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Medieval Towns and Castles in the Republic of Macedonia

Medieval Towns and Castles in the Republic of Macedonia

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Medieval Towns and Castles in the Republic of Macedonia - Ivan Mikulcic
Medieval Towns and Castles in the Republic of Macedonia - Ivan Mikulcic

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Published by: Eddie_rebel on Aug 05, 2010
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Ha CTp_ [3]: Mittela1terliche 5tidlC und Burgen in der Republik Makedonien "Medieval tow",andcastles in the Republic of Macedonia 1 Ivan Mikultic.- CPYCHOTuKOHTeKCToT.-Zusarmnenfassung;Summary.-SuOnllor-pacp"ja:eTp.376-382

ISBN 9989-756-06-6 (ED.) ISBN 99S9-7S6-07-4 (No.1)

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IVAN MIKUU~IC MITTELALTERLICHE STAnTE UND BURGEN IN DER REPUBLIK MAKEDONIEN

IVAN MIKUU:IC MEDIEVAL TOWNS AND CASlLES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

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Hercraao JleMllp Kanuja-Kopeuraana {Flpocex) 230 T. Benec: Teoao (Ea5YHa 1) 339
OxpllA rOJJ.HBje 238 T. Benec (Benec) 340
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neCO'lilH!! ille6pHL(~_ 246 Llpeutxa {Speurve) 349
Flpanen: Bapour [Flpanen) 249 [ lll-rurt (CTHIIOH, Ill'run) 351
Ae6pe~1lTe (D;·6pellITe. Heyperu) 255 Mittelalterliche Stadre and Burgen in der Republik' Makedonien 357
258
Ilecosc Medieval Towns and castles in the Republic of Macedonia 363
259
Spae (3p3e) List of Illustrations 369
------- Maxacrup (MOP)!.XOBO'l) _l!!_
Ilpaneneu 265 Photographies 375
Tpecxaeeu [Tpecxan'u) 266 1 CIrnCOK na anycrpauaa BO TeKCTOT 376
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HaCllpOTII C.'IOBeHCKIITe JlOKYMellTII 00 KOII CUTe Tile MeCTa ce O,[l,('ieJle)O(aHIi co 1l1oIeTO "rpaa". rpvsure II. ITaTHIiCKIlTe aaaopu nOllpeQR311.0 ro ortpenenyeaa'r xapax-repo'r na yxpenemrre MeCTa. Oauaxara 1t0).1<; {civitas ce onaecyaa aa Haj3Ha'!sjHlITe rpanoau - enllCKOIlCKIi cenanrra. OJHaKUTa ccctpov I castrum ce ojtxecyaa ua rpanoan co rroxran 06eM If JIll Oil nOll1l30K paar. So HilS. 0(')11'1110, He npecrojyaan enuceon.! Hamare KScrPOHIi ce norspneaa KSKO ellHcKOIlCKII H KaKO eaopncan CpeJlIIWT:I, SO KOII npecrojyaane IlJllJ enll.CKORIITe HJlII HIIPHHTe HaMeCHHIIIi. K1IKO STOpO liMe 311 K1IcrpOH ce jsaYB1I rrcpe'ncc II. IIMeTO munieipium_ ABaTa lIaJIIBlI., euen no )1pyr, rw ynorpetian SIIJlXeJlM THpCKH BO onaccr HS 6e311MeHaTa H3CeJl(')a Ha eperauare IIITO_KperOHOCIIIiTe ja OCBOIIJle II ja aaropene PO 1096 ronaua. Ce lIaOrSJlB 80 06JIaCTa (pagus. provincia) neilaroIlKja2.-. ----

So aunauna're ,[I,oKYMeHTII ce nojaayaa If 03HaKaTa oppidum II suburbium KaKO HaJIIS 3a HaceJl6a IIITH ,tIeJl 0,[1, Hea Hall,Bop 0Jl rp31lCKHTe 5111l0BII. A,[I,eKBBTeH

• So KHHfua ro KOpIJCTl!Me OBOj CTpyqeH ~JpaJ H3MeCTO Boo6" .. aeHOTO '5H~, SU~HWTa. 6e~eM- KOII l!MaaT lI!1a OlllliTO l!JlU apyro cneUl!<j>l!'IHO JHa'l~ ... e_ 06saalleTo (lI3j6J1HlOK e rep. "JlHCKlloT"Ummauerung-) [0 OJHa'lyaa SHaoToKoJly YTBPlleHl!OT npOCTop,laj3KH8TCO Ky!lH II nOTnopH, pOBOBH,lIpe~SH~" gpyrH <j>OpTH<j>HUUjjOji~ eneMeHTIJ.

t.C.AHTOJhaK 1985. 1.841.

2. HCTHOT779.-JIaTHHcKU HnopH Ut,192.

12

rp'sxu -repaun e ejmoptov. EMIIOpRoHIITe oline HeYKpeneHII, a co apesre HeKOI! on HllB ce 3A06HBaJle co nccnaec oesanae. Taxon (')HJI xa npaaep Oxpna. crrosma-r

BO HaCTaHHTe 0)1 II. aex II nonouaa.

¢>POUptoV Ii!lIl castellum rrpe'rcraeyaa aoeuo ynopaurre. xpenoc-r. rapmnra. 3a MarrHTe xpenccru crpasca e cOO,tlaeTHOTO liMe. TBp.uIlHIlTe crcene OKOJlY rpenoaure lIacTpSTeWKI! 3HS'IlIjHII TO'lKH llJIIi nOKpsjIl03Hat!BjIlHTepY!lHIIIJ;lI,HB mraaaacxa re npeauun. HlI rpauauara Ii ,tip. E)1I1STlI ncnoeaaa 0)1 yxpene aa're MeCTB npaxaxanu SO 00S3 auura ce TBPIlHIIII: HIIBHIIOT 6poj e HeCOMHellO )1aJleKY norene a, MetyToa Tile ce 0)1 BTopOCTelleHO JHa'leH.e 311 Hac II rropnuu -roa cnaoo IICTP3}KYB3HII. AKO fit CIlOpeJlHMe CO AOIlHoaHT!!'1KllTe TSPJlllHll KOll ce MaKCIlMaJlHO ac-rpasse au. Mo)O(e Aa o'!eKYBSMe a 6pojKaTa »a CpeJlHOBeKOBHllTe xpe[]OCTII na ce aronesra HeKoJIKY na-ra.

2. reQipur/101!J U fJpt,weJlcI," pU.If_':'u na wt.wuiiiu

Feor-parpcxu're paMKH aa oaaa c-rynaja ce coenarau-r co rpanauare HII neaeurua PenyOJlllKa Maxencnnja. He pacnonarave co nOTIIOJIJla -repeucxa rpafa (IDBeIIITsll, TeXHI1'IKa ,[I,OKYMeHTalllljll, llJlaHOSH IJ IIp.) JS cpennoaexoaaa're YKpeneHII MeCTlI KOII croene 80 jY)!(HIlTe II HajHCTOt!HI!Te nenoaa aa reorpatpCKIIOT rtpocrop lIa Maxeuouaja. Ilopana TOB, ce orpauavnasce HII npOCTopOT xa naura-ra Penyenaxa.

CpeJlIIOOeKOBlieTO KSj HSC orr¢laia apeae zoaro eJleli MlIlTeHIIYM: 0,[1, IIOCenY8aH.eTO HB CJIOBeHIITe aa JY"'HIIOT EaJlKSH (scpajor H1I 6.-7. oel(),tIO 80 TypCKIlOT nepuca (16. sex). Meryroa TYPCKIIOT nepaon no MHOry HeWTS e cneua<pH'!eH Il jacac ce 1I3i\BojYBa 011. rtpe'rxonxa're aeKOBH, ocoeeuo 80 paMKIITe HII aaum-re ucrpaacyaarea. Saroa reea-ra xe ja 330pWHMe co noarauero HB TYPl.IllTe BO MBKe)10Hllja KOH «pajo'r aa 14. sex. Kaxo enaaor ua OBa ie ,[I,O,[l,S,[I,eMe 11 eneu KVCOCBpT 113 OHa WTO ce CJlY'IIIJlO 1l0TypCKaTlI oxyrtnuaju.

. Ojr npyr-a CTpBHa 6. BeK ttpe rcraayau KYJIMHI·!BlIwjs aa ilOIlHOBHTII'IKaTa 1<1I8111lU3aU;IIja, a TO;)' ce ouaecyaa n aa <pOpTH¢lIlKlII.lIJOHOTO rparurrenctao xoe

-liTo Hac .El.HpeKTHO He aacera. 3a acan. caae Spe,[l,HOCTIl He ce cnoaencxa CJIOSeHHTe Ite ce 06aAaT na ra YHHIIIT3T- Ho. u ncxpej roa OCTSHane MHory HeWTa KOII CJlOBeHIlTe CO BeKOSIi ra BHeCYBaaT SO CBoeTO CeKOjJlHeBBe; II noxpaj ilJI360KHOT SHTarOHHlaM KOH SBTOXTOHIiTe II SBTOXTOHOTO THe 80 rOJleMS aepa ie ce eJIHHH3apaaT

Flopana rope aaneceao-rc aopaae K3KO aoaea SO CJlOBeHCKOTO cpenHOSeK081le II3 uanpaeuae OCBpT aa rpanexcuuurrao-ro on kpajo-r aa BHTIIKaTa

1

1

1

13

611gejKII OBa KYJITypHO HaCneACTBO I5l1no IICIlOn3YBa!lO oA CnOBeHHTe BO nepa. OgOT aa cpennucr BeK. 0)1 pOMejCKIITe rpaJl611 HajMapKaHTHII 611J1e TBpIIIIHIITe ttcsexe CTOTIlHI! saKBII CIIJlHH rpa)lo(l. '1IU! WTO OOSHJlHja ru IIJgp)KaJle npen're cnoae acxa jYPUWfl II OCTaHBne lIanYWTeHH 110 ncepo aartaaeua Ill!] cpeuHOBtKOBHeTO. 6apBne MHHIIMa!"IHH xprtesea IIlIII Ha)lSH)lYBaH.a liB ourre'reua-re MeCTB 3B na rrocnyzca'r HII3 CneJlHIITe BeKOSII aa HOBIITe norpeen. Ilypu BO AOUHIIOT cpeJleH DeK HOBIITe BJIaCTOllPWUII Ke 1l0'lHaT na rpanar HOBII KpenOCTII. 'IHeIIITO SI!JlapCTBO liMa rrormaxan OeJle311 011 )l,OuHOaHTll'lKOTO. 3B OBB Ke 360pyBB"fenOOnWHpHOHBTaMYBOKHIIraTa.

3. ,aoceiarUlIU uciiipaJKy6alba

80 Sananaa II BO Cpenaa Eepona Cpe)l,HoBeKoBHIITe TIlPJl.IIHH. rpanoaa're II laMOLJ;1I H}leHTII$IIKYDaHIl ce aa TepeHOT. IICTpu;o.::YBaHH ce II uenocuo ce AOKYMeHTHpaHI! BO rtocnenna're !IDe crone-nrja. a lIeKOIl yurre rtopaao. OCHOBBHIl ce CTOTlIllH rputaHCKIlJAPy;o.:eHI!ja3B HIfDHOOllp}((YDaH,eH rrOIlYJlBpIl3Blll!ja.Co HIiB ce rronpaanw 1l0K0J1I1ItTe II '!eCTO nereuuapnn ItCTOPHCK>I !lBCTaHH. Oane 06jeKTIi er3I1CTlfpaBTAeHeCK:lKOJlOK:lnHRTypIlCTI1'lKII :lTpBKlI)IIl.060eHIt COPOMBHTIIKa. OTprHaTIt 0>1 Ja60paBOT II 3BWTIITeHil 011 JB150T na BpeMeTO. 80 MerYBpeMe e C03- ,!IaAeHa II Mllory ol'ieMIIB narepa-rypa aa HIID. KaKO HBY'IHa II IJOnYJlapHa, TaKB II aa TYPIlCTII'IKRTe nOTpel5ll.

Kaj HBC HaK~ItTe MeCTa lie ce .tIOPOIlHO IICTPBJKYSBHII. Haponao-rc npenanae HaMeCTB KB}((ysa uexcj auavneu HBCTUH !IJlIt nll'lHOCT 011 nerennure, BPJaJ!H 3B crapa'te KpenOCTII. CTPY'IHIl apxeonourxn ncxorryaan.a 61111e aouenn CBMO ae Ma,l 6poj JlOKBJlIITeT!I. aa OHHe xajmaxajanre.Cenax. aa III1B e uenoaon 110 nruuyaano

Flpen nonOBIIHB BeK n03HaTllOT 6eJlrpa)lCKll IiCTOpU'IBP liB apxarexrypaT~ A . Ilepoxo. HHBKY POllYM OA Cxonje. uanutuarr npaa xunra aa cpenHOBeKODHIlTe rpauoaa DO Cpdaja. Llpua Fopa It Makenoaaja (1950. 1-213). Ja uanuutan 5e3 Hay'lH!l ITpeTeH31111. 5eJ CTIIJlCKO. rnnonourxo II apesaencx o Spellayaatse xa rpanenre. CaMO 3 rpBIIB 011 Makenouuja ce oacranesu co IIlla!lOSH IT .\tBnKY TeKCT. OBOj aBTOp"'lYllocBeTIIJlHaCKonje n enen onzenen TPYA. 60rBTO Hl1YCTPllpBH. Toj IlpOH3J1erOn no 06e~1fIlITe IlCKonYBBH,a HB CKorrCKOTO Kane BO 1967 r. (1971.1-16). 3a ;o.:aJl.!l ryxa He e Ka;o.:aHO ce WTO MOJKeJlO II WTO rpeoazro na ce peqe.

Bo 1963 r. M.10B311001111. 06jBBYBa KYC npuxaa na cpenaoaexoeanre TBP/.1111111 BO lll r arr !J DO CTPYMIIQB. CO xpajuo llIeMBTII3I1PB!l1I nJ1aHOBII Gel lIeTBJlIi !I

14

nere ana (1961. 103~105). Bo 1956 r. r. 601llKOBilK nan ucupnea npaxaa HB MapKoBII KyJlI1 so Bapour-Flpanen. npocneaex co noopa CKIII.IB na KpenOCTB (1956.63-104).

80 nonosc apesre BSTOPOT ua Kf!f!rOBB 11M nOCBeTU BIIHMB!llle HB nece-r cpeAHODeKOBIIII rpnUOBI! BO Maxenouuja. pa60TejKI1 rJlBBHO HU fiAeIlTII¢IIKalllljara, rrpewepor IJ TeKH!!'IKOTO CIIHMUH.e aa allTII"'IKIITe rpaaoaa II KpenOCTIl aa oane npocropn. Taxa ce noja auja rrpUKB311 aa rpanoaare TIIKBew (1971.269-285 II 1975.190-191). noroa aa JIyKOlHlllB KBj Ka sreunua (1975. 122-130) . Ile aon BO Paeu (1983.211-218), Benec (1985,83-100), -Ipeurve (1987,149-160), Ilpoce« (1990.65-88). 80 xxure-ra 3B CTapO Cko nje noxpaj npllKB30T ua cpenHO!leKOSHllOT Fcpuu rpal1 (1982,118-127) CJleABT H OIlTIlMBmll! HH¢opMallllll co

HB llpH'Ie (45-53 II 129-(33). !lB KOJKne (133-135). Conpu Ii ua apencc-ra g aj /\·IBJ1'1llll1Te - MapKoBB CYWIII.!B (92-95. caao ,[IOu- 1I0aHTIl'lKa cpBJa). Haeeneinrre npuxaan co CKpaTYBaH,a II MOJlII IIcnpaBKII r-a

npercraeyea sre II aa OBa MeCTO

0)1 repencenre apxeO,lOWKII

Ke ru

lIu6pOllMe oune 113 Csoncxoro Kane x ynu flB

BOIlHO KPBj Cxotrje (rpan LIp!I"'!e; HB MBPKOSfl Kynu " BO Bapour

Flpxnett (noaeae 011 rpu neuenan): ua Kpajm!THHOT xacren 90 lleopeWTe xaj Flpunen (nCTO TOllKY apexte): BO Xepnxneja xpaj 611TonB If HB KBJle xaj Paurraue. xane e oapana CpellHODeKOBHa Surona (1980-81. 1994); BO llel5pell R MBHaCTllp BO MOPIIODO (1981. 1990). Iloaeae rOl\lIHII e IICTpa.iKyBBH!J OCTpOBOT foneM I'paa BO Flpecna. I1JBewTaJITe on care oane IlCKonYBaH.a ce lIaseAeHII BO Flper-neno-r [rn.Vl I). noxpaj ce coj COOIlBeTeH JlOKUmlTeT. TYKB lie ru nOSTopYBaMe"3a na He ce crrrcaapu xnurara.

80 nOCJlelIIlIITe rOIl!IH!! 1l3J1e3e 011 neve-r KHHraTa HB E. Maaeaa (1992, 1-280) aa cpenacaekoeuuor HBKI!T BO Maxenonaja. Bpennocra liB KHHrUBB aa uaura-ra CTYAuja [a rnenaste rtpen C~. DO eraax-mara 'tartonornja II xpoaonoruja'ra ua 06pa60TeHilTe $OpMII HBKIIT. OBOj HaKIlT e naoraa H DO aaunrre KpenoCTII Il HI! npyaca curypna nornopa BO anrupaa.e'ro au ucrn-re. OCBeH TOB. so KaTaJlOWKHOT nerr (u. n. \13-240) e lIallel! II OCBpT H3 g apax'repo'r na uaora. JlIIIllTOTB. Mefy !IUS Il xu 11113B rpBIIOBIl KOU WTO TYKB rll o6pa60TYBBMe.

j

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15

DBa eee acrpa-syaaa.ara HB xrarepajanaa're oCTaToLlI! Oil CpeAHlIOT Bel' Hacnpc-r a ana rpecc na cnovrxeore II aesoa ucrpaisyan-ra ua rrIlUIaUllIlOKYMeH' Til 011 'rca spesre KaKO II HIlBHIITe 0611lUl aa TepeHcKOTO noxanaaapasee aa CTapUTe TSpllllHH. Co 'roa THe ce 1l0sp3YBaaT co uaura-ra CTYAHja. Bo nepxonor 011 npesy 3 llelleHl!1I T.ToMOCKH 11M nOCBeTII !H13a craraa na cpeAHOBeKoBHHTe rpanoan II TBPIIHHII BO Maxenoarrja 06UJl.YBajKII ce aa ru nccosn »a TepeHOT. Flpn roa KaKO na-roxaa )'IY cnyacene. KaKO noc'rapa're namyaan,a HO acra 'restu. TaKO IJ ronouavujara aa TepeHOT. Saaenen OA rOiTeMlIOT 6po] iTOKaJIIlTeTl! co usee Fpanuurre, Kane, Xncap (a ru HMa npexy 4oo!), TOMOCKII BO ncsexerc O,ll HIIB 3aMJICJlyaaJl xexoj cpeuaoaexose a rpan. 3a :ao:aJl aeaaure npaao. Toa ce maSHO aHTII'IKlI yxpeneua erecra. '1aTHpaHH CO JlBlI:+:eH 3pXeOJlOlliKI1 MaTepIIJaJl BO npenCJlOSeHCKO apeae. TOMOCKIl lie ce rrornaparue ria' aerepajanuare OCTaTOl\II.

6!1,!lejKu He nt noaaeaaure II lie 11M aepysatne

Flopanu OBa lleKOII 011 neroeu-re 3a~mCJJeHll aoxaunu ~1O;.KDT)la ce npnrpaTaT C~MO 80 OlllllTlI JI Wl1pOKIl paMKII AOlleKa HajrO.'leMIIOT uen on nue HeMaaT 1101<8311. HerOBIITe e-ra-run ce unrwpauu BO Flperneno't. 110Bp3a!!1! ce co eOO)lBCTHUTe llOKaJlIITeTH 3a Aa MO;.Ke 'lUTaTenOT Jl..1 fll cncpenn co «arepujanan-re ,!lOKa311, Hcaenena ce II DO 5116nHorpaqllljaTa 11.1 «pajo-r on xanruaa.

80 1989 r. uaneae 0'1 neua-r «unra-ra ua B.KpaBapll 011 JaHI!Ila (na q>paliUYCKH) 1B cpeuaoeexoaae're aecra BO aananaa Maxenoaeja. a 3a6eJle;.KallH so IlIlWalBITe,llOKYMeHTlL Illxonyeena ac (!>paHl.\lIja.aBTopKaTaja anauee coapejaena-ra eaponcxa aeronoxoru]a \I BO KOIll\HJeH crun nasa janposnra IIH$opMal{1I1I aa cexoe 06pD60TeHo MeCTO 6e3 «enorpecun xoeeu'rapn Ii co OIlJlH'IIlO CIlCTeMaTlf311pall1i U3S0pl! (II 3.1 pano'rypcxao'r nepaon). IllTO ce o)l6eJle)K.1Hl! CO enancraena CBeTCKa aoeteuxna'rypa. 511Jl.ejKII 00 xxuraaa ce IlBaellellH II HHla apenocru UlTO Hue r a npuxaxyaaae, fI! uarapnae oane IIH$OpMal.\lIU cncpen B Kpaaapa

38 uaceneuare MeCT.1 BO Maxenouaja SO paaorypcxaor nepaoa (15. II 16.

BeK). Mery Illia II aa ouue co rpancaa seaeaa. 1lI1UlYBawe rnuano A.CTojaHoBcKII (1971. 1979). Calle 1l0J.laTOUH. ae aeun 011 c,lY)KOeHIITe 1l01lIlCHHlle$TepH 0it 'roe apeae. ra KopHCTHMe BO aaapunra-ra rncaa 3.1 rpauoau're ao Maxenonaja

16

4. HtHuu u.ciUpaJKy8att>a: OOt),/. u ~"eiuoi)u

HCTpa:«YBDH.aTU WTO jac ru nones II xoa ce uanoaceuu BO KHllraaa npoaaneroa O,ll ucrpaceyaaserrra 11:1 ilOUHOaIlTll'lKIITe $OpTlJtPIfKal\ll11 DO vtaeenouaja. Flpu 'rue uc-rpaacyaaae. IlU xaaa yxpenesn MeCTa 0114.- 6. aex noxpaj nouxoaxTlI4KIlTe llall:«HIl uaonn eaunearupauae II npenxse'ru 011 CpellHIIOT aex. Ha -me ,10Ka!JHTeTIl lleMaJlO cpeIlHOBe!(OBHu rpancxn SIIi\IIHH, llITO JHa4t1 ue xa aHT1I4KflTe 06sHlllljn II 110 CJlOBel!CKflTe Mtlrpnl\1I11 oc'rauane llO nocpa coc-rcjda a rue 61I}le nOBToplIO xopucrexa BO cpeJlIlOBeKODueTO. 5pOjOT ua BBKDIITe rlOKo.J1HTeTH aapacaan no OKOJlY 70, raxa WTO crana jacao AeKo. OBa lie ce IlCKJlycrOUII, Ha TOj lJa4J!H OTKpHBMe I! xane ce xpneme uajr-one auc'r 6poj HaUl" cpeunoaexcaua xpenocru. fillAejKfl 00 Maxenoaa]a enne npen -roa n031laTI! OABa] tu-naa TBPllUHII co nOJJ;06po 31W:lJe1J0 cpeJlHOBeKOOHO sunas-e.

g ropare npn-urxa 30. OBa "ucveauyamse" ja f.1Ie,!laMe BO q>aKTOT nesa cpe.[lHOBeJ(OBIIOTO SlIlIalhe e MHory IIocJla60 011 1l0l\HoaIlTIl'lKOTO. Ocaex 'roa, cn01>lHaTHTe 3ana3elU1SllllllllllnOTeKHYBaaTO,ll;10UllnOTcpeJleHBeK(13. n rnaano 14. BeK a II nOIlOUHa). a Hue HlllUTO He anaeeae aa oua WTO nOCToeJ10 rrpen roa (7. _ 13. aex) . .uoQHoCpe,tllloseKOBHIITe 06sIIJ.lllja co KYJlII. noprn II IIpyrH eneaexrn HMAaT xupaxrepucru'um ¢OpMU II I!a'lllll aa rpane a,e J(OH MOUlHe ce paanuxyaaar 011 aIlTII'IKHTC. Tile II 611lle rxceaano II031laTI! aa uarua-ra CTpY4Ha jaaxoc'r II narupasu BO unrpcxa're paM!Cu aa CpellHIIOT sea. HIIBHOTO nOnpel{H31J0 THnOJlOWKO pocnpenenyac+ee !1 apejreucxc onpeuenyaaa.e HIIKO) pocer-a He ro 113BpllIIIJI.T.1KB llITO a raa aana-ra 1I116ewe lIanO)KeH3 aa petnaaae.e.

Bo xuaraae ce ontPaTeHIJ 80 yxpeneua MeCTa 0)1 !COil 32 npe-rcraayaane peflIOHBJ1HIICpellllllITa.14PY,lI!lI1'IKIIKPCrrOCTll,26KpajnaTHIl.perllOHaJlIll!IIJ11:1 rpaaaunu CTPBXtl II 8 aeercea. H,tlIlIiTe IICTpa)KYDa'lll 00 oaaa 06J1aCT Mo:+:aT,!la OTKPlljUT yiu-re rene a 6poj aanu xpertocru - crpaaca It 36erOBII H HIIBIlIlOT cpoj MO)Ke rroaexena-rn Aa ce aroneraa. HaWIlTe acrpaxcyaa a-a rrpe-rc-raayeaa'r no'ee'rHII 'I.eKOp" BO 'rae aacoxa. Meryroa. pevaca CUTe penlOHBlIHU cpenaurra ce OTKpUeHtI.

g pojxara Oil 32 cpemnrrra -rpeea na ja HaManl/Me 3U lIeKoJl!CY npaaepn. BO C,lY'laIJTe xane WTO so l1CTllOT perrrou nOCTOeJle !IpSO elJHO cpenamre. a no aexoe apeve (nopaaa H3MCHeTilTe HCTOPIICKIl YCIlOBIl) aapacnanc npyro. Taka, ua gperanaaua HBMeCTO Paeeu 113paCHaJl Mopcnsuc: BO nOJtOJIlTe HaMeCTO rpcneu 11 neurcx _ Coepa: SO MOpHOSO HaMeCTO Mopaxoeo - '-IeMpell: BO Taxaeuutja'ra H3MeCTO Ileacn - Tus.aeur. Ha -roj lIB'lUH Ke [a noeueae peaJtll.1Ta 6pojKa 01127 nea'rpa HB Hero TOItKY »cynu. llITO nocrcene na oeae npoc-ropa.

1

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17

TO,lKY OnWTltHCKII CTOnaHCKII cpenaurra nocroja'r. enpoxex. II neaec. aKO TYKa He rII CMeTaMe oaae nOJlUTH'lKII UCcpopCHpaHII OITWTIlHII WTO KaKO anurox ce nojanyaaa-r BO p;p)KaSaTa (BIIHl!llS nonpaj KO'ISHH. Bnnnsnoao Fearenaja. KpUToaO noxpaj ITPOGIIWTUIl - an a 06paTHO. ,[leMup Xncap Barone).

Hp;eHTlHllIIKalllljaTa aa cpenaoeexcemrre peruouanxa lIeHTPH He GIl;la TeWKa paecra. Bo rcness 6poj crt HUB necea'r KOpeHJlTe na aeueunmre onWTIIHCKII uenrpa . Ilpyr-are ucseaaane. 110 cc-ruaaae TonOHII~HfTe II aaceneurxare BO AOKYMeHTHTe Oil. TOa apewe. ApXeOJlOWKIt rnenauo. THe o'rckoxnyaaa-r on OCTaHaTHTe KperrOCTI! rro caoja'ra ronesnnra Uilll 110 5.oraTcTSOTO lIa OCTaTOl(IlTe.

Hajroneunre (lIlIH najaua-rajmrre) Cpel1HOSeKOBHn IICHTPII Gillie ITO 05eM x ac'rpouu - cennurra ea e rrwcxonu (Cxcnje. EUToJla. OXPItIl, CTpyMlIlIa. MOPO,ltBIIC); no !IllS cnenyaaar nOMaJlIITe KaCTpO!l1l - euopacxjrre nearpn:

J1YKOSO. Flpuanrt: K03jaK. Cnaeaurre. Jlyxoeana: Pail,OIlHW. KOH'Ie; Flpccex , MOPIIXOIIO; Benec. ITpIIJlen; KII'IeBO. Flpecna: J1ewOK). HeKOl1 OLI ana OCTaHaJle MaJiIi no 05eM.' 110 ,!IoKYMeHTIiTe fll eene'ear: Fpaneu. Ileepeurre. Flujaue n? Manetneno? HeKOI! 011 oaae peruonanue cpenaurra ocr-aaane aHO!l!lMHIl. a IlMHl!.aTa ce CO'IY01.lHI! no uapouno'ro rtpena aae: ACenlHfoao. COI5PH. )];eall'l. Ileaon , Taxaeur . Ilpynrre 6HlIe llPB06HTHO nosran n TBPllilHII arra cena. a co epesse eapacHalle KaKO uenrpu xa sruxpo-cperuoxa II AOOH.'le noronesro 3Ka'leH.e (Ileepaua. ACene3Hell, Anasaanoec.Tnsaem. Ill-run).

OSHe npoaeaa ie IIpOIlOJl:tCaT II HII3 TypCKIlOT nepaon. xora 1I00eKe OJ!, cpeAHOBeKOBIlHTe rpaA'IHa.a Ke OHliaT HaIlYlllTeHII. a aa HHSHO MeCTO cyKu;ecIIBHO ncaraa-r 1I0SII" HOSII perHOHa,1H" uen'rpa - Crpyra. JJ:e5ap. TeTOSO, Kaaanapua, KYMaaOBO. KpaTOOO, KO'laHIl. Ilojpan II IIp. Cexcj rpan IIJiH rpa'tqe pacrene so noaxaxaa ycncaa II 0l(OllHOCTlI.31l05uaajKllcc co onpeneneax cneuxrpa-nrocru u HHe neaec He iTeCHO fll IIpOHaoraM-e cane ne,[lHlI'IKIl ueurra. WTO aekor'anr rn rroapaysane oeae rpnacea a 11M naaane KaCOKII 80 HlISHIIOT paaaoj. crpyx-rypa II 110 yOaaliHaTa!lB ce :tCHllee BO una.

18

n. 1l0QHOAHTHQKO HACJ1EIlCTBO

1. fPupiiiu(jJII(IUpull.>e; UCillOPUCI(U lIuciUallu. 6pOjllOciu.

Enaour eeee cncanaeae nexa aHTII'!KaTB U:llSIIJlII3ti.1.(lJja ra nocmr-uana H!!j9IlCOKIlTe 1I0CTPCiTli TOKMY aa caojcr e paj. nerrocpennc npen noereaerc aa Cnoaeaure HB Baneancr. ITo nponacra Ha Sananaoro PUMCKO llaPCTIIO (uarecHaJlO so 476 r.). IICTO'lHaTa 1I01l0SllHa na HMlleplljaTa naoma JlOBOJlHO cann lIa ce npenopona II lIa "OCTllfHe MOK II ecrarcrec aaory ncrone au oTKonKY BO npe'rxonjra're aeKOBIi. JJ;OllHUOT 5. II 6. BeK ro olloene)l(YllaMe II co HOEO liMe: paHOBIIJaHTHCK!1 nepuon. Bo paasure lin aa'repajaauoro T!.lOpeWTBO 0/1 TOO. apeste apxeonourxu ce cnena-r H\l30 HOOIiHIl, KaKO npouaeon aa «eurau,e na npe.sueeanure PI!.IICKH ¢OpMIJ II eeneau co 1l0SIITe ene aea-m npeaeaeua 0/1 Bnacxno-r HCTOK Ii BOCKpeCHaTUTe HCTO'lHOMeilUTepaHCKH-xeneHIlCTII'IKH rpannuaa.Tlyxoaacro TBopeWTIIO e SO 3HllICOT xa QenOCHaTa !lo6ella aa XPIICTHjaHCTBoTO, na JaTOa H YMeTHOCTa 0/1 -roa ape sse e BO 3HaKOT H!! Bepa'ra II uenccHO so Hej3HH:1 CJIy;;.;6a. ApxeonOWKI1 oaa MO)!(e »nory Bne'laTJI!!SO sa ce cnena KaKO aa HH3a CllnlH 33I1aeT'IHCKH npOII)BO)lIi. 't-axa 1:1 lIa YKpaCHTe 00 opojna're l1pKBIf O,!l TOO epeae: H!! saaeaara IInaCTIiKa. rronuare M03a1!QII. SIJLlHIITe yKpacu II JlP.\ Mefy MOHYMeHTaJlHIlTe rpalll5H 011 -roa ape ae )lOMllHIJpaaT KPCllOCTIiTe H I1pKBIlTe. Ke ra paarnenaae HaKYCO spenocrare. 5Hi\ejKIl uenccpenao BJIerYBaaT

1 1

I

Bo 113MIIHaTIITe nee neueuau aBTopOT H!! caaa «nara co ccpacoruamrre ro IICTpa:tCYBawe cpeHOMeHOT aa rpop-rutpaunpan.e eo Maxenouaja 110 IIOQH3Ta aHTIIKa. Cera. Korn OBaa 05eMII3 II Mllory CJio:+;ella rrpo5neMaTliKa e pa3jacHeTll

l. lIeno<eH np"Ka3 Hn OBJa u380HpeJlHO 60rara ."JTepllja d yurre He e cocraaell 'IHTaTeJ1UTe ru ynaTY"" Ha (ioraTo unycTp"pall"n np~Ka3U ao e.[l~4ijjaT8 'Y"eT~"qKO (ior3T' eno ~3 MaKeijOHHj,'.CKonje 1984 Ha Ii.AnnCOBa (43-60 ~ 96-118). r.To.,nWHIIK (72-84) ~ B.Ii~rpaKOBa (85-95). no-rca lIa 0AAenHUTe euarn - Ha B. S"rpnoRa 1975 (I.lPKllU BO OXPIl~cXUOT peruoK). r. TOMaw"B"" 1978 (nO;l.HU Mmauuu). B. AJleKCOBa 1989 (I.lPKaIl lIa BperaJIHl!~KaT'~ per"j!; cry~~HT~ BO 33 KOPJO PlDeHnTe. 1986. Ha B. A,leKCOB3 (13-81). B. BUrpaKOBa{107·!34)MH.MIIKyJl~UK(221·277)-TYK3CeOOl!1l0"llallallaMnpDonWTrrperJl"IlJ1a 4PKoBHoTorpanUTUC"TDO"04enaP.Mue1l0Ill!j"0;t4.i\06 .• eK

19

aa JaIlOBO.lH!TeJIeH Hll'lUH H cor-a HCTpaIKYS:lfJ,aTa ee npnaene aa KOH KPllj? MOIKeMe ~! aa OBa MeeTO 80 uaj cyca upru na 1I0CO'lHMe xu Hila.

0)1 OKOJIY 500 e aunes-rnpaau )lOL<HOaHTlI'fKH xpetrccru aa nonpavje'ro HB P<:rry6JIHKa Maxencnaja IlCTpBlKeHIl ce 455. a nonoauaa 011 HitS Jl.eTBJ1HO e npeaepeua ua TepeHOT It Jl.OKYMeHTllpaHa co nnaxoau II npyra Jl.OKYMeHTaL<lIja. Onpeneneun ce BpeMeHCKH npeay KUp:lKTepIlCTII'IHII naonu. TOB ceo npea ceo 6pOjHII MOlleTH. no-rca MeT3.11I1H 1l<:.II0BH 011 eceua II 1IIIBllnllU 06J1eKll a cnpeaa yxpaca KaKO 11 HeKO!.! aa-teropaa xepaeutxa.

KOH oaa ce npuxnyveua JJ oc05eHOCTIlTe BO SllIl3pCTBOTO. rpane acau're 4JOpMH II qlOpTIf4JIIKallIlOHIl eJleMeHTII. TaKa WTO CII'fe KpenOCTIf MOIKeaMe apeMeHCKlIlIB rll onpeneauae ao ilOllHOPliMCKItOT (cpemaara HB 3. - cpenaaa HU 5

BeK) I! PUHoBII3aHTllcKilOT rrepaon (1I01lHIIOT5. - 6.11eK).

AOllHOPllMCKIlTe spenccra 6HJle rpane aa aajanor-y 80 1l01lHliOT 4. sex. aa apexre HB arorreueaara OIHlCHOCT 011 rOTIlTe KOII npexy Ilynaa aaaxeme BO 6anKaHcKHoT IIpOCTOp 1I ell.eH BeK oc-raaane TyKB. eaxo apeae KBKO senpajarenn. enao apeae KBKO ccjyaaaun ua ItiMrreplljBn. Flpen rue HBcnHIl3Ha'lujHH aa Hac ce !! Oop611Te Mefy naajua-rn paaa'nr - caMOIlPWUl1. uapeeure KOHCTlIHTll1l I II Jluuaaaj oxony CpellH06a.llKBHCKliOT npocrop [Meaacanra II Maxesoxcxora IllJelle3(1). Toraw TyKU 6Rne ae rpynaea orpoana apMHH (011313 AO 324 r.} n aa 1I1I!l611Jle H3rpaAellH 6pOjllH BOjHH'IKH norcpa (KaCTeJIH) xpa] 1I0BlI}KIIIHe naraurra. I1HaKY. IIpS!lTe xpenocm no-mane na ce rpana'r xaj Hac 110 cpennaa-ra 1111 3. BeK. xcra CTonll)lCKHOT It rrOJIIITH'IKHOT xacc so U;apcTBoTO YC.I!OBHJI OrrWTlI HecllrYPIlOCT.aHacenell!leTOO,llCenaTullpell.rrycTOwefJ,aTalillCorrcTBeliaTallOjc· xa II eupaupare oapanc cnec ]1Ig 0J16pa)l6eH!lTe SIlIlOBR.

Paacauaanrucea-ra yxpena-renaa nejaoc-r aanovaana BO JIOllHHOT 5. a TIPOAOJIIKHna H/lTeH3IlSHO no cpeuaxara H!I 6. aea. 3Ha'!H. ce OABHBaJllI !l0 penaTlilIHO )o!.HPHO apeae. KaKO TeMeJIHa noaroroaaa aa MO}KHHTe OJlBCHOCTII BO HIlHH· aa. Hoyve aa 011 nperxomurre nycroureu,a 1111 fOTIlTe II rto'roa na XYHIlTe. 1I11peBHTe neo« H 3eHoH. 1I0Toa AlIlICTaC!le l:l ocoeeao lYCTIIHHjllH I ro c4JaTII.I!e OBa O:POPTHo:pllllllpalt.e K1IKO MHory !la)KHa aanava II pa60TIlTe rll cnpoaenyaane MHory TeMenHO. OCBeH JlO~HOpHMCKHTe YPHBTH xpenocra II rpajtoaa KOIl cera 611!le 06H~~IIII, 113rpllJle; 511.11 II r~lIe~ 6poj ecce.a ncaa. Caac ua rrOllpa'lje;;;-;;neaeuma Penycnaxa Maxenoimja. 6pOjOT 1I1I xpenocru nn-rnpaaa co lIaOll1l BO 6 ae x !l3HecyBa npIl6J1H)KH0400.

Bo 1I01lHOaIlTII'lKO apeve (4.-6. BeK) H1I nonpavje'to aa Penyenasa MaKeAoHllja erJlIC"rHpane 18 rpaJIOSIl II rp1lT'lIlfJ,a, rrOTon HII3a YKpeneHII cena.

2. nperJlei\OT Ha ~OUHoaHT~"KOTO rpUUTOlICTBO Kaj Hac. K3 KOj pa60TU nOB. i.e OA 2 i\euel(ijH.ceH8oiaBOneqaTBonO"HTaTaCepijjaHaJ.BepHepMBVF.MHH"eH(HarepM3HCKl:l).

20

~-

pYllapCKII HaceJIl'hl II 36eroBH. Mery rrpeOCTBf!UTI!Te xpe nocru caxro sran 6poj npercraayaane xnacavnn BOjHII'·IKH J(lICTe.lIll3B caec-ryaau.e 1111 M06uIIHil BOeHl! onpena. OCTaHan!Te TBPA!!H!! nperc-raavaa.re s pajrta-rttu 1l.l!II BIICOKII perIJOHBn· Hli crpacsa. 1I0Toa rpanuvna II lIap!!HCKIl KOHTpOIlIl. ItiMeHo, aa ODa nonpavje ce 1I01lllpaJ1e 6 JlO~1I0UIITII'IKII npoBIIHUIIH co rpaau-raa {uapaxcxa) J1I1Hllja JIOJlrB 1.100 KM. Oaaa nuxujaja «ourponnpane ('j,1113Y200 J(aCTeJ1llII CTpaIKI!

fJIaBHaTB CTonUHCKU lIejHOCT BO uouua'ra na-ruaa BO Maxenouuja onno pynapcrnorc.Tlpxaaara ce rpnceena ra oe36e,ullOCTD. Ha pynnnvsure II -ronunIIIl'lapCKIiTe rtccrpojxu u aa TaB uen ollJle aarpane au 6pojHH MB.I!I! TBPll.IIHll. TYKa aoace sre na al5poliMe HajMB'lKY 150 on aanm-re xpenocrn. 80 HIIB npec-rcjyaane pynapcsure '1I1HOHHIIUH H CTpY'Ilt.aJ.{ll. xourponopa Il crpaxapa. 80 HHB OHJle

~ ~'_::~I

'~

~

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,

CJI. 1 - BUJUHiIlUCli:il 60j1W'IIi:U rj;u6yJlu 09 90t{Huoal 6. II 7. eex

j~~~1;;'~~~/(EZ~I~l~IO/(~~Tc~~~~::~: ~.Y4~~~:~~j 7~c~:e~:;j·

TOlleHI! MeTaJlIITe non KOIITpOJIa Ha npxasara II (')11.11 HaTIJlaTyBaH pYllapCKUOT !laI!OK: BO lIHD l5une xyaaau !106I1eHIlTe MeTaJiU a MeTlInHIITe IIPOH300)lll 110 III1Saa'ra KOHe'lHa ircnopasa HUJlplKlIBaTa. 80 cnyvaj xa ronejaa OllaCHOCT 80 aaa ce ]UCOJIHYBB.Ile II pynapare on OKOJIItIlUTU

21

z. rpaiJ~Huiii.e OCOOellQciull 80 6. 8f'K

XYHCKIITepa3YPHYBafhUHUrpa,[lOBIfTe80HJ.llleplfjaTaBOCpe,[lllHaTaHa5 BeK 6Rne KaTaCTpo<pa,1HH. Tile rtpax-ruvuo ja yaaun-ane PliMCKaTU l.II!BlIlHI3al(l!-

MCTO'lHOPIIMCKIITe uapeau Jl ecn If 3eHoH. rrOTOU AHUCTaCltj II au xpajo'r Jycnsuajan I paaaune 1l3BOHpe,[[Ho 06e~lHa rpaaessrra nejnocr Hacrojyaane sa ro 06HoBaT OHa urro !>IO:-Keno !lU ce 06110811 II ne ce aarpauar CTOT!lHII HOOI! ape- 1I0CTU 80 aarpoaenn're rrpcenauan. aa Aa lie ce 1T00TOPif CITOMHaTaTa xuracrpcrpa. Bceaure ap:O:lITeKTII fli rrpoyvyaane crapure I!CK)'CToa II OTKpu,1e 111I3a UOBIf epennocru. WTO ao Olf,!!. ua COBeTIf fir Ha6ene:-KHJ!e au Il;:(HHTe rpaanrenu

Co a pxeonotus a-re !1CTpa:-KY8UHoa na 'repea '1l1eHTlfcpliKyauHIf ce HIl3a BaKBl! HOBUHH 0,[1 ,[IOLlHIIOT 5. II 6. sex OCHOIIHUOT SI!D;apCKH C110r crauen eMITneKTOHoT:n,H\aTa na suno'r ce rpUlIaT011 eupu u npanenxatur rtapxan.a KaMeH none«a JUAPOTO aa Sl11l0T ce nul' 011 care» xpureu KaMeli co snrcry MailTep. Fnaauo ce xopucrn caeaco raceua sap x oja l.IBPCTO ce nena 3U KUMeHOT II OCTaBa 6pOjHU urynaaua. naBujK:1! My 113 SHIIOT MaKCliMailHa eilaCTH'lHOCT.

HaMeCTO cranuapnna'ta cpopMa na KpHI co npaeoaronae OCIIOB3 II CKPOMIll! Ill!MeH3l!1I. BO 6. BeJ< ce q,opcllpaaT roneau J<YJIII vaja WTO '1eJIHa CTPUIlU e aaodneua 11,111 CII,lHO 113MUJleHa (co Tpane3113 ocaoaa}. He sou Kyillt nM33T OCTpO H3J1aileH p36 110 Cpe)l!1113T3 (T.H. 'rpurcnu II neararonn - co TpH- II neTarOJlIIU OCH08(1). Ha TOj H3'lIlH venmrre CTpaHII !lOnCCHO rn 0.Q6I1B3J1C II cxpumyaane KaMeHoaT3 cppnallll 011 annpasu-re.f Kymrte 'leCTO ce SIlJlaHII MaCHolIO BO cYTepeHCKHOT nen (61'3 npoc-ropuja) 3!lpUI!.R 1I0rOJICMa uapCTlJHU. 3 rOJleMHHUT3 fIMP3CTeIlOBHCTl1HCJ<1I0aCTllOllu.BaKBf!KynnCee!llll1eHTllpaHl!lla50'UH3I!aU}ll Kpe110CTII (CJI. 3I.J. 52. 129. 135. J38. 169)

Bo np1l6nH:-KHO '1CT 'ronxa s 6poj Tap)lllHU elHlJlCHTllP3BMC I.\IICTepH'I aa 901Ia. 110Toa 33WTUTI!I1 poaoau II rrpOTeIlX'I3MH (ITPC)lSlIlIOBH). Hajancox ao-r )le11 0)1 rapnanara co enex annrpeurea SUlI ce onnertyaa KUKO UKpOrrOJl3 [uu-ranena}; BO lIero 611Jl3 CMeCTellU BoellaTa J<OM3Hnu. 3 cJlY:-Ke.'J U K3KO nOcJJcgllo JaCOJl-

""BOP" !ch~~:aK~7:!;:1~:~:2.I~e-~!~3~::~!970~;:~;:B: .\9~5~;:.~~~ ~~:~e"!:::!::~c:~T:u~"::

pnypalaOBueH3CTaHlI

-l. OBLle cneumj>I1'1HlI <j>op.", nO~HaJl ~a n~ n~Y'lyan n03HaTlIoT(lyrapCKUI!CTOplI'lap Ha apxHTOKTYP"TO C. oo(l~eB (J961.104-146). c.ne:r.ejKlIJa HUBHaTa KOHlIeHTpn!.l~ja H3 npocTopOT Ha HCTO'JIlI!OT oMKaH H"O A~"1I0}!UJ". 3n HnOAIiTe Kaj Hac cu. H. ,,"hIKY!I~~K 1982. 62.63 ~ Ja6. 30

22

L l

HUWTe IIU 6p31111TeJ!lITe. TYK3 crcena II rnaeaara KyJJa. nOpTUTe. OHJle JaWTIITeHH co 1-2 KY,11! IIJlIl Oll.'le BOBJIe'leHH HU8KUTpe. laA naxnja'ra aa OOSH'IHeTO.

Bnarouapeuue aa BaKBl! UOpCTH J<OHCTPYKI.\IlII, renee opoj TBPJlHHIJ 011. 6.

BeK ocrcnaae noepo CO'!Y9aHH ij HIll CpeAHHOT ae x. a l!eJ<Oft H no aaure ape ve [! neCHO ce rrpenonraaanr HU repeuor. HeKOllJ<Y 011. HHB HMaaT II neaec oesnnae CO'!YBaHoao npsofie-mn-rn BfrCO'lHHa.a3aIl1l3n!lP),nrTBpillIHH varasie ao uaaeurTaHTe cn npen nOIl081!!W BeK II noaexe nexa II TlIC OI1IleToilKy noopo CO'lytH1IIIl. ypaa-rn ce go TeMe" 80 naure ape ae. CO pa3IlIt'lHH rpaneaoia aaqia-rn. I1Ma 1l0BeKe nece ruun BaKB)! npnaepa.

O:'ceTO oaa. Mo;+(ell.3 rlt 113BJle'leMC c.reuxuee 3aK,1Y'IOIlU

BOeHIJTe nOXOlI1l HU Byrapa-re. Cl0B<:Il11Te II Aeapere 0,11 npexy Hyna a DO TeJ<OTIiU 6. BeK Boi5aJlKaHCK!lTe "POBIIIIIIHI!. KOl!KY l!)la61!J1e cun au e paaypny- 8a'lJ<11. He rH paaypuaae CUTe 1l0CTOe'lKIl TBPllUHII xaj Hac. HeKOH ovurnenao olinI' caac OllJTeTeHII. HeKOIl onaaj :'OITPC!!II. a rorrea nen 011 HIIE OCTaHaJle HeIlO-

noesa

- no Haj:-KeCTOKHTe 3BapCKO-CJJOBeHCKII IlHBU3l!11 BO 1l0l.(HIiOT 6. aex. ilO~laUJHOrracenenue MaCOBHO r-u nanyurruno yxpene atrre eaconuuurra on HCenCeJ1HJIoJ<oHConYHJ1Uapl!rpilll.erejcKHTeOCTPO!lI"l'lBO

Aaanonaja

- Cnosmarara .t(06pa CO'lYBaHocT na rapnuaare 0.u;6. BeK npunoaecna. 00 crrenHHTe 5-6 aexoanna He ce rp3nUTHOBI! CPOPT!ICPHKallllll. Ilorpecara on yapeneaa MeCTa BO P3HilOT cpejten 8eJ< 6HJlU aana II crpannseaa aa OAAeJlIIIl even aoean UKUIITI. Ilypa BO nOIlHI!OT It nouea cpenen BeK oaaa rro'rpeoa CUJlHO Ke ce arcneMH. nOpa):111 'rca. ce 110 12.·13. BeK 611>11' J<OPIlCT<:HI! povejcxn-re (npencnose scs.a] KpenOCTI! 3U onnenua ItHUI!,[IeHTHII nOTpe6H. eaeu'ryanuc 061100YBaHH II anarrrupana aa nOBIf acena rtocajm anu crpe.cn.

3a ua ce 06jacHu 08a, rrPU,10:-KYBaMe 'I BeK aa rtonpa'rje'ro 110 Pelry6!!11Ka Macenonaja. ce npercrueena W coonae'nm axauu. cnao rpanosu.vxpeneuu cen a II pynapcxn lIace,1611.30el"OBH a xacrena O!lIlOCHO CTPU;+(U. Floxpaj naa ce aanecexu u p3J-lOXpI!CTlljaHcJ<lIl.1pJ<01!. J<01l co caoja-ra xoaueurpauaja aa 'repeuor 1I0MaraUT nonecno na ru Ja6e,le)KIIMe TorUWHIlTe rpaAOIII! - enllCJ<OIlCKII ce1l1lWT3. Ha K3pTuTa ce anece au H rpanauare 113 uiecr-re TOrUWHI! npOBIlHI.IIl!l. J<0l! ce Jl.onllpUJle na OBa Jlo~pu'Ije5

5. Cn. ~a6. 2. 011 oaoj paxonuc TyKa ja npuKa;O:YBaMe sup'ra'rc 1 '0 paIiOBij',OHTllCKHT" q,OpTllq,HKnuuu.rpagoBIIII UPKBU

23

Ill. CJlOBEHHTE BO MAKE)lOHHJA

1. JilI6QJUU 80 6. eeK. - JOlla,UI JlQCe.1y6UIb(! Ita Cnoeeuusiie.

- Clo:JlQ8UIIUU 60 7.-8. oel(, OQllo6yambl! JIG BUJcmiiiuCKaiUa yUpU6Q.

HOBIlTe uapO,[lH WTO BO 6. ae« noarane 0,[1 I1CTO'lHB Eapona UB Ban caner He OCTaBH.IIeTparfl011 CBO)aTa npnua-rnanaaarepujamra xyrrtypa ryxy casro nycTOW. Toa GIIJJe Eyrapu-re II Kyrparypa-re. ABap!ITe H Cnoaenwre. Huamrre ynanu WTO fH saeenexane COBpCMeHHL(HTe. Ke fli CJJenUMe XPOHO!lOlllKH

Bo 517 rOnHHa enaa norcne aa rpvna HB 'TeTU" Byrapu) ro

l(PCTOCiIJle H!IIIPHK 0)1 Ilynaa 1\0 Tepaonunnre HU HeKOH HaCCJl('i1i ua

HHBHIIOT !TaT Gllne npn-roa orpacenu. Mety HIlB fl CKynH 'lHHWTO lI<HTeilH npen rca rc nan vurr a ne 1\ rrocapane crtac BO OKOilHIITe 36erOBH.2

Apxeo.~OWKH rJleJJ;aHO. Marnell" Man no oeeu

BO 'ron apeve OIiJl coce a 3anYCTeH rpan. ocnpo-

Ilpokonue 011 Kajcapeja narnyaa nexa so BpeMeTO ua Jyc'r-axajax J "XYHlITe, CnOBeHIITe It AHTIlTe pe'mcu cexoja rOAIIHa aaaneryaane so HJlllPUK, uena Tpaxxja, HCTO II BO Xenaaa II XenecnOIlT-J. Oaue 100pOSH ceKlIKO ce npe'repaau. Flogpa-rje-ro aa AeHeWHa Penyrinaxa Maxenoauja BO IIpeMeTO na lYCTI1HltjaH [ 51lJlo caxo 2-3 rram crpaeeao. Taxa. 110 540 r. 'XYHIITe" (necovHeHO Kyrpnryptrre} ro npexanaae UYHas II ro npoure'rane HnllpHK ce no XaIlKuIIHK xa jyr. TaMY ce noaenane II enex nerr O.EJ; HilS npOilO!lA{II!I KOH Fpuaja 110 KOpUIITCKaTn npeaxese (l-1cn1Oc).lI npyruo-r nerr ce yna'run KOH Llaparpan lin IICTOK. npu -roa crpaaane 32 y cpeneuu aecra 60 I-1Jl11pllK." KlIKO ocjacayaaa,e. 1I11 KaA{eMe l1eKa nperpexrypara VlJ111pllK ce IIpOCTHPaJIa 0,£1 Uyuall lin ceaep. npesy nonpavje-ro aa aeueuma Cp6nja CO KOCOBO. no-roa Ail611HIlja II Penyannea Makenoanja no Fpunja aajyr.

1. P. Lem.rle 19S~. 280

2. Jh. MaKc""oa~~ 1980.21-57. e nOCJ1e;!~a "T)"~uja ~n CIlTe BapBapCK11 ynauu BO l1nllpl!K ac TeKOT ]{a 6. ae«.

3. Proc.HA 18.p,114,IS·115, 2.23;p.141.19-142.1 4,PrOC.BG II. 4,p,163,8-164,16.P.Lomer1e 1954.285

24

Bo 548 ronaaa C.IIoBeHuTe npeuunaae npexy UYHaB BO VI,l!!PIIK I! nponpene nc UlJpaXI!OH [Ilpa-t) na jyroaanan. Flpu'roa OCBOHJle H1I3a caacc yxpenean accra u cospane so HUll OpojHll lapOOeHIll\11.5 Fnaana HaCOKa SO HIIBHOTO .'lSIIA<elhe Olli! llaTOT Hajc - ynrruauya - Cxonpa - UllpaXIlOI1 (HIIUI - npHUlTHHa - Cxanap - Ilpa-r). WTO axuuu JleKa He auaner-ne BO HaWHTe xpauiura. Bo 550151 ronuna Csrceemrre naK eneryaaar so I1Jll1pIIK. Flener. xaj Hmn. THe cnyurxane jJeKa BO CepIIIIKa (Cocpuja) so aacena r-a vexa C,laSHIlOT 1I0jCKOBO;ta'l Fepsrau co poorejcsa apsutja. 3.1 na nr Y.!lPIi O.!l rpe. Hcnaaureuu Oil TOB, C,10seHIITe ro HanYWTlIJle nPBOOIITHHOT nnax na cne-r rrpex y Maxertoauja JlO CO,WH Ita jvr II cxpumc-re KOH npoanaunja-ra Ilunsraunja aa aanau. Ta~IY CJ10~elt!1Te aa npa nar npeuaaune aa cnnmucea rtO'lBa.6 no ce aarne.aa nexo Ill! BO oaoj noxon C,10BeHlITe lie rc 31lrp0311.11e unure-rc nonpaqje.

A

B

CIl.1. C:lOfJeHCKU tlaJl'leclilu ¢U6YIl(1 09 Tecasuja (A, B - ilo j_ Bepnep) 11 gell 09 BUHU'WHU Kaj T. Besec (B); 901(eH 6. - PUH 7. fleK

j 1

Bo 558/59 ronaua npexy UOo1J!II UYHIlS npesruaane Kyrpurvpare. SO.!leHiI Oil. KBraHOT Saeepran. a npuapyaceuu 011 "nojJYIIBscKHTe Eyrapa" II 0';; CJ10BeHuTe. Fu cnycrcunme npoBHl11I11IITe UOJlHa Meaaja II TpBK1Ija. Eaporra II Pononn. a eneu uen 0)1, HUB rpruan HB aanan KOII CO.llYlI. xopucrejen ro lIeCOMaeno El"HaL(HCKIIOT na't. no ucruor nar Tire ce BpBTIIJle HB HerOK. BO TpBKHja II HaTaMY 110MB. BO BJlaWKaTa Huauja. Ce COMHeBBMe lIeKB BO OBOj 1I0XOn. crpanan

II HeKOJ nen 011 aaurara reparcpuja.

Bo cneuxwre 20 rOIlUfH! HeMallllPBapCKlrynaI1I1BOH!lllpIlK.aToa3Ha.lII fli lIeMaJ10 HI! BO MaKe]lOHlljn. nIlWD.III1Te fl3BOPll MO.ll'!aT_ CaMO el1Ha pe,£1Ul\B

25

JalWnaHIi napu. CKp!!eHI! 8 aexrja 80510171 ronuna II o'ncpueun so aaure epexe na npccropor en IlyHas aa ceaep no COJlYH na jyr. naeecryaa neea MO)l(ei511 BO 571 rcauna C.~OBeHIlTe os Jlanomrja npOBBJlU.'1e so Maxenonuja ua jyr.7 HeKO_'1KY OCTaB!! Ha 1>IOHeTII 0::1 Tile romnm Hajnellu ce II KaJ Hac. Mefy HIII:IIl BO rcnexra'ra TBpn)!Ha na BOllKO Hall. Cxonje. Co apxeO,10WKHTe ucxonyaaa,a 80 1977 rcaane.

ron. fH::COMHeHO aac'rpanane II HaWHTe s panurta.

YWT<~ 80 584185 ronuaa Aaapu're on B.~aWKaTa HWH!ja. npnnpyaceuu on CJ108eHHTe 0;:1 Yxpauua II Monncau]a. ro snmane I1.oIlHU IlYUllB II no-mane re aenuo ua r-a nycrourar I!CTO'lH06aIlKMlcKHTe rIPOBUH1VlI!. no HUB. !l.BII:.t<ejKII ce no «pajtipeaonro-r ErHaUI!CXII 11:1T na annan. aa 22_ cerrre aapn 586 rOAHHn c-rurnnne kaj Conyn. iO no eeycneuruara ortcana ro OCT3.Blr,le COJlYH II ce cap-rune

KOH nouanare rpancau II ceyurrc apeneno jta ce orpaou.

!JO Mnxenounja. BCYWHOCT. KOII ce WTO rrycrcuieun ro f1peTcTUBYBOllT kpajo-r lIB

unaunuaupauuor rpancxa >KllBOTEO MaKeI10Hl!ja.

HIl3a flaOijll 011 CKpHeHIt napn (OCTBBII. nenoa) aa naurero noupa-rje. ~rCTO raxa ro 1l0TSp!lYBBaT OBOj HBcrBH. I1cKonBH1! ce BO C,10eBHTe co rpcru Oll Cl!Jlell noacap II YP"BaH.e BO rpanoeure Baprana. CT0511. Xepaxneja Jlunxecruc II BO "fIIpAI!HIlTe Ea6a H Cenue xaj Flpnnen. CUTe 0811e ocruau aaapuryaaar co KOBHaTO ronnaa 584185. CnO~IH<lTlrTe MeCTO ro 3aBpWII.l1e ;.KllBOTOT co cene YPIiBalhB_11

!iaTaMOWHuTe CJ10BeIlCKll npcnupu KOH jyr HB lia,1K<lHOT ae Hac HeMaBT nOrO.l1eMO 3Ha'lel-be. 5!1;:rej"l! rpancsuor ;;":HBOT BO MaKel10flllja pevucu l1eJlOCHO aaapen. npe:.KIIBeaHOTO poerejcx o nnceneuae ~!36eraJ10 aa jyr I!JlU ce rrOBJleKJlO BO 1l0TCWKO npac'ranan're IIJI.1HlIfICKlI Ta]lilllHII_ 80 20-I!H~ 11003"'1111 KpeflOCTH najneuuce norupnn aa HaT<lMOWHOTO:.t<I!Beelhe:.\lOlieTHOi1 KpajOTfW6. flPUHIIOT 7. BeK. nOTO<l KapaKTepUCTlI'lHII BI13aHTHCK!! BOjHfI'IKIl <p1l6yllll (ToKn) O)l.I!CTO epesre (C.1. I). Co ana ie un-acae a a-m-uca-ta e!lOX3. KUj srac

I1Mello. klcunop 0.'1 Ceaun,a 3ai5eJle:.t<n.l1 !IeK<I 80 S-ra rOllHlfa Oil ennneeu,e

TO lIa J1paK'lI1J (614f15 r.) C,10BeHIITe l(eJlOCHO ro oKyTlHpaJ1e IlpOcrOpOT lIa 7_l'Ln<>noau" 1981.111-126.

S.I1. ~"KVJl4"" 1982. ~0-51.

9.B. nOnOBI!K 19&0_:132

10. P_ Lcmerie 1979. l. 126.13-128.1 (~Iir~cula l.12j.

II. B. nOnOBltj( 1980. 242·243 (~e[lO~Tn ec BopraM" XepaK.leja). U."OTO O~ CTo6u. ncxcnnuc no "Ka"uJlo" BO 1981 r. c~ YWTO " •• 06jaBeHo

26

ppuuja. 3a aa .rojnar T:I..'!y. Tile xopane nona'r na ja nperaanr II Maxenoaaja. 3a )1(:1._1. ;J:ocera ae ycnea asre lla perucrpapaae apxeonouncu {cra-repajaaau) 'rparu 0;1; npncycreoro aa CJlOBeHUTe na naurerc nonpaqje Oil 7 .• 8.!! noronevraor ::Ie.1 og9_BeK

A

ClI_ 3. Ceoeeecxu .!l(lWCKU (Kyll/uHU) .lIer«lIl1HU iliW'lKLI 09 BelleclIiuHo 80 Tecanuja (u36op: A - <pl/typa na ITepYH?; 5. B. r - rIlU.'WH. _"WUClW )l(U601T1H0 II 60Ull co cetcupa - rio j_ Bepnep}; 8.- 9. eeK

1

j

1

npocrop 0.[1 IW ce eep. 110 Ha jyr. noce ra He nart 1I1!J{aKEH paHOCJ10BeflCKl! l!aOAI!. Oqur.neuuo e nexa Cnoaeuxre on rlonyuaajerc eAHOC' rueuo TlOMIlH:I.,le Hill TOj npocrop. nperxonuc aexe onycrourea. 6e3 pocrejcxu H:l.Ce,10U H aa HUB aearpaaruneu. THe ce aacennne BO aenu-repaucxno'r lIe.~ ua Fpnnja, co finaru KIIHM!l. no »opero xoe co BeKOEn nprl8JIeKYBaJ10 6pOjHlI auponu 011 ceaep. Tysn C.I100ellUTe ~!O:.t<eile na KOIlTaKTHpaaT co npeccranarare rp'-lKI! rpanoan I! na ce cHaiSlIYEaaTCO TOilKY uene-nrre aauaer-ntcxu npOlI3BOIII!. KOII Bnaan'nrja ja !!31111ruane aerv sone-norre so CBeTOT

AKO nona-rona. Keja.ll0611~Me ac-ra-

Moae aaacucxarn XpOHI1Ka, rtencnonea OIlJl non

27

onBCTB aa Cxoaeaure uenn 218 remora (0"1 586-805 r.).12 YWTe BO 13. BeK JlaTIlHHTe eojynane IIPOTI!O Eaepjaun-te II MI!HIIHrIlTe [Mujaurrre] aa Flenonouea. Apxeonouisure CIIOBeHCIH! aaonu 0)1 i.)lo 9. sex ce 5pojlu! (TUpI!HC. Apr. naTpac.Oll!!"!Iluja I!JlP.).13

Tecanrrja HeCO~!HefiO OllIla aaceneua HCTO TBKa rvcro co Cnceeun. Ha TOB yxa scyaa HaCTaHOT OIl i99 r. «era Kfle30T AKa)'H1p aaenirc co Xennnuxur e (.rtOMaUlfH!Te Ipu») rrpann 3arOBOp npo'rua uapaua-ra Hpuna. Bo rca ape ere Axaaup e ce YWTe aeaaaucen eJlOBeHCKIl apXOH aa OOJlaCT:l Bepae-ruja. BO TecaJlllja.14 Bepae rare (I!JlH Berter'e nrrn) ce crrcsmam II BO <lYJlaTa na ca. nUMIITpuja KaKO enso on CJ10aeHCKIITe nneMl!Iha WTO nopano ro OITCeJlHYBane ConYH.

Ftoc-rapu-re acraacyaaqu (]I. Hnjteprte. M·llpIlHOB II np.) npemccraayaane neea OBa IIJleMe e I!lIeHTI!'IHO co []O/.lOI.lHe;KHIITe Bpcjaun (aa6ene:t:aHI! 00 II. !H~K). Cerrax. npen rtonoanae BeK 1\"1. macnep. cae-rcs;n aaropn-re-r aa 0811e npaurau,a. OBa aprverexrupauc ro OTcjJP.FII!JI· Oa Beparrruja [Tecanuja} 1I0TeKHYsaa-r I! 1I0BeKe apxeonourxu HOOllII on 7.-9. BeK. KaKO II rcnesr 6poj pann cncae aCK~ TOIIOHf!MII15 (crt. 2. 3)

Hajceaepua-re CJlOHellCKl1 lIJ1eMIII-bO ce 3aOe.TJc:t:eHII OKOJ1Y COJlYflCKf!OT

3UJ1IlD II )10J!JK Erejceuor sper. Crtcpen fin CS . .o:IIM~Tpf!jn. 0J1113Y)10

CO,1YI1 (sepojaTifO aa XaJlKIIJlf!K) BO ae x npec-tojyunne Pnumuure

CTpYMJal1l1Te eune naceneun 110 Ilonua Crpyaa :10 Erejcsnor sper. a Caonjamrt e HCTO'{HO O;t HIlB. oscny nOJlHa Mec-ra. Sartannc 011 COJlYHeK!!OT laJlUB. BO 1l0J1HOMaKeIl0IlCKaTa paMIlU.Ha. ce llaCeJ1l1J1<: Ilparoanvu. a 00 xpaj- 6pe:t:1I110T ncjac jYJKHO 0/.1 HIIB Carynaru. H~leTo Car yjta'ru He C CJlOBCI!CKO. TYKY TypCKO-TarapCKO (aoapCKO-lIpoTooSyrapCKo).16 Flne ae-ro BojYIIlITI! nponpeno

111. Z. OOIlOfl),80H.e uu IJUJOlliuucJ.:uiii.a )"upaflD 110 MaKeiJvllujll.

CJ10B<:HI!Te. uaceneaa BO necneecuure i1<:nOBI! 1I11 BI!3aHTIiCKOTO napeTBO. lKHBeeJ1e opraHH311paHII BO CK.~aSIlH!llJ. Toa ce npaKTII'IHO eTHOHIIMlJ II au na ce pnanuxyaaar Oil OK0J1f10TO HeCJ10seHCKO nacenea ae.

90 Ertup. no JanpaHCKJlOT eper aa jyrcoanan.

nOHUTUMY HB ceaep Oil CIIOMliUTIlTe perucuu. a roa aa avu II lIa ncnpn-rjeTO an ueueurxa Penyonuxa Maxencuu]a. ue sta 1I11CMeHl! IlOKa311 3(1 npecrojo-r aa CJ10BCIII! BO -roa speMe. Here TaK~. HeMa HH apxeorrouncx nnonn 0)1 TOO. BpCMe II ncxpaj -rou LUTO BO IJ3MI1HUT!!Te 4 nel.leHllf1 co IIHTeH,H8HIJ pekor-uocuapae.n I{II 'repeno'r eunnen-rnpaaae OKOJlY 3.600 apxeonouixu ,10Ka!!l1TeTH Oil paanu-tnn enoxll.17 PaHOCJlOBeHCKII eaonn aeaa.

i2. OCTporopcKH 1959.198._ KapaHllc 1972.X. In U H 13.B.nonoBuK 1980. 234-2J9. cn. 2.3.

14.M.Vosrner 1970.85.86.

IS. B.nonoBuK 1980. 238. c.1.3: . H.'-laycu~uc 199Z.}41-15.J u 1993.159-178

16. Gy. Morave,ik 1958. 2 .•. v. S~gud:lli: Nebulos. Zupan. C.'l.ry~3TuTe. KaXO (( HUSHI<OT BOQa~ He6~!loc: ucrce ",ynnH K3KO 'nrrynn Ha cncseacsare CTapewuHu (I<Ke'IOYII) 50 e~((a "'yua

."

Cx. 4. Ha09u 09 mHo KO.I!UIUI-aiUO, 7.- 8. ee«: A. Ce. Puewo Kaj Oxpu9; 5. Ilpuaen; (00 l.Koeoneeu« II 8. :'Ha.i1eHKo).

28

29

nO'lHyllujKll OA CpeAIIHaTa HII 7. BeK uapo'r KOHCTaHc II II npyrare no Hero ce norpaacune CKlHlBIIHllltTe WTO 1l05p30 Aa rn c-raaa r rroa caoja BnaCT. no oaa

Poueju-xpucnrjanu BO Tpaxnja. Maxenouuja If Xenana. OBOj npoue c BO nayxara e 0!l6e!1e;«eH KaKO pexeneuaaaunja

Flpaa cxnaaunnja WTO ce nanma ua yaup xa Buaaa'ruja 6u.1a oaaa no ;10J1- HOTO -revenne ua CTPY~!a. aoja ro 6!!OKlIpa.~a xormeaeo'r [Ernnuajcxa) na'r noaer-y Llaparpan II COJlYH. KOllCTaHC fI! ITOOeAII.1 CTPYMjuHHTe II HajrOJH'M )len OA HHBn! rtpecenun lIO AHa)10Jlllp.JYCTIIHlljaH IJ B0688189 xeja ncapiua oaaa

MeCTOTO aa Cnoaenure ryxa HaCe,lHJI "Ckuruv-xpncrajaaa 011

60 ~IYAaTa fla CD. LlI1~\I!Tpflja (11 4) ce 360pyBa II aa nocnenaaor 06HA CnoBeHHTe Aa ro oCBOjBT CO!IYH. npSYA (Flepooua). KHeJOT fla P!!IIXlIHllTe. BO 674 r . cccapa xoannuaja aa oop6a npOTItS CO.1YH II BO jYlIH 677 r. ro OIlCaJlHJI rpauo-r. Mefyroa. Crpyujamrre My o'rxacsane 1I0MOW. a Benterejaarare on

ru 1l0KOPIIJI nocnenaa-re CKJlaBIlHUU so nepuqiepuu-re aanannn nenoen HO UapCTBOTO. BK,'Y4yaajKI! ja H Maxenoauja. Cnoeemrre ce pucenenn BO noaanu rpvnn HlIJ I"bmcplijaTO: Maxenoauja Ollna rroaroraena aa I1CnOCHa pexe-

neanaaunja

KaKO CJlC!lCH vexop. cnenyaano OCHOSOlbeTO aa revnre. Bo r0j111IlI1Te noaery 789 H 802 61i1l0 OCHOSIlHO TeMOTB Maxencmrja. a no uea Flenononea. Keq:.aJleHnja. Upa'!. KOJlOHIICTHTC. nacenenu IlO cane BoeHO-l.I,HBl1l1HH 0I1MIlHHC· TpaTIlBHH enHHIII1II. n0611BaJle on np:+:aSOTO aeajnurre so IIOCJle)l,CTBO. co 06BpC· xa na crryacat- KOKO SOjHIII1I1. TOKa IIJpOCf!OJlO CIITHO aoeuo llJleMCTBO. nponnjapn Makencanja e MaCOBIiO KOJlOHIIJHpaliO co xpucrujaucxo pc.aejcxo uecerreune occeeac BO 809110 ronana. npu aaaneen-e'ro aa HHKuq,op.19

Oaae BeCTII ce 0ltHeCYBaaT 110 JY:+:lIO {Erejcxa) Maxenonu]a. 'lHe janpo 6uJlo CO.~YHCKOTO none H paxtauarrre nover-y ncrnorre re-reuaja aa Bapuap. CTPYMa II Meet-a. Llenr-ap e COJIYH. Hexta aecrn 311 HOWBTe KpOlfIUTO. Tile owurrrenac He i5flJle 3r.q,aTeHII co oaaa xonoauaaunja. HO. ap~eOnOI1lKHTe lIaoAfl on 7. II S. aex fl Kaj Hac ykaacyeaa'r xa »crrrenn-uecnoaeun. Oil enua CTpaHO. HIlB ru CO'lHHYBOJle npeocruua'trrre rpynaunn HO CTopOCelleJlI111 ~POMCjll. co HeCJ10BeUCKa (BI!3aHTIlCKa) MaTepltjOJ1110 KY.l1Typa. 0,.. llpyra CTPOIIO HoogaTe lIa

18.0crpOrc>pCKII 1959. 195 u ~aTO>ly. :j~ 0~"3 If CIa C~"~HllTe BU3aHTUCKII aMl1lU! geHll ao HaWUOTKOr.feHTap

19.!icTlloT.227_230

30

B1UaHTl!CKIlTe MOlleTfI BO nexcu 01l1l03H3'1ajultTe TllPllllHH WTO ccranane A05po 33na3eHI!,YK3;«YBOaT aa HeCOMHeHO npltCYCTBO HO B1l3aIlTf!CKH SOeHI! onpenu 80 HIiB.KaKOllpeTcTpa:+;3BOOBlleKpalllllTUKOIIAOnpCII!l0;!OBI!HOBeK61meHlIBHa

Cr. 5. BU3(lIUnUn.:o-uiUWlOW 11110911 09 7.-8. ee«: $u6yllu 09 T; '1l1j.1e (1), CiUeH'!t U JetYHOB!!e Kaj Tem080 (1. 3). - Bp. 4, 5 ~ 06e11lK!I 09 TOM.II Tpa9, Ilpecna (~p060BII 6p. 48 U 65: tio B. 5umplIKo8a)

KUKO no-tapna aa OBa Ke crtownexre HeKOIl 011 nnomrre on 7. H 8. BeK xa] Hac. 11 KOl! He ce C.IlOBeHCKIi. OKO!!Y OXPf!1I ce oraoncua rp060Bft co npenve'ru 011 T.II. KOMUHIt~KynTypa. Koja a]!OaHCKIITe acropnvapu BO aauec [a nporaacaja aa npOToa,16uHCKa.20 Bo HUjHOBO Bpe~te BilK!!1! npellMeTII ce OTKpneHII flU ~lHory

20. Bo H.~. HB E. MaH'". 1992. 14 u ~a~.19. tj'uTupaH e lien on <)Oer.fHaTa .1llTepaTypa no oaa np.IUBH.e 1a Koe TyK" He"a nOTpe6a ~a jn nORTopy.aMe

31

1I0WlrpOK rrpocrop OTKW!KV WTO e AJ16uH!!ja.,[I0 Cpenxa Ilanaauuja ua JaI1aA H Oil Ilpaneu no Marreure ao aa !lCTOK (¢Juoynu). co uno l.(e.1JOCHO ce ortppnc CIlOMHaTUTU XIIITOTeJU. Oaaa perucnanna KyilTypU ce apaysaaa 110MaWHOTO po-rejcxo

IIHBa3HH II 1I0 rros'ropno'to

armc'r ao o sae kpauurra.

Ha OCTPOBOT fOJ1eM I'pan BO ITpeCI1a orxonaaa ce rp060BIl CO BH3aHTHCKO-llTa.~CKlj (l1ecnOBeHCKU) HaKI1T 11 MOHeTa Hil KOHCTaHTIIH [V (663-635) MOHeTIJ xa KOHCTUHC [[ ce aajneuu fill. l-lcapo'r BO Banaunosc )j BO Cenue xaj Flpune n. a aoueru na Jycrunujau II (635-695) Ha axponona'ra so Kon.yx. Bo KUCTeilOT BO Ileepeurre 6il!!]Y Flpunen HCKorraHH ce noaeke npenaeru co SI13aHT1!CKO [JOTeKJlO 0,[1 7. BeK. Cero OBa j60pyBa 311 rrpHCYTHOCTa aa POMeHn: BO aaunrre llajBa)!(Hll TSpgHHI1. H rpauo'r Cepuaxa (ne a. CO¢Hja) TTOSTOPHO e 1I0,o:

Bo ueapononara "Mnaxa" npeu rspmnrara BO Ae6peWTe. Flpenen o'rxonaau ce rp060BII co uaoua 011 ,[IO~HIIOT 7. H 3. BeK. TIle ce l1eJlYMHO ann uenocao «pesrupnna 11 He ce HilTy poraejcxa. HI!Ty CilOBeHCKIi. CTaHYBa 300p uajaepoja'rxo. aa Ky-rpnr-ypm-e

OBa rrporocyrapcxc naeue. non 80l1CTSO ua Ky5ep. a KaKO no'rvuae-ro aa aaapcxuo'r rear-ax BO Flauouaja. OKOJlY 630 r. ce OIIMeTHlWO Oil Asapu-re I! rpraano KOH COJlYH. KyGep f11 !lOBe,1 co ceoe H Ceps-ecujauare. (OKOilY iO.OOU aa opoj). BO IlHBllaTa crapa TaTKOBHHa. Cepaecajauure 61!fIe POMel!, )!(I!TeJlI! aa 6aJlKaHCKIIT.o TTpOBIIHUHH WTO Aaaprrre rH 3ap06!!.11e enea BeK 1I0paHO I! r-a nacenaxe so 3f1!lUIIHd Flauoaaja. gfi paOOTaT aa HlIB. Ha Ky6ep My ollna noaepe-

ua ynpaae'ra spa ana.

ITo uexonky nooenouocnn CYAIlPUCO Aaapure KOIl ru nporouane.Xyoep co CBOjOT Mell.laH napon vcneas ua nojne so Maxenouuja. 0,[1 BnaCTHTe BO ConYH H3MOJlHJl ,[I03BOJla THe ua ce nacena-r BO npif.1J.enCKOTO Fl one (Campus kcrumeens!s, Kepasceuau e aHTII4KOTO liMe aa Flpunert). Bnacrare 011 COJlyH 11M cocenn. BO I1pBO epeee ija r-n

Co nacenynaa,e aa Cepaecnjaan-re-xpucrujanu II rpxorpoan BO onycre-

32

onopanara. Co )UIS ce 1I0Bp3YBa 11 06HOBaTa aa CT06cKaTa e[]IICKOIHJja BO ,[101.(.

nauopnr exronva'r

ApxeOilOWKHTe HaO):l11 yxaacyaaar uexa -rpruan KO]) rpaHll4HHOT

peruoa an na ce uaccnu raay- Bo O.~1l3Y KOp41l 11 BO

Bpan x aj xejneuu ce nenoau 0,[1 HerOBflTU onar-ajua, aapoeesa BO 60pOJlTe rrpOTI!B aBUpCKJlOT «uraa. ABa nenu 011 OBa cpaM03HO ooraTCTBO ce OTKOliaHl! yurre aa rrO'1eTOKOT 011 HaWHOT BeK. a 110 TpeTIiOT nen ce yurre ce rpara.

111.3 Eyiapcl>u oconjylJil/bil ua Cf:Uf:PIlU MUKf:UUlluja.

Tp(II!UlfIliiia "1m Bueaniuuja. OOIlOIW na iUiJpr)III1I1IUf:.

n,ll!CKaJaKnrUHHaCHTe HCTO'lHl!OT II Cpenuuc-r Banxan. Bo ecpcare HeKOJlKY ronnaurrc pen. Byrapu're 1l0TlICII},BaaT B~3aHTIlCKnTa anucr KOH xpajopeaonrre JOHli aa UPHOTO l!

Mope. Hxaa Bl!3aHTIJCKf! rpuuoau 6IJ.~e OCBoeHH II orpaeeua. no Cepnux a (Corpuja} aa aanan. Flon KHe30T Bopnc (852-889 r.) U CUll My CHMeOH

eyrapcxara anucr se ce

lin aauan no Ilpana II go Janpan. co rrpe-

MOil'l~Ha COf,1aCHOCT na Hoaa-ra rone sra np acaaa ro oncpu-nma ~!

ncupa vje-to aa neneunsa Pe nydnus o Maxenounja

50P!lC:Q

.~JP{HO cnpoeenyaa noxpcrveau-e II cyposc ce npecereryaa co OHU.e WTO

OTIlOp. Bo peruoxo r aa Bpe ranuuua OllJle noxpcreaa 4.050 (11m! CJlOBeHI!. fP'lKOTO cseWTeHCTSO ja cpranaaupa Eyr-apcxa'ra upxna. a TOil an ajae Sp3 3aop3aHIJOT rtpouec aa TTOJlllTII'[KOTO 11 enHl'lKOTO ozenuayaas,e Ha Flpacyr-apa're 11 Cnoaeuu-re. CTapHTe lIJl~MeHCKI! l!YlU}ba ce ryoar. Co noworu Ha

PUM II npexy IlpliTUCOK Bp3 o yrapcxn-ra I1pKBa q061lBa CBOj

epx'renacxon- Cneneexinnrre aa U MeTOI1uj. KnllMeHT II !-IaYM

noaraa-r BO 886 ronnua 011 MOpaBI!)a BO Oxpan u ryxa umpar xpacrajaacrao f!

22. B.noaOBUK 1980. 2J9·252. CJI.5

33

TPUllOJllI [0 ocaonn e 11 r-o orpaeune COJ1YH. a r one ane n ou :KlITe,111Te 01lBe,1e BO llJl~IlCTBO. CliMeOH ro KOPIICTII -roa aa na ja 1l0MeCTIl rpaauuara uajyr-, n06J1I1CKY KOHCOJ1YIl

Flpmnara e caaoc-rojna-ra Syr-apcxa no CMPTH\ aa CHMeOIl CBOUTe 1l0pUlleIUII1l repuropa» 11 xc r-eaonuja Bp3 Cpemuro-r EUJlKaH. PYCKHOT KHe3 CBjaTHCJ18.B ja IlOKOpYBfI Byr-apuja II ana.nee co aea. Bo 971 r-. lIaPOT JOBaH

Ilyaaa ua ce sep • .'I0Ilpl1Ha a no janpaa aa aa nan

nOCM,npaHO011 apXe0J10111KIl aClleI<T.TOKMY00 osa npexe naranr auc-rmrCKHTe fIO'leTOL(11 HI! CnOBel!CI<OTO CPC.'IHOBCKOBIIC. npl!J1l!BOT Hit HOSII CilOBeHCKH rpynuurrn BO Cpenen Banxau »opa na 611.11 rone« BO -roa ape ae. Bnuay crornna aexponona aa uaure-ro nonpa sje. BO KOll ce HCKOllaHJI naona 0/110.-12. sex, BO HlBa cJlY'lall YKa:KYBaaT aa MO:.KHUTe no-te roun 0119. BCK.24

Bansauckure CnOBCl!l!. nacerrean HEl llIl!POKIlOT npocrop 011 UPHOTO 1\0 Jcupaucxoro Mope u OJI Ilynan ua ceeep nc KoplIIITHajyr,co3I1aB<H1TCe ra enan-

CJ10BCHCKOTO aacenenne. ouepeve=uaapesre

1!0CIlTeJ111 HEt HOB[1T3 npacaaaa vnpa-

Bo HaWaTI! ac-ropuorparpnja H!lKOj He 06pHaJ1 BHHMaHHe Ha C!lOileI!CKOTO 110ceJlYBalhe 009, BeKDO cpegHoOaJ1KBHCKlJTe :IrOnopl!. TYKrlllOtlJlC.'IYB1Me Ha

34

35

HOBII 6paHOSH on H1SOpllOTO Ilcnyaaacxc ASapCKl!OT xarauar BO Ilanoauja (xpaj ua 8.

1I0KpeH(iTI! 110 CJlO~IOT ua ClIOMOT Ha Aaapure OD03-

111.4_ Op:JlfUfuHua na Ca_IIYUJI; ipaiJoHu U Kpeiiocl/iu

II Meronuj. Ta.\IY )la ja H311pwaT ceoje-ra «acaja Y'leHHUUTe HS J\.\eTOIl.Hj. ~135pKaHn on Mopaauja 110 lIerOBaTS csrpr. 1I0arSST lIa 6s,1KaHoT 3S na ro WlIPST xpacrnjancracro HB CJIOBellCKll jB311K

KOIITaKTlITe co npeKYlIY"BBCKI10T CJTOOeH-

CKll ceaep aaaa-r apXeOJlOWKH rrorapnn xcj Hac DO BII,!!,HB asaa ClleUJ1O:j)!1'lIfHTlpeil.MeTll.T1poJ[3Seil.eflli J[I1J[ anejao xpenpaan IiR Ceaep. npO.HljneH~! ce BO HBIlIHTe KpenOCTI1 '{peurve. Coop fl. Crena. ,QaBHHs a np. (enen. 7.108.147.164.175).26

MO uc-ropucso nornaaje Ke ro npocneuuxre Oil aaur acrtex'r: Hill T10CTOeH.eTO aa yepeneuu MeCT:). liB oaae npoc'rcpu. Ho. npen ita ce CBpTIIMe KOK TSpitITIIUTe. BO sajxycu UPT!! Ke ja rrpocrrennsre xpononorujara aa uacrauare Oil TOj nepnoa (969-1018 ronnna}

nO'IHYSBjKII Oil 976 r. IIBB3.MY. UTIMlICK!I. Epraeueu (K3KO !I KOMec H!lKOIla !t A<ella My Xpnncuae. PO.'l!lTeIlHTe

C.1. 8. J]UK/lul.IW IIIlpOtII Ca,"ywl, pesoncutpvupan CtlOpe9 lIeto6umu «epetc (09 capKoq,at "r") IjpK6/l Ca. A.W.!I, Masa Il pecua (uo HMYlloay.lJOc)

HB CaMYI!JT 11 MOA<e5u POD.HllH!lTe xa L10pOT). OI!I1 yorreH Oil COnepIH!KOT Bacn.nu] 11. KOMIITOIlYJl!1Te ,\IY OTK3)!(YBa3T rlOCJlYWIlOCT aa [[OSllOT uap II xpeaaar

BOOBaJ o,,"olla ~60pYBJnT II nOBeKeTOTonO~II"Il: TaKa fla "p. MOpaB3 (IIU~ lIeJla ~eHew_ 113 Cp6uja II Ha KOCOiO. 90 ce"ep"OTO nOllllo)l(je lIa Cxoncxa UpIIJ ropa); MopaBol oe BK"J ""pa_ JOT ceRepKO Oij KOCT~p; nOToa IlCTO~K"OT xpaJ fI" Kop~aHcKIIOT peruca. BO jyrnHCTO~IIJ A,,5aHllja. Doe.lUja (aT0PO "Me 1a 'leulKa) ce BHU ,u,ltPO-PUIIOHOT OKOJlY BaJlaH~oBO. ~om" AflC"" PeKa (DoIIM~!ja). nOT03 perucacr '! rp3T~eTO lioeMllua (Aell. AKcllynoJluc) jY:+:HO on r~areJllljo

80 oopo!tTe co Bacunuj npescnayan caao Caaynn. Ilo 986 r. CaM},!!,1 fit .O .. C..IlillliLUWilll'l!!Te B!qaHTHCKH Te~!!1 uo IecaHlja Hij j.)'.( a Ha HOOK ryeHel!!H? 27. He H4InerYBajKil 90 06eMHaT3 COBp.MeH •. 1UTepaTypa ·'3 O.He IIJCT.H]]. >i.e ce n0911KaMe Ha UJ.Ilo)l(ysn'baTaHar.OCTporopCK" {19S9).C. AUTOibax (J98S.1juli.OaHOB(J9SS 111). KaKO ,,"a/J,. TalllKO"CKU(1961).

36

37

annanaa MXTJ'loIaH).

nojaa urro 61Ha aone aa BO Buaaarnja.

r.) II nponpe-r II Cnnur nc no UYHaB Ha

ceeep.

TIo 06U2\OT aa ja OC80l! II Cpenua Fpunja. 110 995.16 r. Cal-I;

ce KPYHlicYBa3a nap

38

OHJle ocneneuu.Haopry no OBaC:l.\lYH!l yMupa

Fa apun I'anoaup. He["OBl10T CHH. ICaICO uap HeMaJl auory cpeKa. no aenonrO!HIHa enuue ea-e 611Jl y6lleH ogopaTY'leg.>ry JOBaH Bnanucnan 110 uuuunja-maa aa Bacnnnj. Bncunaj n06eAOl!OCI!O erreron so OXPl!g II EO Fl pecna II TaM), OCT:lBI!,l caou ynpannuun II rapH1I30HI). Maxap urrc Bnanucnas HOolI!Ha!lHO ja

npec'tanann na rrOCTOH.

111.4.2. Fpairoeu U rUllpr)ulUr iiud Ca.>I)'uJl

CIITe noena noxonu. KnKO 011 ;'WKe!lOHCHI raxa n OM aii3:lHTilco:a c-rpaxa.

IlMaJle aa 1.(e,1 gil OCBO)UT ann ua onepaaa+ nexoja 'cpencc'r- Crpar eurxa rrreuaao. npacaea'ra rrpe'rcraayaana CllCTeM na nor onena xpe noc'ra (KaCTpOHIJ) onxpvaceaa co roneu dpoj noxtanu TSP!1l1HII II CTpa:.KJI (CPPYPlIOHli) KOl! liM novra-

raneHunpBUTeEOOi\6paHaTa.

I'onexurre KpellOCTH aa KO!! CTaHYSU 360p. sacrpcmsre. BO cnenuu re BeKOSIl Ke 1l3paC\laTBO "B!JCTlIHCKII" rpauonu. a-rca 3Ha'lll nex a 1I0Kpa) eoeuara TSpgllHu(aKpOllO!la.l(IITal1eJla.ropHli nacexea

Flos.paj aoeaa-ra !1 ~l1B!1JlHa anac-r TyKa Ke cronyaaar 11

- enacxomrre BO rOJJe~n1Te rpanoan IT HIIBHIITe aa aennuu BO novann KZlCTpOHll

39

Bo lIOHOSO epexie HUJa acrpaacyea-nr ce unrepecupane aa rrp0611eMOT an rpcnoarrre BO Bmanraja BO paHOTO CpellHOBeKOB!!e. THe ce ei1HO~\I!CJleHH ne ca on 7.11011. BeK Ta_\!}" aesrano 8I1CTIIHCK!I rpauoan. 1l0JlIICI! [ocaeu Llapurpan a COJlYIl). Haaecrc nua e r-aac'rapa.te 6pOjHI! MaJll! rpaT'Il!lha-TBpilI!HII oeene.eaxn xnxo KacTpoHu.2S

Toa aaxcn f! aa HaWllOT npocrop. 3a6e,le:.KaHO e ue s;a 110)1 50p11C. eyrapcsure oupeun ueexerrre so BII3aHTlIC!<UTe -reau Tpaxnja H Makeuouuja. HO THIY perearsara Teoacpa (843-856) 1l0CTaSII,la aoeun onpean so KaCTpoHIiTe Tile ru uarraraae g yraprrra J! rI! npnxynune jta ce rr081!e4aT aaaau. Fpaneu.e ro (111111 06HoBan) ua Ko.CTpOH!!Te rrpeTCTaBysUJ10 [Ipsa emna BO rpoprurpnunpae.eTO aa BnJ~HTI!CK!!Te norpamtvna 05;}BCTI!. :IOlleKB nououna Ollrle rpaneuu ann 051108ellll II opoj!tu sranu xpenccru [rppypuoua) OKOJlY IIpBIITe_ Kern 1I0Toa Bopnc II CIHteOIi. a 110 HlIB II CaMyJI.~.ja paumpnne caojara npacaea ua CMeT!<a H.1 B!1311HTlija. 0611e 05JlaCTli ft KpellOCTII BO I!!W c-rnaanc "6yrapCKfl"_ TOKU cn yuraste aa "oympcsure KacTpOIlH" npe xy rpaHI!'!HlIT3 pexe MlIPHUa II aa "oyrapcxn-re $PyPI!OHlI' urupyxr ,tIp)KlISaTlI Ha C3~!yIU. KlIKO WTO Ton ro aaae . nyaaar OH3aHTtlCKitTe aBToplI.29

5pOjOT an TBPIlIIHJlTe. ocooeao ouse Ma_~I!Te. aecoxsnexo 61!.~ ron ext

011 aoeunre H3BeWTJU !!03HlIBnMe aa 30 (PPypIIOIiH OKOJlY Ilpa s. 1\,1H 3:1. 35 rppypaoxu «en 311e!l.II0 co Flepuux My ce npenane !Ill Bacnnn] II so lOIS r.30 3a :.K11.1 ClIMO nexou 110rOJle~!11 11 IIOJH3'1ajHII KpenOCTIl ce la6~Jle:.KaH!1 co CBoeTO I!~!e.

311 1l0BeKeTo ItMllfh.1 !lOJHlIBaMe 011 noeenoara 11 3<1 IIpaB1lTlI

TOLj!! Ha TepeHOT, xaxo ne ponoc-rojxa no'repua HI! HJlDHO 1l01101lIlYBat+.e. .vlery MeCTaTlI 011 OBa ape ere eraucrupaar 111I3a rO.'IeMIi lIJlI! 110Ma;}11 KaCTpOHI! !! ron est Opoj 1I0MlIIlil TBP.!lIlHII. ¢PypIiOHII. '11111 I1~tJIH.lI rnaenc lie ru aaaesse. B

T'anxo aa-Baruroaa xoja npen c neueunu

03Ha'll!naCfITcelIHCKO[lCKIICC.'lJllIJTiI KilKO rpanoau, npaso. UYPII BO BpeMeTO Hn Kenpes. TeO¢UJlllKT OXPI1.'lCKI1 !! npyrrrre 1l01l0UHe:.KHl! IIl!C3Te.~H. HeKOI! 011 OSHe errnCKOIICK!I cronuun ee Il3paCHOT 80 -BIICTllHCKII" rpaaoeu (1I0rrIlCU). Meryroa nu npeMIlHOT 011 10. BO 1 L ee« Tile MeCTa c~ YUlTe 5U,lC [(lICTPOHI!. Tea _llo:+.:e 110. ce aaxnyvu SpJ ocnosa ua npXeO!lOWKJlTe

OCTRTOUI!lInTepeHOT.

Flpe rneno-r 1111 ~(eCTaTlI BO HlIWlITa Penycnaxa Oil BpeMeTO na ClIMyHIl Ke ro 1l1lll.eMe He cnopen o.36Y'lHIIOT, TyKy cnopen penlOHaJlHUOT npnuunn c!leAejlht r-n Oll. ceaep «on jyr I( Oil HCTOK KOH aanan. Cure OSHe »ecra I!~UpllHO ce

npuxa.scanu ao Flper-nenc'r f rn. VJI).

HaOxpHIICKJ.TaapXllellflcKorrJlja(OIl lOIS. 102011

I. C"oiije. ne aeuruo Cxortje. 3Ha'iaeH KlIcrPOH. no-tea 1I0Jli!C. cennurre Ha enllCKOIlOT u ua )1YKCOT aa -re sra ra "Byrapu]a ". xnsc ,;,1I0p1l1l1l01l jypucmrxnnja Ha cxoncxarc enncxonnja fllIse,[leHI! ceo

- [;IIII!!'I. 1l0CTOII !! ncuec 11011 TO~ liMe 32 KM cene puo all Cxcrtje. BO ce aepuo-ro [lO!lHO)KJe nn CI(OnCKa Llpua Fopo. na IIJBOpHTC aa 5HHJ.'ll(a vlo pn an. Ypua-rusurre I!il CpellH08eKOBHI!OT rpan neosar nn PII!lOT jy:.KHO 011 ce,10TO (3o.U.\101i1I r-n naaenyaa K3KO MO.)KHU acxnunu cena'ra BUHU!I U Bunue ceaepoucT04HO H lICTO'IHO Oil Cx onje. MefyT03. TaMY ua repencr nej-rn npxeoncunor OCT.1-

TOIHI Oil TOO. apeae).

Penycnnxa Maxenoauja 11011 »ejnraara jypncmtkuuja ce naorane enncxomorre Cxonje. MOpOASIlC. CTPYMII1.I3. Flenarouuja-By'tena II OXPI!A. KaKO II ACIlOBHTe na errncxonajara Fl pnape n (oonacra n01!031l) II Meraen (Flpocex H Mopncao} Flpn cekoja enuckonuja naaeaeun ce H 1l0M~JlIITe lIPKOBHH ell!!HHUll - eucpae co HflOHHTC ceAIIWTlI ao KO[J"liTO crorrysane Jo.~ICHlIlIHTe no. eIlHCKOIIIITe. Bo HCKOI! C,lY'I:J.lt fie CMe cnrypun uaau aaseneaare IIMlllha oanavvanne ca ac pernoa !Ill!! II

- l1y"ofJO_ i\,[o:.Keoll 'ron e xpenccru J10UllpaHlI kaj C. Fpannurre. 20 KM jyroucTO'lHO on KpmHoBo I! 38 KM IICTO'lHO 011 Cx onje. 90 M!lKpO-penIOIlOT Jlyxa (en. Il per-nen)

- "pea.IlOp II "plllllili. He aa curypnn IIH!lIlU!l:1 repeac-r. anry i\e;;,HUH;] TO[lOHIIMH KaKO BPCK3 co IlUB. EnCH on nan MO)l(e51l croen HO Ilaanna. C. Hy-tep.

12 KM cesepoaanaaxc O,tl Ckonje (CII_ Flper-ren)

KaCTpOH xaxo ceuuurre H9 cyrpparaaor

Z. MOPIJIJII.1IJ. Cnopen OCT3TOl(IITe aa repeuor TOj Oil)] 1I0Mal! K9crpOH flail gencwHoTO cerro MopOIlSIIC. S KM j)')I(HO 011 K04aHII. Bo 9. ee c BO TOj pe r-uou rpanor !'lIfJell5llJ1 Ce!(IIWTe na 5pera.1HlI'11(3TlIe[lIICK0l1uja.ocHoaaH.1 on Bcpuc Bo 10. II II. BeK TOj rpan eeee He ce crtoxmysa. PaBeH ne xen aepojarno xaj C. Kpvrururre. 14 K~l aanaaac Oil Moponauc. Bo 1,\. BeK errapxncxo'ro ceIlIIWTC OA

Oaa e npauo-r ucupne s nper-nen aa cpenaoaexoaau're yxpeneuu MeCTOBO MaKe;'lOllllja WTO CM~ 90 cocrojoa na ["Q COCTilBHMe. dnaronapeuue xa naurvaaHIITe JlOKYJ,JeHTIl on Toa Bpe.\!e. ~ Kon ce rrOTBp,!!eHII lIpeKj' apxeOJ!OWKItTe OCTlI-

18. N. Syoronos 1966. 3. 9· ~p.M" C AHTOJl.nK 1985. I. 52J" ·,nll_ 899: ~ A. Dunn 1994.60-

80: ~ W. Mililer-Wiencr 1986. 43~·475 '1llpojHll ~pV",1

29_ L Oqporopc"" 1959.219·221 " C. A"TOJl,a~ 1985. 1.524 30.J.>1s3Ho.1931_526

31. HnuOT. 520 U H. (r.,. 67) I'Cu.pnllO ru ~OM~"T;'P~ "sue "os.nou U C"T~ upKoaHU ceauurre (enucKOnCKIJ" <HOPIICKU) 80 HI.8. t1 HawuOT npernea c. nOTn"pa (co H."ooOKY ue~_,y~o au) ~a Heroa"T. JlOKaUI!I!

32. B. TO"KOSo-3"" .. oaa 1956. 40~60 .1 ccoeeuc 54-57. ru cneau MeCTaTa HD nuuie-c nOllp"'ie U npuno,"YBa KapTa la TOa. ~ T. TOMOCK" 198J~S5 .. 13~J5. ce 05ua)'sa ~a~aa. eKuUl Hn xapT:!Ti! Hi! ~pe~HOBeKOBHU rpao." DO !>la"4.l0Huja_. HO lie HDIl'<rysa BO H"BHaTa ~aTero· pU33uuja ""Ty BO xpouonorajara. a _lo~nUU"T. WTO rll npeJ..oara so Hajro.oe>. ~poj e.qV'laU ce

40

41

MOPOIlB!!C OltJlO npeneceuc BO 3neTOOO (11ecHOBO)_ KUKO enapxun non

Ce,!l,II111TeHalloaaenHCKOlllt]a

- ill!opl!lUiiie (jI,eypeiiiuc), neaec c. LleopewTe. 24 K~l ceaepcaananxo OJ; Ilpu.ieu

- KOJjoK. Hecoxaeao ce onaecyaa na neaeumuor JUUHJ!IICKIJ pemcu K03jaK (Koajauuja) lICTO'lHO 011 Kyxranoac. co cpenuurr e ro ao Kaaapeao (rpan K03jaK?):

- CJlOOuUliii.e. !!ltTO~a ;l.011HIIKa nos paj Kpnaa Pesa. IlCTO'lIlO Oll K03jaK Cpenaurre-ro 1111 peruoncr eune xpenccra eo c. Omura. acxeeu co IICTO liMe -

Kpajnarea ¢PypIIOII. apXeOJlOWKIl ncrpascyaaa.

- Besec, neaeurea T. Benec. Floxran xacrpoa. 2 KM jY)!(HO Oil rpauo-r

5. Oxpuir. aeneureu QXPUil. KaCTpoII 'ru'rynupau Jl KaKO rronac - apxuertacxoncKII CTO,l II enaa on rrpecronauau're xa JOBau Pa![OC11as. Flou Oxpan ce aaaeneau

CJlaSIlUlTe?

- KU'106o . zeueumc KU'leBO. KaCTpoII. YIIIIUlTeIi BO xaure epe oe

- npeciia. KaCTpOH xa OCTpoaOT CB. Axnn BO Mana Flpecna {jteuec F'puaja).

Flpecronauxa na Ca~IYIl.FI. Faapur Panoxrup II Joann Bnanncnaa. Cpenaurte ua npeCllaHCKHOTperUOII

- MOApa. ¢PypHOIl II IICTOIIMefla oenncr fla aananusrcr fipe r Oil OXPIIJlCKOTO Eaepo. noxpaj sraructpamtuo'r na-r aa E.16acafl u Ilpa-r. H neaec rasa ce BIlKa. O.!l

- Ry>lo(Julla. Ce onnecyaa aecoaaeao ua rOHeMUOT sacrpoa Kana-ra. 3 K.'! jyroaananac Olt c. Jlyxoeuua II 4- K~t jYiKlIO on Maxenoucxa Kaweanua , 15 KM aanamro on Ile.FI'leBO. HeKOII ucrpaacyaa-ru ja npennarane KaKO noxaunja aa 11YKoBIll(a nonuua-ra fla naxaeuua. JYiKlIO on WTlIIl. Oaaa nonuaa. co L1eHTapOT BoKoH'Ie. 1l0Tn.lrananOIlCTpYMIf'!KaTaenapxHjallTaanpeTnocTaBKalleeocHO. sana

- nujolJl!l1 H JHommll#/o. PenlOHHTe -raxa ce auaaar II nenec. LlOKonKY nccrceae "rpanosu" CO aaaao liMe, £10 WTO ce COMHeaaMe. Tile He ce »ouupauu. KaKO 3HO'!OJfllI peruouanuu cpeunurra on rca apeae nOTSpj.1eHIf cc apxeonourxn ecruTOI.\II. fit ucraxuyanxe Kpe!TOCTIiTe Suerop UyrOIlCTO'lIiO on Ilcnve ao) II Synl'lHapLlII. uarrannc on Bepcnc. MOJl(eOfi THe 511ne cenaurra aa euopuu?

Hn nonpavjerc fI.l Moponaaurxara ermcsonuja ce anornn I! ¢pyPI!OH IlliUuii (Ciiilllieu(IIJ). OCBoeH Oil Bacanu] 11 £10 1014 r. !ll(eJ10CII0 ypnar £101018 r Ean oexcsea uypu 90 14.BeKKOra)\06IlnllnOlIrpaI\He.Tpr,noaeKe L1pKal! II cera cranan cenaurre lIa peruouamurre ¢eYJlanllll Onusep fI KOIICTaHTRfI Ileuxos.

J. Ciii.py.lIU'10' CUlleH KaCTpOH KOj .'l.OOI!n ronesrc rronrpanae. Bepcjaruo nopaaa pexeneuuaauaja'ra. ellltCKOnCKIlOT cr cn olin npeneceu £10 aanacmpo-r Bertjyca (Eneyca). 8 KM ceaepcaancnnc en CTpYM!I!{a. Llpxoanorc I!Me na enapxuja-rn ("iuno rpqxo: Tuaepuonon. KOlKo euopun noll. CTpYMII!{a 3a6ene)!(alill ce

- Paa08UIIllUe . nenec Pa.[lOBIIW. Cpej.1I1WTe fla pernoaor- YpllaTI!HI!Te lIa cpeu- 1I0aeKOBHlIOT (j>Pypllon ne)!(aT na PlIllOT ceaepuo 0.11. PanOBIUU

- KQII·/e • nexec c. Kouve. cpennurre lIa peruOIJOT (.!lOnI!HKaTa aa Haxununa]. YpHaTI!HIITe fla CpeJlIIOBeKOBHIIOT ¢PypIlOH neacar ua PHJlOT jyroacrovao 0Jl

Kor-a neTpUH3.) KOH Flpecna. a 3;] na ro ocurypn TOj !TaT, narpanun TilMy !/JPYP"QIJ lJaCUJJuiJo. UapOT ',mory 6p3an It norn-uro e nexa TOj Mo:.;.:en caxro i1a OOIJOBI! nexoja crapa «penocr. Ha TOj na-r ne.ea-r 2 kac'renu. 6muy i10 c. Ean a 11 c Fle-rpuxo, Peceucxc. EileH 0)1 flllB necosraenc i5I!.FIa Bacnnuaa.

C.~eJlHIIOT rppypao« Bacnnnj ro snpexon KOHcT3IJTllja. a ce naoraa Ha 'nOMa,lOTO e3epo" _ He e nOUl!pafl. Mo:.;.:e611 ce 111I0ta fla TepefloT lIa 05110BellHoT

rpan Flpecna ?

Bo pernoaor na CTPYMIll(a ne scerr aepoja-tno cjJPypllOlJ Tepeuna 3a5ene)!(afl £10 nO~OIIOT ua Ilaa!!.!1 Apujaturr BO 1016 r. Jlonapaa e xa] Baucxo. I I KMjyrollCTo'lflO on CTPYMltl.\a. Apxeonouucure ncxaau ro rrorapnyaaar roa

4. 5ylue.'J{I, I!CTOBeTfla co Ilenaionuja (?). ue seuraa Eu'rona. 3lJa'laeH xacrpoa 80 enncxonujara au Buronn Ha6poeHII ce eHOp!!J!Te

- npllm:,i. )l,eflec MapKoBII Kynn Ha)l, Bapour kaj Flpnnen. CHneH ¢PYPIIOH. apxe· onouixu uc-rpaacyuan Bo )l,OllIlIIOT 14_ ae« Ke aapacue so npecronnuua II

Kac-rpoeo-r npu.ciJuollu - Flpuapeu ne:.KJI so lleKeWHOTO Kocoao. Cpoaja Flon a.J1JCTa aa enacxoncr on Flpucnuaua ce H:lOt3:1a 11 aaura-ra 06:1:'!-:-T Flexor co ellopllcKO CeJlIIUlTe BO ReaCAoy."Il11 - £10 12. BeK e 3a5eneiKafl co C,10BeIJCKO I!Me /beUl'c>I . .!IeHernell Jleuroe, 8 KM ce aepuo Olt Te-rosc. Flpe-rcra ayaan 1l0Ma;1 110 MHory cunen xacrpcu. no lJerOBOTO ypnaasse 80 1190 r, onYCTe:"I II llPKOBHO cpeuaurre aa Flonoarrre eo 13. BCK c-raaano Teroeo. npepacnyaajxu BO 14_ ae« ao enlicKollllj1l.33

Bo lleIJeUlH1ITa canac-r Merneu so Fpuuja c-roen KUCTPOIIOT Mvi!lell KaKO ce.murre I-Ia eIlIlCKOIl. Ilon IWr08o.Ta jypucnuxuuja ce nncrane II aes on HaUlII «pauurra. co eHopIICKHCe,!l,lIU1Ta BO:

- Ilpocac. nenec Ilesmp Knnuja: Mflory rcnevr II cune« x ac-rpoa co 0;li\e,"IHO

ykpenena eapom.cnxpvaceu co nceeee Kpe!10CTII.

- MOpUX060. K1ICTpOH. cpeuaurre HrI cenacra co ~CTO liMe no nenec (MOPI!OBO, MapllOBO). BepYBnMe lIeKa e Illle)lTfl'leH co fpa.!lOK nOMefy '-{a)lllUlTe 11

33_p_rpyjllh.1933.33-77.

42

43

Manacrup. 20 K.'I jy:.KIlO on Ilpunerr. Tyxa e II rnaaaara UpKB<I BO uemro'r peruou. Co. HUKOJla BO Manacrup 0,[111. BeK. OOHoBeH<I BO 13_ BeK. Bo 14. BeK peruoua,lIlOTO cpenuurre Ke ce !I0MeCT!1 9 1(.\[ jY:+<IlO. IICTO xpaj pexara Llpua. BO aacTPOHOT '1e.llpeJl aaj c. 301l-IlK

Ba:.KHO e ua KaJKeMe uexa BO jY)KHOTO 1I0i\HO:+<j" ae IwaHIIHCKllOT eeueu Hnue-Koacyrp. nokpaj Mernea !IOCToeJl uen CIIHUUP c.10BeHCKII - ~laKe!lOHCKIi TBPlll1HlI. KOll IIpeTCTaBYBa;le rtorpannxea CPPOHT KOH CO,lYHCKOTO none - BHlaHTIICKJTa re sra Maxenounja. Toa ce: ,\Iv.1ue..:, Ceiiiulla, Kapouja. Ociupoeo, Bvoe", CII. 1I.1uja, coo: (Cy6orue..:o), EIIOIuuja u Ma'ly,,:v6o rtccseaaara TBplIHHa ne;+.:e.qa xa caMIlOT Bapnap. aa nesuor eper. noxpaj cenoTO KoeWTO ro co-ryanno lICTOTO mse (rpvxn: :\Ia1IYI.:UVII). 5 KM jyroncro-mo Oil F'earenuja. Ileuec e npexpcreuc BO EB30HII II ce aaora aa rpauu'mnor npenux Boroponuua

Bo 1016 f. AaBHA Apujasurr TprH}'BajKII Oil Conya KOH Crpyxruua. norm-r l!Y)llIO e neica cu-re ucropu'mpu ro eapaar Mauyx uou MaKap WTO TaMY He~11l TllKBO MeCTO. Mal1YKIIOH - BO cu-re ronorpaqxan KUpTII uaa Hero HeMa nune-

KaKO lnKily'loK ea ce-re oea ~W;Ke.'le)la ro 1I0BTOpitMe OHa WTO ro uane'cTHBMe seee H(I nO'leTOKOT ua oaaa rnnaa. UeJWTa npacaaa ce rro'rrtupana BPJ ape aca Oil yxpenenn MecTa - KaCTpOHH II (PPypIfOHII. BO «ou npec-rcjyaane BOeHO -IIIlBHJlHIITeynpallHlIlIlJuynpaSH!lrapHllTypH.KaKOllBoeHllnOCal1llco6paHIIOA 110MaWHOTO uncenenne I[ ua 1l06pOllOJlHa ocaoaa. nOBIfCOKIITe II uajancoxure <PYHKUf!ll TyKa ollne KOHTpOJlHpaHII aenocpenno 0,[1 anane'reno'r II uosepean »a JIIllIa 110 KOII TOj UMaJi 110.qH:I .I1oBep6a_ nOHHCKIlTe <PYHKIIIIII r-u ):IOOIIBane nyrero oa aapcao-r WTO ce IICTaKHa!le co aeaoja CfiOCOOHOCT. KpenOCTIITe Oil rca ape ae. onne s on WTO ycneaeae Aa fll lI,[IeHT!l<pIIKYBaMe aa TepeBOT I1peK)' apxeonouixa OCT3TOUll. aocpyaaar I1peKY CBOIiTe rpane xun ocooeaocru nexa -roa ce oel HCKny40K paHOBltl3f1TlICII:II [npencnoaeacsn} xpenocrn KOH CO lf3BeCHU nonpnsKII OUile ocrrocozean aa nOTpeOI1Te aa ape aero- HOBO sunaa,e HaCTaHaTO 00 oaa ape ae (10.-11. oeK) fie 1111 e 1l03HaTO_ Toa aaeenysa na l(lK.1Y'IOK ne ea nonpaaxn-re aa crapure o(5slIllllja Ol!.~e 113Bc;<eHH rnneao BO TeXHHKa Illl ~YBOSU!I. 61'3 Ma.~Tep. 'jaj:lKHaTII aepoja-ruo co ;!l.pSeHII rpean. Tae He ce oupacane no neuec

I1CKJ1V'IOK npercraayaaae ~IOJKe6!l HeKOJlKYTe najauavnjan KllCTpOHl1 KllKO WTO C~ DIITon3. Flpecna n Oxpnn KOII UITO roaca BJ1aAlIC,laB r~ 06HOHIIJ1. aepoja'ruo 110 IIl1pCTa aan-repna TCXflHKa. M~rYTOll \I HIIB Bacnnaj ru ypua» 110 1018 r. II Hue MO:.K1'~1e cane no npeTnOCTaBYBaMe BaKBa ~IO:+<HOCT

44

1l/- 4. J. IIp'':iJU 80 9. U 10. 6e!.:.

CIiTe KaCTpOHH WTO fir Ha6pOllo~le Ollne nar-paneuu IIp3 OCTaTOQIfTe aa aajaaavajmrre ~OUHOaHTII'IKlI ycpenean »ecra 11000111' s.panurta. Pe'lIiCH CUTe THe «ecra npecraavuane UPKOBHII cpennurra SO 5. I[ 6_ BeK. Hanpaeuasre OCBpT (Fn. !L2.A» Bp3 cane rpaT'lIIH.ll I[ BlIllOB~le nesa xa OBa noupaqje rrcc-r oene aajManKY 17 rpanoau - e nucxomrn. Osee Spojxa cnroeapa Ilpl10nll:.KllO na 6pOjOT lIa ~IlIlCKOIlI!IlTe II eHOplIIITe on apeaero na Ca~IY1];1. laOCn1'JKaHII so rrosencnre xa Hacanuj II [ru liMa BKyllHO 22 lIJ1lI 23)

AKO m IIl3eMCMe aex onx yre HOB I! peruoxannn IICHTPli xaepoeuu KaKO e eopucxu cpenrrurra KOII He nocroeae BO AOUHllTa aHTIlKa (Fl ujane n 11 Maneureso: PaAOBHIll II KOI1'!e: J1YKOBO II Flpuunn !lJlI! Flpeanop x aj Ck orrje.

Ilnll CTflPOTO peruouarmc cpennurre 6UilO aa npyro «ecro 0.,,,_1'0'",""",, IIHleCTO J1yKOBO: Buunnn - KeneHJ!,[1I1H? HaMeCTO

cocesr ncra 6pojKa. 3HaeMe .IICK:l fiyrapcxa-ra upxaa na DOPIlC onna opraumnpana 011 EII3nHT!ICKOTO CBeWTeHCTBO, Flarpujc punrjara BO Llapurpan rprxana 0.1\ nouuoau-ru-uca-ra upxouun oprannacuaja coxyaaaa BO 1l0KYMeHTIITe II BO 9, BeK ja penxrueupana cexane «one illTO -roa 6UllO .\!OJKHO Mervroa pequea cure noau cpenuurra »cca-r cera CJlOBel1CKII UMJlH.lI

UpKOBHaTn cOOilBeTCTBYBalla BCVIIlHOCT,

YllpaBHo-lIoJJ]ITlI'IKllT(l Bepoja'mo 1I0P;))l1I nonoepara KOHTpOJ1a

Hail oaae reparopuu UITO BIl3uHTI!ja ru IlJry61r.~a ao 7. BeK. a II rropuna P03J111QHlJOT creneu aa xpncrujaarraupau,c. UPKOOI1HTe lIeHTPH cera 6U;le nO~leCTeHII 902 paura: DO enapXIICK11 cenunrra epacuu 3<1 noana sajnn KaCTpOHII II eo euopucau ceneurra 1I0TQlllleTU aa IlpBIITe. 3 CMeCTeHIl eo noaanu II nepl14JepHIl KaCTpOIIIICO noe+ano aaa-nee

AKO ru U33eMeMe npam-e enucsonau - Paaeu unn Bermua (.o.pe.\1611I.1a) KOII Ha6plO uracuaxe. CUTe ccrnnam enapxnu u enopun 6Uile npurparenu Oil upxaaru aa Ca sryun II rrpononacnne na CPYHKL<UOHl1paaT ao pasuca-re na Oxpancxa-ra apXllenUCKOIIIJja \I 1I1IJ cnenau're eexosu. il,YPIJ aa ape ae aa uapo'r Ilyuran oaaa opraxurauaja Ke rrpeTpTIlI3Ha'll1Te.ryHII1I3M1'1l1l

3a o aaa opraauaauuja II ra apyrure UPKOBHlI npQ6J1e,1I! auory e naurvBaHO II -roa He e npenae'r a a HaIUlITe IICTpaJKYBaH.<I. Hue CaKaM<~ -ryx a I\U YKa:.KeMe aa HeKOII C.'leMeHTU BP30HH aa MaTepl1j:l.~HIITe OcrflTOI.I1I xa TepeBOT

- Ce;!l.IIWTan Ha enap:I:IIIITe H eHoplIIIT1' BO 9.-10, BeK He Oll,le 1136paHil CJ1y"la)HO. Toa ce 6eJ IICKJ1Y'IOK peruoaan un CTonaHCKIi. a Co TOB l! ynpaauu II BoeHO-ITOJlItTlI'{KH cpeunurra. Toa ce )IOIlIlOaHTII'IKII rpunonu 1\ rpa-r-snu.a KO!!

45

OIl;Ie 06HOSel-fl! 90 6. BeK. aenocpeuao I1peA 110araH.eTO ua Caoaeua-re. Tue OCTo.HaJlepenUT[IBHOIl;06po3Jl1a3eHllIlBOCne)!HHTeBeKosHH3aToacelo6paHlr 30. ceauurra Ha HOBUTe BOeHl! rapHIl30HII. a no-rca \I ua UHBIlJlHaTa II upKOSHaTa ynpasa BO !O. BeK. Jl06po J3n3JeHHTe oesnanje. ococeno ua aeponomrre. OBO]· aoaorne pe!!aTHBHO 6P10 H fiea xxory 113!1aTOUH na ce ocnocoear J3 KOBaTa il.pll'aS3. KOH HilS aoseae lT3TlIWTa 1I3rpa,a.eHII YWTe so au-ruvxc ape ae. OKOJlY HilS neacene CTapT! PYil.H111111 WTO rrpusnexyaane BHIIMaHlle K3KO aa OKO!lHOTO

IV. OGHOBA HA BH3AHTHCKATA BJIACT BO 11. H U. BEK.

- Cneuuara npll'IlIHlI ]0. 06HosYB3r-be ea crapure rpllT'IIlH.3 filllle eipojuu're QPKBII BO. II.HI OKOIlY ana. aeee cncaenaaae (r.FI.[1.2.A) nexa cnopea neaeuma'ra eaaneauaja ru IIMa,lO OKOIlY 230! HeKOJlKY JleCeTIIIIII Oil; 11iiS ce IICKOrlysaHI! BO naure epe ae II TyKB ce rrpoxajnenu OCT3TOUIl 0)1 OOHOBa so [0.-12. Dele Too. ce naj-recro rone-m TpHKopaeiHli 6a3lfnrlKII KOH Dnne nperoneMIl]1I HOBIiTe nOTpe611. Saroa OIlJl HallSIIJlYBaH cuac CpeAIrWHIIOT Kopao II -rca H<:

BO uena'ra nonscnaa. Be lIeKOJlKY cnyxau !Sun OOHooeH caste OJlTllPHIIOT IlpOCTOp [npeaaarepuyss). Bo rrpeOCTaHIITIlTe "enOBII aa YP"aTaTa !Sa3HJlBKU - BO Hej311- IIIIOT a ap'rexc II BO jY;+:HIIOT (rrope-rxo II so ceaepnuo r) KOP3(') GIIJlt': aaxcnyaaaa yapeaa-re. rp060BHTe ce BKonUHI! BO rra!lH~TI!OT WyT. Haj'leCT0)10 AnU(')O'llll1a H~

1. 80ciiiulluja. - Ileueneiu. - Hop ... allli 80 .JaiiaOllllifu "paullliiia.

2. r/)eyiJaJlII,laljuju. - PyiJapciiitiQ. - llup"YJwljllja IIU .lfQlleiiiu.

1. Hciflopun:u ocepm.

CTapHOT nca.

no KOHe'lHIIOT C,10M aa CaMYII.QooaTa Il.pA::OBa. a aa ita cnpeva )10. He nojne )10 [lOBTOPHII BOCTaHl1ja. Bacunuj II peuntn na 060j npoc-rop IlU rn ypne TBPJlIIHIITe KaKO MO)KllH HOSIl yrtop nurra na SOCTaHIII1IITe. Bo -raa CMIIC.FIB liMa OCTaBeHO cane srexon K,ly'lHII «acrpoua 00 KOII 611,le pa3MeCTeHII SIDaHTlICKII aoeuu flOC3- nn. Ilo TeMen eana ypna'rn H TBpAIlHaTa Hall aapOWOT OxpH.a npn WTO fillna aannenera IJ .aplKBSllaTa xaca lIil Jcaax BlIaAIIC!!aB. no OBa OXPII)l Ke OCTaHe nonro ape sre fiea xpenocr. TspAII1l3Ta 10pIHI Cnpaj lUTO nenec ja rnena ae oHna nonm-aara DO AOIIHIIOT 14. ne«

VI -rnpnnaa'ra urrun Ke OCTBlle aanyc-reun 1I0seKe 011 ] eexa: 06HoBeHa r511.~a npen cpenaaa'ra Ira [4. sex. Flpanen !lCTO -raxa. Ilpoce« (')1IJ1 oeeoeeu aa «pajo'r on [2. II npoumpeu BO paaao-r 13_ BeK (')Il:lrogapeHlle H:I rca !I!TO crauaa

6UJlejKII IICKonYB(HhllTa He oea OOlleHII CeKOf3m ea norpeeno crpy'rno HHDO. noaunuja-ra xa cane rpocnurra BO Qe.11111a 1111 OB03MolKyaa aeaec na ja peaoucrpyupaae ronevnuara aa cpenxoaexoasra'm QPK8a. K8aJlIITeTOT na slIlIafheTO xu 0811e UpKBH 611n clIaG, l13BeAeH rnaBIIO Ge3 «an-rep. co npapa-rea MaTepllja!l (ITaAHaTII KaMeH.a, IICKpme1i1i -ryna f! KepaMIIIl.II. napxna.a 011 KaMeHa nnaCTIIKa. rtoapaaao co MHory xan]. 3aTOO npa apxeonourxn-re acxorryaas,a rue SH)lOBII no rpeurxa 611ne rpraara 6e3 na ce I!1IeHTllrpHKY8BaT KaKO TaKBI! II na ce 1I0KYMeHTHpaaT. Ca~!O HeKonKY aajcrapn II Haj3Ha'lajHII UpKBII xa] nee. OA AOU- 1fH0T 9. H !O. BeK. 611!!e rpauexu rrnaucxa. SII)1allll co ann-rep II cnopeu HOB are rpane aom KOIIuerrUlI1I 011 rca ape ae (Ox pHil. CTPYMIIU3 II BOAO'lO. Kpynuurre - Pauen)

Hn OBa aec-ro HeMa)la rn aaopojyaaae CIiTe apenocra 00 KOIl 11,111 ncxpaj trOll ce KOIlCTaTllpaHH B(lKBU 06HORTI 1-/(1 CITOMHaTUOT HII'IIIII. Cexoj lIaKOB cnyvaj e npaxnacax BO Flpet-neno'r (In. VII).

cel1I1WTeHaeAHOlIosa.pefUOlianHaIlP)KaBa.

rtoroneaucr nen HB 11. ae« e cTa611J1ell ac nOJlIITII'IKO It c-ronaack a CMIICna. Bnaan-rujn cnpoecna TeMe.FIHa rpe ynenaaaurtja HO cane npocropa. 0)1 enaa crpaaa ups aa'ta cruaana rocnonap aa 6pojHIITe 3eMjl!WHIl [JMOTII. a 0)1 npyra

~:::: ~:j=:;ya::K::::OI~:nBeO::~:o::e:::~'lr:;Oo;l!;:)IITe. Cnyutaae aa H1I311

't'epu-ropnja-r-a WTO Bacnnej II ja OCHOII!! 0)1 Bnanucnna. ja BKnOnIIJI BO 1l0Ba ronesca reva (0)1 pant-o-r H3 x a-rerrauu'r}. nape'teua "Eyrapuja". Ce)lHWTeTO II 611no BO CKOlTje, HOSHOT QeHTap lIa CpelleH 6ailKall. OXPHII OCTaHOJI COMO

46

47

UPKOSIIocpeI1ItWTe, Tepu-ropuja'ra H:! xoja OXp!!!lCKaTa apxuenacxonuja uxrann caoja jypucnns unja BO aajrone a ue.n ce counarana co ao au'ra reva. Yl1paaKIiKOT ae Cxortje (crparer II :lBTOKP:lTOp) 611.~ aoeuao II ynpaauas; (xa-rerraa) aa lIe,1(IT:l TeM:l.2

ilO,lrorOIlIlWHI!OT Mlip 6uJI nospe.aeuo aapyurveeu co nexoj aacran. Be 1040 r. i10W,10 )10 BOCTallueTO Ha He-rap Ilenjan [Ilcnjaa. Onenjuu}. oeoj casrounpe-reu CIIH aa ApOH (OilHOCHO J'aapu.n Pa!lOMUp) so Benrpaa ce KpYHllca.1 aa nap aa Eyrapuja. Bcct-aaue'to ro patuupun lIa jyr nc Fpunja. My ce npnilPYlKlIJI Anycnjan. cuaor na JOBaH B,1:lI1HL1:lB_ Flpu uananc'r aa Conyx Anycajau 6n,1 TCWKO nopaaca: TOj aner-on BO cvnap co ilenjaH H ro ocaenyaa Bnaarrrnje ro aanyuryaa sOCTalilleTo.3

3a6e.l1elK:lIIO e nex.a Mauojno Haau. enen on aojaonure au Ilenjau. ce na ja lil)1plKU BH3aHTHCKilTa

aojcs a «cja Flne'raap -cn. uanpea

rn. L 2)

HOM:lilCIl110T HapOI1. ne'leHenl O,!I c'renu-re ua JYlKlla Pycaja npOBilJ111.11 aepoja-ruc BO 1035 r. npexy AYHaB Ii ja orpaeun "uena Me311ja 110 Conyn IHI Jv-". BI13,H!TllcK:!Ta aojcxn. cccpana BO uaurare xpauurra- ycneana na ra rroeen». I1U

npenuuausane flOOI! nycrouren,a H:! 6aJl](:lIlCKllTe lip II -rou - f! KonKY- crpanane II HaWUTe xpaaurta

Floxpaj CnOMHlITllTe uaponn. BO aaum-re «pauurra GUJ1e unceneau It Typuu're 011 A3Hja. Bo 05op05l1Te lIPOTIIO Hcpaauare. ao BII3:lHTHC](aTa eojcs a V'leCTBVBan 80 1081 r.1I e)\eH onpen 't ypiur KOII roraur »ameene KaKO a acenean~II OIlO~Y OxplIlI.5

Bo CCeKTo. 1072 r. eruapxo'r Feopru Bojre x eo rpyna npaeuun 0)1 Cxonje «peuan BOCTaHue IlpOTlIB BII3aHT!!CKaTa uea-rpaaua 8,1aCT. BOCTaHueTo Op30 ce rrpoumpuno na OKonHIITe nonpaxja. Eun nOBnK~HI Mnxajno. KHeJOT na .ilyKlha)\a HM ce nplll1.pYlKlI. KOHCTallTuH E0I1.IIII. CIIHOT lIa Muxajno. BO Flpnape a ce xpyuacan KBKO Fle'rap. uap Ha Byrapnre. Toj eo aojcaara ra onycrournn nepuqrepaure BlIJnHTIICKlI nOKpaltlllt 110 HHlIl. BUJl,lfH JI CllpMUyM xa ceeep- noroa ce cBpTe.1 KOf! CKol1je.6 60llllH 51111 3ap06eH Oll POMel!Te II !lOilOUHa 6Hil flYUlTeH

2.C. A~TOJhaK [985. 1.25211 'n6_P:26711,a6.3~:294 11 H 3.r,ocrporopcKlll%9.30S·309

.J.S,,"aHT.1I""OP1l [II. 1966. 1M (J_ CKUITl1ua): 255 (30Hapa):229{JI.'LATailfljaT)

5. BU""HT,llaOopll 111.378 (AH" KOMHllH.1 l.n. 151.20-13 -"a TYPUHTO Hac.ne'lL' OKOJIY OXP"~ KaRO BII"""T1ICKH npoH"jnpu BO II. BeK)

6. C. AHTOJhllK 19~5, 726-770: r. OcrporopCKIJ 1~5')_ 327-328

48

1I0Ma eo Ilykrsanonexa Feopru Bcjrex TparU'IHO aaapuutn.

3a apewe aa enaneee-e-ro HB Ane xcnj KOMHIIH. xop aaacxuo'r 80jBoAa P06epT I'yucxapn II ja onaen Hil BIIJaHTllja uena JYIKHB kl-rannja U CI!!.lIJJ1l1ja II nO'-IHa" na ro ocaojyaa IICTO'-lHIlOT sper ea Janpasro-r. Bo 1081 r. [0 3a3e.1 aajnravajturor rpan BO TOj peruon. Ilpa-r, nOMIIHB,' co aojcxara Hill Ennp II vlaxertoxnja II ro oncenuan rpnnor Jlapuca BO TeCa.1I1ja. Bo 1082 r-. ~Iy ja rrpe.tan KOMaHlIaTB lIa cane-r Eoe,\IYHII, nape cea TapeHTcKIL HerOBIiOT aojcxoaoaaq Hyu'recu BO IICTaTa rO)\IIHa ru ocsoua Oxpun. n0.l103J1Te I! Cx onje. CKOl1je ro npa.ea ce no 1088 r. a nOBTopHO xe ro OeBOI! 011. Buaanruja BO 1097 r_ xcra rn

Eoe~lyH)j ce oouneil YWTe eauaur na rll OCIIOI! oeue xpaaurra. Bo 1107 r. co 3.400 BOjHI!UII ce ucroeapun x aj Bancna II nponpen )10 Iledap ne ce aeponc-ro« Anexcuj 1I0cTaBIU opojun 33Ce)\11 BO cexojn «nncypa. a BO rpanoau're (KaCTpOHIl) ronesm BOeHl! onpeun -II ja nperpaann cexoja II11TeK~" KllKO WTO nauryaa Alia KOMHIlHa au rue HacT~HI1.7 Taxa Anexcuj ycnean .!Ia ro onsparn Eoe~lYHJl, oil,

H~TaMOWHIITe OCIIOjYBill-La. a 110 'jilMeUS 30 KBKOJ1eHO KKe;+;:eBCTIIOTO An'ruoxnja 110 BBaTO,!IHBllJIITe KP:lHWTil

Te.\-J3 TOj My ro rronapun Co 'roc Hopuamrre IIC'Ie3HY-

rv z. Cmuiiol!duOu.

KOMHiH1IITe anuneene uen eneu BeK (1081-1185 r.). Toa apesse e oneenewauo co BIIBTpewHa nomrruvxa craeunuocr. CTon3HCKa onarococ-rojea II OI1WT aarrpenox. Bege cnOMHaBMe neea BO oan epe ae rpeynanmauajara OIl,la cnpoeeneaa uenocac II 110 ueunrre xpnuurra. 3e,\ljaTa c-raauna OCHoseH 1I3S0p HB npuxonn aa npxaaara. B'rop rO,1CM npnxon tlpIKaBaT3 1I~1:l,1a O,!I PYIIBPCTBOTO. OUI{ejKII no CTapI!Te 3aKOIIII CIiTe ecrercraa WTO ne.ear non leMja II npnnafane ua ;'IplKaBaTa. PYJl,HIIUI!Te 611,1e ;laBaHIi non aaxyrr Ha aana'repecapann Jle.qOBHH ,lyre. son HB ilp;'((3aan II nnajtnne ronuuren tlaHOK OI1HOCIIO 3a](ynIl11113.

Ocooeno 3Ha'-{ajHO 611no it06118alheTO sseneao. BIIJaHTIiCKaTa npscaaa ce naorana BO cnneu none ct II lKene30TO 011,10 HeOIlXOtlHO aa 6pOjHlI ,[lejHOCTlJ" aeajonenue ro oapano ronexr 5poj paaJlll'llIl1 a.l1nTK11 II )10TOraWHlITe npuousTHBHI! npseun nnnpaeu rpeecno Aa 6UJlaT aaaeue-nr co aceneaan. Fpaneu-re BO OBa Bpe~ie ce rpaua'r nOKBilnI!TeTIlO. Ila~o WTO CBe,!IO'laT epojaure H30,!I1I ua rene an II MB:111 KnaM¢H. CTer11 II K,llll1~H, no-rca aa umpxu. 6pallil II K,lY'leOIl aa eparu- enexre a-nr aororaur HeIlO~HaTII ua ~alllllTe cpxecaourxu nOKa,1UTeTII

7, BU3JHT,U"BOP" 111.379-382 (AI<3 Ko""uHn):uCTOUr, OCTporopcKlII959.33i .. 144

49

)!(eJle30TO ce KOPI1CTI! vaory nosexe It lIO aoopvacyaas.ero. Hajr-onexr dpoj apaceu 0,[1 crpenn. oc06eHO cruse aa np0611BaH.e aa naaunpor. KaKO II npyru npouaeonu.frorexuyaaar 0)1 OBa apexre

::KeJle30TO cunc excnnce'rupuac 80 n or-one a epcj .\IIIKpo-penIOHU umpvxr ueseuraa Penyonuxa Ma ceuouuja. Hanpen (r-t. II) ro crtoanaaere uou- 1I0aHTlI'lKOTO PY)lSPCTIlO [[ Py)llllt'110ITe xpe noc-rn SO KOII IIp;+;:aBaTa ru 1(011- TpOJ1l!pa.1Ja II r-a eoaena CUTe pvnapcxu pa60TlI.;:t0 rpllllallHOTO ronea,e Ita MeTaJIIITe. Bo rapnaanre e apurena II i\eJ1YMllaTa ItJIIIl.Ie,lOCHaTJ llpepa60TKa Ha MeT-

6u.IIe n rOTOBHTe IIPOI13B0!1U i1.0 KOHe'IHaTa ucnopax a.

OP''""'"U''I''' nn paocrara ocmunnn II 110 Cpe,[lHIlOT BeK IICTa. 61111ejKII 06HOBeHOTO pyunpc'rao SO 11.-12. ae« ce rto-rnupano He cane BP] etupu TeXllonorl1jaTYKYI[Ha)l01lHOaHTll'IKaTnopraIlH3al.(llja

Kouxpe-rea noxa a aa OOHOBeHOTO PYllapCTBO nperemeyaaar npxeonourxn-re HaO)l1l BO pyllHII'1!(UTe TSPllIUtH. Ce pa60TII aa 1l0!l.HoaIlTII'lKItTe spe!lOCT!l. 113rpalleHIt BO 1I011HI!OT 4 .. 5. II 6. aex. a KOII cera Ollne 06Hollell~ II 11011- TOpIlOKOfl\ICTellfl.naTIIPJIIl!CeCO~IOlleTl!Te Il11PYfllTe npellMeTII !lPOIIJj!1elH!1I0 11118. Q6110DyDaH.aTa r-u cnennae. rnnaao. DO rpopaa lin nOMnl111 nperpanyaae-a (BO CYBOSI[.lII111 TeXHIIKa). WTO 60 HUg nn IIKpOIIOm! oune cerecreun euarpe- DO !lpOCTOpOT ua 1l01.\1I0a1lTII'lKIITe oosn):lllja. aaseu npusrepu liMa .I.Ulory:. BO KIICTe.F!OT "Kyna". C. Fleco-raua. QXPH)l. "Kyna'·. c. Sarpan 11 "Mtrrxopce a". C. 6e.~III.\II. Bpca; "Kane". c. g paunceo. npltnell; ".!lelloJ"I· c. npeHoBo II "TIIKBew" c. Pecaea. Kaaajtapuu: "Xucap". c. tjpeuma. lll'rurt. "Tpanuurre", MOpOll.BI!C. KO'l1l1l1l II lip. (en. npernell,r!l. VII).

Hejaa coxmenne !lCKJ no-rerounre lin 06HOllelloTo PYlIapCTBO nar ane DO II. BeK. Ha Ton YKn:.KYBaaT MOHeTIITe, npouajueun 110 PYAHIl'IKllTe TBP)J)IHI! Hajtipojau ce Tit. allOUJlMHII rpO!1!ICII. KOSIIIIIl DO apexreacxu l!llTeplln,l OA JOBaH UIIMIlCK 110 HIIKO$Op [II. a 611!le DO OIlTeK r,laBIIO 110 cpenauare aa II. BeK PenlCTpllpall1l ce BO xpenocru-re xaj c. Benaua 110 Flope xe. c. neCO'1UIIII 110 j],e6plll..\a. CTeH'1e so nOJ10r. j1eBOJl 110 Paeu. Teoao DO 6aoyHa. Maaacmp DO MOpIlOIlO: DO 6)·'11111. I'paaurre (n05PYH) 11 ::Kene3l1el.! 110 ne~tIlp Xncap: 110 )!(1I110jHO KUj Burcna: BO Flpoce« (Ilextup Kanuja): MOP031111311. non Flnavxoaaua:

JIvKOSllLlaBoltlCTo'lHoOcorollollllP

, Ocaeu all ISnKap. cera cejaayean'r II coecpeeu rtapa. Enea oc'raaa cc aaj»anxy 50 TaKBlI napxue-a. Kosallll OA noeeee L1apOIlIl KOII cpenauera aa II. B~K. e ucxonaxa na Ilaeuaa xaj 'Iy'lep. Cxon]e. Enea 1I0·JHaTeH ceMHC aa Jycmaajau II (110'1. aa 8. BeK) e aajneu na expononara 110 Koe.yx. Kyscaxoao. a ana-rex

KOI-lCTaIlTIiH X BO Dnnna. BO ceaepno-ocoroeceuor PYillIPCKlI peaup- 3.'lBTIIII -rpaexca (na KOHCTnHTlIH IX ann X) ce IInj;leHII DO Kpe[IOCTa BO EieJUII1B. Flopeue

Bo cure Haopoellli xpertocru ce e aaneu'ntpaun II ISpOjHII np~IIMeTII !lCKO-

aanae-ra. 1I0TOO pa:IJlH'l1l1l OKOBII [J !(Jla~I(I:HI KmIHI..111 a np. So rapnnaa-ra kaj C'rpe ace ao uena enna OCT3S11 CO PB3J11I'1HJI npenxte-ru. HOSOI!CKOBJHII II cxpue nn non aesrja-ra npeu ua 6t1)laTYllOTpe6ellll.

rtepure oa OSII ape ae ce npoaajne au II 110 xpenocrnre KOII He eune nnpexTIIO rtoapaaau CO pYllapCTBOTO 1I »eranyprnjara: BO SOllIlO. Cxonje (rpan '{pave} SBCIIJlllj II: - so Il. J1ewIIlIl.Ia. TeTOSO (cpeopenax ua KOHCTaIlTIIH

so Ue6peWTe kaj Flpanen (5 cpe6peHlIl11111R Mnxajnc VII): - 110 :lKlIBOjIlO xaj Bnrona (cpefipeunx 0)1 !lCTO spe ne). Kaj Crpoauja. Flpunen. s paj nrrauauCKllOT npe saua II na-ror Flpanen - Bence. IICKOnaf{B e OCTaS:l co npexy \00 cpe- 6pelllll111 oa nepacgcr 1050-\080 (110 Myaejo'r Flpunen)

Llupxynaunja'ra lIa aoue-nrre 110 II. BeK 611J1a JHa4HTe!llla. Flapu-te ce jaayaaa-r KaKO oupaa HR CTOnaIlC!(aTIl snarccocrcjea II lIa WIlPOKO cnpoaeueun'ra napa-rna paaereua 110 uaumre KpaI1WT:l. Oaa nax croerro BO apcxu co uenocna'ra rpeynanaaaunjn HB 6B!lKBIiCKIlTe 3eMjll II q,llC!(anHaTa 1I011i1T1IKO xoja aanoacana naaeau,e 110 napu HaMeCTO na nororuunra'ra crosoana paasreaa

Ito nenec He e COCTaBeHa HYMJl3MaTIl.{Ka «ap-r-a na uamero Il011pB'1je co anece aa 1I011aT0l111 aa CIiTe naona. 3a uaonure Ka:f(allll norope xopacrena ce 1l0.llBTO!l.II 011 noc'rapn CTPY"IHH IIJSeWTali. HO It Oil 6pojllll llPIiSIITIIII xonexuan xou nccera IIIIKalle ae ce perwcrpepuuu- Epojnoc-ra aa napure oz II. II 12.BeKO.ll IIRweTO rronpa'tje e IIMnpeClllllla DO O,[lfIOC Ha rrpeTXOIlHIITe aexoau a rtpe'rcraayea rone a CKOK xartpen. [JaKO I:ICKa)KaHO ac :lnCOJIYTHli ISpOjKIt BpenHOCTa He e ocoeeuc rcnesea. BCYWIIOCT. 01l8.)l0 10. BeK aa aaunrre npocropu 1I00llWTO H HeMB.'10 napa. a 'rproauja-ta II npyrn-re IInaj{atbB 61ble 113De)lysaHH co CTOKOBlla

Flapa-re urro noaropno ce nojaayaaa-r 80 TeKOTHa 11. ae«.

Mo;.t<e ua ru CMeCTIiMe 110 !1Be rpyna. Cpe5peHIITe HeKOJIKYTe 3J1aTHH) !lBP'1I1-

H.II. KOBaHH 0)\ BI13allTllCKIITe L1apOBfI 110 !lepIIO!lOT on OKOJlY 1050-1080 r. rrpe'rcraayaarte kann'ran aa 1l060raTlJTe )leJ10SHII "yre KOI1 auaecrupane 110 OllJl.eJlHII 311<:,1KII aa caa nonpavje.Dn npyra crpaan. easapnsrre rpO!1UCII co KOlle nnaeaac CTOKa Oil noaena Bpei\IIOCT. npeTCTilSYS3aT nO'IeTOUIl na rrapnxaaor IIpOMeT BO ceKoj!llleBII!lOTCTOIIBHCKII;KRIIOT.8

8. UeiloceH npernen Ha o""e HaOi\H He !lOCT';". Kuo05ua" "01"~a Macon HaaeAYUMe 1>. AneKOO"" 1955. 17·22: UCTan co A. Kep •• H'1"'uteS 1965 (Kannor): - A. K.paMI'1"4IleB 1968. 199-206:_K.KelleC"111978.159.187;_.o:PaaMocKu 198).83-108" 1987.221·236:-J.KoftUUjUHOB

50

.'il

Ba capaare CKIlq:.aTfl KaKO nccu-rue ope,O,HOCTII. kcaanu non KOMH'[H1ITe. cejanyaaar M(lCOSHO DO !2. BeK. Bo oypHHTe HaCTaHII nu xpajo'r 011 12. II no -reTOKOT Ho. 13. BeK snne anxonaau non aeaja 6pOjHII OCTaa\[ HU BUKSII napn. Hi! npnxtep. OCTUBaTa BO Paaaa xaj 5HToJla. aa EfHa~I1CKIlOT nar. cpoena osony W.OOO nap-ras-e: BO ConOT «aj Pecen. noxpaj I{CTIIOT nar. rtoeexe Oil 5.000. no 1.000 rtapvaa-a 11,111 nypn nceeee. epoeae OCTaB!lTe HnjJleHIl 00 rOCTllDUP (F 5aH.Hl.Ia) H Jleutox BO Ilcncaare. DO EaHcKO «aj CTpYMlIl.In. Cenue «aj Flpurtert. ao Kuve sc Il JlP. EO;HHe'lHII rrap'taa-a 00; oaKBIl MOHeTIf 00; 12. aes; najneuu ce BO HH3a flaWA "rpanoaa' H Ha npyru MeCTa. co WTO ce norapnyaa nexa napn-muo-r npoese'r DO TeKOT aa !2. ae« uenccao ja 3aMeHHJI ao'rcraumrrre CTOKOBHa pnaae-

g naronapenae ua CIlTe OBHe !laOJl.I! MO)l{eMe na cccraaaae euaa cnurra C.iIIIKa na yxpenemrre aecra KOH q:.YHlU,\I!OHllpo.ne 00 TOO. apesae na rtonpavje'ro na Penyi5nl!Ka Maxenouuja. 30-IIHo. "rpo.AOBI!" ce nOTBpJl,eHIl CO l!aO,O,lI 011 TOO.

ape Me. 80 apcxa co TOO. MO)l{eMe /<0. ro Ka;!(eMe Cne)lHOTO

Floaejie 0,0, 1I0nOB1HHlTD. Oil oaue MeCTD. npercraayaane TBP,O,IIHII 110Kpaj PYAI!I!J . .\IITe. Tile fie Maile BoeHO-nOJillTlI'HUITYKY CTonaHCKIi kapax'rep. H OCTD.aaru-re YKpeneHl1 MeCTa IIMaJle rnaasro crcrraucsn xnpax'rep. Tea ce KaCTpOKH-rpaT'IIIH.a. noroa KeKOJlKY rror-onesur rpa,!lOOIl II HeKOJlKY norcneaa yxpenexn cena. WTO eraacrnpane KaKO CTonaHCKIl cpenanrra aa ene» pemos (acyna) HnOHOTO crpa'reurs o 3Ha'leH.e. ,O,OKonKY ro IIM~Jle. rtpoaanearyaano 011 CTeneHOT HaCTOnaHCKIlOT pa3BIITOX.OAHOCHO 0,0, «ana-rano-r coopax 00 HUB

BaK:! KOHl.\IIllUpaHH. oane yxpeneua Hacen611 CO uaauneu xapaxrep npe rCTaBYBane renew '1eKOp sanpen BO npoueco'r na HIiOHOTO ypoaHlI3l!paH.e Hanpenoko'r e MapKaHTeH. aKO flI cnopenuae CO "rpanoeure " WI IIpeMeTO Ha CIlMeOH !lJI!! CaMYIlJl. KOH IIMane cane noeuo-ccrpa'r eurs a It oil6p~H<5ella ¢yHKllllja

II B. 1-1D"H"lll~D"" 1994. 8.~·112. I1CTO II C. ilmtllTp"Je.IlK 19S1 -'10 I;IpOjHUH cpncK" .• cue'llI· jaHcKli Il upyrii ,WHeT" 01113. " 14. ""I< ,,~j)"HU"O nOllpu'ljOTO H~ Peny<'!iJluK3 .\la~.UOH"jo

52

V, HACT AHHTE BO 13. M 14. BEK.

I. IIciuQPuCKU QC6piu: pacuaiJow IIU 1I.lful!pujui1i.u L! pduQlI.uJIJ.uwe KII1!1ICf!(JcWtla. - Jlaiuullllwe, byiapurUt:, EUIIPlIllrUl! u Cp611lue 60 .WaKe()Ollllja. - CpUCKa eKCuall.lllja IJO !)O'/III1Q'U 13. U 14 IleK.

Ilauacrtsja-ra na KOMlIl1HI! anaaeena uen enea BeK (0111081-1185 r.) Too.

IIpeMe orlno OJl,Oene:fGl.HO co anarpeuma noaamvxa CTaOllnHOCT. CTonaHCKH aanpeno« H i5narocoCTojOD.. ,UIlH;).CTl!jaTa xn AHren a-re uno Ke ja «acnenu npe-rxojmaaa. npe-rcraayaa ape sse aa 6p30 rtponafa .... e aa l-hmepHjaTa. 80 J 185 r. HOpMD.HilTe 011 JY)I{Ha Pl'rarnrja nponpene HU3 Maaenoaaja 110 Conya I! to oceoane OBOj BTOP no rone scaaa rpall BO Llapct-ao-ro. no CMpTTa ~a Mancjno KOMHlIH. paurxuo'r roness ;.KynaH CTeq:.D.H Hejaan,a uenccno ce ouaoan 0)1 uaaaxTHCKaTo. uen-rpaaaa BnaCT II aano-max co OCaOjYBaH.UTB aa rpaIlH'!HIITe pOMejCKIl 1eMjll. 80 1190 r. ro OCBOl!n CKOlIje: rto-roa nac-re rnaaaa TUP)lHHIl BO Flonoaare, Jleurcx (Jl.eur'cx) H Ipaaeu H 110 re aen r-u ypuan. H uae're TIIP,O,IIHIl He ollne OOHOBeHIl ncsrcpuc.! Co rca Heaaa,a nnauupan lIa jo. oTCTpaHII BI!3aHTHCKaTa

BnaCT 011 oaoj pernou \I liD. fO npl1"KnY'ln KOH Cp611ja

Lleu'rpanaa'ra 1I1!3aHTileKa anac-r ollna canno pmxauraaa II ,10KanHIITe MOKHIlUIl ce OIlMeTHYBaaT 011 nea. Oxony 1094 r.ll06po~lI1p Xpc (XpIl3) counan aeauaacac KHeno:eBCTBO ao CTpyMI!l\a H no ucxoja fO!lIlHD. rc nponrupun ua Flpocex. 3lia'lajHa rapnuna Hn Bapnapcs aor naT. CO'lYBaH HH e ue'ranea OIlHe aa eopnn-re oxony Flpocex. xore Poaenre ao l !99 r. zea ycrtex ce ceanyaane na ro

BpaTaTITO,O, cacja BnaCT.

Buaauraja Ke ce ceune YWTe nexoe epeae na ja O'o'P)l{f] caojara BnaCT BO OOlle xpanurra. Bo 1204 r. KPCTOHocUIiTe (]laTHHI!Te) fO oeaOllne Uapllrpa,[l fl

1. I-kropHcKIlTe H~CTaHll O~ 13. II 14. ,oK.O HaUlUTe KpaUWTa ilOOpo ce ~oKyMeHT~paHu u MHor~Kp3THO KOMeHT"paHii BO HawaTa II crpaHcKa nu'repa'rvpa. SO HUB. fllaRHO. HeMa cnop"" npaUla",,,. HawuOT K)"C OCBpT C UJDnC~eH on TPyilo.un npllB.~eHIl 80 npenOAHIlTe nor;raBllja (H~ K. J"p"',eK. C. AHTo)!.aK. 6. Flnuoa. OA KopnycoT B,,~aHT. H~80pU K .... lll.1V II lip.). TaXa ulTO H'"'' flo-rpel;la TyKO aa lI11TlipaMe KJDOPK'W ceKoj Oil ~oCTaH"Te a KOij ce Ho"WCT!,H" i5poj""

53

rone aa'ra Vhmepllj1l ce pacnanaaaa BO 1l0BeKe i\eJ10BH. Bo Hej311HllTe 5a.~KaHCKH revu Ke rupacaar HOBUTe npacaau Ita Bvrapure. Cpoure a Enapuare. Bo lY:+:Ha (Erejcka) MaKei\OHlljn Jlurunsrre Ke otpopsta-r onnenuc J1aTlIHCKO (CO_QYHCKO) )(He:+:eDCTBO. HOBIiTe BJlaCTOlpWUI! HallJMeHl!'lHO Ke ce 50paT oxoay anacra so aaunrre «peuurra.

Oane 60p611 lie rc IlCnOJ1HaT HajrOJleMUOT nen on 13. BeK. hilPOTO aa BII3aIlTuja. Mana Aauja co HOBaTa 1I0Ka,lHa npecronarrna HIIKeja (TH. Hnxejcxo UapCTDO) ce 0(5llilYBa.l0 na ru noaparu II 06e.'lI1Hl! aaryeeaure .'Ie.10BH aa nopaueumera 11.·.mepltja: BO lIe)(OJ1KY 06H.'I1I ycneana na ru OC8011 II HaWIITe xpauurrn. Hcropnjara aa HaWIiTe «pauurra 00 13. BeK. npen ce. e a cropnja'r Ka ocaojyaau,a IIrrpeaeMali>a xa HaWIlTe nOBa:¥HI! rpanoaa II TBP.'lIJHI!. HeM~Me H:1.\Iepa TJ'Ka na ru npocnennsre CIITe 60p611 0)(OJ1Y HIIB. Meryroa oaae HaCTaHII ce uajrecno noapaann co uaurara resra II 3~)1a MO)KaT -nrrarenare ttcuenocuo na to paaoepnr 3Ha'I)l>eTO aa HaWI!Te KpenoCTII BO OBa speMe. Ke ja npocnenuxre xpoaonor-uja-rn nu noaaacan-re HaCT(lnfIOKOJlY

Flpoce« OilllrpOIl ueurpanna ynora BO panuor 13_ ae«. Bo r

Buaau'rttja ycrteann na ro noapn-m. Bo 1202 r. ro OCBOH.~e Byrapu-re. HOSHOT

yl1paaHIlK n n Flpoce«. ~['cMel!. BO [205 r no Conyn If rc OCBCI!!]

nerOBOTO npenrpnuue. no C.\lpTT~ H1I r.) og Eyrapnja noara BO

Ilpocex eneu O,ll.MeTIIIIT< OilIl.BOpOT. rro liMe xa xa aeaaaucno Bo.p)1apCKO KHe:+:eBCTBO Ijenaronnja IIU 3anU,II.. no-rca Bence II aepoja-tao II ITO.ll0311Te aa ceaepCpon-re KOII My noraoruane na ce laUBpCTI1 T<1IT<0 caMOCTOel/ anane-ren, 801215 r.

MIlJ1YTl1HrOrrpl1)(lIY'-lYBaCKonjC:KonCpI1CKaTao:p:+:asa.BO'-llll1paM)(l!;("'OCTnHe no noara-se-ro xa Typuure BO 1392 r.

Ocranarnre TIlPlll!lI11 Ke OCTan3T noa BIl3aHTI!ja YWTe nexoe epe ae. On HIIB OBHe KpaHWTa xe fli npeaexsa'r Cp6HTe: Bertec. -Ipeurve. Flpocex 11 lll t-an. Ka1<O U PY.'IIlIl'-{KIITe spenocrn BY'IIIH. 1l06pyH. )l(eJleJHeu U KaSaJlapliOH BO 1328 ann 1330 r., a Flpnnen. Be-rona. '-IeMpeH It Oxpua BO 1334 r. 'Jananxo-vaxenon. ckure pernoan rtoncr. KII'IeSO II Flopece 611.~e "pllKJ1Y'IeHIl Kon Cpouja yurre lIo.'lMH;lYTHH. ncaery [282 It 1295 r.

V. 2. rpai)06u 60 ,uaKeuollllja OU 12. UO 14. eexr PacweJK: u upociuopllo UJlaliUpall,e

06HOBeHaTa Bn3anTIICKa BnaCT 00 HUWI!Te xpauurra BO II H 12. BeK Snaro-taopao ce ojtpaaana Bp3 paaaueasee-ro HU rpenoeare KOII lie jo )10CTllfHaT KynMl1Hal\l1jaTa BO 14. BeK. HeKOI! 011 uaumre rpunoea ce apxeOJlOWKH acxcrtyBaHH, a npvrtrre OB03Mo:+:YBaaT yllll/1 00 cane npamaa,a 6J1aroilapeHlle aa i\OOpO aanaaenn're noapiuwucxa OCTnTOlll! KOIt II neuec ce rnenaa-r rra repencr. THe OCTaTOI1H KaKO H ncorpajaror na cexcj rpan ouneznrc. r-a rrpHKa:+:yaaM acupnnc GO Flper-neno'r (rn. VII). Ha osa MeCTO Ke ce OCGpHaM Ha rrpocropuno'r pacrropen BO aanra-re Haj3Ha'-{ajHH II HajJlOOpo aanaaean rpanoaaon WTO Ke ce ooene ae na H3BlIe'leMe 1l3BeCHil onurra JaKnY'lOLl,ll aa ypfianaaaunja'ra KaJ Hac BO 3pe.'lJJOT II

uouen cpene a aex

Flpocex !I HaTaMY urpa Ba;.KHa ynora. ITo CMpTTa aa CTpe3. JlaTll!lllTe 011 COllYH ro OCBOIlJTe Flpoce«. Bo 1216117 r. elllJpCKHOT .!I:eCIJOT Teonop AHren til ocaoun Henarouu]a n Flpanen. Flpoce«. Benec [I Cxcrrje. no surxara xaj Krtoxo-runua BO 1230 r.Joeax Acen Il 0)1 Byrapuja ja rtpotuupan caoja'ra 8I1aCT Hail CIiTe CnO/olHIlTIi rpartoau. Bo 124\ r. Enupua're anagea-r co Flenaroaaja It ITpHIIerr. Bo 1246 r.10BaH BaTlU on Hnxeja ru OCBOHiJ Flpocex. Berrec II Cxonje. a Flpunen so 1254 r. Tasty aexoe ape-re Ke npecrojyaa KaKO UapCKH n3MeCHIIK. 1I03naTilOT nuca-ren Feopru AKpono.'1I!T. Bo sreryapexre Muxann Aceu II on Byrapnja til npeaesra Cxonje II Henec. a BeKe BO 1256 r. HOBIIOT HIIKejcKII uap Teonop II Jlacxapuc IIIIB [II CT3Ba nOI\ csoja-ra anacr. Bo 1258 r. Ennpua're fla 1!3MaMa ro aeanar Flpunen. a Ypow I cprrcxu- Ckonje. Be cnejnra'ra ronnna II 11 ce OpaTeHI1 )W. Hukeja. O)1HOCnO ua OOfiOBeHaTa BII3aHTllcKa

II ItaTaMY ce »euyaa're. Bo 1265 r. KOHcTnHTIlH Tux 011 Eyr-apuja rc OCBOI!JI Cxonje. BO 1270 r. TNI e ITO.'l Buaanrwja. a BO 1282 r. xpano-r

Ha i1eHeWHIIOT c-renex aa (He)lIcTpa:+:eliOCTB liB HaWIfTe rpB)l08H n03HaTiI HII ce oueaj HHBHIITe nepnae'rpu. CO ncuexoj rpaaexea .'IeTBJI aaarpe BO HIIB Enuncraeac crapare '1apWIIH CO'lysaliH 80 Caonje II 80 HeKOD )lpyru MeCTa. Oil TypCKO epeae. IIH 1l03ll0nYBaaT iI,) [a 3aMIIC.llIIMe ;!lI¢pacrpyKTypaTa Ii Oil. npenTypCKIiOT nepnojt. Oxpanceara Bapour najMllofy HIIIIOMara 80 TOj rrornen. Oaae BH31111 He rn OTq,pIlaMe. aeryroa ryxa caxaere KOHKpeTIIO.!la IlIlJlIIMe MO;t;;e Jill 0)1 onae eneaeu-ru IllTO ce lIaMeCTO co-ryeanana uaanevesse KOIIKpeTHU 3aK.'IY'I01l1I KaKO usrnenane aaura-re rpanceu 80 Tile oeKOBIl. KaKBO 011110 HHBHOTO npocrcpno nnaanpas,e. KaKBatPYHKl.\lIja IIMane \I KOj npecrojyaan BO HHB?

Fpanosrrre WTO fl! cnOMHaSMe BO SPCKU co HaCTUHIITe 0)1 II. )10 14. BeK npe-rcraeyeaxe rnasau ynopaurra na BnaCTTa BO OGHe apauurra- KaCTpoHIiTe IIMa.'l'" npaaapua ynora KaKO aa BH3aHTI!ja TaKa II 30 Cine onae WTO caxane na enanear co OSI:l'" ~eMjn: aa Hcpunmrre u fl(lTIIIIIITe. grmpmrre. Byr-apa-te II ail Cpoare. Flopanu roa so TeKOT aa 11.. 12. II 13. BeK naura-re rpanoan IiManT ce yurr e. !lOMl1HaHTHO aoen aapax-rep. Tile ceo npell ceo ronej-ra TBP!lllHll co aoe na

54

55

rupauaoxu BO HHB.all.ypIIBo,,"OLlHUOT 13. II 14. ae c ce anocnsaar co xape c'rep H3 LlI!Bf!.~HH rpanoaa co rrnaapuurre (Tpr).JaHaeT'IIICKiI KBapTOBf[ !!I1P

Kaxo npuaepu aa BaKBOTO TBpneK.e f!eKa 1l0C!lY:.KaT Ciupy,,,ul/u II npQCI!};.. BO KOIl KOf! xpajo-r H3 12. BeK JJ;05po~!I!p Xpc caec-rna 500 BOjllUlI1I II co HIIB ycneurao fn 6paHell I1Ban eac-rpouu.nypn I! on uenanure HacaMHOT uap- H 110Mal1l!OT KaCTpOI! Be nee. BO eneu Mllf llMall rtocaua 011 SOO BOjHIILlH (Byrapa) KOII My ce npenane aa BI!3aIITHCKIIOT uap BO 1255 r. BO paauena aa nu-mnra cnooOlla.2 H3BeCTYBa'lOT aa OBOj H3CTaH_ Teonop AKpOIlOJIl!T. aenu aexa BO ne-ro spesse Flpaaert 6~.~ epaaer 011 cane 40 BOjHIlI1H.

KaCTpoHoT nl!.~aiOllujll-Euijjv.~a BO 11. H 12. ue« 1I0C,lY:.KIIJl 00 HIIJD.

OKOJIHOCTU KD.KO eeao aa BII3D.HTUCKaTa acjcxa rrpen HejJUUUTe noxojtu npOT!!B Hopsraaure. Cp61!Te II ynrapuare. TyKa noaexe nD.TH npec'rojyeane U Ca~H[Te u;apeBH.3

Flmuamrre 113BOpl!.a uapxeoncurxu-re oc'ra'toun HUTepeHOT,yKn:t<:)'BaaT aa 'rca uexa BOeH(lTD. 1l0CD..[l(l 6i1l1a CMeCTeflU BHD.Tpe so yxpeneaac'r lIpOCTOp Taxa. xora DXPlltD.UIITe BO JII~laTa 1082183 ro 1I0BIIKane 50<:M}'HlI TapeHTcKI.I THe My ro npenane He ca~1!I0T rpau, TyKy uacencara [exmopnon. aapour). Ho.

HopMaHHTe dpaane H ae aane BpeMC' 113 fa OCBojYBaaT rpanc'r (xpe-

1l0CT~) Ha BPBOT 0,," PUIlOT Capaj). 5paHeT 0,," BII3aHTI!CKan nocaua

csrec-reua BO Hero."

Bo Il pucesc aojcxa-ra ol.lna CMeCTeKa BO rone aa-ra TBpAHHa Kane-CTpe30B Fpan (c. 'Ienoaeu). Hea ja npenoaaaeaae BO onacor na ecpce-ra 3a «ea BO J 199 r. HejJllHIIOT ceaepea kpaj. Mery lIPBIiOT rpnncxa sun II npenstrno'r (Llaaarep) ovurnennc olin neaacerrex f[ cnyxcen aa MaHeoupcKII uene. UOJlHIlOT [pail. CMCCTeH HU npocrpanare aananua rrannna. xnnony AO '-!en08e'lKa Pexa. Mo:t<:e,l Aa [a cooepe cere CTOKa OA xoja npaxru-tnc ce uaupacyaana rrocauara. fOPRl!OT Fpan. noueneu co anarpeumu're 5HIIOEli na IIEe cTaHoeHII noaptuaaa II ua IIBe axpononn Bp3 HUB, Ilpy:t<:D.ll MO:t<:1I0CT aa CMeCTYBal-be fla «aery noaeee fipaau-remr OTKOJIKY WTO ra asean Xpc Toa e «ajrcne aara xpenccr os; rca apewe ua npOCTopOT au neaeunra PenYOJlHKa MaKeil.OHHjD.

UltBIlJ1HaTn uecenec (uapour Flpcce«) 011113 cvecrenn OMerrHO on xpe noc-rn. HU npyra-ra CTpaHD. aa '-IeJlOBe'lKHOT Flpouert. i\J1a60K 220 M.! Oao] npapcnuo Spuuer BpS (MapKOB [pall. c. Kopetuanua) ronest 14 xa. IlpeTCTaBYBa aa Hac ilajooraT cpennoaexoaeu apxeonourxa nogunu're'r WTO ro 1t:'>laMe. HJ0611!lIIeTO aa nOBplllHHCKHTe HaoAU afiopysa 3U «uory HHTeH311seH :t<:IiBOT BO Hero OU r t.nc 14. nee.co roneua aanae-rvucxa nejuocr. npe)1 ce BO.l.:leTaJl},prlljaTa(.tlOOHaal-be II

ccpesorxo HD. aceneao u oaxap). Konrpnrypauaja-ra na repeaor oeycnceuna KYlblTe I! }'JlI1UIITe na ce 0<P0PIUT uM<pllTeaTpaJlIIO OKOJlY axporronara WTO croena HajyroHCTo'lIiIIOT Kpaj.a co nan xon aanaa II ceaepoaanan. Pa3rOJISHIITe TeMe.l11 300pyBaaT nexa 'rca 5IIJJe rnueuo MD.,ll1 KyKlI co 2-4 rrpocropaa. peTKO co

noeexe

2_ ~lcuplle~ """r.l~) Kaj ),,1. 60U1KOCK" 1989. 83·I!IL 92-93

3_ BlI3aKT. "~BOpU IlL 1966. 3SO. 381 (AHO KO"H,,~a II, 11.20·21. 23) 4. BU·JaHT. ""gOPIL IlL 1966.381

Use nOMaJ1H KpenOCTH ce aepac 0'1 HaCeJJOaTa [Kyna ec JYPY'lKI1 Kasre II) II npexy Bapnap (KYJla aa nOCTpa,1eQ) ro HB.[IOnOJIHysane oaoj najcannc yxpenen nynxr sa Cpenxno'r fiullKaH. Apxeoacurxn ce IicKollYBaHII 1\ rpn xexportonu co rp06uwHU UpKBII Oil. nae're crpana Ha Bapuap. Flpoce x 61!n npec-ronuuxa aa Bapnapcxo-ro KHe:.KeSCTBO 0)1 «pajo'r aa 12. no CpeUIlHaTU lIa 13. BeK. ace na MHrOBH noc-nrrano roneauna KO,1KY nOJIOBl1l1UTa op; ueueumara Pelly6!111K3 Makenoaaja. 06eMoT ua uemro-r yxpe nesr KOMnJ1CKC HD. Flpocex II uapcraua'rn ua uerona-rn q:.OPTHO:PIIKUlIHja ro IIJil.BojYBuaT I1UJleKY npen CUTe upyru HaWl1 x acrpoan. DBOj aceopaseu r-araa-r a neuec oneaj lla iI e 1l0311aT HU crpY'IlIaTa)BBHOCT.

Bo Cxovje apXeOJlOWKII e acrpaceyaaa caste rOpHIIOT Fpan D rca nenoecnno. Bo ceaepoaananano-r aron OTKonUH e nen 0)1 penpeaeurarasaa cana 0)1 rone ea r-paaca. Mo:t<:e611 en peaane nunja'ra HD. cpncx a-re snane'renn Oil. 14. BeK KpY:.KHUTa ceeepcacrc-ma KY_Tla cnyxcena KaKO CTaH aa KOMaHAaHTOT ua rapaa- 30HOT (Keo:panuja KyrrcKII). Floxpa] jylKHHOT rpaACKU SII.[I ce OTKonaHII !lpBeHII KyKH. 30lleHil rycro eAHa 110 npyra II nonpexu 11.0 06SIiIlHeTo; AaTlipaHIl ce BO 12 Ii 13_ BeK. Toa ce, HeCOMeHO. aojuH'IKH capax». IIueHTll'lli1l lIa ouae IlITO fiI OTKonaBMe BO 'rapnana'ta Ha BO.[lHo. KU npoc-ropo-r 3au venua-ra xyna. THe liM-ane llpBeHH SU.[lOBI'! U 1I0Kp1lBII. a 1I01l0BHTe 611ne en Ha611eua aexrja. Bo aaa HajAOBMe MHory OTnallOQII Oil ceKojl\HeBUIIOT :.KaBoT. q:.pneHII H naeaexn 00 nOJ(. npOCTOpOT /l01l:.K ceBepOIiCTO'lHIIOT SIi)1 ac OBa ope Me He 5uJI QenOCHO H3rpolleH

80 nceenca-ra Oil. 1300 r-. II BO 110il.0I1He:t<:HIfTe J(oKYMeHTIl ClIUMHaTH ce «a]MalIKY 'rpe l\pKBII fI noeese KYKII ("nOJlUTl.!") BO CKOJICKIlOT J'open Ipen fI aajMa,1KY aecer I{pl!BII BO UO,lIlIlOT fpail. II ncnrpaaae'ro. Yp6aHHoT nnan Ita JJ;OJlHIIOT fpal\ (BUpOIll) MO:.Ke na ro HD.CeTIIMe 00 nJlaHOT Oil. TypCKO apewe. aarraaex 110 ueuec. Tea ce ynu'rxure noaneueuu Oil. MYCTo¢!a-nOlllu-uaMujaTn HII ceaep no Ca.Cnac HD. jyr. co r,1aOHaT3 ynuua x oja HeCOMHeHO ce coenarena co neueuma'ta ymrua Mapwan TIlTo (MaKe.[lOHlfja). Oaaa ynnua 1136uBaJla aa nper 1I0CTaOeHaT.1 Jy:.KHa Flop'ra WTO croerra non 'rvpcxa'ra 'ron-kvne. 3a'leTOIJ,J!Te Ha ueyxpeneao'ro norpanne (TPr. naaap) MO:.Ke na r-n nuspeve HO neneumara Typcx a sapuruja _ aejaaanor aananen cpaj. MO:t<:eoli 110 Cepaaa ua IIcrOK_ ronevara npcweua Oil BoeHlIOT 00 uuannen snpax'reprpaao'r [a 1\0:.KllBeaJl Ha «pajo-r 011. 13.

lIBo14.BeK

UeJlOT Bapour BO Oxpui) npyaca rone an MO:.KHOCTlf U(1)a JaMHC]]IIMe

56

57

ypseuarc tnesra ea rpenor ao 14. BeK,a MOlKe611 II nopauo- Kaxo rnaeua penepu aa OBa HeCOMHeHO c,'Y:.KaT aecer-re Cpe!lHOBeKOBH!! lIpKBIi. co ynuua're KOIl noxpaj HIIB OCTaHBJle HeH3MeHeTII. HBTaMY. TyKB ce II 'rpnre rrcpru 011 IICTO apexre (rtpeIlTYPCKO). Fopaa 1I0pTa ce YUITe ja liMa caojara IIPBOOIlTHa rpyuxnnja: jlo.'IHa ncpra oSlIna aenaaexa no aaure epesre. =tennara nop'ra aa IICTO'{HI!OT san. o-reonaaa npen -rpu !leL<eKIIH. OII,n laSII!laHB BO TypCKO BpeMe. a IlMeTO II ce ee-ry- 8a,10 80 IIMeTO ua upxaa'ra. arpnueaa BO Hej3H1JaTa ceaepua xyna. Flopanu penje~OT na no-mara - 11 rorauma-ra ypoSaHa xoanenuuja - Y.FI11UHTe ce MOW He Te~HII a Bne'leH1I no flJOXUnCI1Te. II uartpeqxo aa HIIB. H cmpara CKonCKa vapumja e

Cpell.HOlieKOBHOTO ccsnnne na Oxpan ornpaxa aaory norcnen IlpOCTOp -011 rrpeKy 30 XB- pacncncscen xa nae're pIlT'IIIH.a. Meryroa. onaaj nonoauna O!l IlpOCTOpOT i511J1 aaceneu. Ton ce IICTO'lHOTO pUT'fe 0)1 Ilefioj Ila cesep AO eaepCKIIOT 5per na jyr U urupoxa'ra rrpecenn ana Mery parvuu-ara. Bapow. 011 Fopna'ra noprn ua ceeep ac 5perOT xa jyr. 3ana!lHOTO pa'r're He OIiRO uaceneaorroj npocTOp.O!l Y'I Kane II 11a5I1HO aa ceaep.jtc fipe ro'r ua jyrc cnyscen aa ace r aa OKORHOTO uaceneune 11 OBOJMOiKYllaJl rone ua eraaeaapczu MO)!(HOCTflrrpH e aeuryannnra oncana. 05SIlllueTO e on 14. BeK. K(1I(:O II xpenocra Fopnx Capaj WTO e aarraaena no neuec.

Fpano'r Cu6pu Kaj Opaure. ceBepOIICTO'lIlO 011 Teroso. npe-rcrneyae aaeoupeneunpaetep xa npocropuc nnaaapaa,e Ha noaana rpanoeu. Hapacuan BO 13. u 14. sex 110 ypuena.erc na noreraunrm-e nOJlOUlKI! cpeuuurrn Fpaneu 11 Jleuro« (ao 1190 r.). C06pll e aarpaneuc Bp3 j1011HoaHTH'IKIlTe OCTaTOll1I co ncrpauyansee na reneau IIOSH" ):IenOIiH KOII ro nOMeCTYBaaT »ery xaunrre flajy6aBII Cpe):lHOBeKOBHII ¢OpTII¢nKal\l!u. Bnarcnapemre xa 'rca WTO Typuere ae ro ypuane. a BO TeKOT HB 15. BeK 611J1 uartyurre. r-pano-r COOpl! ycrtean na npecsneee BO -"Hory ):Io(5pa cccrojee AO aaure-ro ape ae

Fopaaor fpaA HMa MaCIII:IHO ceaepxc II jY)!(HO sene co-ryeaao pevaca BO IlPBOOIITl:1aTa aucnau. Tea ce -"llCIIBHU KyJlII - oaCTUOHIl BKROlleHIl BO WTUT-KYPTHIIK. co CJlOlKeHII IlpeM1I1l1i 11113 HIIB. CO Ilpe.!lSIIP;OIlIl II POBOBU npeu oaae. EAlla urapoxa ynuua aogena Oll. ceaep KOK jyr. a )leCHO Jl ne ao on. uea Oll.lle paJMeCTeKI! 10-12 ronenu KYKH co HCTa opaeua'rauaja. KyKHTe ce co uapcra aan-repna sunapuja II HMaJ1e 1T04-6I1pOCTOpHIi.

HCTlIOT npaeunea pacnopen ce r.~e)la 11 Kaj Iu-una KYKli BO ceBepHOTO nonrpanne.xoe IIMaJ100JUleJlHOOOSlllll!e.3anall.HOTOIIOll.rpaJilleCe palBI1ROllCTO tux a aa onnanpen nnaaapau !1POCTOP, a 06S'IlllleTO My ce HaJ\OBpJYBa.110 H1I fOPHIIOT Fpan. Bo Hero llMa.110 MeCTO aa 3D-HHa K),K)!, KaKO nocnenen nen OA

58

l\pKBU HU ceaepauo-r KP~J.

Ipanor Bence ITpeTCTaBYBa.1 !lOMan KllCTPOfl co C!I.IIlia axponoaa H CO npocrop aa CMeCTYBalhe ua nocanara. KOJII(Y MeCTO HMa.110 BO TOj npocrop aa !.IIIBI!JlII. He aaae sre. Flonrpanue'to WTO Mo:+;eJlO na ce CMeCTlI xa ce aepoac-rovna're namnra. CTeCHeTO 1I0Mety cssunnerc It pexara Bapnap. 011.'10 ocoee a ~1lI.'"10. Bo 14. BeK TyKB 611,1e aarpajteau rpn ups au. no cpncxure OClIojYBaH.B (110 1330 r.) II noaecryaaaerc aa rpauuuara naaexy Ha jyr. Benec ro IIlry6I1J1 j10ToraWIlOTO crpareurxo JIIU'Ielhe II eoenara nocaaa. Bo yxpeneuuor npoc-rop 'roraur l!eCOMneue ce aacennne UIfBIl,ll1Te H Benec IlPOP;OJl:+;J1J1 !IS :.K!1BypKS KaKO rpa'rve ao

06SllJlIleTO. ce no aoasan.ero HB Typun-re.

Bo npu.~eii rpn aeueuun Bpxeo,10UlKII ce IICKonYBa ueyxpeneuo'ro 1l011.rpanae Bapoiu. BO ce aepoaa nauuuo'r nen IlB )leHeIllHOTO ce nc Bapour HCTpB)KeHII ce 7 IIPKIlIt (OA 13. II r,lBSHO OA 14. se«). COr,1e!l8HII ce KOHTypHTe aa rpror co 3aHaeT'!IICKlJTe pa50TlIJlHltl\lt It o-rxonauu ce uenoan 0!llleKOJJKY CTBH- 6eH!1 06jeKTII ("')lBOPl\Il"'). Ce-re OBa MO)Ke!lS ce ABTllpB BO 14. BeK. co CKPOMHIl rrocrapu nove-rouu.

Ha pano'r Mapxoan Kynn crxcnana e (ccaen OOSIlIlMeTO) enua crpascapcxa KYI<a xpaj ceaepaara nopru H HeKOJIKY rpaj10n co aejacna HaMella BO paMKHTe aa axponona'ra 'Lapuax. Ha YapII~K uecowneuc CTOeJl ll.BOpOT IIa BOJlKaWlI1l 11 Mapxo. 110 rca co flllWTO He e 1l0TBPAeHO. Be Ce.llJlOTO non '{apnaxor. IlU WHPOKllOT llPOCTOP oncpareu co 05SII.IIlteTO BO 14. BeK. MO)l(eJle Ila ce CMeCTaT KaKO aoena-ra nccana TaKa II ce-ra l\IIBlt.IIlla nocnyr'a au jlBOPOT, ynpansure CJlY)!(OIl II lip. no MaplI'IKaTB 6UTKO xora TypCKIlTe axaauacxa I1pOBaJ1H aavec-rene II BO OBOj «paj. ollJle YKpeneHII II nonacxa're TepaCII aa JY)KHBTa a aananaa-ra crpana non KaCTpOIlOT. aa SO ana ll.a ce laCOJlHYBaaT acaremrre 0):1 Bapoui II on; OKOJlllHaTa.

Kacrpoao-r CiUpy.Muiju (·UapeBH Kyrm") OB03MO:.KYBa rtpexy apxeOROWKHTe OITaTOUli na ja cornenaxe yp(5aHaTa CTpYKTypa. npOCTOpHO OUJl rronenex BO usa nena. nOMB.IIIIOT aanajtex nen. H1JlOJI)I(eH na TeCHHOT BpB f! omparea CO aaa-rpeureu SII!l 11 co 4 Ky.llll. ja npe-rcraeyea axponona'ra peaepaapaaa aa aoeaao-r rapauacu. npOCTpaHaTB nanuua WTO ce rrpo'rera jY)I(Ho.JyrollcTO'lHO. HCTO'lHO II ceaepcncrovac on axponona-rn, aURa ornparena CO IlUJIBopeWHJlOT rpBIICKIJ Slill U ce «opucreaa KaKO ITaH6eH npOCTOp. CHJIHa epoauja WTO yHl!lllTII:'lB .'Ie,l on jyaora-rn naJlIIHa OB01MO)KYB:l II: 6e3 IICKonYBBlba i18 naspe ae BO oaa WTO TyK~ 1l0CTOeJlO DO cpenxoacxosne'ro. Bpojaa TeMeJlII on ncorarui rpaAOIt aa xcnaeejee II PS50THJ1f1ltl\1I (K:lMeH. co II 6e3 aanrep) aanapaar TYKa II TaMY 0.lI. ypaara. 11 Maca on rpaneace» WyT. ornuurna II: rpne ma xepaaaea. CIJTIlIl.iKeJIe3HllrrpeAMeTIl.{iaKapHIl MOHeTI!Oj1 11.110 14. BeK u np.xne venn ce no nOAIlO)KjeTo. DIIAejKlloBojrrpocTOperOJleM,npeTlloCTaByB:lMeAeKaTYKacToe,le

59

ne casec aoeaa ryxy n unaanun rpalI61!

Bo ceaepuorc nOIIIlO}Kje aa punor Ilape su Kyna. ga enaa BI!COKa repeca WTO ce npo-rern 011 ueneurunor nOBe'lKII Jl.OM Jl.0 C'rapa-ra 'Iapuraja. ce pa31:111n0 ue yxperteac nonrpanne. ApXeO-'lOIllKIiTe COH::\lIpUH.a 1:10 nocneunure romnm norapnnja xa TOj IlpOCTOp OCTUTOUIi en <!lIHa upxaa (14_ BeK) KaKO II oa npyru rpanou O,EI s.pajo'r Ha cpeancaexoane-ro. Typcxara vapuruja WTO TyKa ce lIallcnoaaa epa nocrcpu're OCTaTOlll!. sepysaMe aexa so rnaaairre UpTlI ro 1I0STOpyaa naaxo-r na ltOllHOCpeltHOSeKOBHoTO nonrpaane

V. 2. 2. Hacesenue eo ipaiJ06uii1e.

g oeunre 110(3)111 It aaaaure KOMaHill! JlO aauia-re Kpel10CTH I! rpaaoaa 61111e nocraayeaun 011 anemrre anacronpunra. a ce aexyaane so cornecaocr co IICTOpHcKIITe npoaenu II npe ae uasea na oeae eneu 011 npyr. Boemrre

nocana ncarane 110 Hupe)16a 0)1 ConYH.

Benuxo TPIIOBO IIMI Pac 11 nruc en 3UMIIHysuJle 110 ry6elheTo Ha OSHe KpUI!WTa.

nOIlHUKon e cnyqajo-r co UI1SIlJIHOTO anceneane 1:10 nonrpanajara OilHOCHO TUMV x ane WTO ru lIMono. Bo eTHII'IK!l rrcrnea aace ne aue-ro 611no xe-repor'euo Toa'flujjacllO ce rnena 011. IIPKOSHI!Te I! 011 npyrure AOKYMeHTI! Oil «pajo-r HU \3. II 14. BeK. «une IllTO 1I0KpUj IIMOnlTe ce Hu6poeHIl ~I IIMHH.UTU IIU HI!SHIiTe conCTseHllllHU -recronaru ce aaaeuyea Ii eTHH'lKUTU npnnanuocr

He aaeneryacjgu nO.!lJIU60KO so OBHe CJ10)f(e1ll1 IIO.lll!TIl'!KII II KnBCHO-COIIHjailHIl nparuaa,a. MO}KeMe,ElB ro 3u('iene)l{IIMe CJTeIlHOTO_ Fpancxo-ro uace.neuae - -rprceuare H 3BHaeT'II!IlTe, cn050,ElIH!Te CI1THIl 3eMjonOCel1HIIlIII II npyru ue 11M npyacane rene a crrrcp ua rtOCTojUHO aoaure ocacjyna-nt. Tile enne caecnn ,!IeKU D,UHOKOT II npynrre ,t(asn'Ilc.1l aopane HeKoMY l1a My rn IT,lURanT. U KOj Re 611,E1e Ton peuraeana aceaarc cuaa ana IITpltHaTaliaocsOjYBa'l.IITe_OSanOJlpa'ljeJ[e)l{eJ[O noaery lIeKOJlKY nOCIIIIHII nOllIfTII'1KI! neurpa- KOII Ha1l3MeHII'lHO ro npucaojysalle HaWltOT peruou aa cese. Casto -raxu MO}KeMe na ro oiSjacHHMe q.aKTOT WTO naunrre rpancen TOIIKY rtarn npesuurane 011 ellHI! paue so npyru. 6eJ JIB 611l1;3T y"IIWTeHIl. UIiBlIJlHOTO uacenenue He CTpaJlaJIO ~tHory II rnaaao He ra HanYWT3' ,10 rpa110BIlTe II 80 apxeonourxn CMIICJ1a _\\O}Ke na ce cnena KOHTllHyltTeTOT lin

Flokpaj aojcxa'ra BO rpB,ElOBIiTe ce HaCeJ1Yl:laJ1e rprosua're H 3UHaeT'lIlIlTe. 61111ejRlI lIMUJ1e 3ueMHa noma enan-re Oil npyrare. ClIOT 1:I0eH 1I,1eu ro OTKYl1yB.1.1le TprOBUlITe: xnj nus II x aj JaHaeT'lJlI1Te, aojnaua-te ja 'rpourene caojaru lJ.IlUTa 3aHUeT'11111Te II rproeunre 11M 611J1e nOTpe6HI1 aa HajpU3JII!'lHI1 ycnyru 011. uaaoSOJlYBaH.eTO HU cekonxeaturre no-rpeon 110 IlCXPBHUTU .110 onpacyaau.ero fin HIIB· uar a 06!leKa 11 aoeuara onpe aa. T10npusKBTU II oouoaara ua opyxjerc. cpm-

60

HI!3IJpUH.eTO HU peanu'mu aaoaaa n npyrc

Bo xacrpomrre }KUBeeile II ,10KaJlH~tTe ¢eyAaJlIIIl co CBOUTe cestejc-raa a Spojua rtocrryra. Me ry HHI:I ilOMJ1HUHTHO MeCTO IIMane npoxnjapnre. otpnuepu !{Q\! Oil Jl.p}KUSUTa noousaae ae sija (<peYII) BO nacneucrao KaKO uanostecr 3U HUSHUTU eoeua c'lY:.K6a. Oil il,OKYMeHTHTe Oil TOU apesre )103HUJlaMe Jl.eKU THe IIMU!le ll~tOT!I fJ1aSHO so ncrpana-raure peruos« KUKO WTO ce nOJl0311Te II CKOIlCKO KaKO IJ so Flenarcnnja II npyru stecra. Bo AOIIHIIOT 13. BeK «ora Cp5IJTe 'rpajao ja UCTJlCHane BIIJaHTltja OA Cxortje It A<erJluroso. 011 Floncan-te. Flope ve. 011 "Ue6apCKIITe II KU'leBCKIlTe 3eMjll-. IIMOTIlTe xa npousjapnre - Fpuu JIM cune ilBSUHIl H.1 HOSIITe npomsjapu - Cp6u KaKO II a a CPIICKUTU upxaa.

EITHCKOllllTe II HIIBHIITe ncacunoum. T10Toa 0611'IHHTe cseurreaanu co xuepepxucsu -nmoaa - IlPOTOITOIIOBIl. nOnOBIt. taKoHII. 1I0AraKOHI! II "va-rna" - CO HUBHIlTe ceMejCTBU II CO cn yru-re npercraayeaae aaceneaorrenna xa'rer-cpuja rpancxu }KIITe.~1l KOjU CO ape sae Mllory ce 3fOJleMItJ1U. CIiTe Tile »caaeene rJlaSHO SO rpanoaa-re H rpa-rvnun-ra - enapXHCKIITe Il enopucxu're cpenaurra BO KOU 611J1e KOHu,el!Tp"pUHJI pe'lHCIICIlTe IIpKBII):IO 14. BeK (ccaen auaacrnpare)

Tpruyecjsu 0.11 mtCMnTU HU Tecrpanas-r. apxnenacxono'r OXPl!l1CKll 011 1I0'leTOKOT aa 12. BeK r-nenaae KOKO [a cuee I.1pKBaTa KaKO

CYI\UpOT co nponujapu're Il CJI060jlHltTe cenaan. Flpexy rronupysan-a Ha HOSI1IlMOTI1 0)1 crpena na anane'remrre H JIOKaJlllllTe cpeyAaJll(1t so TeKOT ua 12. II 13., a ocoeeuo so 14. ees upx sa-ra craaana IlUjMOKHI!OT ae ajcncceuuax so lIP}KaSUTacou,lJaAHIIII1I3UBHCHH nyfe noa caoja jypucnnxuaja. nOBe.~611Te 01113. a 14. BeK npyxaar sorory npaaepn 3U jaKHeH.eTO IlU I\PKBUTU H uejanuo-ro 11311S0- jyean,e 011 AP}KaSHaTU BnaCT.

Kaxo crreuua xa-rer-opuja ;KUTenll so lIaWIITe rpanoaa -rpeee na fll uaaenesee rpancaa're II ilp)I{aBKIITe ¢YIIKl\ltOHepll. 3aOeJle)KaHB so HB3a AOllyMeHTB OA ,lIOUHUOT 13. II 14. seK KaKO "anananua". 011. IlIlB, BoeHI:I CPYHKll;HH so rpa,ElOSIITe u-rane: Ke¢amtja rpUltCKIt (Cxonje UMuno II xerpanuja KYJlCKII. aanosenaax aa rOpHHOT Fpan): crpa'ropa (oq,HQepH): KOMIIC [aanoaenaax):

"CTpa;K rpany". Oil, ynpaeaare q.YHKI\IUt lu('iene)K.:lHB ce: ceaacr rpaucau [aum UI\MHHIICTpaTop): SI:ICTlijUP (¢lfHUHCOB ynpaBHIIK): npnx'rop (cceapa-r aa J\UHOUII): uaroa-raja (aypap): cynuja -peJlJlKII·, 'Mallu" II "}KyncKII'": Ka3HelJ, (reoae-rap) II nuceu (HaJl,30pHIIK HU K.1nCTBpoT): KHel acyncxa

Me r-y rpancx a're 3aHaeT'lHII ce cnoMHysaaT ana'rapn. xoaaua. opyacapa. aaxenapu (Mecapu). rpeeenapn. CSHpUfI. ,ElPOMOXUplI. UnOKJIItCapll. eaeapa. Oil. npacayxxanare aa BIlCOKlI rOClJOAa: KO!l.yX. sOJI06ep. repexap (ccxonap). neap. soaopanx.frexapnnx Blip. 5

5_ CT. HOB"Koo.n!.1912.704 I] H. _ 09ue ~yHKlUiu II ,,"~I~a rll nOBTopYBn 80 nOHOEO apeMe "T. TOMOCKu1975.70.71.

61

80 paMKilTe Ha cpnceu-ra lIP;f(BSIIa ynpaea KOjS 611.~u crpcro ueu'tpanH3I1pSHS. rpancsu-re Y:-KUBBIIe 113BeCHII caaoynpaaua npaaa II npIISIIJlen1l1 110 pBMKIlTe ua rproaajara II aa il.BHO'lHUTa nonm-axa. 80 Ilyuraaoano-r JUJ{OHlIK enea )len lHIOllJl 1I0CBeTeH HftM: roe e "3UKOHOT fpU;:ICKII". So sneuor 137 '!I!TaMe neea CIITe rpanoaa 11M urre xpecoaynn -IIUPCKH YKa3H co KOII HM ce rapa a-rapaa'r onpenexenu rrpaaa II 06BPCKU KOH AP;«BBaTa. VI HOSOOClIoeHlITe BIIJBHTIICKlI rpanoea .'IOO!!JIe on UYWSH XpIiCOBY,111 II rtpccraruu ('-111.124). co KO!! HHBHIiOT CTaTYc ce ,!I;06J1HJKYBan itO cra-rycor HB "cpncsure " r-panoan. -r.e. aa oxue KO!! 011 nopeac enae rrcx cpncxa enncr.

V. J. PYOIIU'tKU U opyiu iii.8pOUUU.

PYAapCTSOTO WTO BII3aHTlIp ro O;+;Hseana BO II. H 12. sex. 1I0;+;lIseano HOB nOAeM non Cp611Te. HII3a TOrrOHHMI! BO HaWl1Te KPUJoIWTB epauna ce aa Hf!B 0):1 'rca epene. a so BpCKa CO OTBOpal+.eTO HOSII PYIIHIII.(H. Tile. npen ce. ja excnnca'rupnne aceneanara PY):Ia. Ha 9 KM jY;+.:HO Oil. rOCTRBBp I1elKll ceIlOTO CpOIHIOSO. rtoxpaj xce BO 13.-14. BeK OUJlS ¢InoTlIpuHu. npxena H ronena aeeneaHBTa pyna: Hall Tile nocrpojxu 6I!Jlo.Il3rpall.eHapYIlHH'IKaTBPIIIIHa (JlOK. "Kane >SBe3):1a". "rpan Tpuoac": cn. Flper-nert}. J6 KM jyroucrosno oTTYKa nelKlI C

Cp61!I.Ia (Apaaren). I!CTOT!lKapYilIlIl"'IKaTBpJllllla

Co nejncc-ra HU cpncxa-re pyaapa Oll OBa epeae so Flopeve MO:-KaT Ila ce noapaaa'r .'1eCTaTa Kocoao. 3se'lal!. KOSB'l. D:e!lll'l. eepoja-nro II CaMoKOs II Tpeeoan,e. Floxpaj !lIlS ne.sca'r oCTaTOl.(1I 011 ;to!{HOCpeil.1I0BeKOBHIi PYAHlI'lKI! TBPIlIiIlIl. TYKa aacenaae ce npoaaorann II cprrcxn (II aeueuajaacxu) MOlleTIi 0.£1

rca epeve

Pyl10HOCHlIOT peanp AeMllp Xucap (A<eJle3110) I! Ae6plIlIa. Baaaa'ruja ra npacene no 1230r. rr BO 1l0CJleAHIITe60p6110KonYHrrB(1228-1230)rp'leSIfTOllac'rcjyaana za r-a 3all,p:-K!1 an ce6e. TYKa c-rcene PYilH!:I'lKHTe TBPil.lIlIlI 6y'llll!. ll06pYH. A<eJle3l1ell (Cenepoxacrpox}, raiSanapllOH, UeiSpHl.(a.

So perucxo'r ne OCOfOSO 61l.1Ja aanena rnaexo »ceneana, HO II onODHO-Cpeepeaa PYil.U. Hopanu cnoaceaara 'rexuonornja cpeoporc fJlaBHO ro eanene CaCIITe. CprrCKI!Te anane-renn r-a rroanxane Dillie rrpo-ryeua reperatrcxu pynapn. eepcjaruc 011 -reurse II Rpnen., 1I 11M A0311011I!Jle;:la !lCTpa:-KYBa.31" py;tl/ll JleIKIlWTO., ita oruopaa'r py!l;HI!UII II ila ja npepaeoryaaar cpeepeaara PYlIa;J.O ¢II1H.3nH!l1"e

62

npOI13BO,!l!l. co 1I!!3a npaanxeruu. So neueun.arn Cp611ja rnD.SHI! pe supn Gllne oaae I/o. PyAl!I!K II Konaounx - HOBO 6PIIO, a 80 Masenounja Ocoroso.6 Kaj Fpuaeneaun e BalleHo n ann'rc. na OTTaMY II l!MeTO aa PY,!lapCKIIOT uearap so 14. aek.Bneroec. HIDa TOrrOHI!~ll1 YK<lIKYBauT HU npucyr aocre an Cacnre BO TOj xpaj [Caca. tnneroao. lll-ranxoauua. urrona. Xanne a II np.). Oil ocorOIiCKOTO cpecpo necrroror Dnuaep KOSaJl I! ncpn co CBoeTO 1I~le. MIIorYTe lIaOA11 ua cpnCKII !! ae neunja acxn cpecperm MOHeTIl 01114. BeK 11<1-rOj npocropja no'rapnyaua'r rrooa- 110 KalKaHUTa KOllCTaTlIlIJa

SaKBI! MOHeTIi 0):1 rca apeste xajrteuu ce II 60 PYil.HII'IKIlTe T!lPIIII!l1l 4eMpel! II A<IIBOjHO BO b!ITonCKIIOT «paj. BO Flpocex aa Bapnap. Worryp KUj

Panoearu. '{peurve na il.Onlfa gperanunna II Til.

Hajrone e+no'r 6poj aa ):IOI.(HOU!lTII'lKII TSP,!lIlHI! lIa HUWlITe npocropu MO;f(aT ):I~ ce r10SPJaar co PYi1aPCTBOTO. Tapnnnure KO!! UMane aexoja upyra o:pYHKlIllju 110 rrpenOAIIIITe aexoau. cera KaKO na 3aMpeJle. Co CprrCKI!Te ocaojyBaH.a O;t J282-1330 f. rpauuuara ouna nOMeCTeHU llaneKY najyr II KOHjyroIiCTOK. raxe llITO nOrpSHII'IIIIITe rapllllHH 61b1e HarrYWTeHII. HeKOIi Oll rropaxeurun're s pajna'ran 1IJ1!! pernonanau CTpa;f(1l aepcja-ruo 61lne xopncrena II so cpncxa'ra npacaaa. Tile BeKe He611ne 1l0TpeOHI! 33 HaOn.Yi1YBUlhe HaAlIlIlKelheTO ua uenpuja'tencxu'te BOjCKlI. KaKO 11 3U opranaaapruee oaceua. Mery-rca cexcraur nOCToeI1e He3a):losonHIIUl! - 6yHTOBI!HUII 11,111 ajil.YlIlI KOI! rn npe sexyaane TprOSlIlITe U nc-rHIIlIuTeHa nnallI!HCKI!TerrpeMIiHIlYIII111 TecHIIHIl. ruorpueyaane a II y6llBane.3u OBa 360pYBaaT f10BeKe 1I0KYMellTII SO aeueuajaecxnre II Jly6poBHII'IKIlTe apxaau.

ae c-rpanan.a'ra ua HlIBHllTe TprOBlI1! 11113 OBJle xpaaurra

011. OHa WTO e aasenexanc so AOKyMeHTIiTe. aaae a e nexa oaue TSPIIIIUIi rc 1I3ry511JIe 3HU'IeH.eTO WTO nopaso ro IIMUJle. no HeKOJlKY crpawapn so HIIB. aaraacapaan rro nar ua rrp"llyil.HU OOBPCKU (anrapnja} Aa c-rpaxcapa'r aa CMeHU. He OCTaSIlJIe pe'lHCII HIIKaKBlI »a-repajanun 'rparn Oil. rca spe ae BO una.

V.4. YKpeii:ellu .Ilallaciiiupu U 36dolJu.

10neM 6poj aanacrapn 00 !lOIIIIIIOT cpenea BeK crauane coram o:peyuanHI! CTonUHCTS3. co r oneaa JeMjl1WHI! lIMOT!!. 5poellll0611TOK II co HJljailHIILI)1 JaBflCHll JIyre nOA II11Bua jypucnuxuuja. Manacrupere aa CBeTa Fopa (A1"Oc) Ha XaJlKIli\IIK 611Jle Huj60ruTIlTe so OBOj zren au DaJlKUHOT. Ilopann aarepajanuure OOraTCTEa na'rpynana so HUB. Tile npnnnexyaane orpa6YBU'I1l II ncpana -roa OIiJle npllHY.lIel!l!;ta ce 3aWTIlTaT co III1COKIISllllIIW.TS II co xexoja s yna.

6.K.JBpe'leK 1978.11. 173-176 (rJl.lX).

63

BaKBI! yxpenenn MaHBCTf!pH UMa HeKO,lKY ua nonpavjerc ua Pelly5J11!Ka Maxenouuja. THe He ce IICTpa:.KYBaHIl Il crpy'mara jaBHOCT )10 neoaavna He 11M oepnyaame BHHMBIIl!e.7 J.1MaaT Cll;lHll SIlIIOS!! KBKO I! npyra're yxpeneun »ecra, a seneaare lIa SII)lBpnjBTa rn J;BTllpaaT DO ;lIOQHIIOT 14. BeK. TOB e DpeMeTO no Mapuuxa'ra 61!TKa (1371 r.) sera TypcKIITe BKllHl,!lICKH oupena rrponapane DO IIBWI!Te KpaUWTa. crpaeyaajxn II nycrourejxu ce npen ceoe. Hypn OTKorB (j!!lIa aocrrocraaeua perynapna ynpaea DO oaoj per aou- aaeege a e peJl

Maaacruprrre aa ){Oll 350pYBa.\te Jle:.KaT xa BIICOKII II npapouao 5palleTII «ecra. B C!I.'I!!IITe SIlII!tWTa ru npe'raopune DO II11CTI!HCKII apenocrn. TaKIH! ce 3pae IJ Tpecxaaeu caj Ilpanen.nenyuao Il Ca. Apxanrenn BO Bapow H CB. HaYM aa OXPI!ACKOTO Eaepo; rrcroa MaTKa aaj Cxonje. CUTe He ce eannem-apanu. Floxpaj upxaara. CO 06SIIIIueTO ce OllcpaTeHU II noeexe nOMOlllHU 05jeKTI! - KOHaQHTe 3<.1 xanyfepn-re It ae cnynrre- Mara!tIJHIITe H SII35f1Te aa nponyx-ru. CTaUT<! aa g0511ToK II lip. Bo npOCTpaHI!OT neop MO:.Ke na ce lacon HaT 6pOjHIl 5eraJJI.IH so KpIi3HIITeCHTya!tHI!.

roneMIi 36erOSli aa ~enCKOTO aacerrenae 611ne rpUl1efiH fI aa npyru MeCT(l.

He ce eaanenrupaun CUTe, rtpeu ce nopana Cl!pOMBllITI!jaTa HU apxecnouucao-r aa'repujan BO HIlS. a roa 6apa nononrcrpajno acrpaacyaas,e. Ha MapKOBI1Te Kyna ao Flpnnen HajllonHnaTepaca511nUYKperreHa KaKO aoet so AO!tHI!OT 14 BeK. Hu TOj npocrcp. ronea oxony 4 xa. HeMa USpCTIl rpanoa. 06sIIIIIIero e cnBiSo II uiapoxo npoce cuo 1 M. MaKCIiManHO ce rromnpe aa rone aa xapna. 36eroT xnj Flpaneneu. 6 KM jY:.KHO en Ilpanen 511n roneM nypa 7 xa II rrOKa:.KYBa IICTll xapaxTepllCTHKII KaKO II IlpeTXOAHliOT npuxep- 36eroT HaA Snercec IlMan 06sIIAlle 6e3 van-rep. a TaKBll 6HJle II MHOry npyru. 36eroBIITe 6H.~e KOpliCTeHIJ cacro 011 apexse uaBpeMe. DO CJlY'lali fla senocpeuua onaCHOCT

V. 5. npaluaH>eiuo ua t/JeyiJa.1I1/1lue Ja.M0l/u.

Sarranaoeaponcxnre IIp:.KaBU DO 0i\MItHaTiIOT It noueu cpeneu BeK.

KJlaCIl'leH cpeYllanefl rropenc«. 611J1e IIC!:IellKaHII BO roness 6poj rrOMaJlH H ecce a Manl! yrtpaaan repn-ropan BO KOIi ueurpamrara Kpa,1CKa BnaCT OABa] na nonapane. Perucaanunre 11 noxanuure rccnonapu :.KHDee;1e 00 CEO are can no YKpeneHII CTaHHllITa -canoua. onxpyacena CO cnyrn-re II CTpBlKaTa II TaMV TUe

GII.'!e pe'-lltCliliegonllpnllEI! .

no pacttuno't an !taPCTBOTO na Ilvuraa. nonpa sje-ro Hn neaeurua Peny5nllKa MaKel10Huja 5llJIO [WlleneHo BO rrOManli .'IenoslI. Bo fleTO'lHaTa

7. B. J1"IT""" 1983. Z85·29~.

64

nonoaaaa ananeen necnorcr OJIHBep. a no Hero KOHCTaHTIiH Ileanoa. Co aanauaa-ra nonoamra aaananean Kpn,10T Bonxaumu CO opar My vrneura. ITo nexoja rcznraa Bonx EpaHKoB ru ncrucnan Oil Cxcnje II Tile aa ncaa rrpeCTO.'lHIJHa ro onepaae Ilpnnen. no MapH'lK.:'!TB OIlTK.:'! ru II.1C,le_:;jIl,1 MapKO. Oil. aero urro senneur ce O!lMalla,l Aaapea Fporra II ce YTSPillU SO OXPIiA_ Toj !lYPIl ro npeaen KOCTYP 011 Mapxo. TypCKOTO ocaojyaasee ro cnpe-urno lIaTa~IOIUHOTO Q.:.nKBH,e

aa JeMjaTa.

UecnOTOT Omraep srarpanna BO Ill-run aenuvec-raeaa 'cpenocr- a IICTaTa MO:.KeOIl ja noapurun KOHCTilHTltH Ileaaoe. urruncsucr I1cap He e KaCTpOH aa cMeCTYBaH,e lIa norone a Jlp:.K<.1BeH sce« oztpeu. Crropen ona urr o neaec ro rnenasre HB TepeHOT -roa e eneu ronesr cpeYilaJleu 3aMOK. rpaneu no npaaepo-r na eaponcae're eyprosu 0):1 TOB speMe.S Ha uajancoka-ra n031H.\lIj.1 croen JlBOpeU:OT co CTBH5eHil II pellpe3eHTBTIIsHII rpaA611 II CO rnaeaa-ra xyaa (!lOH.lKOH) xa JY:.KHHOT xpaj. Okony Hero ce npo'reran L(BI!Hrep. ao KOj MO:.Kena Aa ce CMeCTli 5pOjH.1 c'rpaaca. cuyr a+e. KOH,YllIlIll!tIlTe. MaraUl!lIltTe co

ra 1I11BlllllITe. aapcur (ttonrpanae. aM50pltja) ce n poc'rapan BO

)UMOKOT.llOIl nercaara TapIIIIHaTa Fopnu

110 ue1l0CII0 OJlBoeH 0)1 Hero

(Y'I Kane) BO OXPU!l e ae-ro raxa 3UMOK

rtonarnar ella MeCTOTO lIil ypH.1THOT BII3.1HTlICKII KUCTPOH Jj r-a cnena KOIITypl!Te aa lIerOBOTO cssnnse HO 3.1 6-10 M noaaecen HaBH.1Tpe. a rtpourapex aa ceBepOllCTO'lHIlOT arcn. Co cunen axa-rpeurex SlIil nonenex e aa i1BB gena. JY:.KHUOT. rrOBIiCOKUOT lien liMa nonyxpyacna rpopaa. liMa I1"MeH3li.l! 100 x 55 M. a ,"!lOT My e aajaxna'r CO S KYJlIt. Faaaaara UY:KHa) ncpra CO penpeaeararaena ¢opMa a naea MOIIYMeHTanllOCT na uenara TBpAltHa. CTaH5eHlITe JI penpe aeuraTlIBHIlTe rpaJloll OHJle nocraaeaa BO aa.D.II110T nen 113 npocropo'r (BOil !lolj:!aTOT aa npoexrrrmrre na uenpajareno r) II 1l0TllpeHII na anarpenmaor SIIII; OBOj liMa

exopsora IUllpUllaO)l.2.85M.

Ceaepnacr zen ua TBPAItIl.1Ta_ ncc-raaeu ua no-rae xoja gOCO. !lYPIl crpao nata KOH ceaep- cn yacen HeCOMHeHO aa CMeCTYBau,e xa nOMOWIIll 05jeKTIl - aaeapn. paOOTH1IHIlIlU. KOU,YlllHII!:IH. CTaHOSIi aa cnyru-re I! crpaaorra. l--hlB,l ane- 30BII BO ceaepoaananaaor aron II ua ItCTO'[HIIOT SII)l,. Tyka ce rneuaa-r II OCTaTO-

!tl! 011 rrocrapn SIJAOBK. ua BII3aHTI!CKHOT KtlCTPOH

11 xpancxno'r rpan Flpanen 61111 BCYUlHOCT ronea rpeynanea 3aMOK.

Hnannuao-r nen (aapour) OCTBHan Hlt3 ClITe seKOBH (AO neuec) BO nonuosqe-rc ua pIlIlOT_ 3.1 :.KIITenUTe xa B.1pOlllOT 611n narpane« car-to r-one a 36er H.1 1l01l0nHBTa Tepaca lIa PIIAOT, 11011 SII;lIlIIIIITe lIa KpaJlCKHOT "rpall". A BO "rpagOT", no 3

65

ile1{eHllIl IIHTeH31lBHO IICKOnYSBlbe ce OTl(pUeHII cavo enaa crpaacapcxa KyKB ,'10 ceaepnara nop-ra KaKO II HeKOJ1KY CKPOMHII uepcru rpallon HII BKponO,lI1TII YapllBK.

HII YBP,'lIlK HeCOMHeHO c'roen KpaJ1CKTlOT naopeu. a 80 npOCTpaHIlOT "rpan" non Hero ~ 1.10 ceil.JIOTO Mery «aprmre OIlKOJJeHO co S!!,'IOall ~ .~jo:+:eJIe.!l.a ce CMeCTIIT capas s-re 311 CTpa)KIITa (rapnara) H JII cnyrure. «arauunnre. KOH.YWHHI..\IlTe 11 ap. TyKII lIe~!,lJ10 rperancka Kylb! BO KiHIClI'lHB CMIICJ1a 1111 350pOT. Toa BCYWHOCT II He 6ni1 rpan

Bo HlljHOBO apeete II BO COCe,'lHa Byrapaja JII IIpB oa-r e rroc-rnaeno npaumu.e-ro. )laml TIIMy IIMaJJO JaM01{H~9 Bo )l01{1I110T cpeneu BeK Eyrnpuja 611J111 IICTO TaKB pacnapveua HB 1111311 o:peYJlallll1l U.'!OTII. ITOf!!'lHO e TIIMY JIB ce oxexyBaBT YKpeneHII o:peYAaJlHI! 3I1conHHWTII. Syrnpcxn-re Y'lelll! nOMIICJlyBaaT neea yurre 80 11.~13. aex raery ce rrojaaune npasrre JaMOUlI HO CIIMO KaKO apXIITelCrypeu run ao xexoe yxpeneao rpaACKO janpo. Bo 14. BeK lIlM01{I!Te ce jaayeaar TII.'>!Y KaKoCaMOCTOjHl!rpa,'le)KIHI KOMnJleKCII RJ111 KaKOlleJlOBH ua rpancxn opraHIl3MIl. HO cera eexe KaKO OCHOBI-Ol rrOJJllTI!'lKII. IIi1MllHIlCTpaTHBHIf II /l.YXOBHll

:+:IfBOT. Bo rpaamnrre HII orposma're Y1Mneplfja ce pa3)lBH)KllJl cn060!lHI!OT rrpoTOK HII CTOKII II HII IIcKyCTsa. HOBIiTe aaaae r suu 1I -rproaun Oil TYPCKO If e apejcxo. epaatrcxo. uur3HCKO II npyro nOTeKJIO. nOCTanHO ce gocenyaaae BO pe'lIlcl! CIfTe rpaucea BO MaKe,llOHHj3. pa3BIIBajKlI O/I.il.e,lHII CTOnaHCKl! JJ;ejHOCT!! TIIMy xane lIlTO1l0CToeneYCJlOBIi311 TOB. H3Toj H3'lIfHITOCTojHJJTe rpanoau ao Maxencuuja nOKpajllllBCellojaBIlJ!lIl..\errllHll33

nnc ce YWTe ae e uorrpeua

~IIIJJ!l TUp,'lHHll paauec-rena BO BHIITpeWHOCTa 1111 Y1~l!lepl!jaTa IIClJe3HBrra. Taxn -rue aaxipene II Kaj Hac. Hexou 0)1 HllW\JTe Cpe,'lHOBeI(OBHf! rpancea lICTO TBKII 3anYCTeJle. npH'IlIHIITII 3D roe He rpeea na ce fiapa BO TypCKOTO HIIO!J1CTBO. JaCHO e neKII onne rpanoeu Ii KpenOCTIl KOIi neacene Hllr,lBBKHTe nnana Ha naanerysaa-e Ha Typun're Hila xou npyscane 1.I00py)!(eH OTIIOp. Glue orpa6YI.IIIHif II ypuaaxn. TaKOB e cnyqajor. HII npaaep- co Burona II Cxcn]e. Ho. H .!I.lIlITa rpana 6p30 eune 06HOBeHll II noscaaeaae YWTe nor onesr nonea ca ncpnuo.

Flp a-ruua ra aa aartyc'ryaan.e'ro HIIHeKOIl auunr cpennoeexcana rparxmv a rreacen a rJlBDHO BO 113MeHeTilOT CTonaHCKH CHCTeM BO 'r ypcxn'rn IiMIIeplfJa xaxo uenaaa. nOCTojalHIOT rpeynaneu cnc'reta filln HaCHJlHO 3BMeHer co TypCKliOT Ipeynanen CIiCTeM KOj IIMBJI nOf!HIIKBII ccoseuocru. Llpxaa-ra rll 1l3ry6lfJIII caoirre IIMOTII a MaHaCTl!pllTe Ha6pry onycrene. HCTO rasa II cpeYJlanHIITe aasaona. KOH HIIB ce npanpyacnne If pynapcxn-re rpar-uru,a '{peur-te HB gperanaaua. Monpuue II AeBlI'1 BO Flcpeve. A06pyll. )Kene3IleU. 5Y'!HH II ra6anllpHOil BO )Kene3Heu. Ae6pllUII xaj Oxpun. C06pII II Crease xaj Te roao. YeMpeH BO MOPIlOBO II lip.

Bo roneMIITII -rypcxa npacaaa 6une o:pOpCllpBIIU n060raTH Il noronexa pYAapcKll uenrpa II 110 KOHKypeH1{Hja co HIII.I HaWHTe rpaT'lIfH.a co 1l0CKPOMHll PYAHll neacaurra He Mo:+:ene All oncraaar. Bo HeKOIi 0;tJ. Hlia Typua're 1l0CTIIBHJJe KaKO nOApwKII MalH! BOeHl! rllpHH30HlI IfJlH aa upyr 1H1'lliH ce Tpy~e.~e Aa r-c nonIIp)!(aT HlIBHOTO lKU8eeH.e. Cenax. ITO e,'leH BeK, lin!! 311 ITOKYCO BpeMe, II Tile OITYCTe,1e _ KIIKO Tpucno Kaj rOCTI!I.Iap. Cofipu xaj 'rerono. )Kene3I1e1{ BO .uc~mp Xucap. Ilpocex ~ ACMIIP Kana

Hexou npyru 113MeHeTII CTOllaHCl(1f O)lHOCIi npunoaene na aastpa'r II npyrure perucnanua cpenaurra. a HeKII!l.e BO HIIBIIIITa OKOJ1llHa!l.a aapacae HOBO cpeJJ;RWTe. Taxa. HBMeCTO CJlIIBI!WTe 1l3paCHaJIa Kp!!l111 nllnllHKa. HaMeCTo gne roso ~ KpIlTOSO. HaMeCTo JIYKOBO. )KerllHroao II K03jBK ie aapacae Kyaauosc. HaMeCTo TIIKBew - KaBaAap.lKHBOTOT HII rpaA0811Te HMa. HCTO 'raxa CBOli 3I1KOHUTOCTII. Fpancanre ce paraar II ysuspaa'r KIIICO II nyreTo WTO fIf C03· nane

V. 6. Haiiia.uOlulluiua cyi"J6ullu na ipaiJofluiue uo iilypcKaiuo oKyualiuja (oc6piil)

80 Bosenor {r-n. J) KIIKO ape aexcee paaxa HII TeMaTII ja onpejtenaaae rypceara ox ynauaja HII HBWHTe xpaaurra. JHa'll! xpajor aa 14. BeK. TypCKHOT nep1I0JJ;1l0 MHory aeurra e Cnel.lllo:plf'leH II ce 113J1BojYBa on nperxonmrre BeKOBH. HaKO 15. II 16. aex xaj Hac ce yurre cpenea BeK. Ha OBII MeCTO caxave Ca1>l0 na ce Ha,'lOllpJIIMe ua 1f3BOHpC,'IHIlTe CTy,'lltll HII A. CTojaHoBcKIf.IO '11t1l WTO aaceaeurK!f 11 a3KnY'IOQII ru npurpaxacre 80 l~eJlOCT. Hexoa OJI. HIlB ie ru nOBTopHMe BO

TypcKOTO ocsojyuau,e HII Maxeuouuja rrpenuasnxano BO rro'!eTOKOT H311eCHll nyc roureu,a H orpaeyaae,a lIa HeKOH HIIWR rpunoau If per-nona Pa36upJllfliO e nexa rne npeJJ;J1JBUKaJle II 1138eceH aacroj BOCTonaHCKIlOT :+:IIIIOT II ao KyllTYPHIIOT paaaoj na rpanoatrre. Ho. rypcxa-ra 1J;p)KIIBHa ynpaaa Op30 r-n 1I0nMllHaJIII 1l0'!eTIIHTe C,11100CTH 1.1 rp.'lnOllllTe npO,'lOil;.KIIJle CO HIITBMOWHIlOT

9.H.Jl:,o:, .. 50B 1992.10-19.

1~. npt~ ce ILHUran H' A. CTojaHOBc~1I "rpalloau BO :.JaK.~oH"ja on KpajOl" Ha

10.110 17. B~K. ~eMorpa<pcK" npOY'IY"O",a". CILonje 1971. 1-176. HerOBI!Te npym ny~ul! no OAAenH~ npallia,.". co Cel"o YBa><y"aH,e.TYKu HO ,It aUl"UpaM.

11.VlcnOT.H.JI.30.33uH .. 117u H .. 133 138.

66

67

VI. MATEPHJAJlHH OCTATOUH 011 CPEIIHHOT BEK

BapOBHH){OT II aa na ce ucneve aapra. An ce noeneve rpane aorucr KaMeH. 11(1 ce IICKOllaaT reaennre kI na ce I!3SIIIIU ueno-ro oosunne, cnopen neneumare HOpMII OU 11M cane llOTpeOJUl6 - 8 MeCCIIJI irancpna paoora

O!\fOBOPOT e jaceu. HaMeCTO ila snaa HOBa TBPillIHa 011 TeMCJII!, Bacnnuj cane 'ronpesn-t e,!'(Ha on aoepo acnaaeun-re aHTfl'lKlITBPI1IlHll.Ce HaI1eBaM,!!eKa

-nrra-re no r BeMa .'1[[ MH aarparu. BepYBaM nexa

xa aaxoa eKCKYpc BO roraunnrre rpaneacaa fHI'lliH cexoj Ke ~lOlKe caa ua r-n npoaepa nona-

1. PaHocpeOlfOBeKQ61lU qJOpiulI.fjJul(.uquu;

TOIVlTe u na uojne no COOAseTeH 3aKJ1Y'lOK.

He3aBI1CHO O)lCJIY'lUjOT ua BaCHJ1HIIU. aeee cno~lHaBMei1eKa na OKOllY 70 llOI.1HOaHTI!'IKIlTBP!lHHII eauneurnpaaae CpellHoBeKoBHuI\BII:.KIHI uaona. HO He II cpeAHoaeKOBHllSHAapCKII uurepeeuuuuOaa e rJlaBHIIOTijOKa3geKaTBpllllHI1Te nos-ana s pnejs a 511ne ocnocoeyacna aa

A. OCUocv6Y6a1t>1! ua (J0lllfoaHWU'IKU Kpeuocwu; E. OUKVUU u 6eiJe.llu 60 Ct6eplluwe JeMju; ay.lluiiie KaKO upoiiio6yiapCKu cwellCKU iupa(JuIIUU.

HeHO 6nIle aasenexa oea MallTep; 01< Tile npnvuaa ucru-re 6pry ce pacnanua.ae Il He OCTaBl1J1eTparll110l1eHec

UBPCTOTO SlIl1alhe co yno'rpeda aa aap ce xor aur 611110 ckano. BaKBIl npavepa 011 CpellHI10T BeK lIlTO ocranane acnaaena no nenec ce aucry peTKH H npeI1ITJBIIKYBaaTJby60nHTcTso. HO II cosaae aan,e. Oea ce nozcea. KaKO aa CKPOMMO)!{HOCTI! 011 roe epe ae -ruxa H fla C}]a6110T KEa}]IHeT aa

ce CTaBa)] axa-urremro rto cran npoueu-r aap BO OI1HOC

pacvuc-ra-r 011 IlIyT II 011 )llIBUTa ae rerauaja H l1a liM ce OOHOBUT zpaemrre rtopr-a. OIllTeTeHHTe MeCTa ua 06sIIIlOT (llp06HeHHTe MeCTa - fipe ura] MO;Ke}]e co enaoc'raaxa Te;(HIIKa ua CYBOSIl,[l BO KYCO ape ae II co MHHIIMaJIeH TPY.LI .LIa 611)1UT aaxpneuu. Floxpaj rtpupaxnao-r uarepujan - nannarare KaMelha OIl SHI10BIITe _ aa TIle

soecra aepojartro 6lina ynorpeoyaana II npeexa apesarypa.

KaKO npnerep aa saKSO 6p30 06HoEysaJhe xex a HH Bacanana IlITO ja CIlOMHaBMe II rtopaxo. Llapo-r Bacan nj " SO

OC!.lOJY-

ua lleCOKOT. -raxa WTO CpellHOBeKOBHHOT aanrep 611.11 penoano aaory noce a. ce poue,a

aaa-e'ro aa OXPHJ1 rprnan npexy Bl1COKa mTaHHHa (l1croK-ITeTpIlHcKa) KOH Flpecrra: aa na ro ccarypu roj rrar. aa nero "nOI1HrHaJI" TSPl1llHa Il: a ro nan csoe . TO liMe. AKO r o cnelllIMe HaTaMOlllHHOT aranepap aa lIaPOT II xanenjtapo-r aa C,le)lHITTe aac'rann. Ke OIl!l.I1Me ztexa JB "nonar-an.e-ro'' aa BaclIJmga flMa!l xa pacrronaraae caao aexonxy nena. A aa ua aarpana 011 re aen emra xpeuccr KaKBa urrc e onaa xaj Enxa IIMJ ITeTpUHO ua crrOMllaTIIOT rmanancxn IlpeMIIH. 611 My 511.1le no-rpecna e -8 MecellH

r-c 06HOSlin H KaCTpOHOT Hall BapOlIlOT (eMTIOpnOB) Oxpan il BO Hero ja CMeCTl!!l zpacaaaara pl13HHlIa. OXP!111 My craaan STopa npecronuusa. Bepynave nexa H IIBCTe xpertoctu rropaau HIlEHOTO 3HU'lelhe Snne OOHOBeHl1 SO ssan'tepxa rexnaKa.IlO II OIlJ1BeTe He e CO'lYBaHO HllWTO)lOl1eHec

Bo paHOTO cpenuoaexoaue. rra II nonouna. sune 0l16paH6eHHTe 5e,l1eMII, aacanaau 0,[1 KaMeH 1I ae aja Il aajaxnar-a CO

POB npen HI'IB. 80 ceaepaare )1eiTOBIi aa Enpona 60raTH co lliYMII. MaCOBI!O ce xopecre.te creoaa KaKO apea-rypa aa 6e,l1eMHTe. Ha lliliPOKOTO CJJOBeHCKO nonpauje 0/1 TIaHOHl1ja ua aanan, go sarrmx na ce aep Il Pycaja aa HCTOK.llocera

rpanuurra" OIl TOj

rrOMOlIlllllllIIH!leKOIlKYllaTl! noaexe He!]]JaTeHapa60THapaKa.Ja;:1acen0/1rOTBIl

TlIlI, rpaneun maOHO BO MO'lypHlIlTaTa. 80 pe'ruare 1I.1l11 aa pe-nmre u eaepcxa re OCTpOBU. copaara liM e r-naaao KpY)!{Ha. rrope'rxc OBa.~Ha. Toa ce

68

HaJ'I~C'TO uaacapeuno MacnBHlI KOHCTpYKUllll Oil TlOBeKe anjanu i\pBeHIJ cTe5JlB. nernarn u rtoapaauu Metyce5110 BO rrepacxnunuau KPY;-KHII npcreua. I'panaurmra cnyacene casto eo CJly'lBj HB onaCHOCT. KaKO 30eroaH 3B OKonHOTO uaceneaue.

Co tPopMlIpaHoeTO aa rrpenre CJlOaeHCKIl KHe;l(eBCTBa. na !lC'T Ha'lllH sune rpanean II npaare npeCTOJlHIlHIl BO KOIl noc-rojaao sraaeene aaeaoaare CO caojara npHll.pY;l(6a. Oeae rpanmura 611,le MHory noroneaa ort aoeroanre II lIa HIIII CO epe ae ce npnnenyaane HoaH 06rpalleHlI nOllpWHHII ao KOt! ce aacenyeane rpuramrre: H3 TOj Ha'lItH CO ape sre mpacaaae npasrre 1l0roJleMII rpanoau ao Mopaaaja. nOJlCKa. YeWKa. Pycnja II TH. Ilypu BO 13. II 14. DeK HeKOIl on caue rpanoau 1l0611J1e npen 06stt.'lllja rpane au OLi Ka~leH co ecpcaea earrrep.

CTenCKI!Te HapO.[[1I (XYIiIt. Aaapu. Aaaaa. Byrapn H np.) WTO nponapane ac TeKOT aa 5. II 6. BeK DO Cpenaa Eapona II au BBJ!KBHOT • noaene CO ceoe CnU'IeH 0110pau5ell Mo.[[eJl. Tea 6ltne 'JeMjeHI! OnKOn!! BO KpY;l(lIa rpopsra, co pOD npeu HlIB. Bo onxonuee ce anconuynana OALle.~lIlI HOMa.[lCK!! 3aeilHHUU (pO.[[OSI!) 3<1 ope Me fla aojaa. Tile fie cnyacexe m nocrojanc lKlllleefbe. OSlIe cnxorta repMaflCKlITe co apesreaaun rll BIIK<1ne pUHr0811 II TOj Ha311B II neaec ce KOpUC'TH BO cTpY'lHaTUnI!TepaTypaHUJUn<1I1.3I1KajHac.

Co (j:>OpMHpB .... e Ha rone cra-ra oyrapcxa npacaaa 110 ceoepOIIC'TO'lHIIOT ne.n flU BailK3HcKliOT rrcn yocrpoa. aa npeMIfHOT 011 S. BO 9. aex ce O(j:>opMIIJIa II KOIIuemurjara aa [JOJlHTII'!KH Uef1TpH. [JpeCTOJlHUlIH. Toa e TH. ayn. xuanparen npccTOp rOJleM noaeee aeceruua xex-tapu. omparen co onopaxoeu HaCHn. Ke ce 1ailplKIIMe MaJlKY H3 cecj rna rpajtfia, 611i1eJKII Bopac If CHMeOIi DO caoja'ra excnaaaaja na lalTall. ro noaene II ao Maxenonaja.

Flpaa-ta npeCTOnHI!Ha. 110 nITIICKa-A60oa. aa caoe janpc I!CKOpliCTIlJla eneu ll.OUHOaHTH'lKII 1I0jHII'IKIt Kacrppl co !.IBpCTO KaMeHO ossanue I! co I.\lIpC'TH rpance DO uesrrapo'r. Bo Tile rpallOI! xaHOT Oxryprar TO ypelllln CDOjOT ADOp.1 EJtIlTHIiTe eJ[HHIIUIi xa xaHOT - aOlllli! CO KO .... II - ollne CMeC'TeHH oKony J[1I0pOT. 80 paMKIITe aa 06SIIJ[OT H8 1l0!.lHOaHTII'lKIlOT K8CTpOH. Hajtaop OJ[ Hero. ua enex renew npaecaronea npocrcp onrpareu CO 3eMjeH aacnn II co pOD. ee xacenxne ananejavxa-re PO.[[ODH - roneaa :WPA8 CO 5POjHH xoa.a II CO CTOKa 011. xoja IUTO CIiTe :.KHseene. CUI-to senaopeunorcr eenex oHn cyrapcxa rpenea

Co excnamajara aa Byraptrre ua aanan.vrapnc'r ayn Flnucxa OllYCTeJlU eo 893 r. rtpecronxuaa-ra OHnu npeaecreaa 00 aynor Flpecna a. 11 DO HerODOTO cpeuaurre croen enen 110!.lHOaHTI1'lKI! BOJHll'lKII xacrpoa. rpaneu SO uapcta MaJlTepHU TeXf1UKa 'llll! WTO OCTaTOL(1! l1aPOT CIfMeOH Til IICKOPIICTIIJI 3a .[[a CII ro

ypena !l80pOT. He. aexe 80 971 r. BttlUHTlICKllOT nap Joaau UllM1ICKH ro OCBOII,l If ro paacpna Ilpecnas. na II 'rcj aya onycren.

Ayznn-e ae crane yp6alla crpyxrypa HilTy BO nua rrocroen KnaCII'leH rpancK1I ;KUBOT. Tea ollne 1I0eHI! noropu aa ronesur KOHoaHII'lKIJ onpenn Jlvre rc so HIlII scaaeene non urarcpu. nOnOUII3 II DO xcnneu. noxpaj COOIITe KOfbn: Bo H3!1- BopelUHIIOT oorpegeu npOCTOp acnaeene ceaejcr aara xa BOIIHHTe KaKO Il CTOKara IUTO nacena Ha npOC'TOpOT csony 3Yl!OT. Oil. IIpeMeTO Hn Bopuc DO HeKOI! ayllH

ce snnaa'r II npBIITe uapcm rpa.[lOIt. upxairre.

Enea BaKOO ayn HeCOMHeHO 6HJI "rpanor" Paaen Ha cpeuxa Bper-anuaua.

Cnopen OHa WTO nccera e IfCTpU;KeHO. PaBeH MO;l(e co r-one sra carypxoc-r zta ce noxanaaupa saj KpYTllIWTe, lIa YC'TlleTO aa 311eTOSI:IUa 80 Bpe rannuua. (cn Flperrten. rn. VII). Ha -rca «ec-ro. cpene ~tO'lypnllaa paaaaua ce H3i1Hra onaaj 3aOene;l(J1I1B nore r- aa KOj npD06uTHO 61111 aarpaaen PI!MCKII aoea nor-op (xacTPYM). Bo 5. H 6. BeK ryxa mpacnan .[[OUlioaHTII'IKI! rpan II Cpel1l1111Te aa OK01lHIIOT peraon. Co apxeonourxn acxonyeassa e norapneao nexa :.KUIIOTOT ua oee MeCTO Olll! oOHoBeH BO 9. It 10. BeK. 60 paaxu're HB »exoraumaor KaCTpOH Il rpan Ol!na CMeCTeH!l rone aa «c .... aHII'!Ka KOPil.<1. a npocrpanare nacnurra OKOilY Cpenna Bperanuuna npyacane AOBOJIHO xpann J[l «oau-re I! CTOKaTlI Ha nouare oceorysa-m

Hecoaueuc -raaa narvtena.n "rpaaor" PaBeH BO KOj KHe30T EOpHC r-a rroxpcrynan Operal!HII'lKUTe CnOBeHIl II BO KO] nocraaun ertacxon aa Bperamruvxa'ra cenecr. Bexe BO cnenHIIOT eex PaBeH He ce eIlOMHYBa. a enll.CKonlljaTa OHJIa npenecena DO MOPOBH3J[. AYlIlITe O'lllrnell,HO ja 1l3ry6HJIe CBOJaTa nororanma ynora.

CJlenllHOT ayn otPopMeH 80 aauurre «paaurra cr oen HeCOMHeHO BO ypxe-ruaa're HU PIiMCKllOT «pajna'rea «ncren xaj jle6pelUTe. 23 KM ceaeposartauuo Oll, Flpunert. 11 TyKa craayaa 360p aa cjreaj aasene soruea BHCO'lIlHKa cpene MO'lyplllllHa paaunna. so xoja KOHoI!Te II CTOK3Ta aa oceojyaa-rare Mo:+:eJle na uajnar ll.OBOnHO xpaua. On HCTHTe npH'lIlHlt 'raxa 6H,1e ncunpann u rrpaa're MaKe· LlO\lCKfI npecronsraau Ileaon H Flpecna. UeSOJl e aarpanen ua pa60T aa MO'lypllIIBOTO KOp'laHCKO none. ncyureuo BO uaure ape ne. Flpecna e nonar-aa-ra na OCTpOBOT cpejte Mana Flpecna. nnurxc eaepo OITKoneHO co IlpOC'TpaHlI

xo'typnurra xn ceaepnao'r IIjy;l(HIiOT xpaj.

HMa IlHil.lIUllll aa I!OCToe .... e ae YWTe HeKOJlKY ay1lu BO aaumre xpamura.

HO oaaa npocne aarnxa nocera econurro He e acrpascyuaaa xa] Hac

1. LJ:. KpnHuaJ10E 1969. 141-164. co 5pOjHlI nJ1aHOE"" rrp"Ee~eH~ ooeMHa nOCT"p" Il"Te. paTypa. - LJ:. O~~apoD 198Z. 77_144 ce o5"~YEa. MeTO TaKa. lIa ~a~e nOpeaJ1HO "peAHy""",e ~" ~:H~:nx:~~~:~;~."t_~.OlKe 4eJJOCliO II" ce oCllo60AI! o~ HaMeTHaniTe nOCTapM rne.'lUWTU. en. U

70

71

OTKaKO i5IlJle OCBOeHII rpaan'nnrre BlIlallTIiCKII JeMjll, on BpeMeTO aa Cl!MeOH e 113~leHeTa II aceuara sonuerumja. Plaapureaa e CUMOIIOla noaery MaJlyl5pojHnTe a3UCKll Flpadyrapn !J 6pojHl!Te CJIOOeHCKII nnexuuea KOII aa WHPOKIIOT rtpccrcp on Ilynaa ua ceaep. 110 Ereja ne jvr II On Janpax a a lanall.IlO UPI{OTO Mope I{a nCTOK ro npuqiarune JaeIlHII'IK1!OT eTHlIKOH "Byrapu". Cncaencxno-r ja3HK c'raxan aaenxuvxu aa CIITe :.KIITenn aa TOj npocrcp. Flpcroeyrapure ce npe'ronane JI ncvemane BO CllOBeHCKUTe MaCH. a Co H!!B I! MO,'lenOT aa 1I0Ma}lCKUTe aceuu XOPll.H KOII WTO )K1!BeaT DO ayna. Kos.euara 611.1a ceenena au ste.mt emrrau eIlIIHII!..!IJ. a neuranaja-ra creaana OCH08eH pon BO BOjCKa· -ra. Ha.'-IeCTO'::'YJlHnO'lHanellaceKopIICTaTCTapH BII3aHTlICKliKpenOCTlICO napera MaJ!TepHa sunapuja. nOCTaBeHII Ha npnponxo opaaeru B03BIIWeHIlja

CnOMeHOT ua 3eMjeHIITe HaCUr!!!. OI1KOnll II POBOOH lKUBeen II l!aTaMY.

Taxa. npen peunrrenurrra 611TKa !lOA senacana. uapo'r CaMYlIn ja nperpanan nonnna-ra Ha CTPYMeWHlI!..!a xaj Kny'l (Kml)1l10H) pernell TYKa na ro npevexc Bacannj. Ha rca MeCTO II nenec ce rnenaa'r nonru POBOBH H 6e/leMII; xa ceae paao'r «paj. AO naTOT CTpYMIIJ.1a - Fle'rpnv. olin aacanau rnaBHIIOT OnKOI1, onxpyacen co 3 6elleMli II pOOOOIl. J.1 nenec ce eaxa Caayanoaa Kpenocr.

Kora 00 1041 r , Fle'tap Ilenjaa xpe snn OOCTaHlle It BO Ben rpan ce xpyancan aa 6yrapcKu nap. BO Maxenouaja My ce npH)1pY)!(Hlle aocranmnrte lIa venc co acjeoaa-ra Mauojno HBeU. BIl3aHTIlCKBTa aojcx a anerna BO Floaapnapne-ro It OTTaMY -rpraaaa KOH nenarOHIIJ8. Flpen npunen J.1se!..! nocraeun "geMa" - nperpaaa 0)\ ApBO!J KaMeH. co uea ua ro OIlOKlIpa na-ror ea

VI. 2. !l.ollllocpeihI08f!J.;0811U q,opifllu/JUJ.;(JIIUU.

J. - FpaVf!)I(f!1I 1:.102 U lTif!xlluJ.;a 80 I J. U J 2. Bf!". 2. - 13. BeJ.; U C.106f!11 C"UIUf! Iupaauquu. 3. - (/)op.I!U IIa J.;y.1U U JaiiaO/fu eaujanujo 80 14. 8e"

OoeMHIITe apxeOnOWKIJ ucxonyaatsa Ha Cxoncxuor Fopeu rpan (Kane) BO 1967 r. II 1I0IlOUlla no-rorxaa. crpamrparpnjara Ha c • .'!OeOHTe na ce rroapae co onaenuu nap-run ea SII.'IOBIiTe. KaKO II Tile -'lery ce6e ua ce CJJO)!(aT BO BpeMeHcKII perrocnen Oil. ! L AO 14. BeK KaKO II BO TypCKI!OT nepaon. Fpane scnrre cpa311 ce cnena-r ryxa uajjacnc HajYJKHIIOTSlI1l (en. en. 141, 142). Ilapraja-ra C.XIV liMa aa 8HaTpellIHaT8 CTpaH8 113.tla)1eHI! ruotacrpu. KOI:1 co ceonre ropxa xpaaurra xocene apaaaa. Ha roj Ha'lHH 6l1no rrpounrpeuo KpYHlIWTeTO ua 06SIIIIOT, npa WTO cpop.\llIpano 110BonHO WHpOKa narexa (06XOll.) 3al1 rpanoripana're. ac )1BHlKelbe na epanuremrre. Bax an SIIAHII KOHCTPYKl(IIH lS!!ne nOlHBTII yurre BO PIIMCKO ape ae II Oll.~e rrpHMeHYBaHI! r-naauo 1I0paJll1 I5p311HtlTa xa rpune a.e'ro \I yurrena BO

»arepejanor.

nOBTOpIIOTO nojaeyaan,e Ha nanacrpe co

SO AOUIIOTO cpen-

Oecj nar MOlKe uajnecao lIa ce OJlOKHpa 8 KM ceBepOIICTO'lHO on Ilpaaen. aa JlnaHIIHCKIlOT npeMIHf Flne'tuap. LleHeWHOTO axre My 1l0TeKHYBa lIeCOMHeHO on nperpanara aa Haeu. 360pOT "Tlne'r " {nnor) oauavyaa H nenec orpena rrne-rena 014 rpaaxu H xonje. 360pOT "aap " e crapo'rypcxa (a8apCKJ! ana rrporocyrapcKII) II 0311a'lYBa 6e,'leM. SHIl. KaKO II n0)10Ulle)KIIIIOT YHrapCKIi lOOp "Bapow".2

Iloncauan aex noaouna. sora Hopvamrre OJ{ JY)Klla Pl'ranuja ce osunene ,'{R aaaaanear co nonpa-rjero au neaeurua AJ10aHuja II co 3anaAHOMaKe.'lOliCKIITe peraona. uapo-r Anexcuj 1 KOMHlIli rH yspenan rpeuu'oorre npeMIlHU U -recuaan KOH Ilamrauaja KonajKI! P0808!! II rp8i1ejKII npeeun KY·1R HR rne MeCTa (BO 1091 r.). YWTe enaaur (BO 1107 r.} TOj ro 5paHen IICTIlOT peraoa nperpanysajxu cexoja nu-reka II npeaun co apBef{1I AeMU 11 POBOB][, aa na rn cnpesa HOpMuHlITe BO HIlBHaT<I ottmnanaa KOII BHaTpewHocTR.3

1I0BeKOBile ce BPJyBa aa 3anaAila Eapona opannaja. Pajncxa-ta ocnacr). On jfranaja. 'lllH WTO jy:.K1I1I AenOBl1 KOMHIIHUTe YUlTe r a npaca-r, OBOj rpa)lelKeli ene aeur aecoaneao 15f!1I npeuecen II DO aexoj auaaa-rucka rpau. na raxa II BO CKonje.4

Sanan.ero on epe ae'rc Ha KOMHHHf!Te BO CKOllCKIlOT Fopeu rpan liMa II npyra oc06eIlOCTU. Ha IIU3a MeCTa KOHCTaTup88Me yncrpesa aa MHory KBaJ!HTeTell XIfApOCTnTeH MR1ITep (ro 01l.6enelKailMe KaKO Til. upaeua cpala). TYJll!Te II KepaMIIIlHTe cocpann 0)1 nocrapu-re ypaa-ruan 6une 'rcnvemr a .\ielllallll co onneacaaa eap: aa TOj lIa'lIlH acesexnor MaJ1Tep (vxopocaa-) onn xopacreanpen ce. au noepunmcznre ncrtpaesu. Co Hero ce 1l,10MOUpaHH u aaxpneaa OWTe· 'ryaaa ara aa 1I0CTapilTe SIl;tOBH. II0npaBeHlI ce SHll.HIITe $aCa;tH Il yxpacexa co nepc (nnaCTU'lHO BpaMysalbe aa cexoj KaMell). Co oaoj ManTep ce SIlilallH u uena noaa IJapTlIIl. Mery aaa IJ 2 Ky1l1! co KBaApaTHIl OCIIOBH au ceaepoaananxao'r Il aa jyscaao-r SII)1. Kyna-re aaaar aacnaea cyrepen (6e3 npocrcpaja) co llITO e 3rO.1e· Mella HIIBHaTa CTnTII'lIlOCT. SUllapCKHOT cnor e ~MnneKTOIi. a BO rpacana-re ce ytppnyaaar H penana OA TY1I1!. Toa e OIlpB3 xa eaxupor aa "xnoaccaupas,e",

aanaae a rnaaao aa rpacamrre 0)1 upKBI!Te BOToa ape ae

2.Gy. Mor~vc .. ik 1958. Il.s.v Var_

]. B!I~afjTIlCK ""BOp" fll.l\I66. 385·)86341 (AHa KO"HUHO fl. n. 153)

BpeMeTO lin KOMHIlHHTe l5uno 1l0JlIITIl'lKII f! eKOHOMCKH craeunxc II Cl1J1HO, a Toa e 0)lpa3euo II Ha SI!)1afloeTO OIl Toa BpeMe. TYKa crrarJ roneMaTa 4.H. Hahn 196L24 U.W

72

73

xyna ua axpononara na Crpvuusxacr I'opex rpan (Llapeaa a aepojarno II cesepoacro-raara s yna KOjU 1I0,!I;oI..\HU Oll!la ypuara.

CrUHYB(l.350p3aMaClfBeHeMTlJleKTOH.a KHlelhaTaHa,llll..\aTacey5aSOII3):1e.l1Ka-

TlOBp'JaH CO 1I.~O'l~CTIlOT cnor-. Bo onpenenau pac'rojauuja BO ancnaa ce nocraaeua !lpBeHII rpeun aoncpa-iac ,,0.11;.1( nae're »nua aa >Jl!(OT. a noapanxn ce xreryceouo co KyCI! 1I0f1pe'lHI) rpe!1I!'IKIl - xnen.a. 000) C!lCTeM ,[1eHeC ,0 BI!KaM~

KaKO npn-reo

apcsae ja Cf10MHYBaMe 11 vernraxaj TeTOBO. Ipaneua e !nBOHpe,!lIW

1l,0l..\HOcpegHoBeKoHIUITe SlI)lORH rpanexw aa TOj Ha'lIlH a KOIl ocraaane aana aeuu aa 'repexo'r nc neaec. nonan ce co 1i1l311 nynku u aoteeoeu uno npe OCTaHa)Ie OTKOKO rpemrre cxanarre. Pe/10BHO ce 1I0jaBY13aaT x aj noanavajturte ue ranu - KyJlI!Te. noprare. arO.~HIITe lJP~KplUVBU}ba aa 05SII)llIeTO . creryroa II aa EHUTpeWl!I!Te rpaaea. OSlIe oosnnuja. cenax, He ~[o;+,:eJlC na H3I1P)!WT nor one au

MaCHBHO II Tlpe)lUMeH3110HllpaHO. BO eMIIJleKTOH II co rrpjutenxaaa ¢UCaljHII KaMea.a. Ilae're KPPKHl! Kyllll KOII c'rcene HO HCTO'lHHOT xpaj ua axportonar a. (BO co rpopuara Ha)Y)KHOllTaJiCKO

lKyna.! CTe¢aH HeMaiM H 1l0TOa He e seKe OOHOBYBaH. E)lHHCTBeHO KYilUTa ro npe)KIIBeaJlaOBaYHIIWTYBalhe

co aojcka-ta 011 Flpanen xoa Benec, aa na ro rlf aneven H oncannure cnpasu. Kora r-o auuene roa. Byrcpure. KOIl [j noxpaj roa UITO cane 6pOjHH. cerrax. ce acnnaumne II petuune naja npel1a):lflTKpenocra.05sHAlleToogToaspeMeso g enec e 3alJa3eHO GO rO,1eMIi naprax II Hue MOlKeMe nn r-u nponenuae co nannrre xrepana KUKO CIIJlaTa aa roraunurre KUMeHoq:.pna'lKJ[ MaWI1HII. raka II opamrrennre ;la_T\U "a ce 1l0TlJPOT aa SIl)10Bl!Te IIJIlI!la ce

SII)laH.eTO 0/1 13. EeK e ~lHory 1l0CKPOMHO EO O,[lHOC ua f1peTXO)lHOTO. Tea e Hpa36HpJ[IlBO sora ke ce npccaeaar HCTopncKIITe HOCTaHH 0):( xpajor ua 12.)10 gOl.\HIIOT 13. sex. Bpewe-ro OIlJIO IICIIOJIHeTO co 6pOjHI! ocscjyaaa.a II rrpeae vaa.a aa uaunrre rpanosn so pl!saJICTEOTO HaJlaTIIHIITe II Enupnare, !lOKUJIHIfTe KHe- 30SU. Byrapure. Cp611Te If HIlKejI..\HTe. HHKOj 0)1 HOBIiTe fOCIlO!1aPH HeMaJI

BeK KOI! 611i1e WIlPOKH npocexuo 1.7 - 1.8 M, a so HeKOII CilY'lallII npesy 3):104.30 M, 06SII):IlIjaTa 0)1 13. BeK aar-nenaa-r KaKO awnpoauaauaja. CIIOpe!l urapunara OHilU aaxranena a BHClUlaTa rra srrnosare.

I'panexcauor cnor- aa 06SH):IlIjaTa e IICTO 'raxa MapKaHTeH. HaMeCTO SII3aHTIICKIIOT eannex-roa co MHory ea'rrep HarrlleH BO jU)lPOTO. cera ce nojaayna lnpU3!1TOIlJlO'leCTCrrOf.aS0l1peCeKOTHaSll)lOT)a)lpOTO!lillfu:aracerpa/1eHIIHa !lCT HUqllH. Kaaen.ara ce xpureuu, OljHOCHO nenxaaa rrno secro H apaaxa co MOWHe cnae, noceu esanrep.

OBOj cnor- HMU caoe rro-reanc EO lJPo¢aHOTO cencxo rpal111TerrCTSO xoe srrpo<[eM)!{IISeel1].1eHeCHa5anKaHCKO-aHUIjOllCKllTe lJPOCTOpli.HenpeKIiHaTO0)1 ].IaMIIIIUIi. DII/1e)KII aa e¢T1IHl1Te cencxx rpa)l6u He e 'rpotneua cxana Gap, KUMen.ara ce Sll].laHII co Kan;)aCHO e ne xa rronoopo ce Bp3YBaaT Mety ce6e nnovecru llap'lHlha,ilyplf II DO CYBaTeXHIIKO (6e3 xan )

nnO'leCTHOT rpane.eeu CJ10r ap-rupan co )lpBeHH rpenu no-re au ysan HecO~JneHO 0):( npe rxonuare

CilOBeHCKl!Te npacaaa (rtoxamurre nOBOp!1aPCKll KHe;.KeOCT3a aa Xpc a aa CTpe3. !I0TOa na Byr-apnr-e H Cp6HTe) ja nOT!lCHYBailT Buoearnjc He cane lJOill1TII'!KlI

cpenc'reo II 511/10BIlTe fll aajaxayaan e co OpOjHIl npsenu rpena. 11 oaoj ene sresrr acaaee no ,[IeHeC so ceilCKOTO rpa/1I1TeilCTBO aa CIIOMeHaTI!OT l1pOCTOp, II -roa

1I0CO'lYBaMe naopeuo'r 011 110~Hl1OT II. ana 12. BeK WTO ro OTKOlJaBMe so rpanor '{pu-re. BO TBp)lJ!HaTa HB BO,[1HO Han CKOlJje (crr. 130). SU!lOBHTe My 51lrre rpaneaa O,!l KaM"eH co lJOCeH sram ep. flO aa-roa THe ce l.1eilOCHO apwapann co rpeznr

74

75

sxnoneau BO nae're 1IHua ua cexoj SlIil. H nnauor aa rpancara e IIIITepeCeH aa HOTe!(1I0TO ua aaurero rpanarenerao. Ce COCTOH 0)1 TpU npOCTopUH BO Hilla It ilOJlr rpesr rrpes; III1B ITO ce-ra aon~IIHa. Tpe ac-r 61111 3aTBOpeH ua xpaaurra'ta. a 11113a)lpBeHIICTO.Tl60Blllla'leJlHaTaCTpaHaHocene "vapnax" -TpeM HB KlTOT.O)!, TpeMOT ce sner yaano II BO uajrone aar-a rrpocropnja. rprreacpnja-ra (TpllKlllIHIlYM). CaHIlTapHl!OT jaaen OUJI lToCTaBeH Ha eAIIIIOT spaj 0)1 -rpe aor. Ilpyr-u-re 1l0MOWHU rpcnea enne onnemro rpaJleHIlII 1T0CTaBeHl! HaABaTa «paja all naope-

aan Ill-run. Flpnnen II OXPItIl ~e BCYIllItOCT ronessa cIleYiI,a_'lHH 3BMOL\11; aa -roe 300pYBaBMe BO nperxoane-ra rn aaa (V_5). yl(a",aB~le II na HeKOII aaanoruu co lB"fOL\IITe 0Jl OBa ape ae BO Sananna Espona.

Ha oaa MeCTO rpeee na l(a",eMe lIeWTO aa 1I00llTe cIl0pMH KOII ce nojaayecar na cncaaa-nrre TBPIlIIHII. Hajaapaanrn ce cane so OXPIIII. Kaxo HajollllJOl(

110T. na nOHl!30KTepeH.

DO ODa DpeMe.a co-ryaaua no neaec.

Fnaaua-rn ncpra ua Fopuu Capaj e cIlnauKllpaHa co 2 flJlIBllell1l

Kyill! KOlIlIMaaT xapnxrepncmvua rro'rnoaaxecra ("U'·) OCHOBa. Oaaa cIlopMa He eune yncrpeeyeaua BO BIIJaHTlija. Hacraaana BO 3BnallHopIIMCKIITe npOBI!Hl\IIH BO 3.-4. ae s • a 51Ina oxuaeana so 1l0l\HIlOT cpeneu eex BO IICTI!Te JeMjl! (H'ranaja, <flpaHQHja. Pajncxa'ta 06J1aCT). On 1). BeK ce aenmaar rTOpTI!Te xaxo CIIMOOJlH na 60raTCTBOTO It MOKTa aa enanerenor Iinli rccnonapcr aa 3aMOKOT. Bo HTanlljB. opauuaja II Aurnaja ce rpana'r noprn rpnaasnpen» 061:1'-IHO co 2 KPY"'HI! KYllfi. KOII rronoinra 1l00HOaUT Uc-ocnoaa. Pajncxara 06nuCT fll npllcllaKa BO 14. BeK 011 coce,[lllTe.5

01\ JY)l(Ha Pl'rantrja II Caunnuja (Kenya. Tnpeur. Opua. Bapa. Capaxyaa 11 np.) cnel(II¢WIIIUTa cIlopMa au ncpra rpnanxupaaa co 2 3aoeiJleHII Kyllll 51111a rrpeueceua II Ha oaaa crpana 011 Ja)1paHOT. 60 Crupao-r Eap (AHTH6apll) ce aepoaananaara nopra 611na cIlnalll(HpaHa BO 14, ae« 011 2 l'yJlII co u-ocuoee." 6Jlll3Y Ckanap. aa pexara APUM lIe)l(en rpauo'r Illypna (Capita) xuja WTO jY)I(Ha !I0PTa BO 14. eex Ollila cIlnalll(lIpaHa on 2 KY,ll1 co u-ccscee." Bo anarpeunrocra aa 6B1HcallOT oaaa cIlopMa nponpena nypa xa xpajor OJI 14. unu nO"geTOl(OT xa 15. BeK. xora ce 1I0BlII'Y1laaT aajcrcpa-re 0)1 Flpaaopjero JIB rll rpana'r nocsenaa-re yncpuurra rrporua TYPI.lIITe. BaKBa ncpra croena na TBPJll!HBTB aa IIpSOT aa Aeana (nouea 14. IIJlll pan 15. BeK: rtpen 6 neuenaa e uenocao ypna-a) II BO Be nr-pan (Kanaernau. VlCTO'lHa rropra. rpaue aa ao 1403 r.). VI nac-re rtcpra 61111e cpnaaxupa aa 0)1 Ky1lH co U-OCHoaa8

no enna aa cna synn co U-OCIIOsa croene II noxpaj Fopaa. venue II Ilon na nopra 110 aapouror OXPI!)I. Ipaneaomre ccoeeuccra 11M ce ncru KaKO II oa ae aa rOpHII Capaj a. ueCOMHeIlO. rto'rexuyaaa'r 011 HeTO epeve. Bo cesepOI1CTO'lHIlOT uen aa Fopna Capaj. rroxpaj ceaepoacro-ura-ra ncpra c-ron YWTe enna KyllU CPOillIa co npeTXOj\HHTe KojawTo nOTeKHysa on HCTO BpeMe. I1Ma JaOO.lleHO veno

rO,1eMllHaTB aa rpmsera. Hej311HaTa 1I0MIIHaHTHa 1T0311ullja BO OilHOC na OKOJHHIBTa. aa.rrepunre npeaam na SUIlOBUTe II nono-r KaKO II Kaa.llllTCTHIITe t<epaMlIl1l1 co KOll enna I10KpHeHB. III! naaaar MO)l(HOCT aa onpeneneuu aasny-,o- 1.\11. Baxutrre nnaHIIHCl(H. i10Se'lKII 11 npyru I1BOPUII aa OilMOP II paaoaona ce 1T03- xarn OJI mruraau're maopu. KaKO II on apXeO.llOWKHTe HaOll1! BO auaa e apo ncxn aeMjll 011 CpellHHOT BeK. VlIITepecuo e na acraxae ae uexa OlTllWllHllOT lilian A<lIaee II neaec BO Maxegoauja II rroumpoxc. «axe MOJlen aa 11060raTII CeJlCKIi KyK!I CO 'rpe a !I CO sapnax an KaTOT

14. BeK.110JlHTI!'1KIJCTa6I1JlHU n cnCTCM. ocra aana MIlTepfl)flJlIIII rparu rnnsao BO caspanna'ra apxurexrypa. OCTBTOLllf 0/1 TBpIlIIHJ! liMa CaMO lIaMeCTa II TOa 6e3 MOflYMellTallHIl «peauuau KaKa11 WTO Oil ce O'ieKYB.1ne.

Ha CKonCKIiOT Fopeu rpall en OBa BpeMe rto'rexuyaaa'r fIOBIi naprun aa jY~HIIOT SIIJI II ooaoaexara JYlICHa 1I0pTa, a aa Jana)1H110T SIIIl rcneaara kyna CO KBB.'IpaTl{a OCHOBa. ccvyaaaa LlenOCIIO)lO nenec (pecraapnpaaa 00 Hallie epe ae). Kynara liMa 3a06i1eHH ar-nn KOII ce ornauenu on )lo"y ::\0 epeor co yseec nenxaUII 6noKoBIl II oneaj Ja6eile"'1I11S11 cIlyrll. Co oaa e aronesreaa OTITOpHOCTa aa npoexramr. a BO;(eHO l(YJI3Ta ce 3n06l1Ba co IlJBOUpeneH eCTeTCKIi ecpexr. I1Ma roneMII rrpoaopux aa CUTe CTpaHIl. IIi! KaTOIlIlTe, rope 3aCS0)1eHII II nopaeean CO nenaHI! 6nOl(OBII. Oua ce eneMeHTll Bo0611'!aeHll BO rpa/jHTeilCTBOTO Ira Sananaa Eapona. Tyxa r a 1I0HEJlc. aepojatuo. MajcropHTe 011 Janpaucxnor oper. aocna-

Bo a'rcpa'ra nonOBIlIIB ua 14. BeK ncunrc 110 pacnauc'r ee UapcTBoTO aa Ilyumn BO HU3a HO).lalHi Jlp)l(aoll. Bo IICTO'lHIITe uertoaa na aeaeuma Pertydrtnxa Mekencmrja ananeene CIIJlHHTe $eYJlam{lI: neC!lOTOT Onuaep H no Hero KOHCTaJiTIiH Ilejauoa: 110 aarmmra'ra noncauea spanor BOIlKaWIIH II no Hero Mapxo. Bonxauruna ro IICTIlCHa,l 0)1 Cxonje BOJlK 6paHKoB II TOj cronyaan 1.10 Flpnnert. no Mapnvxa'ra 611TKa (801371 r.) Aunpea Fporta ro onaonn Oxpan II ceonaare per-nona 011 )lp"'allll'll(aTa au Mapeo. CHTe OBHe perHOHII 1I n oxanan MOKHHI111113fpallllJJe 5e36ellHH aaconnnurra aa ceee lila CBOjOTAI.I0p. Tupnrrmrr-e

5. w. HOlZ 1975. In y.w.: H. Hohn 1961, !7 Y.w

6. n. MujoauK _ M. KOBa'!e~~" 1975.93-97. 6p. 112 Ha QnaKOT. Jyll:lIln Kylla e nogoUHanp.,ulallaooIIOIiHaKuocHoBa

7.H.Spah;u 1975. 151.159.s15

8.A.llepoKo 1950.I01.cn.82M !03-104.cn.4!.84.

76

77

11 Coenepe ac ,HI D.YHaB (;::D.H !5. BeK); Marnav: PeCaBD. (\407-18 r.): Be-n-pan

(K:l.1feMer,llaH.rrO'leTOK 15 14.

SI:I,lI !1Ma mupaxa Oil. ,a,YPH nyurxaputnnrre na KY-'HlTe on JpKHaTa ncpra ~jMa:lT rpOPMU II r-orre srua.a KOJa He COOI1BeTCTBYIHI aa

KYJIl!Te co JaOOJlel{O -reno ce rpanar BO Bananaa Eapona BO 14_ BeK If []O!l:OL\Ha nopamr HOBOTO oncanso Cpel1CTBo, ap'rnnepuja-ra. CO TO[]OBII ce uanaraar rrpen ce KYJlIITe. Bo n:OIlHlIOT 14. aex ap-rn nepqja-r-a ce urapn 1I aa naJIKaHCKI:IOT norrYOCTpOB - BO OPIlMOPCKllTe rpanoan. 1l0TOa BO BI:I3aHTl:lja [j BO KopMCTaT II TYPI1MTe. Flopanu Hea H TplITe rO!IeMIf Kyilll HOI 10pHIf (CKpWHYBal-he) aa fyrrlJ-

MaflaCTHpOT CE_ Apxaar enu KOCOBO [uc-rex aa 14.11 pas

14.

CJlenHIIOT eneaear UlTO iI.OWOJ1 011 Sanaa Kilj Hac ~TO;.K~5H Y1J1Te BO nOL\-

BO AJIIlCKI!Te aexrjn, Ce aepua l-l-rannja H TH. H1H 13. II 14. BeK J10lKIIBea:1e fOJIeM~ e aonyuaja BO rror'nen aa rpuneaourre enesreur a u KOHCTPYKl1l1JUTU KUKO l1eJlIIHOI, Hl!BHaTa rr03HI111ja BO «penocra (xaj fJlaBHHTa nop'ra: BO Cpel1UWHI:IOT npocTop;HaHajBl:lcoKaTaTO'IKU00 Kpe!lOCTa:BOCeIJ;Jl0TO1T0KpajTBpg!lHaTa.11 TH.) Bo 14. BeK nOJIHlIOT nen ua KYiWTU ce suaa vnory 1l0MaCllBHO U co 1l011HUKOB IlJIaH 0)1 ropuuor. <t>opMaTa II IIIlMeH31!lITe aa oaaa Ky:1U MHorv aapapaar 6H)1ejKH BO TeKOT HU HlIBI!OTO nOClOeH.e - ,110 )10MHHalll:ljaTu HU ap't-anepaja-ra - ap)(IJTe~THTe »ajaxor-y excnepaaeurapane osoxy 1I0H;KOI!lfTe

AOH;KOHOTC-1fY;Kerr KaKO nocnenao) ynopnurre Ha uen a'ra TBP-

-'lllHa. Bo cyrepe no'r (110KOJIKY ce aaoraxa uacrep aa aa aona (110;K-

)lOBHUI1U) UJlI! aa'raop. Flo-rca CJIe)lRT «arauuunre. rtpoc'ropu a aa A<I:IBeeH>e ea

14_ BeK KaKO ape aa HU rpenerse ro na Fopsn Capaj, III:1KaKO 1T0paHO

OCBeH rpa-re crrOMHaTI:I KyJ1l1 co 3ao6neHo veno. Ha [OpIlM Capaj croene yurre i KYJIl! co ve'mpuaronaa ocacaa. Tue ce MaJIH 110 coce sr Mailll. -raxa WTO BHaTpeWHI:ITe npOCTOpHI! aepene onaaj 2 x 2 M II.~I! nonanxy. Bo noropnn-re KaTOBI:I aa oaae KyJIIi

cpene npaamror rtpcc'tcp aa axporronaranpyrare rpa,ll611.I1Ma cneuacpa-usa npaaoaronaa OCHOBa rone aa 21.60 x 8 M, 'lIlll UITO rto'recua crpaan OI1HaJlBOP ce 1I3Brre'leHH ITO):! ocrpa arna BO

KrrYHoBH O):! «opao. SHgOBIITe MV ce MaCI:IBHH H WHPOKki 2.5 (venmrre

neaec I1Ma BllCO'!IlHa yurre 8-9 MeTfHL He aa npa-ra so naprepo-r (ce aneryaano on KaToT)_ Bua-tpeuraoc-ta BO cvrepeuo-r e 06:10)KeHa co )(HJlPOCTJTlI'-IHa wacnauaja H cayacena KaKO I1IlCTepHa aa ROlla (noacnoaaaua). Ha ceaepoaanamuro'r CTOH enaa cnena naura. rope caceoneua IT co gllMeHJH1I90x70 CM 12CM_). xon BogaTI10 ana'rpeuraoc-

Hp3 nenpajarenor. UCTOBpe.\1eHO on: rtoaexe J<aTOBIJ. Flopeun 'recrro'ruja-ra ua BaKBIiTe xyrm IICKamlTe eo HIlB He npeocrauyeax na-ry MHHI:IMUrreH npocrop aa HOpMa1!HO nejcrayaan,e aa 6paHHTe1!HTe sa cexoj KaT. V!cTO 'raxa. BO cnyvaj aa npoeaaa»,e H OWTeTYBaa.e ua xvnara. 6paHHTe.~U:Te He MO)KeJle orrarOBpeMeHO,!Ia ce 1:13B-1fe'-JaT on xea nary nux na nejctayaaa'r ue.npex!!HaTOOA aeourre-teuare KaTOBIi.

On rue npasuna ac Hranaja » <t>paHI1Hja5nile speapaun Ky1!1ICO 3aAHa (BHaTpeWHa) crpaaa OTBOpeHa aarope 110 BpBOT. OpeKY )lO!1rHTe ,lIpBeHII Ha):!eopeuntz CKaJIIl MOlKeJIO OIl:J1BOPOT!lR ce ITCKa'!YBa IllTpeKTHO 110 OHOj KaT Kage WTOHManOITOTpe6a,5e3,l1aCerrorrpe'!YBaaT6paHHTeilIITeHaIlOilflHTe KaTOB!!.11 BO C!1Y'!aj aa OWTeTYBaa.e aa KYJlUTa Hej311HIlTe OCTaHaTH KaTOBIT U HaTaMV rpYHKllllOHITpaile HOpMaJlHO.ITOBP311HIICOCKa-1faTallllpeKTHO COI1BOPOT •

OTBOpeHHTe xvnu ce 1l0jJ.BYBaaT BO OIlMIlHaTllOT 14. II nonoutra HI:I3 Eapona. nopana mapen.e-ro aa ap'ranepajat-a. Ilea BJlHjaHHeTO aa a'ran.ajaacxoTO rpanarexc-rno BaKBf! xyna ce rpuua'r II 011 oeaa crpaxa aa Janpaao-r. Ha Fopun Capaj BO OXPII)I nexoa 011 CIlOMHanlTe Mailn '-leTl1pHarOJlHl! KYJIIl (6p_7 H S na IIJ1aHOT) kiMaJle ornopeua "3a,llHa crpana: na npyrure nenec He 11M ce rnena TOj ne-tan

BaKBI:IJ<YJ1Il!fBOBHaTpeWHOCTaHa EaJ1KaHOT. Ke fla6pOllMe HeKOJ1KY HajMapKaHTHll rrpaxrepu EO Cpoaja: [0.~y6al1

78

79

r. !I AP.).II

Ha Plcapo r BO llITJW.!-In UCTO'I!-IUOT SII.!I aa IIBopeUOTI10MlIl-llJpa rnaena xyna. ronessa JO.'( 8 1>1 II 81lCOKa neaec YWTe 12 M (en. 177.178). H.--:j3HHaTa 1l0JI!UIIJa. rorrestu na II MaellBHOCTa uenocac ja lIJI1BojYBaaT on npyrare KyllU II ja ortpenarryaaar KUKO .'I0H*OH. WTO nexnreerr Hail rnaaua-r-a [ucrovua) nopra BO naope-

QOT II Hall.IICTO,{HaTa nopra Hil uaanrepcr

Ha MilpKOBIITe Kym! ce u.maojyaa nero -rax a ell)Hl xvna co caoja ra npeaIIMeH3HOHllpOHOCT_ C'roen a 80 ceaepoaanannoro nonao aqe Ha axporronara Haprtax , flCTO'iHO 011 ceaepaa-ra [JOPTil. CO'lYBilHIIOT nap-rep e aacnsen II 6e~ co KOC. rece a [JpeMJlH HlI3 nero. OCHOB(tTa My e [JOJlYKpYA<Ha. CO

!lHMeIlJHH M_ Fe 6paHen rnaauuo-r [JpIICTa[J KOH Hapnax Ka.'le aecosmenc

c-roena xpaacea'ra peaaneauuja OOi\OQH!!OT 14_ aes;

.!lOH)KOHll 611.ITe rpanenn II BO 1l0MaJIliTe xpenocrn. Bo rpauo'r Cocpu ceaepouc'rovao Oil Te-roao HeCO~lHeHO 00 1I0QHIIOT 1.:1_ eex 6nJl uarpagen aa jY:.KHIlOT xpaj aa axponona'ra cnrreu WTIIT-SlIlI (umpo« 3 M II BliCOK neuec 110 9 M) Ha ueroaara CPCl1l1Ha CTOIl M.:lCIiBeli 110UA<OH. co IlllMell31!Jl 9.5 II 8.5 M II aanaaea Jl.CHCC so SIICIlHa op; 12 M_ Ha Hero II aa '1ellIlUOT Silil. (')H,1a nornpeaa MaCHBHa

-rprteaapuja. CO CTaH6cHil npocropan H~ KaTOT

Bo rpanor JJ;eOIl'l «aj gpon !lOfl:.KOHOT c-roen ua cpeunxa aa axponona-ra. aa xajauccxa'ra TO'lKa. OCHOBaTa. 1I0CTaseHa apa emra 113/l:aJ],ella xapna Mepll 8 x

7.6 M. Flo-rexnyaa Oil 14. BCK.

Bo rpuno'r Tpnoao (c. CPOliHOBO eaj rOCTIIBap) 1I0HA<OHOT e nouupau Ha ceaepoaananano-r aron. aa aajancoxo'ro MeCTO. rO.'leM 611J1 10 x 8.3 M 11 Ha neroaa'ra jyxcaa crpaua ce rrornupane rnnanara nop'ra. rpa)lC:.KHIITC oc06eHOCTIl ro

na-tapaa't ao 14.oeK.

Bo rpanc'r '{peuive ua 1I01lHa Speranaaua, ua ceaepoaartanaaor aron Hil axpononara 61111 aaxnanao nosanau )lOI{:.KOH_ BpeMeHcKII .\ly npe.nera lIa 14_ 8CK. 3a pa311J11W Oil OOSIIIIOT KOj C 6cJ van-rep. :I0H:.KOHOT e rpanex CO UOpCT aaarep IlIfMa MHory MaCHBll1l SIIJl.OBIf. Ocaosara aepa 12.5x12 M If CIlOPCI1 TOll. 61111 BnCOK.

Bepoj(l.THO,OKOllY 18 M.

Bo KO:.KJle aa n'lIfIJ,U. aa axpononara aecear ypHaTIlHIITe ua ronejaa rpneanpula II ,[10 aea rnaaaara KYJla-!lOH:.KOHOT KOj o,!.leCJI Hall 3aMOKOT fl nosunpoxarn OKO.'llIlIa. Fpaneaanrre OC06el{OCTli ro !l.aTllpaaT so AOL\HUOT 14.

VIMa II lIPYrH npuaepa. 110 Ke ce orpaaavrute aa Ha6poeHIITe. 3a paanaxa on npyra're KyJlII. WHpOKll IIpOCe'lHO 4-5 ).1_ aanoaae ,!IeKB lIaUlIITe Jl.OH:.KOHH McpaT Mllory. MHory 1l0BcKe. VI sll)1apCKBTa IilBeJ16il 11M e ~tIlory nOMaCIIOlla

Il.W.HoIZ197S.22.23,127.

80

OTKOJIKY KajoCTBllaTIlTe KYlllI. a COC80JBn nonnnrja 00 TSPlIllHan 1l0MlJH)JpaaT Ha)1ClITeJl.pyrHrpM61!1lIlai\OKOnIIHaTa

VI. 3.pBHIKEH A.PXE0J1011IKJI M.4.Tt:Plfl.4.J1

Bo crropenea co KcpaMIIKBTll zojn OCTall3 xaj Hac rneauc nenpoyxena.

CIITlilITe [JpeIlMCTlI JlTIeHII cn eascp nnu 6pOH3a, 11 !lOpeTKO Oil onOGO II cpe6po IIJIII KOBaHII Oil. :.KeneJo. Illlil peadnpe aa 0)1 KOCK3 II por- npCTCT3SY8BBT npBOKnaceu ap~eOJlOWKU MaTepnjan aa a ac. KaKO MO)\IlH 1I0BHTeTiI arnr 6eJle3H HB BCpCKaTa, xyn-typaa'm. IlpO{peCIIOHallllaTa. CTalleWKOTa. rta II eTHII'lKaTO npunan- 1I0CT, oaae rtpemse rn IIMaaT '1eCTonaTII 113BOHpeAHO roneac 3Ha'lea.e. Tile ce apeupanu 00 norOJleMUTC [JOJllIT1t'lKIl II s yrrr ypua ueurpa: 80 Llaparpan II CO_~yH. Mana A31!ja 11 BO npyrure nenoan aa I1CTO'IHlIOT Memrrepan. 110 \I ua I1CTO'iHIlOT Baaxan H,l11 BO kl-ra nuja. Kaj Hac npuctarnane no pa3111l'1H1l nODoAIl: co BoeHHTe ocucjyeaea ft aocnoc-raayean.e-ro na COOIlOCTllnTnIlP;.K!lBHa ynpaeua SlIaCT: co TprOBcKIITe BPC10! K3KO MO.'lHIl HOSIiTeTII: CO umpenerc aa XPIICTIIjaHcTBoTO Mety Banxaxcxn're C10BCHII: CO co.rpe amee'ro Ha onpeneneaara s ynrypna IJ!lI! eTIIH'I.KO casrccaec'r.

HaselleHIlTe npenere ru KaKO [JPOJI300Jl.H ua noronessnre KyJlTyp1i1l aaeuHflL\1I BO paMKHTe aa IICTO'!HOMe!lIlTepaJiCKIlOT cser. ce npcyuyaann Ita 1l0WllPOK aaponcau [JlIaH II HB cooase'nrc nay-nrc pasruaurre. Tile co carypaccr ce onpeueneua KaKO 0]; xyn'rypeu -r axa II OA opeMeHCKH II !.PYHKUllOHalleH aClTeKT. Fl pexy HIlDCOCllrypHOCTrllonpClIeJlyoaMe fl ununrre KpenOCTII xane urrc ce lIaji1eHIl. Oil Tile npu-nma. BO KaTB1I0WKliOT npnxaa ua aaunrre rpanoen (C[J. Flper-nen, rn VII) nn ces oj 1I0KaJlIITeTCeHaOel1eHlIIIIlaollllTe 0)1 ae-ran.xako curypua penepa ao narupasee-rc

A, HaKuiu.

Bo (992 ronusa ce 1I0j1l811 x aur-aru aa E. Maneaa aa Cpc)1HOBeKOBfllloT HaKIiT BO MBKelloHllja.12 Bo nee ce c06paHIl. cucre aarumpauu. Tl1Il0,10UlKIl II apexreucxa ortpenenena CHTe uocera n03HllTII neoaa aa uasur 0)1 7.-14. 8eK aa OBa rtonpa-tje. Kaar-a-ta e 6a311paHa aa IICl.lp[JHIJOT KBTa.ITOT aa Haollll on 100 ,10Kall1lTeTII BO Masenouuja. Mety HIIB II Oil. 1I0BeKeTo rpanoaa WTO aae TyKB ru o5pa6oTyBaMe

12. E. Ma~."a u 1. AHaHueB 1993.265-272, la pOK~eTo on BOlloqa

81

rHHCTaKflYIIUMe caae SpeI1HOCTH611i\ejKI! xaur aaa Hll 1I0CilpKH «axo eae« 011 no'rrtopu're 110 ,tI:l.THpaH,eTO aa cane HaWIl KpenOCTlI 110 KOIJ ce najneuu npn-repoua naasrr OJ!; cpeJ!;HIIOT sex. Ilopann uc-nrre IIpei\HOCTH xe ste 1I0Tpe5u ,tIU nr nOIlTopYlIUMe nm0l10WKIITe K:l.paKTepIlCTIIKII aa 0AileilHII rpyrm flUKIiT u apeMeHCKHTe pa~IKII lIO KOII Tile eraucrupane. CeTO -roa e O:(I;+;allo BO KHUfaTa Il Hue uenocxo ce ncmnpaae Bp3 3aK.FIY'I01lIiTe HU E. Maneaa

rpna axnpaan co ncaaan ¢urYF" na caeru-renu. Iloerpraaare npOIl3110::111 on:"!e yxpaceaa co Bpe)KUHII cueun. Itpocnenenn ce co rp'lKII TeKCTOII~I. 61Vle npomseilYllallIl 110 rnUBIHlTe Bll3UHTIICKiJ UeHTpH. Bo to. lIeK sora Buaan-ruja rrponnpa 110 axa'rpeumoctu Ila Banxaaor BO pastxtrre aa Llpxaa'ra. a BO l l . BeK H 1I0,liITH'IKII. oaue KPCTOIIIl crnraane 11113 OUilKUHCKliTe npoc-ropnno IJ;YHall aa cellep_15

Hnrepecuo e na I!CTUKlleMe nexa 8aKBli penuxaujapu s aj Hac ce naoranu r.~aBHO BO UPKOBlIllTe CpelU1WTa [enapxucxu 11 eHopIICKII): BO Cxonje. 6UTOJlB OXpHiJ;, C'tpyxruua: 110 Flpunen. 110 Flpocex. Jl)'KOBIlUa. K03jaK (Ka sape eo) II rteurox eaj Te'roeo. f!oTeKHYBaaT Oil 10. 11 ll. DeK II HeCO~IHeHO croene 110 apcsa co rrODIICOKIlTe caeurrenuqxu 'HlHOIIIl. pal).1eCTeH1I DO cnOMHaTIITe lIPKOBHII

E. A.+t),Jleluu.

r1peTtTBBYBaaT CneUI1<pH'IHa rpyna npenaeru 6nllCKil ,'10 lIaKIiTOT. HO co 1I0llH3KBU HaMeIlU. Orxpneun ce DO nororrew epoj aa lIaWHTe yxpenexn MeCTa II caao neayaao ce lIpHKa)KUHI1 DO crpy-nmre r-nacana.

Bo rpur-rero Ilaanna Kaj '{yxep 6JIll3Y Cxonje e aajnen enea 1J]1I01lpell,HO pencx II maqnex UMYJleT. IIJl1enKUH on napourxa aa eneucan por- HMU ¢OPM3 HB TH. poxue, npoapreuo DO rOplIJlOT nen JU rrpcrnyaaa,e ua apeka H aa »oceu,e HU spa-rer. Co IlJII1TKO IIpe)KBUII i111111111 OKOJlY. pOK'leTO e nonenesrc DO 6 ceraea-ru. a CeI1MI!OT,tIeJI. ropuacr xpaj. e aapeanapeu DO DIIA xa voaevaa rnaaa c04 rmua. noxpaeaa co KOHYCIIB tuanx a. Ilae-re JIIH.(a sea ce CO'lYlIaHH. npe-tc'raayaaa-r

cpenamra

xar n ace au co ape'eaxn lIpn:l'I[(lt

noei\IIOCTaDIIH on nperxcnmrte ce kpc-roaare-npuapaoua. !I11eHlI 0;1; 6pOHJa 110 enen ne n ann lICKOBUlI1! on ;+;eJle3HU IlnO'IKU. Hekou O,tl HlllI ce yxpaceau xa npenaa'ra c'rpaua. Bttne noceaa [(aKO asryne'ra. aCTO TUKa aa IIpaTOT. Bo rpanor .iJ,eDOiT «aj llpeHOBo e uejneu Mail on ODell KpCT CO OCT3TOllll Oil nlleH mea oa KaJIarIOT. tnescr no I1HeH.eTO He 1511!l OTCTpSlleT [uuaen npaa II pe'ryurupaH)IlYK3;.KYBai\eKUHaToa MeCTonOCToenapUOOTIIJlIIIIl\UaU lIaKBU KpCTOBII. Bo Creu-re xaj TeTODO II /KeJle]Hell 80 IJ;eMlip Xucap ce lIuji\eHIl ei\HOCTUBUIJ

13.-!4.BeK

He sra rrorpeea JlU JlOKa)f(YBaMe neea Hoell KpCT-aMaJ!lIIJB IIpaTOT 611i1 pacnpoc'tpauer KOj CIITe CiiOBeHCKH (II ,tIPYrIl xpac-rajaacx a) 11113 cpeJ\HIlOT BeK. ce 110 nenec. KPCT01HITe 6Mile npaaena eo cpenauo'r

BeK r.'lUIIHO OA !lPBO. nope-nco peadapeuu 0.0 KOCKa. por. KI!!IIf6ap I!JlII nax HeHII 011 -aeran II CTUKiiO. r10pU.IlH -roa 110 apXeOJlOWKIrTe KOHTeKCTIi 011 cpeJ!;1I110T ae« H He ce CO'lYDaHil 110 1I0rOneM 6poj (en. CIl. 24. 60. 66. 80, 105. 108. l 13. 153. !64).

Ha acr na-rau e npercraeena II

Flpen Hac e lICYWHOCT npe'rc'raaa aa rJlUBHOTO Cnoeeucsc 60;+;eCTBO on nperxpucrujauckuor nepaon. r1epYH.-Cellll!l (rrrena aa CIiTe -re rapn CTpaHII). BaKlI1i POK'IIIH.U ce n031l0TR O,tl Flpecnaa (npariyr-apcxn-ra IlpeCTO!lIlIlIlU). en Bucnuua II BOJlIIII BO r10JICKa. a CIlll'llIlI npenaera co HtTH npeTCT(l1I1I ce Haj,tlelill 110 Pyca]a. <IlIlIlCKB na Il 110 WBe)lCKa. MOIIYMeHTa!lHII KUMeHU ClIOMeHIIl.{1I co 4 naua ce OTKPIl~1I1I BO 315py'l II HBaHKOBl.(1I BO YKpa11Ha.14 POK'IeTO OJ!. Flpecna a e narupaao 110 10. BeK. H HaO)lOT 0.1< Ualllllla nOTeKHYIIB aepojaruo OJ!; 'roa apeae

r10 npaeaor ua XplltTlljBHCTIIOTO lIO HaWIITe KpaHlUTB ce rrojaaaja OpOjHI!

MaJIU KptTOBH-aMY.FIeTII. KOII !lCTO -raxa ce aocene lIa IIpaTOT. ORne naeua r.FIaBIIO 0)1 15pOH3a. HO II 0)1 on080 U.FIII rtax 611ne KosaHII OA )Ke!Je30. Hajpacxoumu Mety HIIB ce KpCToBIITe - pennxaajapa (eIlKO.FIllUOHII). 113paoOTeHII oa aae gena. Flpenna-ra II aauna'ra rronoaaaa ce cnojyaaa-r xa urapaup II OCTaBaaT WYlIJIIiHa 30 CTaBaH,e penaxauja 80 aea. H IIlIeTe CTpaHI! uajvecro ce yKpacellR co penje¢u: pUCliHaTIIOT XpUCTOC II HU pellepcOT 60ropoAIIUU OpaIlTU,

Cnenmrr e penoau Ke r-a nOCBeTlIMe an rpyna aayxe-ru IIBjJ!;eHIl aa aaunrre rpatraurra, KOiJ yxaacyaaa'r IlB onpeneneaa CTBJleWKB npnrrauuoc-r HU HIIBHI!Te aexorauiau concr-aenauu. 011 -rapnnmrre Flpnnerr II '{eMpeH (c. 30BIIK) rroTeKIIYaaa'r 6p0H3ellll BMYJIeTIi pe-taca 1I11eHTll'IHII Mety cece. y!JpaOOTeHII ce xa aaory HHCKO y~teTHM'lKO II TeXIIII'lKO HUBO. nOTeKlIYBaaT 0)1 aJHCKIiTe CTerrCKIl npocTpBHcTBa. r1peTcTUBYBaaT riiallU fla Ml1TCKII .xepoc (Hilli waMaH) 1I0CTaBeHa Ila

IS. f. Byjo.,,"·MapjaHoB"" 1977. ~p.lO. 16.·34.39.44.47 (og CTPYMHl.\a. 'lenllroBO npllJlOll1l J!ellloK). WTO ce 'lyB~aT 10 HuponlilioT My~.j 80 E~JlfP";t; 10.-12. BeK

82

83

KOII. BO TpK (en. 6).16 Hanuenn ce Oit6pOH3a 80 BUit Ha ~!aCII!IHa n,10'lKB. )lenyM- 1'10 aacypapaae. co YIUKa HB rcpxuor xpaj. Flpe Syr-apm-e ru )lOlieJle 00; Aaaja BO Ilonac DOIlYHa8je. a co umpea.e-ro lin ApA<aSBTB HB Bopuc II CIIMeOH. Tile crnrHB!leHSOHUWIITeKpllll111TU.He ejBcHO.[l:l.nllHCKorBUIHIITeconCT8eHHllII HBOBlle aayne'ru BO TBprUlIiIITe Flpunen II '-IeMpeH ru eocene KBKO aceac (orpsruepcx o) ooe!leA<je. ana rca ollITe KY_HH1I-MBrllcKII B~!BjJll!II ae WB.\lUHU. Ile-ntpaa-r 01-1 I-IOUHllOT9.1IJ11110. seK

Oil KpajnBTHaTB TSPlllIHa so Jeryuoaue xaj TeTOBO WTO ro AeMHeJIB 3JIe- 30T BO Ilepneucaara xnucypa II rnaSHUOT nUT 011 rtonomre KOH Cxonje. nOTeKHysa6poH3eH BMyneT-ne'lBT(A<ur).1l8eTe lI)1eHTlI'IlIll crpanu Ha neva-ro-r

-ra nporooyrapcxa CPIlOJII!Kll anaaxn 0)1 9. (II 10.) 8eK.19 HaWIlOT uaon npe'rcraayaa HeCOMHeltO enaa -raara. CTaneWKH sener aa onpeaenen 9n:lllea'lKIl xnau.

0)1 rpano-r '{peurve (Llpeurxu) HB Ilonua EperaJIUIIU;B 110TeKHysB Til. jB3- u-te aa 3BopweTOKOT Ha nojace s pe ne». Hanuen e 0.0; OPOH3:l.. CO 'tparu 0)1 rtocpeopYBaa,e HB rcpnera c'rpaua- Bucea uc xpajo'r 011 peMeHOT 311 KOj (':it!!! JaKOSaH CO TpH oaJCapHll KlIHHlIll. Fopaara c-tpaua usra penjeepeu yxpac (cruaaaupaan KpUHOOII:CII_175).

BaK8HTe yxpacnn jB3H'IHlha eune COCTaseH nen HB aBapCKHTe rrBpBJlHI! (c-rane urxa) rrojacn BO Ilaaonaja SO 6.-8. BeK. TeXHII'IKltTe n CTIlIICKliTe

ce GntlCKH co OH1Ie 011 II Karaaar. -r.e. 011 aaapunrarn rpaaa aa

800 ronaaa. On lie YKPBCII rll npurparane coceuxsrre C!lOOeHCKI! oOIljapn 80 pnauo-r 9. oeK.20 TOKMY no C;10MOT aa Aeapcxacr xaraaa'r C!lOOeHI!Te 0)1 MaTII'IHOTO janpo ceaepno 0)1 Flauoauja MOA<ene nas; C!lOOO.'lUO)lB KOMYllulIllpuaT co C,108eHHTe uaeeneua nopauo aa Oa!lKaUOT. Toa e epeae aa rone a.ao'r npanua HB CJIOSeUCKO xacexexue BO OBJIKBHCKIITe npoc'rcpa so 9. aex. nOTBpl1eH co tipojaa Kapan a Me rouuj

liMa ytnxa HB ropHHOT epa'ro't. Ha oHBTpeWHIITe. pa~IHH CTpaHH fla ne-rarcr yr-paanpaua e npercraaa - cpaHTBCTII'IHO )l(HBOTfiO OJ:! 33llCKB MIITO!lOrujB [en. 6)

Ilocera ce n03HaTII HeKO,lKY OaKSl! asryneru-nevam 011 nonpa'tje'ro aa )lpA<BBaTU ua CIiMeOH 1I Cavyan. Cncpea npBHOT BaKOS «aon 0/1, rtpadyrnpcxa'ra npec'r cnuana Flpecn an. O!lOeJle)f(allll ce 80 crpy-nmra !I11TepBTypB KaKO DpecnaBCKIIT1In.17 ru nocene HeCOMHeuo 1I0BHCOKilTe ynpaanu CPYHKl.(flOHepH II CO HllB e-racnyaaxe nevar (H!l1I )l(Hr) nn orrpeneneaa j:!OKYMefiTU II npa'tsn.

On Ileaon-fpan e aj Ilpenoao no'rexxyaa opOH3eu nonyron .... eCT aeryne'r CO a!lKa ua rOpRiIOT kpaj J3 npo-rnynane BpBKa. Flpenaa-ra crpaaa .\ly e pasrxa IJ aa uea e npe'rcraaeuc cpaHTBCTII'IHO lKlJBOTHO OJi aaacxa'ra »arcnoraja. 3a)1HaTa crpana e ccpepuc ucnaxaara 1I na Ilea DO IIIIlITOK penjerp e npercraeen !II1K xa

xepoc ann TOTeM. CTIII111311POH KBKO MBCKS (C!I. 6). Toa e TH TIoTeKHYSB 011 HCTO apes-e KaKO II npe'rxonnn-re ()lOllI/HOT 9. lIJ1n 10.

BeK. a Olin aoce« KBKO CTBneWKII sener. ovarne aao xa HeKoJ 1I0K3.~eH CPYHKUlloHep.

On ropecnoxoramor D,eBOJl-rpB)I KUj nOTeKIlYBa ~! eponaeucra

TOKB aa nojaceu peaea. Bpaaara liMa cneUJ!(plI'IHa cpopMa II ncepaana e npeKY 3rJI06 CO nnovxa-ra-uoca-rcr. Taa e penjerpao yxpaceaa CO cueua aa naa-rpurpca xo] ynuaa npyro A<nBOTHO rron ce6e (KOWYTa; C.'I. 6). Do nOTeKJIO 0.'1 a3l1CK3Ta MIfTOJIOrrrjB. OllpA<aHB 90 Fl epcuja Hill pano'rc cpenaoaexoane. oaaa nar aacx a (lleXpIJCrnjBIICK:l.) C!leHB ycneaaa na ce IIHcpllnTpnpB SO SlllaHTIICKOTO YMeT· I!I!'1K03aHaeT'IIlCTBO H OTTBMY naja npnrpe-rar CJ100e1l1lTe KBKO 6ener HII COOj:!OeTeH aoex [ocpuuepcxu) \1,111 ynpaaea panr. Bo 6BJlKaHCKIITe npocrcpa BaKSH TOKl! ce nojaaane rJlaSHO SO 10. BeK BO epcxa co mupeu-e'ro aa npacasare na CIIMeoH H CaMYIIJI. Crumane 110 KOpUHT Ha jyr_21

Bo aaaa HaUl I! TBP.'lllHlI najneuu ce II OOI!'lHlI TOKI1 aa 1I0jacHI! peMeHII.

KOSIIHIi rnaeuo Oil A<ene30 H co ynpocreua cpopMa. Do rca jacao ce pa3!1HKyBaT 0)1 P33HOBH)lHIITe )lOllllOaHTII'flOI TOKII, yMeTHII'lKI! oonllKYBaHII 0)1 eponaa H!lH cpeopo II nOKpHeHII co YKPBC!:I1l cliMCio!lll'lHIi ne'rana: Tile 511ne uoce au rJIU81l0 KBKO orienezcje ua CTB!leWKaTa. npocpeCI10lia!lHBTB anu eTHIl'IK:lTU npllnBAHOCT HallillTe TOKI! HMBaT Haj<lecro OBanHa 1I!l1l <leTBpTeCT3 anKa. nopeTKO KpY)f{Ha

19. CnopeJl.u n . .!I,oH'Iesa·neTXoBa 1986.165-168. e_n_ 4. EJlHa an~IIKa coce" 6JlllcI<a)la HawaTa.aJlIO. BeK. HajJl.eHae BOClllluCTpa-.!I,pcrp.06jaBeHa caMO BO KnaJlOrOT Ha MpejoTBo CWIUCTpa.

20.Il,. MpKo(lpaA 1980. 78-79,T. 106.3. m e r. 112.2.6. 10. 21.3. B~!ICKH 1974.57-81. T.ll. 10.11.

B. $e.108u 00 uauuca oilpe""u.

Tyxa Ke ncnpe ae HeKOJIKY cnellllcpH'IHlI npenaem 113paoOTeHII.

TaKa.OJlOpoH3B.B KO!I,CJIIl'lHO aa npeTXlIOIlHIITe BMyneTIIYKnA<YBaaTHa aexoja lIoce6HarpYHKlJ,l!jaumICTB,leurKanpnna)1110CTHBHHSHIlTeconCTBeHUIlII. 0)1 KpBjnaTHaTII crpaaca Klj Apas ren onaoy KH'le80 WTO ro uanrnenyaaaa nBTOT II nnaHHHCKIiOT rtpe-um on Kaceatrja-ra KOH nOIl03HTe. rroresuyaa crana opOH3eHB annaxaunja co yrpasupaunas aa-rnrnp HJIltn3SIIL(a (en. 6)_IhIKoTe IIpeTCTaBeH aH cpac. CTB,11l3I1paHO. 1'10 11300HpeJiHO npelltl3110 H One'!aT,lltSO. CnBra DO rpyna-

16_Jb.Uuupoaa 1989.247_257.

I7.B.3aJIocKaja 1980.48-51:. P.Pawea 1988.57-61 18.1. \Valdbaum 1983. 136. pi 51

84

85

ae«). JIOBP3aflil co rrteaero Be.iereaaru (Eep3I1TIl). npaaaexyaa EHu~!aHl!e enxa

VI. 3. 2. 0pYJlCje

Osae yrrpocTeHflcpe)l.HOBeKOBHl1 TOKlIHeI103BO'lYBaaTTHllO_~OIllKO IIJI!!Bpe.\leH' CKO KJlaClHp;n,lJpal-be

)l.03B0J1J1J1YKCY311i1a nocenyaa OOeB!! CeKHplJ KO!! ce 1l0TeCHlIll nonecaa on onae aa uene a,e npaa- Oaae CCKllpH 6uJIe KOpUCTBHI! H all npyrtrre aapojur Oil -roa

11 oaaa rpyna ITpe,[lMeTH suno H3pa60TYBaHa fJJaBHO 0,'1 MeTaJJ. 110 ja ll3g-

Bexe CllOMHaSMe eneu rroua-rok CJ10BeHIl ua rrpeMI!HOT 0,[16. BO 7. aex Toa e CJIY'lKaTa CO 3ap06eHIHe KO!! ua cece HeMaJIe HJfKaKGO opyaqe og)!(eJIeJO.H HllBHa najaaa nexa H ,[IOMa He ro KOPIiCTaT OBOJ ere-ran. Apxeonourxa rnenauo. opyxje-ro BO rae BeKOBII ci:YIllTe6llJIOnpaSeHOHa npeilllCTOPIICKI1 aa'ran.on npeo.xcosapor u» II KOCKa. a geJIOOHTe Oil acerrara onpe aa H coneeara HeTO -raxa

rp060BHTe lIa Cnosena-re -

MalKli on 8.-9. BeK lllTO ce OTKOTJaHII aa Oe1l0TJOHeJ [no Onn anaja. Flarpac. Tupuur IHH.)

OCTaTO~H 0,[1 MeTaJIIIO

61lrre KpeMl!paHll1I BO ypun-re ce uaoraua (JIOKpaj aaropenare KOCKIl) ITO xexoe }f(erre31101l0)!(ell;Kerre3HOOrHIl1l0 KaKO cener aa cre-rycor aa yapeHIIOT. Hcoeaa ara ce MaJlIl II cnyacene aa cexojjmeana yrrc-rpegn Toa He ce rcneau 60jllll IIO)!(eOli If JIll xaen. 1l03HaTli Oil «aj rtpyt-a're

napona on -roa apewe.

Ilypu BO ogMlIHaTHOT 11,'\01(HliOT cpeneu BeK snne acccnno npcaanenyaann H KaJ Hac noronewa 1I0lKOBlI. UlTO MOlKeJle,[lace KOPIlC

Mef y «arucxare (KY.'lT- C1.10 Hun) penjedunr JIJIO'lKIJ Oil BeJJeCTIJHO no Tecan aja (8.-9.

86

cexnpa Oil pan TIm (9_-12. ae x ): BO OpoceK.CTpelKeBO.npH.Ilen, Fie_TJHl(J. s.aj BpaTIICJlaa1(1l kaj AeJ1'leBO (CJI. II. Onaa

BpeMeTO

HU uapoaare

~

<'O~?

,~

~

Konje-ro xaxo c-tannapnuo opyscje sa 061l'lHIfTe BOliHIf onsaj na 1111 e rr0311a TO 0,[1 aaunrre rpenaurra. Konje'to CO nom-a pe'rxa- npen ce e opYlKJe aa xon-ananare. Taxa cane eoopyaceuu If HOMallCKHTenpa6yrapll.lIpeTCTaBeHIIHa rroaeue L(pTe;.J(H lIlTO ce epe acauu BO KaMell so THe seKOBII. Ho. x or a Cnoseunre - lIellla((H CTaHalle rllaBflii 60p6ella CUJIa BO oyrapcxara apMHja. OCHOBHOTO opyacje CTIlHaJlO lIJ.KOT II CTpeJIaTa_ BIl3aHTIICl<IlTe enaraa e,[lIlHIIL\IIIlIJaTaMY 6urre GOopY;KeHIJ r!laBIIO CO xonja (ClI. CJI. 9). Toa KaTerOpH'fHO e Ka;.J(allO aa 1l0311aTaTa 6uTKa « aj I1xTIJMall ao 986 r. aane !lITO Caayun II

87

'{enoneu) Hajgo6Me enea roxe» U MaCIfBeH BpB. M.1JCTOPCKIl MOllenllpUH u co rrO,lHpUHU noapuraae KOJa HOCII rparn OLI repMUHCKO IIpHO 0POHllpUH.e ('1e!JII"IeH.e). Ha ryneucr ce nonejteaenae noaru A<eneJHIt pe5pa.C1'erHUTI! co IlnBUTKUHIl A<e.'1eJHi! 06pu'Ilt. Pecpara IIMaa1' [!OIlBI!TKaHll xpaaurra.jionnure

ce nogauTKaHH uaana'rpe II 511Jle Ja6HeHIl BO upeeuar-a pu-nca. 3U rtorone aa llBPCTIIHU aa uenorc xortje. Fopnure xpanurta ce nonBlt1'Kalil! Holi\BOp, KolKO 5paHltUH aa p;iIa6o'lllHara na y60ilO1'. Co -roa «onjerc ce JJ;OOJIHA:YBa L10 1I0CTapa1'a<j:lopMa aa s onjara "CO «paxna'', HapO.!l1l

Konjero O.!l Flpocex O'lllrne.!lIlO ro 1I0J-len nexoj repMaHCIO! HaeMHIIK. BO 13.-14. BeK {en. 12) BeKe cnOMHaBMe nexa OCHOBH01'O BOOpy"'Y' aarse ua C,10BeHCKItTe aapona ua Oa,lKaHOT HflJ 1{enHOT cpeneu BeK 6ltne naKOT It crpen a-r e. BPBOBH aa crpenu I!CK01.l(IHll 011 aceneao HajlloBMe DO pe'IHCH ce coja 'repnnna BpOOOflTe us+aa'r paJnWlI!ll ¢>OPMlr: Ce'lHJlO1'O 11M e il!!CTeCTO - oaanuo Hill! pOM61!'lHO,

-rpnaromro. CO TeHOK IUH MUCllBeH npecex.

C1. 12. Bpe 09 mellI/CO Zep,"WH- 1I0l!eKOrolW co nO.!lOJDKHO peepc no cpenauara c,,~ ;~L?: ~~!Ot~I;~;~~ ~:ao~e".- Oil nae-re CTpaHIl . Ilony aaapuiyuaa-r 06H'lHO co

Senoeeu De,lwp Kaauja unsneu (TpH) KOJ ce aa61!BUn BO 'rpcka-ra

(HoCn'lOT): noperxo apnoaa-re !!MaaT III1;1HHnpavea rvneu 3U uanenyaaa,e HU TpCKU1'a. Oaae epnoan rl1 rrpnxaacamre BO rene a 5poj Mery IIUO.!lllTe on HaW,ITe rpanuurra (CJl_ 10 II Flpernen, r-rt. VII)

He ce COMHe8aMe nexa aajrone auo-r ne n 0.'1 rtpoaajne au-re BpOODII Oil. crpenn 1l01'eKHYDua1' 0.0; cpenxuor ae«. Ho. IICTI! BaKBIJ q,OpMIl ce nojaayuaa-r H BO anTII'lKO speMe. A HajroneMlloT Bpoj HUWII CpeilHoBeKOBHI! TBPlllIHH 6u,le

88

23.3aBaKBIIHaOIiIl Ha SaJ1KaHoTcn.3. BIIHCKU 1977nS.143_208.

nonurna'ru Bp3 aHTIt'lKIi 0CTUT,,;';il_ 3UTOU sropaae co roneaa npe'rnaa'tnaoc'r aa 36opYBaMe3UTile 1-la0J:l1I KU1W3UCpe.!lHOBeKoBHII.

80 Tau CMIlCiW uanpaauaae OOl!n11 au ce 1I3HUjll1l1' tpopsnrre s ou He 6uJ1e KOPHCTeH!l BO :lH1'l!'1KO apewe. Tas aa e cpOp.IWTU lIPOTfIBOK!lO!lHUTU ctpena. npoaajneua BO pevncn CIITe aauru cpenaoaexoaun KpenOCTI!. BO KOHTeKCTOT co OCTaTOl1llTe o.!lII.-14_ aex. Bo aI!Tl!'lKO ape ee He ru npOtlJBeilYBaile.24 BPllOT e «oaan MaCIIBIIO. BO $opMa xa 113I1o.~:+:eHa ve'rupucrpana rmpaxnna It co TeHOK TpH aa Ha6uBaJ.be BO -rpcxa-ra. AOnA<UHBTU II anrocra My aapupaa'r. THe apOODU -rpeoarro na rn npcduja'r uerrpujarencxnre nrtHLtUp-KOWYJIH npo'ruyaajxn ce II!!J

nnvaase'ra !!m! lIpOOIfSUjKJI rn HaMeJJl!Te

C,1CJ:lIIIIOT eneveur KupaK1'CpIICTI!'!eH aa cpeuuoeexoeuare SPBOBlI aa crpenn e 3aLle5eJ1YllaH,erO xa npe sumo-r on J1J1C1'OT KOII TpH01'. Co Hero SPJlOT rroyoaao e aauapcrysau HI! rpcaa-ra;u npu npO,[1Hp01'BO xerrpuja-te.ncxc'ro renc OOOJMo:+:ysan crpenara n0I111a50KO na uaaaeae. 11 aaere q,OpMII ru 3e11011Me KUKO curypun eJIeMel!TII aa na ruparee xa HlI]U TBP!1I1HII 011 cpennaor ae«

Crpemrre 611ne CMp1'OHOCHO opya]e 6H)\ejKII 'leCTO rlt npe raavxyaane co OTpOB. TaK1I 1111'0 II Mano paHYBIIH,e co HlIO a oceno Hell36eA<fla CMpT. Couyaann ce 6pOJHIl aanucn AeKa CJ10BeIlCKfl1'e HnpO)\H npaaen,e O1'POB ro KOpllCTeJ1e rnaaao pac'rennerc jana-re. nanen (Aconitum napellus). Pacupccrpaue-ro e HI!3 Cpenaa Eapona. II 611ilO KOPIICTeJlO on '{ecu're HI! caeep IlO 6anKaHcKII1'e HapO)\1I aa jyr. JUnU'leTO pacae II HIlJ uena MaKe.nOHllja. OLI aeroenre nncja II KopeHOT ean uenea OTpOB.25

no npa na'r cnytuave 3U nOIlYl!aBCK!lTe CJ10aeHII on «pejor na 6_ aex l1eK.1 KOpUCTeJle BaKOH OTPOOHI! crpenu. EnJ1KaHCKIlTe CnoBeHII Oil Flovopasjero xopucrene aaKBlI crpena npo'ru a KPCTOIIOCL\IlTe OIl 3aurlil. KOI! TyKa noaaaane BO 1172 H 1I0B1'OPHO eo 1189 rOIlIlHU. BItJaHTHCKliOT uap Josaa KOMHIlH yMpen Oil OTPOBI!U crpena Oil HeOHlI,...aHHe. npu nos aa ,[I,IIS11 COlllhl!. a uapo'r JOBaH Kanraxyae« c.1Y'loljHo 1f36erail 011 cwp'r-ra OA aaxaa crpena xaj rpauo'r Bepxja [Bep) DO Maxenoaaja. Bo 1559 r . e 3a05ene:+:aHo !leKa eacenemrerc oxony Sap 00

24. BO',ana:JHaTanuTepaTypa ,,",cenocDeTYBa roneMODH"Mn""e I!Ha one.pBoDu.3a repMaHcKuTe HaonlO ou3.·5.BeKcn. W.Bijhmc 1974. 110-111.Tuf.27.67. 71. 77.9!. III. 132. IJ7 143.3nxYHcK"Te¢opMII:J. K.lmar 1945,283-294

3a 1I01\HOUHTI!'IKI!Te lIaOAII HeCOMlleHO H"jerJaKTHO Il CIlCTeM"TOKH ceOmpa1"IIO e o6pa6oTeHa ykpeneaara lIace_~Oa Kaj Canoaeu So C~nep~l Eyr~pHja. HCTp"",ysaHa on 5yrap~"uT". ascrpuoKuTe II rep,.,aHCKl!Te epxecncau (J.1_ BenKoB. r. Eepcy. P. Erep. J. BepHep) - en. S. Uenze !992. Taf. 40. Nr.45-54. Taf_ 41. Nr. I·.n_ CpeJ1H08eK08HhTe ¢op,,~ lIa noapaxje-ro HaBij3aHTUCl<nTDu .. nepujnllcoce:\HIITe1e .. j"IteCeK.Hcllq,UUUp3HK. O;ut.enH" Hao~u WTO co curvpHoCT ~e ~aTupaHll 80 9.-11. B~K. a KOI! Tunonow~~ ~ Hue rll 11~IIBojYBa .. e 80 OBaa C"ry~U' ja. npUKa>KSIII! ce SO 5pOjHU aaaeurrau -on. J. Wal~baum 1983. 37. PtA (Cap~ec); HCTO II A:

Ba>KapOBa 1966.21·31.cJ1.3a_(napBaH)u~p. 2S.3a OBa K"j K.Jupe~eK 11.1952, 108

89

lJ,PH:l Fopa C~ YWTe ru npe aavxyaane crpennre co saKOS OTPOII

3a ga ce JaWT;tTaT 0)1 CTpe_1!1Te. eJlUTH!lTe egIlHl!l1lt. (j:IeYl1aJl!lltTe II KOIh:lHllllI!TeHOCeJle OKJlo!m.3a5eJle;j(aHoelleKa uapo r BacunujlI 110 1017 LIIO Flenaroxaja ja palOHJI acjcxa-ra aa Joana Bnanucnaa II My JapOOHJI 200 OKJlO[JHIII{II. Bo 1083 r. 110pMaHCKHTe oJ(JIOnH!I!.IH aa jypuur ra aaae.ne rpanoaure Flenarcnuja (DIITO'la). KOCTYP (Kacropua} II TplIJ(aJla.26 Jacao e nexa OKJIOn MO)f(e,1 na noceuyaa caxro fiora'r 1101111 - (j:IeYllaJleu: lUll Hae~(HIfJ( ..::: puuep- Tile. r.raeuo. jaaane na KOIh: oxnomrre oane npuneronena aa jaaas,e Toa ol!J1e ncnr a KO)f(IIU xcuryna na KOJI ollne npmnuenn HeKOJlKY CTOTI!IiIl MeTUJIli1l fllIO'lI(l1 (JlUMeJlII).clIOll<eIlIiKaKOprrOIlIll! xpnyruxaaa na sroace BOUHOT IIU ce I1I1H:+.:l!. Paue-re oll!le 3UWTIlTeHII HUll II 11011 JlaKTIITe co uonru MeTUJlHII nJIO'lKII, nOBp3aHH co urapnap oaony MHWKaTU IIJIIl rJlY)!(IIOT. nOTKOlleHlII.II!Te 6l1JIe 3D.lllTIiTeHI! co cunenun WTIITHHQII Taxoa 61111 a OK,lonOT aa BII3a!lTI!CKIlOT unp Bacannj II (CJl. 9) II aa npyrn're uapeea II BenMO)f(I!, a lIaKIIH OKJIOnll ce rrpe'rcraaeau II xa BOIIHIITe - CSe"I:HTeJIH HaClIlIKalf1i 110 HaWIITe upaaa 0,11 12.-14. BeK (F. Hepeau. OXPH,II. JIecHOIIOJl,llP_)

Fl ope-rxo e npercraaen npyr BII,II rtauuap-uouryna, nne-reun 0,11 )f(ene3HII an'lllf.ba IIJJII on CBIITKaHa 'leJJH'lllB s-aua. Bo nouxucr cpeneu BeK na r-nac 61l,le opyacapa're 0,'1 Beneunja. HO II O,ll.QyOPOBIIHK. On Hilil IInanerennre {I (j:IeY,lla,lIlIITe on Cpollja II DOCHa KynYSD.!Ie 0pYlKJe. a TYJ(a ce laOenell<all1l " CII. i 3. TepN.(lIfCKU _IIe'l 09 _"(1PK(I- nenoeu 011 oxnonu: OKOJIYllpaTl1l!l{1I II paKaBII-

al(l "601l'l/(lK', Il acoy 80 QIl ITJIeTelf1i 011 an-ran-a. no'roa WTIITHIIU:lI aa

EaB(lPcKa9:!t:t~i~.fJ~e~0'l(lIf(.:KO: paue II aa H03e. w~eMOSII 11 Ilp27

tao T.oC171a9!11iOfJCKU) Ha KPBJOT xe ro cnosmeve II HajeJII!T_

HOTO CpellHOlleKOBHO opyxje .. «ever. Ha aaurero nonpavje Haj.!IeH e aacer-a casrc e)leH

26. BKlaHT!lCK" "lDOPIi III. 1966.382

27. K.Jupe',u [1, J952.I08-109

90

Me'!. KOj crtopeu lKIlfOT aa ~:I.:i~Tll,'HJ!u,aTa 61b1 IlPOIl:JIIeil::'1f BO jyacaor epxianCKIlOT rpan Fl acay aa IJ;YlIaB, BO gOUHlIOT 14. BeK.28 Bo KO'laIfCKliOT xpaj nocnean [!,11! ITO na r xa rproanja 1t.~H noaepcjamc rc .l.OHe.1 uexoj H~H!MHIlK co ceoe (<:,1 13).

Bo nOBt:Kt:TO HaWII CpellHoBeKoBHII U.pKBII OJ[ 12.-14. BeK a.neonacaau ce caerurenu II BOIIHlI. eocpyacemr Ka.KO erurra 1I0Kpaj npyroro II co ~Ie'l. Tile ce rtpercraaesu KaKO npaan aevcan co ):IBe OCTpllL\1I 0):1 Sarraana Eapona KIIKO II noaneuu Me'lOBU co enua OCTpnl13 (npe-rxonuuun aa caoju-re) 0)1 cpnearanao nOTeK.'JO.Ollae.ceKaKo.O)lpa3 a a pa3J1Il'lllaTaeTHII'IKa CTpYKTypa aa 1I0HHUTenna'reauuu !{aKO eo BII3BHTllja raxa Il BO Cpriajn. Hajxutory rronarouu ce aanaaeau aa cpncxa-rn aojcxa og IIOI.IHIIOT 13. II 14. BeK IJ OUUejKII II BO -roa apexre aaunrre xpauurra oune aaananeauu 0,11 HIIB. 1l0CO'lYBaMe aa -rpure xa'reropna BOjHHlIll'

D,larOpOIIHI!IlITBO co npIlAPy:..:t':i:l. Tea Olllle rnaaao KOlhaHlIIIII - npoaujapn.ollKoliceKoj oflJl06Bp3aH,rI,allOBelle B060p6a II ITPIlI1PY-'KOIlOlllOKOlhaHJIuer cnvru.

2- Bccpyacenu cenaun u CTO'WPH cn yacene «axc necaa neurannja - CTpeJ!QIl

3- CTpaIfCK!1 llD.eMHII1Ill. 1ln1lTeHII Oil xaca-m lIB annne-rencr. r-a npercraay-

sane najenu'rtnrre enmmua nc npacaaara. 3u6eJ1e)l(3UH ce pa'repare 011 Sanan: 011 Fepxtauuja, Aacrpuja. lll aajuapuja. lll rrauuja. I1TMlljn. Flo-rca Opuearn.cuare

Kyaana. Typuu Cenl,lYUII 11 no HilS OCMaH.'IIIII. Tvps onynn (Typun XPIlC-rujana): JY;KHOPYCKIl TaTapII:

KaBJ(aCKII xpncrujasu AnaH1I1I JUCI[ (,IIeHeWHIIOceTII).29

xaso eener na KOlhaHIfQIfTepunepn II aa (j:IeynaJIQJlTe (Sune TeWKHTe KOlKHIl 'l1l3MH co MaMY311 ("OCTP0rlI")_ MBMY3J1Te ce najneun aa rroaexe MeCTa KUj Hac: SO Ileeon (Ilpeuoac). Fl punen. MOPIIXOBO

~~~~:~:;J'c~:eH::~;" ~:jO!1K::llal~ OP1~'~P:j~}~~';~~~ l;~~~~.~;~J/f. 8eK

TIlII. co HellllH)I(eH umneu o)palllt: 0)1 (Cio fl. i'v/ul7lpe6CKU)

!3. BeK II uaaa ay uaaecrc lIaKOB

uraneu ce wourapene 1l0IlBII)!(IIIIIf:l3-

28. T. KOCT,gUHOBCKU 1995. 227·230. en. [.2. M'jAe~ BO 5peranH!lua Kaj KO'laHII

29. K. Jupe~eK 1[. 1952. 105-106

91

a6eHII rpxanua ("saeJJJ.u"). KOII ce BO ynorpeoan )1eHeC. npllKa:+:BHllTe MaMY311 ~:K)~Jl3apU aerae-r snare 113BlleH nporpan 11 yna'ryaaa-r na npeMIII{OT OIl 12. BO 13.

Bo KOH.CKa cnpe sra cnaruar II yaenrnnre. WTO BIIC3T Oil III1CH CTp31l11 aa celMOTO II BO KOII KOH.aHIIKOT ce norrtnpa co crananara. Tile ce aa Hac. !lCTO raea uenocpeaeu ssarepajaneu ):IOKaJ aa 1l0CTOeH.eTO aa KOH.aI!IfI{IITe 80 aeaoe MeCTO.

c.". 15. rpyuelilla09 (ocmaaa) 09 Cmpesceeo, SumO/la, IIJ60p: gUJtIIHU.

YJellZuu u cexupu: lO.-ll. eex (ao T. JaH{/KUe6clr:u)

Abb. 19.30. 3ar)lnOJtorlljnra)l ~poHonorlljaTa "" 8UKBHre Ma"'YJH llCUpnElO Kaj R. Koch 1982.80.

92

Bo TIIp)lHHaTa r'aoanapucu (Faoanaaun-Crpeaceso xaj Bnrona) IICKOna!la e rpyna npenxte'rn 0)1 aceneac. cxpaenu non ae aja aenrraur no auaaa ra 113pa6oTKa Bo OCTaBaTa (c,1.15) UMa.lO It 18 yaeurtur co ¢opMa. KapaKTepIJCTU'lHa aa aaaaaTl!CKO-HOMailCKI!OT TUIl. ynoTpeOYB3H 80 paHOTO Cpe!IH08eKOBlle 80 Bl133HTuja KaKO II BO cocenanre aapaapcxn JeMju (kaj ABapIITe. g yrapare lIilP·)31

Bo ucra'ra ocraea ce HajAeHII II 2 KOH.CKU y3AIl (aa nuaruxaj.narupaaa BO IrCTO ape sre. Ll,enoBII Oil YJ.IIU ce Haj!IeHH It BO rparvero Ll,aBIIHa xaj YY'Iep 6,11f3Y Ckonje. BO JerYHoBQe. nYKOSIIL\3. Flpocex (UeMUp Kanuja). Flpanen 11TH. yxaacyaa HB nplICYTHOCTa ua KOH.aHIHIIITe ac OBlleTBP)lIlHII

VI. 3. 3. OpyiJuja

Bo uuaa HaWII TBPilliHII ce oTKplleHII paaun opyuaja. koaaun. r-naaao. Oil aceneao. Toa ce npereaarc JeMjO)leJlCKU nJlaTKII WTO 61111e KOBBHlI BO pa60TIIII-

======0 =:::::::;~==:::::':::djllill

HIIQlIre BO Tile 'rapunuu. HO f!Mrt II aJlaTKU HaMeHeTII3n pa3J1H'1l1U 3aHaeTil - JlPBO)lenCKIl. KnMeHOxnecapcaujcoacapcxuxpojavxu II np. Onue rtpenve m IIMBJle 'lUCTO yrumrrnpea xapaxrep II ae nonneruyaaae Ha MOJl,aTa. sarca ¢opMIITe He lute ce MeHYB3.~e II J3 Hac rite HeMa:)'T runonourxa BpeJl,HOCT. Saroa ae sra na r-a KOMeHTupaMe HR!lHaT1!. ¢op~la He e kapaa-repllCTII'iHa caao aa cpermnor aex.

Mefy an3TKUTe I(e cnoernesoe casrc enao aano nnerc IIJlIl ayMoa xoja. cena«. UMa rOJleMO

3Ha'1eH.e aa Hac. Deoj npenver

He e nOJHUT BO aHTII'IKO epe ae (n. l6. rpya(1 )l(e.'1eJIUI II.IIaUiKU 09 Ilpocex TYKY casro 80 Cpe!IHIIOT BeK. (eapollwm). 12.-l4. Bt!K (rio H. 'laycu9UC)

Orepaeu e aa ronea 6poj lIaWII rpanaurru. Flopaun roa fa

31. T. JaHaKueBcKH 1980. 103109. npnnOCTaByaa JleKa C. Toa aBapCKU y3eHr~ll ou 7. Be~. ro ~CTaKHV"Q'" .'ttlcMooerO HaJ. BepHop. BOAC'tKt10TCBeT<Kt1 OBTOPHteT ttoOB~e npaw",,"a.~e,,~ noreKH}'BUaT OA 10-11. "eK. HURIIQT" npoAYKl.\ujn"O TapUHuaTa"O Crpe;t;eao ce cOBlIar, co 05HOBaraHapyuopCTROTO'OTojperltO"BO 11-12. su

93

xcpucreaae KBKO enen 011 ).10KB3UTe 3<1 Cpe!\HOBeKOBHHOT

nOKBIII!TeTI!. Hcjnemr ce BO JIewOK. Opaure II Jeryuoaue KBj TCTOBo. II .QUI.IHfla xaj Cxonje. Fpanaurre II Ka aapeao xaj KYMBHOBO. JIYKOBlJlla·1! '{peurve (Llpeurx a) aa Eperanunua. 1.10 Flpocex. Flpnn en. JKc,le3HellHTH. (en.en. 16)

Oune nnera !lMaJIe IlpaeHIl pavxn. fluouefill BO .l.1o.fI)[(eTBTB na ropnnor xpaj. Tpu-re aanxnn;a HU,!lOnHUTUCTpUHII I1Mu.'1eO'lnrneilH03BIIB'la.co nOMOW na IlPIITlICOK IInH ynap . .'lu ce 3a6HjaT BO 1l0MeKtI aa-repuja (1(O)[(a. ztpao. rnaua") II lIa OCTaSUT paauoaepxu 'rpara (y60';1)1-l1yn'lllH.a. 6pa3)l.lI'lKIl unn napanemm )[(,le601l1l). He lHaeMe ce YWTe WTO TO'lHO e paeoreuo co TOj !!HCTpYMeHT.

srcneru cnne BKyllHO HB]lIeHf) II KOl! anane'rena Ce3JCTaneHn HB HUB.

nenoa ce unoraaa fnBBHO ncxpaj (ann 110 enumac Ha) rnaaunre naruurra 011 rca apesse. CUT<: ce aaxorraan BO epe xe ua pacnano'r Ha BII3aHTIlcKan aarrepnja )j 1'10 rO.iIUJHITe aennaur no -rca. Toa e apesre aora BO ununrre xpnuurta ijoarnne eojcxnre 0,[1 Byr-apujn. Enup. JIaTuHcKo ConYHcKO uapcrao. 011 HIIKeja. Cp6nja. rIPRKTII'IllO cu-re BOjCKII noeneane sexoja CYMa napa. oeJ ornen aa xoja I1p:.KaBa ecjyeane II so «oja xnaca 1[,111 pen npunaran

onp<:i\eJ1JIIlOTBOJHIlK

VI. 4. MOH.eii1u.

CnOMlH1TllTe necernun anjann .'IOH<:TII cxpueuu Ha nO'leTOKOT 0).113. BeK npe-rct-aayaaar anoeuu co Mana IIpeD,HOCT. EpOH3eHltTe CKIlO:PUTIl Oil BpeMeTO HU KOMHeHIITe cojtpaca'r HeKOJlKY npouex'nr cpecpc BO ceee: TOll ce T.H. 61V10H - -rpaxen KOIt 6IJJle oc06eHO neue-ru. Bexe BO BpeMeTO HB Anremrre (I 185-1204 r.) OBlIe 'rp axeu ce cevar OD, 06JI'IH~ GaKBpHa n axapaaa. no pacnano-r Ha J.-IMl1epIlJaTa. noeexe 011 nOJIOBIlHU BeK ce sonar puaancxu're Gop6n osony nenceure HU UapCTl.lOTO II !lCTO TonKY ,[IOHrO ce eoaaar eaxapuu IIMIlTallHlI xa -rpaxeare 011 apeve ro HU Koaaeaure. Fu KOBaJle anaae-remrre BO Byrapu]a. Ermp. Conyu. Llaparpan, ilyplIll BO llyOpOBHIlK \I Beaeunja. Bas an llH¢!laTOpHII 6aKapHll nap-tame xoaane IIJIacKapll/1IITe 110 Haxeja..e -rae ce CMeTaJIece6e~)13a aacnennnun aa roneMIIOT BH3aHT.

CI!Te rue UMHTaUIIII O.'{ BpeMeTo noaery 1204 II 1261 r. JlII'IaT veey ceoe IJ.0 TOj crenea WTO rroaekoraur e HeD03MO;.J{Ho.'{a ce pa3.J1I1KYDauT. rO.JIeM1I1H1TlI 11M e MHory no aana 011 'rpnxeare OIl \2. Be1<. ce qeua ce coce« uenpauanuo II lKllfOCaH.1I ce Kpa]HO lleBI!I!MaT(":.JIHO. -rnxa UITO rone st nen 011 lIaJ,[IeHHTe rrUp'lf!Ib!l no anunrre neueuiau HOpMf! on npe-rc-raayaane o-mancx. Cene«. ca-re rue napu-rKll npe rcraaysane lIeHeTO nnare aao CpeilCTBO BO 13. B<:K. apene'ro HCnO.JIlleTO co sojllll.rrycToWelbalt eena

Ha 1<PUjOT. oc-rauynn na ra HaBeileM Jl MeCTUTa aaue urro ce lIaj,!l<:HH cnoaua-rn-re uertoa.jtaxo care-me fie CToJaTBO)lUpeKTHu epcsa CO HaWIITerpaIloBIiII -rapnaau. Hajstsrory cxpaenn napu ce npoaajneau noxpaj ErHullBCKIIOT nar. Ke

Hanpen (rn.IV.2) 350PYI.IUI.IMe aa noue'rousrre ua yrrcrpeoa na napure KaKO rtna-reaoro Cpe,[lCTBO BO TeKOT aa II. BeK. 011 enaa CTpllHU. 'roe ce B1I3allTIlCKllTe 5aKapll1l rponecn 0.11 Til. aHOHIIMHa cepaja. 3aCTaneHH xaj Hac rnaano 011. BpeMeTO HU Bacanej II H 011 70-80-Te ronnna aa II. BeK.32 On apyr-a crpaua. ce lloJasYBaaTIIBII3ilHTUCKlIcpe5peIlHrraplI.fnal.lflOrrOCpeI1HH1.\Talla 11. nexOaae ape aeucxa nepaona KBKO H OrpaHH'IeHIIOT 6poj HU CIlTe MOHeTllllaj,[leHII Kaj HBC HBBellYBaaT lIa laKJlY'lOK neca napaae nr nccenyaane HaeMHIIl(IlTe BO B!13aHTIICKaTa aojcxa II fH coxpgrte BO MHrOBIlTe Ha KpH3aTa.

Bo Te1<OT H.1 \2. BeK nnpn-rauor CIICTeM Ha nnaxaa.e ¢aTII.JI WHPOK aaaaa H xaj Hac. KII1<O OApa3 IlUn!laOOKU o:peYI1BJlfl3aUlija II ¢lIcKanHaTa rrOnI!T!!KB xcja lIaJ10)KYBaJla nnaKalbe BO rrapa. aacrecro BO aarvpa. DBII e rrcrapneuo CO GpojHII HaOllH ua CBTHII 6pOH3eHII artoean. auorann e.E{IIHe'lIlO aa Hilla aaceaeu H HeKpOrrOJlII on 'rca ope Me, na II DO HaW!!Te TDPI1IlH!!. Cene«. 12. BeK e MapKaHTeH rroH1l3UrO!leMllOcTaoll(ilenou)HnoaKDllnapH. 'lHj BKynene5pojll3HeCYBarroBeKe

nece-rnaa xnjana rtapvan,a

HajrO.JIeMIlOT 5poj aa ceae nenca 0115ene;.J{aH e npexnauaapac DO CTpY'IHIITe f!lBCIIJ1a.33 Ileranna xay'ma oopa(5oTKa ce YWTe uessa , He e rr03HaT Hll TO'lHMOT 6poj lin aajneunre rrapa. TyKy cnao na OAilenHllTe rpynn _ TonKY KonKY WTO MY3eUTe ycnearre ,[IU onaeaar (lIaj'leCTO npncunno) Oil IIUOra'lIlTe:

OCTaTOKOT e paCTypeH Mery KOJleKU:lIOllepUTe 1IJ111 DO TproBHjan. oel eDHl1eHI{II- 32. B. HBaHHweBHK U J. KOH~ujaHoB 1994. 8~-j()2. ce 06unon ~a ra c06ep'T CHTe BaKBH H"O~U OA HaW~TO nOApa~je. lllTO 80 COne" neneH JIM ycneaJIo (67 MOHeT~). CenaK. Hilla H3111f! :=::~ He UM Qune nOJHaTU. KaKo HII JlCTopUCKaTO" eKOHoMcKara a!lAHUHa"a HUBHOTO nojaoy_

33. 3a opl!eHTaUHja ie HaBeAe"e HeKOIIKY "O~Ha4ajIlU HlBeWTau: Ii. A,HKCOBa 1955.

17-22: - HCTa,.,. ec A. K~paMuT~"eB. 1968 (Kara.,0r): - A. Kepa"UT~~e" 1968. 19-9·206: _ K KenecKI! 1978. IS9-187:-ll.PaJMocKa 1983.83·108H 1987.221-236

r-a npocaeanae MeCTaTU OIlllCT01< KOH aanan

_ JKUBOjllO. 24 K'ol jyrOIlCTO'lHO 011 Burcxa (II 3 KM OIl !leHeWHUTa rpanana co

rpUIIJa): uajueauce Lnencc. CIITe 011 12. BeK

_ DIITO.JIa. xaj HOBaTa 150JlIIlIl{a. BO 1970 r. npaepauu ce aa Mysejo-r BO Burona 1257 -rpaxeu 0)1 12. aex. - Bo Bane« Banapa acsonairc e rpae co 60 rpaxeu 011 IICTOTO apesre

_ PaMHa. 13 KM aartanao 011 Etrrona: BO 1975 r. aaopaua ce 9 - 10.000 rpaxeu 011

12. BeK (BO MY3ejoT 1.10 511To.Qa. 1<aKO U IIpe~xo,[lHI!Te)

_ Concrcxc xaj Pecen: npexy 5.000 +paxeu 011 12. ae«. Bo MY3enTe DO Oxpun u Cxonje

94

95

- BelleCTOOO «aj Oxpun: 00 1953 f. aa MyJejOT BO OXPlIil npacpasn ce 634 TpB-

xea.f z.eex

Ilpyrn're uenoa ce aaorane xpaj npyru naruurra.

- KOH.CKO. HB aenanauo'r 6per lIa Flpecrtancxo Eaepo: 660 rpaxeu 0)1 12. 8eK. IICKOllaHlt 80 1950 r. (80 Myaejo'r 80 Oxpnn).

HOBOCen1l1l1l. 10 XM ceaepcannanuo Oil Flpunen xpaj n a-rc-r 311 SpOil-KlI'leso-OXpllil: 00 1958 f. ce IIcxonDHII 232 rpaxen 0)112. sex. J1Ixny'lHO co HeKonKY neruacxn II III1KejcKIl IIMIITBI.\III1 no 1204 r.

- UOilHO KOItoBPI! na n'lIlIt.D. 22 K~! jyrOIlCTO'UIO Oil Cxonje: 2.000 rpaxeu Oil il0I.\IIIIOT 11. II 12. ae« npacpaun ra Myaejo-r BO Cxonje. YWTe enno neno O!l npexy 1.000 rrap-nnea nonyneua an orayn na Apxeonourxno-r Myaej 00 Cxonje.

Oil HCTO ape Me.

- JIelllOK.7 KM ceaepso on Te rcao: 300 'rpaxeu Oil 12. BeK. IICKOllaHII BO 1953 f.

- CI!Pll'lI!HO. 9 KM HCTO'!HO 0):1 Teroao: JD My3ejOT BO Cxonje orxynenu ce 192

'rpaxeac cu 12. ee«.

- fOCTIIBap: 80 1955 f. HCKonaHII ce 2.430 'rpaxen (80 Myaejo'r 90 Cxonje )

KaKO enune qnu 1l1l0.o.H 110 aauns-re rpanoaa II TBPll(fHH HajMHory ce nojaayallaTnaTIIIlCKI! II 6yrapcKI! »aurauau aa KOMlieHCKI!Te 'rpaxea KoaaHII 0111204 ):101261 r. no flll8 C.IIellYBaaT i'oiaJly6pojHHTe HaOAH aa CKl1q,aTH na osenneercrc Baaaaracxc 1I0PCT80. Sacrancnu ce rJlaBHO Mnxajno VII. AllllpOllllK II II III naJleOJl0311. Bo ronmnrre 1230-34 Baaarrrnja 6(frra nenocno IICTIlCllaTO 0)1 OBa rtonpavje OA crpana aa Cp61:1Te. CpnCKIITe MOlleT]] ce Ge3 IICKnY'lOK cpespeaa : rpoureaa It IIIIHapll ce T10jaaYBaaT OOIl'IHO aaenao co aeueuajancxrrre rporueen (aaranana) Oil !lCTO ape Me. Sacranenn ce ClITe snajte'remr nO'lHyBajKll 011 Ilparyrau II MlIrryTltlt 110 BorrKaWIHI II MapKO: BO !10U;HlIOT 14. BeK xoeane napn If JlOKaJlIIHTe q,eYila.11111 Ita OBa nonpaqje. necrrorure On aaep. JOBaH Ilperaur. Annpeaur. !lOTOa :.r:ynalioT Auapea I'porra-vrocncnan Oxpana". xaxo II rpajto-r Cxonje f r Cxonrrje")

CP!lCKllcpe('lpeHllnapI:IKaKOeIlIlHe'lHllllaOllHpen!CTpl!paHIICe rnasno ao P}'IIHH'lKllTe TSPIIIIIIII: MOllpIIWTe. Bennua II UeBII'I. 90 Flcpevje. '{eMpell II lKH90jll0 xuj SIITona. Flpccex ua Bapnap. Ilfonyp xaj Paaoauur. '{peur-re II JIYKOBHlIB ua Bpernnuaua. CpOllHOIiO (TpIiOBO) xaj fOCTHBap. no-rca ao 'rapnuHIITelllT!I!l.KII'teao.Oxpl1l1!!T1I.

rr03HaTlII111 ce I! zu nenca 113. cpeopena napa- CKpHeH1l110J13eMja rnuauo

96

BO roumorre xora Cp6uja ja ncrucayaana B1I3aHTlija 0)1, JanB;J,HItTe perucnu aa Maxertouuja (1281182 r.) 11 no Mapnvka'ra 6uTKa (1371 r.). )10 -rvpcaara OKynauuja ua Makenounja (1385-1392 r.). Ke ru Ha5poltMe 11 'rue lIenoa;34

- Cxortje. Crapa vapurnja. 1972 r.: oa rroroaesro neno aa ~ly3ejoT aa Maxenotruja orxyneun ce caste lIeKorrKY nap'lll».a. 33.Krry'lHO CO Bonxauurx H KHe3 Flaaap (611:la cxpue aa DO 139112 r.).

- Ilpaseao xaj Cxonje: 10 cpncxu 1\ 2 aeaeunjcucen napu. 14. BeK. c'rxvnetra aa Myaejo'r aa Maxenoauja BO Cxonje.

- turnn. Ha HcapoT: ! 1 napn xa uapo'r UywaH (Myaejo-r DO Ill-ran).

- Iloopourre xaj Te'rosc. 1953 r.: cnn co 782 eexeunjnucxu. 6 eyrcpcxu. 4 xpaarc-

K"I!!! 26j cpncxu napu CKpneHI! cxony 1311 f. {ao Myaejor DO Benrpan)

- Ipaneu xnj fOCTI1Bap.1974 r.: 4.300 aeneunjaucxu II 225 CP!lCKI! rtapn.xxpneun 110128112 r. (BO Myaejo-r HO Benrpan).

- fOCTlIBap. 1925 r.: ronexro ueno co aeueunjaucsn II cpncau napa, pacrypeao

- OXP!!):I: I neno DO LlpKDaTflCB jaHcKll1l6 cpncxa napa. 33KnY'tHO CO A - II neno itajneuo DO upxaa'ta CD. Corpuja: rpne co Itl cpncxu napa. JaK.lIY'lH0)10 1372 r

- III nerro. aajneuo BO Bapouro'r: rpxe co 102 cpncxu II 8 aeneunjaacxu napa JaKJly'lHO co Mapxo 11 Fpona. no 1378 r. CItTe so Myaejo'r DO OXPItiJ

- Flpanen (Illa-ropoa KaMeH). 1950 r.: rpae co 25 napa aaxnyvac co Bonxaurau CKp"eHO no 1371 r

- Cenue «aj Flpnnen: 17 cpncxu napa. no KHes Jlaaap. OKOJ1Y 1371 r

- Kpaaor-aurramr xaj Flprtnen. 1969 r. lIaj.a.eHU DO eJlell rpoe: 340 napu Ita Ilyuran

(KpymlJ10eHII) H lIeKo.'lKY aeueunjaaccu (00 My:JejOT so Cxcrtje).

MaHaCTHp so Mopuoac: 20 CprtCKII. ilO Bonxaurun (1371 r.). Myaejo'r BO Flpnnen

_ Boroauna. Ila na-ro-r OA Flpnnen aa Benec. 1930 r.: 30 cprrcxa napa. cxpaetrn lIO 13jOr. (BO Myaejcr 110 Ben rpan}.

- TIITOB Bence. 1938 r. (BO Myaejor 110 Bern-pan)

- CTOOll. 1939, 110 elleH rpoe so Ceaepuara 6a311J1l!Ka: 90 cpncx a a seneuajauc-

KH napano 1371 r. (110 MY3ejOT DO Benrpnn).

_ Ile aap Kanaja. 1952154 r.: 16 cpncxu napu. 14. aex (BO MY3ejoT so Cs.onje ).

34. o.AJIeKOOBa 1955.17-22;-C.il""'lTp"jeB"" 1981

97

Snavea.e-ro aa MOHeTIITe UlTO ce aajne nn BO xaunrre rpanonu 11 TBP,!!Hllll He rpeca rtoceouo sa rOIlCTaKHYBa_'>le_ HHBHOTO npucycrno tta e,!!HO BaKBO MeCTO e xajcnr ypxuo-r II najnpenaamror !lOKa] Ja Cpe!lIlOBeKOB!ll(OT xapax'rep !la JIOKaJUlTeTOT II HerOBOTO apezae. MOHeTIITe yaaacyeaar II aa onpeue.nenx non a-

vaory nonnspoxn II CJIOJKeHU crpy'raa npoeJleMaTIIK(L Hue TYKa cuero nares, ra cnoxnraawe HaO)I)lTe IIITO ce I!HTepeCHH H ce BO rpyuxuaja na rraura-ra rewa

V[. 5. Kepa..II.UKU

Bo cnopenca co apXeOJIOllJK(lTe npenne-ra !npa60TeHH on MeTaJI.

KepaMH'fHI!Te HaO!\ll cexoraur ce aecnopeunxso noopojna. Ha ceaoj apxeonoutKII !iOKaJIIlTeT, novxyaajxa O,LIl1eOJIIITCKO apeese no 110Sll0T sex. ce naora (130-

lle!iYBaH,eHaJIOKaJIIITeTOT

Toa Ba;K1f If 3<1 cpenaaor BeK_ B.o aa-ruvxa-ra xepavaxa 0)1 aaunrre naoranunrra aa. cpenHOBeKOBHaTa e uenpoy-rena. Kaj Hac nocrojar rrOMaJlII npaxaaa casro aa aeKOII KaTerOp!UI nyxcyma xepaeraxa. Oaaa ca'ryaunja e ancypnxa. aKO ro

HCTO'lHa Eapona xane llITO arrjannauu-re CpellHOBeKOBHH acoranaurr a ce cnpeueneua rnuauo - IlJIH

IlCKJIY'fIIBO - co noaour sra KepaMIlKUTa.

Flopauu THe npa'mna He ce 1l0TllHpUMe Bp3 cpennoaexoaaa-ra xepasaaxa npa onaco-r aa TBp)1llHIlTe. CaMO Ha'1eCTl CllOMHYBaMe HeKOII cneuacavua KepaMJI'IKll xare ropnn. KOII ce anCOJlYTHO cnrypnn KaKO gOKa3 aa cpeuHOBeKOBHlIOT xapaarep aa COOJl:SeTHaTa aaum TBP):1HHl. Bo sraraaoumare penoaa H;e 06HJ:(eMe BO HajKYCIl MO)KHII llPTII lIa nonpeae HeKOH Oil najranI!'IHIiTe CpeIlHOBeKOBHI! KepaMII'fKl! xareropun «aj Hac

98

A. BIIJUmUUClw lJlelOCUIlU ipu'wpuju.

Onaa rrYKCYJHR rprteaua rpuvapuja npercraaynana llaJBllCOKU xnaca BO KepaMWIKOTO I1pOlf3BO)1CTSO 0)19. 110 14. BeK BO Buaarrruja 11 BO cocemurre aeaju, exn y-rysajxu ja Il MaKe,!!OHHja. KaJ Hac rtojaayaa Mo;;.::e61l EO 110UHilOT 11. a curypnc BO .12_ BeK_ Bpaana e aa nor-onexnrre naceneu (r-panona] xane llM3,lO 60raTIl nyf-e KOf! 61!rre BO MO;;'::HOCT naja «ynar- 011 oaaa xa-rer-opuja KaJ Hac ce OTKpl!eHlJ rJIaBHO caao O:JIa60K!! 'I!!HlIn. yxpaceuu 0):1 aaa'rpe uraara crpana co CJI{!KaH,e. BO T.H. crparpwro TeXH!!Ka. HCTa e cn-ryauaja'r a II BO cocennare 3eMJII' BO Byr-apuja. Cp6HjU, Fpunja, aa Janpau ~! II. Bo TeKOT na crparparo TeXHIIKaTa ce paurapuna cn Buaaa-ruja

en

cn.144. neCHO. co TeHKll Ii cllrypllM 1l0Te311.Bo 13. BeK JIl!HHHTe cTaHYBaaT ce noiu apoxn. a nOTe31lTe nerpaaoiuau. Ilae-re OCHOSHII 6011. 3eJIeHa II xacpeaaara. ce aallecy-

99

CpellHOBeKOBeH CJlOBeHCIO! cncj. Llpenuure uaaar cocev ynpocreu a ¢opMa eoja fie ce erexyaana 0'1 pauuor cpenen Bel<!10 nerrec. Suroa Tile ae staa'r xponononr, Ka_TYKycaMO xvnrypaa apenaocr

14. BeK npak'rwvxo H HeMa yaeaeau BH3aHTllCKI! CO-II0B!!: CUTe npoaaacnn ce

r: rpaiJeJfl;H.{! KepU.lf-UKU.

b . .opyiu 8U;JalliUUCI>u «aiueiopuu,

Bo HeKOIl HalllH rpanoeu II TBP,llHHH acxcnaun ce lJOKPlIBHH Kepa~JHIlH KOI] ce paamtxyaaa'r 0)1 aHTIl'IK1ITe. Ilopana -roa axraa-r aa IH1C carypua TlillOJl0111Ka a xpoacnourxa epennccr. UOJleKa UHTWIKl.lTe -rerynn 611'--Ie

COOIlBeTHa aa peaen,e Bp3 no cpnaaa'ra npeena KOHCTpYKlIllja

xepaaana're 0)1 cpenana'ra H 0Jl xpajo-t na CpeIlHTIOTBeK 511rre neneau co sranrep rra canauara nOAnora(CE0I10T, xyrto.na-ta)

!!3lJeIleHH COT(lMnOHH. BO CT!!JlOT aa MpaMOpHpaH..e. Oil Flpocex (Ilexmp Kanaja) II Flpxnen rro'rexayaaa-r HeKOJIKY Call0BH yxpaceua co eurcoa (6err rnanen npenna}, Bp3 xoja e cnuxaao CO rrocaa (MaT) upsena Scja HaJ'-leCT e Mpe)!(eCTIIOT MOTliB. aaaecea rra ropmrre nerroau ua aM¢opIlTe. CTOM-

B. Kyena ip"'lapuja.

Osaa xareropaja e uanexy aajcpojna nja ccexaeave aa cesoj JIOKaJIITTeT Hajvec-ta ¢OpMH KOII' ce cpexaaaa'r OrHllWHII rpnaa,a co IlJIII oea pa axa. JIOHlIIITe 11 IlJIa60KIITe 'UIHIIII_ 011 aM6ana)!(HITTe caJ\OBIl llaj'leCTll ce Man are awpopll. 3a acan. oaae ¢OpMU He ce 05pa60TeHII TunOilOWKIl II CTaTHCTIT'lKlI,

Ilpocex (JJ;eMl1p Karmja) 11 BO HeKOIl npyrn accr-a Hue ru 3eMaMe KaKO ene x Oil OCHOHHllTe eJleMeHTH 311 na-rapan,e na rpenen-re aa KOli liM npanaran e. ITa U aa L\eiHlOT CTaH5eH cnoj. Kepaaunnre 011 0)30- apeae ce O)lJlIlKYBaaT CO CJIeguoTO:

IlMaO-T npaeoaronua 5ilaro IUBHeHa aaaaa'rpe 11 MHory ce rrOMaJII1 011

aHTW1KHTe rervna

SHaTpeWHaTa crpaua IIMaaT )!(i1e60BI:! aa nonoepo

011 aexonxy i10KaJlliTeTII Kaile urro ce nojaayaaa-r uo M,1J111 JaTBOpeHII 1<0llTeKCTll (MaTKa «aj Ckortje. Koss yx kaj KYMaHOBO: 14. BeK). Ha rOpHIIOT rpau 110 Cxonje , I10KpaJ KpY)!(HaTa ceaeponc-roqua xyna. I1CKOIlaHIl ce nap-nra,a 011 uajcrapnre

saxau srouua-rpaan,a. ncrapaaa cnopen cpenaoneportcxu-re aaona 143)

Bo oaaa xureropuja cncraa-r II npermm-a (I10)1HIIlIll) aa nevea,e ne6.37 Ce rrojaayaaar ca-re BO cnOBeHCKaTa MaTepIljarrHs s yrrrypa. ilOJleKa UHTl!'IKUTe Hap- 0!1H npen HIIB ua aausa-ra rtoxaa He r-a xopncrene. Sa-rca rII CITOMllysaMe aa cexoe rpa/llllliTe Ka,lle WToce eBU,lIeHTllpaHII. l<aKO C!!fypeHIIOKaJ 3a rrOCToe!±.eTO fla

tpopwapaa-r KapaKTepllCTII'IHa pu'eca OKOilY «epaaanara. Ha CpeIlIlHS OIl nOJIeTO C04IlpCTH(rrOAou,J-wc03,naHca~lOc02)ce rrOBJIeKYBaJle OIl rope HailOJlY,lIna60-

nponapaa.e-ro HJ 1l0A{JlOT HI13 COCTaBOT Mery nae, cccraaa're 611"~e rrOKJ10rrYBaHH CO TeCHIl aaaaena KepaMH;:1IT-HM6peKcIL Tne He ce na-me aasueun KaKO aHTI1'fKIlTe, TYKy ce rtpexpnrena aa Cpel1I1HaTa, CO acrraxnar pa6 1I0 )10Ji)KIIHa

100

101

i1MopeKCf!Te ce Haj;reHIl BO MHory !I0MU!I Spoj U Oil perote nexa He eane cexoraur KOpI!CTeH!!.

Bo TeKOT aa cneuatrre BeKOBH s epasraaare Oil T.H. KOMHeHcKU TlIIl npe'rpnene Ja6e!le.a-:HTeJ1H!! U3MeHIl. Ha rpancure 0J114. BeK Tile ce ;fHory rtoronetau BO cnopenea co oaae on

npOJ\OJI.a-:YBa!! H!!] TypCKI!OT trepnojt. Ouee J(epa.I.1Il)1I1, CJlO)!(YBUHII BO penoaa H,IIBMeHH'JHOCSpTeHI! co KPI!BI!HJ.Ta HJ.!lO,lY I! Hp3 HIlHCO KplI131lHaTa aarope. Ke !IPO):lOJDIGlT npesy TypCKOT0)10 nama-re ape.auu,a. cuero co I!J.Ma.TTeH!1 !I!!Me1!31!11 IT 6e3lTOpJ.HeUIHHTe lKJIe60Bl! na ncornera crpaua

102

<pOTO[PA<pI1I1

VII. IIPEf.ijEII HA YKPEIIEHIITE MECTA

011 CPEIIHIIOT BEK BO PEIIYIiJIIIKA MAKEIIOHliJA

YKpClICHIlTC MCCTa (r-panonn-re. rupnamrre 1I 35erOBHTe) ce I1pIlKa)!(BrrH HB npll,10)KCHHTC TlJIBHOBII, npocneue aa co COO,llSCTCH TeKeT. TeKCTOT e KOHL\lnCH. 6C3 HenOTpeOHH Olll1CHU 1I TCXHWlKIl IICTaJIIl. H3HCCCBlI ce cawo najocHOBHIITe lIHCPOpMal\IIH aa cexoe MeCTO, aa na MO)KC <jIlTaTCJlOT !Ill noeae OCHOBHa npeTCTBBa_ OOI1BTOl(IITe ce CJlO)!(CHlI110 CJ1CAHHOTPC,t(ocnc!I:

1. H.w!. Hasenexo e IlMeTO na neueuiao-ro Haj6JlIICKO HaCCJlCHO MeCTO 110 zoe ce uaora CpellHOBcKOBHaTa «penocr. OOKpaJ OBHe Mena naaeneua e II OlllllTIIHBTa ua '!IIJa TCPIlToplIJa ce aaora. Ol1lllTIIHHTe ce HaBCI1CHI! no a36Y'lCH Ha TOj rra-mn '1I1TBTCJlOT ICC MO)!(C najnecuo na ro uajne oapauoro MeCTO.

OI1WT!lHB npercruayaa rrpax'ra-txo Cr:(CH CTOITaHCKH H ynpaaea MHKpOper110H, enaa cpenHOBCKOBHil acyna KOJa assana eJllPIHO cpenaurre II BO CpCnHilOT

ce o'ncpnaaa" HBTepeH. Flo pana TOB \I ne-r-re uexeuma

CKonCKIl onurrana rII noapaaaee BO enna CAllHUL\a, CKOlljC.

Bo rrpoI10Jl)!{eHIICTO HB ,lIIOHelllHOTO llMe anaene no e CpellHOBeKOBHOTO liMe HU MeCTOTO (nOKOJlKY e 3u6eJle)!{UHO. BO rp-txa IT CJlOBeHCKa 4l0pMa) II HerOBIIOT xapaxrep: KaCTpOH, 4lPYPHOH. CTpU)Ka IIJJII el1HOCTUBHO co CTapOCJ10SeHCKB03HBKa"rpai\".

2. JIuiiiepaiiiypa. OCll~H MaJ1!!OT 6poj llCK.~)"IOIlIl. pe-taca cu-re

npuxaacamr ececra ce 0116eJle:KaHl1 BO CTpy'lIlI1T~ rnacana. 3a 1l0MaJlllOT nen 011

I1YBaMe caac OCHOBHUTe nena. OIlHOCIW onue BO KOI! 'lIiTaTe!10T MOlKe lIa r a Hallie

129

nOCO'leU1tTe UH¢opMaU;UIl aa rpeneure. ,[ISI.!:KRl1Te HlIOn,1l U np .• KaKO U rtorpe iuau-re HaBOn,u urro Hue -ryxa ru nOOUBaMe. nO,[lHBCJIOSOT ro cxparnasre So paadapxuaa xpareuxa "1IIIT".

3. Mf!ciiioiioJ1uJlC6u. llaJl,eHII ce OCHOSHI!Te xoopuuaa rn aa ce e oj noaanu're'r: uercaara cnaaneveuocr oa neueuraoro HajonltcKo naceneao MeCTO (vae liMe CTOII BO HacnOBOT). KaKO U 011 npyrnre MapKaHTHI! TO'lKlt [pexa. none. IlJIaHHRa. rrar). KpeltOCTI!Te ce nocraaeuu aajuecro xa nexoja altCO'lIlHKa vuja pena-ruana l:IItCItHa e 1!CKa"'aHa rpmyeajxa 011 Hej311HOTO nonxoaqe. a nosexoraur \I 0.0. 1l0WlfpOK3Ta OKOJIllHa. Harnaceaa e II noepmnocra co aexoj Sa:.KeH nar- WTO apeen rtoxpaj noxamrrero'r 1!J1H 6mny ,[10 nero. no-roa co CTapI!Te PY,[lHlIl(1I II npyrsrre CTOn1lHCKH peaapn (AOKOJIKY nocroene). 11 KOU ollne excnnoa'ntpauu 0,[1 lKltTenHTe xa MeCTOTo BO MHHaTOTO

4. Hajcwapu ocwaiuollu. Bo IIpeTXO,'lHUTe rtor-naaaja nceeee rmra narnacaave nexa peuucn ca-re HaWII cpeuuoaexoaxa yeperreua MeCTa \'luJJe aaceJJeUlI1I yxpeneun BO lIpeIlCJIOlleUcKlloT(aHTIl'IKII) nepaona ueKOIIYUlTe DO rtpenacrcpaja-ra. 0,[1 rue epesmn,a OCTaHaa 6pOjHIl TDPAHHCKH OCTaT0U;H KOU ce ItC!(OpIlCTeHlt 3.1 Cpe,[lH08eKOBHIITe¢opTmpllKaU:llIt.Oc06eHOMapKaHTHIlceAOU:' 1I0aHTU'1KHTe ypHaTItHIt KOIl aujsecro 611Jle caxto TlOnpaBeHII II KopUCTeH!I aa-raMy UH3 cpennoaexosuero. Oll; THe IIpH'IHHII. aa cexoj Haw JIOKanHTeT ro IlpIlKa:.KYBaMe 1t q,opnt¢ltllllpaH.eTO 80 najcr apu-re enoxa.

5. Cpei)lIo8el<.(J6I1u ociuawollu. Flpaxascaaa ce OHHe OCTaT0l111 KOH IIM3aT 1I0K3lK.1RIt Cpe,[lHOBeKOBHIt oeenexja. I'pane somre oCTaToQH ce ,[Ia,[leHH co HHBHHTe TeXHII'IKH xapaxrepacnuor U rnaaao 6e3 ue rarnr. a rOJIeMHHaTa !1M e ackaacaaa npexy enaauuara aa 1t0BpWIIHa. xexrap (CKpaTeHO "xa"): xexoratu ce aaaeneaa II ,[I!lMeH3ItH DO MeTpH ("M'). 3a ua He rc aavopyaaae '1I1TaTeJIOT. H30CTaBeHH ce opojHHTe TeXHIl'IKH HHl.pOpMaLlRIl - urapuaa-ra II AonlKlIHaTa Ha OOSH,[IlIeTO. 6POjOT II rOJleM!IHaTa aa KYJlHTe. noprrrre II ,[Ip. CaMO BO H3HIIMHH c..~Y'Iali HaDe.o.eH e aeaoj 011 Tile 1I0IiaTOLlH. VfHaKY ce-re 08a MOlKe Aa ce 113BJIe'le 011 nJIaHOBHTe WTO ce npllJIOlKeUII KOH cexoj JIOKanliTeT

Ha xpajcr. CJIe,[lUT IUlllIaHHTe rronaroue aa MeCTOTO (,[IO!(OnKY rtocroja-r} IlJIIi aa CpeIlHOBe!(OBHIIOT rpan (rapnuna) co KOIl ro ITAeHTII4>JtT<YBaMe MeCTOTO no aaunrte I!CTpn"'YDaH>.1 pe'lHClt CIlTe crupa rpaAOSII CO carypuocr ce 1I0KUJlII311paHH xa repeuo-r. a caeac BO HeKOltKY CJJY'Iall xenoc-racynaa-r curypxa AOKa311 II rca e Ka)!{aHO DO TeKCTOT. HaBel1eHII ce H npyra Mucnel-ba aa HUSHO nOKaJHJ3!.tpaH>e, 3.1,[1n .'>IOJKe '1HTaTenOT CaM,[Ia npoueuu KOltKY ce Tile 05jeKTlfBuli ana ce HeOCHOaaHJI.

130

6. n.1WI0I3U. 3a cexoj ,10KanJtTeT ru npnnoacyaasre 1I11,laHOBllTe. ocaex BO HeKonKY c,lY'lall !(ail,e He CTHfHaBMe repeacsu Aa fll npestepuae II CHIlMHMe 1I0KaJJilTeTIITe ru peeoreaae !JHTeH3UaHO BO nocnenuare 20-ln,a rOAmu! 11 Tile npe'rcrasyaaa-r 1l0DOCT aa naura+a aayxa. On. lIopaHeWHIITe IICTpalKYBa'lll cea CHlIMeHJI caao OXPHJ;I, Flpanen. Ilecpeurre II AenYMHO CTPYMIHla H IIlTIlH_ CIITe OCTaHaTH ItnaHOBIi ce AeJIO xa aDTopOT na xnnraaa II yurre ncaexe na HefODItOT aCIiCTeHT BIIKTOp 1IIIn'lIlK. Heroenre IlJlaHODH jac rJJaBHO rn ncnonayaaa co xexoj ne rnrr U ro AopaOOTyDBD penjeepo'r. yCOfJIacyBajKII r a. HeTO -raxa. cnopen enen TeXHIl"lKIl otipaaeu. HHItLllljanuTe aa aercpa-re ce CTaBeHII lIOA

paaesepuuxo-r xa ceKOJ nnaa.

Co nOMOWTa aa paaaepuuscr MOlKe ce coj ,[1.1 [II npeceee-ta oaae TeXHII'I.

KII geTaJIII urro ce OJ;lHecyBaBT aa COOllBeTHaTa kpertoc-r. Flnaxaete-rpuja-ra e ocno- 60AeHa OA lIOManKY ma-rajnnre II rro-rourua ne-rcna penepa-re fl TPllfOHOMeTpIlCKIlTO"lKtt. KlITil.CTlIpCKlITe nOTe3111J Meru.aeKBII,[IlICTaHQlljaTa na 1l30xunCIITe e orpanuuc ua ua 10 M (knj rrOMlInu paaxreprr Ha 20 M). OClloEIITe aa 13 TBPIIIIHH ce IIpeTCTaEeHII aKcoHoMCTpUCKIt. KaKO TpOJlHMeIl3110RBJIlIa peKOH' crpyxuaja.

7. H.~yciiipal!uu. AaHlKRHTe lInolll! ce IICKalKaHIi npexy TeXHH'IKII uprecen. so TO'leH paauep U co rto'renuupaxu yxpacuu ne-rana. a Ka,[le WTO 6ewe no-rpeeHO, npaxacsaua ce on nae KllpaKTepItCTII'IHII crpaua na II HIl311peceK_ Ha roj aauaa aajer-aax-ruo e IlCKlllKaHlI aopcponorujara H 'rnnonor-aja-ra aa npeAMeTIITe 0,[1 KOI! cexo] crpy'usax MOlKe neCHO il,a ru H3BJle'le CHTe IlOTpe6HII 3aK.llY'IOQII OJl. cexoj JlOKanHTeT 06lf'lHO ce O.llOpaHH caMO HeKOJIKY KapaKTepllCTH'IIlJI npenMeTB KOII BpeMeHCKB B KynTypHo ja onpejtenyaaa'r xpenoc'ra. I1orOJJeM 6poj HaO.llH npercraayaaare caao 0.11 HeKonKY TBPAIIHII (OA Cxonje. Flpocex. Flpanen. CTeH'Ie K3j Te'ronc. 1IYKOBI!l(a) KaKO COHil,llpalhe BO KaaHTHTeTOT ira MOlKlIItOT apxeonomxu 4>OIl.ll WTO ne:K1I Ha TepeHOT

Hajronesnro-r Spoj 011 OIlHe ,[IBIJ:.KHII aaona ru liMa npeepaso copaeorHIlKOT B. 1I1I,l'1I1K aa llITO ccoeeuc My 5JIllrOAapaM. HnYCTpaLlHUTe, rnasao. r-u upraa jac- co nOMOW aa .IIllIIn. IICTOpH'Iap 1I11 YMeTHOCTa U_ Crracona (MoHeTIl). MOil ce II11BeTe KapTII. KaKO It 4>oTorpa¢IIIIITe 00 npanoror

131

TAIiEJlAl
Flpernen na yxpenerra MeCTa O.!l cpeaen BeK BO Maxenoauja. co ccuoann 1l0Ka3UTenH j5P·IOnWTI1HAI MECTO CTAPO m.IE rYHKUl.fJAI XA )HOB/ ~ I BEK BAPOillj
SI1A I I (XA)
Sp. orrurraa.q MECTO CTAPO 11:-'1E of>Yl-lKIlmAI XA HOB BEK BAPOill 331Kli'l.eBO nOJlBHC - I IT I 0,3 I , 110-13
I 1 , II 1341Ko'l.aHll MODOll.8HC nto OJ6UJO I KalP.C. 1(3 I 2
SHU (XA) na 1013 2
1 Bepoao 16Y.'IIiHapUIi ,fjyiJlmipaiJ? cr/p.c I 0.6 lA' 10-13 i351Kj:anTh'HKaOllllna CJlu6uu.l/ue?1 pyjt/p.c 0,5 7 I 1 10-13 0,5
12 ollTOJ1J iEIITOnJ M:lUja?) xa/p.c. [(2) , 10-14 36 KYMaHoBo Fpanaurre RY"060? p.c 0,5 " 17 10-13 76
137 IKJHJpeao K03jul(? p.c. 0,8 ua I - 1013 3
JJ:.OpeoBo 0.6 10-12 38 KOIbYx KOlbYX PYil/CT 1.5 A' l' 1314
)!(IIBOJHO PYA 0.5 10-14 39 Mnano JKeiJluio60 crrp.c. 0,8 10 10-14
30BHK '1f!.lfpen PYA 1.5 1 10-14 2-5 Haropaxaae
CTpe)KeBO (lfjaJlapUOII PYA 1.5 11-14 40 HeroTHHO LiempKanujl. Itpocex 1,7 A' 2 11,13
i5pOA Benxua 6Mulla PYA 0,2 " 10-13 141 [Kopeunnma aaporu 14 3(4)1014[ I
aeer 0.5-11 AU 10-13 42 1 " 13 141
lJJ:eBwl rau'f r p.c 0,7 I A' 1 13-14 2.5 431 'lJenoBell Kalp.C. 17 "I 1 10 14 (6p_41)
10 Sarpan Pucluelu? PYAfCT 0.3 I A' 12-14 4410xplI,u Fojtnaje PYA 0,2 I 13 14
11 311Ylbe 3iJyIf ? PYWCT 0,6 I 7 12-14 45 OXPHll. OxpuiJ xa/p.c 9 1014 10
12 H..lKHIllTe HJIC? cT/16er 2,5 10-12 46 Flecovaxa ropullu PYA 1 A' 1214 2,5
,13 Monpuurre Modpu', pyn/cr 0,4 13-14 47 Flpnnert Bapow npuJleii c-r/p.c. 0.6(4) 10 14 4,3(35er)
14 BaJlJHJlOBO Ba.naH.IlOBO naeunhoeo uacrp.c 3 1 12-14 48 JJ:e6pewTe ,ll'6peIUUle cr/p.c 2,5 1 10 14
15 BKHHlla Bmmua 8ullulla? 0.4 I" 1 11-13 1.5 49 Ileccao KJIeIU06I1U,,? 0,2 A' 1011
16 Fearennja Iuepoao 0310,6 " 7 12-14 50 . Spae 3pal! MUH/36er 1.5 14 (30er)
17 rOCTIlBap r.6UHHll;a 6uIlUIIU? 0.6 ! lIa 12-13 51 Manacrnp MOpUX060? KaJp_C 1 I" 9 13 3,5
18 [I'paneu rpaiJeli p-c. 0,6 9-12 521 Flpanerteu " 11.14 I (36er)
19 [Kanuurre COKOJltll ? 0.6 I" 12-13 531 Tpecxaaeu TptC"U81!1l I M8l{/36er 3,5 A' I 1 14 I (30er)
20 Cp6HJlOBO Tp"o(Jo PYA 0.4 13-15 541np051Ul.!T1Il1 3neTOBO 3J1eUloao 36er 0,3 10 141 (36er)
21 JJ:e6ap Iledap Pax06111/" p.c. 13-15 55 PaAOBTIlll Penoaaur PuiJoaululUe crrp.c. 0,7 1 1014 n
22 JJ:ell'leBO Bapve 1.2 na ? l? 12-13 56 llionyp cT/pyg 0.25 ? 1014
23 JJ:paM'le 6uiJlu r pyn/c-r 0,6 17 10-13 57 Peceu ESJlB /Jacu.1uiJa ? 02(06)
24 Saerop 36eiop? 0.7 l' 12-13 ISS 1 Cren.e nelupa? aeer 2,5 3 1014
25 iJ!YKOBBua yeoeuua xa/p.c 2 2? 10-13 59 [Mf'Ipecna) npeCHU xa/p.c. 2 10 14
26 lleMKpXoopIEY'lHII 6)''fuH. PYA 11.14 60 CB_HHl{QJ[e!ColloT f)'pUUllUe? cTfABOP 1 0,1 7 I 1314
127 [Fpanur-re o6p)'H. PYA 1.2 10-13 611CKOIlje BOAIIO '1plf'fe , cTlJ6er I 0,5 '" 110 13[(CKorrj:)
28 ::KeJle3l1eu t/leJlfeq Py,u/p.c. 2.8 1 13-14 162! IKo)KJle KO:)IC.'11! I 0,6 I" 2 113 141
29 Kaaanapuu Ilpeaoso e(JOJl? o-c. \.4(3) A' 3 10-13 1.5 [631 IIvI.Cywllll;a CT/pyll. 0,9 I" I 2 1" 141
30 PeCJBa TU"61!IU P' 2 I" 5 13 14 1641 MaTKa MUIUl(u 1,,.h6,, 1.5 " 2 ,u_14
31 KII'Ieao Apaaren cr/aeer 1.4 10-11 65 Cxonje CKOUUI! xa/p.c 4 na I 10 9-141 5-6
32 KII'Ieao KU'Iu8a xa/p.c. 1.5 7 10-15 66 '--IY'Iep ,llUOUIIU? xcrp.c 1(3) 2 10 14,
132
133 ;op.lonlliH1HAI MECTO CTAP0l1lvlE1<I>YHKIDUAI XA I:~; lSI 'OK e.oour
(XA)
67 Crpyra i3arpa'laHlliC6'. caac r I aoer 1 0.3 I" I , I-I:
16802'''''. EaHCKO Tepwuua ? 1 cTi36er I na 1-1.
69 KOH'le 'Kon'll! cr.Zp.c 0.3 1 7 10-13
!701 KOCTypuHoBacu,1uc? 0.5 u. 10-11
,71 CTpYMHlIa CmpY·IIUlja xa/p.c. 11(4.)) ua 3 9-14 4-5 ,
72 Teroeo il.J1ewHHlIu}l1ecKa '! 1 03 I" 1 - 111-?
73 Jer-yuoaue I 0.5 10-13
74 Jleurox em'c" xa/p.c 1.5 I 10-12
75 Opaure CQ(ipu I pyn/p.c 2,5 I 13-14
76 POfJIe 0,6 11-131
77 Creuqe Cwella? 0,5 I 11-14
78 T. Benec TeOBO fja6Ylla? 0.5 10-11
179 T. Benec Be,1I!C Kalp.c. 2,5 4 10-14
80 IlImn KpJ'TIHllIT' Paeesc ayn/p.c 2 9-10
81 Llpeurxa l'lpl!m'le PYI1/CT I I 9.13-14 2 KATAJIor
82 IlInm IOlwuil cr/p.c. 0211..5 6 10.14 Ilcjacuemre KOIl 'raeenara I

Bo aaaenexare 10 KOJlOHII lfCl{alKaHII ce aajocaonsure nona-rona aa cexoj

Haw cpenxoaexoaea rpan ana TBPJlIIHa ce aaurrena lIpOCTOp ij oneerae

HellOTpe5HO rtos-ropyaaa,e aa Ol1l1eJlHII acrare ce HaHeceHII xaxo

KpaTeHKlI. Toa ce

- g p. - penxuo'r 6poj aa YKpelleHOTO MeCTO. nanen rro a35Y'lHHOT pen au omnraaure II ea cena-ra 80 cexoja omurana

- <t>YHKlIHja - ro oaaa'ryaa xapax'repo'r aa cexoe yxpeneao MeCTO. xaxo:

PYJI- PYAHH'lKa xpenocr a HaCeJJOa

CT - crpaaca. nOMaJIa rnpnana (xpajna'rua. perHOHaJIHa JlJllI rpaaa-ura) aeer - oser aa IJ;HBHJIHOTO HaceJIel{lIe

Mal{ - yxpenen »axacrap

134

135

Onurrnea SEPOBO

SYJUlHapll.H

6yiJullipar). xpajna-rua crpasca. Cn. 18. 19

RutU.: A. KepaMHT'IHea 1979.156: -11. MUKyn'lIIX TIR. 31

Ml!ciUmjoJloJfffia. MeCf(OCTU 'Tp~,[IIlWTe. Bynmu-pan" ne)K1J ,[10 JOIlUJlIIIIOT xpaj HU Bymmapua. rtoxpaj aarncrpaxuncr IlUT BIIHIU(a - Bepoao. BO :lIlTH'IKO ape sse AcrH50c - Bapt-ana - Flapruxonon. npeTCT:lGYB:l -receu PHil urrc ce 113i\Hra 20· 70 M BHCOKO Hail Bperanuaua: onrparea e OA pexa-ra 011 peqecn CHTe crpaun Jlecen npacrart usta caao ort jyr npexy TeCHO ceuno. sane urro MI!H}'sa I! cIiOMHa· TIIOT na-r. PU,[IOT liMa srxor y CTpMIlU crpaun. a oaropa e 30paMHeT.

Hajc'-uapu Qciii.«IUOIlU. Bo ilOIl,HOaHTII'l'KO ape we OHJlO aarpaneac OOSHLlHe CO MaJlTep. UlTO aa-r-aopano npocrop rorresr 300 x 60 M. Ce coc-roen OA 2 ztena.

L KaCTeJlOT CTOeJl aa nOBIlCOKIlOT. jYiKeH nen. co rone aaaa 0.8 xa. uaan

«ccrenor CO npoce-ren On6paHoeH pOB. Q6S11ill!eTO HOCII 'rpara 011 rone aa 06Hoaa.Ha cesepoaanananc-r xpa] c-roena s yna urro ro Spauena najnecanor npucran no KpelJOCTa. JJ;onA< IIcrO'lIlIlOT slln ce rnenaa'r CTUH6eHII npocropuu. lJOTlJpeHII BO HHlU HU Hero. Kpenoc-ra 611,1a narpaneaa BO 4. BeK. U 06HoBeHa BO 6. eea. HaOIlH: 6pOjHH MOHeTH OA 4 .. 5. II 6. ae«. 6pOHJeHII TOKH H annuxu. A<eJle3HII Q)H6YIlIl OA xpajot- xa 6. II 7. ae«. xepaxmxa H AP

Kacrenor ro xoirrpcnupan CflOMHaTiIOT na-r. KaKO II perl!OHaJlHIIOT na-r 011 Flujaxeu aa ceaep KOj flOKPUj EYIlI!H3PU,H aonen KOH nIlU'lKOBI!Il.U lin jyr II npexy

npeaaneuor +yuroeeu cn er-yaan DO P31l.00HWKO Flone

CpeiJ1108f!K0611U oCiii.aiiioIlU. Ha I1POCTOPOT xa aaponcxa-ra. co Il.I!MeH31111 55 x 50 M., OP31l0LjHOaHTII'l)(OTO oesunne 61!JlflOllllrHaTeileH IlOIlOLlHeA<eH sIllloe3 M3J1- -rep fon npupaveu eaa-repujan) KOj IlAeHecjacHocecIlellllH<lTepelloT.O'lllrJleJlHo uacraaan BO cpennuo-r BeK. Ha TOj I1pOCTOp 3a6eneA<3BMe II 113p'!lHba 011 cpenHOBeKoaHaofHatIIIlarpH'IaplijaIlCJlOSeHCKlfllpeIlHH.Hajllelillceliliap'llllbaOIl CJlOOeHCKH 6pOl!3eH HaKHT: npcren,a. uenoan 011 Oe,ler3H11. nojacnn TOKII. IIpHBp- 301111, nap'tan.a on craxnena 6eJlenrlll (11.-13. ae z) I!,!{p.

n0311.1l,IIjaTa aa EYIlHllrpall e crpa'reunca ma-rajna. JIeA<H so recrpaqicxoTO cpenaurre aa Maneureao. xa xpcrcnaror aa ABa r naanu na ra nrrc BOAaT HH) TOj peruon a KOII q,YHKlIIIOHllpane n Hill cpe,!{HOBeKOBlleTO K3KO BpCKa rroeeery AOJlIlHaTa HU Bperannnna co AOIl!lHaTa na CTPYMU \I aeaja-re HaT3MY H<I IICTOK 0).1 see. Oaoj cJ:!PypIlOH arpaa lleCOMHelia ynora KaKO BO excrrauaajara aa Byrapaja

CA_ 18. ·5Y9uH~pa9". 5Y9uHapl{U, 90I1HOaHa'lu",I(u KpajilaiueH KacaleA lIeJlJ.',lHo e 06H08eH 80 cpegHllQ111 6el( ("EY9uH~pag")

136

137

Ilocerauraare apxeoxomxu HCTpU;+;:YBaIhU 110 MUJleIlleBO He nane !10KaJn 3U I10CTOeH.e HU BaKOS rpan. Hacrojyaaa.a-ra aa T. TOMOCKll (1971. 161-172) rpano'r Maneureao na ro noxanuaupa HU ~leCHOCTa Fpanaurre 5 K~l llCTO'lJ{O OJI Eepoeo. aeaaa-r noxaau. Toj repea e .!I.eTa,lHO ucrpascea. Ha apBOT Oil P")lOT (rOpHO Fpanamre) croena MU,lU AOL\HOpn.\jCKa c-rpasca (4.- 5. BeK) nea cpen- 1l0aeKOBHH rparn- Bo 1l0AHo;+;:jeTO. xpa] Bperannaua. ce npo-rer-a nOJlHO Ipaaamre co ocra'roun Oil. 15pOjHI1 rpa,!1151l aa enna pynapcaa nacenoa OA nouHOPIlYlCKO ape ae, co nOCTpojKII aa npepeeerxa II 'rone+ee aa lKeJle3Ha pyna 11 np. nOT1IPileHa e co 6pOjHH MOlleT!! !! npyru HaOIlH OIl 3.- 6. BeK. Cpenaoaexoasu HaoilH aoonurro nessa. J.1 rnaae au-re "caax a' IllTO TOMOCKI1 r-n IlpUKa)KYBU aa C!IHKa ue ce Cpe)\HOBeKOUHI! -ryxy aHTlI'IKlI K3J1anu 3U -repaxcru.

nOBToPYBaMe ,!1eKU 'repzuaa'ra DYIlIIHrpaJi. aa xpc-rona-ro-r BO nearapor HU Maneureao, aacera e e,!1HHCTSellIl0T 1l03HaT 'rpan" OA cpeAHHOT eex BO oacj peraou

ROH aanan. raxa II BO CPYHKlmOHllpaJ-heTO 1111 I1aTHUTa Mpe;+;:u ao up.ea aa'rn HU CaMYllJlI! conoeeuara Buaaa-ruja

Bo !lOMaWHaT3 ucrcpucrparpuja e rrcxpeaarc I1paWaJ-heTO. lIaJlII nccroen rpan co liMe MaJleWeBO. Bo noaeneara Oil [019 r. KaKO euna OIl euopue're 1111 Mcpcnaaurea-ra ertapxuja e aaseneuo 11 Manemeao. He cr-oa i1.a!!11 e TOU caac perucu 1IJl1I rpaa co IICTOTO nxte. Bo naremrcor HU apanor HilPIICll Oil cpennaa'ra aa 12. sex ce H3IenYIU: HU lIeH anon rrar- 011 (t>Op~lilHll}'C Monpac (MOp031113J1. 1) neaceno MecrOTO Mancyna (=ManeweBo ?). onxpyaceuc co nJlUHIIHII. CerrCKI1

OIJWTlIHII EHTOJIA

IiIlTonll

CII. /9, ·SY9UH tpu9", EY9uHOPLiU, HlI09u; 11.·13. Bel(

KaCTpOH llyiiiriia - rpan lluiuOlia (1(IIBIITaC nelluiolluja ?). Cn, 20-22.

Jluiii.; Flanaaor-ny 1957. 188-194; - J.1. MIIKY,1'1I1K \974.347·368; _ MOlliRH 1966. 51-61: - TOMOCKH 1980, 17-21; - <llHJllIlTOBCKU - Cp611HOBCKH 1980. 11l·122 II [981.113-120;- Maaeaa 1992, 113-117.

IIMOTn. rpaAIIHII. nOJ1I1IhU, necaurra II uryMH (T.ToMocKH 1971. 161. npeaon na B.Tol>lilweK). He e jUCHO .!laJlK J.1.!lpncH -ryxa MllCI1I1 aa enea rpan IIJlll caac xa pemorro r Maneureao.

Bo ellHO llKCMO xa OXPKJlCKIlOT apxnermcxorr Teoqianaxr- Oil. nO'leTOKOT ua 12. BeK WTO ro yrta'run nc enucxono-r aa Tpuanaua (e Cpeneu, Cocpuju) ja ClTOMllUJI II MUJleWeBCKaTu 1:1 CTpYMH'lKaTa enapxaja. Tea npenaaeaceno pa3nU'IHII 'ronxyaarsa BO uaine epe ae. Bepojaruc lIaj6mlcKY go BI1CTl1l1UTa e J. Hnauca (1931. 552). lIaj,[106pllOT 1103HUDa'l nu ODBU var-epeja, KOj CMeTa ,[IeKU cenaurre-ro aa enacacnajara 11 HUTBMY 611110 BO MOpOBH311 1I0lleKU lien a 6peraJlHII'IKa peruja enao apeae ourra xapexyuaaa Maneureacxa. J'pancr Maneure ao cncpen uerc He nOCTOeJl. TOB MlIC,lelhe r-o uenn'r If upyra IICTPUlKY' 1IB'I1I1:IU OBOj npoOneM.

Meciiiou.o.'Jo;]l((ja. Mecnocra "EYKOBCKI1 rpoeauira" (Xepaxneja}. ne;'((H aa jylfCaara nepacpepvja ua Barona. Flpercraayaa 50 M B1ICOKO H H3RaAeHO pa'r're aa 3Una,!lIlI!OT pa6 Ita fOJle~10TO none. xoe npexy TeCHO cenno npcncrcsyaa ua aanau 90 nOBHCOKH PU)\OBII. KOH nnaaaaara HeOJlHLlU. Oxoxy OBa MeCTO ap'rert 1l03HaTlJOT Eruauacxa nar.jiexec !TaTOT OXPIIIl- DIITOJIa - Jlepnn.

Hajciiiapu ociuaiiio~u. Ha pnT'IeTO II 80 jY:-KHOTO ncunoscje. zronac CRDa Bona, ce paurapan aHTH'lKI10T rpan Xepakneja flIl.HKeCTIiC. Apxeonourxa're HaO,[l1! [JOTBplI),BuaT;'((IHIOT 0)1 2. BeK OIl CT.e.AO kpajor ua 6. aea. OTKonUIHI ce: 'rea-r-ap II nen on q:.0pYMOT (2. aex}, 6al-bu (4. BeK), 3 6a31111UKII II enucxoncxa nUJlUTa (none a 5. 116. BeK). Sanaaeuo e lJ oesuauero. rpaneuo BO 2 .• 4.11 6. aex (06HOBU). a aa'raopano npocrop co rOJleMUHa 0118 xu. KOj so 6. BeK 5uJl peuyuapae aa 5 xa.

138

139

UPKOIHlllTe rpa1I6flCe rrOKpUeHlICO opojau xroaau-mu rrOi\OBIl.KOI! cnaraar Mefy Hajy6asHTe eo Maxencnuja. nOlHaTH CenOBeKeemICKOnn01I4.!lo6. aex.

CpeiJIIQB/!KOIJIIU QciUaiUollu. no aBapO-CJIOSeHCKIITe ypaaaa,e aa rpano'r (cnopea MOHeTllTe rca ce CJlY'IHJlO BO 586 r.), rtpeocraxane lIeiTYMHO aanaaeaa HeKOJlKY rOJleMR rpa.tJ,lSa. Flpen ce -roa e Ertucxoncxuo-r KOMnJleKC co 2 iSS31!JlIIIOI II ellHCKonCKIlOT .tJ,90p. Bepoja-rxc Bp3 IlIiB. HeKOJIKY ae aa rrououna 5HJI aarpunea MaHaCTllpcKlIOT KOMnJleKC. no nero HOBBTB CJlOBeHCKS secenea ro ):IOORJla HMeTO: Buron'a. EYTeJla, (011 -oenren-c" = xanyfepcxa aaennaua). Kpenocra lIaA «acencara BO rpxxa're 1I0KYMeHTIf HOCH liMe Henar-onnja

Flpa ucxonyaassa-ra na cnOMHaTIIOT npocrop (1961-1974 r.). BO najropHIITe CJlOeBII ce o'rxpxena -rparn OJlllPlIM11TIIBHll CJloseHCKII JKllSeaJlHWTa. narapaHIJ co nap'!IUl.a OJI orHIIWHa rpnxapaja. 6pOHleH lIaKHT. JKeJlelHK aJlaTKH II B1I3aHTIICKII MOHeTl!. on 10.-13. ae x. Hc-roape aeaa rpOOHWTa ce acrpaxyaaau 250-300 M HCTO'lHO 011. TOj apean. OKOJlY 6a31lJlHKan I( (1980"86). [laTHpaHH ce co HaKHT H BH3BHTHCKII MOKeTIl BO 10.-13. BeK. HcrO'lHO 011 HeKpOIlOJIaTa ce KOK" CTaTllpaHIJ HaceJI6HHCKH CJIOeBH OA):IOIlHIIOT cpenea sea.

Jl oxaunja'ta aa "rpanor" (TBPIl!lHaTa) EIlTOJIa OCTaHaJia no aeaec nencrapaeua. TYKa noeracxyaaae na axponona'ta aa Xepaxneja on npencnoaeuCK<JOT nepaon, xoja ce K3nllra Ha 80"100 M ceaepuo 011 RCKonaHIiOT elll!CKOnCKII KOMnJleKC OlIHOCHO npeTJIOCTaBeHHoT cpejracaexoaeu MaHaCTIJpCKI! aen Ha

140

IUa.HOT on rpanor WTO ro patio-rea npen 3 neueuuu flMaM aaeceno II oessnee na BPBOT OA purue'rc. aajasna-rc co HeKOJIKY KYJlII. VI ):IeHeC penaraaao noopo e CO'lYGaHO aa 'repeaor. 0):1 jYJ+(HaTa crpana na BpaOT. Mety coupesreua're nOASH!lyaal-ba m nccja urro ce rneuea-r ua roj IlpOCTOp. J(OHTlIHYl!paHO ce cnena-r ;:J;Ba crapu KpenOCHU sana 011 KOU eAHUOT e Mo)!(e6n AOIlHOaHTII'IKlI. a npvrao'r <penHOBeKOBeH. OBHe oosunuja cnrpaxaar npocrcp rene a 0.8 OAHOCHO 1.5 xa, !lITO e AOBOJIHO rO!JeM aa rca epesre. 3a :+:aJl. npOCTopOB aocera apxeonouraa He OUJI IICTpa:.KyaaH

en. 21. Til. 5W1iOJlCKU aJIO'ia 09 iOJ6I17l.: uapotn loeae BJlu9uCJlU8 20 061108Y8U ~pu90m 5111710Jlu (ao 1. 31111-110B)

80 npanor aa ropac'ro MJlCJlell.e eecpyee 1I TeKCTOT aa T.H. EIITOJJCKa nnova rrcaarua-ra on lOBaH BJlaAI!CJIal:l 1:10 1016117 rOI!IIHa. Toj "ro OOHOBHJI rpajto'r EHToJla" (J. 3aHMOG 1970. 1-160). 3Ha'!n nexa xopacren aeae 1I0CTojaHH SHAOSII. WTO caste ra lIaASlIlIaJl II rH OI5HOB!lJI. Ocaeu CIlJlHOTO OOSIIJllJe aa AO!.!" HOaIlTII'IKaTa Xepaxneja. npen ce Hej3HHaTa aaportone. lIaM He HI! ce 1l0JHaTH npyra samrurra nOOJIIICKY no E!lTOJla ocaeu uexonxy're JIJlaHHHCKIl xacrena II acerosu. oAII3J1e'!eHU 1J0SeKe KUJlOMeTplJ. OCTOHYSO rrnmrre acxonyaau-a ce ro oau na ro nOTBpJlaT.

On nmuamrre AO){YMeIlTII 1J03H:lTO e uexa KOH xpajo'r aa 10. BeK CaMYIlJl

141

ja ~eMa DlITOJla 0,[1 Buaaarnja, a CIlH My Fanpan Panonap KaJ D!!TOJla rpaurr BaCIlJlHJ II BO 1014 r

c~_~~_~ .••• ~_~_~

DI!TOJlCKa nnova 300pYBa 06HoBYBaH.eTO rpauo'r

xpajo-r on aHTIlKaTa TaMY 6UJl nO~lIJ:rHaT rOJIeM 00:6paHoeH 6eo:eM BO BII,!!; na 3eM. JeH HaCIIIT. aa rrpnapexen npe croj aa aojcx a. Bo 11.-12. BeK BO Hero OIEla aarpauetra eaaa

Dl1TO,la. Bo 1018 r, rpanor My ce npenaa aa Bacunuj II II OCTaHan non BI!3aHCne)lHIITe 3 aeka. Casto onspewe-xuape ae rpauo'r IlMaJl npyru BO 1082 r. ro OCBOIIJle aa KyCO Hopxsamrre [JO)l ooeMYH,[I, 01\ - OKOJlY 1200 r. ,10KaJIHHTe tj:JeygaJlUlI - O,[lMeTHHlIlfTe D:oOPOMHP Xpc Il Kavnua: - BO 1230 r. - ,!IecrrOTOT Te onop D:YKa Oil ElTlIP, a IIOToa JOBaH Aceu Oil Byrapnja: - BO 1246 r. nux EnllpUlIn: - BO 1252153 r. Haxejuarec-. BO

-roa MCCTOl1ace orxpne Cpei\HOBeKOBnlJOTrpaI1 DllTOJIa

60

1

I KOMH\lH 110 onaror

Fopenaaeueua-ra xpoxrrxa J60pyBa uexa DIJTO_1Ja HII3 ueJIIiOT cpeneu eex IlMana rone ao BoeHO-CTpaTerrrCKO 3H:J'fefbe, koe II ce llaMeTHYBaJlO rtpert L(HBHJIHaTatj:JYI!KIIHjaHa rpcnor v aa ce paaaaaa KaKOCTorraHCKOU «yn'rypao cpenaurre

BHOaJIlloll1153 r. e CllTHHpaHO co

Ha xpajo-r na aaeeneacawe nexa 3apa3JIl1Xa00: HIiJallPyrll nauru rpanona

O!lJlO HeCOMHeHO lIenOCHO, raxa UITO HHe ueae c aa TepeHOT II. He rneuave uamexlUI cpeIlIlOBel<OBHH OCTaTOUll. a TOKMY -roa e OHa llITO CIiTe Hac noce ra uajxnory

He30yHYBaJIO

Typcxara aacenoa DHTOJla

KaKO ae yxpe rtexa xacaoa KYKU) a nonouna KaKO rOJIeM

wexep ce pa3BHJIa I10AarreKY 011 crapa-ra KpeIlOCT, BO lIeHTapOT sa ileHeWHIlOT rpen II ceeepnc 00: Ilparop. UBMHHTe llITO llpeOCTaHBJIe 00: 'rae BeKOBIi ce

HeocllopHIIIIOKa3H3a -roa

Hpen 15 rorrana aunpaueua ce OOII)lll. CpellHOBeKOBfJlIOT rpan Bjrrona na orxpae ua euna npyr-a noxauuja. Tea e PIlO:OT "Kane" xaxaj c. PalIITaHH, Ha)l

J,lOJIIIRBTaHaD:parOpH3allaO:HIIOTpa6 noepa. aervrca TBMy HeMa BOlla HUTY upyra OCHOBHll ycnoaa 3B )KIIBeeH.e_ Ha

142

143

n.Opeono

CpeOl106eKOBilU (}ciiiaiiiOljrl. Ilol\HoaHT!!'!KOTO oosunue 511,10 HeCNlHeHO ilo6po aarraaeuo II BO panno'r cpegea BeK U BO aeroanre paMKI! acaaeena cpeuaonexon, ua aacenoa. HCTaTa e no'rapzena co x epasauxa O,!l -roa ape ae KaKO Il co 6pOjHU BII3aHTUCKIl loWHeT!! O,!l II. ,!IO 13. eex. Bo aenccpennara OKO.ilUHa aa Ipannurre »ajaeuu ce II 3 OCTaBlt co BII3aHTllCKU napu (conparu-rpaxen). 3aKonaHII rnvy na «pajo-r Oil 12. II nO'leTOKOT ua 13. BeK. Bo ilOIl,HlIOT cpeneu sex HBce.16aTa HB

Kpajnarua u perucaanua crpasca

Hlliii.: ~L T"pOllK 1954.122: - 1-1. MlIKV_l'lUK TlR . .J.6: E. Maue aa 1992. 117. .IJecluQii()//OJK6a. PUil.OT "Kaae " ce 113-'111ra 2 KM ceaepoucro-mc Oil Ilcnao Opeoao II 360 M BllCOKO HaA OKOnHI!Te -'lO.~lII1KH (1105 M 11 .. \1.). Ilosuumpa Hall sueot-y urapoxa OKO;1I1HB 11 Ha;t npesanenor 2 K~! ceaepno Oil nero. no KOj naTOT O,!l Buroncxoro none BOn.!! KOH JYA(HO MOpIIOBO.

HajclUapu octUaiiiQljl'. Ha BPIIOT oa PU)lOT Ha xpajo'r Oll auruxara Oil)] uarpaneu CIIJle!l KUCTen: cesunnero (KaMeH co »an'rep) aaraopa npocrop Oil 180 x 90.\1 (1.3 xa}. Ceaepeucr. 1I0BIICOKJlOT nen co euarpeurea SlI!I 6HJ1 nperpaneu BO Ma,1a axponone. Haonn: nouucauruvxa Kepa~II!Ka II «one ru Of!. 5. !! 6. aex. KaCTeJlOT ro KOHTpO!H!paJI CrrOMHaTl!OT rra-r II rpauaua'ra l>!ery rrpOIIHIIl[l!I!Te Maxenoxnja I l! Il. ttoaneveua ceaepuo OTTYKa

Cpeonoeexoenu "aQO". Ha 06SI!!lHeTO au UKpOrrOmITa ce rneuaa-r 06110ByBfI .... a I!JBe,[leflH BO cpene« ae«. Ha npocropor aa ocnoseuera xpenoc'r liMa rpara 0)1

CJle,[lHIITe BeKOBII: Cpel1HOIICKOIIH3 rtap'nose 011 CT3KJJellll deneraau.

A(eJle3l!11 UJl:J.TKH. 6poH3eH rrpcrex sex). Benaaur 1\0 epenocra H auarpe

BO craporc oesame o'rxpneuu ce aekpononx H acrpa.eesu 66 rp060BII (BO

1986-88 r.. MY3ej 6I1Tona);l1aTllpaHII ce co naxa'r rurrwvex aa 10.-12. BeK

O'!l!fnCIlHO e nexa «pencc-r a 611Jla llHTeH31111HO rraceneaa BO TeK01 na lIeKOJlKY eexa. co ¢'YHKUllja na xpajrta-raa II peruouanxa crpaaca Mery rpanor Sarona Oil enna crpaaa II 4eMpeH OI1HOCIiO MOPIiXOIIO Oil npyrara.

Fpanuurre uarnena Qe)]OCH03aMpena.

Ha xpajo'r !la cnoauesre il.CK3 caac 4 KM jyroIICTO'lHO oTTYKa croena 1103- HaTaTU TllPl111H3 (¢'PYPIIOJl) CeT!!Ha 110 xoja QapOT Faapan Pa,llO~!IIp HMa,1 CBOj noaevxn naopeu

Ipan 'le.upeH. PYI1HI!'IKU xpenoc'r. C)]. 6. 23. 24

nllili.: 11. MHKyJl'-lI!K TIR. 136; - <PunllrrOBcK3· Cp6llHOCKlI 1978. 117-120

MecillQiiO/jQ:JI((ja. Jloaanu-reror '·[pU,[I, t[e6peH" ne;.t(1!

JKHBOjHO

3 KM ce sepoaenanno 01130BlfK. Tyxa aeaca-r ypaarnun're 111\ cpenuoaexonmror MaHacrap I! aa paCCJlCIIOTO cemte 4e6pell. PelJJiIlOT clIHjOK ro on¢'aKa x yno-r 011 3 cTpaHIL EI\Ha nOHI!CK3 repaca ro rtoepayaa xynor co I1PYf!! PHI10BlI aa jyr-, OABoeua O!l uaa co TeeHO cenac. J1oKaJlI!I!OT rrJJaHHHCKl1 nar IllTO noafan 011 0011eTo na aanan II ja ceven jyacnceopncacaara BIICOpaMHI!Ha. ro nonapan 4e6peH II ce xa'tyaan )10 na3YBIITe na KajMaK'lanaH - KOA(Y¢, au IICTOK. KOH CTapHTe pynnaUI! !la )!{elle30 (!leHeC naTOT Cya0J10ll - Paneur - Mauucrap _ Flonvnurre] Haopoeaare CCJla ue aec 110 rcnea crenea ce pacenexu

Hajcillapu ocillaillolju.: Ha CIIOMHaTIIOT BlICOK s yn BO !lOUHaTa an-taxa 611,1 aarpanea CHJIell xacren, aojurro 3a¢,aKall npoc-rcp on3 xa. Ha nOHlIeK3TajY)!{Ha repaca ce pmanna II,HllllnHa «acenoe. cnqmrene lIeTO co oesnnae. SHiloBHTe ce rpaneaa co M3JJTep. IIJle'leHI! BO ,IIOllfll npaau rro-reau II 3ajaKH3TlI co rtoaexe cyrm- Llenno-r rtpccrop e rmaunpan 1I O¢,OPMell KaKO rpan. co ronexaaa Oil. 5 xa

PYIlHH'lKB «acenea II rapnana.

Jluill.:M.T"p6n.K 1954.127:_ Itf. Mn.Kyll'llfKTIR.136.

MeciiioriOJlQ1It6a. MecHOCTa 'Tpanaurre" Jle<i<lI 1 K~I jyrOHCTO'lHO oil. .:KIIIIOjHO n 1 KM 011 AelleIllll3Ta rpauuua KOH Fpuaja. npeTCTaBYBa jtOMHHaHTHO pur-se co CTpMHH lIal1l1J1H HBlllIlBOPIIlllHIlTC xpaua na Xaeojncxa Pexa, BO aananxorc nOI1- aoxcje ua KOlKY¢,-nnaIlIlHa. Bo i5J1H311I1a lIelKaT PYIlHHtJ;IITe aa jarnen Ii CTapHTe

scnoaa aa sceneaaa pyna.

(co KaCTeJlOT-aKpOIIOJlaTa exynno 8 xa}.

HajcilIapu ociiiaillOlju. On nO'leTOIlHTC )10 xpajo-r aa ax'ravxa'ra enoxa ua T"pa,[lllIllTeef3l1CTllpUJlaYKpeneHaJlacen5a.lloTBpgeHa co 6POjllllIlBIIA(HI! Haollll on aaceneeaa CJloeBII, KaKO II co 10-I!Ha HeKpOnOJIlI 0.11 Ol1neJlHH BpeMeHcKIl nepaO!lH csony Ilea. Bo 1l0tJ;HaTa aHTIIKa 611.110 earpaneac IIBpCTO 06SII)llIe co aanrep: 6pojHH MOHeTIl anapuryeaa'r co 110llHlIOT 6. aex. O'lllrne,[lHO e nexa «acerrenaerc soraeenc 011 eKCIIJIOaTaUHjaTa ua }f{eJlelHU PYIl3. xoja ryxa neCHO e -rcneaa i5JlarOllapejKU My ua jarneuo-r (noapWI1I1CKH KonOBH).

Bo QeHTapOT na aaceneara CTOeJla rcnesea fia311JlHKa. 'IHI! IllTO TeMe,1H II zerroea 011 xepsrepna'ra IIJlaCTIIKa nenec neacar OKOJlY cpemronexoena'ra IIpKBa Ouaa npxaa 511J1a aarpaneua Bp3 crapa'ra 6a311JlIIKa. a 06HOBeHa e 110 16. BeK KaKO MaHaCTlIp lJe6peH. Bo TeKOT xa I CBeTCKU 1I0jHu (1917-18) MallaCTllpOTOI1Jl vpaar II AO ueaec He e 06110Bell. ll0l1HOaIlTII'!K110T rpane aceu urvr JleA(lI xacexuue, a 1!3001l)]CTBOTO xceneaaa arypa 360pylla au uanycrpujara ua »ce.neao 110 naceneara. Tpar-n 011 crupu're PYI1H!!IIU liMa fla nceeze MeCTa 110 OKOJlHHaTa

144

145

eft .. 23' ge6peH.", JO(JUK, (lOliH.Oa.H.17W'IKUpY(la.PCKfJ. lpa.fJ. AKpOllofta.mo. e o6H.oeeH.a 60 cpe(lH.u'om (JeK KaKO lpag TIe.upeH.

146

cenaur-re ao Sia ti eex.

Cnopen ClITe lIHAIIU,HH liB oaa MeCTO croen rpancr AHTBHlIja. eIJHCKOlICKO

CpeOH.DBelWBHU ociuaiiiollu.: Axponona ra 6ltnB 06HoBeHa BO Cpe!lHlIOT BeK; HOBOTO ossame oTCTanYBB 011 IJIIHHj1lT1I HB 1I0u,HoaHTH'lKBOT SHII B BMa oene3!'! TIIIlIl'lHIl aa 13.-14. aex. Yxpeneuao-r npccrcp OA -roa apesre aepen 1,5 xa. Co IIcKonYBaH.aTa ua TOj npocrcp (1976-78 r.) (5ltne coanepaxa CTaH6eHlITe cnoeaa xpaj 06SlIAIH!TO. Hajnena e xepaemxa. paJJlI!'IHH CHTHB npeaae ra II MOHeTIJ 011 11. AO 14. sex. Ce IICTaKHYBa enaa 6pOHJeHB annuxa co npercraaa aa rnaaa - jaBa'l,I1 KpCT- penaxaajap (10.-11. BeK:cn.6. 24).

Ct. 24 ." f..{e6peH·, 30BUK, KpCr:n-pI!IIUKBujap, /0.-1 I. BI!K (ao P_ Ileutpoeux]

Ha MeCTOTO aa 6aJIlJlHKaTa O.EI 6. BeK 611>1a aarpaneaa IIOa8 HO ncaana upxaa ([3.-14. aexv}, yurre e.ElH1IW ceuceeaa II lKHllonHCBlla eo 16_ aex [eeaaac'rxpo'r '-Ie6pell). EAII:l npyra upeaa. JJOCaeTeHa HS CII. I1JIBjS, uarpanexa e 80 rca BCTO epeae xa jyroacrovaaor ar-on 1111 SIITII'lKOTO 06SHABe

CnOMH8TBTe -rpara OA npepaeo-rxara HB JKeJIeJO 80 OKOJIIUIaTB II 80 CBMHOT '-Ie6peH aeopyaaar ae cronuncxara nOIlJIOra SPJ aoja H3pSCHan );101.1;HOCpellHoseKOBIIHOT "rpan" '-IeMpell,I1Me-ro aa xpenccra e cnoae acxo II aeopyaa nexa HaCeJIeHlleTO ao peracuoa I5I1JIO CJIOaeHCKO. '-IeMpeH OCTaHaJl non anaauTIlCKa BRaCT AO 1331 (IIJIR 1334) r. KOTa r c ocacune Cp611Te. no TypCKBTa OKYnauuja pynapcracrc 3BMpeJIo. a co nero II KpenO""TB. 'rase WTO eo IIOKYMeHTIlTe sexe He ce cnowuyaa- Ha oaa MeCTO OCTaHa na »caayps a ca ao CeJI1!eTO B ssauacTHpOT '-Ie6peH. KaKO cncaen aa lIeKoraWHIIOT rpan

Do pee are Llpua 8 KM cenepuo on -tecpea. Mery cenara -lanumre II MaHaCT!lp zre acu kpenoc-ra Fpancx. Toa e HeCO~!HeHO KUCTPOHOT MOpIiXOBO. ynpaauc II CTorrBHCKO cpesuurre aa ucronaeuncr per-non 80 9.-12. BeK. Do HeroBOTO 1a~lJjpaH>e cpenaurrero Quno npeneceao BO 'ie~tpeH

!fJPYPIlOH ra6a/lUpuolI. PYillIlI'IK<l «penocr. Cn, 25. 26

Huiu.: TOMOCKII 1964.43; -11. MI!KYWfHK TlR. 121: - Jauakueacxu 1980.97-110 Ml!c/TI.oiiO/IOJtC6a. Mecnocra "Kane" ne;K1I 1 K~I CeBepOI!CTO'lHO 0):1 paceneuo-ro Crpeaceeo 113.5 KM aarrannc Oil Faeanaaua. Flpe-rcraayaa 60-70 M BIlCOKa 'repaca na pado-r aa 1I0nllUKBTa na ureanuua. Ha P!!AOBlITe ou nae're crpanu na illeMHHua IlMa rparn OJ;( excrtnoa-tauaja-rn aa sceneac BO MHl1aTOTQ. naTOT ):10m..: WeMI1Il· ua ro ncnapan u Karte'ro a ro rroapayaan pyucxocnao-r Ile arup Xucap aa ceaep co Eruauacxuo-r nar (nenec Oxpau - SIITona) aa jyr.

148

/fajciTtapu fJciuaiuOlju.: 80 6. 8eK aa 08a MeCTO 611na aarpaneua CUI1Ha spence-r aa ga r-a lllTHTII oaoanure pyP;HIlI\II l! rpaIHl'lHIIOT rtpexnra Mety npOB1IHI\IlilTe Maxenouaja III 11: r-pannqae-tanmmja lSu!la rroaneceaa EO 5,11l3J1Ha na s oenocra. KaCTenOT 6un rO]JeM 195 x 164 M (2.5 xa). Bun cerpanea co CJllIHO oesanae «ce O!!_TIO aajaxua'to co uexonxy Kyml Jl llpe)1SII):I. Ha ceuepuacr Sll)1 0):1 KaCTe!lOT ce rro'rrrupan CTaH6eHi!OT IIpOCTOp. UCTO raaa yxperteu. Co IIcRorrysaH>a e YTBPAeHO rpanen.ero aa xpenccra BO 6_ ae«. Ha o'racpeu npocrop 300-600 M jyroaananao 01\ Ilea nescar ocraroue 011 Hacenofl 01\ ucraor nepaon II paucxpacrujaacK~ 6a311nIlRa. yxpacene co M03all'lell non U «epaepua nnacruxa.

CA. 26. "KaAt:", Cl1lpeJICeIJo. lpyu.a JlCeAeJHU Cipe9MerIlu. UCKOfJQIIU 80 WBp9U1Wl1la; 10. ~ 11. BeK; (ao T. Jaeaxueecxu}

CpeOllOIJeK0611U ocmaWOl/u. SIlAOBIlTe csony xacreno-r ce ,'I06po aanaaeaa 11.0 neaec; BO ,'I0U;1I110T cpenea BeK Tile aepoja'rno 6Rne otincaeau II rapnaaa-ra ce xopacrena xa fll xoarponupa oeaoeeaure PYAHII~R oxony nea. TYKa e IICKOITaHO neno co )!(ene3HlIllpeilMeTlloA 11.-12. BeK: 18 Y3eHfHIIJa KOIbH (HoMa,'lCKIlTllrr), eoeea cexapa. ae ajonencxa anaTKII, rone« KpCT U np.: IIpeZIMeTlHe {June HCKOoaHfI ac oaaa KpenOCT fI npen yrto'rpeda CKpHeHU non ae aja. Flponajnea e II

6aKapell cKHo1JaTO,[l, 13.-14.BeK

Bo 60p6HTe nossefy BIiJaHTllja H Cp611Te OKOllY PY,[l,OHOCHHTe peraona Ilexrnp Xacap II Ile6pllu;a 00 1330 r. C[lOMHaT e o1JPyplIOH Fasanapaon (noxpaj EY'IIIII . .u06pYIl . .:Kene3I1eu; II Lle6pllJ.ta). YiMeTo aa ,[I,elleWHOTO ceno [a6anaaU;1! BO TOJ perHOII naeenyaa na noancna nexa e I13BeJleHO 0,[1, IIMeTO aa BI13aHTIICKaTa TopAHHa . .upyrR TonOHOMaCTH'IKIl rpara HeMa aa npym aecra. TOMOCK!! npa nOMIICJlIIJI na OBa cerro KaKO na naTOKaJ aa noxauaja'ra na Faeanapacu. 3a seen, TOj rroccvax neonpeneu npocrop Mety cenara Faeanaaun II Jlona-rnua. 011 nella'ra c-rpaaa aa llleMHlI~a. Ha TOj npocrop HeMa 'rpara 011. nexoja crape spencer EJlHHCTlIell8Ta rapnana lIO TOj MIIKpo-perilOH e oaaa !lITO 'ryxa ja rrplIKa;J(yaaMe Yi HMeTO aa Crpexeao l!apOI\HOTO npenauae ro noapayaa co «penccra 00 acja enaneex nereanaptrao'r CTpe3

OnWTHII3 seon

&eJlK~a

Benuua, py,'lHII'lKB xpenocr a aser. Cn. 27

MeciuouOJJO;Nc(ia. Mecnocra "Kane Ja,'l Jl.a6jaTa, Mn'rxopoe a' Jle)!(11 2 KM 11M 0,[1, Bennue. Itpe-rcraayaa -recea rpecen Mety 2 rropojsra 6pB31111 WTO ce cnyurraar KOII nneuaacxara ,llOJIHIlKa Illejraanua, na 150 - 250 M aaco-raaa. Cspaeu e Mcfy cocenaare panoaa If npacranen e ca ao on aanan no -recna nenana. Ceaepna'ra CTpallanpeTCTBoyaBlloJlrBepTIIKBneH KaprreCTOTceK(paCeIlJlIIHa).llenpIICTanell aa acxavyaax,e. Hajaacoxaor. acrocen xpaj aaapuryaa co xapnecra 'IYKa, OABoeaa co cenrrc 011 nOOHCOKIlOT TTnllllllllCKII MaCllo.

Hajcwapu QciIiaiuOllu.: Sepaxaerncr epa aa rpeeeaor. AOJlr 250 II WllpOK 20-60 M, BO ,'IOllHoaHTII'lKO apeae 6nrr on$aTell co ena6 KBMeHeH SHA.

YicrO'lIlHOT,[I,en,aKpOnOJlaTa,COellellllarrpe'leHSIIA6I1nOMeneHollrrollrpano-r. Ha 3111l1l,[l,1I110T lien npez TeCIlOTO ceuno. ce rnenaar ocraTOI.III Oil eneu npeIlSUJl.,WTOrOOTe)!(lIyoaJlrrpflCTanOTKoIIKperrocra

Ep0311jaTB HI 11MB acnpanc ocraroua're OA CKpoMIIHTe CTaH6elHI C!lOeB!! rtapvarsa-ra 0)1 1I011HOBIITII'IKa rpnvapeja H IlHTOCli. rrorca sceneaua ar-ypa. Bo

WKOJICKaTa 31SHpKa BO Benaua IfMa rroaeae PI:IMCKII ~IOHeTI:I 0Jl. 1l0ll;IIHOT 4. II 5 BeK. lIajllellll aa OBOj 1I0Kan1lTeT. Ilpe-rcrnayaa A06po 3aWTlITeH pynapcxa pe¢yruYM aa OKOJlHHaTa, xopacreu aepojarao caac OIlBpeMe-IIBBpeMe

CA. 27. 'Kane-Muaieopoe« ', EeAutjo, 90tjIiOGHillu'i"u PY9apo:u 36e2. DeAYM.HO e otinoeen - «opucaien HUJ cpe9HUOW. eex tuipadrupano]

CpeOH06eK06HU Qcwaiiioqu, Bo npocropo'r 118 CTapBTa 3KpOnOJIB ce r-nena enex aanpe-rea SH)1 113rpall.ell B.O eAHO nO,'lOJ.tHe:+:HO apeae: lIeCOMlleHO 00 cpen- 1I00eKooHeTO. Ha TOj Ha'iHIl 611na orpopeceua MBJle'lKa epenocr. acxaqena aa xapnecrar-a 'lyKa aa HcrO'lIlIlOT J1eJl 118 r-peeeaor. 011 TOj npocrop MeCIlOTo aaceneaae ccfipano noaese BH1BIITlICKR MOlleTH - t'JaKapHH CKH$aTII 0il 12.-13. BeK. 80 WKOJlCKBTa 36l1pKa 00 Benana ce xyaaar H lIeKoJiKY apaoaa 0)1 crpena. 1I0)!(OBH H BJlaTKII HCKooaHIl 0)1 sreneao. WTO no $opMa ynaryaaar HS ,[I,Oll;HIIOT cpenea aex. cora {JIIJlO 06HoBeHo PYIlBPCTOOTO lIO oaae KpllIIWTa. Ha 2-3 KM jY)!(HO 0,[1, Kane-ro Jle)!(11 nOreJOT Menoa co -rpara 0,[1, excnnoa-ranaja (noapuraucKlI aorroaa} aa )!(ene311(\ PYIIB

Benaua

[jeJIuqa. PYJ1HlI'lKa spencer. CJI. 28, 29

MecwQuQJJox6a, Mecaocra "Kane xa CTOJlOOaTe~· Jle:+:H 2 KM ceaepuo 0)1 Benane. TIpeTcrBoYBB 200 M OllCOK Pllil (938 104 11.:.1.); KOII ceaep H jyf, npexy celina, np0)10Jl)!(YBa BO nnaaaaa 1I0lleKS crpasrn're crperc nafaa-r 00 ,'IOJlHHKH. Bo IlCTO'lHOTO IlOIIHO)!(je 1l0MHilyaB noxanea pynapcxu na-r, WTO 011 Benuua ce xavy- 9a'KOIl npe aano-r [nIl60Beu; na ceaep II npononacyea KOII Kapauana II Cxoncxa'ra KOTrrIlHa. Flpe xy [JlH60BeJ.t BO 1l.01lHoaIlTH'lKO apeae 61lJla noane-reaa rpana'nra

CII.28. "Kane IW CillOIl06atl1el{", Eellu'{(!, 90'{Hoalllllu'lKupY9HU'tKU Kacillell, 06110(JCI! 60 cpeonuota eee

amraja Mety npOSIIHI.\DIfTe Maxenoxaja II" Ilupnanaja.

Hajcwapu QciiiaiuD'Iu.: Ha SpSOT ua KaJleTO so paHOSll3aHTIfCKO ape ee 6RJla aarpanena PY,IlapCKa If rpBHH'IHB TBPAHHa. SIfAOBIfTe ce H3seAeHlI so I.\PSCT sranrepea onye e vnnex'roa, If aa'raopea'r rpnaronen npocrop co ,IlIfMeH3IHI 100 x 40 M. Ha armrre croene 113ABAeHIf KYJlR. UOJl)j( I:ICTO'lHIfOT II jY)!(IfHOT SHA onaarpe ce nortapane HH311 oA '1eTSpTeCTB npocrcpua aa )!(lIseeJl.e II searauaxa. Hajneua ce 6pojHII MOHeTI:I oA 5. 1:1 6. sex, SpOBIl OA CTpeJlII. TOKII II yapaca aa nojac 011 6poH3a 1:1 aceneao, KaKO H '-lHory IKeJle3Ha arypa. Kecrenor ra soarpcnapan 6nHeKIITe PYAHHI.\H ae scerreao H enOMHaTIfOT rpaaa-rea npeMIIH. CpeOH.06eK061Iu ocwaiiiol/u.

Bo Y'IIIJlIIWHaTa 3611pKa so Benaua eaanee'rapaaae HeKOJlKY SII3aHTliCKlI MOHeTII 011 11.. 12. If 13. aea. 1l0T03 seHeQ"IIjaHeKIf01l14.seK;CHTe TJ:!e ee HajlleHIf aa oaa Kane. TspAIIHaTa 6HJla MHorYA06po cc'ryeena HH3 epe,IlllOSeKOSIIeTO II co MIIHllMBnHH epnessa 6J:!na ocnocooeua na rlI WTHTIf cexcaeaare PYAIfIfIlIf aa IKeJle30

Bepojarao so 13. 1f11R 14.seK611J1aH3rpalleHalleH'rpanna'ra xyna (1I01l)!(OH) SHarpe so apenoc-ra. Taa ro p;ellel1a nOMaJiIfOT ceaepeu Jlen OJ< rnaSHlIOT ly)!(eIlIfPOeTOp. BaKSi! AOI{)!(OI!I:I filll1e aarpaueaa II SO cOCeJlHHTe KpenOCTH SO AeSH'I II SO CII. 29. "K(IJ1e ua CiIiQlIQ6aiIie~·, Eellu,{a, naocu;

Sarpan. 10. _ 12. eetc

Bo 893 rOJllllla KJlH-

MellT OXpllJl.CKIl fillJl 1l0CTaSeH aa emrcxon BO ,upeM6111..(a IlJII! IieJIHLla. Ilocera ce H31!eCeHil noaeee MI!CneJl.a sane Jle)!(eJIU Benaua (11.1111 Benaua). Apxeonouncrre ocraroua so Flopexe yxaacyaaa'r aa OpOjHO cnoaeucxo naceneane so THe SeKOSIJ II aepyeaae JleKU CTaHYBa 300p TOKMY 3U aaurare Benaua. YpHaTI!Hl!Te ua enna roneaa upxaa neaca'r Ha 2,5 KM 3a03/1HO O,II Benaua, H3 ycme-ro aa Beneuruana

BoTpeCKa(Be}1HKB),1l0Kpaj rJI!lSHllOTIfBTIIH3nOpe'le.

t{eau'l, peraonamrc cpenaurre. Cn. 30, 31.

Duw.: <P. Mececnen 1933,175-176; - H. MIII{YJI'IHJ{ TIR, 42

MeciiioiiOIlO1lt6a. TecHHoT xaprtecr rpeeea 'AeBII.HH KYJIH' ce H3Allr8 75 M DHCOKO HaA pexa'ra Tpecxa (596 M H.M.). eaea KMjyroHCTO'lHO 0,11 j:{eDH'l. Peea-ra CKpWHyD8 BO roneje nax OKOIlY nero. npHCT811eH e neCHO 0,11 3anDA, npexy recHOTO cennc KaAe WTO nOMIiHYBan CTapHOT na-r Csonje - EpOA (- KH'leDO - OXPIIIl); na OBa ceuno ce OABOjYBaJI lIaTOT KOH Flpunen.

C1.30. 'lIe8U1UJ. KYIIU', Iieeun, OIJffiU'fKO PY90PCKO nacentia. AKpOaOAO!Do e L4eIlOCHO 06H08elw 80 13.- 14. 8el( ("ipa9IIe8U'f")

Hajciiiapu ociiiaiiiOllu.: He rpeeeecr eana H3rpaAeHD yxpenena xaceaea so 8HTI1'1KO apeae. 60 AOllHDTD DHTHK8 (hln 113rpaAeH SIIA co aan'rep, 'lJnl. WTO OCTaTOllH xaerecra ce rnenaar 1I0A Cpe,[lHOBeKOBHlioT SUA. Ha jYlKHaT8 nBAuH8 II DO HCTO'lHOTO nO,[lHO)Kje, ,[10 pexu'ra, ce IIpOCTHpano aeyxperreuo ncarpanae co

rOneMI1Ha 011 3 xa. Haena: xeneHIICTlI'lKB, P1lMCKB 11 110I.\HOllHTIl'lKlI xepaaaxa, xeneHIICTH'lKIl II PIIMCKH MOHeTll 3BKJlY'!HO co 6. BeK. Hacexajte Jle)!{H roneesc KOnH'leCTBO arypa 011 TOlleHO »ceneao II' onOBO. Oaaa pynapcxa aacenea e aajronejaa BO nope ve J1 npercraayeaxa aeco aaeao cpenaurre aa peruoaor BO CTOllaHCKa a ynpaaaa CMlICJln.

CA. 31. '.ae8UH.U Kyeu " .aerm'l, naoou 13.- 14. 8eK

~

o

CpeOI108el;.08UU ocifiaiii.Ollu. Kpertoct-a WTO ueaec ce rneaa na SpSOT na rpeeeno-r HOCIl rpa/.le}l{HH 6eJle3H na 13.-14. sex. lpane)l(HHOT error e rrnoxecr. apwapaa co 6pOjHI! npeeaa rpena (caarpa.r]. yxpeneuaor npcc-rop IlMlIJI /.111Mell- 3lHt 160 X 52 M (0,7 xa}. Jlonenen e co rranpe-rea 51111 BO IIBa nena. Bo ueu-rapo-r na xpenoc-ra croena rnaaua-ra KyJla (/.10I1)1(OH). CO nllMeH31lH 8x8,5 M II SIlCOKa, neaec. /.105 M.

HB3al1BIIHHOTnen ce aaorana nopra, epaaera co H3naJ1eHB s.yn a Il COJ1ae CTpa)KlIpCKIl KyKI!OAlJaTpe.HuHCTO'lHIIOT/.1eIlCTOenaCJlenHlITaKYJla,a'!eTBpTara CTOIl H neHecBojY)KHOTO nO/.lllO}l{je aa puao'r. Kpaj nea ce BJlerYBa!!O ao !10/.1- rpagae'ro, ortxonenc co KaMeH sIl1l6e3 aanrep. EJl1I3Y /.10 rrccnenaara s yna CTOIl enHa upxea. yxpaceua co sepaao-nexopauaja (HecOMHe}[O 0J1 14. BeK). Ilo ncnoaaua e ypnara. co /.1eJlYMHO ueneaen raaeyp WTO ja uocen rnaauara xyrrcna

011 }!(HBOllIlCOT oc'raxane MIlHHManHH OCTaTO~H.

npOCTOpOT aa rroxrpanae'ro HMa rone aaaa 0112.5 xa. Flcxpnen e co OCTa· TOQIJ 0.11. aexcraumare KyKH. co nap'!H!l.a on cpenacaexoaaa KepaMI:IKa IJ KOBallO »ceneao (Knlllll.lll a KnaMctJlI. 1l0)KOBll H I1p.), aaory xceneaaa arypa Il napxarea cvpoeo aceneao. n03HB'IajHI1 naona: nen OA epoaaeu KpCT - eaaonnaoa. npcren (10.-12. ee«), MOHeTII- (5aKapHII cKllctJaTII 0" 13. BeK (6yrapcKH H JlaTIJHCKH IlMHTaQHH). CPllCKH cpecpemr napa 0/.1 14. BeK

I'panc'r Aelll:l'l co ceucaexoro cesanee II Kynll npeTCTaBYBa HajJ106po aanaaen cpenecaesoeen yxperten nyHKT 80 Ilope-re. I-!3rpalleH e lleCOMHeHO no cprtcxare cceojyaaaa. DO 1I011HIlOT 13. IIJlII 14. BeK. Toraw H pynapcrao-ro nocrarnanc canen paaaoj, a Aeoll'! CTaHaJl CTonaHCKO cpenaurre ua per-aoao'r. Co -rypcxare oxynauaja pynapc-raorc aaapeno, a ynpaeuaor ueatap 6nn rroMepeH lleKOJlKY xnncsrerpa na jyr, BO HOBaTa xacace EpOIl KaAe WTO It aenec ce sacra I'panor AeBH'! He e 3a6elJe)KuH BO -rypcen-re 1I0KYMeHTI:!, WTO lila'll:! nexa (51l!! uanyurreu aennmn rrOTypCKOTO OCBOJYBB!l.e.

3arpaA (Pacreur)

[pan PaciiJeUf, PY/.IapCKB xpenccr H xpajnaraa crpaaca. Cn. 32. Meciii.oiiO.l!OJIC6a. H3ABOeHI:IOT eynxaacxn xyn "Kyna" ce H311Hra HaA YCTueTO na Tpe60BcKa Pexa BO Hpneuuuma. I KM llCTO'!HO 0.11. 3arpaJ1 a I KM ceaepno 011 Pacreur. BRcoK e 140 M (915 M H.M.). IlMa CTpMIt rranllHlI It aapaaaer BPB, rrpac'ranen e cane on 3Bnall. rrpexy II11a60Ko ceunc. Kpaj Hero BOAn CTapBOT rta-r Flopeue - [OCTIlBap, KOj o'r-ryxa ce Ka'lYBa KOIl nJlaHIlHCKHOT npeaaneu BOJl'!e aa Cyaa Fopa.

Hajciii.apu Ociii.aiUo'lu.: Bo 1I0I.\HOPHMCKO epe ee IlB BPBOT aa KyJl3 eanc uarpanenc MaJlTepHO 06sltlllle oxony Tp"UrOJleH npccrop. rcne« 80 x 60 M (0,3 xa). Bo 6. BeK SHJ10T 61ln u:enOCHO oCiHosell, co Kynll xa ar-mrre. Bna'rpe aa IICTO'lHIlOT xpaj ce nasapa eana I.\IlCTepHa 3B AOll<lIoBHHlla, acexeaa eo sapna. Heoun: Ilap'llilba on nOQHoallTH'IKa KepaMII.Ka B lI<eneaHa arypa. CI1THII npenee-ra «oaaaa 011 sceneao. KaCTeJlOT an Kyna O'iIlTneIlHO CJIy}!(eJl KaKO PYJ1Hll'lKa crpaaca II aa xoxrpona Ha rpaHlI'lHIlOT npeMIlH HB npeaaneuo'r Bon-te, KaJ1e WTO 61lna ncanevena rpaHIIQBTa Mefy npOBI1HQlIHTe Maxenonaja II Flpeaana'raaa. CpeOliOBeK0611u ociUaiiiOllu. Perl:!CTpHpBI.IMe noaeee nap'orn-a on cnoeeacxa uperma II nounocpennoeexceua orHHWHa rpnxapuja. 80 CpeI1HUlHIIOT, aajnaCOKHOT nen Ha xperroc'ra Jle}l{ll ronewa rpaeaaua 0.11. rrBAHBTII SHIlOBIl HB eAIlB 1I01.\I1a rpensa. o'lHrnellHo 1I0QHocpellHoBeKoBHa. I1Ma ctJopMa aa KpY)l(eH BeHeQ co npevxnx 0.0 12 - 13 M. rpensara 6Hna rpanena 6e3 aarrrep. KBKO roneaa xyna - J10H)KOIi aa PYJ1I1Il'lKII ncrpesa 1I aa CTpa)KapIITe. 06sIIIIIleTo na c-rapa-ra xpe-

157

CA. 32 "KYlla", 3atpa9, 904Jjoallfflu'fl(u PY9HU'fl(U I(acffle.A, o61W6ell e 9tIlYMnO 80 cpe91JU0ffl 6el( ("tpa9 Pacfflem"J

nocr e J106po aanaaeuc H ua aero HeMa nOIlOQHe)!(HH 06HOBH.

Bacoxa'ra CTpa)!(B aa Kyna IIMana KCTa cpyH!CJ..\Hja KaKO II rropaao: ga ra KOHTpOJIHpa II Aa rll WTIITH OKonHIHe PYAIIIIQII IIl1aTOT OA Flcpeve npexy BOII'le KOH fOCTIIBap. OBOj nar IIMan roneao lHa'leH.e KaKO rnaaaa BpCKa co MaTH'IHBTe CPIlCKB leMjB HB ceaep. no cpncxirre OCBojYBaH.a ua nOIlOJIITe II Ilcpeve. Crrcpea npenanaero, aa Kyna CTOeJI rpancr Pacreur.

KpBjnBTHB II PYIIHH'IKa Kpe110CT. Cn. 33, 34

Ouw.: H. MIIKYII'!1I11.1989, 56; - M. HBaHoBcKIl 1987. 123-124. MecwoiioJlO1IC6a. MeCHOCTa "Tpajteu" npeTCTaBYBa aaapure'rox Ha nonr nnananCKB orpanux lIaAHeceH HaA YCTlleTO 113 peKH'IKaTa Ose BO BellllKS co 250 M BHCO'lIlHa. JIe)l(lI I KM ceuepno OA 3AYH.e. HaA AeHeWHaTa 1I0nllQHCKa craunua. naTOT 011. Cacnje aa Flopeve, KIl'leBO II O~PIlA, cIIerYBajKII 011. BIICOKIIOT npe aaa

158

Ilepeea {Cxoncxo BpAO) BO xnucypa'ra aa BeIlHKa. BpTH oxony Fpaneu OA TpH CTpaHH npen na CJIe3e 110 Benaxa. CTpaTeWKaTa noaauaja ua Fpaneu e 113BOHpeAua. necxc e nocraneu caeeo npexy MaIlO cennc 011 jyroacrc-mara crpana. Hajcwapu ocwaiu.0llu.: 3apaMHeTIlOT I1pOCTOp xa BPBOT aa I'paaeu, CO ,[IIiMell- 311H 190 x 40 M (0,6 xa} ortcpa'ren e co OCTaTOllHTe xa MaJlTepHO OOSII,[IlIe, co nouHOaHTH'IKR Oene3H. HaOAR: MHory nap'lHH.a OA AOQHoaHTH'IJ(a rpaqapzja. nllTOCH H -rerynu. nap-ian-a OA KOBaHO )!(ene30 II TOlleHO onOBO, }Kene3Ha arypa; MeTanllB YJ(p3CH OA 6. BeK, PBMCKII MOHeTH 011 4., 5. II 6. BeK. 80 IIOJtIlO}KjeTo ce OTKonaHII rp060BIICO HaKHT (5. I! 6. BeK).

KaCTeJlOT aenrnenyean eAeH MHory roneu nen oA cnOMllaTBOT nar, KOj HeKOJlKY snnoaerpa jY)!(HO OT'TyKa ja npeamryaan rrpOBBHl\IlCKaTa rpanuua OA Aap,[lall.H:ja KOH Maxeuouaja. I'a KOHTpOllHpaJl H OKonHBTe py,[lHHQII na aceneac II

CII.33. 'Tpo9fW,', 39Yl-be, 90~1l0aHltlU'fIW I(pajaawelllwcfflell, «opuctuen U 60 cpe91luoffl 6el( ("tpag 39yll")

Cpe01l0eeK0611U ocwawoqu. Ha oi5SHAlleTO HeMa rparn OA cpeJl,II0BeKOBHII 06HOBYBal-ba; aepoja'mc cane lI.oi5po aanaaenc H BO cpeAHOBeKOB.H:eTO H KOpHCrene aa IICTa lien KaKO II nopauo. DBa ro nOTBp,[IYBsaT HaoAHTe aa !SpOjHll

159

cnOBeHCKH upenna xa npccrcpor na uenara xpenocr- 1I0TOB ca-rua nap-nusa 011 K08BIIO xceneac CO CpellH08eK081111 OeJle31l - 8pBOBlI 011 crpena ae IlpOO1l8aH.e naanap. nojacna TOKII, anaTKII II lip. Hajjtea e enen opOll3eH lIpCTeH (12.-13. aex) II MOHeTR - 6aKBpHli cKH!JlaTH (lSyrapcKH HMIITBl.llfII) 011 13. aex. Ha IInaHIlHCKIITe xoce jyroacroxuc on Fpaneu nessar crapa PYP;HHIIR

W. 34. 'rpage~", 39YlDe, 11(10914, ll.-J3. eeK.

BIlCOKS xpajrta'rua H peruoaanna crpasca. Cn. 35, 36.

OuiU.: f. Cnaccacs;a 1987, 167-175 (noll MHoKa3R): - E.MaHesB 1992, 121 MeciUouQJlO3f(;6a. BynKaHcKHOT ayn "Kane" ce IJ3AHra 440 M aucoxo HBP; pexa'ra Benaxa (1022 M II.M.) 3aTBopajKII fO 3Bnal1HIIOT nen na pe,{IIHOT -recaeu, ViMa crpMHIl lIaAIlIIII B aapaune'r BpS. Flpacraneu e npexy eAIiO nnaeoxo ceunc 011 cesep- Oaropa ce rnena axcry WHPOK npocrcp HaoKony: cnOMHaTHOT pevea recueu (co naTOT Kaveao-Bpon-Flpnnerr) P;O HCTO'lHilOT Kpaj; rrcrca 1I0JlHHaTa xa Benaxa II ua ronexe Pesa no nnaHIlHCKHTe npeMHHII Flpecex II Llepon 22 KM na aanau npexy KOII lIaTOT 011 KII'IeSO BOI1Il KOII OXPllP; Ii orpaHOKOT KOH Iletiap. HBTBMy. npeaunor Typna 1111 nrraanaa-ra EBtia Ca-r npexy KOj l1aTOT on Kaceao

ce llCKa'lY8a xon Xeneaneu u 80P;1I IIBTaMY KOll611Tona

HajciUapu QciUaiUQ'Iu.: Ha SPBOT ce perucrpapamr ce-ra-rona op; xexeuacmxac apeere. Bo P;OI.lHOpHMCKO BpeMe ISIIJlO uarpaneuo canno OISSIIp;lle oxony npoc-rcp

CJI.35. "Kane", I1J1Cuw.we, 90~1I0aHillu'lKU 36e~, «opucme« u 60 cpeonuotu 6eK ("~pa9I1)1(")

CO p;HMeH31111 230 x 195 M (2,5 xa}, Bo cpeneuraao'r p;eJl ce aasapaa-r OCHOBH 011 noaexe KyKII. Haop;II:p;OllJlOaHTII'lKa xepaenxa. CTaKJIO, CHTIIH C5poH3eHII ykpacn. MOHeTlI on JlOIl,HHOT 4. II 5. BeK, !Jl1IC5yna op; P;OIlIlIlOT 6. aex Oeoj rene a II BIICOK 3C5er ro nenrnenyaan rpaHH'IHHOT rrpe aun 0/\ npoaaauajara Maxenoaaja KOII

HOB Enap I! ITpeBaJlHTaHa.

Bo jyr03anBJlHOTO ncaacaqe ua Kane-ro. na pm-re-ro "Beueu" xpaj naTOT. 80 6. BeK tiuJia uarpaneaa YWTe exna xpenocr 'lllj qenen SIIA OIlJl aajaxnar co npensan II 9 KYJlII: BO nea croena II enne rone aa Oa311J1I1Ka. TYKa, aepcjarno fillna CTBI.IBOllllpaHa nOrpBIIII'lHB KOH.aHH'IKa eAHHHl.la au napes rea xompone aa

na'r-am'ra-ra KOII nIlXIIII.!I. Cxyna II Kepaanae. JlolleKa BIiCOKam KpenOCT na Kane II noaarana KaKOCTpaJKIl HC.llY)f(enaKaKoYKpeliellallace.ll6a II 36er3aOKOJIIiIlU-

CpeiJlt06elW811U ocmaiuoqu. Hajnena ce 1l0BeKe napvaa,a cnoaeacxa npenaa. noroa )f(ene3HH apaoau aa CTpeJlK aa npceaaaa,e nanuap II 6poll3ell npcrea (10.-13. see). 80 jyroKCTo'lHOTO nonaoaqe aa KaJleTO, na MeCHOCTa "Crapa U;pK8a" nexca-r TeMeJJIITe ua emra upxaa II OKOJlY nea rp060BH, co HaOJlII TBnH'IJ.lI:t 311 10.-12. aex . .upyrll rpcsaurre ce OTKonllHH BO jyroaananno'ro nOAHO)f(je, Ha cnOMHaTOTO pIIT'Ie Bexeu, xpaj ypua'rara paacxpacrajaacxa 6a3HnllKa OA 6. BeK !l:IlTilpllllll ce DO 10.-12. DeK. Cpemunnaor xcpao aa 61l311nllKIlTIl so rca epeue O'lKrneAHO 611.11 oenoaea II. ¢lyHKL\I!OHI:!PIlJl KaKO nouana upxaa.

Bacoxara CTpaJKa 1111 Kane HMana HCTa ¢lYHKIIRja KaKO II ncpeuo: DO 6ypIIi1Te speMilH.1l OA 10. ee« aaaaay 6i1J1a, aepojarao, onepesse-naspeae «aceneaa. 311 JIll r-o lIa6n,Yllyoll JlBiI}l(eH.eTO no l1aTIlWTaTIl 11113 OKOJlHHOT paraou. Crtopen

npenanaero. na Kane CTOeJl rpano'r H}l(.

CA. 36. "Belle!i", MUOKaJU, Kpajl1(1((1eH KacmeA 09 6. 8eK. CJlOBeHCKU ~p0601Ju 0910.-12. 8eK oaacpuenu ce Kpaj 6lL3UJ1UKama (ao T. Caacoecea]

MO.ll:pHWTe

J'pan MoiJpu'Ie, PYAHIl'lKa xacenea Ii xpenccr. Cn. 37, 38.

Hum.: Fl.Jonancaax 1928. 278-280; - p.rpyjl1K 1933,53; - tf>. Mececnea 1934, 183; - T. TOMOCKH 1971,255-258; - H. MIlKyn'lHK TIR, 87.

MeciilouoJlO1tC{ia. Tecuaor xaprrecr PHP; "Mapxono Kane" ne)f(JI I KM ceaepxo Ofl Monpnurre. Bacox e 160 M HaA peaara Bennxa (645 M H.M.). t1MB CTpMHB naneHlI II npacranen e CIlMO npesy TeCIlOTO cenno 011 jyroncroa. OA apao'r ce rnega KaH.OJlOT aa BeJlHKIl )\0 )'ToKIlTa HII Beneumena 5 KM na ceoep H YTOKaTIl aa Tononuaua 4 KM Ila jyr. Bo 1l0JlIIO}l(jeTo, )\OJl)f( peseta, MHHyaa !lIlTOT Cxcnje - EpOA - KH'IeaO - OXPIlA, aHTIl'lKHOT naT Cxyna - JIIIXHIlA.

Cn. 37. "MUPKOBO Kane", Monpaurre. AOIlHOaHTIf'lKa crpaaca. ccsoeeaa so cpeunxo'r aex (vrpan MOIIPA'I")

Hajciaapu ociilaiuOljU.: 80 1I01l1l0UHTIl'lKO apaae OKOJJY SpSOT 011110 1l0AHrllBTO cssame co aanrep. coe aa'raopano npoc'rop co JlIIMeH311H 120 x 50 M. (0,4 xa). Bua'rpe. DO JKlIsa aepna o!:!ne aceveua i5POjHH npOCTopHH 311 sraeeen-e. KaKO Jl enaa uacrepna aa )\O}l(JlOBHHl\a aa jyrcacro snsor nen. Haone: MOlleTH OA 1<011-

163

HHOT 4., 5. H 6. aex. Bo jYlKHOTO nonaoaqe. xpaj pexa'ra II YCTlieTO na MOJlPIHllI(B. nescar- OCTaTOl.I1I lIa noronewa PYJlapCKB aacenga (reaenn. KepaMIIKa, arypa 0,11. rcneaa aceneana PYAa. MOllenl 0,11. 3. ,11.0 6. eex. 6a3n1lIlKa). Orapa PYIIHHI.IH aa lKe.lle30("Me.lloll")JlelKaTjyroIlCTO'l1i0.

-~' ..... '.:' ... ' •..• '.' ..... ' .. ' ••. -- ·T'··;-;

- ~ '.,

\ i~:

1;-00

CJl. 38. "Mapxoao Kane", MOIIPHwTe, HaOAH. 12.-14. BeK)

Cpei)noeelw6NU OciuaiiiOIlU. Kpenocra aa Mepxoao Kane 61111a 1(0pHCTeliB H BO lpeJlIIOT cpenea sex: IIBjJleHII ce napxaa,a 011 CJlOBeHCI(H upemur u 6pOjHI1 MOlieTH - 6al(apliH CKHlj:!aTH 0,11. 13. aex (JlaTIIIICKI! I1MHTaI.lHH na MaHYlIn I KaKO II ua AIiAPOIIIJK II Flaneonor (1282-1328). ncroa 6poH3eH aaxn-r 0Jl 12.-14. BeK. lKe.llelHIl IIPOll3S01l11 - HO)KOBH. 8PBOBII 011 crpenn, CTlOjI<H. ana-tau II I1p.

Ha cocenaac'r Bapourx u PHA WTO .IIelKH 200-500 M jYIKHO O/II<penOCTa ce npoc-rupana neyxpeneaa uacenea {napour}, no'tepneaa co I5pOjHlf OCHOBIi aa KyKH H CIITHII HaOAH 011 HCTO epeae. nOli AeHewHoTo ceno. KBj I.(pKBaTa na Flpevac-ra. cncpen KaIKYBaa.aT3 Jle)K3T oCTaTOl.(lITe na MOIIPII'IKHOT MBHaCTllp 011 14. 8eK, AeJlYMHo acxonyaaa

164

MOIIPII'lKaTa rapneaa HI KOHTpOJlHpaJla PYIIHHl.\HTe xa aceneac OKOJlY Monpaurre H 1l0WHpOKO. nOllrp311IIeTO ce peaaanc 80 aapour co rpr. KOBB'IIIHI.(II. IIYKallll II rtaaap. MOAPIl'lKIIOT aanacrup IJMaJl ItMOTII HH3 l.(eJlOTO Flopeve II Ita acnan ce rpanaven co MeTOXHTe na rOCTHBapCKHOT H TeTOBCI(HOT MaHaCT!!p. Cenax. rpano'r MOIIPH'I OCTaHBJI BO cenxa na perllOHaJlIIIIOT lIeHTBp, rpauc'r AeBH'I.

OnWTHliB BAJlAH)lOBO

BanaR.El:olIO

yapeneso cenaurre AJla(lan006o. Cn. 39, 40.

nu.iii.: B. Keproa 1972; - T. TOMocKIi 1975,271-278; -11. MHKYJl'IHK TIR, 129 MeciiioiiOJlO1lf6a. Mecaccra "Hcap-Haaop-Kyna" nelKH 0,8-1,3 KM CCYI 011 BaJlaHIIOBO (230·430 M H.M.) 100-300 M SltCOKO Ha,llIlOIlHllaTa aa Boasraja (Ancxa pexa). Flpercraeyaa sapOIlIlH'IKH plt,ll f!a,lllleceH HaJl ,IIOJ"[HHBTB, WTO xaxo -recea CpT npononscyaa aa ceaepoaanaa SO Fpanemxa naauaaa. Orpana-re aa pHIl.OT naraar CTpMIIO SO nae napanenaa lIJ1al5oKH ,IIOJlHIIIIII. Ha jyroaananna-ra II jyroIICTo'maTa nanaaa aa HcapOT 1130llBaaT MIIOry CIIJlHII U3110pU H8 nU8Ka BOlla, KOII neaec ce xarrrapana II cnpoeenena 80 rpanor. Ao name epeve TYKa CTOeJle

1l0SeKe BOAellllllH H sanaBIlHl.\H,JlBH)Kellll OJlCIIJlHaTa BOlla

Hajciiiapu Ociiiaiiio'lu.: Ha jyroacrcxnara -repaca non 3aspUieTOKOT na CPTOT, oxony xajcaauuo-r H3S0P, SO paae'ra 8l1TKKa OIlJla oq,opf<.leHa yxpenena nacenea, a aa CPTOT Ha,[l aea aeponona. HaOIlK: napqaa,a aTI!'1Ka H KOpHHTCKa cnaxana «epaeaaxa 0,11. 6.- 4. BeK CT.e. 80 ,[IOI.(HaTB BHTHKB (3.- 6. BeK) npccropor OKOJlY 1!3S0POT Aol5l1n HOBO 06SIIAlie 0,11 KaMell CO MaJlTep. Hacenfia'ra 3a¢laKana npocTOp 011 10 xa. Flponajneaa ce BHBTpewHH rpaJli6u,15pojHlI MOlleT!! 0,113.11.0 6. aee. Ha nanaaara jyroaartanno OA rpauor oracnaaa ce rp060sH, lIaTlIpaHH co MOHeTII

B03.H4.lIel(.

80 6. BeK 06sHAIleTo sane 061l0BeHO, jyr03anaJlIIHOT SHII noaecreu narcpe, a axponoaara e nanecena II aajaxna-ta co Hilla ronesaa XYIIII. Ha nrrauxuCKKOT CpT 200 M ce aepoaanajtxo 0,11. axporronara 611.11a aarpageaa ocaaena Kyna-CTpaIKB, co nor-nen KOH JlOJlIIHilTa na Bapnap. MilCIJSHa, CO /I.IIMeH3HIl 10,7 )19.2 M.AeHece aacoxa S M lIBA novaa'ra. Fpaneaourre eeneaa ]e l1aTllpaaT ao 6.

E,[IHO aeno na 3nBTIIII napu 011 Hcapo'r. K08aHII 011 Jycruuajax 110 Xepaxnnj. ja 0JlOeneIKYBaaT CIiOBellCKaTa uuaaaa]a oxony 615

165

Cn. 39. "Plcap-Kyna", Banaxnoao. aHT!!'1KH rpan Vi,[lOMeHe. Axpcrrcnara e naceneua H DO 1I0L(HHOTCpelleH eex (cexo Anaaanncao)

'"

Cpeepeaare napa OA KOHCTaHC II (64\-668) urro -ryxa ce HlljAeHIl (BCTO ao HM Benrpan) 3150pYBallT AeKa BII'3I1HTHCKBTa enacr naepry !lllna eparena II DO oeaa xpenocr, aeryroa He aa nonro; DO HBCTaHIlTe 011 10.-11. eex II HaTIlMY MeCTOIlO

HIlKOj He ro aaseae scan.

Bo jY:+:HOTO rronuoaqe aa Hcapcr, DO L(eHTapOT HII Banauuoso Il jylKHaTa nepadrepaja (yn. Jl.Kcnaureacxa Il 'CTaKl:!Ha vleunaa") aa 4 MeCTa ce OTKonaHH lIenoBH 0,[1 PUMCKII nparpancxa BlInD CO MOlall'illU nOAODlI, ABTupaaB BO paHBOT 4. DeK. Hacenda-ra xaj Banaanoec IlMana jaCHI'! rpancxa !lene3H. Heccaneuo ce pa60TII 311 l1l1oMeae, ellaaCTBeKHOT nacaeuo nOTBPAeH rpan 110 .o;onHOTO tjoaapnapae 110 1I0QHoaHTIl'lKO epe.ae.

en. 40. "Heap", BanaHAOBO, MOHeTIl 0.11 7. II \3.-\4. DeK

CpeOl108eK0811.U ociiiaiiiO'lu, JYlKHROT SIIII HII axportona'ra e covyaaa U neaec H8MeCTB 110 IHlCBHa 110 4 - 5 M, a nOTeKHYBa 011 6. eex. O'lHrneAHo e nexa all3 uenoro cpenuoeexcaae OIlJl uenocno CO'lYBaH II nopana -rca 611n xcpacreu aa aaconayaaa.e au xorren a're 011 TOj xpa]. nOBpwlIHaTII na YKpeneHIITa axponona 3a<tJaKII 3 xa. WTO e anory 38 CpellHOBeKOBHII rrorpeen. Cnopen OCT8TOllIlTe WTO ce r-nenaa-r Ha TOj IlPOCTOP, laKnY'IyaaMe nexa 'ryxa nccrcena Haeenoa OA pa30Jtell Tun Il co HerPBIICKIi eenesn - ceno, B CTapHTe SIIIIHWTa II CJIYlKene aa aaurra-

Til npa noaann onBCHOCTH.

Flpadpaau're apxeonouraa llaOIlH no-res nyaaar OA ,!l.OQHOTO cpejtnoaexcaae (13.-\4. ae s ). TOil ee nap'lllH.a 011 rnerocaua Bl!lallTHCKIi '1UHIIR 1I nOKplJDHlI -rer-yna 011 KOMHeHoaCKIl -mrr [neneuxn). eneu !lpoH3eH npcreu. no-rca DII3aHTliCKil MOHeTH 6aKapHH CKII<tJIITIi 01\13. sex II eeueuajancxa MOHeTII 011 14

167

eea. Bo 14. aex CiHn8 xarpazeaa H I.(pKSaTa ua ca. Feopru: 110 1349 rOAllHa nea ja "pHnO)l(HJI KaKO MeTOX HB cae'roropcxao-r Ma!laCTllp CII. Flarrrenejaon cpncaaor trap UywaH ("BO DOliMlija BO Aaaaanaoao") Ii IJOBTOP!lO BO 1378 r. opaKaTa Joaan Ilparaur II KO!!CTaHTHIi (C. Hoaaxoaax 1912,507,512). HCTaTa I.(pKBa CTOII H neaec 150 M jyroaananac OJi. asponona-ra aa Hcapo'r, rtoxpaj eneu CRneH B3II0P (110 MeCROCTa "MaHaCTHp").

ITHwyllajKH aa BanaHJl.OBCKHOT Heap. T.ToMOCKH ra npeaarnacyaa crrre oCTaTOIlH. 3a upxaara eenu AeKa ne)l(H IIp3 cpenaoaexoaaa'ra npeaa xoja (5Hna MHory noroneaa H oA xoja OCTaHaa 3 KaMeHH nno-ra co penje¢IHH yxpaca (1975, 275 H CJI.4). THe IlnO'lH HHTy ro 'YTIIPAysaaT HAeHTHTeTOT aa nOKanHTeTOT Heap" KaKO WTO nauryaa HCTHOT. uary 1l0TeKHYBaBT Ofl crapa'ra IIPKB(I lia CB. I'eoprn. CTaHYBa 3(50P 3(1 PHMCKH Haflrp06HH cnoaeuana oA 2. ana paHHOT 3. BeK IToBeJleH OJl OCTBTOIlHTe HB ~OI.lHOal{TH'IKaTa rpOpTHq>IIKaQnja H He paeIJ03l1aBBjKII WTO e TyKa JlOI.I!!OaIlTII'IKO (npeJlCJIOBeHCKO). a llITO cpep;1I0oeKOIIHO. TOMoCKIf ce'ro cea ro nplfq>aKa KBKO JlOKa3 aa "cpeAHOlleKOB!!IIOT rpaA Banaknoac". Mefyroa nncsreno HIlKaAe He e 1l0TIIPAeHO nexa AnasaHAOBO (511I1 rpan (IIIIII <ppyPIIOH -TBPJlIIHa). H B.KapToB (1972,50) nauryaajxa ja ponacxpajna'ra KHHra aa Banaanoeo. aaarepcxa H 1l0TIlOnHO npOH3S0JlHO rn nampa SHAIIWTaTa xa Plcapo-r H ayna're aa CPTOT DO 11.- 14. sex. Ilpen -roa (Ii.JI., 47) TOj eenu ~eKa ao 13. II 14. BeK BanaHJlOBO 1l0CTailHO npepacayaano 80 Mana rpaucxa nacentia.

A. CTOjBllOBCKIi (H.P;. 1970, 119-134) nmnyaajxa aa MaKeJIQIiCKBTe rpanoaa DO 15. a 16. DeK, He ro noxaxyea Banaunoso KaKO rpan- Toa e nornvac p;a ce O'leKYBa, CiIlAejKH Banaugoac He OHn rpan IIIlTy BO nperxonaa're BeKOBH. Banaanoao ro IlplIKa)l(aaMe ao HaWIlOT nper-nen TOKM)' 1I0pap;H CIlOMeHBTHTe mnnyaea,a, aa Aa MO)l(e 'I.IITaTenOT 1l0TO'l.HO na laKJIY'lH AanH nocrcen rpan Barrannoao, 111111 caxro cencxa aecenea Anaeaxnoso xoja H1HlIKHana Bp3 ypnamIIHTe aa eAeH JloIlHoaHTH'IKII rpap; 1:1 ce 3aCOJIHYBana 3ap; HerOBHTe SIIAoIIH. Bo AOIlHROT cpeneu BeK Al1ilBaHlIOBo e CpeAHWTe na pernono-r EOHM!1ja.

OnWTHH3 BHHHUA

Kpajna-nra crpaxa. Cn. 41. 42.

nUiii.: H. MHKyn'lIU: TlR, 132; - K. Dana5aHOB 1986, 153; - E. Maaeea 1992, 121. Meciu(Ju(JJI(J3H:fiu. MecHOCTa 'Tpanaurre. Kane" l1e)!(H aa jyroaanamrarn nepaq>epllja na BIIHlIlla. Flpe'rcranyaa 40-70 M BIICOK Pllil ue pa60T aa BHHH'lKOTO none. Hajnecac e npucranen OA jyr. npesy MaJIO cenno xoe BeW1"alJ.KII e rtpe-

168

D. 41. "Kane",BIfHlIl.la, AOI.IHoaIlTII'l.KII xac-ren AKponOJIaTa ooncseua ao cpenemror ae s;

169

ceveao so oAelpaH($eHH uenn. Bo ceBepHOTO nOI1HO)Kje nOMHHYBa naTOT WTHn - Buxaua - Bepcec. aHTH'IKIlOT naT ACTHOO - Baprana - TIapTIiKOnOJl. Kanero AOMIIHBpa HaA WHpOKan oacnana. ElIeH crap nnaH!l.HCKB na'r noatan all Kanero na jyr H npeey CPTOT xa Flnaqxoaaua HJOIiSan BO PaAoBHwKO Flone.

Cn. 42. "Kane", BItHHl\a, HaKIIT OA cnoaeacxa rp050BIf, 11.- I]. eex

Hajcwapu ociuaiiiOfju.: TIpOCTOpOT aa PHAOT Kane, onrpareu co cesmae. MepH 320 x 140 M (],2 xa). Hajcrapn HaOAII: aTII'Il(H cnllKaHII Ba311 H MOHeTIi na oanan II MaKeAOIICl(It. Bo 4. Bel' H.e. cane IIJrpaAeHO oesaaae co sran'rep It orpopaen xacren renew 2 xa. Bo 6. Bel' oriSItAUeTO 6uno 06HOBe1l0, IICTO 'raxa H xeanara Kyna,a HajyroIfCTO'lHIIOTllenIlOSHAaHa e aoeu Kyna co npeaau 11113 Ilea. Ha roj cexrcp ce OTKonaHH (BO 1985-1990 r.) enaa pauoxpuc-tnjancxa I.IpKBa, lIe1I OA Mafal\HH co axortaau nllTOCI:I H AO Hero lien on sorara KYKa co lIepI:ICTII1I, aepo-

170

ja'mo enacxoncxa peaaneuuaja. Bo uea ce HajAeHIl 6pOjllll KepaMH'IKH nnova co 01J6nllCKII lIpeTCTaBJ! BO penjetp ("BHHII'!KII IIl(OHII") co l(0J! OHne yspaceaa SIIIIOBJ!Te. rpaA6HTe c-rpanane BO nccsap II 511J1e nenocao ypnaru 80 AOI.IIIIlOT 6. Bel' {noaexe MOHeTIl aa Jyct-ax II, 569no r.)

Haxo Mane'lOl( no orieM, KaCTenOT BO Bltlllll\a co epeae OllJl 1l3AlIrHaT AO paar aa l\PKOBHO cpenaurre - aepoja'ruo enacxoncea c-rcn Kexeuanax (?). 3a oaa aeopysa II xonuesrrpauajara OA 10 ($a311J111Kll BO BHHlll\a 1:1 BO nejaaxa'ra oxonaaa.

CpeoH08eK06Hu ociiiaiuOfju. Ha npocropor xa axponona-ra WTO ro 3aq,aKaJla jY)KHHOT lien op: KaCTerrOT (co rOJleMIIHa 0,4 xe) DO Cpe.ll.HHOT BeK rill1l nOAHrHaT IIOD SI!.A Bp3 ypHaTHOT AOllHOaIlTH'IKH SItA. Toj 51111 rpenen MHOry nocxabo II Ge3 wenrep. a ollna oeuoaena II '!e1lHaTa xyna. Hajrone a nen 011 OBa OOSHIlHe e YIIHWTeHO so naure speWie co 3eMjOilencKH pa($OTH. Bo ceaepoaananaao'r lIeJl aa HOBaTa xpenocr OHne 3aKonyBaHH yWlpeHHTe. HCTpa}({eHIITe rp060BH ce AaTI!paaa co HaKIIT so 10.-13. eex. 11 crapa'ra ria311nltKa aepoja'rac OHna 06HOBelia (Hej31111HoT cpenamen xopafi) BO OBa epesse.

Ilocer-auma're HaOAI! HaBeAYDaaT ua 3aKJlY'lOK nexa Ha Kane-ro er3l1.CTIIpana Wlana spencer so 10.-13. DeK (MO)Kerill II. 1101l0Jlro), KaKO c-rpaaca noxpaj naTOT urro OA 1I0JlHllaTa xa CTPYMO npexy Maneureac 113611BaJl aa Bperannaua, aonejxa HaTaMY na aanan.

OnmTHHa fEBfEJlUJA

fa6pOBO (neTpOBO)

Fpaaa-ma crpaaca. Cn. 4], 44.

J1uw.: H. MBKyll'!HK TIR, 101 [Fle'rpoao}.

MeciiioiioJloJlt{ja. MecHOCTa "Mapxca Meaecrnp" nelKH 1,3 KM ceaepao 011 Fafipoao J! 2 I'M HCM 011 TIeTpoBO; cnnene-reaa e 4 I'M OA Bapnapcxao'r na-r Flpercraeyea 100 M BIICOK pllA co CTpWlHH nap:IIHH (]OO M H. WI.), llallHeCeH HaA YCTHeTo ne peKH'IKHTe Iterpcacea II Kanaua so C'rapa. Flpacrancr .11.0 BPBOT BOllI! rtpexy TeCHO cennc OA jyrcaanan. Tyxa 1I0MIIHYBa 1I0KaJlHHOT na'r no 1I0nHilKaTa aa C'rapa KOII nJlaHIIHCKIiOT npeMll1i Kanyfepcxa 1..J.yKa H HaTaMY BO aonaaara na 3MI!OpIIIIl.la II. AOIllHHl.la It 1I.30llBa na Bapuapcxa'ra MarllCTparra xaj Ae~lIIp Kanuja. Ha TOj lIa'lllll DO MIIHaTOTO ja 3a061:1KOJlYBane 16 KM nonrn'ra Fpanexxa Knucypa (AeMHp Knnaja-Yrtoso}. BO xoja BapAapCKIlOT nar MO}({eJ! neCHO ua OHlle eirroKllpaH II 30TBopaH BO Kpll3111t speMlllha.

171

Hajciu.apu ociiiaruorlu.: Ha BpOOT 011 panor 00 pall001l3UHTIICKO apeue l'illna narpaneaa repmma CO rpaaronna ocsosa, CO IIRMeH31I1I 110 x 120 M. (0,6 xa) H co 1I311BlleHit Kylllt liD DrllltTe. EJlell BllaTpewell SIIII ro lIenll jYlKHIIOT. lIajoltCOI<IIOT

en. 43. "Mapcoa Manacrup", I'aripoao. J10ltHOaHTII'IKa crpacea. ,UeJlYMHo e cenosena BO 1I0ltllHOT cpenea BeI<

.lien BO Mana axponona. nap'lHH.a 011 1I0ltHO!l.IlTII'II<a rpH'-Iapllja, -reryna II »reneana arypa nelK3T 113 nOBpwIl1l3TU. Bo rrnauaucxare na3YBII ua jyroaanau 011 I<aCTellOT naa rpara 011 crapo PYJl3pCTOO (6aKap II aceneso)

CpeOl/oae,WIJ1IU ociiiutUof/U. Kpenocra 611J1a aopacrena II BO OJlMIIH!l.THOT cpeJ1el! eex, cYAejKII cncpen HUOlllITe BO nea: napxau.a op, rneroccuc BIl3!l.HTIlCKU KepUMIlKU, MOlleTI1-63KUPHIl CKHtP!l.TIl 011 13. BeK (naTIli!CKIl I!MIITUl\llll) II liP

172

I1Ma Rllllllltl!l! JleKU 06SHJlIleTO aa axpcnonara 6Hno osuceeno. KBKO H xynare na jyr03UnUJlIIIIOT H jyroacrovaaor area. Oeaa nocnennara, co !I0TKOOII'leCTaTa ocaoaa, no q,opMaTa. rone aaua It cpaeurauaja nOTceTYBB na U:PKOB. He e HCKnY'leHO J1eKB aaxaa tPYIIKltlljB IIMUnB BO TOa ope Me. Haponaoro npenaaae ja BP3YOB aa Kpane MBpKo. OnYKa II HMeTO xa nOKa.llBTeTOT.

Cn. 44. "Mapxca Manac-rnp ", Faflpoao. lIaOAIt, 12. - 13. BeK

<l!YHKltlijaTa xa xpenocra MOlKe na ja ncepae ae co pacnnno-r aa aaaanTHCKOTO u:apCTOO. xora ce onaonae 3eMjllTe BO Floaapnapae-ro BO 13. H 14. sex, a rpaanua'ra 611.11a noaecreua jylKHO OA neMllp KaIlBjB. Tot-aut oaoj rpaxa'ren xacTell ra KOIlTPOllHPaJI rpanavne-re npeMItHII, KaKO aa Bapnapcxao'r na-r BO rpaAe'lKHOT 'recaeu 'taxa II aeceaxcnaacr flnallHHCKil rra-r- urrc norope ro cnou-

OOIl1THHa fOCTHBAP

fOpH3 liaJl.HI{3

Kpajna-txa c-rpaaca. Cn.45,46.

nua.. 11. MHKyJl'lIlK 1970,85; HCTIiOTTrR. 57; - T. TOMOCKH 1970,87-88; B 1976.262 . MeciiiQuoJlo'JICfiu. Mecaccra 'rpaAIIWTe" Jle.lK1I 1 KM jyroaananno 011 Fopua EaH.HQa 112,5 xxr jyrcaanamro 0.11 uea'rupo-r Ita Focraaap. Flpercrnayaa 113J10n.lKeH PIIII urrc ce H3J1l1ra 160 M BItCOKO HaA jyacnao-r pa6 Ha nOJlOliKOTO none. 80 HerOOOTO ceaepuc 1I0AHO)Kje ce xpcrocyaane rnalllllHe naruurra urro noaraae OJI ceaep, 1I0]l)K 3anuAHHoT Il IICTO'lHItOT pa6 H3 Flone'ro If oTTYKa BOAaT aa jyr, KOH

173

KII'IeBO - OXPII/1 H Ha jyroaanan, KOH MaBpOBO - Ilebap - Crpyra. Oaropa ce xonrpcnapaar TIle narnurra H none'ro MHory Kl1rrOMeTpH nanexy na cenep,

ceaepoaanun a ceaepoaero«.

Hajciiiapu ociiiuiiiollu.: 80 1I0l.(HaTa aHTllKH OKOilY aapaxrae'nro-r BpB 6HJlO aarpaneao I.(BpCTO 06sHIIlle 011 KaMeH co MaJITep. BO q:lOpMa aa OBaJI rcnea 140 x 50 M (0,4 xa]. H3alleHIIoT aananea nen 6llJI aajakaar co '{eJIHa KyJIa.

80 aaa'rpeumoc'ta, BO IICTOllHHOT nen, ce uasapa HIlla 011 xeanparxa npocropaa acexeaa BO aapnecra nO'IBa. Haena: aaory nap-nnsa 011 /10U;HOaHTI1'1Ka rrarcca II -rer-ynu, noseee MOHeT!! Oil 1I0llHilOT 4., 5. H 6. BeK.

CII.45. "Fpaouunue=, T; 5muul{u, 9Ol{nooltlIiu'lICO «paiuruuna cmpasco; KOpUCweNO U 80 cpeonuaa: eee

Cpeonaeexoenu ociiioiiiollU. Ha aananauo'r lien na TBPIIIlHaTa, OKOJIY xyna-ta. ce rnenaa-r 'rpara 011 rone aa 06HOBYBaaa KOII 1l0TeKHYBaJIe HilH 0/16. IlJIII 01112.-13. BeK. EIlHa eaxapna BII3aHTHCKa MOHeTa -cKH<paT 011 13. BeK KH>KyBa )l;eKI! oaaa aaaqajua ctpa'retnxa noaauaja 6HJJa xcpacreaa H BO 1I01lHOTO CpeIlHOBeKOBlfe, KaKO noc'tojana HJ111 nospeueaa crpnace. H BO ceBepOIlCTOlJHOTO rroztxcosje. 6JHI"3Y 110 crapara lKeJIe3HHlJKa CTHHl1l1a BO rOCTIIBap,Bo 1955 r. 611JJO IICKOllaHO neno co 1.300BII3aHTIICKll MOHeTII (6aKapHH CKll.<paTII). cKplleHIITYKa aa xpajo-r

174

0,[112. ana rrOlleTOKOT aa 13. BeK (E. AJleKCOBa 1966. 85).

Cenoro r. Baa.aua ce cnoaeayaa BO 1I0BeKe 1I0KYMeHTI1. Oxony cpenaaara na 11. BeK BH3aHTlICKifOT nap Povan III ro nonapan HU MaHaCTlIpoT CB. Fopr Cxonje. a -roa ro rro'rapnxne H fiyrapcxno-r anane rerr KOHCTaHTHH Acen BO

r. II. KpaJIOT MHJIYTllH CpnCI<H BO 1300 ronane BO HI1BHHTe rpaaora. r.

Baa.aua e xaaeneaa II BO nonacaa-re neqrrepa 0111452153 II 1467/68 r. (Kpaaapa 1989,187). Ileaeurxoro cenc I". Eaalllla rre)KH na cpenaoeexoaaa'ra noxauaja ao ceaepo acrouao-ro IIOI1HO)Kje aa I'pananrre-ro. IIMa crape rpofiaurra 11 cpenHOBeKOBHO lIPKBHwTe. ManKY ncceeepac 011 Hero ean OCHOBall MaHaCTHpOT rOCTHBap, CrrOMHaT BO lIPKOBHlITe 1I0KYMellTH 0111318 H 1343 r. Floxpaj aanac-r-apo'r nOCTeneHO ce unrpeno llCTO!lMeHO ceJIO, xoe BO 1l0l1aCHHOT nedrrep 011 1452/53 r. epoeno 88 KyKH a BO 1467/68 r. 108 I<yKH. HCTOTO ce pa3BIlBaJIO aa CMeTKa na coceaaara r. Eaal1I.(H. aa na xpajo-r na ro 1I0CTII.rHe neneumao-r 06eM 1I3Halleae KaKO nerrrap HarOpHHOT Iloxor.

T. TOMOCKH .(1976, 262-263) mnuyaa aa "rpag EaHHI.(" KOj 60lKeM croen xaj Teroao II aa-roa ro nouupa ua MeCHOCTa "Xacap , 3 KM cesepoaarranao 011

ClI.46. "Tpaouuuue .T. 5afbutja, H.a09U, 12. - 13. eex

TeTOBO, BO xxacypara aa nella (EHCTpHlIa), xaj c. Illanxoaaua. Oaaa 1I0llHoaH-r-a-nca xpajnarua crpasca ja I1CTpalKYBaBMe noaeeexparuo: aaepmeu e II neranea TeXHlI'lKII rtpeuep aa IICTaTa II npH6paHI1 ce 6pOjHH apXeOJIOWKH naona. 3a scan, TaMY HeMa CpellHOBeKOBHH OCTaTOI.(H_ Bnpouaa, mrry egen IlIIWaH aaeop He ro CllOMHYBa "rpanor EaHHlI"'. Cexoj HaTaMOlUeH KOMeHTap OKOilY oaa e H3J1I111IeH.

175

Fpaneu

Fpan T'paoeq [rpan DOllol. 1), peraouanao cpenaurre

J1uiu.: P. Fpyjax 1933.37-38; -11. MKKyn'lRK 1970.86; - II.CTII.OT TIR, 59; -T.

TOMOCKH 1976,263; -B. Kpaaapa 1989, 189.

MecilioiiOIlOJlf6a. MeCROCTa 'Tpanaurre" lIelKlI aa aartanaac-r kpaj aa Fpaneu. ITpeTCTasYBa 40-60 M BII.COKO pn-r-re so nonxoacjero na lllapa. EAM JlnaOOKU rtopojua opa3J1a ro oll4JaKa 011. ceaep II. aartan. a HU jyr npexy Mano cennc ce noapayaa co nJlaHBHCK!IOT MaClIO. Heroaa'ra IICTO'lHU crpaaa ce cnyurra -repacecTO KOH IToneTO. fnaOHI!OT nonouixx nar WTO SO""H AOlllK 31lnaAHIlOT paf xa

Flone'ro ro gortapa.

HajciUapu ociUaiUoqu. 3aot5neHHoT BpB ua p!IT'leTO e I!3AeneH xa ABe paMHHWra. ITOllHCOKHOT jyroaananeu Aen t5Kn OjlJl.enHo yxpettea KaKO Malia axponona Hej3HHoTO jylKHO sene, CBpTeHO KOIl ceAIIOTO, 611110 spenerc co SHeOK xacan. Ha nOHHCKaTa -repaca ce npo-reran CTaH05eHlloT nen. Kpenccra 05l1l1a rOlleMa caao 0,6 xa. Mecncro naeeneaae co rOAl!ll1i. !IHTeH3I1BHO sa.rl" KaMel! OA crapare SII.rI!IHII

raxa WTO 0.11 HHS ocraaane caac rparu so ollA na eurapna.

HajAeHH ce noaeze MOHeTH 0.11 reneaacra-rxo apeve, no-rca PIlMCKH MOHeTi! OA 4. II. 5. aex. Bo AOQHaTa BHTHKa 06SHJlJ:leTO eepojarac 61l1l0 OOHollello, rpaneuc co »aarep. HeKoJiKY rp060sH so ceaepaorc nOAHO)Kje ccnpacene npenloleTIi 0.11 AOQHHOT 4. II. 5. BeK. ITpeJlnOnOSII.Ha BeK BO HCTO'lHOTO nOAHolKje 61l1le HCKonBHH TeMenH 0.11. paaoxpacrajancsa 6a3HnllKa co M03aH'leH non, noroa PHM-

CUI Hanrp06HII. crena co penjeqi a IlBTnHC.

CpeOIlQ8f!ICOBIlU ociUaiUoqu. CO ):IIIBII xonaa,e, na I'pananrre-ro ea rtoaptuaaa-ra ce IItq,pneHH II napvaa,a 0):1 ClIoaeHCKIl QpenHII H orHHWHa rpnvapuja. ApyrH aaona 0.11 cpennao'r BeK lIeM-a, KaKO HII rpara 011 06HoBYBaH.e ua oOSII):IHeTo.

3u6elIelKallo e J1eKa 00 1190 r. cpncxwo-r lKynaH HeMaa.a ro OtSOHn peraoaor ITOJlor II aacexor-aur ro paaypxax "rpano-r I'paueu" (1\ Jleur'cx) WTO gorcraur ra AP)Kella Buaanmja (fpyjH1{, 37-38). Bo 15. aex BO TypcKIITe nOnJ:lCHH Aeq,Tepll. Fpaneu e 3a6ene)KaH KaKO ceno. Bo 1452153 rOJlIIHU TOB epoeno 88 KYKJ:I aBO 1467(68r. \08 KyKH (KpaBapIl1989, 189).

ITOBeKe II.CTpalKyBa'lH ua MHHaTOTO aa oaaa 06118CT, Mefy HIIB II TaKBU yrnenaa Hay'lHHQH "aKO WTO ce B. TOM8weK (I1APHCII, 78) II P. fpyjll.K (1933.39), ro noapayaane OBOj I10K81IIITeT co 3araAO'lHIIOT rpan Flener KOj .110 ):Iellec He e rro-rapnex aa repeu. Tile 1l0MHCJllllIe nexa BH3aHTII.ja ro 005HOBIlJlB crapcro rparce Fpeneu BO 13. aex II My nene HOBO liMe, Ilonor-, KaKO xcyncxo CpeAI1WTe lin fOpHHOT ITOlIOr. Oecj nOKanHTeT liMa ueuec cocese 6eJlHIl OCTaTOl.\H, Mail e, a

HCTO'lHOTO nO):lHo}l(je xane urrc eBeHTyaJIHo M-OlKenO Aa ce WHpH nonrpanaero. Aellec e noxpueac co MHory CllnHH aannaen oA Fpajtovxa-ra pexavxa. Sa-rca HMaMe npaac ue ce coaaeaaxe BO H311eceHaTa MO)KHOCT. A II mnnauare nOAaTO!.III aa rpano-r Flener He HH noaaraar Mllory. THe ce MHory ncrpopcapaua II. co ornen aa 1l0AnToQIITe oA AeHewHHoT crenex na acrpaaceuccra aa oaaa per-aja, ce COMHeBaMe Aa JIll aooruu-rc nocroea rpan co TaKBO HMe BO nOlI03HTe. Toa salKH aa CHTe H311eceHII. MIIClleH.B - nexa rpano'r rtonor rpeea AB ce eapa HB COKOlleL\ xaj KaJlHWTe, xa] C'reace, Te'roao II .lip. Ha Tile MeCTa lIeMa npocrop aa eneu rpan, a apxeonourxa're OCTaTOQII yxascyaaa'r cajao xa noaana xpajna-rna crpaaca.

ITHwaHHTe 113S0pll ua ~OJ:l AoceraWIIHTe IICTpalKYBa'lH ce noaaxyeaar, ce

Apano-r HAPBCII ne-ryeaa BO 1153 r. HH3 oaae xpaaurra II 3a6ene)KaJI "rpan Bonrxypa" HnI! "gynrxap", onnane-ren nee AeHa onea,e OA OXPHA H enell nee 0):1 Cxonje. He xapeanxre HM rpeeano 3Ha'lIlTenHO noaeae ape ae 0.11 OXPH):I .110 Te-roacxo, aKO aacactapaae }J,eKa TOj rpan ce uaofan BO Flonoaa're. CTOH o-raopexc H npaWBH.eTO ):Iallll HnpHCIl nO):l -roa liMe MHCllell xu IIMeTO JIB rpauc'r, HIIII e TOB caao enen "t5yrBpcKH rpajt" (=oynrxapa) 'HIe BHCTHIICKO liMe He ro xaacan, Brtpoce a, SO rca ape sse nocroene TyKa }J,BB lKYIlCKIl uearpa. rpB}J,oBHTe I'panen H rteurcs WTO BO 1189(90 r. rn paaypaan CTeq,aH He aan,a. HUTy cprrCKHTe HBTy BII3aHTllCKilTe I13BOpn BO 'roa apeae lie clloMllyBaaT rpan 1I0 HMe

Flonor.

_ Bo 1333 ronaua CpllCK.IIOT xpan Ilyurau OOTIlHwan eneH aKT 'y ITon03e' (HoBaKoBuK 1912,298). ITpH -rca ryxa He}J,OCTaCYBa nceaaex» onpenen6a -nexa e -roa "rpan", a He oOlIaCT. BOCIiTe npyrn cJIY'lall cexcraur noxpaj aece-ro HB xexoj rpart CTOIlIl KBallll4JIIKaTII.BOT "rpan". Aa1l11. BO OBOj cnyvaj e uanpaaex HCKlIY'lOK, IInllll -ryxa ce noapeaewpa He rpanor ryay 061IaCTa Flonor-, KaKO WTO liB npaxep, ce aena nexa nor-a BO 1282 r. xpano'r MlIlIyTIIH rll aaaen "o05a nonora C rpBJlOOII HXlIc0611aCTHjy il"1(Uallll'lHK 1856, 108).

_ Bapneru 3a6enelKBn AeKa 110 15. BeK rtocroen "urbs Pologus" II. nexa OA Hero norexuyaana MajKa My na Fepf KaCTpHOT (CKeHAep6er). Mef-y'roa, ttoxpaj OBOj rpan seAHaw croja-r II. Benerpan (}J,eHeweH Bepa-r) II xcnoe,a. rpaxoaa so neaeuraa Jy;+ma An6aHHja {cnopea f. Ilaxaeep I, 107). reorpaccaa, ITOIlOWKaTa KOTIIHHa lIelKlI MHory AaneKY OA JYlKlla AlI6aHlIja. Heurrc TYKa He e 00 pen.

ITo cero OBa eopa ):Ia KOHCTaTHpaMe nexa He pacnonaraae nary co apxeOIlOWKH .rIOKa311 HI!Ty co curypna nHwaHII nOAaTOQII. nexa nccroen rpan IToJIor SO nexeumara ITOIlOWKa peraja

177

Ka.'1HWTe

Fpan Coeoneu : rpana-raa crpaaca -. en. 47, 48.

nuiu.: T. TO)l.IOCKH 1976,264-265; -11. MHKyn'lHK 1970. 83-86.

MtciuOiloJloJlt{ia. MeCHOCTa "Ccxoaeu" ne)KH enen xanoaerap jY)KHO 0)1 KanRWTe H 970 M H. M .• 300 M BHCOKO Ha)l rtoaourxcrc none. Flpe'rcraayaa ocaaeua BapOBHH'IKa xapna WTO ce Hl)lHra Hall OKonHHOT lapaMHeT repeu. 25-30 M BIfCOKa. Ilanaaare Ha KBpnaTB ce cocesc CTpMHH p,o BepTJlKBJlHH, on jyr H aanen HcrrYKBHII II H36pB3)1eHil op, epccujara. So jY)KHOTO nonaoxje, HB cpenaaa, CTOII Mana rreurrepa 0)1 xoja cnopen npejtaune'ro 6RII npceaea TYRen narope. )10 apBOT xa eapnara. Oar-cpa ce rnena WHpOKa OKOJlHRB MHOry KRJlOMeTpli ua HCTOK II ceaepcaanax.

CJl. 47. 'CoKOJleti", KaJlumale, 9OW~Om!mU'lKO ipaHu'lHo caipaxa. 06110etHG e geJlYMHO 60 cpe9/WOm oel( ("lpa9 COI(OJleti"J

Hajciiiapu ociU.aiU.Ollu. SPBOT aa xapna-ra e aapaaner- Bo p;OU;HaTa aRTHKa cane nojun-aaro oesanae 0)1 KBMeH co eap. xoe WTO orrxonyaanc oaanea rrpocrcp co ATlMeH3HIl. 120 x 60150 M. CeBepHHoT SH)I HB cpenana e aoenesen non BrOJl aaaaa'rpe I{ TYKB ce eUHp;eHTI{H TpH SHIlI{H nna'rua, nonpeaa eAHO na npyrc. Ce pa60TH aa ABe roneMH 06HOBII aa 06sIlAHeTo (ao 6. H 12.-13. BeK?). HB TOj npccrcp ce

178

aaoraaa M nop'ra-ra. a najnecxao-r (M rnaaea) npacran onnony aogen no nenana-

-ra op;ceBepOlICTO'lHOTO nOp;HO)KJe

Haena: nap'lHH.a op; p;OQHoaHTU'lKa rpuvapuja, nllTOCB 11 'reryna, ncaeae MOHeTH 011. AOQI{HOT 4. a 6. BeK. Be ceBepOHCTO'lHOTO nOAHO)Kje, HB pBMHa noapuraaa co rOJle"mHa ,110 2 xa, Jle)KBT OCTaTOU;1f Oil pacdrpneaa IlCTOBpeMeHa nacenca. Oaaa TBpp;HI{B ro KOHTpOJlHpaJla naTOT Oil noaerc no nonanxa'ra aa Maanpava KOH npeMJlHOT Bpaua I{B Ill apa. KOj oTTaMY ce crryurra BO AonHHaTa aa .upHM aa aanaa. 80 1I01lHOPHMCKo apeae TYKa 6Hna rtoaneveaa rpaaaaaa'ra JlHHHja ncsrefy npoauauaa're Maxencaaja H Flpeaamrrana.

CpeOHOeeK.0811U ociUaiU.ollu. 113BoHpep;HaTa crpa'reurxa n03HQHja aa xapna-ra COKOJleu;, TeWKO OCBOHBa. (SHna npH'IHHa -raa p;a ce KOPHCTH I{ BO Cpe)lHHOT BeK Bepcjamo BO 12.-13. BeK (Sun OOHOBeH cpenuaor 1I0Ter xa ceaepaaor Sllp;. 0)1 THe BpeMHH.a OCTaHBne nap'lllH.a 0,11 CJlOBel{CKa rpavapaja H uperraa. a aajnena e H BII3aHTHCKa MOHeTa -CKII~aT 0,11 12.-13. ae«. Ocnacra Flonor- BO THe BeKOBH e rpaaa aaa 30Ha na 8113aHTllja KOH arpeCHBHaTB Cpdaja, xoja 0,11 Flpaapea npexy Illapa noc-rcjaao ynafana BO flOJl03HTe. HMeTO Coxoneu e cnOBeHCKO H ce cpexaaa xaj noaeee KpenOCTH 011. -roa apeeae ne WHpOKIIOT (SanKaHCKH npocrop.

T. TOMOCKH (1976, 265) HHcHCTHpa na Cosoneu Ail ro CMeCTH 3arap;O'lHIIOT rpan Ilonor-, Meryrca rtpoc-ropo-r xa xapna-ra e npeaacry Manla ua aea na MO)Ke p;a ce CMeCTH ep;el{ rpaa. HCTO raxa, I{HTY BO nonuoxjerc l{eMa 'rparu op; aeaoja o'raopeaa I{BCen(Sa 0,11 cpe}J,I{OBeKOBHeTO. Cocena e jacao p;eKa aa Cosonen MO)Kena p;a npecrojyea eaao nOMBlIB crpaaca. p;eMlIejKH ro naTOT 0):1 Ijpaapen rtpexy nnauaua-ra lll apa H npeMIlHOT Bpaua KOH flonOWKOTO none. Cpep;HOBeKOBHIlTe OCTaTOU;H ua Coxoneu ce coce a CKPOMHH H YKB)KYBaaT na TOB nexa «penocra i5I1Jlil xopncrena caao nOBpeMeHO, DO Kpll3HH MllrOBH

179

Fpan Tpn060, PYJlHH'IKa xpenocr- CJI. 49.

RUiii.: J.1. MI!KyWlHl( 1970, 82-85.88; I!CTIIOT. TlR. IJ8;T.ToMocKH 1976. 266-267. MeciuouOJlOJK6a. JIOKaJlIHeTOT "Ka.fIe~SBe3J1a" nelKlI 2,5 KM aananao on Cp6HHOBO. Flpe-rcraayaa 1l3J1aJleH H 80 M BIICOK aapnecr HOC (690 M H.M.), uamrecell Han ycrae'rc xa CHMHI!~a BO Flananmnxa pexa. Ceaepaara II ceBepOHCTO'laa-ra ctpaaa My ce peuaca BepTIIKaJIHII zapna. a neCHO e npacranen npexy cennOTO on aanan H jyroaanan. Eo IICTO'lHOTO nonaoaqe, HII3 pe'lHHOT TeCHe~ BOJIH

naTOT Focrnaap ~ KH'IeBO.

Hajciiiapu ociiiaiUo'lu.: Iton cpeAHoBeKoBHoTO 06sIIIIlIe ce nasapaa'r nenoea OJI rrocrap, AO~HOaHTlI'IKH SIiA lICKopHcTeH KaKO 'revert H no'rncp aa nonouneacaa'ra TBpJlIIHa. Fjap-raisa'ra 0IlIlO~HOaHTH'lKaTa rpuvapaja. rrl!TOCH Il TerYJlII rrOTeKHY-

CpeV1l08eK061lU lJciUaiUo'lu. 80 1I0QHllOT cpenex BeK Bp3 crapa're TeMeJl1l" 611"Jlo aarpaneao jal1POTO ua HOBaTa TBPIIIIHa. I1Ma ¢JopMa ua rpanea co AHMeH3111l 45 x 60123 M. SHIIOT e rpaneu OA nnO'IeCT xpuren KaMeH co nocen eapoaea MaJITep H aac spojna nynxu ee eeene IICaHTpa'l.aTHrrll'leHe3aAOI.\HlloT 13.11.14. sea. Ha jY)KHOTO aenc CTOeJlB enna xyaa.ueaec ccceu ypnara- Ilodpo aanaaexa ocrauana xyna'ra aa ceaepoaananauo'r aron, no <PYHKl(I1jaTa aepojaruo 1l.0H)KOH. I1Ma Il.HMeH3l1ll 13 x 8 M, a BIICO'lHlIaTa neuec 1I3l1ecYBa AO 4 M. I1Ma enea 011. jYlKlIaTa crpaaa, a JlO Bne30T e nompeua II maaaara rrop'rn. OJI IJ;BllHrepOT Hill oaaa nopra ce aneryaano BO aano rtpenscpje, a rro'rca BO rnaBHHOT JlBOp aa 'repnaaa'ra. Ilpyra nopra ce uasnpa HB HcrO'lHlIOT SlIlI. ):(OJIlK ceaepaara crpeaa, ncmpe-

HaBpl eep-rnxanaa xaprta.aancr ue e CO'lYBaH.

OKOJlY jal1POTO HB rapnaaara 611.F1 113rpaAeH 01 enen aaneopenreu SRA (rrpeASHII), ocrasajxa MefyrrpoCTop (uaanr-ep) 1lIIIpOK 12~18 M. Ha ceaepccananHIIOT ar-on croa nocpo aanaaeua rropra - 0611'leH npessnx HH3 rrpeJlSIIJlOT 1lIIlpOK 2,7 M. ):(0 uea, ana-rpe. finn a nocraaeaa crpaacapcaa xyxa. ITpel1SHI10T HOCIl )101.\-

HocpeAHOBeKOBHH rpajteaora fieneaa

ITap'lHH.aOJlCnOBeHCKHIJ;perrHH.orHHllIHarpH'IapHjaH6pojHHllPOH3BOJIH IICKOBBHIl OJI xceneao (KJlII.HQ!! II. KJ]aM<plt, HOlKOBIi. BPEOB!! Oil c'rpena -o-an aa npocaean,e nauuap. lKeJIe3Ha ar-ypa] ynaryeaar aa IlOl.(HI!OT cpeuex BeK. 80 IlcrO'lHOTO nonncceje na Kane-to, BO pe-nnro-r recxeu aa MeCHOCTa CaMoKoB II KOBa'l. naceneurrero co r cnnna IICKorrYBa OCTaTO~1I 011 craps ronamunm (nevxn) II KOBa'lHIIl(H na lKeJIe30. Xeneaaara pyna e xonana nonpurancxa na rrunaaa're aa BeTepHIIK, oxoay geHeWRoTO ceno )!(ene3Ha Pexa IIII0JIlK IICTOIIMena-ta pexa xoja ce BJlIIBa BO Flauanuurxa, 5 - 6 KM IICTO'lHO 0):1 Kane-to II

180

CII.49. "KoJle-SaeJ90", Cp6U.H080, 901plOGmUU'lKa PY9I1U'lKO ffiap9ulla. lleaocno e 06H06eHa eo 13. -14. 6eK (tpa9 TpH060)

I1MaMe OCHOBa l1a laKJly'lIlMe J1eKa TBpnRHaTa Saesna eana Qe.FIOCHO aarpaueua EO BpeMeTO aa pacuyro'r ua pYJ1apCTEOTO BO OBHe xpaxnrra. BO 13. HnH 14. aex. a KaKOAplKaBeH KOHTpOJleH nYHKTHall OKonHIITe PYIIHRllH. Taa BOe)1HO ro koa'rpon apan a II -roraur BalKHllOT na-r 011 TIOJl03HTe KOH KII"'IeBO, EO eKcnaH3HOHHCTH'IKaTanOnI!TIIKaHa Cp611.jB xox jyr-.

181

Xacapo'r TpHOaO e 3aOene>KaH BO nOnUCIIIIOT nerprep ep. 4 Oil 1467f68 rouaaa. Be Hero croa lIeKa caaa TBP.EIlIHB. rtoxpaj COOPII H Aprapcxacrpo, ecnopaxyaana KOHTHHreHT (lKene30) 3D OPYlKje ea rpanor Flpaapen. Tpaoao e crape cenc H neaec nelKlI H3MecreHo noaacoao BO nnBHHHBTa. 4 KM ceBepOIICTO<lHO Oil Cpl5Hlloao xoe rrocranno ro 3a$aKa aeroanor CIiHOp. Hessa COMHeHlIe nexa

"xncapo'r Tpncao" ce onuecyaa HB KBJleTOSae3,E1B.

AeKO Sae3go ollna naceneua Ii BO POHOTypCKHOT rrepaojt (15. a MO)KeOIl 16 aeK) KaKO KOHTPOJIB aa ce YWTe ax-manu-re PY,ElflHl(1i aa sceneao, YKB)KyaaDT rpB,Elt':illTe HB Kanero. EIlHa O.ll naa (crBMt':ieHB «yna ana MarBQBH) I5IiJJO rtocraaexa Bp3 ypHBTOTO venc HB fJJOaHI!OT SH,EI aa TOp,ElIIIIBTa, co cxoooma opaearana]a xoja o'rcranyaa O,EI npeTXOI<HaTB. ApyroTB rpo,Eloa - CTPB)KOPCKBTB KYKa 1<0 acrovaara nop-ra, 11MB acre TBKB opaearauaja WTO oTcrDnYBB O,EI rnaanaor nnBII HD TDPIIBHBTB H MHory nOCJ1aOO II HerpIDKnHBO e rpaneae. BHcoKaTB rpasrana SPJ 3BnB):1I1BTa crPU)KBPCKO Kyt.B HHI<Hll,lIpa.IICTO TDKD e,ElHB nOAOll,He)KHD rpenessaa cpB3a Bp3 nOCTapUTe OCTaTOl(Ii. Oeae neaeurra Ii ancry 1I0ClIBOH OCTaTOl(U ua 06HoayaaH.e HeCOMellO nOTeKHYBBBT OA TYpCKO epeve-

OnWTHHa ,n:EliAP

,n:e6ap

rpap; (O)paX06IfU1(, ,au6pe, perBO}fBJIHO cpenanrre.

/luw.: T. TOMOCKII 1972, 110·114 II 1977, 19·24; - C. AIITOJbDK 1985, L 837-845. MeciiiouoJio~{ja. Cpejtnoaexoanao-r rpD,EI Opaxoaaaa (PDXODHHK) ro 3BcpOKBlI [anpo'ro na AeHeWHHOT rpan Ael5op, [JOTO'IIiO HerOBHOT ceaepen nen. He e npoY<lYBBH na -repeacr, lie e aaapuren npeeep HHTY TeXHH'IKO CHIIMaH.e. Ocaeu aartaaena-re rrllWBHII 1I0ABTOl(H aa oaa MeCTO. He 3HBeMe HIIWTO npyro

Bo naurara acropaorpacpaja aecra-re 3D rpanor Paxo auax lie ce IIHTepnpe'rapaaa cexoraur KaKO WTO -rpeea. Ha OBB Mecro Ke ce 3Bp;plKliMe caao ua HajaB)KHIlTe enesrema. PBODHUK e xeonpaenauo IIAeHTlltPlJKyaBH CO Caera Fpen BO neaeurua AJlOaHllja II CO KOl,JaI,JIIK, nJlBIIIIHCKBTa TBPAIIHU 13 KM JIM 0,[1 )l,eoBp, Oeae -rpu onnenua MecrB MOlKaT TO'lIiO Aa ce noxenaaapee-r CO nOMOW Ha pacrojaaaja-ra, RCKal!(aHR npel(1I3HO so MHJljll BO O[JHCOT na IITaJllJjaHcKIJOT xcropasap oil. 16. BeK Mapmro Bapnera.

I1HaKY, AeHeWHOTo liMe nOTeKHYBD 0,[1 cpenncae xoauo-ro liMe aa perIlOHOT, scyna-ta JJ;e6ap [Fopen It ,!lOJleH), aapevena II ')l,eoapcKII 3eMjH", xo]a ce npc're rana rroxpaj ApHM HaTaMY eo AeHeWHa AlIOallHja. I1MeTo JJ;e5ap rc

182

HOCeJl II eaea npyr perucn II Hej3l1HHOT uen'rap (KpenOCTB JJ;el5ap) KBj rpeno-r Kajnapn (J1.eHeweH Fl'ronesaaac) DO Fpuaja. cennurre'ro aa "enacscnor JJ;e6apcKH Oil. Maxenouxja" (cnopen HIIKI1$Op Fperopa. pau 14. se s}. Oaoj nOAaToK nOTeKllYBB 0):1 ape ae-rc «ora pemOHOT aa ]leHeWHHOT Ilefiap (PaXOBHIIK) BeKe 6lfn ocaoea OA Cp611Te H He MOlKe AB ce 3aMeHIf CO npeTXO]lHHOT. EJl.eH [J0pBHeweH enucxcn ,!le6apcKH, cnoaaar eo nilCMOTO xa Teo$BJlaKT OXPilAcKU 0,EI 1108 r .• HeCOMHeHO ce 0IlHecYBa xa HCTOTO aecro.

Bo nonHCHUTe AecpTepH TYPCKH Oil. 1519 H 1583 r. PaxoBHIIK e 3aOeJlelKBH KaKO xacaee (rpa-r-re). a no-roa KBKO ceuaurre HO uena-ra gefiapcxa Ka30 (06JJBCT) Itonouaa HaMecro PaxoaHIIK ce nojaayaa HMeTO JJ;H6pe.

OnWTHU& )lEJPlEBO

Bup'Ie

Kpajna-rua CTpBlKO. CJl. 50, 51.

MecwouoJio3lt6a. "Flpexana'ro rpBAHWTe" ce BIIKB 50·85 M a.HCOKHOT PIIA 2 KM HCTO'lHO OA Bupxe (930 M H.M.). BIiCOKO na nBAUHUTe HU Bnaana. PHAOT e recea if norn-, oaropa 3DpOMHeT, a crpanrrre My naraar crpaso ao nopojaa AonHHKH. Floxpaj Hero OOAII crapa na-rexa KOJ! nJlaliHHCKIlOT CpT, onnaneven I KM HCTO'lHO II npexy Hero ce cneryaa 00 nonaaa-ra HB CTpYMa (J1.eHeC Byrapaja}. Toj npeMHH

61111 xopacreu BIITeH311aHO so MIIIIBTOTO.

Hajcwapu Ocwawo'lu. Bo AOll,HOBHTH'IKO apeve HD PUAOT san 113rpaAeH CIIJleH ncrpena'teu xecren, rcnex 1,2 xa. -teaoro My 611110 aajaxna'ro co H3ABAeHa KYlIU, a jYlKHHOT SHA e YABoeH -TOB ce rparare OA roneac ol'iHOBYBBH.e BO 6. BeK. Bo aHBTpeWHoCTa ce rnenaar ocncau aa opojHII rpaAoll. Haena: MOHeTB OA ):10QHIJOT 4. II 6. sex, KepaMUKO. E,lIHa 6a3l:1J1I1Ka (6. aex) JlelKR AeJlYMHo pacxonaxa npeA '1eJlOTO ua epertocra. Kacrenor ra KOHTpOJIHpan rpBHU'IHHTe npeMRHH OA

npoBIIHU;HjaTa Makenoaaja II KOH CpeA03eMHD llaKlIja.

CpeOl106tKQ8HU ocwaiuo'lu, Bo Cpe,llllWHIIOT ,IIeJl ua KBCTenOT aeacar nap'llJH.a 0.11. CpeJl.HOOeKoBIiB eepaaaxa. a HajJl.eHII ce MOHeTII - 6aKBpHil cKH$aTH OJ!. 13. BeK (5yrBpcKI! IIMHTal.(IIH aa Maxojnc I)

Crpa-reurxara ncncceee HB oaaa xpenccr 06YCJlOBHJJa I1CTaTa AU 6111le KopHCTeHa II BO apenaor cpeneu eex. aexo KOHTpOJleH nYHKT aa enea OJ!. nxaxan-

183

CIOlTe rrpeMHHII rroaer'y p;OJIIIHaTa na Cf-pyssa 11 C]]IIBOT na Bpe ramtnua. Tparu on 06HOBYBaaa aa 06sHlllleTO BO cpeuex sex HeMa_ Bepojarno xpenocra 611]]a xopucreua cave oaepeue-uaapeae. BO xpuaaa're BoeHII Bpe~mfj,a, MO)Ke61I op; CBMylln H BH3aHTHjB, a cexaxo II op; Byrapa're.

C.'i.50. "Tlpexunaiuo Tpacuuuue", Bupne, 9ou,H.oaHIlW'iIW tponuwno ctupasca.

Kopucaieno e U ec 9oU,lluOW cpeoen 8eK

CII.51. "Tlpexuruuuo Fpaouuune", Bup-e, MOH.eillu 09 13. ee«

.!lpa~l'1e (IIRma)

Kpajnu'rna II pynaavxa CTpU)Ka. Or. 52, 53

RUlli.: A_ Kepaaarxaee 1969, 229; - 1-1. MIIKyJl'lHK TIR, 47.

MeclliouOJlOllC6a. "Fpenaurre" ce BaKB receu PHil co MHory CTpMHU CTpaHlI BO CBlljOKOT aa Bperananua. 70 M BIlCOKO Han pexara 11 BO aajrecttao-r p;en na pe'lHIIOT 'recnen. JIe)KH 3 KM jyro acro-rao 011 ApaM'le II 3 KM ceaepoacrovao on Barna. EperaJIHII'lKllOT na'r (aHTU'lKllOT ACTII60c - Cxarrrcnapa, nexec lliTIIIIIlenqeao ) BpTIl oxcay 1I0]1HO)KjeTo na I'panaurre II 011 PIlIIOT ce mena noaexe

KHJIOMeTpli na aanan II aa HCTOK.

Hajclliapu ociiiaiTioqu. Ha nOBHCOKIIOT, jY)KeH p;en op; PIfP;OT ne sca'r 1f3BOHpellHO .c;06po 3ana3eHI1 OCTaTOU:H op; PBHOBB3BHTHCKa xpenocr. 06SIInHeTO aaraopa npeaoeronea npccrcp co p;IiMeH3Illl 154 x 53130 M (0,6 xu). a 6Brro aajaxna'ro co MaCHBHH npaaoaronua II ne roaronaa xyna. Ce rnenaa-r rparn 011 roneoao 06HOByaau,e aa llCTO'lHHOT san. Jaupo-ro na KaCTeJIOT 611no rycro IiCIIOJJHeTO co rpap;611 BO 3 pena, BO npaeeuor C-J, co p;Be TeCHII ynauxa. Ha aajnacoxara rroaanaja croena panoxpac-rajaucxe 6a3l1nliKa, 40 M jY)KHO on apenccra ce npcrera 0il6paH6eH pOB IllTO aanpe-nro rc ce-re uenncr pan. HBOP;U: JJOBeKe MOllenl op; 110U;HIIOT 4. 110 paaaor 7. sex, 6pOjHB nep'unsa 0/1, KOBaHO aceneao (KJlHHl.lIf, OKOBIf, HO)KOBII, BPBOBl! 011 crpena. paanavna aJIaTKlI) Ii sceneaaa arypa. xcja 360pyBa aa npepaoorysaa,e aa )Kene30TO xa OBa MeCTO. CTBP!! PY/1,HHQII aa »cene- 30 neaca'r aa nazraaa're 2 - 3 KM jyroacro-nro Ii jY)KHO OTIYKa

CpeO"06eI<06"U ociiiaiTiollu, Tapnana'ra eana aaaoxpenuo nofipc aanaaeua BO cpenuao'r BeK (xuxo II p;eHec) H co MIIHBMBJIHIf nOllpBBKII 611JIB KopHCTeHa II -ror-aur. JJ:eHeWHlloT c-renex HB 3ana3eHOCTa aa enarpeunnrre rpaasa aaeenyaa aa 3BKnYliOK /1,eKa Tile 611ne 06HOBeHH BO 3penHOT linn P;OU:III!OT cpenen BeK JlBll>KHH HaOAn: napvan-a on cpep;HOBeKOBHa rpn-rapuja. aceneaua BPBOBH 011 CTpeJIII1a rtpodaaan.e naauap (12.-13. BeK), cneuaoa-nra anarxa, enea eesapea npcreu (10.-12. BeK), MOHeTa -6BKapeH CKII!PBT 01113. BeK (6yrapcKa HMHTau:u·

ja)

fpBIIOT Burna cpyaxuaonapax KaKO xpajnarua crpasca BO -recneuor HB Bper-anxuua H 3B 3aWTIITB aa PYAHIlU:lITe, KOll ovarnenno eane 06HoBeHll BO cpe-

"

CII.52 "Fpacuuuue", P.paM.'le, 90/iIlOWIWU'IK(l PY91Iu'IKa iD.6P9U1W, xopucmeea U 60 Cpe9H.UoiD. 6eK. PeKOH.CalpYK/illja

JR6

3Berop

Kpajnaraa crpaea. Cn, 54,55. Ruw.: J.1. MliKyn'lIlK rrs, 138.

MeciiJ.ouoJlOJl((ja. "Mane (Ilonuo} rpBI\IIWTe" ce aaaa 50 - 80 M BII.COKIlOT PHil to CTpMII.II. nallHHH HB HCTO'lHHOT paG aa 1I0JIIIHaTa aa Bperanaaua, na jyrcacTO'lHaTa nepurpepaja ea Saerop. BO nonuccejero ua Bnaxaa (790 M II..M.). Ifoxpaj Hero EperanHH'IKItOT na'r (aIlTH'IKH ACTilOOC - Cxan-rortapa, neaec Ilenseeo - Bnaroe arpajt) ce II.tKa'lYBa KOII nnBIIHHCKHOT npeena KaneOBO ua cpror aa BJJaHHa R cneryaa BO nonaaa-ra aa CTPYMa. Kaj Mano-rc Fpanaurre 011 oaoj nar

CII.53. "fpa9u/llilie', ilpaM.'1e, lIa09u; 11.- 13. seK

ce onaojyaa naTOT KOII Manenreao aa jyr (neuec naTOT Ilenseao - Bepcao). Hajciiiapu ocmaiiiollu. PHI\OT e caropa aapaaner II on!lJaTell to 1\0QHoaHTH'IKO oosHAlle 01\ KaMeH co aanrep. TpH IIJI\BAeHH xyrr.a HB arna-re ro sajaxnyeane SHI\OT, HB I(oj ce rnenaa r HajMaJlKY ABe roneaa 06HOBYBaH.a. Kacreno-r 6Hll roness 0,7 xa, a DO 3ana,n;HOTO nOAHo)l{je ce npocrapana uacexea O,II HeTO apeae. HaoAR: AOU;HOaJlTlI'IKa KepaMI!Ka, HeKOJII(Y MOHeTH 01\ I\OU;HHOT 4., 5. II 6. DeK Flpexy cejmoro, 200 M HCTO'HIO 01\ xpenoc-ra. pacxorraua e enna paHoXpHtTHjBHexa eeaanaxa (5. - 6. BeK).

187

CII.54_ 'PoOIIHO rpa9uW.wt', 36tlOP, uHiiiu'lKa Kpaju.aiIlHu ctupaxa. 06M06eHa 60 cpeoeuota 6eK ('~pa9 36e~Op')

• n

CII. 55. 'PoOIIHO rpa9Uw.iiie', 36efop, Ha09U, J 2. - 13. 6eK

CpeOIl00t"OOHU ociiiaiiiollu. Mety nOBpwlIHeKIITe naona perucrpupaawe napvnIf:,a 011 cpegnoaexoena rpu-rapaja II (5aKap"H MOHeTIl -cKmpaTH 011 13. BeK (6yrapcKIl IIMIITal.\llH liB Maxyan I)

CYAejKH crrcpez geueurxare OCTaTOI.\H. epenocra C5HnB nocpo aanaaeaa II 80 cpenuaor BeK H sopecrena KaKO xpajnarae CTPB}I(II na Mllory 3Ha'lBJHlloT llJIBlIlIHCKH IIpeMHlI aa BJIBHlIB 0,11 CTPYMB xon CJIHBOT HB Bper-anuaua. Cnopen lIapOAHOTO npenaaae TyKB croen rpBIIOT Sserop.

JlYKODB~B

rpap.Jly,,08ul/a, peraoxamrc cpenaurre. Cn. 56-58.

Ruiii.: Yl. MIIKyJI'lKK 1972, 161-171; IICTHOT 1977, 181-191: BCTHOT 1986,241. Meciiioiiollo:Jltoa. MeCllOCTB "Kana'ra" e jYlKlIHOT xpaj na elleH 1I0Jlr II -recea pHA HBA YCTHeTO aa Kaaeaasxa Pexa BO Bperannnua. BHCOK e 70 M (520 M H.M.) H pexaae rrpaponxc ro opallaT 0,11 -rpa CTpaHII. JIe}l(H 3 KM jyr03BII3p;1I0 0,11 nYK0811l.\B. Bo jYlKHOTO nojmoacje 1l0MIIHyaBn c-rapao'r Bperannaqxn rta-r (ACTH60c - CKBnTonBpB). Ifeaeunraor BBTOIIBT Ill-ran - ,iJ;eJI'IeBO e npeq,pneH aa apyrao-r eper HB KBMeHH'IKB peea ncpenn 113rpap;(jaTB na (5pallBTB II KaJlHMBlICXOTO eaepo. BO aoe genec KBnBTa oneaj ce H301lWYOB KBKO -recex ncny-

OCTpOO

Hajcwapu ocwawoqu. Bo PHMCKO apeae aa KBnaTB C5l1n l:I3rpaAell KBCTen 3B 30WTHTa ne pymnmare OKOJlY MOWTIIl.\B II Caca, DO ropao-ro -rexeuae liB Ka aena qxa PeKB II 10·16 KM ceaepac oTTyKB {aceneao, onoao-cpedpo) . .!I,OI.\HOpIlMCXB KepBMllxB, CIlTlHI opOH3ellllIIpOIIJDO,ll1lII MOlleTII 011 cpeAIIHBTB xa

3. AO P;OIlIlIlOT 4. BeK Iluj,llelill ce aa Kana-ra.

80 PBlIOBII3BHTIICXO epewe (5.- 6. aex) oxoay KBnaTB (jllno nOAlI.rHBTO 1I0BO cosenee, ncrnpeuc epa OCTBTOlll!Te op; P"MCKOTO. Flpen ceeepnaor xpaj (veno ro) 0"11 npocexex 01l0pBH5eH pOB. B npen Hero 51111 IIlrpB,[I,eH IIpellslI,II, xoj npOj\OJIlKYBB Hill nBAHIIBTa aa HCTOX AOJlY ,110 Bperamana. II ro 06rpB,IIYDB nonrpanae'ro. DDB ce paumpaao na jyrOIlCTO'lllBTB repaca. cmpareaa CO peKBTB. Okony 1 XM noce.ae pao JlelKBT ypHBTIIHHTe 0il eAHB ManB «penocr - CTPB}I(B, xoja ro KOHTPOllllPBIIB rnBOIiHOT H aajnecuncr npucran AO KUJIBTB. Llennor yxpenea IIpOCTOp Mepen 5.3 xa. Fpodaurra co CTapH l.\pKIHl 011 5.- 6. aex ee c'rxpaeau HB 4. MeCTa: npen '{enOTO aa KBnBTB. nOTOB liB neaaor oper Ha EperBnHI!lIB ("naKa"), ua nB,[I,IlHaTB DO jY)KHOTO nOAlIolKje ua KBnBTU II HB MeCHOCTB "EerOD Aao" HB ):IeCllllOT eper na Eperannmta. 05 KM HH3BOj\HO OA YCTlleTO liB Kaaeuaxxa Pexa. E,[I,lIB ronejaa saaanaxa crcena Ii 80 ce aepnao-r nen HB KBnaTB

189

ClI.56. 'Ka.JIaala', JIYK08uu,a, 90u,HoaHalu'tKu PY9apC/w ~pa9 ApMOf!uja? 06H081!H I! «axo ~pa9 JIYKoBuu,a

190

OTKOllaHH ce: 15a3HJlIIKaTa aa Berea AaO (1969 r.), JlaTHpaHB co 150raTa KaMeHa IIl1aCTHKa BO 6. BeK, II noaana l5a3HIIIIKa HB jyroHCTo'lHHOT nen xa nourpanxe'ro ("KepaMH.!IHHlla"), O):lIlCTO epeae- Tparu on npyr-a're ):IBe I.\pKBH ce rnenear aa lIa.!lHHHTe HIl gperanaeua aartanao 0):1 KaJlBTa, on aaere CTpBHH na peaara

fOJleMIlHBTa HB yxpeneaara lIacenos loopyaB nexa cTBHyaB lOOp aa rpan, B I5pOjOT aa llpKBIITe 1I0TBPJlYilB e):leH upxcaea uen'rap, HeCOMHeHO ellHCKOIICKO Ce):lHWTe. nOCTojBT HH):IlIU;HIl AeKB TyKB ne scena Apacaaja, nHCMeHO nOTBPJleHB a05.-6.BeK.

CA. 57. =Kasuuna", JIYKQ8UU,U, HU091.1. 09 9.-12. 8el(

Q

.

CpeiJH081!I(0811U ociiiaiiiOllu. Ha npocropo-r HB fOPHHOT rpaJl ce cpeKBaBBT nBp'lHH.B 0):1 Cpe):lHOlleKOBHB rpavapaja II QpenHII, a Haj):leHII ce 6pojHII CIlTHll IIpeAMeTIl 0.£1 TOB epeae. IICKOBaHH 0.£1 xceneao: BPBOBH 0.£1 crpena co cpenHOBeKOBHI! o:j:IOpMll, HO)((OBl1, anBTKII. OKOBI! 3B 1I0KYKIIIIHB; I5pojHH MOHeTII: eyrapcsn H nBTHHCKH llMIlTBU;HH aa MBIlYHJl I (13. aex}; JOBBR Acea II; Teonop I 0.£1 Haxeja. Cere OBa YKB)!(YBB HB eKOHOMCKBTB MOK HB »arrenare na KBnBTB.

0.£1 3penOTO cpejmoaexcsae 1I0TeKHYilaBT II AeJlOB" na ol5sH):IHeTO 6e3 MBJlTep 1I0TnpeHH Ma rrocrapa're Ae!lOBII, «eryroa II MB!lTepHII nap-rae. Ha -repacara Berea Ua6 noxpaj I:IpKBaTB 0.£1 6. BeK OTKonaBMe CTBpocnOaeHCJ(I!

191

CJl.58. 'KllIlama', JIYI(08U1l0, MOHemU 0912. -13. eetc

rpcecea co ooraTIi lIaPOBII 0/1. 9.-10. BeK. Tile ueco aneuo 11M npunafane ua )KIITeJHlTe na KSJHITB II ro 03Ha'!YBaaT T!O'leTOKOT Ha;;Cl!BOTOT nn crrOBeHCKIIOT rpajt. OGHooeHIITe PYP;HIIl\1I ceuepnc OTTYKa (II p;ellec excnncarapaaa KaKO PYP;IIIll\H Caca - Kaeeaaua) rtpe-rc-raayaane eKOIlOMCKa ocnoaa IlD caaa aecenea. a lIej3RHaTD noaaunja lIa Bperanau-rxaor na'r iI nasane CTpBTeWKO 3l1B'Ielhe 00 KOMYHHKBlIlijaTB oA AOJ!HIIBTB aa CTPYMa KOII Bperannaua II Floaapuapae-rc (na Baaam-aja. CBMYl!n, Byrapn're)

Bo noaeneare ae Bacanej II OA 1019 r. 00 pBMKIITe aa MOP031HlwKBTa enacaomrja e unaenena II IIpKOBHaTa onWTHHa (enopnja) JlYKOBlIl\B {noxpaj

192

K03jaK, Cnaeaurre. Sneroao. Hajaueu. Maneureso II CDMIIOT MOp03BII3,!1). AKO Til paarpanavaae OBHe ;;cynH na -repeu. Ill! ccraayaa aencspaeac HCTO'lHOTO QcorOBO xoe e aecowaeno IIp;eHTH'lHO co crapa JlYKOBIIl\B. JlyKOBIfl\B nOCTOIi It neaec KBKO ceno, !I0MeCTeliO na caao 3 KM ceaepoucrovao on KBnaTS II lICTOTO HeCOMeHO ja !IPO.!l,Oll)KYBB TpB.!I,Ill\lIjSTB na cpeAIiOBeKOBlilIOT "rpall" co aCTO HMe XaT!OTe3aTII na T. TOMOCKIl (1978, 99) zexa osaa JIYKOBIfIlB rpeea na ce 6apa BO nonaaara na Jlacasaua (,!IeHeC OIlWTHHHTe Pap;OBIIW II CTPYMHl\a, co cpenamreTO BO KOII'le) lleMa OCIlOBB, oHp;ejKII recrpeocxa e npe ancry O,lUlane'leliO O,!l MopmBII3p;, S KOII'le cnarano !lOP; CTpYMH'IKaTB enacxorrnja.

OnWTIIHa i1:EMIIP XIICAP

1i}"'lilD

I'paa 6y'lUH. PYAIIII'IKB spencer . Cn. 59, 60.

nuiii.: A. )J.epoKO 1949, 191; -H. MIIl<yn'lIlK TIR, 34; - B. JII-Ill'lllil: 1992,228. Meciiio;;oJloJIC6a. Mecaocra "Kane" e KMeTO sa BpB na eneu synKBHcKH xyn 1,5 KM jY)KKO O,!l Ey'lllil H 240 M SHCOKO Ha,!l OKonHHaTB (845 M H.M.). Llpaa Pexa, 113neryBBjKH OJt AeMllpxllcapcKaTa TeCIiKKa. BpTH so rcnese nax oxony Kanero npen na H3riue BO nenarOHCKOTO none. rope OA apaor ce npyaca 1I0rneA ancry

KHnOMeTpH aa CIlTe crpana

Hajciiiapu ociilaiuo'lu. Ha BPBOT, BO p;OIlKOaKTH'IKO epe ae 6ltno aarpaneao oesII,!1He co aan'rep. 3BjBKHBTO co 3 Kynlt IlB eraare. xoe WTO 3BTBopBno npoc-rop co /l,HMeH3HII 200 x 125 M (1,8 xa). Tparu 0/1, KyKII ce rrrenaa-r BO IICTO'lHIlOT nen. Haena: ,!IOl\HOaIlTII'IKa KepaMIIKa, acaera on ,!IOIlHHOT 4. ,!IO 6. BeK. MeCToTo cny;;ceno KaKO 315er aa uacenexue-rc liB AJlKOMeHa, roneaa IIBcen6a BO ceBepHOTO nO,!lHO}f(je, a noroa eanc nocrojano aaceayaaac. CTapH pyp;lIlIl\lI "Ha xceneao ne aca-r ua nBAHHHTe lIeKOJ!KY KM jyroaananao OTTYKa, a napxan.ara aceneana arypa BO KpenOCTB YKa;;CYBaaT ua npepB50TKBTB aa aceneacrc Cpeo>t061!/(06/1U ociliaiiiollu. Tpurn 0/1, 051108H ua 06SHAlleTO HeMU. Hajneaa ce pe rxn nap-run-a 011 cpenuoaexoanara rpa-rapaja. ;;cene3HH BpSOSH on c-rpena H cpe,!lHOBeKOSIIH CHTIIH anarxa; enua MOlleTB (<ponllc) ua Joean UaMllCK [nouex lD. eex} aeryrca npoapreaa H KopHCTeHa KaKO npaapaox-yxpac.

Co oeuoeyaanero na pyp;apCT80TO BO AeMlip Xncap ao P;Ol\HOTO cpenHooeKOBHe O'llirneAIlO 611J!B nOBTopKO xcpacrena If crapara epertocr: Mo;;ceOIi

193

CJI. 59 .• KUJle·, 5)''iun, 901V'0aHIl2U'I/{u P)'l)Qpc/{u 36ez, xopuctue« U eo cpeoHUOai ee/{ (¢PYPUOM EY'IUH)

CUMO O,llBpeMe-HBBpeMe. Bo eopsare nOMery BH3aHTIICKHOT uap AH,lIPOHIIK In H Cp5UTe oxony oaae PY,llOHOCHII OOJHlCTIl 00 1329/30 r., ncepa] "rpaJlOBII.Te'· lloopyll., Fafianapeoa II ,[J;e6pIlu:a e cnOMHaT II q>PypIIOHOT 6YTCIIHIIH (6Y'IHH) Flpeu H no OBa Ey'lHH He ce cnOMHYBa. HanpOTIIB,CpnCKIlTe ,lIOKYMeHTIl BO 1343/4 II 1344(5 r. ro cnoanyeaar cenorc 6Y'lIlH, KBKO HMOT rrcnapen ua MBHaCTRpoT Tpecxaaeu xaj Flpunen. TapJlHHaTB O'lllrnellHO eane ecce a aanyurrena (cncpeu B. Kpaeapa 1989,244).

194

CJI_ 60. ·KuJIt~·, E),'1lm. MU09U, 11. -12. eetc

I'paaurre

fpallao6pJ'l,!, PYIIHH'IKa xpenocr. Cn. 61, 62.

nUiil.: l1. MUI<yn'lHK TIR, 60; - F. farH"K 1981, 101;- T. TOMOCKH 1964,43 II 1978,

285-287; B. Fperoaa-r J877, 114.

MeciiloiioJlO:HC6u. 'Tpananrre'' ce BHKB H311BoeHlloT II 160 M BIICOK xyn cpeae paMHHl\BTa na YCTHeTO aa C'rapa Pexa 00 Llpna. ITpeKY emrc HHCKO cenno KynOT e nOBp3aH co nnaHHHHTe HB ceaep. CenOTO I'paaurre ne)l{ll BO jY)I(HOTO nOIlHolK· je . Fpanurre npeTCTBaYBa MaTeMBTH'II<II. recrpaecxa. eeeepaeaeu II CTOnaHCI<II ueurap aa cenacra lleMHp Xncap - aHTH'IKHOT Ilepaon II cpeAHoBeKoBIlOTO )l(eJle3HO (,[J;06POMllp). KBlle urro raaaaara CTOnUHCI<a lIejHOCT, 0.11 npeuacropa-

195

jara AO xeuec. OIHla e scrtnoarauuja'ta aa acene ao. ,UeHeWHlIOT uea'rap ,UeMlip

Xacap (Mypr-aureao) nelKli 2 J{M jyroaanajtno OA Fpaaurre.

Hajciu.apu ociItaiiiQllu. Ha 3apaMHeTHoT spa aa xynara II aa IIBeTe repaca jyaoto on aero. DO pana'ra !!lITIlKa olin }I3rpaileH r-peno-r Bpaanaou. co !TOapWHHa 01112 xa. Bo 1I0L\HaTa aa'ruxa SpSOT olin !TOSTOPHO yxpenen- co ea'rrepuc oesenee aajaxna-ro co 8 KynH. Kacreno-r 3atPaIi:an 2 xa, a aa repacare !TOA Hero ce paurupano nonrpanaerc. Haollli: CTOTIIIIII MOHeTH 0.11 AOL\HHOT 3 . .110 6. aex: MHory sceneaaa arypa II -roneao onoeo. Oaa HeCOMHeHO olin uerrrapo'r xa uenao'r PYAOHoceH peruox Ilepuort

CII. 61. "rpa9I11.wIIe", Fpauuune. (Il!aiU'IKO petuonanno cpeouuaue (ipo9 Bpuanuont.Aepoaosunua e 06110l;leliG eo cpe9liuoiIi eee (1pa9D.o6pYII)

CpeiJli08eKo611.u ociuaiiio!#u. Bo ceeepuncr nen aa axpononn-ra ce nporera enea aaa'rpeuren SHA, SJle'leH so npana nOTe311 HO rpagen eea aan'rep. llITO aa't-aopan rrpocrcp co IIHMell3liH 90 x 30 M. Ha ceaepna'ra II xa aenagua-ra crpana ce 1I0TIIIIparr Bp3 1I0L\IIOaHTH'IKIIOT SHA, KOj WTO ocranan 1I00pO aanaaeu II BO IIOIIOL\-

196

lIelKIIHTe BeKOBII. ODa enno [anpo-ro xa cpeAHoBeKoBHHoT CPPypHOH ("rpaA") ,U06pYH. nOTBPAeH co noeexe aaoms: Cpe}:lHOBeKOBHa rpnuepnja. CHTHIITe npeuMeTII IlCKOBaHH 011 aceneac II IIOBeKeTO BII3allTllCKB MOHeTB: aHOIIIIMIIII tP0JlIICIi 011 cpenanara aa 11. BeK, GaKapHH CKlltPaTIi 01J, 12. II 13, BeK. (so MY3eBTe DO Barona II Cxonje}.

Tpar-a 011 L\HBllnHO rronrpaxae HeMa. Oxarnenac e lIeKa BO AOllHROT cpelIeli BeK excnnoa'rauaja'ra aa pyaa'ra seee 611na nosrecrena HB aananaaor lien 0.11

CII.62. "rpa9uUliIie', Fpauuuae. eonesau 09 /0.-13. Bel(

OBO) peraou. KUlJ,e aapacuan HOBIIOT uearap. rpBIIOT Canepoxacrpox ()Kene3HeQ) co QIIBIIJlHO rronrpanae.

Bo 60p611Te 1I0Mery BH3aHTIICKHOT nap AHApOHIlK III II Cpeare BO 1329130r. OI{OJlY PYAOHOCIIHTe peraonn ,UeMHp Xacap H ,Ue6pHL\a, noxpaj EY'IBH. rasasapaoa, CHlJ,epOKaCTpoH II ,Ue6pllL\a ce CIiOMellYSB H "tPPYPIIOH 'uOOpYH" (B. Kpaaapa 1989,254). Tpanmtaja'ta Ha OBa liMe lKlIBeena ce 110 aaure'ro apewe:

YWTe HB 1I0'!eTOKOT aa OBOj eea OBOj peraou ce naxame ")«ene3HO". a 1I0peTKO II ",U06pOMHp" [Fperoaav 1877, 114). J.1 neaec enna MeCIiOCT BO jyroaanamsoro rtonaozqe na I'paaurre ce BIiKa ,U06pOMllpCKllllon.

OBBe nOllaTOL\Il My eane nOlHaTH II ua T. TOMOCKB (1964,43) H -roj, IiCTO 'taxa. BO epcxa co oaaa noxauaja 1I0MIICI!YBU!J na rpano-r ,U06pYH. Mery'roa IIOIl0l.\lIa (1978.285-87) Ge3 IIHKaKoa OCHODa -roj ,U06pYIi ro 6Bpa BO APyrRoT lIeI! na Maxencuaja. s aj ceJlOTO Bpecr. Panoaaur (wecnccre 'Tlnoxn"). OBOj I!OKUJlH:TeT neranuo ro IICTpa)KYBaBMe, 110 aa Hero HeMa CpellllOBeKOBIIII OCTaTO-

197

IJ.II; TaMY neaca-r SHJlOBIlTe OA enna ,a:oQKoaKTH'IXa eacoxa crpasca (6. Bex) H III1WTO npyro. JJ;06pyH ocraxyaa 80 JJ;eMHp Xacep

)l{eJleJueu:

rpB,a: )l(e.lle3Hell (CuoepOKaciu.pOH). py,a:HH'IXH uearap- err. 63, 64. Ruw.: I'. I'arax 1981, 93; - A. Crojaaoacnn 1981,64.

MeciiioiJOJlo~(ja. 'Tpannnrre'' ce BilKa nonraor II -recea p",a: WTO ce 113J1lfra aa jY}f(1{1I0T lien I{B )Kene3HeL\, HBII YCTl1eTO KB KyWIIHL\B ao U;pHB Pexa. Baccx e 130 M (847 M I{.M.), 11MB CTPMI{H crpaaa II 3apBMI{eT epa. 80 no,a:HolKjeTo noaanyaa rnaaaacr peraoaanea nar, uenec narcr KII'IeaO - Bx'rona. Ha nnaaaucame nBAHKII jY}f(KO OJ!. fpBAIfWTe neaca-r t5pOjHII pYIIOKonH aa lKene30 011 aKTIIxaTa B

C,(~ .~~ ~~ vi u n~

CA. 63. "rpa9U1U111e', )f(eAe:me!.j, naoqu, ]3.-14. ee«

CpellHBOT sex. O"ITYKB II cpeuuoeexcaxoro II I{OBO liMe: )Kene3HeQ, Blf3BHTBCXll - ClI.llepOXaCTpOII, TYPCXK - JJ;eMHp Xacap.

Hajciiiapu ociiiaiiiOllu. Ha apeo'r aa Fpanaurre cena aarpauena yspenena HBCeJlt5a BO xenexacraxxo apeae. narapaaa co MaxellOHcXII MOHeTIl OJ!. 4.-1. ae« CT.e 80 1I0QHoaHTII'IIW epeae eanc aarpaneuo 06SH}lHe co aanrep, oxony npocrop xoj 3aq:!aKan 4 xa. Jyroacro-mao-r lien ro npercraayaaa janporo na spenocra. 8ltBTpeWI{1I0T npoc-rop 61l}! -repacecro aanenen BO nexomcy nonra nOTe3!!.

1"

199

lIeilYMHO nOllsHII3HH, co 'tparn 01< KyKI! II npyru rpenen. Flonrpanae-rc ce O$OpMllJlO ua TeCI{HOT CpT ce aeposanauno 011 xpenocra. onnenen CO pOS 011 Ilea. 110 !lCTO raxa. omparen CO SIIA. HaoAII: AOIII{OBIITII'l.Ka xepaauxa. MOlleTH 0)\)\011- IIll0T 4.)\0 6. aex, MHory nap'lHH.a 1l0CIITI{H npenwe'ra xoaann 011 sceneao. anar-

K.II.)I(e.lle3Ha3rypa.

CpeiJIt08eK06Hu. ociilaiii.o~u.. Bo 1I01I1{1I0T cpezen BeK )l(IIBOTOT 1:10 spenocra 6nn OfiI{OBeH. Flonrpanae ro 611J10 OCTaBel{O sreyxpeneao. uenocxc 6BJI cesoeea 3al!aAHHOT san II" aarpaneaa MaJla axporrona aa ceaepoaatranxao'r aron, so uapcT3 aan-repaa TeXHHKa. UeHec na TepeHOT ce 3ana3eHII caae 06HOBII MOWHe n06po [aa paanaxa 011. 1I.0IlHOaIlTII'IKHTe nenoaa]: enHa xemra Kyna, enna KpY)l(Ha II eAHa nonYKpY)l(Ha rronyxyna, ncrca neurpanaara Kyna-AOH)!(OH (13.-14. B.). HajAeHI! ce ncaexe MOHeTIl 011. 13. II 14. BeK (JIaTI!HCKI! HMHTaIlHH; AHIIPOHIIK II Ilanecncr a np. nOTOa aexeuajaucxx 01114.) II wnaHCKH 011 16. BeK.

Fpar-rerc )l(enelHell (Cnnepcxacrpon) aaeexeno 1l0SpIIJHHa 011 2,8 xa II npercraayeanc pernonanno CTOllallCKO H ynpaano cpenaurre BO 13. II 14. sea. 3afiene)l(aHO e BO apcsa co 60p611Te cxony OBOj peraon WTO ce eonene rtoxrefy BII3BIITHja II Cp611ja (CllllepOKBCTpOH): nOTOa aa apejae ananeeu-e-ro aa CTe$aH Ue'laHCKIl lIiluUywaH KaKO "rpan )l(ene3H'II" (no B. Kpaaapn 1989, 330)

OnWTHHH KABA.!lAPUIi

J1.peHoBo

rpa)\ /1,e8QJI, spajnaraa xpenocr II xecenee. peruoxamro CpeIlHWTe. en. 65, 66, 67.

Ilu.iii..: B. Pa)\OBBHOBHR 1924, 177,214.515:- 11. MIIKyn'lIlK 1973, 173-197 H 1983, 211-218.

MeciUolioJloJlt6u. Mecaocra 'rpaI\IIWTe" RIll! "Ileacn -rpaa" IIe)l{l! 2,3 KM ceaepoaanaano 011 UpeHoBo, noxpaj peKI!'1KaTa Paeqxa H aBTonaTOT rpallCKO - Flpanen. Oooj na'r rrpe'rcraeyaaa II so MI!HaTOTO r.naaaa apcg a nOMefy nOBBPAapHeTO H Flenaroaaja. Flpercraayaa sapOSHII'IKII PHil co CTpMHa ceaepna II enara jY)l(H3 crpena, gonr 400 M H aHCOK 130 M HaA pexa'ra. Jlecao e 1\0CTaneH OA JYr, npexy WHPOKO I! HIICKO cenno, npexy aoe WTO nOMIlHYSBn CTapHOT nar; AeHeWHIlOT nar e npocesen 11113 TeCHeQOT eo cenepno-ro nOAHO)!(je ua PHI10T. 0)\ OBa MeCTO ce OI1BOjYSB enen JJOKBJJeH nar KOj OOAII AOJJ)!( Llpua Pexa HB jyr. HH3

200

CA. 65. "Tpncuuune ,ilpelloeo, olllDuOj/(u ~pa9 AY90pucm (EypUCil1) Ascpouosuuua e otinoeena eo cpe9lfuoilleeK ('~pa9 lieeoe ")

20]

BIlTalJeBO 110 PYAOflOCHIITe peaapn ua Ko)!(yqJ. CTaPOTO PYAapCTBO npeTCTaBYeano CTOllBIICKa nOIl.J10rB Bp3 xoja aapacxaea xaceneara xa Fpanaurre. HeKOnKY KM CeBepHO 011 Fpajmurre nexca-r MB.[IeMl! xa MepMep. e scnnca'tapaaa HCTO BO

Hujciilapu aciilaiiloqu. JylKHBTB nBIIIIHB HB PHIIOT fpBJl.HWTe e repacecrc 113Jtenena II na HeB napacxana nacenea KOjB uno 3BqJBKB 17 xa: TOB oHn HeCOMHeHO rpeno-r AY.[IapHcr (EypIlCT). enea 0.[1 najoxcxa're uea'rpa, ncraoneu co roae»

+

-

Q

CJl.66. 'fpo9uUltne", Ilpenoeo. CJl06eHC"U HU"UiIi., lO. -12. ee"

6poj .[IIIH)!(HII HBOAH H CTOTHQII MOHeTH 0.[14. lIeK CT. e. 110 PHMCKOTO apesee, «ora pevaca aaapen II )!(IIBypKaJl KBKO cencxa HBCeJlC)B 110 KPBjOT HB BHTIIKBTa. Ol5sHIlHeTo My e 1(eJleHIICTH'"IKO, eea aanrep. HeMB npyru lIBpCTIl rpaJtI5H co MBJI'rep. ,UBe PBHOXpll.CTlI.jBHCKIl 5B3HJlII.KH nouapaua jY)!(IlO 011 HBceJlOBTa OCTBSIIJle -rpara ao BlllI HB axory 150rBTB MepMeplla rpalle)!(HB nJlBCTHKa 0115. II 6. BeK

CpeOIf06e"06"U ociiiaiilaqu. HB 3BrrB.[IIlIIOT KPBj aa CTBpaTa axponona OHn aarpanex CpeJlHOBeKOBHIIOT "r-pan", 011 npapaven KBMeH 6e3 esan'rep. Oesnnaero onqJBi.B -rpaarcnex npocrop co IIIIMeH3HII 170 x 40150 M. HCTO'"lHIIOT KPBj e onaoeu co IIHBTpeweH SIIA 110 axportona. rcneaa 50 x 20 M. Ha ceaepnara CTpaHB ce nornapan HB aepTIIKaJlHIIOT aapnecr OTceK, a npncranea e OA jyr. Fo AeMHee nBTOT WTO rope ro cnOMHaaMe. Ha ceaepoaananaao-r nen CTOII QHCTepHB aa aOJl.B, BCe'leHB 111Ia50KO 110 )!(IfHa xapna YWTe 110 xeneHIICTII'IKO apeae.

CJI. 67. "Tpoouuune", Ilpenoeo. BUJouffiuc"u MOlleaJu, 1O.-l3. Be"

CTBHoeHHTe cnceaa ce aarraaena eo jy.)!(HilOT gen. a co epcaaja ce acnpaaa 6pojHHTe IIBII')!(HH HaOAR: CpeJl.HOBeKOBHBTB orHHWHB H rpneaaa rpuvapaja, reryna-re 011 T.H. KOMHHHCKH TIIII, napvau.ara 011 CTaKJleHIl oeneraaa, 6pOH3eHIIOT cnoaencaa HaKHT (10. - 13. BeK), 6pojHIITe )Kene3HH apBOBIl aa crpeJIll. HO')!(OBI! II np. EAHB yxpaceaa OpoH3eHa TOKa 3B peuen co Jl2a-rpHqJOH 110 penjerp ynaryaa ua 9.-10. BeK (en. 6). MOHeTHTe ce BIl33HTIICKII: H3 Jouan UIIMHCK, Maxajno IV, KOIlCTaHTHH IX (¢lonHcH oJt xpajo'r HB 10. H 11. BeK); HB JOBaH BaTBQ. Maxajno VIII. AHAPOHHK II II Mnxajno IX (CKllqJBTI'I 011. 13. II 14. ee«)

Tparu 011 cpenaoaexoaaa rpBJt6u RMB II na CPTOT IICTO'lHO 011 TlIPJtHHaT2.

203

nae 0,[1, Hila ce nOM3Jl11 U;pKBII. 011 KOIl enua-ra e o-rxonaxa u;enOCHO a npyrara lIeJlYMJlO. Ter-yna-re 0,[1, KOMHHHCKII ran co KOll cane ncspaeun ynaryaaar na 12.- 13. Dele Ha IICTO'lHaTa nanuna HB I'panaurre ce aaoraar Cpe,[l,HOBeKOBHII rpcecaa. Jlonrpanaero ce panmpnnc liB cpenxa're -repaca jY;KHO 0,[1, rapuauara EIlHa roneera OB3HJlHKBnHa I.\pKBa co GorBTB KBMeliB nJlBCTIlKa CTOIt II neuec BO ceno-ro Ilpenoao. 2.3 KMjyrollCTo'lHO O.!t I'panaurre (12. BeK).

rPBT'leTO JJ;eBon npe'rcreayaenc peruoxanao cpenaurre na Paeu 1I yxpenexa CTpB;Ka ua DB;KHHOT nBT OA Bapnap KOH Flenaroaaja. I1MeTO My e 113ae.!teHO on rpaxa'r HB311B Ilneaon (eapar, teson. aenpajaren). CeKaKO DO apesre HB CJlODeHCKOTO OTl\enYBBH.e Oll BH3BHTHja (9. BeK). HlIeIlTH'IHO e cOIIPyr, MHory nOll03HaT Ileaon Kaj Kop-ra. Celll1WTeTO aa rcnesuror neBoncKll KOMIiTaT so 9. II 10. DeK II npaa'ra npeCTOJlHHHB HaCBMYHJI.

Henccraror na rrcronesm II I.\BpCTH rpanea 0,[1, ,[I,OI.\HOTO cpemrcaexoeae BO HaWIiOT Ileacor YKB)!(YBB ua TOB lIeKB 3Ha'leH.eTO My ce H3ryGHJlO YWTe npen cprrcKIITe OCBojYBaH.3 HB OBHe spaaurra. a lIerOSOTO MeCTO ro rtpeaen rpajto-r TIIKBeUl 10 KM jyacao. TI1KBeUl KaKO ronevc cenc ee OCTaHe cpennurre xa THKBewKlIoT pernou (IIB;l[IIja) II nonouaa. nOTBpJleHO BO rypcxare )lOKYMeHTIi 0)1 15.11 16.BeK

PeCBBB

Fpan TUK6ew. xacexea. perxoxanxc cpenaurre. en. 68, 69.

JIuiii.: B. PB.!toBaHoBIlK 1924.433-435; 11. MHKYfl'lHK 1971, 269-285; HCTHOT

1975,190-191;- B.nIlJl'lHK 1989.125-127.

MecwouoJloJldia. MeCHOCTa 'Tpan, THKBew' ce esrxa 80 M BIICOKIIOT «yn Hall ycrae'ro HB TIIKBeWKa Pexa BO UpHa. 2 KM aananno 011 Pecaaa. Taxa ce anxa H cocenna-ra nonuuca na TIIKlIeWKB pexa, 0.11. Pecaaa 1I0 YCTHeTO aa 3anBA; aa TOj rrpocrop ce mapeno ncnrpamrero. HIl3 nonuuara na Llpua BOAen 3Ha'laeH PYllBPCKII na-r aa jyr, !COH py.!tHlIQIITe BO MaCHBOT xa Ko)!(yq,. 1I001eKa xpaj TIIKsewKa PeKII BOllen flOKaflHIIOT nar aaa Tuxseuruja'ra 1I0 Bapnap xa HCTOK (lIeHec naTOT Boaapua - Kasanepua - HerOTIIHO). On BPBOT aa rpB,[I,OT ce KOH'rponapaa-r ABBTa na-ra MHory xunoaerpa nenexy ua ceaep.jyr II IICTOI{ Hajcwapu ocwaiuo'lu. Ha 3apaMHeTHOT BpB BO xenefHlCTH'IKO ape ae nocroeaa yxpeneaa aacenea, rcneaa 4 - 5 xa. HaoAH: KepaMHI(B, MOlleTH 0.11. 3. - 1. Bel( CT e. Bo JlOllHOPIiMCKO npeve HII TOj npccrop 611J1 aarpaneu KaCTeJI. ronest 140 x 155 M. Manrepuaor SHlI OKOJlY Hero 611n 3ajaKHBT co HajMBlIKy 7 xyna. Bo 6. BeK oGSlllllleTO 5HJlO csnoeeuo ua HII3a MeCTa, a BO jyroHCTO'lHIIOT aron GIIJla orpop-

Mella Mafia axponorra co BHBTpeUleH SIIJI.

Co apxeonourxn're HCKonYBBH.a BO 1959·61 II 1967-68 r. OTKonaHU ce

"'"

CA. 68. 'Tpa90111, TUK8ew", Pecaea, 901.{IlOQlII11U'fKQ yscpeaena uacentia u KOCl1leJl_ 06li06ellQ e eo cpecen eee ("ipa9 TUK6ew·)

205

nenoea 011. ot5SHII.HeTO, cOHAupall1l ce K .111'

HaoAH, Mefy HUB H nceeee MOHeTH 011. ~ ;PII:Te CJlOeBIl U npHt5paHH ce II.BJ'I)KHII

pexa e OTKonaH eneu nO.llCKH IIMOT rp ~ ,II . BeK_ Bo 1I.0.llUHaTa lIa TUKBeWKa CpeOIlOOe1(OBIIU ociuaiuoqu. He;oH 00 IIU1Ta.lIpKSa R II.P

ot5sIIII.HeTO Mo)!{eGII nOTeJmYBaaT OA):IO II.H:nOMeHaTl1're OOHOllell1l nnpTIIU ue t5UJIa lIeJIOCIIO OOHOBella (CO ):IHMeH3uH 5: x 3~T ;peAeH BeK, ):IO):leKa aKpOnOJIaTa SIIAOIIll c-roene ):104M BilCOKO Hall. M . Ilpea nOJIODUHa BeK Hej3HHH1'e aarpaneua enaa uncrepna (1) 11. e):lHa ~:::::a {Pauoaauonux. 1924). Bo uea e lIelKl.I npen 3arraAHoTo xeno. HaoAH- cpe II upxaa, 1I.0AeKa npyra aaxaa L\PKOU 1111 CHTIlII npenxera llCKOIlUIlH 011. )!(~Jle30~ saaaaracx rpH'Iapuja II upenaa. t5poj-

Ovarnenxo e nexa axporronara ro HTHCKII MOlleTll 011 13_ sex

Txxsem, 1I.0):leKa npOCTopOT OKOllY npercraeyeana jaaporc aa "rpenc'r" (3aqJaxa 2 xa) OIlJl nacenyaan cYKlIecHea a BO paMKHTe na aHTIl'lKOTO 05sIlIIHe IIBIIO rroaouna. Toj clIYlKeJI aa cMeCTYBaH.e

Ha nOMOIllHHTe oGjeK1'1I - KOH,YWHHl:(U H MaraL\IIHH pa60TllIlHHL\H, rrpccropun 3~ crpaaca. KOBa'lHHl:(U Il np., a HUBHIlTe1'eMellllceonc:plleHH CO HCKorrYBIlH,aTa. Mefy-roa H BO TUKDewKa1'a 1I.0JlIIIIKa ):IOJI)I( pexa'ra.ua ronea npocTOp HCTO'lIlO 0):1 Ipanor. JIe)!(aT OCTaTOI(H OA enxo nOArpenae. Co cncxma-rare IIcKonYBaH,a npeu rrorony-

BaH,eTO na OBOj 'repeu BO IIOBOTO TIIKBeWKO Eaepo. na 3 MeCTa OTKonaBMe 1I0MaJI1I lIPKBIl co cera-roue aa

uena nonnora) II rpoeaurra OKOllY HIlB OB lPpeCKO-)!(HBOllIIC (apa rIlII(MOlleT;),rtO 15.-16. eex (q,pecKH). . lie OCTa1'Ol(1I 1I0TeKlIyoaa1' 011. 13. BeK

ceno II LI:HT::pC::1':;:::::::ae~Tep.1I o,rt IS: II 16. BC!K TIlKBew ce jan sa KaK nOCTa) THK8eIll He nOCTOH BO -roa a:;~:~C::~aHoBcKH 1981,63). "rpa.D.:1" (KPe~ cxare HIlI! 1I1l3aHTIICKil 113BOpll. He ce C~OMH yroa lie e 3a5eIle)l(ail IIUT)' BO cpn~oceAllllo1' MallaCTlip TIOJIOIllKO, H3rpaAell BO i;a IIH BO 1I0KYMeHTliTe epaaun aa a):lllo 011 Tl!KlleWKHoT rpan. . aea lIeKOJIKY KIIJIOMeTpHjyrola-

CII.69. 'TuKaew', Pecaea, ZP06HU naoou (13.-14. eex]

206

Apallren(CpOIIQa)

Kpajnama crpasca. ClI. 70

Duw:...: ~. MIIKYIl'lHK TIR, ;7. MeCIUQUQIIO:HC6a. Mecuccra "Ma K

~Op:~:':: B~aceIleIlOTO ceno A~a~~~j:, ~a:c~~Ba KyJIa" Jle}K1I 1 KM CeBepOIJC-

M BHCOKO ~a,rt :~~:::~;:~R::::;~::~: (~;; 3aB~~JIy:~ szu: ~:K~III~

M H.M.). BH3yelIHo e ncapaaaa co

207

KH'IeBO iO,5 KM na jyroaanan. CTaPIlOT nar KII'leBO - Focrasap nOMIHlyBan Kpaj panor II 7 KM ceaepuc OTI)'Ka ro 1I0CTHran nnaHllHCKHOT npeMHH Kacpa. TaMY neaca-r II CTapHTe PYIIHHI.\II na sceneac, 1I0,[leKa PY,[IHlIl.\lITe na jarnen (noBpwHIICKH «onoea) nezca'r 3 KM jY)!{IIO 011 Mapxynaja. so BTaPOT liB OCJlOMej

Hujciiiapu ociiluiilo~u. Bo il0l.\lIoaHTII'!KO apeae ue SPBOT 0,[1 '1YKaTB OJ:II!O uarpajtexo OOSIJ.!IHe co esanrep- WTO aaracpanc npccrop 011 1,4 xa. Haomr: ,[101.\HOBHTH'IKa rpnxapaja. MOHeTH 011 il0U;HllOT 4. II 6. ae«. Bo .II0JlHHBTa 1 KM jY)!{HO 0,[1 Mapxynuja. na rro're rOT "MaHBCTllp" II "Mer-a", Jle)KBT OCTBT0I.\H oa acrcapeaeaa nacenee co pancxpacrajaacxa upxaa. Kacreno-r na Mapkymtja ja UlTI:JTen oaaa PYIIBpCKa aaceaea II fO lIallfne.!lYBan npeMRHOT Met)" npOBHHlIHllTe HOB

Enap H Flpeaanarana.

CpeiJIIQ8eK0811U ociiio.iuOflu, 80 cpemnuaaor lien ua TSPlIllHaTa peracrpapaaae napsaa-a O.!l CJlOBeHCKH npenan. CHTHH npeaxe'ra IfCKOBaliH O.!l sceneao a BpaOBH 011. CTpeJlH JB npOOHBaH.e nauuap. nOTOB CIIRB opoH3eHa annnxauuja - 'rastra [npo-rotiyrapcxa. 9.-10. BeK). Ha cesanaero !leMa rpara 011. OOHOBYBaH.B

Ha Mapxyn aja aepoja-rao caao nOBpeMeHO nocrcena crpasca IIH3 KplllHHTe rOIlHIIH, xcjaurro rc xcrrrpcnxpana Ba)l(HllOT nBT all. OI[PHIl. npesy Kaceec KOH nOJl03J1Te II KOR Cecnje aa ceaep

KH'IeBO

KaCTpOH Kumcueu - rpan KU'Iuea, peruoeumro cpenaurre.

Rum,:1. TpllcpYHoBcK1I1971, 15 llll.; - A. Crcjauoecxa 1981,75; - I1. MHKyn'lllK 1987,185;- B. Kpaeapa 1989,279;-

MeciiiQuQJlQJlC6a, MecHOCTa "Kane" ce neota aa IiCTO'lRHOT xpaj 011. uea'rpanHHOT nen HB Ka-reeo. Flpe'rcraayea nHTOMO pur-se co KpY)!{Ra ocaoaa aapaeore'rc oar-cpa, BHCOKO AO 20 to{ RaA HCTO'lROTO nOIlRO)l(je Ii pexara (633 M H.M.). Ha aanennaor xpaj ce noapayaa npexy HllCKO \j WlI.pOKO cenno co pasanaua'ra. 80 xoja ce coenuuyaaa'r pexavxa're Ocojcxa, Sajacxa II TeMHHIIB cpopMHpajKIl ja Benaxa. Tyxa aapacnanc jaAPoTO aa cpenaouexoeaac'r x uexemeu rpaa KII'leBO Hujciiiapu ocwaiuo~u. Hertocpenao xpaj Jana.!lHOTO nonxooeje aa Kanero noaaayaan npacrapacr na-r 0,[1 Caonje II. rtcaoaere KOI! OXpHII. aa jyr ll: Flpunen Ha llCTOK (aHTII'IKIlOT nar CKynlJ - JIIJXHHII.). Bepojat ao so PIiMCKO ape ae Ha Kane olin 113rpaileH xpajna-ren KBCTen aa KOIITpona ua naTOT. Oaaa Tl.lp.!lllHa noc-roena aa epajo'r 011. aHTHKaTa; lIajAeHH ce MOHeTH - eARa ocraaa aaxonaaa no cpennxat-a na 3. BeK, no-rca eilll!le'l.HH nap'lllH.a 011. 4. II 6. BeK {ao Apxeonourxa MY3ej Cxcnje).

CpeiJIIQ8eKOeHu Qciuaiii.o~u. Fpanor xavaea OIlJl aarpanen apa rtocrapn're OCTaTOI.\H, aa nOBpUlHHaTa 011. oxoxy 150 I[ 100 M. Bo TypCKO apeae ncxpaj TBpAHHa-

?_OR

ra noc-toena II. roneaa I.\HBHJlHa aecenoa. xoja npepacaana BO lIeHeWHHoT rpan Ha npOCTopOT na crapara apertocr zenec e ypeneu rpaACKIlOT napx. Apl[eOnOWKIl IICKonY8aHoa TYKa lie ce eptnexa. Bo 1929 r. HajAeHII ce 302 cpeI5peHIl MOHeTIi OJ:l 14. BeK (cpncxn II aeneuajancxa; BO Hapcnuno r MY3ej, Bent-pan).

rtoaeee 1I0KYMeHTil ro cnoMHYBBaT Kuseao. Bo ncaenoara aa Bacanxj II 0,[11020 r. CTOll "Tell Kurcanan": - BO 1l. aeK - 'KaCTpOH Ka-r-raea"; - BO 13. ee« - "Tell KIiTcaBHH'", "rec Knrceaeoc-; "m, KH'IaBe"; BO 1265 r. ce cncsreaysa "OT Kaaaso": - ao 1300 r. - 'oTKII'Iase"; BO 1468 r. - "Kapvoaa" (TYPCKIl). Ka-aaaa CPYIIKLllIoHHpana IIIl3 BeKOSIiTe KaKO Dll3aHTllCKH xacrpou (011. 10.110 13. Belt), KOj rn xojrrponapan na-rnurra-r-a na nepacpepxja-ra Ha l{apCTBoTO, SO HaCOKaTa ua secrure cpncsn ynana 011. ceaep. 80 1257 f. Cpsare aa KyCO ape ae ja OCBOllJle Kavaae. a Mefy 1282 II. 1297 r. MHnYTHH aa nocrcjano ja O.!l3en OA Bnaux-raja. Bo paao'r-ypcxo speae so TBp.!lHlIaTa KH'IaBa OHJla ecrecreua crpasca: BO 1468 r. aacenoara epcene 217 KyKH, a T9pII.HHaTa 14 crpaxcapu; BO 1519 f. UMana 20

SOjIlHI.\J,!.

I1MeTO xaveec e CJlOBeHCKO H yna'ryaa aepojarac ua 9. - 10. BeK.

CJI. 71. 'rpa9uuuue', n096UC, IIG09U 0910. -13. ee«

8aCOKa pernoxanna crpecea. Cn. 71. 72.

MeciuQuQJlQJlC6u. Mecaocra 'Tpenaurre" ne)l(lI. 1 KM 3C3 oA nO.!lBUC. Toa e ceuepuaor nen aa enen recea nnaHIIIlCKH CpT co CTpMHII KapneCTII cTpaRII, UlTO ce aamrecyaaar 300 M O!lCOKO Ha,[lllonllHKaTa ua Fcneaa Pexa H HaA !JaTOT 0):1 KIl'leBO KOIl OI[PHII. O.!lHOCIlO Iletiap. Ilpucranen e caao npesy Mano ceuno onjyr

209

210

CJI. 72 "Tpaouuuue", n098UC, 90t{HOUHillu'llw ctupaoco.

IwpucaleNu U 60 cpegHuow BeK

Fo lIaTKplIJlYBB MaCIIBOT na I'onjax. Baayenno KOMYHHI.IRpa CO crapa're TBPIIBHIJ 80 KH'leBO, 8 KM aa ceaepoacrcx: co H)((IIWTe, 16,5 KM aa I1CTOK; CO AOJlIIHBTB xa BeJHIKB ,[10 Hej311HI1oT aarranea lien, KBAe nrro llBTOT 3B OXPIIA CKpWHyBB aa jyr KOII npeMIIHOT Fl pecex. a all Hero ce OIlBojYBB na-r KOI! }J;el5ap, Ka'IyaBjKII ce na npeMHHOT UepOH. Fe IlB,LIfneAyaB II I1BTOT all KI1'4eBo KOII :JKe.lle3Hellll Barona-, 3anaJlHBTB 'rpaca WTO 80llli no Il:OJlIIHBTB liB 6ellH'IKB pella, 3 KM HCTO'lHO all

fpaIlHWTeTO.

Hajciuapu ociIiaiiioqu. O,llllpellpHMCKHOT nepaon nOTeKHYBB MBKeAOHCKB MOHeTB (2.- 1. BeK CT. e.). 06sHIllleTo WTO genec ce rxena cxony UPBOT 1I0TeKIIYlIB Oil AOL\IIBTB BHTHKB. jtarpanesro e co IIBpCT aanrep H 3ajaKHaTO co xyna aa 'IenOTO. Sarpanyaano npOCTOp on 0,3 xa. HaOJ1Il: «epaeaaa, CIlTHH lKeJIe3HR npenaera.

CpeiJIlo6eKofllfU ociiiuiiioqu. Bo ceaepuacr nen 0,[1 xpenocra peracrpapaaxe nap'llIH.a 0,[1 CJI0BeHCKH gprtetra, e,llel{ lKene3eH BpB 0/1 crpena 0J1 OBa BpeMe II 6pOH3eHa 06eTKa OJ{ rpoanecr ran. 0,[1 10. - 12. BeK. Tpara 0,[1 OOROBII ua

06SHJI.HeTO neaa.

O'lHmeJ{HO e ,[IeKa oaaa BIiCOKa crpasca, co 1I1BOl{pe,[lHO roneua nper-nenaocr na OKOJIHIlTe Il3.THWTa WTO norcpe rll cnOMRaBMe, 61'1:JIa aopncrena noepeMeHO. BO KpH3HHTe HaCTaRH HH3 cpeunouexcaae'ro. fo llaArne,[lYBana Ba}KHlIOT nar, 0,11 OXPH,lI H ll,e6ap KOIl KIl'leBO, Floncaare H ((all Cxonje xa ceaep.

OIlWTIIBB KQ1.fAHH

MOPOIl:BHC

PerHOHanHO cpenxurre. xacrpon MOpOJ8UJO. Cn. 73, 74.

JIuiii.:T. TOMOCKH 1978. 93-96; K. Tpajxoacxu 1983, 133-142 H 1991,235-246. MeciiioiioJloJIC6a, Mecaocra 'Tpanaurre" JlelKll AO jY}KHHOT nen ne MOPOABHC, 80 nonaoaqe-ro aa Flnaxxoaaua. Flpe-rcraayaa -receu pHA nosaefy ABe 1l0pOjHII 5pa3/l1I. BOBJle'leH 80 IlJlaHHHaTa II 0,6 KM onnane-reu 0,[1 pescr ua ncne-rc. ]YlKIlHOT uen My 3aBpWYBa co H3,l1HrHaTa xapnecra 'IYKa, 1l0BIICOKa aa 120 M on ceaepaaor nen. npe,ll '!YKaTa JlelKH aaac ceAJIO, ,[IenejKH ja ca nnaxaaa-ra. TYKa ce aaora II H3BOP co A06pa aona. 1I0paAH coja oaaa MeCHOCT 6HJIa uacenyaana HH3 CHTe enOXH BO MHHaTOTO. PY,lIHHl.{HTe aa aceneao, KopHCTeHIf BO MHHaTOTO, nexar HeKOJIKY KHJIOMeTpHjYlKHO OA Ipaguurre. AOJI)K naanaucxare na-rexa xoja npexy Flna-rxoeaua 1l0,llH KOIl Pa,[lOBIIWKO none

211

Hajcwapu ociuQWOllU. Hacen6HHCKHTe CJlOeBH 110- rexuyaaar on )l(eJIe3HOTO epeae II. 0.[1 paH8T8aHTI:fK8,O,ll PI:fNCKOTO apewe II. ,lIOl.(H8Ta aHTHKa (MOHeTH on 2.-6. BeK). 80 p,OLlllaOaIlTII'IKO ape ae 611no aarpaneac oI5HSH,!Ie co I.(BpCT eanrep. aajaxna'rc co noaese J(ynll. O!l(pai3JIO TpH ifJYHKI.(ROllaJllI1I JleJlOIIII: na '1YJ(aTa aa jY)l(HHOT apaj eane orpopaeaa Mana axpcnona. co I.(HCTepll3 aa 1I0Jla 80 Ilea. Ceaepao op, Ilea, ue 1I01l1lCJ(a -repaca. neeenc janpo'ro aa KaCTe1l0T co ell.Ha paacxpacTIljaHCJ(a oa3HIIHJ(a aa cpenanara. Flpea nceeae 011. n01l0- aena BeJ( MeCHOTO aacenenne ja orsonano II. Bp3 HejiHIlHoT cpenaureu J(opa6 aarpanano HOBa LlPKBa, soja ryxa CTOII H neaec. CeBepHO op, J(aCTenOT neacenc rtonrpanae. cndiare- 11.0 CO 110CJIao SIIA. Ha uenuor rtpocrop ce r1leABHT 'rpara 011.

ronesra OOHosyBBlha.

ttcrercr "MaH3CTHpHWTe" ne sca 0.6 - 0,8 KM ceaepno Oil I'pauaurre, H3 pa60T on none-ro. .!lonror0Il.HWHHTe acxortyaaa,a WToH30BaMeCTod:yWTece aonar, nOTBpp,IIJa p,eJ(a ce pa60TH aa npacrepo xyn'nrc MeCTO xcpacreuc BO npennc-ropaja-ra. aHTI:IKaTa H BO cpen-

I1cKol1aH8 e pa-

212

CJI.73. 'Tpa9uUla1e", MoP09BUC, 90'iHOOIIillU'IKU PY9I1U'IKU Koca1eJl co HoceJl6a 06H08elf e 80 cpe9Huoa1 BeK (KOCillpOIl MopOfJUJ9)

HOXPHCTHjaHCJ(a LlPKBB co rcneaa 1aCIIOII.eHB rpceuuue [xpurrra) 11.0 nea (5. BeK), IIp3 xoja 110 6. sex 6HJIa aarpaneae noroneua Tplf!<opa6Ha 6a3llJIHJ(a co 3 allCl'I,!lH Bp3 Hej3HHIITe YPH3THHH, 80 12.-13. eex 6HIIa mrpaueaa 1I0MaJIa LlPKBa OIlKpY)I(eHU co rpeemnra. KOpl:ICTeHa II tun TYPCKI!OT rtepxox

CpeOIfOBeKOBHU ociuaiuoqu. Ha ceaepuaor Sill!. lIa aHTH'IKIlOT J(aCTeJ! ce rnena ellHa uenocaa 06HOOB 113Be,[leHa 110 apenao'r cpenen BeK. HOIIHOT SH,[I e rpanen caac l!.eJIYMIlO co eanrep. liMa !lOMaJII! KyJIII - nornopa I! ce nornapa na OCTaTOLlIlTe 0.[1 6. BeJ( OCTaBeHII npen Hero. M oxony aJ{ponOJIDTa liMa -rpara Oil.

CJI. 74. "llpKfJuUla1.e·, MoP096UC, 4PK6U 09 5. U ~. 6eK; 6PJ HU6 Jle)KU 'lPKfJoilla 0912.- 13. 6eK (ao K. Tpn)KOBcKU)

06HOBYllalha. CHTIlIl HaOAIl: xepastaaa, nosexe (5aKapHH MOlleTH Oil. 12. II 13. BeK [auaan-rucxn CKltifJaTH H fiyrapcxa HMIlTBlJ,IIH na lIpBIITe). Cera uepoja-rno eana

213

oGHoBeHa H L\pKBaTa, KaKO HOSO enliCKOnCKO CeJlIIIllTe.

Ha MeCHOCTa "Mauacrupnurre" CeSepHO OJI KaCTenOT 611na uarpajteaa HOSaL\pKSa (12 .• i3. SeK) cpene

ypHaTIlIIHTe na crapa'ra eaaanaxa.a osony uea ce ncrpecyBane YMpeHUTe . Ilocera ce OTKOllaHH oaony 200 rp060BH, BO apeaeacxaor nepaon 011 12. BeK JlO ArraGOKO BO TypCKIIOT nepaon. I'cneaauara na HeKponona'ra 360pYBa U aa r-orreMUHaTa aa xaceneara MoPOIlBIIC, U!TO ce no'rmrpana na xpenccra ICaKO ynpaaac- H L\PKOBHO cpenaurre. 60raTHOT rpoo 6p. 105 (co 16 CTaKneHH 5ener31111 II npyr cpeepea HaKlfT)YlCa)!(ysaHanOCTOeH.eTO aa JlOKllJlHO 6rraropOAHHWTBO BO MOPOABIiC BO 12.- 13.BeK

Apxeonoursu-re OCTaTOL\H 360pYBaaT AeKa MOPOIIBHC no roneuaaa GRn nOMan aacTpOH. Ge3 ccoeeaa crpa'reurxa ncaainrja IIJIH IIPYfll npegnccTH, a ce nax ce 3A06IJn co '1eCTa, ICaKO e nacxonuja Jla ja xoa'rpon npa rrpoc'tpaaa-r-a peraja AO K03jaK H CnaBIJWTe aa ceaep H cnnao'r aa

Bperanuuua xa jyr a HaHCTOK. Caao 16 KM aartanac 011 MOPOABIIC ne)!(u cerro KpynHWTe co cpenxcaexoena ypHaTHHH, xane WTO E. AneIC-

COBa (1989, 65-87) ro 6apa rpancr Paeen. Klle30T EOpHC ro oAt5paJI Paaea aa ceAHWTe ua npeara enucaonaja ua Eperannuua (OA 865 r.). lloKonKY Paaeu lIallHCTHHa ne acen TaMY, TOj npe'r-

o

o

CA. 75. MOP098UC, Hel(OAKY CIllOI(AeHU 6eJJe2Juu 09 tpo6om 105; 9<.!llelJ 12. eex

214

CTaBYBan ronest nporcoyrapcxu ayn nOCTaBeH aa caMIlOT 6peranHU'IKB na-r IllTO ja noapayaax 1I0nHHan aa CTpYMa (II Byrapaja) co gperannaua II Iloaapnapaero. Ha -roa MeCTO ce ojmojyaa H OcorOBCKHOT nar, BOllejKH 1I0Jl)!( Sneroasa KOH PYIIOHOCHOTO Occrceo II HaTaMY KOH Cnaeuurre II KOH K03iaK ua

ceaep

HelIlTO ncseee OA enen eex nOJlOU;Ha, Bperamuorxa-ra etmcxonaja 6una npeerecrena 0,[1, Peeeu 00 anory noaana II nepaqiepac nOCTaBeHa spencer MOP03BII3A. ITpU'1I1I1I1Te aa OBa He ce IICTpa)!(eHII. Bepoja'rno xora acaa-ra npacaaa ira CaMYHn ja aaaeaana eyrapcxara, Bperansnua CO PaBeH ja aar-yfiana ncpaueuma'ra nOnIlTII'IKB ynora, ,[I,OlleKa 06110BelioTO pynapcrao BO peraouor aa ITJla'lKOBHu;a OGYCJlOBRJlO ryxa .!Ia ce o$OpMH HOBIIOT ueurap.

MOpOBII3J1 ce crtoaeayaa BO nceeneare lin 8acllnllj II 011 1019 roaana, KaKO cenaurre na enHCKonOT. Oxony cpeunna'ta aa 12. BeK apnnCKHOT na-rerraceu I1.!1PIICII 3a5eJle)!(an rpan co liMe ¢I0pM1I3A, e oe 1oI0)l(e(i1i e aaaenexo OJI MOp03B!l3J1. BH3aHTIICKIITe, a no-rca CpllCKHTe JlOKYMeHTH ro cnOMHYBaaT MOPOIlOUC mu 13. II 14. Bell; (KaIl;O MOPOBH3A II MOP03BH311). Bo 1348 r. MopoABHC e aaaenen KaKO ceno, nonapeuo sa 1I01100CHoonHaTa Sne-roecxe enackortnja. OA OBa npcaaseryaa nexa MOpOJlBflC KaKO yxpeneao rpa'rve II ellHCKonCKH cron npeCTaHaJIO na 1l0CTOH HeKa,[l,e aa xpajo-r 0,[1, 13. BeK, co cnOMOT aa BH3allTHCKaTn ynpaaa BO pernoao'r aa Bperanuaua II no rrcnecryaaae-ro aa cpncxa'ra rpeuaue KOII RerOK.

OIlWTllJlB KPHBA nAJlAHKA

OIlHJ1B

Fpan C.IIU61.IIUifu?, pernoaanao cpenaurre. CJI. 76

JIuW.: KepaMHT'IHeB 1966, 118; - J.1.. MIIKyJl'lHK TIR, 94; - U. KpCTellCKIl" 1987, 129.

MeciUoilO.llo1lt:6a. Mecaocra 'Tpanaurre" JIe)!(H 2 KM ceaepcaananxo O.!l L\eH-rapo-r aa pacppneuoro ceno Oriana. ceaepao 0,[1, aaana'ra 6HJIHl5ajU;1I II 6a6yHL\H, na ceaepaao'r pa6 OllllonllHaTn}la Kpaea Peaa. ITpeTCTaByBa 90 M BHCOK p.HJI aae iYJKHO xeno CTpMHO nata KOII pexa'ra. Tpn-re CTpaHII My ce CTpMIIH xapna. 3a6eCTO acnyxamr. ITpHCTaneH e 011 ceaep. rrpexy aano TeCHO ceuno. Bo non- 1I0)!(ieTo . .!Ion)!( Kpaaa BOllen naTOT Cayrta - Flay'tanaa, cpeJlHOBeKOlllIHOT na-r Cxonje - Ben5y)!(.!I, a AeHec 'tpaca'ra xa npyrara Cxonje - Kycreunan.

215

ClI. 76 'Tpa9u!Uale ", OaUlIa, 90111l0allmU'lKa llacell6a U KaCmeJl, 061l06elfU 60 cpeonuota BeK ("~pa9" CJla6u!Ume?)

216

Hajciiiapu ocuuuaouu. BpBOT Ha PIfAOT II aananxa'ra nenana ol!ne HaCeJJeHIJ 80 )l,0~HoaHTI1'1KO npeae. Co KaMeH SHA 6e3 MaJITep 6HJJ onrparen OBaJIeH npocrop co )lHMeH3I'1H 180 x 120 M (1,5 xa}. SHgoT aprex na-me OKOJJY cesepaaor xpaj. a aa npyrare crpaaa ce no-mapa» xa rOJJeME xapna- Haoaa: MHory xepaaaxa. nHTOCH, MOHeTH 0)13.)1,0 6. BeK

Ha s.pajo'r 0)1, aHTHKaTa aa aajaaccxao-r nen Oil pHgOT 6E1J1 aarpanen xacTeJJ omparea co HOBO 06sngne og KaMelf co aanrep- rOJJeM OliJJ caac 120 x 60 M (0,5 xa). no cpenaaa ce nporera xapnecr CpT BO KOj ce ecexeaa 10-IlHa IlpaSOarOJJHH npccrcpaa aa acaaeea,e CO apara, CKaJIIIJla II AP. Eaen 1l01l~eMeH TYHeJI, ace sea HCTO -raxa BO xapna. )lenyMHo e OTKonaH Ita aarranxaor pa6. 0)1 OBa apesre ncrexayaaar II rpoeaurrara no nomcsqerc ua panor. OTKonaHIi ce

60rp060BII,l\aTlipaHIi CO HaKHT If up. B05.l!6. BeK.

CpeOl106eKOBHU ociiiaiiiOlju. Kacrenor o-rarnenao OIlJJ )l06po aanaaen a so CJleAHIlTe BeKOBH, xora OllJI nOSTopHO aacenea. Sa 'rca 360pYBaaT naoaare: CJIOBeHCKa OrHUllIHa rpuxapaja, ncaeze BII3aHTliCKII MOHeTIi - Saxapaa CKHlPaTH 0)1 12, H 13. BeK H enen 3JIaTHHK (rpaeac) aa KOHCTaHTHH X (cpenaaa aa 11. BeK) HeKoJlKY .[Io~HOCpe)lHOBeKOaHH rp060BII BCe'feHII BO xapnara eposaja-ra rn paarOJIHJIa ceaepao 0.[1 zpenocra. a 6J1H3Y 200 rpoooaa OTKonaHH ce BO [yroaartanHOTO nonacceje

Onana HMa noepa crpa'reunca ncncoeee. ua cnoaaaraor MarHcrpaJleH na-r co KOj aa -roa Mecro ce cexe naTOT 0)1 K03jaK aa ceaep KOH Occrcao U HaTaMY KOH Bperannaua xa jyr.

OIlHJla e crapo cpenaurre ua peraoaor CJlaBIIWTe, MaJIa mrrcaa AOJlIIHa ].10JI)K Kpaaa Peaa. Cnopen noaeaeere aa Bacamrj II on 1019 r. enaa 0)1 esopaHTe na MOP03Bl!WKaTa enacxonaja 611I1a Il CJlaBIHIITe. Ee3 crnea ua -roa "aJJIf non -roa HMe ce n0].1pa36l1paJI caao pernoaor HJlIl nOCTOeJI B ene a lPPypHOH co HCTO HMe, aepyaaae nexe U:PKOBHOTO (II ynpaaaorc) cenmn-re na OBOj peraoa BO cpenaoaexoanero JIe)KeJJ na Fpanuurre-ro BO Onane • Ilpyro MeCTO BO CJlaBHWTe, nOTBpl1eHO co cpenuoeexoeua OCTaTOJJ;H co BaKBO 3Ha'fefhe aesta.

OnlIlTHHa KYMAHOBO

Fpananrre

rpa)l,!lYKOlJO?, pemOHaJIHO cpenaurre. CJI. 77, 78. !luiU.: 11. MIIKyJl'flfK TIR. 59; T. TOMOCKII 1984-85,38

MeciiiouoJlo;m6a. MeCHOCTa 'Tpansurre ' Jle)Klf 1 KM jYJI{HO Oil Fpanaurre, aa najancoxnor ape aa F'paneurxa nJIaHIlHa WTO AOMlIHllpa Hag emory IIIl1pOKa

217

OKOJlHHa. no CPTOT na nnauxua'ra B0.llY npaponaa rpaaaue noaery Oave Iloae 0.11 enaa crpana If CKOllCKO-KYM.aHOBCKBOT pet-aca 0.11 npyrara. no raa J1HHHja {i1ll1B rtcaneveua rpexauara noaery .II0I.\HOaHTH'lKHTe npOBHHQHH Maxenouaja H Aap.llBHllja. BpBOT Fpanaurre npe-rcraayae BO.llopaMHa CiaJal1THa 1l110'la co eepTHKaJlHH crpaaa. BIICOKH 10 - 25 M, a 3a$8!i.B 7 xa. Bo ceaepucrc nOAHOJKje HMa B3BOpH aa BOAa. Ha 2,5 KM BCTO'lHO 0.11 Fpanaurre JleJKI:I HIICK.I:IOT npeBBJ1eQ KaMllYP, npexy KOj 1l0JdHHyBa naTOT KYJdaHOBO -uuran.

CII.77. "rpa9uwwe", rpa9uwwe, 901{IlQaIlWU'IKU tpanuwen «acmes AKPOQOlluwu e 061l0BeHu eo cpe91luoUi eetc (tpu9JlYKoeo ?)

Hajciiiapu ociiiaiiiollu. Bo PHMCKO apeve oaaa H3BOl!pe)lHO JlOMI!H[lHTHa H npaponxo epaaera n0311U;Hja co rcnessa rrpernenaccr 611JlB yspeneaa co 06sHIlHe. Kacrenor Mepen 460 x 220 M. EpOjHH CIITHH HaOIlH nOTeKHYBaaT 0.11 nepaonor Mety 3. JlO 6. BeK. TYKa croen renew rpallH'Iell KaCTeJl lUTO ja KOHTpOJlBpaJl "POBII.HL(HCKaTa rpBHI:IL(a H noaeeero rpaHII'lHH npeMHHlf DO roj peruoa CpeiJH06eKoBHU vciuuiiiollU. AOJ.(H08HTH'IKaTa axponon a xa HCTO'lHHOT xpaj aa ITJlO'laTa 6HJla eeaceene BO Cpe.llHHOT BeK. Toj npocrop 3a$aia caao 75 x 70 M. 011 -rpa CTpaHIl e 3aWTlITeH co Bep-rHKaJlHH xepna, a ua aanajnrara crpaaa 611Jl aarpanen HOD 'tenen SHA, 0,[1; rtpupaceu aarepajan 6eJ aaa-rep. nplll5J1HJKHO H8

218

nero aa-ra cpenana 6HJla otpopeaeua rnaaaa'ra TTOPTa. nOBplUHHcKIHe HaOAH ua OBOj npoc-rop ce 6POjHH II TToTeKHYBaaT rJlaBHO 0.11 JlOQHI'IOT cpe,a:eH aex. Toa ce napxmea 0.11 omaunra rpasapaja H l5eJlerJl'IH 0.11 TeMHa craxxeua nacre (12.-14. ae s}, epouseaa TOKa II yxpaca aa rtojac: JKeJle3HH BpaoBII ca crpena. Mety KOIi II run aa npol5oj aa rtamrap; 6aKapHH MOHeTIi -cKfI$aTIl 0)1 13. BeK (dyrapcaa HMHTaQHH).

11 aa OCTaliaTBOT npocrop aa aHTH'lKIlOT xac-ren HMa CpellMoDeKOBHI'I HaoAH, HO DO ncaan 06eM. TaMY oxarnenxo ce O$OpMIIJlO IUfDIIJlHO nonrpajrae, 110 ce 1l3rne.lla co MHOry paapeneaa CTpYKTypa M pacrppneno na npOCTopOT WTO

CA. 76. "rpa9uUlme", Fpaeuuuue, IW09u (10.-12. BeK)

I5MJI cmparea co aHTR'IKOTO 06SH.IIHe (1'1 co IIPHpO)lHHOT CKaJleCT orce«). Bo CeBepOI'ICTO'lHOTO no,a:lloJKje ea TIJlO'laTa. aa MeCTOTO ua paaoxpucrujancxara caaannxa, 611J1a aarpaneaa upxaa CD. I'eoprn, 06HODell8 no 1864 r. Kpaj nea Jle)l(ll nexponona 0.11 rca epeae. 0.11. e}l.eH pacxcnaa rpol5 1l0TeKHYDaaT ol5eTKH 0.11 10.

Bo ceaepuo-ro nO.llHOJKje aa pH)lOT Fpannurre, na 1-3 KM onjtanevenocr 0)1 xpenocra 33n0911YDa TTIiTOMaTa )lOnIlHKa JIYKa, H!l3 xoja rese IICTOHMeH:lTa peKH'IKa. AOJlJK Mea BO)lIl .l\eHeWHHOT rta-r KYMaHODO - CD. Haaone, cpenHOBeKOBHHOT TTaT HIIIlI - Bpan,e - UlTIIII. Ha IICTO'lIiHOT xpaj aa JIYKa Jle)l(n HIICKIIOT npeD3J1eL( KaMIIYP npesy KOj naTOT npejcmyaa DO Oave rtone.

219

yhleTO Jlyxa e 01llllTOC1I0BeHCKO II oaaavyaa narcaa 1l011IlHKa 11 err (neneumao'r ),iaKeIlOHCKIl 300p rJlaCII "naxa"]. OBa lIMe )!{IIBee Mo)!{eOIl KaKO CllOMeH na HeKOfalllHIIOT 1JPypIiOH flYKOBO, !lITO ce asnaran na P"AOT [pBAIIIllTe.

CII.79_ "Tpa9", Knnapeeo, 90IjHoaHillu'IKapY9HU'lKa nacenoa. 06H06eHa 60 cpegeu 6eK, I<aKO peiuonanno cpeouuonc - "lpa9" K03jaK?

Bo ncsencara aa Bacnnuj II Oil 1019 r.. HaBelleHa e esropaja-ra flYKOBO BO paMKHTe na enucxcnnja'ra Cxonje. [10 L(pKOBHaTa rpanauaja. L(eJJIIOT KYMaHoBcKIi peraoa II lIeHec e non HCT3Ta yrtpaaa. aa seno co ellHCKOliOT CKOIlCKO-KyMBHOBCKH

220

CJJlI'lHO aa HeKOI! npyra enopaa HaBelleHH BO lICTaTa noeensa. He e carypno lIa Jill OBa liMe ro uocena upxoanara omirr aaa 111111 YKpelleHIIOT "r-pen" - CeAI1111Te na OBaB OIlIllTIIHa. B'topa-ta MO)!{HOcr aarnena ncaeponocrcjna, ollllejKH 1l0CTOj3T apxeonourxa OCTaToL(1i oA BaKOB 1JPypIiOH BO OBOj peraon; roa e aaurero Fpanaurre. T. TOMOCKIi (1984-85, 38 II K3pTa) IIMeTO na xpertocra flYKOBO ro cxpa'rnx ac Jlyaa. HlleHTII'IHO aa lIeHeWHIlOT MHKpo-pefHoH II peKH'IKa WTO rope r-a CIlOMHaBMe, a KOII HeCOMHeHO ja '1YBaaT rpannuaja-ra aa crapara xpenocr, rpanor flYKOBO

Kaaapeao

Fpan KoajaK, PYIlHII'lKa xpertocr II peraonaneu uen-rap. Cn. 79, 80. JIuiIt..: J. TPIl1JYHOCKH 1974,68,69; -11. MHKyn'lIlK TIR, 67.

MeciIt.ojjollo;»toa. Mecnccra "Fpan" Jle)!{11 1,5 KM HcrO'lHO Oil Kanapeso, sa jY)!{HIIOT lie!! na panor Opnsax, BO uen-rapcr HB peraouo'r K03jBK (Koajauaja). Flpe'rcr-a ayaa xapnecra xyxa WTO ce nanara 90 M BIICOKO Hall pexa'ra Ipanoumana xoja llITO [a ortrpaxa 011. TpH CTpaHH. Kapnara e oaropa 3apaMHeTB, B crpaaa're iI ce aepraxanno OTCe'leHH H BHCOKII 15-30 M. AOJI)!{ I'panouraaua 1I0AlI crapao'r nar 0):1 n'lHH.a KOII CJIaIlIlWTe, RBRO aajceaepna rpeca na naror Cxonje - (KYMaHOBO) - BeJloY)!{1l (KYCTeHIlIIJl)

HajciIt.apu ociIt.aiIt.olfu, Bo 1l0QHaTa aHTHKa MeCTOTO 6l1no yxpene ao. Ha xapna'ra eane 01JopMeH3 axponona (co AlIMeH31111 110 x 55 M.), B npocr'opor oaony aea OHJJ oerpanea co CHJleH MaJITepeH SIIIl, WTO aa't-aopan noapuraaa 011. 250 x 170 M (4 xa). Ha jyroaanannao'r aron ce rnejtaa'r OCTBTOl(1I 011 r-one aa oeaoea (4. IJ 6. ne s.). ITpeA ceaepxoro xenc 61111rrpOCe'leH o,l1opaH6eH poa. Bo jy::KHOTO nOIlIlO)!{je aa axporronara. H3 cxanecrara nanaxa, ce rnenaa'r opOjllH ,I1eTanH IICe'leHH BO xapna: cxanana II IlpeMIlHII, HRIllH, saaanvaa-a. OCHOBII Oil npaaocronmr lIpOC'rcpaa co J<oBpaTHIIQII, oaHKHHII II lip. EpOjHII rrap-raa-a Oil )!{ene3Ha arypa II CIITHII npenerera KOIIBHlI 011 »cerreao 300pYBaaT aa «e-ranonpepaeoryaa-ncara uejaoc'r na »ca'rena-re. CTapH PYIlHIIL(H aa acene ao II MeCTa aa sracrea,e a rrpacea,e HB pyna ce eaanerrrapaaa aa 1I0BeKe MeCTa nonac r'panourueue II ITeTpOWHHL(a ceaepno H ceBepOIICTO'lHO on Fpano-r. fOJleMHOT opoj 0,11 nOBpIllHHCKII HaOAR nneHll oJ< fipouaa II KOBaHII oil aceneao RaRO II MOHeTII 011. 4. - 6. aex acopyaaa-r aa I!HTeH3HBeH )!{itBOT aa roa MeCTO KaKO CTonaHCKO cpeneurre ua peraoacr. Ha 5 KM IICTO'lHO 011 I'panor euna noaneveua rpa anua'ra Mefy IlpOBI1HQIiHTe Ilapnauaja If CpeA03eMHa Ilaxnja (OIlIlOQHIIOT 3.110 7. BeK).

Cpecnoeeeoenu ociIt.aiUol/u. Ha axponona'ra 11 ao jY)!{HOTO nOAHO::Kje, BO npoc-

221

ropaure BCe'leHH BO xapna'ra. IlMa OCTaTOQH H 011 cpennao'r BeK: rrap'rae-a oJ< CJlOaeHCKIIQpellHH, BR3aHTHCKa rnerccaaa rpnvapaja (12. - 13. sex). Hajnena ce II )l(eJIe3HH BPBOBII aa crpena. THIlH'IHII sa OBa epene; HCTO raaa H nen 01l6poH3eH KpCT - pe.THIKBHjap co peajerpaa npercraaa (10.-11. BeK) a KPCT-IlPHBP30K 011 spoaae (11. BeK); opOH3eH HaKHT - napvaa-a 011 oeerxn co 4 jarorxa KaKO IJ

]

CA. 80. "rpag ', Konapeeo, IJa09U, 10. -13. eex

napxmsa cn eeaeraaja, ncroa spcuaea npcrea co epeacau open (11. BeK) II np rOJleM lIeJI 011 aajneua-re CIITHII npenaera KOBaHH 011. xceneao (HO)l(OEH II CTPYWKH, OKOBH, KJIaMqlH >I urapxn, KJIHHQH II CHTHiI. a.fIaTKII) nOTeKHYBaaT HeCOMeHO

011 Cpell:HHOTEeK

MeCHOTO npenaaae ru nOBp3YBa npocropaure BCe'leHH BO xapmrre co rrYCTHHIIQIITe, KOHTYKa npecrojyaaxe Mo)!(e5H no aanycryaan.e-ro aa uaceneara BO TypCKO BpeMe (4 KM jyroacrovxc o'rryxe rre)l(lI Il03HaTHOT Kapnaxcxn MaHaCTHP,II.YXOBHOTO cpenanrre aa JY)l(Ha Koajavuja].

222

Bo ncaeneara aa Bucunaj II 0111019 r. aatieneacea e II K03jaK KaKO enopaja na MOP0II.BIIWKaTa ertapxaja. QBa ce 0AHecYBa HeCOMHeHO aa OBOj peracn. WTO ro 3arra31UJ IICTOTO !lMe 110 neaec. H opojHHTe -ronoxawa BO oaoj «paj co ceoare CpellfiOBeKOBHH <j>OpMH naeaa'r aprYMeHTII aa -roa. QCTaHYBa OTBopeHO npamaa.ero ,!IaJIIi II lIpKoaHOTO (If ynpaaao-ro) cpenaurre aa peracno-r K03jaK ro HOCeJI IfCTOTO HMe. Heaaeacao 011 -roa, yxpeneuao'r I'pan xaj Kaxapeao npercraayaan CTOllallCKO H ynpaano cpejraurre Ha peraoso-r 6e3 ornea na HMeTO, Il -roa KaKO BO 1I0QHaTa am-axe -raxa II HI!3 cpenaaor eex

KOJl>YX

KaCTeJl Konjyx, xpajna'rna crpaxa II PYII.HI!'I.Ka TBpIl.IIHa. CJI. 81-83.

Dutil.: C. PaIlOj'lIlK 1952. 148-168; - H. MHKyrr'iIiK 1974, 207-208; HCTIIOT TIR, 72-

73;- 6. JOCII<j>oBcKa 1982, 179-180.

MectilouoAOJIC{ja. Jloxanare ror 'TOJIeMO Fpaaaurre" JIe)l(H 2 KM ceaepao 011 KOlbYX, ua JIeBHOT 6per na KpHBa Pexa. TIpeTCTaBYBa 100 M BHCOK BYJlKaHcKH xyn (440 M H.M.) co -recea aapasnrer BpB II CTpMHH nanaaa. Jlecao e npacrarrea oA jyr npexy llIHPOKO cemro. ,UoMIIHHpa HaA urapoxa cxcnaaa II Hall: MarHCTpanHHOT naT Cxyna - TIaYTaJIlI"a - Cepnnxa (Cxonje - BeJl5Y)l(II- Cpeaeu). aoj rroMlmy-

san AOJI)I( pexa'ra cesepxo 011 rOJIeMO I'pannurre.

Hajciilapu ociUaiUollu. Ha 3apaMHeTIIOT 8PS, co AHMeH311H 320 x 58/42 M, BO PIIMCKO speMe 511.110 aarpeneac ossanae.: 2 Hallrp06Hl! HaTlIHCH 011 paHII"OT 3. BeK, najlIeHI! TYKa, xaacyaaa-r nexa aa OBa MeCTO 6HJI c-rauaonapax elleH norpaaavea aoen oupen - lIeJI 011 I Tpaxacxa aoxcpra (KOlbH'IKa). Ifoxpaj 5rrl!CKIiTe rpaHII'IHII" npeMHHH KOH cocenaare rrpoBHHlIlI1I Tpaxnja H Maxeucnaja, aojcxa-ra r-a '1YBaJIa II PYIIHHQIITe aa )l(eJIe30 H oxoac.-cpecpo, pacrppneuu HeKOJIKY KHJlO-

aerpa aa jyr H jyroac'rox 011 rOJIeMO Fpanaurre

Bo 6. BeK na OBa MeCTO rinarojtapejxn My na pYllapCTBOTO 113paCHan rpan xoj aerpeaen 17 xa. Axpononara xa 8PBOT A06Rna HOBO 06SIIII"lIe, a 80 xapnec-ra'ra nc-raa eane BCe'leHR 6pOjHH MaJIH yrrll'lKR, aanaxaaaunja, cxarrana H noaeee 011. 100 rrpocropaa 3a )l(IIBeelLe H pafio-rea,e. Ha nanaaara a nonnoaqero ceaepac 011 axponon a'ra ce pa3811JI rJIaBHIIOT Aen 011 rpanor. Bperor 1I0Jl)l( Kpaaa npe'rcTaBYBa aapnecra nnoxa, xoja 6!1JIa npaaanuo H311eJIKaHa BO BepTIIXaJla II nocnY)!(lI.fIa KaKO -resaen aa rpanxacr SHII· Toj uenec e CO'lYBaH HaMeCTa 110 2,6 M aucovuaa. SII1I811 e co QEPCT aanrep BO CJIOrOT eMlIJleKTOIl II liMa arpaueua cnonnn. Sejaxnar e co 1l0BeKe xyna. Bnarpe ce rnenear TeMeJlR 01l6pojHH rpau- 6R. «er'y KOH ll.eJIYMHO e pacxonaaa enaa panoxpacrajaacxa 6a3HJIHKa co aep-

223

aepna nnac-raaa.

1lIIIPOKOTO ceunc jyacno on axpcnonara 611J10 onrpareac co naoeu sup, II cnyaceno KaKO npccrpau 315er aa OKonHOTO aaceneaae. Bo nero HeMB rOJleMIl rpap,Ou. 80 3ana)lHOTO nOAHOlKje lIa pager nOMHllYBan npyr rOJleM nar, OA

CJI.81. 'rOJle.M.O Fpacuuuue", KOIbYX, 90!iHOOII!12u'tKu PY9apcKu 2pa9 AKpOaOJlOUla e 06H06eIJU 60 90WluoUl cpegeH eex (KOIbYX)

ACTIl150 na jyr I! ryxa ja npesruayaa n Kpaea Pexa aa na ce cnon co naTOT CKynll - naYTBJIBja. 011 MOCTOT OCTallBJIO '1enOTO, lIa neauor eper liB peKBTB. Ha 300 M jYlKHO OA rpBAOT nelKll uexponona-ra 00 xoja e orxonana enaa L1pKBa - pOTOHAa 0)1 cpenxna'ra aa 6. aea. I1Ma OorBTa KaMellU nnacruxa. uapeaoapeaa DO aenex Ty¢>. Fpano'r 15lln ertucsoncxo ceJlIIWTe. Bepcja'rno e so npaurau.e Tpanyrtapa; CTTopeA Flojraurepoaa'ra KBpTa, Tpanynapa 611J1a O,IUIBne'leHa 50 Ml:wjll oA

224

Flayranaja H 30 MIlJljU op, ACTH60 (lliTlln),wTO TO'lHO eOO/lBeTCTBYBa aa OJUlBne'leHOCTB no Tile MeCTa CpeOllOaeK081lU ociilaiiiOllu. Axportona'ra 11MB 1l3BOllpeAHO BB)!(ua CTpBTeWKa 1l0no)!(i5a U on npapona'ra e Ao5po yxpenenn. EpojllllTenpOCTopIIHBOlleB,H3AenKB!{UIl0 aexa oymC:BHCKa xapna, npaanexyaane nyte OA cpeJlHOaeKOB"IIeTO, ,110 nenec. Flp ano-r ncrpaxcyaav HB oaa MeCTO. C. PaIlOj'lIlK. noaacmor AeKa case CTaHIIWTB BO xapna rll H3p,nB!5HnecpeAIIOBeKOIlHIITe xanyrepa -. nYCTIIHO)!(IITeJIIl. Ileuec 3HaeMe nexa Tile roneau U TeWKII p,enKB'IKU pa60TI! rrOTeKHYllaBT OA nouaa'ra BHTHKB"II nejrecrrc ce ncspsana co

pynapare on roa apeve.

MetYTOB, nap'oneara cnoaencxa ornaunre rpuvapaja II OA BII3BHTHCKII rnerOCBIIII '1I1H1HI (12.- 14. ee x ) WTO ce lIajAeHII TyKB, nOTOB eAHa MOlleTB - nceYJloeonu,II HB JYCTIIHlljall II {pan 8. BeK) If 5aKBpHHTe CKH¢>aTIi 0.0;12.-13. aex, 300PYllBBT ,IIeKa CTBpaTB BKpOnOllB 61lJIB naceneaa 81111 nee noapeueao 61MB xopac-reua HIIJ ~eJlOTO cpen-

Enenmnuaunonarox aeopyaa nexa oscny cpexaaara aa 14.BeK ua OBa MeeTO crcena xpajrra'rua Tllp.o;l:IHa - c'rpasca. Ton IlcyWHOCT e lKaJI6a ua HeKOH aeaeuajaacxa

225

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