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Chapter 01 Robin Kumar Basic Pathology http://www.scribd.com/doc/3417084/Chapter-01-Robin-Kumar-Basic-Pa...

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Chapter 01 Robin Kumar Basic Pathology http://www.scribd.com/doc/3417084/Chapter-01-Robin-Kumar-Basic-Pa...

CHAPTER 1

Cellular Adaptations,
Cell Injury, and Cell Death
INTRODUCTION TO PATHOLOGY Ischemic and Hypoxic Injury
OVERVIEW: CELLULAR RESPONSES Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury
TO STRESS AND NOXIOUS STIMULI Chemical Injury
CELLULAR ADAPTATIONS OF APOPTOSIS
GROWTH AND DIFFERENTIATION Causes of Apoptosis
Hyperplasia Apoptosis in Physiologic Situations
Physiologic Hyperplasia Apoptosis in Pathologic Conditions
Pathologic Hyperplasia Biochemical Features of Apoptosis
Hypertrophy Mechanisms of Apoptosis
Atrophy Examples of Apoptosis
Metaplasia SUBCELLULAR RESPONSES TO
OVERVIEW OF CELL INJURY AND INJURY
CELL DEATH Lysosomal Catabolism
CAUSES OF CELL INJURY Induction (Hypertrophy) of Smooth
Endoplasmic Reticulum
MECHANISMS OF CELL INJURY
Mitochondrial Alterations
Depletion of ATP
Cytoskeletal Abnormalities
Mitochondrial Damage
INTRACELLULAR ACCUMULATIONS
Influx of Intracellular Calcium and Loss of
Calcium Homeostasis Lipids
Accumulation of Oxygen-Derived Free Steatosis (Fatty Change)
Radicals (Oxidative Stress) Cholesterol and Cholesterol Esters
Defects in Membrane Permeability Proteins
Hyaline Change
REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE
CELL INJURY
Glycogen
Pigments
MORPHOLOGY OF CELL INJURY
AND NECROSIS PATHOLOGIC CALCIFICATION

Reversible Injury Dystrophic Calcification


Necrosis Metastatic Calcification

EXAMPLES OF CELL INJURY AND CELLULAR AGING


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