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Example : HCl = Hydrochloric Acid NaOH = Sodium Hydroxide CaS = Calcium Sulfide
base. you can : To classify substance having acid. And to use a simple tool to determine the acidity of a certain substance. base.The aim this subject. and salt by using an appropriate indicator. . and salt characteristic. To distinguish acid.
it is because this fruit has sour taste which stronger than other citruses or other fruits. One example of the fruits having unique sour taste in calamondin. Well.We have know that some kinds of fruits in this nature have sour taste. that is meant by acid? Is there any relation between acid and the sour taste of the fruits? .
an element atom interacting with other element atoms can release or gain a number of electrons.According to Arrhenius. chloride ion (Cl-). Acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when it is dissolved in water. are hydrogen ion (H+). The examples of ions among others. then when an acid compound is dissolved in water the hydrogen ions (H+) and negative ion will be formed according to the following reaction. As a result. Based on the definition of acid according to Arrhenius. etc. . the definition of acid according to Arrhenius is as follows. sodium ion (Na+). The element atom releasing electrons will be positively charged negatively. The element atoms which are electrically charged (positively of negatively) are called ions.
Sulfuric acid 3.1. Phosphoric acid = HCl = H2SO4 = H3PO4 H+ + Cl2H+ + SO423H+ + PO43- Any example of acid NAME Hydrofluoric acid Sulfuric acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Chromic acid Phosphoric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA HF H2SO4 HCl HNO3 H2CrO4 H3PO4 NAME Phosphorous acid Acetic acid Carbonic acid Oxalic acid Nitrous acid Chloric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA H3PO3 CH3COOH H2CO3 H2C2O4 HNO2 HClO3 . Hydrochloric acid 2.
essence of hibiscus. They can change the color of other substances.Generally. acids or substance containing acid have the characteristics as follows : They are corrosive. They can react with metals and they produce hydrogen gas (H2). . including metals and marble. They have sour taste. such as litmus paper. etc. essence of red cabbage. meaning they can destroy other materials.
there is acid which functions as a constructive substance that is protein. In human body. protein is an acid formed from amino acid. it is : In milk. there is lactic acid. In food there is vinegar or acetate acid. there is citric acid. there is tartaric acid. etc . in grapes. etc.Acids are easily found in everyday life. In citrus fruits.
haven·t you? When we wash clothes or dishes using soap. our brushing the clothes or dishes which have been smeared with soap will produce foam? .You have washed clothes using soap.
then when a base is dissolved in water. 1.Base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when it is dissolved in water. Ammonium hydroxide = NH4OH 3. Based on the base definition above. hydroxide ions (OH-) and positive ions are formed according to the following reaction. Potassium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2 Na+ + OHNH4+ + OHCa2+ + 2(OH)- . Sodium hydroxide = NaOH 2.
Any example of bases NAME Magnesium hydroxide Zinc hydroxide Iron (II) hydroxide Iron (III) hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Mg (OH)2 Zn (OH)2 Fe (OH)2 Fe (OH)3 Al (OH)3 NAME Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Ba (OH)2 Ca (OH)2 NH4OH KOH NaOH .
the change in color produced by the base is different from that produced by acid. Hence. bases also come in solids. . It is because they can react with fat on our skin and form a soap layer. They have bitter taste. liquids and gases. we had better learn the characteristics of bases. etc. They feel smooth on our hand. but some others are harmful and poisonous. meaning they can damage our skin or other materials. Generally. bases or substance containing base have characteristics as follows : They are caustic. However. such as litmus paper. essence of hibiscus.Similar to acid. They can change the color of other substance. Some bases are also used by humans. essence of red cabbage.
in medicines for heartburn.Bases are easily found in everyday life. it is : In limestone. In cleaning liquids. etc . there is calcium hydroxide. there is aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. there is ammonium hydroxide. In agriculture for the feedstock in fertilizer manufacturing containing calcium hydroxide. etc.
In a chemical laboratory. The substances the color of which can change when they interact or react with acid or base are called acid-base indicators. The following are explanations about those indicators. .We have know that both acid and base are able to change the color of other substances. acid-base indicators which are usually used are artificial indicators and natural indicators.
Phenolphthalein in acid solution does not change in color. so it used in the form of litmus paper (to make the substance easily permeates). among others. Litmus is absorbable by paper. Methyl red in acid solution has red color. so it is durable. while in base solution it become red. The change of color produced by the litmus paper can be seen clearly. Besides litmus. are phenolphthalein. methyl red and bromothymol blue.The scientist made litmus paper. . Litmus is difficult to react with oxygen in the air. Litmus becomes red in acid solution and it be comes blue in base solution. litmus has some advantages among other. while in base solution it becomes yellow. The litmus paper is a kind of substance prepared from a kind of lichen (Roccella tinctoria). As an acid-base indicator. Litmus paper which is commonly used in chemical laboratories now is prepared in the form of paper. are as follows : The color of litmus can change quickly when it react with both acid and base. there are also many other artificial acid-base indicators in a chemical laboratory.
ACID-BASE INDICATOR INDICATOR Litmus Methyl Red Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue IN BASE Blue Yellow Red Blue IN ACID Red Red Uncolored Yellow .
bromothymol blue.Besides the artificial indicators. . red cabbage. methyl red. such as hibiscus. such as litmus. phenolphthalein. and some other kinds of plants. we can also identify acid or base by using natural indicator. turmeric.
the re sic s st ce is. .i s i the er f ter is e resse si I this c se. e er. the r . the s ller the er f i . and a s stance is asic if the s stance s l ti n has lar er than 7.Neutral 0 7 14 he value of pH Acid Base . the l r er the er f .i The er f the ter c e se t eter i e the ci it f s st ce. the ci it f s st ce is l e resse i .i i . s st ce is ci ic if the s st ce s l ti has less than 7. . st dy the f ll ing figure. The re ci ic s st ce is. f r f rther clarificati n. s st ce i its s l ti is e tr l if the is e l t 7. the s ller the er f i the ter. the c tr r . the l r er the er f -i the ter.
. to determine the value of pH of a substance. The universal indicator is equipped with a color map. phenolphthalein.To determine the value of pH of a substance. we also can use an instrument of pH directly by a digital screen on the instrument. we cannot use a litmus paper. and other indicators as we have discussed in the previous subchapter. methyl red. Besides we use the universal indicator. so we can determine the value pH based on the color in the map. The value of pH can be determined using a universal indicator indicating various colors for each value of pH.
The reaction between H+ ion and the OH.If an acid solution and base solution are mixed in a vessel. the neutralization reaction or salting reaction can be written as follows.ion (from base) to form water. then this reaction also know by the term of salting reaction. . that is a substance which is not acidic nor basic. the product of reaction between acid and base is a neutral substance. The neutral substance meant is salt.ion can be written as follows. the H+ ion (from acid) will react with the OH. The reaction between acid and base is called the neutralization reaction. Because the neutralization reaction can produce salt. It is because besides water. Simply.
. potassium chloride (KCl). zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). Among others are calcium chloride (CaCl2). in this nature there are many kinds salt. This means. barium sulfate (BaSO4). magnesium fluoride (MgF2). sodium sulfide (Na2s).A simple example of the salting reaction is reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which forms sodium chloride (table salt) and water. Because in this nature there are many acids and also bases. then of course the table salt is not the only the example of salt. and calcium sulfide (CaS).
The followings are reactions which can produce salt. salt in the form of solid (powder). liquid (solution).Unlike acid and base. Besides being produced from the reaction between acid and base. Base + acid oxide salt + water 2. Metal + acid salt + hydrogen gas (H2) . Acid + base oxide salt + water 3. Acid oxide + base oxide salt 4. 1. salt is also produced from other reactions. or gas always consists of positive and negative ions.
the salting (neutralization) reaction is very useful for human life. that substance which can damage our teeth and cause a bad smell. can be neutralized using the base. Moreover.Basically. . there are more other salting reactions which are useful for us. Soil which is too acidic and not good for any plant. The excessive production of stomach acid causing heartburn can be neutralized using bases of Mg (OH)2 or Al (OH)3.
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