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Example : HCl = Hydrochloric Acid NaOH = Sodium Hydroxide CaS = Calcium Sulfide
and salt characteristic. base. and salt by using an appropriate indicator. . To distinguish acid.The aim this subject. And to use a simple tool to determine the acidity of a certain substance. you can : To classify substance having acid. base.
We have know that some kinds of fruits in this nature have sour taste. it is because this fruit has sour taste which stronger than other citruses or other fruits. Well. that is meant by acid? Is there any relation between acid and the sour taste of the fruits? . One example of the fruits having unique sour taste in calamondin.
sodium ion (Na+). etc. Based on the definition of acid according to Arrhenius. chloride ion (Cl-). Acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when it is dissolved in water. . As a result. The examples of ions among others. the definition of acid according to Arrhenius is as follows.According to Arrhenius. The element atoms which are electrically charged (positively of negatively) are called ions. The element atom releasing electrons will be positively charged negatively. are hydrogen ion (H+). an element atom interacting with other element atoms can release or gain a number of electrons. then when an acid compound is dissolved in water the hydrogen ions (H+) and negative ion will be formed according to the following reaction.
1. Phosphoric acid = HCl = H2SO4 = H3PO4 H+ + Cl2H+ + SO423H+ + PO43- Any example of acid NAME Hydrofluoric acid Sulfuric acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Chromic acid Phosphoric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA HF H2SO4 HCl HNO3 H2CrO4 H3PO4 NAME Phosphorous acid Acetic acid Carbonic acid Oxalic acid Nitrous acid Chloric acid CHEMICAL FORMULA H3PO3 CH3COOH H2CO3 H2C2O4 HNO2 HClO3 . Sulfuric acid 3. Hydrochloric acid 2.
essence of red cabbage. such as litmus paper. including metals and marble. They have sour taste.Generally. . essence of hibiscus. acids or substance containing acid have the characteristics as follows : They are corrosive. etc. They can change the color of other substances. meaning they can destroy other materials. They can react with metals and they produce hydrogen gas (H2).
in grapes. there is lactic acid. there is tartaric acid. etc . it is : In milk. In food there is vinegar or acetate acid. etc.Acids are easily found in everyday life. there is citric acid. protein is an acid formed from amino acid. there is acid which functions as a constructive substance that is protein. In citrus fruits. In human body.
haven·t you? When we wash clothes or dishes using soap. our brushing the clothes or dishes which have been smeared with soap will produce foam? .You have washed clothes using soap.
Base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when it is dissolved in water. Based on the base definition above. Potassium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2 Na+ + OHNH4+ + OHCa2+ + 2(OH)- . hydroxide ions (OH-) and positive ions are formed according to the following reaction. Ammonium hydroxide = NH4OH 3. 1. then when a base is dissolved in water. Sodium hydroxide = NaOH 2.
Any example of bases NAME Magnesium hydroxide Zinc hydroxide Iron (II) hydroxide Iron (III) hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Mg (OH)2 Zn (OH)2 Fe (OH)2 Fe (OH)3 Al (OH)3 NAME Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide CHEMICAL FORMULA Ba (OH)2 Ca (OH)2 NH4OH KOH NaOH .
but some others are harmful and poisonous. bases also come in solids. we had better learn the characteristics of bases. bases or substance containing base have characteristics as follows : They are caustic. etc. . It is because they can react with fat on our skin and form a soap layer. However. Hence. They have bitter taste. liquids and gases. essence of red cabbage. Some bases are also used by humans. They feel smooth on our hand.Similar to acid. such as litmus paper. meaning they can damage our skin or other materials. essence of hibiscus. They can change the color of other substance. the change in color produced by the base is different from that produced by acid. Generally.
it is : In limestone. etc. In cleaning liquids. In agriculture for the feedstock in fertilizer manufacturing containing calcium hydroxide. there is ammonium hydroxide. there is calcium hydroxide. in medicines for heartburn. there is aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. etc .Bases are easily found in everyday life.
We have know that both acid and base are able to change the color of other substances. The following are explanations about those indicators. acid-base indicators which are usually used are artificial indicators and natural indicators. . In a chemical laboratory. The substances the color of which can change when they interact or react with acid or base are called acid-base indicators.
so it used in the form of litmus paper (to make the substance easily permeates). Litmus is absorbable by paper. As an acid-base indicator. The change of color produced by the litmus paper can be seen clearly. Litmus is difficult to react with oxygen in the air. Litmus becomes red in acid solution and it be comes blue in base solution. Litmus paper which is commonly used in chemical laboratories now is prepared in the form of paper. are as follows : The color of litmus can change quickly when it react with both acid and base. are phenolphthalein. methyl red and bromothymol blue. Methyl red in acid solution has red color. litmus has some advantages among other. Phenolphthalein in acid solution does not change in color. among others. while in base solution it become red. while in base solution it becomes yellow. there are also many other artificial acid-base indicators in a chemical laboratory.The scientist made litmus paper. . The litmus paper is a kind of substance prepared from a kind of lichen (Roccella tinctoria). so it is durable. Besides litmus.
ACID-BASE INDICATOR INDICATOR Litmus Methyl Red Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue IN BASE Blue Yellow Red Blue IN ACID Red Red Uncolored Yellow .
phenolphthalein.Besides the artificial indicators. . methyl red. and some other kinds of plants. turmeric. such as hibiscus. such as litmus. red cabbage. bromothymol blue. we can also identify acid or base by using natural indicator.
i i .i The er f the ter c e se t eter i e the ci it f s st ce.Neutral 0 7 14 he value of pH Acid Base . st dy the f ll ing figure. the r . f r f rther clarificati n. The re ci ic s st ce is. the s ller the er f i the ter. e er. . the l r er the er f . s st ce is ci ic if the s st ce s l ti has less than 7. .i s i the er f ter is e resse si I this c se. the c tr r . s st ce i its s l ti is e tr l if the is e l t 7. the re sic s st ce is. the s ller the er f i . the ci it f s st ce is l e resse i . and a s stance is asic if the s stance s l ti n has lar er than 7. the l r er the er f -i the ter.
The universal indicator is equipped with a color map. to determine the value of pH of a substance. so we can determine the value pH based on the color in the map. . we cannot use a litmus paper. The value of pH can be determined using a universal indicator indicating various colors for each value of pH. we also can use an instrument of pH directly by a digital screen on the instrument. and other indicators as we have discussed in the previous subchapter. phenolphthalein. methyl red.To determine the value of pH of a substance. Besides we use the universal indicator.
. It is because besides water. Because the neutralization reaction can produce salt. that is a substance which is not acidic nor basic.If an acid solution and base solution are mixed in a vessel. then this reaction also know by the term of salting reaction. the neutralization reaction or salting reaction can be written as follows. Simply. The reaction between H+ ion and the OH. The reaction between acid and base is called the neutralization reaction. The neutral substance meant is salt. the H+ ion (from acid) will react with the OH.ion can be written as follows.ion (from base) to form water. the product of reaction between acid and base is a neutral substance.
barium sulfate (BaSO4). magnesium fluoride (MgF2). potassium chloride (KCl). sodium sulfide (Na2s). Among others are calcium chloride (CaCl2). Because in this nature there are many acids and also bases. . and calcium sulfide (CaS). zinc sulfate (ZnSO4).A simple example of the salting reaction is reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which forms sodium chloride (table salt) and water. then of course the table salt is not the only the example of salt. in this nature there are many kinds salt. This means.
Besides being produced from the reaction between acid and base. Acid + base oxide salt + water 3. Base + acid oxide salt + water 2. 1. or gas always consists of positive and negative ions. salt is also produced from other reactions. Acid oxide + base oxide salt 4. The followings are reactions which can produce salt. Metal + acid salt + hydrogen gas (H2) .Unlike acid and base. liquid (solution). salt in the form of solid (powder).
there are more other salting reactions which are useful for us. . Soil which is too acidic and not good for any plant.Basically. Moreover. that substance which can damage our teeth and cause a bad smell. The excessive production of stomach acid causing heartburn can be neutralized using bases of Mg (OH)2 or Al (OH)3. can be neutralized using the base. the salting (neutralization) reaction is very useful for human life.
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