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BCI-Brain Computer Interface

BCI-Brain Computer Interface

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Published by Shravan Kumar
A presentation giving an overview of BCI
A presentation giving an overview of BCI

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Shravan Kumar on Aug 03, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/25/2012

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A direct communication pathway between brain and external device Uses electrophysiological signals to control remote devices  

Enables to communicate by thoughts Effortless 

Started with the discovery of the electrical activity of human brain

Monkeys first ... ... Humans follow 

Pattern recognition approach -cognitive mental tasks Operant conditioning approach -self-regulation of the signal response  

An electroencephalogram is a measure of the brain's voltage fluctuations as detected from scalp electrodes It is an approximation of the cumulative electrical activity of neurons  

EEG wave groups -BETA -ALPHA -THETA -DELTA -GAMMA 

EEGs require electrodes attached to the scalp with sticky gel 

Require physical connection to the machine 

Bipolar montage Referential montage Average reference montage Laplacian montage    

Is used to measure the magnetic fields produced from the brain 

Its inverse problem

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Surgically interfacing nervous cells with computer chips is not really a possibility at present or in the near future.
 The voltage produced by a single firing neuron to isolate or interpret  Exact interpretation not possible

A schematic sketch of a B.C.I. system

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What type of input signal (or what frequency range) should be used? What mental activity (what thought) produces the best results? What do the patterns look like and how are they recognized?

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Any conscious muscle contraction causes artifacts in the EEG This renders the corresponding data segment useless The issue of noise is solved by
 filtering the signal  discarding the segments

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The main task of a BCI is to recognize patterns by interpreting sequences of numbers obtained from the digitized E.E.G. signal.

The Fourier Transform is written as,

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Similar to FFT. The basis functions of the Wavelet Transform the Wavelets are not any periodic sine and cosine waves that stretch out to infinity, but small waves with compact support, being non-zero only in a finite interval. Wavelets have received more and more attention in the near past from scientists in numerous application fields.

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The transformation is not localized in time.
 No temporal connection between the frequency spectrum and the EEG signal  small local variation to affect the entire frequency spectrum.  difficult to locate the variation.

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The resolution is predetermined.

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Independent component analysis Decorrelation Autoregressive modeling (AR) Blind Signal Separation

ON-LINE SUPERVISED UNSUPERVISED HYBRID

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To classify preprocessed data BCI compares data symbolizing a segment to representatives and selects the class matched best Method to implement classification is ANN

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Subjects sit in front of a computer wearing EEG recording cap They move the cursor to the target to the right and left The data associated with the imaginary movement is collected Fed into classifier

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Desired output is known for several sample input patterns Goal is to associate each of those patterns with its corresponding output class Unknown input vectors can be mapped onto useful output vectors

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There are no known associations The BCI has to make adjustments by deducing characteristics inherent to the training set

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Combine supervised and unsupervised training methods An Follow Forward-only Counter propagation Network (FCPN) FCPN consists of three layers of artificial neurons an input layer, a classification layer, and an output layer

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INVASIVE PARTIALLY INVASIVE NON-INVASIVE   

  

Implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain Produce the highest quality signals of BCI devices Prone to scar tissue build up Used to repair damaged sight and provide new functionality to persons with paralysis 

  

Produce better resolution signals Implanted inside the skull but rest outside the brain The bone tissue of the cranium deflects and deforms signals Lower risk of forming scartissue in the brain   

A helmet kind of a structure, with all the electrodes and chips embedded in it. Produce poor signal resolution and blurring the electromagnetic waves. Difficult to determine the area of the brain that create the waves.

‡ Communication ‡ Environmental control ‡ Robotics / Mobility devices ‡ Neuroprosthetics

Effectiveness-Application-Satisfaction Chart 

Relatively young field Characteristic broadband frequencies of the brain used Categorization: ‡Feedback paradigm ‡Response in the brain to stimuli (event related potentials)

Feedback: 
Originate from biofeedback application Amplitudes of the EEG frequency bands translated directly into control signals Training Sessions required Relaxation time obtained

Event Related Potentials 

P300 response Visually Evoked Potentials Imagined Movement 

BCI applications support control of devices such as a motorized wheelchair or a robotic arm Neuroprosthesis enables the multidimensional movements of a paralyzed limb Neuroprosthetics- a boon for the physically disabled Alpha frequency brain signals acquired and fed into a system On board computer processes the signals and drives motors 

Used by the U.S. Army Systems interfere with the communication of perceived adversaries  Silent talk  Synthetic telepathy

1987 - Lusted and Knapp demonstrated an EEG controlling a music synthesizer in real time.

Atau Tanaka (Stanford Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics) uses it in performances to switch synthesizer functions while generating sound using EMG

Eric Sutter at the Smith-Kettlewell Institute in San Francisco has developed a visual EP controller system in which physically handicapped users can select words or phrases from a matrix of flashing squares on a computer screen 

Subjects use specific thoughts as passwords (called pass-thoughts)  When someone tries to access a protected computer system or building, they think of their pass-thought  Signal extracted for computer processing  Subset then compared with those recorded for authorized users

‡Information

Transfer Rate:

Low information transfer rate

‡High error rates

due to high variability of brain signals

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Autonomy or Midas problem Cognitive Load

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Data Mining

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Universality: Development of BCI requires knowledge and expertise in different disciplines

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Sensitivity: Signal amplification leads to noise amplification

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Low portability

Ethical Implications:
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Enhancement of human capabilities Modification of behavior Brain implants Mind control-Brain pacemakers successful in treating depression

a) User lifts a virtual spacecraft by imagining foot movements b) 3-D visualization of brain activity

Monitoring drivers alertness in a Virtual Reality driving simulation using BCI and P300 signals

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Clinical diagnosis -utilization of clinical research results
-prediction of pathology

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Clinical treatment and assessment
-drug, therapy, rehabilitation, biofeedback -drug effects

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Non clinical uses
-complementary use with behavioral, anatomical, modality results -lie detection -prediction of behavior tendencies other

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Provides means of intuitive Human Computer Interaction(HCI) Reduces usage of multiple Input Devices Finds extensive usage in medical applications, human enhancement and human manipulation Still in its infancy, needs to be moved beyond the demonstration phase to meet multidisciplinary demands.

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