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1konsep-dasar-termodinamika

1konsep-dasar-termodinamika

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12/06/2012

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KONSEP DASAR TERMODINAMIKA

AGUS HARYANTO FEBRUARI 2010

THERMO vs. HEAT TRANSFER
‡ Thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therme (heat) and dynamis (power or motion), which is most descriptive of the early efforts to convert heat into power. Today thermodynamics is broadly interpreted to include all aspects of energy and energy transformations, including power generation, refrigeration, and relationships among the properties of matter. ‡ Heat transfers the science that deals with the determination of the rates of such energy transfer.

THERMO vs. HEAT TRANSFER (cont)
‡ Thermodynamics membicarakan sistem keseimbangan (equilibrium), bisa digunakan untuk menaksir besarnya energi yang diperlukan untuk mengubah suatu sistem keseimbangan, tetapi tidak dapat dipakai untuk menaksir seberapa cepat (laju) perubahan itu terjadi karena selama proses sistem tidak berada dalam keseimbangan. ‡ Heat Transfer tidak hanya menerangkan bagaimana energi itu dihantarkan, tetapi juga menaksir laju penghantaran energi. Inilah yang membedakan Heat Transfer dengan thermodinamika.

sirip.APLIKASI ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Tubuh manusia Meniup kopi panas Perkakas elektronik (sirip. pendinginan. Kulkas) Mobil (siklus engine. radiator) Pembangkit listrik (turbin. heat sink) Refrigerator (AC. boiler) Industri (penyulingan. dll). pengeringan. .

K) ‡ Kesalahan umum: 1. Tidak terampil melakukan konversi satuan ‡ Trik: perhitungan harus menyertakan satuan . s. Tidak paham 2.DIMENSI dan SATUAN ‡ Dimensi (M. ) p homogen ‡ Satuan : SI Units (m.L. kurang latihan 3.T. Usaha minimal. kg.

s kg.a ‡ P = F/A m N ! kg 2 s N Pa ! 2 m kg a! 2 m. Example: ‡ F = m.m / s a! 2 m 2 .SECONDARY UNITS ‡ Secondary units can be formed by combinations of primary units.

‡ The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings.SISTEM vs. LINGKUNGAN ‡ A system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. ‡ The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary .

but energy can.OPEN vs. ‡ Volume of a closed system may change. CLOSSED SYSTEMS ‡ Closed system (= control mass): Mass can t cross the boundary. if no energy cross the boundary. . that system is called an isolated system. ‡ Special case.

CLOSSED SYSTEM A closed system with a moving boundary. .

‡ The boundaries of a control volume are called a control surface.OPEN vs. . ‡ Both mass and energy can cross the boundary of a control volume. and they can be real or imaginary. CLOSSED SYSTEMS ‡ Open system (= control volume) is a properly selected region in space. It usually encloses a device that involves mass flow such as a compressor. turbine. or nozzle.

OPEN SYSTEM .

OPEN SYSTEM Open system (= control volume) with one inlet and one outlet (exit) and a real boundary. .

modulus of elasticity. and mass m. ‡ Extensive properties per unit mass are called specific properties (specific volume (v = V/m). electric resistivity. pressure. and density. such as temperature. specific energy (e = E/m). and even velocity and elevation. . ‡ Some familiar properties are pressure P. ‡ Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size or extent of the system. thermal conductivity. thermal expansion coefficient. The list can be extended to include less familiar ones such as viscosity. temperature T. ‡ Intensive properties are those that are independent of the mass of a system. volume V.SIFAT-SIFAT SISTEM ‡ Any characteristic of a system is called a property.

. EKSTENSIF TUGAS (dikumpul Senin) : Sebuah apel dibelah dua. Buatlah daftar sifat intensif dan ekstensifnya Criterion to differentiate intensive and extensive properties.SIFAT INTENSIF vs.

kebalikan dari densitas: volume per satuan masa (m3/kg) ‡ Densitas relatif atau specific gravity: nisbah densitas suatu substansi dengan densitas substansi standar pada suhu tertentu (biasanya air pada 4oC di mana V = 1000 kg/m3) .SIFAT-SIFAT SISTEM PENTING ‡ Densitas atau massa jenis: masa per satuan volume ‡ Volume spesifik.

Energi dakhil atau Internal Energy (U) ‡ ENERGI TOTAL: E = U + KE + PE e = u + ke + pe (per satuan massa) . Energi Potensial (PE) PE = mgh 3.ENERGY SISTEM TERMODINAMIKA ‡ BENTUK ENERGI: 1. Energi Kinetik (KE) 1 2 KE ! mV 2 2.

or the state. the state will change to a different one. intensive properties. If the value of even one property changes. ‡ The number of properties required to fix the state of a system is given by the state postulate: The state of a simple compressible system is completely specified by two independent. all the properties of a system have fixed values. At a given state. .POSTULAT KEADAAN ‡ All properties (can be measured or calculated) completely describes the condition. of the system.

.PROSES dan SIKLUS ‡ Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another is called a process ‡ The series of states through which a system passes during a process is called the path (lintasan) of the process.

‡ Proses isokhoris (isometris): proses pada volume spesifik R konstan. ‡ Proses adiabatik: proses di mana tidak terjadi pertukaran kalor dengan lingkungan. ‡ Proses isentropik: proses pada entropi S konstan. . ‡ Proses isobaris: proses pada tekanan P konstan.MACAM-MACAM PROSES ‡ Proses isotermal: proses pada suhu T konstan.

‡ The term uniform. ‡ The opposite of steady is unsteady. .STEADY-FLOW PROCESS ‡ The terms steady and uniform are used frequently in engineering. however. implies no change with location over a specified region. or transient. ‡ The term steady implies no change with time. and thus it is important to have a clear understanding of their meanings.

PROSES dan SIKLUS ‡ A system undergoes a cycle if it returns to its initial state at the end of the process. Siklus dengan 2 lintasan Siklus dengan 4 lintasan .

‡ Satuan tekanan adalah pascal (Pa) = N/m2. ‡ Untuk benda padat gaya per luas satuan tidak disebut tekanan. ‡ Tekanan di dalam fluida meningkat sesuai dengan kedalamannya akibat berat fluida (pengaruh gravitasi) sehingga fluida pada bagian bawah menanggung beban yang lebih besar daripada fluida di bagian atas. tekanan adalah sama ke segala arah. ‡ Tekanan gas di dalam tangki dapat dianggap seragam karena berat gas terlalu kecil dan tidak mengakibatkan pengaruh yang berarti. tetapi tegangan (stress). ‡ Untuk fluida diam. . ‡ Tetapi tekanan tidak bervariasi pada arah horisontal.TEKANAN ‡ Tekanan (P) : gaya (F) per satuan luas (A).

VAKUM ‡ Tekanan aktual pada posisi tertentu disebut tekanan absolut dan diukur secara relatif terhadap tekanan vakum. yaitu tekanan nol mutlak. ATM. ‡ Pgage = Pabs Patm (untuk P > Patm) ‡ Pvac = Patm Pabs (untuk P < Patm) . ‡ Tekanan di bawah tekanan atmosfer disebut tekanan vakum (vacuum pressure) dan diukur dengan pengukur vakum yang menunjukkan perbedaan antara tekanan atmosfer dan tekanan absolut. ‡ Perbedaan tekanan absolut dan tekanan atmosfer disebut tekanan ukur (pressure gage).TEKANAN: UKUR. ‡ Kebanyakan pengukur tekanan dikalibrasi untuk membaca nol di atmosfer (tekanan atmosfer lokal).

TEKANAN VAKUM . TEKANAN ATMOSFER.TEKANAN UKUR.

PENGUKUR TEKANAN MANOMETER BAROMETER PRESSURE GAGE .

Patm = V h g = Tekanan ukur di dalam tangki .PRINSIP MANOMETER Perhatikan gambar: ‡ Seimbang 7F = 0 ‡ P1 = P2 ‡ A P1 = A Patm + W di mana W = m g = VVg=VAhg ‡ P1 = Patm + V h g ‡ (P = P1 .

85.EXAMPLE : Manometer A manometer is used to measure the pressure in a tank. The fluid used has a specific gravity of 0. and the manometer column height is 55 cm. . If the local atmospheric pressure is 96 kPa. determine the absolute pressure within the tank. as shown in Figure.

EXAMPLE: SOLUTION .

35 m.6 kPa.1 m.EXAMPLE: MULTIFLUID MANOMETER Water in a tank is pressurized by air. and h3 = 0. .2 m. respectively. and 13. 850 kg/m3. Take the densities of water. and the pressure is measured by a multifluid manometer (see Figure). The tank is located on a mountain at an altitude of 1400 m where the atmospheric pressure is 85. and mercury to be 1000 kg/m3. oil. Determine the air pressure in the tank if h1 = 0.600 kg/m3. h2 = 0.

SOLUTION .

APLIKASI MANOMETER Measuring the pressure drop across a flow section or a flow device by a differential manometer: P1 + V1g(a + h) .V1ga = P2 P1 .V2gh .V1)gh Untuk V2 >> V1 : P1 .P2 V2 g h .P2 = (V2 .

BAROMETER Torricelli Patm = V g h .

EXAMPLE3: BAROMETER ‡ Determine the atmospheric pressure at a location where the barometric reading is 740 mm Hg and the gravitational acceleration is g 9. Assume the temperature of mercury to be 10oC. at which its density is 13.81 m/s2. .570 kg/m3.

EXAMPLE3: SOLUTION .

5 5.30 405.TEKANAN ATMOSFER ELEVASI (m) 0 (sea level) 1000 2000 5000 10.00 674.88 79.000 TEKANAN (kPa) 101.15 596. tekanan atmosfer turun 1 mmHg .77 41.48 Rule of thumb: naik 10 m.50 54.05 26.000 20.53 TEKANAN (mmHg) 760.325 89.41 198.

EFEK KETINGGIAN .

8 T(K) CAUTION: (T(K) = (T(oC) (T(R) = (T(oF) .15 T(R) = T(oF) + 456.TEMPERATURE ‡ Thermodinamika SUHU MUTLAK ‡ Satuan kelvin (K) untuk SI ‡ Satuan renkine (R) untuk USCS Konversi: T(K) = T(oC) + 273.8T(oC) + 32 T(R) = 1.67 T(oC) = 1.

the temperature of a system rises by 10°C. °F.EXAMPLE4: TEMPERATURE ‡ During a heating process. . Express this rise in temperature in K. and R.

1-15C. 1-65. 134C. 1-66. 1-40. 1-22C. 1-73. 1-36C. 1-62. 1-61. 1-106. 1-103.PR: ‡ Soal No: 1-6C. 1-53. 1-31. 1-17C. 1-122. 1-35C. 1-51. 1-45. 1-7C. 1-23C. 1-42. 1-63. 1-121. 1-55. 1-44. 1-120. 1-108. 120C. 1-21C. 1-101. 1-39C. 1-16C. 1-43. 1-57. 1-88. 1-48. 1-123. 1-85. 1-125. ‡ Kelompok THERMO ‡ Kelompok DYNAMICS . 1-105. 1-59. 1-29. 1-24C.

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