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A Novel Cluster-Head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

A Novel Cluster-Head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

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International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems

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A Novel Cluster-head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

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International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems GPAA-2009-0090 Original paper 01-Dec-2009

Ding, Rong; Beihang University, Computer Science Yang, Bing; Beihang University, Computer Science Yang, Lei; Beihang University, Computer Science Wang, Jiawei; Beihang University, Computer Science cluster-head selection algorithm, clustering algorithm, soft threshold, wireless sensor networks

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A brief flowchart of LEACH algorithm 133x188mm (96 x 96 DPI)

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demo ee The flowchart of soft threshold calculation 139x99mm (96 x 96 DPI) rR ev ie w On ly .manuscriptcentral.International Journal of Parallel. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 2 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo URL: http:/mc.com/gpaa Email: user@test.

Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo The lifetime of 100-node network with initial energy 2J/node.demo ee rR ev ie w On ly . 169x127mm (72 x 72 DPI) URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral.com/gpaa Email: user@test.Page 3 of 19 International Journal of Parallel.

demo ee rR ev ie w On ly .com/gpaa Email: user@test. 50% and 100% of nodes died. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 4 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Performance comparison when 1%.International Journal of Parallel.manuscriptcentral. 127x84mm (96 x 96 DPI) URL: http:/mc.

demo ee rR ev ie w On ly . Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Comparison for STCS algorithm with parameter of p2.com/gpaa Email: user@test.Page 5 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. 169x127mm (72 x 72 DPI) URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral. p2/2 and p2/4.

169x127mm (72 x 72 DPI) URL: http:/mc.com/gpaa Email: user@test. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 6 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo The Comparison of STCS with different initial probability and LEACH.International Journal of Parallel.manuscriptcentral.demo ee rR ev ie w On ly .

169x127mm (72 x 72 DPI) URL: http:/mc. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Comparison of STCS and LEACH for 200 nodes network.Page 7 of 19 International Journal of Parallel.com/gpaa Email: user@test.manuscriptcentral.demo ee rR ev ie w On ly .

cn. Jiawei Wang State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment. Other nodes send the data sensed from the environment to these CHs. cluster-head selection algorithm.demo ev iew On ly . soft threshold. Lei Yang. once a node has been selected as a cluster-head (CH).com/gpaa Email: user@test. Instead of changing the threshold to 0 directly. which are usually battery operated sensing devices with limited energy resources. LEACH (Lower Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) [3]. In this paper. Introduction Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) comprises of micro sensor nodes. called Cluster Head (CH). and thus it will lose the chance to participate cluster-head selection. Beijing. so more nodes could have the opportunity to be CHs. In order to extend the network lifetime. LEACH is the most famous one. clustering algorithm. which is one of the most popular clustering mechanisms. the added responsibility results in a higher rate of energy drain at the CHs. the STCS algorithm can also perform better than LEACH. when the scale of network is expanded. in LEACH.buaa. However. One of these is network clustering.International Journal of Parallel.edu. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 8 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 A Novel Cluster-head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Rong Ding. Beihang University. and thus power-efficiency is important in designing clustering protocols. even if it still has enough energy. Bing Yang. in which network is partitioned into small clusters and each cluster is monitored and controlled by a node. we present a novel cluster-head selection algorithm. addresses URL: http:/mc. replacing the batteries is not an option [1][2]. rockyanglei. Keywords: wireless sensor networks.edu. A CH is responsible for conveying any information gathered by the nodes in its cluster and may aggregate and compress the data before transmitting it to the base station (BS). In most cases. {ybing. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms LEACH in network lifetime by an average of 30% approximately. dingr@buaa. within each 1/p rounds. many clustering algorithms have been proposed. many routing protocols have been devised. Among them. the proposed algorithm adjusts the threshold of each node gradually according to the roles they have played in the last round. its threshold will be set to 0. wangjiawei}@cse.cn In recent years.manuscriptcentral. China. However. Fo rP ee rR 1. In addition.

LEACH is the most Fo URL: http:/mc. while Section 5 concludes the paper. As what is mentioned in the above paragraph. In this paper we expand the network size and try different initial probabilities of becoming cluster-head of each node.manuscriptcentral.Page 9 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. These algorithms improve the performance of cluster-head selection from different perspectives. This paper builds on the work described in [4] by giving a detailed description and analysis of Soft Threshold based Cluster-head Selection (STCS) Algorithm. then observe the influence of network size on performance of STCS and find the optimal initial probability. This paper is an extended version of the previous one. many algorithms and protocols for cluster-head selection have been proposed. simulation results are presented in Section 4. once it has acted as a CH in the current 1/p rounds. This kind of selection mechanism causes that a node cannot continue to participate the cluster-head election process. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the related work.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . This paper focuses on how to resolve it by developing a novel approach of cluster-head selection. Finally. as the algorithm continues. 2. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 this by probabilistically rotating the role of CH among all nodes. In this section. a novel cluster-head selection algorithm for wireless sensor networks. In our previous work. Related work In recent years. Therefore. its clusterhead selection mechanism is based on a kind of hard threshold. the nodes which can be chosen as CHs will become fewer and fewer. Section 3 describes the limitations of the current LEACH algorithm and our algorithm on cluster-head selection in detail. we detail the related work on these improvements. However. we simulate a 100-node network to observe the performance of STCS.com/gpaa Email: user@test.

However. In order to overcome the fact that a Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) problem. The main drawbacks of this algorithm are non-automatic cluster-head selection and the requirement that the position of all sensors must be known. it has a new cluster head selection strategy with an adaptive back-off scheme to overcome the power limitation of broadcasting ADV messages in LEACH. a kind of fuzzy logic method is adopted to select the CH. In [11]. In literature [9]. it can produce better clusters by dispersing the CH nodes throughout the network. the author propose an ELCH(Extending Lifetime of Cluster Head) routing protocol Fo URL: http:/mc. the author propose a approach to optimally determine the location of cluster-heads for minimizing communication power. By using a central control algorithm to form the clusters. to get the energy level of sensors in a real network usually needs a routing protocol which will create new cost. LEACH-C (Centralized) [5] uses a centralized controller to select CHs. LEACH’s stochastic algorithm is extended in [6] with a deterministic cluster-head selection.International Journal of Parallel.manuscriptcentral. HEED (Hybrid Energy-Efficient Distributed Clustering) [7] is a distributed clustering scheme in which CH nodes are picked from the deployed sensors. and each cluster-head can accept at most q connections. which utilizes the remaining energy level of each node to determine the threshold.com/gpaa Email: user@test. In literature [10]. Lots of cluster-head selection algorithms are based on LEACH’s architecture. the author propose an Adaptive Clustering Protocol for Medium-scale (ACPM) WSNs which is a LEACH-like clustering protocol. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 10 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 popular clustering algorithm.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . the author proposes an iterative decomposition algorithm and use a randomized multi-start technique for global optimization. In CEFL (Clusterhead Election Using Fuzzy Logic) algorithm [8]. which require that each sensor node connects to at least p cluster-heads for reliability. HEED considers a hybrid of energy and communication cost when selecting CHs.

com/gpaa Email: user@test. and compares it with a threshold T(i).1 LEACH The operation of LEACH is broken up into rounds.Page 11 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. the author proposed A new algorithm for building and regroup clusters. 3. In addition. the node becomes a cluster-head in the current round. In literature [12]. At the beginning of each round. Each round begins with a set-up phase. the selection of cluster-head is according to the votes from their neighbors. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 that has self-configuration and hierarchal routing properties. which is called Improved Distributed Cluster Organization Algorithm (IDCOA). and other sensors respond. Algorithm description In this section. in which the clusters are organized. and then put forward our improvement on cluster-head selection in detail.manuscriptcentral. our algorithm focuses on improving the cluster-head selection by adjusting the threshold of each node to become CH gradually to extend the network lifetime. 3. nodes are clustered via the way that some nodes propose invitations. If the number is less than T(i). The threshold is set as: p   1 − p * (r mod 1 ) T (i ) =  p  0  i∈G (1) otherwise Where cluster-head number of each round) is the desired (optimal) percentage of cluster Fo k p = N URL: http:/mc. which organize the clusters on the basis of radio radius and the number of cluster members. By the proposed algorithm. Then there is a steady-state phase. we review LEACH algorithm and discuss its limitations. Different from the algorithms mentioned above. each sensor node chooses a random number between 0 and 1. in which data is transferred to the base station. and k is the desired ee rR ev iew On ly .demo rP ( N is the total number of network nodes.

once a node has acted as a CH. which uses the basic LEACH architecture but changes the CH selection procedure to prolong the network lifetime. Each non-cluster-head node determines to which cluster it wants to belong by choosing the CH that requires the minimum communication energy. LEACH has been a landmark in clustering protocols in wireless sensor network with its simplicity and efficiency. This allows the radio components of each non-cluster-head node to be turned off all time except its transmitting time. r represents the current round ( 0≤ r < 1 p ) and G is the set of nodes that have not been selected as CHs in the last r rounds. The cluster head nodes broadcast their status to other sensors in the network. Figure 1 shows the brief flowchart of LEACH algorithm. Thus. In the next section. during the probability based cluster-head selection. Fo URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral.demo rP Figure 1. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 12 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 heads. which is to be used for communication within its cluster so that the signals of different clusters (using different CDMA codes) don't interfere. The CH node aggregates the data obtained from the nodes within its cluster and then transmits the compressed data to the base station. the nodes available to be selected as CHs become fewer and fewer within 1/p rounds. For example. each CH creates a TDMA schedule for the nodes in its cluster. each node will be a CH at some point within 1/p rounds.International Journal of Parallel.com/gpaa Email: user@test. Therefore. its threshold will be set to 0. and thus the energy dissipated in the individual sensors is minimized. A brief flowchart of LEACH algorithm. we will describe the STCS (Soft Threshold Based Cluster-head Selection) algorithm. However. there are some limitations which make LEACH not so effective. ee rR ev iew On ly . Once all the nodes are organized into clusters. The CH node selects a CDMA spreading code randomly.

T(i) will be adjusted step by step instead of being changed to 0 directly. CHs are also chosen according to the probability. we proposed STCS (Soft Threshold Based Cluster-head Selection) algorithm to make an improvement on the CH selection algorithm. How to set the adjusting parameter will be discussed in the following paragraph. all nodes are chosen to be CHs with the probability p = N . In our algorithm. STCS algorithm To meet the unique requirements of wireless sensor networks. we can see that in the first round ( r = 0 ). The soft threshold is adjusted by parameter . the probability of a node to become a CH is also determined by a threshold T(i).demo rP ee k rR ev iew On ly . even if it still has enough energy. The traditional LEACH algorithm adopts a kind of hard-threshold CH selection method. and more evenly distribute energy load among the nodes in the networks.manuscriptcentral. In Section 4. The flowchart of soft threshold calculation. The threshold of each node in the following rounds is based on whether this node is a CH or not and the member number of the cluster in the last round. This may not be the best method to evenly distribute energy consumption on each node and to prolong the lifetime of the network. different from the hard threshold in LEACH. after a node has been selected as a CH once. once a node has acted as a CH. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 3. which is the desired percentage of cluster heads.Page 13 of 19 International Journal of Parallel.com/gpaa Email: user@test. That is. In the STCS algorithm. However.1. From Figure 2. in STCS is a soft threshold. Figure 2. The detailed operations of STCS algorithm are shown in Figure 2. whose value may affect the probability of nodes to become CHs in each round. we will introduce several different parameter values in the simulation. the threshold in its clusterhead selection will be changed to 0 directly and this node will lose its opportunity to be selected as a CH again. That is to say. and try to find the Fo URL: http:/mc.

com/gpaa Email: user@test. . and p is the desired percentage of the CHs. if a node has been selected as a CH in the last round. thus k = N × p . Therefore. in the first round ( r = 0 ).3 Analysis of STCS The STCS algorithm mainly focuses on improving the cluster-head selection procedure. and then As mentioned in Section 3. each node i set its initial threshold to p : 0 X i |r =  1 Set of CHs in the r th round.demo rP node i is a non-CH node in the r th round node i is a CH node in the r th round N ee T ( i ) |r = 0 = rR p 1 − p * ( r mod E (Y |r =0 ) = E ( ∑ X i i =1 ev 1 p ) r =0 iew =p . The concrete operation of adjusting threshold is as follows.2.manuscriptcentral. in the other ( T (i ) |r −1 −ε  T ( i ) |r =  ε T (i ) |r −1 + NUM(C(i))  i ∈ Gr −1 otherwise (3) Fo URL: http:/mc. and represents the C (i ) member number of . Its goal is to design a cluster formation algorithm so that there are approximately k clusters in each round. its probability of becoming a CH in the current round will be decreased by ε. Where NUM ( C ( i ) ) represents the cluster that node i belongs to. else it will be increased by C (i ) NUM ( C ( i ) ) ε . the STCS algorithm should ensure that the expectations of the number of CHs to be k in every round. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 14 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 optimal value. Set N as the total number of network nodes. 3.International Journal of Parallel. ) rounds. then r =0 ) = ∑ 1* T (i ) |r =0 = N × p = k i =1 1 1≤ r < p On (2) Y |r = ∑ X i i =1 N ly r denotes the number N . As shown in Figure 2. while the cluster forming is similar to LEACH by using a distributed algorithm. where nodes make individual decisions without any centralized control.

175) in a 100m x 100m field.. we can get: E (Y |r ) = ∑ 1* T (i ) |r = ∑ 1* T (i ) |r −1 = E (Y |r −1 ) = . Fo URL: http:/mc. so the first node died earlier in STCS than in LEACH. we also set the desired percentage of cluster heads p to 0.Page 15 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. In addition. = E (Y |0 ) = k i =1 i =1 N N 4.com/gpaa Email: user@test. we used a random 100-node network.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly .. as the simulation continued. some nodes may be selected as CHs many times. according to equation (3). since the nodes using the STCS are allowed to be CHs more than once. The parameter in STCS was set to p2. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Where Gr-1 is the set of nodes which were selected to be CHs in the r − 1 th round. However. similar to LEACH. 50% and 100% of the nodes die between LEACH and STCS with each node having the same initial energy level. It caused their energy to drain rapidly.05. In the simulation. each node began with only 2J of energy and calculated its probability as described in Figure 2 to determine its cluster head status at the beginning of each round. Simulation results and analysis In order to evaluate the performance of the STCS algorithm. there is: E (Y |r ) = E[ ∑ X i |r ] = ∑ 1* T (i ) |r i =1 i =1 N N (4) For each cluster C. and the time when 50% and 100% of nodes died were both later in STCS than in LEACH (see Figure 3 and Figure 4). Figure 3. we used NS-2 simulator to simulate STCS and LEACH algorithm for comparison. the BS was located at (50. At the beginning of the simulation. in order to compare with LEACH. We compared the time of communication when 1%. and C(i) represents the cluster that node i belongs to. The lifetime of 100-node network with initial energy 2J/node. For the r th round. In these experiments.manuscriptcentral. the advantage of STCS appeared gradually. The code for our experiments was a modification based on the code of LEACH algorithm [13].

we adjust the threshold T ( i ) with a parameter. In the worst case.e.International Journal of Parallel.manuscriptcentral. Energy(J protocol 1% 50% 100% /node) LEACH 110 220 274 1 STCS 80 250 422 LEACH 380 490 550 2 STCS 130 510 648 LEACH 480 690 758 3 STCS 120 760 1100 LEACH 550 930 1005 4 STCS 190 990 1574 LEACH 860 1230 1350 5 STCS 150 1160 1871 The experimental data listed above indicates that STCS does not perform well enough at the initial period of algorithm. The result of table 1 shows that the conclusion made in the above paragraph is still tenable with different initial energy. 4J and 5J in the 100m x 100m network. Performance comparison when 1%. Simulation parameter setting As shown in Figure 2. 4. In addition. 3J. 50% and 100% of nodes died. So we must make sure that Fo URL: http:/mc. In this section. In the simulation node is .com/gpaa Email: user@test. we will discuss how to choose the parameter. i. 2J.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . The time(s) when 1%. the total number of rounds is 1/p. we will also simulate 200 nodes to observe what influence will be brought by the increase of the number of network nodes. if one node is always selected to be CH from the first round to the last round. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 16 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Figure 4. Table 1 summarizes the results with initial energy per node of 1J. we will use different parameters and observe its impact on the performance of STCS.. However. as the algorithm continues. while the initial threshold of each p p −( )×ε ≥ 0 1 p 2 . In the next section. STCS extends the network lifetime and performs much better than LEACH. ε ≤ p . Table 1. 50% and 100% nodes died for different initial energy.

URL: http:/mc. In addition. The result of the simulation reflects that the parameter ε may have an optimal value between 0 and p2. while the other parameters is the same as before. we just set parameter ε to p2 simply. From Figure 6. the difference of their performance is no longer obvious. Here we simulate STCS algorithm with initial probability of 0. In Figure 5.06. The Comparison of STCS with different initial probability and LEACH. 0. we double the network size to 200 nodes and locate the BS at (100. 0.045. Comparison of STCS and LEACH for 200 nodes network. We can infer from Figure 7 that STCS algorithm can also outperform LEACH with the expansion of the network size. Figure 6 shows the simulation result. p2/2 and p2/4.com/gpaa Email: user@test. As can be seen from Figure 5. Figure 7 shows the simulation result. In order to observe the influence of network size on the performance of STCS. the desired percentage of cluster heads in LEACH is set to 0. 0. p2/2 and p2/4 for comparison. When we set the probability to 0. we can see that the performance of STCS is not increased linearly with the increase of initial probability of network nodes. 350) in a 200m x 200m field.035. Fo Figure 7. but when parameter ε decreases from p2/2 to p2/4. 0.035.Page 17 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. which is also the initial probability of each network node to become cluster-head. we simulated the proposed algorithm with parameter ε equalling to p2.05 and 0. STCS with parameter p2/2 performs better than STCS with parameter p2. Comparison for STCS algorithm with parameter of p2.05. Figure 5.04.03. Figure 6. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 described above. the STCS performs best in compare with LEACH and STCS of other probabilities.manuscriptcentral.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . and to observe how the initial probability influences the performance of STCS.

40(8). Its main idea is to adjust the threshold of each node step by step instead of changing it to 0 directly. References [1] Sun Limin. Akyildiz. and Chen Yu. and H. Heinzelman. pp. In this paper. In addition. W. Sankarasubramaniam. A.manuscriptcentral. Lei Yang. Tsinghua publishing company. we just adopt a way of adjusting the threshold to achieve our purpose of increasing the network lifetime. Balakrishnan. Proceeding of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 2008AA12A216). our future plans will involve how to optimize the selection of the parameter ε. Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless sensor networks. In order to further save energy and extend the lifetime of the network. SKLSDE-2009ZX-04)and the National High-tech R&D Program of China (863 Program) (Grant No. we present a novel cluster-head selection algorithm. and the lifetime of the network is extended by an average of 30% approximately. Beijing. Acknowledgments Supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China(RFDP). Jiawei Wang. 102-114. Chandrakasan. A survey on sensor networks.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . the energy consumption and the network lifetime are important issues for the research of the route protocol.com/gpaa Email: user@test. Li Jianzhong. Conclusion and future work In wireless sensor networks. 223-232 [4] Rong ding. January 2000. Su. the fund of the State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment (Grant No. in proceedings of The Third International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than LEACH algorithm. 2005. when the scale of network is enlarged. and Y. 2002. [2] I. pp. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 18 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 5. 2009 Fo URL: http:/mc. the STCS algorithm can also outperform LEACH. and thus nodes have more chance to become CHs. [3] W. Bing Yang. Wireless Sensor Networks. In this paper. IEEE Communications Magazine. Soft Theshold based Clusterhead Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks.International Journal of Parallel. Hawaii. Athens. F.

Networking and Mobile Computing. J. [9] Xu ling. 2002. and D. pp. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. A. 2007. pp. An improved distributed cluster organization algorithm of wireless sensor networks. [7] O. and Sampalli S. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. M. 2002. [6] M. 2007 [10] Xu Zhezhuang. 2009 Fo URL: http:/mc. 1(4). 2008. pp. http://wwwmtl. Khorsandi Siavash. Christos G. “An Adaptive Clustering Protocol for Medium-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks”. 2004. . Heinzelman. pp.13. Timmermann. Proceeding of the 4th International Workshop on Mobile and Wireless Communications Network. Zhang Xiliang. Haase. 2436-2439 [11] Lotf Jalil Jabari. Li Peng. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 [5] W. 2005. Surabaya. Zhang Shiqing. Optimal Cluster-head Deployment in Wireless Sensor Networks with Redundant Link Requirements. Halifax. Nantes. Li JianPing. energy-efficient. Bao Binghao. Proceeding of the 3rd Annual Communication Networks and Services Research Conference.Page 19 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. Balakrishnan.edu/researchgroups/icsystems/uamps/research/leach/leach_code. A Novel Cluster-based Routing Protocol with Extending Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks. Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy with deterministic cluster-head selection. Cluster-head election using fuzzy logic for wireless sensor networks. .manuscriptcentral. 366–379. 329-333 [13] LEACH Algorithm Code. 9-11. Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Performance evaluation methodologies and tools. 3(4). Bonab Mehdi Nozad. distributed clustering approach for ad-hoc sensor networks. Shanghai.shtml 07. 2008 [12]Zhao junfeng. pp.mit. HEED: A hybrid. Riordan D. 660-670.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . 2007 International Conference on Wireless Communications. and H. R. Fahmy. 255−260.com/gpaa Email: user@test. Chandrakasan. Younis and S. [8] Gupta I. 5th IEEE and IFIP International Conference on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks. Cassandras. . 2008 International Conference on Apperceiving Computing and Intelligence Analysis. An application specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor network. Handy. pp.

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