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Example : HCl = Hydrochloric Acid NaOH = Sodium Hydroxide CaS = Calcium Sulfide
base. base. And to use a simple tool to determine the acidity of a certain substance. To distinguish acid. you can : To classify substance having acid.The aim this subject. and salt characteristic. and salt by using an appropriate indicator. .
One example of the fruits having unique sour taste in calamondin. that is meant by acid? Is there any relation between acid and the sour taste of the fruits? .We have know that some kinds of fruits in this nature have sour taste. it is because this fruit has sour taste which stronger than other citruses or other fruits. Well.
The element atom releasing electrons will be positively charged negatively. then when an acid compound is dissolved in water the hydrogen ions (H+) and negative ion will be formed according to the following reaction. the definition of acid according to Arrhenius is as follows. etc. Based on the definition of acid according to Arrhenius. Acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when it is dissolved in water. sodium ion (Na+). As a result.According to Arrhenius. . are hydrogen ion (H+). The element atoms which are electrically charged (positively of negatively) are called ions. chloride ion (Cl-). an element atom interacting with other element atoms can release or gain a number of electrons. The examples of ions among others.
Sulfuric acid 3. Phosphoric acid = HCl = H2SO4 = H3PO4 H+ + Cl2H+ + SO423H+ + PO43- Any example of acid NAME Hydrofluoric acid Sulfuric acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Chromic acid Phosphoric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA HF H2SO4 HCl HNO3 H2CrO4 H3PO4 NAME Phosphorous acid Acetic acid Carbonic acid Oxalic acid Nitrous acid Chloric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA H3PO3 CH3COOH H2CO3 H2C2O4 HNO2 HClO3 . Hydrochloric acid 2.1.
They can change the color of other substances. meaning they can destroy other materials. They have sour taste. such as litmus paper. essence of hibiscus. essence of red cabbage. . They can react with metals and they produce hydrogen gas (H2). acids or substance containing acid have the characteristics as follows : They are corrosive.Generally. etc. including metals and marble.
etc. there is tartaric acid. there is acid which functions as a constructive substance that is protein. In food there is vinegar or acetate acid. etc . In human body. there is citric acid. it is : In milk. there is lactic acid. protein is an acid formed from amino acid.Acids are easily found in everyday life. In citrus fruits. in grapes.
our brushing the clothes or dishes which have been smeared with soap will produce foam? .You have washed clothes using soap. haven·t you? When we wash clothes or dishes using soap.
hydroxide ions (OH-) and positive ions are formed according to the following reaction. Potassium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2 Na+ + OHNH4+ + OHCa2+ + 2(OH)- .Base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when it is dissolved in water. 1. then when a base is dissolved in water. Sodium hydroxide = NaOH 2. Based on the base definition above. Ammonium hydroxide = NH4OH 3.
Any example of bases NAME Magnesium hydroxide Zinc hydroxide Iron (II) hydroxide Iron (III) hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Mg (OH)2 Zn (OH)2 Fe (OH)2 Fe (OH)3 Al (OH)3 NAME Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Ba (OH)2 Ca (OH)2 NH4OH KOH NaOH .
but some others are harmful and poisonous. . we had better learn the characteristics of bases. liquids and gases. essence of hibiscus. They feel smooth on our hand. However. meaning they can damage our skin or other materials. It is because they can react with fat on our skin and form a soap layer. They can change the color of other substance.Similar to acid. essence of red cabbage. such as litmus paper. They have bitter taste. Generally. Hence. Some bases are also used by humans. etc. bases also come in solids. the change in color produced by the base is different from that produced by acid. bases or substance containing base have characteristics as follows : They are caustic.
it is : In limestone. etc. in medicines for heartburn. In cleaning liquids. there is calcium hydroxide. In agriculture for the feedstock in fertilizer manufacturing containing calcium hydroxide.Bases are easily found in everyday life. there is ammonium hydroxide. there is aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. etc .
The substances the color of which can change when they interact or react with acid or base are called acid-base indicators. The following are explanations about those indicators. In a chemical laboratory.We have know that both acid and base are able to change the color of other substances. . acid-base indicators which are usually used are artificial indicators and natural indicators.
are phenolphthalein. methyl red and bromothymol blue. Besides litmus. Methyl red in acid solution has red color. among others. . there are also many other artificial acid-base indicators in a chemical laboratory. The litmus paper is a kind of substance prepared from a kind of lichen (Roccella tinctoria). Litmus is difficult to react with oxygen in the air. As an acid-base indicator.The scientist made litmus paper. while in base solution it become red. Litmus paper which is commonly used in chemical laboratories now is prepared in the form of paper. Litmus is absorbable by paper. so it used in the form of litmus paper (to make the substance easily permeates). Phenolphthalein in acid solution does not change in color. are as follows : The color of litmus can change quickly when it react with both acid and base. while in base solution it becomes yellow. The change of color produced by the litmus paper can be seen clearly. so it is durable. Litmus becomes red in acid solution and it be comes blue in base solution. litmus has some advantages among other.
ACID-BASE INDICATOR INDICATOR Litmus Methyl Red Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue IN BASE Blue Yellow Red Blue IN ACID Red Red Uncolored Yellow .
bromothymol blue. and some other kinds of plants. methyl red. . such as litmus. red cabbage. phenolphthalein. we can also identify acid or base by using natural indicator.Besides the artificial indicators. such as hibiscus. turmeric.
the ci it f s st ce is l e resse i . the s ller the er f i . the l r er the er f . f r f rther clarificati n. .i i . the c tr r . the l r er the er f -i the ter. st dy the f ll ing figure.Neutral 0 7 14 he value of pH Acid Base .i The er f the ter c e se t eter i e the ci it f s st ce. s st ce is ci ic if the s st ce s l ti has less than 7. and a s stance is asic if the s stance s l ti n has lar er than 7. The re ci ic s st ce is. .i s i the er f ter is e resse si I this c se. the s ller the er f i the ter. e er. the r . the re sic s st ce is. s st ce i its s l ti is e tr l if the is e l t 7.
phenolphthalein. and other indicators as we have discussed in the previous subchapter. methyl red. to determine the value of pH of a substance. so we can determine the value pH based on the color in the map. The universal indicator is equipped with a color map. we also can use an instrument of pH directly by a digital screen on the instrument.To determine the value of pH of a substance. we cannot use a litmus paper. The value of pH can be determined using a universal indicator indicating various colors for each value of pH. . Besides we use the universal indicator.
that is a substance which is not acidic nor basic. The reaction between acid and base is called the neutralization reaction. . the neutralization reaction or salting reaction can be written as follows. The neutral substance meant is salt. then this reaction also know by the term of salting reaction. the product of reaction between acid and base is a neutral substance. the H+ ion (from acid) will react with the OH. Because the neutralization reaction can produce salt.If an acid solution and base solution are mixed in a vessel.ion (from base) to form water. It is because besides water. Simply.ion can be written as follows. The reaction between H+ ion and the OH.
barium sulfate (BaSO4). sodium sulfide (Na2s). This means. Because in this nature there are many acids and also bases. then of course the table salt is not the only the example of salt. zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). in this nature there are many kinds salt. and calcium sulfide (CaS). potassium chloride (KCl). Among others are calcium chloride (CaCl2). . magnesium fluoride (MgF2).A simple example of the salting reaction is reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which forms sodium chloride (table salt) and water.
Besides being produced from the reaction between acid and base. Acid + base oxide salt + water 3. Acid oxide + base oxide salt 4. Base + acid oxide salt + water 2. Metal + acid salt + hydrogen gas (H2) . The followings are reactions which can produce salt. salt in the form of solid (powder). liquid (solution). salt is also produced from other reactions.Unlike acid and base. 1. or gas always consists of positive and negative ions.
there are more other salting reactions which are useful for us. . the salting (neutralization) reaction is very useful for human life. that substance which can damage our teeth and cause a bad smell. Soil which is too acidic and not good for any plant. can be neutralized using the base. Moreover.Basically. The excessive production of stomach acid causing heartburn can be neutralized using bases of Mg (OH)2 or Al (OH)3.
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