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Sach Huong Dan Chuan Kien Thuc Ki Nang Toan ( Bgd )

Sach Huong Dan Chuan Kien Thuc Ki Nang Toan ( Bgd )

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Published by: Thanh Nhan on Aug 07, 2010
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pHAN THU NHAT

GIOI THI~U CHUNG vi CHuAN I(IEN THUC, 1(1 NANG CllA CHUONG TRiNH GIAo DUC PHO THONG

1- GI61 THleU CHUNG vE CHUAN

1. Chuan hi nhtrng yell cau, tieu chi (goi chung la yeu cau) tuan thu nhirng nguyen tac nhat dinh, diroc dung de lam thuoc do danh gia hoat dong, cong viec, san pham cua linh vue nao do. Dar diroc nhirng yeu cau cua chuan la dar diroc muc tieu mong muon cua chu the quan If hoat dong, cong viec, san p~Am do.

Yeu cau la sir cu the hoa, chi tier. nrong minh Chuan, chi ra nhirng can cu de danh gia chat hrong, Yeu cau co the dUQ'C do thong qua chi sO' thuc hien. Yeu cau duoc xem nhu nhfrng "chot kiem soar" de danh gia chat hrong dau vao, dau ra cling nhu qua trinh thirc hien.

2. Nhimg yell cau co ban cua chuan

2.1. ChuAH phai co tinh khach quan, nhin chung khong I¢ thuoc vao quan diem hay thai do chu quan cua ngiroi sir dung Chuan,

2.2. Chuan phai co hieu luc 6n dinh ca ve pham vi hill thoi gian ap dung, 2.3. Dam bao tfnh kha thi, co nghia la Chuan do co the dat dUQ'C (la trlnh d¢ hay rmrc d¢ dung hoa hop If giira yeu cau ph at trien a mire cao han voi nhtrng thirc tien dang dien ra).

2.4. Darn bao tinh cu the, nrong minh va co chirc nang dinh hrong. 2.5. Dam bao khong mau thuan voi cac chuan khac trong cung linh vue hoac nhirng Iinh virc co lien quan.

II - CHUAN KIEN THUC, KI NANG CllA CHUONG TRINH

, ;( A

GIAO DUC PHO THONG

Chuan kien thrrc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai do cua Chuang trinh Giao due ph6 thong (CTGDPT) duoc the hien cu the trong cac chuang trinh man hoc, hoat dong giao due (goi chung la man hQC) va cac chuang trinh cap hQC.

DO'i voi moi man hoc, moi cap hQC, muc tieu cua man hoc, cap hQC diroc cu the hoa thanh chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua chuang trinh man hoc, chuang trlnh cap hQC.

1. Chudn kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuong trinh mon hoc la cac yeu cau ca ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua man hoc rna hoc sinh can phai va co the dat dUQ'C sau moi dan V! kien thirc (moi bai, chu de, chu diem, rna dun).

Chudn kiln thuc, ki nang cua mot dun vi kiln thile la cac yeu cau co ban, tci thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua dan V! kien thirc rna hoc sinh can phai va co the dat dUQ'C.

Yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang the hien mile df) can dat ve kiln thuc, ki nang.

Moi yeu diu ve kien thirc, ki nang co the dUQ'C chi tilt hun bang nhimg yeu cdu ve kien thirc, ki nang cu the, nrong minh han ; minh chimg bang nhfrng vi du the hien dUQ'C ca noi dung kien thtrc, ki nang va mire d¢ can dat ve kien thirc, ki nang.

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2. Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang cua Chuong trinh dip hoc Hi cac yeu cau co ban, t6i thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua cac mon hQC rna hoc sinh can phai va co tM dat duoc sau timg giai dean hoc tap trong cap hQC.

2.1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang i:J chuang trmh cac cap hQC de cap t61 nhirng yeu cau t6i thieu v~ kien tlnrc, ki nang rna hoc sinh (HS) can va co th~ dat duoc sau khi hoan thanh chuang trinh giao due cua tirng lap hQC va cap hQC. Cac chuan nay cho thay y nghia quan trong cua viec gan ket, phoi hop giira cac mon hoc nharn dat duoc muc tieu giao due cua cap hQC.

2.2. Viec th~ hien Chuan kien thirc, ki nang i:J cu6i chuang trinh cap hQC th~ hien hinh mau mong doi ve nguoi hoc sau moi cap hQC va can thiet cho cong tac quan li, chi dao, dao tao, boi duong giao vien (GV).

2.3. Chuang trtnh cap hQC da th~ hien chuan kien thirc, ki nang khong phai d6i v61 tirng mon hoc rna doi v61 tirng Iinh vue hoc tap. Trong van ban v~ chuang trinh cua cac cap hQC, cac chuan kien tlurc, ki nang diroc bien soan theo tinh than:

a) Cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang khong duoc dua vao cho tirng mon hoc rieng bier rna cho tirng Iinh vue hoc t~p nham th~ hien su gan ket giira cac mon hQC va heat dong giao due trong nhiern vu thirc hien muc tieu cua cap hQC.

b) Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang va yeu cau v~ thai d<) duoc th~ hien trong chuang trinh cap hoc la cac chuan cua cap hQC, nrc la nhirng yeu cau cu th~ rna HS din dat duoc i:J cuoi cap hoc. Cach th~ hien nay tao mot Him nhin ve sir phat trien cua nguoi hoc sau moi cap hQC, doi chien voi nhtrng gl rna muc tieu cua cap hQC da de ra.

3. Nhtmg dac di~m cua Chuan kien thuc, ki nang

3.1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang duoc chi tiet, nrong minh bang cac yeu cau cu th~, ro rang v~ kien thirc, ki nang.

3.2. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang co tinh toi thieu, nham dam bao moi HS can phai va co th~ dat diroc nhtrng yeu cau cu th~ nay.

3.3. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la thanh phan cua CTGDPT.

Trong CTGDPT, Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau v~ thai d<) doi v61 ngiroi hoc diroc th~ hien, cu th~ hoa i:J cac chu de cua chuang trmh mon hoc thea tirng lap va i:J cac linh vue hoc tap ; dong thoi, Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau v~ thai d<) ciing diroc th~ hien i:J phan cuoi cua chuang trinh m6i cap hoc.

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang la thanh phan cua CTGDPT. Viec chi dao day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia thea Chuan kien tlurc, ki nang se tao nen sl! thong nhat ; lam han che tmh trang day hQC qua tai, dua them nhieu noi dung nang n~, qua. cao so v61 chudn kien thirc, ki nang vao day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia ; gop phan lam giam tieu eire cua day them, hoc them; tao dieu kien co ban, quan trong d~ co th~ t6 chirc giang day, hoc tap, kiem tra, danh gia va thi theo Chuan kien thirc, ki nang.

III - cAc MUC DO vs KIEN THUC, KI NANG

Cac mire d<) ve kien thirc, ki nang diroc th~ hien cu th~ trong Chuan kien thirc, ki nang cua CTGDPT.

Ve kien tlnrc : Yeu cau HS phai nho, nam virng, hieu ro cac kien tlurc co ban trong chuang trinh, sach giao khoa, do la nen tang vtrng Yang d~ co th~ phat trien nang luc nhan thirc i:J cap cao hon.

Ve ki nang : Biet van dung cac kien tlurc da hoc d~ tra 1m diu hoi, giai bai tap, lam thuc hanh ; co ki nang tfnh toan, vi: hinh, dung bieu do, ...

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Kien thirc, ki nang phai dua tren eC1 sa phat trien nang lire. tri tue HS a cac mire do, tir dan gian den phirc tap ; noi dung bao ham cac mire d¢ khac nhau cua nhan tlurc.

Mtrc d<) can dat dUQ'e ve kien tlurc duoc xac dinh thea 6 mire d<) : nhan biet, thong hieu, van dung, phan tfch, danh gia va sang tao (co th~ tham khao them phan loai Nikko gom 4 mire d<) : nhan bier, thong hieu, van dung a mire thap, van dung a mire eao).

1. Nhan biet : La su nho lai cac dfr lieu, thong tin dff co tnroc day; nghia la co tM nhan biet thong tin, ghi nho, tai hien thong tin, nhac lai mot loat dii' lieu, tir cac su kien dan gian den cac If thuyet plnrc tap. Day la mire do, yeu cau thap nhat dla trinh d¢ nhan thirc, th~ hien a cho HS co th~ va chi can nho hoac nhan fa khi diroc dira ra hoac dua tren nhirng thong tin co tfnhdac thu cua mot khai niem, mot sir vat, mot hien urong.

HS phat bieu dung mot dinh nghia, dinh If, dinh luat nlurng chua

giai thfch va van dung duoc cluing.

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire d¢ nhan biet bang cac yeu cau :

- Nhan ra, nho lai cac khai niern, dinh If, dinh luat, tfnh chat.

- Nhan dang diroc (khong can giai thfch) cac khai niem, hlnh the,

vi tri nrong doi giira cac doi urong trong cac tlnh huong dan gian.

- Liet ke, xac dinh cac vi trf nrong doi, cac moi quan he dff biet giira cac yeu to, cac hien nrong.

2. Thong hieu : La kha nang nam duoc, hieu diroc y nghia cua cac khai niern, sir vat, hien nrong ; giai thfch, chirng minh diroc y nghia cua cac khai niem, su vat, hien nrong ; la mire dQ eao han nhan biet nhung la mire do thap nhat cua viec thau hieu sir vat, hien nrong, lien quan den y nghia cua cac moi quan he gifra cac khai niern, thong tin rna HS da hQe ho~e da biet. Di~u do co th~ duqc th~ hi~n bang vi~c

chuyen thong tin tu dang nay sang dang khac, bang each giai thich thong tin (giai thfch hoac tom tat) va bang each tree IU<JIlg xu huang wang lai (dir bao cac he quit hoac anh huang).

Co tM cu th~ hoa mire d¢ thong hieu bang cac yeu cau :

- Dien tit bang ngon ngtr ca nhan cac khai niem, dinh 11, dinh Iuat, tfnh chat, chuyen d6i duoc tir hinh thirc ngon ngtt nay sang hinh thirc ngon ngff khac (vi du : tu loi sang cong thirc, kf hieu, so lieu va ngiroc lai).

- Bieu thi, minh hoa, giai thfch diroc y nghia cua cac khai niem, hien nrong, dinh nghia, dinh If, dinh luat.

- Lira chon, b6 sung, sap xep lai nhfmg thong tin can thiet d~ giai quyet mot van d~ nao do.

- SAp xep lai cac y tra 1m cau hoi hoac 1m giai bai toan thea cau tnic logic.

3. V<Itn dung : La kha nang sir dung cac kien thuc dff hoc vao mot hoan canh cu th~ moi : -van dung nhan biet, hieu biet thong tin d~ giai quyet van d~ d~t ra ; la kha nang doi hoi HS phai bier van dung kien thirc, biet sir dung phirong phap, nguyen If hay y nrong d~ giai quyet mot van d~ nao do.

Yeu cau ap dung diroc cac quy tac, phirong phap, khai niem, nguyen If, dinh If, dinh luat, cong thirc d~ giai quyet mot van d~ trong hoc tap hoac cua tlurc tien. Day la mire d¢ thong hi~u eao han mire do thong hieu tren.

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire d¢ van dung bang cac yeu cau : - So sanh cac phirong an giai quyet van de.

- PMt hien Ioi giai co mau thuan, sai him va chinh sua duoc.

- Giai quyet diroc nhii'ng tlnh huong mm bang each v~n dl:lng cae

kMi ni~m, dinh If, dinh lu~t, tfnh chat dff biet.

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- Khai quat hoa, triru nrong hoa til tinh huong dan gian, dan Ie quen thuoc sang tinh huong moi, phirc tap han.

4. Phan tich : La kha nang phan chi a mot thong tin ra thanh cac phan thong tin nho sao cho co th~ hieu duoc cau tnic, t6 chirc cua no va thiet lap moi lien he phu thuoc Ian nhau gitra chung.

Yeu cau chi ra diroc cac b¢ phan cau thanh, xac dinh dUQ'C moi quan h~ gitta cac b¢ phan, nhan biet va hieu diroc nguyen If cau tnic cua cac bo phan cau thanh. Day la mtrc d¢ cao han van dung VI no doi hoi su thau hieu ca ve n¢i dung IAn hinh thai cau tnic cua thong tin, SI! vat, hien nrong.

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire d¢ phan tich bang cac yeu cau :

- Phan tich cac su kien, dfi' kien thira, thieu hoac du d~ giai quyet

duoc van de.

- Xac dinh diroc moi quan he giira cac bo phan trong roan the.

- Cu th~ hoa diroc nhtrng van de trim urong.

- Nhan biet va hieu diroc cau true cac b¢ phan cau thanh,

5. Danh gia : La kha nang xac dinh gia tri cua thong tin: blnh xet, nhan dinh, xac dinh duoc gia tri cua mot W urong, mot noi dung kien thtrc, mot phuong phap. Day la mot biroc moi trong viec Iinh hoi kien rhirc diroc d~c trung boi viec di sau vao ban chat cua doi nrong, sir vat, hien nrong. Viec danh gia dua tren cac tieu chi nhat dinh ; do co the HI. cac tieu chi ben trong (each t6 chirc) hoac cac tieu chi ben ngoai (phu hop voi muc dich).

Yeu cau xac dinh duoc cac tieu chi danh gia (ngiroi danh gia nr xac dinh hoac diroc cung cap cac tieu chi) va van dung dUQ'C de danh gia,

Co th~ cu th~ hoa mire d¢ danh gia bang cac yeu cau :

- Xac dinh duoc cac tieu chi danh gia va van dung de danh gia thong tin, sir vat, hien urong, sl! kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh gia tri cua cac thong tin, ur lieu theo mot muc dich, yeu cau xac dinh.

- Phan tfch nhirng yeu to, dfi' kien dii cho de danh gia su thay d6i ve chat cua su vat, sir kien.

- Danh gia, nhan dinh dUQ'C gia tri cua nhan to moi xuat hien khi thay d6i cac moi quan he cu.

Cac cong cu danh gia co hieu qua phai giup xac dinh diroc ket qua hoc tap 0 rnoi cap d¢ noi tren M dua ra mot nhan dinh chfnh xac ve nang lire ella nguoi duoc danh gia ve chuyen mon lien quan.

6. Sang tao : La kha nang t6ng hop, sap xep, thiet ke I<;1i thong tin; khai thac, b6 sung thong tin ttt cac nguon nr lieu khac d~ sang Iap mot hinh mau maio

Yeu cau tao ra diroc mot hinh mau moi, mot mang luai cac quan h~ triru nrong (sa do phan lap thong tin). Ket qua hoc tap trong Iinh vue nay nhan manh vao cac hanh vi, nang lire sang tao, dac biet la trong viec hinh thanh cac cau true va mo hinh moi,

Co th~ cu th~ hoa rmrc do sang tao bang cac yeu cau : - Mo rong mot mo hlnh ban dilu thanh mo hinh moi.

- Khai quat hoa nhfrng van de rieng le, cu the thanh van de tdng

quat moi.

- Ket hop nhieu yeu to rieng thanh mot tong the hoan chinh moi.

- Du dean, dl! bao sir xuat hien nhan to rnoi khi thay d6i cac moi

quan he cu.

Day la rmrc d¢ cao nhat cua nhan thirc, VI no chua dung cac yeu to cua nhtrng rmrc d¢ nhan thirc tren va dong thai cung phat tri~n cluing.

IV - CHUAN KlEN THUC, Ki NANG CllA CHUONG

;t " ... ...... ,

TRINH GlAo DVC PHO THONG VUA LA CAN CU,

vUA LA MUC TIEU CllA GIANG D~Y, HOC T~P,

/( .". ,

KIEM THA, DANH GIA

Chuan kien thirc, ki nang va yeu cau ve thai d¢ cua crGDPT bao dam tinh thong nhat, tfnh kha thi, phil hop cua crGDPT ; bao dam chat IUQl1g va hieu qua cua qua trinh giao due.

1. Chuan kien thirc, ki nang lei can cu

1.1. Bien soan sach giao khoa (SGK) va cac tai lieu hirong din day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia, d6i moi phirong phap day hoc, d6i moi kiem tra, danh gia,

1.2. Chi dao, quan If, thanh tra, kiern tra viec thuc hien day hoc, kiem tra, danh gia, sinh hoat chuyen mon, dao tao, boi duong can bo quan If va GV.

1.3. Xac dinh muc lieu cua moi gio hoc, muc tieu cua qua trinh day hoc, dam bao chat IUQl1g giao due,

1.4. Xac dinh muc tieu kiem tra, danh gia doi voi tirng bai kiem tra, bai thi ; danh gia ket qua giao due timg mon hoc, lap hQC, cap hQC.

2. Tai lieu Huang ddn thuc hien Chudn kien thuc, ki ndng diroc bien soan theo hu6ng chi tiet cac yeu cau co ban, toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang cua Chuan kien thirc, ki nang bang cac noi dung chon IQc trong SGK.

Tai lieu giup cac can bo quan If giao due, cac can bo chuyen mon, GY, HS nam virng va thuc hien dung theo Chuan kien thiic, ki nang,

3. Yeu cau day hoc bam sat Chuan kien tlnrc, ki nang 3.1. Yeu cdu chung

a) Can cu Chuan kien thirc, ki nang d~ xac dinh muc tieu bai hQC.

Chii trong day hoc nham dat duoc cac yeu cau co ban va toi thieu ve kien thirc, ki nang, dam bao khong qua tai va khong qua l~ thuoc hoan toan vao SGK ; mire do khai thac sau kien thtrc, ki nang trong SGK phai phil hop voi kha nang tiep thu cua HS.

b) Sang tao ve phirong phap day hoc phat huy tfnh chu dong, tich Cl!C, W giac hoc tap cua HS. Clni trong ren luyen phirong phap tu duy, nang hrc ur hoc, nr nghien CUu ; tao niem vui, hirng khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai d¢ tu tin trong hoc tap cho HS.

c) Day hoc tM hien moi quan he tich eire giua GV va HS, gitra HS voi HS ; tien hanh thong qua viec t6 chirc cac hoat dong hoc tap cua HS, ket hop giira hQC tap ca th~ voi hoc tap hop tac, lain viec theo nhom.

d) Day hoc clni trong den viec ren luyen cac ki nang, nang lire hanh dong, van dung kien thirc, tang cirong thirc hanh va gan noi dung bai hoc voi thuc tien cuoc song.

e) Day hoc chii trong den viec sir dung co hieu qua phirong tien, thiet bi day hoc diroc trang bi hoac do GV va HS nr lam ; quan tam irng dung cong nghe thong tin trong day hoc,

g) Day hoc chii trong den viec dong vien, khuyen khich kip thai sl! tien bo cua HS trong qua trinh hoc tap ; da dang noi dung, cac hinh thirc, each thuc danh gia va tang cirong hieu qua viec danh gia.

3.2. Yeu cdu dOl vOi can bi) qudn Ii co su giao due

a) Nam virng chu tnrong d6i moi giao due ph6 thong cua Dang, Nha mroc ; nam virng muc dfch, yeu cau, noi dung ddi moi th~ hien CI:I

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the trong cac van ban chi dao cua Nganh, trong Clurong trinh va SGK, phuong phap day hoc (PPDH), sir dung phuong tien, thiet bi day hQC, hinh thirc t6 chirc day hQC va danh gia ket qua giao due,

b) Nam vtrng yeu cau day hoc bam sat Chuan kien thirc, ki nang trong CfGDPT, dong thoi tao dieu kien thuan loi cho GV, dong vien, khuyen khich GV tich cue d6i moi PPDH.

c) CO bien phap quan 11, chi dao t6 chirc thuc hien d6i moi PPDH trong nha tnrong mot each hieu qua; thuong xuyen kiem tra, danh gia cac hoat dong day hQC thea dinh hirong day hQC bam sat ChUAn kien thuc, ki nang dong thoi vru tfch C1JC d6i moi PPDH.

d) Dong vien, khen thirong kip thoi nhiing GV thuc hien c6 hieu qua dong thoi voi phe binh, nhac nho nhfrng ngiroi chua tich cue d6i moi PPDH, day qua tai do khong bam sat ChUAn kien thirc, ki nang.

3.3. Yeu cdu doi vOi giao vien

a) Bam sat ChUAn kien thuc, ki nang d~ thiet ke bai giang, voi muc tieu la dat duoc cac yeu cau co ban, t6i thieu ve kien thrrc, ki nang, day khong qua tai va khong qua l~ thuoc hoan roan vao SGK. Viec khai thac sau kien thirc, ki nang phai phu hop voi kha nang tiep thu cua HS.

b) Thier ke, t6 clute, huong dan HS thuc hien cac hoat dong hoc tap vru cac hlnh thirc da dang.phong plui, c6 sire hap dan phu hop voi dac tnrng bai hoc, voi dac diem va trinh d(> HS, voi dieu kien cu the cua lap, tnrong va dia plurong.

c) Dong vien, khuyen khich, tao co hoi va dieu kien cho HS duoc tham gia mot each tfch eire, chu dong, sang tao vao qua trinh kham pha, phat hien, de xuat va Iinh hoi kien thirc ; chu y khai thac von kien tlnrc, kinh nghiem, ki nang da c6 cua HS ; tao niem vui, hung khoi, nhu cau hanh dong va thai d¢ 1\! tin trong hoc tap cho HS ; giup HS phat trien toi da nang lire, tiem nang cua ban than.

d) Thier ke va huang dan HS thuc hien cac dang cau hoi, bai tap phat trien tu duy va ren luyen ki nang; huang dan sir dung cac thiet bi day hQC ; t6 clurc c6 hieu qua cac gia thuc hanh ; huang dan HS co thoi quen van dung kien thirc da hQC vao giai quyet cac van de thuc tien.

e) Sir dung cac phirong phap va hinh thirc t6 chirc day hoc mot each h<JP 11, hieu qua, linh hoat, phu h<JP voi d~c trung cua cap hQC, mon hQC ; noi dung, tinh chat cua bai hoc ; dac diem va trinh d¢ HS ; thoi luong day hoc va cac dieu kien day hoc cu th~ cua tnrong, dia plurong.

4. Yeu cau kiem tra, danh gta bam sat Chuan kien thuc, kinang

4.1. Quan niem vi !dim tra, ddnh' gia

Kiem tra va danh gia la hai khau trong mot quy trinh thong nhat nham xac dinh ket qua thuc hien muc tieu day hQC. Kiem tra la thu thap thong tin til rieng Ie den he thong ve ket qua th1JC hien muc tieu day hQC ; danh gia la xac dinh rmrc d(> dat dtroc ve tlnrc hien muc tieu day hQC.

Danh gia ket qua hQC tap thuc chat la viec xem xet rmrc d¢ dat duoc cua hoat dong hoc cua HS so vru muc tieu de ra doi vci tirng mon hoc, timg lap hQC, cap hQC. Muc tieu cua mei mon hoc duoc cu the hoa thanh cac chuan kien thirc, ki nang. Til cac chuan nay, khi tien hanh kiem tra, danh gia ket qua hQC tap mon hoc can phai thiet ke thanh nhiing tieu chi nham kiem tra duoc day du ca ve dinh tinh va dinh luong ket qua hQC tap cua HS.

4.2. Hai chuc nang Cf1 ban cua kiem tra, danh gia a) Chuc nang xac dinh

- Xac dinh mire d¢ dat diroc trong viec thuc hien muc tieu day hQC, xac d!nh milc d¢ th1!c hi~n Chuc1n kien thuc, ki nang cua chuong

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trinh giao due rna HS dat duoc khi ket thiic mot giai doan hoc tap (ket thuc mot bai, chuong, chu de, chu diem, mo dun, lop hQC, cap hoc),

- Xac dinh doi hoi tfnh chfnh xac, khach quan, cong bang.

b) Chirc nang dieu khien : Phat hien nhirng mat t6t, mat chua t6t, kh6 khan, vuong mac va xac dinh nguyen nhan, Ket qua danh gia HI. can cir de quyet dinh giai phap cai thien thirc trang, nang cao chat IUQ'Ilg, hieu qua day hQC va giao due thong qua viec d6i moi, t6i iru hoa PPDH cua GV va hirong dan HS biet ur danh gia de t6i uu hoa phirong phap hoc tap. Thong qua chirc nang nay, kiem tra, danh gia se la dieu kien can thiet :

- Giiip GV nam diroc tinh hinh hQC tap, mire d(> phan hoa ve trinh d(> hoc lire cua HS trong lop, tir d6 c6 bien phap giiip dO' HS yeu kern va boi dirong HS gioi ; giiip GV dieu chinh, hom thien PPDH ;

- Giiip HS biet dtroc kha nang hoc tap cua minh so voi yeu cau cua clnrong .trmh ; xac dinh nguyen nhan thanh cong cling nhir chua thanh cong, tir d6 dieu chinh phirong phap hoc tap ; phat trien ki nang nr danh gia ;

- Giiip can bo qulin If giao due de ra giai phap quan If phil hop de nang cao chat IUQ'Ilg giao due ;

- Gitip cha me HS va cong dong bier duoc ket qua giao due cua tirng HS, tirng lop va cua ca CC1 sa giao due,

4.3. Yeu cdu kiem tra, danh gia

a) Kiem tra, danh gia phai can cu vao Chudn kiln thuc, ki nang cua tirng mon hoc a tirng lop ; cac yeu cau CC1 ban, t6i thieu can dat ve kien thirc, ki nang cua HS sau moi giai doan, moi lop, moi cap hQC.

b) Chi dao, kiem tra viec thuc hien chuong trinh, ke hoach giang day, hoc tap cua cac nha tnrong ; tang cirong d6i moi khau kiem tra,

danh gia rhirong xuyen, dinh ki ; dam bao chat IUQ'Ilg kicm tra, danh gia thirong xuyen, dinh ki chinh xac, khach quan, cong bang ; khong hinh thiic, d6i ph6 nhung cling khong gay ap lire nang ne. Kiem tra thirong xuyen va dinh ki thea htrong vita danh gia dtroc dung Chuan kien thirc, ki nang, vita c6 kha nang phan hoa cao ; kiem tra kien tlnrc, ki nang CC1 ban, nang lire van dung kien tlnrc cua nguoi hoc, thay vi chi kiern tra hoc thuoc long, nho may m6c kien thirc.

c) Ap dung cac phirong phap phan tfch hien dai de tang cirong tinh nrong dirong cua cac de kiem tra, thi. Ket hop that hop If cac hinh tlurc kiem tra, thi van dap, nr luan va trac nghiem nham han che 16i hoc tu, hoc lech, hoc vet ; phat huy uu diem va han che nhiroc diem cua moi hinh thirc,

d) Danh gia chinh xac, dung thirc trang : danh gia cao hon thirc te se trier tieu dong lire phan dau viron len; ngiroc lai, danh gia khat khe qua mire hoac thai d(> thieu than thien, khong thay duoc st! tien bo, se uc che tmh earn, trf tue, giam vai tro tich cue, chu dong, sang tao cua HS.

e) Danh gia kip thoi, c6 tac dung giao due va dong vien sir tien bo cua HS, giiip HS sua chua thieu s6t. Danh gia ca qua trinh Iinh hoi tri thirc cua HS, chii trong danh gia hanh dong, tinh cam cua HS: nghi va lam; nang lire van dung vao thirc tien, the hien qua irng xu, giao tiep ; quan tam toi rmrc do hoar dong tich cue, chu dong cua HS trong tirng tiet hoc tiep thu tri thirc moi, on luyen cling nhir cac tiet thuc hanh, thf nghiern,

g) Khi danh gia ket qua hoc tap, thanh tfch hoc tap cua HS khong chi danh gia ket qua cu6i cung, rna can chu y ca qua trinh hQC tap, Can tao dieu kien cho HS cung tham gia xac dinh tieu chi danh gia ket qua hoc t~p vai yeu du khong t~p trung vao kha nang tai hi¢n tri thuc rna

11

chu trong kha nang van dung tri tlurc trong viec giai quyet cac nhiem vu plurc hQ1). Co nhieu hinh thirc va dQ phan hoa cao trong danh gia.

h) Khi danh gia hoat dong day hoc khong chi danh gia thanh rich hoc tap cua HS, rna con bao gom danh gia ca qua trinh day hQC nham cai tien hoar dong day hoc. Chii trong phuong phap, ki thuat lay thong tin phan hoi tit HS de danh gia qua trtnh day hoc.

i) Ket hQ1) that hQ1) If giua danh gia dinh tinh va dinh IU<JI1g : Can cu vao d~c diem cua timg rnon hoc va hoar dong giao due a moi lop hQC, cap hQC, quy dinh danh gi~ bang diem ket hQ1) voi nhan xet cua GV hay danh gia bang nhan xet, xep IOC;li cua GV.

k) Ket hQ1) danh gia trong va danh gia ngoai.

D¢ co them cac kenh thong tin phan hoi khach quan, can ket hQ1) hai hoa gina danh gia trong va danh gia ngoai :

- Tu danh gia cua HS voi danh gia cua ban hoc, cua GV, cua co sa giao due, cua gia dlnh va cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua GV vm danh gia cua dong nghiep, cua HS, gia dinh HS, cua cac co quan quan lf giao due va cua cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua co s~ giao due voi danh gia cua cac co quan quan If giao due va cua cong dong.

- Tu danh gia cua nganh Giao due v6i danh gia cua xa hoi va danh gia quoc teo

1) Phai Ia dong hrc thiic day d6i m6i PPDH : D6i moi PPDH va d6i m6i kiem tra, danh gia la hai mat thong nhat httu ca cua qua trinh day hoc, Ia nhan t6 quan trong nhat dam bao chat IU<JI1g day hoc.

4.4. Cdc lieu chi cua kie"m Ira, danh gia

a) Dam bao tfnh to an dien : Danh gia duoc cac mat kien tlurc, ki nang, nang lire, y thirc, thai do, hanh vi cua HS.

b) Dam bao dQ tin cay : Tinh chfnh xac, trung thuc, minh bach, khach quan, cong bang trong danh gia, phan anh dUQ'C chat IU<JI1g thirc cua HS, cua cac ca sa giao due,

c) Dam bao tfnh kha thi : NQi dung, hinh thirc, each thirc, phuong tien t6 chirc kiem tra, danh gia phai phil hQ1) v6i dieu kien HS, co sa giao due, dac bier la phil hQ1) voi muc tieu theo tirng mon hoc.

d) Dam bao yeu cau phan hoa: Phan IOC;li ducc chinh xac trinh de, mire do, nang lire nhan thirc cua hoc sinh, co sa giao due ; can dam bao dai phan hoa rong du cho phan loai doi tU<JI1g.

e) Dam bao hieu qua: Danh gia dUQ'C tat ca cac Iinh vue can danh gia HS, co sa giao due ; thirc hien dUQ'C day du cac muc tieu de ra ; tao dong luc d6i moi phuong phap day hoc, gop phan nang cao chat IU<JI1g giao due.

12

A ,

PHANTHUHAI

HuONG nAN THVC HItN CHuAN I<IEN THUC, 10 NANG MON ToAN THPT

N(n DUNG MON Tom THPT

Noi dung mon TOlin bao gom nhfmg kien thirc co ban ve : - SO va cac phep tfnh tren tap h<JP so thirc, so phirc.

- Menh de va tap h<JP ; cac bieu thuc dai so va IUQ'Ilg giac ;

phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy ve bac hai) ; he phirong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai) ; bat phuong trinh (bac nhat, bac hai, quy ve bac hai) va he bat plurong trmh bac nhat (mot .1n, hai .1n).

- Ham so, gici han, dao ham, nguyen ham, tfch phan va trng dung cua cluing.

- Cac quan he hinh hoc va mot so hinh thong dung (diem, dirong thang, mat phang, huih tam giac, hlnh tron, clip, hlnh da dien. hlnh tron xoay) : phep doi hlnh va phcp dong dang : vecto va toa do.

- Mot so kien thirc ban dau ve thong ke, t6 h<JP, xac suat.

xt NANG co BAN

- Thuc hien duoc cac phep tfnhluy thira, khai can, logarit tren tap so thuc va mot so phep tinh don gian tren tap so phirc.

- Khao sat duoc mot so ham so co ban: ham so bac hai, bac ba, ham so bac bon trung phirong, ham so phan thirc y = ax + h , cx+ il

ax2 + bx + (' , ,

v = I' ham so luang giac, ham so mii, ham so logarit.

. ('X+l '

- Giai thanh thao phuong trmh, bat phirong trinh bac nhat, bac hai, he phuong trinh bac nhat. Giai diroc mot so he phirong trmh, h~ bat phirong trinh bac hai ; phirong trlnh IUQ'Ilg giac ; plurong trinh, bat phirong trinh, he phirong trinh mil va logarit don gian.

- Giai diroc mot so bai toan ve bien d6i IUQ'Ilg giac, luy thira, mii, logarit, ve day so, ve gici han cua day so va ham so.

- Tfnh diroc dao ham, nguyen ham, tich phan ella mot so ham so.

- Ve hinh ; ve bi~u do ; do dac ; tinh d<) dai, goc, dien tfch,

th~ tich. Viet phirong trmh duong thang, dmmg tron, elip, mat phang, mat cau.

- Thu thap va xu If so lieu ; tinh toan ve t6 h<JP va xac suat,

- Voc IUQ'Ilg ket qua do dac va tinh toano

- SU dung cac cong cu do, ve, tfnh toano

- Suy luan va chimg minh.

- Giai toan va van dung kien thuc toan hQC trong hQC t*p va

dm song.

13

,'l,.<' ...., '"

PRAM CHAT TU DUYVA THAI DO

- Kha nang quan sat, dir doan, suy luan hop If va suy luan logic.

- Cac thao tac tir duy co ban (phan tich, tong hop).

- Cac phfun chat tu duy, ~c biet la tu duy linh hoat, doc lap va sang tao,

- Kha nang dien dat chinh xac, ro rang y nrong cua minh va hi~u

duoc y tuong cua nguoi khac,

- PMt trien trf urong nrong khong gian.

- C6 Y thirc nr h9C, hung thu va nr tin trong h9C tap,

- C6 dire tinh trung thirc, can CU, virot kh6, dn than, chfnh xac, ki

luat, sang tao.

- CO Y thirc hop tac, tran trong thanh qua lao dong cua minh va cua nguoi khac.

- Nhan biet duoc vi: dep cua toan hoc va yeu thfch mon Toan.

GIOI THIaU ~CH KIEN THUC

.... '" , /! '"

CHUONG TRINH MaN TOAN PHO THONG

Gizi chu : + Cac yeu t6 kien tlnrc chuan bi. * H9C chinh thirc.

LC)P
MACH NOI DUNG CHU£)~
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1. S6 1.1. so tir nhien * * * * * *
1.2. so nguyen *
1.3. SO hiru ti
+ + * * *
- Phan s6
._-------- _-------- ---------- ---------- --------- ---------
- SO thap phan * * *
--------- - - - - -- ---- --------- --------- ---------- --------- ---------
- SO hiru ti *
1.4. SO thuc * *
1.5. SO plnrc * 14

LaP
M~CH NOI DUNG CHODE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2. D~i hrong va 2.1. DQ dai * * * * * *
do dai IUQ1lg 2.2. G6c *
+ + * *
2.3. Di~n tfch + + + * * * *
2.4. The tich + * * *
2.5. Khoi hrong * * *
2.6. Thm gian * * * * *
2.7. V~.t6c * *
2.8. Ti~n t~ * *
3. D~i so 3.1. Tap hop, menh d~ * *
3.2. Bieu thirc dai s6 + + + * * * *
3.3. Ham s6 va do thi + + + * * * * *
3.4. Phuong trinh, + + * * * * *
h~phuangtrlnh + + + +
3.5. Bat dAng thirc, + + + + * * *
bat phirong trinh + + +
3.6. LUQ'Ilg giac + * *
3.7. Day s6, cap s6 cong, + + + + + *
cap s6 nhan + + 15

M~CH NOI DUNG

CHO DI:

LaP

5

*

2

3

4

12

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

*

*

*

*

7

8

9

6

10

11

4. Giii tich

4.1. Gi6i han

- Gioi han cua day s6

- Gioi han cua ham sO

---------------------------+-~--+--~~ --------- ---------- --------- --------- ---------- --------- -------------------- --------- ---------

*

- Ham s6 lien tuc

*

*

4.2. Dao ham

*

4.3. Nguyen ham, tich phan

5. Hiob bQC

S.l. Cac khai niern hinh h9C madau

5.2. Dai cuong ve dirong thang va mat phang

*

*

5.3. Quan h~ song song - Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

*

5.4. Quan h~ vuong g6c - Trong mat phang

-~--~---- ---- .. _--- --._----- -------_. ---------- -_ .. _---- --._----- ---_.----- --------- _.------------------ --------- .. --.---.

- Trong khong gian

+

*

*

5.5. Da giac

- Tam giac

----~---- -.- ... _- ... -------- -.---.-.- .. __ .. _--- .. _----_. --------- ---_._---- --------- -.----------_.- .. _-- .- .. -_ .... ---_._.-

- Tu giac

--------- -.- .. _-- .. _-------_. -.-----.- ._----. __ . _._._---- _ -. -_ _-.-- --------- ------.-.--------_.- --------- ------.--

- Da giac

+

+

+

+

16

+

+

*

+

'"

*

*

+

*

*

+

12

LaP
MACH NOI DUNG CHUDE
2 3 4 5 6 7
5.6. Duong tron, hinh tron + + + + +
5.7. Hinh da dien +
5.8. Hinh tron xoay +
5.9. Vecto
- Trong mat phang 8

9

*

10

11

- Trong khong gian

5.10. TO<;l d¢

- Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.11. Phep doi hinh

- Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

5.12. Phep dong dang

- Trong mat phang

- Trong khong gian

+

*

+

+

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

6.1. Thong ke .

+

+

+

*

*

*

-----------.~-------------------- -------------------- --------- ---------. --------- _-------- -----_---- --------- -------------------- --------- ---------

*

*

*

6. Thong ke,

To hop. Xac suat

HII1IL.11IAII1!

6.2. T6 hop

6.3. Xac suat

17

*

*

*

*

A ~ A ? 'A"

DAY HOC MOT SO NOI DUNG CUA CHUaNG TRINH MaN TOAN

. .. .

1. D~y hec cac h, th6ng sO'

a) Dat VID1 d~ rna rong cac he thong so : tir thuc tien, nr noi bo roan hoc, phoi h<JP.

b) D':lY hoc nhirng khai niem so : s6 va phep toan, y nghia thuc t! cua nhtrng khai niem so.

c) D':lY hQC phep tfnh va quan he thu tl;l : ren ki nang tfnh toan, phat tri~n nang lire trf rue, ngam hinh thanh quan niem ve cau tnic,

d) Day hoc nhfmg tfnh chat cua m6i he thong so: N, Z, Q, JR, CC .

e) H¢ thong hoa sl! phat trien cua khai niem s6 va Hun ro (gioi thieu) phuong phap rna rong mot he thong so.

2. D~y hQc phltdng trinh va bat phltdng trinh

a) Day hoc khai niem phirong trinh va nhtrng khai niem co lien quan.

b) Day hQC phuong trinh dua vao ham menh d~ : quan niem ve d~g tlnrc ; hi~u dung thuc chat cua dau = trong phirong trinh (hlnh thirc), phan bier dau = trong phuong trinh va dau = trong bien d6i dong nhat ; dieu kien xac dinh va nghiem phirong trtnh,

c) Sir dung ngon ngff cua If thuyet tap h<JP va logic toan (bien d6i urong duong, h¢ qua, ket h<JP nghiem •... ).

d) Day hQC giai phuong trmh.

e) Dien bien cua tap nghiem khi bien d6i phuong trlnh : rna rong, thu hep, urong dirong.

f) Giai quyet plurong dien ngfr nghia (xem xet noi dung cua nhirng menh de toan hoc va nghia cua nhtmg each dat VID1 de roan hQC) va phuong dien cu phap (xem xet cau tnic hinh tlurc va su bien d6i hinh thirc nhitng bieu thirc toan hoc, sir lam viec theo nhfrng quy tilc xac dinh, theo thuat giai).

g) Day hoc giai bai toan bang each lap phirong trinh.

h) Thay diroc img dung cua toan hoc trong thuc t! va viec toan hoc hoa cac bai toan co noi dung thuc tien.

i) Phat hien quan he giua cac dai IU<;1ng.

k) Ki nang giai bai toan, trong tam Ia ki nang I*p va giai phirong trinh.

3. D~y hQc ham sO'

a) D':lY hQC khai niem ham so: giai thich dinh nghia ham so dua vao bieu urong tap h<JP va cau tnic logic, minh hoa khai niern bang cac vi du da dang.

b) Day hoc khao sat ham so : tfnh roan phuc vu khao sat, ve do thi, doc do thi.

c) Phat tri~n nr duy ham : ttr nrong chu dao (phat hien, nghien CUu nlumg sl! nrong img) ; thuc hien gci dong CO' ; hinh thanh bieu urong tien tm tri thirc ve su nrong img dan tri va tap luyen nhfrng hoat dong an kh6p vci tri thirc phirong phap v~ nr duy ham ; phan bac hoar dong ve nr duy ham (sir phirc tap, mire dQ doc l~p cua hoar dong nhan thirc hoc sinh, mire dQ thanh thao cua hoar dong).

d) Phat trien nr duy ham trong toan bo chuang trmh mon toan (theo cac mach toan).

18

4. DCilY hoc dao ham va tich phan

a) Day hoc ham so lien tuc : gioi han cua day s6 ; gioi han cua ham s6 ; ham s6 lien tuc.

b) Day hoc dao ham : hlnh thanh khai niern ; day hQC tim dao ham ; day hoc irng dung cua dao ham.

c) Day hoc nguyen ham va tfch phan : hinh thanh khai niern ; day hoc tim nguyen ham ; khai niem tich phan ; tinh tfch phan,

5. DCilY hoc hinh hoc khong gian

a) Day hoc khai niern : hlnh thanh, cung c6, van dung.

b) Day hoc cluing minh : goi dong CeJ ; phirong phap suy luan va phirong phap chimg minh (xuoi, nguoc lui) ; quy tac ket luan logic.

c) Hinh ve trong day hoc hlnh hoc khong gian : hlnh bieu dien, hinh ve tnrc quan trong day hoc.

6. DCilY hec vectd va toCil dQ a) Day hoc vecto

- Day hoc khai niern vecto : mo tii tinh cung huang bang tnrc giac, sir dung vecto ur do mot each An tang, chu y lien mono

- Day hoc phep toano vecto : can dinh nghia phep toan, quy tac thirc hien phep toan, cac tinh chat CeJ ban cua m6i phep toan.

- Day giai bai tap v~ vecto : chuyen ngon ngir, sir dung cac phep toano

b) Day hoc toa dQ

- Day hoc phirong phap toa dQ trong mat phang : he toa do, lap va sir dung phirong trinh duong.

- Day hoc phirong phap toa dQ trong khong gian lien he voi hinh hoc phang : them phep tinh tich vecto (co huang).

c) Day hoc giai bai tap bang toa dQ : lam quen vm nhfrng each xac dinh toa dQ cua nhirng yeu t6 hlnh hQC ; quy trlnh giai mot bai toan bang phirong phap toa dQ.

7. DCilY hQc mach toan U"ng d\lng

a) Day hoc yeu t6 cua phirong phap s6

- Lam ro m6i lien he giira phuong phap s6, thuat gia! va may tinh.

- Gioi thieu va cho sir dung mot s6 phuong phap s6 thong dung :

phuong phap lap (tim nghiem),

- Hlnh thanh thoi quen lam tron s6 va viet s6 thea quy tac chuan, b) Day hoc yeu t6 cua If thuyet t6i tru

- Lam ro nguon g6c hoac y nghia thirc tien cua bai toano (vi du : bai toan tim duong di ngan nhat ... ).

- Cho HS giai toan t6i uu dira vao nhtrng kien thtrc toan hQC phd

thong : bat dcing thirc ; dao ham.

c) Day hoc mot s6 yeu t6 cua xac suat th6ng ke

- Day th6ng ke mo tii (tir Tieu hoc den Trung hoc phd thong).

- Day dai s6 t6 hop.

Day mot s6 yeu t6 cua If thuyet xac suat : neu y nghia th6ng ke cua xac suat.

8. DCilY hec mQt so yeu to cua Ii thuyet ~p hqp va logic toan

a) Lam ro nhtrng m6i quan he giita nhimg khai niem can cu vao nhtrng m6i quan h~ gitta nhfmg tap hop : bieu thi nhimg m6i quan h~ do bang bieu do Ven.

19

b) Yeu cau sir dung ki hieu cua tap hop va logic trong dien dat toan hQC ; yeu cau logic cua dinh nghia khai niem.

c) Phan tfch cac thanh phan cua cluing minh va cac yeu cau logic nrong irng : luan de, luan cu, luan cluing.

9. D~y hQc theo mach kien thltc toim

a) GV can hinh dung diroc mach kien thirc trong chuang trtnh toan {j tnrong phd thong, cling nhu mach kien thirc chay ngam trong Toan hoc de co the trinh bay dung khi day hQC va qua do giup HS hieu va co tM thac trien diroc kien thirc da hoc. CAn hinh dung va IQt ta cac mach dQC, m~ch ngang de co the irng dung, soi roi kien thirc so cap bm kien thirc Toan cao cap va nguoc lai, chuyen hoa kien tlnrc Toan cao cap thanh so cap (trong tnrong hop co the). Hirong dan HS sao cho qua viec hQC co diroc so d6 ve mach kien thirc co trong chuang trtnh, Chu y bien phap thuc hien sao cho kha thi.

b) GV can giup HS hlnh dung duoc he thong kien thirc de co the hinh dung he thong bai tap, qua do hinh dung duoc mach kien thirc. Tic do biet each khai thac va van dung trong giai toan, hQC toan va nghien CUu Toan hQC.

c) Thong qua day hQC cac mach ki~n thirc, GV can :

- Ren luyen cho HS cac thao tac tu duy : phan tfch, tong hop, nrong tu hoa, khai quat hoa, d~c bier hoa, ...

- Giup HS each Hun giau kien thirc, nrc la day tri thirc va day tri thirc phuong phap, Nhu the cling la day HS each suy nghi, day each sang tao.

- Day HS each hoc, biet 1l,I hoc,

- Phan bac hoat dong, tien toi phan hoa doi urong.

- Day hQC huong tm phat trien,

d) Khi hinh dung duoc cac mach toan, GV co the W lam giau kien thirc, wan tm biet tu sang tac bai tap.

Day hQC mach kien thirc can gan voi day hoc cac tinh huang dien hinh trong mon toan.

Qua viec tim hieu cac mach kien thirc toan (j tnrong phd thong,

GV can van dung diroc trong day hoc cac tinh huong dien hinh nhu :

a) Day hoc khai niern

b) Day hoc dinh Ii

c) Day hQC bai .t~p

d) Day hoc on tap.

Liru y tien hanh theo trinh W, chang han : tiep can, hinh thanh, cung co, he thong hoa, ...

20

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