This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Example : HCl = Hydrochloric Acid NaOH = Sodium Hydroxide CaS = Calcium Sulfide
To distinguish acid. base. . and salt characteristic. base. and salt by using an appropriate indicator. you can : To classify substance having acid.The aim this subject. And to use a simple tool to determine the acidity of a certain substance.
that is meant by acid? Is there any relation between acid and the sour taste of the fruits? . One example of the fruits having unique sour taste in calamondin. Well. it is because this fruit has sour taste which stronger than other citruses or other fruits.We have know that some kinds of fruits in this nature have sour taste.
the definition of acid according to Arrhenius is as follows. sodium ion (Na+). are hydrogen ion (H+). The element atoms which are electrically charged (positively of negatively) are called ions. . The examples of ions among others. Acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when it is dissolved in water. then when an acid compound is dissolved in water the hydrogen ions (H+) and negative ion will be formed according to the following reaction. Based on the definition of acid according to Arrhenius. chloride ion (Cl-). The element atom releasing electrons will be positively charged negatively. As a result. etc. an element atom interacting with other element atoms can release or gain a number of electrons.According to Arrhenius.
1. Sulfuric acid 3. Phosphoric acid = HCl = H2SO4 = H3PO4 H+ + Cl2H+ + SO423H+ + PO43- Any example of acid NAME Hydrofluoric acid Sulfuric acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Chromic acid Phosphoric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA HF H2SO4 HCl HNO3 H2CrO4 H3PO4 NAME Phosphorous acid Acetic acid Carbonic acid Oxalic acid Nitrous acid Chloric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA H3PO3 CH3COOH H2CO3 H2C2O4 HNO2 HClO3 . Hydrochloric acid 2.
They can change the color of other substances. meaning they can destroy other materials. They can react with metals and they produce hydrogen gas (H2). etc. essence of red cabbage. They have sour taste. essence of hibiscus. acids or substance containing acid have the characteristics as follows : They are corrosive.Generally. . including metals and marble. such as litmus paper.
protein is an acid formed from amino acid. there is tartaric acid. there is acid which functions as a constructive substance that is protein. etc. it is : In milk. there is citric acid. in grapes. In citrus fruits. there is lactic acid.Acids are easily found in everyday life. etc . In food there is vinegar or acetate acid. In human body.
You have washed clothes using soap. our brushing the clothes or dishes which have been smeared with soap will produce foam? . haven·t you? When we wash clothes or dishes using soap.
Sodium hydroxide = NaOH 2. hydroxide ions (OH-) and positive ions are formed according to the following reaction. Ammonium hydroxide = NH4OH 3. 1. Based on the base definition above.Base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when it is dissolved in water. then when a base is dissolved in water. Potassium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2 Na+ + OHNH4+ + OHCa2+ + 2(OH)- .
Any example of bases NAME Magnesium hydroxide Zinc hydroxide Iron (II) hydroxide Iron (III) hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Mg (OH)2 Zn (OH)2 Fe (OH)2 Fe (OH)3 Al (OH)3 NAME Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Ba (OH)2 Ca (OH)2 NH4OH KOH NaOH .
liquids and gases. we had better learn the characteristics of bases. meaning they can damage our skin or other materials. .Similar to acid. essence of hibiscus. such as litmus paper. They have bitter taste. the change in color produced by the base is different from that produced by acid. Generally. essence of red cabbage. They can change the color of other substance. bases or substance containing base have characteristics as follows : They are caustic. It is because they can react with fat on our skin and form a soap layer. Some bases are also used by humans. bases also come in solids. etc. However. Hence. They feel smooth on our hand. but some others are harmful and poisonous.
Bases are easily found in everyday life. etc . it is : In limestone. there is ammonium hydroxide. In agriculture for the feedstock in fertilizer manufacturing containing calcium hydroxide. there is aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. etc. there is calcium hydroxide. in medicines for heartburn. In cleaning liquids.
The following are explanations about those indicators.We have know that both acid and base are able to change the color of other substances. . In a chemical laboratory. acid-base indicators which are usually used are artificial indicators and natural indicators. The substances the color of which can change when they interact or react with acid or base are called acid-base indicators.
while in base solution it become red. methyl red and bromothymol blue.The scientist made litmus paper. Phenolphthalein in acid solution does not change in color. . Litmus is absorbable by paper. Litmus is difficult to react with oxygen in the air. Methyl red in acid solution has red color. so it is durable. Besides litmus. Litmus becomes red in acid solution and it be comes blue in base solution. there are also many other artificial acid-base indicators in a chemical laboratory. so it used in the form of litmus paper (to make the substance easily permeates). Litmus paper which is commonly used in chemical laboratories now is prepared in the form of paper. are phenolphthalein. The change of color produced by the litmus paper can be seen clearly. while in base solution it becomes yellow. The litmus paper is a kind of substance prepared from a kind of lichen (Roccella tinctoria). are as follows : The color of litmus can change quickly when it react with both acid and base. As an acid-base indicator. litmus has some advantages among other. among others.
ACID-BASE INDICATOR INDICATOR Litmus Methyl Red Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue IN BASE Blue Yellow Red Blue IN ACID Red Red Uncolored Yellow .
Besides the artificial indicators. we can also identify acid or base by using natural indicator. . methyl red. red cabbage. such as litmus. turmeric. and some other kinds of plants. phenolphthalein. such as hibiscus. bromothymol blue.
the re sic s st ce is. s st ce is ci ic if the s st ce s l ti has less than 7. The re ci ic s st ce is.i s i the er f ter is e resse si I this c se. the r . the ci it f s st ce is l e resse i . the l r er the er f . .i The er f the ter c e se t eter i e the ci it f s st ce. st dy the f ll ing figure. the l r er the er f -i the ter. and a s stance is asic if the s stance s l ti n has lar er than 7. the c tr r .Neutral 0 7 14 he value of pH Acid Base . the s ller the er f i . . the s ller the er f i the ter. e er. s st ce i its s l ti is e tr l if the is e l t 7. f r f rther clarificati n.i i .
so we can determine the value pH based on the color in the map. and other indicators as we have discussed in the previous subchapter. we cannot use a litmus paper. methyl red.To determine the value of pH of a substance. . Besides we use the universal indicator. The universal indicator is equipped with a color map. to determine the value of pH of a substance. we also can use an instrument of pH directly by a digital screen on the instrument. The value of pH can be determined using a universal indicator indicating various colors for each value of pH. phenolphthalein.
then this reaction also know by the term of salting reaction. the neutralization reaction or salting reaction can be written as follows. The reaction between acid and base is called the neutralization reaction.ion (from base) to form water. It is because besides water. The reaction between H+ ion and the OH.ion can be written as follows.If an acid solution and base solution are mixed in a vessel. . Because the neutralization reaction can produce salt. that is a substance which is not acidic nor basic. the H+ ion (from acid) will react with the OH. The neutral substance meant is salt. the product of reaction between acid and base is a neutral substance. Simply.
This means. in this nature there are many kinds salt. magnesium fluoride (MgF2). and calcium sulfide (CaS). . potassium chloride (KCl). then of course the table salt is not the only the example of salt. zinc sulfate (ZnSO4).A simple example of the salting reaction is reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which forms sodium chloride (table salt) and water. barium sulfate (BaSO4). sodium sulfide (Na2s). Because in this nature there are many acids and also bases. Among others are calcium chloride (CaCl2).
Metal + acid salt + hydrogen gas (H2) . salt is also produced from other reactions. Base + acid oxide salt + water 2. or gas always consists of positive and negative ions. liquid (solution). Acid oxide + base oxide salt 4. The followings are reactions which can produce salt. Besides being produced from the reaction between acid and base. 1. salt in the form of solid (powder).Unlike acid and base. Acid + base oxide salt + water 3.
Basically. Soil which is too acidic and not good for any plant. there are more other salting reactions which are useful for us. . The excessive production of stomach acid causing heartburn can be neutralized using bases of Mg (OH)2 or Al (OH)3. can be neutralized using the base. that substance which can damage our teeth and cause a bad smell. Moreover. the salting (neutralization) reaction is very useful for human life.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.