpa H Xopac3Ha.I1HljJopMaUHlI 0 COCe)(HHX C 3THMH 06J13CTSlMH IIJIeMeHaX TIOPOl{ B03pacT3eT HJ1H YMeHbWaeTC5I B 33BHCHMOCTH OT xona pa3BH1:HlI B33- HMOOTHOIllCHlIH 3eMJle)(eJIb'leCKHX oa3HCOB C KO'IeBoil CTeIIblO. B 3TOM OTHoweHHH HarJl5lIJ,HbIM IIpHMepoM HBJIHeTCl! TPY)( ,llIKailxaHH, KOTO' phIil npecnenosan He CTOJIbKO uayvnsie, CKOJlbKO YHCTO IIpaKTH'IeCKHC uenn. M3K)(HCH CBH)(eTeJlbCTByeT,. YTO CaMaHI1IJ,CKH·H Be3Hp, cofinpaa IJ,aHHbIe 0, COIIpeIJ,eJIbHbIX aaponax, XOTeJl nO)(rOTOBHTbCli K aasoeaaHI1IO 3THX crpan (695).

Hcropnorparpna Cpennen A3HH, Hpaaa H AljJraHHCTaHa, ocooenuo nepnona II.apcTBOBaHl1l1 ra3HeBHIJ,OB II CeJIb)(lKYKIIjl.OB, OTJll1'1aeTCli CBOHM lIpKO Bblp3lKeH' HhIM IIpl1)(BOPHhIM xapaxrepox. ,llHHaCTH'IeCKHe xpoHI1KH npeoonaaaiot HaA Tpa)(HII.1I0HHOii aHHaJlHCTI1KOH H rpynaxu no Bceo6ll(eH I1CTOPHI-1. I1CTOPIlKH B cBoeii TIo!.(aBJlSlIOll(eH Macce 06b1'1HO 1136er31OT nupaacart, coocrsennoe MHeHHe H KOMMeHTl1pOBaTb 6ecIIpHcrpacrno onacueaeuue C06bITHSl. 33MeTHoe HCKJllO'IeHHe B aTOM OT' HOWeHHI1 COCTaBJllIeT A6Y·Jl·<i>a3J1 BeHxaKI1, He CKPbIB.31Oll(l1ii OTpHII.a· TeJlbHblX CTOPOH IIpaB.~eHHlI ra3HeBH)(OB. DOJlbWHHCTBO lKe HCTOPH'

ra3HeBHI1.CKagj .HCTOpHorpa· l "'Kg XI B. J

lJeCI(fJX nponaseneuna ornunaercs IlPHTOPHblM CepSHJlH3MOM, npnxpuThlM II!lOrJ(a 3aYMHOii pnropaxoa (478; 725). CK3sblB3eTcH B.~Hl!HHe MycYJlbMaHCKoii OpTO,~OKCI1H, rroJ(J(eplKHBaBLUeii«6J1arOlleCTHBbnh anTOpIlTeT T10PKCKHX .!(HH3CTHil (740, C. 219). B IlpHJ(BOpHbIX xposaxax :lToii nopu caraa J(HH3CTl1l1eCKaH HCTOPHH nepeJ(Ko cpaJlbcHq)H~HpyeTcH B yuiepo oiYheKTHBHoii HCTHHe.

O)l.HaKO uapany C 3TIlM B paccxarpaaaeaoe BpeMH pasBHBa!OTcH OCHOBHble lKaHpbl IlCTOpHl!eCKOfI nareparypu (725; 740). Bnaronaps BlleJ(peHHlo nepcnncxoro II T3,lJ.}KIIKCKoro 1I3blKOB HCTopHlIecKHe npoH3BeJ(eHHlI CTaHOBl!TC51 ,ll.OCTOHIlHeM umpoxnx xpyros 06pa30B3HHhiX JI!O.Ileii. 3Ha'IHTeJlbHO pacuiapmorcn n03H3HH51 B 06J13CTH HCTopHlIe'cxoa sruorparpuu, ocooenno B H3Y'leHIlH T!OPK01l3bI'IHbIX aaponoe Cpe.llHeii A3l1n. IlOllBJIlI!OTCl! cneuuansaue rpaxraru H 3KCKypCbI 0 rropxax, OTJlU'IUTeJlbllblX qepTaX HX xouesoro 6bITa, npaaax H .IlalKe !jJu3ulIecKoM 06m1Ke. B HCTOllHHKax 3TOli nopu naxannnaaercs 60JlhLUOH !jJaKTHqeCKHH M3TepHaJl 0 T!OPKOH3bIlIHbIX nneuenax, B TOM 1I1lerre orY33X H TypKMeH3X Cpennea A3HH.

B XI-XII BB. np06YlK,ll,3eTClI 60JlblllOH narepec K T!OPKOl!3bl'lHblM nJleMeHaM B ncropaorpadma MycYJlbMaHcKoro BOCTOK3. 31'0 061>lICHlIeTClI BbIXOJ(OM TIOPOK aa MHpOBylO 3pe'HY nOCM C03.1laHHlI nep- 2KaB r33HeSUJ(OB, ceJlbJ(2KYKU,ll,OB U xopeaauraxoe. C 06pa30BaHueM 3THX rOCY)l.3pCTB B03HHKa!OT HOBbie KyJlbTypHbIe ~eHTPbI B .Cpenaes A:UlH, Hpaae, A!jJraHuCTane. B npexcne 3axOJlycTHOH I'asne noseaseTClI uenas naeana yuenux, OKpY2KaBLUIiX CYJlTaHa MaxMYJ(a (997-1030). CpeJ(H HUX 6blJl npu.QBopHblH IICTOPUK A6y Hacp aJl-YT- 6u, aaaepumauraa B 1021 r. COlllIHeHHe non Ha3BaHueM «I\IITa6 annaMIlHIl». OCHOBHOH uenuo aBTOp CTaBlIJI npocaaanenae MaxMYJ(a, HO omrcueaexue HM C06blTHH 06'beKTIlBHo c.1YlKaT 06BHHeHHeM neenOTHH ra3HeBU.Il0B (65, c. 65). Tpyn A6y Hacpa aJl-YT6u narmcau pH!jJMoBaHHoi'1 np030H Bbl'lypHbIM CTIIJleM, 3aTpY.QH51!OLUIlM nOHUM3Hue CMbICJla. Ilo3ToMY Ha'lUHall C XIII B. nOl!BJll!!OTClI cnenaansnae !jJH;10.10fHlIeCKHe TOJIKOBaHHH K 3TOMY HCTOpH'IeCKoMY rpyny. Oanaxo Hall60JlblllY!O H3BeCTHOCTb npnoopen KOMMeHTapull, COCTaBJleHHblH Il XVIII B. AXMaJ(oM H6H AJI;! 3J1-MaHUHH (520, II, c. 282). B 1206 r. «I\HTa6 aJl-HaMHHH» 6blJl nepesenen na Ta.l\2KHKCKHlt 5l3bII< A6y Illapa!jJOM ,U2Kep6aJ(eKaHu (742, I, C. 250-252). I1CTOpHQeCIWe npoasneneI-!He a.~-Y1'6u lIBJllIeTClI OJ(HUM 113 rJlaBHbIX HCTOqHUKOB no UCTOPIIU Cpenaea A3IIH sropoa IlOJlOBIlHbl X-nepBoii QeTBepTH XI B. Oco- 6eHllO Ba2KHOe 3H8'1eHUe J(JllI Hac HMeeT paCCKa3 0 naexenax orY30B, Y'laCTBOBaBLUIIX B 60Pb6e MelKJ(Y xapaxannnaan U caMaHHJ(aMH 33 06J1aJ(aI-lHe MaBepaHH3xpOM.

OKOJlO 1050 r., B npaaneane ra3HeBIIJ(CKoro cYJITaHa A6J( ap-Pamana (1049-1053) OblJl aanncan ncropuuecsua Tpy,ll. nOJ~ Ha3BaHHeM «3aHH an-axriap». B 3TOM COqll!leHnli, asropo« xoroporo 6bIJI I'apnn- 3U, HMeeTClI cneunaxsnun pasnen 0 xapnyxax, orysax, lIrMa, KUMaxax H )l.PYfllx TIOPK01l3bl'lHbIX napoaax (54). A6y Cana fapJ(H3H B

iJT~iI rJla~e ccunaercs na rpynu H6H 3J1-MYKaqHjJbl', 116H XOPl\31\6exa, ,lllK3HxaHH H aHOHHMHOe npouasenemre «Taaany all.-.llYHiia». CBenenaa, npHBOII.HMble I'apnnan, 06HapYlKHB3lOT CX0II.CTBO C OnHCaHHeM HOPOK B npyrnx cpennesexosux HCTO'lHHK3X. B. B. BapTOJlbl\OM OTMe'leHO cosnanenae rexcra fapII.H3H C COOTlleTCTBYlOmHMH H3BeCTHlIMH «XY.lI.Y.lI. an-anau» « «MYlI.lKMaJl aT-T3BapHx» (54, c. 79). Ceaxac K 9TOMY nepesmo MOlKHO .lI.06aBHTb cooriuteaaa MapBa3H, Illaoaarap3H H IlIIOKpYJlJlaxa. 06'bllCHHTb nO.ll.06HOe CXOI\CTBO B onacaaan TIOPKCKHX nJleMeH B 3THX HCTOpH'leCKHX TpYlI.aX MOlKHO JlHlIlb oomHOCTblO HX nepBOHCTO'lHHKOB.

O.l\HH H3 pa311.eJlOB «3aliH an-axo ap» nocaamen lIapCTBOBaHHIO ra3HeBH.l\CKHX CYJlTaHOB. Hcropasecxne CBe)leHHlI, npHBO)lHMble B TPYne I'apnaaa, oopueaiorcs na npaanenan MaY.lI.Y)la H6H Macyna (1042-1048). Bonsuioa unrepec .lI.Jlll Hac npencraansnor paccxassr I'apnasa 0 B3aHMOOTHOlIleHHllX nepnux CeJlbl\lKYKH.lI.OB c ra3HeBH.lI.3MH. B «3aiiH an-axriap» nosecrayerca raxsce 0 MHOrOJleTHeH CeJIbl\' acyxo-rasaeaancxoa soaae B Xopacaae. I'apnaaa 6blJl cOBpeMeHHHKOM rex xpynaux C06blTHH, HO era aanoscenne OTJlH'laeTClI ClKaTOcrsio, sepenxo B yuiepe nOIl.JlHHHOii IICTOpH'leCKOii KapTHHe.

3aMe'lareJlbHblM HCTO'lHHKOM no HCTOPHII TypKMeH XI B. lIBJ1l1-. eTCH TPY.lI. A6Y-Jl-<Pa3Jla BeiixaKH'. CO'lHHeHHe sroro HCTopHKa-MeMYapacra non Ha3BaHHeM «Tapax-a MacY)lH» 1I.0BOJlbHO XOPOlIlO H3BeCTHO B coapeaenaoa ncropnorpatpaa. Hnrepecaue CBe,n,eIUUl 0 6Horpa<PHH H TBOp'leCTBe BelixaKH npaseneau B paoorax M. MHHOBH (691), C. Haonca (7), K. E. Boctpopca (514), A. K Apeanca (8). TpYA A6Y-Jl-<Pa3Jla Beaxaxa, KaK H3BeCTHO, He .lI.OlIleJl.ll.O Hac nOJlROCThJO. I'Iepnue '1aCTH CO'lHHeHHlI yrepaau, H3 HHX COXpaHHJlHCb JlHWb H3BJle'leHHlI B OT.lI.eJlbHblX HpaHOll3bl'lHblX xponnxax (514). CaeneaaaMH H3 yrpaueaaux TOMOB npOH3Be)leHHlI BelixaKH nOJlb30BaJlHCb, B '13CTHOCTH, ,lllKY3)llKaHH (XIII B.) H Xa<pH3-H A6py (XV B.). ,lllKY3- )llKaHH ccanaerca aa TPY.lI. BelixaKH nOI\ H33B3HHeM «TapHX-H H3CHpa», OTKYII.3 3aHMCTByeT .lI.aHHble 0 Ha'laJlbHOM srane CeJlb.ll.lKyKOr33HeBH.lI.CKHX OTHOlIleHHi\4.

I A6y A6Aannax 116H an-MYKa<I><l>' (+757) aseecreu KaK nepeaomax ua

apaOCKHH: Sl3blK «Ka.nHJlhl H lJ.HMHbJ», a T3K)Ke neXJleBHHCKoH «KHHf» nape"». I'ap.ra- 3U B YKas3HHofi rnase a TlOPK8X ccaaaercs U8 rpyn Hon 8kMYK3q,<I>bI non UD- 3S3HI1eM «KRraa pya 3Jl-JJ.YHHa».

2 B. B. Baproasn nonaran, '!JtO I'apnssa HCnOJlb30Ban YTpa'lJ.eHHDe cottHHeHHe 116H X"p.lla.ll6exa «Coepasae reneanorna nepcoa " UX KonoHHH» (54, c. 79).

3 A6Y-JI-<I>aSJI8 Beiix81<H He CJIe~yeT nyrart, c A6Y-J1-XaC8HOM BeHX8KII, H3- BeCTHWM non nceB)I,oIUfMOr.i H6H 4>YH)lYK (300). ilOCne.llHHH:, HOCHBIUH" nOlJe'fHbIH JlaKa6 3.xup • .ll·nUH. pOIl"nCH B 1105 r. H CKOR"anCH B 1169 r. (612, e. 297-318). A6y-n-Xac3H Beux3KH SlBJlflerCn aaropox HanHC3HHoro B 1167 f. perHOH8J1bHOrO HeTOpUlJeCKOrO -rpyna «Tapax-a BeHx8K». M6H $YHJJ.YKY npHH3)J.JIe}Kano T8K)I{e He nourenmee AD Hac COqHHeHHe no HCTOPUlI Xopacaaa. Flepecxassr H UHT8rbl U3 sroro npOH3Be.l1.eHUH coxpanensr 116H aJ1-ACHpOM, YIaKYTOM, JJ.)KYBeiiHH, 11611 XaJlJlHKaHOM (612; 535).

4 CaHJlOM Hadiacu cnenana nonurxa BOCCTaHOBHTb .TeKCT YTep9HHblX pa3Jl.eJl0I3 COllHHeHHH fiei'lxaKH aa ocaose QJparMeHTOB, coxpaRHBWHXCH B oT.llCnbHblX cpennesexossrx HCTOQHHKaX (514, c. 11)_

Ocraatnaecs tiacTII rpyna BeilxalUl, ocaoaanaue aa JlII'IHbIX Ii:;!, 6J1IOi\eHlIlIX H KOnIHlX oljJllUHaJlbHblX ,'l.OKYMeIlTOB, nocaameast naperBOBaMllIO .CYJlTaHa Macyna (1030-1041), A6Y-Jl-CI>a3.1 BeHxaKH, B OTJlII'me OT nonaansnoutero 60JlblllHHCTBa apa60-nepCII)I,CKHX HCTOPIlKOB, pncyer BcecTopoHHIOIO II SlPKYIO xaprnny caoen "nOXH, Ilpoaaseneaue Beflxaxn lIBJlHeTCH caMblM l\eHHbiM IlCTO'lHIIKOM 1I0 IICTOPHII TypKMen II CeJlb)i;JKYKCKoro nBII>KeHIIH B XI B,

TpaKTaTbI B cepennne XI B" rrocne 06pa30BaHII1I IIMnepllH cens-

o DJleMeHaX n>KYKllnoB nOHBJlHlOTCH cnenuansuste rpynu, nccaa-

HOPOK uiennue TIOPKOSl3bl'lHbIM nJleMeHaM CpenHefl A31111,

Q)I,HIIM 113 TaKHX npOll3Be)l,CHIIH llBJlHeTCH «KIITa6 TaljJ!lHJI aa-arpaxs A6Y-Jl-AJIa H6H Xaccyna (+1058), CBOIO «KHllry O)l,OCTOIlHCTBax TIOPOK» OH aamcca,n nocne B3HTIIH CeJlbn>KYKaMII Barnana II 1l0CBllTIIJI ee Kynnypn ~ Be3HpIO CYJlTaHa Torpyn-osxa (4.92; 493),

Ol)lIcaJ-IIIe TIOPOK B «KIITa6 Ta<jJ)I,HJI an-arpax» 06HapY>KHBaeT nexoropoe CXO;(Cl'B(,l C 113BeCTHllMII A6y OCMaH3 AMpa 116H 5axpa aJl-,ll>KaXII3a (+869). Ilepy ,ll>KaXII3a IlpHHanJle2KHT MHOlKeCTBO IlPQH3BentHIlH, O)(HO 113 KOTOPblX ClleU11MbHO rrocesuieno TIOpKaM (777), B· coxnuenan s-roro Y'leHoro-3liu11KJlo'nenllcT3 onacstsarorcs soeuasre xanecraa, npaau Il 06hlqaH'TIOpKCI<HX nnexen (243), O'!eBII)(lIo. Pero rpaxrare npexcne scero IIMeIOTCH B BII)(Y HrMa, qllrlfJlll, orysu, H3 KOTOPbIX COCT051Jl KOHTlIHreHT a66aCIl)(CKIIX TlopoK·ry.~llMoB (484), ,112KaXIl3 oc060 npenocreperaer 01' O)(HOCTOpoHlIero cY2K,!I,eHlIll 0 TIOpKOH3bl4HbIX napoaax (793).

non06HO caocxy npe)(JlIeC1'SeHHIIKY, 116H Xaccyn npasusaer K 06'beKTIIBHoH ouenxe TIOpKCKIlX lIapO)(OB, B KpaTKoM npenncnosaa K rpaxraryon orueuaer, 'ITO XO'Ie1' 1l0Ka3a1'b oc06eHHOC1'II xapaxrepa, a TaK>Ke )(OCTOIlHCTIla H xpatipocru TlOpOK, B «KII1'a6 radinan M-aTpaK»lIeT· nepexaa onacuaaeaux TIOPKCKIIX nneven. Cxopee scero H6H Xaccyn ouacsrsaer BblXOl\ueB 113 HhIllelllHei'! Cpennea A31111, ABTOp «KHllrH 0 )l,OCT011IlCTBaX ·TIOPOK» 6blJl oc06eHII0 XOPOIliO OCBenOM' aeuo-coapeuenmnx eMY oryaax II rypxaenax, TpY)(1I0 n03TOMY )(0- nYCTHTb; '!T06hl B COqHlleHHII H61! Xaccyna lie HalII.JIOCb MeCTa nJill IlX xapaxrepncraxu. B 1l0Jlb3Y sroro roaopnr H caM ljJaKT 1l0CBllllleHIISI )(aHHOrO rpaxraru CeJlbn2KYKII)(CKOMY aesnpy.

Onncauue 1'IOPKOlI3bl'!HbIX nJleMell Cpennefi A31111 HMeeTCli TaKlie B COqlllleHfIll Ill apadi as-Saxana Tampa MapBa311 (736), XOTll TPY)( MapBa3H HOCHT aaaaanae «Ilpnponaue csoacrna 2KIIBOTHbIX», 110 B lIeM CO)(ep2KaTC51 rrraau 0 pa3J1114HbIX lIJ1eMeHaX Il naponax, Tpaxr ar MapBa3H CO)(ep2KIIT Bbl)(alOlll11HCli no caoef .3Ha'lllMOCTIl 01'PbIBOK 0 rypxnenax II oryaax', Ill apatp a3-3aMaH, spau II eCTeCTBOucnurareas, CJlY2KIIJI npn )(BOpe MeJIiolKluaxa (1072-1092) II, sepoSlTIlO, ero IlpeeMHHKoB BIlJlO1'b )1,0 Caanscapa (II 18-1157), MapBa311

'HIlTepeCHbIC CBC)lCHHSl 0 TIOPKOfl3blllHbtX aaponax CO}lCp>KaTClI T3K)Ke B 3.,)SepWeHH,OM B 1206 f._ B JIaxope HCTopHl.J.ecKoM Tpy.ne <J)axp 3JI.-,UI-l.Ha My6apaKwaxa. B -ero cOqUHCHHH non Ha3B3HHCM «TapHX» npaaenea eTIHCOK TIOPKCKHX ~ nneaea, naeTCH xapaKTepHCTHK3 HX nHCbM.eHHOCTH, fl3b1Ka, pCJIHrH03HblX BepOBaH"" H o6bI'.facs

(751),

11

2 3aI<.204

HCnOJIb30Ba.lt npa lianllcaHHii csoero tpy.z\a paSJUi'IHhte HcTOliiliiKif, II TOM 4HCJIe C04HHeHHe )llKaiixaHH (736, c. 6-8). Onucaane TIOPKCKHX naponee B TPY ILe MapBa3H B UeJIOM P5I.ne CJIY4aeB COBnaILaeT C TeKCTOM fapILH31f H «XYlJ.YA aJI-aJIaM».

C04HHeHife Ma pBa3H 6blJIO HCnOJIb30BaHO 60JIee n03AHHMH aaropaun, B 4aCTHOCTH, MyxaMMa.noM AyqlH (XIII B.). B nOCJIeAHee BpeM5I BOCTOKOBeAbl 06paTHJIH BHHMaHHe aa CBH3b 1I3BeCTHii MapBa3H o nopxax C COOTBeTCTBYlOlUHMH H3BeCTHHMII aBTopoB XIV-XV BB. Wa6aHrapauI H WIOKPYJIJIaXa'.

CeJIbJJ.lKYKcKaH B XI B. HapHILY C 06lUUMH C04UHeHHHMH 0 rtopxax

acropuerpa- C03.ll.aIOTC5I nepsue IICTOplI4ecKlie TPYi\bl, nOCB5IlUeH-

Ij>HH nue .ll.IIHaCTIIII CeJIbAlKYKHAOB. OJlHHM H3 TaKHX npo-

XI-XII BB. H3Be.ll.eHHii asnaercn ,«MaJIHK-HaMe», COCTaBJIeHHOe

neH3BeCTHblM anropou B XI CTOJICTIlH. I1CTOPllll nepsux CeJIbJllKYKIlAOB ll3JIaraeTC5I B HeM CO CJIOB aaarsoro SMHpa Hnans-Baary, COBpeMeHHHKa H poaasa MyxaMMa.na TorpYJI-6eKa (1038-1063). OparaHaJI «MaJIHK-HaMe», HalIHcaHHblii no-apaecxn, He COXpaHIiJICll, HO UHrars; H nepecxasu ll3 Hero npaeonnrcs 116H aJI-ACllpOM (XIII s.), A6Y-JI-<PapaJllKeM (XIII B.), MHPXOHILOM (XVI B.) H .nPYrIIMH HCTOpHK3Mll (529, c. 31-65). Henocpencrseunoe BJIlIlllme sroro HCTOqHIlKa 4YBcTByeTcH B rpyaax 116H Xaccyna, Canp an-Ilnaa Xyceana (XII B.), MexMeAa Heurpu (XV B.) II MYCJIllX an-Ilnna Jlapn (XVI B.).

B «MaJIllK-H3Me» conepacarcn anrepecuue csenenaa no IICTOPIIK CeJIb.ll.IKYKCKoro JlBHlKeHlIll X-XI BB. OAHaKo B STOM IICTopH4eCKOM rpyne IIMeeTCll llBHaH reanenuas B03BeJIIl4HTb CeJIbILlKYKIlILOB. Cxopee ncero nOIL06Hali rennenuas HCXO.nIlT 01' caMHX npencrasarexea crapmeii BeTBH .9Toii .ll.IIHaCTIlIi. Ilepasre CeJIb.nlKYKCKlle npaBIITeJIIi YCIIJIeHHO nponaraunapoeaaa lIi\elO 0 CBoeM BblCOKOM H 6JIaropo.nHOM rrponcxozxnenaa (586, c. 299). 04eBII.nHo nosroay aBTOp «MaJIIIKH3Me» npnnacuaaer 11M 3HaTHoe ua pcxoe npoacxoscnenue.

B nanacrusectcon HCTOPHII cpenaesexoaoro BOCTOKa q,aJIbcHq)llxauus reneanorua rex HJIII IIHblX q,eo.naJIbHbIX npasnreaea - aecsua opnmrapuos nsneaae. )lalKe POi\OCJIOBHaH 6YH.nOB - auxonuea 113 KpeCTbllH )leiiJIe~{a -- B03Bo.nIlJIaCb K .npeBHIIM UapCKHM q,aMIIJIliliM.

I B 1962 r. HaM YAaJIOCb OOHapYlKHTb OTPblBOK 0 TJOpKaX B PYKOIlHCH .Ma;l)l{M3 8JI-8Hcao» Illacaiirapau (23). B StTOM rpyne HMeeTCH CneUH3JIbHmi rnaaa, 03arJIaBJIeHH8S1 «OCOOCHHOCTH TIOPKCKHX naponee». HCnOJIb30n3HHbur H8MfI cnHCOK npencraanaer COOOM aarorpao, 3aBepweHHblH B 1336 r. (282, c. 220-238). 0,,"canue TIOPOK, B TOM 'IRene orY30B. B TPY.ll:8X Illadasrapaa H IIhoKpYJIJI3xa B OCHOB~ HOM COBn8Jl.8CT C H3BecnHIMH I'apnaaa, Mapa33H H Ayclm. BMeCTe CleM B «Ma.!l."' MM3 aa-ancad» H «BaX,IJ)K3T ar-raaapax» "MeeleR PH)J, HHTepeCHblX AOIIOJlHeHHU:

(23).

2 OTPblBkH 113 era «BaX)UK81' 3T-T3BapHX» 0 TIOPI{3X ObIJJ:H H3,l1;8HbI enie H. XasrMepoM (590). B 1957 r. r. Xa3aH onvrcmxcaan rnaest H3 TPYAa IIIIOKPynnaXa no co.paHcKoil pysonuca HaUHoHanbHoil oHonHoTeKH HM. B. Koaapoaa (593). Coqnu)CI<HH: M3nycKpHnT C nepcancxnx 'oparananox TpYAa WIOKPYJlJI3Xa nepenacan no sropoa nOnOB"He XVI B. (539, c. 158). OAHaKo ooaee paHHMil, AaTHpoBaHHblil 1432r., cnHCOK «Baxnacar ar-raaapsx» Xp.HHTCR B MEA AH CCCP (465; 724) . .naIlH." pyxonacs cot{HHeHHS Ilhoxpyanaxa HCnOJlb30S3Ha HaMH Haps,a;y c nYOJlHKau,lJHMH

H. Xaxaepa H r. Xa38H. ._

18

nOA06Hhte H3BpameHHlI HCTOPHH rtPHllBOpHblMii JIeTortHC!(aMH 6hlJIH BblCMeHHbl 116H MI!CKaBaHXOM H A6y PeHXaHOM BHPYHII (14; 759).

UeHHeHlIJIIM nepBOIICTO'lHIIKOM no HCTOPHII nepxcaau CeJIb,IllKYKH.lIOB HBJIHeTClI TpaKTaT HH3aM aJI-MYJIbKa «CIIHacaT-HaMe» (388). HII3aM aJI-MYJIbK 3aHHMaJI AOJI)!{HOCTb Be311pa npa cYJITaHaX AJInApCJIaHe (1063-1072) II MeJIHKlIJaXe (1072-1092). B «CHHacaT-HaMe» COAep)!{aTCH npnaeuareasuae CBeAeHHll He TO.%KO 0 CTpYKType IIMnepHH CeJIb)1l1{YKHAOB, HO H nOJIO)!{eHHH TypKMeHCKHX nJIeMeH. B aacroauree spewa, aapnny C nepCHAcKHM Opl!fHHaJIOM, H3BeCTeH H CpeJl.HeBeKOBblH TypeUKHH nepeson 3TOro HCTO'lHHKa (624). HH3aM aJI-MYJIbKY ·npHnHcbIBaeTcll rarose PYKOBOJl.CTBO no rOCYilapCTBeHHOMy ynpaBJIeHHIO nO)1 Ha3BaHHeM «BecaHa» (651, c. 113). UHTaTbl H3 3TOro rpaxrara npnaenenu B rpyne AXMaAa faljJljJapH (XVI B.) II npyrax HCTOPHKOB (51, c. 135-137). O)1HaKO npHHa)lJIe)!{HOCTb nanaoro COlJHHeHHll 3HaMeHHToMY CeJIbA)I{YKHACKOMY Be3HplO XI B. OCTaeTCH noxa HeAoKa3aHHoH (651).

B XII B. rrosansercs ueJIblH pan CO'lHHeHHH no HCTOPIIH CeJIb' Jr)l{YKcKoro rocynapcrna (65; 535). OAHO 113 TaKIIX npOH3BeAeHHH 6blJIO aanacano AHYlIJHpBaHOM H6H XaJIIIAOM KallJaHII (+ 1139). Co'IHHeHHe noannee 6blJIO nepeseneno C rpapca aa apa6cKIIH ll3blK l1:waJl. aA,,llHHoM Hctpaxann (1125-1201). nOCJIe)1HIIH )10nOJIHIIJI TPYIl:

Aayunrpnana H AOBeJI H3JIO)l{eHHe C06blTIIH )10 1194 r. B 1226 r. 3TO coxanenne 6blJIO coxpauieao A6Y-JI-<l>aTxoM BYHAapH, cHa6)1HBlIJIIM ero npeAHCJIOBHeM II KOMMeHTapHllMH. Ilpoaseeneane Hcdraxaan, ocHOBaHHoe aa TpYAe Kauraaa, llBJIlIeTClI Ba)l{HblM IICTO'lHHKOM no HCTOpHH nepxcansr CeJIb)1)1{YKHAOB (520, I, c. 314-316).

B 1126 r .. HeH3necTHb1M HCTOPHKOM 6blJI COCTaBJlell 06WHPHblH rpyzr nOA Ha3BaHHeM «MY!()I{MaJI ar-raaapax.na-n-xncac». 9TO CO'lH' Helme npeACTaBJIlIeT 60JIbllJOH nnrepec ilJIll HCTOPHH CeJIbAlKYKHilCKOH nepxcaau. COCTaBHTeJIb «MY)1)1{MaJI aT'TaBapHX» nO.%30BaJICll MHO, rO'lHCJINlHblMH HCTopHtleCKHMH TpYAaMH (535, c. 64). B 'IIICJIe CBOIIX HCTO'lHHKOB OH yxaausaer peruonanensre XpOHHKH Hcrpaxana. XaMaAaHa H npyrae ilCTOpH'IeCKHe CO'lHlleHHll (283, c. 72-328). CpeJl.I1 ucrromaoeauaax HM nponaaenenaa ynowanaercn II «Clliiap aa ljJy. TYX'II CYJITaH CaHA)I{ap» (283, c. 412). ABTOPOM «)KH3HeonIlCaHI111 II n06eA CYJITaH3 Cannxcapa» 6blJI 3HaMeHIITblu n03T XII B. MYII33H Hauranypn (284).

B paccuarpaaaeuoa HCTOp"'leCKOM rpyne conepncarca TaK)I{e pacctcaasr 0 TlOPK01l3bl'lHbiX naeueaax. CpeAII HIIX HMeeTCll ilpeBHeii· uraa BepC1Il1 cxasauas 0 nereanapaoa Orys-xaae (66, c. 35). Ilpenanne HeCKOJIbKO OTJIII'IaeTCH OT COOTBeTCTBYlOmero H3BeCTII1l, npaaeJl.eHHOrO B CO'lllHeHlI1I I'apnnaa. B «MY;:(MMa.~ ar-raaapax» no cpasHeHll10 C «KHTa6 3aUH an-axcap» conepacarcs uOJIee 06WIlPH311 aepClIll 31'0['0 ICTOp"'leCIWrO npenauns.

B 1953 r. B Terepane ony6J1I1KOBaH nonroe BpeMll cunraeuraaca Y1epllHHblM TPYJI. aaropa XII B. 3axHp an-Ilnaa Hmuanypn nOA aa- 3113HlleM «CeJIbJ].MYK-HaMe» (161). Bxecre C couunemtex 3axllp an,llHHa 113J1.aHO H «Ilpoaonaceaae», aanacaaaoe B 1202 r. A6y XaMIIJl.OM

2*

19

MyxaMMa.QOM HOH Hopaxlu..ioM'. B ocsosy terepaacxoro ii3,zt3111i1l noJlOlKeHbl .QBe PYKOnHCH, nepsas H3 KOTOPblX 33KJlIOqeH3 B O.QHOM nepennere C COIJHHeHHeM asropa XIV B. XaMM.QyJlJtax3 Ka3BIIHH «TapHX-1I rY311.Qa», a BTopaHCOXpaHHJlaCb B «3y6.Qai aT-T3sapHX» KawaHII (XVI B.). f1y6J1I!KaTopbl "CeJlb.QlKYK-HaMe» CtIllT3IOT, 'ITO YKa38HHbiC .QBepYKonllCII CO.QeplKaT nO)IJIIIHHblii TeKCT CO'lllHeHHH 3axHp a.Q:JJ.Haa Humanypa.: O.QHaKo Typel\J{Hii yqeHblii AXMe.Q Areur, H3.QaBWHii TeKCT PawH.Q' a.Q-JJ.HHa, IICIIOJlb30BaBwero "CeJlb.QlKYK-HaMe», noaaraer, 'ITO H3.Q3TeJlII «CeJIb.Q)KYK-HaM~» 1I0JIb30BaJlHCb PYKOIIHClIMH TpY.Qa 3aXHp a)l-JJ.IIHa, xoropue TaK HJlH HHaile nO.QBepraJIIICb n03)1- HeiiwHM:HIiTepIIOMIUHlIM (720,c, 15 iI cJIe.Q,). JJ.aJIee AXMe.Q Areur aa OCHOB3HHH ny6JIHKyeMoro HM TeKCTa PawH.Q a.Q-JJ.uHa HcripaBJllieT '0IlUl6KH, ,HMelOliUlecli B TerepaHCKOM 113.QaHHH. MHOr1Ie H3 ero KOPpeKTHB JIHqHbIX HMeH, reorpaipavecxax H, IIJ1eMeHHblX HasBam!", aeCOMHeHHO; HBJllIlOTCli IIpaBliJIbHbIMIL O.QH3KO B OT.QeJlbHb!X CJIytlairx AXMe.Q Arenr npeanaraer aenpaaoaepnue xom.exrypsr". f1y6J1I1Ka· UHlI «CeJIbAlKYK-HaMe», HeCMOTpll aa pll.Q TeKCTOJIorntleCKHX norpeurHocTeii,lIBJlHeTCH see lKe KPYIIHblM C06b1TlleM (535, c. 73-74).

3HaqeHHe "CeJlb,llKy'K-HaMe» KaK IICTOpHqeCKOrO HCTo'lHHKa, 110- lKaJlyfI, TPY.QHO nepeouenars. JJ.ocTaTO'lHO CKa33Tb, 'ITO 3TO CO'l!!HeHHe 1l0CJIYlK!!JIO .QJH! MHornx 1I03.QHeiimHX aBTopOB OCHOBHblM noco- 6HeM 110 HCTOPHII ceJlb.QlKYKHAOB. O.QHHM H3 nepnux rpyn 3aXHp anIluaa HCIIOJIb30BaJl B XIII B. MyxaMMa.Q PaBaH.QH (766). nOJlb30-

,S3.nClI «CeJlb.QlKYK-HaMe» H PaIIIH.Q a.Q-JJ.HH <Pa3J1YJIJIaX, KOTOPblii

B OCHOBHOM cOXpaHHJI TeKCT csoero nepeoacrovnaxa, CO'lHHeHHeM 3axllp a.Q-JJ.HHa I-1HIIIaIlYPH B XIV-XVI BB. 1I0Jlb30BaJIlICb lICTOPlIKH XaqHI3-1I A6py, X3M.QYJIJIax MYCTOyq)l! Ka3BlIHH, MYCJIlIX a)l-'ulIII JIapH, ,MaxMYII: AKCapaiiJIH (535, c. 73-76). Orrpenemrrs HCTOtlHlIKlI 3axlIp a.Q-JJ.lIH3 .QOBOJIbHO TpY.QHO, !!OCKOJlbKY oa IIX He yxaauaaer. JlUWb B OIl:HOM MeCTe lIMeeTClI CCbIJIKa na TPY.Q A6y Taxnpa Xaryun (348, c. 60; 535, c. 66, 67), KOTOPblii Be.QaJI <pHHaHcaMH I'oyxap-xaTyH, lKellbl cynrana MyxaMMa.Q3 116H MeJIHKIIIaXa (1153-1159).

I1cTopHtlecKHii rpyn 3axHp an-Ilana I-1l1I11anypH conepxcar uenHb!e cBeAeHHH 0 nepaux CeJlbll:lKYKlI.Qax. B «CeJlb.QlKYK-HaMe» npuso.QlITCl1 T3KlKe saacnue nO.Qp06HOCTH 0 60Pb6e rypxvencxax BO)I(.Qefl

~1I~~~~:~l~a~~'lIe~~~a~~;:i;ya:~;g:~ir CHCTeMe H rocynapcrseaaox

I 3axHp a.ll-JlHH Hauianypa saaepuntn cBoti TPYJl. B IJ,apCTBOBallHe CeJIb.D,m;y· xancxoro npasarena Torpyaa II (1177-1194). HeMaHR-xaH AIjnnap YTBep)J()J,aeT, liTO aBTOp «CeJlb)J)KYK·H3Me» yaep 8 1187 r., HO B nOJIb3Y cnoero r.meHHf( He npaBOAUT HUKaKUX AOKi3aTeJlbeTB (348, c. 59).

2 AXMe.n. Areui, aanpaxep, 6e30roBopolIHO HCnpaBJUleT HMH Myca-6afiry ria Myea·H6ry.,

3 B XII 8. nOMHMQ 06lUHX TPY,llDB no MCTOPUH aepncaasr CeJlb.ll:m:YKH,nOB noHEJHUOTCH H peraonansasre COllHHeHHH 0 pa3JIHlJHbIX sersax 3TOH AHHaCTH". K 1I11CJJY TaKHX rrpoH3BeAeHUH ornocsrcs TPYAbl AIjJ3aJl an-Ilaua KepMaflH (48; 49), xoropue 6bIJIH uenORb30BaUb! B XVI B. MyxaMMai\OM H6paxuMoM (535, c. 76 H caen.). t.l STUX COllnHeHMHX onacasaercs raiose o6pa3011aHHe B Kepxane oryacxoro- rocyaapcraa nunapanoa B KOHli" XII B. (ep. 607).

20

B KOHue Xt l=-uauane XIII B. KpynHbIMl\eHTpOM Hay. KIf IfI<YJlpTYPbI B Cpennen A3If1I 'SIBJlSIJlCSI Xopeax. Ilocae m6eJlIf BOCTO'lIfo:ceJlbl\lKYKCKoro rOCYl\apCT' sa ncropuorparpaa na nepClIl\CKOIII SI3bIKe IIHTeHCIiB. HO pa3BIIBaeTCSI npa ,nBope xopesxuraxos. O,nHaKO 6J1arOl\apSI MOH. rOJlbCKOMY ,norpoMy 60JlbIllJlljCTBO nponaseneaun, C03!!.aHIIblX B TY rropy, He COXpaHIIJlOCb 1\0 HaIllHX ,nHeii,. Cpenn OCTanIIIHXCSI HCTOPfI' qe~K~~,CO'lHHeHHii neooxonauo ?TMeTHTb TPY!!. Canp an-Zlnna XyCCiIHH, ~JlYlJ<HBillerO npa xope3MIlIaxe .Texeme (1172-1200). OcnouHoe co,neplKaI;HeTpyna Xy'ceiiHH COCT.aBIlSIeT HCTOPHSI lI.eplKaBbI CC,1b!!.lKYKH!!.on, HO B HeM onHCbIBaKlTC5I TaKlKe C06blTHSI KOHua XII B. nOCJle,nHH; ,pa3!!.CllbI sroro COQHHeHH5I npn. CKY!!.HOCTl:I 'l:ICT04HHKOB YKa3aHHOH IlOP[!I nMeKlT oc06eHHO aaxoroe .snauenne (727;, 747).

B XII B. npa xopesumaxe Texeme 6bIJlO raxxce .HaIlHcaHO 0POIl3' nenenne Cl>axp a!l.-llHHa P;\3H (1159-1210) nOJ\ saananneu «lllKaMH aJI-YJIIOM» (437). CO'lHHeHHe Pa3H npeJ\cTaBJlSICT c060ii naYQHYIo 3H' UHI{JlOoe!!.HlO, B uoropoa CO.!leplKnTCSI HeMaJlO ncropnuccxnx cneneIIHii'. TpYJ\ <t>axp .an-Ilana Pa3H cOXpaHHJlCSI B nnyx pe!!.aKl\H51X,' H3 KO,TOPbIX BTopaSI SIBJl51eTCSI 601lee, 06IllHPHOii (438).

,lI,oKYMeHTaJlb' ,,8 rropy cyruecTnonaHHSI"HMnepHii CeJlb)l,lKYKHJ\OB H Hble C60PHHKH xopesxnraxoa mouauo HappaTHBHLIX nCTOpll'leCKHX

XI,I B. cO'IHHeHHii nOiIBJliIlOTCSI co6paHHSI pa3,11I'IHbIX nucex

If 0cpHl\HaJlbHbIX .noKYMeHToB. O!!.HO H3 TaKHX 3nHCTOJlHPHblX OPOH3' Be.neHHii ObI,10 COCTallJleHO B ,XII B. MYHTal\lKa6 a·l\·llHHoM Be!!.H (281). B uapcraosaune-Cuanscapa (1118-1153) OH 33HHMaJl nocr rJlaSbI «!!.IIB3H·H anura». senasurero !!.UOJlOM3TH'IeCKOlf H 0cpHUHaJl,b' Hoii neperracxort'. Ilepy. Be!!.M npuuaunesorr 60JlbillOe KOJlH4eCTnO nncev U rocynapcrseanux YKa30B, 06'be!!.HHeHHbIX non n33B3HHeM «KH' Tao aratiar an-xaraca». Cpenn 9THX .nOKYM€HTOB HMeKlTCH cpepM3HbI o Ha3Ha4eHHH rOCYJ\3pCTBeHHbIX ,'IUHOBHBKOB 00 coopy Ha,10rOB, BbIC' lllHX .lI0JllKHOCTHblX JlHU, HaMeCTHHKOB roPO!!.OB H uenux OOJlaCTeH (648, C. 367-388). I1cKJlKl'lHTeJlbHYIO .ll,eHHOCTb npe!!.cTaSJlHIOT rpaMOTbl 0 nepezrave B ynpaanenne CneUHaJlbHOrO 'IHHOBHHK3 (umxne) TypKM€H I'ypraaa, .llexHcTaHa H Ill axpacrana.

COBpeMeIIHHKoM MYH'ra.nlKa6 a!!.·llHHa BeJ\H ObIJI n09T H BHJ\HbIH caHOBHHK npa nnope xopesxmaxos Pauma an-Ilan BaTBaT (1089-1178). 1l0Jlroe BpeMH OH 3allHMaJl .lI0Jl)KHOCTb, r.~aBbI (panca} nIlBaI1-H nmua B npasnenne ATcbI3a (1127-1156). npn6J1H3HTeJlbHO

XOpe31!UUax· CHaR ~CTOpHO· rpaljlHH XIIHa'laJla XIII B.

J B tfHCJIe 60Jlce n03JlHHX TPY1l0B no MCTOPOH .ceJlbJl)KYKCKoro rocYJlapCTBa c,~~e~ nyer YKa3aTb sa cosaueaae asropa XIV B. MyxaMMa)la 5131lH (548; 747). . "

2 B 3'roM oruoureann HHTepeCHO T3K)I{e COlJ.HHeHHe MyxaMMa.n.a HOH Ha;UKH6 Bexpana, nOCBHIUeHHoe xopcsuuraxy MyxaMMallY H6H Texcury (1200-1220), 3,M' 4HT('~'lbHOe MeCTD B 3TOM TPVl1,e, nuencr aanatcmea c060H reOi~pa¢litleCKHH 0630P roraaunrero MHpa, OTBelleHO Cpe)lHe~A3HH H HpaHy(294). CO~l\HI'Il11e BI"'PAHa, ~!'I,:IO B XV B. coxpamcao A6y Caanox n'KYPIllI<aHH (272; 273)., O~reifc'leH,llbliI"HHTep~c LlJIH Hac npencraenaer TaK)I{e aHOHHMfloe reorpatpxsecxoe .c?'lfHIleHUe, ,HanncallHoe

B XIII B. (29; 271), , . "." ., .

3 MYHTa.lUKa6 a.!l-Jl.IIH EMil, aeposrno, HBJlHJ1C·H T.aK>Ke aexoropoe npeM.H .J:" . .IIa- 80H ,U,HB3H-H aurpaqi - K3HU,eJlflPHH no H3)l.30py aa rocynapcraenusra HMYIll.eCT130M H )lOXO)laMH (281, c. 67-69).

21

MeJK.lI.Y 1157 H 1172 r. BaTBaT COCTaBHJI .1I.Ba c60pHIiKa nacea H .11.0- ((YMeHToB (765) _ B HHX cO.1l.epJKHTCli 'IaCTHall H .1I.eJIOBall nepeITIICKa, xonan pa3J1n'lHbIX rocynapcrseaastx YK330B n pacnopaacerma. DOJlb- 1IJ0e anaveuae l\.ijll Hac HMelOT nncsva Arcuaa K BOJK.1I.lIM orysos, BOCCTaBrnHX B 1153 r. npOTHB Cannacapa. B 3TH X .1I.OKYMeHTax npasencHbl anrepecnae CBel\eHHlI 0 BoeHHoli opranaaaunu H X03IJiicTBeHHoi\ )KH3HH orY3CKHX nnexea XII B.'

MtTopHKo-reo- B XI-XII BB. 60JlblIIOil HHTepec, np06Y.1l.HBIIJHilclI B

rpa<!>HQeCKHe BOCTO'lHOH H aanannon acropnorparpnn K TIOPK01l3bJlI-

npOH38e)U!HHH HblM aaponan Cpenuea A3HH, nOJlYQHJI orpaacenae H

XI-XII 88. B reorpa!jJHlleCKoil nayxe. Oc060e snauenae B 3TOM

OTHOlIJeHHH HMelOT pa60TbI BeJlH'IaillIJero YQeHOrO XI B. A6y Peaxaaa DHPYHH'_ B 1025 r. HM 6bIJI aaaepuren TPY.1l. no aCTpOHOMn'leCKOil reorpa!jJHH non Ha3BaHHeM «TaX.1I.H.1I. naxaaar aJl-aMaKHH» (90; 105; 644). B aTOM CO'lHHeHHH DHPYHH .1I.aeT onpeneneaae urnpor fI .1I.OJlrOT psna MeCTHOCTeii H HaCeJleHIIblX nYHKTOB Cpenaea A3HH (511; 644). Lleauocrs reorparpnuecxax CBe.1l.eHHH DHPYHfI ycanasaerca TeM, 'ITO MHome H3 HHX ocnoaauu na pe3YJIbTaTaX ero JlHlfHblX aCTpOHOMiI'IeCKHX onpeneaeuna (74). T3I(Oro pona f13MepeHHll npOH3BO.1l.f1J1HCb nM If B MeCTHOCTH, pacnonoaccnaoa MelK.1I.Y .llJKYP,!l,)KaHOM " 06J1aCTllMH TlOpOI(-orY30B (511, c. 66, 74). Ilpasonnxue 6HPYlfH xoopnnna'ru cpenneaaaarcxax MecTllocTeli, ocnosaaaue aa npaunnnax MaTeMaTIIlfeCKOH reorparpna, OTJIH'IaIOTClI BbICOKOii TO'lHOCTblO (375, c. 86).

npH6J1H3HTeJlbHO MeJK.lI.Y 1029 If 1034 r. DHPYHH saaepumn CBOJO pa60TY 110.11. Ha3BaHHeM «KHTa6 aT'Ta!jJxHM JlH·aBaHJI cauaar aT'TaHl\)KHM» (483). TpaKTaT lIBJllleTClI 60JlblIIOii HaY'lHoil 3HllHKJlOne.n:lleil 110 MaTeMaTIIKe, aCTpoHoMHH, reorparpaa, a raioxe acrpoJlOfHH. Hall60JlblIJHii narepec ,!l,JIlI Hac B .n:aHHOM rpyne npencraaamor pasnenst 0 naceneansrx nyaxrax ceMIf noa COB 3NIJIH. B ">TOM CO'lHHeHHII DI1PYHH ynounuaer TaKiKe CTpaHY TypKMeH, 1I0MelIJ,aeMYIO IfM I! lIJeCTOM HKJlIIMe.

Ilocne 1030 r. A6y PelixaHoM 3aKOH'IeH npyrof TpaKT3T, 113BeCT' Hblii nozi Ha3saHHeM «Kanya an-Macynn» (511). COlfHHeHHe npanecno eac.nyxcenayto cnaay H nonyaapaocn, DHpyHH. B '>TOM rpyne npnseneHO xparxoe OI1HCaHHe Tpa,!l,HIl,HOHHbIX KJlHMaTOB H IIX 06I1TaTe.~ei!. B cneuaaasuoa Ta6JIHlle OTMe'leHbl raxace nonrora H IIJHPOTbl pana nacenennux nYHKToB s crpaue orY30B II TypKMell.

B nocnennee necsrrunerne caoea iKI13HH DHPYHH Hanl1CaHO colfHlleHlle «KHTa6 aJl',!l,lKaMaXHp !jJ1I MapH!jJaT an-nxcaaaxap» (13; 16). XOTll TpaKTaT nOCSlllIJ,eH pa3J1H'IHbIM MHHepaJIaM, HO 8 HeM conepxcarClI neuaue HCTopHlfeCKHe H reorpaqimecxae CBe)l,eHHlI. DOJlblIIOe 3Ha-

I OT.IleJIbHble n"CbMa H ll.OKYMeHTbl "3 C60PHHKOB BaTB3T3 Ii Deft" coxpanu.'HCb B PYKOTIlfCH HHA AH CCCP non H03.0HReM eHaura» (177; 724). B anne 113· '~)JIe4eIUlrf OUR H3.l1.3HbI B. B. fiapTOJIb.!l.OM B nepsort lJaCTH ero MOJ-wrpa.v'fli «TYPKCeras B snoxv MOHrOJlbCKOrO HaweCTBHfI» (55).

2 A6y PeUX3H BUPYHH HanHC3J1 MHQ)I{eCTBO COlJHHeJ.lHH no caMbiM pa3JlIPlTllAM OTpaCJIRM 3H3HHit Cpena HOX HMeJ1HCb T3IOKe HCTOpH'IeCKHe npoaasenenna, 60JIblJ1IIHCTBO KOTOPbIX ue AOUlJIO AD Hac; K lfHCJIY coxpaHHBUUIXCft TPY.!l.OB no "CTOP"" oruocares «XpOHOJlarUH., aasepureaaaa BHPYHH oxoao 1000 r, (14; 96;.454).

22

'1enlle IIMeeT ilJHI Hac npaaonnaan BIIPYHII 3TIIMOJIOrllH CJIOBa erypxMen». A6y Peiixan 6bJJI nepBblM 113 MYCYJIbM aHCKIlX aBTopOB, aasurax 06'bHCneHlle 3TOro repxnaa. (21; 25);

A6y Peiixan BIIPYHII IICnOJIb30BaJI 60JIbWoii xpyr IlCTO'llillKOB sa pa3JIII'IHblX 1I3b1Kax. Kpoxe nHCbMeHHblX IICTO'lHHKOB BIIPYHII UPHBJIeKaJI JIH'IHble Ha6JIIOileHHlI H paccnpocnue aannue. A6y Peaxan BOCnOJIb30BaJICH, nanpaaep, npe6bIBaHHeM B I'asne B XI B. KHilaHbcKoii ilHUJIOMaTHqeCKOii MIICCHII ilJIH nonOJIHeHHH CBOHX 3HaHHii 0 crpanax naJIbHero Bocrosa (511, c. 118). BHPYHll, KalKeTCH, 6bIJI nepaax cpena MycYJIbMaHCKHx reorpaipoa, c006malOlI(HX 0 naponax f1pH6aiiKaJIbH n BOCTO'lHOii CH6HPH (673, c. 215). 9noxa BIIPYHl1 xapaxrepueyerca KpynHbIMII nepe.nBIIlKeHIIHMII KO'leBHIIKOB 113 UeHTpaasnoa B Cpe.nHIOIO A3111O. MllrpaUlI1I 3aTpOHYJIII II 3Ha'IIITeJIbHYIO Maccy orY30B II TypKMeH XI B. f103TOMY TPYAbI A6y Peiixana BHPYHII HMelOT 60JlbUlOe anaseuae .nJIH OCBelI(eHIIH nccnenyexux np06J1eM.

B cepennne XII B. A6y A6.naJlJIaXOM MyxaMM3.noM H6H MyxaxMa.rrOM aJI-H.npIICII (1100--1166) 6blJl H3nHcaH 06UlllPHblii reorparpn'IecKnii TPYil «HY3xaT aJI-MYillTaK .pH XTHpaK a.n-adiax», HJIH «KIITa6 Pynscap». CO'lIlHe~IHe nOCBHlI(eHO KOPOJlIO CHUHJIHH Poacepy II (1154-1164) H 'conepxcnr YHIIKaJlbHoe onacanne CTpaHbI orY30B, npananneacaaurax 11M ropoztos H xpenocreii. KpHTII'IeCKllii TeKCT reorpa<pII'IecKoii 3HUIIKJlOneilliH H.!\PIIClI, K COlKaJIeHlllO, .!\O CIIX nop He usnau, n03TOMY MbI nOJlb30Ba.~HCb pYKonllCHMH ero CO'lHHeHllH, a raioxe <PpaHUY3CKIIM nepeaonox A. )K06epa (583).

TIPII narmcaaan npeilJlaraeMoii MOHorpa<pIIH MbI nOJlb3011aJIHCh pyxonacsio CO'lllHeHHH HilP"CH H3 c06paHIIH BOCTO'lHbIX MaHycKpHnToIl Focynapcracmrolt ny6JIII'IHOii 6H6JIHOTeKII 11M. Ca,lTbIKOBa-LUenpIIH:l (2). H. 10. Kpa'lKoBcKHii OTMeqaeT, 'ITO 3TOT cnHCOK 6bIJI npnooperea B 90-x ronax XIX B. B Terepane, Pyxonncs uanncana npexpacuuv MarPll611HCKllM nosepxox II, aeponruo, HBJIHeTCH Konlleii C aarorpaoa H.!\PHCli (222, c. 24, 25). naHHbIH cnHCOK nOJlOlKeH B OCHOBY pyccxoro nepeaona orpuaxa 0 crpane orY30B 1I3 «KHT36 Pynacap» (265,

. c. 220-222). Onnaxo B 3TOM nepeeone lIMelOTCH nenpaaouepnue -rre- 1I1i1I Ha3Banllii MecTliocTeii, rop, pex II osep. nJIlI YCTaHOBJleHHH npaBIIJlbHOCTII 3TUX HallMenOBaliHii naxn npaaneven MIIKpoljJn,1bM coIjJlliicKoro cnncxa rpyna H}lPliCH (76), a r aioxe reorparpasecxae xapUI, aanaunue K. MHJIJIepOM (679), MyxaMMailoM BaxlIlKaTOM anAcapn H nlKaBa}lOM AJlli (404). UeHllbIM nocoonea npn accne.tonatrau nannux «HY3xaT an-vynrrax» HBIIJIHCb rpynu H6H Canna aJI-Marp"6H (1214-1327), A6Y-JI-¢lII}lbI (1273-1331). H6H XaJlJ\YHa (1332-1406), I16H an-Bapaa (+1446), H6H Hfiaca (1448-1524). Ilepesncnenuue apaocxae reorpaou npaxo llJIII KOCBeHIlO acnonsaoBaJIH CO'lHHeHHe Hnpncn (221; 551; 277); OHli nepenxo npuaoaar CBCnenns, OTCYTCTBYIOIUlle B 1I3BeCTHblx lIaM crmcxax «KllTa6 Pynscap». 06'bHCHHeTCH 31'0 TeM 06CTOHTeJIbCTBOM, 'ITO OHH HClIOJIb30BaJill paaJIlI'IHble ClIlICKII reorpadntxecxax TPYilOB H.!\PllClI_ H6H Caan, A6Y-Jl' ¢lu}la II H6H Hiiac, nanpnxep, nOJIb30BaJlllCb raxsce CO'lnHeHlIeM HJ\PHCII non xaaaauaesr «Payn an-yac aa HY3xaT an-narpc» (657). nan-

23

HblH reorpa<jJWreCI(Hi'! TPYJ( nOCBlImeH BHJlbreJlbMY I (1164-1166), KOPOJlIO CIlUHJlHH, npH nsope xoropcro B nocnenane ronu cBoei'! mH3HH CJlymHJl I1)lPHCIl (642, c. 221).

B ocnone 1l3Bec'Clli'! «HY3xaT 3Jl'MYWT3K» 0 KJlIlMaT3X, H3CeJleHHblX TIOPI{Q1I3bI4HbIMH HapO)laMI1, rJIaBHblM o6pa30M Jlema'C' )laH' Hble 116B XaYK3Jl3 H n1K3i'!x3HI1 (60, c. 57; 265, c. 33; 642, c. 221). !1)lPHCH B npe)lI1CJlOBHI1 K CBoeMY npoaseenesmo (583) CCbIJlae'CCH na 116B Xayxana. n)Kai'!xaHH, 116H Xopnaaoexa, MaKn:Hcll H npyru« cpenaeaexonux reorpadios II HCTOpIlKOB'. C. JI. BOJlIlH (265, c. 220) 11 O. Ilpnuax (716, c. 400) c'lHTaIOT, QTO onacanae crpaau orY30B B «KI1Ta6 Pyzoxap» 3allMCTBOBaHO 113 COqHHeHHlI nmaiix3Iur'. OCHOBHall qaCTb TeKCT3 I1.nPHCH, no natneay MHeHl11O, )l.eiiCTBI1TeJlbHO ocuoaana ua rpyne nmai'!xaHIl. On:HaKO B aexoropux MeCTax I-lilPHCH, Bepos THO, saec B CBoii nepBOHCT04HHK <jJaK'CllqeCKHii MaTepH3Jl H3 TpVJW 116H Xayxana. B CO'lHHeHHll Hapncn, KaK pe30HHO 3aMeTHJl B. B. Bapronsn, npn onncauna Xopeaucxoro osepa, HMelOTClI nerana. COBna,D,a. roruae BnJlOTb ).10 ourariox C COOTBeTCTBYlOmliM MeCTOM H3 npouascncnHlI 116H Xayxana (63, c. 35, 44).

B U;eJIOM nOBeCTBOBaHlie I1)lPllCIi 0 crpane orY30B 6a3iIpyeTclI rJlaBHblM 06pa30M na couaaenna nlKai'!xaHH. ITO)l06Hbli'! BbIBO)l naupaurauacrcn npH TmaTeJlbBOM anannse psna 4>aKToB, conepacauiaxcs B «HY3xaT aJl-MYUlTaK». B nauane csoero H3BeCTHlI 0 crpane orY30B Hnpncn TIl-IWeT: «Xopeaacxoe osepo, KaK nepenaior paccKa3'IHKI1 H cootimaior' rroaecrayioume (co CJlOB) rryremecraoaaaumx K HaM orY3CKHX KH1I3eii (MYJlIOK), !-!MeeT B OKPYIKHOCTH TpHCTa MHJl'l» (265. c. 220). TpY)lHO .nonYCTHTb, QT06bl J.i)l.PHCII IIMeJl 31leC" B BtIllY 3HaTHblX orY3CKMX Bom,lleii, npM6blBWHX U3 )laJleKoi'! Cpennen A3!-m B ITa· nepxro, KO IlBOPU;Y Poxcepa II IIJlH ero npeeannxa Bunsre.nsaa I.

ITpOTIlB raxoro MHeHMlI rOBopHT TO 06CTOll1'eJlbCTBO, 41'0 B TeKCTC M)l.PHCH npn onncanna ApaJlbCIWrO MOpl! ynoaanaiorca «uapn (MYJlIOK) orY30B>' (2, Jl. 108; 3, Jl. 516). B cepenatte XII B., HaCKOJlbKO H3BeCTHO, B Ilpuapaase rOCnO)lCTBOBaJlH yme Kbll1'IaKCKHe xaau, paarpowasume OKOJlO 1050 r. oryscxax 1I6ry. IT03TOMY aBTO!, «HY3X31' 3Jl-MYWTaK» cxopee scero B npHBe)leHHOM ssnne orpusxe "POCTO U;H- 1'HPye1' TeKCT caoero nepBOIICTO'lHMK8. Taxoit MeTOA [(OMnHJlllTIIBHOro H3JlOmeHHll - )lOBOJlbHO o6wIHoe lIBJleHHe B cpenneaexosoa MYCyJlb' MaHcKoi'! acropaxo-reorpaqiauecxoa aureparype \64, c. 36; 66, c. 8J 8).

I Kparxne H3BneqeHHH H3 sroro COlIHHeHHH HJlPHCH COXpaHH.IlHCb B CT8M6Yollb· CKOi't PYlwnHCH, npaaanaeacauiea 6H6mwreKe XeKH~IOrJly AJ]H Flauia (642, c. 22l).

2 Caenyer OTMerHTb, ere 8 «HY3xaT an-xyiurato nOl\.JHMO orpsmxa 0 C!p3He orY30B npHSC:>.!leHbl H apyrue CBe~'l;eHI{5I 06 HX 3eM .. nsx. HA~:HtCH npu 3TOM naoraa --VK3- susaer CBOH HCTOl.JHHKH: TPY.D.bI H6H XaYKaJI8, KY.ll3Mbl MOll )J,>Kaq)apa. MaKJlHCH, HCT3XpH. CBeJleHHH, npuaonnaue HM 1"3 C04HHeUHfi YK33aHHbiX aaropoa, 33CJlYfl01- BaJOT 60JlbllJOrO BHMMaRY-H. B pane cnyvaea OHM coaepxcar 60JIee ofiumpaue HCTOPHxo-reorpadrasecxae nanuue, l{eM noiueaume no Hac Be'pCMM rpynoe H6u Xayxaaa H IlPYrRX apa60H3b1~HbIX reorparpos X B. (583, I. c. 7, 473" 498; II, c. 188, 190, 208. 209, 330).

3 Haoro MHeHHH .llep>KHTCH C. n. TOJICTOB, ClJHTaIOlllHH, If:TO Tel{CT Hap Hen 0 crpaxe orY30B 3aHMCTBOB3H H3 HeH3BeCTHorO nrunepapus nepnoa nOJlOBHHbl XI 8, (420, c. 71),

24

Caenyer 06paTHTb BHHMaHlle H aa TOT' cpaKT, 'ITO paccxaa M,tteTdi CO CJIOB llMefillTbIXOrY3CKllX nYTeIIIeCTBeHHllKOB llJlll' nOCJIOB, ITpn3ToM HeBOJIbHO BCnOMHH3eTClI CBllJl,eTeJIbCTBO MaKJI,HCII 0 npoaasenenan ,UlK3iixaHll, HanHC3HHOM H3 OCflOBe nOK33aHHii paanauaax llHOCTpaHues. B rpyne ,UlK3iixallH r.nasnoe BHHMaHHe 06P3Il(3JIOCb aa onacaH'He rop, pex, osep, aopor H H3CeJIeHHbIX' nYHKTOBCOceJl,HHX C BJI'3- neHlillMH C3MaHIIJI,OB 06JIaCTeii. PaCCMaTpHBaeMbIH' TeKCT «l<:i!ta6 PyJl,lKap» 33KJIIOqaeT B ce6e HMeHHO raxoro pona reorparpnxecxae nsseCTIIH, B «HY3xaT 3JI-MYIIITaK», KpOMe roro, tJpHlle.QeHbi" csenenns o npenxer ax TOProBJlII C orY3aMH, xoropue 'MOrJIII 6bITb nOJIY'leHbl OT KynUOB. Xapaxrepno, 'ITO tIaH60JIbIIIeii nOJlHOTOH H TO'lllbCTbIO OTJIII'IaeTClI IIHcpo'pMaUIIH HJ(PHCII 0 MeCTHOCTlIX, JIelKaBIIIHX 6J1Jl3T<lprOBbIX MafllCTpa,ijeii, B TeKCTe «KHTa6 Pynzcap» conepxcarcsr TaKlKe aaacnue CBeJ(eHHlI 0 xpenocrax II soeansrx cpopnOCT3X orY30B, Bce 3TO raroxe nepex.mxacrca C C006Il(eHlleM MaKJ(HCll 0 TOM, qTO ,UiKaiixqHII, corinpas HHq,opMal(IlIO O· cocennax aaponax, ")(OTeJI «nonroroBllTbClI K 3aBoeBaHHIO (HX) 06JIaCTeii» (695, c. 13-14),

HCXOJ(H 113 npanenennux -cooripazceana MOiKHb nYMaTb, 'Ito onucanne CTpaHbI orysoa B «KHTa6 Pynscap» BOCHOBHOM BOCXOIII{T I( YTpa'leHHOMY CO'lHHeHIlIO 'uiKaiixaHll. O)lHaKO HapHCH, SepOlITUO,B ornem.nux CJlY'laHX BCTaBJIlIJI B TeKCT csoero nepBOHCTO'lHHKa CBeJ(eHHlI H3 nonnoa pe.naxuna rpyna H6H XaYKaJIa, B ClfJIY 'BCero CRaaaunoro BbIIIIe paccMaTpHBaeMbIii TeKeT CO'lHHNlHH "HnplicH MOiK!'O narnpoaars X B.

I'corpadmsecxan 3Hl(HKJlOneJ(1l1l Hnpaca aanacana B Ka'leCT~e nOllCHHTeJIbHOra TeKCTa K caoeoripaauua xaprax. npenaaaaauennua J(JIlI cepetipanoro rnotiyca C H306palKeHHeM . MaTepHKoB 3eMHoro mapa (219, c.753; 464, c. 582). Haarioneepaanaa aTJIaC Hnpuca .aarapoaau 1154 r. H Ha3bIBaeTC51 «Cypar 3JI-apII». B pa3JIH'IHbIX cnucxax «HY3xaT aJl-MYIIITaK» cOXpaHHJIHCb H 60JIee n03nHHe reorparpn'1eCKHe xapru aeuaoro mapa.

OTJ(eJIbHble HCCJIe.Il:OsaTeJlH CT,HlHT nan CaMH<'~HH,e i\OCTOBCPHOCTb aTJIaCOB HI\PIlCH JIH60 C'lHTaIOT IlX nJlaXO(I xonaea C xapr ITTaJIeMell. ATJIaCbI Hnpnca l\eiiCTBHTe,ijbHO CTpal\aIOT rxeMaTH3MOM H reosrerPH3MOM, npHcYIl(HM, anpoven, H _ll:pyfHM Cpell,HCBeKaBbIM MYCYJIbMaHCKHM tcapraa (219, c. 753, 754; 464, c,573), Kaprorpatpuuecxas CIlCTeMa HllPHCIl, KaK OTMeTHJI H, IO. KpaqIWBCKHH, 6bIJIa B HeKOTOpox pone urarov Ha3aJ(. B ee OCHaBe JI€iKHT orneprnyrun 6aJiee panHHMH MYCY,1bM3HCKHMH reorpadiaxn nTOJIeMeeBCKHii npllHUHII J(€JIeHHfl CTpaH MHpa na ce'Mb KJlHMaTaB (219, c, 753), CpaBHHTeJIbHbIii 3HaJlH3 TeKCTa H aTJIaCOB «KHTa6 Pynscap» n03BOJlll€T BbIllBHTb He, xoropue cropouu xaprorpaqnmecxoro MeTOJ(a H,ll.PHCH, ConOCTaB,1e HHe nOKa3bIBaeT, 'ITa HaIII aBTOp He scerna 06aCHaBaHHO HHTepnpCTIIpver nannue CBOHX nepBOIlCTOqUHKOB, B U€JIaM pnne CJIY'laeB TCKCT «HY3xaT a,1-MYIIITaK» B xopae npOTHBOpe'lHT COJ(eplKaIl(HMClI B HeM reorparpauecxaa xaprax. OJ(HaKO B03MOiKHO, 'ITO B 3TOM BHHOBaT H€ TOJIbKO HJ(PHCH, UO II ero n03i1.HeiiIIIHe KOMnHJIlITopbl.Pa60T3 Hall nepsoaauansasm aTJI3COM, BepOllTHO, He 6bIJIa nOJIHOCTbIO 3aBepIIIe-

25

aa Hnpacn, OCTaJIHCb HenpOCTaBJIeHHblMH Ha3BaHH!! OTAeJIbHblX ropHblX xpe6TOB, pex, rOpO)lOB, )laMe 'KpynHblx osep H Mopeii (679, I), O)lHaKO aa 60JIee n03)lHHX xaprax OTMe'leHbl nO'lTH ace HaHMeHOBaHHlI, nponyutemrae B aTJIaCe 1154 1'. Bee 3TO C03)laeT TPY)lHOCTH )lJI51 HCCJIC)lOBaTeJIII IIpH onpeaenenan HCTHHHOCTH HJIII ollJll6o'iHOCTH pnna reorpaqmsecxnx IIpe)lCTaBJIeHHii H)lPHCH. B uenox Me xapru HnpnCIl, HeCMOTp!! na caoacraennae HM xpynnue aenocrarxa, npe)lCTaBJIHlOT 3Ha'lllTeJIbHblii acropaxo-reorpadmsecxaa IlHTepec' (222. c. 24, 25). Haneonsurero BllllMaHHH 3aCJIYMIlBaeT coxpauaautaacn B «KHTa6 PyIlmap» nepnonasaasaua aTJIaC aesmoro mapa (404).

B CIlJIY OTCYTCTBHH KpHTll'leCKOrO H3)laHIlII rexcra «HY3xaT aJI,MYIIITaK» 3Ha'lllTeJlbHO OCJlOMHHeTClI sonpoc 0 npaBHJlbHOCTIl 'ITeHllii rex HJIH IlHblX reorpaqmuecxax Ha3B.aHHii. YCTaHoBHTb HCTHHY MOllillO JlHlIlb nYTeM rtuarensnoro nancorpaqmuecxoro 1l3Y'lellHlI pyxonncen rpyna H,II,PIlCH. B IlCnOJlb30BaHIlbiX HaMil cnncxax «KHTa6 Pynscap» nMelOTCH CBOIl rparpavecxae oco6e1lHOCTIl. Ilepenacunxa neaaurpancxoro H CO<jJlliiCKoro cnHCKOB aa nepsua B3rJlll)l O,ll,llHaKOBO rnuuyr, uanpnxep, xonexaue HyH Il ·3aiiH.O,ll,HaKO npn BHHMaTeJlbHOM pacCMOTpeHHH OKa3b1BaeTCH, 'ITO B aasepraann 3TUX 6YKB cyuiecrsyer npaauarnransuaa pasnnna. B YKa3aHHbiX pYKonHClIX u3rn6 3aiiHa Menee pasaepayr. 'IeM Y nyna, a TO'lKa B nepaox cay-rae 'CTaBIlTClI y caxoro KpMI npaaoro Y)lJIIlHeHHOro xonua, a BO BTOPOM - 1I0'lTIl B cepennne 6YKBbi (cp. 207, c. 24, 25). Oraevenaue naneorparpnnecxne oc06eHHocTH, nO-BH,II,HMOMY, 061>llCHIlIOTCH cnel~H<jJHKOii TaK aaausaE'MOrO Marpll6HHcKoro noxepxa, JIeHHHrpa)lCKHii II co<jJHiicKHii cnHCKH o6HapYlliHBalOT B 3TOM OTHOlIleHHII 60JlblIlOe CXO,ll,CTBO C MeIIlXe)lCKOii pyxonacsio (207, C. 12-63).

MOHYMeHTaJlbHblii rpyn H)lPIICH, CO)leplliamllii OTpblBKH 113 yrepaaaux CO'llIlfeHHii apa601l3b1'1HblX HCTOPHKOB II reorparpoa IX-X BB., HBJlHeTCli ueHHblM HCTO'lHHKOM )lJlll 113Y'leHH}1 orY30B H npyrnx TIOPK01l3bl'lHbiX nJIeMeH Cpenaea A3I1H. 3Ha'leHlle «KHTa6 Py.lJ.lliap» He OrpaHH'IHBaeTClI JIlllIlb CBeneHlIlIMII 0 paccenenun 3TflX HaPO)lOB H nplIHa)lJIelKaBIIIHX 11M roponcxnx nocenennax H xpenOCTHX. Ilpoaasenenae H)lPHCH 3aJ(JIKl'laeT B ce6e aaaexareasuue naunue 06 HX xoasmcrnennux 3aHHTlilIX H II('KOTOPblX ucprax 6bITa II KYJlbTYPbl.

HCTOpHorpa. B XI":XII BB. 6JIarO)lapll ceJlb)l}](Y](CKHM aaaoena<IlKR IIepeJlHeli HHlIM CBe)leHHH 0 ryproieuax H orysax nOllBJIlIKlTCH B

A.3KH apMlIHcKHX, rpY3HHcKHX II cHpniicl<HX ucro-mnxax'. B

XI-XIII DB. 'IIICJle HCTOpH'IeCKHX lIpOll3Be)leHllil na apMlIHCKOM 1I3blKe cnenyer B nepayro oxepens Ha3BaTb XpOHHKH Apncraxeca JlaCTHBepTUI! (Xl s.}, MaT<jJeH 3,[1eccI{oro (XII B.), MXHTapa Aapaaancxoro (XIII B.). B rpyaax yxaaanuux HCTOPHKOB onucuaaercs sasoeHaHHe Ce.1b)lMYI(aMH 3aKaBKa3bll H MaJloii A3HH (489; 538; 693).

! B BH3a"·rmHCKoH ucronuor-cadura nepnue CBe)l,eHII5I 06 ysax (orvsax) OLIJI" npHBe.lleHbl B X B. B callUHeH"H KOHCT3HTHHa Ba,rpHHOpO,lI,HOrO (398). Cpena oo.ree n03l1.HHX IfCTOqHHKOB cnenyer QTMenlTb 'fPV.1lbl 3BTOPOB XII-XIII BB. HHKHc!Jopa BpueHHH" (181). AHHbI KONHHHOii (35) H HHKu'lJOpa XOHIl.Ta (311).

26

BMeCTe C TeM OHH C006malOT nexoropsre cnenenaa 0 60Pb6e TypKMeH C raaaeennaxn II 0 "POHCXOlKneHHH CeJlbillKYKII.n;OB. B OCHOBeH3BeCTHM MHOnIX apMlIHCKHX HCTOPHKOI3 0 CeJlbillKYKCKHX IIJleMeHaX .QelKIIT TpYiI asropa XII B. HOaHHa Capxaaar a (557). CCbWKII na ero «HCTOpHIO aasana II npoacxoacneana TlOpOK,. IIMeIOTCS! B CO'lllHeHIIlIX aBTOPOB XIIIB. Bapnana Bapnsriepua H Kupaxoca Tanaaaxeua (109, c. 118, 119). B xponorparpan MXHTapa AiipHBaHcKoro npasenena reaea.nornuecxaa Ta6J1I1u.a· ilHHaCTllH CeJlbillKYKHilOB, 3allMCTBOB3HHall 113 rpyna Capxaaara (270, c. 351).

HHTepecHLle CBe.n;eHIIlI 0 ce.1billKYKCKHX IIJleMeHaX 3aKJlIO'IeHbl B rpy3HHcKHX JleTOnHClIX (595). B «MaTllaH:> Kaprauca» (XI B.) rOBOP"TCH 0 IIepBOM nOllBJleHIIH CeJlbillKYKOB B I'PY3HII H HX npensonaremIX Ann-Apcn aae H MeJlIIKWaxe. )J,Pyroii rpY3HHcKHM HCTOqHHK, na .. nllcmlHblH B XII B., paccxassraaer 06 IIX HaweCTBHlIX ua 3aKaBKa3be (276).

. BalKHbIM HCTOqHHKOM no IICTOPHII cpenneaexoeux TIOPK01l3bIqHblX HapO)lOB Cpe)lHeii A3HH lIBJllIeTCH xpoaaxa MHXaHJla CHpl1iiu.a (131). B rpyze sroro cl1pHiicKOro anropa XII B. I1MeeTCH cneunansHaS! rnana 0 crpase TIOPOK, HX 3aHlITHlIX, 6blTe H o61,jqallx (539). MilXaHJI Capaeu ynenaer ocotioe BHHMaHHe HCTOPHH HXMllrpal(lIii 113 Henrpa.nsaof B C penmoto A3HIO, Hpaa H CTpaHbI Ilepeznero BocTOKa. XpOHHKa COilePlKHT IIHTepeCHeHWIIH paCCKa3 0 nOJlOBel(KOM II CeJlbJl.lKYKCKOM ilBHlKeHlllIX (129). B 1I11CJle CIlPIIHCKHX HCTO~HIIKOB cnenyer raiose ynouaayrs ncropasecxoe COQHHeHl1e A6Y-Jl-¢>apaJl.lKa (1226-1286). Ilpoaaaeneanc A6Y-JI-¢>apaJl.lKa upencraanser C060H 06WHPHblH TPYJl. no BceMHpHoH HCTOPHH (586). B 9TOM CO'lHHeIIHI1 npneencnu BalKHble CBeJl.eHHlI 0 B03HIIKHOBeHHI1 H HCTOPIIH CeJILJl.lKYKCKOro rocynapcrsa (130).

Hcropaorpa- B nasane XIII B. BOHHCTBeHHble OP)lLI QI1HrHC-XaHa <jIHII npeJJ.MOH- pa30p"JIII Ii nonaeprau crpauraoay norpoay Cpen-

rOJlbCKOrO HIOIO A3111O. OqeBHJl.u.eM rex rp03HLIX c06bITnii 6bI.~

apeuena MyxaMMaJl. Hecean, onnu 1i3 cnOnBHlKHIIKOB xopesx-

uraxa )J,lKaJlaJI ak)J,HH3 (+1231). HeceBII nOCBlITHJI HCTOPIIII ero U.aPCTBOBaflHlI H nOXOnOB, B TOM 'IHCJIe 60Pb6e C MOHroJIaMH, cneuaaJIbHOe npoaaaeneaae non Ha3BaHHeM «Cnpar ac-cyrrran )J,lKa.~aJI an)J,IIB MaHry6HpTII» (520, I, c. 319). Covaneaae Hecesa OT}IOCHTCH K eecsua pe,'l,KoMY B CpeJl.HeBeKOBoH MycYJlbMaHCKoii ncropaorpaqian »caupy MeMyapHoH mrreparypa, B 9TOM UCTOp"QeCKOM rpyne coneplKHTCli MHoro mrrepecaux CBe)lellHH 0 ilep)l(aBe nOCJlenHIIX xopesxwaXOB II HallleCTBIIII qUHrHc-xaHa na Cpezmoio A3111O. Oc060e 3Ha'IeHlle Jl.JIli Hac IIMeeT paCCKa3 HeceBII 0 TypKMellCKIIX nJIeMeHaX Xopacaua, npHHHBWUX aKTHBHoe yxacrue B 60Pb6e C I1H03eMHbIMI1 3a· soea aTe.nllMU.

COBpeMeIlIlUKOM MOIlroJIbCKOrO HaweCTBIIH 6bI.n II BbIJl.3IOW.HHCH apa6CKHii HCTOPHK H6H an-Acnp (1160-1234). OH lIBJIHeTCHaBTOPOM MHorOTOMHoro TPYJl.3 no acenupuoa nCTopHH non Ha3B3HHeM «TapHX aJl-KaMIIJI». B CBoeM npOIl3BeJl.eHIIU OH HcnO.Qb3011a.n pH)I yrepHHHblX ceiiqac JIeTOnHCeH H XpOHIIK, B TOM 'IIiCJIe CO'lllHeHIiH no HCTO-

27

PUll Xopacana (520, I, c. 324). I16Ha9I-Acup OTJIU'la.~CH 60.nbHlOH )l06pOCOBecTHocTbIO U Kp"T"'leCKIlM TaKTOM-B' 'oroope ¢laKTUqeCKOrO MaTep"a.na (65, c. 46, 47). B ero HCTOp"'leCKOM TPY)l.e orocpaaceau He TO.nb~O nonnrnsecxae C06b!TIIH, HO II pa;lJlII'lHble CTOPOHbl 6b1Ta II ~YXOBnOIl xyasrypsr npournax BpeMeH (725,. c. 126, 127). CO'lHHeHHe U6H an-Acapa HIl.nHeTCH TaKlKe ueHHblM IICTO'lHHKOM'nO HCTOPHH ory- 30B H TypKMeH, ocotienao rrepnoaa Xl=-nauaaa XIII B. (265, c. 37-39). B nocnennax paanenax «Tapax a.n-'pMH.n», HapHIlY C ll.PY' fUMH C06hITH)lMH, orrHCbIBalOTCH xposaaue L\eHHHH' BOHCK l.[HHfHc-xaHa B. Cpe)lHeH A3HH, Hpaae, 3aKaBKa3be.

Moaronscxoe HaHleCTBHe orpasanocs II B rpyne MUHXa)ll]{ an!~~lHa LLlKY3)llKaHu «Ta6aKaT-uHacllpu» (139; 748). Covuneuae n:lKY3!llKaHu aanacaao B I1H)lHH H rrOCBHmeHO lI.e.nUHCKOMY cy.rrany Hacnp a)l-LLHHY MaxMY)lHlaxy (1259-1265). OCHoBHoe BHHMaHHeR 3TOM rrpOH3Be)leHUU YlI.eJleHO HCTOPUU ¢eO)laJlbHbIX IlUHaCTUH CpenueH A3uu, Hpana, Arpranucraua U Ceaepnoa I1H)lIlU. nOCJle)lHUH paanen lIoBeCTByeT 0 soesnux noxonax l.[IIHrllc-xaHa, KOTOPOMY naeTCH pe3KO orpnuarensnaa xapaxrepncrnxa. Hau60.nbHlHH aarepec IlJlH HaC' 'lIpe)lCTaBJlHIOT rJlaBbl a npaaneuan ra3HeBUIlOB, CeJlb)llKYKU)lOB H, xopeaatuaxon, B 3TUX paaneaax LLlKY3)llKaHH ncnonssonan pHil UCTO'lHUKOB, He )lOHle)l.IIII1X )1.0 naurero BpeMeHH (514; 529).

B XIII B. B nepcuncxoa ncropaorparpan, aapany C lKanpoM seeo6mei\ HCTOPHH, pa3BHBaeTC5J nansure pernonansuaa aHHaJlHCTIIKa. Cocraansmrcs rpynu no UCTOpllH OT)l.eJlbHbIX rOpO)lOB, xpynaux 06- JlacTeH H nposanunn. O)lHIIM 113 TaKIIX npOU3BejJ.ellHii HB.nHeTC5J «TaPHX-H Ta6apHCTaH», aarmcannoe 116H I1c¢leH)lH5JpOM B 1217 r. (168). Taaauoe BHHMaHlle B 3TOM rpyne yneneno HCTOP"H Taoapacrana B npaanenne ¢eO)l'aJlbHbIX )lIlHacTHii a,1HII.OB, 3U5JP".l1.0B U 6YH)lOB. 0.11.HaKO COQUHeHHe I16H' I1c¢leHII.U5Jpa UMeeT aaxoroe snavenae U IlJlH HCTOpHII Xopacaaa H COCe.ll.HHX o6J1acTeii Cpenaea A3HII. Bonsurof aurepee II.JlH Hac IIpe)lCTaBJHleT onncauae CeJlb)llKYKCKHX saaoenaaau XI B. H C06blTHM nepaona TaK Ha3b1BaeMOii «rY3cKoM CMYTbl».

3aBoeBaHHe MOHrOJl3MH Cpennef A3I1H H Hpaaa nacjl~~T~P~~~P~-Jl. HeCJlO CII.nbHbIH ynap KYJlbType ";HX crpan. OL\HaKO cKorJ HpIHa nocne rpex-uerupex )leC5JTHJleTHII ynaaxa Ha6J1Io1\a-

eTCH nOIl'beM B nexoropux crpac.aax HaYKH B IOlKHOM II 3ana)lHOM Hpane. B cepenune XIII-XIV BB. sucoxoro YPOBHH )lOCTHraeT nepCHII.CI{a5J ncropaorpadian, pa3BH133BlIIaHClI npa IlBOpe nnsxaaos. KYJlbTYPHOMY B03pOlK)l.elHlIO ,>Toli nopu cnoco6CTBOnaJIII )laJlbllelilIlHH POCT ¢leO)laJlbHbIX o rttouieaak, HnTeHCH¢lHI(3UHlI 3KOHOMHQeCKHX CBH3eli, oc06eHHO B 06J1aCTII Cpe)lH3eMHOMopCI(O-a3HaTCKOH ToprOB/III. C03)laHHe 06UlllPHOM MOHrO,1bCKOM HMriepliH H xpecrossre noxonu CTHMYJlllpOBaJlH pacumpeune xpyroaopa nepCH)lCKHX HCTOP1iKOB. MOHro.nbCKHe xana . 6bI.nH 3aHHTepeCOBaHbI B npocnaanenna CBOero UapCTBOBaHIIH II nOKpOBHTeJlbCTBOBaJiH IICTOpIlI{aM H n03T3M (355, c. 7.11 cnea.).

I1CTOpIjOrpa¢HH Cpenttea A3HH II HpaH3 XIll--XIV BB. 6bl.nV, npacyma MHOrlle 'lepTbl rrpcnmccmyrourero speaena, no HMeJlUCb H

28

CBOIi xapaxrepasre OC06eHHOCTH. B paCCMa"tpHBaeMYIO nopy Ha6JIIOJlaeTCH OKOH'IaTeJIbHOe' BblTeCHeHHe' aparicxoro 'JIHTepaTYPHoro H3MKa nepCHJlCKHM' H TaJl)l{HKCKHM,nqcTeneHHo CKJI3J1b1BaeTCH HeCKOJlbKO pernonansnux HCTOpH'IeCKHX nrxcor (114, c: -138 H cJIe.L(.)' . .uHHaC!HIjeCKHe, XpOHHKH, orpanaseunsre . Y3KHMH paMKaMH npHJlBOpHOH HCTOpaorpaqma, Ha'lHHaIOT ycrynars caoe MeCTO Bce061l1HM IICTOpIIIIM. PaSBHTlIe sroro Tpa.D,Hll,1I0HHOm »canpa npIlBO.D,HT K C03)1,3HlIIO cpaKTji'1eCKH nepsoro B BOCTO'lHOH IICTOpHorpacjJlIH xpynncinucro rpyna no BceMlIpHOH HCTOpHH.

O)l,HIIM H3 paHIIHX HCTOpH'IeCKHX CO'lHHellllH nOCJIeMOHmJIbCKOm BpeMeHH HBJIHeTCH «TapHX-H )l)l{aXaHrywa» ATa MaJIHKa .u)l{YBeHHI! (1226-1.283). B reveaae )J.JIHT~JIbHOrO BpeMeRII OH HaXO.D,HJICH aa cJIY)l{6e y MOHrOJIbCKHX xaHOB H B nocnennae .rona ObIJI ryeepaaropOM Barnana (762). CO'lHHeHHe .ll)l{YBejiHH 3aKOH'IeHO B 1260 r. H noCBHllIeHO HCTOPHH MOHrOJIbCKHX aaaoesauaa Ha'lHHall C nOXO.D,OB LIIIHrxc-xana. O)lHaKO B ll,eJIOM pane rJIaB «Tapux-a )l)l{aXaHrywa» H3JIa· ralOTCH <jJaKTbI no IICTOPHH .D,ep)l{aBbI CeJIbiVKYKH!lOB H xopeavuraxoa . .u)l{YBeIHm, HaCKOJIbKO n03BOJIllJIO ero cnyaceriuoe a~IITJIYfl; crapaacs )(aTb npaanaeyio HCTopH'IecKYIO KapTHBy onucuuaeaoa snoxn (265, c. 51). Paccaarpaaaenoe CO'lHHeHHe HMeeT, saacnoc snaxemre J.\)Ill fl3Y'IeHHH 061l1eH KapTHHbI H nOCJIe!lCTBH}1 MOHrOJIbCKOm 3aBoeB3HHH TYPKMeHHcTaHa.

B XIV B_ nepcH)lcKO-Ta)()I{HKCKaH ncropnorpaqms J.\OCTHrJIa OCo- 6eHBO 60JIbWHX ycnexos B xYJI'arYH)lCKoM' Hpane. Hasano sroro eTOJIeTHH 03HaMeHOBaJIOCb nOllBJIeHHeM «.u)l{aMH aT-TaBapHX» - O;I,HOrO H3 caMbIXHbI)(alOllIHXClI npOII3Be)(eHHH B Cpe)(HeBeKOBoH ucropnorpaCPHH Bocroxa (355). OC}iOBHblM asropox H pe)(aKTOpOM sroro rpau)(H03HOro rpyna no BceMHpHoil HCTOPHH 6blJI <Pa3J1aJIJIaX PalIIH)l an.uHH (1274-1318). Heocnopuaoa aacnyron ero HBJIHeTCH npeononenne cyurecreoeasumx B MycYJIbMaHCKoii HCTopHorpa4!HH crapsix, I(0CHblX npe)(CT3BJIeHHH 0 sceaupnoa HCTOpHH. B «C60pHHKe JIeTOnHceH» xpacnoa HHTblO npOXO)(HT H)lell 0 TOM, 'ITO HCTOPHll aparios U npaanes ecrs JIHlIIbO)(Ha H3 pex, snanarouiax B orpoxaoe Mope UCTOPHH qeJlOsesecrsa. I1MeHHo n03TOMY B «.u)l{aMH aT-TaBapHX» - y)(eJlHeTCH BHHMaflHe HCTOpHH MHOI'l1X HapO)lOB, Ha'lHHall C .uaJlbHerO BocrOK3 H KOH'1all 3ana)lHOH Eaponoa. 3Ha'lHTeJIbHOe MeCTO B 3TOM rpyne OTBe)leHO MOHrOJIbCKHM H TIOPKCKHM, B TOM qJ'[CJIe orY3CKHM, nJleMeHaM. B QT!leJlbHbIX PYKonHCllX «.lllKaMH aT-TaBapHX» HMeeTClI crreunansnun

pasnen non caMOCTO!lTeJlbHblM Ha3BaHHeM «TapHX-H OrY3» (351;

352; 353). 2ha nOJlHaH aepcas CKa3aHHlI 0 nerennapnox Orys-xane, K COll(aJIeHHIO, eute He BBe)J.eHa B HaY'lHblH 060pOT. Me)l{)(Y TeM' BHeii no cpaBHeHHIO C BapHaHTOM, conepxaumxca B,06bI'IHblX cnncxax TPY)(a PaWH)( an-Ilnaa. _ npneenensr mrrepecnue HCTOPUKO-3THorpacjJH'1eCKHe nanaue. Haaooaee 06WHPHblH BapHaHT sroro CK,!3aHHll H3XO)lHrCH B '1araTaHCKOM nepesone «.u)l{aMU' aT-T3BapHX», C)(eJIaHHOM B XVI B. TypKMeHcKHM HCTOPHKOM Canup-Baria (50;'215; 378).

PaWH!I a)l-.uHH B npe)(HCJlOBHH K «Hcropua Orysa» He yxasunaer CBOIlX HCTO'lHHKOB, CCbIJIaHCb JIHlIIb,Ba aUOHHMllbliX «HCTOPHKOB- H no-

.29

secrsoearenea» (351, JI. 410). O'lellll)l,HO, a 3TOM pasnene OH nom,- 30BaJlClI KHlDKHbIMH HCTO'lHHKaMH H YCTHblMH paCCKa3aMH. B. B. Pa)J;JlOB C'IHTaJl, 'ITO PaIllH)I, a)l,-,UHH xepnan CBe)l,ellHlI H3 YMrypCKoit BepC1I1I «CKa3a1lHlI 06 Orya-sar-ane» (458) H TypKMeHcKHx HapO)l,HbIX npenanna (343, c. 1-21). O)l,HaKO paccaarpuaaeuua BapHaHT B OT.~H'IHe OT ytlrypcKoit BepCHH npoHHKHyT )l,YXOM oproxoxcansnoro HCaaxa, OrY3-xaH Hero nOTOMKH fI306palKalOTCH B HeM pbllHbIMH npH-· sepacenuaxa MycYJlbMaHCKoM pemrran. TIo)!'06Hall TeH)!,eHuHlI CBH)I,eTeJlbCTByeT 0 60Jlee n03)1,IIeU 06pa60TKe )l,peBHHX orY3cKHx HCTOpH'Ie· Cl<HX cKa33HHit. Oxoasarensnoe CJlOlKeHHe «OrY3-11aMe», KaK 3aMeTHJI B. B. Bapronsn, OTllOCHTClI K MOllrOJlbCKoMY nepnozry (502, c. 179). ::ho .MHeIlHe nomcpennserca conocraeneuaex sepcnn PalIlH)I, a)!",UHHa ·C cooTBeTcTBYIOIIl,HMH AallllbIMH, conepxcauraaaca B <<3alill an-axoap» H «MY)l,lKMl\Jl ar-rasapax». B 3THX HCTO'lHHKax HH'Iero He rOBopHTCfI o npHlIlITHH OrY30M HCJlaMa. HanpOTHB, Jlerell)l,apHblit npenox orY30B H306pamaeTClI KaK 1I3b1'1eCKHit 3aKJIHHaTeJlb, Bbl3blBaIOW:Hfl )!'om!lb C nOMOIlLblO MarH'IeCKOrO KaMHlI.

B OCHOBe «licTOPHfI OrY3a» PaWH)!, an-Ilnua, BepOJlTHO, JlemHT HCTOpHKO-3nH'IeCKHM uHKJI «Orys-uaxe». A6y Bexp n6H A6)!,aJl,laX H611 Ait6eK B CBoeM «.Llypap ar-rnnacaa» cooriutaer 0 60Jlbwoil nonyJllIPHOCTH cpena orY30B KOHua XIII-Ha'laJla XIV B. CO'lHHeIIHfI noa nasaanaea "OrY3-HaMe» (572, c. 35, 36). B 3Toil KHHre 3aKJlIO'IaJlaCb HCTOPHlI HX nepsux uapen, paCCKa3b1BaJlOCb 0 Zlene-rosc - nepconame, IjJHrypHpylOIIl,eM TaKJKe B "KHTa6-H ,Ue)!'eM KOPKYT» (218; 585). O)!'HH H3 TaKHX cnHCKOB «l1cTOpHH. OrY3a» XpaHHJlClI y npasurenea ryproiencxoa )l,HHaCTHH aK-KoIOHJlY (702. c. 51). CCblJlKH na «OrY3- HaMe» HMelOTClI TaK1Ke B cO'lHHeHHH rypeuxoro HCTopHKa XV B. MaxMYAorJlY Xacana Baarasr (702,c. 381-387), B «Tapnx-a AJI·H CensnmyK»' H «PO)l,OCJIOBHOli TypKMeH» (212, c. 36).

Bepcas «MCTOpHH Ory3a», HMelOw:allCH B· rpyne Pauma an-Iluaa H npyrux cpennesexoaux HCTOPHKOB, conepacnr HeMaJlO nereunapaux BblMbICJlOB'. Ocooenuo <jlaHTaCTH'IeCKHM HBJllIeTCSl paCCKa3 0 TOM, KaK OrY3·xaH, 6YAY'lH eure rpyzmua pe6eHKOM, 06paTHJlCSl B HCJlaM. Cleo nyer ratoxe oroeoparsca, 'ITO ynorperinaexaa B 3THX BepCHSlX COUH' ansnasr H nnas TepMHnOJlOfHlI, neCOMHeHHO, nonseprn acs COOTBeTCTBYlOllleit MO)l,epnH3aUHH. TI03TOMY ee neJlb311 MeXaHII'IeCKH nepeaoCIlTb aa «npesnae» Co6blTHH H SlBJIeHHlI, onacusaexue B «MCTOPHH OrY3a» . .LlaHHble paCCMaTpHBaeMblX BepCHR «OrY3-HaMe» BMeCTe C TeM 3aKJIIO'IaIOT B ce6e aexoropoe «pauuoaansaoe sepno» H npn )!'OJllimOM KpHTH'IeCKOM nonxone MoryT 6blTb ncnoneaoaauu B «axecr-

I B. B. Baproasn nonaran, lITO 3T3 pyxonacs HBJIHeTCH TypeUKHM nepeBO!J.OM rpyna Pasa-HAH «PaX3T ac-cynyp» (66, c. 574). OARaKD ,lI,3HHOe COlJl1HeHHe 3HallH· TeJIbHQ OTJIUqaeTCSI no cnoeay COJl,epm3HIUG OT TPYJl.3 PaBaH.lUI. BOJIbJUe ncero OHO o6HapY>KHBaeT CXO.ztCTBO C H3)l,3HHblM He.lt)lut6oM ACHMOM «OrY3-H3Me H3 XYA CeaslVKyK-H3Me». Jlocnensee COQHHCHHe, K3K YK333HO B HCTOpHlJeCKOH aareparype, npa"a,llne>K"T 113b1,ll>K"orJlY AJIH (564, c. 11-13).

2 OJ1.Ha 113 Il03)lHHX BepeHH «OrY3-HaMe» co,[(ep)KHTC9 8 npOH3Be.n;eHHH rypxMeHCKoro n09Ta·KJIaCCHKa AH)l,anH6a (36).

Be HCTOpHqeCKHX i.laTepHaJlOB. HaH6oJlbliIero 8HHMailHSI B «HCTOPHH Oryaa» aaCJlYlKHBaeT onacaune CeJlbJ(lKYKCKOro J(BHlKeHHH H rH6eJlH nepacassr CblpJ(apbHHCKHX H6ry. XpOHOJlOmqeCKH MelKJ(Y 3THMH corisrTHHMH H BpeMeHeM HX <jlHKcaUHHB rpyne Pa'IIIHJ( an-Ilnaa npOIlIJlO 60Jlee J(BYXCOT nHTHJ(eCHTH JIeT. OJ(HaKO B HapOJ(HOH naMSlTH eure xpaHHJlHCb BocnOMHHaHHlI 0 npe.lIIIIeCTBYIOmeH snoxe, HBHBllIeHCH nepeJlOMHOH BeXOH B HCTOpHqeCKHX cYJ(b6ax orY30B. MeTOJ(HqeCIWH OCHOBOH .lIJilI anannaa 3THX paCCKa30B H3 UHI{J]a CKa3aHHH «OrY3-HaMe» HBJlHeTClI cpaBHHTe.nbHO-HCTOpHqeCKHH KpHTepUH conocraaneaaa C J(aHHblMU cpenaesexoeux HCTOqHHK03. OrY3CKHe HCTOpUqeCKHe npenaHUll HCnOJlb3YIOTCH HaMH .nHIIIb rorna, xorna OHH nepeK.nHKaIOTCH C H3BeCTHlIMIl HCTO'lHHKOB, 6.nH3KHX no BpeMeHH K HCCJleJ(yeMbIM C06bITHHM. B OCTa.nbHbIX cnynaax nanrionee narepecaue H OpHrHHa.nbHbIC no COJ(eplKaHHIO naponnerc CKa3aHHH npHBo'J(HTClI B icanecrue H.n,lIOCTpaTHBHblX MaTepHaJlOB.

Ilepcuncxas ncropaorparpaa XIII·-XIV BB., BHeCJla COJlHJ(HbIH B](.na.n; B uaysenae srnorpaipu« H HCTOPHH TIOPKO-MOHrOJlbCKHX aapoJ(OB BOCTOqHOH A3HH. Bnaronapz «)llKaMH aT'TaBapHX» HCTOPHH 3THX HapOJ(OB CTaJIH paCCMaTpHBaTbClI B xauecr ae COCTaBIfOH qaCTH seeMUPHOH HCTOpHH. 3HaqH'reJlbHOe BHHMaHHe npa 3TOM 6bl.n0 YJ(eJleHO oryaax H TypKMeHaM, oc06eHHO HX POJ(O-I!JleMeHHOH CHCTeMe H 3THHqecKoii HCTOpHH. Brrepaue aa MHorue CTO.1eTHH 6bI.na cnenana nonsrrxa C03.n;aTb 06myIO KOHl(enl(HIO HCTopH'IeCKoro rrpotunoro TIOPOK H MOHro.nOB UeHTpa.nbHol\ H CpeJ(HeH A3HII. ObI.n cnenan nepaua onur CHHTe3a HX reueanorusecxnx H nneaennux cxaaauna C no.ny- 3nHqeCKHMH HapOJ(HblMH H KHHlKHblMH npenannaxa. CTOJIb 60JlbIilOe HaqHHaHHe, eCTeCTBeHHO, He 060III.nOCb 6e3 npOMaXOB, Bblpa3HBIIIHXClI B ne](OTOpOM 3KJleKTH3Me, OIIHcaTe.nbIlOCTU H HeJ(OCTaTOqHOCTH KPHTII' qeCKOrO QYTbH. O.n;lIaKO 3TII HeJ(OCTaTKH He YMa.nRIOT aacnyr HCTOPHO' rpa<jlHH paccuarpaaaexoa nopu, C.lIeJlaBIIIeii 60.nbIIIOii IIIar anepe.a B H3YQeHI1H HCTOPHH TIOP](01l3bIQHblX HapOJ(OB Cpennea A3Hu. Cnenyer BMeCTe C TeM OTMeTHTb, qTO B nepCHJ(CKHX HCT04HHKax XIV B. "PH 60raTCTse CBeJ(eHHi'! 0 npOIII.nOM orY30B H TYPKMeH conepacarcs oseus cxynuste }I.<1HHble 06 HX cYJ(b6ax noc.ne MOHro.nbC](OrO 3aBoeBaHHR. HaqHHaR C 3TOi'! nopu caao HMH eorys» nOCTeneHHO HC4e3aeT co crpanau HCTOPHH CpeAHei'! AsHH.

B XIII-XIV BB. napaay C xy.narYIIJ(cKIIM Hpano« KpynHbIM l(eHTpOM I5YJlbTypbI na Mycy.lbMaHcKoM BoCTO](e 6bIJI MaM.nIOKcKHH Eraner. OOJIbIIIHX ycnexon, ocooeano B nocnennee CTO,leTHe npaaneaaa MaMJIiOK' C](HX CYJlTaHOB, J(OCTHr,1a HCTOpHqeCKall HaYKa. Eranercxas HCTOPHO' rparpas BbI.n;BHHy.na 3aMe4aTe.nbHYIO nJleHAY yseaux, HanoJ(06He TaKH <111.-)lHHa a.n·Ma](pH3H (+1442), 116H TarpH6HpJ(H (+1469), )llKaJIaJI aJ(-)lHHa ac-Cyayrn (+ 1505). )l.nHTe.nbHoe BpeMH B Ernnre lKHJIII TBOPH.n OJ(HH H3 caMblX BbI.n;aIOIlIHXClI HCTOPHKOB cpenneuesoasa 116H XaJl.lIYH (1332-1406). XOTlI «MYKa.n;J(HMa» 6bI.na 3aKOHQeHa HM B MarpH6e eute AO nepeceaeaas B 1382 r. B Kanp, HO HMeHHO B Ernnre OH cyutecrseuao nononnan CBOi'! HCTopH4ecKHi'! TPYJ(. 116H XaJl.lIYH

Hcropuorpa«!lOR MaMJlIOKCKOro Ernrrra

okaaan MllHime aa eranercxnx HC.TOp"KOII, II QaCTlldcTH,1I3 aJl·MaK' PH3H, KO:rDPbIli cxnran ero CBDHM Y1JHTeJIeM (69, c. 63, 64).

,CDqHHeHHe I16H Xanayna, B KDTDpOM ciIHTe3HpDB8H otlblT npenwe~TBYIOmeii HCTDPHij, q,HJlDCOqJHij H npasa, 6blJIO KaqeC.TBeHHO HDBi?IM HBJIeHHeM .B apaocxoa HCTDpHDrpaq,HH. <PaKTH'IeCKH.DH nDJlDlKIlJI Ha'l.aJIOHCTDPHKD-CDl,\HDJIOm'leCKoli nayxe D. 'IeJIDBe'le.CKDM D61IleCTBe n suyrpeuaux 3aKDHDMepHDCTljX ero pasaarna. I16u Xannyn npOBDi\I;lJI MaTepuMHCTH'IecKYIO TD'IKy apenna .aa HCTDpHIO'IeJIDBe'leCTBa, np!)CJ_IelKHBaH TecHYIO 3aBHCHMDCTb D6meCTBa DT xapaxrepa npDH3- BO{loc:rBeHHDli i\eHTeJIb)lDCTH JIIOi\eii. Cpeaaeaexoaaa HCTDpH'IeCKaH nr yxa.Banaaa H BDCTDKa He 3HaeT )lCTDpHKD-qlHJIDCDq,CKDrD. rpyna, paaaoro «MYKai\i\HMe» I16H XaJIi\YHa (68; 69).

Tp.aKTaT I16H Xannyna uenea i\JIH. Hac npexcne scero TeM, 'ITO. cnocoocrayer nDHHMaHHIO DCD6eHHDCTeH XD3S!HCTIla cpenneaexoaux rypxuen. BOJlbWOrO BHHMaHHH C 3TDli TD'IKH 3peHHHi\DCTDHHD Dimcaaue .e «MYKai\i\HMe», napany C KD'IeBDli lKH3HbIO apaooa H KYPilDB. CKDTD8Di\'1eCK,Oro 6bITa TypKMeHCKHX naexea .. I16H Xannyn. p:;t3J1I11JaeT HeCKDJI.hKD cnDCD6DB KD1JeBaHlIH B 3aBHCHMDCTH DT .CDCTaBa cr an lKHBDTHDI)Di\OB, YKa3bIBaH aa cyinecraoaanae y HDMai\DB amarDHI13M_. MelKi\Y CHJIbHblMH H cJIa6bIMH nJIeMeHaMH. B «MYKaili\HMe» paCCMaTpHBaIDTCH . raiose 83aHMDOTHDweHHii MelKi\Y, KDqeBHIfKaMH H 3!,!MJle-

lleJIb'leCKHMH aaponaxa DCe)l.lIDH nDJlDCbI FlO). .

«I1HJlOJIDrHQe- EnmeTCKaH HQ;DPij1JeCK'!)I. ,I,lIKqJla, )leCMoTpH. Hf),,6qJ)l,-

C'(He COQHHe- l1,lHe ycnexn B CBQeM p.a3BHTHH; see lKe 61,IJla orpa-

HHH 1-IH'IeHa paMKaMH Mec~mDli ~flHaJI'HCTiH("' (725, c. 37).

XIII-XV BB. flD3TDMY B cQ'IllaHHbfx I1pH MaNJlI</KcKHX CYJITaHaX Happ!lTHBHbIX rpynax conepacarcs xpaane MaJID CBeileHHH 0. npyrnx naponax H crpaaax. B acnexre uccnenyeuux HaMH npD6JIeM 6DJIee BalKHbl TDJIKDBbIe apa6D-TlOpKCKHe rJIOCCapHH,.HanflcaHHbIe B pacCM3TpHBaeMYIO nopy B Ernnre H CHpBH. f1DHBJIeHBe u,eJIOH cepaa raKHX CJIDBapeH B XIII-XV BB. 06'bHCHHeT~H 6DJIbIIIDiI PDJIblO, KDTDp)liO csrrpana Ii HCTOPHH 3THX crpan TIqpKIi-",aMnKlKH, lIBnHBIIIHecH

BbIXDill,\aMH H3 Cpenaea A3H¥!, 3aKaBKa3bH H BDCTDqHDH EBPDIIhl

(602' 482). . .. ' ". '.. . .'

, B XIII B., B npaaneuue -MaMJIIOKCKD~ BeTB". 6a"pHTDB 6bIJI, 'coCTaBJIeH Di\HH H3 I1epBbIX TDJIKDBbIX apa60-TIOpkCKHX rJIDCCapHeB, aanncaunux aa DCHOBe xunuaxcxoro H rypxaencxoro i\HaJleKTDB. THTYJIbHbIH ;!HeT YHHKaJlbHDrD CIIHCKa 3TDrD aHDHHMHDro c,1DBapH D3arJIaBJleH:.«KHTa6 MaillKMa rapnacyuaa TlOpKH aa ai\lKaMH aa MyrYJIH aa .<paPCH». SpeMH CDCTaBJIemIHpYKDnHCH onpenenserca no. coneplKameRCH B Heli nare nepenacxn. DTHDCHmelicH Kl245 r. ABTDP sroro TD.nKDBDrD fJlDCCapHH B uenox .Pl'lle. cllyqaeB DCD6D: BbIi\e,Jl,51e"i". Dr.PKMeHCKHe CJlDSa, YKa3b1SaH Ha HX DTJlH'IHe, DT KblnqaKCKHX H IJPyrHx

q,oPM(570, c. 2-6)_ .

B XIV-XV CTDJIeTHHX B Ernnre H CHPIfH nDHBJIHIOTCH aossre q,HJiDJIDrn'leCKHe CDqHHeHHH, i\BYH3bI'IHbIe apaeo-rtopucxne CJIDBapn, Cpena 3THX,lIpDH3Bei\eHHH cJle)i.yeT Ha31laT~ «KnTa6 an-anpas )!HrJIJIaCaH an-arpax». A6y. XaHiIaHa(1256.,...1345)" K HX ql!c.J1Y UpHHail,lle-

,32

lkUT raiose «tYX<jJaT as-saxajia <pH-Jl-JlytaT at-TIO!)KHHa», uanncanHOe JJ.0' 1423 r. B Eranre UJIU Cnpna (574). BOCHOBY 3TOro rnoccapas nonozcea KblnqaKCKUli JJ.HaJleKT, HO yxaasrsaerca pasaaua MelKJJ.Y HHM U TypKMeHcKuM R3b1KOM'.

B pacceiarpaaaeaox KOMnJleKCe «pUJIOJloruqeCKHX npoaasenesan HMelOTCR uenmre nexcnsecxae xarepaanu rypxaeacxcro H oryscxoro R3bIKOB. OHn lJ03BOJlRIOT CYJJ.HTb 0 pa3J1HQHbIX cropoaax HX ooutecrsenaoro CTPOR, X03RHcTBa, MaTepHaJlbHOli H .lIYXOBHOK KYJlbTYPbI_ Conepacaumeca B 3THX rnoccapaax narepecaae JJ.aHHble nouoraior TaKme npOCJleJJ.HTb JJ.HHaMHKY pa3BuTHR COUHaJlbHbIX H npyrnx lIBJleHHil B oryao-rypxaeacxon cpene, Bonsuroa lJPOCTOP JJ.JllI ax cpaanaremnoro H3yqeHHR OTKpbIBaeT nannuae CJIOBapR TIOPKCKHX JJ.uaJleKTOB, COCTaBJleHHoro B 1074 r. MaxMYJJ.oM KalIIrapcKIIM. npOH3BeJJ.eHue MaxMYJJ.a Kaurrapcxoro «.uHBaH nyrar-ar-nopx» RBJllIeTCR ueHlIblM IICTOqlIHKOM no srnorpaqina H UCTOPIIH orY30B H rypxxea XI B_ OJJ.HaKO nOCKOJlbKY :>TOT 3aMeqaTeJlbHblli q.HJlOJlOmQeCKHil TPYJJ. JJ.OCTaTOqHO IIIHPOKO H3BeCTeH, Mbi ae OCTaHaBJIHBaeMCH na lIeM noJJ.p061I0.

B 3TOM OTHOlIIeHHH JJ.oCToliHbI BHIIMaHHH H CeJJbJJ.lKYKCKue TeKcru U3 MaJlOK A3HH, npencraanesaue rJlaBHbIM 06pa30M TIOPKCKHMH MeCHeBH .ulKeJlaJl-aJJ.-.uIIHa PYMH U CYJlTaHa Benena (403; 731; 718). MeToJJ. nepexpecrnoro COlJOCTaBJleHUH ncero KOMlJJleKCa 3TUX MaTepHaJlOB lJ03BOJlReT YCTaHOBUTb HaH60Jlee rnnnuaue HBJleHUR U HeKOropsre 3aKOHOMepHOCTU B 06meCTBeHHOM pa3BIITUU orY30B U rypxMeH accnenyexoro nepaona.

Pa3YMeeTClI, JleKCUqeCKUe MaTepHaJlbl apa60-TlOpKCKHX CJlOBa-

peli XIV-XV BB. XpOHOJlOmqeCKH BblXOJJ.lIT aa paMKH H36paHHoli reMbl. O.llHaKO B HalIIeM UCCJleJJ.OBaHHU OHH npHBJleKalOTCR He B xaxeCTBe OCHOBHoro, a JlHlIIb JJ.onOJlHUTeJlbHOrO UCTOqHHKa, cnoc06CTBYIOutero nOHUMaHHIO 06meCTBeHHoil H X0311ilcTBeHHoil CTPYKTYPbf orY30B U TypKMeH XIII B.

B XV-XVI BB. B MycYJlbMaHCKoli acropaorpaipaa

Hcropaorpa- aenymas pOJlb B H3yqeHHH orY30B H TypKMeH nepe"'HHTo:;::~KOIi XOJJ.UT K TypeUKHM HCTopHKaM. Ilocne C03JJ.aHUlI oc-

MaHCKoro rocynapcrsa 3HaQHTeJlbHO B03paCTaeT II YCUJlHBaeTClI narepec TYPOK K csoea, oc06eHHO 3THHqeCKOli, HCTOpHH. JIHTepaTypHblli «papcH, aa KOTOPOM lJlICaJIOCb 60J1blIIHHCTBO HCTOPHqeCKUX lJpOH3BeJJ.eHHli B MaJloil A3HH npn CeJlbJJ.lKYKHJJ.ax, BblTeCHSleTClI TypeUKHM R3bIKOM. OJJ.HUM U3 pammx nponaaenexaa OCMaHCKoli ncropnorparpnn lIBJlReTCR COQHHeHne 513blJJ.mHorJlY Ann «OrY3-HaMe», uJln «CeJIbJJ.lKYK-HaMe» (318). COqHHeHHe pacnanaercs aa nRTb xpynaax pa3JJ.eJlOB H aanacaao B 1423 f. npa cYJITaHe Mypane II

1 C 3TOM T01JKH speaaa aarepecea TaK}Ke COCTae..neHHbIJ1 npa M8MJIIOKaX Erunra .KOTa6 6ynra,' an-xyurra« oj," nyraT aT-T10pK Ba-n-KblljJAlKaK'. B AaROOM TO.'KOBOM CJJOBape OTMeqalOTCH paCXOm,D.eHHH H aexoropue 'IepTbi CXO)lCTB8 Me)K,!].Y KblnqaKCKOM " orY3CK"M H3b1KaM" (792)_

3 Sa x. 204 33

(l421-145i). 13 3TOrvt npOH3BMeHHrt lJYBcTByeTcli cli.ilj,lIoe 8J]MjjHHt! .:C60pHHKa JIeTOnHCeli» PaUIH}.\ an-Ilana, COlJHHeHHli 116H BH6H H PaBaH)].H (564, c. 11-12). B HCTOpH'IeCKHX rpyaax 5l3bI}.\}f{HOrJIY Ami HCnOJIb30BaHbI ratoxe oryscxae HCTOpH'leCKlie npenaana II COCTaBneaaaa aa ylirYPcKoM anrpaaare sepcaa "OrY3-HaMe» (410). B XV B. npn OCMaHax 6bl.~0 nanacano H CO'lHHeHHe MaxMy)].orJIY Xacaaa BaIITJIbl, conepacauiee JII060nblTHble H3BeCTHli a «)].peBHHx» oryscxax uapax. B lI,eJlOM pane cnyuaes OH npHBo}.\HT HMeHa nereunapuux orysCKHX npaaarenea, He BCTpe'l31OIl\HeCH B )].PYrIlX HCTO'lHHKax. CO'lHHeHHe Baarnu, BepOIiTHO, 6b1JIO HCnOJIb30BaHO aOTopOM «I\HTa6-H }.\}f{aXaH-HYMa» MeXMe)].OM Heiupn, xoropoe uanncaao B npaaneane Baasnaa II (749, c. 497-503). Onnn 113 paanenoa era rpyna nocsaiuen OrY3-xaHY, era nOTOMKaM H oriparueamo TIOPOK B HCJlaM. <1>. Apu« nonaraer, 'ITO Heurpn IIpH BanIlCl)HHH .IIaHlIOli rnaau II0MBMO rpyna Baarnu HCnOJlb30BaJl If PO)lOCJIOBHble cnncxu-ureascepe (488, c. 8). B OCHOBe rnaau «I\HTa6-H )].}f{aXaH-IfYMa», nOCBlIll\eHHOH .IIHHaCTHH CeJlb)].}f{YKH)].OB, Jle}f{HT HCT04HHK, 061l\HH e 5I3b1)l}f{HOrJIY AJIH. Heurpn npn COCTaBJleHHH sroro paaaena HCnOJIb30BaJl raioxe CO'lHHeHHlI YpY)].}f{-BeR, AWHK Ilauru H npyrax HCTOPHKOB (488, c. 1-14; 674)_

B npaaneaue oeMaHOB cpenn orY30B H TypKMeH Ilepenuea A3HH IlIHpOKOe pacnpocrpanenae HMeJIO snauecxoc CKa3aHHe 0 I,opKYTe (56; 218). Ornern.aue paCCKa3b1 snoca «ne,ll.e !\0PKYT» B03HIIKJIH eure B Cpenaea A31111 H 6blJIH aaneceusr B Xl-XII BB. CeJIb)l}f{YKCKIIMH nneMeHaMH aa !\aBKa3 H B MaJIYIO A3111O.

Ocxancxas ncropnorparpun SHeCJla CBOIO JIenTY B H3Y'IeHHe IICTOpasecxoro npournoro orysou H rypxxen Cpennea H MaJIoli A3HH. 50JlbWOe BHIIMaHHe 6blJlO npOllBJIeHO K IIX pono-naeaeaaoa CHCTeMe, 06bl'lHOMY npasy H 3THII'IeCKOH ncropua. Hapany C 3TIlM npoaaneneHH!lM OCMaHCKIiX HCTOPIIKOB npncyunr xpyrmsre npOTIiBOpe'lHSI H HeKpIITII'IeCKOe OTHoweHHe K nerennapnuu CKa3aHII!lM orY30B. B npenaHHIIX )].aJleKOH CTapHHbI npaaeopnue ncropnorpaou nepenxo HCKaJlH nO.llTBep}f{.IIeHlle 3aKOHHOCTH BJlaCTH OCMaHCKHX CYJlT8HOB. Oc06eHHO 'HarJIlI,!IIIO 31'0 BH)lHO 118 npnuepe paccxasa 5l3bl.ll}f{HOrJIY ~JIII a nne.MeHIl I!aHH, H3 cpenu KOTOPblX npOHCXO.llHJIa OCMaHCKaH ,lI.HHaCTHIi.

Hcropaorpa- B XVI B. B Cpenaea A3HH 06paSOBaJlIICb XIIBHHcKoe oj>HR CpellHeA H Byxapcxoe xaHCTBa BO rnaae c. Y36eKcKoH )lHHaCTII-

ASHH eli meH6aHH,lI.OB. C03,l1.aHHe 3TIlX cjJeO)laJlbHbIX rocy-

XVI-XVII BB • .IIapcTB OKa3aJIO BJIlIlIHHe na paaaarae MecTHoii HCTOpnorpatpau, clloc06cTBOBaJIO B03pO}f{)leHHIO anrepeca K TIOPKOll3b1'1HblM aapoaaa. B uapcraoaauae yprenscxoro npaaurens AJIH-CYJlTana (+ 1565) HCTOPIIK Canup-Baoa B 1556 r. nepesen no ero YKa3aHHIO C nepcaacxoro H3bIKa «n}f{aMIi ar-rasapax» Panmn an-Ilaaa. Bnaronapa 3TOMY ocpaaoaauaua CJlOH xecrsoro T10PK01l3b14Horo naCeJIeHII!I nOJIY'!HJI 1l03MO}f{HOCTb 03HaKOMIITbCli C nepaoii BceMllpHoH acropaea. llIHpoKHM )lOCTOHHlleM HX CTaJIa TaKJKe H3JlO}f{eHHaH B «C60pHHKe aeronacea» I1CTOPII!l TIOPKo-MOHrOJlbCKHX naponee, B TOM '1HCJle Ory30B H rypxxea Cpenaea A3Hn_

M

a XvH B. xHBHHckilll IIctOPHk II xau AOY-J1-ra3H (1646-1663) CO~TaBHJI «PO)l.OCJIOBHYIO TypKMeH», OCHOBaHHYIO ua nauaux nappaTHBHblX HCT01fHHKOB, xoropsre npaxo HJlH KOCBeHHO BOCXO)l.lIT K C01fHaeamo PaWH)I. a.n:-.LIHHa. A6Y-J1-ra3H npH HanHcaHHH csoero TPY)l.3 HCnOJlb30BaJl raioxe TypKMeHCKHe PO)l.OCJlOBHble CKa3aHHlI non Ha3BaHHeM "OrY3-HaMe» (212). 3Ha1fHTeJlbHOe BHHMaHHe B ero «lllanscapan repaxaae» 6bIJlO yneneno HCTOpH1feCKoMY npOWJlOMY oryscxnx nnexea, xoropue C1fHTaIOTCS! rtpezncau« rypxaencxoro aapona.

A6Y-J1-ra3H anepeue cnenaa nonsirxy cHcTeMaTH3HpoBaTb TYPKMeHCKHe uaponaue npenauna H YBSl3aTb HX C H3BeCTHSlMH nappamaHbIX nacsaeanax HCT01fHHKOB. B pane CJlY1faeB OH KpHTH1feCKH nonxo)l.HT K nereanapaux paccxaaav, crap axes ,D.aTb HM cooTBeTcTBYIOll(YIO XpOHOJlOrH1fecKYIO HHTepnpeTaUHIO. O,D.HaKO B rrpennpannroa HM onsrre CHHTe3a )l.aHHbIX nHCbMeHHbIX HCT01fHHKOB C TypKMeHcKHMH naponHbIMH npe.n:aHHlIMH nerpynno 3aMeTHTb aanersr 3I(J1eKTH3Ma. C01fHHeHHe A6Y-J1-ra3H BMeCTe C TeM lIBJlSleTCS! nepBblM B MHPOBOH HCTOPHOrpaoaa cneuaansau» rpynoa, nOCBlIULeHHblM HCTOPHH rypxxeacsoro napoaa. Pyxonacasre cnHCKH «OrY3-HaMe», KOTOPblMH nonssonanca A6Y-J1-ra3H, He )l.OWJlH )1.0 naurero BpeMeHH. f103TOMY «Illanacapau TepaKHMe» cnenyer paCCMaTpHBaTb He TOJlbKO KaK HCTOpH1feCKOe noc06He, HO H KaK O)l.HH H3 HCT01fHHKOB, coxpaHHBWHX nnexeaaue CKa- 3aHHlI orY30B.

Hcropaorpa- B XVII B. HCTOPHS! cpenueaexosux orY30B H TypKMeH

.pHil 3ana.ll.Hoil HaXO,l(HT cnoe orpasceune He TOJlbKO B BOCT01fHOH, HO

EBponbi H H aananaoesponeacxoa acropnorparpaa'. Ilaoaepou

POCCHH B nOH 06J1aCTH Cpe,D.H eaponeacxnx Y1feHbIX 6b1J1

IjJpaHUY3CKIIil Op"eHTaJIHCT LLe 3p6eJlo. B cBoel\, «BOCT01fHOH 6H6J1HOrexe» OH BBeJl B HaY1fHbIH b60pOT CBe)l.eHHlI pana apa60-nepCH)l.CKIIX HCT01fHHKOB 0 npOHCXOlK)l.eHIIH H HCTOpH1feCKHX cynsoax orY30B II TypKMeH (566). OT)l.eJlbHbIX np06J1eM 3THH'IeCKOil H nOJIItTII1feCKOH IICTOpHIl orY30B acnen aa .LIe 3p6eJIo KOCHYJIClI B XVIII B.ljJpaHUY3cKHH Me)l.HeBIiCT )l(aH .LIerHHb. BOJlbWOe MeCTO B ero «Bceoomea ncropna rYHHoB, TIOPOK, MOHrOJlOB» 6bIJIO OTBe)l.eHO CeJlb)l.lKYKH)l.CKOil nepzcaee, B Cci3)1.aHHH KOTOPOH orpoMHYIO pons curpana oryacxae II TypKMeHcxne nneaeaa (550).

B ,l(OpeBOJlIOUHOHHOH ucropnorparpna Poccnn Ha1faJIO H3Y1feHHll np06J1eM IICTOPHH orY30B H TYPKMeH OTHOCHTC5I K XVIII B. Ilepsue warn B 3TOM nanpasneann 6bIJlH npennpnaarsr B. H. Taruuieaua, a 3aTeM M. H. KapaM3HHbIM. Oryacxas TeMaTHKa paccaarpuaaaacs B. H. Tarnmeaua B CB1I3H C HCTopHeH HapO)l.OB BOCT01fHOH Eaponu. B. H. Tarnuten, 3HaBwHH TlOpKcKHe 1I3b1KH, cnenan nonurxy HCnOJlb- 30BaTb nanaue A6Y-J1-ra3H no 3THO.~OrHH oryscxnx nneues (412).

I OCHOBHble 3T311bI H3Y11eHHH Cpe.11.HeaeKOBbIX orysos H TYPKMeH D HCTOPl!Orpaq,HH aoeoro H aosemnero BpeMeHH oceenteust 3BTOPOM B ero HaY1JHblX .ll.OKJJa~aX (26; 196). COcToHHHe BayqUO" paspacorxa HCCJJe.u.yeM6Ix npOOJIeM 8 cosercxun nePHO.ll. paCC~3TpHB3eTC5I H3MH B COOTBeTCTSYlOl..IJ.lfX I'JI3BaX nO.llrOTOBJIeHHOIO I( H3A3HHIO VII TObIa «04epKOB HeTOpH" HCTopHlleCKOH aaYKH n CCCP».llo~TOMY Mbt Orp3HH1[HBaeMCH 0630pOM ,H8H6oJIee cnopaux H aepeureauux BonpOCOB. xoropne a8TparHB3J1HCb B OTe1:leCTBeHHoH H aapy6e>KHOH ncropaorparpaa XVIII-XX 8B.

~ ~

llaJIhHeilwee ocsetueaae !:Ita hpoliJIeMa rio.ilyiiliJili B paoorax M. H. KapaM311Ha - oTIIa pyccxoa HCTOp"". M. H. KapaM311H O.ll.III1M 113 nepsux YKa3aJI na 3Ha'leHlle TOpKOB·orY30B B HCTOP"" IOlKHblX 06- nacrea POCCHH (192; 193).

B COBeTCKoii acropnorparpaa Ha'laJIO 113Y'IeHIIR pa3JIIIlIHbiX acneKTOB 1136paHHoil TeMbI 6blJIO nOJIOlKeHO KanllTaJIbHblMH rpynaxa B. B. BapTOJIb.ll.3. Pa60Tbi sroro xpynnoro BOCTOKOBe.ll.a 3aJIOlKHJIl! npo'lHblii HCTO'lHIIKOBel\'IeCKHii IjlYHl\aMeHT I\JIII BOCC031\3HHII cpennesexosoa IICTOPHII rypxaencxoro napona. OC06blii IIHTepeC AJIlI Hac npencrannaer TPY.lI. B. B. Bapronsaa, cneunaasao nOCBlIlll.eHHblii IICTOp"'leCKOMY npOIlIJIOMY TypKMeH (66). Ilpaana, B 3TOii H .lI.PYrMX patioTax B. B. Bapronsna, KaK OTMe'laJIOCb B COBeTCKoii mrreparype, HMeIOTClI cyuiecraenuue He.ll.OCTaTKH. OI\HaKO B I1eJIOM TPY.lI.bI B. B. Bapronsna lIBJIHIOTClI I1eHHblMII HCCJIeI\OBaHIIlIMII, He YTpaTIIBWIIMII .lI.O CIIX nop CBoer~HaY'IHOrO 3Ha'leHHlI.

B '1HCJIe ony6JIHKOBaHHbiX noaaaee pa60T COBeTCKIIX IICTOPHKOB He06xo.ll.IIMO OTMeTI!Tb pacoru B. A. fOP.D.JIeBCKOro, A. 10. 5!Ky60BCKOro, C. n. TOJICTOBa, B. H. 3axo.ll.epa, A. A. POCJIHKOBa'. Bonsuroa I!HTepeC .lI.JIR Hac npencraanaer ljlaKTH'IeCKllii MaTep"aJI, aaxonnenHblii Xopeaxcxoa apxeoaoro-srnorpatpavecxof (XA33) H IOlKHOTypKMel!l!CTaHCKoii apxeoaorasecxoa KOMnJIeKCIIOii 3Kcne.ll.1!I1I1HMI! (IOTAK3). Oc06eHHO npaae-rarensau peaynsraru 06CJIe.ll.OBallHlI XA33 PR.lI.a np"Ha.ll.JIelK3BIII"X oryaax roponmn B HH30BbllX pexa Cup-Ilapea.

Baacaoe aaaxemre .lI.JIlI HCCJIe.ll.yeMoii TeMbi HMelOT caonnue rpy)l,bl no I!CTOPHH rypxaeacxoro aapona. Cpena HHX npezcne scero cnenyer Ha3BaTb «Oxepxa» (323) II .lI.BYXTOMHYIO «HCTOPIlIO TCCP» (182). Hsnaaae 3TIIX 06061I1alOll(IIX pa60T IIBIIJIOCb xpynnsra C06bl' THeM B acropaorpaoaa HallIeii pecny6JIIIKII. B nepaox TOMe «HCTOPIIII TCCP" noneenenu IITOrM MHOrOJleTHIIX aayxaux HabicKaHllii 0 npenHeM II cpenneeexosoa TYPKMeHIICTaHe. PH.lI. rJIaB II pa3.l1.eJIOB sroro rpyna ocseutaer HCTOp"'leCKlle cy)l,b6b1 oryson II TypKMeH, HX COIlIIaJIbHO-3KOHOMI!'1eCKHii crpos B IX-XIII BB.

CnopHI>le npo6- B nocnenaue TpII CTOJIeTIIH IICCJIe.ll.OBaTeJJII crpan JleMb[ HCTOPHH 3anall;Hoii Eaponsr, POCCIIII H 3apy6elKHoro BocTOKa orysoe H TYPK- nponenana 60JIbllIYIO pa60TY B 06JIaCTH HaY'leHIIH

MeH pa3JIII'IHbIX .acnesroe HCTOP"" CpeJI;HeBeKOBbiX orY30B

Ix-xm 8B. H TypKMeH. 3HallllTeJIbHblii BMall; B paapaoorxy MHOfIIX xapnnaansaux BonpOCOB aa OCHOBe MapKCIICTCKO-J1eHHHCKoii KOHI1enIlIIII HCTOpH'IeCKOrO npouecca BHeCJIH COBeTCKl!e yseuue. OJI;HaKO, HeCMOTpH na CTOJIb 60JIbllIYIO JI;aBHOCTb 113Y'leHIIR, HMeeTClI eute nexaJIO cnopnux II uepeureunsrx np06J1eM. Cpenn HHX OIl:HHM H3 II;HCKYCCIIOHHblX HBJIHeTCIl sonpoc 0 reppnropna 06HTaHIIlI orY3CKHX IlJIeMeH JI;O 06paaOBaHHH CeJIbJI;lKYKH.lI.CKOii nepxcasa. B 3apy6elKHoii II OTe· '1eCTBeHHoii ncropaorparpaa OTHOCIITeJlbHO xapraau IIX paCCeJIeHIIH sacsaaaaa caaue pa3JIII'IHble, nonxac .lI.llaMeTpaJlbHO nporasono-

I Ilepeuens nx paoor ,It,aeTCH 8 6H6JIHorpa(I)H'{ecKoM YK338TeJle K ny6J1HKycMOH KHHre.

JlOlKHble B3rJll!itbl. Cpenn pa60T, nocsamearrux .Il.aHHOli TeMe, Heo6xoitMMO CHa'l3J13 YKa33Tb cneuaansnue xaprorpadianecxne nyoJlHKaUMM. B '1MCJle nOitOOHOrO poaa TPYitOB MOlKHO, K npnxepy, naaaars pa60TY CnYHep3-MeHKe no acropnsecxoa reorpaipnn Cpenneji A3MW M BOCTO'lHOli Esponu (739). CTpaH3 orysos na COCTaBJleHHblX HM araacax JlOKaJlH30BaHa B Ilpnypanse, HIIlKHeM DOBOJl1Kbe. DPHa panse H H3 BOCTOIJHOM noriepeacse Kacnns )(0 pexa I'ypran. CnyaepMeHKe na npyroa xapre C H300palKeHHeM MycYJlbMaHcKoro MHpa X-XI BB. nOMeW3eT orY30B (Y30B) B MelK!(ype%e BOJlrH H Ypana, y A30Ba, aa HMlKHeM TetJeHMH Zloaa, BOCTOtJHblX 6eperax Xasapcxoro MOP!!, OKOJlO Hncu, A6llBep.ll.3. B paaone Ilaprana II Fypraanaca. CJle)(YlOwllli aTJl3C Eaponu II A3Hll 3nOXH KpeCTOBblX nOXO)(OB noxaJlH3yeT orY30B 'aa HX npelKHIIX MeCTax 06HTaHH!!. MelKilY TeM B 3TY nopy npOll30WJlH 60JlblllHe H3MeHeHH!! B HX', paCCeJleHIIII, astaaanasre aamecrsnex KblH'IaKOB.

Haaoonsuree anaxenne 113 HCTOPHKO-K3pTorpaqllI'IecKIIX TPY.l1.0B 3ana.l1.HOeBpOneHCKIIX YIJeHbIX IlMeeT panora K MIIJlJlepa (679). B caoea nYOJlIIKaUll1l apaocxax reorparpauecrorx aTJlaCOB K MIlJlJlep nuraercs HaHeCTH 3eMJlH orY30B na cOBpeMeHHYIO KapTY Cpe)(HeiI A3HII II Kasaxcraaa. K MIIJlJlepy npnnanneaorr O!(Ha 113 nepsux JlOKaJIII3aUIlli ormcaaaeasrx H.I1.plICII roponoa, pex, rop II osep crpansr orY30B. B ero xarnrransaoer rpyne CO.l1.ePlKIITC!! pan IIHTepeCHbIX IIHrepnperauaa reorpaqiauecxax .I1.aHHbIx«HY3xaT aJI-MYWTaK». 0.11.HaKO B UeJIOM npennoaceaaae 11M conOCTaBJleHII!! He nO,lI.TBeplK)(aIOTC!! IICTopIIKo-apXeOJlOrH'IeCKHM xarepaanox II nporasopesar TeKCTY I1)(PIICH.

B cymecrsyromea acropaso-reorpaoasecxon JlIITepaType no-pasHOMY onpeneaaerca MaKCHMaJlbHblii apean paCCeJleHII!! Cpe)(HeSeKOBblX orY30B. M. Peano, nanpaxep, B csoe BpeM!! nacan, 'ITO OrY3b1 IX-XI BB. oOHTa,111 K BOCTOKY, cesepy nceaepo-sanaay OT ApaJlbCKOro MOP!!. Ilaexeaa oryaos rOCnO.l1.CTSOBaJlH na 061l111PHOii TeppHTopHII CTenHOH nOJlOCbI Cpennen A3HH: MelK.I1.Y crpasok KapJIYKOB CeMHpe'lb!! H uapCTSOM xaaap B BOCTO'lHOli Eapone, M. Peaao OTMe'laeT, 'ITO ornensaue rpyrmu orysoa npOHHKJIH B Dp"a30BCKlle crena (582).

HaH60Jlee unrepecnue CBe)leHH!! H3 BOCTO'lHbIX HCTO'lHIIKOB 0

paCCeJleH1I1I orY30B B X-XI BB. npHBe)(CHbI B. <P. MIIHOPCKIIM B ero KOMMeHTaplI!!X K aHrJllliicKOMY nepesony «Xy.I1.Y.l1. an-aaaa». B. <P. MilHOPCKllli YKa3aJl, 'ITO oryaa 'ito o6pa30BaHII!! CeJlblI.lKYKII)(CKOH IIMnepna 3aHIIMaJlH crerm, npOTlIHYBllIIIeClI OT Hpruura .11.0 BOJlrH, MelK.I1.Y l\acnlliicKHM MopeM M Maeepauuaxpox. 1\01IeBb!! orY30B 6bIJlII pasopocaHbI B Ilpuapanse, ceaepsox Ilpaxacnna, na YCTlOpTe, B HM- 30Bb!!X Cup-Ilapsn H .I1.0CTMr3J1H na sanane pexn 3M6bI (680, c. 311).

Dp06J1eMa TeppHTOpIl3JIbHOliJlOK3J1I13aUMM orY30B uccaenyexoro nepaona naurna csoe orpascenae II B npyrux I1CTOpIl'leCKIIX rpynax. B '1aCTHOCTM, B. B. Fparopses (123), B. B. Bapronsn (65; 66), A. 10. $IKy60BCKMiI (447), C. D. TOJlcTOB (420; 421), A. A. POCJIlIKOB (363; 182) OTMeTHJIM, QTO )(0 06pa30BaHHlI CeJIb.l1.}({YKH.I1.CKOrO rocynapcrsa oryau 06MTaJIII aa HHlKHeM II cpenaex Te'leHIIII Cup-Ilapsa,

~

B npHKaCnHH H Flpnapanse, ,[lOXO,[l!! aa sanane no OOBOJ]}Kb!!. Oryasr 6b1J1H COCe,[l!!MH 3eMJle,[leJlb'leCKHX 06JIaCTeii Xopacaaa H MaBepaHnaxpa OT yen.a pexn Fyprau no MeCTHOCTeii Y coapeaennoro r. YH¥KeHTa.

l1cCJle,[lOBaTeJ1H Ha'lHHall co apexen ,lle 3p6e.Qo He paa yrcaasrBaJlH aa aarencnanue MHrpaLl,HH cpenaeaexoaux Ory30B' H TypKMeH. 0611111pHa!! CBO,[lKa HCTOpH'IeCKHX ,[laHHblX 06 HX nepenanxeaaax B IX-XI BB. npaseneua B. <1>. MHHopcKHM B ny6J1IlKallHH CO'lHlleHH!! Mapsaaa (736). HaH60Jlee xpynnue MllrpaLl,l1II cpenaeaexosux orY30B H TypKMeFi 6bI,1H BbI3BaHbi CeJlb,[l)I(YKCKHM H Kbln'laKCKIlM ,[lBlllKeHIl!!MH. B XI B. OCHOBHa!! Macca orY30B ,[lOJIHHbl Cblp-LlapbH H 0PIIapansa 6bIJla pa3rpOMJleHa npnurenmaxa C BOCTOKa nJleMeHaMH xun'IaKOB. 11. Mapxsapr B csoeji paoore 0 KOMaHax nonpoonee ,[lPYrHX HCTOPHKOB OCTaHOBHJlClI na CTOJIKHOBeHHH nOJlOBLI,eB C orY3aMH II 6erCTBe nOCJlel\HHX uepea lOiKHOpYCCKHe CTenH aa oaJ1KaHCKHH nonyOCTPOB (669, c. 25-27). H. Mapxaapr npaannsno YKa3aJI, 'ITO xun'IaKCKOe ,[lBHlKeHHe 6blJlO O,[lHHM H3 3BeHbeB xpynaux nepe,[lBHlKeHHii xoxeaax nnevea uaunaaa OT Cesepnoro KUTa!! H KOH'Ia!! npeneaaxa BOCTO'l'HOH Esponsr. O,[lIlaKO 11. Mapxsapr npn 3TOM aesepao C'IHTaJl, 'ITO H33BaHue OrY3CKa!! crens 6bIJIO nepenaeaoaano B Ileurra Ksm'IaK B XIII B. B. Bapronsn y6e,[lUTeJlbHO ,[lOKa3aJI, 'ITO 310 nepeaaeHOBaHHe HMeJlO MeCTO YlKe B XI CTOJleTHH (58, c. I, 66).

B OTe'leCTSeIlHoH H 3apy6elKHoii ncropuorpaqiaa uaaeonee cna- 60 u3Y'leH nonpoc 0 cy,[lb6ax orY30B Cpennea A31lH nOCJIe KbIn'laKCKOro pasrpoaa B cepennne XI B. JIHlIIb B OT,[leJlbHbIX paoorax nenaerca nonsrnca Bbl!!CHHTb H3MeHeHH!! B KapTHHe HX paccenenns H OCHOBHYIO reppnropmo 06HTaHH!!. B 3TOM OTHOllleHHH onpeneaeunua nnrepec npencraanaer cneuaansno nOCB!!III,eHHOe orysaa HCCJle,[lOBaHHe T. Baaryorny. OrY3cKHe nnexeaa, no MHeHHIO T. Baaryorny, oOHTaJlH B X B. aa Cup-Ilapse, YCTlOpTe, B crenax MelKAY l1PTbllIIOM H Bonroa. B nepaoa nOJlOBHHe XI B. orysu OblJlH OTTeCHeHbI Kbm'laKaMH B 3ana,[lHOe Ilpnapanse. OrY3b1 nepenannynacs TaKlKe H3 IlpnOaJlXalllCKHX H Ilpaapanscuax crenea K HH30Bb!!M Capsrcy, cpennexy Te'leHHIO Cup-Ilapsa II npenropssu Kaparay. Bo nropoa nOJlOBHHe XI B. Ha3BaHHe «Crpaaa orY30B» npaaaranocs B OCHOBHOM K ,[lOJlIIHe pexn Cup-Ilapsa (498, c. 4-12).

Op06J1eMa reppnropnaar.aoa JIOKaJlH3aLl,HH oryacxax nJleMeH IX-XIII BB. CO,[leplKIIT eute MHOro uepeutennux BonpOCOB. B cyuiecTBYIOIII,eii ucropaxo-reorparpusecxoa JlHTepaType HeBepHO onpeneJI!!eTC!!' MaKCHMaJlblIblii apean HX pacceaenaa no censnacyxcxoro H xunnaxcxoro ,[lBlIlKeHHii. KpynHblM He,[lOCTaTKOM 60JlblllHHCTBa parlor !!BJI!!eTC!! HrHOpHpOBaHHe nonpoca 0 pa3MeIll,eHHII TypKMeHcKoro saCeJleHII!! B crpane orY30B. Mnorne HCTOPHKH aesepao onpenenmor TeppHTopHIO OOIITaHHH orY30B aa OCHOBaHHH ,[laHHbIX reorpatpavecxoro rpyna H,[lPHCH. Bonee rJly60KHH aHaJlH3 TeKCTa «HY3xaT an-ayurTaK» noxaaaaaer, 'ITO KO'Iellb!! orY30B B X B. npOCTHpaJlHCb OT 0PH- 6aJlXalllb!! no IOlKHoro Ypana. Becsaa cnopnoa HBJlHeTC!! JIOKaJlH3aLl,H!! oryson X B. B 6acceiiHe pexa Capucy H npenropsax YJlYTay. Oue:aH,lJ.HO, ryaa yXO,!l.HJlII aa JleTO xoueears JlHlIIb HeaHa'lllTeJlbHble rpyn-

nb! OrY30B, HaXO,!(HBIDHeClI B TeCHblX CBH3HX C KHMaKaMH. Apxeonorasecsoe 06CJle'!(OBaHHe CTellHOii nOJIOCbl UeHTpaJlbHOrO Ka3aXCTaHa BblHBHJIO sneer. naMHTHHKH KHMaKO-KbIn'laKCKHX nJJeMeH IX-XIII BB. (246; 248; 249; 251).

np06JIeMa 06- CpeJlII nccnenyexoro xpyra np06J1eM aaxoroe aaaselI{eCraeHHoro nne HMeeT norrpoc 0 x0311ilcTBe H 06mecTBeHHOM crpoa orY30B crpoe orY30B II TypKMeH IX-XIII BB. 3apy6elKHble

H TypKMeH BOCTOKOBei\bl YJleJlHJlH MaJlO BHHMaHHH COUllaJlbHO-

3KOHOMH'IeCKOii HCTOPHH orY30B H TypKMeH'. HaYQHaH paapacorxa JlaHHOii nporinexsr HalIIJIa csoe orpaxcenae rJlaBHbIM 06pa30M B cosercxoa ncropnorpaqma. COBeTcKHe IICTOpHKH B. A. Fopaneacxna (120), A. IO. 5IKy60BCKHii (323), A. A. POCJlHKOB (363; 182) OTMeTHJlH, 'ITO senymea QiopMoil X0311ilCTB3 orY30B II TypKMeH IX-XI BB. 6blJlO KOqeBOe 3KCTeHCHBHoe CKOTOBOJlCTBO. C. n. TOJICTOB nOi\'IepKIIaaer KOMnJleKCHOCTb X03HilcTBa orY30B Cup-Il apsa H Ilpnapaasa. OrY3b1 3aHHMaJlHCb CKOTOBOJlCTBOM, 3eMJleJleJlHeM, pbl6HOii JloBJleii, pexecnaxa H roproaaea. C. IT. TOJICTOB, sonpetor MHeHHIO Baprons,!(a (66) H A. IO. 5IKy60BcKoro (323), C'IHTaeT, 'ITO oryau X-Ha'laJIa XI B. COCTaBJlHJlH npeoorraztaiouryro Maccy rOpbJlCKOrO HaCeJIeHHH Cup-Ilapsa (420). 06HTaTeJIHMH 5IHrHKeHTa, )llKeHi\a H JlPYrHX roPOJlCKHX uenrpos 6b!JlO He npHIIIJlOe «MYCYJlbMaHCKoe», a B OCHOBHOM MecTHoe oryscxoe aaceneane (421, c. 246-248).

Cosercxae IICTOPHKlI y6ei\HTeJlbllo nOKa3aJlH, 'ITO oryscxoe 06- meCTBO IX-·XIII BB. 6blJlO po,!(o-nJleMellHblM no <jJ0pMe H KJlaCCOBbiM no conepacaamo. B. A. I'opnneacxntt OJlHlIM lI3 nepsax YKa3aJI aa cpaBHIITeJlbHO pa3BIITYlO cOUlla.~bHYIO i\HIjl<jJepeHUHaUHlo y orY30B X B. (120, c. ·43 II cnen.). A. IO. 5IKy60BCKHii 3aMeTIIJl, 'ITO oryau H rypxnensr X-XI BB. lIaXOJlHJ1HCb na o.QHoii lI3 panaax cryrreaea pasBIITHH xnaccosoro 06U(eCTBa (323, c. 39-66). Cpe.an orY30B, KaK noxaaan C. Il. TOJICTOB, auaeaanac» KO'IeBaH 3HaTb, IIMeBlIIaH MHoroqHCJleHHble noronoass CKOTa (420; 421). A. A. POCJIHKOB yxaaan na HHTeHCHBHblii npouecc paanoacenan narpaapxansao-ponoaoro CTPOll H B03HHKHOBeHHe 3JleMeHTOB <jJeo'!(aJlbHoi'! 3aBllCliMOCTH B cpene orysCKHX nnexea, OrY3cKaH H rypxuencxan apncroxparaa nOCTeneHHO yaypnnposana npaso pacnopsxcarsca 06IJ~HHHblMIl nacT611maMH ;:

BO'!(HblMIl HCTO'lHHKaMIi. Pa360raTeBlIIaH oryacxaa 3HaTb see 60JIblIIe saxanannaa cB060.QHbIX 0611\HHHIIKOB-CKOTOBOi\OB (363; 182).

COBeTcKHe IICTOPIIKH BHeCJIH COJIII;~Hb!ii BK.naJ( B pa3pa60TKY npo- 6JIeMbl ocuiecraeauoro CTPOH orY30B II TypKMeH uccnenyexoro nepnona. O.QHaKo B pe31OMHpoB3HHOii nnreparype HeT enanoro MHeHHH o xapaicrepe H ocooenuocrax !IX KJIaCCOBOii CTpyI<TYPbl. <l>aKTII'IeCKH OCTaeTCH 6e3 OTBeTa sonpoc 0 TOM, HBJlH.nOCb JIll 3TO 06meCTBO .QOQieO.QaJlbHbIM HJlH paaaerpeonansauv. npIIXO.QIITCH BMeCTe C TeM COlKaJleTb, 'ITO B COBeTcKoi'! acropuorpaouu lie.QOCTaTO'lHO BCKPbITbl OCHOBbI II i\HHaMHKa pa3BIITHH xnaccoaoa ,~Ij(l)QiepeHUHaUIlH y orY30B H

1 B HeXOTopbIX paoorax rypeuxax HCTOPHKOB nenaerca .nonurxa noxasan., liTO orY3CKHe nnexeaa no ypoamo csoero COllH3J1bHO-3KOHOMHlJeCKOrO CTPOH CTmI,,1" sume H3ceJIeHHH nOKopCHHblX UPrlH crpan BOCTOKa. OmH6o'lHOCTb 00)l;06H08 TDqKH spenaa noxaaaaa P O.llHoii 113 craren A. C;, T.epHTHHO~O" (414).

39

TYpKMeH IX-XIII BB. OCTaeTC!I I(HCKYCCHOHHblM nonpoc 0 COCTaBe HaCeJleHHH roponos HHlKHeii Cup-Ilapsa, npauanneacasunrx orY3CKHM H6ry. YTBeplK!l.eHHe 0 npe06J1a)l,aHHH B HHX OCe)l,JlbIX rpynn orY30B HaXO)l,HTC!I B npOTHBope'IHH C H311eCTH!lMH apaocxax reorpadioa X B.

Dpo6JJeMa CJJO- B HCTOpH'IeCKHX cynsriax orY3CKHX nnexeu Cpeanea "'eBBS rocy- A3HH BalKHYIO pons curpano 06pa30BaHHe rocynap.IlapCTOa ChIP- craa cupnapsnacxax !l6ry. O)l,HaKO B oreuecrseaaoa

JlapLBBCKBX H 3apyoelKHoli acropnorparpaa HMelOTCSI C'IHTaHHbIe

orY30B pa60TbI, nocesmenaue !noii aepacane. B paapaeorxe

npOOJleMbl rOCY)l,apCTSeHHOCTH cpenaesexoeux orY3CKHX nnexea OCnoaaaa aacnyra npHHa!l.JIelKHT coseTCKHM HCTOPHI{aM. B. B. SapTOJlb)l, O)l,HHM H3 nepaux YKa3aJl aa CYllIeCTBOBaHHe Y orY30B X B. npHMHTHBHOii nepacasa C nOJlHTH'IeCKHM ueHTpOM B HH30BbSlX CupnapbH. OH OTMeTHJI r arose, 'ITO 3HMHeli pe3H!l.eHUHeii Sl6ry 6bIJI r. 51HrIlKeHT, HO BJlaCTb orY3CKHX euapea» He 6bIJla )l,OCTaTO'lHO nposHOH (66, c. 563, 565).

B HCTOpH'IeCKOH nareparype cymecrsyer H npyraa TO'iKa apeHHH, COrJlaCHO xoropoa oryasr He HMeJIH CBoeH rOCY!l.apCTBeHHOCTH. nO)l,OOHOrO B3rJI!I!l.a npH)I,eplKHSaeTCH, nanpaxep, A. 10. 51 Ky60BCKHH, KOTOPbIH C'IHTaeT, 'ITO cupnapsaacxae H6ry He OOJIa)l,aJIH peansHoii BJIaCTblO nan orY3CKHMH nnexeaaua. OTJIH'IHTeJIbHOii 'IepToii pblXJIOrO oryacsoro 06"be)l,HHeHHH X B. 6blJla nneaeaaaa pa3!1.p06J1eHHOCTb. A. 10. 51KyoOBCKHii nonaraer, 'ITO OCHOBHOii <jlOPMOH nOJlHTH'IecKoii opranusauaa orysoa )1,0 00pa30BaHHH CeJlb)l,lKYKH)I,CKOii HMnepHH ObIJlO nJIeMeHHOe caaoynpaanenne (323, c. 65, 66).

npOOJIeMa CJlOlKellHH rocY)I,apCTBeHHOCTH Y cpenaesexosux ory- 30B paccuarpaeanacs raroxe B paoorax C. Il. TOJlCTOBa H A. A. PoeJlHKOBa (421; 182). C. Il. TOJICTOB'C'IHTaeT, 'ITO oryau X B. C03!1.aJlH CBOIO «BapBapCKYIO» nepacasy. OrY3CKoe rOCYl(apCTBO ObIJIO OCKOJIKOM pacnasureroca B VIII B. 3ana!l.HO-TlOpKcKoro xaraaara. B npouecce nOJlHTH'IeCKOii KOHCOJlH!l.aI.\HH orY3CKHX nneuen onpenenmouryio pons curpaan BHyTpeHHHe COUHaJlbHO-3KOHOMH'IeCKHe ljJaKTOpbI. Pa3BHTHe roaapaoro CKOTOBO)l,CTBa, nponyxnna xoroporo npenuurana nOTpe6HOCTH narypanenoro X03HiicTBa, nplIBeJIO K o6pa30BaHIllO B.QH!lTeJIbHOii crennoa apHCTOl(paTHH (421, c. 243 H' cnen.). Oryscxaa KO'leBaH 3HaTb 3aXBaTHJla BJlaCTb nan P!l)l,OBbIMH CKOTOBO)l,aMH H OCel(JlblM HaCeJleHHeM CbIp)l,apbHIlCKHX rOpO)l,OB. Ilopa aansucurero pacusera oryscxoro «)I,oljJeO)l,aJlbHoro» rOCY)I,apCTSa nanaer na STOpylO nOJlOBHHY X CTOJleTH!I. BJla)l,eHHH Cblp!l.apbHHCKHX !lory rpaHH'IHJlH B !lTO speMH Ha IOrO-BOCTOKe C HblHelllHHMH nlKaMOYJIbCKOii H Taurxenrcxon OOJlaCT!IMH, na iore BKJllO'IaJlH oaccena Kyaan-Ilapsn H )i(aHa-napbH, na cesepe - CapbICY, lJeJIKapa H I1prH3a, a aa sanane uepes YCTlOpT 1(0- CTHPaJlH npenropua Ypaaa'.

I Onpeaeneaae C. n. TOJICTOBbIM rpaaau oryscxoro rocynapcraa - B" X- DepaoH noaosane XI B. BCTpeTHJlO B03p3meHHH B COBeTCKOH HCTopHKo-apXeOJlOrHlJeCKOH nHreparype. E: H. Areesa H r. H. Ilaneeas C1I8T31OT, xro TeppHTopHSI npasoro oepcra cpeaaero TelleHHH Cup-Ilapsa H APblCH BnJlOTb ,llO Tapaaa He BXO,llHJI8 B COC-r3B orY3CJ{OH ,lJ.ep:m:3Bbl (27, c. 6, 99). O)J,HaKo npa 3TOM OHH aeooocaoeaauo CTfiBlIT noll. COMHeHHe H3BeCTHfi cpenaeeesoeerx asropos, rOBopSlUlHX 0 H8JIHlIHH orY3CKOro 4~CeJJeHHH B paacae cpeaaero TeqeH"H Cwp-.lJ.aphH H npe.llrOpbJlX Kaparay,

A. A. POCJllIKOB C'IIITaeT, qTO OrY3CKlle nJleMeHa KOHCOJlIIJl:llpOBa· JlIICb B X B. B paaserpeonansaoe rOCYJl:apCTBO • .IleplKaBa cupnapsnaCKHX H6ry B03HHKJla KaK nOJlIITHqeCKaH opraHH3a1(HH orY3CKOH 3HaTI! Jl:JIH 1I0AaBJIeHIIH pa60B H CBo60Jl:HblX 06Il(HHHIIKOB. B KOH1(e X-Haqa· ae XI B. BHYTPH 3TOro rocynapcrsa pa3BepHYJIaCb xcecroxaa 60Pb6a MelKAY IIpaBHTeJIlIMH 5!HrHKeHTa H 60raToii 3HaTblO SJIHHTeJlbHblX KO· uesux rpYIIIIHpOBOK. npOTHB CblpJl:apbHHCKHX H6ry SOCCTaJI YCHJIII[l· umHCH pon CeJIbAlKYKHJl:OS, IIPOHCXOAHBIlIHii 113 oryacxoro llJIeMeHIl KbIHbIK (182; 363).

np06JIeMe rccynapcrseauocrn cpenacnesoaux oryacxnx nnexeu Cpennea A3HH 1I0CBHIl(eHa II OJl:Ha 113 CTaTeH O. Ilpauaxa. B 3TOii pa- 60Te aSTOp HCCJIeJl:YCT, rJlaBHblM 06pa30M, BHelliHellOJIIITIIQeCKlle cjlaK· TOPbl, cnocoecraoaasume lIaAeHHIO nepscaau capnapsaucxax H6ry. HaqaJIbHYIO HCTOPHIO oryacxoro rocynapcrsa O. Ilpauax raiose CBII· 3b1BaeT C pacnanoa 3allaJl:HO-TlOpKClwro xaraaara. O. Ilpauax BblABHraeT IIpeAIIOJIOlKCHlle, qTO OKOJIO 766 r, oryau 3aXBaTHJm 06JIaCTH Cblp-.IlapbH H 1I0JIOlKHJIH HaqaJIO co6cTBeHHoMY rocynapcrny B CpenHeH A3HH (7 I 6). UeHTpaJIbHYIO qaCTb oryscxoa Jl:eplKaBbl, 110 MHeHHIO O. Ilpnuaxa, COCTaB.~HJIH IIPHCblpl\apbHHCKHe H npnapanscxne crena, 3alla.uHble npenenu sroro rocynapcrna cOllpHKaCaJIHCb C BJlalleliHHMH xasapcxax KaraHOB. I'paaana :IoIelK.uy Jl:eplKaSaMI! xasap H oryaos IIpOXO.ll.HJIa 110 pexe 3M6e. Ceaepnsrxa COCe.ll.HMH orY30B 6blJIH KHMaKH, a aa iore - Xopesx H CaMaHHJl:CKHe B.~aJl:eHHH Masepaanaxpa. BOCTOqasre py6elKH orY3CKOH nepscasu .lI.OCTHraJIII Orpapa H Tapasa. BJIaJl:eHlIlI capnapsnacaax H6ry COCTaBJIHJlli OKOJIO 600-800 KM B OKPYlK· HOCTH, qTO IIPH6JIH3HTeJIbHO paBHHeTCH uaouraaa I'epxanna KaHYHa nepsoa MHPOBOH BOHHbI (716, c. 399).

B coapeaenaoa acropnorpadnm, KaK MbI BH.lI.HM, IlMelOTCH naa IIPOTHBOIIOJIOlKHblX nOJl:XOJl:a K peIlIeHHIO IIp06JIeMbl rocynapcrseaHOCTH Y oryacxnx nnexeu X-XI BB. Orneasaue IlCCJIeAOBaTeJIH OTPH- 1(alOT CYll(eCTBOBaHHe Y HHX caoero rOCY.lI.apCTBa Jl:0 06pa30BaHHlI I!M· lIepHIl CeJIbJl:lKYKH.lI.OB. DOJIbIlIHHCTBO lKe IlCTOPIlKOB npasaaer HaJIH· qHe oryscxoanepscasu Cup-Ilapsa H Ilpaapaass. CTOPOHHHKH Heramsaoro peureaas .lI.aHHOH IIp06JIeMbl YKa3blBalOT aa OTCYTCTBlle Y oryaoa X-HaqaJIa XI B. aepxonaoro THTYJIa xaua HJIH xaraaa (323. c. 65-66). KOHCTaTa1(lIl1 sroro cjlaKTa, aa nanr S3rJIlIll, He MOlKeT HMeTb xapaxrepa peuraiourero apryuenra. Cpenaeaexoaue TlOpKCKHe BJIaCTHTeJIH HOCHJIH paanasnue THTYJIbI H 3BaHHlI (634; 665; 713). OnHaKO rpanauna B THTYJIaType CBHlleTeJIbCTByeT JIHilib 0 pa3BHTHH CH· CTeMbI narpaapxam.no-qieonaasaoa aepapxna. TpYIlHO IIpHHlITb 3a IlOKa3aTeJIbCTBO H YKa3aHHe CTOPOHHHKOB HeraTHBHOH KOHUen1(HH Ha HaJIHqHe CHJIbHblX P0Jl:OSbIX BOlKJl:eii H MelKIIJIeMeHHOH 60Pb6b1 Y ory- 30B X,-XI BB. 3HaTb KPYIIHblX H BJIHlITeJIbHblX nJIeMeH nOBceMeCTHO nrpana 60JIbIlIYIO pOJIb B CpeJl:HeBeKOBblX xosesux nepxcaaax. CneuacjlHqeCKHH cnoc06 Be.ll.eHHlI 3KCTeHCIIBHoro CKOTOBO.ll.CTBa IIPHBO.ll.HJI K qaCTblM noeaasnr CTOJIKHOBeHHlIM B CTenH. n03TOMY pono-naevemrue I! aoemrue HHCTHTYTbI KOqeBHHKOB COXpaHHJIHCb DOCJle HX KOHCOJIHlla· 1(HH B pamnre cjlOPMbl rOCY.lI.apCTBeHHOil opraHHSa1(HH.

41

Cnenyer TaK1Ke YKa3aTb na cnopnua xapaxrep Te3HCa o B03- 'HHKHOBeHHH nepacaeu H6ry, B Ilpnapanse 1I CeBepHOM Ilpaxacnna HenOCpe)(CTBeHHO B VIII B" cpasy nocne pacnaaa 3ana)(HO-TIOpKCKoro xaraaara, B HCTO'lHHKaX paCCMaTptlBaeMOH nopu HeT )(OCTaTO'lHO onpenenennux CBe)(eHHH, lI03BOJlflIOil(lIX YCTaHOBlITb TO'lHYIO nary sroro ouens Ba1KHOrO C06bITHH B HCTOPHH oryscxax nnevea Cpe)(HeH A3HH. Ilepasre 60Jlee nJln MeHee )(OCTOBepHble CBe)(eHnH 0 cyuiecrsoBaHIIH rocynapcrna oryscxnx H6ry OTHOCHTCfl K KOHUY IX-Ha'IaJlY X B, ,UeplKaBa cupnapsaucxax oryaoe B rex rpaanuax, xoropue OHa IIMeJla B nepaon csoero pacuaera, BPH)( .qH MOrJla cymecTBoBaTb BO BTOPOH lIOJlOBHHe VIII B.

B pe3lOMllpoBaHHoH IICTOplI'leCKOH Jll1TepaType HeT e)(l1HOrO MHeHIIH 0 xapaxrepe H COUllaJlbHOM npnpone oryscxoa )(ep1K3BbI IX-XI BB. CY1uecTBYlOT nee OCHOBHble TO'IKH 3peHIIH, OJ(Ha H3 KOTOpux onpcneaaer 91'0 rocynapcrno KaK norpeonam.noe, a nropas C'IIIraer ero panaerpeonaasnsnr. Pacxoacnenne BO nsrnnnax na npnpony nepscaau cupnapsuncsax fl6ry B 3Ha'IHTeJlbHOH xepe ooycnoaneso CJla60CTblO llCTO'l'HIIKOBe)('leCKOH 6a3bl )(aHHOM nporinexst. O)(HaKO )(JlH ee peurennn He sees xpyr cymeCTBYlOmHX nCTO'lHIIKOB asenen euie B HaY'lHblH 060pOT. CpaBHHTeJlbHblM aHa.1II3 Cpe)(HeBeKOBblX Happ3TnBHblX HCTO'lHHKOB H HCTOpH'IeCKHX npe)l31lHM )laeT B03M01KHOCTb roeopars 0 nOCTelleHHOM rpaacrpopuauua orY3CKOH aepscaaa 1I3 )(0- q,eO)(aJibHoro B paaaerpeonansnoe rocynapcrno.

CeJlbJl,lKYKCKaH B HCTOpl1'1eCKOH JlHTepaType nporinexa rocynapcr-

npo6J1eMa BeHHOCTll y c:rY30B X-XI BB. 06bI'IHO paccaarpaea-

eTCH B TeCHOH COH3H C BonpOCOM 0 reaeauce censnlKYKCKoro 06"be)(lIHeIlHlI, HCTOPHfl B03HHl<HOBeHllfl 9TOM rpynnaponxa 6bIJla npensrerosr BHHMaHlIfl uenoro psna IICCJle)l,OBaTeJleH, B 6YPlKYa3HOH H COBeTCKoii ucropnorpaqma cymeCTBYIOT pa3J1H'IHble aarnsnsr na 06pa30BaHHe ceJlbn)!{yKcKoro 06"be)l,HHeHHfl'.

Cpena 3apy6e)!{Hl~X MeJl,HeBHCTOB lfMelOT xoxcneane HeCKOJlbKO reopna 0 reHe311Ce 9TOM rpyrmnpoaxa, uaxonaaureaca non BJl3CTbJO )(IIHaCTHH CeJlbJ\lKYKlI!J.OB, OT)l,eJlbHble HCCJle)(OBaTeJlll ncnararor, 'ITO CeJlb)(lKYKCKoe 06"be)(!lHeHHe Cq,OpMHpOBaJlOCb 1I3' MOHrOJlbCKOrO nne!IIeHH CaJl!J.)!{HYT. CTOpOHHHKaMH nO)(06HOii TO'lKH apenna flBJlflIOTCfl, uarrpnaep, H. ACHM H 9. 5JIOme (512). H. ACHM C'IHTaeT, 'ITO censn- 1KyKII)l,b1 HBJlHIOTCH BbIXO)l,U3MH U3 KepaHTOB HJlH I1afIMaHOB, ncnosenoaasumx XPHCTH3HCKYJO penarmo, OCHOBaTeJleM' SToii 3HaTliOH q,aMHJlIIH 6blJl CaJl)l,lKHK, H3XO)(HBllIHHCfl aa cJly)!{6e y O)l,HOrO H3 TIOPKO-MOHfOJlbCKHX npaanrenen Llenrpaasuoa A3HH. MHrpaUHH nneMeH CeJlb)l,1KYKCKoro 06"be)l,HHeHHlI B Cpe)lHIOIO A3HlO OTHOCIITCH K X B, H. ACHM noaaraer. 'ITO Censnxcy«, He nonanun CO CBOIlM CI03epeHOM, yuren BMeCTe' C nO)l,BJlaCTHblMH eMY lIJleMeHaMH B MaBepaHHaxp. CensnlKyK II ero «Ka3aKJ1» osaanenu ,UlI(eH)lCKOii 06JlaCTblO B 962 1". II npaaana lICJlaM (490. c. 244-245).

Coaepmenao naoro ssrnana na reHe3HC CeJlb)l,lKYKcKoro 06"be)l,H'

1 B HCTOpHtfeCKOH mrreparype BblCKa3aHbI TaK)Ke pa3JIHlJHble TOlIKH SpeHH" o ceMa.,"Ke repM~I1a «CeJlbJllKYK' (102; 719; 212; ~8~; 706).

42

HeHlill npanepncnaatorca 3. B. Toran Ii:n. M. llaH.;IoiI (558,t. 258, 259). CeJlb,LIlKYKcKali rpynnapomca, no HX MHeHHIO, npOUCXO,LIHT 113 TaK aaauaaeaux «xa3apCKHX» TlOpOK'. Ilepsue ceJlb,LI,KYKIi,LIbl, OTMe4aeT 3. B. Toran, HaXO,LIHJlHCb na cJlYlK6e y oryscxoro lI6ry, KOTOPblR 6blJI «3aMeCTHTeJleM» xaaapcxoro xar ana. B KOHl~e X B. nneaeaa CeJlb,LIxcyxcxoro OO"e,LIUHeHHlI YUWH na Csrp-Ilapsro H OCHOBaJlH B lllKeH,LIe csoe He3aBHCHMoe BJla,LIeHHe (770, c. 26-28; 773, c. 174-176).

3apy6elKHblMH HCTOPHK3MH asrcxasanu H ,LIpyme B3rJlll,LIbl H3 paHH1010 ncropnto CeJlb)J.lKYKCKOR rpynnapoasn. f. Beans, nanpnsrep, C4IlTaJl, 'ITO OCHOBaTeJIb <jJaMHJlHH CeJlb)J.lKYKIl.'(OB HaXO)J.IlJlCli saanaJIe na CJlYlKoe y «xupmacrcorcx npaaarena no HMeHH Benry. CeasalKyK He nOJIa)J.HJl 3aTeM C BeRry H yrnen co CBOHM PO)J.OM B MaBep3Hnaxp (785, c. 226). AHaJlOrH'IHOR TO'lKH 3peHHlI npunepacnaaerca II K. BPOKeJIbM3H, C'lllTalOIlIHR censroxysca auxonuaaa 113 «KllprH3cKHx crenejo. COrJlaCHO ero MHeHHIO, oryscxne nnejaeaa, aasuaaaumeca ratoxe TypKMeHaMH, OKOJlO 970 r. )J.BHHYJlHCb non npe)J.Bo)J.HTeJlbCTBOM Censnacyxa B llmeH)(, a orryna YllIJlH K Byxape (523, c. 171).

Ilpooaexa o6pa30BaHHH CeJlb)(mYKcKoro 06"e)(HHeHHSl' paccxarpnaanacs H B rpynax COBeTCI(HX JicTOPHKOB. Bonpocu panaca HCTOpHH 9TOR rpyrmapoaxa uaurnn csoe OCBeu~eHHe B pariorax B. B. BapTOJlb,LIa, A. 10. 5lKyooBcKoro, B. H. 33XO)(epa H npyrnx HCCJle)J.OBaTeJleR. B rpynax B. B. BapTOJIb)(a YKa3blBaeTClI, 'ITO CeJlb)(myKH,LIbI npOHCXO)J.HJlH H3 orY30B H TypKMeH, 06HTaBWHX B HHmHeM renennu Csip-Ilapsa. B X CTOJleTHH OHH CTaJlH nepenanr-arsca na ior H B XI B., nepezna AMy-llapblO, OKa3aJlHCb B Xopacaae (66, c. 556-573; 59, c. 130-131). A. 10. 5lKy6oBCKHR OTMeTHJl, 'ITO CeJlb)(myKH)(bl nepsonanansao HaXO,LIHJlHCb B 6JlH3KHX OTHOWCHHlIX C orY3CKHMH lIqry, HG 3aTeM nopsanu C HHMH H yuma B HH30Bbll Cup-Ilapsa. Censnxcyxcxoe )J.BHmerIHe, rro A. 10. 5lKy6oBCKOMY, 6bIJlO BbI3BaHO nOTpeOHOCTblO B paCUIHpeHHH nacronur H oripariareraaewux 3eMeJIb, a 'r aroxe cJlomHoii nOJlHTH'IeCKOii 06CTaHOBKOR, B xoropon OKa33JlHCb TypKMeHbI B KOHue X-Ha'laJle XI B. (476, c. 921-946). B. H. 3axo)(ep C'IHT3Jl, 'ITO CeJIb)(mYKH,LIbl lIBJIHIOTCH BbIXO,LIUaMH H3 llmeH)(a. rIoCJIe)J.HHii ObI_' KOJIOHHeii MYCYJIbMaHCKHX «ynuoa cpenn KO'leBHii orY3CKHX nJIeMeH. B X B. 'IaCTb 9THX nJIeMeH 06paTHJIaCb B HCJIaM H BCTymlJIa B COI03HH'IeCKHe OTHoweHHSl C caMaHH)l.aMH. BJIaCTHTeJlH Maeepannaxpa paspeWHJIH CeJlb)J.mYKaM nepeCeJIHTbCH B OKpeCTHOCTH CeJIeHH5I Hyp, 6JIH3 Byxapsr. rIOCJIe CBeplKeHHH )(HHaCTHH CaMaHH,LIOB H HaweCTBHlI TIOPOKKapaXaHH)(OB nneueaa CeJIb)J.mYKCKoro OObe)(HHeHHlI YWJIll (OKOJIO 1025 r.) B Xopacas (156, c. 90-91).

113.~omeHHa5I asnue TO'lKa 3peHH5I 0 npOHCXOmi!:eHHH CeJIb)(mYKH)(OB H3 cpenu oryscxax nJIeMeH moxsero Te'leHHH Cup-Ilapsn H rIPHapanss pa3)J.eJIHeTcS! TaK)I(e C. Il. TOJICTOBbIM H A. A. POCJIliKOBblM. COrJIaCIIO_HX MHeHHIO, B nepsoa nOJIOBIlHe XI B. uasanacs OmeCTO'leH-

t 3. B. Tor-an "Meuyer TaK .STy rpynn"pOBKY B CBoeM npe.!l;HCJlOBHH .K nepeBOPS apaecxoro ·TCKCT3 116H «Pa,lJ,JIaHa. Onnako Q .llpyroH pariore no Bceo6UJ,efi H~T;)paa TIOPOK 08 ynoTpe6JISICT Y}KC TepMHH «X3sapCKHe oryaa». fiOCJIe.!l,HHe, no era MHeHHIO, 06H1'a1l" Me>K)lY ApaJIbCKHM H KacnHHCKHM MOPSlMH Ii 10)lUlOH. 'I3CTbIO YpaJlbCKHX rop.

43

Hall 60Pb6a MelK,ny npaeareasxn 51HrHKeHTa H 60raToil KO'leBOil 311aTblO orY3CKHX naexea. OrY3CKall CTen1l3f1 apHcTOKpaTHH 6bIJla aaHIITepeCOB311a B paCWHpeHHH nacT6HW ,n:JlH CBOHX MIIOrO'lllCJIellllblX cran, POCT roaapnoro CKOTOBo,n:CTBa CTHMYJlllpOBaJl BTHrIIB31111e 3TOii 311aTII B recnue 3KOIIOMII'IeCKlle CB1I3H C <jJeo,n:aJIbllbIMH rocynapcrsaxa Cpe,n:Heii A31l1l. OT,neJlbHble oryscxne nnexena, BO rvrase KOTOPbIX CTOllJIII MorywecTBeHHble BOlK,n:lI, H3'1HHalOT yXO,iJ,IITb B MaBepaHHaxp Il Xopeasr. 3naTHblii pon ceJlb,n:lKYKII,n:OB B qllCJle nepaux OTKO'leBblBaer B norpanuxayio C Xopacano« 06J1aCTb ,lllKeH,n:a. CeJIb,n:lKYKHflbl no,n:HHJlH 3,n:ecb BOCCTaHlle npOTHB H3MeCTHilKa orY3CKoro 1I6ry B ,lllKeH,n:e, 110 norepnena COKpYWHTeJIbHOe nopaacenae. OCTaTKH pasrpOMJIeHHOii ceJlb,n:lKYKCKOii rpynnHpoBKH 6elKaJIH B Xopesa, a orryna B Xopacan (421; 420; 361).

CywecTBYIOWHe B IlCTOpH'IeCKOii JlIlTepaType TO'lKIl 3peHHlI 0 renesace ceJlb,n:lKYKcKoro 06"e,n:HHeHHlI He Y'IHTbIllaIOT scero KOMnJIeKCa <jJ3KTIl'leCKHX ,n:aHHbIX. Pan accnenoaarenen, ocorienno 3. B. Toran, paasaaaa CBOIO KOHuenUHlO, onnpaerca ua cepmo uanyxarmax OTOlKnecranenas. C He06bI'IaiiHOii JIerKOCTbIO 3. B. Tor an, aanpuaep, npeapauiaer JIYKMaHa-o,n:Horo 113 paHHI1X ceJlMlKYKCKHX npennona TeJIeii. - B Karana, ynouanaeaoro H6H <ila,n:JlaHOM B xauecrse orvacxoro BOlK,!lll X B. KOHuenUHlI 0 npOI1CXOlK,!leHIII1 ce.1b,!llKYKcKoro 06,,e,!lHHeHHlI H3 exaaapcxnx» TIOPOK He rronrnepacnacrca peaJlbHblMH HCTOplI'leCKI1MH <jJaKTaMH. M. H. ApTaMOHOB CnpaBe,!lJIHBO SaMe'laeT, 'ITO npOTHB sroro asrnana rOBopHT OTCYTCTBHe B I1CTO'lHHKaX nOCJIe VII B. THTyJla 1I6ry B 3Ha'leHHH aepxosnoro rJIaBbI xasap (41, .c. 420). CTOPOHIfHKH 3TOii TeOpHI1 0 npoHcXOlK)I,eHHH CeJlb,n:lKYI<OB onaparorcn rJlaBHblM o6pa30M na «MaJlHK-HaMe». O)l,HaKO neransnoe HCCJIe,!lOBaHHe K. Ka3HoM3Toro HCTO'lHHKa nOKa3aJIO, 'ITO non «xa3apCKIIM» uapea, KOTOPblii <jJllrypHpyeT B OT)I,eJlbHbIX BepCHHX «MaJlIIK-HaMe» B xa'1eCTBe CI03epeHa nepnux CeJIb,!llKYKH,n:OB, HeJIb311 rrOHHMaTb BepXOBHOro npamrrens HCTOplI'leCKHX xasa p (529, c. 31-65).

MaJloy6ellHTeJIbHOii H He060cHoBaHHoH npencraanserca T3KlI{e

KOHuenUHlI 0 npOHCXOlK)I,eHHH censnacyxoa H3 MOHrOJIbCKOii cpenu, CTOPOHHHKH 3TOii reopaa npnrieraior K HaTlIl!{K3M, crapaacs noxaaars, 'ITO oeiiry, ciosepea nepsux CeJIb)l,lKYKH,n:OB, H,n:eHTH'IeH C Byry - nerennapaua po,n:oHa'IaJlbHHKOM CaJllll!{HYTOB (490, c. 244-245).

Tpynao COrJlaCHTbCH H C MHeHHeM 0 TOM, 'ITO censnxcyxcxaa rpynnHpOBKa npOHcxo,n:HJl3 H3 'IHCJIa Ory3CKHX nJIeMeH HHl!{HerO Te'leHHH Cup-Ilapea H Ilpaapansa. AHaJlH3 <jJaKTH'IeCKOrO MaTepHaJIa npHBO,n:HT H3C K BbIBO,n:y, 'ITO rrepeouauansuoe snpo censnacyxcxoro 06"e,n:HHeHHlI C<jJOpMHpOBaJIOCb 113 orY3CKHX 11 TypKMeHCKIIX rrJIeMeH, l!{IIBWHX y aanannux oxpana qy- Tanaccxoa ,n:O,qIlHbI. Ilepsue ceasnlKyKH,n:b1 06"e,n:IIHHJlH no)l, cBoeii BJl3CTblO '1aCTb orY30B 11 TypKMeH cpennero Te'leHHH Csrp-Ilapsn U npenropna Kaparay. B ,!laJlbHeiiweM B ceJlb,n:l!{YKCKYIO rpyrmaposxy BOWJIII oryscxue H apyrne TIOpKO- 513b1'1lJble nnexeaa, o6HTaBwHe B HII30BbHX Cup-Ilapsa, y rpaaan H B npeneaax Xopeaaa, MaBepaHHaxpa II Xopacana.

44

B ilctopll'leCKOii nareparype 60JIbWHM jJa3H060eM CYlK)l;eHHA 0+JIH'IaeTCH H BOnpOC 0 paunea XpOHOJIOrHH CeJIb)l;lKYKCKOrO )l;BHlKeHHH (66; 361; 529). Cpeaa HCTOPHKOB Be)l;YTCH raiose OlKHBJIeHHble )l;HCKYCeHH, aanpaxep, 0 BpeMeHH nepecenenas CeJIb)l;lKYKH)l;OB B oxpecraocrn JJ.lKeH)l.a H )I.0JlHHY 3epaBwaHa (532; 623; 640; 716). Bypxcyaanae HCCJIe)l.OBaTeJIH cOCpe)l;OTO'lHBaIOT OCHOBHoe BHHMaHHe aa nOJIHTH'IeCKHX COOblTHilX B HCTOPHH CeJIbi!.lKYKcKoro I\BHlKeHHSI. BHYTpeHHHe npH'IHHbl sroro )l;BHlKeHHH, KaK npaBIIJIO, OCTalOTCH BHe nOJIH HX apeHHH. B OTJIH'IHe OT HHX COBeTCKHe Y'IeHble crapaiorca BCKPblTb ero COI\HaJlbHO-9KOHOMH'IeCKHe HCTOKH. O)l.HaKO B OO,1bwHHcTBe HX parior '1YBcTByeTciI HBHaH CJlaOOCTb HCTO'lHHKOBe)l.'IeCKOii oa3bl, oruero MHOrue ausonu npaooperaior anpaopaua xapaxrep. B UeJIOM lKe coserCKaH acropaorpaqma C)l;eJIaJIa OOJIbwoii war snepen B H3Y'IeHHH 9TOli CJIOlKHOii npooaexu,

B HCTOPHH H3Y'leHHH Cpe)l;HeBeKOBblX orY30B H TypKMeH BalK Hoe MeCTO 3aHHMaeT npOOJIeMa reaesnca nepscaasi CeJIb)l;lKyKHi!.OB. B aaPyoelKHoli ncropaorpaqnra sonpoc 0 CTaHOBJIeHHH sroro rOCY)l;apCTBa OObl'lHO paCCMaTplIBaeTCH B acnexre soeaaoa H nOJIHTH'IeCKOli HCTOpHH'. Ilonurxa OOJIee rJIyooKoli pa3paOOTKH )l;aHHOli npOOJIeMbl npaHa)l;JIelKHT COBeTCKHM Y'IeHblM. O)J,HHM H3 nHOHepOB B 3TOli OOJIaCTH HCCJIe)l;OBaHHH lIBJlHeTCH D. H. 3axo)l;ep. rJlaBHoii npH'IHHOH BoeHHblX ycnexou CeJlb)J,lKYKH)l.OB B Xopacane B cepenaae Xl B. OH C'IHTaeT HeYl\a'lHYIO BHYTpeHHlO1O nOJIHTHKY ra3HeBH)l.OB. CYJITaH MaxMY)l; Hero npeeromx MacYJ\ npoBo.n;HJIH nOJIHTHKY crporoa ueHTpaJIH3aUHH rocY)l;apCTBeHHoH BJIaCTH. ra3HeBH)l;CKHe npaBHTeJIH aKTHBHO OOPOJIHCb npOTHB KpynHoli HaCJle)l;CTBeHHoH 3eMeJIbHOH coecraeuaocrn H sa MaJIeiiwylO npoBHHHOCTb OTOHpaJIH <jJeo)l;aJIbHble BJla)l;eHHH H nOMeCTbH. Ilon CTaTb CYJITallaM OblJlH H BblCWHe callOBHHKH, HaMeCTHHKH OOJIaCTeH, lKeCTOKO OOHpaBIlIHe nonarnae COCJIOBHH roposcan H KpeCTbHH. ra3HeBH)l;CKHe 'IHHOBHHKH npH c60pe HaJIorOB npHTeCHHJIH He TOJIbKO aaponasre MaCCbl, HO H apHCTOKpaTH'IeCKYIO sepxyurxy. MecTHaH <jJeoJ\aJIbHaH apHCTOKpaTHH naurna n03TOMY B JIHue CeJIb)l;lKYKH)l;OB sepHb1X COlO3HHKOB B 6~Pb6e C ra3HeBH)l;aMH. AKTHBHaH nonaepacxa CBeTCKoii II )l;YXOBHOii 3HaTH cnoc06CTBOBaJIa nOOe)l;aM CeJIb)l;lKYKCKHX BOlKJ\eii H 3aXBaTY HMH scero Xopacaaa (157, c. 119-141).

KOHuenUHH 5. H. 3axo)J,epa 0 reaesace paaaeceasnxcyxcxoro rocynapcraa nOJIY'IHJIa 3aCJIYlKeHHoe npH3HaHHe B coaercxoa acropasecKoii HaYKe. O)l;HaKO 3Ta B UeJIOM nepnas TO'lKa 3peHDH, aa naur B3rJIH)J" HYlK)l;aeTCH nee »ce B cyurecrseaaerx xoppexrasax, JJ.aHHble cpeJ\HeBeKoBblx nepBOHCTO'lHHKOB BblHBJIHIOT HaJIH'lHe CJIOlKHblX npoueCCOB, JIelKaBlllHX B OCHOBe ceasnzcyxcxoro )l;BHlKeHHH B Xopacaae. CTaHoBHTcH O'leBH)l;HbIM, 'ITO COlO3 ceJlb)J,lKYKH)J,OB C MeCTHoii apHCTO' KpaTHeii OOYCJIOBJlHBaJlCH r aioxe <jJaKTopaMH COUHaJIbHO-3KOHOMH'Iecxoa HCTOPHH censnacyxcsoro 06111eCTBa. BCTynaH B nOJIHTH'IeCKHe

, B 6YPlKya3Hofi acrcpaorpaoaa HMeeTCHHeCKonbKO xpynaax paooT no paaJIHt{HblM nepaoaax ""CrOpUH CeJ1bAmYKH.D,CKOH )l;ep>K3sbI. Cpe.lJ.n 3THX MOHOrpa~"lJc" CKHX pa60T OTMeTHM TPYJlbl K. )leJj>peMepH (553), H. Kaeecor ny (622), M. A. KoiiMeRa (641), A. 3r6ana (569) If r. Xopcra (608).

canSH C xopac3HCKofi 3HaTbID, typkMeHcKHe H oryacKtie BOJKA" dpeCJIellOBaJiH B nepnyio ouepens CBOII KJIaCCOBble anrepeca. CeJIblllKYKlIllbI, KaK HBCTByeT 113 IICTO'lHIlKOB XI B., XOTeJIIi CTaTb KpynHblMII seMeJIbHbIMll c06CTBeHHIIKaMII. B llaJIbHeHWeM CeJIblllKYKIIAbl, olleplKaB pHil KpynHblx noeen Hall ra3HeBIIIlaMII, YBIIAeJIII peaasnyio nepcnexraBy rOCnO,lJ.CT·Ba aan acex Xopacanox H conpenensneraa 06JIaCTliMII. Censascyxcxae BOlKll1I He 3aMellJIllJIII BOCnOJIb30BaTbCH orspsrsureacs nepea HIIMII B03MOlKHOCTbIO, oananenn 3Ha'lHTeJIbHOH '1aCTblO raaaeBIIACKOH nepscaau, opraHII30BaJIII saaoeaarensnere noxonu na crpansr Cpenaero II 5JIIIlKHero BOCTOKa, 3aKaBKa3be H MaJIYIO A3111O.

DpOOJleMLI CJIeAyeT OTMeTIITb, 'ITO B, COBeTCKOM II 3apy6elKHoM

HCTOPHH orY30B BOCTOKOBell€HIIH CYW.€CTBY€T pa3JIIIqHblH nonxon K

H TypKMeH OIJ.eHl{e 3ilBoeBaHH'1I CeJIb,nlKYI{I!AaMII Ilepeanejr H

X'Xi~iqaJla MaJIoH A3HH. Pan 6yplKya3Hblx aBTopOB CqHTaeT,

B. 'ITO oryau H TypKMeHbI XI-XIII BB. HaHeCJIH ceps-

e3HblH ynap IJ.HBHJlIl3aIJ.nn noxopenaux IIMII crpan Bocroxa', MHO rile peaKIJ.IIOHHble IICTOPHKH 3anailHoH Espona H, CllIA nuratorcs ,lJ.OKaaars, 'ITO nplI'lIIHoii xpecronux noxonos HBHJlOCb uanpyranae TypKMeH II orY30B HaA xpncruaacsuxa CBlITblHlIMII ITa,1ecTIIHbI'. OAHaKO noA06Hble KOHIJ.enIJ.1I1I oraepraiorcs HaH60Jlee lIpOrpeCCIIBHbIMH 6yplKya3HbIMII Me,n:HeBllcTaMII, B qaCTHOCTII, K. Ka.3HOM (530). A6cOJIloTHall HeCOCTOllTeJlbHOCTb reopnn 0 «BaH,ll:aJlH3Me» II «q:.aHaTII3Me» ory- 30B II TypKMeH XI-XIII BB. scxpura B paoorax COBeTCKIlX "CTOP"KOB (150; 151; 152).

B rpynax COBeTCKIlX IIcCJleAOOaTeJIeH xoncrarnpyercs, 'ITO CeJIbAlKYKCKHe aaBoeBaHHlI He,HMeJlII OAIIHaKOBoro xapaKTepa BO Beex crpaaax BOCTOKa. B Xopacane II MaJIoH A31111, nanpaxep, CeJlb,lJ.lKyKII· Abl npnnepaomanucs IIHOH nOJlIITHKII, qeM B IOlKHOM Hpane, Hpaxe, CIlPIIII (157; 31; 313). Iloxopenne ceJlbAlKYKIIAaMII 5JIIIlKHerO II CpenHero Bocroxa conpososoraaocs MHOrOqllCJleHHblMII HaCIIJllIllMII If rpa- 6elKaMH MllpHoro aaceneaas. Hecxorps na 3TO, ceJlb,lllKYKCKoe 3aBoeBaHH~ 06'beKTlIBHO cnoc06CTBOBaJlO nansaenurexy pa3BHTllIO q:.eollaJlbHblX ornourenmt B 3anaAHoii: A31111. B 3TOM COIJ.llaJlbHO-3KOHOMlIqeCKOM nOCJIe,nCTBHH saxmosaerca raasnoe ucropauecxoe saauenae o6pa30BaHIIlI CeJIbAlKYKCKOH "Mnep"".

Cpenn accnenyeaoro xpyra np06JIeM cnopHbIH xapaxrep IIMeeT II sonpoc 0 CTaTYce ory30B II TypKMeH B nepxcase CeJIb,lJ.lKYKIIAOB. Psn COBpeM,eHHblX TypeIJ.KIIX "CTOP"KOB nonsepxasaer nanpaacenHOCTh" oraourenna MelKAY TypKMeHCKIIMII nJIeMeHaMII II IJ.eHTpaJlbIlOH BJlaCTblO. H. l<aq:.ecorJlY, nanpuaep, oraesaer, 'ITO npa crapuren BeTBII ceJlbAlKYKIIAOB aucume rpaacnancxae AO.~lKHOCTII OKa3aJlIICb B pyxax IIpaHIJ.eB. BOlKAII TypKMeH rtepsoaanansno 3aHIIMaJlII rnaaaae

, TIO)106HaH' TOQKa speHHH npHBO)lHTC. B paeorax M. A. 'IanJlHQKH. P. I'pycC9, TI. Casxca H npyrnx aaropos (546; 588; 730; 732; 743; cp, 173; 664; 738).

2 npOTHBOnOJlO)KH8H TCHJleHll,HH, .lJ,OnYCK8IOIn8H H.lleanH33UHlO CeJlbJUKyKIf;t-

CKHX saBoeBaHHH, xapaxrepxa )lJlH paeor OT)leJlbHblX TypellKHx HCTOP"KOB (587).

koMaH)iHhIe nocru B ceJIbi\lKykcKOfr apMlill'. Oi\HaKO ax ncxope CTaJlH 3aMeHlITb npei\BO.!(HTeJI5IMlI raapnau lI3 pa60B-rYJIHMOB. 3aclIJIpe 'IMHOBHlIKOB-HpaHI\eB B roCYi\apCTBeHHbIX .l\HBaHaX H MaMJIlOKCKHX rnanapca B BOMCKe npnseao K He.!(OBOJIbCTBY TypKMeHCKHX HaCJIei\HblX 6eKOB II xaHOB. Ornourenas Me>Ki\Y npaanuiea i\HHaCTlIeM II TypKMeHCKHMH nJIeMeHaMH HeYKJIOHHO YXYi\lIlaJIHCb. 11. Karpecoray BMeCTe C TeM yxasunaer aa lIlllPOKYlO p33.l\3'1Y CeJIb.l\>KYKHi\aMH TYPKMeHCKoil 3HaTl1 MHoro'lHCJIeHHbIX HKTOBblX BJIa.l\eHlIH (622).

Coaercxne llCTOP"K" Ha'lllHall C B. B. Bapronsna KOHcTaTlIpYlOT paunonyume CeJIbi\>KYKHi\OB K nOJIO>KeHlIlO CBOHX COnJIeMeHHHKOB (66, c. 573). Ilpaurenuraa K BJIaCTH i\HHaCTHlI oropaanacs OT P0.l\HOM cpei\bl H C6JIII3HJIaCb C <jJeOi\aJIbHOil apacroxparaea noxopenaux CTpaH. A. 10. 5lKy60BcKHM C'IHTaeT, 'ITO nOCJIe 06pa30BaHHlI HMnepHH censn>KYKH.l\OB rypKMeHCKHe BO>Ki\H He XOTeJIH nepeara ua nOJIO)l(eHHe nocrcauaoro BOMcKa (323, c. 110). 3aMaH'IHS3il nepcrrexmsa ooor-auieHHlI TOJIKaJI3 HX aa BOeHHbJe rpariexca II Ha6erH. Ce.~b.l\>KYKcKHe npaSHTeJlH, crpeancs H363BHTbClI OT 6ecnoKoMHblX coponaxefl, OTnpaBJIlIJIH HX i\JllI 33BoeBaHHH B 3aKaBKa3be, MaJIYlO A3HlO, Hpax H CHPHIO (323, c. 122).

B cOBeTcKoH ncropnorpatpna BMeCTe C TeM OTMe'laJIOCb, 'ITO HeCMOTPlI H3 T3KYlO nOJIHTHKY CeJIbi\>KYKHi\OB, '13CTb orY30S H TypKMeH OCTaJlaCb S Cpennea A3HH H conpeneasaux 06J1aCTliX Hpana H A<jJraHIlCT3Ha. CeJIb.l\>KYKIl.l\bl Ha3Ha'lH.iJ1l H3i\ HIlMIl CBOllX 'IHHOBHIlKOB, 06JI3'1eHHblX 3H3'11lTeJIbHblMIl aAMIlHHCTpaTHBHo-<jJIlCKaJIbHbIMIl nOJIHOMO'lllllMH. Typxxeasr II oryasr XopaC3H3, Fypraaa, .llexllcT3H3, B3J1xa see 60JIblIle npespauranncs B Oclbl'lHblX nOi\.l\3HHblX-P3IlHlITOB. C HIlX Tpe60BaJIl! ynnaru H3JIOrOB II BbInOJIHeHHlI perJIaMeHTIlpOB3HHOil BOeanoa CJlY>K6bl. Panosan xacca TypKMeH II orY30B nepenxo ncnsrraBaJIa raer II npurecneaua CO CTOPOllbl cjJeOi\3JIOB II rOCYi\apCTBeHHbIX 'IHHOBHIlKOB. YCIlJIeHlle uanoroaoro npecca CTllMYJIlipOBaJIO acnunrxn orxpstrsrx BOCCT3HllH orY3CKHX nnexea npOTIlB CeJIbi\>KYKCKHX BJIa-

cTeM (182; 323; 363). .

Coaercxne II sapyceacaue IlCTOPHl(ll Y.l\e,lllJIIl 3ll3'1HTeJIbHOe SHIl, M3HHe nOJIHTH'leCKOMY II COL\llaJIbHO-3KOHOMH'IeCKOMY CT3TYCY orY30B II TypKMeH B COCTaBe HMnepll1l ce.nbi\>KYKIli\OB. O.l\HaKO euie MHorlle SOnpocu 3TOM narepecnoa nporinexa OCTalOTCSI 6e3 yoennreneaoro OTBera . .llOBOJlbHO cnopHblM npe.l\CTaBJISleTClI OHle'leHHblii asnue Te31lC 0 npU'IHHe axrasnoro Y'IaCTIlSl TypKMeH II orY30S B CeJIbi\>KYKCKHX aasoeaaaunx. B OCHOBe T3KOii nOJIHTIlKll CeJIb.!(}KYKIl.l\OB JIe>K3JIO He OAllO TOJIbKO >KeJI3Hlle ll363BIlTbClI OT CBOllX 6ecnOKOHHblX coponauea. <Peo.l\3JIH3llpOBaS1Il3l1CSI apacroxparna TypKMeH II orY30B He MeHee rrpana-

I TypeUKHH "CTOPHI{ M. A. KOHMeR B cnoea peuenana H3 MOHorpa<iJHIo H. Ka~ecorJIY eucxaausaer J.fHYIO TOllKY apeuau. M. A. KofiMeH noaaraer, 111'0 raxoe nono- 1KeflHe coxpananocs npH 'MYX3MMa,u,e TorpYJI-6eKe H Ann-Apcnaae, HO B npaanenae Meaaxuraxa TypKMCHbi H3QHH3fOT 33HHM3Th H rpa>K)l3HCKHe jl;OJ1)KHOCTH. Ilepnoa .u.aPCTBOB3HHH MeJlHl{W8Xa, no ero MHeHHID, xapaxrepusyercn YCMJIeHHeM BJIHHIlHH TIOPOK B nOJIHTlfllecKOH H !{YJIbTypHOH )KH3HH HMnepHH CeJlb,lVKYKH,lJ,OB. MHt::IIHe M. A. KOHMeH3 BCTpeTHJlo. D.IlRaKo. xareropanecxoe soapaxeaae co CTOPOHbl M. KaIj>ecorny (640, c. 557-601; 623, c. 463-489).

47

meli )J.H1iacTHIi ceJlb.zilKYi<Ii.ir.OB crpexnnacs k aaxsary nossix sexens It BOeHHOli )J.06wlH. B OCHOBe CeJJh)J.lKYKCKoro )J.BlllKeHIISI nexcano COUHaJlhHOe paCCJlOeHlle cpe)J.H TypKMeH H orY30B, HeXBaTKa nacT611wHhlX BhlrOHOB II yrO)J.HH )J.JlSI CKOTa.

06pa30B3Hlle )J.eplKaBhl CeJlh)J.lKYKII)J.OB rrpaseno K )J.aJlhHeHweii q,eO)J.a.nH3aUllH B cpene nO)J.B.naCTHhIX llM orY30B H TypKMeH. Cens)J.lKYKH)J.CKlle npasareaa cnocoocrsoaaaa WIIPOKOMY . pacnpocrpaaeHlllO cyuiecrnyioutero ewe npn 6YH)J.ax q,eOi\a.nhHoro IIHcTIiTYTa HKTa. Cneumpasecxas <!JopMa sroro aenensaoro )J.eplKaHHlI BnOJlHe HMnOHllponana CeJlh)J.lKYKCKOH 3HaTH. TIpO)J.OJllKaSl xoxeeyio lKll3Hh, OHa llMena B03MOlKHOCTh sscnxyaraposare KaK PlI)J.OBhlX CKOTOBO)J.OB, TaK H 3aBHCHMYIO Maccy oceanoro KpeCTbSlHCTBa II peMeCJleHHllKOB. HMellHO n03TOMY )J.aHHhlii <jJeO)J.aJlhHhlH llHCTllTYT nonysan urapoxoe pacnpocrpaHeHlle B IIMnepll1l CeJlh)J.lKYKH)J.OB .

.llaHHhle cpenneaexouax llCTO'lHllKOB n03BOJlRIOT YCTaHOBllTh, 'ITO B J.\OCeJlh)J.lKYKCKYIO nopy cyuiecrsoeaao HeCKOJlhKO xareropna 3eMe.nh-IiKTa (571; 671; 647). Cpe)J.1I HHX IIMe.nIlCh <!J0PMhl nOlKlI3- nemroro ycaoaaoro noacancsaana II aacnencrseaaon <jJeo)J.a.nbHOM 3eMeJlhHOM c06cTBeHHocTIi. BhlllB.neHlle nO)J.06HhIX <!JaKTOB naer B03MOlKHOCTh nonaee ocxucmrn, 3S0.nIOIJ,IIIO aeaens-axra B XI-XIII BB. TpaHc<jJopMaIJ,II11 paccxarpaaaeaoro <!Jeo)J.aJlbHOrO IIHcTIiTYTa nma oanoapexeaso no HeCKo.nhKIIM JlHHHlIM pa3BIITIiH. FaasHhlM aanpasneaaea naanoro npouecca 6wJla SBOJlIOIJ,lIl1 3eMeJlhHOrO noxcanoaanas rana 6eHeq,IIUIi1I 1IJ111 neaa B HaCJle)J.cTBeHHwM <!Jeo)J.'.

B SaKJIIO'IeHlle He06xo)J.IIMO OTMeTIITh, 'ITO B COBeTCKOM H aapy- 6elKHoii acropaorpadma CJIa60 ocsemea sonpoc 0 cynsoax TypKMeH II orysos B nepaon cyurecrsoeaaas nepacaaa xopeaxuraxos II nocne MOHrOJlhCKOrO aaaoeaaaaa Cpenuea A31111. B OCHOBHOM 3TO 06ollCHlIercs TeM, 'ITO B IICTO'lHIIKaX naaaon rropsr conepxcarca eecsxa <jJparxearapasre CBe)J.eHlIlI 0 rypxxeaax H oryaax, Bonee nonpooao nappaTIIBHwe HCTOqHIIKII nOBeCTBYIOT 0 60ph6e TypKMeH II orY30B B nepaoii qeTBepTIi XIII B. nporas BOIIHCTBeHHblX oP)J. qIlHfHc-xaHa. MOHrOJlbCKOe natnecrsne curpano OTPIIIJ,3TeJJhHYlO pOJlb B IICTOPIIII TypKMeH, KaK II npyrnx H3PO)J.OB Cpeaaea A;mll, BOCTOqHOii Eapona H KaBKa3a. B pesynsrare MOHroJlbCKOrO norpoaa MHorHe oryscxae nneMeHa 6blJlH BWHYlK)J.eHbl YKPWTbCli B crensx 3aKacnllll H MaHrhlwJlaxa . .llpyrall 'IaCTb orY30B II TypKMeH, cnacascs OT aasoeaarenea, 6elKana 113 Xopacaaa, Typraua, HpaH3 II A<jJraHHCTaHa B HH)J.HIO, IIaKHcTaH, B 3aKaBKa3be, TIepe)J.HIOIO II MaJlYIO A3HIO.

TaKOBO BKpaTIJ,e COCTOllHlle HaY'lHoii pa3pa60TKII Hall60Jlee BalKHhlX np06J1eM HCTOPlill orY30B II TypKMeH HCCJle)J.yeMoro nepHO)J.3. Bonee )J.eTaJIbHWii ·aH3J1H3 BeeM llMelOweMCSI 3apy6elKHoH H cosercxoa aareparypu no 1136paHHOH TeMe )J.aJleKO YBeJi 6hl Hac sa paMKH npennaraexos MOHorpa<!JHH.

J B nOCJIeAHee BpeMB. HaKODJleH ~OJJ&moA MaTepn8JI 0 paSBATO" $eO)l3J1bHOrO HHCTHTYT8. HKT8. Cepsesacro BHHM8HHH B 3TOM OTHoweHHH 3aCJlY>KHB31OT pa6frrht <1>. JIeKKeropa (660), A. K. JI3M6ToHa (649), K. K.3H. (531), Ii. I1. IlerpyureatKOI'O (332).

48.

fJlABA I IfCTOPIfI(O-rEOfPM)11'IECI(IfF1 Oli30P ClPAHbl OfY30B B X-XI BB.

np06JleMa 1'epp!!1'Op"8J1bHOli JlOKaJlU3aJlI1!! orY30B )1.0 06pa30BaHUll CeJlb)l.lKYKH)l.CKOli )l.eplKaBbl llBJl5Ie1'C5I uanaeaee paapatioraauoa n HC1'Op!!'!eCKoli nareparype. Onnoa H3 npasua cJla60li H3y'!eHHOCTH paCCMa1'pHBaeMoli np06J1eMbl llBJI5Ie1'C5I !jlparMeH1'apHoeJ'b H3BeCTlili o crpane orysos, HMeIOU.\IIXC!I B cpenaeaexoaax aapparasaux HCT04-. nnxax. I1cKJlIO'IeHHeM B 3TOM OTHoweHHH I1BJll1eTCI1 JIIIWb reorparpa- 4eCKHli TPYi\ I1)1.PHCII, conepscaunra nOi\p06HOe onacanne orY3CKHX sevens. Oi\HaKO TeKCT I1)1.pnCH xpanne TpY)l.eH )l.JliI pacumopoexa. LlelllHcjlpoBKa ero B03MOlKHa JlHlIlb nYTeM rtuarensnoro aaanaaa H CHl!Te3a, onnparourerocx na CpaBHllTe.lbHblli xparepaa. n03TOMY nannsre CO'IIIHeH!liI I1)1.PIIC!I conOCTaBJll1lOTC!I HaMH C i\pyfllMIl H3BeCTII!lMH 0 crpane orY30B, coxpanasumaucs n TPY)l.3X cpennenexonux 8BTOpOB.

!1ccJlei\yeMblH HHlKe TeKCT «J<!lTa6 Pynxcap» npexcne scero cpanHllBaeTCH C aHaJlOr!l4HblMH CBe.neH!I!lMH, BOCXO)l.!lLUHM!I npHMO HJlf[ KocBeHHO K C04HHeHII!lM I-bPHCH. 31'0 n03BOJlHeT Bbl!lB!lTb HOBbie neT·aJl!l, cnoc06CTBYIOLUHe nOHHMaHHlO H Y1'O'lHeHHIO CBe)l.eHHlf I1i\P!lCH 0 crpaae orY30B. ,UJII1 60Jlee i\eTaJlbHOrO ananaaa HaMH npnaaesarorca l>laTep!laJlbl no !!C1'Op!!4eCKOfl H !jlH3H'IeCKOli reorpadma Cpeaaes A3HH, nOBOJl)KL!I H IOl!(HOro Vpana. C 3TOli lKe uem-ro HCnOJIb3YlOTCH J,aHHbJe COBPCMCHHOii TonOHHMHK!! H rH.nPOH!!MHKH, nepexnuxaiotuaeCH c reorpa(l)lj~eCKOrl HOMeHKJlaTypoif rexcra I1.nPHCI1. Ba)KHOe 3Ha- 4ellHe npn 3TOM IlMeeT H «aprorpaoauecxaa xarepnan. conepxcaumaCJI B «HY3xaT aJl-MYllITaK» Il .nPYfHX Cpei\HeBeKOBbIX reorpadntvectotx COQHHeHHJlX. Ol.\Ha](O .B cnyuae paCXO)Ki\eHHSI !l3BeCT!!li «J<HTa6 PYi\»cap» C HMeIOWHMHC!I B HeM KapTaMH npeanoureaae OTi\aeTCH rexcrv KaK 60Jlee Hu.nelKHOMY HCTO'lHHKY. Cnenyer TaK)Ke orOBOpHTbC!I, '11'0 aa oeBOBY OepeTC5] ar.rac 1154 r., KOTOPblii conocrasnaerca C i\PYfHMH. 60Jlee n03.QH!!MH KapTaMH I1.nPHCH. nOKa3aHIIH 3THX aTJlaCOB npnau-

4 3aK. 204

MalOTCIl sa oo.nee n.nll MeHee nocroaepnue nuurs roraa, xorna OHH cor.naCYIOTCIl C TeKCTOM «HY3xaT a.n-MYWTa!O). TaKOBbI MeTO.!l.H'IeCKHe UP"HIJ,IUbI, .ne}]{amHe B OCHOBe npennaraexoro aHaJIII3a TeKCTa 11APHCII 0 crpaae orY30B.

CTpaHa orY30B i1.!l.pnCH, paccxaaaaas 0 BOCbMOM ornene .nsroro

B onHcaHHH K.nHMaTa, coorintaer, 'ITO B HeM 3aKJIIO'IeHa '1aCTb na-

H}I,PHCII ceaeaaux orysaaa 3eMeJIb. Coraacao nccnenyexoav

TeKCTY, oryscxae nnexeaa 0611TaJIll BOKpyI' Apa.nbCKOI'O MOPIl, -IIMeHOaasureroca TOI'.!l.a Xope3MCKHM, HJIH ,Il}]{eHACKHM 03epOM (cp. 294. JI. 6; 301, .n. 63; 787, I, c. 351). B «HY3xaT aJI-MYIllTaK» rOBop"TCH, 'ITO na-nooepeacse sroro osepa pacno.roacesu ropu, Ha3BaHHe KOTOpux A. )l(06ep (583, I, c. 338). n C. Jr. Bonnn 411'fa1OT KaK ,Il}]{acjJparyn (265, c. 220). O.!l.HaKO B acnoasaoaaaaux HaMH cnncxax .oKHTao PYA}]{ap» HMlI .!l.aHHOrO ropaoro xpeora UHIlleTCH KaK 4arpaorY3 IlJIH ,Il}]{aI'paorY3 (2, JI. 108; 3, JI. 514).

B «HY3xaT a.n-MYWTaK» rOBopHTCH, 4TO OKO.nO xpeora 4arpaorys «aoaa npesp auiaercu B JIeA II OCTaeTCli see nero» (2,.n. 108; 3,.n. 516) 3TO cooeutenae 11APllCH COBuaAaeT C H3BeCTHeM 116H XaYKaJIa (783, c. 402). OAHaKo B rpyne Hcraxpn (265, c. 180) OTMe'laeTClI, 4TO nen. 00pa3YlOmHii:c1l 311MOR UOAJIe 4arpaorY3a, OCTaeTCli TO.nbKO no .nera (cp. 407, JI. 102; 670, c. 237). CYAH no BceMY, 3AeCb OUllCbIBaerCH 60- .noracraa MeCTHOCTb n.nll osepo C KaMblillOBOM paCTHTeJIbHOCTblO (63. c. 32-35; 77, c. 9). Bens Hcraxpa H 110H Xayxan CBII.!IeTeJIbCTBYIOT, 4TO B oJIII}]{ailwllx oxpecraocrax 'Iarpaoryaa IIMeJIHCb 3apOCJIII TPOCTnaxa. 11HTepecHoe nononsenne K UpHBe.!l.eHHbIM Bblille H3BeCTIIlIM conepxorrca B KOCMorpacjJHH 116H aJI-BapAH. DOBeCTBYli 0 Xope3MCKOM osepe, OH rOBopHT, 410 na ero 6epery HaXO.!lllTCH ropa UOA nasaanaeM 4arpaorY3. HeAaJIeKO OT 3TOR ropsr BOAa saaepaaer 3HMOli, OKpecrnoe HaCeJIeHHe AOOblBaeT 3.!1eCb COJIb (166, JI. 36).

'1arpaorY3cKHe 11AP"Cll H npyrne apaooaauunue reorparpu, TaKHM rO.pbl-xpe6n 00pa30M, YKa3bIBalOT na pacnonoxcemre 4arpaorY33

CYJlTaH-YH3- 6JIf!3 nooepexcsa Xopesacxoro osepa. ,IlaHHble 11c-

JJ.ar raxpa II 116H Xayxana n03BOJIlifOT YT04HIITb, 4TO B03-

.ne 3TIIX rop HaXOpIIJIOCb 60JIOTHCTOe MeCTO llJIn osepo C sapocaaxa xaasnua, CBII.!IeTeJIbCTBO 116H aJI-BapPH BHOCHT HOBYIO AeTaJIb, n03- sonsa rosopars 0 TOM, 4TO 6.n1l3 4arpaorY3a JIe}]{aJIO xpynnoe COJIlIHoe oaepo. Bce 3TII caenenua IIMeIDT Ba}]{HOe anauenne H nOMOraI6l' neunuppoexe paccsratpnaaesroro TeKCTa 11ApneH.

Censac na nooepezcse Apa.na IIMeeTCli nexano osep C TPOCTHHKO" BbIMH 3apOCJIllMII. Bo MHorHX 113 HIlX HHTeHCIIBHO oopasyerca casrocanovnas COJIb (298, c. 117-121). Haarionee xpynaue coasasre MeCTOpO}]{AeHHH pacnoaoacena na ceBepo-BOCTO'lHOM nooepeoxse Apaascxoro MOPll: ,Il}]{YB3H-TlOoe, Canas, 4YMbIIll-KYJIb, ,Il}]{3KCbI-KJIbl'I. ,Il}]{aMaH-KJIbI4 (214, c. 33).

Bonsuias rpynna osep H IllOPOB pacUOJIO}]{eHa raioxe Y IOrO-BOCTO'lHOli OKOHeQHOCTII. ApaJIbCKOrO MOP!!. OKO.nO UO.!lHOlKHlI BOCT04Horo' '1HHKa YCTlOpTa pacKIlHy.naCb oeurapaaa aamoaaaneaaa HII3MeHHOCTb, saaaraa AeJIbToli AMy-.p_apbH. C cesepa HH3MeHHocTb OrpaHIlQeHE!

50

ApaJIoM, C BOC1'OKa - neCKaMH !\U3blJIKYMOB C B03BblWeHHOCTbIO CYJI' T3H·YH3·,Uar, aa iore - 6apxaHHblMH neCK3MH l(apaJ(YMOB. PaBHHH<I nepeXOII.HT na 3an811.e B npocropu 06WHpHoro B cpennae sexa CapsrKaMblWCKoro oaepa, crasurero HbIHe Capaxaxenncxoa snannaon. FloqTH OT caxorc IOlKH'oro nooepeacsn Apana TllHeTCH MHHHaH uens osep H OrpOMHblX TonKHX COJIOHq3KOB. I(pynHeiiwHM IlS HHX lIBJllleTCR YJIbKYH·llIop, KOTOPblii noxra CJIHBaeTCH C CHCTeMoii capencaasnncxax oaep. OKOJIO YJIbKYH·llIopa paCnOJIOlKeHO osepo Capuxaasnn I, noxpsrroe TBep)J;oii Kopoii noaapeanoa COJIIl. He)J;aJIeKO OT IOlKHoro noeepelKbll Apana, no HanpaBJleHHIO K nocTo'IHOMY '1HHKY YCTIOPT3., naxoIIHTCH COJlHHOe osepo Ame-Bae. Mecruue lKHTe.im C'IHTaIOT, qTQ no CBOHM KaqeCTBaM COJlb sroro oaepa HBJIlIeTClI caxoa JIyqweii B XoPe3MCKOM oasace. JIeTOM osepo nepecuxaer, H B cpeaaea '1aCTH ero KOTJIOBHHbl otipaayercs ,!(OBOJlbHO MOIllHblH cJloii OTJlOlKeHHii rroaapenHoii COJIH (396, c. 36-40).

COJIlIHble H npecaue osepa C rycTblMH 3apOCJIHMH K3Mblwa HMe· IOTCH HB HH30BbHX pexa Auy-Ilaps» (238). 3a60JlO'lel-IHble MeCTa c TyraiiHoii P3CTHTeJIbHOCTbIO pacKHnyJIHCb K cesepy OT B03BblWeHHOCTH Ilopasrray (350). B 3THX TonKHX SapOCJlHX BO,!(HTCH MHOlKeCTBO .llHKHX Ka6aHOB H npyrnx lKHBOTHbiX. BOJIbWall osepaaa KOTJlOBHHa pacnoaoscena y sana)lHoil OKOHeqIioCTH xpeera CYJITaH-YH3-,Uar (209). O'leBH'!(Ho, B HCCJIe,!(yeMblx reorpaqmsecxax TeKCTax pens HlI.eT 06 O,!(HOM H3 osep onacaaaoro paaona.

B TeKCTe «KHTa6 Pynacap» He KOHKpeTH3l1pyeTcH TO'lHOe MeCTOnOJlOlKeHHe 4arpaorY3CKoro xpeora. Taxoe YTo'lHeHHe HMeeTCH sa xaprax IbpHCH, COrJlaCHO KOTOPblM sanamnse OTPOrH 3THX rop nonXOII.HT K IOro-BoCTO'lHOMY noeepescsio ApaJlbCKOrO MOpH (404). ,UaH· Hoe xaprorpadnorecxoe YK8aaHHe coraacyercs C TeKCTOM «Hyaxar anMYWTaK», JlOKaJIH3YIOJlIHM 4arpaorY3 HS nocepeacse Xopesacxoro oaepa. B CHJlY sroro y Hac HMelOTCH OCHOBaHHl1 1I.0BepHTb H306palKe· HHIO sananaoa OKOHeqHOCTH lI.aHHblX rop aa xaprax YbpHCH'. YKa33- HHH aTJIaCOB I1I1.PHCH n03BOJlHIOT BH,!(eTb, 'ITO QarpaorY3 CJIeJlyeT HeKaTb B panone HHlKHero TeqeHHH AMy·,UapbH.

B HaCTOHIII;ee npexs aa IOrO'BOCTOKe OT ApaJlbCKOrO MOpH HaqHHaIOTCli CTOJIOBbie B03BbIweHHH 11 ropnsre uena, npOCTMpaIOJlIHeCli B rJly6b nYCTbIHH KH3blJlKYM. Cpe,!(11 aTHX rop H B03BblweHHOCTeii pesxo BbIl(eJlllIOTCi sepuranst xpeora CYJlTaH-YH3-,Uara, )l.OCTHraIOJlIHe asrCOTbI 485 M. fJIaBHblMH 060c06J1eHHblMM aepmnnaaa-ocraanasm sroro xpetira HBJIHIOTCli aa sanane 'ulKYMblpTay, Kyoaray H Taxaaraur, CYJITaH·YM3·,Uar nO,!(XO,!(HT K AMy-,Uapbe CBOHMH B03BblweHHOCTlIMH llIeHx-'ulKaJIHJI H I(YHH1IHK. Ha BOCTOK OT CYJITaH'YH3-,Uara, xepea neCKH KH3blJIKYMbI, TlIHeTCli npepunacraa rpana 6yrpoB (AH3- KaJIa, ,UlKaH6ac-KsJIa, KYK'Ia H npynre), xoropue reOJlOrHqeCKM COCTaBJIHlOT ell.HHYIO norpeoeaayro ropayio nens, cOe,ll.HHHIOJlIYIOCH xepea xpeoTbI Hyparay H Kaparay C BhlCOKoropHOH CI!CTeMOH Tans-Illaua (42; 286; 397).

l O)lH8KO H.llPHCH. KaK 6Y.lleT cK338HO naaee, OWH6c)lJHO npe.llCT3SJUIJr cede BOCTOlfHble npenenu, no KOTOPblX npocrnpaaace ropnas uens lJa:paorya.

4' '51

CpaBHHTeJlbHbIIi: aHaJlHS TeKCTa HAPI1CI1 n03BOJIlIeT SaKJIIO'IHTb, 'ITO non llarpaorYCloM Mo)KE'T 1l0)lpaaYMCa<lTbC5I JIHIllb CYJlTaH-YH3- llar. B nOJIbSY naaaoro MHeHII!! ronopar H TOT cjJaKT, 'ITO B HCTO'lHHK3X: XIV---XVI fiB; CYJ1TaH-YH3-L!ar H33bIsaeTC5I tJarpa. IlIHxa6 an llHH DMapH (415; 320) noxemaer xpeoer tJarpa nocpena AP3J1bCKOrO MOP!!', a lllKYPAlKallH - aa 6epery Xopeaxcxoro osepa (10, JI. 6!». Hsrepecnoe H3SeCTIle 06 3TOil rope conepsorrcn S HCTO'lHHKe - XVI B. non Ha3BaHHeM «llHKoBHHKH HCTOPIIIl» (71, JI. 224). ABTOP sroro co'1HHeHHlI nnuier, 'ITO tJarpallcKHll xpeoer paCnOJlQ}KeH B «06JiaCTl1 lllKellxYHa H Xopesxa». no ero CJIOBaM, 9TO 60JIbIllile ropu, KOTOPbIe T!!HyTC!! OT AMy-llapbH AO LJHHa, oxesanao, BOCTO'lHOrO TYPKecTaHa. AHaJIOrH'IHOe H3BeCTlie 0 tJarpallcKMx ropax COJI.eplKMTclI B reorpadiaqeCIWM .a.063BJ1E'HHH !( C'l'lIlHeHHfO ,\\HP:XOHI\3. B "PaY3aT ac-catpa» roBOPMTClI: «fop a tJarpa pacnonozsena B npenenax (nasaxa) Xopesvcxoro lllKeilxYHa. BO'!(b! lllKeiixYHa nperpazsnaiorca snecs (9TIIMH ropaxa) BO MHOffIX MecTax'. 3TO 60,~bIllall ropa, xoropas TlIHeTClI )10 06JIaCreMCTpaHbI tJUH» (447, JI. 18). Onncauae 9TOil ropnoa uenu HMeerClI .TaKlKe B CO'IIIHeHHH XHBIIHCKoro HCTOpHI(a Baaua, 51. r. I'yJlHMOB na OCHOBaHHII ,!(aHHblX BalIHH nORa3aJI, 'ITO non LJarpaHcKHMH ropaxa f10JI.pa3YMesaeTCH CYJIT3H-YH3-.D,ar (127, c. 21, 22). llaHHoe MueHHe f10,!(KpenJIlIeTCH BbIwenpMBe'!(eHHblMH 113BeCTHSlMH reorparpoa XIV-XVI BB, B caMOM nene. B 3THX HCTO'lHHKaX rrpsxo rOBopHTCH, 'ITO xpetier tJarpa JIelKHT B npenenax ,!(eJIbTbI AMy-llapbll. YKa3aHHe na nperpaacnenae BOil 3TOM pexn ljarpaMcRHMH ropavu JIHWUHH pas CBH,!(ereJIbCTByer 0 IlX TOlKi\eCTBe C CYJJraH-YH3-.D,arOM.

O'!(HaKO CJIeAyeT BMeCTe C reM 3aMeTHTb, 41'0 B ananaaupyeaux IICTO'lHIIKax lIBHO OWH60'lHO rOBopHTClI 0 npocmpasnn 3TOM ropaok nena BnJIOTb AO npeaeaon KHTaH. nO'!(06HaH lKe OIllIl6I{a COl\eplKHTC5I B xaprorparpnnecxox MaTepHaJIe rpyna HApHCH.

B TeKCTe «KHTa6 Pynxcap», KaK rOBOp"JIOCb asnue, YKa3aHO, 'ITO LJarpaory3 pacnonoacen aa 6epery Xopeavcxoro osepa. DAHaKO na xaprax I1'!(PHCH 9TOT ropHbIM xpeoer raaercs )l.aJJeKO )( BOCTOKy 01' ApaJJbCKOrO MOPl!, napannensao TeqeHHIO Cup-Ilapsa (2, JI. oS I, 267, 108; 3, JI. 220, 226), YKa3aHHbIe ropu 11306pall{eHbI B BH,!(e AJJHHHOII CJIerRa H30rIlYTOI1 uenn, H.D.YIlleii C ioro-sanana na IOrO-BocrOK OT Xopesxcxoro osepa (404). tJarpaorY3cKHe ropsr aa araacax M'!(pHeR 1l.0CTHralOT 06J1aCTHillaIlla', I1c<jJH)l.lKa6a< H Tapasa'. CXeMaTII'IeCKOe

1 B. B. Bapronsn CllHTaer, sro nepenacsax COllHHeHHH OMapH neeepno nOHfW 'l'eKCT csoero nepaoncrouaai,a. DJlarOAapa 3TOMY OH ncaecran lJarpaitcKHe ropst lie II" nooepeao,e, a nocpenu Xopesacxoro osepa (63, e. 56).

2 Jl>KeHXYH, coraacao Xa.ll>KH XaJlH$e, BXOllHT 13 TeCHHHY lvlemAY Jl.ByMH ropa].'iH, OKOJIQ pa6ara Jlax3n·H WHp. AMy-JlaphfI rever B aTOM MeCTe C CHJIbHblM myMOM. npHBOJlHlIIIIM mOJlen B crpax (203, e. 347).

3 Waw-06.1J8<''I'i.> cpenuenexoaoro ManepaHH8xpa, OXGaTb!BaIOlU3R 6acceHH pexa 'LJUptlH1i:, C rJ1aBHhlM ropO.QOM BHHKeTOM. CTOJJHu.a Warn a ne)l{3J13 H3 MeCTe cospe MeHHoro r. T3111I{eHT3. A6~ Peaxaa BHPYHH cooeraaer. 'ITO BMHKeT H33hIBaeTcR noTlOpKeK" Tatuxenrora. B \i IU-X BB. K Illamy OTHOeIlJlC. II oxpyr Hnal(, B JlOJlIfHe pexa Aurpea (61; 65; 511; 518; 643).

4 HCf)mJlfl(a6oJ\I i-I33bmaJlCH 60.1lb1i101! oxpyr 11 fJlaBHbIH ropoa ~nofl o6naCTH. 06b1QHO r. HeqlH",lKa6 JtOKaJlHSYIOT aa MeeTe Caapaxa Jln60 JlpyrOM MeeTe OK'''"O 4HMKeHTa. CYlIIeeTByeT TaKlKe npe.l1.nOJlOlKeHHe, '!TO r. Hccj>nJllK.6 cnenyer HCK.,., a cpenaex Te~eHIIH peKII HallaM (172; 61; 140; 28; 252).

5 Tapas 6blJ1 paCnOJIO)I(C'H 113 fltCCTC 6blBillcro Ay.nHe-AT8, cospeaeaaoro .Il.}t{3M- 6yna (54; 85; 516; 517).

32

11306palKeHl1e BOrTO'll1blX OTporOB 3TOH roPHOH uena COOTBeTcTByeT xpeerv Kaparay aa Cup-Zlapse. B nOJIb3Y sroro rOBopHT H TeKeT H6M XaJI)I,YHa, KO'ropbIH BOCXO)l,HT K COlJHHeHHIO H)I,PHCH. COrJIaCHO H6H XaJI)I,YHY, tIarpaorY3CKHe ropbI'HalJIIHalOTCH B BOCbMOM OT)I,eJIe nsroro K.1I1MaTa H THHYTCII aa IOrO-BOCTOK B)I,OJIb TelJeHIIH pexa CbIP,UapbH. npOH)I,1I 3HalJBTeJIbHYIO lJaCTb )l,aHHOrO KJIIIMaTa, 3Ta ropnast uens KaK 6bIOKOHTypIlBaeT TeppIlTopIIIO WalIlCKOH 06JIaCTH. MeiK)I,Y peKOH II tIarpaorYSCKIIM xpe6TOM pacnonoxcena 06JIaCTh «I>apa6 (655, c. 148, 149). Oopauraer aa ce61I BHIIMaHlIe H yrsepacneuae OTMelJeHHbIX pauee reorparpoe XIV-XVI BB. 0 TOM, 4TO 4arpaHCKHe ropu .!(OCTHraIOT tIlIHa.

Hi\PIlCII, CY.!(H no ero xaprax, 01IlH60'lHO nonaran HaJIII'lHe .!(JIIIH· 1I0il, aenpepusnoa ropnoa u.eIIII, lI.!(ymeM OT Apanscxoro MOplI .!(O lIIHb-WaHR:. B CHJIY sroro 011 coenaann HbIHelIlHIIe cblp.!(apbHHCKHe Kaparay c xpetirou CYJITaH-YII3-,Uar. MycYJIbMaHCKIIe reorpaqisr, lKIIBlIlIle II TBopIIBIIIIIe JlOCJIe H.!(PIlCII, MeXaHIIlJeCKII IIOBTOPII.nIl 3TY 01IlH6KY. ,UaiKe B XVI B. JlOJIaraJIH, 'ITO Cy.nTaH-YH3-,Uar, HalJHHaSICb B paaoae 'ulKeHXYBa, .lI.OCTHraeT aa BOCTOKe npenenoa Knraa. Hec~IO' rps aa 3Ty OIlIH6KY, nannue J.bPHCII H npyrux cpe.!(HeBeKOBbIX reorpa.pOB n03Bo.nSIIOT BB.!(eTb, 'ITO non tIarpaorY30M nonpaayaeaaercs CYJIT3H-Y,n·,Uar.

Mapfs _ exa Onncuaas aanee CTpaHY orY30B, H.!(PHCH cooomaer,

HPfH/ -rro B Xopeaacxoe osepo 113 xpyrmux pex unanaior

,UlKeMXYH, Waw H Bapax, HJIH Ilapaxs, Kpone HI1X 011 ynoauaaereute .!(B€ pexa, Ha3BaHHR: KOTOPblX npHHIITO 'IHTaTb KaK PY3a H Mapra (265, c. 220; 583, II, c. 338). B Hcno.nb30BaHHbIX HaMH pyiconacax H na aTJIaCaX H)I,PHCH HaHMeHOBaHHII 3THX pel( (xoropue, HeCOMHeHHO, I1CKalKeHbl) IIHlIlYTCR: no-pasaoxy. ,UJIli BTOPOH 113 OTMe'1eHHbIX pex HMelOTCli cnenyicutne <jIOPMbl nanacaaas: Ma'pa, Mapra, Marpa, Maprs (2, JI. 109; a, n. 267 H zp.: 58a, II, c. 338, 340; 404; 679, IV, c. 88). K MHJlJIep, nbITaBlIlHI1cll pacumopoaars HCCJIet\yeMbIH reoI'pa<jlHlJeCKHM OTPbIBOK, nonaraer, 'ITO non 3THMH HMeH3MH cxpueaerCII pexa HprH3 (679, IV, c.88).

,UaHHaR: TOQKa 3peHII1I lIBJIlIeTClI BnOJIHe npHeMJIeMOH, eCJIH npnHIITb sa OCHOBY nOCJIeAHlO1O 113 OTMelJeHHbIX KOH'beKTYp. Becsua npaMelJaTeJIbHO, 'ITO Ha3saHIIe Hprnaa B <jIopMe Ma'aprs BCTpeQaeTCR: B COlJHHeHHH MyxaMMaAa Hecean. PaCCKa3bIBali 0 noxone xopeaxuraxa Ana a)l,-,UIIHa MyxaMMa)l,a B 1212 r. npOTHB BOlK)I,eli TlOpoK-K3HrJlbI, OH ynoxanaer pexy Ma'apr3 ( _;<)l.).

B. «P. J\'lIlHOPCKHii y6e)l,IITeJIbHO .!(OKa3a,1, 'ITO 3THM HMeHeM 060- snaxaerca pexa HPrH3 (680, c. 309). Ilon Ha3BaHHeM HpXH3 3Ta pexa, KaK BH)I,HO H3 «KHHrll» H6H «pa)l,JIaHa, 6bIJIa H3BeCTHa erne B X B. (207; 208). Bee 3TO craear aa peanesyio nOlJBY npennoncxceuae K. l\lHmlepa 0 TOlK.!(eCTBe onHCbIBaeMOH I1t\PIICH peKII Mapra (HJIH,

J B nepenono M. ne CJJsIHa npHHaTbl neaepnue ~ITeHp.fI Jl>Ke6parYH H Ltmyparyn.

2 B cpenneeexoeux HCTOt!HHKax non aTUM H83n8Hl1ei\{ HbfcTynaeT pexa 4HpQHl{ (III: 65; 680).

sepaee, Ma'Kpl'H3) C COBpeMeHHblM HprH30M1 HPrH3, no CJlOBaM H}~pH_CH, B onpeneneaaae ceSOHhI rona CTaHOBHJICSl nOJIHOBO,l(HbIM, a aaTeM CHJlbHO nepecaxan. B «HY3xaT aJI-MYIll1'aK» OTMe'laeTCH, 'ITO xorna 31'a pexa paSJIHBaeTCH, TO B Heli HaXO,l(HT KpynHHKB CaMOpO,l(HOro 30JIOTa, a co ana (BepOHTHo, nocae 06MeJleHHSl) ,l(06b1BaeTCH KaMeHb naayaapn (2, JI. 109; 3, JI. 517).

TIepHO,l(HlJeCKHe seceanne naBOII,KH lI,eliCTBH1'eJlbHO xapaarepnu ,l(JlH Hprasa H npyrax crenaux pex 3ana,l(HOrO Kasaxcraaa. Beceaaxe paSJIHBbl 3THX pex npo,l(OJIlKaIOTCH, O,l(HaKO, cpaBHHTeJlbHO aenonro. B lJaCTHOCTH, HprHS JIeTOM 6h1CTPO MeJIeeT H repser cnnoumoa TOK na cpenaev n HHlKHeM TelJeHHH. ,llOJIHHa pexa aa OT,l(eJIbHbIX YlJaCTKaX npeapauiaercs B uenouxy osep, nJIeCOB H CTapH~. O,l(HaKO na Hpruae HeT HH pY,l(HOrO, HH poccunnoro 30JlOTa. HilPHCH, HeCOMHeHHO, nonycxaer B STOM 01I1H6KY, KOTopaH MOlKeT 6bITb 06bHCHeHa CMeIIleHHeM Hprasa C KYMaKOM HJlH Opuo. 06e 3TH pexn, KaK H Hpraa, 6epyr csoe HalJaJlO ua Myronxcapax. B03MOlKHO raioxe, 'ITO aBTOp nepsol1CTO'lHl1Ka, KOTOPblll1 nOJlb30BaJICH HII,PIlCH, npaaaxan 3TH pexn sa npHTOKH Hprnaa, a He Vpana.

HCTOKH Hprasa Ha'lHIIalOTCH na BOCTO'lHbIX orporax MyrO,l(lKapCKHX rop, xoropue reHeTH'IeCKH CBH3aHbI c IO)]{HbIM YpaJlOM. Mell(,l(Y TeM 30JlOThie POCCbfDH HMeIOTCH no BOCTO'lHOMY CKJlOHY IOll{Horo YpaJIa. O,l(HHM H3 xpynnux MeCTOpOlKlI,eHHii 30JIOTa HBJlllIOTC\J 3HaMeHIIlble KO'lKapCKHe npHHCKH, 30JlOTble POCCbInH no pexe TaIIlKYTapraHYnpHTOKy Boristnoro l1peMeJlSl (86; 239; 269). MeCTOpOlKJleHHH 30- JIOTa, B TOM 'IHCJIe caaoponaoro, HMeIOTCH H no coceucrsy C Myro,l(lKapCKHMH ropann, B OPCKOM pasoae (34; 89; 154; 261). 30JIOTOHOCnae POCCbWlI H )]{H,ijbI pasepocanu no nparoxa« 0pH. Kpone roro, H3BeCTHbI 30JlOTble npHHcKH, pacnoaoacenaue B CTenHX 3ana,l(HOrO Ka- 3aXCTaHa. MecTOpOlK,'l,eHHH 30JIOTa aaner ator B nonoce yrJIHCTbIX cnanues OT KaiipaKTbI na cenep JlO pexu KYMaK. Crapue Bblpa60TKH o6meii nnomanuo no 100 KM OTMelJeHbI K tory OT nora qHJIHKcaii. 30- JlOTO BO BceM 3TOM paaone BCTpe'laeTCH B BH,l(e poccunea H xopennux MeCTOpO)]{JJ;etlHii. 30JlOTOHOCIible )l(HJIbI pacnoaoxcensr B aepxoasax KYMaKa, B 6acceI1He Ypyc-Kncxeaa, JIeBOrO nparoxa CYIOH,l(YKa, B

6acceiiHe Kaannu, Il MelK~ype'lbe Aii,l(bIPJlH B Bafrryxa. .

POCCbfDHoe 30JIOTO IIMeeTCH TaK)l(e B HH)]{HeM TetleHHI'I OPB, Il

6acceiiHe pexa KHPKHJIb,l(bI. CaMOpO,l(1I0e 30"~OTO Opcxoro pailoaa saJleraeT B nn acrax MHoro'lHCJIeHHhlX BepxoBHKOB, H3,l(aBHa npaanexasIIlHX crena KYCTapeii-CTapaTeJleii. POCCbInH HMelOTCH anecs nOBCIO,l(Y:

B ,l(OJIHHe JlOrOB, na CKJlOHaX H nepesanax no nparoxaa pexa OPH (33; 200; 338). B 30He OI<HCJIeHHH noaciony BCTpe'laIOTCll MIIHepaJIbl napaT8, MapK83HTa, Me,l(HOli C!"HH II MelJ;HOli 3eJIeHH. Caxoponaoe 30JIOTO saneraer B KBapueBO-anaTHTOBblX H ,l(PYrHX npOlKHJIKaX B anne aepen uenpaaansaoa «j!OpMbl. HeCJIe,l(oBaTeJIHMH YCT8HOBJIeHO, 'ITO aJIJIIOBH-

1 Hassauue onncunaexok l1.1l.pHCH pexa Mapra (Ma'uprH3),. BepOHTHo, HBJIReTCH .lJ.BYCOCT8BHb1I1, npoUCXOJUltIlHM OT 8'Pa6cKoro Ma'-BOlla H co6CTBeHHoro HMCI-!J.1 I1prH3.

54

ansnoe 30.~OTO )J.06l>ISa.nOCb na IOlKHoM Ypa.ne yzce B VIII-XII BD. (445, c. 109).

B «HY3xaT a.n-MYIlITaK», IWK roaopanocs panee, yrsepaoraerca, 'ITO B Hprnae nccuaaerca KaMeHb nesysapn'. JIa3ypHT-)lOBOJlbHO penKO acrpeuatounrnca B npapone MHHepaJl CJlOlKHOrO COCTasa, 06bIqHO ·OH CO)leplKHTClI B llleJlOqHbiX H3BeplKeHHbiX H Kap60HaTHbIX noponax. Kpynaua MeCTOpOlK)leHHeM 9TOro MHHepaJla YlKe s )lpeBHOCTH ObI.n Banaxuiau. OTCIO)la naaypar BbIB03HJlCH s CesepHbifi Xopacaa H )lPY· me crpanu BOCToKa (16, c. 182; 324, c. 44, 50).

B cpenaesexosax MycYJIbMaHCKHx crpauax Jla3YBap)lOM, nepoliTHO, HHorJJ.a Ha3bIB3JJH H nceBJJ.OMopljJ03bI JJ5InHC-Jla3ypH no aaypnTY H Ma,nilXHTY. A6y Pefrxan DHPYHH orxeuaer, 'ITO HMelOTClI copra nasypara, CMeIllaHHbie C MHHepaJlOM IjJHcTaWKOBO-3eJleHOrO UBeT", CTOJlb xapaxrepnoro )l.ll1 OCHOSHoro xapoouara Me)lH (16, c. 182). flo <:JlOSaM H6H CUHbl, MaJlaXHT, HJlH TaK Ha3bIBaeMblii apMlIHcKHii x aMeHb, «conepacar S eerie HeqTO 01' nsnac-nasypio (171, c. 230).

Oc06eHHo nOXOlK no UBeTY na nasypar BHJJ. Me)lHOli CHHH, H.nII .aaypnra B accouaauna C MaJlaXHTOM. «B MHoroqHCJleIIHbIX, O'IeHb "PO' THBOpeqHBbiX YKa3aHHHx 0 naaypare, - III1111eT axan. A. E. <pepcMaH,- MbI npeacne acero ncrpenaeucn co 3Ha'IHTeJlbHOii nyranauea 1I0HlITHM 0 caMOM KaMHe, rax KaK nasypar q8CTO CMelllllBaJlCiI C pa3- .J1HqHbIMI1 coenaueanaxa Me)J,H (xsapuen, oxpaureaaua aayparoa) H. S qaCTHOCTH, OH, nO-SIIJJ.IlMOMY, He OTJll1qaJlClI 01' CO)laJlIlT3 AJlaMCKOro xpetira B JJ.OJlHHe 3epaljJllIaHa, a B Cexnpeuse H KYJlb)!'lKe )KIITe.nH rOBOpHJlII 06 06UJlHH naaypnra B CB1I3H C Me)!,HbIMII OKIICJl3MII B pHj(e MecTopolK)!,eHllii» (442, c. 133).

Ilonoonue lKe MHHepaJlbl 110SCeMeCTHO BCTpeqaIOTCfl' Il H8 Ypane, rne HaXO)!,lITClI acexapno 113BeCTHbie MecTopOlK)!,eIlHlI MaJl8XHTa H a3Y' para (149; 239; 442). 3aJlelKH Me)!,Hoii CHHII II Me)lHOii 3eJleHH IIMelO'T' ClI T3KlKe B paaoae Myro)!'lI(apCKHX rop (89; 107). Caxoponaoe 30- JlOTO IOlKHoro Ypana K TOMY »ce qaCTO scrpesaercs B aCCOll,Hall,IIH C I1I1PIITOM II a3ypIIToM (239; 86). Bee 91'0 JJ.aeT OCHOB3HHe nonarars. 'ITO B IICCJle)lyeMoM TeKCTe H)!'PIICH ronoparca He 0 JllII1HC-Jla3ypH, a nnenme CXO)lHbIX C Jla3ypIIT,OM IOlKlloypaJlbCKo-MyrO)l}KapCKOM 83Ypnre n M8J1aXHTe.

COrJlaCHO «HY3xaT aJl-MYllITaK», 110 6eperaM Hprusa TlIHYTCH .necaue 3apOCJlH, B HIIX BO)lllTClI 606pbI H JlHCIIUbI C 30JlOTIICTO-lKe.nTOI'! OKpaCKOM Mexa (2, JI. 109; 3, JI. 515). H)lPIICH co06111aeT, 'ITO uixypxn 3TIIX 606pOB 6blJlH OTJlHqHOro KaQeCTS3 H BbIB03HJlIICb B BH3aHTHID II ApMeHHID. BbICOKO ll,eHHJlIICb 11 Mexa 06HTacllIHx S necax Hprnsa 30 .,10TIICTbiX JlHCHU. CIUHTble H3 HI1X o)!,elK)!,bI HMeJlH npaso HOCHTb JllIllIb «uapn (MYJlIOK) TOM CTpaHbI». IllKYPKH 3TIIX JlfICIlI\ 6bIJlII nOSTOMY sanpemenu )!,JllI sxcnopra B npyrne CTpaHbI.

Onncuaaexuf B «KHTa6 Pynacap» lKHBOTllblii II paCTHTeJlbHblii l<IJIP )J,OJlHHbl Hprusa He cosnanaer C ee coapeereaaoit IjJJlopoii Il ljJay· HOM. B aacrosruee BpeMlI 110 HPrH3Y HeT JleCOB, aaceneanux J(OJlOHHll' .MII 606pos. Onaaxo B cpeznme nexa norroca HaCeJleHHbIX 606p8MH

1 Jlaayuapn, Hnw aaaaeapn=apaocsoc HaHMeHOBaHHe na3YP"Ta (16; 171; 194). 55

JleCOB EBpa3HfI npOCTHpaJIaCb 3HaqHTeJIbHO IOlKHee HX auueuruero apeana. 30Ha JIeCOB etue B He,l\aBHeM npOWJIOM jl,OXO.1\HJIa .1\0 cpennero TeqeHHH 3M6bl H Ypana (155; 188; 367). B aepxoasax OPH, I1JIeKa, Teunpa H .1\PYfflX pex BCTpe'lalOTCH H ceil:'Iac pouta H JIeCKH H3 oepe- 3bl, oCHHb!, xepuoro H cepeepacroro TOnOJIH. Bepera 3THX pex noxpuTbl MeCTaMHrYCTblMH 3apOCJIHMII BeTJIbl, IIBb! II seposr. .Bepe30BbIC neca pacryr ua XOJIMHCTblX 6eperax aepxaero reseann OPII H I1prH3a (188; 365).

B 3THX HblHe oxeas He311a'lIlTeJIbHbIX JIeCHblX Y'IaCTKaX, a npeacne necnux xaurax, nexorna BO.1\HJIHCb penasre OOOPb!. Bo sropoa nOJIOBIiHe XVIII B. 606pbl 06I1Ta.~H no pexe YpaJIY, He.1\aJIeKO OT 51HUKoro roponxa (317, c. 358). B06pbI Bo,l\HJIHCb H na 3Moe, B YCTbe ee npuTOKa - pexa TeMHJ'l (188, c. 389).

B XVIII B, na ~yrO.1\}KapaX 6blJIO MHoro oepesosux H OCIlHOBblX JleCOB (262, c. 200; 367, c. 170). Poum II JIeCKIl U3 6epe3bl, OCHHbl H IIBbl BCTpe'l310TClI II ceil:qac B yuteasnx II oaparax MyrO.1\lKapCIWro, xpeora (443, c. 380). 3,l\eCb lKe BO.1\UJlOCb MHoro xopcaxoa H lKeJITb!X JIHCHU-KaparaHoK. B KOHue npournoro - aauane rexyuiero CTOJIeTHlI B pesyasrare aKTIIBHoii ,l\eIlTeJIbHOCTII qeJIOBeKa npoasourao anaxnTeJIbHOe orcrynnenae JIeCoB K IOlKHoMY Ypa,1Y (188; 443; 444).

Baaronaps XHmIlH'IeCKOii OXOTe CHJIbHO nocrpanaaa H npouacJIOBhle lKHBOTHhle, ocooeaao nyumue 3BepH. 3a nOCJIeil,HHe CTO JIeT nOqTH nOJIHOCTblO OhlJIH J1cTpe6JIeHbl OOOPbl B Kasaxcrane, BawKHpHH H TaTapIIH . .ITIiWh HeCKOJIbKO COT 606pOB OCTaJIOCb B rnyxnx .necax Cpenaero Ypana H 3ana.1\Hoii CH6HPH, B 6acceiille pex COCbB]'l H I(OH.1\bl (188; 317; 325; 443).

r. E. rpYMM~rpfl<HMaijJIo C4HTaJI, 'ITO 606pbl HeKOr.1\a o6HTaJIH H B ,1eCHbIX 'lama" B pafione N\YIO.1\fI,apCKMX rop (125; 126). O.1\Hal<O .IT,. C. Bepr, YKa3b!BaH na OTCYTcTBHe nocroaepuux $aJ(TOB, ornepraer 9TY TOqKY 3peHHH (79, c. 51). n03TOMY paccaarpasaeaoe H3BeCTHe asropa «KH'ra6 Pyzosap» MOlKeT 6b!Tb nOHllTO JIHlUb B CBeTe era OWH- 60qMblX npencrasneann 0 sepxoasax pexa I1prH3. O'leBH,l\HO, cooeutenae l1.1\pHCH 0 aaceneaxux 606paMH necax Hprnaa B ,l\eiiCTBHTeJIhBOCTM OTHOCHTClI K lIpHTOKaM 3M6bl II Ypa.na. Booponue KOJIOHMH, KaK OTMe'laJIOCb suure, MMeJIHCb B npOWJIOM B necaux SapOCJIHX no 6eperaa Texapa H YpaJIa. B nOJlb3Y 3TOro MHeHHH rOBopHT ratoxe CO- 06meHMe H.1\PHCH a naaysapne H CaMOpO,l\HOM 30JIOTe, .1\06blBaBweMC5I B pexe I1prH3. Cxopee acero nepBOHCTOqHHI( H.1\PIICH He MMeJI .1\OCT3· TOqHO TO'lHOii MHlj>apMaUHM 0 aepxoasax 3TOii pesa. n03TOMY B «KHTa6 Pynacap» npHTOKaMH I1prH3a CqHTalOTCH pexn, xoropue CTeKalOT C MyrO.1\lKap M snanaior B 3M6y II YpaJI.

B «KHTa6 PY.I\lKap» OTMe4aelC5I. QTO ,Vlapr3 uuanaer II Xopesxtcxoe osepo, O.1\HaKO B HaCTOHmee BpeMH i1PrH3 ,nOCJIe CJIIIHHHll C Typraex cepacuaaer CBOH Bo,l\b! B ropsxo-conenoe oaepo tleJIKap- Teuras. H3Y'leHHe pexcaxa 6eCCTOqHblX osep 3ana.1\HOii ASHH aa nOCJIe.1\HHe, HeCKOJIbl(O CToJIeTMIl BblHBMJIO SipKO BhlpalKeHHblii UHKJI IIX nnyrpaBeKOBblX KOJIe6aHIIll (108; 463; 319). B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT noeuurenaof MJIH nOHHlKeHHoli YBJlalKHeHHOCTIl .aPH.1\HOfl 30Hbl ypoaens osep no- 56

CTOllHHO nonseprancs TpaHCrpeCCHH H perpeccuu. 03epO 4eJlK3p-TelIrH3 T3KlKe HeO)(HOKpaTHO MeHlIJlO cBoil yposem, II nnourans BO)(HOrO aepxaaa, B . HaHOOJlee MHOrOBO)(HbIe ronu Ha6J1IO)(3.~HCb CHJlbHbIe pasJlHBbI B HH30BbliX peunoro CTOK3 Hpmsa H Typran. OKPY1KHOCTb 03epa, nanpaxep, B nepson nOJlOBHHe XVIII B. aocraraaa OKOIlO )(ByXCOT sepcr (367, c. 98). Cnycra, OI\HaKO, nOqTH CTOJleTHe 4eIlKap-TeH' raa HaXO)(HIlClI B COCTOllHHH CHJlbHOrO 06MelleHHH, npeBp3THBWHCb B uenouxy 3aMKHYTbIX BO)(OeMOB (319, c. 150--158).

Cnenyer ysecrs, 'ITO B Cpennea A3HH B VIII-XII BB. Ha6J1lo.l<a·· JlOCb auaxarensnoe noasnnenae YBJl3)KHeHfIOCTH I{JlHMaTa (128, c. 82; 341, c. 5). 3TO 06CTOHTeJlbCTBO naer KJlIO'I K nOHIIMaHHIO CBH)(eTe,1b. CTBa H)(PHCH 0 Bna)(eHIIH pexu HPnI3 B Xopeaucxoe osepo. B. yxaaauHoe BpeMH 9J1arO)(apSI noauureamo YBJlalKHeHHOCTH apH)(HOH 30HbI,. BepOHTHO, npOH30WIl0 CHJlbHOe YBeJlH'IeHHe IlJlOW3)(H BO)lHOrO sepxana 4eJIKap- TeHrH3a. OTCIO)(a B03MOlKHbI 60JlbWHe P33JIHBbI B HR- 30BbliX Hprasa H Typras, ,nOCTHr3BWHe BpeMeHaMH 6acceHHa CupJlapbH (462, c. 117-123; 319, c. 26). Ilpenanas 0 CTOKe 3THX pex H CbIp-Jl3PbIO )(0 He,naBHHX nop 6b!JIH WHPOKO pacnpocrpaaeau cpemr Ka3aXOB Typraacxoa 06J13CTH (95, c. 120). OQeBH)(HO, B CBeTe 3TH, ljJaKToB II aaao paCCM3TpHBaTb YTBeplK,neHHe H)(PHCH 0 nnaneuau HPrH33 B Xopeaucxoe osepo.

COfJlaCHQ H)(PHCH, pexa HPrH3 6epeT cnoe Ha'IaJlO' 1O!,!!~ap Y;;an aa 60JlblUOiI ~ BbICOKOI'i rope (2, JI. 108; 3. JI. 516).

Ha3BaHHe 3TOO ropnoa uenn B cnucxax «HY3xaT anMYIllTaK» naurercs no-paanoxy: Mypra, Myst-ap, Myprapl.JlYMaeTCll, 'ITO HaH60Jlee npHeMJleMoii SIBJlHeTCH noirsexrvpa MY3r3p. B TaKO.fJ 1jJ0pMe 3TO HaHMeHOB3HHe BCTpe'laeTCH na ony6J1HKoBaHHOM K. MHJIJIepOM araace 1 !54 r -, (679, Il, 'I. 2) H H3 K3pTe HJ\PHCII, 1I31\3HHOH MyxaMManoM 311-AcapH H JllKaBa)(OM A.nH (404).

MY3rapcIme TOPbI noueseua ua xaprax Hnpucn B BIIJ\e nJIOHHOro xpeora K cesepy OT Kacnnacxoro Mopn (404; 679). B «HY3X3T anMYIllT3K» I'OBOPHTCH, 'ITO BepWOHbI MY3rapcKIlX rop IlOKPbITbI Be'IHbIM CHerOM 0 Jlb)(OM. 3TO nepeKJIHKaeTCH C ,naHHbIMH H6H X3J1,nYHa, KO· TOPblH cooouiaer, 'ITO My3r3p2 03H34aeT «CHelKHaH ropa» (655, 1, c. 158). H,nPHCH' no urer, 'ITO MY3rapCIUlH xperier OT)(eJIHeT 3eMJIH ory- 30B OT CTp3HbI 6aIllKHp (2, JI. 108; 3, JI. 516). B npyrox pasnene ceoero rpyna OH orxexaer, 'ITO 63 nrxapsr TeppHTOpOaJlbHO nonpasnennIOTCH na nae rpynnsr. O)(Ha H3 HHX 06HT3eT nenaaeko OT BYJlrapHH, y xpas CTpaHbI oryaos (583, II, c. 406).

Mysrapcxae ropu, IlO MHeHHIO K. MHJlJlepa, TOlKpeCTBeHHbI coBpeMeHHbIM Myro,nlKapaM - IOlKHOMY npO)(OJllKeHHIO YpaJlbCKOrO xpetira. O)(H3KO UpH T3KOH H)(eHTH<!JHK3UHH l(eJlbIH pHil ncropnxo-reorpaljJHqeCKHX ,naHHbIX «I\HTa6 Pynscap» OCT3eTCH He06'bHCHHMblM. H)(PHCll, KaK MbI Bo,neJlO, nHIIleT, 'ITO H3 BeplUHH3X MY3rap3 nescar

I A. )l(06l'P upnna.r "fC'IIHfi: Mopra, Moprup; K. Mannep - Mopra, :\'\o3rap, Meprep; C. JI. BOJf\\H - Myprap.

2 B nepenone M. ne CJI:3Ha: Moprap.

5.

nOCTOHHHble caera H JIb,Qbl, uero HeT aa Myronxcapax. TaK}Ke oopauraer aa ce611 BHHMaHHe YTBep}K,QeHHe H,QPHCH 0 TOM, 41'0 lvlYilrapCKHH xpeoer HMeeT npOTHlKeHHe B 800 MHJlb (583, II, c. 414). C'IHTall B ·cpe,QHeM 1,5 J(M B O,QHOH MI1JIel, nOJIY'lHTCH 1200 KM, '11'0 HaMHOI'O npesuuraer ,QJIHHY Myronscap, BblTHHYTblX ncero na 400 KM (327, c. 16).

npOTHB Bbl)I.I3HHYToro K. lvlHJIJIepOM TOlK)I.eCTBa Myarapcxoro xpeora C lvlyrO)I.lKapaMIf rOBopHT If )I.aJIbHelillIIfii TeJ(CT H)I.PIfCH. CorJIaCHO «KHTa6 PY)I.lKap», pexa HPfH3, 6epYIl\all Ha'laJIO na Mysrape, npnaaxaer M_HolKecTBo nparoxon aa CBoeM nyra K Xope3McKoMY osepy. OHH CTeKaIOT c ropu, IfMeIOmeH «BbICOKYIO aepumny», KOTopaR naXOi\HTClI ua 6epery I1prH3a. C notl ropu crexaer ooaee TbICR'lH IICTO'lHHKOB, BnaAaIOmHX B peKy Hpras (2, JI. 109; 3, JI. 51}).

'Topu C «BblCOKOIi sepuraaoa» OTMe4eHbl H na rcaprax H,QpHCfl, rne OHH 1I306pa}KeHbI B BH,Qe CpaBIUlTeJIbHO He60JIbllIOrO Kp51lKa, H,Qyutero C roro-aanana H8 ceaepo-socrox. 3ana,QHble OTPOrH :noll roper T51HYTC5I no HanpaBJIeHIfIO K cesepaoxy notiepeacsio ApaJIbCKOrO MOpll. C BOCTO'lHbIX }Ke CKJIOHOB ropu CTeI(aIOT MHOrO'lllCiIeHHble pe4KH, CJIHB3IOllIHeclI C BO,QaMH I1prH3a (2, JI. 108; 3, n. 514; .404; 679, II, 'I. 2). OnHcblBaeMbl1i H,QPHCH ropHblH xpetier no BceM oporpadmuecsau H rH)I.pOrpa<jJIf'leCKIfM npH3HaKaM cooTBeTCTByeT HbIHeWHHM lvlyrO,QlKapax, 3TO 06CTOllTeJIbCTBO B CBOIO oxepens CBHi\eTeJIbCTByeT 0 TOM, 'ITO Mysrapcxna xperier He TOlK,QeCTBeH MyI'O,l\lKapCKHM ropars.

VbPHCH, KaK MbI BHAHM, rOBopHT 0 nOCTOHHHblX cnerax H nsnax na nepumnax Myar apcxoro xperir a. B uacroautee BpeMli narna seuIIblX cseron H JI€)],HHKOB l1MelOTCli JII1Wb na IlOJIHpHOM II CeBepHOM Ypaae. B I1empaJIbHOii qaCTH nOJIlipHOrO Ypana, KOTOPbltl THHeTCH 01' KOHCTaHTHHOBa KaMHH zio rop Ca6JIH II HepeHKH, MeCTaMH na ace JIero OCT:lIOTCH xaponue ,1e,QIUlKI1 H CHe}KHIIKH-nepeJIeTKI1. 3Aech HMe· eTClI 60iIee 56 JIe,l\HHKOB, a 06ma5I nnoutans coapexenaoro 06JIe)]'eHeHHlI nocrnr'aer 15 KB. KM. nOJIHpHbIIi YpaJI 51BJIHeTCS! caMoli BbICOI(QH "aCTbIO YpaJlbCKHX rop, C BepllIHHaMH, npeeuunnoumaa 1500-1600 M (443, c. 362-,-376). OAHaJ(o BpH,Q JlH HAPHCIf MOl' 311aTb 0 JIe,QHHKax H CHelKHHKax nOJIlIpHOrO Ypana, CYIIleCTBOBaHHe KOTOPblX CTaJIO IJ3- BeCTHO JIIfllIb B cpaBHIfTeJIbHO nenannee BpeMH. I ]03TOMY ropasno .10- rnuuee AYMaTb, 'ITO non MY3rapCKHMIl ropaan Oil nO,Qpa3YMeBaeT He Ilonspusnt, a IO}KHblli Ypan. Oepauiaer na ce6H BHI1MaHHe, 'ITO B ro)J,bl C nosuurennoa YBJIalKHeHHOCTbIO KJIHMaTa cuera MeCTaMH OCTaB3- JIHCb nOCTOllHHO B ropax IOlKHOI'O Vpana (462). B XVIII B., aanpaxtep, CHeI'a naace JIeTOM nOKpblBaJIIJ BepWIlHbI 5}MaHTay (367, c. 143, 173).31'0 06CTOHTeJlbCTBO naer oCHOBaHIfe non araru, 'ITO non MY3rapCKHM xpe6TOM nOApa3YMeBaeTCH IOlKHblii YpaJI. B nOJIb3Y naunoro MHeHHlI rOBopHT H CBHAeTeJIbCTBO HAPHCH 0 rpauaue 6allIKHp C ory- 3aMH, npoxonnsuren no MY3rapCKHM ropaa. .ll.ocTOBepllO Il3BeCTHO, QTO B IX-X BB. 6aIIIKHpbl 06IlTaJIH aa IOlKHOM Ypane. Beci, npaae-

I Apaocuau MI1JIH B cpenaex KOJle5aJlaCb B npeaenax 1878-1972 AI (643, II, c, 197). Oll.HaKO B TpyJl.e HJJ.PHCH MHJ15f. HCl{H(:Jl5{eTCfl npI1.6J1H3HTeJlbHO B 1555 M (221, c. 290).

Zi8

;J.eHHblH BbIIIIe KOMnneKC ljlaKTH'leCKOrO xarepaana nossonaer aaxmo·'1HTb, xro rron MysrapcKHMH ropaxn nonpasyaeaaerca COBpeMeHHbli! lOmHbIH Ypan.

PeK8 Yon H COrJlaCHO «KHTa6 Pynxcap», na BepIIIHHax Myro)(·

osepo Apancop xcapcsoro xpefira 6blJIH paCnOJIOJKeHbl JJ:Ba roponaKpenOCTH. Hassauue 3THX KpenOCTeH: HYIl>Kax H Banarax', a paccrosaae Me>KIlY HRMR COCTaBJIlInO IlB3 l(HlI nyrn.

Hnpnca C00611~aeT, 'ITO OTCIOl(a aa aanan reser xpyrmas pexa, repsnouiasca B ClIJlbHO 3a60Jl04eHHOH MeCTHOCTII'. Oopaayiouraeca Bee HH30BbliX TonI! M npeCHOBO.ll.HOe osepo I!MelOT B oxpyxcaocrn 1I1ITbJJ:e· car MM,ab. MeCTHOCTb noxpura CO'lHbIMH nyraxa. na KOTOPblX JleTOM lIaCYTCli TlOpKCKHe crana, B «KHTa6 PY.ll.lKap» rOBOpl!TClI, 'ITO 9TH pa3J1I!Bbl JIemaT B IIIeCTI! nasx IIYTII I( cesepy OT Xopeaacxoro osepa. Orporn Mysrapcxoro xpeora OTCTOS!T OT naanoa MeCTHOCTH aa pacCTOS!HHH nliTH )(HeBHblX nepexonos. MelKllY 9THMH ropaMH H HH30BbS!' IIIH ynolllllHYTOii pexn HMelOTCll uacrcmna TlOpOK (2, rr. 109; 3, JI. 517). B HCnOJlb30BaHHblX A. )i(06epoM PYKOIIHCS!X OTMClJaeTCS! TaK>Ke 60JIo, THCTaS! MeCTHOCTb, JIelKamall K cesepy OT 60JIbIIIOrO osepa .. Ilopora, senyutne OT osepa aa cesep, T))y.n.HO npoxoanxu as-sa orporos MY3'

rapcxoro xperira (583, II, c. 340,341). .

K. MRJlnep CqHTaeT, nro B accnenyevoa OTpbIBKe «HY3xaT anMYIllTaK» HMeeTCS! B BI!,!(y oaepo HprH3 (679, II, c. 89). OIlHaKo 1I0JJ:06· HaS! H.n.eHTIIIjlHKaIl,HfI He MomeT 6bITb IIpH3HaHB y,llB'tIHOH. COrJl~CII" xaprau H.n.PIICH, 9TO osepo .nelKHT ,!(3JIeKO K ceeepo-sanany OT Xopesucxoro osepa. B TeKCTe «KHTa6 PYJJ:map» rOBopIITCS!, 'ITO OHO yna.1eHO na paCCTOllHHe IlIeCTH.n.HeSHoro nYTH OT ApaJlbCKOrO Mopn" Araac 1154 r. 11306pamaeT paccsrarpueaeaoe oaepo B ljlopMe asrrnnyToro snnanca H noueutaer ero Mem,lly 6e3bIMS!HHbIMH ropaun H Mysrap <:KHM xpeorox. KapT8 HMeeT B .n.aHHOM MeCTe nOMeTKY: «Crpaua ry 30B (napona] 113 TIOPOK» (679, I, lJ. 2; 404). Ha arnace cOIjlHHcKolr PYKOIIHCIi non 03epOM BHH3Y CTOHT nonnnct.: «Flpecaas BO,lJ,a» (3, .n. 514). D'!(HaKO aa "roil xapre Mem.n.y oaepox H YIIOMHHYTblM xpeoTOM paCIIOJlOmeHa eute onna He6oJlbIIIaS! ropuas uens (2, Jl. 108). B osepo, no araacax H'!(pHcH, BIIBJJ:aeT C IOrO'BOCTOKa 60JlbIII3l1 pexa. HCTOKH pexn ua-maaiorcs B ropax, aa KOTOPblX paCIIOIIOlKeHbl xpenoCTH Hynscax II Banarax. Pexa 6epeT cnoe Ha4aJlO aa aanannov CKJlOHe sroro xpeora, COOTBeTCTBYlOmero HblHeIIIHHM Myronscapax. OTCIO)la CT3HOBHTCS! lICHblM, sro OIIHCbIBaeMoe H)(PHCH IIpeCHOBO)(HOe osepo pacnoaaranocs B HH30BbHX ollHoii 113 xpynaux pe«, CTeKalOllIHX C sananuon CTOPOHbl MyrO)(>KapCImX rop. Kapra 1154 r. H306palKaeT Te· ·lIeHHe 3TOil pexa 1I0lJTH B MepH,l\HOHaJlbHOM aanpaaneaaa C MaJlblM

1 1..ITeHHe H83BaHHH 3THX rOpO)lKOB YCJlOBHOe, TaK RaK B' pyxonacax « na

saprax I1.nPHCH ORR nHWYTCSi HeO.llHH8KOBO. B03MOJKHO, apaocxoe "~B HM.erm

nepaof }13 ynoanavrux J(penOCTe~J COOTBeTc,TByeT nepCH1I,CIWMY "IS' --«MeCTO»

(576).

2 B TeRCTe I1,lI,PUCH ynoT~e6JICH TepMHH F - «fiOJlOTHcroe MecTO», A. >Ko· 6ep HeBepHO nepeoen 9TO CJI0BO K8K eosepos.

3, B03MO>KHO, B nepBOHCTOllHHKe MJUt: opat-asane rpyna H.1lPHCH yxaasreazoce, P"CCTOHHHe OT Il"HHoro osepa no Xa3apcKoro· MOpR •• He Xopeaucxoro osepa.

59

YKJlOHOM na cenepo-aanan, rIOXOlKYIO opHeHTau,HIO Ht>leeT Te'leHH€ YHJla, HCTOKH xoroporo nezcar aa YpaJlo-MyrO)(lK3pCKHX ropax. Flo- 6epelKbll 3TOii pexn H3)l3BH3 CJlaBHJlHCb XOpOWHMH BeceHHHMII II .nerHIIMH nacT6111lJ,3Mn. B H3BeCTHOM PYCCKOM reorpadmsecxox n3MllTHIIxe 3nOXH nosnnero Cpe)(HeBeKOBbH rosoparcn: «rIPOT!lB TY3Te6e, Bblwe CY!lrYPJlYKa, asrrexna pexa OHJlb H nana Oans-peka, He nomen )(0 pexu 5IHK, B 3eMJlIO; a na YCTbe Toe peKII aoceus osep Kaparoa, no HllWeMY 4epHble osepa» (2\6, c. 94). Il. 11. PbI'IKOB yxaauaaer, ~TJ YUJI reser B osepo Taar an-Kapaxyns, xoropoe HMeeT B OKPYlKHOCTII II11Tb)leCllT sepcr, B HH30BbllX YUJla 6bl.QO pasepocano MHOlKectBo IIe- 60JlbWHX osep C I{aMbIWOBbIMH 3apOCJlHMH. rIo6epel!{bll 3TH X osep CJIY)!(IIJIH nacT6HIu,aMII )lJlll CI(QTa [{a3aXCKHX PO)lOB, BXO)(HBWHX II COCTas MaJloii Opnu (262; 367).

YHJI repserca ceii'lac B IIIIIPOKHX pa3JI!lBaX, 06pa3YlOIlJ,Hx 1I0JIY3a- 60JIO'lellHble aonoeau (326, c. 63). B H!l30BbllX 3TOii pexn pacnonolKeH Apancop -- onno H3 xpynneaurax osep fIPHK2CIIHIfcKOii HH3MeHHOCTH. Apancop Ht>leeT JlOllaCTHo-no1LKoBo06pa3IlYIO <jJOPMY, BbITllHYTYIO no HallpaBJIeHHIO K BOCTOKY. B nepnon CHJI.bHhIX BeceHHHX naBOII.KOB BO)(a H3 osepa pa3J1HBaeTCll H 3aTOllJIHeT OI{peCTIlOCTH. IlonMa YIIJla 06bl4HO npeapauraercn B uenoxxy nJleCOB )(JIHIlOii B 3 KM H wllplIIloii )10 5-6 KM. Bona B 3THX rtnecax OCOJIOHlleTCSI, HO OCTaeTCH nparonaoa )I.Jlll 6blTOBblX HYlK)],. B cepennne npoumoro CTOJleTHll YHJI 06JIall.aJl66J1bWeH BOII.OHOCIIOCTblO H 06BOII.HSlJI B CBOHX HH30BhllX 311a'lHTeJlbHYIO TeppHTopHIO. Pa3J1HBbI BO)( 3Tol\ pexn nepeztxo JlOCTliraJIIi pacnoxoxenaoa ioro-aanannee rpynnu osep H COeJlIlHlIJIIiCb C YpaJIOM (17, c. 77, 79).

B JlaJlbHefIWeM OIlIIC3HIIH CTpaHbI orY30B YIJlPIiCH C006IlJ,aeTCll. 'ITO Y nO)(HOlKHll' MY3rapCKoro xpeora pacnonoxeau naa He60JIbIIlHX roponxa. K. MHJI,lep, A. /K06ep If C. JI. BOJIIiH '1I1'1'aIOT HX Ha3BaHHH KaK Ilapaana II ,[lapKY (265; 583; 679). OJlHaKO B pyxonacax H aa xapr ax YI)(PHCH ·IIMeIOTCll aapnaursr: .!lapHYx, . .!lappalI)],a, Ilapxv. Paccxasu 06 2JTIIX I{penOCTHx npnaenenu TaK)!(e B CO'lHHeHHlIX YI6H Canna H A6Y-Jl-<I>HJlLI. rIplIMeqaTeJlbHO, 'ITO nepBblii 1-13 "THX roponKOB naauaaerca HMH .!leHJlepa (582, II, c. 315; 617, c. 139).

B «KHTa6 PY)()Kap» rosoparca, 41'0 Ilapanaa JJelKHT K sanaay 01' Ilapxy, a paccrosuae MelKJlY HIIMH COCTaBJliIeT TpM )(Hll nYTH. 06a. rOpOII.-Ka IIpe)(CTaBJI!lIOT C0601f -nenpacrynnsre KpenOCTlI, paCnOJIOlKeHHble B 06JIaCTH C KpaiiIle XOJlO)(HbIM H cypoaux KJlIIMaTOM. B ropax H no Te4eHHlO MeCTHblX pex HMelOTCfl py6UHbI, 611plO3a II )(pyrHe 1I0pO)(bl nparoueunux KaMHel\'. K BOCTOKY 01' r. .!lapKY, ua paCCTOHHIIII'leriapex )(Heii nYTH, HaXOII.H'fCll HCTOKII pexa YIprH3 (2, JI. 109; 3, JI.517).

Caenenaa 0 lleH)(epe H .!lapKY npnsenenu T3KlKe B CO'lHIleIlHllX YI6H Canna H A6Y-Jl-<I>HJlbl'. COrJI3CHO YI6II CaHII.Y, 3TH KpenOCTlI

, B rexcre Hnpuca: j,,J I JU .)-

2 B rexcre I1API{CH ynoaanaiorca cauouaeraue KaMHM <pHPY3a,1I,)K " 6aJIalil Ca. 0 npOlfeX(}'KAeHHI! aTHX Ha3BaHHA: 257; 324; 442.

:~ Ilepsoucrounax H'I CBeAeHtffi, K CO)f(3J1eHltIO, OCTaCTCH ,UMI »ac HeM3nN THbDL

60

pacnoncxcesu B cet!.bMOM IlKJlHMe, H3 aepuianax xpetira ACKapYH'. H6H Cann nmuer, 'ITO C ACKapYHa CTeK3IOT HCTO'lliHI<H. BJlHBaIOIUHeell B pexy ATIIJI (BOJlIy). ::ho OqeHb 60JIbiliall pexa, xoropan rexer no umpore censxroro KJIHM3,Ta (617, c. 139). Cxopee scero non IlMeHeM ACKapYH ckpusaiorca OTPOrH IOlKHoro Ypa.na. K MHJlJlep ycraHOBHJI, 'ITO B cpennesexosoa reorpadnrsecxotr nnreparype cymecrsoBaJIH P33JlH'IHble H31IMeHOBaHHll ,ll,nll Ypa,1bCKOfO xpeor a. O,llHHM H3 TaKHX Ha3BaHHii 6hIJlO ACKaCKa, OTI<Y,ll3, no CJlOBaM lli(PHCH, 6eper csoe nasano pexa ATHJI. Bee 9TO naer B03MOlKHOCTb npennononcurs, 'ITO ACKapYII COOTBeTCTByeT yno~lIlHaeMoii B «KHTa6 Pynxcap» rope ACKacKa (679, IV, c. 89).

AH3.n1l3lIpyeMble CBH),eTe,1bCTBa YI6H CaHi(3 H A6Y-,1-<PH,llbl pacxonsrcs B nexoropsrx neransx C TeKCTOM l/!JtPHCII. B «HY3xaT an\IYIIITaK» rOBopHTCH, 'ITO lleHt!.epa (.UapaHJ(a) H llapl;Y ,1el!<AJlH y nO,llHO)l(H5I MY3rapCI(Qro xpeera. OnHaKO H6H CaH!1 noveuraer 9TH xpertocm H~ aepurnaax ACKapYHCKHX rop. HeCMOTpll na 9TO, cneneHIIH H6H CaH.Qa II A6Y';I-<PJlllbl H'>1C1OT n,ml Hac B3)KHOe 3H34CllHe. Tlpexcne scero OBH nO.QTBeplK,~a1OT YCTaHaSJlJiB3CMYIO na ocnone nauHblX Hnpacn CB1I3b lleH.Qephl H llapKy C IOJI{HbIM YpaJlOM.

PaCCMaTpHBaeMhIC rcorpaqmqeCKHe H3BeCTHH COnepJI{aT T31{l!<e

narepecusre .QOITOJlHeHHSI K TeKcTY H.QPHCH. H6H CaHIl. H A6Y-Jl-<PHJ(a YKa3blBa10T, 'ITO llapKY rrpuuannexcan orY3CI(QMY «uapro», KOTOPblH XpaHHJl snecs <:B01O Ka3HY (617, c. 139; 582, II, c. 291). Orciona orY3!>1 Hana,QBJlH na BYPTacHfo H npyrne cocennae o(JJlaCTH'. Y'Ka3aHlle aa COCe.!I.CTBO orY30B C 6yp racavu, l\aK yBH.!I.IIM lHl)l(C, raioxe csaneTCJlbCTByeT B nom.sy aaurero ·BbIBO.!I.a.

K MlIJl.nep CqHTaeT, lITO D,apaH.!I.a H llapKy 6bIJlH pacnonoxcenu OIWJIO 6blB!lICl'O <jJopTa 9M6HHCKa (679, II, c. 98; IV, c. 88). OJ(HaKo TlOl{06H8}1 JlOI<aJ1Il331(HH srux xpenocrea npornsopeuar TCKCTY H arnacaa Bl{PHCH. n pOTHn 31'01'0 ~lIlellflll rOBopHT raioxe n pnseneunue BbItue CBHl{eTeJ1bCTSa H6H CaH.Qa H A6y-.n-<PH)(bl. Ha xapre 1154 r. llap anaa H llapKy noucmeau 6Jll\3 MY3rapclwI'o xpetira. Bonee n03nHHe arnacu JIOKaJlll3Y1OT 06a roponxa npsxo na nepumnax 3TIlX rop (2, JI. 108; 3, .,.514). llapKY na nepeonavansaoi« aTJ1aCe Hl{PHCll noxreuren 6Jm3 sepxom.es 60JlbWoii pexn, asrrexaioutea Il3 MY3rapclw- 1'0 xpeora. IOro·3ana.Qllce nofl xpenocru THHYTCH ropu, cooTBeTcTBYioume no caoeay reorpa<jJwlecKoMY nOJlO)!(eHHlO eOBpeMeHHbBl .'Vlyrol{lKapaM. KpenocreTlapanna pacnonoscena !( BOCTOI<y OT O.llHO· IIMeHHofl pexa, 6epymeii HaqaJlO na My3rape. Ilapaana, HJlI1 lleH.Qepa, nO-BH.QHMOMY, neacana r.!I.e-TO OKOJlO 101l<Horo Ypana, BOCT04Hee p~lm

I A6y-JHl>H.a.a yr eepacaaer. -rro llapl~Y (JJ.apMY) Jle}l{aJ1 ua rope Kapuauiia. U OIJJIaCTH. HMeIOw.eii KOOp.a.UH3TbI 900 nonrotta H 50° WHPOTbJ (582, II, c. 291). O,,1.[UI- 1(0 STU I'eorpaqHTlleCKUe xoopnanaru pacxonarcn C ,,1,3HHbIMli MOil CaHJJ;3 (617, c. 1:11); 654, c. 12).

2 H6ff Cann II A6Y·JI·Q>H.D,a yrsep;'I,J,(:I10T T.1101,c, -n o Ileauepa HB.rm.naCb peas :teHUHeD H MeCTOM Xp3HCI-IHfl K33HbI euaps» 6ypTaCOB. O,lJ,HaKO 3TO CBH.1leTCJ1bC rue HaXOttHTcfI B nporaaopevau C TCI{CTOIlI l-'lU;PI1CH, nOMeJl~aJ01U,HM .n.aHIIYIO xpcnoc rb B .crpane m-ysna.

til

YpaJl. fOPOIlOK .llapKY, BepOliTHO, HaXOIlHJlC!! MelKllY CeBepO-BOCTO'l'- 1I0H oxpaaaoa MyrolllKap H IOlKHblM YPaJIOM.

B «HY3xaT aJl-MYillTaK» roBOPHTCH, 'ITO K cenepy 01-

,,!:::H~:a;;- Xa3apCKOrO MOP!! T!!HyTCH ropu, HMelOlIIHe 1jJ0PMY

apa6CKOH 6YKBbl «HYH». OKOJlO ,>TOrO H30rHYTOrO' nOJIYKOJIbUOM xpeora HMeeTCH 60JIbillOe 03epO. Ilouepescse osepa CJlylKHT nacT6HlIIeM IlJlll CKOTa KO'IeBblX nJleMeH TlOpOK. 03epO HMeeT . CTOK no nanpaanenmo K tory, ero nonsr 1l0CTHralOT npOTOKa pexn Llapaunu.

K. MHJIJIep orxeaaer, 'ITO na orneasuax aTJIaCaX Hapnca sepXOBbH .llapaHllbl Ha'lHHaIOTCli B YpaJlbCKHX ropax (679, IV, c. 153). Hecuorpa na 3TO, OH OTOlKlleCTBJlHeT .llapaHIlY .c renepeuraen .9M60ii. OIlHaKo HCTOKH .9M6b1 JlemaT He B YpaJlbCKHX ropax, a na aanamrax CKJlOHaX Myronscap . .llapaHlla no TeKCTY H ar.nacau IbpHCH COOTBeTcrsyer He .9M6e, a peke YpaJI. Kapra 1154 r. orxexaer, 'ITO 3Ta pexa 6epeT csoe Ha'laJIO B MY3rapCKHX xpeorax . .llapaHlla HMeeT MeaHIlHpyroinee PYCJIO, reser C ceBepO-BOCTOKa aa sanan H nnanaer B KacnHHCKoe Mope. M6H CaHIl B OTJIH'IHe OT MIlPIICH HMeHyeT 3Ty pexy .lleHllepa6 . .9Ta pexa YKa3aHa B reorpatpnxecxoa aTJIaCe M6H Canna aa rpanaue 3eMeJIb 6ypTacoB (654). Crapoe Ha3BaHHe .lleHllepa coXpaHHJlOCb 110 HellaBHHX nope TonOHHMHKe no pexe YpaJl. PYCCKHe 1l0KYMellrbl XVIII B. OTMe'laIOT, aanpnaep, yponmne .lleHllepa aa pexe YpaJl (263, c. 444). AKBIleMHK <PaJIbK C0061IIaeT, 'ITO MHllepCKoe' osepo HMeHyeTcli no-xasaxcsa .llHYllep (155, c. 41 ) ... Bee 3TO rOBopHT o TOM, 'ITO Il apanaa, HJIH .lleHllepa, COOTBeTCTByeT pexe YpaJI.

ACKapy.-ropbI B CBoeM onacanna crpana orysos MIlPHCH ynoun-

THHb-UlaHH naer raioxe ropHblH xpeoer non Ha3BaHHeM ACKa-

PY3'. «.9TO orposmere ropbl,-- narner IbpHCH,- JIeacaume na nyra no nanpaanenmo C iora na ceBepO-BOCTOK. Cnera se OCTaBJllIlOT aepuma 3THX BeJlHKHX, orpOMHhlX rop HH 3HMOH, HH JleTOM_ OKOJlO nOIlHomHH 3THX rop (pacryr) aenpepuaaue neca, B I1HX BOIlHTCH MHoro IlH'lIl» (2, JI. 109; 3, JI. 517).

K. MHJIJIep C'IHTaeT, 'ITO ACKapYH COOTBeTcTByeT oooc06J1eIlHOMY .ropuoxy MaCCHBY YJlYTay, pacnonosceaaoay MemllY Typraex H CaPblCY (679, IV, c. 29). OnHcblBaeMblH MIlPHCH BblCOKHH ropaua xpe- 6eT, OIlHaKO, HHCKOJIbKO He noxox I1a MeJIKOCOllO'lHHK UeHTpaJIbHOrOKa3aXCTaHlI, orxyna 6epeT caoe nanaao pexa Capsrcy. Ka3aXCTaH-CKOH CKJIap;'1aTOH crpaae He COOTBeTCTBYIOT raxsce onncusaexue HIlPHCH oporpadursecxne npH3HaKH ACKapY3a. Ilpeaote acero snecs HeT Be'lHbIX caeros . .!lame caaue BblCOKHe xpeeru xaaaxcrancsoro MeJIKOCOIlO'lHHKa YJIYTay, K3bIJI-Pall H qHHfHcTay He HMelOT nOCTOHHHblX cneroa (326; 327; 443). npOTHB MHeHMlI K. 11. MMJIJlepa rOBopHT H cax a opMeHTaUMH xperira Acxapys. no arnacau MIlPMCH, OTPOfH ACKapY3a Ha'lHHalOTCli nanexo K BOCTOKY OT Xopeaxcxoro osepa. I'ophi THMYTCli C ioro-sanana aa ceaepo-socrox H 1l0CTHralOT crpaaa asmillen (679, 'I. 2). COrJlaCHO arnacy 1154 r., asraum 06HTaJIH K IOro-

I A. )l(06ep npHHRJI "TeHHe Ac<j>apYH, a K. MHJlJlep H C. JI. BOJlHH - ACI,apyH (583, II, c. 339; 679, IV, c. 89; 265, c. 221).

62

BOCTOKY OT Acxapyscxoro xpeora (404). Ll.aHHble paccaarpuaaeaux xapr nepexaaxaiorcs C paccxaaou H6H Hilaca, nOJlb30BaBwerOCIl reorpaqmnecxn« cOtIHHeHHeM HApHCH. B TpYAe sroro anropa rOBOPHTClI, qTO aeMJlH orysoe pacnonoaceau K sanany OT crpanu a3rHWeH (169, n. 252).

npliBeAeHflble cneneuas neaaior HeB03MO)l{HbiM OTOlKAeCTBJle-

HHe Acxapysa C ropaxa Ka3aXCTaHCKoro MeJlKOCOnOqHHKa. STOMV nporanopesar H yxaaaane HAPHCH na TO, qTO ACKapY3CKHe roper AOcrnraaa CTpaHbI asruurejr. TIOPK01l3b1qHblH HapOA aannnea 0611Ta,~ ~B VIII-X BB. OKOJlO .3aiicaHa H K IOfO-3anaAY OT HCCblK-KYJlll (540, c. 14). Pe3H)leHllHeu npasnrena asrnurea cnylKHJl ropon HKa, pacnonaranmnircs B CeMUpeqbe, B AOJlIIHe peror HJln (504; 680). CaM K. MHJlJlep orxeuaer, qTO B TpYAe HAPHCH crpaaa a3f11llleii noaeuteaa Y coepeuenuoro osepa Banxam (679, I, c. 89). Hecxorpn na 9TO, OH OTOlKAeCTBnlleT ACKapY3 C ropHoA uemso Y nYTay B HblHelllHeM UeHTpaJlbHOM Kaaaxcrane.

ACKapY3cKllii xpetier, cyns no TeKcTY H arnacaa HApHeH, COOT" BeTCTByeT BeJIHqeCTBeHHoii aacneaceaaoa ropnon uerm Tsns-Illaaa'. B «HY3xaT an-uyun-ax» OTMeqaeTClI, 'ITO ACKapY3CKHii xpetier npoCTHpaeTClI nyrooopaaao C rora aa ceBepO-BOCTOK. OpHeH'faUHlI 9THX rop na xaprax HAPHCH coananaer C 06l1l,HM aanpasaenaex ctrerosos JlIIHHH T51Hb-IlIaH5l, HAyw:efl c IOrO-BOCTOKa na cenepo-sanan (444, c.78).

B nOJlb3Y Hallleii 1'OqKH 3peHHlI rOBopHT H C006l1l,eHHe HAPPCH 0 «aenpepusmsx» necax ACKapY3a. MoryqHe xpeoru Tsns-Illaaa AeiiCTBH1'eJlbHO noxpuru Bep1'HKaJlbHbIMH noscao-reppacosstaa aapocnsMH, .aecaun H poniaaa. B xpecrax TaJlaCCKOM, KHprH3cKoM, KYHreii, TepCKeii-AJIaTaY paCTYT ena, nHXTbI, TOnOJlIl, IICeHH, aopnxocu, 1I6- JlOHH, apsa,

Jlecnaa paCTHTeJlbHOCTb noxpusaer H CKJlOHb! YraMcKoro, Ilcxexcxoro H qaTKaJlbCKOfO xpetiros. <paYHa JleCOB, POUl H sapocnes Taas-Illans OTJlHQaeTCII 60JlblllUM 'IIlIor006pa3HeM lKHBOTUbIX BHAOB. 13 noaoce XBOHUbIX H JlIICTBeHHb!X JleCOB BOAlI1'CII, aanpnaep, Ka6aHbl, KOCYJlH, MapaJlbI, OJleHH, ropHOCTaH, JlaCKII, KYHHD;bl-6eJlOAywKII. JIeTOM 3.11:eCb 06111'a1OT HHAHHCKHe IIBOJlfH, OBClIHKII, Ay60HOCbl II npyrne noponu nTHU.

Tnasuraacxne JIeca euie HeCKOJIbKO BeKOB TOMY Ha3aA 3aHIIMaJlK rOpa3.11:0 60JIblllYlO nnouians. JIeca 113 rpeusoro opexa, KJleHa, a6- pnxoca, AHKoii 1I6JlOHH B VIII-X BB. cnYCKaJlIICb .11:0 cesepuux oaauCOB <pepraHCKOH AO.~HHbl. H3BeCTHO raioxe, qTO B nocnennae ABa CTOJIe1'lIlI 6blJlH CH.~bHO HCTpe6JleHbi .neca 3aHJlUHCKOro Anaray (347; 436; 443). Bee 9TO 06bllcHHeT np"qlHY YTBep>K.1I:eHHH H!l.pIICII O. TOM, QTO Jleca ACKapY3a HaQHHalOTClI y IIX nOAHOlKHlI.

I Cnenyer 06paTHTb BIUlM8HHe " H3 C3MO H33s3HHe ACK3PV3, B ocaose KOTOpore J1eJKHT «acxap», B COBpeMeHHOM KHprH3CKOM fl3blKe eacxap» HMeeT auasexne «CHerOa3f1 ropa, BblCOqaUWafl ropa» (470, c. 74), a B K333XcKOM - «CK3J1a, BblCOKaH nenocrynnaa ropa» (286). Bropas nacre H3HMeliOB3HHH onacasaexoro Mn.rmen Acxapyscxoro xpenra OCTaeTCH HeHcHofi; B pane TIOPKCKUX Sl3blKOB TepMHl'!-3l\-Ui «03», eaya» 0603H3lf3JOTC1I: ropHble ymeJ1bH H )J,OJl~Hbl (211; 446; 430).

63

B nonsay TO)K,1(eCTBa Acxapyaa C ropaxa THHb-llIaHH CBII,1(eTeJIbCTBYIOT H npyrae cjJaKTbl, HMelOlUlICCH B pnne HCTOqHHKOB. Hnrepecnae CBe)leHlIf1 0 xpefire Acxapys CO;leplKaTCH B «Feorparpun» 116H CaH,1(a. COrJIaCHO .nennnrpahcxouy ClJllCKY 3TOro CO'IHHeHHH, ACKOPY3 - BblCO.1(351 II ;'.;lHHII351 ropuas uern-. IO)Kllee 3TOrO xpeora. nOKpbITOrO nesHblMH cnerauu, TllHeTClI aalUHTHblH BaJI Kanac'. CTeHa 6bIJIa coopy»cena Mycy.nbMaHaMH npOTHB Ha6erOB TIOPOK-Jl3bJ1lHHKOB (170, .n. 19). B nevaruox 1I3;\3HHH TpY,Qa H6H CaH,1(a ;l06aBJIeII0, qTO 3Ta 060poHIITeJIbl'la51 CTeHa npocrnpaercs OT Cup-Il apsn ;(0 ropsr non Ha3BaHIIeM Bopora CPa;lJla 1I6H PlaxHH (617, c. 129).

3al!jlITHblii BaJI Ka.rac, 0 J(OTOPOM muuer 11611 Cann, 6bI.n I10CTpOen apaoauu II Keneccxoii crenn II TlIHy.nCH 01' C3HJIbJJ(CKIIX rop ,1(0 TeqeHHH pexn Cblp-napbH (53, c. 9-10; 776, c. 113). OCTaTl<H sroro 060pOmITeJlbHOro coopyacenaa, eosaeneunoro 110 ceeepo-sananasm rpaaauan l-lHpqHKCIWro oasuca, cOXpaHHJIHCb )10 xaurux ,1(Heii (297). KaJIaCCI<HH aan npocrnpaacs 01' ljaTKaJIhCKHX rop ,1(0 Cup-Ilapsa, rite 06HTami paannsnue nnexena TIOPOl( (84, c. 87: 124, c. 57). 113BecTHo TaIGKe, qTO Bopora <Da.uJla H6H PlaxHH (756--808) 6blJIH B03,1(BHrHYTLI B PaIUTe (167, JI. 164; 407, .n. 109).31'0 oooponnrensnoe coopyxceaae npenHTCTBOBaJIO BToplKeHHJ(' TIOPKCKHX n.neMeH B crpanu Hc.n3Ma (583, I, c. 200; 620, II. c. 733).

B CBeTe orueuenuux auure q)aKT0B CTaHOBIITCH OGeBH;lHbIM, qTO ..'\C]<aPY3cKHe ropu JIe)KaJIH K cesepy OT lJaTKaJIbCKOrO xpetira II ceaePO-BOCTOKY 01' cpennero TeqeHHH Cup-Ilapea. K tory 01' sroro xpeora pacnonar anncs 4IIpGHI(CKHii oa3HC, KeJIeCCKaH crern- H KaparerunCKHe ropu. OTclO)1a sscrnyer, GTO non ACK3PY30M, sepurunsr xoroporo OblJIH noxpuru SeqHblMH CHeraMH, nonpaayxeaaerca Taas-Illaus. .naHHblii BbIBO,1( nO)lKpenJI5!e1'ClI II 3HaJIH30M CTapHl1HOrO yseexcxoro anoca «A.nnaMblw». B snoce ynoxnnaerca xpeoer Acxaprar, IWTOPbIH HMeHyeTcH T3KlKe AJIaTarOM (32). fIOCJIe)1Hee HBJIHeTCH CHHOHHMOM A.naTOO - KHprH3CKOrO Ha3BaHHH rop Tsns-Illaaa (470).

TepMHHaMII «aJI31'ar», «ana'ray», «aJIaTOO» y TIOPKOH3bIqHblX naPO)lOB Cpennen A3HH 0603HaqaIOTCH ropu C «seqHblM CHelKHblM noKPOBOM HJIII BepTIIK3JIbHOH nOllCHOCTbIO» (287, c. 24). Oopauraer HB ce6H BHHMaHlIe, qTO BO scex aHaJIH3HpyeMbIx HCTO'IHHKaX ACKapY3 1i306palKeH KaK ropHblH xpeoer, nOKpblTblH Be'IHbIM CHerOM. B CBH3H c 3TIIM B reorpacjJlIqeCKHX COqHHeHHHX ,1(OMOHrOJIbCKOii nopu ACKapY3 OIlIICbIBaeTCH KaK ropHhlH Kparl C OGeHb XOJIO,1(HbIM KJIIIMaTOM. B «Cysap a.n-3K3JIHM», nanpnxep, rOBopHTCH, GTO xpeoer AClWPY32 nOKpbIT BeqHbIMH CHer3MH. 3,1(eCb BO;lHTCH ,1(HKHe lKHBOTHble, npHBblKIUHe K CHJIbHOMY xo.rony. MecTHbIe lI{11TeJIII 06HTalO1' 3HMOH B resenae ureC1'H MeCHueB B YTenJIeHHblX )lOMax. OHII coopyacaior non CBOIIMH )K1l"~HlUaMH nOMelUeHHH HaiIo,1(06He 6aHb, r,1(e scerzta B cryscy ropnr orom,", Boxpyr ,1(OMOS B03BO,1(HT CTeHbI, npenHTCTBYlOlUlIe BbIXOJ\Y re-

I B PYIWIUiCH HHA AH CCCP~«K<l.lac:», a B reryaacxon H3JJ.aHIH~-·OWH6oIIHO «/\.1130).

2 B PYKonHCH ,nFY H33BaHHe 3TJ1X rop nanacano B <}J0pMe ACKapaH.

3 CpaBHHTe paCCK33 Hcxaxa H6u Xycesua 0 nonscanux J-lm.rIHIUax TIOpOK.

rne om" YKPbW310TtH Q"[ 31UtHHX MOP030B (435, c. 1145).

<64 .

nna aapyxcy. )I(HTe.~H 3TOii OOJlaeTH HMelOT .00JlblllHe crana oa paHOS Ii oseu, 3HMoii MeCTHoe nacenenae nOCTOllHHO nepxorr aa orae OO.iJburae KOTJlbI C aurea H urypnoa. Bnaronapa ropasea nmue OHH cnacaIOTCll OT Mop03a H lKecToKoii CTylKH (402, JI. 54).

Cpenneaexoaue HCTO'lHHKH,· TaKHM 00pa30M, cBlIlleTeJlbCTBYIOT 0 TOlK,I!;eCTBe xpeora ACKapY3 C ropuoa cHcTeMoii Taas-Illaaa. ::ho n03BOJIlleT pacurmpposars npyrae H3BeCTHH «KHTa6 PYAlKap" o.cTpaHe ory30s.

If Cornacao lfAPHCII, C aepnnnr ACKaPY3a CTeKaeT pe-

Py3&-peKa y xa PY3a', xoropas Hil.er C SOCTOKa K Xope3MCKOMY

o3epy. Pyaa - OOJlbWall pexa, nporexaiouras aa CBoeM nyTH K ApaasCKOMY MOPIO OKOJlO KPYTblX ropaux xpeOTOS.. :3Ta pexa orxeseaa TaKlKe aa reorpaqiaxecxax xaprax l1i1.pHCH. Ha nepaoaaxansuoa ar.nace I1APIICH B Xopeaacxoe osepo snanaer pexa noa aaaaaaaea PY3a·.

Bnaneaae Py3b1 B Apanscxce Mope OTMe'leHO H B pyxonncsx, KOTOPblMH noassoaanca A. )I(06ep (583, II, c. 338). O)J.HaKo S co(jJHiiCKOM II aeuaarpancxos, cnacxax HeT npaaoro YKa3aHHlI na nrranenae PY3bl B Xopeaacsoe osepo",

no MHeHHIO K. 11. MHJlJlepa, PY3a H,l\eHTHIIHa pexe Capucy (679, IV. c. 88). Oil.HaKO nonoonoe conocraanenae He MOlKeT OblTb npnsaaHO BepHblM. OTOlK.lIeCTBJleHHe PY3bl C Capucy npornaopenar TeKCTY I1i1.PIICH. Bens COrJlaCHO «HY3xaT aJl-MYlllT3K», HCTOKII PY3bI JlelKaT na sepunmax ropnoro xpeora ACKapY3. 3HaIlHT, PY3a CTeK3J1a He C YJlYTay, a c sepmna Taas-Illann, H CIIHTaTb ee aa pexy Capucy HeT HHKaKHX OCIIOBaHHii. PY3a MOlKeT 6b1Tb OTOlKAeCTBJI,eH3' TOJlbKO C peKOR qy, oepYll1eR navano B Tsns-Illaae. I1cTOKH 3TOH pexn HaXOAllTCll na CKJlOHaX Tepcxen-Aaaray ,II 'ulKYMroJlTay - xpecroa C BellHoR cuerosoa JlIIHHeii. Ilocne npopuaa Boaacxoro yuiensa S KYHreR-Anaray pexa BblXOAHT B nOCTeneHHO pacmapsuouryioca ,l\OJlHHy. OKaH'Insaerca qy B rpynne COJlllHblX osep Aum-Kom, II Cavaun-Kons, lie .l\OXOAli AO HH30BHii Cup-Ilapsa.

B reOJlOrHlleCKOM npOWJIOM nparoxoa pexn IiHlKe. COeil.HIIHBllIHCb C Capucy, qy snaaana

qy lIBJllIJlCll Tanac, a B Cup-Ilapsro (17;

1 CeM8HTHK8 ,lJ.3HHOro fH.llPOHHM3 ocraercn )J.JHI Hac HenOHRTHOi,f_ B npeaae-

HpaHCKOM «raoda» 03H3lJ3.'I0 epexa», a cornaacxoe «ruz» HMeJIa 3H31.J.eHHe «rellh» •

• 6e",oTb', cnHTbC"» (500, c. 1495; 510, c. 10)_

2 B H3BeCTHbIX H3M pyxonacsx H HB 3TJI3CaX HJI.PHCH H33B8HHe )laHHOM: pexa nHIDeTCR: PYA, PYAa, PY3aT, Pysax. nOAo6HO A. )l(06epy H C. JI. BORHHY. MbI OPHHHM8eM xreaae Pysa, TaK3H xousekrypa nOJJ,TBep»<,llaeTCR 3TJI3COM 1154 f. (679. I. q. 2).

3 Pyaa no xapre 1154 r. CJIHBaeTCH C xpvnnoa peK0l1, 6epyw.eH H8118JIO HB rope Mysrap. CYll,H no TeKCTY «HY3X3T 3Jl-MymT8K», nOA nOCJJe)J.HeH "MeereR B BHAY HprH3. O.n;H3KO 8 nepeoaanaasaof xapre l1.n;pHCH He npOCr3BJIeHO H83BanHe 3TOH. peKI-L HaAMeHon8HHe pexu, coe annatouieucn C PY30fl, OTCYTCTByeT AD npyrax 3TJl3- cax H.IlPHCH. JIHlllb na OAHOH xapre co<ilHHCKOH PYKonHCH OTMelJeHO COe.llHHeHHe Py3b1: C I1prH30M. Bee MO 38TpY,lJ,HfteT BblHCHeHHe peansaux npeJl.CT8BJleHHH HJl.plf.CH .0 rHJl.POrpaq,HtteCKOH B38HMOCBH3H YK838HHblX pea, n03TOMY B .u.8HHOM CJlY'Iae S3 ocaosy MO>KHO 6paTh .nUWb TeKCT COqHHeHHH H.n.PHCH.

5 aiK. 204

286; 327; 443). n03JJ;Hee pa3J1HBbI HH30Bhes tIy II Capsrcy s ornem.Hble acropasecxae nepaonsr HeO)lHOKpaTHo 1l0CTHraJlH oacceanaCupJlapbH (79; 461; 462). OKOJlO 1898 r. nona H3 osepa Tenexym, so speMli CHJlhHOrO pa3J1HBa npouraa B Cup-Ilapsio, YCTpeMHBIIIHcb DJJ;OJlb 06pbJBa Kapa-Kexup (78, c. 178). Bee 3TO (eCJlH ysec reme roraauraee noasuneaaoe YBJla}KHeHHe KJlHMaTa) npoacnser yxaaaane pyxonacea A. )l(06epa 0 Bna.neHHH PY3b1 B Xopesacxoe osepo.

nepBOHCTOqHHK I-bPHCH, aeposrno, npencrasnnacese pexy tIy npHTOKOM Cup-Jlapsa, c6paCbIBaJOmHM BOJJ;bI B ApaJIbCKOe Mope. Xapaxrepno OTMeTIlTb, 'ITO B «HY3xaT aJl-MYIIITaK» roaopnrcs 0 ana)leHHH B Xopesxcxoe osepo Illaura H Tlapaxa (2, JI. 108; 3, JI. 517). MellolY TeM tIHP'IHK, lIBJIlilOmHilcli npnrosov Cup-Ilapt,a, HHKOr,!l,a He ananan B Apanscxoe .Mope. OTCJO,!I,a BHJJ;HO, 'ITO H,!I,PHCH nonpaayxeaaer non peKaMH, unanaroumxa B Apan H np'HTOKH Cup-Ilapsa, :':ITO n03BOJIlieT YTO'IHHTb CBH,!I,eTeJlbCTBO HJJ;pHCH 0 ananeaaa PY3bI,KOTOpall C'IHTaeTCli npHTOKOM Illaura, B Xopesucxoe osepo,

COrJlaCHO aTJl3CaM H,!I,PHCH, PY3a nocne cnycica C Acxapyscxoro xperira oraoaer cpaBHHTeJlbHO He60JIblllOH ropHblll KPll}K. fOPbI HMeJOT JJ;yro06pa3HYJO <jJOPMY H T5iHYTCli C ioro-aanana na ceBepO-BOCTOK.

Ha aepnmae sroro xpeora YKa3aHa xpenocrs XHiiaM (rl,>. ).

Kapra 1154 f. noxeuraer XHl1aM MelK,!I,Y tWyMlI PYKaBaMH 6e3blMHlI· HOH pexn, BblTeK310meH H3 MY3rapCKHX rop. OJJ;HaKO BOlIpeKH TeKCTY «HY3xaT aJl-MYllIT3K» XHiiaM OTMe'IeH He K BOCTOKY, a K cenepy OT

Xopesacxoro osepa (679, II, It. 2). .

llpyrall xapra HJJ;pHCH 1I0MemaeT XHHaM K lory OT pexa, 6epy· meii HaqaJIO na CKJlOHaX He60JlblllOrO xpeora. Ha3BaHHll pexa II rop aa arnace OTCYTCTBYIOT, K cenepy OT XHiiaMa na 3TOll }Ke xapre yxasana crpana KHMaKOB (679, I, q. 3). Kapra CO<jJHHcKoro CIIHCKa noneutaer XHiiaM K IOro-BOCTOKY OT MeCTa CJlHlIHHH PY3bI II Hpnraa (3, JI. 514). B arnace JleHHHrpa)lCKOll PYKonHcH HCTOKH pexu, 6JIII3 KOTOPOH JlelKHT xpeoer C xpenocrsio XHHaM, Ha'IHHalOTCli na sepunmax MY3rHpCKIIX rot (2, Jl. t08).

B 6arJJ;a)lCKOM li3)l3HHIl xapr HJJ;pliCli PY33 JlOKaJlH30BaHa K ceBepO-BOCTOKY OT pexa, B HII30Bb5lX xoropoa paCnOJIOlKeH r. Xaapar. Kpenocrs XIlHaM OTMe'IeHa nYHCOHOM aa nepumne aaornyroro rcpnoro xpeora. I'eorparpasecxoe nOJlOlKeHHe XIIH3Ma na OJJ;Hoii lI3 9THX xapr cOOTBeTcTByeT araacy 1154 f. OJJ;H3KO na ',!I,pyrou xapre rnnporparpnuecxan cers pexn, 6J1113 KOTOPOH p3CnOJlOlKeH XllflaM, He HMeeT IIHK3Koii CB5I3H C MY3rapCKliM xpe6TOM (404).

Cp3BHHTeJIbHblH anaJIH3 xapr Hnpncn BbHIBJI5IeT OOJlblIIOH paauo- 60H B JlOKaJlH33UliH XHHaMa. 60JIee liaJJ;elKHblM B 3TOM ornonrennn snJIlieTCH TeKCT «HY3xaT 3JI-MYllITaK». no CJlOBaM HJJ;pHCli, PY33 reset C BOCTOK3 aa aanan «1I3HYTPH crpanu rY30B» (3, JI. 517), qTO HMeeT npanuunaaxsao sazcaoe SlIa'IeHHe.

HJJ;pIiCH C0061113~T. 'ITO na 6eperax PY3b1 soaaamaercs ropHblH xpeoer. Ha OilllOH li3 ero nepuran JIelKliT xpenocrs XliiiaM. Kpenocri, pacnonosceaa K cesepv OT PY3bl 113 cxane C KpyThIM nOJJ;'heMOM. XHll-

',66

aM llBJllleTCH l\eHTpOM orvacxax nJIeMeH, HaablBaIOIl\HXCH xa~ilaraMH. CTp3Ha xannaroa 'OTJlHqaeTClI' XOJIOAHblM KJIHMaTOM H J1E;,l~HT .. K' B?CTOKY OT ApaJIqCKOrO MOpR'. no MHeHHIO K MHJlJlepa, XHHaM OI>lJlpacnoaoxcen B paaone rop YJIYTay (679, IV, c. 89).

B HCTOpHqeCKOU JIHTepaType asrcxasaao raxace MHeIlHe,,:ro B HccJle,nyeMoM TeKCTe H,APDCH HMeloTq B BHAY nOCeJIeHHR,paCI'IOJlo' }Kellllble aanepumaax XOJIMOB, .xoropue H33blBaIOTCH '«XHa~»" Hm! no-xaaaxcsa ' «!{HHO» .. (245, JI. 21). Oanaxo S «HY3xaT aJI:.My.I!ITaK»

YIlOMHHaeTCli He XOJIM, a YKpenJIeHHe B, ropHoH MeCTHOCTH'.' ;,.'

OqeSHAHQ, XlIuaM - 3TO apaocxas KaJIbKa TIOpKCKoro ,Hlj.3BaHlI'lI ,n3HHOU 'KpellOCTH, B OYKBaJIbHOM nepesone r""- oaaauaer ,«l!IaTpsr, n3J1aTKM». Haiue npennonoacenae MOlKHO nozncpennrs c;oool1!,eHMeM 116H I1ABca. n pa onacaaan reppnropan HblHeWHero CeMupe1!bg.l1oH l1uacynoMHHaeT OOJIaCTb XHuaM, 06UTaTeJlllMU KOTOPOU 6bIJIH,TI9PKH,

lKHBWHe B urarpax (169, c.248). .. ,,"

, I1Ap'llcH !IHWeT, '1'(0' XIiHaM 6b1JI '«rJIaSHbIM roponov» orY30B-xaHnaroa (583, ii, c. 339). Kpenocrs, no ero CJIOBaM; CJIYlKH.fl,a T3K}f{e y6elKHll\eM BO apexst BHewHeu onaCHOCTH (2, JI. 108; 3, .fl. 517). Bce 3TO ,naeTOCHOBaHHe nauert., qTO nOA Ha3S3HHeM XHuaM nonpaayveaaeTCH KpejIocTb-CTaSK3. CpeAH TIOPKO~MOHrOJIbCRHX IlJIeMeH cpennesexoass no,n06Hble JIarepll'CTaBKH HMeHOBaJlHCb eopno», «OPllY». 3TH Ha3saHHll: npanaranncs raiose K 60JIbWHM, yxpaureaaux aOJlQTOM', cepe6poM,. AparOl\eHHbIMH MaTepHaJIaMH H KOBpaMH urarpaa UX, npa-

BHTeJIeU (668; 706; 770). '

06blqHO TaKHeJIarepll'CTaBKH COCTOllJIH H3, paCCTaBJIeHHblX B~PYrOBYIO BOUJIOQHblX KH6HTOK. B nenrpe CTaBKH, KaK npaBHJIO, rroxeutancs uiarep BOlKAH HJIH rJIaBHOrO npenaonurens (335). «MHororpaHHblu nJIaH 1l0CeJIeHHH, - orxeuaer A. H. Bepmurax, - KaK 6bl BocnpOH3BO.ll5!Il\HU IlJI<!HHPOBKY KO'leBOrO crana, J'lSJI5!eTCll nInH'IHOU '1epTOU oryscxoro nJI3Ha nOCeJIeHHH H HaXOAHT ce6e aHaJIOfHH B roP0)l.Hll\3X rnna JIeBo6epe)KHoro 5Y3YK8, Caapavcxoro ropo.nnuta, Kapaaxa .H npyrnxs (83, c. 86).

CYll\eCTBOBaHBe y orY30B TaKHX yxpenneanax CTaBOK nonraepsc.llaeTC5!.llocTOSepHbIMH HCTOpBQeCKHMH HCTO'lHHKaMH. Onncanne HX HMeeTCll, nanpaaep, B TPY.ll3X I1M~A 3)l.-DHHa Hcrpaxann H H6H an.IllKaY3Hi OrY3cKHe CT3BKH-YKpenJIeHHll XII B. 6bl~H ooaeaeau CTeHaMH H pBaMH, a BHyTPI! HHK nxpyronvio CTOllJlH KH6HT!{H (639).

no CJIOSaM l1,npHCH, xpenocr s XHuaM .nezcana K' ceaepy OT PY3bl.

OTCIO.lla CJIeAyeT, 'ITO OHa 6blJIa paCn0J10lK€H3 no npaayto CTOPOHY pexn '-Iy. 113BecTHe auropa «Hyaxar aJI-MywTaK» 0 XHuaMe nepexnnxaercn C coo611\eHHeM MaKAHcH 0 xpenocrn Opny, CJIYlKHBweH B X B. pe3HAeHl{HeH rypsueacxoro enapa». Bepoarno, XHU3M COOTBeTcTByeT r, 0pAY, KOTOPblU 6blJl" paCnOJIOlKeH B AOJIHHe pexn '-Iy.

I Jl.aHHblH OTpbtBOK HMeeTCR B pYKonHCHX. KOTOPbIMH nOJIb30B3JICH .A. )i(0oep,

HO OR OTCYTCTByeT B cO¢mHCK:OM H JIeHHHrpaJI.CKO'M cnncxax. .

2 e-"'_..JI ~ J,.. .rIJ .,.r.. ...:.. .w. d' ,r""-

5*

67

Kpoue XHH3Ma npa onacanaa «BHYTpeHHHX o(illacTeHl> erpauu orY30B B «HY3X3T all-MYWTaK» ynoMHH81OTCSI raioxe ropoaa Tapas H BapHKeT'. Tapaa npa 3TOM HtJ.PHCH OTHOCHT K 06J1aCTII WaIII. B liIaWCKHH ospyr, TaKHM 06pa30M, HM BKIII04aeTClI OIlHH H3 KpYUllblX rOpO)l.OB TallaCCKOH )1.0IlHH&I .. CBH)l.eTenbCt'BO H)l.PHCIi cornacyercs C )l.allllblMH reorparpos X B., xoropae OTMe4aIOT, 4TO rpaHIIlJ.aOOJlaCTIi liIaw nocraraaa Tapasa (783; 407;670).

Hapaay C Tapa30M, H)l.PHCH npauacnaer K Illaury: If ro.p01l.DapHKeT. MeCTOIIOJlOlKeHHe 3TOro ropona He,lJ.OCTaT04HO lIeHO. O~u cpenHeBeKOB&le asropsr, nOll06HO H,lJ.PHCH, nOMemaIOT BapH'Ke1' '8 lliawCKOH 06J1aCTH (291, JI. 85), a apyrae OTHOClIT ero K HJlaKY (10, n. 36). Bapnxer, eeponrno, cooreercrayer BapKeH.Il.Y (Ilapaeany] ynOMHHaeMOMY B HTIiHepapHH I'eryaa I, KOTOPbl1i cOBepWHJI B 1253 ,1'. nyreweCTBHe H:'J KHJlHKHikKOH' ApMeHHH B MOHronHIO xepes Cpe,lJ.HIOIO A3HIO. I'opon 6&111 pacnoaozcea rne-ro K aanaay OT Tapaaa aa xapallaHHOM nYTH, We,lJ.weM 113 Tanaccxof )J.OJlHHbI K rop_aM.KapaTav(557, c. 179;516, c,226).

COrJIaCHO «HY3xaT 3J1-MYWTaK», BapHKeT pacnonaranca B 4eThlpex )l.lIlIX nyTII OT ropona Ilaxnana'. nOCJle)l.IIIIH SlBJllIJlClI yxpenneaHblM roponoa-xpenocreso", rne HMe.llClI CBOH rnasa (pane). BJl8)J.eTeJlb .llaXJlaHa, pacnonar-aaumf MHOr04HCJleHllblM BOHCKOM, coaepman 4acrue Ha6ern na Tapas 11 BapHKeT. nOBecTBYR 0 nopore H3 .llaXJlaHa B BapHKeT, HJlPHCH cooouraer, 4TO <<01111 IIl10r)J.a \3aKJlIO<laIOT) nepeMHplie H lie (ycTpaHB3IOT) CMYT» (3, JI. 516; 265, c. 222).

B «KliTa6 Pynxcap» OTMe4aeTCR, 4TO nepexon OT Ilaxaaaa K BapHKeTY xenocryneu H3-3a 06H.IlHll neCKOB, cnenyioiuax npyr aa ,!!,pYrOM rop H nJlOXHX nopor (2, JI. 109; 265, c. 222). H}l,PHCH BMeCTe C TeM cooouiaer, 4TO .llaXJl311 6bln pacnoaoxcea K IOro-BocTOKY 01' Te4eHHll PY3bl. Kapra 1154 r. noveutaer .llaxJlali na eepumne HJlII Y nOJlIIOlKllij ropu, JlelKameH K ceaepo-socroxy OT crpauu liI31l1. Ceeepo-nocronnee Ilaxnaua orvevena ropa Pac, 6J1113 xoropon JlOKaJlH30Ballbl 3eMJIll asrmnea (679, I, 4. 2). Araac 1192 r. noxeutaer .llaxnall OKOJlO xperira, sursuyroro n04TH no nanpaaneumo napanaena C BOCTOKa na aanan, no «Cypar an-apn», Ilaxnaa pacnonoxcea I{ cesepO-BoCTOKY OT Illaura. JJ,aXJl311 JlOKaJlH30S311 na 3Toii xapre MelK,!!,y xpe6TaMH 4arpaory3 H Pac, K cesepy 01' xoroporo JlelKHT ropa ACKapY3 (404). CY)J.lI no TeKcTY H araacaa HJlPIICH, Zlaxnan 6blJl paCnOJlO}KeH rne-ro MelKiI,y 3an3iI,HblMH orporaxa Tsns-Illaaa H ropnoro xpecra Kapa-

I B acnonssoaanaex H3M" pYKonHClIX TPYP.3 HAP MeR 9TOT ropon HMeHVeTC.1

...:..If r. ~.r. C. JI. BOJlHH BCJJe.u. 33 A. )l(06epoM 'nrraer H33B3HHe STOfO ro-

pona KaK By6Ker. XOTSI'TYT me oronapaaaerca, qro B JIeHHHrpa)J.CKOM COHeKe liMe-

eTC" aapnaur .:-5:..,,, (265. c. 222)_ .

2 B cnucxax «tIY3xaT an-xyurrax» H na aTJIaCaX l1l'lPHCH Ha3BaHHe sroro ropoJI.a mtWeTCJ( no-paanouy: l\fbl npaaepxaeaeaca 1Jl'eHHR, npeaaoacennoro A. >Ko6e-

POM, K. MHnnepoM H C. Jl. BO.'H"blM. _ . •

3 B PYCCKOM nepesone ztauaoro Mecra 83 rpyna I1.u.PHCH .D.aXJl3H OWH60l(IW Ha3Ba" ropoa (265, c. 222).

68

ray'. Bonee TO'lIJaSl JlOKaJIH3allHSI .I1,aXJIaHa, KaK H Bapaxera, noxa He npel\CTaBJliIeTCSI B03MOlKHOli.

no CJIOBaM l-bPHCH, B nSlTH I\HiIX nyrn OT .I1,aXJlaHa 6blJl pacno.ITOlKeH I'apcnaa': B rpex MHJIRX OT nocneunero JlelKaJlH cepeopanue PYI\HHKK. KY[]Ubl K3 Illaura peryaspuo e31\HJ1H n.I'apouau I\JIR 06MeHD CBOHX roaapoa na nep6JIIOl\OB H 1\06bIBaBIIIeeCH B OKpeCTHOCTllX sroro ropona cepe6po (2, JI. 109; 3, JJ. 518). CorJIaCHO TeKCTY I1J1PKCH, I'ap- 6HaH 6b1JI paCnOJlO)KeH K cesepo-socroxy OT .I1,aXJlaHa. Ha' xapre 1154 r. fap6K8H OTMe'l€H nYHCOHOM OKOJIO nepumau xpeora ACKapY3. Henaaeso OT I'aponana noneuteuu KCTOKIl Pysu Il npyrux pe«, CTe· KaIOIUIlX C 3TlIX rop (404). Bce STO YKa3h1BaeT H8 pacnonoacenae I'ap- 611aHa B Tsns-Illane.

Hcropuuecxne IlCTO'lHIlKH CBlIl\eTeJIbCTBYIOT, 'iTO B IX-Xl BB.

MHorO'lHCJleHHble cepeopaaue PYJlHHKH IlMe.~HCb B TaJlaCCKOM AJI8Tay. KpynHblM ueHTpoM 1\06wiH cepe6pa 6h1JIH B 3TO BpeMH oxpecruocra lIIaJIJllI{If'. lIIaJll\lKH yrronaaaerca npa O[]HCaHHH 06WHPHOU ropaof uernt, Ha'lHHalOIUeiicll MelKl\Y Keurev (lIIaxpHcSl630M) H CaxapxauAOM H 1\0CTHralOIUeil na BOCTOKe AO crpanu KHprIl30B; 3TH TOphi COel\HHHJIHCb C .fiYTTaMOM, orH6aJlH YlIIpycaHY co CTOPOHbl <i>epraHbl H BblXOI\HJIH B CTOPOHY lIIaJll\lKH H Tapasa'. B HX r.ijaBHOM xpetire II CJIHBaIOIUHXCH C HHM ropax iJaXO):lHJIHCb PYI\HHKH H KO[]H, HMelllIIHeCll raroxe Il lliaJl.n;lKH (783; 670). OTCIO):Ia B X B. BWa03HJIH ):I06b1BaB' lIIeeCH snecs cepe6po (680). Illannacu BXOI\HJI B I1cqlHI\ma6cKlIIi oxpyr H JlelKaJl B xerupex <jlapcaxax OT Tapa3a(71, JI. 252;654, c. 4-10). ApXeOJlOrH'ieCKHe. HCCJlel\OllaHHH n03BOJlHJlH YTO'lHilTb, 'ITO lliaJI):IlKH HaXOI\HJlCli na lIIeCTe nOCMeHHSI Canup-Kypraa, y cena KHPOBCK (81; 82). B IX-XI BB. B 06J1aCTH Illannxcn, B TaJlaCCKOM Anaray, npOH3BOi\HJlaCb HHTeHCHBHaSl 1\06bl'la cepe6pa (43; 93) .

.I1,pyroli KpynHoH PYAHoii 06J1aCTbIO, rne .l\06h1BaJlocbcepe6po, HBJlSlJlCSI TaK Ha3bIBaeMblH KYXH CHM. PaCnOJlOlKeH OH 6b1J1Ha' xapaBaHHOM nyrn, lIIe.n;llIeM H3 .l\OJlHflbl Anrpeaa K aepxoasau pexa IIHIlI- 6alIIcaH . .I1,peBHHe PYl\lIHKH cepe6pa 06HapYlKeHbI B.IlO,1beenpHToKOB - JISlIIIKepeKa H Jloaxa. Cepeopsaua PY.IlHHK Illama HHTeHcHBHO <jlYHKUHOHHPOB3J1 B VIII-IX BB., HO B npasaeaae caM3HHAOB KyXH CHM yrparan csoe auaseane. B X-XII BB. OCHOBHble BbJpa60TKII ceperipa B 3TOM paaone 6blJlHHcKYcCTBeHlIo saxoncepanpoaanu (97, c.28-30).

I B «Hysxar 8J1-Mywr8K» ,llaXJl3H ynoMHHaeTCH T8K>Ke npa ornrcanaa crpanu KHM8KOG K:iK OJJ.1fH 83 ax roponoe. Kpenocrs KH~aKOB Jl.aXJl8H ObIna aacenena BOiIH3MH npecnonaranacs B ropuon Mec:rHOCTH OKOJIO osepa c npecnoa BO,lloA. Llaxn3H JIe:m:an ii serupex ,llHHX nYTH OT r.. BeH)J.mapa, Koropbdi B rBOIO OlJepe,ll,b' Obl))' 'y}.(:]JIeH OT Tapasa U8 paCCTOHHH.e ~p"JJ.uaTH urecra .!tHe" "YTH. KHM8ICCKH" ropoa Zlaxaaa, cyaR no TeXCTY H KSpT3M· J1JlP'HCH,He COOTBeTcTByer O.llHOHMeHHoR KpenOC1'l1 BCTpaHe orY30B (583, II, c, 218, 222; 2, ~. 64; 3; JI. 515).

a B -«HY3X3T aJI-MYll!TaK» 3T9 nasaasao naurerca . no-p83HOMY: LJ~~fi

),.,"," ~l..r ~lAr

3 B ncropuxo-reornaqiasecxof narepa'rype "3aB3Hne sroro roponxa 06bltlifO "nHwyT KaK IllCJI)(IKH (llIeJlbIlIKH). MaRIIHC" "\leHyeT oro IllHnillKH • l'Ia"Yl-

llIan)I.>K" F87. XII,c:358).","' ', .. , . , . , ";'

• eM. 0 6YTTaMCK"X ropax: 257; 307; 393; '436; 776.

HCXO/l.lI as npnnenennux ncrcpnxo-reorpaonvecxax .D:aHHbIX, MOlKHO npennoaoaorrs, no I'aptinaa Jle>KaJl B paiione cepe6pllHb!X PY.D:HHKOB 3ana/l.Horo Taas-Illana, B03MO>KHO, B TaJlaCCKOM Anaray. CaMO Ha3BaHHe I'apdnan, nO-BH/l.HMOMY, HMeeT CB1I3b C O.D:HHM H3 Ha3BallllH cepe6pllHOH PY.D:bI. «Cpeaa ero (cepe6pa) Ha3BaHllH,- runner BHPYHH,- ynoxaxaerca H rapa6 (cxpsrroe), 6J1arOll.apR' TOMY, 'ITO OHO CKPb!TO B PYII.HllKax» (16, c. 227).

OrY3cKHe naenena, COrJlaCHO «HY3xaT an-xyurrax»,

I'oprya-c-oaepo 06HTaJlll TaKlKe y oaepa I'oprya, Hnpaca cooomaer,

Baaxaui tITO B I'oprys CTeKaeT OKOJlO .11.Ba.a.uaTH HCTOQHHKOa,

6epYll\HX nasaao na cenepaux CKJlOHaX ACKapY3a. B 3TO >Ke oaepo snanaer OKOJlO nliTIlII.eClITH pexex crop MY3rapal• I'oprys npencrasJllIeT COGOH «neJlH'IaHwee» npeCHOBOII.HOe oaepo, MMelOll\ee serapecra MIIJlb B OKPY>KHOCTH. I( lOry OT I'oprysa B03BbIWaIOTC!I ropu, na CKJlOaax KOTOPbIX HeT HHKaKOH paCTMTeJIbHOCTH (2, JI. 109; 3, JI. 518).

Kparxoe onncasae sroro osepa npHBe.D:eHO TaKlKe B TpYlI.aX H6H Hilaca M H6H XaJl.D:YHa. nOCJle.D:HlIiI orxeuaer, 'ITO I'oprys (615) pacnOJlOlKeH B cesepo-eocrosaoa '1aCTH 1I11Toro HKJlIIMa, B ero Ce.D:bMOM OT.D:eJle, OH C006ll\aeT, 'ITO B 3TO osepo nnaaaer C cenepa GeC'IIICJleHHoe MHO>KeCTBO pes, CTeKalOll\HX crop Mprap (614; 615; 655); CorJlaCHO eHaurr aa-axsap», B crpaue orY30B rlMeeTClI GOJlbWOe oaepo 1I0,ll; Ha3BaHHeM I'oprys. C IOlKHOil· CTOPOHb! OT Hero pacnoaoaceaa ropa;. He IIMelOll\aR paCTIITeJlbHOCTH. H6H Hilac orxexaer, 'ITO aa 9TOM rope JlelKHT GOJlbWall spencers I'oprys, naamaa HMlI ynoaanyrouy osepy. HGH Hliac. no cpaBHeHHIO C H.D:PMCH 1I.0GaBJllIeT, 'ITO H3 .noil xpenocra 6b!JI PO.D:OM oryscxan uieax lIIHxaG a.n:-.llHH

(169, JI. 252). . .

. Osepo I'oprys, no MHeHHIO I(. H. MHJlJlepa, coorsercrayerHpruay HJlM >Ke lleJlKapy (679, IV, c. 89). 3.D:eCb OH onnpaerca na OWIIGO'lHoe OTO>K.D:eCTBJleHHe Acxapysa cropaxa YJlYT3Y. TeKcT H.D:PMCII He naer OCHOBaHllil .D:JllI conOCTaBJleHHlI Topryaa C 03epOM lleJlKap-TeHfH3. ABTOp «HY3xaT an-xyurrax» orxexaer, 'ITO Fcprya - orpoxnoe npecHOBO.D:1l0e osepo. H.D:pnCH cooeuiaer, 'ITO nnonians BO.D:1l0rO aepKaJIa I'opryaa GOJlbWe, 'IeM y Apanscxoro jrops. Henapou s «HY3- xar an-ayurrax» I'oprya aasaaa «seJlH'IailwIIM osepox, !lSJllllOll\UMCR OKeaHOM» (3, JI. 518).

B UCTOpU'IeCKlle apeaena lJ:eJlKap- Tenrns JluGo npyroe xpynnoe osepo Llearpansuoro IIJIH 3ana.D:HorO Kaaaxcrana HHKOr.D:a He .D:OCTHrana CTOJlb OrpOMHb!X paaxepoa. npOTIlB MHeHHlI K. H. MHJlJlepa 1'0- aopnr T3KlKe YKa3aHHe TeKCTa H.D:PMCH 0 CTOKe B Toprya MHOrO'lHCJleHHbIX BO.D:OTOKOB C cesepaax CKJlOHOB ACKapyaa. Ilpasna, B «HY3- xar aJI-MYWTaK» roaoparca H 0 Bna.D:eHHH B 9TO osepo nH'I:lI.D:eC!lTIl IICTO'lHHKOB, tiepymax aaxaao na rope My3rap (Myprap). O.D:llaKO peus B .D:aHHOM cnysae lI.D:eT He 0 IO>KHOM YpaJle HJlH see MyrOJllKa-

I B PYKonHCHX H aa KapT8X M.a.PHCH H8SS3Hne ,lJ;8HHOrO xpe6T8 naurerca B paanHqHblK <jJopMax: Mapra, MprHp. Mpr~, Mprall, MY3rap. H6H Xa.1AYH HMeHyer 3TH ropa Prap, Mprap.

70

pax. reKCT HAPHCH He naer HHKaKHX OCHOBaHHii AJl5I nO)l.06HOrO OTOlK)l.eCTBJleHHlI' •

CY)l.lI no TeKCTY «HY3xaT aJl-MYIllTaK», nOA I'oprysox nonpasyMeBaeTCli osepo Banxanr. B nOJlb3Y sroro rOBopHT H yxaaanne o.ll.Hoii H3 aHrJlHiicKHX xapr aosoro BpeMeHH. A. )K06ep orxexaer, 'ITO aa 3Ty KapTY aaneceao oaepo Xoproc, neacautee K BOCTOKY OT ApaJlbCKOrO MOpli. Feorpaqmsecxae KOOPAHHaTbI MeCTHOCTH COCTaBJl5IIOT 46°51' IlIHPOTbl H 75° AOJlrOTbI OT I'panaasa (583, II, c. 41). Ha3BaHlIe Xoproc cOXpaHHJlOCb AO CIIX nop B ranponaaaxe 6acceiilla oaepa Banxarn, 01(HH 113 npHTOKOB pexn i1J1H, HM~HyeMblii XoprOCOM, crexaer C xpeoTOB BHlKHHTay H Bopoxopo. XoprOCOM H33blBaJlC5I H cpeaneeexoeun ropon MMaJlbIK, JlelKaBIliHii B )l.OJlHHe pexa i1J1H (252, c. 87; 250, c. 41-56).

01(HHM H3 BaJKHblX aprYMeHTOB B nOJlb3Y TOJKAeCTBa Baaxaina C I'opryaou 51BJl5IeTC5I YKa3aHHe i1)l.PIlCH aa orpoaaue pasxepu U npeCHOBO)l.HOCTb osepa. Banxaur )l.eiiCTBUTeJlbHO 51BJl5IeTC5I nO'lTH YHHKaJlbHblM B YCJlOBU5IX apu.I.\Hoii 30Hbl 60JlblllHM npeCHOBOAHblM 03e· pOM. «HaJlII'lHe B nycrune TaKoro osepa.c- nauier JI. C. Bepr,- npencrasnaer reorparpnvecsan napanoxc» (78, c. 171). B cpaBHIITeJlbHO HeAaBHeM npouraou Basxaur IIMeJl 3Ha'lHTeJlbHO 60JlblllHii 06'beM BO' AbI, 0 'IeM CBII)1,eTeJlbCTBYIOT CJle1(bl 1(peBHHx osepnax reppac (462; 463; 319; 374).

B 6acceiiH Banxama CTeKalOT C TlIHb- Illans TaKHe xpynaue peKH, KaK i1J1H, Kaparan, AKCY H JIenca. OHH 6epYT aasano aa 3aHJlHiiCKOM Anaray, KYHreii Aaaray, KeTMeHCKOM xperire H .llJKYHrapCKOM Anaray. C ceBepO-BOCTOKa B Banxaur ananaer pexa A5IrY3, HCTOKH «oropoa nexcar na CKJlOHaX 33n3AHoro Taptiararaa. Ha BOCTOKe Tapoararan nepexomrr B BblCOKHii 3aCHelKeHHblH xpeoer Cayp, neplllHHOii xoroporo 5IBJl5IeTC5I MY3Tar (JIeA5IHa5I ropa).

B CBeTe srax tjJH3HKo-reorpaqmtIeCKIIX naunux npOllCH5IeTC!I CBH,ll,eTeJlbCTBO H.zr:PllCH 0 CTOKe B I'oprys peK, HaqHHalO~HXClI B MY3rapCKHX ropax. ABTOp "HY3xaT an-xyurrax», O'leBH)lHO, noapaayaeeaer nOA MY3rapOM Tapoararaa H Cayp, sepmaau KOTOPblX noxpsrrsr narHaMH aesnux CHerOB H JleAHHKOB. TaKHM 06pa30M, B TeKCTe i1.zr:PHCl{ npa onacauna CTpaHbI orY30B tjJHrypHpYIOT naa pa3JlH'IHblX no reorpatjJH'IeCKOMY nOJlOJKeHHIO H oporpaqmn, HO CXO.zr:HbIX no CBoeMY Ha3BaHHIO xperira, OAHH H3 HHX pacnoaoacen na sanane (IOJKHblii YpaJl), a BTOpoii-)I,aJleKO na BOCTOKe (Tapoararas C Caypou). 9TO 06CTO!lTeJlbCTBO He M01KeT CMYTHTb HCCJle.zr:OBaTeJl5l, nOCKOJlbKY HCTOpH'IeCKali

I JIUWb HS nexoropsrx n03J];HHX xaprax HJJ.PHCIf YK333H crox B I'oprys pex as rap,HOH uena, rne HalfHHalOTCH HerOK" Hprnaa. B arnace 1154 r. OTMeqeHO OOJIb· moe osepo, KY.ll3 BJlHB3JOTCH MHorOlJHCJIeHHble pexa C xpeOTOB MY3rap H ACKaPY3 (679~ I, l{. 2). K. COJKaneHHlO, H83B8HHe sroro osepa orcyrcrayer U3 .o.aHHoH xapre, Bo.nee l103Jl.HHe ar JlaChI JIt~HHHrpaJJ.cKoro H coipm:JcISoro cnHeROB nOKa3b1B3IDT snaneuxe B Foprys pex C Acxapysa H MY3rapa (2, JL 108;3, Jl. 515). no «Cypar aa-apn», B 3TO osepo CTeKaIOT HCTOqRHKH nRWb C xpeora ACKapY3 (404). Bee oro KpaliRe 3.· TpYAHH.eT HCnOJIb30B8HHe .n.3HHblX xapr H.a.pKeH 0 MeCTOIIOJIO}fieHHH H rnaporpa<PHR oaepa I'oprys. n03TOMY OCHOBOli AJI~ ReCJIeAooaHRH paccuarpaaaexoro sonpoca JlBJUleTCft TeKcT H.lI.PHCH:

71

reorpadias 3HaeT HeMaJlO npaaepos IllHpOKOrO paCnpOCTpaHeHH>1 aHaJlOrH'lHbIX Ha3BaHIlH )(JlS! TIOPKCKOIi TOnOHHMHKH Cpennea A3HH (287).

Ilansaemuee onncanne Foprysa B «HY3xaT an-xyurraxs TaK)I(e CBH)(eTeJlLCTByeT 0 npaBHJlbHOCTIl ero OTO)l()(eCTBJleHHS! C Banxaurev. COrJlaCHO I1J\PHCM, na rroriepescse I'opryaa 6blJlO pasopocano MHO)l(e· CTBO nacremn H 3a.QHBHbIX nyros. no IO)I(HOMY 6epery Banxaura ,neilCTBIlTeJlbHO THHeTCH WHPOKaH noaoca sucosax n rycrux KaMblWOBblX aapocnea. B Hn30BbHX l1J1n MHoro rpocraaxos, OCOK03J1aKOBLlX II pasHOTpaBHLlX J1yrOB. neJlLTa 3Toli pexa aanaana CJlaBHJlaCb CBOIlMII OTJlH'lHLIMn oceHHHMH H aHMHHMH nacrtiatuaau (443; 444). <l>H3H'lecKoli reorpacan Ilpaeanxaun.s cooraercrnyer raioxe onacanne H)(pnCH, H6H I1liacoM H 116H XaJl)(YHoM KaMeHHCTbIX rop K tory OT osepa I'oprys, K roro-aanany OT Banxaura HaQIlHalOTCH B03BblweHHocTH, nepexoasume B 4y-HJlHilcKHe ropu, Kpai\HfIfi 6eJ\HocTb <jJJlOPbl 3TIIX rop pesxo OTJlH'I aer HX OT xpe6TOB UeHTpaJlbHOrO Tans-Illana. CKJlOHbl 4y·HJlHHCKUX rop JlUllJeHbI JleCOB H JIHWb aecuoa noxpstaatorcs 9<jJeMepHoil nYCTbIHHO'CTenHoii paCTIlTeJlbHOCTblO (112, c. 57,83).

I'eorpadmsecxne caeaenaa, npaseneuaue B rpyne }bpHCIl II npvrax cpenneeexosux asropoa, n03BOJlHIOT C[!CJlaTb BbIEO.'!. 0 TOiKneCTRe I'oprysa C cOBpeMeHlILlM osepoa Banxaur, Kavenacrue ropu, neacaaunre K tory 01' I'oprysa, cooTBeTcTBYIOT 4y·I1J1HiicKnM ropax, OsenanHO, B pailoue 9TIIX rop pacnonarascs I'oprys, npe)(CTaBJllIBWHIi c060ii 60JlbWYlO xpenocrs (2, JI. 108).

Paceeneil.e Conepacarnaecs B «KHTa6 Pynacap» ucropaxo-reo-

orY3CKHX nae- rpadianecxae cseneaan n03BOJIHIOT YCTaHOBHTb

MeH B X B. MaKCHMaJlbHble nnenenu 3eMeJIb orY30B B X B. Orys-

cxne nnexena, CorJlaCHO naIlHbIM Hapucu, 06UTaJlII B crcnuon nonoce HbIHewHeli Cpeaaen A3HH OT IO)I(Horo Ilpaoanxaun.s )(0 HII30BHH BOJlfH. KO'leBbH orY30B 6bIJlII naaopocanu no Hprasy, YpaJlY, 3M6e, YHJlY, no nooepexcsro oaepa Apancop. OrY3b1 HaCeJIlIJiH TaKlKe Ilpnapanse, nOJIIlHY Cup-Ilapsa, npenropsa Cupnapsuacxnx Kaparay, 06HTaJill B )l.OJlHHe 4y, B TaJlaCCKOM Anaray, B HHaOBbliX pexa HJlH. 3)(eCb pacnOJIaraJlHCb orY3cKHe CTaHOBHma Il OTHOCIlTeJ1bHO He60J1b' WHe xpenocrn, CJlYlKHBwHe y6elKHmeM B cayuse onaCHOCTH H lIBJlHBuraeca CTaBKaMH xpynnux BOlK)l.eli.

Pa3YMeeTclI, oryscxae nJleMeHa He Be3)1.e na noli CTOJIb 06WHPHOi\ repparopaa COCTaBJllIJiH OCHOBHYIO Maccy HaCeJIeHMJI. HaM60Jlee KOMnaxrno OHH )l(HJlH B Ilpnapanse, CeBepHOM Ilpuxacmm, B HlllKHeM Te'leHMM Cup-Ilapsn. Orneasaae rpynnu orY30B 061lTaJlM B CeM.IIpe'lbe, rae B X B.cpeJ\H MeCTHoro TlOpKOHabl'lHOrO crenaoro naceneHMH npeorinanana xapnyxa (680; 712). Oryscxae nnexeaa, naceaanWHe 1O}!{Hoe Ilpuriaaxaune Il nooepeacse pexa 4y, 6b1J1M He3aBIICII" MblMH Il IlMeJlH csonx BO)K)l.eii (2, JI. 109; 3, JI. 518).

B X B. BOCTO'lHbIe rpauuuu orY3CKIlX KO'leBHIi H He60JlbWIIX. xpenocrea npOCTHpaJlMCb )1.0 HHlKHero Te'leHM!! pexa HJln. )l(HBWMM. na IOlKHOM no6epelKbe Banxauia oryaau, sepoarao, npaaanaescana xpe-

n

1l0CTb I'oprys. MeCTHble OrYSCKHe IlJIeMeHa HaSbIBaJIHCb XaHf'3KIlIllaMH H OTJIH'I3JIHCb caoea BOHHCTBeHHOCTbIO'.

ApXeOJIOrHqeCKOe H3Y'IeHHe HHSOBbeB HJIH, )(OJIIIHbI Kaparana H 1(OKCY rrOKa3aJIO, 'ITO anecs B VIII-X BB. HMeJIHCb ropona OCeJl,JIOro H nonyocenaoro THnOB. OCHOBHaH Macca lKHTeJIei'! STHX OOCeJIeHHiI COCTOHJIa H3 TIOpOK. B STOM pajlone 06HTaJIH TaKlKe xoseaue TIOpKH, OCT3BHBIIIHe MIlOrOl(HCJIeHIible xypraumre norpeeeaus (247; 250).

O'leBH)(HO, BOCTO'lHali rpynna orY30B, naauaaexux H)J.PHCH xanraxnurasm, OOHCblBaeTCH B «Ilepeoa 3aOHCKe» -A6y .II.YJIatjJa. B OOJIbsy )(aHHOrO npe)(rrOJIOlKeHHH rOBopHT TOT <!>aKT, 'ITO OH noxetuaer orY30B sa MaBepaHHaxpOM na OyTH B Kuraf): 3TH orysu lKHJIH MelK)(Y KHMaKaMH, 06HTaBllIUMH aa repparopna nuneumero Kasaxcraua, H TOKY3-rY3aMH, HaCeJIilBllIHMH BOCTO'lHbli'! TYPKeCTau'. npHBJIeKaeT BHHMaHHe H C0061IleHHe A6y .II.YJIaq,a 0 TOM, 'ITO 9TH oryau BeJIH TOprOBJIIO C I(HTaeM H HH)(Hei'! (723, c. 21). B «nepBoii 3aIlHCKe» OTMexaerca TaKlKe cyuiecrsoaanae Y HHX ropona, B KOTOPOM HMe.~ClI xpax, HO 6e3 H)(OJIOB. I'opon lIBJIHJICli cranxoa MeCTHoro oryscxoro euapas, KOTOPblii B3HMaJI HaJIOfU (xapansc) co CBOIIX I10)()(aHHblX. A6y .II.YJIaq, orxeuaer, 'ITO B 3TOM ropone-craaxe IIMeJIHCb nocrpcaxn 113 KaMHH, nepeaa H· KaMblllIa'. Paccxarpnaaevue )(eTaJIH HSBeCTUli A6y .II.yJIatjJa HJI.~IOCTPHPYIOTCli cpaBHHTeJIbHblM apXeOJIOrH'IeCKHM MaTepHaJIOM C repparopaa Kaaaxcraaa H I(HprH3HH. B 9TOM CTHO" llIeHHH secsaa aarepecnsr KHMaKO-Kbln'laKCKHe roponmua, oonapylKeHHble B Ll.eHTpaJIbHOM !\a3aXCTaHe. Hexorna MaCCHBHble,CTeHbl 3THX YKperrJIeHMi'! CJIOlKeHbI H3 xapnaxa-csrpua, nepaa H xaxsmrossrx CB1I30K . .II.JIli rrpO'lHOCTM cren BHyTpM KJIa)(KH BepTHKaJIbHO nOJIOlKeHbl cnnereaaue Pll)(bI. sucoxoro KaMblllla, CJIYlKHBllIero, BepOliTHO, He TOJlbKO CB1I3bIO, HO H 060pOHHTeJlbHoii crenoa (251, c. 38). TaKH€ YKpenJIeHHH HMeJlH pOB llIHPHHOi'! )(0 nsyx H 60Jlee MeTpoB, HaOOJlHeHHbli'! Bo)(oil. BaYTpH nOCeJleHHH: pacnonaranucs orxpursre OJlOlIla)(KH, r)(e noaeuranscs roprsr H nananor. Boaee passarua THO 00)(06HOrO poaa YKpeo.qeHHil npeacraanea B 061IleM KOMnJleKCe ropomnn npasooepeacnoro Tanaca. npH6J1H3HTeJlbHO B 45 KM K cesepo-aocroxy or .II.lKaM6YJla JlelKHT 60JlblllOe yxpennenne TIOilMaKeHT, C MOIIlHblMII rJlHH06HTHblMH CTeHaMH. BHYTpeHHlIH '1aCTb roponmna npencrasnser cooon OTKPblTYIO nnomamcy, CJlYlKHBllIYIO MeCTOM )(JIli YCTaHOBJIeHHH pas- 60PHblX lKHJlHIll. OOllcblBaeMb[ii ran noceaenua B pane cpenaesexoaux llCTO'lHHKOB H33b1BaeTCli exypa». B 3THX roponax-craaxax H",eJlHCb orpanu, cneaannue U3 xaxsnnoaax CB1I30K (245; 246; 251). Ilpnse)(eHHblil apxecnorauecxaa lIIaTepHaJl nonxpennaer paccaarpasaeaoe CBH)l,eTeJlbCTBO A6y.II.YJla<jJa.

B X B. O)(Ha ll3 rpynn oryacxnx nJIeMeH xoxeaana B )(OJlHHe pexn 4y I! Il TaJlaCCKOM Anaray. H)l,pHCI! HaSbIBaeT orY30B 4yiicKOil· )(OMl-

I I1a «aprax H)l.PHCH OU" IiMeHYIOTCR raxace X3Hra·rY33MH, a ax crpaua ua- 3b'B.eTC" X.MraKeT (2, .0. 108; 3, A. ~15; 679, I, c. 98).

2 C.!. nonpoosec 0 crpaue KHMaKOB H TOKY3·rY3os: 680; 684; 723; 736.

a 3TO cooouiesne, aaHMCTBOB3HHOe U3 «nepBoH 3anHCI{U», npUBe,D.eHO Tq.)OKC B COq"HeHHax 3aKapHH K.3BUHH (795, II, c. 395) "HaKYTa (787, XlIl"p.·~12l.,

73

HbI xaanaraua (583, II, c. 414). 3TH OrY3CKHe nnexeaa OTJIH'IaJIHCb csoea xpa6pOCTblO H He3aBHCHMOCTblO. [JIaBHOii peanneauuea HX npe)l.BO)l.HTeJIeit 6bIJIa xpenocrs XHiiaM, JIelKaBWa!! aa IIpaBOM 6epery pexn 4y. B «HY3xaT aJI-MYIIlTaK» rOBopHTCH, 'ITO oryau-xaanarn COBepIIlaJIH nOCTO!!HHble aacera aa CMpilaKH ( """..... )'. Oopatnaer ua ce6!! BHHMaHHe, 'ITO 3TH IIJIeMeHa HaCeJI!!JII1 «BHYTpeHHHe» 06JIaCTfI 3eMeJIb orY30B (3, JI. 517).

B X B. rpyllllol orY30B HaCeJI!!JIH TaKlKe cpennee reseaue ChIPZlapsa H npenropss Csrpnapsaacxax Kaparay. YKpenJIeHHOH CTaBKoil O)l.HOrO H3 HX «paHCOB», BepO!!THO, CJIYlKHJI ropon llaXJIaH. B «HY3xaT aJI-MYIIITaK» rOBOpHTC!!, 'ITO OH HMeJI 60JIbIIlOe BoiicKO H COBepIIlaJI rpa6HTeJIbCKHe aaoera aa ropon Tapas. BOHHhi CMeHlIJIHCb MHpHblMH neperoaopaxa H TOprOBJIeit C conpenensauxa 06JIaCTHMH. MYCYJIbMaHCKHe xynnst H3 Ilranra npH6bIBaJIH CIO)l.a )l.JI!! noxynxa CKOTa, rJI3BHbIM 06pa30M, Bep6JIIOl\OB. OlleBHl\HO, xepes 3TO oryscxoe BJI3)(eHHe ToprOBuhl Masepaauaxpa BhlB03HJIH cepe6po H3 PYl\HHKOB I'aptiaana (2, JI. 109; 3, JI. 518).

Cnenyer OTMeTHTb, 'ITO paCCeJIeHHe orY30B aa cpenaex Te'leHHH Cup-Ilapsn 1I0l\TBeplK)(aeTC!l H )(pymMH apa60H3bI'IHblMlI HCTO'lHHKaMH X B. B COllHHeHHH H6H Xayxana rOBopHTClI, liTO orysu lKHJIH no KpaHM nYCTbIHH, rne pexa Illanr nepecexana rpaunuy Caepaua (783. c. 392, 393). Hnrepecaae CBe)(eHH!! 0 paCCeJIeHHH orY30B B 3THX CbIPnapsaucxax 06JIaCT!!X CO)(eplK3TCH B nepCH)(CKOH sepcan rpyna Heraxpa, «Korna (pexa 4a'l),- rOBOpHTC!! B 3TOM HCTO'lHHKe,- npoXO)lHT npeneau Catipana, TO na STOH pexe (B MeCTHOCTH) llapYHe uaXO)(!!TCH lKlIJIHIua rY30B» (406, JI. 145; 407, JI. 113; 670, c. 265).

Caopan, KaK H3BeCTHO, pacnonaraacn na npason 6epery CbIPIlapsn, OKOJIO paa'sesna, Y CT3HlIMH Caypan, Ii 48 KM K aanany OT 1'0- poaa TYPKeCTaHa (201; 234). MaK)(HCH xapaxrepnsyer Catipan KaI{ 60JIblllYlO xpenocrs, oKpYlKeHHYIO ceMbIO BaJIaMH. I'opoa lIBJIHJIClI no· rpaHH'IHbIM YKpenJIeHHeM IIpOTHB COCe)(HHX nJIeMeH orY30B n KHMaKOB (265, c. 185; 555, c. 274). 3TO erne pas cBH,n;eTeJIbCTByeT 0 paCCeJIeHHH orY30B aa cpenaex Te'leHHH pexu Cup-Il apsn.

Ilannue apa60H3bI'IHbIX reorpaipos X B .. n03BOJIHIOT YCTanOBHTb, 'ITO orY-3CKHe KO'leDbH 3aXO)(H.1H H aa JIeBbiit 6eper Cup-Ilapsa. B IIOJIb3Y sroro MHeHHlI rOBopHT TeKCT HCTaxpH, KOTOPbIH nHIIIeT, 'ITO ropon CIOTKeHT HBJIHJIC!! norpauasaux py6elKoM Masepaaaaxpa C KOlIeBbHMH TlOpoK-orY30B (265, c. 184).

CpaBHHTeJIbHO nonroe apexs B HCTOpH'IeCKOfi mrreparype C'IHTaJIOCb, 'ITO OCTaTKII CIOTKeHTa paCnOJIOlKeHbI sa JIeBOM 6epery CbIPllapbH, 6JIH3 osepa KapaKYJIb (61; 201; 371). O)(HaKO CIIJIOllJHOe apxeOJIOm'leCKOe H3Y'leHHe IOlKHoro Kasaxcraaa BbI!lBHJIO HaJIH'IHe nayx roponaur CIOTKeHTa. Ilepsoe H3 HHX JIelKHT B ypoxauie KapaKyJIb, npH6JIH3HTeJIbfIO B 2 KM' OT nsmeruaero pycna Cup-Ilapsu. Bropoe roponmue, Y.ll.aJIeHHOe OT nepsoro na paccrosaae OKOJIO

I Ha3BB,HUe sroro noceaeaas UJln MeCTHOCTH, BepOSlTHO, HCKaJKeHO B pyxonHCJUt. cOIIHHeHl1f1 HApneR. T01.JHoe pacnoaoaceane CMpil:aKH ,!lJlH Hac ocraerca He-

H3BeCTHLIM.

74

2 KM, HaXO,lJ,UTCfl aa repparopna seaens coexosa CIOTKeHT. rOpO,lJ,Hute CIOTKeHT I, no apxeoxoruuecxax ,lJ,aHHbIM, npexparnao csoe cyll(eCTBOBaHHe B XV-XVI BB. (2~, c. 119, 120).

, B X-XII BB. CIOTKeHT BXO)l.IIJ1 B COCTaB C!>apa6cKOro oxpyra H 6blJl CB1I3aH C nacT6Hll(Hb1M CKOTOBO)l.CTBOM, HMeBlllHM 60JlbIllOe pasBHTHe B Keneccxoa CTenH (250, c. 70, 73). C!>apa6cKHfi oxpyr', pacnonaranca no 06eHM' croponax pexa Cblp-gapbH, IIpH Bn3.'l.eHHH B nee APblCH (28; 61). CaM ropon C!>apa6 COOTBeTCTByeT HblHeIllHHM pasaaJlHHaM Orpapa, lIaXO,lJ,lIll(HMClI 6J1HS CTaHl\HH THMYP, na npasoa 6e-

pery Cup-Ilapsa (201; 237). "

fpynna oryacxax nneven 06HTaJia B cupnapsascxax 06J1aCTHX Me)KIlY C!>apa60M H KeH,lJ,)I(,lJ,exOM (583, II, c. 208). 06JlaCTb KeHJ\)I(nex (HJHI KeH!1.)KH,ll.e) naxonnnacs ua cpennea Te'leHHH ApbICH. r,13BHblM ropOAOM 06J1aCTH 6blJl Cy6aHHKeT, paaaanaaa xoroporo COOTBeTCTBYIOT ropomnny )i\YBaH-Tene (27; 28; 250). Apxeo.ronorecsoe 06CJ1e,lJ,OBaHHe KeHII1KH,lJ,e nOKaSaJlO, 'ITO B X B. anecs 06UTaJiH xoseaue H nonyocennsre nnexeaa TIOPOK (27. c. 57). B nOCeJleHHlIX cpenHero rexeaaa Csrp-Ilapsn, KpOMe roro, HaiilleHa xepavaxa, OTHOClIutaacs K KapJlYKo-orY3CKOMY THny (83, c. 87; 28, c. 69). Cosoxynaocri, scex 3TIIX CBe)l.eHHii n03BOJISieT C'IHTaTb, 'ITO B 'IHCJle TlOpKO- 1I3b1'1HOrO HaCeJleHIIlI nanaoro panona HMeJlHCb H orY3CKHe nneaeaa.

PaCCMOTpeHHble nsnue ncropnso-reorparpaaecxne .MaTepllaJlbl

nator B03MO)l(HOCTb JlOKaJlllSOBaTb KO'leBbll 3TH X orYSOB npH6J1HSHTeJlbHO 01' IO)I(HblX npenropun Kaparay, Boreaa, 4allHa H APblCH 110 npenenos '-IHMKeHTa. B IO)I(HOM uanpaeneunn KO'leBbll H CTOllHKH ory-

• 30B, BepOllTHO, 6blJlH paaopocaau OT Illaynsaepa" 110 BOCTO'lHOii OKOHe'lllOCTH neCKOB AJiKaKOJlb-KYM. OrY3CKlIe nJleMeHa 0611TaJiH TaK)I(e B npacupnapsnucxax panoaax Fononnoa crena, na ceaepo-aananHblX rpannuax YCPYIllaHbl (306, c. 34).

B X B. 'IaCTb orY30B )l(HJla TaKlKe B npenenax Ill amcaoa H He!jlH)I,lKa6cKOii oonacreil. Cornacao H6H XaYKaJlY, rpynna orY30B aacenana ropon Bacxeur', KOTOPblH 6bl.~ pacnonoscea B Illauie (787, I, c. 466, 527). Bacxear, KaK YCTaHoBJleHo B pe3YJlbTaTe apxeonoruseCKHX HCCJleJ\OBaHHii, COOTBeTcTByeT uuneumeuy OCKeHTY,· Jle)l(ailleMY B nonaue pexa Aarpen (258, c. 32-65). «3I1ecb,- naurer W6H XayKaJl,- cooapaiorca nneueaa TlOpoK-rY30B H KapJlYKOB, xoropue YlKe 06paTHJlHCb B HCJlaM» (783, c. 391; 265., c. 184). Baxcaoe ,lJ,OnOJIlIeHHe [( 9'WM'y H3B~CTHIO conepacarca B nepcnacxoa sepcua rpyna WCTaxpH.

I Ospyr nOJIYQHJI csoe aasaaaae no "MeUU ropona t1>apa6a. KOTOPb1H 6bIJI ero a,a.M,HHHcrpaTHBHbJM ueHTpOM. B nOCJleA,HeH seraepra X 8., nocne ynanxa r, q,apa6a, ~eHTpOM' SToll 06J1aCTH CTaHOBHTCR Kenep, OTolKAecTBnReMblfi c ropomnnea KyAPYKTene, B 6 KM K cesepy OT pa3B.nHH Orpapa (70. c. 105-110).

2 Bhlnoe pacceaeuae orY3DB B WaYJIb,llepCKOM paaoae nOJl.TBep>K,llaeTCSI rono ..

HUMHKOH HblHemHeii IO>KHopK,a3axcTaHcKoii oonacrn " 3ItHQeCKHMH cKaS3HHHMH ory- 30B (322; 349).

3 B PYCCKOM nepesone sroro orpuaxa BMeCTO BUCKeHT, CTOHUJ.ero B resere

116. Xayxaaa, "p.HRTO ow.6oq.De xreaae Caopau (265. c. 184).

15

ef'opon EHcKeHT', - rOBOpHTCH B 3TOM HCTO'lHHKe, - aacenen ~IHO· lKeCTBOM lKHTeJleH H3 pa3J1H'IHbIX BH)I,OB JlIO)!'eH: (H3) rY30B, KapJlYKOB H npyrnx, KOTOpbIe, CTaB MYCYJlbMaHaMH, HBJlHIOTCH see 60puaMH aa Bepy» (406, c. 144; 670, c. 264). B nepCH)I,CKOH nepcaa CO'lHHeHHH HCTaxpH npa onncanna nYTH OT TYHKeTa _. CTOJlHUbI Illama - K He$H)I,lKa6Y.H Tapasy ynoxanacrca B Kenece pacar AH$apaH H CeneHHe orY30B ( y,. ,",' ). )1opora H3 nOH nepeasa noaopaunsana l{ Hcqm)l,lKa6y H Ea)!,YXKeTY, OT xoroporo B )!,ByX )!,HHX nYTH HaXO)l,H.nCH ropon Tapas. Ha nopore OT Banyxxera )!,o Tapasa He 6blJlO HHKaKHX CeJleHHH H roponos (670, c. 269).

AHaJlH3HpyeMbIe CBeJleHHH fl03BOJlHIOT 3aKJlrq'lHTb, 'ITO B .X B. qaCTb orY30B lKHJla B l\eJleCCKOH CTenH, B JlOJlHHe Aarpena H lIHP'lHxa, B npenropssx lJaTKaJlbCKoro· II YraMCKoro xpe6TOB. OrY3CKHC nneueaa 06HTaJlH snecs anepeueuncy C KapJlYKaMH H JlPYrHMH TIOPKOll3b1qHblMH rpyrmaan (cp. 680, c. 72, 116; 661, I, c. 288). 3TH nneMeHa, rronaepruiaeca HCJlaMH3aUHH, QaCTHQHO OCMH B roponax H ceasCKHX nOCeJleHIHIX IIIawcKoH H Hc$H)!'lKa6cKoii 06J1aCTeM.

OrY3CKHe naeveaa 06HTaJlH He TOJlbKO na cpennea, HO H aa JlHlKHeM Te'leHHH pexn Cup-Ilapsn. 3)!'eCb pacnonaranacs npanannescaelime HM ropona )1lKeHA, 51HrHKeHT H Xopa (450; 611; 680). CpenneBeKoBblii lllKeH,ll cooTBeTCTByeT pa3BaJlHHaM lllKaH·KaJlbl B HHJKHeM Te'leHHH Cup-Ilaps« (421; cp. 189). PYHI1b1 51l1rHKel1Ta nOA naaaaHHeM lllKal1KeHT nexcar na JleBOM 6epery Csrp-Ilapsa, K iory OT Ka- 3aJlHHCKa (30; 201; 234). B cepenaae XVIII B. na roponnuie .lllKaHxear euie COXpaHlIJlHCb OCTaTKH KaMeHHblX 6aweH C orpanaaa (233). C penn MeCTHbIX lKHTeJleii 6b1TOBaJla nerenna 0 ru6MH .lllKaHKeHTa OT HaweCTBH'lI 3Meii (30; 308). Touuoe MeCTOnOJlOlKeHHe Xopa noxa neHCHO, HO H3BeCTfIO, 'ITO ropon HaXOAHJlClI 6J1113 y_cTbH pexa CupllapbH (511, C. 51).

OrY3bI rpaHH'IHJIH B X B. C Xopeaaox, M3BepaHllaxpOM H XopaC3HOM. «Bce rpaHIIUbI M3Bepallllaxpa,- nnurer HCTaxpH,- MeCTO BoeHHbIX AeHcTBHH: OT Xopesaa= Jl.0 oxpecraocres Hc$HJl.lKa6a - e TIOpKaMH-rY3aMH, OT Hc<jJHJllKa6a AO oraaaeuaenurux MeCT <lJepraHbI-· C TlOpKaMH·KapJlYKaMH» (265, C. 178). H<;'T3XPll cooouiaer raiose, 'ITO 3eMJlH orY30B )l,OCTHraJlH ua BOCTOKe npenenos Tapa311. OTCIOAa rpaHHUbI orY30B nrna no nyre xepea <lJapa6, EHcKeHT, CaMapKall)l,CKHIl Corn, OKpeCTHOCTH Byxapu H Xopesx Jl.0 ApaJlbCIWrO MOpll (265,

c.I77). .

Ilorpaaaunas C orY3aMH noaoca YKpenJleHHii Xopacana H8lJHHa· aacs y pariara <lJepaBa', me 6blJl pasxeuten BoeHHblii rapHH3011 (265. c. 273; 611, C. 84). Fpaaaua orY30B C lllKYPJl.lKaHoM npoxoaaaa y pa-

I B acnonsaoaaasux HaM" PYKO""C.X (406; 407) 310T ropoa Ha3Ba~ lUaw (4atl). H. A~wap B rercpancxeu H3na!-'IfH npHHflJI KOH'beKTYPY Caripan, '.Ho Mbl. c.'Ie.u.YfI anaaorusnoay rexcry HOH Xayxana, npunaaaea lfTeHHe BHcKeHT' (cp. 703,

C. 269; 74~. I. c. zs). .

2 HCT3XPH B OTJlHllHe OT npyrax reorpaqioa X B. 8KJIfOQaer Xopesa S.' C-gCT3B

Masepaauaxpa. , .

. ~ <PepaB3 uaxonunacs na xecre c~Jla Ilapay, B 10-15 KM OT HblH-e~~:eio ~"~ 3b1n·ApBara (256).

76

63Ta ,UeXHCTan, HBJlHHlIlerOCH CHJlbllblM cjJOpnOCTOM n a CaMOM xp aro nYCTbIHHI. OI\HaKO ,BO BTOPOH nOJlOBHHe X B. 3Ta xpenocrs, KaK 06· p asno Bblpa3HJlCH 116H XaYKaJl, «ucnnaa rJlOTOK pa3'PYlIleHHH, HO He (04eHb) CliJlbHblil» (265,. c. 181; 783, c. 273).

nOrpaHII'lHbIMH tcpenocrawn Xopesu a C orY33MII 6blJlH ,U}Kypa' }KaHHH2 H 60JlblIlOe yxpen.neunoe cenesue Bap arerna (265, C. 179, 180). Fpannuu Xopeaua cOnp,HK3-C3J11fCb C 3eMJlHMH orY30B H y ropona ,U}KBTa, Jle}Ka.BlIIero B nycrune K ceaepo-aanany 01' I'ypraunaca, Kpenocrs 6b1J1a 06HeceHa CTelIoil. OTClOl\a Ha4111IaJlCH KapaBaHHblH nyrs B oryacxne crena (265, c. 298). B X B. 3TH CTenH, THHYBlIIHeCH na sanan 1\0 crpanu xaaap, Ha3blBaJlIICb Xope3M'OKOH IlJlH Oryacxon nYCTblHen (406; 407; 670). «B BOCT04nWM Hanpa'BJleHIIII,-rOBOpll1'CH B «XY.llYI\ aJl-aJl3-M»,-(3Ta nycrmra}, npOXO.llIIT no rpannue MepBa BnJlOTb no ,U}KeMXYHa. B IO}KHOM Harnp3-BJleHMH OHa npoxonnr no npe,Ie,13M Basepna, HHCbl, <pepa'Bbl, ,UeXHCTaHa H Xaaapcxoro MOpH BfIJlOTb no rpaauuu ATB,1a. C aan ana (01' nOM) nycrun« pexa ATHJI. C cesepa or nee pexa ,U}KeilXYH, Xopeswcxoe Mope, 06J13-CTb rY30B zio rpannu Byar apa. 3TY nY.C1'blHIO naauaaior nYCTblHe(1 Xope3MCKO(1 H fY3CKoi1'. BHYTPH 3TOH nycrua« eCTb neCKH, OHH Ha4HHalOTClI 01' 06J1aCTH Banxa, anyr K iory OT ,U}KeHXYHa Il THHYTCH 11.0 Xopesucxoro MOPH, ECTb MeCTa, rne B lIIHPH'HY 3TH neCKH B OIl.,HH nepexoll., a ecnMeC1'a - B 7 nepexonon» (450, JI. 12; 670, c. 55).

Ilpnoeneuaue OBell.eHBH n03BOJlSllOT .llYMaTb, 'ITO OrY3CKoi'l nyCTblHeH H3-3bIBaJlHCb crena Ceaepaoro Ilpuxacnna, UeHTpaJlbHble, 3aynrY3C'KHe, JOro-BOCTOtlHble l\apa,KYMbl H Ilpnapaascxae KH3blJlKYMbl.

B X B, 60JlblIlHHC1'B0 ory3'CJlMX l1J1eMeH KO'leBaJlO B CTenSlX soxpyr ApaJlbCIWrO H Kaonaacxoro MopeH (611, c. 14; 670, c. 235, 238). MaCYII.H OTMe4aeT, 4TO B nycrunax y Xasapcxoro MOPSI HaXOII.SlTCH MHOme H3 KO'leBbeB rY30B (265, c. 166; 630, c. 60). OrY3cKHe K04eBbH H vxpennenuue CTlIBKH 6b1J1H pa36poc3-libl H K aanany or Apana. Feorp aIjlH'IeCKHe arnacu X B. noveuraror orY30B na cesepuox H BOCTO'lHOM 1106epe}KbSlX KaCnH}ICKOrO MOPSI (654), Ibpene.nu oryscsnx 3eMeJlb Ha4,H'HaIOTCSI 01' ,U}KypmKaHa H Acrp aoana H TlIHyTCH Ha aanan 11.0 crpauu X33ap (679, IV; 406, JI, 95), Ceaepnee KaOI1HHCKOro MOPSI na 3TIIX }Ke arnacax yxaaanu ropsr noll. Ha3BaHHeM CHHlWYX', B «XYi\YII.

I JJ.>KYP)UK8H - ODJl8CTb, noanuee ropon, paaaanausr xoroporo Jle>KaT aenaneKO 01' rYM6aTH Kaoyca, H3 pexe I'ypr-as Oxpyc neXHC1'aH C o,nHOHMeHHbIM pariarow 60JlbWHHCTBO CpeJ1.HeBeKOBbIX BOCT04HbiX reorpaooa OTHOCHT K ,U)KYPJl>Kauy (61. c. 32, 33; 159, c. 236).

2 n)KYP,lI,)KaoHIHI, HJUt fypraH)UK - ropon, H3XO.QUBUlHHCfI 6.11113. cospeveanoro Kyua-Ypren.ia. B nepC~Hf.CKOM nepeeone COl(ltHeHIHJ I1CTaxpH. rOBopHTCR: «rypraH,lI)K MeHbLUe Xope3MB H SlBJlfleTCfl noprox H CI<JI8.ll04HblM nYHJ<TOM rY308. H orryna HD,VT xapaaaasr K Xopacauy H fv.praHV H na sanan, H B CTOPOHY xaaap, H B npyrue MeeTHOCTII» (406, n. 182; 407, n. 101; "70, c. 235),'

3 B 60Jlee n03)lHHX cpenaeaesoaax HCTOIJHHKaX oruevaerca. 4TO fY3cKaH nycTblHH HMeeT B WHPHHV ooaee era cj>apcaxoB (29-1, n. 15). fY3cKaH crens TSlHeTCH nanexo OT npenenoe Xopacana B aanpasneana c cesepa H3 sanan (447).

4 l1.aKYT " A6Y~JI·<I>H!l.a YKa3b1SaJOT, LITO CHHXKYX osnauaer «4epH3H ropa» (265, c. 424; 582, II, c. 326). Cpenneeexoaue HCTOLIHHKH napnny C CHHXKYXCKHMH ropaan YI<a3bIBalOT na o,QHoHMeHHbIH OCTpOB B KacnHi<CKOM Mope (582; 617; 654; 787; 796),

77

;UI-3JI3M» rOBOpl'IT<CH 0 paCCCJleHHH ua Cnnxxyxe «rpynnu TIOpO,K In orY30S» (450, JI. 5; 680, c. 60). OrY3cKHe «y6ell(HIJ~a», naxonnsuraecs B ropax Caaxxyxa, OTMe<!eHhI H aa K3pTe I1.n:PHOH'.

B HCTOpH'IeCK0I1 nnreparype senyrca cnopu 0 TOM, 'ITO nOHIIMaTh non H33saHHeM CHlIXKYX (159; 160). Psn I1c'CJIe)lOBa'reJIei1 OTOlKneCTBJIlIeT CUflXKYX C nOJIyoCTpOBOM MaHrbllJlJIaK (502; 680). 3TO MHeHHe, ua saur B3rJIlI)l, MO)KHO npHHHTh C HeKoTopoi1 nonp aexoft. Feorparpn'1eCKHCI aTJIaC Hcraxpn H306palKaeT CHlIXKYX' S BH)le He60JIblJlOrO ropnoro xperira aa cesepuoa noriepeacse Kaonuacxoro MOpll (658). 116H Pycre OTMe'laeT, 'ITO CH5!XKYXCKHe ropu JIe)KaT ua aanannoa no- 6epelKbe Xopesxcxoro osepa (628, c. 92). Hexoropue 60JIee n03nHHe 3STOPbIJIOK3JIH3YlOT CHlIXKYX HB ceaepaoer notiepeacse Kacnancxoro MOPll', HO BMeCTe C TeM OT"-1C'IaIOT, 'ITO 3TH ropsr Y'KJIOHHIOTClI C cesepa ua aanan (582, c. 44, 94). CY)lH no xapre Hcraxpn H CBHneTeJIbCTny 116n PYCTe, B X B_ CII!lXKYXOM H33b1'B3JIfiCb He TOJIbKO K3MCHIICTbie nOJIynYCTblHH MaHrbIIJIJIaKa, lIO H 06PbIBlICTbIe lJIII+KII YCTlOpTa. OxeSH)lBO, crapoe IIa3BaHHe «LJepHall ropa» COXpalIHJIOCb B lIMeHH MaHrbIIJIJIaKCKHX Kaparay.

3ananHbIe rpanauu orY3'CKIIX CT3HOBHm 1I xpenocrek nOCTHraJIl!

B X B. IOlKHoro Vpan a l! Hnxcaero nOBOJIlI(b!l. OrY3bI KOtIeSaJIH no HpfoH3Y, B npenropsax Myronxcap, no 3M6e, YpaJIY, na 6eperax A,paJICOpa, YHJIa. B paaone 1VIyrO)llKapcKoro xperira pacnonaramrcs oryscxne KpenOCTH Hynxcax II Banarax. /VIelK)lY ceBepO"B'OlCTO'lHbIMH CKJIOH3MH MyrO)llKap H OTporaMII IOlKHoro Ypana JIelKaJIH He6oJIbIJIHe KpenOCTII ,UapaH)la (Ilennepa} H Ilapxy. Fopono« )lapKY, BePOllTHO, ObIJI JIeTHei1 CTaBKOH oryacxoro «naps», HO B HeM .nOCTO!lHHO

OOHTaJIO 'rop roace II peMeCJIeHIlOe HaCeJIeHHe. .

Pa.oCeJIeHII€ oryaos ua 3M6e H Ypane nonraepaoiaercs TaK)Ke 113' lIeCTHeM MaCY)lH. On oBII)leTeJIbCTByeT, 'ITO B Kacnnacxoe Mope snaaaror nne pexn noa Ha3saHlleM 4epHbli1 H BeJIbiH Hpruur. «MelK)lY HX YCTbllMH,-co06maeT MacY)lH,-OKOJIO necsrn )lHeH nyrn: ira HHX p acnonoxcems 3HMOBKH II JIeTHIIe KOtIeBb!! KHM3KOB II rY30S» (265. c. 166). BeJlbIH H LJepHbIH I1PTbIIJI, 0 KOTOPbIX nHlJIeT MacYIIJI, COOT- 13CTC'I'BYIOT YpaJlY H 3M6e (662, c. 101, 102; 680. 'c. 215).

CBe)leHH!! 0 KOtIeBaHHH oryaos ua Ypane npnaenenu II B «Xynyn aJI-aJIaM». COrJI3CHO naHHOMY HlCTO"lHHKY, B ATHJI HeCJIa CBOH SOJlbI pexa non Ha313aHHeM A'PTYIJl (450. JI. 10;.611, c. 46). 3Ta pexa, KaK nOKa33JI B. <P. MHHOPCKIIH, B lleHCl'B.flTeJIbHOCTH, COOT13eTCTByeT Ilbl' neumeay Vp any. Coennaenue Vp ana C BOJIroi1 06'b!lCH!leTC!I nenepIlbiM npencraaneunex 0 CJIH!!H·HH TeqeHHlI 3TUX )ljByX ca MOCTOllTeJI bnux pex (580,c. 215-308).

OrY3cKHe nJIeMeHd B X B. KO'leBa"m u no uexoropua nparoxax

I H306pa>KeHHe sroro ropnoro xperir a aa arnacax H.nPHCli CBH.neTeJIbCTByeT, O,lHaKO, 0 nnOXOM 3HaH"" ero cOCT3BHTeJleM npaxacnancxon opor-padma.

2 AH3J1H3 ecex 3TH X reorpatpnuecxax CBe.lIeHUH 0 ropuox xpeore CHSlXI(YX, DT· JlHllaTOlUHXCfI 60JIbWHM pa3H06oeM H npOTHBopelUHIMH, na BXDJlHT B Barny aaaa-rv. OTMeTHM JlHllIb. vro B cpenuesexoeee cuno pacnpocrpaaeno DWHOOl(HOe npencraeJleHHe, COrJlaCHO IWTOPOMV CUflX]{YXCIOW ,fOPLI npOCTJfpalOTCH OT AGeCI{YHa li FuJl51HR no KRBKa3Cl<oro Jlep0E'HT<1 H YJ1C1J1f1 (J37).

78

Ypana. B nOJlb3Y .9TOro MHeHlIlI rOBOplIT TeKCT «XY.ll.Y,lJ, an-anax», rne onacuaaerca pexa non aaasanae« Pac (450, JI. 10; 611, c. 46). non STHM HMeHeM nsrcrynaer HJIeK - I1paBbJii I1PHTOK peKII YpaJI (680).

Kouensa orY30B B X B. npocrapanucs OT Ypaaa ,lJ,0 aascnero re'1eHHR BOJIrH. B «XY,lJ,YJI: 8JI-8JI8M» rOBopIITClI, 'ITO K cesepy OT Xasapcxoro MOpll oryssr nocrurana ATIIJIa: «BOCTO'lHaSi (uacrs] 06JI3- CTH (rY30B conpnxacaercn) C fY3CKOfi nycruuea Ii rOpO,lJ,aMH Maaepauuaxpa, a JOlKHall TaKlKe (conpaxacaerca) C uexoropsraa (MeCTaMH) 3TOii (Fyacxoa) nYCTblHlI. C ,lJ,pyroii (CTOpOHbl noii 06JIaCTH)Xasapcxoe Mope, a c tora H ceaepa - pexa ATIIJI» (450, JI. 18; 611, c. 86). Paccenesae cryaos B HH30BbllX BOJIrH OTMe'laeTCH H B reorpa$l{tjeCKHX TpY,lJ,aX HCTaxpH II H6H XaYKaJI8.

Cpenuesexosue MYCYJlbMaHCKHe aBTOpbJ He HMeJIH, O,lJ,HaKO, ,lJ,0- CTaTO'lHO scsoro npe.nCT8BJIeHIIH 0 'BepXOBMIX peKII ATHJI (158, c. 113-117; 336, c. 26-27). Bonra, no I1X MHeHHlO, 6paJIa csoe H8- '1aJlo B 3eMJIHX KIlPrH30B, nporexana MelK.ny crpaaon KIIMaKOB, ory- 30B H 6yJIrap. Pexa nOBOpa'lHBaJIa 3aTeM na BOCTOK II, nppii.nH PYCb, Bynrapmo H Bypracaro, Bna,lJ,3J1a B Kacnnacxoe Mope'. CTOJIb rpysas oWII6Ka 6bIJIa nopoxcneaa rex, 'ITO apario-rrepcnncxae reorpatpsi X B. nOJIaraJIII, 6y.nTO B ATHJI ananaer pexa, II.nYll\aH naneso C BOCTOKa, H3 CTpaHbI KIIMaKOB H KllPrH30B (135, c. 54-56). Hecuorpx ua .9TO, nannsre 3TIIX HCTO'IHIIKOB n03DOJIlIIOT BH;J.eTb, 'ITO orysu KO'leB3JIII n HHlKlieM nOBOJIlKbe.

OrY3CKHe nJleMena, xoueaaaunre B X B. no YpaJIy II JIeBOMY 6epery BOJIrH, rpaHII'IIIJIH C 6awKHpaMH H 6ypTacaMH. 3eM.1H orY30B conp"J(8CaJIICb C 6allllmpcKHMH B npenropsax IOlKHoro YpaJla. TaKOH BblBOn MOlKHO cnenars He TOJ]bKO ua OCIIOBe aaannaa cosnneuna HnPHCH, HO H 60JIee paunax Cpell:HeBeKOBbJX reorparpos. H6H Pycre, narrp"Mep, muuer, 'ITO 6alllKllpbl nOnpa3,lJ,eJIHJIIICb na nse 'reppurcpaaJIbHble rpyrmsr. OAHa H3 HRX lKHJla no COCell:CTBY C neseaer'aan, rpaHII'IIIBI1lHMH C PYMOM', a npyras 0611TaJla 6J1H3 BOJllKCKOii EYJlrapHH. 9Ta BOCTO'lHaH 'IaCTb oauncsp HaXO,lJ,IIJ1aCb B rrOJlIITII'IeCKOH 3aBIICHMOCTH OT uaps 6YJlrapHH (449, c. 105; cp. 370, c. 31). AHaJlOrH'IHble CBe.neHIIH npnaenenst B «Aurxa,n an-anax», rne rOBopHTClI, 'ITO 6aJllKHpbI :lI(llBYT «B xoaue (CTpm'IbJ) ry30B, noaann CTpaHbI BYJIrap» (562, c. 56).

B X B. na sanansux py6elKax oryscxax 3eMeJlb o611Ta •• " n.rI~MeHa TaK aaasraaeuux «BHYTpeHHHx 6aI1lKHp»'. H6H Q>a.nJlaH oraesaer 6alllKllp aa peJ(oii Barnana, sepoarno, coorsercrayroiuea HblllelllHel1 5iBbIH,lJ,bl (770, c. 147-156). OH cooouiaer 0 aananeuaa 6alllKHp aa xapaaanu, nrenume xepea oryscxne aeMJlH B BOJllKCKYJO EYJlrapHIO (98; 204; 208). H6n Q>aIl:JlaH, KaJ( 113BeCTHO, npoexan no KO'leIlhllM

J 116H 3J1-BapJlH nonarazr, vro Boar-a rever 83 CTpaHbI TOJ(y3~ry30B. a Xaa,ZlYJlJJax Ka3BH"" YTBepm.llaer, 0YJlTO HCTOKM ATHJl3 HaXO,lJ.SITCSI B 3eMJUlX KHprH30B, 06HTalOlIlHX na Ceneare (166, n. 61; 763, c. 204).

2 OlJeBHJlHO. non 3THMH oalIIKupaMH nOApa3YMeBalOTCR M3JlbHPbI, HaCeJISII3!UHe TeppHTOpHIO COB'peMeHHOH BeHrpHH (772, c. 329).

3 B cpenaesexoeux nepCHJlCKHX IfCTOt{HHK8X OHU H83bIBaIOTCH. «CiaC)l:>KHpJ.-U ,o:apYHH. HnH .6acxpT-H aaaapyna» (670. c. 168; 562. c. 57).

79

oryaoe, SaHHMaBlIIHX CTenH renepemnero 3anaJl.HOrO Kasaxcraua (98, c. 246; 208, c. 24). Cosoxynaocrs scex 3THX <jJaKToB CBHJl.eTeJIb· crnyer 0 TOM, 41'0 B X B. orvscxae KO'leBbll COnpHKaCaJIHCb C 3eMJI!lMH 6aUII<llp IO)KlIOrO YpaJia. 8TO nOJl.TBep>KJl.aeTCH TaK>I(e MaTepHaJiaMII xypranuux 3aXOpOHeHlIIi IX-X BB. 1I3 IOmHoH: 5alIlKHpIIII H 6ac·

CeH:H3 pexa YpaJi (240; 376). .

B X B. aanaJl.lI0-0rY3CKHe nneuena rpaHH'IHJlH lie TOJIbKO C 6aHll(IIpaMlI, .HO H cxasapaxa H 6ypTacaMH. COrJlaCHO "XYJl.YJl. aJI-aJI3M». oryasr >KHnH K tory OT crpaau 6YPTacoB. K sanany 01' crpauu 6ypTa· COB nporexaaa pexa ATIIJI, a K cesepy 06HTaJlII neueaern. B 3TOM xce HCTO'lIlH,Ke OTMe'laeTC!!, 'ITO eFyscxaa nycruna» nocrnraer npene.nOB BOJl>KCKoii Bynrapaa (450, c. 12-37; 611, c. 55, 194). CBHJl.CTenbCTBO «XYJ(YJl. aa-anaa» nonreepacnaerca TeKCTOM Hcraxpa, KO' TOPblH nHlIIeT, 'ITO onna H3 rpynn 6ypTaCOB >KHBeT B «KOHue (CTpaHbI) rysoas- (658, c. 96-97). B paccaarpaaaeayro nopy OCIlOBHa!! .Macca 6ypTacoB 06HTana B Bonro-OKcKOM Me>KJ(ype%e (118; 366; 469). OJl.HaKO uexoropue rpynnu 6YPTacoB >KllnH II IOrO'BOCTO'lHee cpenaero Te4eHH!! BOJim (505). B CBeTe 3TIIX HCTopHKo-reorpa<jJ114eCKIIX J(aHHblle CTaIlOBHTC!! O'leBHJ(HbIM, 111'0 orysu rpaHH'IHnH C 6YPT3C'3MH, 06HT3BlIIHMH B nOBOJJ:lKbe.

TypKMeHcKoe HCTOpH'IeCKHe cBeJ(eHHlI, KOTOPblMII Mbl pacnonara-

aaceaease eM, 0 TYPKMeHCKOM HaCeJleHHH B crpane orY30B sees-

CTpaH.. ory,oB Ma CKYJl.Hbl. TYPKMeliaMII, xax rOBOplIJlOCb paaee,

B X B. HMeHOBaJI3,Cb '1aCTb orY30B H npvrax riopox, cxeuraa-

llHlXCH c nOTOMKaMH npeanero HHJl.OeBpOneiicKoro aaceneaas Cpenaea A3I1H'. CaMO Ha3BaHHe «TypKMeH» nOmlJlileTCli rJ1aBHbiM 06pa30M B apeane pacceneann orY30B, npHHlIBIllHX IIc.~aM (13; 511; 25).

Flepasre CBeJ(eHHlI 0 TypKMeH8x X B. COJl.ep>K3TCH B rpyne MaK' .fIIlCR, KOTOPblH B CBoeM eAxcan aT·TaKaCHM» npn onacaana HCqlHJl.m36cKOro oxpyra cooouiaer 0 Jl.ByX roponax -- Banaaace II BapyKeTe'. Oopauiaer H3 ce611 BHHMaHHe, 'lTO nepaas H3 9THX xpenocrea ynoxaaaerca B nepeune aaceneunux nYHKToB, pacnonoxcenaux K ceBep.o-BoCTOKY 01' Hc<jJHJI.>Ka6a. «5aJlaJ(>K,- nHlIIeT MaKJ(HCH,- ne- 60JlblIlOH ropon, CTeHbI xoroporo Y>Ke paspyrueau: cotiopaaa Me'leTb (ropona) - cpenn 6a3apa» (265, c. 185; 555, e. 274).

MecTononoiKeHHe BaJ1aJl.>Ka H Bapyxer a TPYJl.HO YCTaHoBHTb no TeKcTY MaKJ(HcH, HO cymecrayer npennoaozceuae, 'ITO OHf! 6b1J1H pacnonoaceau B Cexupeuse (66). B «Axcaa aT-TaKaeHM» Bananac II BapYKeT uaaaaau nocne Cayparra, Typap-3epaxa II Illaransnscana (43; 80; 210). MaKJ(HcH cooouiaer, 'ITO BapYKeT B OTJ1H'IHe 01' BanauJK3 lIBnllJICH 60nblIlHM ropOJ(OM', BaJl8J(>K H 5apYKeT eJlY>KHJlH norpa-

, B KHTaHCI{HX HCTOllHHKax VIII-Ha'l8JIa IX B. ynoMHHaeTCS1 crpasa TO-K~'~ MOHr. BepOHTHO pacnoaaraetneacs B CeMMpelfbe; caxo Ha3BaHHe :nOH CTPSHbI, aepcRTHO, CB5l331jO C HMeHeM «TYPKMeH» (21).

! B pysonucnux cnncxax rpyna MaKAHtH HMelOTCH cnenyioume aapaanru:

HllaJllKH, BapYKeT, BaptPI<eT, BapYKaT (555),

3 BapYKeT, onHCblBaeMblH MaK.Zf.HCH, B03MOH<HO, COOTBeTcTByeT BapHKeTY_. yno- 1lUSaeMOMY B TpYAe HApnen.

80

lUitlHbiMH i<pei1odlIMH nporae typKMeH, i<OTOPb!i\ i1iniHlIJiH IicJiaM (265, c. 185).

HapHJlY C 3TIIMII rOpOJlaMII, Mal{JlIICII ynoxuaaer 0PJlY, KOTOPblH JIelKaJI K BOCTOKY 01' MepKe (555, c. 275). nOCJIell.HIIH COOTBeTcTByeT HbIHe!llHeMY panonnovy ILeHTpy Mepxe ,lllKaM6YJlbCKOil 06JIaCTII Kasaxcxoa CCP (432, c. 76). Kpenocrs 0PII.Y, no CJIOBaM MaKII.HcH, HMeJIa 060pOHHTeJIbHble crenst H HanOJIHeHHblH BOII.Oi! pOB. B ILeHTpc sroro rOpOII.Ka, 51BJI5IBLUerOC51 pe3HII.eHILHeil «uapa» TypKMeH,B03BbILUaJIaCb ILHTall.eJIb C JlBOPILOM npaBHTeJIH.

0PII.Y, no MHeHHIO A. H. BepHLUTaMa, COOTBeTcTByeT pa3BaJlHHaM y cena Kpacnas peuxa B 30 KM K BOCTOKY OT r. !l>pyHse. rOpOII.Hme npeJlCTaBJIHeT cooon ll,OBOJlbHO CJlOlKHblil KOMnJIeKC pa3J1H'IHblX nocrpoex. PaCnOJIo}KeHo OHO ua JIeBOM 6epery pexn tIy. B IOrO-BOCrO'lHoil npHnOIl.HHTofI '1aCTII rOpOII.Hma nouemena nuranens, PaSBaJIIIHbI 06HeceHbI II.BoilHbIM Pll)]'OM cren, a B sananaoa yrJIy - 1I.0nOJIIlHTeJIbHbIM npHMoyroJIbllbIM BaJIOM (80; 432).

B nocnenune ronsr COBeTCKHMH HCTopHKaMH npOII.eJIaHa 60JIbLUaII paoora no YT04HeHllIO 'apxeoJIol'H'IecKoil xaprsr Ceaepnoa KllPrH3HH H IOJI<Horo !\a33xcTBHa (28; 43; 210). Ilepecaorpensr xaorne BblJlBIlHYTbIe panee OTOJl(lleCTBJIellll51 cospeaeuuux PY"H C ynOMllHaeMbIMII B cpenneaexoaux IICTOtIHHKax nOCeJleHIIHMH tIy H Tanaca (228; 229; 356; cp. 541). B CBeTe 3TIIX HCCJIell.OBa Hili! TPY lIHO nOJIO)I<HTbCli na HJleHTII<ilHKall,IIIO Opny C ropozmutex Kpacaas peuxa.

HaM npencraansercs 60Jlee aepaoa II 060cIloBalIfIoH JIOKaJIHaaIIHH Opny B 1I.0JIHHe npaaotiepescsa pexn tIy, npOTUB KaCTeKCKoro nepeaana (250, c. 22). 3)!.ecb HaXO)!.HTCli pa3BaJIHHbI craporo roponmua, JIelKamero y CeJIeHIIH Kapa-Konys Kypnajrcxoro panona ,lllKaM6YJIbcxoa 06JIaCTII. 3TO rOpOII.II1ILe npananneaorr K OC060MY rnny noceneHIIH TIOPKOllSbI'lHbIX nJIeMeH Cpennea A3HH H Kaaaxcr aaa. OTJIH'l11- TeJIbHOH seproa TaKIIX noceneuua KOtleBHI1KOB 11 1I0JlYKOtIeBHIlKoB 6bIJIll He60JIbLUlle pasxepu, lIa.ijHtIHe rJIIlH06HTHbIX CTeH C 6aLUHHMH H pBOM. f101l.06Hble yspennennue 3aMKH CJIY>KHJIH JIeTHHMH CTaBKaMH xaHOB' UJIIl IlX HaMeCTHHKOB (250, c. 22).

fOpOII.Hme y cen a Kapa-Koays 60JIee cOOTBeTcToyeT 1l3BeCTHIO MaKII.HCIl 0 xpenocru Opny, JIelKallLUeil K BOCTOKY OT Mepxe, Cne.ryer raiose 06paTIlTb BHHMaHlle aa TOT <paKT, 'lTO 3TO noceneane pacnoJIOJl(CHO ne na JIeBOM,K3K Kpacaan pe'll{a, a ua npasou 6epery pexa tIy. 9TO BnOJIHe cornacyercs C paccxasoa I1l1.pHCH 0 repone XlliiaMe, KOTOPbIH HaxOII.HJICH na npaaoriepeacee PY3bl. OTCIOII.a MOlKHO npeuno JIO>KHTb, 'ITO xpenocrs 0PIW COOTBeTcTByeT XHilaMY, omICbIBaeMOMY 11 rpyne I1l1PIlCH.

B «I\HTa6 Pynxcap» rOBopHTClI, 'ITO XHHaM npei\CTaOJIlIJI c060fI He60JIblllOH, HO CHJIbHO YKpenJleHllblii ropon, 3TO nepexnasaerca C H3- aecrneu MaKII.IlCH 0 KpenOCTH 0PII.Y, KOTopaH HOmlJIaCb «MaJleHbKIlM "rOpOIl.OM», 06HeceHHblM CTenaMH H pBOM. B onHC3HIIH 060HX HaCeJIeHHbIXIlYHKTOB, cosnanaer II .ll.pyrall secsaa cyruecruemraa nerans, 111]pnca nasusacr XHHaM «rJIaBHbIM ropOJ(OM», a"MaKII.HCII xapaxrepusyer Opny KaK «uapcxyto» pe3HII.eHILHIO. Pa3HH~a COCTOIIT JIH!IIb B

6 Sao. 204

81

TOM, q'to B nepnou ciIyqae rosopiircs 0(') oryaax, 11 SO inoroM ~ o TYPKMeHax.

Onaaxo nO)(06HOe pacxoxcnenae, nO-BHJ1I1MOMY, MOlKHO 06'bHCHIITb pa3HoBpeMeHHblM npOIlCXO>K)(eHlleM paccxarpaaaeerstx IICTOPH'leCKIiX CBe.l(eHIIH. B03MO>KHO, sa 3TO BpeMH B .uaHHOM paaoae npo- 11301llJlII cYlIIeCTBeH'Hble nepeaeasr. MecTHoe T10PKOll3bIQHOe naceneaue, B OCHOBHOM COCTOHBlllee H3 orY30B, 6blJlO oopaureao B HCJlaM. XnHaM - 6blJlOH l1eHTP He3aBHCIlMblX XaH)(arOB,- BepOllTIIO, nonan B «pepy nOJ1HTllqeCKOro BJlIIRHlIll CaMaHII)(OB MaBepaHHaxpa. B «Axcan aT-TaKaCHM» OTMeqaeTC!I, qTO npasurens Opny HaXO)(IIJ1CH yace B saBIICIIMOCTII OT HaMeCTHIIKa I1ccplI)(lKa6a. TypKMeHCKIIH «naps» nocunan perynspno 113 Opay «nonapxa» 3TOMY CaMaHII)(CKOMY BaCCaJlY (555, c. 275). ;:)TII cpaKTbl naior OCHOBaHlle noaarars, QTO caMaHII.uaM ynanocs nO)(qHHHTb ceoexy BJllIllHHIO uacrs orY30B 3ana)(lIoro ,lllKeThICY. Cueuraauraeca C IIpaH01l3blqHblM uacenenaea H rroaaepruraeell HCJlHMH3al1HII oryaa, OqeBIID:HO, CTaJll1 I1MeHOBaTbCH erypxaeHaMil».

MaK)(HCII rosopar 0 npllHlITHII MYCYJlbMallCKOH penurun rypxueHaMil, lKliBlIIlIMlI B OKpeCTHOCTlIX Bananaca II Bapyxera. MelK.lI.Y TeM IIMeHHO T3Klle HCJlaMII311pOBaHHble II caeuraaumeca C «MYCYJlbMaHCKIIM» naceaenuex oryasr, KaK C006111aeT BHPYHII, Ha3blBaJlIICb TypKMeHaMII. «B npescnee BpeM!I,- naurer OH,- JlI060ii 113 TlOpOK-rY30B, ~TO npllHHMaJl IICJlaM II caeuraaancs C MYCYJlbMaHaMII, CTaHOBIIJlCfl nepeaonnnxox MelK.lI.Y TeMII II npyraxn, TaK qTO, xorna KaKoii-HII6Y)(b rY3 npunnxan IICJlaM. ryaa rOBOpIIJlII: OH CTaJl TypKMeHOM. a MYCyJlbMaHe rOBOp"JlI, 'ITO B IIX qllCJlO souren TypKMeH, TO ecrs nOXOlKlIH na TlOpKa» (16, c. 193; 13, c. 20). 3TO naaaaaae, B03MO)f(HO, pacnpoCTpaHSlJlOCb II na OT.lI.eJlbHble MeTIICllpOBaHHble rpynnu Ilpl!HllBlIIHX IICJlaM TIOPOK 3ana.ll.HOrO Cexapessa, I1ccpH.lI.lKa6a II ill alii a (711; 712; 626). B yxaaannux 06J1aCTSlX OTMeqalOTCR «Mllpllble» TlOpKIIMycYJlbMaHe, aenurue KOQeBOii II nonyocenaun 06pa3 lKH3HII. Onaa H3 TaKHX rpynn 06HTaJla MelK.lI.Y <!>apa60M, KeH!:tlKH)(e H ill a lIIeM , rne HMeJlHCb xopoume nacroaura H sunacu .lI.JlSl cxora'. 3.l1.eCb KOlJeBaJlO OKOJlO TblCSI'l1! ceMeH IICJlaMH3HpO!laHHbIX TIOPOK2, lKliBlIIl!X B urarpax II He IIMeBIllHX HIiKaKHX nocrpoex (783, c. 391). H aJlllqlle «MllpHbIX» T10POK OTMeqaeTClI II B npenenax CIOTKeHTa (611, c. 117). Cpenn 3TH X TIOPOl(, cy)(lI no .lI.aHHblM I-bPIiCII, npeocaanana oryasr (583. II,

c.208). ~

I1CJlaMH311poBaHHbie oryau, a raiose KapJlYKIl. lKllBlIIlle B npeneaax Illaurcxoa II I1ccpH.lI.>Ka6cKoH 06J1acTeii, !lBJlSlJlHCb ra31111MH- .. 6opl1aMH aa sepy (670, c. 264). Bepoarno, OHH nOCTeneHIlO cxeuraaacs C a60pHreHHblM uaceneaaev I! xacrnaao nepeurnn aa oce.n.Jlblii oopas lKH31J11. Xapaxrepno, QTO B nepCII.lI.CKOl1 BepcHII Hcraxpn YI(a3blBaeTCII aa pacnonoxenae B' Keneccxon CTenH fY3Cf(OrO cenenus. Cnenyer

.. , 3T" cBeAeHHR nrHBeAeHbI B TpYA" H6H X"YKa~a " i1pyrHx cpeAHeBeKOOI>IX

•• TOpO. (450, ~. 24; 61 , c. 117).

2 Ilepcancxas PM"KIlHlI 1'P),lla HCTaXp" ,!(o6aBnneT, "TO 9TH TlOpHH HHKOMY He nOllqHH"JlHC~ (406, n. 144; 610, ~. 264).

&2

taklke yqeC'tb naneoaarpononoraqecxne MaTepHaJ1b1, )J.OObiTbie B norpe6eHHS!X T10POK HblHelllHeii 4HMKeHTCKoii 06.nacTif. A. H. BepaurraMOM na cpennesr Te'leHHH CblP- )lapbH pacxonanu orY3CKHe MOrH.nbHHKH Cacux-Bynaxa. B 3THX norpe6eHHS!X Haii)J.eHbl sepena, HB.nHIOIlIHeClI eBponeOH)J.HbIMH, )J.O.nHXOKpaHHblMH C npHMeCbIO MOHro.nOH.~HblX xepr (113, c. 1::15, 136). Bee 3TO naer OCHOBaHHe noaarars, 'ITO B X B. TypKMeHaMH Ha3b1Ba.nHCb MeTHCHpOBaHHble H ocpaiueunue B Hc.n.aM 3THH'IeCKHe rpynnbl, B OCHOBHOM oryscxoro npOHCXOlK.neHHH, lKHBIIIHe B 3ana)J.HOM Cexapexee H paaonax, npaaeraioumx K 6accefiBy cpenaero Te'leHHH pexa Cup- )lapbH.

PaCCeJleHHe l lpusenennue acropuxo-reorpaqmuecxne CBe.neHHH

orY308 H TYPK- xapaKTepH3YIOT pacceneune oryaou H ryproreu II MeH no JlanHblM X CTo.neTHH. Teppuropan HX 06HTaHIHI B XI B. BbIHC-

SHPYHH HS!eTCH nYTeM aaaanaa rpynos A6y Penxaaa 5HIlY-

JlH. Cnenyer orOBOpHTbClI, 'ITO .naHBble DHpyHH xapaKTepH3YIOT rnaallbiM 06pa30M paccenenne OrY30B B sanannux, a TypKMeH - BOCTO'!HbiX 06.naCTHX Cpennen A3HH. HeCMOTpS! aa 3TO, ero CBe.neHHlI HMeIOT BalK Hoe sna-reane .n.nll BOCC03.naHHlI acropuxo-reorpaoasecxca xapTbl crpaau orY30B H TypKMeH B KaHYH ce.nb.nlKYKCKoro .nBHlKeHHlI.

Paccaarpaaaeaue HHlKe H3BeCTHlI 3aK.nIO'IeHbl B pane npOH3Be.neHHit EHPYHH, C03J\aHHbIX MelKJ\Y Ha'la.nOM II nepson TpeTbIO XI B. l:l CBoeM «Taxnnne», HaIlHcaHHOM B 1018-1028 rr., OH cooouiaer 0 pacCeJleHHH orY30B na rpannuax C )llKyp.nlKaHOM H Ilexacranox (511. c. 66). B TOM lKe CO'lHHeHHH npnaeneu paCCKa3 0 Bna.neHHII B J\peBHOCTII AMY-)lapbH B Kacnancxoe Mope. EHPYHH yrsepscnaer.. '11'0 AMY,ilapbH rrporexana xepes nYCTbIHIO Kapaxyau. MHMO ropona Banxaaa. OJ\HaKO arrocnencraaa PYCJlO )llKeiixYHa H3MeHH.n0 ceoe nanpaanenue H «aona ero YKJlOHHJlaCb K Kp311M crpaau rY30B» (644, c. 196 H cnen.l. AMy-)lapbll BCTpeTH.na aa CBoeM llyn! ropy, H3BecTHYIO I10.n Ha3B3- HHeM <!laM an-Acan'. )llKeiixYH np06I1J1 PYCJIO B 3TOii KaMeHHoii nperpane H csepayn K <!lapa6y, na paccroanae OKOJlO .nHS! nyrn. O.nHaJ<O 31'0 pycno, HMeHyeMoe <!laxMIi', C Te'leHHeM epexeaa 3anpYJ\IiJIOCb. AMy-)lapbH noeepayaa aaaeso H crana Te'lb xepea nYCTbIHIO, MelKJ\Y Xope3MOM H )llKyp.nlKaHOM. Boaa )llKeiixYHa npOIII.nH no JlOlKy peJ(~ Ma3.ny6acT, 6.n1i3 xoropon 06HTa.n1i a.naHb! H acu'. Pexa 3aTonHJI8 uunemHIO!O CapblKaMb!IIICKYIO KOT.nOBHHY H noretora K paBHIiHaM Xupe3M3. ,illKeilxYH na rryrn K Apaay caepnya «no HanpaRJlCHHIO J( ce.iepy. K aesure, B xoropon ceii'lac lKHByT rypxxeau» (511, c. 56,57).

C. JI. Bo.nHH C'IIiTaeT, 'ITO, cy.nll no 9TOMY OTPb!BKY, rpaHIlI(LI crpanu orY30B aasaaamrcs y cesepo-aananaoro notiepescss KaCIIUH n.nH cpennero Te'leHIiH AMy-)lapbH. 3eM.nH TypKMeH, no ero MHeHHIO. pacnonaraaucs OKO.nO YCTbS! pexu Cap-Ilapsa (105, c. 193, 194). OJ!" HaKO nonooaas aurepuper auan TeKCTa EHPYHH lIB.n5leTClI senpasa.uHoil. C. J1. BOJlHH oroacnecranner npeasee pyc.no Aay-Ilapsa C T~l1e·

I Coornercrayer Hblue.wHeit TeCHMHe .!I:YAb-IlYAb·AT.,araH (127, c. 25; 129, c. 21).

, <l>axMH - renepeuiaee cyxoe pycno AK .. ·.!I:apbM (429, c.' 25).

,3 Ma3,l1;y6acT - cOSpe14eHHaSJ llpHcapblK8MbllllcKBn H npHapSJlbCK8H Ae.l1bT3

(424, c. 37; 310). .

6'

peUJHIlM :Y'HrY30M. Memj\Y TeM S~PYHM YKa3hillaeT na 'j'et{eHlIe Jlmel'!xyna B paaone Memj{Y 3eMOM Il AMyi'le.

Cnenyer raiose Y'IeCTb, 'ITO OIlPYHIl rrpHHSIJI aa crapoe PYCJ1Cl AMy-,Uapbll nepxoass )I(aHa-,Uapbll (429, c. 21-22). B COOTBeTCTSHH C 3TIlMIl npencraaneauaun OH noapaayaeeaer non «3eMJ1eii, II KOTOPOH ceH43C lKllByT rypxaensr», xosessa CeJ1bj{MYKOB B MaBepaHnaxpe. Hccnenyeuoe couaneaue EHPYHH HaDHcaHO B nopy, xoraa nneMeHa CeJIbj{lKYKcKoro 06"e)),HHeHHH YTsep.llHJ1HCb YlKe S CaxapxaaaermH H Byxapcxon 06JIaCTSIX.

3eM.~H orY30B H TypKMeH ynoMHHalOTCH H B ,lI,PyroM TpY,lI,e Ellpyna, B ero «'fa\llxHMe», COCTaBJleHHOM MelKl\Y 1029 H 10:;4 r., npu onacanun Kacnuncsoro MoPH na SOCTO'lHOM 6epery nOMeUJaeTCl! DOpT Fypran II fOPOJl. A6ecKYH'. OIlPYHH C006ll(aeT, 'ITO J1H.HHl! MOPCKO- 1'0 noriepeacsa nner OTCIO,ll,a K Ta6apHCTaHY, JlenJ1eMY, on6 aJ1-A6Ba- 6y, Illupaaay H 06JIaCTH AJIaH. 3aTeM OHa THHeTCH 1l,0 MeCTa snaneHHl! ATHJ1a S Kacnnacxoe MopeH crpauu orY30B, a OTTYj{a nosopa'IHBaeT 06paTHO K A6ecKYHY (483, c. 124, 125). B TOM lKe CO'lHHeHHH OHPYIlH noaeuraer CTpaHY orY30B H nexeaeroa B ce,ll,bMOM KJIHMaTe. B 3TOM HKJ1HMe OH ynoaunaer KpenOCTH H ropst, B KOTOPblX HaXO,ll,l!TCH nopxu. DHPYHH C006ll(aeT aarex 0 oaUJKHpcKHX ropax, npeneaax seM€JIb orY30B H nexeaeroa, Cysape, Byarape, PYCH H Canaosna (483, c. 145). Ilepcuncxas sepcas rpyna OHPYHH ,lI,06aBJIlIeT, 'lTD 3TH TlOpKCKHe uaponu HaCeJ1HJIH ropu H nenpoxoaavsre neca, ,lI,OCTHraH xpeora nozi H33B3HHeM AUJrap))'lKaT2. B TpaKT3Te DHPYHH pe'lb uner, BePOHTHO, 0 nJIeMeHaX orY30B, )[(HBUJHX B npearopssx YpaJIa (384, c. 20).

A6y Penxaa EHpYHH B TOM lKe npOH3Bell,eHHH, napsny C oryaCKHMll 3eMJlSlMH, ynoannaer CTpaHY TypKMeH. «Illecroa IlKJIIlM,- nilUJeT OH,- naxuaaercs C 06HTaJIHll( BOCTO'lHblX TIOPOK: xan, KYHOB, XHPXH30B, KHMaKoB, TOKY3-rY30B, crpansr T..YPKM€H, <jJapa6a, crpaaa .xaaap Il cesepaoii qaCTH HX MOP"» (483, c. 145, 146). B 3TOM nepesne naponoa H o6.nacTeH crpaaa TypKMeH, xax Mbl BljllHM, noxeuteaa MelKJJ.Y <Papa60M H 3eMJ1l1MH TOKY3-rY30B, MMBUJHX B BOCTOqHOM TypxeCTaHe. Orciona lIBCTByeT, 'ITO B nepnoa rpera XI B. TypKMeHbl 06HTaJIH B Ceunpesse H na cpennen Te'leHIlH Cup-Ilapsn. .

OOJIbUJOi'l anrepec B accneayeaox acnexre npellCT3BJIllIOT Ii Il,PYme CO'lHHeHH!l EHpYHH. B CBoeM «aJ1-l(aHYH aJ1-MacYIl,H», 3aKOIIqeHHOM nOCJIe 1030 r., oa ynosraaaer 0 ceaepaon noriepeacse Xasapcxoro MOpli. 13HpYHH orwesaer B6.nH3H ycrsa pexa ATIlJl CTpaHY Dry- 30S (511, c. 5). Orinacrs JlmYPlllKaH C raaaasto A6ecKYH OH noueuraer aa BOCTO'lHOM uepery Kacnnacxoro ~fOpll (511, C. 5, 40). B crpane orY30B DHPYHH J10KaJ1H3yeT paaaanaxu .nereanapaoro ropozta .. Banxasa sa crapojr pycne ,UlKenxYHa. Teseaae STon pexa, no ero CJ10BaM, OTKJ10HH,IOCb B )),pe~HOCTH no Hallp3B.neHHIO J{ Apl(aHHHCKOMY

1 A6ecKYH 6blJI pacn0J10>K.eH npu YCTbe pexa I'opraa, H8 MeCTe CeJ1eHHSI rlO~

MIIIlI·Tene (1·59, c. 237). ,

2 l).tt:·BU,!1.HO, STO HCKa,meHHe H33saHHR BalUKH?CKHlt rop,

'IIOPIO'. A6y Penxan npasonar reorpadinuecxae KOOp)lHHaTbl ManrhlTJlJlaKa2, rile 6blJl pacnonoxceu MOPCKOH nopr orY30B ( ,,,,,,II ""'0;' ). Oripauiaer na ce611 BHHMaHHe; 'ITO MaHrbJUlJlaK OTHOCHTCH HM K qHCJIV xa3apCKHX 06,IlaCTelf. B xauecrse nOrpaH11'1HOro nyaxr a C orysaua I3HpYHH yxasuaaer paoar <l>epaBY (511, c. 48\.

Orvsu OTMe'laIOTCS! 11M I( na norpanuvnsrx C OCellJIOH 1l0JIOCoil py6ex{ax Xopeaucxoro oasnca (16, c. 241). B CTpaHeorY30B DHPYIIIJ ncxeiuaer HOBoe ceaeune, ll)](eHIi H Xopa. A6y Penxan yxasuaaer. 'ITO 3TH ropona Jle)l(aJlH 6J1113 YCTbS! Cup-Il apsu, BnallaJOll(eil B Xopesxcxoe osepo (511, c. 51).

DHPVHll B CBoeM «KaHYHe» ynovauaer H 3eMJlH TypKMeH. OH Hit- 3bIBaCT Caopan 11 CJOTKeHT TYPKMCHCKHMH ropOllaMH (511, c. 51). CJOTKeHT HMeHyeTcn «TVOKMeWK11M" rOpO)1,OM 11 B CO'lHHeHHH A6Y-JlXacana llX{YPIl)](aHH (10, JI. 37).

Conepscauraeen B rpynax DHPYHH acropnxo-reorpadmuecxne nannsre n03BOJlS!JOT onpeneaars apean paccenennn orY30B H TypKMeH B KaHYH ceasnzcyxcxoro J(BH)I(eH11l1. OrY3cKHe DJIeMeH3, COrJlaCHO DHPYHH, 06HTaJlH B Ilpaypanse, HH)I(HeM Tloeo.oase, na cesepaux H BOCTO'lHbfX 6eperax Kacnnncxoro MOpS! H B HH30BbHX pexn CupllapbH. Koseass orY30B )lOCTHraJlI1 K BOCTOKY 01' Kacnux npenenos uuaeunrero Knsua-Apaana. Oryast HaCeJlllJIH CTenH, norpannanue c ll)l(ypn)l(aHOM H llexl1cTaHOM, H I1MeJIH CBOJO «ranam-» na ManrsrlIlJI3Ke.

Tpynu A6y Peitxaua DHPYH·H )1,31OT T3K)I(e B03MOll<HOCTb YCTaHOBI1Tb MeCTa 0611TaHHlI TvpI{MeH rJIaBHblM 06pa30M B BOCTOqHluX 06JIaCTflX Cpennen A3I1H. OpH6JIH3l1TeJlbHO Me)l(1\Y 1018 11 1030 r. +yp«MeHCKoe HaCeJIeHl1e HMe.~OCb B 3an3,1(HOM ll)l(eTblcy, aa cpennev TeqeHl111 Cup-Ilapsn H B Maeepauuaxpe. TYPKMeHaMI1, 06HT3BlllHMTl B Cpenneaaaarcxov Me)l(lI.vpeQbe, O'leBI1,1(HO, Ha3blBaJOTClI nneuena cenenacyxcxoro 06'beJ(HHeHHlI.

CpaSHHTeJlbHblil aHaJlH3 11 CHHTe3 uccnenyexux I1CTOpHKo-reo-

rpadnorecxnx lI.aHHbIX n03BOJIReT BOCC03n:aTb KapTHHy pacceneuas orY30B H TypKMeH B Cpennea A3Hl1 B X-XI BB. Paccuarpnaaevsre CBell.eHHH HMeJOT Ba)]{HOe aaanenue )1,JlI! BblllCHeHHII M3KCl1MaJlbHbIX npenenoa KO'leB3HHlI H cjlYHKUHOHaJIbHblX ocooeunocren npnnannexcaeunrx 11M xpenocrea H rOpO)lOB. llaHHble cpenaesesoaux aaropon. OTHocRUlHeClI K X-nepBoil TpeTH XI B., n03BOJIRJOT T3J{)I(e CYII.HTh 0 TlOmITH'leCKI1X H 3KOHOMHQeCKHX ssaaxooraourenuax oryaon H TVPI{MeH c coCe)lHJ-IMH n.~eMeHaMH Ii HapO)l3MH CpC)lHcil A311H H BocTolfHOIJ EBpOnbT.

I B. <P. MHIIon,KdM ]10K333J1, {l10 noll. 31TI1M naaaanaex nonpasyaeuaerca Apaascxoe Mope (680, c. 180).

2 BHPYBH YTBep>KJlaeT, lITO .9TO ropHbJi·! xpcfier, H H83bIBaeT ero Banxunurano«.

O.JJlaKO B .neiicTBHTeJlbHOCTH n~lb HLleT 0 nOJlYOCTpOBe MaHrbllllJ13Ke. I{oTOPbll1: B rpvne MaKJl.HCH HMeHyeTcfl BaHrbl1ll3JI3, a B CoqHHeHHSl.X MaXMYJl.a Katurapc.coro 11 Flal(YTa - MallrblWnal{ (511, c. 47).

rJ1ABA II

OSlllECTBEHHblH CTPOIt OrY30B " TYPKMEli II X-XIII ••.

COCTOHHHe HCT04HHKOBei\qeCKOii 6a3bI HCCJIe.l\yeMoH 'l'eMbI He naer n03MOlKHOCTif npOBeCTH pesxyio rpans MelK,!ly 06IHeCTBeHHhiM crpoex orY30B H TypKMeH nccnenyexoro nepaona, Ilpasna, B HCTOPHqeCKOH mrreparype J(eJI3J1HCb nonsrrxa BblHBHTb pa3JIH4HH B crenenn pa3BHTHH natpuapxansno-ipeonansnux OTHOIlIeHHH y orY30B H rypxMeH (362). Onnaxo lIJlH KaTerOpH'IeCKHX BbIBOllOB noxa HeT 1I0CT3- TOqHO rsepao YCTaHoMeHHblx $aKToB. B03MOlKHO; cymecTBOBaJIH neKOTOpbJe cneuatpasecxae OTJlHqHH B X03HHCTse OTi(eJlbHbIX POi\OB II nJIeMeH orY30B H TypKMeH. Cpena TypKMell, sepoxrso, HMeJJOCb 60Jlbure, lIO cpaBHeHHIO C orYS3MH, nonyoceaaoro H ocennoro HaCeJleHHlI (21; .362; 773). 0J(H3KO npOTHBOnOCTaBHTb orY30B aa 3TOM OCHOBaHHH Typr(MeHaM HeJIbSH 6e3 pncxa anacrs B cepseanyto oIllH6KY. ApxeonorH'IeCKOe oecaenoaaaae nOCeJleHHH X-XI BB. B HH30BbHX Cup):(apbH noxaaano, qTO 3,1(eCb OOHTaJlH aaauarensaue rpynnu oceanux H nonyocennsrx orY30B (420; 421).

Hcropaxo-apxeonorusecxae ,naHHble, I<OTOPblMH Mbl pacuonaraea, o TYPKMeHax H orysax no oopasonannn ceJlb,n)KYlmiXcKoii ,neplKaBbl noxa eme xpanne MaJlOqHCJIeHHbl. 3HaQHTeJlbHo 60.TJbllle ljJaKToB HMeeTCH 0 X03HHCTse H COu,HaJIbHO-3KOHOMHQeCKOM crpoe nJIeMeH cens,n)KYKCKoro oObe.QHHeHHH XI-XIII BB., 06HTaBIllHx B Cpeanea, Depe,nHeli H MaJloH A3Hn. Onaaxo ,nH$ljJepeHu,HallHI! sroro MaTepH3JIa B paCCM3TpHBaeMOM acnexre I!BJIHeTCI! BeCbMa Tpy,nHOii, nOCKOJIbKY B O.l\HHX HCTOQHHKaX OHH uasuaaiorca orY3aMH, a B npyrnx - rypxaeHaMH. Ilpanna, B aexoropax ,noKYMeHTax XII B. rOBOpHTCI! OT,neJlbHO o rypxuenax H orysax, lKHBIlIHX B Xopacane, Masepaaaaxpe H Xopesxe, AHaJIH3 3TH X ,nOKYMeHTOB npHBO.QRT, Oi\HaKO, K suaony 0 60JlbIlIOM .CXO.QCTBe B I!BJleHHHX HX oemecrsesnoro CTPOI! II X03I!iicTBeHHOH lKH3HH. nO,lTOMY Y Hac npaKTHqeCKH ne HMeeTCH KpHTepHlI, n03BO-

86

JIlllOllI,erO rOBOpHTb 0 KapJlHHaJIbHblX pa3JIHqHIIX B cOIIIla.ijbllO-~KOHOMHQeCKOii OpraHH3aUHH TypKMeH H OrY30B.

B HCTOpHQeCKOii nureparvpe HeT e/lHHCTBa MHeHHii 0 xosaacraenHblX 3aHIITIHIX OrY30B H TypKMeH accaenyexoro nepaona. OI\HI1 HCTOpHKH, KaK orxeuaaoce eutne, CqI1TaIOT, 'ITO oryau 3aHHMam1Cb raasHblM 06pa30M [{OQeBbIM CKOTOBO!\CTBOM. ,UpyrHe )[{e onpenenmor HK X03S1iicTBO KaK KOMnJIel{CHOe, OCHOBaHlioe aa 3eMJIene.~HH. CKOTOBOI\crse H Pbl6HOii JIOBJIC. fJ13BHLIM X03lli1CTseHHblM 3aHHTHeM nOl\aBJIHiouiero 60JIbllIHlICTBa orY30B 1I TypKMeH see xce 6bl,10 xouesoe 3[{CTeHCHBHoe C[{OTOBOJlCTBO. ,UaHHblii auson OCHOBblBaeTCSI He TOJ1bKO H3 [JOKa3aHOSIX cpenneaexoaux HappaTOBHblX HCTO'lHHKOB. HG H nOnJ10HHblX .llOKYMeHTGB snGXO CYlll,eCTBOBaHHH rocynapcrna CeJIbn}[(YKI1):(OB (177; 281). Pa3YMeeTcSI, B oryao-rypxaencxoa cpene 6bIJIli 1I KOMnaxrnue rpynnu 3eMJIe)!,eJIbueB 0 PbI6oJ10BOB. O)!'HaKo KOqeBbH~ 11 nOJ1YKOQeBbie oryau H TypKMeHbi SlBHO npeotinanaau nan OCenJ1blM H rroayocennsra HaCeJIelllleMI. BMeCTe C TeM O)(Hoii 1I3 xap axrepnux sepr X0311iicTBa orY30B H TypKMeH HBJIIIJ1aCb TeCHaH CB1I3b Me)[{)(y CKOTOBOnCTBOM 1I OXOTOH, 3eMJle)!,eJ10eM H Pbl6HOii J1oBJ1eii. r10J1YKOqeBblM QrY3aM H TypKMeHaM, xpoxe roro, He 6blJIO qy}[(nO ceaonnoe 3eMJIeneJIHe, npanruuonaaureeca TJ1aBHbIM 06pa30M na J1eTOBKax (519).

TH~" C'OTO- B paBHHHHblX crensx A3HIl H3naBHa cyu(eCTBGBaJ10

aonsecxero TpH GCHaBHblX rana xouenoro X03I1iicTBa. Ilepaaft us

xo.gi!CTBa IIHX xapaxrepnayerca 6ecnpepbIBHblMH nepexosea-

orY'OB H KaMH scero pona HJ1H nJIeMeHH co. CI(QTGM no. Ce3GH-

Typ.MeH HblM nacT6H1lI3M. OTJ1H'IHTeJ1bHGii ~epTaii 3TGi'! <pap-

Mbi CKGTOBanCTBa IIBJ1l1eTCII 60JIbllIoii pannyc KOqeBaHHII Ii OTCYTcTBHe nJ1HTeJ1bHbiX CTO!lHGK. Hapsny C 3THM THnGM, cytnecraonano raiose nGJ1YKGqeBGe Il OTraHHGe CKGTOBGnCTBO. r1G.~YKGQeBbie ponst H nnexena HMeJIH CBGH secenaae, J1eTHHe, oceanne nacrouura II 3HMGBaJ1H B nGCeJIeHII!lX 1I craaosmuax apeuenuoro rnna. OnGHHOe CI{QTGBG)I,CTBO 6b1.10 GCHGBaHG na nOCTGlIHHGii OCenJ1GCTH H ce3GHHblX aTKGqeBxax na cpaBHHTeJIbHG IIe6GJIbllIGe paCCTGHIIlIe (369; 340).

K.G'IeBbIM oryaau II TypKMeHaM 6bIJIH npHcyIUII Bee 3TH runu CI(OTGBG)!,CTBa, 110. npeG6J1anaJOllI,HMII, Be]JOIITHo, IIBJIllJIHCb ase nGCJ1e,ilHHe !jJGpMbI. B Cpel\HeBeKGBbIX IICTOQHIIKaX tJalll,e BCerG rGBOpHTC!l 0. nepenBH}[(eHHII orysoa BeCHGii, J1eTGM H oceasio. MacynH, xax orveuanocs panee, ynGMHHaeT 0. JIeTGBKaX GrY30B ua LIepHGM H EeJ1GM Hpruure (630, c. 62). r106epe}[{bll STHX pex CJ1Y}[(lIJIH 'raioxe 311MlIHMH nacr- 6HIlIaMH )lJ111 oryaos (662, c. 92). Hnpncu nnnrer 0 nerouxax 11 3HMGBKaX orY3GB, KGQeBaBIlIHX na repparopnn nuneiunero 3ana)!,Hora Kas axcrana. CGr.laCHG MapBa3H, GrY3bI KGqeBaJIH B rrycrunax H CTeIUlX, rpaHHQHBIlII1X C oa3I1CaMH Maeepaaaaxpa H Xope3M3 (736, c. 17. 18). EHPYHH cGG61lIaeT 0. nepenBH}KeHHIIX xpynnstx rpynn GrY3GB nosnaea oceusio K rpanauav Xopeaua (14, c. 211). OqeBH)lHG, 3TG 6blJ1H oryau, IlIMIlII1e I1a CBGH 3HMGBKlI B lIH3GBbll Cup-Ilapsa. B HC-

I naa<e B XIV-XV BB. cnOBO «TypI{MeHJlbl1(» uaorna ynorpennanocs B 3Ha· "eHUH «KOqeBHRK» (410, n, 14).

87

ropnuecxax npenaaasx rOBOpHTClI, uro oryasr 3HMOBaJIH H JIeTOBaJlIl no 06eHM CTOpOHaM 3TOll pexa (212, c. 57). Oopauraer na ce611 BHllM anne Il TO 06CTOIITeJlbCTBO, qTO B 51HfHKeHTe JllIllIb 3HMOH lKlIJI «uaps» orY30B (783, c. 393; 450, JI. 26). 3HaqHTeJIbHOrO BHIlMatHlII n 3TOM OTHOllleHIlH SaCJIYlKllBaeT raioxe 113BeCTlle <l>axp a~-.lllllla MepBepy.ull 0 xosaacrae TIOPKOilSblqHblX nJleMeH XII B., cpean KOTOpux ynoMHHalOTCH orysu H xapa-orysu. Paccxaausas 0 Typxecraue H ero 06IlTaTeJIIIX, OR nnurer, qTO TlOpKH HaCeJIlllOT roper, .reca, nyCTblHH H crena. Onna xacrs 113 HllX neaer roponcxoa. oce.uJIbIIi 06pa'j lKH3HH, a npyras lKHBeT B crensx H paasonnr crana JIollla.ueli., nep- 6JIIO.1l0B, 6apaHOD, KOPOB II 6bIKOB. DponHTaHlle CKOTOBQ.uqeCKIlX nneMeH COCTaBJllIeT npecnoe li KllCJIOe MOJlOKO, MIICO H naxranse (nyr). 311MOH liM MeCTOM lKHTeJlbCTBa CJIYlKaT nycruun. rae Bbll1a.1laeT MaJIO cnera, a JlCTOM - lKapKHe crena. 1(0qeBHHKIl, lKllBYUllle B rrYCTbIHSlX H crensx B nepesocaux !OpT ax, He OCTalOTCSI aa O~HOM MeCTe, KpOMe 311Mbl, xorna crena nOKpbIBalOTCSI CHerOM (751).

Bee 31'11 <jJaKTbl rr03BOJIllIOT /l.YMaTb, 'ITO cpenn orY30S )(OMHHHPODaJIH ponsr H naexeaa, saHHMaBllIHeCH rrOJIYKOqeBbIM H OTrOHHblM CKOTOBOII;CTBOM . .llaHHoe npennoaoxcenue MOlKHO ncnxpennrs H MaTepHaJlaMH assnca orY30B Il TypKMeH XI B., B KOTOPblX CYllleCTBOBaJIH rrOHSIrna, cssaaaaae C ,IlJIHTeJIbHblMH OCTaHOBKaMH II npeeuaaunex na onHOM MeCTe. Cpenn nonoonux TepMHHOB CJIClI.yeT OTMeTllTb «rypacn Hep», qTO 03Haq3J10 «CTOllHKa» (266, I, c. 16; 522, c. 218). B 1I3blKe orY30B II TypKMeH XI-XIII BB. ynorpeonnnocs raiose nonarae «!OPT»', .03H3'1aBllIee «MeCTO pO)!{,l(eHHH», «CTOHHKa». «MeCTonpe6bIBaHHe», «lKHJlHllJ,e» (522, c. 97;227, c. 21; 570, c. 105).

B Ka'lCCTBe cpaeanrensnux j\aHHbIX 0 I10JIYKOqeBOM X0311HCTBe orY30B Cpe.uHeli A3HH MOlKHO npaaecrn apxeonomsecxue MaTepHaJlbl o ropxo-nexeaeaccaax naexenax BOCTOqHOii Enponu. OCTaBJleHHble HMH xypraau H MOrHJlbHIlKH CBH.ueTeJlbCTBYIOT 0 noceaonasrx nepexoqeBI(3X no crporo onpenenetmsm MapllIpYTaM. TopKH H nexeaertr HMeJlH 3HMHHe nOCeJIeHH!I, COCTOllBUlHe H3 IOpT H 1I0CTOllHHblX lKHJlHllJ,. T3KHe nocenenns C TeqeHHeM BpeMeHH CTaHOBHJIHCb ueurpaxu 3eMJIelI.eJl II S1, coseraeureroca C OTrOHHblM CKOTOBO,lI,CTBOM. BeCHOH 311;eCb cellJIll npoco H npyrne xynsrypsr, a 3aTeM YXO/l.HJlII co CKOTOM .1l0 ocean na 6J1113JIelKall(He H 60Jlee ornanennue nacT611U(a. l3e)(H!lKII, He HMeBume II;OCT3TOqHOrO KOJlHqeCTBa CKOTa, ocooeuao BhIO'lHbIX lKHBOTHbIX, OCT3BaJlHCb D 3TH X nOCeJIeHHlIX xpyrnoronnsuo (334, c. 151-226; 441, c. 198-202).

Cpenn oryscxax nnexea X-XIII DB. HMeJIIlCb raxsce J(OBOJlbHO 3Ha'lHTeJlbHble rpynnsr THnllqHblX KO'leBHHKOB, perv.nspno COBepUl3B- 1!lIlX II;JlllTeJlbHble nepexonu. B ncrosuaxax X B. OTMeqaCTClI, qTO ory- 3bl «6poII;s'IT no nacrnnurax H BblrOHaM JIerOM Il 3HMOii» (611, c. 86). MacY.1lH onacuaaer nepeABlllKeHHlI orysoa SHMOH co CBOHMH KOHCKII-

1 B CeJlb,lVKYKCKHX TeKCT8J[ H3 MaJlo" A3liH B aHaJIOI'HtlHOM 3Hallen"" BbICTY' uaer repuaa «roprica» (731, c. 229),

.28

MH Ta6YHaMH B npH,l:IOHCI{He crena'. 5I1pYHII YllOMHHaeT 0 rpynnax orY30B, KO'leBaBWHX 6JIII3 oaepa MaHKYP', B crpaae KHMaKOB (14,c. 290; cpo 795, I, c. 194). O\IeBH,l:IHO, aaecs nonpasyxeaaerca \IaCTb orY30B, YXO,l:lHBWHX' aa JIeTO KOqeBaTb aa ryvnue nacrenuia aepxoases Capucy H npenropna YJIYTay (143, c. 9 II 10). KO'IeBbIe rpynna, coaepuraaurae ,l:IJIIITeJIbHble nepexoueaxn B caMble OT,l:IaJIeHHble xpan nycrum, H creneii, 6bIJIII raioxe cpenn TypKMeH (655, c. 254-256), 50JIbWOrO BHI1MaHHII 3aCJIYlKIIBaeT II TOT <jJaKT, 'ITO y orY30B 6blJ!.H nOB03KH C YCTallOBJIeHllblMH na HHX KH6HTKaMH (116). TaKHe nepe- 1I0CHble lKHJIHllla xapaxrepau ,l:IJIII THnHqllbIX KOlJeBHHKOB, nepensaraBWHXCH na 60JIbWHe paCCT05lHHll no CTenHbIM npocropan (340; 4,~7).

Cyuiecrsoeaaue y orY30B II TypKMeH OTMeqellHblX asnue ranos cxoroeon-recxoro x0351iicTBa 6blJIO 06YCJIOBJIell0 MHorllMH npll'l1l1l3MH. fJIaBHblMH 113 HHX llBJIllJIIICb 3KOIIOMIIlJeCKHe H reorpaqiauecxae <!IaKTOPbI, onpeJ\eJIUBWUe COCTaB pa3BOJ\HBWHXCll CTaJl ,l:IOMaWHHX lKHBOTHbIX. OrY3CKHe nJIeMeHa KOqeBa.~H rJIaBllbIM 06pa30M no 06WHPHOMY npOCTpaHCTBY II npenropsaa crennof nOJIOCbI Cpennea A3HH. Mecrnue KJIHMaTHqeCKHe YCJIOBIIII OTJIHqaIOTC5I pe3KHMH KOJIe6aHUllMH ronoson reeineparypu H cpaBHHTeJIbHO He60JIbWHM KOJIllqeCTBOM ocaJ\KOB. OTCYTcTBHe JIeTOM B CTenH J\OCTaTOqHOrO KOJIII'IeCTBa nHTbeBoii BOJlbI C03,l:1aBaJIO 60JIbWIle 3aTpY.1lHeHH5I ,l:IJI5I asmaca CKOTa. Bo.1lY B nycruHe MOlKHO 6blJIO Jl06blTb JlIIWb H3 rJly60KHX KOJIOJ\ueB H J\OlK,l:IeBbIX llM, HanOJIH5IBWIlXCH npn sanananau arwocrpepaux OCaJlKOB. PacTHTeJIbHblii noxpos nycrutn, H crenea ,l:IOBOJIbHO cKY,l:IeH H He OTJIHqaeTCII 60JIbWHM paanooopaauev. B 6apxaHHblX nYCTblHIIX OCHOBHblM KOpMOM JlJIII CKOTa 6bIJIa COJIllHKa, a B crensx - pa3JIHqHbie BHJlbl THnqaKa. HaJIHqHe COOTBeTCTBYIOWHX rnnoa nacT6HLUa onpe.1leJIIIJIO BHnosoa COCTaB H X0351iiCTBeHHoe aarrpaanenae .CTaJl. PaBHHHHble asrroUbi, KaK H3BeCTHO, IIB,l11IOTCII 60.lee npucnocooneanuxn JlJIII paaseneHHII Bep6JIIOJlOB H oneu, qeM AJISI nouranea H xpynaoro poraroro CKOTa. OCo6yIO IleHHOCTb npeJlCTaSJIllIOT sucoxoropuae nacrriuuia. nparonnuc JlJI5I aunaca nOqTH scex nopon .1IOMaWHHX lKHBOTHbIX. Kosensre nnexeaa, 33HIIM3BWHeCII rJIaBHblM o6pa30M KOHeBOJ\CTBOM 11 Bep6JIIOJlOBOJlCTBOM. HYlKJ\aJIHCb B 06WHPHblX nacT611LUax H yronsHX, 3 P33BOJ\HBIllHe 6apaHOS H oc06eUHO 6blKOB II KOPOB 06XOJlHJIIICb

sa ever HiiJI3>KIIbIX H OTrOHHblX nacT6I1LUHb1X BblroHOB·

(655, c. 254--256). ,

C penueaexcaue aaropa dtMe'laIOT, 'ITO oryau H TypKMeHbl HMeJIlI 60JlbWlle CT3Jla oaeu, notuanef H Bep6JIIO.1IOB. B pane HCTO'lHHKOB

I -OqeBH,IlHO, C TetteHHeM BpeMeHH l.I.aCTb 3THX orY30B nOCTynHJI8 aa BoeHilYJO CJ1Y}KOy K xasapax. B OllHOM H3 espeA:cKHx .Il,OKYMeHToB X a, ynouanaerca POll «DrY3», nDIlQHHHBIllHficH ""PIO Xaaapua (591). ITpe6b1Ba"Ue oryaon B X B. na nOllY B cocrase soennux rapHM30HOB YCT8H3SJJHSae'rC5J. H H3 cellose apxeOJlOrHQeCKOrO "aTepHana (40; 41; 346).

2 11 Mapxaapr HCTOJIKOBblBaer «MaHKYp» KaK «MHH·KoJlb· Tar», 03H31J.8101Hce «Topa TblCH'lJi HCTOl.lHHKOB» (669, C. 101, 109). Cnenyer .l10630HTb, 'ITO B sexoropux cpennesexousrx HCTotJHIII{aX VK33b1BaerCH. 1.JTO MaHKypCKH£ ropu 6bWH nOKpLITbl

necaua (781, c. 64). -

89

ynoumraercs TaI()Ke 0. passenenaa HMH KQPQB H ObllWB (611, c. 86; 586, c. 292). Bepoarno, KpynHblil porarua CKo.T B OCHOBHOM conepscans noayocennsre rpynnu, XOTf! OblJ(Il ncrronsaoaaaacs H KO'leBHHKaMH Il..nH ynpazcex. B napparaanux HCTO'lHHKaX He CO.ll.eplKHTCH HHKaKHX aaaHblX 0 rroponax QrY3CKHX KOpOB H ObIKOB. JhY'leHHe OCTeJlOrH'IeCKHX MaTepHaJlOB C noceneaaa cpenseaexoaoro Xopesxa n03BOJlHJIO YCTaHOBHTb, 'ITO. MeCTHble KQPOBbl MaJlO 'IeM OTJlH'Ia.~HCb OT XQpaCaHCKQrO 3eOYBH):(HOrQ CKOTa (91; 451). COBpeMeHHblH l(pynllblH porarua CKOT TypKMeH CO'leT3eT B eerie npH3HaKII rypancsoa H 3eoYBHIl.HQH nopon (285; 431). Orciona MOlKHO npennonoscurs, 'ITO. rypxueucsae nnexeua CKpeCTHJlO lleHTpa.nbHoa30aTCKYIO c acopareanon nQPOIl.QH xpynnoro poraroro CIWTa.

OrY3CKoe 0 TypKMeHCKoe KO'leBHHKH pa3BOIl.H.nH B OCHOBHOM erana oapaHOB, JlOW3Il.eH.H BepGJlIOIl.OB. HaH60JIee aaxcuoe 3HalJeHHe B HX CKOTOBOIl.'IeCKOM X03HHcTBe OMeJlQ MHCQ-MQJlO'lHOe aanpaanenue. HGH <Pa):(JlaH yxasuaaer, 'ITO QrY3CKHe GapaHbl H oausr QTJlH'IaJlHCb OOJIbWQH lKlIPHQCTblO (204, c. 66; 208, c. 128). B X B. GapaHHHa, .lI.QCTaSJIlIBWa!IC5I 03 crpasu orY30B s Xopacan 0 Manepanuaxp, C'IHTaJlaCb O.ll.HQH U3 Jly'lIllHX (256, c. 178; 407, JI. 80; 670, c. 221). O'ieSHIl.HQ, 3TO OblJlQ M5ICQ KYPll.io'lHblX nOPQIl. oseu. B HCTO'lHHI(aX IX--XII BB. 3Ta nopona oaeu Ha3bIBaeTCH QGbJllHQ TIOPKCKOli'. HOH aJI-<paKHx nmner, 'ITO. TlOpKCKHe GapaHb! «O'leHb xpynuue H y BHX 60JlbWile XBQCTbl, BQJlO'lamHeC5I no. 3eMJIe» (167, JI. 168). OBIlb! TIOPKCKOli noponst B XII B. OTMeqalOTCSI Y oryscxax nnexen, otiaraeurax B BaJlXCKQli 06- JlaCTH (265, c. 323). B oQ.nee nosnnee BpeMH fOBQPHTCH 0. Ha.nH'IHH Y TypKMeHCKQrO lIJ1eMeHH aK-KQIOHJIY 6apaHoB,HMeBwHx oxpyrnue H lKHpHble XBQCTbl (785). Flpnsenenaue (P31\Tbl naior BQ3Mo.MHo.CTb yraepacnars, 'ITO oryau H TypKMeHbl paaaonnmr Kyp.u104Hh1X «aen.

Orysu II rypxaenu X-XIII BB .. BepQ5ITIIO, paasonnan T31(~(e crana IwpaKYJlbCKOH noponu oaeu, HOH XaYKaJI lIHWeT, 'ITO. B TypKeCTaHe HMelOTClI oapaHbl, OT KOTo.PblX nOJlY'IaIQT xpacaaue CMYWKIl. Oc060 uenanacs WKypKH 5!rH5!T 'IepHOrO, xpacnoro U reaao-xpacuoro IlBeTOB (265, c. (81). B X B. 60JlbWo.e Koml'leCTBO cnymex BblB03H· JlOCb TaKMe H3 Kepaepa, .ne)!(3Bwero. na nepnoepaa Xopesaa (61 I, c. 123). Apxeoaornuecxoe H3Y'IeHHe noxasaao, qTO naceaeane noil 06.nacTI1 aaxoanaocs B' X-XI BB. B recnux 3THO-KYJIbTypHblX CB5!3HX C orY3CKHMH lIJ1eMeHaMIl. Orciona MO)[{HO npeJlII0,10)[{f1Tb, 'ITO BblBOaanrunecn 113 Kepnepa CMYWKH 1I0.CTYlIaJIH 01' lW'IeBbIX orY30B.

B KO'IeBOM X03'llilcTDe QrY30.B HTypKMeH B3MHoe ~Iecro 3·3HII;;t3.nn raxace IWHeBOIJ,CTB02: Yl6H q>aJlJIaH cooouiaer 0 rl'oMa!~HbIX cruna x nouranea, pa3Bo.uHBlUHXCH orY3aMH B X B. (208, c. 128). BefixaKH YI(a3b1BaeT na 60Jlbtulte l{OHCIH!e TaoYHbl, uuemuueca y Typl(MCII BXI B.

I Cseneaun 06 3TOH nopone oueu conepacarcn 11 B oonee 1I03;J.llliX HCTOIIHHxax (293; 315).

2 i'PY3HHCKHe neronucn XI-XII BB. CBI-I . .l,en.'J]bCT13V10T raxace 0 pasue aeauu CeJlb)l,>J<YKCKHMH nneMeRaMI. MynoB (595, c. 358 " 359).

90

(769, c. 856). OCHoBHall Macca KOIICKoro n{)fOJIOBbH K04eBblX oryaos, BepOllTHO, COCTOll.~a H3 HH3KOPOCJlblX crermsrx nopon, TaKaH nourans XOPOlliO H3BeCTHa H3 TlOPKCKHX xypraauux norpeoeuaa H MOrHJlbIlH· I{QB Cpennerl A311H. B crensx Kasaxcraua Ha'lHHaH C VII B. orxena- 10rCH KOHH C MaCCHBHOH rOJlODO!f. HeB~ICOKHM POCTOM B XOJlKe, TOJ]croa H KOPOTKOii lUeeii (186, c. 200). TlOpKC]{He .nourana 6blJlH XOPOlliO npHCnOCOOJleHbI K MeCTHblM npHponHbIM YCJIOBHlIM H xpyrnoroaasHOMY naCTOHIl\HOMY conepscanmo (72, c. 33 H 34). CTenHoH TIOPKCKOii nouiana 6bIJla npacyura OOHJlbHali MOJlO'lHOCTb H xopoume ~HIco"caJlb" 111>)(' Ka'leCTB3. f!09TOMY xoneasre 1"lOPKii npeznovnrana KOHHIIY MHCY OblKOB H oseu (583, I, c. 225). TlOPKCKHc I{QHH OTJlIi'l3J1llCb aenpnXOTJlHBOCTblO H BblHOCJlHBOCTblO B 6ere pucsro na nansaae paccronHHSI. JIolUaneii TIOP]{H conepacann non OTKpbITbIM HeOOM, He YKPbIB3JJff OT acapu H XOJIOna. TaKHe KOHH HCnOJlb30BaJlHCb .l(.~11 natieroa, BOHH' H npHMeHlIJIllCb nJIH OXOTbl aa nHKHX lKHBOTHbIX (243, c. 231 H 232). 04eBHnHo, TaKHMH me 6blJlH H crennue noponu oryacxnx nouianen.

OrY3bI H Typl(MeHbl uccnenyexoro nepuona pa3BOILHJIH H CTpOIi" "YIO nopony CKaKOBblX JlOUl3ILeii. POCJlbIe· sepxoaue KOHfI C lIeOOJlblUOil ronoaoa H TOHKllMH noraxa nanecrusr lIaM H3 paunenopxcxax xypraHOB. Oopauiaer na ce651 BIIHMaHMe, 'ITO CKeJIeTbl TaKHX JIOillaILeii lIaif" .l\eHbl B 60raTbiX norpeeeuasx TlOPKOSl3bl'lHOil 3HaTU (186, c. 200). S IlCTOpH'IeC]{HX xpounxax HMelOTClI CBelleHHH 0 TOM, 'ITO Y TypKMeH XI B. MMeJlHCb KOHM XYTTaJlbCIWii noponu (598, c. 5); 9TH .nourana OT" JIH'IaJIHCb KpaCMBblM 9KCTepbepOM, crpoanoctsto M nerxocrsio B oere. S MCTOpU'IeCKHX nerennax rosopnrcs. 'ITO XYTTaJlbCKHe KOIIH BeILYT caon POlL OT ILHKOii «Mopc]{oii» nourana (73; 75). OTrOJIOCKH 9TIlX CTa" pHHHblX npenallHIi cOXpaHHJlHCb B TYP]{MeIlC]{HX :;.nH'leCKHX CKa3allHlIX fI naponnox TBOp'IeCTBe (195; 377).

Onncanne nepxonux KOHeil. IlMeBlUHXClI Y CeJlbILlKYKCKI1X nneMen, coaepxcnrcn B pane IlCT04HHKOB XI-XIII BB. Boenue nourann CeJlb.l(lKYKOB I1Meml rsepnsre xonsrra H 6b1JlH crpeanrensau H ObICTpsr, xaic opnsr B nonere (489, c. 72). TaKHe KOIIH llMeHOBaJIHCb no" oryscxn H TypKMeHcKH erorpyx-ar» fI «'lanap» (266. III, c. 34; 570, c. 70). Typxnencxae JIOlUai111 OTJlH1IaJIIlCb CTaTIIOCTblO, nOpOJl.HCTOCTblO M no" 9TOMY uellHJlHCb BbICOKO (720, c. 121). B ceJIbnmYKcKoii npaasopuon nnreparype HMeeTCH f1eMaJlO nOXBaJl B anpec 9THX 3aMe'laTeJlbHblX cxaxynos. I103Tbl XII B. 06pa3Ho cpaBHHBalOT HX 6er C «6bICTPOTOJJ" aerpa» H «B3BOJlHOBaBlUHMCH MopeM» (284, c. 653).

DOJlblUYlO rpynny cpenn KO'IeBblX orY30B H TypKMeH cocraanann Bep6JllO.lI:OBOnbi. Oripauiaer aa ce611 BHHMaHHe, '!TO B HCTOpH'leCKOM rpyne fiCl'\xa]{lI TypKMeHbl HMeHYlOTClI Bep6JllO)K3THI1KaMH (769, c. 585). Orysu H rypxaensr, cynn no HCTO'lHHKaM X-XII BB., pa3BOILHJIH xpynusix nsyropoux 6aKTpHaHoB. H6H <i>aIlJlaH, nyreurecreoaaauma ua TaKHX aeprimonax, IlMellyeT IlX TlOPKCKfiMfi (204, c. 65)., Oryscxae Bep6JIlOnbl OTJlH'IaJlHCb OT xa3apCKHX, HMeBlUHX cpaBIIHTeJlbHO He" 60JIbilloil pOCT (770, c. 15) _ Ilayroprisre CeJlb.ll:lK),]{CKHe Bep6J1lO.lI:bl HaSblBalOTCH B apaoosaaunsrx HCTO'lHHKaX «OYXTY» (598, c. 5; 727,

91

C. 2). B XII B. sra nopoaa 6al(TpllaHOB1 paaaonanace H B Cepaxcxoa 06J1aCTIl (29, JI. 208).

Passeneuae Bep6J1IO.l(OB B ornaune 01' KOHeSOIlC1'Ba Il OBueBO.l(craaorpanuseao 30HOH CYXIlX nYCTbIHb Il crenea. Bep6J11O.l( pasxao>KaeTCIi MeJJ:JleHHee JJ:PYfIlX JJOpoJJ: .l(OMaIIIHHX >KHBOTHbIX. O.llHIlM 113 lIenpe¥eHHblx YCJIOBllil JJ:JIII BocnpOIl3BOJJ:C1'Ba craa Bep6J110.l(OB HBJlIIeTCH lK3PKIlH CYXOH KJIIlMaT (232, c. 3-8). MOJlO.l(HIiK Bep6JIIO>KberO noroaoasa HY>K)1aeTCIi B cOJJ:ep>KaIlHIl na nacrdmuax, aanmmenaux 01' xonoaa H CblpOCTIl. Cpenneeexoaue TypI(MeHbl-Bep6J1IOJJ:oBO.l(bl coaepurana n03TOMY )(JlIlTe,1bHble nepexosemca B I'IIy6b nycruns (655, c. 254:-256).

Hapsny C OBueBOJJ:CTBOM, KOHeBOJJ:CTBOM H Bep6J1IO)(OBO)(CTBOM, oryau H TypKMeHbI 33HIIM3J1HCb TaK>Ke pasaeneaaeu K03. Crana K03 OTMeqalOTC5I Y HIlX A6y llYJlacjJOM (723, c. 21) Il MaxMY)(OM KaIIIrapcxax (522, c. 101). OJJ:HaKo 3Ta nopo na .L10MaIIIHero CKOTa, aepoliTHO, He nrpana 60JlbIIIOH pO,~H B HX CKOTOBO.llqeCKOM x0311ilcTBe. B cpenaesexosux ncrosnaxax 0 craztax K03 orY30B H rypxxen ynoauaaeTclioecbMa pe.lll(o .

.lIaHHble cpeJJ:HeBeKOBblX HCTOqIlHKOB n03BO.1111OT ronopim, 0 BCnymea POJlIl CKOTOBoJJ:cTBa B x03111'icTBe orY30B H rypxsren X-XIII BB. CKOTOBO.llqeCKOe X0311ilcTBO orysou Il TypKMeH B OCHOBHOM HOCIlJlO nOJlYKOqeBOH, orronaus II KOlJeBOii 3KcTelicHBHblil xapaxrep. B HCTOqHIlKaX X B. cooouraercs 0 nacrcaumox cOJJ:epiKaHHIt oryaaxn CBOIlX >KHBOTHhlX H 3HMHeil Te6eHeBKe IIX CKOTa (208, c. 128). O.llH3KO nOJIYKOlJCBble orysu H rypxuensr XI-XIII BB. npaKTHKOBaJIH T3K>KC saroanoe conepacauae OT.lIeJIbHblX nopon >KHB01'llbIX. B cnoaape MaxMy.u,a Katnrapcxoro ynoaanaerca OBelJllH 3arOH, Ha3bIBaBIIIIlilcI! noorY3cKII eroioa aryn» (266, I, c. 63). Ovennano, n03JJ:Hee 1'epMHHOM «arbl!l» Il.nll «arym.2 crana 0603HaqaTbCli Cl'OHHKa nOJlYKOqeBOrO TIlna", B raoccapaa XIII B. npaaeneao rypxaencxoe CJlOBO «3rYJI.lIaw», xoropoe IlCTOJlKOBblBaeTCli y>K€ B 3lfaqeHIlll «O.llHOCeJlbqaHHH» (570, c. 21, 50). 31'0 JlIIIllHHH pas yxasuaaer na TeCHYIO CBH3b aarouaoro conepxcanaa CKOTa C nOJlYKOqeBblM 6bITOM.

Koxessre oryasr Il TypKMeHbl P33BO.llllJlII rJlaBHblM 06pa30M CT<i,l(3 KYP.lllOqHblX iI KapaKYJlbcKIIX oneu, crennux II IIOPO.l(IICTbIX aouranen. 3 raxsce nsyropdsrx Bep6J1lOilOB. I'pynnu orY30Il Il TypKMeH, 3aHIlMaBWHeCI! n6JJYKOqeBbiM II OTrOHHblM CKOTOIlO.llCTBOM, IIMeJlIl TaK>Ke 6b1- KOB, KOPOB II K03_ OCHOBOii CKOTOBO)(qeCKOrO X03HikrBa xoxeasrx ory- 301i'1f TypKMeH 6b1J1o MI!CO-MOJlO'IHOe nanpaanenae II 3ar01'OBKa IIIepera H nyxa. Illepcrs YlloTpe6J1l'IJIaCb JI.JIH 1l3rOTOBJleHIlH BoiiJlOIWB,

1 B cpenaeaexoaux TIOPKCKHX H3bIK8X aayroposre Bep6J1Jo.nbl f1a3b1Ba,tHICb

«6yrpa •• <(SHcopax. (266, I, c. 352; 570, c. 62; 481. e. 18, 22; 507, c. 22).

2 'B pH.l1e cpenseeexosux TIOtJKCKHX H3bIKOB «arYJ1», 03H3tlaJlO exoueaoe craaoanuie, aya, ceaeaae KO'leBHHKOB' (314; 345; 544).

3 nOAo6Horo pona nOCeJleHIH1 cvntec'raoea.ur y rypKMe!l M orvs.», Ma.ITor, A3HH. PaHHeli BeCHOR UK }KRTen" YXOLlHJlH co CI<OTOM aa ropnue nacroauia. JleTOBKH lICnOJlb30B3J1HCb He TOJlbKO B Ka1JeCTBe saroaoe, HO H JtJl}! uocenos CeJIbCI{I)X03HHCTBeHHbIX KyJlbTYp. "OCJle CHHTHH YPOiK8st B03Bpam3JlHCb K 3HMe B CBOH ~.1lcpeann» C 30rOTOBJJeIlHblil KOPIIOII AJlD CICOTO (519. C. 30).

92

UiepcTllHol\ o)!'e>K)l,bI, kOBPOII it )l.pyrilit it9)l,eJJHfI. )i(HBOTHOBO)l,'IeCkiin np0JJ;YKlIHll WJIa He TOJIbKO aa c06CTBeHHble HY)KIJ,b1, HO H nponascy B COceJJ;HHe 3eMJIeJJ;e,lb'leCKHe. 06JIaCTH. CBHlJ,eTeJIbCTBO HCTO'lHHKOB X B. 0 BbIB03e B 60JIbWOM KOJIH'IeCTBe 6apaHHHbI 113 crpaaa orY30B YKa3bIBaeT ua pa3BHTHe TOBapHOCTH ax CKOTOBOJJ;'1eCKOrO X03I1KCTBa.

OrY3bI II TypKMeHbl napaay co CKOTDBOJJ;CTBOM 3aHII-

OXOTHH •• li Ma,~HCb TaK>Ke OXOToi\. B OCHOBHOM 3TO 6b1JI npoau-

npoaucea ory-

30B H TypKMeH cen KO'leBbIX H nOJIYKO'leBbIX nneuen, B paUHOHe KO-

TOPblX MlICO i\HKHX )!{HBOTHblX 3aHHMaJIO BHJJ;HOe

MeCTO. TaKOH(tbIBOJJ; aanpaunraaercs npH 113Y'leHHH JJ;aHHblX cpenneBeKOBbIX aapparanasrx IlCTO'lHHKOB, B IX B. FlaKy6H nHCaJI, aanpuMep, 'ITO ace xoxensre T10 pKII , cpenn KOTOPblX ynoMHHalOTClI H, oryssr, «60JIbWe acero eJJ;51T JJ;H'Ib» (265, C. 150). Hnrepecnoe onacanae OXOTHH'IbHX cnocooon, npaaeuaamaxca TlOpKaMH B IX B., COJJ;ep)!{HTCH' B rpyne ,ll>KaXHaa. TIOPKH, no era CJIOBaM, O'leHb JlI06HT OXOTHTbCli H na)Ke BO BpeMli Ha6erOB npouuurnmor AH'Ib. OHH 6epYT C c060if >Kepe6- ua JIH60 K06bl.1Y H OTUpaBJIlilOTCIi aa OXOTy. B cnysae HeYAa'lH OXOTHHI( nHTaeTClI MO,~OKOM K06blJlbi HJIH pexcer KOHli. CHJJ;lI aa JIOUlaAH, TlOpKH npecnenyior AHKIIX )!{HBOTHbIX, CTpeJiHIOT JII06bIX nrau, 'TIOPKII He acnursraaior YAOBOJIbCTBllll OT namn, eCJlH OHa He npHFOTOBJleHa 113 AH'Ill (243, c. 230, 232, 235).

CYU(eCTBOBaHHe OXOTHII'IberO npoxucna y orysoa oraesaerca H B HCTO'lHIIKax X-XI BB. MacYJJ;H C006ll\aeT, 'ITO crennae TIOPKOll3b1'1' asre rtnesrena eJJ;lIT JJ;a>Ke lIcTpe60B H BOPOH, OHH «He 3HalOT npyroro JJ;eJIa, KpOMe OXOTbI» (11, C. 75; cp. 179, JI. 49; 455, JI. 134).

CpeJJ;H oryacxux nJIeMeH X B., CYAH no TeKCTY HAPHCH, HMeJlHCb TaK)!{e OXOTHHlm na nyuraux aaepea. Oryau, >KHBWHe aa 51HKe, 9M6e H B npenropsax IO)KHoro YpaJla, OXOTHJlIICb na pe-raax 606pOB H crenHbIX JlHCHU. Ba)KHOe snaxeane HMeJI npa 3TOM npoaucen TaK Ha3bIaaexsrx xpacasrx JIHCHU, Mexa KOTOPbIX ueHHJIHCb oxens BblCOKO'.

B Cpe)l,HeBeKOBbIX HCTO'lHHI(3X OTMe'laeTCSI, 'ITO OXOTHH'IbHM npoMblCJIOM 3aHHMaJIHCb H xovessre naexena CeJIbJJ;)!{YKCKoro 06"beAHHeHHlI (595, I, C. 358, 359). H6H Xaccyn nniuer 0 nopxax XI B., non KOTOPb1MH rrOJJ;pa3YMeBa1OTcSI H CeJlb)l,)!{YKH, 'ITO OHH O'leHb JII06l1T JJ;H'Ib. Koseaue TlOpKH He06b1'1aHHO BbIHOCJll1Bbi H3 oXOTe, oc06eHHO B rrpeCJIeJJ;oBaHHH JJ;)!{eHpaHOB H KYJIaHOB (493, c. 259, 260). CeJIbr JJ;lKYKcKHe naeaena ,!.\JIlI OXOTbI aa rrTHU H JJ;HKHX )KHBOTHbIX rrpHMemfJIH COKOJIOB, 6epKYToB H rOH'IHX c06aK (720, C. 106). B '1HCJIe OXOTHH%HX COKOJIOB yrroMHHaeTCSI 6aJI06aH (HTeJIbrH), C noaoumo KOTOporo TypKMeHbl npousnunaior JJ;H'Ib H B aacrosmee BpeMli (373, c. 56).

Oxor a, TaKHM 06pa30M, He SlBJIHJIaCb caMOCTOllTeJIhHOH OTP3CJIblO X03lli\cTBa orY30B H TypKMeH X-XIII BB. npeHMYll\eCTBeHHO OXOTHHqbHM npOMbICJIOM 3aHHMaJIHCb KO'IeBbIe H nonyxoxeuue nnexeua. OJJ;HaKo cpena orY30B, eepoarno, HMeJIHCb H MopcKHe OXOTHHKH, npo-

I B npoH3BeAeHH" MaeYA" rOBopHTCH, xro Mexa xpacaux JIHCHll, .llotihtSaJ1Hcb B C.P"R" TIOPOK, lKHBWHX M"lKAY Xasapaen H BYPTaCHeil (12, II, c. 181).

2 CJJeA}'er OTMeTHTb. 1J.TO OXOTa flBn~eTC9 JlO<;TO)1HRblM cnYTHHKOM repoes orys-

CKIIX 3nH~eCI<HX cKaa.sBli (700). ..

sa

i\,ibilll.i:IlIi3tilile .hoB.treil COKOJlO.B tI nennxauoa ita ilOCTO'lHOM nooepe>Rbe Kacrnra (265, c. 210). 3TO 6blJlO ocennoe HJIM nonyoceunoe HaCeJIeHHe, coseraauree OXOTY C Pbl6HOH JIOBJIeH (265, c. 61, 210). Oc06eHHo 60JIhlllOe anaxemre cpe.aa orY30B H TypKMeH OXOTa HMeJIa .l\JIlI Ma.~o· HMYIII.HX H 6eAHblx ceMeH (212, c. 64, 65).

'OceAn.... ~peAlI orY30B H TypKMeH X-XII,I 8B., napsny c KO-

nosyoceaaee 'leBHfmaMH, HMeJIHCb KOMnaKTHble rpynnu nOJIY-

rpynn.. oryaos ocennoro H oceanoro HaCeJIeHHlI. Apxeonorunecxoe

H TYPKMeH H3Y'IeHHe nOCeJIeHHH nHlKneH Cup-Ilapsn nOKa3aJIO,

'ITO B 3THX roponax l!(HJIO TaKlKe oryacxoe HaCeJIenne. MeCTIIble oryscxae nJIeMeHa aaHHMaJIHCb Pbl6HOfi JIoBJIeli, 3eMJle.l\eJIHeM H CKOTOBO.l\CTBOM (420; 421; 426; 427).·B 1959-1960 rr. Xopeaucxoa apXeOJIOrH'IeCKOli 3KCne.l\HlI,Heii B 6acceHHe I1HKap-)l,apbH oouapyxena npaaanaexcaaurae oryaax roponauia X-XII BB. Cupnu-Tax-Kana H 3aHrblp-KaJIa. 06a nOCeJIeHHlI HMelOT caoeoopasayro KOHlI,eH'l'pH'IecKYIO nJIaHHpoBKy H paCnOJIOlKeHbI na crapux, 0POIll3»' IlIHXClI Ile60JIbIllHMH KaHaJIaMH sexensusrx yronsax (429, c. 278; 428, c. 30). Apxeonorusecxae MaTepHaJIbI cBH)!.eTeJIbCTBYIOT 0 HaJIH'IIHI cpeaa orY30B, BXOAHBIlIHX B cocras rocyzrapcraa Cblp.l\apbllHCKHX 1I6ry, 3I1a'lHTeJIbHblX rpynn oceaaoro HaCeJIeHHlI. 3TO nonrsepacnaercs H .l\aIlHbIMH nHCbMeHHblX HCTO'lHHKOB X B. 0 nJIeMeHaX orY30B HH30BbeB Cup-Il apsa. MacY.l\H, aanpaxep, C006I11.aeT, 'ITO orysu Ilpaapanss pa3AeJISlJIHCb aa KO'leBbIX H OCeAJIblX'. «B 3TOH MeCTHOCTH,- nauier OH,- cpenu TIOPOK npe06JIa,.'J.aIOT ryasr, xoueaue H oceanue» (II, I, c. 101).

MacY)!.H B npyro» CBoeM npoH3Be)!.eHHH orxeuaer, 'ITO onua '1aCTb TIOfOK »orser B roponax H KpenOCTlIX, a apyraa nacenser CTenH H ropsr 11, c. 75). AHaJIOrIf'lHble H3BeCTHli MbI HaXO)!.H~! B rpynax 'MapBa3H (736, c. 17, 18) If cl>axp an-Ilnna MepBepy,~H. nOCJIe)!.HHii .l\06aBJIlIeT, 'ITO OCeAJIble TIOpKH pasaonsr cana, oropoau H BHHOrpa)!· HHKH (751, c. 41). OqeBHAHO, 3Ty xapaKTepHCTHKY MOlKHO npHMeHHTb H K x035!ifcTBY orY30B M TypKMeH nccnenyexoro nepnoaa.

Kpoxe npaseaeanax ljlaKToB 0 3eMJIe){eJIb'leCKIfX rpynnax orY30B cBH)!.eTeJIbCTByeT H TeKCT H)lPIfCH. COrJIaCHO «KIITa6 PYAlKap», B OTJI.eJIbHblX roponax-xpenocrsx orysos HMeJIOCb nOCTOflHHoe HaCeJIeHHe, aanuxaaureecn nauremrux 3eMJIeAeJIIfeM. Cpena TaKHX yxpennennux' roponxoa ynoMHualOTcli )l,apaH)!.3 H )l,apKY (2, JI. 108; 3, JI. 517). BePOSITHO, fIX HaCeJIeHHe COCTOllJIO H3 pa30pHBIlIHXCli KO'leBHHKOB, ocesIlIHX aa 3eMJIIO, a raroxe npmnnux KOJIOHHCTOB.

Oce.l\JIble rpynnu orY30B H TypKMeH B XI B. HMeJIKCb If B noceneHHflX cpennero Te'leHHlI Cblp-)l,apbH. Ha 3TO yrcaauaaior BHpyHH If MaxMYJI. Kamrapcsua, C006111.al0lll.HH 0 KOqeBbllX If ropoaax ory30~ aa pexe Benaxera (Cup-Ilapsa). B xauecrse HX oceanux nOCeJIeHIlH MaxMYil KamfapcKHli uasusaer Kapnax, CIOTKeHT, cl>apa6 H CbIrHaK (266, I, c. 392, 404). «BM)! rY30B,- nmner MaxMYA Kaun-apcsan.e-

, OceJl.ijhle rpynn .. ItMenMCh raiose CpeAM TOp,wB-orY30B XI-XU BB., yurenuiax D npen •. '" BOCTO"HO" EBPOIThI (334, c. 172, 188-190; 44t c. 199-202).

94

ito'ropblfi muser B. lilt roponax, lie nepeeaxcaer' B .npyrile Mecta il lie BOlOeT, Ha3blBaeTCII IITyK, TO ecrs aaopoureanue, nenaauu» (266, III, c. II; 265, c. 312). 3m CBII.n:eTeJlbCTBO MOlKHO conOCTaBIITb C IICTOPHKO-3THorpaqJilqeCKHMIl .n:aHHblMH 0 Ka3aXCKHX «lKaTaKax». B .lI.OpeBO.~IOUHOHHOM npouraox Ka3aXII Ha3blBaJlII lK3TaKaMil scex npoacasaioLUIIX B 3HMHilKax II Heno.n:BlIlKHblX lKHJlHLUax. J.1cCJle.n:oBaTeJlII neonaoxparno OTMeqaJlII, 'ITO lKaTaKaMII, «ax npaBIIJlO, CT3110BHJlIICb ooenaesume K04eBHIIKIl. C norepea CKOT3, fJIaBHblM 06pa30M nouianea II Dep6J1IO.n:OB, OHII He MOrJlII KOqeB3Tb II npespauranncs s ocennsrx. OnHaKO, CTaHOBHCb lKaTaKOM, 6blBlIlIIH KOqeBHIIK He CODceM nopsraa.a CO (KOTOBO.QCTBOM. )I(aTaKH pa3BOJ(HJlII KpynHblH porarsra CKOT II B ne- 3HaqHTeJlbilOM KOJllI'leCTBe BblOqHblX lKllBOTHblX, HO IIX OCHOBHblM aaBHTlleM CTaHOBIIJlOCb sexnenenae (368)_

Oryscxae HTyKH lKIIJlII He TOJlbKO B roponax, HO II B ceascxax noCeJleIUlHX. «KeHT',-nHllIeT MaXMY.ll. Kanrrapcxas.c-ceneaue y ory- 30B II rex, I(TO npucoeaanancn K HHM» (266, I, c. 288; 491, I, c. 344j. B rJlOCCap"H XIII B. ynoMIlHalOTCII oceanue TypKMeHbl, lKllBllIlle B ceJleHIIHX (570, c. 6, 100)_

Oopauraer na ceoa BHHMaHl-le, 'ITO oryacxae nneuena XI B. naauBaJlII aexnenensuea «Tapblfllll» (266, II, c. 43;.111, c. 183). CeMaHTHqeCKIl .n:aHllblM TepMIIH BOCXO.n:IIT K orY3CJWMY aaaaamno npoca. MaxMy}l, Karurapcxnk cooeinaer, lJTO erapur-crnueaaua Y acex TIOPOK H JlIIUlb Y or-yaoa=-rtpoco» (26b, I, c. :{I 1 J. 0POHCXOlK.n:eIlH€ IICCJle}l,yeMO' 1'0 repxnna, 0603Ha'laBlIlerO naxaps-aexnenensua: _IICTOp"lJeCKI anonne 06"bHCHHMO. C .ll,aBHIIX apexen rpynnu nOJlYKO'leBIIHKOB, COlJeTaBUlIIX 3aHHTHe CKOTOBO}l,CTBOM C o6pa60TKOM 3eMJlH, CeHJlH B OCHOBHOM npoco. «B Typxecraue.c- cooouraer ViaKy6H,-- ner 3eMJle}l,eJlbl.\eB, KpOMe (cerounrx) npoco, a .3TO· nxcaaapc» . (265, c. 149). Ilocneaaee nallMeHOBaHlle, KaK noxaaan B. $. MIlHOPCKllii, npHMeHHJlOCb }l,JlH 0603HaqeHIIH npoca II BHKH (688, c. 256). B CBeTe 3THX <jlaKToB CTaHOBliTCH HCHbIM, nOlJeMY 3eMJle.n:eJlbl.\bJ Ha3b1BaJlHCb no-orY3CKH «T3- pblr411».

MaXMY.n: Kaurrapcxaa OTMelJaeT TaKlKe B H3bll\e orY30B TepMIIHhl «SKHH» - «noces», «TYlm» -«O'lllrueHHoe 3epHO», «rapsn- apnrryHeH» ~ «npncnococneane .n:JI!! O'lHCTKH npoca» (266, I, c. 74; III, c. 174). B «,UIIBaH nyrar aT-TlOpK» np"Bo.n:HTCH I! oryacxne Ha3BaHilH aepnosux H npyrnx KyJlbTYP: npoco (rapur), mouepaa (lOpHH.n:lKa). KyHlKYT (ar orypa}, nmeaaua (aWJlbIK), H6JlOKO (anxa). MOPIWBb

(xeinyp). .

311a'lllTeJlbil0 60JlbWee KOJlll'leCTBO 3eMJle}l,eJlbqeCKIIX TepMIlHoB B TypKMeHcKoM sauxe OTMelJaeTCH B CJlOBaPHX XIII-XIV BB. TIOHBJlHIOTCH Ha3BaHI1!! <jlPYKTOBblX nepessea, pa3J1H'IHblX canossrx H oroponHblX pacreaaa. B rJlOCCapHH XIII B. npHBO}l,lITCH rypxaencxae Ha3BaHIIH aopaxoca (capu 3pIIK). rpymH (apxyzt}, CJlIlBbI II nepcaxa (KYK3H, 3ep.n:3J1Y), rpanara (Hap) H aiiBbl (570, c. 7-73). B TypKMeHcKoM H3blKe XIII-XIV BB. OTMelJalOTCII rarose naseaaas nUJelillUbl (6yr-

, eM. TaK>Ke 0 3HaQellHRX nora TepMHHa: 481; 507; 570; 574; 694; 775.

)lafi) , AblHH (KaIlYH), ropoxa (JJe6JJ.e6H), qe'lellHUbl (Map'lIiMaKj, pa3JJH'IHblX COPTOB (sapn, ryJJao) p03 (570, c. 8-10). Hccaenyeuae TOJJKOBble rJJOCCapHH conepxcar H TaKHe TypKMeHcKHe CJJOBa, KaK «6ar» - «ca)l», «oocTaH» - «oropo)l», «xapMaH» +r- «TOK, rYMHo» (570, c. 8-100; 574, c. 24, 56).

OpHBe)leHHblH MaTepHaJJ cBHJ\eTeJJbCTByeT 06 HHTeHCllBHOM pa3BHTHH 3eMJJeJ\eJJlj!l Y TypKMeH B YKa3aHHyIO snoxy. B nOJJb3Y 9TOro 00- CTO!lTe.~bCTBa rOBOp!lT H aexoropue apyrae <j)aKTbl, HMeIOmHeClI B cpeaaeeexoasrx HCTO'lHHKax. H6H <PYHJ\YK CBH)leTeJJbCTByer, nanpaMep, 'ITO B XII B. B oxpyre BeHxaK BblpamHBaJJC!I COpT J\blHb nOJ\ na- 3BaHHeM «oa.qaK» (9, c. 280). 3TO 6blJJ TYPKMeHCI<HH COpT .lI.blHb, KOTOpue POCJJH B MepBCKOH 06JJaCTH. O'leBH.lI.HO, snecs rronpasyxenaercs urexep-nanax, HBJJ!lIOmHHCH O.ll.HHM H3 coprornnoe 3HaMeHHToro aaxapxaaa (18).

B HCTO'lHIIKaX XII B. HMeIOTCfl raicse YI(a3aHHlI na 3aHlITfIe ory 90B 3CMJIe.ll.eJIHeM. AljJ3aJI aJ(-JlHH KepMaHH, on I!C bID all BTOPlKCHHl' orY30B H3 Xopacana B Kepxan, cooouraer anrepecnue nOJ(pooHOC1'H o aexoropux '1epTaX IIX oblTa H X0311HCTBa. 011 paccxaauaaer, 'ITO B 1176 r. orysu, YTBepJ\HBwHCb B' Kepa aae, HaqaJIH «6JIaroycTpaHBaTh Fepacap, H B pycraxax .AlKHpeq)Ta H Hepnaumpa CTaJIH 3aHHMaTbClI 3eMJJe.ll.eJIHeM» (49, c. 95). AljJ3aJI a.ll.-.AHH KepMaHH BMeCTe C TeM OTxesaer CHJJbHYIO Tflry orY30B K CKOTOBO.ll.CTBY (49, c. 95 H cnen.: 597, c. 117 H cnen.). Oopauraer aa ce611 BHIIMaHHe, 'ITO 3TH orY3CKHe nJJ€MeHa Ha'laJIII 06pa6aTbIBaTb 3eMJIIO nOCJJe roro, KaK nOTepHJJH CKOT H HMymecTBO. Ilpaseaenaue ljJaKTbl CBH.lI.eTeJIbCTBYIOT 0 60JIblUOM BJIHlIHHH 06e.ll.IleHHH B pe3YJIbTaTe norepa CKOTa na npouecc OC€.lI.aHIHI H nepexona KO'leBHHKOB I( 3€MJJe.ll.eJIIlIO.

Cpena ocennax II nonyocenaux rpynn orY30B lIMeJJIlCb He TOJJbKO 3eMJIe.ll.eJIbUbl, 110 H PbI60JIOBbI. HCTaxpH oruesaer B YCTbe AMy.AapbH M€CTHOCTb XaJIH.lI.lKaH, rne 3aHHMaJJlICb Pbl60JIOBCTBOM (cp. 407, JJ. 102). Bpexeaaue CTOllHKH pbl60JJOBOB 6blJJH pasepocaaa na nooepeacse Apanscxcro MOpH II B .lI.eJIbTe Axy-Ilapsa. Mecrnocrs XaJIH.lI.lKaH 6blJl a paCnOJJOlKeHa B crpaae orY30B, nenanexo OT ceneHHH Baparerna. )KHTeJJH XaJIlI,IllKaHa BblJJaBJJHBaJIH 60JIbWOe KOJIH'1eCTBO pbl6b1, BblB031lBliIeHCll B Xopeax II npyrne 06JIaCTII Cpe,!l.Heii A3HII (265, c. 150; 583, I, c. 190, 191). Pbl6HblM H MOPCI<HM npoxucJIOM, aepoarao, 3aHlIMaJJHCb raxxce oryau, lKIIBWlle na BOCTO'lHOM II ceaepnox nooepeacse Kacnas (611, c. 23, 24). Ocennue H nonyocenJIble Pbl60JIOBbl HMeJIIICb H cpenn orY30B, lKl!BliIHX na IOlKHOM 6epery oaepa Banxaui. H,IlPIIClI nmuer, qTO B I'opryae JJOBHJJOCb MHoro Pbl6bl, COCTaBJIflBWeH OCIIOBHYIO I1.I1my oem-aaurero snecs lIace·JIeHHII (2, JI. 108; 265, c. 222). B nOJIb3Y sroro rosopnr II apxeonornsecxae Marepnanu 113 IOlKHoro Ilpaeanxaun-s. 3.l1.eCb 06napYlKeHbl noayocenJJble H ocennue nOCeJJeHHlI TIOPOK, 3aHHMallWIIXCli pbl60JIOBCTBOM, nOJJHBHblM 3eMJJe.ll.eJJlleM H CKOTOBO,llCTBOM (250, c. 55, 56; 247, c. 5)_

CBlI,IleTeJIbCTBa napparaanux HCTO'lHHKOB, TOJII(OBblX cnosapea II apxeoaorauecxae MarepllaJJbI n03BOJIllIOT 3aKJIIO'IHTb, 'ITO oryau II TYP"l>leHbl X-XIII BB. nO.1l:pa3,1leJIllIO'fCfI H~ KOlJeBbIX, nOJIYKOqeObIX,

00

oceaaux U noavocennax. npHSelleHHble SbIWe d>aKTbi iIOJl.KpetIJlllIOT cnpasenaaaocrs saxeuaaaa K. Mapxca 0 TOM, .'11'0 Y a3HaTCKHx. saPOJI.OB MOlKHO npOCJleJI.IITb «oouree COOTHOlIleHHe MelK.IIY OCeJI.JlOCTblO O.llHOO '1aCTH HX II npO.llOJllKI1lO11lHMC5I K04eBHH'IeCTBOM JI.pyroo '1aCTII»

(255, c. 73). .

Ilonyocenaae 11 ocennae rpynnu orY30B 11 TypKMeH 3aHI1MaJlIICb rJlaBHblM 06pa30M 3eMJIeJI.eJlHeM, Ce5l,ijH npoco M npyrne CeJlbCKOXO- 3110CTBeHHble KyJlbTYPbI. OJI.HaKO yposeas I1X 3eMJleJI.eJIb'leCKOH rexHUKH H npaKTM4eCKHX HaBblKOB B IX-XI BB. 6l>IJI euie JI.OBOJIbHO HM3- KIIM. B JleKCIIKe orY30B 11 TypKMeH XI B. Ml>1 He BU.l\HM na3BaMIIH MHOrHX CeJlbCKOX03HOCToeHHblX opynaa, npHMeHlIBIIIHXCH .l\peBHHMU OCe.l\.%IMH 3CMJle.l\eJlLLtaMH. 04eBHJI.HO, 60Jlee HHTeHCHBHOe pa3BIITH~ 3eMJle.l\eJlHe nOJlY4HJIO B orY30-TypKMeHCKoli cpene B XII-XIII DB. B 3Ty nopy OHII 3aHHMaJlHCb rarose orop0.l\HHqeCTBOM H Ca.l\OBOJI.CTBOM, npaoopena neicoropua onur HCKYCCTBeHHoro opouteuaa.

Ocennue 11 nonyoceanae orysu aaorna C04eTa,1H aexnenenae c OTrOHHblM CKOTOBOJI.CTBOM. B 3TOM OTHOllleHHH O,l(HHaKOBoe Bne'13Tneane npOH3BOJI.HT CBHJI.eTe,1bCTB3 A6y-LlYJla<jl3 H A<jl3aJl a.l\-LlHH3 KepMaHH. COrJlaCHO «Ilepaof 3anHCKe», orysu CeMHpe'lbH aupaiuaBaJlH nurenauy H pa3BO.l\HJlH CTaJI.3 63paHOB H K03 (723; 787; 795). OrY3cKHe nneaeua Kepxaaa, nepeuienume K oCeJI.JlOCTH, BClmeCKH CTpeMHJlHCb npaoopecra CKOT, 3aXBaTbls311 ero Y MeCfHoro H3CeJleHH!! (48; 49; 597).

3eMJle.l\eJlb'leCKOe X0351iicTBO orY30B '" TypKMeH HMeJIO narypaJlbHblii xapaxrep H eJI.Ba 06eCne'lHBaJlO HyiK.l\b1 coocreenuoro norpeoneaas. B HCT04HHKax X-XIII BB, HeT CBe.l\eHHii 0 np0JI.3iKe HJlH 06Melie HMH cBoeH 3eMJleJI.eJlbQeCKOii np0JI.YKUIiH. Ha060poT, B 3THX HCT04HHK3X cooomaercs 0 BB03e aepna U xneria .l\alKe B ueurpu ocen ,1b1X H nonyocennux orY30B, nanpanep, B ropon 5!HrHKeHT. B 3TOM 01'HOllleHHH OT 3eMJleJI.eJlbUeB OTJlH43J111Cb aexoropue rpynnu PbI60JlOBOB, nponaaasurae CBOIO npO.l\yKII,HIO B COCeJI.HHe 06J1aCTH.

Oceansre H nonyocenaae oryasr H TypKMeHbl, 3UHHM3BllIHeCII 06· pacorxoa 3eMJlH, lKHJIH He TOJlbKO B roponax, HO H ceJlbCKHX noceneHH5IX. B 3THX nOCeJleHHIIX OCe.l\3JIH KO'leBHHKH H nOJlYKOqeBHHKH B CHJlY pa3J1H'IHbIX COIl,H3J1bHO-3KOHOMH1leCKHX npHQHH. fJl3BHblMH H3 HHX 6b1J1H KJlaCCOBOe paCCJlOeHHe, 06e.l\HeHHe B pe3YJlbT3Te BOHH, M 3CCOBblii nanesc CKOTa II ueXB3TK3 naCT6HIU. 06bl4HO B cyponue xononuue :mMbl BCJleJI.CTBHe rOJlOJleJI.HUbl Ha'lHHaJl3Cb 6eCKopMHU3, npHBOJI.HB1lI351 K rH6eJlH CTaJI.. KOl!eBHHKH Tep5lJIH eKOT H BO apexa noaaasnux 3nU300- THii. JIHllIHBIlIHCb cpeJ].CTB rrpOH3BOJ].CTBa, OHH nepexonuna na OCe.llJlblH H noayocennus 06pa3 lKH3HH, Ilepexon K oCe!l.JIOCTH HepeJI.KO conpoBOlKJ].aJlCIl 06pameHHeM B HCJlaM. OCHOBHblM 3aHIlTHeM 3THX He.l\aBHHX KO'leBHHKOB CTaHOBHJIOCb He TOJlbKO aeaneneaae, HO H peMeCJlO (153, JI. 184; 167, JI. 160),

Orysu H rypxuenu, napsny co. CKOTOBOJI.CTBOM, 3eMJle.l\eJlHeM H pbl60JlOBCTBOM, 3aHHMaJlHCb raiose pasJlH'1HblMH BH)l.aMB pexecna. B IX B. l'IaKy6u oraesan. QTO TlOpKH, B TOM '1HCJle oryau, liBJl5IIOTCIl HCKYCHblMII MaCTep3MH B npHrOTOBJleHHH BoiiJIOKa, urepcranux

97

Peaecnenaoe OPOH3BO)l,CT80 orY.10B H TypKMeH

1 3 ••. 20'

:O)J.elK,1J;ii CTpeJ1 C KOCT!liibiMii HaKOHe'lHIlKaMH (628, c. 295). HHTepecHble CBe)J.eHH!I OpeMeCJleHHOM npOH3BO)J.CTBe orY30B H TypKMeH coaepxcarca B HCTO'lHHKaX XI-XIII BB. Hapacn, HanpHMep, C006ll1aeT, 'ITO )!(HTeJlH llapaH)J.bI H llapKY npOH3BO)J.HJlH 3aMe'laTeJlbHbIe TOBapbI (2, JI. 109; 265, c. 221).

B TOJlKOBblX rJIOCCapH!lX XI-XIII BB. npaaonsrca Ha3BaHHlI MHOfHX npenxeroa pexecna orY30B H TypKMeH. MaxMy)I, Kaun-apcxaa YKa3bIBaeT na npOH3BOACTBO pa3J1H'IHblX BH)J.OB 06YBH, Q)I,elKAbI, nocynsr, YKpameHHH. OrY3bI H rypxaensr H3rOTOBJllIJIH BOHJIO'lHbIe H xoxcaaue canons, urepcrsnue, JIbHlIHble TKaHH H )J.PYrHe H3)1,eJIHlI. B «llHBaH .nyrar aT-TlOpK» npHBe)l,eHbI TaK)!(e Ha3BaHHlI HX peaecneunux HHcTpYMeHToB (491, II, c. 287). Cpenn TypKMeHcKHx peMeCJIeHHblX HHcTpYMeHToB XIII B. ynoMHHaeTCli caxonpamca, HMeHOBaBlilaliCli 'IaKpsnc (570, c. 72). B CJIOBape XIII B. OTMe'laeTC!I raiose cyutecrsoaaHHe y rypxueu peMeCJIeHHHKOB, H3fOTOBJlHBIIlHX caaue pa3J1H'IHble H3- )l,eJlH!! (570, c. 24, 95). CJIOBapb ynoaaaaer, nanpaaep, MacTepoB cepe6p!!HbIX )J.eJI (KOMIOIIl'lH) H TKa'leH ()J.)!(YJIax).

B XI-XIII BB. oc06eHHO CJI3BHJlHCb npOH3BO)J.HBIIlHeC!I orY33MH H TypKMeHaMH BOJiJIOKH (Kl!rH3), naJI3CbI (KHJlHM) H sopcoaae KOBPbl (KaJIH). MaxMy)J. Kamrapcxna orxexaer npoH3Bo)J.CTBO 6eJIbIX TYPKMeHCKI!X KOIilM )l,JI!l KH61!TOK (491, II, c. 87, 101). IIpHrOTOBJIeHHeM I<OIIlM H BOHJlO'lHbIX nOKpbITHH )J,JI!I IOpT 3aHHM3JIHCb B OCHOBHOM )!(eHIlIHHbI H )I.eByIilKH. B XUI B. TypKMeHcKHe )!(eHIIlHHbl TKaJIHKpacnaue oeaaopcouue nanacu H 33MeqaTeJlbHble. sopcoaue KOBPbl (570, c. 14). MYlK'IHHbl H3fOTOBJI!lJIH opyxcae, C6pYH )J.JI!I aepxosux H BblOqHblX )!(HBOTHbIX, nepesaaaue OCTOBbl KH6HTOK II T. )J..

CYllIecTBoBaHHe peaecneanoro npoH3BO)J.cTBa y OfY30B nO)J.TBep)!()J.aeTC!I He TOJlbKO nllCbMeHHblMH HCTOqHHKaMH, HO I! apxeoaoruseCKHM MaTepHaJlOM. Ilpunanneacaanrae oryaax nOCeJIeHH!I B HH30Bb!lX Cup-Ilapsa lIBJI!lJIHCb uenrpaxa pexecna, B qaCTHOCTH· rorrxapaoro npOH3BO)J.CTBa (420). B ll)!(eH)J.e, ~HrHKeHTe H apyrax roponax HaH)J.eHbl raxace oopaanu MecTHoH oryscxoa KepaMHKH'.

PaccMoTpeHHblH aunre HCTopHKo-apXeOJIOfH'IeCKHH MaTepHaJI

n03BOJllleT CY)J.I!Tb 0 peMeCJleHHOM npoasaoncrae HCCJIe)J.yeMoro nepnona y orY30B I! TypKMeH. 31'0 peMeCJIO HOCHJlO )J.oMalIlflllH xapaxrep H 6blJIO TeCHO CB!l3aHO C [(OqeBbiM CKOTOBO)J.CTBOM, 3eMJle)J.eJllleM II Phi-

I B tcasecrne CpaBHu.TenbHO~liCTOpHqeCKOrO M3TepH3JI3 0 pexecne orv-os

XI-XII BB. MO}KHO npasecru mrsearaps ropxo-neneneaccxax MOrHJJhHHKOB, 06U2· PY)KeHHbIX U3 Poce, .uoHue H Poccase. 3~ech HaH:Jl.eH3 r JIHHHH3fl nocyna B <pop~fe GaMKH, xepauaxecxae COCYAbI C OTsepCTHeM AJIfi nO,lJ.BemHBaUHH K ceany. Cpeau HR· aearap» TOPKCI<HX norpeoeHHH HMeIOTC9 KOCT9HbIe nyrosaus; H nJIaCTHHKH - 0(:1',81- KO _YKpaw.eHHH KOHCKoro ceana, 06H3PY}KeHbl raiose MeTan~l"qeCKHe H3J1,enHH: xo.rsna 83 ausxonpoonoro cepeopa, .l'Ke.ne3Hhle crpeaena, npfbKKH, cat'5JIH. HaKOHellHHKH crpen, MellH.I. pbl6onOBHble "PIO'K" (121, c. II, 12; 122, c. 60-80). Bor-a-rete TOPK' cuue MOl'HJlbHHKH conepacar noporae Ha60pw KOHCKoii: copy" H npell.MeTbI BOOPY;.l'I{eHHH (334. c. 163, 188). B .l'KeHCKHX norpeoeanax H3HJI,eHbl cepetipaasre H3UlHBKH aa rOJlOBHbIX y6opax. cepsrn, 6paCJIeTLI, KaMeHHble IlO.ll.SeCKH, cepeopsaae on3CTHI-lKH s n "lle nonyxoneu (334, c. 169, 170). Tcpxo-neaeaearcsae xyprauu conepxcar T.KlI(e rpyoue nenuuc cocyna, H3rOTOBJIeHIfbJe 6e3 rOHlJapHOrO xpyra (334, c. 163; 441? c. 198).

98

60JlOBCtBOM. PeMeCJlO oryaoa Ii TypKMeH HE! Bbl}l,eJlHJlOCb B C3MoCTOi!TeJlbHYIO orpacns npOH3BO}l,CTBa II HMeJlO HaTypaJlbHblif xapaxrep. naHHble cnonaps MaxMY}l,a Kauirapcsoro CBH}l,eTeJlbCTBYIOT 0 TOM; 'ITO orY30-TypKMeHCKHe paaoaue 061l111HHHKH CaMI! npOH3BO}l,I!JlH }l,Jlll ce611 pa3J1H'IHble npenxeru X03l1ilcTBeHHoro H 6blTOBoro Ha3HaqeHHlI'-

BMeCTe C TeM He06xo}l,HMO OTMeTHTb, 'ITO B npouecce pa3BHTI!1I OCe}l,JlOCTH, 3eMJIe}l,eJlHlI H TOprOBJlH cpeaa orY30B H TypKMeH nOCTeneHIIO CKJla}l,bIBaJlaCb npocnonxa peMeCJIeHHHKOB·npo!jl€CC110HaJIOB. HCTO'lIlHKU XII B. C006Il1aIOT, uanpauep, 0 HaJIU'IHH y CeJlb}l,lKYKCKHX nJI€MeH MaCTepOB KI!6HTO'lHblX }l,€JI; H3rOTOBJIlIBIlIHX }l,epeBlIHHble OCTOBbI IOpT (161, C. 10)_ Ilosnuee, B XIII B., ynoMHHalOTClI peMeCJIeHHUKH, cneUUaJIH3HpOBaBIlIUeC!I aa npOI!3BO}l,CTBe YKpallleHHif H TKaueif.

Ornensaue BU}l,bI peMeCJIeUHOif npO}l,YKl(UH orY30B I! TypKMeH B XIII B. HMeJII! roaapaua xapaxrep, Ha 3TO YKa3b1BaIOT <!laKTbl 0 Bbl· B03e U nponasce HMH BOPCOBblX KOBPOB, OTJIH'IaBIlIUXC!I 3aMeq3TeJIbHOIl xpacoroa (217, c. 06). OIl:HaKO ace 3TO He H3MeHHJIO o6w;eif

. xaprauu ux peMeCJIeHHOrO nponaaoacraa, I!M€BllIerO B ueJIOM }l,OMaIllHHIl xapaxrep.

B X03HifcTBeHHoif lKH3HH H 3KOHOMHKe orY30B H ~:~":B~g :~~~ TypKMe~ X-XIII BB. aazcaoe MeCTO 3aHHMaJlH aary-

YP pam.auu 06MeH H TOprOBJI!I. Oryscxaa xoxeaaa

crens HMeJIa TeCHbIe KOHTaKTbI C OCe}l,JIblMH 3eMJIe}l,eJIb'leCKHMH oasacaaa. B3al!MOOTHOllleHHlI orY30B-CTenH!lKOB C 3THM OCell:JIblM naceneHHeM xapaKTepH30BaJIHCb cMeHoil aoexnsrx CTOJIKHOBeHHif MHpHbIMH roproeuxn CB1I311MH. B TOprOBJIe orY30B 11 TypKMeH C CeMHpe'lbeM, Xopeaaoa, Masepanaaxpou 3Ha'lHTeJIbHYIO pOJIb B X-XI BB. HrpaJIH ropoaa 1l:0JIHHbI Cup-Ilapss. Bascnoe. MeCTO B 3TOif TOprOBJIe 3aH11· MaJI 5lHrHKeHT, xyna no Cup-Il apse Il:OCTaBJIHJIlICb H3 Xopeaxa xapaaanu CY},\OB C XJIe6oM. CTOJIlIua Xopeaaa - ropon KlIT .- CJIYlKlIJI B X B. ToproBbIMH eaoporaxa B Typxecraa rY3cKHil» (450, JI. 25; 611, c. 122).

KpynHblM l(eHTpOM TOprOBJIH C orY3aMH na cpenaev Te'leHHH Cup-Ilapsa B X B. 6bIJI ropon Caopan, lIBJIlIBIlIHifclI «C60pHbIM nYHKTOM» I!X xynuon (611, c. 118). H6H XaYKaJI orueuaer, 'ITO B Caripan oryasr npHe3lK3JIH Il:Jlll TOproBJII! BMHpHoe apexa (783, c. 391). B TOp" rOBbIX B3aHMOOTHOllleHHllX C TypKMeHaMH B X B. 60JIblllYIO POJIb, BePOllTHO, HrpaJIH Banaasc, HCIjlH},\lK36 H OepYKeT. MaKIl:HCI! yxaaueaer, 'ITO B nOrpaHH'IHOM C TypKMeHaMH OaJI31l:lKe HMe.1HCb KOJIOHHH apanCKHX xynuos, asrxonnea 113 Hcrpaxaua. OOJIblllHM ToprOBbIM roponou H3 rpanaue CTlOpKaMIl CeMHpe'lbll 6b1JI r. HcilJHll:lKa6. Kynuu npnB03HJIII CBOI! rosapsr B HcilJH,!IlKa6 CO scex KOHl(OB MycYJIbMaHCKoro Bocroxa. PbIHKH nora ropoaa JIOMHJII!Cb OT TOBapoB, Il:OCTaBJIllBIlIHXCII ciona 1!3 Typxecraaa, Oc06eHHO 60JIbillYlO pOJIb B MecTHoM sxcnopTe arpan BblB03 urepcra, BOUJIOKa H oseu (783, c. 391; 611, c. 117).

I 13 3TOM OTHOllleHHH HHTepeCHO T3K>Ke CBH)l.eTeJIbCTBQ .D.>KaXH38: «TIOPOK AC,II3eT Bee npouecca peMeCJI8 cax, He npOCHT nOMOUJ.H Y rosapauten H He oepauraerca 38 CDBeTOM K npyry: OHH (TIOpKH) npOH3BOWIT 0PY>KHC, CTpeJ1bI. cenna, xonuauu, xonsa» (243, c. 241).

MliCO f! npyrae CKOTOBO.ztqeCKfle· npO)l.YKTbl B ocliOBHOM Ji.6c'i'aMlIJlliCb fl3 KO'leBflH orY30B f! 'KapRYKOB.

3Ha'lfiTeRbHali '1aCTb peaecnenasrx f!3tJ;eRHH Illama B X B. npoaaaonnnacs H3 cupsa, nocrynasurero OT oxpecrnux TlOpOK. CIOJ{a saB03HJlHCb, aanpaxep. CblPOMHTHble KO)KfI, nOJ{BepraBIlIHeClI 3aTeM tty- 6JIeHHIO (555, c. 324). Kossa urepcrs .Il.OCTaBJllIRaCb as Tapaaa, a cepe6po-H3 ospecraocren Illaasaxarrra. B Illaure f!3rOTOBnllRHCb eeana H3 nOIlIa.ll.HHoH ~O)KH, Kon'l3HbI, nanarxa, nnama, HOlKHHUbl, pa3RH'IHble M3TepHH. Caenyer OTMeTHTb, 'ITO H3 Illama BblB03I1J1CH XJlOnOK, npoaasasuraacs COCe)l.HHM nJleMeH3M TlOpOK. BOJIbIlIHM crrpoCOM y TIOPOK nOJlb30BaRaCb napua, caxapxaancxae TK3HH KpacHorq UBeTa non Ha3BaHHeM MaMap.ll.)KHJI H nonornaaas MaTepHH CHHH3H (555, c. 324-326)_

B X B. ocooenao HHTeHCHBHbIMH 6blJlH 3KOHO~IH'IeCKHe CBH3H ory,aOB C Xopesxoa H Xopacaaox, MCTaxpH nHIlIeT, 'ITO 60JlbIlIall '1aCTb 60raTCTB xopeaxnauea lIBJllIeTCH pe3YJlbTaTOM HX TOprOBJlH C OKpeCTHblMH TlOpKaMH (265, c. 180). MaKtJ;flCf! YKa3bIBaeT, 'ITO naoinans ropona YpreH'Ia 6blRa MeCTOM 60JlbIlIOrO, OlKHBJleHHoro ropra npHB03- HblM CKOTOM. B nepcancxoa sepcan rpyna MCTaxpH CKa3aHO, 'ITO I'ypraH.~)f( 6blJl CKJIatJ;O'lHbIM nYHKTOM orY3CKHX TOB3pOB. Toproaae sapaBaHbI Hanp3BJllIJlHCb OTClO.Il.a B XopaC3H, Fyprau H Xa33pHIO (407, JI. 101).

B HCTO'lHHKax X-XIII BB. 'lame scero ynoaauaerca 0 TOprOBJle orY30B H TypKMeH nponyxuaen csoero )f(HBOTHOBOA'IeCKOrO X0311iicTBa. CKOT, nocTynHBIlIHH H3 orY3CKHX KO'leBHH, nonssoaanca 60JlbIlIHM cnpOCOM B Xopacaae, Masepamraxpe, Xopesxe. Cpenaeaexonue HCTOpHKH rosopar rarose 0 nponaxce na BHeIlIHHX puuxax CKOTa rypxMeHCKHMH nJleMeH3MH (165, ,XI, c. 125). TOprOBJllI CKOTOM npHHOCHJla auronsr He TOJIbKO KO'leBbIM orysax H TypKMeHaM, HO H 3eMJleAeJIb'leCKOMY HaCeJIeHHIO Xopacaaa H conpeaeasnax 06J1aCTeii. B 3TOM OTHOIlIeHHH xapaxrepao npH3HaHHe 60JlbIllOH POJIH TOproBbIX B3aHMobTHOIlIeHHH C KO'leBHHKaMH B O.ll.HOM H3 cenb.ll.)KYKCKHX tJ;OKYMeHTOB XII B.' «TOBapbI H rrpenneru HX (lw~eBH"KOB), - rOBopHTCH B yxase Caanacapa.v- AalOU(He npH6blJlb, HBJI!lIOTC!I npH'IHHOH YBeJJH'IeHHH 6J1arOneHCTBHlI, AOBOJlbCTBa II nonsau OCeAJIblX JlIO.Il.eH. 3HaTb H npoCTOH H3POA HMelOT CBOIO AOJlIO B 3THX 6J1arax H npeaxyuiecraax» (265, c. 3(4).

OrY3bI H TypKMeHbI Be,1H TOprOBJlIO c COCe.ll.HHMH HapOAaMH He 1'0JlbKO CKOTOM, HO HApymMH TOBapaMH. B X B. H3 crpanu oryaoa BbIB03HJlHCb B Xopacau nOXO)f(He aa nasypar noponu MaJlaXHT3 H aaypara. Kynuu H3 Illaura noxynaan cepe6po, A06bIBaBIlIeeclI B PYAHHKax I'apeaana, 3arraAHble rpynna orysos BeJJH TOprOBJlIO 606poBbIMH MexaMH, BblB03HBlllHMHCH 3aTeM B ApMeliHIO H BH3aHTHIO. CKOpee scero 3TH Mexa oryau nponasana xasapcxaa H 6YJlrapCKHM xynuax, aaXBaTIIBIIlHM B X B. nO'ITH BCIO TOprOBJlIO CO CTpaHaMH

I B KapaX3HH.llC-KOM naMHTHHKe Xl B. <KYT3,llKy-BHJIHK» T3K>Ke oraesaercs suronnocn, roproana C KOqeSblMH UJleMeHaMO (791; 549).

100

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