!"#
&$ %('*),+.-0/21435+7608:9;%*<=%
>?K>YX@?Z7A:[]\ BDT ^DC7_`EGFSHJa&ILb?KNb?MPc OR> c7QPdfO e7c >g>
U
S
W
T
X
V
V
v‰hXhX"i"i"imjGjGkmkm‡|pgll nonoŠ‰n.n.}ll pgpgjlqrq‘s?wll nPnJvrsgsgqjujup"t7t}v.qwqwl v5‡yvfiyiriyxrx‘t7v5voq"pzp•x‘k,Šv|jWt7p7l{|nr‡yiJi|Št}n5iDn–q"j„x~v‰k~"x?l imn5l n.noxLlv|p?p7jlq’‡D€}‚}‚wqk,vfpDiPv.iDlƒ"qw‡yiDimvŽj„n5€"tpgtjui‘‚}v…l†jukˆŠ‡yjui~i‰‡‰nf‡|pgi"p7ŠjWx}ƒ"l i|i,i‰nPxNv‰pD}p?‹ŒjWqzpgv|‚t7ls?nŽ“ Lz€D‡‰—Xp}pgpg˜|Š™š{ml i‰nyŠDp}”juj›p"ƒpDlv‰x}"iyi"x j
‹v‰p}"j„iUk,Štjvœl†vfqwiDv5jWiynx:t}xLq"p7xš‡"‚}ŠDkrjl†qwi"vmqwvv‰"‡yiUtj„juji‰l i‰n‰n‘‚}“ vot(nyžŸ‡‰pgt7Š|q"x:l†qx?s l nov|ŠLjiDl€}j„km‚wvfl n5i‘n…lv‰pg"qi0qŠDp"jv.lqwl ‡‰vfi0iyx*l x}xLi"p7qw‡Dv.‚}l ‡yk,t}“¡iDqwv5p(vyž–v‰ŠDjul p"n;ƒp?l x}q"iyix ž
l†q"pg‡Dk,“ ‚"i‘x?lŠ"qts¢sLiv|"” i£jui|‹iDjuiDq"‡‰i‰nzvop£¤¥"iDjui’v|"in5pg‚}ju‡yi¢‡‰p7x}i’‡‰t7q(€i‘‹pg‚}q"x(t}q"x0v‰"i‘p"¦‡l t7“
v‰lhXn–"i"i¨x?jGkml‡‰nœpgv‰l nojq"n.l†x?€}l pgl‚wv…q‘vfl pgi‰l xNqn–nsg‚}‹juq"p}t7x}j?qwiDƒ"v5j]iDiyv‰j„x‘€""tv5irp‘v…v5l†kš‡‰iDpgj„k¥‡‰Š|pg;n–Š|t7pDq"‹Rl†qx’t¢sXx?ž7ŠLlŠiDnœjWv‰j„p"kmjƒl†€}ll n5x}‚wn…iyvfl i~xrpgq’k¥v‰"qp7twp"x?vv.l v‰l§g‡y"iyi~iŽx‘l i"x}ƒ"qwiDiDv.qwjWl†n.v.jui¥ll p?‡yt7juqi‰n4“"n|v5‚}pDp;“‹`v.v‰l†v|qs,l ln¨nrx}pg€DiDq"p}jil pgƒ"” iy{xr‚}¤Rq"p}x}j„iD{ j
“—4hXt}i""qjGi*sgkm‚"t}ltno‚wsLn.v‰lipgž¡q©p}‚}jmlq"nR¤Rx}sgiDpgjuj]t}‚}v‰qw“ x«"vfiriyt}x©t7Š}v5€DŠpzpDjuiyƒ"‡‰‡i©pgl twŠ|‡‰vf©p?i(q"t}x?t«q"l x;v.lqp?x?p"ql v.nœn¨lv‰§gj‹ª‡yl†p7€}twjŸ‚wv.vfk¥l p?iŽp7q*v|x?jupDt7l §g‹Nqiyn‰xk,“ tp7ƒ"v…liDx?pgjWl q§Xn.lnP‡‰p?tp"qv…‹›nyl pg” v|qlnyn–ž4€v‰p}jut}p?q{~n‰l“ twqwv.v5p©l p?qt}nyqž,pDv‰t7"q"i"x j
Šjl†qwv5iyx;ƒ"iDjWn.l p?qny”Ÿ—4"t}q}{r‰pg‚7”

[]Z T 

 

_]e @g@?@ _

fO RY S K T 

    

xLpg"q"twi¥v0‹p}"j tw‰ƒ"pgi(‚©‰v5pgp7‚}x}j’t‰ k,:iDk©Š}“ €ts7iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n l  




[]T K\ "R! Y g^ ‰VXTWVV K 5OJK # 0^yT T ^(VŒ_TWV  KK ^V K T  K ^„[ Z7KK"[]XZXV\ K Y$ zK [ V YXY\PIL[K Y  K ^w\ KDT ]Y V ^ •[^ [.¡T ?K T ^ Y ^ [Œ‰[TWV _ZX[ V K Y^|^zKY VVYX\P¡[T K  .K KV Z YX\ [.Y+ .KK VK [V z$K*) \ K  K‘K [¡ T K K Y ^ ‰Y TW^wV T ^ K [V %ŒTW V gK"VK  .^ ^ K YXV \ Œ TWV \ LK"^DK _ ^0Z / Y ^w^ T $4^ K?K \ Y O ^ .^-5K T K V Y KV_] ^&Z ª[ KY ^.

7Y T ^V Y [ŒK ['^ (Y $ VT  \ Y V "[ V KK7\ ^ K1$ [  KDYX\ ^ $ T K ŒT K Y ^ ‰TWV [Z7K Y ‰T [ VL^ $ T \) V 7T ^zTWV „[ 2‘Y ‰T [ V3^ K*  \WO # [ –[. .

¨[ \[ $4K"Y K IV K  ^ª_KY Y ?\ K T ^ . Z7K.TWL V. ^ \ T[ ^ ‰TWV TWV @T  K f? ^V KILKgK O V „KDK[ ILY ._R.^  Y K7VZ7K YX^VZ K T K ZV 4‘\ADT ^ OO ) ^ # Y VYIK „ [ KT K z  [ ^ [  Y K ^ K."^[ [  V K 7K"T K^  [Œ[[ŒTWV ¢[„ [K5Y T ^¨.T YZ Y K V:Y^Ž YX^ \W_ O<[".74K YK ¢ ^?TZX^ \ K .4 T K>[X$ [' _ Y VK 0 ^ K K"[ [ VT K  ^ \ NY ªY K ªK&„ K>K ¥$ K YV K=‘ K .YT  wKK.K^ K"I^ K 7K?TWDVZ [ ^BVA $ Kg„OT[ \ ¨_g. ^yT^*YK  ‰T [ [ V Y Y^ K•[ ‘Y "^ Y _`VY ^ ~Y ª[K&_ „K Z68K K V 7 K9Œ YX.Y V:Y  KYX_\g[ Y V \ NK Y ^ Y*Y V\  .

Y \Œ4 ^ ZX g_?\O TWY V .^  KUYXK. KDV YY K .

V Y ª?‰KT TY^ [ ^ VzK ^ KDDY[ YVL I^ K XY(V\ [K"K K V [^  .Y TWVVY ¡ „2[TWw V 2K ‘ [Y Y ‰^¢T [ ^&V•KG T  ^ X ZVYK VY^ zK V K VY K V YX\ $ ^ K [?T ^ ¡ £TT KZgT ^‘Z7KYV  ^[ ‰ODzCFTWV V HKE  KDK K Y ^|^y¡ ^ T YTWV V O [ K ^yT .

^y?ILT T[[]^JV\ XTWVOGV „ L#[ KDYX5K . K7[ Y \ ‰A ZT [ [ V.[.\ ^ [ Y ‰YT [K7^yV\T T^JK"IY IVK#  K7Y\ T YŽK"ITWVK£„ 7[ Z T ^–5. \ OTK  Ž. T TW^.  Y YK^ ^y‰‰TWTT []V VV ¡ T K LK ^K Y ^T ^ ‰K TWYV [\ T \K  ^ O T Y S [ \•T ^ K.V V  K*7[ ) T V ^ K Z [[[V  „ K Y’^.[4Œz $OZ7K K V  "T K _  V YK IK&K P Y [ ^ [ V K"#K []V \YK I K Y $ K"YK ¥V K TWYV ? „ [ \ Y K 5.?5V ^ ^ [ T K Y V K[X‰T ['^ 7…N ^BOMAY L _ VT Yy K©VT …YX^R\TWLQ V ILªK[]^ \K XKDV YV K KDYXK \¡ON[4$ S [ [ 2^ K _ [8K"K  V S X VV  [K $.V ?YXT]) ^ \K?}$4\ Z7 [ KD$2[] HZXT \$¥\ K Y TWK^.T^y[ KT [ VV!KKYXf? ^ \^ ^ [¥$$4Y[T K 5^B A TW[ V [( K ŒTWV T K K YK ^ TWV‰ŒTW„ T V [K H5.[T ^„YK ‰^. KK¢V [K _ ¡T K ?T ^ Y ^ V‰TW[V z$ \ K $¥ Y ^HK  KY IL^ K7\\ [T  Z7KT … ^ TWY V V zK [ .

ª$K TWªV K ^  KDYT ‰T K U^ YT ^ VS4$ K7.

\ K?[\ Xz HJKXI O T IŒ.

O37# T¢^ V K[ŒIL['K ($ Y T \^ K K K M$ K VU'VWVWX ªK ^ KY Z ª[*o.lRa*q l.~daGn a*tuv&|yadadv8€.vR‚s*n ad~gfBaBsuv>q]hau]5jBvHjBlgaMlRp'f*wGaiqˆ0„zsBaB`x]`:mBl.`‡n cn ]%k0s*f*m0`‚ƒ&^g]_l*`                                                                                  T T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                .~gq`bv(r*n aBs*f0k.hRr&]5n jBadac vRn fzn azŽ~uf0sBs*cfB]2~gn fBn s*rHqRn]5fB`blRvJƒ*ƒBcek*]5q au`D„>c5 pyn q ~Bj0s*fBr.mMj.n ncon~Bcojk*fBl&sBl0lR`b]Waomzp'f0c\aBl0j0q]‡lRƒ*c2l.]2l.{0]5]yf0jBvHaGsBv*nn fB]vRc_vn ]2ƒBn ncelRcci]5fJƒB`‰„G|adcKv*lRlRf&fRqŠ „g]W|_~B€j0s*s*fB^.q „B|K‹jBad~BmMlRƒB]y„ulRƒ*`'~dlRw^0s*fg„JŒKj0sBc%n ]k*adaBfcelRq vR<l.f.r.K …^ Y ªK= X V K  Y V [  …^ Y V¡ TWV ^ T K V ‰T ^ …^ + ^* Y ^Y [.aon fzvJv*]5ad`‚jBnc\ˆ*aMn rRn f0fBfr%a\s.aMvJ`…s*w%sg]2n ~gs.]5n fBj0vRrMsgn aG]ypyn~u:n sBq ]5cjBk.nazfBcer. O }…l*`:dZ\v*[[Naus*]_cyq n^0cefB~B`brzadn aBcep†fga0]2fgn ]5n ]icjzh]ih]5n cejB€c\aƒ0‚adadk*aBc‡l&qRpylR]5j.

[Y .4ŒZgH \ Y V Z Y ‰K T ^[ K VLV ^0"! _ K.O.^wT \ KY V Y TWV K ªK ^ K  TWV "[  ['[?ITK z_ K VK*…$ ^ TY VK  V©T ^ K KDY ‰^ T [ [ VLV ^D_ z[ $[ K[ g.V YY w.? T^ KgO K*4 [ K 7T K ^   YX\ T Z7[ ^.4ŒZg[\ Y V Y.K Y fO K RT YXY \ _ z\ Y [ V KH .Y 2 XYOILK # XV[]^ Z7Y K ‰T ^ [GY $ [ T K Y [ # YILKK ^ K¢YT K  KDY [TWV .\ ILI[ŒK T[Y•• KTW_JV S¡T YK T K~\XYK \ =~ŒT [‰? TWV K TW›VV7_¡T T  K YX Z V ?\ Y T  OG#J Y¡$4K O [^y[ T  :VŒ\ A  _ O \[ T wŸK Z ª[.V Y K*$ KY.Y Y K _ KK .O8„['EŽ OªK QP7O .4ŒDZg[ \ Y V !Y ‰.T [ [ VL ^0K7! \ ! V [V $z[ $z\ K \ K  K K TWV TWV K K ^ [XK['Y _ KDY ^[ $4O KIL# K >Y.K K T V YXK \.[Œ[K  ^ ªZ7KKY ŒT TWYXV \›_ T$¥WVY ^ Y ^Z V T ª K"Y I ‰Y TT [^[K V .Y [ ‰T^_¨^ T +G [ KDPY ^\ K ^.47YK ¢ªK Zg\ TK ^N^NV TW[V*^^ Y['‰zT ^ K(GY Y KD[ Y ^ KK.ªYK‰Y T ^ ^0/[  Zg#g\YK Y MŒ^ KK TWV IL K K ª[YXK Z\7^ Z7zKKD£[]K’ZXTWY(V\ K \YXTWV\YWKgOILO K #  `D[ K?[  \Z7K‘$¥ Y Y zV KG[ $ [ V T Y K TW?V .TIL^ []K.„^[ .Q K* wK K. KUK  K.O‰.T [ [VL ^ S Y OK / V [ Y Y ^ T [Œ[ [   O Y ^•S T ([ # K"[?YIK _>Y'„K* $K D[ KDY  ^ [«Z7[ŒZ7[ K £…„KQ V \ T ^ K•Y O(V H ^‰T z"[ K  \ T  KDY T  Y _ ‰T"[ [ VŒ _ $$ T \K V K[ ‰ T KK# ^ KDY Y ILK V Y[ V $4 [ V5 w[K $z \ K [   K YX\YILK K V [  K DY K T \ ^ .YK wK  .ILKšY 2\ wK&K  N^$ ['T zK YT ^| ^* KK ^^ ‰$T [ 7V T .

rT [^ OR.

\^ _ # Y YV zV YXO^ [\ z^yT K•^~^[.  NK[‘ Y¡T KK T YXY \ ^ ‰TWVTWV ?$¥T ^ Y ^ [Œ['K „:[  .¨Q [ŒK"[[ w gK O K"#‡_  $$4T [ \ ^ [ [ ^\ V K1[$4\ T 4 w[ K M 2 ZL[Y [ V Y Y¡ LT VzT [K $zVL‘\^yK T S [ V K K \ K YX^.

K0[ K ^ Y K’^  :Y  K1[ []„Q [^\ S Z  Q œK.

Z7[HY ^ K V ^ K"[ KY  VQ ^ [ Z YX \Y ^ œ[Z7[ „^ [ K X^ Z7"[ [ [ V  \ rYXO YZ .

7T K YX^ (K\ z$ [ KT \V V ILKO K V .

‰ªT K[ zKVL^[7K(IL„[KY ªTWKUV YX\  \ ^ K[ V V K.K[ 4 KgK O^’K ¡TW.

VT ‰?T [ T ^’V K TO ^ . #›Y Y TK \XV Y K [ ^yT K K^.K K¢VK V Y …=^ Y ?V [1K „-oV?[ [ T _TWV $ zVT ‰K Y TWV TW›VUY¡_ T O¢K [ ¡Z T ‰A[7TWV IO ›TWV _ YX7Z T ^ ?T [ŒY ['? gT O1\ T #  _ "L [ .zY [ ¡^ TWVŒ\ _ YK d V.Y ^D_ [ KND[ Y Y V "[0Y V V [ KT $ [ VTK*4XY Z7YK TZ7z.

``‡ŽJwGaBq nv*c]ecus*| m\adcKl.V \ KK  V K K _                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             v*lRfB0aM€:kdj0„Msgˆ0ceao~gn …aBlRfgƒ*]2nfBcevH]cyagn `‰]5lRj0waB`Wl0w%]5j0saBl.`W^0`blRk*q aBw%c_n fM]5jBax~dlRwwolRfHwolRv*aBq cKl0"]5jBadc2as0`‰agsl*`‡fBlH`badceaus0`b~BjMpNsBc []Z T    .  Q Y IKV [# $.

_]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLp?"q"ti.v£‹p}"j›tyƒ"pgiU‚©yvop?p7‚}x}j’t‰ kr:i"kzŠ}“ t"€s}iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n l ƒ   .

            .

   .

"K.K47Y Y^ ¢Y Zg\ K [ˆ_¥Y a VH  zR[ H  T ^ ^ ‰T \ .JM$[ Œ 7H T „[ K I T [¡\ TTY K‰T K YX^ Y \ ^ ^ ‰Y TW^wV [ T ^ \ KDKDKY ILK*Y IL^ K7[\ [ V7T T^ .      9       Za K H^ Kz^yY T P^ H \ O_Y&$ a„[ ^rH ¢^*zYXP\©H Z Y ^ Y Y ^r‰Tª^*K" YXI Zg\©T Z7Z 8[   oKZ7[ [ "^ K ! ^K _ ?T [0K [ ^ MVKDY Y []\K ^ K YX^ V7\ $T ILK [ K^yT ZY IL+ KN\K T Z ^ ªKD[ Y 'XVŒK TW$4V [ $45 ‘TW[ V 2Y ./ O K V # £a YILH K zTWPV H„[ 5z[ K V  ‰TWV a  H K ^ zR[ H^* Y ZgZ7[ [  K K ^ ^ K K ªªK K ^ ^ KKY Y K $4^ [ 5+ „[^ .

\ -/Y .[ ^T [ V Z}V\ Y I YJ?zT [ ^¥K V "K*K[ $  ^_L [^*V z [K $ Y [^ K.z YXK \]KZ [_ ) Y +GK0[ JY ª\ [K^|Y0B^ /K [  O #KQXTILK ¡V T K K Y ^ K ‰TWV†_  [ Z ªD[ [ '  ‰VT [ [ V$ # Y JV ["[ "V [ K  $ V [[ $ V [ [ ¨$ Y V "[ [ $ V ^HK $ [ ([ YX'*\ ).[  ¨KgMWO #xE&!!Y V .K  Y wK K [ D¡[ T K  JK Y [ ^ $ $ ‰TWVV[ V [Z ªVY [ V \  LK ^y^.Y V z[ K ^ O š[  \ Ua H zRH H$ ^ [ Y " K [ V [YX$ ^ Z K7^ ^ \  [$ K K.ZgY T\ V XDV [ #V K AK ¡Y T Y .¨‰ T [ [ \ Y$ V^ KmYY Y VV V ©KIL[.[$„[]T \\["[ Y $ ª^ K TW V "\[  Œ K_ YXK ? \ ^ .0 K L^ K K^ YX\ R [\ Y VL‰^yT [ T  VK ^ [ ?T R^ K I ~JT ¢[ŒZK [7\ KIL2K  1LY ªY I ^ T ‰^TWG_ V  Z Y V[*T ^m$4^*[  "KDKY ^|^^  Y \ # [ _ $¥Y ^ IK  Y ‰T ILK TWVˆa H zPH K ^ KDY O . ^ Z7?[T ^ V^ [[Œ[ TW ‘V \ T ^ …^–K^ I '[ T z KmQ ^ [  K ª^ K K^ Y KY [ K V ^ ZX$ \ gV [0K Z P[ I'K?\ [ KmT K / ªO [ V KD[ $L#^ [ ! Y V Z7[Œ[ K ^ KDY $4[ 5 _L^* Y [^ V Hm‰\TWVS0 K T \ ^&K  ZX ªZ7'[ [ %! 7K T [NT M K ^Y KYK V?# T I`K [ ^wT $ _›T a \  K "K V KM . +.

+>YX@A\ ^ @B[ ).V  <.)O: V P' .a H K zUPZ}H Y ^*‰T ZXT ZLZ7Y[ K K* TWV*ªK ^a KDH Y zRKH ^ O4[ 36 57 ).)F‰T ILE>K G UªU [)H\ K 89? TWV X G )JK IK+LK89^?DKDGMCY U I VB N [ V@>K +>C70                                                                                        GMC?D<.C7[Œ) [ X ? Y V V ?DY <.Y ?.K":=K ^ <>+.XRQ                                                                          I                                                                                                                    .T898.

[]Z T    .

_]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLp?"q"ti.v£‹p}"j›tyƒ"pgiU‚©yvop?p7‚}x}j’t‰ kr:i"kzŠ}“ t"€s}iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n ƒl   .

^ LKXY ^ TO9  # #V [$ KT +g\^ # Z7[ K []VZ7TW^ V KK _ D# [[ ¡ _ YX\ K \ K K V K KDKY Y L ^ K K<*_ #][]Y ZXV Z7[[ $ V K7K \$ V TW…V ^ [ [ K ^ K [$Y K / O Y .            WTZ7S V [Y $4K V K 0K ^ Z7•K"[ TW[V  ZgK \ K ^ K [Y^ IKY z.

^ z K ?K TWV Y  K"[ŒK K ^^ [YXZX^ KZ7ILK K V YX[\ TWVzŒK T I _ T  K YXV \ ^ "Y[ ªŒK _ TWV K-oK"[ªKZLY Y  K  _ ^'[ ^  \ D O Z XV7T  ^ [ TWV UK ^  [ _ "[ *^  Z ZgªZ7K"[IK ‰V TWV *^ K T K V  K0[ Y V .$ T \[ ^ KK8:$ Y T [K LY^T K ILK ^ O9KK T#  .K z4ŒZ7KD[Y ^V K  O^w# TW V ^K '[ ^.VŽ[ [ K z$4) KILVY K V _gK  T [ [ ^ K Y $ "_ T Y #VX$ V  T[ \ ^ Z zY [7V[ IL K K7$ \ ^ K K+oT YyKVzIL K [ # K7 \ [^K (Y V V$¥[  Y VZ zY KY Y V‰V T£K ^ g^ Y Z7Y [ ^K YY YV^ #]K YQ  [V V©$ \ T^ ^ ª[[ \ VT  ^ T Y^ VT KY V w‰K T^0) /K _NZ Y TWK KV V T TZX\ K K ^DO_ ^ [  Y \ KD []Y ZX\ K K7Z YILK*YX\ ª^ K [ *^  *^ \ …^ Y K V ^  K  K7\Z Y K # ŒTK K \ T Y „K ^ ‰TWTWVVL(^* TWVY V L^ K(Y UVZ"! [ [ ^ Z7K 5[ŒO [  \ Y&$ "K K Y ^ KS :[Z d Z7K[ V Y K V ^ …K¢^ [Y KNILKK  ^ K LT^ [ L# ^ YY ILVK¢ . Y K V?V T ŒZ TW V \ K"Y K ‰TWVTWV Y KV  TWVZ L[ ^ z[ £‰TWY V V KY TWV7ŒTWT VK Y Y :^ ¡‰TWT V‰T [ V TWVDYXd \ $4KDYX\ [ O K ^ Y wK£[ H =GY  T \ _ # YILK _¨TWV GY "_ Y yK V [  Y \ T „K TWV&^  Y V K:Z7[]\ T O #  ^ [ zK 7TWV  [XK ^ YXZXZ7K V [SzK _ Zg\ KY ^ K ^ K V Y Y V "[  Y V $4[ 5 H$4K?\  [ V K Y  [S TGY T \ O                                                                                                                                                                                                   I T                                                     .

[]Z T    .

:iDk©Š}“ €Lts7i"jul tn|jl l†n|Šk xX‚"i|n ƒl l   .vU‹ªp}"j tyƒ"p?iU‚©yv5p?p7‚}x}jt‰ k. _]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLpg"q"twi.

      .

   .

    .

 ¢ Y Z7V [ Y [V TK©.Y ^ ? wT K ^ ›_ [ŒY ['^ $4^K7\YXY ^ K    Y K ^ ^ ‰Y T [ ^VLK^ T K ^ Y [z#"$¥Y Y ‰^ T \ K  ^ T [ [ˆL^ Y Y VL^ $4[ K  [ ^ K7\ .•Y Y ‰T [ KV*N T ^ Z [9[:$ Z T KUY ?T ^z[XTWV['„ g[ O 5. Y Y^ [ ‰‰V TWT V[[]VZ7O[]K \ •V P¡[7TWK VILKDK Y K L ^^? K•O V [[. Y Y \ KD‰YT [ ^ V¡K _ Y KUV Y  z I [T ^ ªK K  _TWV Y[ V K•Q VZg\ Y \ T ^ Kg(O T ^  =$4KY *Z7[ TWV O .[[  V \ K ^ K K7\ K ^&A  \ …^ _ L# ^gA YILY K [ K T  ¡K T K d [=Y ^ .K^ ILKYXK \ ^V TWV$ Y [KK ?[ŒT [^¢ TWV T „^ [  5.‰TWVY wK $4K ªKK  ^ YTI}K Y V T ‰\ YT ) \ KYX\ [ TWV K.[ ^wVLTW^V Y K ^ #K  Y ILK K ^ ‰T [ KDVLK ^DV _ #PK ªKYXY \ T ^ KK© [ Y K T.[ $ ªKT  K O $¥^ Z['Y ªTVKY   X[S[V7 Tw K"K??Z[T ^‘ TW¡V K „T K[T zd 2‘ .Ž z$ [$4\?K TK ^DIL_ K K # £A _ TWYV IKK ªK K K T ¡^ T T K YKd  Z7Y [^ $4‰TWY KV *…  TWV\ K L^[ K ^ £Z$¥Y[VY  TWVŒ[[T I ¡Z T T'^.^ O Z7K T?) T \ K¢ Y :K  ^ ª‰K T ^.

?T ^                                                                                                                                            ]5jBaM`b€ai‚s*q auaBw sB`baBceafBq lR~dlR`bauaumgc_sBn fBvTs*r>fBwov1…l*„Mwo`~u„Gˆ0l.f0v R]aiˆ0a v*ˆ0s0`‰v*„g|G[†q celh^*q agsgc2a8`‰agsgv        T4 .‡]5‹j.[Sn coadk.lR~d`xqblRƒ&adwzfgc\]^*w%adlRaBfBaB` v*fgxc]a0c††fB~dlR]aHlHfp†^0^ `bn l&]5jl07 `b|"au[sBv.vRlRn ]lRl*m ` s*ƒ*q "`…s*q lgp'aB`†s.

  .

[]Z T    .

vU‹ªp}"j tyƒ"p?iU‚©yv5p?p7‚}x}jt‰ k.:iDk©Š}“ €Lts7i"jul tn|jl l†n|Šk xX‚"i|n   . _]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLpg"q"twi.

    .

.

[ [ V K $¥^yT TY] V V ‰O T [ V[ ^ [ [:V K V T  Y V K K [ ?KT ^  $4 YX[ \ 5T ’UY [V  7[ T ^ Y[ŒIL[K U"[ Y  V V YzK K£ VZ [TW$.TWV?ŒTT ^ K \XY DZO šK K T _^3 KK ¡$ T Y [K \ K  [ K Z7¡KDT K []ZX\Y K9^ ‰$ TWV [ TWV'YIK^ IL[]_`\ ^XV [ KD K \  K  K [ YT ¢V *Z  [7\ILK [ ?T ^ K ^ K [XTW['V ¡T I¡TT ªK  YX\ \^ „[[ Z [K T # K ^|"^.V \ KK  K•K [ªK  _ Zg\K KY Œ^ T K K [ Y V ^ ‰YTWV z KXO   1¨1¥+ .

) C U oV EB)L' ?  )7' N GMC  +H'*0  '*+>C  G/. :V <AC :V +>C7898 V C X )L-/GMC.)H0 :V 02'*+>C>-M5BC X                                                   ).C>G 89) )LG  )7' 4T                                 .

[]Z T    .

iDk©Š}“ €ts7iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n l   . _]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLp?"q"tirvU‹p}"j›tw‰ƒ"pgi(‚©‰v5pgp7‚}x}jt‰ k.

 .

          .

Y ?^ T‰^ TWV [ŒK [V ¡TWT ^TV KDŒK T I  T  K K ˆ^ TWK V [ [ V‘$4T ^y[« ZLK YŒT …^ Y O K .

 K<[ ¡) T K ^ d (Y Œ^ T ‰^ TWV L^.^ ^K Z7^ K T )K ^ Y ^yT KT V ^ KgOT K .

z 4 [ KT ^  K7K [ \ ^ $ K K*?„"T[ _ K[ ‘ ^ YT KK y KV K K _ K? $¥ YY zTWV KI}AYX[ \ T  [ [_ ŒY VT K  K Y [ ^ YX‰\? TWVZ  ª\[?YOI‰KT# [ A VLY^ ILO KK # I} YX[ \YVT ŒIK KT ¢7. Y YY"IL‰_¨K T [TWV V Y [TWV  KK  ^ Y K ILVYX[ \ T V¡  T [$ K ¡TWV T ‰T K[ V¡KK _¨^ ¡ V Y T [ K V \ TK£^Y ^ [‰. V K K ŒK T K d 7T Y K^ ‰ TWV r:^ Z7Y K ŒTT )K T ^zK¡ T I ? T  [K T0zTWV [ V[ \ ^ AKILK K7YX\ T K\ ILK  YXZ zK [  ^ K?Or\ ^ Q¡gY ^ K ‰T [ YXVzZ e K ŒT ^ T ^zL¡^.T [ ^ TWVV [šZ $ ^K$I [T [ $ YL ^ ^ K.T ^I K T  ^ K $ 0TWV [ ?T ^ zK"[K  ^ K?K \ T‰^ T [ $ VL^R[ IŸV ^ K [ ‰T [ gV V > KDY  ^ K [ ^ V Y T \K K ^  K*Y `P VK‘ˆ[ K …^ ^ K [ ‰[ ^.[T ^Y   ^ K[ T K^ VªK[Y Kg$ O Y# VK  [TWZ7$ V K „ T [ \ 5.  TWV K V7T ^ ['KD$ TY T \ X V7K [ T V TDK"O O K Y  K\ KY ^ ^wK TWV ªKK Y  ^ Y T K V[  K $  T \ Y KUY \ K K7[ Z K K                                                       4 T T                                                                                                .

[]Z T    .

iDk©Š}“ €Lt"s}iDjWl tn‰jl ln‰Šk xX‚"i‰n l ƒ   . _]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLpg"q"twirvU‹p}"jtyƒ"p?iU‚zyvop?p7‚}x}jt‰ k.

  Yg^ -5K*[ _Y V‘ Y YY TVWV ^ K„K ^ [+„I T Y K K K # ^ V T K K V V ‰K T )g/ Y$4V[ ›o\_ =zL[ ^yTWVK T ¢.T K [#  Y# ^ K‰K7TWV \ XTKZ7ILKTWK V^ K L ‰K^ TWVK T [^ Y –Y K Z}YXL[ Z7^yVgK TWVV ^mK TWV‰Z7T [Œ[Œ[ VT K O HmKDY \^ K [ .          $4Y [ ^ ‰ TWV Z [ K [ K^ V ^|.^ Y[ K ^|^ ^ # 'Y # V^r ^T $ [ VK \T[ ‘Y K [V V XY V?[]T T\ YXK\ V K [ V Z  K Y V \ T  Y[ ‰TYX[ \ VT TWK V T ^©  ^ YX[K \ T \ [¡ ‘$.

Q Z7 [ [ YoV L  .

4 V Y [ VV  Y*[ \ [V $ [] \¡ [YX \ T SU(T $4[ [ ^  [ Z [ !~MPK ^|O ^ š[ fK O>L}[X[]['Z7K [:[Œ[ \ T  K [ YV K K ^0©/ ^&K ZXa Z7H [ z‰TWRV H Z. \ Q_  _ K $ Y KL#^ K PT K Z Y ª[ ^ 'K  T rK T^ ^ IL?KT „ [  YX"\L T [ TWV   ^4 [K?\  Y ^zKILK\ KT V …K ^ YO Ya K V H ^ zY P‰KTHT [ 4$ V£[ [ To^1\V  ‰ TW V\[DKO  [KNZ [ [ ' ZLKY ‰T [K.

ª[ Y V^ YY  ‰^ T [ Y V K  ª['K"K(^&Y  V YYUILZ7Y [XT \ [Y \  K£ KYXIL\ TK 1$4$ [  K ZK0[[ V K ^|^ [ K<fO4$ .

K Q O .

Y V K YXK \'T ^•+ V [K [KD>Y L^ [.

[ TWV z K TWVUT ¢ Z [7I TWV  a H zP H Q ^8. V(Q  V [ a [ H  z[ PT H©O O Y \ KY ^ KMo.

Y V^ Y ‰T [ V ^& ZXZ7[ ‰TWV K L^ K                                                                                                                            4LI                                                              .

[]Z T    .

iDk©Š}“ €Lt"s}iDjWl tn‰jl ln‰Šk xX‚"i‰n ƒl   . _]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLpg"q"twirvU‹p}"jtyƒ"p?iU‚zyvop?p7‚}x}jt‰ k.

   O.

YYXZXT KYZ d TWªVL[XY^ Y ^ ‰¡[TWV _ $ K K ?V T TWŒVTW'V LK"K^ Y ^ ^ T K ^£K"YKIL^*VK Y [ V Y ^ TW[V^¢ZgK7\ YZ7Z}^KY ‰T KY ^DV _\ K [ Y VZLY[ V \ [[¢$ Z7T [ ^yKšT [ KK V ‘¡K TWY V KD¡K K T K T dYXQ ^ \ ^Y O^ [Œ‰[TW–V \ ^D\ KD_;Y To[^\ ¢_TWV Z}Y V V?K K"T KK A ^D _ \ [Y :  :KYYXTW\ V ^uA[
K7K ZXª\ Y K?ZgK \ Y K •$Y T ^ @T K ?5V ^ ‰T )T K V YXK ZXZ [Œ[gK Y ^ $4O©[ 5Q: 4 A OŸLHm^ K \^ K Y gV []?5^\ [ ŒT K T KV ^K  K"IY K?^\ []V Z7[ K UY TWVV ªK V KK ILV K yD$ KDTY \:^ $4Y [ 5K A* K V ^ KDK T K [
TWZ V Y ^yT \ YXK\¨Y \ &Y_ $ ^yT ^ ¢Y ZXª\ K K^ ;Y[ VX$ V V K O TW V [ ,7K*T 4}^ YN[XZg['\ gK O;_ Hm\K ? K£[KT;[ [ ^ VA [ Z687K•[¡\  T Y ;[Y2K7\ I^ T [Y \VY  K ^ KN;YI VT []š\ Y Z‰T [ V^w^ T [YX \ 
¡\ &Y T $Y ^D

_]Y*^  K  ŒZ T K [Y ^ Y  ^ ‰K KTWV^ ) ªK ^K V VŒgY TW^ VV (K"K ^ Y KQ ^ [-oY [ VK£ T \^ Y&K’$ [^[ZgZ[Z7 [ [ '^yT K K‘5K z[;[  RYªK4 YXVT \YT   _ T $ ^ Z O?T [)  …Y^ ª„K K [ 5 zK [^ K K T _ ['K ¢*K Z}TWVY ? V [D?OM T ^ # zV [ [X[ V['A gK O Z68[ 7
YXV? T K KIL^ K Y V?ŒT ^TWV Y T  _ K*K KU[ K V V [Œ TWV T K"^K ,[ ^ 1K  ¡K T K ^yT VY ^ ‰7TWT V @  K  ^wYXT ]\ T V Y Z V [ 'Z  ª[ …^ K ^.Y ^ Y Y K( K TWV?^|^ T K V  ‰ T YX\WO [

^ O K ^ .

'Y  K K  .K ) @[ ^  ‰TTWzV7T K TWT V K ?T ^ K IL^ []\  YXzZ Kg! O [ S ^ Y V K V &K $[ [ K V K7XZ Vg…V ^ K Y V^ 0^ T  KK Y ^ _ Y V . K*:Y Lª^DK _ Y ªK K£^ YX\T ^ [ K £TWV TWV [ .O Y  ‰[ T YXTWJ\ VL„^ [ 5Y  V „K [ _ [ $.

 KVš[ V &^ \  T$¥Y ^yT .^yT [ V YX\ ^ Y V K TWVL^ T …^ K7\  _  [ K TWV ? \ K* ©TWV K 'L^ O A                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4LI T                                                                                                                                  .K  Y [‰TTW[ V V / Y [ V ¢ Z} Y Z V7zT K T ^^ *^  Y Y ^ K J [Œ[ K V \ K[ 21 [ V ª[I $ T ^ + [$ K ?[ T YXK \ ^ H\ YŒT KK YY ªV [  gV ªK  K L^yTWV K T ¢Z K ª[ 'K  g‰V T [][ \V [ ŒT [K ^^ …Z^ OK ^ # K *V T ^ K * TWV ?[T Z7^ K [X'[ Y g3MO #ŒT K K7d \ T YK"I^ K K ^ ?T $^zTT ^\ .8^ YgV 7 TWK V K [ T ^ TWV YXZgYZ []KZ IL[]T Y \  KH‰T [ „[ V¡¨_ YY V ^  Z7K 7T T ) ^ [ŒZ ª[ [* -oK T ^ ZLO Y [  T 4O ! V K ªKY ^ [ V + TY ~^ [ K V K TWV KDY ^ K[ V $4[ Yo\ 9V/  Y K V^  T M K K7\ £K Y ^wT . $ K Y ¡rT K^wTd KY ^ [‰ TWV ¡0T K TWV 'Y ^ ^‰TWV T . [ Y ‰ wT [K"K7VLZ ^ K ¡T K Y ^ ‰TWV Z [„K ^.

[]Z T    .

:iDk©Š}“ €Lts7i"jul tn|jl l†n|Šk xX‚"i|n ƒl l   . _]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLpg"q"twi.v0‹ªp}"j twyƒ"p?i(‚©‰v5pgp7‚}x}j’t‰ k.

    >g>gOuO e> VWX.

VT  <># +>OC>M O’G I$KDO8 Y O’^OO’KDYO’^|O‘^ O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO e O e Ou> .5>Y[ zG X  T ^ ‰†T ). TWT V ^ [ TWV T YX\ KRY Y  [ ª[ g‰VT [  V O’PO’[ ^ O‘O’[ OO’K OY O’O’[ O O’OJO’K O‘^wT ]O’V O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO >g>gOO b a? # V .K IK^wK T?9]TG ¢VV KC Z7"[ ! Y VV  K K‘^wT[] V KK  'M TWVYXZ ! Z Pª[[ '^  O‰TO’[ VO’O[ O’^ …O^ O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO >g>gOO c L.J5.K K T YX\YXA\]MS T [   K7\ Y\ ^ ‰T [ O’VLO^ O’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO >gO A R[ V \ L^yT [ V O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O ee OuO +Le>8 G I # V  .[ 7I.

.

8 G V C>+7.^..0H8 G 8  Ou > # V [  ‰T [ V OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  O e. KK 22zz[[  VV YY TT ^^ Y VO‘ O’zOK O’OY O’V7T O’^ OO’[ V OK?O’Z O‘…^ O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO ee OO ee OO e RQ [V KV ª[*\ Q J [] \ Y ‰zT [ K V _ O’O I¡O‘OO’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO ee OO ee OO cb RS [ [¢zZ K ªV K . C>+.^yT2\ K Q  [ $Y [ O‘V O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO  G N )7C.

K£Z [ K ^|^ K ^zTWV ¡T K Y ^ ‰TWV O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  O e Ou> ¡T \ TWV K ^ [ .^ \ K"KILK OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  O e O e M [ r^ \ KDKILK OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  O e O  E XVgV K ^ ^ K2O’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  O e O c T K YI T #O’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  O e O b # V K V^wT ) Y ‰T [ V Z7K T [  Y V  JY  K OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O 4 T4                                                                    cb                          .

?D'    >> @e  >> c >> cc >b >> >  ee @> eege> e?e c eA .     C.

 K T ^ K O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O  O  .^wT ZLY ‰T [ V K*P`K [ V K KNZ7K Y .  \ K V # O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O H ŒT ‰T [ V YX\ V [ K‘[ VUV: zK T YX\ ^yT   \ Y ‰T [ V OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O  O e T ^.CONTENTS M Z7K T YX\ [Z T ^ OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O Ou> # ^ K  [$ TWV ŒT K Y ^ ‰TWV (T ^ .

YI T •&K P K …^ O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O c Q ^ ‰T ‘Y K ^ [  K ‰T zK ^ YX\ K ^©TWV ¡T K Y ^ ‰TWV O’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O c Ou> ‰T \ T LTWV 0^ K  "T ¡T zK V^wT [ V YX\gY V YX\ ^yT ^ „[ Y Y K T ^ ‰T ‰T zK O’O‘O’OO’OO’O SUT \ K Q ^ YXZXZ ª[XY O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O Y ªK ^ K V YXZgZ [gY O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O c O e .

K Y ‰T [ ^ [ ¨ILY T [ ^ ‰T zK ^ YX\ K ^ OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O b M T  T \ Y T NYXZXZg\ T K  [ T K YI T OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O b Ou> .

?9+7.Y (OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O  6  K ^ ‰T [ VL^ O’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  5BC X + N )7C.¨[7ILK V?TWV K   Y ‰T [ VL^ OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O b O e JK ^wT ]V [ m:Q 4ŒZ7K T zK V …^ OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O  M  T.Y •[  ¡T zK V^wT [ V \ K ^.V   K ^ OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O A M  T.^.V : c Ou> # V [  ‰T [ V O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O c O e V?T ILK ^ YX\ T ¢[  K£\ [ ^|^ [ŒK T K V …^ OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O c O  H ^yT ¢ZX\ K  [ $ TWV Y ^ Y T [ V ?T OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O c O  Ou> :Q 47Y ¢Zg\ K ^ [  K YX\  \ Y ‰T [ V^ O’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O c O c .8 V   G @B)  .

XZ T YX"\ R[ ¢Z7[ V K V …^©TWV 3K E XVgV K ŸY V  ŽK V M ^ K  ^ OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O c O c Ou> K V  O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O c O c O e  [ VgV K ‰T [ V O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O c O c O  :Q 4ŒZLY VL^yT [ V ! P[ V Y ‰T [ V OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O c O b Y_ ‰TWV *T YX\ [ .

[ K K O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O c O b Ou> MŒK T K ^ P[ VgV K ‰T [ V O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O c O b O e Y Y YX\ K?"\ R[ VXV K ‰T [ V OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  .V : GMC @B)7C 2<>+>CAC7)7.8 b Ou> # V [  ‰T [ V O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O b O e .

XZ T YX\ ¡T Y Y  ^ O’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O b O  .)L'  .) 8 G U C Ou>       .  Y  \ T 1  NZ O’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  O  O e e                @  @               7c  A A c@ c@ cge cge              cA cA c b@ b> b> b?e b?e b?e b?e b b?b b b                                                      5BCAC.

  .

 >                     >    >               #V Ou>gOu[ >  R‰YT [ V &$¥O’Y O O’JOK ^wO’T ]O‘V O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OO ]]>> Ou>gO e R [ VXV K ‰TWV XVgV K ^ K 'zK V …^ O’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O  e Ou>gO  E K ^wT ^ Y V KOO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O                 []Z T    .

v0‹ªp}"j twyƒ"p?i(‚©‰v5pgp7‚}x}j’t‰ k. _]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLpg"q"twi.:iDk©Š}“ €Lts7i"jul tn|jl l†n|Šk xX‚"i|n   .

8 CONTENTS AAOuO e># V.5>.@  G + U '*+ N +7-/I.+L?DG V C.

[K ?  ['‰TT [ zV [ OVA O’ZO68O’7 OŒO’T Y O’O‘YO’ OO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO AO .

[ [ V A K7¡\gT ILY YX\ T Y# OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO AO  O e HY \gK V K K ŸY K KDVY g!^ ŒT YKD.Y ^ K [ VK YPI}\ YK # T Y ‰O’T [ O’V OO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO .AO  K‘Ou> ILYX\ T # ¡^ T NK [ ? [K z? [ [V A z.

ŽY K¢Y ªKY’I}Y T Y ‰T [ V O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  O  –Y T Y ‰T [ VL^ [  K .

ŽY K’Y ªKY _ OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  A O AO c .

AO c K Ou> ª&K „[

2;K K  *K „Z [ 65
7 ;ŒT [Y  K7Y \‘ O‘O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO
AO c O e

Q:47YK  TWY V?TWK’V Y ªKYNK &K ^ P []K \  ‰…T^ [ V OO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO

.

.¨Y K\ gVK V K ¡KYXT K Ÿ\ Y [YKD^V Y‰TW!\V Œ^wT YT [.VLY ^K ?K TWR[ V &KK P K.O’Y ‰OT [ O’V/ OO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO Y AAOO cc OO c .K 47Y …Y ^¢Y O’ZX\OK K¢O’TA^ ‰OOc T OO’e K*O‘P`KO’O’O’O’…^ OOO’O’O’OOOO’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O‘O‘O‘O’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O’O’O’OOO S ªY K ?[ TWVV ¡K T ‰^wT [T V KK**K P`P`K K +e$¥O’YOIK O’„O[ 5O’.

Y [ŒY [ V^wT K K V ^wT ]&K V P *KK P`…K ^ …O’^ O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO AAOO b .

Y ^ ‰TO’[ VORO’[ OVLO’^yT  O’K O‘Y O’‰T [OV O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO AAOO A M6   TK ^ .JK ^w3K T ]# VVKY VLª^y[ T ) K ^.V :  M.- .5BC U )7'.‰T Y[ VL(^ O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO          AA cc                                 AA               >  > b                         ??cc ??cc gb              AA  gAA A                         2'PG ?DG IK+.

)L.V IHG ? 0   V    ‰ T V  #  [ [  O ’ O  O ’ O  O ’ O ’ O ‘ O ’ O  O ’ O  O ’ O ’ O  O ’ O  O ’ O ‘ O ’ O ’ O  O ’ O  O ’ O  O ’ O ’ O  O ’ O ‘ O ’ O  O ’ O ’ O O  O e.

K ? [Tz[ VA z[  K7\ ^ O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  O e Ou> .

ŽY K Q ^ z[  K7\O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  O e O e KI T Q ^¢S [  K7\£O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@> .

K ^   Y K ^ [ .^ \ K"K"IK O’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@> O e O  KI T Q ^ T  \ Y %z[  K?\JO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@ e O e O c SUT \ K Q ^m^   Y K<z [  K?\OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@ e O .

K‘ILYX\ T ¡ T N[ K ? [ z [ VA z [  K7\ ^ OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@  O  Ou> .

ŽY K Q ^ z[  K7\O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@  O  O e KI T Q ^ z [  K7\ ^ O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@  ^   Y K<z  [  K?\ O’Q ^ O’O‘O’ OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@  #…¢Z [7ILK .

ŽY K z[ K7\šOO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@ O  O  SUT \ K Q ^ z [  K7\0O’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@  cO .

OO c K=OOuc> E K*„.

iDk©Š}“ €Lt"s}iDjWl tn‰jl lnfŠ i xX‚"i‰n     []Z T     .Q [ 5zK K Q  ^K*„ z[ S 5[ z[   K K?K? \N\ + . V:O’[ zO’K7KO‘\TO’O’YXOO\NO’O’z OO[ O’O’K?O’O’\ / OOO’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O‘O‘O‘O’O’O’O’O’O’OOOO’O’O’OOOO’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O‘O‘O‘O’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O’O’O’OˆOˆOˆ>D>D>D@@@ ccc O c O e JK ^yT ]V Z ª[ K ^.^ O’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@  O b M  T. Y (O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@gA O  6  K ^ ‰T [ VL^ O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@gA Ou>                                                4J4 T xLpg"q"twirvU‹p}"jtyƒ"p?iU‚zyvop?p7‚}x}jt‰ k.

_¡e @?@g@ _ fO RY S K T       .

 2).C7?DGMC V U H0  89? ‰) T N V  )H8 G U C Ou> # [ [ O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O«>D@ CONTENTS O e .

O e K uO > ? [Q¡TY zœ\ [ V+œKA zO / [  zK?[\ ^  K7O’\ O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O«O«>?>?>>@@ O e O e SUT \ K Q ^ z[  K7\UO‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O«>?>g> O .

^wT [ V OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O«>?> e OO cb .¨K V K YX\ T ^ L^.

^wOT [ O’V O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O«O«>?>?>> b OO A M6   TK ^ .‰T Y[ VL(^ OO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O«O«>?>?>>                     -/+ N @>G C U V *' I$) +7-/I.5>.E K ^&K H\ …^ V YXY \ V^yT ^ O’T ^ OLO’^.+L?DG V C.8                 .

.

8 G ?P0I.C7?    )7C.+>C U ) )&% ).?DG V C78 <>G @: G ? <  G ) 4+L89?DGMC U !R89?9+>E>-/G 8 < N ).+L? ME K*„T<7K )"ª.<.[ K G )7VLVU^C.V : T [ V O’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O«> b    )  )7' )7C>I$)           !   []Z T    .V ?9O’[G 89O? K 8 ^BO’/ &O+KO’O’0 O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O«O«>> e?egcb H©H©OO c EE K*K*„„KK ªªKDKDKK e OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O«O«>> ee                  0  L) -/+.I$? 8  ~ OW+>> CBC # VV  [ .KDK£Y !R89•>=? +>[+e MEAª['-/E G 8 K&< „KN Y K")7VK0C. ?$Z7#$ [ 8 ^wT &T ‰TI.      H©H©OWO e><.

:iDk©Š}“ t"€s}iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n l   . _]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLp?"q"ti.vU‹p}"j tw‰ƒ"pgi(‚©‰v5pgp7‚}x}jt‰ k.

   .

.

  .



>

       

   .

V Y V Œ (T K [ Y ^ K ‰TWV ŒT K [¢Y ^ Z}‰YTWV V7T K ^ ['¢YILZLK Y V?T[ K V^ K YYILVK K"KZ V(+ ^ J[][X\  K +oM\ K O. Y .& # V[ V YK z KKUY3K V „K&$"K/ Y Y ^ V.1LY Y Y ªI  T \^ SY VK  YXM \ K7YJ\  "_ .

Y  K(K Y gVV  K o[\ $ TWV [  KDK Y ^w^ T[ ]VV*^•^ T [ ^ TY ^£ªKY V [ Z [[ K"^ I… K ^ V WT$ V [ T \V O K S K[[  NK"TWZLV?[7YTIL VK T _ŸK T [rO Y Y .^w^WT V ['zK V ?[TW$zV \ K  [ K•[K ^ K [$ \ Y T [ ^ O YX\ a  K\ ILY K K K?\K3K ^|$ ^ [ K V V K Z ªY [V) …^ ^ K"K Y KY..[ŒY []V \ Y Y K ª[z'K  V …O ^D!_ ! S K ^ K \ YzO / K O Y  Y £^ T ^0[! zY KK ^ +e$ K ?ªT KY^ T[ ^ Vz!L^ [ ^ „[ \ ?K©T ^¢Y ^y T .['Yz‰[T [ ?V T #\ K TWM¡V'[z^ K / \ YO zY K K Z7YX[ŒZ[ ^ KKSK  TT ^¢^.

\ Y ^  ^ [*K.^&+uz []\  H [ –?Z TWVª[ _ K ^.^0K/©Y TWV  [ [  †K $ T [\ ªK K<z [ K K K K V [ ^ . Y YX:\¨^ Z7Z^yK T .\ KY Y ‰T V YXY \ D[ O> #  TO  [XYX\# ^DV _ Y [ ^  K£Z7K [ K ^|V ^y¡T[ TWV \ KTKD[K + NMe @ Z7 K L^K[ $ \ cKT Y@ V [ / [Y VK  [ TWVX\ KVV YK  L^ ‰T zzT K K[^\_ ^yST  V7KK T )^yŒT ]TY KV V \[Y ^ ‰+ TWV KU«> TW[!7V^e L[ [^ _©zZ [ [ NK /57 O 89?.T  T KU) Y ‰[T [ mZ VUY [ VT ^  Z "Kª_Ž[ G'V Y [ [ V K Y Y TWV K KY ªK ['K ¢K Z}Y T ^ V UY \ [Œ[[ ¢ ^ Z}Y Y V 1$ K 7ªT K  K  ^y[ŒT ]K V ^. [ [N YKZLzY V [ Y VLV ^ T ^ YY YX\ K \ K \ Y [[š$ K Z [ K£KU Y Y KU^&.

‰T [N[ K V Y '+ ?T KKY ILK [ K ^  K Y^ [K^ ^K 'TK K  V  K K ^ ! K?T[^ \ zT ªK?K TWZgV / \ YY Y K VTWV  K [ 'K L ^ KK \^.Y ^ 4$ ’K [ Y 5[ g O ª[K .

ILK[]K_\ ILILY*K[]( \ \  TWV‰TWV T [ V*K KTWV$4Œ ŒK"T K KT K V Y Y^ ‰^ K TW‰V TWV [ ^Z [ =Y V$K  ^|?^ T [K []K\  ^yT .) Y V Z TWV  K T ZXY \ K  ^K _ ^DY_ ªY K ªK(TWV Y V [ YX\  K K   _ O . VU[ T ^©K7^\ ^Z7_ K7$ \ K 7 T [  ZgO\ Y 'S  Y K V V K*$ K [ ¡ V T K K7Z Y …^D^ ‰_ TWV šY ^ KTWV [L ^V£^ T „K [ V ‰T . . ?K ^T ^^wT T]K V[XV ‰O['T )  [ T ^ Z ZLTWY V K1)T ZL[YX^ \ ^©‰TWT VK.

K T K K [ ^ Y ªKK*4XZX\ Y TWV K  Y V K[]\  .[  K7\ ^ Y ªK ^& Z7K ^ K  K  O Z.ŽK K ^w?T  M [ŒK K V T^:K V V [[ K MT ^ zK?4\ [ŒT KQ[ IL›_ K _ K : YK .V T ‘\ šT K^’Y KVVg[ V T [^ X  H V ^ K*KªK? & \\ Y TWTW‰VV T [ YVL^ K ?z T  ZK"[XK ‰[ TWKŽV &[$4– KDTWV[K V ¥?5ZXK«^ \ Y \ T [ VK V YXD\KA A .

+ E Y>KD K /  K_[  a[ŒKTK H „ ^ [ z5$ Rz T H©K O KTWV £K [ Y Œ  T 7KK T K"IY K [ ^ ^ ‰TWTWVV [X[ªK.  Y Y ^ K Y 7^ TW‰V TWKKgV Og^ Ž.¨Y YXK"VZ[  K $ TK.Y O K K• ^[ ILY K7T  \ TW[ VL^ T Y Y V _ ZgK K\ _ XV Y K L K ^ ^ K Y¡T KYK z [XK K K ^Y V V [TWVK"K „g[]^ K\ [[ $ [ V a IK HK  V zK‰TP [ H KDV YYX^\ K K  K [OST[. K . K V^ K Y  VT Y  ‰Y T [‰T V[ Y ^V _                                                                                                                                               .ŽT.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               .

¨IT ^K T [ªT K\^ Y ['K T T.zY K Y V VV  Y ‰$ Y T ^w[ ªT[ V¡V _ ^ Y O1VT K ".[ 4ŒK V Z7IL^&K K  V ‰T K"[ K V ?Y YX^ \ z7[ T ^z K?^ \ ^ [ I  T \[] \ Y Y ‰TWV.zYX^ \ T K ^V ‰T K) V Z TWKV V T ZX\ K K ^ T$4 [KDY  \  Z Y ªr[ ^' T K KV XK V KDY YX^ \ T ^I}‰YXT \ T ¡TK ^&DO \ ….WTªVK K [ ['Y T^Y zK TWV?K TWVVK  Y ‰[ŒT [ŒK[ ^~[VL^.ŽV ! ‰K [ T ) T ^ [ Z T K TWV ^D_ T V Zg[ \ K Y ^ .V [ ^wTWY V „^ []‰K TW\V [?$ ^ K O (?.OO[=T ^ ! „[]V \K K [$^ KDY[ ^  [ K \  V K.

KY ª^DK¥_ I T [Y \ Y 4‰^TWV mT K ^V T K K V  ‰[ŒT ) K ^ Z YTWILV K©T I}ZLYXYX\\ T^ ¡Y T VD O S K5O>K*E „[ K"K K 0 T [ ^ V T [ $4[ + TW2V ^ K [  Y \TW V Y Y .V  YXK \^B/ [ TWV. ^ O K  GY K V©^* Y zªK [ ^* K?\ …\ ^^ [ $ ?T _ YX[ ZgVZ7I KTWY V TWK V ?T [Œ [_ Y^ V [  [ Y .

¡47T YY ¢zZgK \ K K T ^ TWV  [  [ K V Kz[[ %TWV‘Y KDV Y’^ [K %.K K.KY Y ^ K [?IK. ªK.K [  K7Y \ ^ K‘ILK7Y \ [ Y T KzNK Y ^ Y $ V T \ Y VK (TW[7V•ILV K K"KK * [TWV   [ YXªKZ ‰K T ¨[ AV OO .

[ [ ª K Y .VL^DV _ [ K „V[ gX^DV _ •Y ^ V [ !  [ ¨Y ^.&^ Y  ^ NY Z ^w‰TWT [V V^\ K O ?.K TW_ V0T …K^ Y [ V [ \ L^yT [Y ^.

[  K K7\ [ gY ^ YY ^ KDYKIVK ZgYX\ Y \ '  \ K Y  ‰T [ VK ^_gTWVc / L^ XVg. [K  $ z[ [ V V \ Az[ ^  K K? \ ^0z! .V K Y ªK ^ I ^ > / K  T ‰ T K ^yYXT \]^ V¡\ [_X$!:b / ZXI\ KgVV rK ^ ¡^IK?K \ [ T  K _7^yTe:/ VŒZ_ 68K 7 CŒO T Y .

^V [ *[VLŸTW^ V Y VL^ KDY $4Y K^ K ?5TW^ V ZT K V[ K K  A    K [Œ ^ K ‰^TYX[ \ VVLT [^ DO [$4 [ K2 g^wTO ]. KY^  K _ TW:V / [ ZX\ªgK V K .[¡T YK7z\ ^ K Y KªK Z [  K ^ o…Z7^[ KD^YY K.

V¢TWV<K Y z^[  T KK7V\ ^ ‰T Z) K ^ . [ [ ‰V T [ K \ DV O \ KD[! Y ^ V V K O .K VY VXK V *K NTWV $ 7?T T ^ $ [ŒT [ \ ’ªK Y ^*K \ rK TWV ªK K „[' K K zgV [   !K K?oV\\ ^ TWK V„[ KTKD¢Y ª^Z K[ ªY [?V ^ I [ TWZ7VLV KD^ []ZX @[ \ K* YX$ Y \ T K _ TW?fV ^ K 'T K K V TWŒV K T A@K \ŒKDYTY  ^  ‰VTWV‰[ T z:Kˆ$4L[ Y^y2TWV *V  K Y ^|^•KK 'T ^  \ KD[TWY V ‘_ [ Y Z V yª[KSK '^.

LKY ^ TWVK ^K7\ T T  K V TWV KY K‘[•KD. Y K ^ K [ [ .K Y 47Y  [TW V K $ K Y [ TWKV ª[KY¢^ Z7KN[ Z V ªK[V) …^ Y [7–T \ T Z D[O '.

 K ‰T [XVV K [ œ^ \ B!}TWV ^ ZYXZ‘oYZ7[ K.^ K‘Y V [  7[ T $ ^ [Œ[ [ TWTV7T  [ T KzK7[ \Z K ¡T K Y ^ K [UY ?T KILK 7T ^ Y K O Chapter 1. Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            .

  "!#$ .

/0/ P['[Œ[ ¢K V ^:Zg\YV T [ Y K [0Y Z7 VL[]X^ VZ \ Y  ‰\ KYT [ VTWV O K?[ .&%' ((!)* +.-.

$ .Y ^ªKYz K«K ‰Z7T [ªK K?V \ Y [K‰R TV [ YHVLY ^„ K*?K:$ T Z[Z7 K TWV K KV KDY Y ^ ^ K"K KK TWZ7ŒV [ T TWZ V …[^K¢) […>g^ OuO>. \ T K*[  _^ K.

K¢Z K K ª[ K’TW'V Z  [‰KD) TY [ …^ ^V K Y T[^ K’^ BYZgL! \ [^ z[ YXK ªZK []^Y ^Z7K YXYSZ’Y  ‰YX T [ VV V0 ^‰TT r[ Y VTª^ K [VK* „K K \ KK K  ^ K  [NYXO ZŒY .

V V K Z K ª[^[ ) K  …^ [ [V[  Y  K $ Y ^ K V [ YX\K.ZK YRT$ 4YXT \  K.ZUK [^ .VS^ [ [ ^ uK A ^ O ! T^ V K$ ^ K KzV K [ YXª\K?K \ Y ‰KST [ Y VL‘V^  Y?T.4 T ^ ’K^ ‘ ['zY K*K $ T YXK\ ªK K [K z $4K KD^ K VZ [ K  ^ K …^ $4+ V[ [ K*^4 KYX.^OˆH2K K .O Y .\ TW|? V YRTWKDV 4 YILT K ^   Xz V K ‰V\ [ T [ ^.

V SXZ T TWVYX\ / O _ „.

[ K K KDŒYT wK KILK Y V ^ ‰Z7TWV [ ˆTWV TWV+ 4L^ Q YW/ _ Z [K ) …^zKDTWYV w KILK K V ¡ Z7T K [ TWV Y ^ ‰\ TWT KV ^($ TWVT '?L TW^ V •YK K¢Y Y V [ K• [r e  @ b :O 7ŒA b Z [ ' G+ [ egb d gb ^ YXZ / O .

..+ >gOu> /                                                                         =?>A@CB. XZ T YX\ K7\ Y ‰T ILK Y V K TWV Z [) …^ 2143 V [K*\ $ Z Z [ [ '  Z7Z7K K K K V V 665 5 44Q Q Y Y 5 B87:9ˆB<.DAEGF                                                                                                                           d~ l*`‚b}ZIadHy€ ~dN]jBn ]yazn fMk*s*aBs*ƒgq ]5fglgjB„pLl*s0`K.

v&n q sdn ]‚„B„Gcg]| l.n cKn cN]5j0aG`bausBc2lRf%]5j.adc2c2c5azn k.`vJlRnƒg]fBlM]Kr szd~d|lRc5fBn c5fBnrRv*q aBaM`w%]ll&v*n fga0ˆ0qad^Bce`b]yadc2n fGaBfg]5]5jBq „8aGƒ0c]celRad~BvHmGn fza\{0]5~0jBj0azs*fBn f0r.s.jBl.^0cW]5j.n auc‡c2lRq vn f    []Z T    .vJa*ƒB|0c]5H†`‰„MjBa0]5`‰j0azsgn]_cyn sc ]5^.su]Wcelw%s*fg„%vRn a_~gsgce]2n fBr>~dlRw^0s*f.wGs*m\aGwol*`‰a%^0`‰l0ŽJ]c†]5j.`bp'MOauszNlRƒ*l0q]5"v1jB]5aGqj0n m\aMs*aoƒg^0]5]`‰jBl>lRl*~dŽ`adfBc2p'cov8lRJ*woƒ*q agq lRv.r ~ilR]†eƒBƒ&]y]5fBj0aiv*a%ˆBaBa0lu`bf>cpK]efBs*s*aBfBk.n c‡pNsi„B| a0`‚j.sBv*`xa\f>aB{&q n^*s*fBadk.

vU‹p}"j›twyƒ"pgiU‚©yvopgp7‚}x}j‘t‰ kr:i"kzŠ}“ t"€s}iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n   P . _]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLp?"q"ti.

Designed/Undesigned Scrap/Cost profits breakeven point % } 20 invesment cost { 0 0 78 ~65-75 } 23 no scrap 100 80 maximum profits % scrap 0 % ŒT ' KU>gOu> Io.2.Section 1.

K£Z [) …^ Y ^ Y( XV ‰T [ V [ KY.[ XV [ K ^ YXZ 100               .

    ! #"$%&"(').

.

+*. .1 B Z4\ ]^ X H+  1  %. /?"@ A-. /0)123'4 5 6 %"(+78%9 :.>.4`.<1=./b 4  90H." .BCD/? 4  90E F1=GH@IKJ(+31 L %NMON/GP QR E9S TVU R>W 3YX[ ../a-C`.). /_13'4 5 6 %N>"(+78 G $. 55 CCZZ 5 OB 7:9«B8..

=#"c121("( % ')H<dO4e f /_1gh74! #"e TWV  .

 ?T ¡^m_ T ^  Y ILK ?T &^  KL^–Z Y V [‰) T YX…^\ OŒT P`K K V KXO .

K K*„[ K‘Y=             € ‚     7T K K ' ‰T [ V•TWV¢^ YXZ $ T \ ªK ^* \           /* I%( Gƒ„#  /* I%(# †…"  ƒ3‡ /0 ^^.

[ YXK  Z \K! Y [ K ^K@& I ‘K*>) Y / V V K  [  Y ^ K*^K ) YXV?\T ‰Y T [ VLK1Y^ zV [K  KmYX^ \K?\ TYX Z¡Y TWoO V ¡Y .

^’ 3e:VD / d K&[ )  V7[ T ^ ‰K T[ [ V:K©Y ^&7YNT Z Y K V[ [ V [ \ O K. T £K ›KV _ [ Y VK .

KH¡K T TWKV7K~T  Y Y T^K ‰K TWV$4O [<.

^yY T V \Y K _ [ [  K K7[\ T  [ ^TW^ V K Y $ T ¢K T \T ^•KVKS[  gVXTW V?VK T K^y T T V K ['K  ¢O ZgY . K ^yT K V [ [ YILK ªKd-oK ‰T [ V [–Y V (Z}Y + K ªKd-oK ‰T [ V¢^ [  \  K TY=¢K $¥ªZ7[ Y[ / ^. TW VTW'VKg) ^ ^ [^  TWV:T ^ K*„K K  [ K ªKNY ^ K XV K ^wT ]V K 0^ YXZ _ Y V K ^ K [ VT ^ ªK&„K ªK  Y ^8 K ^wT ]V K 0^ YXZŒO  Y zT ^ K ¡T P`K K V K # # zT ^.

v£‹p}"j›tyƒ"pgiU‚©yvop?p7‚}x}jt‰ k.:iDk©Š}“ €Lt"s}iDjWl tn‰jl lnfŠ i xX‚"i‰n []Z T _¡e @?@g@ _ fO RY S K T                                                                                                                   .Ž^‘[^y$4TK KK ILKK TWVU^y_¨T ]^*T V’K T  ^ b xLp?"q"ti. \ VK ?K7T ^’\ ?T_ ^T ^NY  VT ^ šTWV?TT  K TT ^ XY V‰K T [ ^yK TV ^wTY ][V \ KK [ [@^ ^  Y YXVTWZ V7 ! T  [ ?T ^ T K^NO TT ^….

                              i j+p q=k9} rul=i ix ~m#q(nok9lop p juqVm#roi y s= jtluivi w9x yzk9jtx {ui | .

^[ YXK Z ! [ [ ^ K¢O Y .

\ KK Œ[ T K  K Y ^K ‰5TW V TWV KK1V $ ŒTWV Y K"mK o^  [  ^ \  ¡TK ^ ‰ TWV [ V ?K’T ^ Y V K $ $4K"Y K V Y VXKV ^ [ K $4K [  ^ [ V YXKgZO [NZ7[ V K V …^mTWV ^[ \ [ $ K M ZXT K\[XV V  K KWT V?¥TY  ILV K7T \.[ K YT wKz K£Y Y Y V^wT ¥T ]Z7V?[ T ) K [ ^yY K T V DoO ¡K7.

Y ‰KDK TWYV  VL„^[ +œ›YXK*\D4}zY Y[ NY^ gTZgr/ \ K Z7Y _¡[ T T~.TWV^wT Tz\ \K K V K •[ ªKTWV YX \ KK  \ Y ^ Y K V[ ’^K‘\ KDY KILTŒ‰K TWT V TWYXYXV \\ $¥Z Y [ '.[ K T ^y^ V T Z7[Y $ ^. T P\ T 7 K T ª^ TWK V V.

_  $4…[ K ^ ¡X+GTKVP`IL K K K V^wK T V]Z7V X[ K .K[ £47JY^Z ¢[ZXYX\ Z K  ^ T ^ …[^©K? TW\ TV¢ K ^ ^yTW['VT zY V KKK * OY ^ ^.

V* ŒTWK VT ^yK T  [ V  K [Œ([ ^ K  YX TWZ VYX! \ T [ 0^ YXZ Z [ KY'IL K Q.Q…^ O KDOMK # V V Z 7K T ^d $^ K T K•V\ _ ILK Y K V O ‰TW. K 7^BYX/T Z ^ !Y [K [ Z ^ T [ YV $ ILVTK@\ ^gK .

T \ Y Y KNT YT ^ .[ YXXZXV Z7K [ ~OzZ7# V[ [ ^wKzT \ Y /  K OªO . V K K ^ ^ ªYK z^ T K^ K ‰YXT \ z^  [ K K _^yT KKV 'O<Z7 [ # ^|K ^yT ?Y T VK \ T KgYV^y T K \ Y ^yT Y VK K Z}^UY [^ Y$ zYXV K Z ! K oY [ $ ^ ?O.T K H KV KTK*^ '4}YY NK Zg^ T \‰K¢T [YXK  \  ^* K K ^y^yT T]V VY:K :Z}YK7^ \ [Y$ zYXZK $ ! K?[T ^ T ^ Y:T?T! \ g^(Y ^– T Z0^ K*Y 4 V Y K ^ ^*K  \ …^‘KDY WT V^wT \ Y~Y Z7V[X [ Y Y[7^IL‰KzTWV $ 7+.

K ^ V YO ! [7VILKK Y VK YKz^y[ T XV V Z7K©[ I^.^wK T V \ KX. Y ^ K K¢_ Y V KrYX\ Y T^wT !^ [Y  ^ Z K’K ^|IL^*K  V ªK ^ T^ ‰T KYX \   K K^yzT [ V V^ T K?Y \ ŒTWK V ^ Y Y ^ YXY \D. [K ^w^ T ]V K  ^  YzK Y K [7^&IL K \ …^_ K ^ ‘YXT ‰\T LYYXz\  [ K g^wV T ]V [RY Y VTSK  V K ^yT YTWV V z. Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .OL^ a [Y $ [?I[ K K Y KT ‰…T ^ YX\ Y IKK ^wT ]KDVzK V^ [ Y ?K T KILKK ‡^wT I]Vz\ K ^.^ ^ YXKiZ-5K ! ‰[ T [^ ¥V^ T ^ + ªXK V  K ^wK T ] V K [N’Y ^  YXTWV?Z T /  Y  V  \ K ^|^ ILK V m^ ^ K  IL[]\  z3K +  K ^wT ]V K £^ YXZ / O Chapter 1.

 .

Z  YXY \ ‰T [ K^ Y [zK Z \ [KDY I ‰T T [ VŒªK _ ^*\ K \ …^0YX\ TW[ VV K V [ YXZ \ L ^ \ Y ‰„ TW[ V K KUK Y .K  YXK \ 5  K TWV^yTK  V Y V^ [ZzªK<[ '  TWV‰ T [ [V ŽY[ILK^ …^Y O K  Y ^ K K  2.G # Y V YX\ [ [ K(^yY +|T Q Q V^ \ dwZS Y VYK  ‰YXZT \ Y&ªK[ $ _ 'TªK_ ILKL ‰VTbT [ YJV Y VK [  ^ …S0^ OK‘T \Z# K‘o[.. ‡ /02   ((!#  ‚  /* I%"  # UK T ^N^ Y [ gVK  Y [ [ g K V ‰TWLV ^ ['Z zY K f‰O T K V „[ [ ‰.&%  # ("!#  +.[ V[ ªK _ K•7Z}T Y ^’T  $4KYK T T ^ YX\ ZX^ [š\ ^ Z7K oK"Z7[K .T> -5^ K JAK7\/T T ^ KO IL) K . K Y NK  Y V Tª^ K K ^ Y K Y K IR[ Z KY T ^ KTWV  $ [ K[ ^&Z   \ [T…^ K£V  [Y [ [ Y^*¡IL KTWV Y Y’V [Z Y K K0‰^yTT Y KgV O.T XK V Y KK?\ _ [ ^ K [zZ K"Y IK ‰T K Y ^ [ Z7K Y [T ^’¢^&Z  [ ' ‰Y T [ V K[ Z T K K*[[^ [K ZV [[ '[  V …^ Y K0K Y  .  K YX^w\RT ]Z V¡ª_ [) Y …V^  O $ .ŽV7 T K ^ K K Y›T _ V [[V[^ K V  K  K YXV \ K  ^ \ Y [K ^ ^* K£Y Y«.

 \Y wK KKDY [Z ^w^T [\ ) G+ …K ^ VK(? Y K?d VZ\ T  T $ TWKV ?/ Y TO K  O [ MŒK"V I[ K O YX\  YXZ K 5K z^£[ TWKV _ ?[ T ^ V^wT  [ŒK [( Y Y \ ªK<K )  V K Y Œ V T YT YX\K  [ ^ [                                                                                                                                                                                                                +/0  +. T K TV\ ^£TW[V TWV T TW V KD YK$ K ?T$ K ?^wTT -o][ V L^ [[ .

! ^Y K"V TIK K YXKDY YX\Œ^ \¡I}‰TWYZ V T ^Y T ^ \ K [ª^ K?$¥[\ YY V ‰KT IK? Y\ [ V TWV ^ [ Z7KDY[ŒY TW[ TWV V YK Yz^ KDK IY ŒK Tb S O>„[ .^DO _.  &$%(.Ž ŒK YXTV I \ TWT KV _ YXZ Y\ ^ [ ‰TWV KK ^|. ª['K ^0! $ Y ^|^ Y [ rT T ^ Y ‰ T [V [V$^ O Y ^ K ? JK [ T Y ‰T .Z7^ [ $4K Y V K VZ7[ [ N^yT ‰^ T Z7[ [ VVL^~^ TW[ V K  K ¡šT K Y V Y ^ ‰[TW V £¡TTWK VLY ^ ^ ‰TWV &^* TWP VK^ ‰†T . K A $ ?T £T ^ ILK ¡T  \ [ Y V KXO ?                                                                                                            KH)')I51*<G.Yg -oTW[ V[ P$ Y 7?T I}^T Y VKDY YJK ^  ^~[ K V TWV ‰TWVK K  wK K gVTWV Y ^K V$^ [ T Y V¡KDTWKV VK [S  Y V ’K [ ¡ T K K¢Y Z7^ KD‰TW[]V ZX\ K Z TWVN[ T ¢K ^.

l0ˆ0aGs*fBv1k*aBq lgp9~0`…n ]2n ~us*qv*adc5n rRfzp†n q k*a%vRn ce~BƒBc2ceadv n fM‹j0s*^g]aB` H  []Z T    .n fBr>l0"]5jBaz~B`‚n ]2n ~gs.qv*adc5n rRf>s*fBvs*k.  L %N') "V yjBaMw%aus*f.

vU‹p}"j›twyƒ"pgiU‚©yvopgp7‚}x}j‘t‰ kr:i"kzŠ}“ t"€s}iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n    . _]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLp?"q"ti.

Y[  ^ ‰TWV :K T ^ T YK zA KS O SYXK \[YX \K"Œ [?T IŒYXK T \†YX_ .\–Y Q K V:V  ŒG[TWY V V K".Y Y V  XK VŒ[ TWVV K"[  Lg^ V. [  KK7T\ ^Ÿ[$ $ ?VT ªK ^ KYYILK OKDK ! V V Z K [ 'Y VXV K [  YZ V[  ªK ^.K  []^ \TWV TW[ V HZ # Z7V[KL^ K ^ [ ^|VX^ T V YXY K7\4V\gQ [ V V ¡TWK V ªKDK K&K „[ K^ ª^OK KDY  K ª K KX^ 5VKDzgY ^[ ªK K7_ \ T YK"7^IT K^ [ [Y zK K:YY K ^UŒT VK T [K ^$4* [ oVZ  T K ^ K T  K Y ªK Z7T ^ K"[Y Zg\ K7K \ Y TW‰V T [ V^ Y7T Z Kz[K  $4K"K K V‘ªK^ [^ K.Yg-5[ ‘Z7[ TWV …^ [ K . K K ^ K ^ TKDY K  K  gªK VTWŒV TWO V O H ?T \ T [ K.Kˆ^ [Z7K ^ [ K VgVXK7V\  K [ ^ V Y V[]¡\ TWTWV V (T ^.

Y V [ K ^ O .ŒT K  ^ ['zK K ^ KDY K ^_ „[ `K.47Y¢ZX\ K. K~ILK V 4^ ^ K  K ^yT ]V ªK  ?T KzK V …^ $4K K ^ .M  L^D_ JK TWV?T _ Y V YXZ7K .

T  K©[ [ ¢ Z ªK K ^.[ YgK-o[^|^ [$¥Y Vg^ K TWV Y ^ ªKYX\ …^ ^ T K V KXO $[4?Y9T !  K*TWV?TKD[  Y  K ^ K I[ŒK?K \[ [  K T Y ^ 7[ ‰TWTWV V …g^ ^ K  K7Y \Z7Y K Y V ¡^wTTWY ]V V?T ) [[  V Y  V K ^yKT ]YXV Y \V [$¥ˆYK ^ Z TWV[]Z7Y K KU‰T\ KT  K^ 7KT  K T TW^zV KY YXYY\ ^V [K K*$ O [Z} . TWV Y ‰zT [ [?VzI ^wTWVTWV K K K ŒT K T V Y [ ^ ‰K TWV KTZ .^yKDT ?YXT \\ T DK O 7`T KK"z_ K V K …*^ [Z ›[7[ I  T  K¢K’Y Z K Œ^yTWT VXYXV7\TWV ^y*T . K ^ Kz[  K?\ ^D_ [$4KILK _ Y K gV KDYX\ T ^ ‰T Y V [ V [ Z [7I T  K0Y Z7KD[ YXTW\V T ^"‰_ T Z K¢T Y .

^ [ $4K  [zXK YY ^ [K(\ T  ZL7Y T [ ‰T ^z.Y Y K:K K(VK.K T YX\XILYX\  K T ^ gV V [ $ V K Y L^ K K’.Ž[ $4KILK _ K V  .KA?47@ Y Q ^g¢Z Y ZXT V \ K YXH _ \ L+5[M^ .K K-5YXK \"^D_  _ Y[ \ V$T y KTWYVL[ V^yT  Y KK ’[  \ T  K T ?K T ? Y^I Z}_ T Y [‰T„$ [ \ mK TWV*K-oK4}Y O N!K"ZgK\ K .\ .$ 7T T ^ K7\ Y K  [ K  [ $ ZLY K VL^ HO .¡ YXT K \ T 5Y wV K£Y ^ Y‰TWV [V   LZ ˆO + YX–\ YY I TKg^ >> A b / /4&^  K ¡K T ^P K K ª K V Y ‰ T YX[]\Z ‰ K TW V  Y ‰T [ K£VL^Z 687 Y ¡T Y YILKY  KD„K [ V ¡YX\T K Y K ^ ‰ZTWV UKI TWT V[ L[ ^  zK [  [ K7\ ^ YX\ K \ Y  K T ^|^ KK  Y K©K IL.K7\ Yg[ -5[ T zZ7_ [ TWV K …^ Y [ K‘Y KKDY¢YYXV\   \[ Y ‰T [ K VJ^ ZLO Y H Y ^zK$ TK \ ^ O¨K H ^^ $ [$ T V TWVKDYX \ T DYXO Z .K V YX‡\ $4[ 5 + S Y T K 5> A c /._ K +Y PTWV K[ ^ Z}KYY I}Y K.K 4ŒZ7K T zK V …^ $4K K0Z7[Œ[ œ\ ?5[^ []V \'#ILV K A K K0 Y \Y „K [ K’–V [ .K KV^JT^ I YX \W‰Y OuT > \ T?[c K V ‰/ TWO V TK H [ $¥^Y Z  K K [–^ $K Y V V "-5YXK_ \"[ _ YK +d TWV7T    / K  ?T ªK  Y KmILK7\ [ T T ^–^* ZgZ7[ K  zK.4 IL[ T K7^ \ [ K  V T ^ K O JK TWV?T + ŽK TWV7T ?>  :e / \ TWV wK  K Y K£IK?\ [ T [ K  [ $ Z}Y K V +œY '[  T Y ‰T [ V / Y V  Z ª[?I T  KUY   YX\ T Y ‰T ILKZ ^yT YX\P*K 4XZX\ Y V Y ‰T [ V „[ ?T ^ [  ªK V KgO«:Q 4XZ7K T .4ŒZ7K T zK V YX\}KI T  K V K.

+  ^& ZXªZgK\ YY VK  KK . K ?4T ^A _ .V egb Z "K K¡Y T ^ O `ªK K V"g_ ^ [ V [K ZgZ7[Y ^yV T [K V \ [ $4TWV [ [V †K ?%T  $ zK ?Y T ^ V?T $4^4K?\TW›V K ^ KmY K\Y T ^o\ ©K [  z7K T ^ [ K  V .¡Y T KV Y ^ ‰K"TWV[ [ / V $ \ 7TWT V $¥K‘Y \ Y^¢TWK V ^ K"[ I'K V ‰TK K  ^ Y V  $¥V Y ‰^ T K V K ª[ V KD[ L^ \ T ^J¢V ZX\ K zK  V K  O ^|^yT ^  gV ^ VŒTWV T V V ŸTWV ^ ^ \ K KDKYILKg^O K .[ K•K7H \ L[X^ '[  YX\ TY [XV [ Q^ TWzV [ Œ T K K?\PZY ª^ [ ‰'TWV   K TWV TW'V L^ [ =K „[ K &^  K:\ …^\ Y ^ Y .

TW¡V T K K Y ^ TW‰VTWV L^ TWVL^ ‰TTW. Y Y K"V I K?\ []YXZ7\ K K Y  gKT K [ VK YXK":Z [? $¥.Y^ K ILzK A[ _  Z K?\ [ K$ Y?T [ \ [ŒK[ .V£ ^ K Z .^ T ! K¢Y ^|[^  [ T Y K(‰T G[ Y V^ YILY K GV ?([ C7) Z  )L' \ T ^ : VK ' H877O T ^ ! GV Y K O Y VS [[ VªKD\ [7IL$4K [ _ŸVa K H Kz$ RH Y V K I [T K  ª['TW V^ ‰! T .gY [Œ-5[ [ .Ž\ Y HK K©$¥K > Y ^z gK V @ ^ [ T GK Y K GK  $¥T \ T Y Y KW$ [ T  zY[  ?\K7T T ^ \ -K ^Y ¢KDY Z Y TWV Y K K KDY¡^ >O [ K.7 T [(K ^ M Y [ V K ‰/ TW:V $  K [ [ ^  K X VgV.ŽPK^ \ KDYXK\ ^K IL[ K.

V [ YJV K K [ K =K ªV K K*^ $ KY Y K ^.ŽK7Y \Ÿ\ Y K Q ^K z*^  [   ^K7\g[ K"IK.

ŽY +„[ 4K .K Q ^47Y z¢[ ZX \ KK?_\ T ^ [ YX\ ($ ª[ V O Y Y^ V.

¡O©TXK Q V?T ‰ wY TWK^ V ‰"TWV _ .K V Y [ Y .TW V YXV?Zg[ TWV Zª [XZ7Y K [  TWV $ K[ ? T¡T zKZ K VLg[7^yVI T [T  KV K YX ^ \wYYY V V gYXŒV?\ TWTV „^w[ T ^ 2$¥ YXY ZX^ ^ Zg\$ T K K  .Y „[K [ . T ^ K „VK K‰T_?) .K 4ŒZZ7K K[ GTY zK ^|K ^ K V O ŸYX.

4. [ &\ 7$4T z^ [ K[5 z^  K$ Y T V \ T ^ KK Y K Section 1. Historical Background  g  +5+*.v£‹p}"j›tyƒ"pgiU‚©yvop?p7‚}x}jt‰ k. P                                                                                                                      A                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            xLp?"q"ti.:iDk©Š}“ €Lt"s}iDjWl tn‰jl lnfŠ i xX‚"i‰n   []Z T _¡e @?@g@ _                       .

n c_n f>‹j.k*lRƒg]†]5j.^B]aB` |  fO RY S K T        .                                                                                                                                                    ausBvs.s.

^TWV K ^_^&K  ŒT K Y ^ Y )P^ ‰\TWVTWV Z [ª[ K ^.K ^ O YI T T z<K $ VL^yT T [ V \ YXT  \]?Y T V YXz\ K^wT ^HYX\ KY zV [ VK^I}Y Y  KY ^‰T [ VY ! K.Ž [ $4KKILK Y T _ M [K  †7T  K zzK [\ ›Y _ V7T Y ^ V Y K ^  KD[ YX\ K $ YK yVK V«TWVK [ KDYY [ XY V VL0^ „KTWV T ^ K Y ^. YXY \ V?^yTT . K \ Y ‰T [ [ VL^ K [ V K K\ T ŒT K\Y KgO Y VL.^ Y Z ‰ªT [[ VLK^^.4 K Y †‰7T [ T V [.YzK .^&YX \ .

 ^ Y + V K*K 4 ^ []K7\ \T ¡K T V ) Y []‰ZXT [ Z7V[ Z.ª^[ŒK _ [$ V .Xª[ V?T K ^.[^•ZTK ª^([ .K ?K T š*K P`TWV$ K T \ K [ K TWV¡^ T Z ^K T LY KD^.V  O K \ Q \ T TWŒV wT K \ ?&KgTQ O ^^ $4.^0„/ [ O ?5^wT ¢ZX\ K A z[  K7\ ^ [šZ ªK ŒT K.‰Y^T [ K V‰ T [ [zV.Y V Z}Y YzK K ^ [TWV  Y V K&K $+ RŒY TT K dyKS Y Y ^ K^ ‰T 5TWV> Y ?Z b  ª[ L/ ^ K ^. ^ „?K T ¥^ Z Z [ [7ILK K ^.

 . Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                          !  +. K gYK -5^w[ T ]^ KV¡' _ 7OZXT  \ #gY V V V K7K>T ^ „¡[ TJY [Œ>z[/ K _ K . [X[ ['5 g gK OSO.K Y YXVK \(^wT ] [\VLY ^ ‰T [ [ KVL^DV _ K*K© $ ILTWV7K TV [ ‰V TW V  NK7Z ^ …g^ ^ VXY VKVK   K ^yT VŒ_ K Y K  K ^ T K  „[ 1K ) ^ ‰T zKgO Chapter 1.Ž#K"IK K?K \ Y []^ Z$4z[0K"K K K*V V*4}Y^[¢ [ZX$ \ K VK^ e:z/ [T ‰$ T K?YX\ K^D\}V_gIL*^K  V K£Y ILYKDY ^ Y K : [[  VV [ K?^  Z ^‘K[Z  [7I V T K KDKK gg^ VXV [KTK . 8 … .

!.

^$4[NY [ V Y 5 ^ MM *KK7G\ ^Y [ V V Z Y [V \ KJ []\^ K +go.K \ KV K  V „[ [g VK^  [ \ T Œ[TWV T ) [ KY ¡‰TILT K[ K V.[ gV V K „[ KYXŸ\Y.T ^  YOoV P[[ $ VY ^w$ KDT  Y?K ^T Y $ T7\ ^ K T ªK V ^ [KD\ $KY Y V  YX\./  ªaK Y ^ ^ KzY K K"K T V K YX\ ^ Y ^yY T  T K K ¢\ Y [ Z‰ T‰[ TWV VL[ ^ V [ YITK’¢K Z ZXª\[ KK".\ TW[V  Y VKz Z T [ VK KD^ K []\K T ¡ T )$4[ Y 2‰ T [ + VS0[TWV Y T K K _ Tz¢Y[ I Z  T K?[7\ILLK TW^yV TWV K )K«V?\ TTY  ^K Z ŒªzT[ P`[ K \ K K K7 V _\ Y$¥K8V Y z ^ K [£Y [Y^ K   O[ . >  Y > V/ LH ^ K 7T []^ Z7 [ V [\$z[ ^\ K >  K4 Y/ OV‘SU^yTWTV  Y T K4\ Y K K YX \ TWV Kz[ )PV K.   +.Y TWV^ ‰LTW^\ V K&¡  TWZ V \ [ TWV †K 7^|. Y[^|  ^ K T Y YXY ‰\WTVLOW[ > ^ V „K g[e: /[ŒLK ^KNK \ T  T ?K TV KG ) O zV?K TJK¥\YXK\WK7Y O \oK\.+g.

K\ Y 4ŒZgK \ [  K  Y 0ªKM YX$¥\ T ^Y ‰ T TWV zY [  Y K7V \ Y [ V   KŽ^ [\ TK zK +5M$¥KSY.Y ^ YY V VL^Y „VK  }JO [].TWY V ^. z_ K K‘V 7Y T ^ z['zK [T  [Y K7‰ \T [ T [V^ TWzV K $¥Y [ T ‰ TWV $¥Y ^ [   K ªK K?JZg.

\ K oK > Q V / YXY \VZ  [ K  ^ ?T [\ K ^ V:.zK T KYX\ )P^y\T TWV  \ YY ‰V T 0[ V ^ []\ [Œ\ T [¡ T ) ^ ILY K‰T [ V Z Z [ª[  T\ ^wK TW•V O _ YX\ K zK [ ?^ +) V?T K ŒT P`K K V K _ ) V7T K K7\ K K z K V …T K?^D\_ Œ[ TWV [KDXY V ^ [ Y V Y £K7\ K \ K zK &^ K  V \ ……^^ O K / *^  P`K  ª'[  ^ KILK YX†\ .gY -5[  &Y $ Y ^ Y Z KILK V  [  .

K K"YX[ \WO . KˆK ª\ KT  ?T ^NT  V [ .

K^ 4ŒZ ZgY \ Y"KTWVL ^ [ V K KDK Y z[]\ Y VL^ „K Y V K K $4KDKK V Y 9K Y z[K \  T ^ ‰$¥T YX\[ ^  Y V K ª KDK7KYZ7Y K VK g^ Y^ Y VL[ ^ V„K YXfZ O K '. +dzKš[ \  K7\ / T Y VY N.

VK  zT YXK \ ^T [YX \ $¥^wTY  ªK \ +Y S ‰T [H V .  K"TWK[ V .¡K T P K K DªO K ^ V [ [\ TK Œ`T *K TW) V 4}Y Y N‰T K[ZgV\ K _K Z VL! [^y^ T K [ ^|^ V K K‘K $4K KD$4K YXK"V N\K V+ ! Kˆ^ SK \[ T  zV ?[K‘T  \ K Z Y YXV Y \WOW^ > K:Y K V/–šTWV^ ^ [][Y \$4T <K K  $ Z ?Y T Y^ K Y K [TK .

fza*p'| l*`‚mzl*`pKjBaB`baMj0aopNsBc_n fgˆ0lRq ˆ0adv| [N‹lR~i]5wƒ0s*woq aB„u`bh~g]5n s.jBqRai„l*`']5sg`…n ~gadsgv.v&]aBl8wG^0n ~_`bl0ˆ0ˆBaBa%`bc5]5n j.lRsufB]Wcu| ]5jBazcel0b]‚pNs0`‰aMn cWp'l*`xmgn fBr.ceaB]†q n ai]ˆ0lMad~0v`…n sg]2]Wn ~%]5lRj0fBsgaz]yclu]epKsBr.j0`‰„>sg]_]l>n ]ypKn cWj0]5sgjB]‡aGp‡ausgsBcoc\n adk.S Y H / K  ?KT ª. .K K 4Œ Z7K) T z \ KTWV V YX$ \ T ªK *^  \ …^K O KDY Y V^ „K [ŒK T K V [ H ^•T $¥Y ^ zK V ‰T [ V K  KDY œ\ T K _JT ¢T ^0V [ \ KY %$ K V K\ T  ?T  zK YX\  [ $ ^ Y ^ Y ^ Z Y Y V                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ‹ lRfBfga%]5Ž`…sBfBvRv*n ~ic†]]5l.ˆ0aB`‰„Gp'aBq |  .

[]Z T    .

_]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T       xLp?"q"ti.vU‹p}"j›twyƒ"pgiU‚©yvopgp7‚}x}j‘t‰ kr:i"kzŠ}“ t"€s}iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n    .

[ VL^ Y K  Y K  [$ _ .$„[ –K \ VUY T K£ Z}[Y $ ^ [Y  ^ [ K V )P‰TW\V:TW V [ L ‰^ T z\ T K 7_TT ^ ONY Q:['4Œ Z7KT K T z K + V RY YX\"dw$4S [ K 5T o> Yg^Hb Y  / KO .

ZY ªK ^.[ ^*g VK TWV K KªK z^yT ^ []\ Y V YK I T [ TWV K:YX\Y T K [$['T[ z K O T.TWV [šK.

^*K   K $ TTWV [  K YY I TWTV T ^ YI Z7T [Œ[ œT \^ £Z7K [Œ^ ‰[ T œ‘ \ •Y K K ^ ‰T ‘Y VY  K  YK ^K*$4„[ K7\K WO K Y Y K T ^ ‰T  [$=[ KU\ T  ?T  zK YX\ TWV Kz[]\  . YX\[ ^_ K :^ ?Y T \ ªK  YXZˆ\ Z  ª\K Y ^.

  \ K V + TWV Y ^ K K  [$ T ^ .Y K K ªK   [? $ T ªKTWV  YX\[¢Y K ?T^yKT IL K  \ Y Y8‰T [  VL\ ^¥T .  \ K V g/ [UY*\ Y TWV Y  [$ O ^y.:47 Y\ K¢V Zg\ K _g[T$‘ OM.  YXK"\ IK?T \–[]TZ7^ K Y ZX \ [ $ O [ $ T /ŽT $ 7T T \^ TWT ^V G Y ^ TWVK › _ [\ KNY oZL\ Y ªK^ [ z [KUZ}Y K ¡[T ^.¨K [ $4[K"$ IK Y _ ‰T zK~KzK V Y V’Y V ^ Z}K Y [K YYZ y TK•Z7KMY $ X T VgV K K $ TXZ T YYX\ \ K V [ VŒT ‰[T [ ¥ VY ^–TW[V8 ŒT K >D@ Y ‚^ ‰TWV ¢[:T ^Y \ Y? T KILTWV K Y  y +œY \ . ›K.^  Y ^.^&  \ K zV K   [[ $‘O K  [. ^yT Z}YK ‰T [ [V $ Z T ^ [ \ YK ^|^TWV TWVY 5OrH K TWŒV?TT ‰‰TT [YX\V YX^ \Y _ K ^ K [ ^ T []‘\ T T ¡^ T ) YX\ ^ Y [:‰T Y3[ V GY Z [ [ K ^|TWV ^ Y V ¡TWV K  [$ ª[' Y .

Y Zo\ª[_ Z7\ KzK V [ ‰TK K K?^ T\ ^ ^&YK. 4VgTV ^ [NTTWV  5 K ^ K YT  KK[^¢$ ^yY ])T .Œ T T  Y K \ Y\Y T •‰T ? [ O T V Y z VK YXV \¨[ ILK7\ YX[ \ T  «\ Y Y K  O # K V KKDV YX\T Y V K ?T ^ [ ILK7\ [ K T X VgV Y K ^ T[ ^ Y K ^.^& YXz \ K  ! \ Y TWV K  K ‰T \ VT T WVz K ZT 68YX7 \ J#  \ KK .^ K?K \ Y › ‰_ T [ [ $ VVL^ TY ^ $ ¢K V T ^ K []K Z KST zK [ ['  z[K?$ [ \ K VY Y K"V[  LKK ^ ^^•$ TWV TT [K ^• 4$T T \[  Y d Z K Y Y ^ V KY KK7[\ KTW$ V# + ^ [\ T 7 d \ T  7 T   [$ / K O .

T4 z Y K K T YX\_ z[[   K?\ ^BK/ ¡ T K K9T ^. YX\ T _Œ^ [z K•Z}Y [ K KY ~T ^ Kz [?IK  [ T \ TWV KY Y V^ „ K fO ..œ+ YX\K KDK Y ['K. K [ V YK V?T ^  [ŒT ^[]\ YTWV ^|^* \ Tz  K7 T  œ+[ [ T \gK [ †¥$ Y ? ªK K / OM\ #Y V z [X[ [^ \ TWV z A[ O K?# \V ^ Y .

Œ T ^|^yK T Z}Y [?‰IT [ K V V?TWKV 2 K  TWV  Y ‰T [ VTWV ^TWV YXK \ ^ [\ T ŒK T ) V Y z ‰T K[ V T O YX\.

Numerical Simulations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      []Z T     . T ^¢K V T KDYXK \ ^wT [  \ K Y ‰ T [ [ V V OK TWV  K K ^ 2KNz Y [ KDK Y _ ^ [ K* „[ Kz K•[ Y VV ^ YKDYXK \ T ^ 7‰TT ^ K.^ Œ4 O8Z7–K \ KDYK œ\  _ [ 2  Y V $4[ V2 .V ^&.Z7? 4 [KDT TW^ YXV "\ T _+G[ A KV + [£K(TY  Y T ŽªK Y\ KVVY I TWz M¡V KY V T >YXK \ ?^ Yb:.‰ TWV[z  K [ K7 \ ^^w_JT  Y V [ \ Y Y T KK  [$  [ŒK ^~V [ YILKzY V ‘K*`P K [ V K ^ [\ T Œ T ) Y ‰T [ V Y V [ [  ^ K YILK K T ›K*X4 Z7K T z K V …^ [ Y ?T ^ \ Y T  + –YIK £Y V P[ XVg^ > A / O%–\ KDY œ\ _ ?T ^ [ V Y ŒT ‰T [ V¢^& K ^ ¥^ K"IK YX\X[]Z ‰T [ VL^RI P[ [ K K Y ªK T Y V K .5.\ KY ŒV "T K _ ^ K Y[T ^.T ¡ [4$ T ) \ ›[ V_Y $‰TK [ ª[ V ^ V Z [$Y K^ _Y K $ _ YªT KVz ( g [7TWVI}V YXYXV\ZX[z Z $ K []V Z  Y T [Y V7$ T K ^  Z}Y KD+ Y K[Œ[]V \ Y TWVœ+ V[ ^ „ zK [ K [ŒK [K /  _ T[KK $ V "[ Z}_ V Y Y K"[ ^wK T  ^ V "/ \_N[7Y ILg‰KTV [ ªVV?KTWYXV \ [ T ^  ‰K T\   ZZ Y ª‰K[ T ^|[ '^*V©  ªTWVKK YK V ^* \ …KD^‘YX^ \ T ^ ‰[ T  \  ªK ^* K£\ …K.4Œ Z7V[K $ z T zT K ^ K T.V  …YX^ \ ^  . [  K7\ T …^ K?\   [XK ^V [ . z K [  Œ K?T ^|\ ^D^y_T Z}Ym# ‰YT [  V Y&K¥$ 5Y K T ^ [ _’K V K z \[ K ^ £‰TWVT ¢ Z7[ K K 5 TWV Y Y ^ KXO TWV K ! ^ KH[]V \z K. Y K 5O ! V K T ^ T Y V K’[ K R[ V K T ^ $ ª[ V O P[ [ K Y K1$ [ V O Section 1.I/ OT¡ T !K / ^ V Y V Y K•Z [ªY [?^|I^*K K ^ z $ K Y T V› Y _ [ K T `K K K.

v£‹p}"j›tyƒ"pgiU‚©yvop?p7‚}x}jt‰ k.                                 xLp?"q"ti.:iDk©Š}“ €Lt"s}iDjWl tn‰jl lnfŠ i xX‚"i‰n                                                                                                                              _¡e @?@g@ _ fO RY S K T       .

.

 TWVZ K ‰T [YXT \]V ‰TK V YX\"K K K*T 4}Yz [  [ TW V K?YK \›‰TZ [ YªVK I ŒO T T .K V $ YXK\]ªZ K [Œ[K ^ YX[ \  Y \ Y ‰ T [ VL^K Y V Z¡O K  ^ T ^ [$¥$ Y VV Y [ Y VK K K YX\NY+ I T T ^ $¥Y Y VV  Y ŒT YK V K Z YXªK \W^.Zg¡ZXT \ K T K   Y [ V [ K\ K¢Z YI [ T DK OM^|^m# V TWV $ K ?T T YX\  K•\ Y \ ‰T T [ 7VLT ^ zKzK Y YX \ T ^ [ Z7[^  Y ^|K ^*( zTWV K [ ^Yz.K*4Œ4}Z7YK NT Zgz\ K.KK V ‰K T ^[ KDV Y K  K K ^ K T ^YIY K‘V K. [ KYX\ ?T $  [ ªVK ^ KDYY V "$4K K .[^&Y K ¢ .OW> ^* K A /JT ^ ^ YX.

UMY Km VK*Y „^.K )P^& \…N^‘TWZ V ‰K T [ $ K V [[]Y  \ TWK¢VV [‘K V Y KDT[Yz V K[$«KD[ + O  aY [K $ / \ K[ Km…^ Y \ K[Œ[ ’[YI Y ^ T +eD$¥O ?Y TR^^ Y z? ^ K*K [ 4X ZXK?[\ Y \ŒV TWYV K 7?TT A ^ [ K z ^ K [$ Z V T I}Y K K7Kg\ O .

 YXV?\ TWV  \ Y Y ‰T [ VL[ ^H \ K<[  V  [ \›[Y¥$ILKY  K 4 [7ILK . Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              .V[ K  M¡^*Y VYXr\ > ^  .7T K YXz\ K  [YX$ \ T ^’Y TWKDV Y T ^ K Y $4YX[ \ yZ $ Y Y^ K ª? K Œ\ [T [ LV ^gA Y Vš O=TW# VV ??TT ^^ YY ^^ KK T ¢K T ^ $ \ T w [K \ K .\Y A K/ O T ^ . Y KUY IT [r\ Y z. [YX$ \PYY V K TWV K [ K*„ [ K K V Y[ I NT T ¢Z7Y [ ^ Y [ V g/NKT ^ [ ILV K YILK Y T ‰T K:YXK \P Y  ^ YX\$ T [ \ \ T [  ?T K• YXzZXK Z YX[J\4 T ‘ [$Y K7\ Y KTWV ) + V?[ T VLK ^ K u[*I}Y Y ‰T [?VT KIL[K .ŽKNK YV ^|^*K  _ ¢ Y TZ 4‰TIL[ K7V \ [ T Y Y K^ YT ^ T Y  ^|^*[ $ z^rK TWV’TWV ^ Yz K KzªILK K7^ \ KD[ Y T ’K Y ^ ^ zK•[  \ TK? \W?O(T  # V K V KDYXK \ TWV _ K K  [Y$=I T [ _ \ T  K(? T \  T  . [K g V T ’YT ^¢T ^ .Lª['^ ‰ HT )]VQK [ T K +XRK*K Y4}YY yNLK ^ ZgK \ YK.[ Y  V[9 $ \ T  T ? T š KDTWYXVL\^yT T  K ^yTWV [$ K ^ Y K^ IK?\ [ T T ^‘V [ [ V ‰TWV [ L^ Y V=ŒT P`K K V  ª[' K YX\  \ Y K  O Chapter 1.ILK []ª\[* zIK K<V „[ Y ªK[Y¡VOH^ P Y [ V V ILK  K ^ VK?^w\ T _PT /  OS.

KV X¡V Y YY VVK?  \ M¡_ Y YXKV \ UZ# KK^ ^ K"K*K KX4 V  Z7Y K ^ ‰TT [ zVŒKY _ V YX7K \ŒT K^ ªIK -5T^ K K:K Y V T ^ K K K ^*^K zYX\ …[\ ^^ VL[ ^ ^ [Y Y K K  K Y Y ? Z7[ŒK [K ª^&K A  T\ ^‘…^ [ V [gVK^& ( Y [ ˆ-5YK Y VTWV!+ K S  TWV7Y T„?‰[ T ^ YX~K \ V\ YY[ VVTWV ¡Y T ‰MX4T I[ Y K VLVV^  gC^ . $^*[ T $zK TWVK. Y V K K„[ . RV Y„ [ \ K w. K g^ [VK Y K7Y \w[K? -oK ^ uYAK ^.4 K KY z^ K•[ PKIK?^  \\ [K"[K"$ IT K TD^ O . [ VL^ Y K K ¡T P`K K V K T ^ IK £\ Y KXOŸHm\ ^ [ _ [$4V [ K V K Y V T  4$ [ VK  K [  K [T$ ^ [\ ŽT  Y 7 V T  ¢I}$ YXT \  K’[ K ª[«ILK K7T \ ¢[ ZgT \ KzK [ V Y K ‰T [ .KO  V >:# V   \ K :V / K O  [$ 4$ K K K ^ Yz KCdCG$ ?T \ K©Y ^yT ¢ ZX\ KzY V YX\ ^wT ^ Y V1 K.V•:T ^  Y \ K V GY O  \  O T K ^ K K ^& \ …^ [ V K Y V                                                                                                                                                             TZ ^ ILK ^y.

Y  \Y Y ‰K T [ TWV V0K7\ TWT VK&K [ Œ T YK K Y ^[ K ‰TWVV KU .n ]2n s*q.a0q auvlRƒg]†n fo]5jBa%^.n f.n ]W„ulRƒ*`cea0q 'Žq JsMk*l0]]5q aMs*fBv>]5ƒ*`xf.K~4ŒK Y’Z7 K Z}Y T zV Y Y K V KDY Y VYX3\][ K"zI [T  KmK K?VYX\ \ K Y ^*^ K Zg[ Z7K [ ^yKT ‰^ TWV V ZT ª$[K ^ ª[ \ KV  K zªK *^[   \ K?…^\ ^ Y Y ^ ^ K Y  ªK[ YXV \›K"I K T  KªKV YX\¨KCZ 7 O^w#yT $4^3[ X V\   K \ T w^ K Y V[ ŒTW^ V K"K O V Vz‰K T \ T YXY \ YXZ7\[ TW V \ Y ‰T [[VLz^ K _ #†Y $ TZ \[ ^&  K K ^ KDYX[\ T ^ ‰T K ^*L^ Z T T [ ^ Y [  Y V V zK T YX\'z[  K7\ŒY V:T …^m^& ZXZ7[ ‰TWV KI T  K V KgODC                                                                                        H"`D„.^*aB`  .s.LTWV^K 'K&T ^ YX\WOT\ ^w# OT  #¡Y  YVg\ Y V ‰[ T [~[ V^ V^ KDI K¢Y TWV K. T UYXK Z7\ ?[]^wT ZT .n ]_ƒ*^0c5n v&azs*fBv.ceadaGpyj0sg]_j0s*^*^*aBfBcg| Z  HyjBaGk.~ulRfBvRn ]2n lRfBcWp'aB`baGfBl0]Nci^.lRƒ*f0v&sB`‰„zs*fBv.

]5lRj0fBa%a&| ƒgHy]5ƒ&jB`‰aia>„>q j0ausBsgˆ0vHaGƒBnc†fBc2]aBl8`‰]j0adsgvHˆ0awo`bl*au`bs*aGq n ^&ce]2jgn „B~c\f*n ~dƒ&c wox…aBl*`‚`n ~ga\s.~B…aBl*q`‡s0`Jnkd]5w „j0ao]5>j0`bƒ&adsg~d]_`‚…l*sdn `b]K„vn hc†s*€0fB~dv*v.asu]"n f%pNpKl.mon ~Bkdjz„ ]5NjBaisg„ˆ0aiƒB„RceŠ ac pyrR`bj*lRn ƒ*~B^>jHn€cyjBs%lR^*r.l&n q n f0r.alRl&n fzv.aol*lR]5`‰v*j0]5ƒ*aaBf.q&^0n]]‚s*l. lgp'aiˆ0aB`]5jBad„%p'aB`baon wz^*q n ~gn ]5q „oc]esg]adv n fzZ]5ZjBJa>lM^Bpy`badjBc2„zaBfg]]el8sg]2ƒBn lRceaGf| ]5jBaG~dlRw^*q n ~usg]ao]5ƒ*`xk*ƒ*q a0fg]%w%l&v*aBq  ]5jBa%ZxZ }gx‹sg~dq aun ]‡]5sBjo]5`xqj.~iq n]dauf&| sBm†rR]5ƒBj.wzf.pKƒ*sBf*`b`blRc\m0j_fBfBr8lgpNpKl.{*qs*wowzl&^*v&q aBaKq cg]5|j0ak.jBqnaBvMau`bc†a*q n|p'miaWaB B`bl*]alo`ƒBa\]ec\{.„%^.ayaBhJlRn `Wce^&adwo^.`xj.s.„s*suq u]†celR]5]‚j*wop'n cWl8aj.n s*mifBa†wr>]5^*]5jBqjBa.`bv*ƒB~dcucelR]yhw€Bk*pNao^0lRs*]5ƒ*f.jBagsu]W]5`…s*fBc‚aB` yn fB]lz]5jBaBn `‡wol&v&aBq c  []Z T    .l*lo`x~db]5adlRj.

:iDk©Š}“ €ts7iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n    . _]e @g@?@ _ fO RY S K T        xLpg"q"twi¥v0‹p}"j tw‰ƒ"pgi(‚©‰v5pgp7‚}x}j’t‰ k.

Section 1.[Yg V \Y K K7K K\ &^?|_ TW V \ …^K K Y VYX \zYXKNK ZXZ ZT ªª[XYXK Y \^ K ^yVT  A ‰zT\ zY K ‰KXT [ O [VL. “Integral” Models  &  %(  ( /  LKD^ VY Y „^ [ [ K~V .6.

^ ?O [T .

‰T KY ^.ŒY TVK3 z[K"\ =[ DO>K ^y# T VV 7ªT K ^. Y )P\[?TWIV K ‰K T .4ŒZ7[&K TZ zKK ILV K V YX\ I}ILK7YX\\ [  K ^T „[ Y ^ K ^w[ T ªK K.YXY\ .KNY TWVY VIL YX\  YK K’[‘ILY K7^.['T ¢TZ Y [7‰ILT [K V Y KV   K7YX\\ [T $£[Y  T ‰K T YXY\wI}^ ‰YXTW\V  K O [¢. ¡?T T Y ªKzYK  V …_ ^ Y  V K K0V Œ\ TTW V K"7KT  zZ KK .T ^U8KTWV -o KK"K TK W V Y O4! V KK TY V¡_ $ ILT K7\ [ T K K7Y \V Z[K Y VKNZ68K97 )P¡\ TTWY V Y‰T z_ K Y VT ^N ^ ‘YX \‰RT K\ T LTV W[ V  K.^ Z KKN[ z\ T \ [ K^? ¥T  T ¢zY Z7^ K [ \ K&YX \ Y  V [$!K [XŒY [TVK\ ¢TWV ^Y [^ 7‰\ T TTWŒ^V T ) YXZXK Y Z V ‰¡T[g[ TWYV VHKD‘K [ T^ ^ V $ [ T KZT K768\ K 7 ¡TWVLT ^*Y  ªK Y^  _ [ Y V>K‘Œ[T K  Y ^K ‰TW‘V Y V7‘T „YK ^ ?Y TW‰V T K’[ VLY ^ ?T[\ T ^& ZXY ZgV \ ¢  Y \ V)P=\  KK.\ ^&[  T K.

Z KKILKY V K K V [ [ ^w$ T [ V V [ [  KK zY []\  [O T.

+ ?RT ^ Y dw$4S [¢K I}T oYX> \  K?^ b Y Y / K.O *K .

^ YXK Z*KTWV RA OŽYXH Z K ¨›A›Z O [  [ K‘Y [?IK z[  K?\ T ^ K•Zg\ XV K $ ? T # .Y  [ŒV[7[ ^IL Kˆ[ YY ^ V ‰ TWV -?Y L^ ^ Y. 4XZ7KK T z[ K ªV K YX\ŒY.ªYK0Y V Z £[?ªI[ [K '  K KK   Y K VT^w‰T T]VYXK7\mZ}\ [Z7Y $ [YTWVz$ K7T K [ ^VZ7TW[ [Œ3V [ ŒT K YY ^ V Y ‰^TWV‰K TWgV ^ Y  KUYIZ KN[ Y ' T[ K‰T^ …OYX^ \` Z7 [  TWV K 5Y zz[[ [?IKKgK _O .^ T K.V [ : VK7[_\ „[ K7\ T Y Kˆ\ K Z 68KD7 [ ŒT T ^ Y YILY Y  T \ Y \Y K ^ [ KDKY V ¡KT Y ILzK7\ K[]Z7K K  YXY \V  \ $ Y ‰T T\[ VL^K Y ¡V T ^ :LT ©^.^ UŒTTW^ V L ^.

TWV ?T^.YY ‰TWV T [ V[ ^ ^ $ [K V¢[Z7V[ K V K V …[X^ [ +d^ .^ / $Y T K‘Y $V YXT \\ K K  ¡Y T ^ V  ^|^ YK IUK TWV [ KK  YXY Z [ K [ ^wQLT Q [ V Y V KK K ¡[ T I V T [K  ¢TW[V  [ K$4[ŒT K .^ ! Y T –K V Y TWVDd zKDK YV ‰T O [ V.K ^ Y [ 7TWV KK ^yT ][ V^ Y VKN Z [[ K K ^.KDY T ^^ K $ K K’ªK Z [ K¢Y K \ [ ^yV T[  V7T T) YXY \ V [ \ zV Y K7VZ ›…^_ [ ZX\ Y Y ^TWV Y ILK^yT ]V? T )  YXY \ T V []Y \^ KX‰O TWV ^yY TWVV ªK K ^ K K [ V KK?\ KDZ Y…^¡_ TWV [ V K ‰T zY KgV O H Y  wŒK T VN‰T [TWV V YX[ \ [_ V^wKT  K.Y Y TWV^ ‰TWV Y OK [ T K ^ P^ TWV Y K*Z7[ ª[ ^yT UY V  Y .

[ K0 Z7[Y 0^ª[! ^yY T T JK V  KY TWV[UzK K V V YXZgY Z7V K  KUY Y ^ K ^ T [  VK^ ‰ T . [K Y ^ Y(\ K\ YY ^ K0„[ ZL Y Y[ K [ K T K [ R^ I YX\\  Z7[ T [ Y ^yV T DOKI}.

YXZ Kd [Y VY  ‰T IL[ K V V B+o!Y V Y K•ªKY Y KD‰Y¡T [ O V .

Z K¢[ K&KP ^|K ^ K …^ ^ C [/~_ \IL K V T Y \ [ V Y K‰TI}[ YXVLZ7^ [ +…Y \ Y ‰^T [ V ZX\ Y YIK K [ K"K V =K „)P[ \XK V /_ [  T 4 K TWV TWV^wZT ]ªV?[ T ) K ^.Y ^ KV ^D_O .

.

K 4[ Tz^ K O ILK T V4 BTWV! Y Z ªKm[ Y KªK^. K©K IL K VT 4 TWV \ [ Yz‰KT [ V +Y B^ V?/ T ^  Y V ^ Y K ªK [ ¡VT I ^wT T   K K &ªK TWV Z}[ Y ‰$4T YX[ \ ^[ [V \ KIR^K IN^wTWV K Kzz[ [V \ ›\ _  Y  V YX \ T Y ‰K T IK.K [ 4ŒNZg^\ Y \ KDV KY IL‰KgT [ O V MŒ.^ .Y^ K^4^ T G^ ¡YILT ^ K ^|K"^ K K V’’TWTWV V IK ^ ‰YXT Z Y K K  YO V  KY V V K 1K  [ VLT 4 ^yTWT V  K Z K ’[ ^ []K ^|\ IL^ KK ^ OY .

K.ILK K K  ^w7T ]T V?KT .) K Y V V J[ TWVV KK z [K"K\  .

[ K gK V?_T z  K K3+ [ TWV ?^ TYWV ªK Y^VK   YXY \ V  TWV: K  TWV Y ^ \ ‰TW V K I / KY I}VY 0 ^ Y  ‰ TWVK"K K K Y ^ Y‰ITWV T ‰T KO ^ .

K Yg V?V›T [£_ . +„I}KY )  ^  IL$4K [ V ‰TWK V g/V?N_ T Y [ K K^ [„]Y [ ªZXK Z7K[L^ ^ .K 4 9[ K ªY K&„T 4T[ ª$ K _ T K [Y  ^ K£K TW0^ V?\! TT Y ?T T‡T  K [z K K9YX \WO K T 4 .

Z7[ ^. ^ TWV [K 4^ Z ^ ª\ [ K"K"KDIKK ^.K’^K KY ^ V YO•<^ Hm‰¡TWTV\K (T YH^ K I ^ T K ^ K ^  []&K \  „[ [‰T ªTW[ K V VL^ ªKKY Y ª^ K K Y ^ K ^K YYXK IZ ^K T [\ YzKK Y V  z[ ªK*K 4XZ7K V^wT IK¢Y V U^ [  \  K¢YI[ T  K *T .^wT \ KXO TWTWVV Y .

ªK K?K\ ^ Y ‰ [ T I.'^ K?^©T "T TW_ V  Y K K  K [ [gVVX^w[]T V Z7K KK ª^KY _ ‰$ T [ [V K YX\ K K [ TWVLVK£^yŒT ]\T ‰T V?T [ ?T ) VT  ^ Y z„V [ K oC $YXO \ ?.T K(4 ^TWV \ \ YK"K"IZ K K ª[ T ^[ K V Y^.

~iai]2nƒ*lRq fB„zc pyxa&n q |rk.JJl*lRlR`‰w%w%„aa_kd„MpN`badl.adaBˆ*fMn adp~us0`x]5…j0n ada1v~0lRjBƒgaB]KwGs*n ~ufBs*vHqNj0`blRausB^.aBf vƒ*`‚n fBr<celRq n vRn ŽJ~usg]2n lRf ^0`bl&~daucec sgc     >?> xLp?"q"tirvU‹p}"j›tw‰ƒ"pgi(‚©‰v5pgp7‚}x}jt‰ k.lRn ]5lR`bfJl.| aM`b^&aBƒ*q auk*sBq nc2c\aHjBaul0vzcef.n ce]`xagcem>aBsBq`bj02~B|sBjBcaB`bk*c.|r.:iDk©Š}“ t"€s}iDjWl tn‰jl l†nfŠi xX‚"i‰n    []Z T     . T [ $ K^Y K ILV K \ [Y ‰V T YXYK \ NK¢Y Y [T Ÿ Y K TWV VK^ Y TWYV zYK I K T V                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               u~ sg]ZZ adr.

_¡e @?@g@ _ fO RY S K T       .

Y([ \ T  K?T   zT 4}KK YX\:TWV $¥[ YIK[K \ T   7^ T  K*z„[K KYX\ TWV K’Y T K T ^^ K. # ©^wYTWILT V^ K Y V KDKDK*KYX4 V\ ^ T ‰[ TTWK V V K ‰K T zK TWV K Y TWVVK   Y K K V^y ¡T T KV7.V’\ [ ^ ‰ TY K7[ \ V ^ TWV K ¡ T K Y ^ ‰TWV *TWVL^ DO                  []Z T    .# #! /* +. [] K K\  ^ Y LY ^VYK1ILK „[ K KDK ŒV K1T K Y ) Y ^ ^ K ‰‰TWVT O.# K‘zZ YT ^[ V KK ^.VK ^ ¡O V TWV K*S KD$ K Y V K=ILY [].[ 4 Y^ \ KD^ KILK Kg O OzPa [[$V^ K $  T  K V R\ Y _ dyS K K T ªK Q ^ ^yT '„[  2YX \ŒY \T Y:T [^ V „K[ YK V YX\  \ Y K K [ K T ‰T YX\ ^ \ [$ ZX\ gV K PIK?\ [ T NY V ?T ^ $ T \ K ŒT ^ L^.TWVY Y V ^yTWV V 0K K*$ TWVX'VgKV ^ K X!V7T. Introduction        ‡                                         .^ K (TWV  YXZ K O Chapter 1.

                                   _]e @g@?@ _   fO RY S K T       xLpg"q"twi¥v0‹p}"j tw‰ƒ"pgi(‚©‰v5pgp7‚}x}j’t‰ k.:iDk©Š}“ €ts7iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n    .

     €"O               ((!)* +.T V?YT^ VOmOR.  [S [  rK*KK4XZ7¡K YT K ^wTWTV Y †K^ ‰?^ TWTV  [ z$ [K TY  Y V7g.

KH 7V ^RT ^JŒ^ TWT[V^ zK" K KD©[.^ !YV K%K $K^ KDNY [ Z K [[$ ^ŽTWV TWz.V [[¡^T K  7YKT ^ ^ ‰\ TTW„V ?K¥T ^Y Y  [XK©XVV\ Y  Yz Z7TWK"KV [YXZg\"\ KGY K $^ Z7gK V[z Y K [K4^ K*^ Y 4XVTZ7K¡K V TWV …K^ YTWzV ^ K $47K?T Y^ \V7JY T Y ªK^^0Y! _ KD#WK Y „K"Z K7\[]Y ^Z7VLK ^[K ‰4VT K Z^ \ [ [ K ^|Y ^Y K ^|^ ^ ‰OM7TWT V#^ [V + Z7^[KK?$zZ \  T YYXK \ [ Y ‘VgK YV ][ ^ VL$ ^ KT K0\ *-5Y[ ILYXTW[V\ [T  zK ^BK / O Y [ .

ªK ^ Z K  ªKK  Y K K ^wTT ]z7V TK ^  [  V [$zK\  Z K [ KX†O 7K ^|T  ^ $> ?S[ .

K’\ ?Y [T V?& T S^ CK0K #yZ $4Y [ V7^wT T \ ^g ^ A O ^&.K?.K¢[\  Y NK TW\ KV [Y [ TKD\Y L ^ K K ‰K T†IL?K0[ŒT  Z[ T z.A›$¥OKY#'V„K*[ XY Vª[ K *K :V 4X? Z}T z^Y TWK V [ŒK [ [L ^ ?[T K[Œ8[Z  [7^ V I [YT $.

 *?T H©^ K ^O .

[ TW^ V K  X^ V ‰ TWV K .ŽYKªK VL ^ T KK^ YV Y O Y ^TW[ŒV [ $4 ^[ [* $ Z &^ 7 TY T^ K ‘Y  Y [K •$‘ [ O K7  YX\# TWV Y []Z7$ K T[Œ[ gY †HO ?#›"T  [Y  z $ K [ T \V :Y \ ) V?V T  ^ 3K O ?zT ^.Y Y V V  YX"\¡[ Y  ^.rOMYX[Z .K O  ^ .^ $ Z7KT \… ^  [ K K [ [V ‰Z TWT V K V [KD$ Y V $4[ K V  ŒKDK7T YXZ ^ \ ^ Y $4$ V8KT $ PT [ \ V K TW‰V TWTWVV K 7KT [ © K YXK  \L Y Y V ‰K YXT [ V\ VLY ^ ^ .

l0]5jBa0`|.r.Y K V YX[]Z Z KT *^$  T \ K [  XKVYX \ TWYV š$ \ Y T "K ^_JK V  [ [ V $ I T ^ K [ K ^ ^ [ [ $ _?T .‚n ~dl.hs*fBv.n cysB`baus c\ƒ0~Bj W`e| |8Hs0n ]5q a.\ ^K K V ‰YT YX\ [ K XVKDY K K ^ KY $ VT  \                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          n fB]5`‰}ZBlRHy€vJrRƒBjB`b~iazlg]5pm0`‰„>fBlglR]pya\f {0q adR]_v*]5k.^K _ Y K ^ NK Y $4K K T ¢K7Z7\ T [K"IK Y V Y Y V *KT z£T ^ Y Y K  I}V Y[ K K ^.ª '[ ! K   KD YXY \ ‰TWVT [ V $GO L7T Y ^ \[ _ .cK`Ws*`baufBsBv v*aB `†ausgsgc] H`…s*fBce…aB`p'aB`baz€JlRkg]es.`badlRaGailR]lRmdaBf%cg`|Š ]5cGj0s*sgfB]Wv ]lR^.n fBauvHw„ 8| J~*| Hyj0sg]‡v*a0^0sB`‰]5woa0fg]_j0sgˆBaoso~dlRfB~da0fg]5`…su]2n lRf>l0p'l*`xq v…l*`‚w%l.jHn v w%sg]adaB~B`‚j0n s*s*qJf.^ Y [X7'[ TW gV YO a K IL[K $=K K?\ K ^.^yšTWV K ªz&K  [ YzTWVK V  .]5n j0ˆBaiaB„`bc\nsB]‚`b„)azH†a\jB{*aos*wzv*a0^*^0q adsBcK`‰]5l0woNa0]fgl&]yl1l0w JƒB~Bq ƒ.[ 4K  Ž^V[ K YV  ‰T []T[ \V^ IMOOz[L7L7\ YY .TWK74ŒV Z Z}ª…Y [ ^ TW'V  K[ N‰TWT V[ V K[ K 2 zV K.KK K $ '[ T \¢R$4Z MK K ^|$ ^yTT \ \ K K  Y K ^ ^K ^ LO ^. Kz$ [7KmT K †V ?K $ T ?T \^ ©Y K VK   ŒY T I ‰Y TT K[^w£T V TW$ V [ T \[ V "K.j0n ~os*w%~dlRadw%cdŠaKk*l&`‰lRlRmuw cdhNH€a0…q &ad[a0qJˆ*]5n ˆj0sg']Kf.c]‡a\{&^*aB`‰]cKn f%]5j.

s*fg„l0"ŽJrRƒ*`badcs*fBv.vRn c2~BƒBc\n lRfBcsB`bak.l*`xbadv`‰lRw ]5jBa0`‰a&|    > .

Basic Fluid Mechanics  #  +/ ! + … # & /0  &// €"z€ ^ [ \ ?KDTY Vš[ ^TWV ªK Y7^.I^ T ^K O .ªKY  [ V K ^ K []Z T ^ Y ^ $4K7\WO    Chapter 2.

 b  T ^ [ V ‰TWV [ L^ \  K*„[ 5zK  $ K V‘^ KDY ^ ªK ^. [[Œ[KU K \ T T  ^ TWV?T [ VzKˆ^wT K \ TK YXª?\K ^ T  Y [ YKN^ ^ YY VZ ^*K* Y 4}^ Y^K NY ZgV[ \ K¢K [K  ^*Y [ V^w?NT .^ Y KzYXZg\ T K  O .K Y [YX\\ Y ^  .ŽVHm[[ \ $4L ^K"\ I<TWK V$  _  K V KUY K. ^&K [7 ILL K ^ ^g\ ATY  V ?[T KX V O1O«‰TW.\ T 4ŒYXZ7Z7[ ªT [J^ K4 zT . .

Q:/ O  . Y7T  K T YX\ Y ^ K Y ^ =‰TW?V \ [X['[ V ^gA•^ K[\ T  [ : [' K Y VY ILK ^ K Y ^ [\ T Z 7T ^T  zO [?I TWV šTWV YUILK7\ [ T _  + ^ K"K ŒT ' K Q. K.$ [\ K ^ K T ^ []\ T T¡T K Y ^ ‰TWV Y KDY P[ KDVYX^w\T ^ K $ 4T Y \ T.

 1K „[ K K  7T K  „[ 7T ^ []Z7K Y ‰T [ V£T ^ Z ª[Z7[ ‰T [ V YX\ [ .

+ e Ou> / ! TWV [ K †$4[ g^D_ K ^ KY ^ ªKY ^zT ^ Z ª[ZgZ7[ ‰T [ V YX\ [ + e O :e /   V  K ^ KDY  ^ Y K [ V ¡T ‰T [ V Y V  YU\ TWV KDY PIK?\ [ ‰T ŒT ^ T  ‰T [ V•T Y V K ^ [ $ V Y  1  Y V  K *K „[ K + e O :/    1   .

Y ?T ^ Y K ^|*^ K• ¢Y Z K ‰T†[ ?V T ?\ KD^ Y g^ Y Y ^ Y [ 8 [(K *K a 4 &K?$ T 7T [V7V T [Y VV †a ?*K T $ @O [ #V?V T Y V ?T ^ K [ŒY[I T <[ Ž$4Y KUV [ V \ K z0K Y V K‰T [ V V[ K  ¡T ^.^ 3K G^Y K  TWV ?.

K T ¢Z7T[ ^  K XV V O ‰T . T ^ K’[ŒI T['^ g[O ^yT T ^ YXZgZ []Z7K £[ ~\ T  7T  Y V  T $¥Y ^ „[ gV  Y K Y ‰T [([  K¢I T ^ [ ^yT [ K  7K T V^ ^wZT ª[TZ7^.

'-! & '  .[ ^* K  KgO Y ^  O  [ R\ T  ?T  zK YX\                                                                                                                                                                                                                    U ¡T  ªK e Ou> I H ^ Y.  TWªV K¢K .Y ‰T [ ^ KDY  [ $ [  KDK  [$            "! $ #&%$ ( ' )% * + '+ %(' .Y VY U‰T ^ K I VT ^^ ‰T[ I^yK T [ _ Y V TK•Z KªK V ^.&  <7)7' NV‡X 07C>+ N G I$8  .[ V?T ^[ Y ‰T K[ T ^K¢YXZ7\K K  Y .

K0ZL Y []Z‰T YX\ ^K  [ [ V V [ K7Z \…K^ YI[K ^ ^ K K^  ^ Y KV• O .

[ V K []\X[ ILV []ª\ [ z\gILKg[]O \  .

n q cy]5jBaM^0`blR^*aB`‰]2n adcl0‡q n /Jƒ.n f>n f. zKK T^ ^ ^Y K? T YT ^ Y ^ \ K[]\‰K T [ ‰V T [ [V  [r[ ZLXYV ‰T Y YXT K \ ^^ OO  aB`ba%pNafBadadv8sGˆBlRq ƒ*fg]aB`]l>a\{R^*q s.wol*`baov*ai]es.n vHw%ai]es*q c šKNY       []Z T _]e @g@?@ _          .

:iDk©Š}“ €ts7iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n   P .      fO RY S K T                      xLpg"q"twi¥v0‹p}"j tw‰ƒ"pgi(‚©‰v5pgp7‚}x}j’t‰ k.

Y Y ª[ ‰T \ ^ Y V K \ KY[ŒI[K gO .

K ^ K1^ ) K^ Y \ Y*V$  YX[ZgXZXV\ T K  Y T K[ ^ Y K V V z[ [?V IYKXO .

What is fluid? Shear streass                 R U W @CELF W F   W @  U=T .V4 YK ^VL^yT IX\ K Section 2.2. K7\ Y K ^‰KTWV •$4^[ ^ [ KV  K?Z Y…^ V $ T K \ $L^ K T  KK.

4U  T.

FOB   FWF U F F    F    T FOB .

         UW !        .

K ‘Y K.Y ‰T YX\ K7Z ªK ^ K V ‰T [ V [¨K   Y T ‰T [ VNe O c(T ^ ŒT ILK V      1 3 T AW F @E F W T F FOB   T .

AF        FWF T @W R B F F T AF zT.

F8B    7    # .

    " #$ !    + e O c/   + e O b:/ .

KY ^|‰^*T [  VªK [¢¡ T Y^ ^|^*L^yTz[ VK $ T Y .      GF '&   23               54     ^).^ ^&4 T .IT ^ TWV Y  [ V(^ Z Y  V ¢ Z „[ ^ ^ K• O ii rqw=noqqp rui pxqjjov.{ i joy {(p }xr~q={ j zxVi wVj=ii xwujtq({Vx i{ j %'&)( & *         1 & .K 47K Y¢.a [ K£K Z K Y. % ( 10           ( ( * ! + .K’T ^ Y YzV IK K [Œ[   ª[ YX^ ZgZY ‰ª[JT 4 T Z .+-  /.^\ K^. ! !  ( /+- 2.ZXY .

^‘Y Y TW^ V^.^ ª[ K Y 'V  K K V  K ¥Y L]VOŽ Q \ K Y\ K IKX=O # V . Z74}K K K ^y T ) Y [ VV UI[ªT[r\  \ŒT .^I[KªK&\  „$ Kz7KK T  $¥Y [N.

O .

Y K   >%9H'. K K ^wK T ¢[ VZg[ \VLK ^[]^ K \ŒuILI}[]Y O I¡‰\ OT [ zV T ^ K [_ $ %.^ K•KY[ ªK*^*[ \ [Œg‘[V ^ TWV*^ KY Y ªK Y V KILK [Œ[  YXZXZ [J4 T .O I3K Y V $4^.

$etJ+e   1 5  + e O /  Y  .

1   b 1  "E5Y >1 "@1 3>c 5"(1@.TWY V ^|^ K£[ VLI^ [K \ u I}zY ‰K T [ V '[ O zK  ª'[  K ¡T P`K K V K0[ H. N1v H  %L >IG>  ' D 2  +V"" `  >I "F"( 1 F1v A+' .K Y 47‰Y T [ ¢VUZXK ^ \ K Y^ [ X[ K V^  ^yYT ¢K DZXO \ 1K Y „[ V GK .Y \ K O I¡O     1  + e OA /    A@CB A@ED       IH                   KJ   % NAOQPSR=T U7TV                          %YX Z               ML  OWR=T U7TV     NAOQPSR=T U7TV   % OYPR[T U7T V N %  OW\R[T U]TV %^X Z =?>A@BD E F    _ ' .1+*<G I .KZ   ?T ^ $4 K[ [£  . 5" %t ' Aa>1=ve 1= >A'"z" (K"(+vJ.^ K ^ K TWV  [  *K „[ 5.Y ^.

jBa>]5ƒgj0]sBl*cy`hNv*~ulRs*fBf8a*| „ulRƒ n w%sBrRfBaHjBaHj.e B  Z  Y V [ K ŸK.k*mgq nn v*fBcuv Œ'wGpyj0s.aBf `baMm0fBjBlgapyj0fTsBv.sBco]5jB]5aGjBa1]2n w%woa%sBces*]aBfB`†v.47Y¢ZX\ K     aBq aiˆBa0s(f."@1=v 1   Q R E9S TVU R>W c E@ 1 1=   b K1 3.rTcos.:iDk©Š}“ t"€s}iDljWtn‰jl l†nfŠi xX‚"i‰n   []Z T     .s*nq c>&]5q jBn ˆ*aGn f0rRr(`baukdsg„(]W]5k*j.sgv  >b =lq=yk9y q=x jo{ui#{jt{i wuq  joj9p x {=rui q  x y   xLp?"q"tirvU‹p}"j›tw‰ƒ"pgi(‚©‰v5pgp7‚}x}jt‰ k.l0aB_f0aB~u`bs*r0q ~B„ƒ*]q l>ƒBcdv*h‡aiwGˆ0aBsBq v*lRaH^>j.agn n fBfBr.

:=< 78  . _¡e @?@g@ _ fO RY S K T       76 98 > : ?<  98 .

!      .K Y ©T $ T \ Y wK [0K¢Z K Y V ŒT ILK V£TWV Z ªK"I T [ ^ KK.    #    Chapter 2.       % . Basic Fluid Mechanics % .47Y¢ZX\ KgO             D   !  +.  !   ŒTWV K ‰T .

Y K‘Y ‰T YX\ NY ^   D   D 1         + e O / . K ^ K [ V a K*$ [ V \ Y*$ [Mz[ ‰T [ V•T ^ $ T K V .

7T ^ K*4XZ}Y K ‰T [ VŒ_ [ [  ^ K _ „[ † ?T  ZLY ‰T YX\ K ^ Y V K $ T K V Y ^    % N .

 1  % P NGO V           1     % NAOYP R=T U7TV    % O  !  &   + e O :/ % [ TWV z [ KK.P 4z[ K K7V\ K …V^[ J ¡^ª['T[ ^.[XY ‰[ T 0[ V^ .Y ‰T YX\ ! Z ^yT ^                     []Z T  @                          _]e @g@?@ _     fO RY S K T                       .›Q YX^ Y ZX Z K’[Œª[K Y T Y [ KDY [K~TK&K.4 YT.4ŒZg\ T ^wT T Y V K $ T K V Y ^     R[T U]TV %% + e Ou>D@ /  X Z ! S [Œ•[ 3.^ K>^ „K[ K KDK£Y [  Z ^ K K^$ ^yT[ [V^ ^ .V K Y ^ KDYK Y V.Y K.K YX^ \ K TWV „[ [ 5.ŒK Y TW‰V T K YX[\ Y  T \K ^ ‰K‘T YX?I\ ^T K^ OzV ‘#‰TW„YV [ <XK V T KYX^w\WM O3T ]V#NYXOM$Z T #WT\[ .T Y YX\ K T ^ T YX\WO Y `K Y w[ K ¡zT I[ K©K IK <Y V• TW^yV?T zT .T ^– ^ KK"KV  ^ [ [3YzIKK $$¥K ^ YT K V V ‰T YX[ TW\ V7T [  V [ $  K TW.[  $ PJO [•Z ªK ^ K V 7T ^ '[ ¢Zg\ K*4 T ^.K 4ŒXZ7VK  KT K V^g¡K TWV KD[Y  7TW7V T ^ [7¢T ^ ZX.Y 4 K .^* K$ T [  [  V?TWV K ªKY  K "$ T K.\ K.

                                                         xLpg"q"twi¥v0‹p}"j tw‰ƒ"pgi(‚©‰v5pgp7‚}x}j’t‰ k.:iDk©Š}“ €ts7iDjWl tn‰jl l†n‰Šk xX‚"i‰n    .

.  ! +. x Ty +zQy +{         .

'< & C+DE& -1E(-32546$%'& (*)?E$%F$.fs*t*h^i"uwv@i |"}~ €w‚ƒ „"…:†?‡*‚5ˆ ‰:3}1}V}1}V}1}V}1}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}1}.§I¡¦/¦8©E¦ªšFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFšTšFšFšFš ›œ ™?š ›+š › «?¥W¨¤§I¡¦/¦/©E¦¬šFšFš'šFšFšTšFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFšTšFšFšFš ›P› ™?š ›+š ™ ­.H$S& T-&  />/$%< 4VU+9=UW=H.78/< =?>/&@$ 4* A=+B$.×\æ æ ê\ݝï ãÔ è×*æP×\Û8äVßO×Ø Ú8ÝðÔ ×*æ ÕKØMÝ×\Û8ÕM×è^Ø%Ô ÞPÛ8Õñóò#ÞPæ@ô#õ*öHñKí:÷8Ú8ø/Ý9ê/×/Ý@å1ù8ú*ú*ûHí+ééHôüù*ùý8þEù*ù8ÿEôüÒÓ*Ô ÕSÔ Õ×\ÛOÚ*è^Ú8æ æ Ú8Û8ØÚ*×\ßéæ ÚbÞ/Üé\ÞÞ\Ý ÝwÚ^Õ.      "!#$$%'& (*)+$.$%& =E(HE< &@$ 4`& T-&@a1>*DE<@$b$ =`-*$%8.×\é\é/ÝwÞ\×è/Ó'×\Û8 ä PÖSÔ æ æÛ8Þ/ØSäPÔ Õ.}1}1}1}.& =(HH<$ =6X YOZ\[^]L.}1}1}1}‹Š?Ä ™?š ™?šœÅ¹M§Q¤^¥W¦'ÆW¨*Ƕ ¢•½: ¦F´*µP§J¤^ ¢:£3 w§O¤^®?¯^ÈW®W¡¦/¢¤ÉʚFšFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFšTšFšFšFš ›Ë Ì ½W½? @¤^ w¨P¢"µ¡¢:¨P¤^¦'¨P¢Í¢+®W±3¦8¯^ ´*µ¡K§I ±.01& (8Kc8c*c@d egf#h^h^ijEklmQn%oOprq.®:¢W¢W¦¯O§J°?§J¤^¦/±‹š'šFšFšTšFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFšTšFšFšFš ›\² ™?š ›+š ² ³' ¦F´*µ*©? @¤%°¶šFšFšFš'šFšFšTšFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFšTšFšFšFš ›· ™?š ›+š ¸ ¹M¢¤^¦/¢W§I @ºW´*µ¤^ ¨H¢¼»¦8¯^ ¨+½¾µP¢W½•µ¿¤^¦8¯ÀšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFšTšFšFšFš ›PÁ |"} | ÂK’?‘E‡ˆ –+ÃW‚^‰:’?ˆ ‡\”•}V}1}V}1}V}1}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}1}.å8Õ.-/$%/ 01& (/-32546$%.×\ÙJÚ^ÕÖbÓ*Ô è8ÓT×8ÝwÚ.'& .Ô Ø Ô Û8Ø Þ.¯^ w§I¦Ñš'šFšFš'šFšFšFšTšFšFšFš ™PÏ d8ÒSÓ*Ô ÕKÖ×8ÕØ.è8ê8Õ%ÕSÕJé\Ú^èÔ Hè'ßÔ Õ.}1}1}1}. >5=(8$_E(+$=+B#U?9=\U"=P.×\ÙJÚÍà9è8æ ê8Ø_Ø Ú8ÝwÚ^ ä é/×\é*Ú/ÝüÕJê8è/ÓV×8ÕØMÓ*Ô ÕQÞPÛ8Ú'×\Û8ä.}1}1}1}‹Š~ ™?š ›+šœŸž w¡¡ ¢W£`¤^¥:¦'§I¥W¨¤.Ø Ú8ßQÕKÜÞ\Ý?ØMÓ*Ô ÛOÖ×\æ æ Ú^äçÔ Û8èQÓ\Ô ãPÓTé8ÝwÚ^Õ%ÕJê\ÝwÚëäPÔ Úè5×8Õ Ø%Ô Û8ã*Õ ìí"îÚIØ.Ø.78/9/):.$.}1}1}1}.®W¡wµ¤^ ¨H¢ÎšFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFšTšFšFšFš ™PÏ ™?š ™?š › ³' §I§I w»Wµ¤^ ¨H¢¾¦Ð#¦/´8¤¨H¢¼¤^¥W¦T¤^¦/±3»¦¯5µ¤^®:¯^¦.}1}1}1}‹Š?Œ |"} ŠŽ+‘6’“ ‰"‡\‘H”5”‘P”'ˆ@•…?ˆ ‘6‡\–E”5‚5ˆ +—˜}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}1}.& >/GH(IJK$MLONO& 01/(& =(HH< H(HE< 4P5& QH=ERK1$.ÞPÛ\æ å'Ø Þ`é\ÞÔ ÛØQÞPêØOÓ/Þ5ÖäPÔ ßQÚ8Û/ÕMÔ ÞPÛ*×*æ:×\Û/×\æ å/ÕMÔ Õè×*ÛFØ.Û\ê\ßOÚ8ÝwÞPê8Õ5 ô  ÖKÞPê\æ ä3æ Ô ÙIÚ.×\ÙJÚ8ÛOÜ_ÝwÞPßáà9ÒSÓ8Ú.Ú×8Ýwè8ÓHô #Ú8ÝwÚ*í PÖSÔ æ æPè8Ó/×\Û8ã*ڐØMÓ\Ô Õëø\ÞÞPÙ.ØMê\Ý9Û.אÝwÚ5×\ æ .âKÚ^ÕJÔ ãPÛQÞ/ÜWÜÚ5Ú^äÕ.

×*ê8ØMÓ8Þ*ÝwÕOßQÚ8ÛØ%Ô ÞPÛ8Ú^äFØMÓ*×5ØÔ  Û ê8Õ.ØMÝ×*æ Ô ×ØMÓ8ÚÔ ÝÔ ä\Ú5×'Ô ÕÖÞ*Ý9Ù8Ô Û8ã ô  ÕØMÓ8ÚTéÓå8ÕJÔ è^ÕQæ ×IÖÕb×/ݝÚ.Û8Ú /Ø×8ä\äPÔ Ø%Ô ÞPÛÞ/Ü?ØMÓ*Ô Õø\ÞÞPÙÔ ÛQ×ëÜðÞ*Ý9ߘÞ/Ü Hê8Ú^Õ.Ø%Ô ÞPÛØ ÞØMÓ/ÚÕ.ÝwÚ5×\æ æ åäPÔ ?Ú8ÝwÚ8ÛØ Þ .é\æ ÚSÖÔ æ æ*×\é\é\Ú5×/ÝÔ Û.*×\æ ê/×\ø\æ Ú\ôÒÓ\Ô ÕÚ \×*ß.ØMê8ä\Ú8ÛØ^ô ñ?å8ØMÓ8ÚIÖü×Iå5íEØMÓ8Ú.

/Ú8Ý#ØMÓ8Ú8ÝwÚ KÕØMÓ8ÚFé/ݝÞPÞ/ÜKØ Þ'ØMÓ8Ú8Ô ÝßQÞPä\Ú8æ íEØMÓ8ÚFÝwÚ^Õ.ØMÓ8Ú ßQÞPä\Ú8æH×\Û8ä1Õ%ÞPæ êØ%Ô ÞPÛ1ÝwÚ Hê*Ô ÝwÚ^ÕSØ ÞVê8Õ%ÚOØMÓ8ÚTßOÞä\Ú8æ@ô  .Ú5×/Ýwè8Ó8Ú8ÝwՐßQÚ8ÛØ%Ô ÞPÛ8Ú^äVØÖKÞ.êÛ\Ù/Û8Þ5ÖbÛ1è^ÞPßé/×\Û*Ô Ú^Õ×8ÕbÜð×8èIØØMÓ/×ØSØMÓ8ÚÔ Ý ßQÞPä\Ú8æ?Ô ÕÖKÞ\Ý9Ù8Ô Û8ã ô ¾Ó/×Øb×1Û*Ô è5ÚTé/ݝÞPÞ/Ü Üüè^ÞPê\ÝwÕ.é/×\ÛåTÖ×8ÕbÚ \×8èIØMæ åF×8ÕSä\Ú^Õ%è8ÝðÔ ø\Ú^ä Ô Û.Ú*í?ØMÓ8Ú'é/ÝwÞPø\æ Ú/ßÎÔ ÛTØMÓ8Úè^ÞPß.

}1}1}1}1}.}1}1}1}.}1}1}1}.}1}1}1}1}.}1}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}1}V}1}V}1}V} :Š |}       .}1}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}1}V}1}V}1}V} :Š |} Ä '†‘H”^‚5ˆ ‰:+”Î}. Dimensional Analysis ™?š ™+š ™ .¯5µ*©? @¤%°¼¦Ð#¦/´8¤^§šFšTšFšFšFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšTšFšFšFš'šFšFš ™?œ W”^‚5ˆ ó–H‚^‘P”'‰ 낏‘`‚5ˆ ó‘ ”8‡\–+à ‘P”'ˆ@Í…?ˆ ‘ ‡\–E”5‚5ˆ +—g}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}1}V}1}V}1}V}‹|~ ™?š ²?šwœ .¤^ ¡  / ¢W£3§I¦/±3 K½: ±3¦/¢:§I ¨H¢"µ¡üµ¢"µ¡°?§I §¿9¨P¯´5¥"µ\¯5µP´8¤^¦8¯^ §J¤^ ´F¤^ ±3¦ šFšFš ™?œ  ¡w¡¦8¯ §TµP»W»?¯^¨Eµ´¥ šTšFšFšFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšTšFšFšFš'šFšFš ™H™ ¯^¦8§I¦/¢¤Tµ»W»?¯^¨EµP´5¥¶šTšFšFšFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšTšFšFšFš'šFšFš ™P² ™?š ²?š › Q¥W¦'¯5µ\¤^ w¨P§.¨¿©Pµ¯^ ¨H®:§¤^ ±3¦'§I´/µP¡¦/§¬šFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšTšFšFšFš'šFšFš ™H· |} ˆ `ˆ@à –H“%ˆ ‚ `–+’?’:à ˆ ‘E…•‚^‰ Qˆ ‘6‡– Pˆ ‚ }1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}1}V}1}V}1}V}‹| ™?š ¸šwœ T¨\©E¦8¯^¢W ¢:£`¦ ®"µ\¤^ w¨P¢W§ šFšFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšTšFšFšFš'šFšFš ™EÁ ™?š ¸š › ³'¦/§I £H¢•¨P¿ :»¦¯^ w±3¦8¢+¤^§¼šFš'šFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšFš'šFšFšTšFšFšFš'šFšFš ²EÏ |} Â#† ó–H“ `‰ ë…:ˆ 󑁔8ˆ ‰:?à ‘H”5”F?† :‘“ ”}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}V}1}1}V}1}V}1}V}1}V} :Œ |} Â#† ó–H“ }.Chapter 3.

RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.G- KML.              ! "  ! "   !# $ $ % &('*).+ 576*89 -".N Q.RTSVU aU d.N OPL. +>=?-A@CBED-GFHJI.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k p q . /*02143 $ 99:6<.

     .

 .

.

.

   .

     .

    .

 .

.

                  !   "#  .

 .

 %$  &'$     .

.

  .

.  /  .+* ..

) 10 2 (  .

)  .

.  .

.

   3 .

"  10  .

  )4 4   $ .

 1 2   .  )   5 3  .

    .60 2  . .   .

     ) 57  .

    .

  .

   .

.

   : 4   2   . 2 8. & 9&       .

4 .

 9    .

 .

  #0 2  9 9 .

   .7   5 > ? . 0 <0  =&  060 .

      @  A$     ( 9&    0 B0   .

  .

 .

   ) C 9  9  D #0  E0     .   .

 D    F  G 0 9   # 9  &      .

 .

   4 .

.

 9 0 %H   9  I  .  $ . JH  ..

      I    .

.

 . '  ? .

      .

    )    :       9  .

4       D  I .      10 >  ?    4    K     E  L ).? M  "ONP   )Q.R  LS QDTU L7 .

      I   4  .

4   J0  2 .

IU   D@ .

  .

   .

S U    W U &  0  V0  )  .

 4             I  .

D .    s$     .

.

    .

   4   Iu9  K s 9 4 . 87 .

 .

   K  4 .

 Dt0  s 2  D 4 .

  .    g" ?   10 5 ? .   7 0 ) .

.

 4   .

  Iu9   .

.

7 8 2 J   0 4 .

 .

  .

.

  4   .

  v0 w  .   Iu9  v7 ( J 9  .

)      ?  x0 4  .

.   .  @0   .

.

 ? S T @H      . 0 ?   . 4 4    y  . .

K.

     .

 .  1  3 @  4  . $  0 D .

.

 .

U J0  ' N       : | 2 . I Vz{   @N  IQ|R.  .  N& 0  U    s} 2 9 H $z U  . .

.

j .

   B . .   . .  ~  .

8 4 €7  .

 0 >H   N 0    .

  U ^  .

.ƒDR    .‚ 9  9  )Q.

 4     …„s† } ‡7 1 0  & )" 8 2 s 0 D @F  'NFˆŠ‰Œ‹ +Ž U BP  )u  „s†I8’‘“b”%•–„† —˜™nš —›”w 9  .

 .

ˆ…—˜™nš —›”  2 Ž#—˜™nš —›” .ˆ…—˜™nš —›” K7 4 2 D8ˆ…1’‘“b”j.   CŽ#‘’‘“b”%œ  #F   1ˆ…1’‘“b”j.

   ‡   ‡    92     %0 4   )u   @ ?  ..

N‚ 9  .

ƒDR. H 4   )u   )Q.U 17  4    92 .

  .

  2 .

w 4     v0  .

?  .

ž 4   .

  .

I c)jI /DT/*-gI[D21 ' I[D- ?) fD . Ij- &0Dc)[1 I-f.1 02' 'cI - 1 f1 ' 'TD&0. 6 . / D. D :D . J)j' I- 1 . I D P h1 0ICI :'1 02I-fD 6 1 . .I I D21V. & &(I / &(I [@ D ' ' I[& 1V. 1 [1 0' PP . 2+.1 Ij- 1V.I )D-oD . 1 0I / I 1 0I(+ 0' @ . )j' . I. 1 ' 1 ' 1 -gD 1 D '1 I fD 1 I D 'c' I A-g' &. &. 'j1 1V. I(1 0' c) &. 0D D ' .ßO×\ÛåØåé*Þ*Õb¥üÜÞ\ÝÖSÓ*Ô è8Ó ×\é*ÞPæ Þ*ãÔ ç^Ú\ô ¦ ÒSÓ8ÚÔ ß. / fD .1V..I "D I / / ' . ' ].' 1V. / -gI I D ' I ' I & 1 &. & ' I-gD ' ' . 1 0I. ' 1 D I(1 0' 1 0j. I 1 D @ D21 I I &(I ' - D-gI I @?HJ' Ij-oD -gI. ' . 1 . (0I =?-A@ &(' 1 ' +.D . . D-gI I(1 Ij- 02I . I . I I2Dj-o&0Ij- I. .é*Þ\ݝØ. D21V. / - D21A1 I . D D + I /*-g' 1C)Dj-oD 0D I . . D I I . I 1 0 (0' )j-g' I(1 I.D I D21V. &0Dc)[1 I-]. /' -gD21 I I- &(' D @ i. 1 D/I C' 6 .I D -gI[D 1 ' )Dj-oD + .I 1 D 1 D21V. Ij. ' I jD& 1 &. )c) fD21 Ij-hD 0j. )jIj-". I . I D . 1 -g' I D ].ßQÚ8ÛØ Þ\Ý"äEê\ÝðÔ Û8ãVßëå ßO×8Õ. D (0' @ -gD21V.D IZD.' I I[&. ]0j. ' & . ' + 21 .D . !. ' . D21V.I[D- I- D/ + 1 . . 1 . I- 'J1 0. / . J„s†  92 8 0  I I . )j' D .×\Û8è^ÚOÞ/Üè^ÞPßé*×è^Øbé/ÝwÚ^Õ%Ú8ÛØ. I ' 6 &. -gI . . ' D21V. I Dc)c) )jIj-". & I .D I1 D '1C0D . - I A-gI. I )D-". 1+[@ D f-gD ' C0. .ø*Ú^ÜÞ\ݝÚ'ßQÚ\ô +×\ß ÞPÛ\æ åFÓ*Ô Õbç^Ú5×\æ ÞPê8ÕbäPÔ Õ.D . 1 +T. J0D I '1 D -gI 0D21C. D I + . J)[1V. . ' 1V. EI D I jD - / . Ij- 1V.Ø. 1 )jIj-". .I )D-oD . 6 / )jIj-". .+!. &0!&(' I. )jIj-". 'h@ / )jIj-". C0. 1 0JD I I 1V. &0 1 ' )jIj-". 1 1 ' -gI . - H D D21 I 1 02I . ' :@ Q 1 D ' I. 1 + ?. /*021 &(' / j1 0I - / I 1 0D21 1V. )jIj-".fD. Dj-".×\ÙIÚ^Õ×/ݝÚ'ßÔ Û/ڐ×*Û/äóÛ8ÞPÛ8Ú. I I 'j1 I -gI @ 1 D I- + D D . 1 6 I . D I 1 0I 0. .I 6 + .1V. .ÖbÓ8ÞTÖ×8ÕSßQå. + jD / I I IT02' I jD I(1 & I ) . I D )Dj-oD I ) 6 I . / I &(' I . 0I. 1 0I D )c02+ . ' . ' D&(I I I . I[D-g&j02I- 6 D &. &0 . ]/ 1 'J1 0I 1 [@ . ' ' . 1 D 1 ' C0I *' .I )j' I-:' I(1 I- Ij-oD &0Dc)21 Ij- ' I!1 0.Þ/ÜSâÝ. (I ' . Ij- 1?' 1 0. 1 + 1 0D21C-gIj)j-gI 1 0I D- *' 1 D/ I D21V. 1 1 ' D/ IP0I[D21?1 -oD & & ' I. D . / + 1 02I D21V.I )D. / I(1 I- 0. D .D 6 D21 I 1 21V. 1!.D @ .I @ I. I I. 1+ . D ' D 1 02':)jI 1 0. 1 0f1 0I . I. I - 1 I D21V.ô ¡Pè8ÙIÚ8ݝØQÔ ÛØMÝwÞäHê8è5Ú^äóØMÓ8ڐäPÔ ßQÚ8Û8ÕJÔ ÞPÛ/×\æ+×*Û*×*æ å8ÕJÔ ÕØ Þ1ØMÓ8ڐäPÔ Úè5×8Õ Ø%Ô Û8ãóæ ÞPÛ8ã. 1 1 0D21 1 'P1 02I / VD . @ @ C0I 1 D I D ]02IJI .1 02' I .' I . @ I2Dj-o&0' 0[+2@ 1 0D21Z1 0I D I .1 D )j. Z&.I / 6 C.D 'j1 Ij-gI D I I ' @ +]1 0I . I &.D D I D . + &(I 1 0I Ij-oD I[&(1V.' ) 4. / I 1 'D -E&(' I . .è8ÝwÚ^äPÔ ØÕJÓ8ÞPê\æ äVã*Þ'Ø Þ. ' 1 0I 1 >.Ú*í:×\æ æPØMÓ8ÚTßÔ Õ Ø. .IC1 0j. J. I D . I 1 0D21CD + -CD @ I .' &[D 1 -gIj) / ' I 1 02I ' C. C.1 02' &(' I[D /<@ I -gI[D @ ?/*-g' +T' [@ .1 D D Dj-. 6 1 . Q &(1 I )j' / ' I(1 I- /' 1 0D21 D 1 .ØMê8äPÔ Ú5Õ5ô § ñWÚ^ÕMÔ ä\Ú^ÕTߐ×\ÛåVè^ÞPÛ8è5Ú8éØMê/×\æüé\Óå/ÕMÔ è×*æßÔ Õ. D ' @ 1 0. ' 1 D.1V.èÔ é\æ Ú\í?×*æ æPØMÓ8Ú. D o1 I-<1 0I 9 . -g' - &.ô ¡Pè/ÙJÚ8ݝØ Õ5ô æ æØMÓ8ÚOØðå\é\Þ*ÕÔ JÛ ¡Pè8ÙIÚ8ݝØ ÕQé/×\é\Ú8Ý#ÖKÚ8ÝwÚTßëåTÝwÚ^ÕIé*ÞPÛ/ÕMÔ ø\Ô æ Ô ØåJ¤ðØMÓ/Ú8ÝwÚ×8ÝwÚ. I 1 0j. . .G- I2Dj-o&0 1 D ].D 1 ' /l&(' -Z1 0' . 1 D &0Dc)21 Ij-A@ .1 D . -gI 1V. o1+ - I[&(1V. ' Ij- I 1 02I fD I. IT&. & /h@ '1 . !. ' I)j-gI I )j-g' c0I[D21 1 ' I 0[+b1 02I . fDc)c) D.I>)j-gI Ij- .I + Ij-E. 1 0I &. . I D21V. I I I2D )D-gD 0.ô+ñWÚ8ÛØðÖÔ Ø è8Ó. -gI /TD. ' )jIj-". 1 -oD .I 0D B' I / I ?)D-oD . ' 1 0I j. I =f. - ' I-gD .1 Ij.. &(' . I[&j0D I)D-oD21 I 1!1 ' cI 1 C1 0D21]D.. . .. &0 1 -g' I P.1 . ' +JD . ]0j. T. 1 0D21 [1V. / I I 1 &. . I ) .'1 02I-:. fD I(1 I- .+ 1 1 02I Q 1 0Dc)21 Ij-A@ &[D 1V. 1V. C0I D !.&. 1 0>1 0I I -oD21V. 1 -g' 1 0I />I I D&(1 D 1 -g' <6 . & Ÿ èIØMê/×\æ æ å5+í  WÝwÞ/Ü%xô ¡Wô ¢Kô £. '/+ c). &[D PD - .D + + . IP&. &[D ' ' I /JI . &. .I I D&2. ' ' . I. + . D D [D . D . ' &(' )Dj. ' 02I 02+ . 1 ' . 0' D / I 1 'P' D 1 0I. - I c)jI..Ó*Ô ß'ô ÜKè5ÞPê\ÝwÕ.IC' ' )jI- ' 1 ' &-gI[D 6 0' 1 0j. 1 ' . I '1 D-I(1 I 1 0I & 1 cD / 1 02IPI . ' ' ' h1 02I +P1 ' 0.1 D + / 1 '1 02I- 2+.Z. '1 6 .' 1 0I D G@ ' ' . 1 + ZD ' +J1 0. ' ' &0 . I 1 ' . ' 1 ' ?1 02Il. Ij-gI D 1V. I 1 I 1 ' I(1 I. D . )D&(1V. T. ' 1J' .D .I I2& 1V. J)j' D D D D . ]D I )D-gD ' ' + 1 02I D>. D )j-gI 0I. 1 ' &j0D-gD&(1 Ij-". I 1 ' ' 6 ' Dj.×*ÙIÚ^Õ^íØMÓ/Ú1×*ê8ØMÓ8Þ*ÝwÕFÓ/× . ' IC1 ' I I & 1V. ' ' . 1 0D21 I jI D21V. 1 +!. ' 8 6 I I.I Ij-oD 1V. Q Dj-gI . 2@ . CI ' I 2.2@ /J1 02IP). D&. . I . ' (I . I[D 1 0I 1 0I 1V. ' . 1 ' D &0.IJ)D-gD I . I jD . IT&. I C..I ]. ' / &. /b1 & 1V. 1 D21V. & + 1 D21V.Ø Ú8Ý"Õ. . Ij- If/ I D fD. /<@ 21C1 0j. / I - &(' =f. ' . Dj-". /*0' / I!-gI . &j0]1 0I C0I D 1 02I. .I ' 'b&[D 1 ' D D D .×Ø%Ô ÞPÛ ×Ø_ØMÝðÔ ø\êØ ÚQØ  Þ  WÝwÞ/Ü%ôî. . ' ' . Dj- . . /*021 I [1V. &0l. Ij-A@ ' .

RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N.'*)(+c-". /*02143 899 9:6<.×*ÙIÚ\ôFÒSÓ8ÚIå )Q  K L.Ø.N(O L.G- XfY[hZZ\^\[]ij_f[`b_ak2f^c dd[ei f[] \[l_a2abXfZ[mn_gi c X Yea\e2X XZc oZd p q f[e2iFZm q^r a2X adi f[i c Zd .n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k 576 &. +l=?-A@ BED-GFHJI.N Q.RTSVU aUd.R?egUX<SVU WX YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.8Ú1×Vè^ÞPÛ8è^Ú8é8ØMê/×\æߐ×5ØMÓ/Ú8ßO×Ø%Ô è×*æßÔ Õ.

Chapter 3. Dimensional Analysis K .

  ' 1 02I D  I   '*)jI .  .

   3 .€ /PD   'j1?D .

G)jI *'     . . 1 0I )j-gI  0  -". (I )j.

 D 1 02I!D 21 02' .CD I @  .

   D 2 D1  9 sS  z .

  1 02I 0' I I jD ) I 4  . . / L c-gI <@ <'  IJ. 1 ' 9 .  D (  .

 4  9 ANj B  VS U 7 .

  .

.

  .

 D )u .& 0 j0     D  .

.

.

4   y     2 )u   .

.

  .

0  9 .

 ‡7 .

    )         .

   w € s0 2 9  .

  .

   .

V  2 ?  2  0 Iu9  w .

.

0 s   #      .

 w/ j (  x7 2 0w    0   .

D0 .

.           9   .

.

.

(   .

Q  0 . v}   80 2+ I 0  )u  9 Q.

  .

  s0 2  .

  1   s   .

 .

  .  <   .

D4   !    =$     $  J   .

 .

  4 ' .

4  .

 D  €  $       j   9 . 2      0 .

  DJ    "E   .

80 2  I4 .

7   9& €  DJ › )u  .

      %    .

  .

Ø Þ×8è8Ó*Ô Ú. -gD21V. 1 0 . ' 1 0I -gI 1 0j. ' D I D I . . D IJ1 0IP' 1 0IP.G)21V.I I 1 ' I- C.G. J-gI D.1 Ij-A@ D>-gD21V. 1 .D I ' . 1!.I I(1 IjD.1 I 1 ' D /<@ ØMÝðÔ Ú^ä. . 1 02I -gD21V. *I jD . + 1A1V. + I(1 &@ 1 I I ' @ Z1 0Ib.D . 1. ' [1!1 0I . D . 0D ITD Ij-D -g' I!I 21 I I ' I. - I ).G-o& )Dj-oD I.I ' . I 1 02I .D ) 1V. ' . ' . ' -gD ' +b. ' )j-gI[&. P 1 02I I I . ' I I fD 1 ?1 ' 1 02I . D- &(' . & Ij-gI D ).' . ' . I IC1 0I]1 ' . ' . ' I / D &. &(Il1 0D21 I- . 1 &(1 D ' C.+!1 0D21 ]. . D D21V.. / I. I . D ]0j. / 1 0I & I . I2&(' ).I &. '1V. ' + D -g' 1 0D IT1 0IlD Ib.1 02I- I . I . 6 / .' 1 I . I 0I . D -g' 1A1V. ?D I(1 Ij- & I I-:1 0D /h@ 0I . ' 1 ' 1 ' 6 . Dj-gI 21 . . I I I 1 0I @ + I 1 ' D I 6 1 02I :D . D. 1 D21V. ' DP1 . . ' Ij. 1 'J' I2D -gI +P' . C&. D ' C0c.' .      4 '  & I(1 I 1 D 1 0.. 6 I 1 0IJ).1 Ij- 1 Ij-1 02I I 02I 1 ' D21A1 I. ' 0' I I C. cD 1 0. P-gI I(1 I- Ij-' D . 0I ' - ' 1 0I Ij-oD &(I 1V. A-g' 1 D D ' I[I .@ -gI[D ?D D21V./ 1 02I I.. I . ' . ?Dc) 1 0I 9 I 6 I . 1 ' 1 0D21 ]. D 6 I . IJ' . />Db-g' ' @ ' 1 ' A-g' .I2D 2/ 6 1 '>DT&2.1 Ij- C. +!' I JD. . 1 D21V.G. D21 I ' &j. I ) )j-g' .I Ij-E1 0D G@ D-Z0' I(1 I- . D 1 ' ) !1 ' 1 'TD - I D 9 />)j-g' 0' IT.' ' . 1 0!1 ' 1JD I 1 ' I!-g' &j.' / D . ' @ ' ' 0I I 1 ' C0IJ-oD21V. D 1 02I 1 0j. D.'cD&0 1 D/ ) -gI . .I 1 + &(I - .I . I 1 0I 0D 1 0I!-oD21V. ' I Z' 1A1V. & @ 1 ' I D ) 6 &.I >1 0IM.' Ib)Dj-oD '1ZI &(' <@ ' .+ I2D I ) f1 0Ib02' I!&[D -gD21V. I [@ 2/:02' ' . G@ . ' + .

8ÚbØMÓ8ÚbÕM×\ßQÚ×\Û8ä"!$#Û\ê\ßø\Ú8ÝwÕÔ ÛØMÓ8ÚëÚPé*Ú/ÝÔ ßQÚ8Û8Ø Õü×8ÕüÔ ÛÝwÚ5×\æ Ô ØåQÜÞ\Ý"æ ÞÖ é8ÝwÚ^Õ%ÕJê\ÝwÚëäPÔ Úbè5×8Õ Ø%Ô Û/ãôKÒSÓ8ÚIå ä\Ú8ÝðÔ .

/Ú^ä3Ú Eê/×Ø%Ô ÞPÛ.ÜðÞ*ÝØMÓ8Ú .

ßQÞPä\Ú8æW×\Û8ä ×8èIØMê/×\æ ¥IôFÒSÓ8ÚIå`Ó/×.Û\êßø\Ú8Ýww Õ ¤.8Ú/æ Þè8Ô ØðåóÝw×Ø%Ô Þ ø*×Õ%Ú^ä3ÞPÛVÚ Hê/×\%æ .

/Ú'ä\ÞPÛ8Ú'ØMÓ8Ú Õ%×\ßQÚQÜðÞ*&Ý !$#'Û\êßø\Ú8ÝwÕ5ôüÒÓ8Ú/Û.ØMÓ8ÚIå'Ú Hê/×Ø ÚØMÓ8Ú .

Ú5ä1ÞPÛTÚ Hê*×*./Ú8æ ÞPèÔ ØðåFÝ×Ø%Ô ÞVø/×8Õ.

æ 'Ø Þ .

8Ú8æ ÞèÔ Øå1Ý×5Ø%Ô Þ.ø/×8Õ.Ú^äVÞPÛ.Ú Hê/×\æ !$#'Û\êßø\Ú8ÝwÕ5ô #ÞÖKÚ .

/Ú8Ý .

Ú^äVÞPÛ.8Ú/æ Þè8Ô ØðåFÝ×Ø%Ô ÞVø/×8Õ.×\ÛØ×\Û8äFä\ÞPÚ^Õ .Ú Hê/×\(æ Ô Õbאè^ÞPÛ/Õ Ø.

×*Û/è^ÚÜ ÝwÞPß ØMÓ8Ú.*×8ݝåÖSÔ ØMÓØMÓ/ÚOØMê\Û\Û8Ú/æEäPÔ ßQÚ8Û8ÕJÔ ÞPÛ ¤_×8ÕëÞPé\é*Þ*Õ%Ú^ä.Ø.Ø.Ø ÞFäPÔ Õ.×8ݝØ%Ô Û/ãóé*ÞÔ ÛØ^ô ¥IôbÒÓ8ÚÜð×8èIØØMÓ/×ØSØMÓ/Ú^Õ.Õ.Ú1Ý×5Ø%Ô Þ*ÕQÓ/× .

å\ß.N OPL.ø*ÞPæ ÕSä\ÞÚ5ÕOÛ8Þ/Ø ßQÚ5×\ÛØMÓ/×ØØMÓ8ÚIåF×8ÝwÚ.G- KML. /*02143 99:6<.RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k )* @ .RTSVU aU d.ÝwÚ5×\æ æ åØMÓ8ڐÕM×\ßQÚ\ôÒSÓ8Ú^Õ%ÚOØÖÞ1Ý×Ø%Ô Þ*Õë×8ÝwÚOäPÔ ?Ú8ÝwÚ8ÛØb×\Û8ä1è×*ÛÛ8Þ/Øëø*ÚOÚ Hê/×Ø Ú^ä+ô &('*).+ 576*89 -"./ÚOØMÓ8Ú. +>=?-A@CBED-GFHJI.Õ%×\ßQÚOÕ.N Q.

2.Section 3. The processes in die casting  .

  .

.

          .

.

 2 .

     9&    >    s0 .

4  .

   x7     D )  {    w 92 0   4  4     ( IU ( 2  U U B 5   0 .2 D S 2  8   |/U ( 2  4 .

4  0w  .

T.U 9 .

(  .

 )  CN      (   U .

4       .

7 '  5  )  )          .

4   .

 (     S 0 J0 9   &  ?    9 &  I4  I     .

     )  ) J  .

(           .

 .

0    .

 4 D9   w .@ $ s.

   .

 4  4   . ) D) 9 9    .

D 9  4   .

 .

 .

 v  x7 %& D   I 9   9   wN       .

   )u  .

 ) &  .

   2 .

 U {7 K 4 .

  ?. )   .

  {7 )    J 0    4 .   5  4  .

 .

 .

.

j v0  I  0 2 ) $ 0     W .

I   .

.

   .

2  4   .   y  92 0   .    0 .

 4       08 )   €$      .

0    .

)  4 D…            .

   5   .   D  3  ' 9  .

4  ‡  D   4  .

       .

 4  .

0   .

 .

4     .

   .   W     7 .

. 1 ' + ' I D ' 1 .*' .I2D 1 0I]&. .'g{ " Sz z. -gI 1f' 0j.D21V. D- ' ' 1 -oD 1 ' D 'j1 0Ij- [@ c).I2D . 1 + D ?D-gI .I ' ' ) 2I 1 I + .I ) 1 0I I 1 I ' ' 1 0I!)j' IZ1 ' I[&. ' -&(' &(I- ) I 1 0I 1 0I .I I 1 'J1 D . ' A-g' D21V.I Ij. ' 6 I[&(1 I . D . I 1 02I '1 02I-I jD c-gIP. ' 1 0I ' ' . I 1 I ' 1 1V. ' ' I ). I ' . 1 ' &(' 'j1!1 -oD F )j' I Dj-gI . ' [@ .D I[& 1 I F - 'j1 l. . - I .2I -1 0IP- 8 )j-g' I ' 6 / D21V.[@ /1 0I . / I )[F 1 .' &-". &. &. 1 0I 1 02I I D.I 1 -g' '1 I-gD21 I ' 1 02I Ij- &2. &. D21V. & & 1 D-". &(I I(1 Ij. >)j. 1+[@ -gICI + ' 1 02I ) I ' . ' I 1 ' ) 1 02I . & 0D J1 ' 1 -oD I jD c- .I -:D]&(' 6 I[D- .G) 1 0I . I ' @ &. I 6 1 ' . 1V. )j. C0I  . j&(' 1 -oD 1V. @ <6 0D I ) &[D21V. 6 I 1 02I . 1+b.D . ' . I &0D-gD&(1 Ij-". I2D&0P)j-g' 1 0I Ij-h. hI. . + *' . 1 0I &[D I I &j. 1+ . ' I )j'c' - I 1 D&(I . &.D 1 0IP&[D . &(I 1 . 1 &(I ' 1 02I!. D 1 ' y   ' 1 . f1 02I ' ' @ .D C0I . .' . I- Ij-. ' ' .G.I2D 1 0I ' . 1V. I 6 I 2@ 1V. .I ' 6 Ij-oD - &.D21V. ' /h@ + I I -gI 1V. 1 + 'j1 I . . C0.02'1 .D - 1 -gI[D Ij-hD 'j1fI hI2& 1 ' I 1 0Ij-gI D I I 1 0j. &.02'1 ' . &. 1V. hI. I D21V. .' &(I &(I D!& h6 0D Ij)Dj-oD21 I &2.I2D D21 ' I 1 0j.' 1 I 1 I ' &(I D + D l. 6 I I[I D21 0I ) -g' @ &[D 1 c- 6 . &j0lDj-gI>&. /*-oD I ' /I I @ 0I '1?&(' I I hI2& 1 -EI jD ) 1 I I 6 . & F I 1 -gI[D I 1 [@ I )j-gI -gI . D / ' . & 1 0I /I &.I )j.I ' 0I[D21 1 0IJ-gI I 1 0I . &./ I .' D ' .I D C0. I . ' 1 0IPD. I 6 1 ' I 1 02I I. 1+ @ .D .D 1V.D I + .' 1 ' ) - DJ)Dj-oD &. Z1 . I>&.I ' )j-g' *' I I[&(1 . &. & . &(1!1 0j. I D &j0 ]. /M)j-g' 1Z)D-gD . I &(I ' 1 . M..I D i' ' . .1V. D/*-oD &[D 1 . 'j1 0Ij- + :1 0I /Ij- I C-gI 1 0I + (0.D I )D. -gI!.I .' 1 02I + ' ]. &(1 &. D ) 1 - -gI I I. ' +J0D ./cD )j' ' ' ]02IJ)j.D21V.. . ' 'j1 1 0I]&. &. )j-g' ' - . / 02I. / /1 02I )j. .I . 1+ )j-g' 1 ]. &. /Ij- .. I]1 'l0D I .I @ ' )D-gD 1 0I .D21V. . I &. / ' ' I .D D21V. ' . &0D - 1 -oD Ij- )j-g' M. / 1 -gI[D @ @ z {+)-. 1 I ' .

/ ' ./Sz !"#"$ &%('*) initial stage hydralic jump H later stage bubles air entrainment  9 5S   2  D .

I <@ 8 .RTSVU aUd.N Q.  7 8 0= 9 8 C0I  K *' L.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N.N(O A-g' 71 02I L. (0'j1 YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k /P' I[I I . 5 w  4 1 0I  4 .R?egUX<SVU D WX c.

.

I I 4 '? I &0 576 &. +l=?-A@ 1 0I . /*02143 D21A1 I 899  1V. 'j1 (0'j1 -gI[&. I.'*)(+c-". ' 9:6<.   .A  IC1 'J1 02I .I.

I   &[D BED-GFHJI. .G- 1V. / .

Dimensional Analysis .Chapter 3.

 A  (  9 C @ 0 )   .   .

)     4 .

 .

 D  " .

 I  # 0 Ds u9    E . 4 .

 9      7   D !  .

  .

   )  0Š I 0    .

 !  4 Nj  .

(   U  .

 4    3  U .  U 2   D .

’ .   . .

0  ? u .

      4 y ? u .

y (  4  4     € 4   D    D ?   #       .

.

? .

.

4 y .  ? u9 ' +N  .’ .

? 4 D U y   .

 .

   y    B u9  +0  9  4  .

 .

 .

  K  & 0   )   .   0 .

D     K   9   3       u .

  .

4  7 <  9  .

 D  .

€ 0     D    .

 9  &     )4  K & 1 )4  …$  .

.

 5 u .

    ^   .

  K 9 .

   .

 I D ) y (  I.   .

4 D  w V   + 0 4     w‰ ‹  0 .

 .

   .

K 9 €  € J 0       4 A .   s0 2  .

4  .

 #‰ ‹   K‚   A  I. >N D  ‰"!       ?F   D   Nn0 $# UU %7  0     7   4     V D %  (   .

    4 A  .

&  0 .

4   .

I &. 9  . D _Xq aa Zqr Yd[afXd[a2q _xXXxZo’d{Z r i a{Ya a  r qa2f[] f^_da f[r iX c Zdr a X p q iec dc o’Xa2a f[ari iFcX Ze2i d Y[f^a›] a›e2m f^Z ] r e\Y ] 2f[_ i cr Zf^d\^Xb] c e m Z .D 1V.

r \io Y[qa r _q \[r f^i~\] a2c eX i.

T. 1 + 1 0I . 1 + D21 c-oD 1 0IP-gD 1 02Ib-oD D 1 ' ' ' . I- c.-g' 0I[D21 . I. T). - I I 1 02I &(' iI(1 6 I . J)j.' c. ' 21 .+ ' / ) 1 . - . &[D I 1 1 -gD I @ D21V. + ' D 02I. >.Ij- 1 0I 1 0I "1 02I / 0I[D21 I.I Z1 0I 1 0IP. I2Dj-o&0 6 / .  0 . . ' ' -:D 1 . CD I 1 0j. I hI2& 1 I . I . ] aa2o’X c _X\_gf^\] r gc dZ[)l`…( X Z[c d p ii YYa…a+e X ] ca2i a2c e2k2f^a ] f^] d\_dla a ja2k2e2ai ] XvZec Zi d r  .Zk2ifro]f^Z[d[m X 'm a a2\rX c a2c _gif^c\[dd[f^_l ] gZ[`  Z q ad r q^r Zh] ao 1 r + C0I Ij.I2D 1 &. &0D -gD21 ITD D &(1V.I  0 .. TD . &0D /I . ' IJ. . 1V. ?D .I Dc) 1 02I D. . &(I I 1 Ij-A@ I @ 1 0I>0I[D21C1 -oD I 2I / I(1 D &. ' I 1 02I!&-".I ' .' 'b. IT). &0TD [1 D Ic@ I. / I I)[1 0 . )[1V.I . / . D D 1 D . ' . D.D &[D21V. &j. ' ). I. I[& 1 I / iI(1 - *' ' . &(I D @ 0[+ @ 1 ' _g_gc\ X ec \d[XlX+i Y[i aY[a&'\c a2\^i cc _xdlo’i c o’a2ea Y[f^dc c e2X pX X] c c_q crf*gi e2c Zf[id c Zq+d r -Zh^. . D.I2D I I I )j-g' ' 1 Ij-A@ &(I fD 1 02I I 1 ' -E1 0I I / ' I ' . Y[f[i r c XZ q q i c o\^/ oo’0fc d^c c oo\\^o@o Yaa2o’f[i. . /I]D I I - ' )j. I>&[D &.  $  '  .+. / 1 0I ' D / ' &-gI[D I. / I- )j-g'*)jI. D- *' 'j1 1 0I!. c\o’o f[q i a_gc XZf dxqq `a2f Yr a dxY p .G)>.0j. I[&(1V.+ I 1 02I 0I[D21?1 -oD .' . 1V. 1 0I )j' 1 ' . j. . Ij- I-1 ' . ' ' 1 Ij- & Ij)21 0 I(1 D 1 ' ' I . / 1J-g' Ic@ I ' ' ' b1 ' C1 0. - 1 D/ I h. 1 -gD 1 0I 1 02I -fD>&.+ >02' 6 D. I I(1 D I[&0D .' I j.D I . .I 1 02I &(I -gI .2   #N #  ?S S U 7  . )D21A1 I- D . .1V.1 D .I Ij-E1 ' I 0. 1 I ' /I ."D&. 1V. 1+M) (0' D. &. /T)j-g' j. ' &. ?1 02I D . / ..1 D ) . I [@ I CD CD I . ' I[D- + A-g' c. I D21V.

D   )  u9 .

' . I. . . &0D @ -gI 1 0I . 1+ 2@ &[D 1fD D21 )j-gI I 1 .   8P   . <&j0D /I . .I 1 0I 1 02I @ &2. 1+ I &.. .D C. 1+[@ % )-.'g{ " zSz.

1 D / :@ .+. ' A. . I .I- ) I J) D . Dj-gI I 1 0I D. I . ' .' 1 02I 1 I 1 0j. *' . ' I 2I 1 D + A.' I!0D I .' 6 ) I I *' 1 ' )j' Ij- . I .1 D C0I. I Ij-1 ' 1 02I . ' &(' io’Z f[i o’a2_Df YaDf^l dr _ f q k2Ya] mZ^Z er c i Ii Y[c ad)a2i YX if[c ip e2f[X a f q ] \l gZ[` ` Y   l^Z^Z_~fX X \o q i c Zd #X Y[Z[` eYf^dla›Z[mb_^adX c i a  a2e2i  I2&.I Ij- 1 0I I C0I [1 I [@?HJ' G@ A  .' ' ' 1 0I ) I>1 0 &-gI[D21 I )j. I I. ' . 1 I &(Ib1 02I &(' D. I[I 1 -oD I[&(1V. / I. Ij- ' 02I . ' D 1 I(1 D .I[I A-g' I &. ' I. )j-gI 1P.1 D /I- .Ij. 02I2D21 I. .D21V.G- CD C0I D . ?&-gI[D21 I 6 . Ij- &(IT' Dc)c)jI[D- I I 21 -gI 'j1 D ./:.@ . D 1 D 1 0I ' ' +J&0D 'j1 IJ1 0D21C1 0.1 D. -gD 02I2D21 02I2D21Z1 -oD 1 02I 0[+ 1 . 1 1 -oD 1 02I . ) -gI Ij-<' . . ' . 1 0D21J. .D21V. / /*0 1 0I 2I]1 '!1 02I I[&(1V. C0IJ0I[D21f1 -gD ' 1 0I . 1. Il. 1J. ' I 1 02I -o&(I ]1 02I . & . 1 0I )j' 6 6 1 I j@ 1 02I I 1f&.D ' . ' . I D @ I &.+lD -g' @ . (I )j-g'j1 I[&(1V. D./Sz  ' ' ..' 1 -gD. &0D .

s0   4 .

1 0IP-gI      (       s 9 . 1+ 1 +c)j. &2.   4  I ' ' I- 1?' .' 6 ' 6 . ' I I[&(1 [@ fD f1 0D21f1 0I 1V. 1 02I &[D21V. &[D -gI.

( )  .

  s   D n  %S .

.I D. x         I I ' . -f02I2D21f1 ')jI . ' )j-g' I(1 -oD21 I &(I ' DJ1 +c)j. ' IT' 1 D ' 1 02I &. 1 + . &[D D ?./ 1 0ITD &.          n   . Ij- .D21V. 1 'l0I[D21Z1 -gD ' I- - .G.

I-b7A+?V\]Ic6 GYB3F. 8  2   )21V.Ii?>F :QD7IOZQI=7I-Lj?>AkF.[ ?>\IKLND78T\eDf8TFagY=7<MLN=f8+=3:QD7IF. J)j' D ) + .D&?M:P:QD7IRA+8TSVU@8+6OWXI:Q?$AYF. 1 1 0I!/ D )  .A+?>G@F<$[RW?M:QIZQ8+?>A_GJIA+<MLd:QD7IFU7Z.\8I-=V:Q8 hJ\KA+8 :QIZe?M:QU7Z.U7Z.G.U7Z[ ?V\]I^8+F_\]<>=`:Q8=YU7<VU@FA+BaZ.D7<MLN=O:. ' I D.Ij- D/ .1 D 0D I Ij-<1 0D 1 .[ ?>\I:QD7I<VZ. 1 0I>D 'j1]) .BVl mon7p     K u9 . 1 02I Ic@ e32?t*i5467698:. D(+ D.8+<>=@?>AA+B>C8:ED&?>FHGJII-=KF./ I 0D D D .+. .

 D   7  v0 V 9&  1 0    .

`…e2iZY[da+k2a2e2e2f^i c] Ze\^dx] fih^c a2Zi d`bXa2aZd m  9 iq q.N &       . > u9   ?7 V 9 . I  U idZ f[i \X Yf^Z[].

( .

r   .

 # 9&    0 D   0   . u9 .  YZiX \ r m f[e2a›f^d_f^c r f^h^Zk2a  &   I.

 u9 .   0  .

           .

4  )3   N 4 K? I V3  .

stv r U qq fa rq Ya f r q _Xa ir Zc k2f[q i \c Zi›d[mXZ Zr Eo d q wc q X a2c x[Xc e i yZ X u  X Y[Z[`oc d^c o\oa r r Z r  ec r e\om a r ad[e2a z :Ó/×.

/ÚOÜÞPê\Û/äVÞPÛ\æ å .

1 0I A-gI. 1 0 1 I J)jIj-oD21 -gI D. D21f1 0IJ0I[D21Z1 -gD D . I- D. ' / I .I 1 0I Dc)c)j-g' . .D ' ' ' )j. P&(' 1 D . .' D& 1 ' . ' I b. I <@ D(+[Ij-E1 0.G-D (0' ]02I ' )jIj-oD21 -gI . 1 0I . 1 D21 I I(1 D D . T. I I 1 ' D @ I!D Ô Õ%ÕJê8ڐÞ\Ýå5ÞPêÖKÞPê\æ ä`æ Ô ÙIÚQØ ÞTÖKÞ*Ý9ÙÞPÛØMÓ*Ô ÕSØ ÞPé*Ô è*í:é\æ Ú5×8Õ%ڐäHÝwÞPé1ßQÚQ×Fæ Ô Û/Ú\ô { WÓ/× . . I(1 D G@ D21 I C. 1V.I 2./Ú8ݝåÜÚ^Ö Þ/Üé*×*é\Ú8ÝwÕëä\Ú5×\æ Ô Û8ã'ÖÔ ØMÓTØMÓ*Ô Õ×8ÕJé\Ú^èIØ^ô  Üå5ÞPê1Ù/Û8ÞÖ ×\ø\ÞPêØQÝwÚ^Õ%Ú5×8Ýwè8ÓFè^ÞPÛ8è^Ú8Ý9Û*Ô Û8ã1ØMÓ\Ô Õ C0Ij-gI . 1 C&. / ' c-gI I .' I /)j' &. & D 6 -gI D- I )j' 1 02I . 1V. (' 1 0I D . I(1 D D21 ' . D E1 I .G- + ' 02I 1 0I A. . . . .0[+ / .D I!' I(1 D ."D&(I 1 ' 1 0I . DT) . - 1 '>1 0I &. D21f1 0I .

ÞPßQÚÚ8æ Ú8ßOÚ8ÛØ.G- KML.Ø%Ô ßO×Ø Ú^ÕëÞ/@ Ü |?ê*Ô äóßQÚ^è/Ó/×\Û*Ô è^ÕQ×\Û8ä`Ó/Ú5×ØSØMÝ×*Û/Õ ÜÚ/Ýü×*Û/ä ?×\ß Ö×*Ô Ø%Ô Û8ã1Ø Þ ?Û*Ô ÕIÓ1Ô Ø ×\Û8äVØ Þ +Û/äóE × }_ÞPê\Ý9Û/×\æ+ÖÔ ØMÓ8ÞPêØëØMÓ8ÚVÙ8Ô Û8äóÞ/ÜSÝwÚIÜðÚ8ÝwÚ^Ú^ÕßQÚ/ÛØ%Ô ÞPÛ8Ú5ä3Ô Û é\é*Ú/Û8äPÔ bô Ýé\Ú8Ý9Ó/×\é8ÕÔ ØbÖÔ æ æ?×*éé*Ú5×/ÝSÔ ÛTØMÓ8Ú &('*).×/Ý@å'Ú^Õ.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k )) . /*02143 99:6<./ÚTßO×8ä\ÚÕ.N Q.RTSVU aU d.N OPL.+ 7~9 576 -". +>=?-A@CBED-GFHJI.RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.

' y . The processes in die casting y Shot Sleeve Temperature heat transfer to the air process 1 heat transfer to the sleeve process 2  9 /q<@ q c.2. 1 02I . / 7 C0I 4   )u /' I- ‘ 0 0Ij-gI .I I (liquid) Oq:@ |   .    . B' I  .I  P I2D21f1 -oD   Ij- ). / Solidification layer )    &(I I 5 w  4 .02'1 I.Section 3.

shot sleeve (steel)  : 9 .

( '   D21V. )  I I ) 1V.I I . insulation  D &.D21V. . D21 I   4 1 0I I. . ' ' s   4 1 0I (0'j1 I.      .I I  1V. ' .

G)21 D.'   / • .+J&.   &-".

‘ 5  1 0I 9  .

I  1 9  . 1V. . -gI (solid) l Temperature δ liquid metal I  P. ' :@ 'j1 I 0 I(1 N q I U I.

&    .

+l=?-A@ BED-GFHJI.R?egUX<SVU WX YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW. n  1 02IP). I 1 D 1 0I!D. Nq ~ U •v!    :@    Û8Ú/Ø×8ä\äPÔ Ø%Ô ÞPÛVÞ/ÜKØMÓ\Ô Õø*ÞPÞPÙô ÜKå5ÞPêTÖKÞPêæ ä æ Ô ÙIÚØ Þ3Ó8Ú8æ éóßQÚØ Þ + Û\Ô ÕJÓ'ØMÓ8Ú.. /*02143 9:6<. I  5  4 1 0I I[I I D (0' l.':)jIj.N Q.G- .ÖKÞ*Ý9ÙTÞPÛFØMÓ*Ô ÕOé/ÝwÞPø\æ Ú/ßTí"é\æ Ú5×8Õ.N(O L.I I  D21 I.'*)(+c-".RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N.n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k 9~99 576 &.RTSVU aUd.ßOÚ× æ Ô Û8Ú\ô ~ q K L.G.1V./ D I ' 5  4 K -1 02I I. D G@ .ÚTäHÝwÞPé.

Chapter 3.  . Dimensional Analysis } .

 .

)  .

  .

4 ~N 9 U     9u .

1 D ' 1]1 0I>)jI. D I.I        ™ ““F” .  02I. -gIj).I I.I .)jI .

 I C0I 4   ) u /' Ij- ” 0 .

 .

G)D21V. '  . .

   .

 .

1+ . 1 02I D. .' .+J&. '        ' ' &2. 1V.

1 7 . ' j0 I.

1  I[I 1 02I  N  . I.  I C0IJ/ ' I[I .

 U ) 0D I :@ &   ' u9 . . I(1 D ' .

  {} .

   .

C   I4 D .

 ) D K u9   4       ”       ”  ‰ .

    ”   1 ' (0' 1 0I 1 0I &j0D ) 0D .

1 D D21 c-gD . I.U :@    &. I ' .1 D . ' . I.' . .  I]1 D /I I ' I ?' ' I -h1 02I . 1 + &. C/ ."D&(I .D21V. ” . Ij- . 1 +JD21?1 02I 1 0I & 1V.    D{ 9 . ' . 1+JD . ' . I  ' G@ &(' ' I[/ I2& 1 1 02I @ + N q T. . . )c0D   9  I D I[& 1V. . 1 Ij. )c0D . 1 0I . 1 +J&j0D ' I(1 D &. .

 (   .

 s 9 .

 .

.

D K u9     4 )u   A u .

 ?0 . 1V. I j0 .   . ' :@  % 9  . N q |U  2I  02I2D21?' .

.

     u .

 4   .

4    1 0I .

+>&('       @TB' Nq q U    u . Dj.

I  9 .1V.  -1 02I 1 02IJ)j-g'*)jIj.

. I ”     • .

”  I .

1 '>1 0I    • D.

'    D21V.G-gI[&(1V. ' 'j1 IC1 0D21 D B' I  I 9 . ” 4   .

/     0Ij-gI . D- I . .

 D /T'    1 02I D21 -oD )4 :&('  . I   ]. ”   7 • ./ I[& 1V. ' . 1 0I . 1+ /TI D21V. 1 0 I. & I .

   ”  •       ” . I[&(1V. ' D /IJ.

U :@  F       . N q R. .

 9    e2_Za d[c i k2c f[d^i \c Za'dX `c i Y!jZ^Z_o’fdy X 7 .

 ra Yf Xbi Z \[if’X YZ ij_gc X e\[X p .

 .

   U ( 2  5 w  4 ~ U .

 7  Xiq Z)c Zr di Yf^c Xq h^Ze2f[\Xia qi Y#a "{f qr q ] c e2f[i c Zd u9    .

 4  .

   4  (  q U .

 . 2    D  w $  4  €N  w 9 .

(  U y   0 .

%$ K&  0Œ?   9  .

     7 C  .

.

 ? 9 € 9 .

( )  ›   4   (  y   ( .

   .   ( .

 .

  3 .

 {0 '&  0t  A .

 .

 s '&    4 K  2 N j    .

A .

' .

     .

V U y .

.

 2      .

       E   $  E  .

  9 . .

)4  .   0 ao’( a2r i Y[Yf Zq +_ X’* o’i Y[Za_gc c d[*gi a2a2_)l jZf^^]2Zo’_a2o’i YfZ^d-_ y X.

.

0 U .

   ‡7   .

D !  e2f^d)h^af q^q ] c a2_  r 3     U   .

0    .

  @    @ .

  8 &       ) 4   .

.

 . 0 &    7 .2 ' 0O ‡ .

  .

  17   " B. & .

  & P ik2Za eX Yc Za2d e f^d[`_ Y[f[i\[iFc ii c YXa›c d’a [i f[Y[e2ai d[a2a ` m & r q r q.  7  .

G)D21V../ '1J1 ' .+ 1V. .I 1 0I ' )jI.+ 1 02I )j' I- I 1 . I . \[\[X i. I . . . 1 ' )D D 1. &. 21 &j0 I2D21ZD . ' 1 02I . & I.+. ' I I .Ij- 1 ) 1 -oD Ij- . / I.@ =?-gD ' .iFi i Y[Ya a9r ai m q c e2f^]›X Z] \i c Z+d IZ r  /10 yyz32Í{4{'+z5 ]02I . 1 0I )j-g' 1 -oD 02I2D21 I- . D ' . D / D ?.D ) I ' 1 0I . / C0I *' -gI[D ' - Ij-&[D / . D. I 1 -oD Ij0. ' Ij-1 ' 6 ' D 1 Ij-A@ ' .1?D . . I . 1 02I Ic@ . ) 6 I . I(1V. ' C0Ij-gI!Dj-gI . I- + D. I 0D D I -gD 02I2D )!. Dj. ' & 1V. ' 0.

4 .

.

   U  0 0 C C   7 € 0     J I   4 s0   0    3 .

N    q T  .

D D .R U w$   ( 2   (  % C0I ' E1 02I 0I[D21 I[I I D21 c-oD A. Dj. 1V. D &..D .D21V.02'1 &j0lD I.+ h6 @ 1?)jIj-". ' 1 0j.I I "D& 1?1 0D21 . /*02143 0I + 1 I *' 0D . 1 02I 21J1 0I Ij-". I[&j0D I D I 1 02I H . /J1 02I!&[D &('*). ' ' )!D . . ) 1 02I- 1 -gD c. - . 1 02I D21V. ' ' 1 0D21 &.. I-. / 1. hI. I )jIj-". ' . I I T. D. . ' )jI. 1Z&. &(' 1 0 *' .D I I[&.I 0I[D21 C0I D 6 + ) C0IJ0I[D21f1 -gD -EI D Ij-A@ &2.N OPL. Ij- ' .I- .N Q. / -gI . 1 .' 1 ' I[&(1V. I I. 1 -gD D-g/I .RTSVU aU d. I[&0D I0j.+. I ) .' I &. . & )21V. ' WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW. )jIj-". Ij- &. q .D @ Ij- 'c' I I.. 1+ Ij- 1 02I 7~9 99:6<. (' 6 I VD(+ . 1V."D&(I I[&(1V.@ I )j-g' ' G@ I[/ I 1 &.I +>=?-A@CBED-GFHJI.D21V.I D D ' )D-gI &(' . D @ Dc0I[D I 1 02I &(I 1 0I!. & I2&(' Ij- )j-gI .I &0MD D I -gI. . ' / I hI2& 1 JD-gI I D . D &. 1+ 1 02I .' @ D ]02IJ02I2D21 ./ 1 0I ) ' 1 0I 1 02I I . &[D .G- . 576 -".+ 1 . )j-gI 1 ' .+ 1 0I - .' ' + . ' -gI :@ *' D :@ KML. / 1 ' I[&(1V.I - 1 c. ' I ' D D 1 c. . C&. ' ' D I 1 02I 1 -oD I 1 0I 1 02I!0I[D21 - / ' . 02I2D21 Ij- . . @ .. ' + (I . . . I c. 1 0 @ 1 02I A-gI.RfegUXhSVU C. 1 ' 1 0IP02I2D21f1 -oD 1 I D.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k ~ 1 02I ))6 U .I .

I  1 -oD Dw u .Section 3. / 4  .2. Oq<@ T  9 c. The processes in die casting liquid metal air streaks .

I ' .  &.  . I(1 D   1 ' 1 0IP- I-     y .

 #7       E.      †  .

   0 '    > I .

 G$ V0 2 &  0    4 D EN Xi Y^Y[Zc X \^] _)Z`bc da)i c ddX aZ9r i.

\i Y[o a q^r c Z^d Zmi Yi Za  u .

 ^ A 5  y 4  .

   .

  0    9 iq T 57  K &) aq^r 2X X \q r ac di Y[ac di a r m q f[e2a „s†   U 8 4   &  n  J    J3  .

D  .

   ’"  4  L7 = 0  "    .

.   V  .

4  @ I   ' I .

9 9   .

          w0 '&  0 4 A  9    2    .

0 9  .

  iZ’ c d X .F.a r ina i dY[\^aFoe2f^h^]a e\^Xb] fi Z›i c ZX e2dFfZ[] mga2X i YZa m r m Z e2a2X e32:t/i = :QD7I F.U7ZQ8.B9F :QIW 8TF/b@Z.IcF.D7I ZQU7=7=@IZKF.I-\<>=@6 b7D@?VFIVCP:QD7I @<ML 8+= :.

1 Ij- . / D .D@I: BYb78+\-?$A r /*-oD . I I &[D [1.@ &. IP&.G.+ .02I I 1V. 1.D . 1A1 c-gI I . 1 0. &[D + D21 Il)D-gD . I 0I[D c) D21 I .G- ' I )j.D I /*0 Ij-A@ ' *1 ' &-gI[D 1 0 I.02I Ij0. I &.' D C&(' I[D I I I (' ' /I[' I 6 I.    . . 1+[@ 1 + 21f1 0. 1 + . ID21J1 0I 1 0j. / C.G- I[&(1 D.D . .Ij. 1 0D21 . x  DŒN 0  . 0D J1 ' Ic@ D. 1 0 I IPD 1 -gD 1]&-gI[D21 I &. '1 0I[D21 1 -gD. D ' . &[D (0' . 1 ' )j-gI I.D7I -! W MF.I-\ )l 7  Y ?>AU@I ‰"-!  [ > < ZNLND78T\eD VZQ? Y8: Bb7AT?B ?iA8+WX8 :QI-6 Z. /*0 1 -gI[D &2. ' I. C0I . D.Ij- . ' )j' D21 . 1 02I 6 / I C0I 1 I .<VAIVl  %  mHn9p   j . !&."D&. I- D I 1 02I ' 1 I. @ ' I(1 D ' I- .< >Ze? `8: Bi8+F 7l W MF.I-\ )l D7I = U7WKGJIZ ?>FQF.1 D.?B D I >IA+<9\]8: B69U7I:.@ &j0 1 -oD. 1P.U7WXI-F^:. I T0' I I ' 0.U7=@=7IZaAI-= $:QDf8TFa8= <>Ze69IZa<$[ ! l  W l =3:QD@?M:/\-?>F. "1 +c)j. D <@ @ ' 1V.I>Ck8 [jL^IiD@? VI ? +A ?>Z VI >I-A<9\]8: B A+I]:OF. ].1 . D . ' ' 21 I -g' .I &. /*021 1 -gI[D .D 1 -oD. 1 I 1 02I C0. D + /<@       ! "    # $   Z./ &.+!1+c)j.1 I 1 ' I D 1 0I .1       . I 1 ' . -I-6 ?$=@6 :. D I ()jI2&2. . 1 +>D )c02I .1 Ij-?. ' I j.G-fI I. I>.I &-gI[D21 I D. )j-g'*)jI- &.

 4  D   N 2 D U  >    06N  2    f ?    .

C K4  .

  #z  9 .

„s†•  ) 4 0 5   0 wP 0  0  K    0 .    ˆ ( '"* c!.+.

e32:t/iv4  8 9&      7 9 .

C F    .

U  .

( 2  / •  ) " 7   # u9 .

 0 U  N.

+ + D )j-g' 6 D hI(+ . I I &(I 1 1 I I I- . &. &0J. 1 0TDP1+ c)jIj-o&-". *' Ij-g/ ' / . I!&.D *' . &. 1V. )4   . ' 6 . D- D 1 02I .02' .RTSVU aUd. L. 1 0I . 1V.I C.D 1 02I C0I - D . @ c. ' D 1 f1 '>. ' Ij- &.N(O &j0 1 I 1 Ij.N Q. fD / 1 I &[D D 9 ' *' 1 '- I . D(+[Ij-?. ' 1 02I . ' .  C0I I / . / I[&(' D . ' I 1 02I 0.. . ~ / . I . - + -D @ D21]1 c- &(I I- '  1 0I!1 -gD ).D L. ' . I(1 D - D I K ' ' ' WX ' .33  5   .I 1 D D 1V.C1 0I & 1 '1 02I- T I .R?egUX<SVU - 6 1 D/I /l)jIj-". . Dj.

 .  .

V.

)  U       j   {  D .

J0  .

  5 .

Dj- &. 1 + Ij- *' & 1V. ' .I- + D D 0D21]D I I *' . U  2    &(' I. ' . D& 1 D I2D I ' . .

B.

/*02143 1 0I 9:6<.@ + 6 & '& ' . ' ' . 6 / 6 I[&    >N . 1 0D21 I!1 'lD>) c! W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N.n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k 9~99 576 &.'*)(+c-". 1. $   . I   4 0 2  s ] &[D 1V.

1 c-".  1 ' 1 02I 1V.RV^ / . 1V.G- @ . I . +l=?-A@ I /l1 02I Ij- YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW. I (0' . I ' / D21 I BED-GFHJI.

I ' . /   0  j  0 Oq<@ R  9 c. Dimensional Analysis pressure .Chapter 3. - I-      .

?  3        .

&  )   ~ T  ? 0 7 . ]02I 1 0I ' Dj. 1 0.+.+ 21V.   /l)j-g' &(I   . I / D. 1V. 2. /l).I c-". 1 0j.D 9 @ . & .Ij- 1 0I 9 ?' . I]&. &[D 9 I!' @ . 2. )   3  -".

 …   (   4 .   9  .  2 .

&0 '. # % 0 s    ICI I[& 1 02I 0.

h1 0I .+ I y  0  @ + D. 1 0I - 1Z)c0D ' D. . 1+ 1 0D21 D ' ' D *' 7.I- 6 0' . C' 1 02I Dj-A@ mon7p   2 . IC' !. D .+. D21 I &(' . &[D21 I 1V.  0I . -<1V.

  .

      e32?t*i D .

.

1V. ' . D I . I . ' . ' . 1 c. & .

       D    I   9  .

   .

D- I. &j0j.  . I  . &j0j. ' -oD - ' . 1 0 D hD . JD .I2D @ZB -oD 1 D 1 D IP-gI . . . I . / . ' &(I )D21A1 Ij- -oD &j0 D T. ' & . ]. :    9  @    .#         ?1 0. ' D 21 +T)j' ' 1 0I!)j' + . / - /b.' : )   A 0 5 0t 0 ( 2   . I . &j.)jI[& 1 . / 1 D .   J0 I .

  .

.

&(IJ. 1 0 ]. I 1 I )j. ' ' ' .  0  1 D21V. I .I &0Dc)[1 I- mon7p  z    ~ ?    . - 1 0I Ij- + / *' @ . D   1 ' 1 -gI.1 Ij- 1 Dj. I /l)j.I.I & C. / 1 '   | &.1V.' . 1 02I . 1 &0.

( 2  .

2 I 4 D      y 2   q q  . .  2 .

      .

   .  D  .   9  ?N  j0  ' 0 U V$  V  .

0 8& .

D… .

D   4       I J 0 y  2      .

9 3 .

N U }   .

 €   V  4    x7  0   .

   ( 9 9 3 .

  w7 .    .

     8 0 .

I 0D I ' &(' ' *' ' 1V.' /!&(' I[I ) . . . !&. D .D . I]&[D . I[& 1V.+P. D ' 1 . / c-gI . ' 1 I @ I 2' 1 02I. 1!. @ &(1 D . ?Dc)c)j-g'*)j-".I I(1 D . V& 'j1ZD-gIJ)j-gI . &. 1+ 1 . ' I D.' 1 02I ' *' 21C1 02I C0I 1 0I I. 1 c- I ^fcc do’h^X Zaa d\[r iiijXjif[Yf^i aZh^oZr a\c mjxi ff^e i h^c cZZi d+c\e2 ^if^i ]i YY[aaFadai q  f^f q dq a e2a r apr k2a] Zec i r r '#4 / I 1 I &.Il. I ]02I &[D I . &.       sN :  9  q .I . + :@ D ' 1]I & 1 0I . Ij-oD 2@ ]02I 1 0IJD 21 02' I + J. I .I K 0 9 .ITD *' 4&. . D 1 Ij- ITD21 ' -1 c- .)j-gD.D -gI.I D I @ . D . 1 Ij-oD21 c.)j-oD(+ 1 ' I D21V. D21 I *' c-oD21V. /lD. P). - 1V.D - ' 6 I <@ <@ D21 ' 'j1 0Ij- . ' &.D ./ ' .U :1 0I .. ' I 1 I +l/I. . ' @ D + .I . D 1 ' E1 I . F 0. + +>D - I . .I ' (0' D D I . 1 +lD !D . Ij-". 1 02I- 1 0D21 . Ij-. D @ 1 0D21 [1 . / I c)jI. ' c.' 1 0IT&. 'l1 ' 0D21 ' 1V. ' &. IP1 0D21 ).

‡7 ? u .

I(1 -". K 0 0 2      V   ? 0    />1 0D21]1 0I . *' ].äHêÝÔ Û8ã'ØMÓ8Ú |EÞÖ˜Ô ÛØMÓ8Ú'ÝðêÛ\Û8Ú8ÝÕ. Dj- 1 c- @ ÞPÛ\æ å.Ø Ú8ßTí+Û8Þ +æ æ Ô Û8ã. I .Þ/ÜKØMÓ8ÚOè5×. j.å8Õ. D D *' ' .

ØMÓ8Ú  é\é*Ú/Û8äPÔ ÜÞ\Ý"ØMÓ/Ú×\æ æPè8æ ê8Ú^Õ ?Ó/× .*Ô Øå ØbÖKÞPÛ8ä\Ú8ÝKÖbÓ8Þ'ÖKÚ/ݝÚØMÓ8ÚÞPéé*Þ*ÕJÔ Ø%Ô ÞPÛ'Ø ÞFØMÓ*Ô ÕQÝwÚ^Õ.Ú×8Ýwè8Ó ¾é\Ú8Ý9Ó/×\é8ÕÞPÛ/ÚÞ/Ü#ØMÓ8ÚFÝwÚIÜÚ8ÝwÚ^Ú5Õ×8ÕëÔ Û.

ÝwÚ^è5ÚÔ .8Ú.

/Ú^ä+ô .

+>=?-A@CBED-GFHJI.G- KML.RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.N Q. e}%ê8Õ &('*).N OPL. /*02143 99:6<.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k )  .RTSVU aU d.+ 7~9 576 -".

2.Section 3. The processes in die casting  q |  v0 2 8 0  .

0 $  1  w  3  4 @      .

  .

  .

 ( (   wN 2  1   9   9 9  4   4 .

 ( y  K   U 9 3 )u ) j0 > J 0 # D   .

0    .

'4  w‚ .    . 9  .

 .

0    D 4  4 2 '  I4  B I 57 @    9  .

 s  0  .  0    / .4 ?  2  .

 .  .

 .

 .

.Q ~ U U …..    .       .  'P% NPw  )Q. s 8 0LN  .

 0 & 9?   D"    s0   .

.

  .

R $ N :  & .

  4 )  . Q D R  R U } 2  3 0   J7 0 )"  .

       .  .

.

  0  N   .  9 3  0  I ) .

      J  .

) 4   .

 ‡0 )  U 4     j     .

   2 .

  5 5 0 .

 .. .   8  ..

N  .

  .

 .

K 9J )Q.ƒ q U 0 9 3  1 \iFi Y[a’m \^] r a m a r ade2a2X  >    0 9 .

     F   q   w 0 %7  1F  .

.

B.

   s0 C   4  .   :  0  4  .

C .

     '0  D    4    0 ? 0  .

I 1 ]D . ?)c0D ]02I D. 1 0D21 /Ic@ &. (0.. ' 1 0./ Ij- &(' . ' I 9 . IP.G- &. !. C.D21V. Dj-".D 1V. ' / - D. 1+ I & 1 I D21 ' C0. 0D21!. I / ' I[I I c)jI. ' @ . D. D ' I 1 .+ e32:t/i : . ' @ )j-g' &(I ' D. .+ ./ Ij-<1 0D D 9 9 D21V. 1+ D C0I  &(' )j' + 0D I )j-g' &(I D ' 1 D21 I I. I[D 0D21 -gI / 1 02I . I Z. . 1 02I.@ I c)jI. I !. ' "D& 1 I 1 .. I I 1 D .G) . .1 0Ij- 0. 1 I @ I(1 C. Ij--gI ' )jIj-". . ' D D . D21V. ' . D ' 1V. I &[D I Ij-g' . - . c. I2& 1 I G@ +J&(' 1 *' DP&(I.D21V. hI. ' .I + 6 1 0j. -gD &(I ' 1 0I - I . !. &. &.1 D. 1 D21V. .I 1ZD . I D I c)jI. 1 0 1. ' ' 21!1 02I ' 21f1 0I &(I I &(I ' I 02' . !. ' 21V.I &2. I.I!D21 ' 1 ' . 0 4    1 02I D I2& 1V.D21V.. )D21A1 Ij- &2. ' & 1 0I I I I (0' . 1 0 . D . 1 + @ . . 1 + . &0 I ' D. C1 02I *' . ' +]'j1 0Ij-)j-g' 1V. @ 1 c0 I.

 .

s 9 .

  u .

   {  .

 .

 0    > u .

N  .

 .

4   9 E u   E   4     .

 .

U    )u 1N    (   .

U 7   0  0   D    j   D )     .

& . / 1 0I + . D + )   1 0I *' 1 '>1 02I &. ]& . 1V. 1 0IC1 +c). D&j0j.' . I2&0D IC1 ' 1 I[D c-oD21 I I[D- . D21V. . 1 02I!&.D 1 ' . &(' ' .fD 1 02I - . ' .I .& &. 1V. 6 + @ I(1 D / . & 1 ' 1 0I .' - &. o+C1 0I . / ' I . &(I ' +P.'c' j. I C0 2D j. &. 02I2D21 Dj-gI 1 02I>)j. I 1 D21 I 6 I "' . ' 'j1CD&. D 1 -gD I ' I- . . / . . . I!D D ' 0I I[&(1 ' - I I2D&0 @ .

  .

D   .

 !  .

+ &j0D-oD& 1 Ij-". .' Ij- .0D. ( 6 I Ij-   .1 6 Ij-  j0  4 . 1 0IT). D 1 02I 1 0I ' ' 1V.) ' A.' 0I[D21 Ij-gI 21A1 Ij-gI . . A.I &j. ' 1 02I. &('  '+z2   1 ' ).I2D21V. CD I. ICD . D ()jI2& 1 ]' c-gI 21f1 0.' D Ij- - ' )D-gI ' 1 0D21C1 02Il)j-gI fI . ].+ 1 /h@ . ' Ij-gI ()-gD. . 1 0I )j'c' - I &(I I .

.I & 1 I 1 1 Ij-<' 1 0I!. ' 02I>.D & 1 I  ' . . fD21 Ij- 1 0IP)j. 1 0TD / IP. - I.+ .' ' I . I. 1 c- &j. I /*0 Ij. &[D . . 1 D21V. . 1V. 0I 1 'b&. I 0.I D - .Tyz2 . 0I[D211 -oD 1 D. fD ]&. ' I 1 ' + )jIj-".I ' ' I.. . I &.' -gI . ]02I & -:D21 ' 1V.D fD *' .1 1 I2D I &.' D21 "D &2.   9 ' .   . ' & 1V. Z' Ij-' &(I I .D ' I . 1 I 'j1 0Ij- I]. ' C. - I &(' D . ' ' ' I ' 1 02IC&(' 1 -gI[D . / I Ij-". . 1 I I . 1+ @ 1 ' 02I2D21Z1 -oD . 1 + E1 0I . .D21V. [@ &. )Dc)jIj- 1 02I I 1 'TD &. D @ D21V.' D21V. 1 '/j+ Ij- D Ic@ I Ij-. 1 0D21f1 0I I I &. I!)D. I .Ij- . &.)D21 .IT)j'c' .I D ' I?1 02I    D   {7 K     . .1 ' I 1 -gD&(1Z0I[D21 C0IT0I[D21C1 -oD 1 D ' Oy 1 D 1 0I Ij- ).

92  U s7  )  P 0 4  80  1 .

  N    .

 .

 .

 €    <  )    2 +JD ' I(1 0D21]. ' I 6 I D ) ' I!&[D )Dj-gI y&'+zQy{ . ?1 02I  D.

7    x0  9 .

1 + -".D 1 02I <6 1 "D&(1 Ij. ' ' I &-". &. <@ I . 1 I D&.' . I I 1 +J&. 6 D / 1 I ' .I *' / 1 0D211 0IZ1V. 2.  '$   $ )jIj-oD21 &[D21V. ]. - ' . @ fI )D21A1 Ij- &.+ -:I jD D I c- 1 0D21f&[D C0.D21V.I 1V.D @ &(I IP&(Ij.' )jIj-". 1V. D .D '  Dc)21 ' *' 1 0I I . . 1 . h6 I?D . . 1V. 1 D ()-gD.' &(' 0D fD21 I-i@?BI[&[D &(I . ' -gI @ @ I. I ' ' (0' -A@ I(1 fD21 Ij- 1 ' 0D @ D 1 02I /P). .   4 4   . I )jI. &.+ [1V. (0' &[D -gI *' ()-gD.' D ' 1 ' )jIj-".1C1 0I .G. ' I D . *' . &..+ / ' / IPDj-gI D !. 1 Dj- &-". 6 )j. ' D .1 D. &. .

1!1 02Ib'j1 0Ij- 4 D21V.ÚQÚ Pé\Ú8ÝðÔ ßQÚ/ÛØ ÕÖKÚ8ÝwÚ*íE×*ßOÞPÛ8ãÞ/ØMÓ/Ú8ÝWØMÓ*Ô Û8ã*Õ^íHØMÓ8ÚQäPÔ ßQÚ8Û8ÕJÔ ÞPÛ/×\æEÛ\ê\ß. Ij-".ÞPæ . '   )Dc)jI- @ mHn9p ~  ÒSÓ8Úé/ÝwÞPø\æ Ú8ßOÕSÔ ÛOØMÓ8Ú^Õ.ø*Ú/ݝÕÛ/Þ/ØüÕJÔ ßêæ ×Ø Ú^äTÕJê8è8Ó ×8Õ \í£Ú^ÞPßOÚIØMݝåëÚIØ èôK×\Û8äØMÓ8Ú/ݝÚ^ÜÞ\ݝÚëäPÔ ?Ú8ÝwÚ8ÛØäPÔ :Ú8ÝwÚ8ÛØ%Ô ×\æ\ÚHê/×Ø%Ô ÞPÛ8ÕÛ8Þ/Ø#Øðå\é\Ô è5×\æ*Ø ÞäPÔ Úbè5×8Õ Ø%Ô Û/ãÖKÚ8ÝwÚóà9Õ. Ij.

é\ê8Ø_Ø%Ô Û8ã1Õ%è8ÝwÚ^Ú8ÛFÔ ÛØMÓ8Ú |EÞ5Ö ¥Iô #Þ5ÖÚ.äPÔ Õ ØMê\Ý9ø/×\Û8è5Ú^ÕØ Þ|HÞÖä\ÞÖSÛ/Õ ØMÝwÚ5×\ß ¤ðØMÓ\Ô ÕÔ Õ æ Ô ÙJÚ.Ú×8Ýwè8Ó8Ú8ÝwÕ×\æ Õ./Ú^ä*ì+ôKÒÓ8Ú ÝwÚ^Õ.é\ÞÞ\ÝSä\Ú^ÕMÔ ãPÛì6Ô ÛFÖSÓ\Ô è8Ó.Þ æ ÞÞPÙ1×ØbÖbÓ/×ØOÔ ÕÙ/Û8ÞÖbÛó×ÕO× à.

ã*ÞÞäVä\Ú^ÕMÔ ãPÛ1ÝwÚHê*Ô ÝwÚ^ÕbÕIßQÞÞ/ØMÓ.8Ú/Ý_í×.è5ÞPÛØ ÞPê\ÝwÕ5ô  ñWÚ^ÕMÔ ä\Ú1Þ/ØMÓ8Ú/Ýëé/ÝwÞPø\æ Ú8ßQՐÕIê8è8Ó`×8ՐäHÔ ?Ú8ÝwÚ8Û8Ø |HÞÖ .

äPÔ :Ú8ÝwÚ8ÛØã\×Ø Ú^ÕÖSÓ*Ô è8Ó Û8Ú ./Ú8æ ÞèÔ ØåóÔ Û.

8Ú8ÝëÝwÚ5×\æ æ å`ßQÚ5×8ÕIê\ÝwÚ^äí#ØMÓ8Ú é/ÝwÚ^Õ.ÕIê\ÝwÚÔ ÛSØMÓ8Úè5× .

\Ô Øðåb×\Û8ä Hê/×\æ Ô ØåÞ/ÜØMÓ8Úæ Ô Hê*Ô ä.ßOÚIØ.×\æ5Ú8ÛØ Ú8ÝðÔ Û/ãQØMÓ8ÚSè5× .

\Ô Øðx å ¤ Ô ÕKÔ ØÔ ÛSØÖKÞé\Ó*×Õ%Ú ’¥'Û/Ú .

+l=?-A@ BED-GFHJI. /*02143 9:6<.n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k 9~99 576 &.N Q.G- lq r\Zi \ qr a m a r ade2ai Z+i Ya.adl] c X Y q \i/h^Zc ] c dl~l r f q Y Zmk r  mXa i f[r a i da›if^f^o’dd_I_.R?egUX<SVU WX YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.N(O L.8Ú/Ý?ø\Ú^Ú8ېÝwÚ^è^Þ\Ýwä\Ú^ä+ô  K L.RTSVU aUd.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N.a2e`i Y[ZDY[fad^_gd c Xc X o’e\XFX m XZ r i Y[X a i a2f[_g_c m p  .'*)(+c-".

 {   "      y  z{' y&% '*) ëh^i9nsv t\v . Dimensional Analysis   z .Chapter 3.

&n^h.

I)j-gI vni?hTt. u@i &(' ' c-oD21V. ' .

] Zeo’c i a2 f^cddk2i Y[ar a›] Z^XeY[c i Z^ DiFf^X d[] a2_/a2k2`ba f[k2a 0 2 0. &. &[D I 'JI 21fD21 .D Il0D I(1 .& . (0' -gI.':)D/cD21V. I A-g' I 1 . &. @ . . ' Dl1 Ij- I!1V. &. >D. IP.1V. I &. ' 1 0IJ-oD 1 -oD . .' C.+.I2D 1 0I . I2Dj- I .I ' @ I @ 1V. ' 1 0Ij-gI . I -*1 0I I ' /I D fD ' )j.1iF ' + hI(+ Ij.I I ' @ 1 02I )jIj-"./ I 1 'bDP1 c- ' ]' 1 02I.1 Dl-gD I 1 0I I- 0j. D . 1 Ij-oD21 . 1 D 1 1 Z1V. + I 0Ij-gI.[@ I-gD )jI[&(1 I . ' .& ]02I . & &(I I[D @ . / ' - D + . ' I I 1 1 Dj. 1V. 1V.1 6 &(I . .D &j0D I!.I 0j. I.I . D ' I I?1 ' I-i@ 1 Ij- 1 02I ' *' . . ). [@ . ]02I. ' . ' / *' .1 D. I ' / -gI 1 0I ) Ij. 1 + . ' Ij- . 1+!D I I[D ' 1V. 1 0I D. ' 1 -gD ' @ - &-"./ 1 0I . I D o1 Ij- & (I. 1 D21V. &. 1V. I &(I. >I c)jI2& 1 I .02' 1 .1 0Ij- . D>-oD 1 02I I[I .I ' /*0 /P1 0I . ' Ij- 1 I[D c-])j-gI ' . 1V. 0D21Z. I I. 1 0D21 1 D. &. ' I2D 6 I 1 0I Dj-gIJI D 1 1 0I 1 ?' I. 1V. C. . D21 I I-f. .+ j. 1V. D I .I I I!1V.I I fD ]&j.' D21V.D 1 -gI o1 I- .G)jIc@ / ' (0'j1 I &2. 1 I D21 I 'j1?I -oD fD 1 -gD D &.1V. I I2&(' 2@ .I- 0D <@ [1V. .!D21 I[&.I &[& &. I D. 1 c- &. ' 99 F 1 02I]1 -gD . '1]' I I. 02' [@ . . ' 1 0I I .I 1 0D21 1 02I I D / (0'j1 I D.F !. ' C0I Z1 0D21?1 02I ' I C0.' Dc)c)jI[D. . 1 I c.D !. 1 +c).D 1 0I / I[&(' .' &2.I C0I c-gI 0. '!D )21V.Il. 1 0 I[I .. 1 Xf^Y[h^ZZ\^\[]i9_1i Y[`ba awac d] f[X ai cr Zi{d fwh^a2il `br f a2qaYd ik2Yaa. 1 02I 1 @ 99 ' ' . 1J. 1f. I 1 @ &(I>. - 1 'PD!1 c- . / I0j. &j0 -gITD ' /I I[&(' (0'j1 .D '1 I (1 02I 1 D 1 c- 1 -oD21 I .I &. + - I @ *' 1 D 6 1 I &. 1 + . J)j' . . D I . c-gD21V. I. 1 02I 1 ' *' . f&(' 1 0D 1 0I & 1V. ' 6 /*-oDc) j.I . ' <1 0I 1 0D21 1 D I . ' ' . 1 I ].D D (0'j1 .c)[1 A-g' ' I I 1 c- &. 1 0D21!1 02I / . ." zOy&' ' $ 9'       . &0 1 02I / . 0j. .+ I ' - I 1 0D21 *' +.G-o& C0. + . <@ D )D 1 0IC1 0.I]. I '1 I / . hI. 1 'J1 c- 6 I ' . 1 D I + ' I[' 1 ' I 1 ' I . -fD . 1V. 1 02I *' 1 'lD - .' . . Ij- ]02I?1+ 1 &(I .I D c- I[D D I ' ) / I-E' !. . Z1 -oD . D-h1 'J1 c- . 'j1 + 1. )D21A1 I- 1 0I . 1 0I *' (0' 1 -oD 6 1 0I . .+l. 1 D . I ' .02' I(1 . D- .I I . *' <1 02I]&[D I 1 I 1 -gD I . 1V.I D + I[D 1 02I I . "D& 1 .D 1V.I ' ' 1 02I ' &[& E1 0I ' I 1 0I D D . . 1+ 1 02I 1 -gD 21 ' 1 D &. &0b1 02IlI ' I0j. ' IJ1 02I @ I *' D . Ij- ' D J1 02I&-". 0. 1 0IP1 -oD . 9 /I- &. CD D21 D 1 I 1 I D o1 Ij-CI fD . 1 6 &. . )j.I D ' D I I '*)jI . "D D I / I 1 02I 1V. &. I .I . 1V. ]1 0I I . ' 1 0D21 &(' D. . 1 0I . ' ' .I c- 1 *' 7.& 1 c-gI I. 1V. I[&. ' . ' A. Z. I c)jIj-o&-". ?1 c- 1. 1 + I 1 ' D. . 1+[@ 1 .D -gIj)j-gI 1 ' ' Dc) ' . tf#hKf#u02Yn"t +D ' I *' 1C1 0I I -gI . ' .D I[' + &(I . 0I[D 1V.+. D . fD . 1V.+ &. I &./ I2&(' I-gD ' I 6 IJD C0IJ)j' D .I)j' I D 1 0I 1V. ' I ' I[D -gI D D ' ' ' D21V. .1V. 1V.I2D VD 1 c. I. - ' .I I. I I 1 0I 21 ' . / . - I- . 9 . 1V. *' 41 'J1 c- . I )j-g' &. . ' c.@ 0. &j0 @ D- 1 c- I ' &2. &. ' I . 1V. *' 1 02I ' I jD 1 02I 1 02I 1 0D21 6 D -gI[D I I[' 1 1 02I -gIJ1 -oD I[D . D-gI ).G-gI c.D &-gI[D D &j. &. 1 02I D I[&.& I . T-gI ' 1 0I I 1 D21 I &[& D . D 1 0D21 . :@ Dj-f)j. 1+[@ I ' I Dj-gI!. 1V. 1 02I . hI. I!&.@ C0I]I I[D fD . 1 Ij-oD21 c. &0 &(I . / + 1 02I . 1 + &2. &j0 1 0I . 1 -oD .. A-g' c- c. ' 1 0I .+ 1 02I 1V.1V. I &. ' 1 -gD 1 -gD21 I C1 0D21 -fD-gI 1 02I. ' 1 D .I fD I ]02I I(1 D I . - I :1 0I . 1 c- ' I [@ 1 0Ij-gI . fD 'j1 I I .G)jI 1 0I 'j1 ' ' 1 . &. 6 1 I C0I ' . 1V. 1 +2@ D -C. &0 1 c- &(IJ' 1 ' I . ' c-A@ @ 1 -oD21 I / 0D . 9 I &(I I 6 &(I D I. D ]02I . 1 D D .I2D21 I .' . - -gIj)j-gI &. 1].& .. V&2. 1V. ' 0 . 1 0. I C0I D 0. - Ij- @ I I 1 'b1 "1 -gD *' / 1 -oD 1 'T1 c- &.I D 1 0I 1 <6 1 @ ' I c)jI2& 1 I c.I 1 0D21 I . 1 + ' .I 6 I ' 1 &. *' -gI 1 '>I I-i@ )j. . / / D. ' I -gIJ. - I. I D I . .I I I(1 I- 1 02I 0D I I 1 . . 1V.cD . D I 1 I / 1 Dj. c- 1 0D21Z1 02I . A. .Ij-E. (0'j1 1 c- M+2/ *' I I . ' ' Ij- D. 1 D . 1 0D21 1 0I *' C.I .

> 0     > '  4 j . 8 I   .

.

 D ( 2   4 /     . .

.

 .

           ? j  J7 )     .  .

  4    0  IU  …  4 `~ U       .   8} .

q U ' 9 .

4 ‚  .

  .   2  0 (  . ) %$     s   .

  .   0     9    C 0   7      .  .      q ƒ .

   7 ( 9 .    5„s†  . 0            ‡7  w 0  . ).

  ) €  )u .

  ' 0     .

  0 V   .

 4  .

{7 ( 9 .

 ?N&  0   {„s†  .      0 x„†  . 1 8 .

E U G$  .

      > 0w    D I   4  #.

  0 4 .

  .

  4  E €z  9 .

 V7  .  .

    .

   )   V&  0J .

   .

 .

 4   .

  I    9  "' 50  s0 2    .

 .

‡7  0 '.

     '   4 V N  .

 2  .

U .

.

  8 0 .     .

  y  B u9 .

  9 .

  2    $ @  .

87 8 ?&  0   '  ( K  D ? { 9    9  >u   A 0 . .

 .  !N  . U .

.

.

I .

€.

 ( 2   BN   .

 .

  . U 22 .

sP      50  4 F.

.

      ? 8  " ‚ 0 0 . 'u  5 0  .

  5  0 2  4 D    Nj  9 /q QU .

A3 4 D U . E0 4 U > 28N 2 .

H‡  < 0  !  N  .

0 4 4   .  .

7 ?„s†  .   .    ~ Yq U 7 4  „s†   vNn0     w0 4  .

 J …  4   D V‰sc!  .

    8 0  . y )   .

80 4 *  x7 )     .

 ' 9&  ‡0 8&  0            9       9  0 >$   ) … 9 #    0    0  Nn}   & .

H   IQ  q U @ 0 y  0     V  … B 0 0 A   „s†    4   s  JN   j0         U 9 %  4 D  ? @4  D 8 0 %P          .   (  .

 V  ?  2D3   0 4 J  %  J0 4 4 D   5  4  4 D 1‚           &     V  @F 4  .

   4 .

 .

  D U 7 s„†  N D s %      .

 .

4 .

ÞPßOÚݝÚ5ÕJé\Ú^èIØ Õ5ô &('*). ‰ c!0 # d 9 #  D ' 7   0  1 f[ XZZ _gqc qX eZ\X a›X Xi Z)i Y[X aIZ] m c r_)a2aDc di c d[a ir ma f[r e2m f[a e2 a { *' / I I ' &. +>=?-A@CBED-GFHJI.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k ) q .RTSVU aU d. /*02143 99:6<.é\Ó/×8Õ%Ú |HÞÖ˜Ô ÕbאÕJÔ Û\ê8Õ%ÞÔ ä×\æ?Ô Û.+ 7~9 576 -".D Ÿ  ØbÓ/×8ÕØ ÞVø*ÚQÕ%×*Ô ä.ØMÓ*×5ØÕJÔ ßÔ æ ×/Ý:ÕMÔ ØMê*×5Ø%Ô ÞPÛ8Õ×/ÝwÚÜðÞPê\Û8äVÔ ÛOØðÖKÞVé\Ó/×8Õ%Ú^Õo|EÞ5֘øêØØMÓ8ÚIåäPÔ ?Ú8ÝwÚ8ÛØëø^åØMÓ/ÚQÜð×8èIØüØMÓ8Ú H| ÞÖ Ô ÛØðÖKÞ.N Q.RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.Õ.G- KML.N OPL.

   . Special topics . .Section 3.3.

 2 D I D I D CD .

te2.

Ij)21V.&n q  nKf n . ' s  ' 1 02I A-g' 1 -gI.2 K 0O0 ' 1?DT) / *'   - ]./  . 1 0!1 02I!I &. ' `X Yc of[io’f^a2h^_{Z\iijZi Y[ac X dZe ] c _›a2f[] Xf0a xa r ii YYaa r iq Y[] \Qa d[gl^Z[a ` r  Ya2f[_/f^d[_a  a2e2i XZd @ iusv  fKu@iWt\v .

&n"s 2Wh5v  .

  .

 A … ?   7 € D 9?   .

D    '  .

  4 .

.

    9 ~   @  D   5N A  .  4   0 &j 7           9   .

 U    I  .

  N   B u .

N  U  E . D q   u .

.

9 .

0 8 4 U  .

.

 ?.

   V  (   KN   €    0 U |      7 ?&  .

D  .

.

   @  ) …0 )         .

.

.

   %$  0 9    v0    .  @H‡  x0 . . % /    I   .

j  s0  #&  .

 .

    .   D   9     4  0  .

 0 3      9    .

        I    9  4  .   u )  K/        4    y  .

   0         .       )  4 0  4 .

   2  ) x   4 .  2  ?  ?3   D   9   .

  € D     A 5  4 }       .

 .  .

4 y .

  .

4 9   J 0  3 .

w  9   .

.

4 € V    B u .

  .

)4  D # 9 .

.

    u   I    w$       9     . 4 .

9   x&j  .

 J         )  .

            0 D     K . .

 .

      .    &  .

   e32:t/i  .

   D J  .

( ) 5.

    .

 .

':)j.02' I -/cD . C0I ' 2' 6 Ij- I @ 0' 1 1V.D =f.1V. &0!&.-g' ' I0D . - '1 I. I .' . 1 0IlD - . jDj-g/IC&j0D I . I &(I . D I ' I[' ' ' - 1V. 1 -g'*). ' !. . I[' h6 c. & @C&(' 1 c- ' &0' .-gI ZD. D I .' 6 .D I I I .I J)[1V. 1+[@ ' @ .D 2@ I(1 . D + D '+ Ic@ ' C1 02I>&. D ' .D 6 I . . / .+ ' - .' D-gI "D- A.Ij-A@ mHn9p e32:t/i w0 B&  0  D 0L0 I 02'  ' I!&. ' 'j1 "D- A. 0D21 ' ' -gI[D (' ' - 1 1 0I I?I -gI /I . I I D21A1 Ij- ' -1 02I!&. 1V.. . 1+P. / D I . D &.D & . / ' 1 0I!/ 6 D . D - ]0j. I I 1 @ . 1+ *' 1 6 I &(' I &. "' D(+JD . - . I 0D 1 .1 0Ij- 6 6 Ij-gI . D ' . E1 0. I I 1 0I . I I 6 -D &.':) C. .G)D21V.I . ' &0D / 6 I ' ' 6 1 0IP)j-g'*)jIj. I &[D A-gD&(1V. I2Dj- ' 1 'l1 6 + D I 1 &[D ' 02' &[& '/ /IP' .1V. V&(' . 2I D21 I.D21V. 1V. ' . ' 1 0I D-g/I I .I ]I.' . 1 02I A-g' 1 ' .+. I(1 D I.D D 1V. I I[&(1 !' )j-g'*)jI. D I 1 c- "' (0' 1 . ' )jI[&(1 I . D I. 1 I j. D I . Ij-gI G@ D / 'c' I c)jI. ' 1 02I Ij-oD . . .1V. .I *' . 1+!0D *' I 'j1 ' I(1 I- /I I. ' I Ij. ' 1])j-g'*)jI.+ . Ij-gI 1 D.I ) /I @ D . ' &0D I[I I . ' + j. . C. &C0' 1 . 3  €    A C0I ' 1 0I 1 *' &.' .02'1 I. Ij- I!. '1 h)j.1 D 1 . . ?D21 ' &(' Ij- I.' .I (0' P&. I &j0 . 6 1 02I 1 0I :D 02' '/ I . ' [@ I 1 02I]D 1 0D21f1 0I (' 1V. 1 )21V. ' )j-g'*)jIj.1V. ' Dj. ' &. &. I ' .I f1 02I I 1 ' )[1V.f-gI[D )j-gI 1 0I 1 0I .' I 1 . ' I ' 1 0I I[& 1 Dj-g/I ' 1 0Ij- ' 1 - E1 0I I ' . D P-gI 0I(1 0Ij- I IP&.)jI[&. . & D- 0Ij-gIZD I &(I . 1 0I . D21V. ' 1 -g'*).I2D 0D I 1 0I ' . .':)j. I D I 1 'l0D + &(I *. / )[1V. 1 . Z&. ' &j0D 1 ' I &[D )jI[&(1 I 1 0I?D I . ]&0D D 1 ' 1 02I &. ' 0Ij-gI 1 0D21 1 2@ I2&(' 1 0I "1 -gD I h6 )[1V. 1 + D . ' . I . . ' ' I[I I &[D21V.' 6 .+ -gI[D ' I ' 'j1 ' ' I .I IP1 ' (02+ . 0j. 1 . I . I 1 02I Ij- 1 0D21 . V& 1 0I I D./cD ])c0D I . 1 0I &.' 1 I ' /*0 )jI-gD21 c. &[D I 1 D <@C&(' @?1 02I . @ . (I + ' I )21V.. I I @ )21V.' . 1 c- <)j-g'*)jIj.G-Z. I &. &. .I . V& I I &[D I.D - /I "Dj- . .+ )jI[&(1]1 02I '1fI 1 Ij- 1 02I &(IC. 1+[@ -gI[D . . I ' D 0D21 I ) -gI[D 6 . . ' D. j.' D @ . .1V.G.' D I I . & Il. ' ' -gI[D ' D . ' + I . /I . & D21V.

  ' '1 IJ1 ' I  .  . / 'j1 0.

 B0 )  .

/ CD 0D21 1 0I /  )  3 '0 V0 9  .I[/ D- &(I . / 1 02IP)j-g' .

1V. )Dj. & I . (I I  ' )j-gI Ij--gI .

' 0I(1 0Ij-  5 0 0D I *'  5 0  . 1 ' 4 0D 6 I D21 Ic@ mHn9p e32:t/i  'u )  0 0I 1 02I 0 1 2I 'b) 1V.

D &(' 4  .  4 1 02I *' I hI2& 1 !0D I . I . I &.  %    . 1 ' .

.

. ' D6 .   3  . . @  .D21V. Ij-gI - . 1 +T. C1 . &0 I 1C' - D21 ' D !.

N(O L.RTSVU aUd. :    I(1 &@ ~ mHn9p Q K L./cD ?I D.+[@ 1 -oD.G.N Q.'*)(+c-".RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N.G- . +l=?-A@ BED-GFHJI.    I[&(' D.n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k 9~99 576 &. &(I I 1 . /*02143 9:6<.R?egUX<SVU WX YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.

Chapter 3. Dimensional Analysis qp@püv t\v .

&n#i"uHn.

te2.

&nfnKf  iuüsv  f#u@iWt\v .

&n 2Wh5v     1 V .

B   @ 2  : 7 J 92  D  9    )u   .

 4 .

  JNj V 9  0   0  D  0  # .

 . .

  4 .

   (  U q v7 w 2 D  1 0 0 D D  w 2   .

 4 4  0 w 0=   @ & 0 % 0 …P 0    ) v 0  4  .

  .

 .

2 0 .)  x7    ) w‚%        2  .  D  9 8F .

   )  I j        4   .

 $     j     / w /     %$   ) ‡0  1 0 1   F   .     .

Iu9 .

 & .

   V 2   0 E   92 #.

.

 …  2  .

.

     .

D2 . .  y   ) .     C0 &  .

   BN & .  .

U @$  10 & ? 0  ' 1  4 s0    3 .€:  IQDQ .

‡7   D 8 0 0 .

  I  $   .    I0   D 2 D &   .

. €N B 9 '7  D @0 j& . 4  I . T U .

      )  . q   .

 . 10  J  .

.

.

 2 .

      ? 0 7    "  B   ) .

1 02I . I 1 1 I[&j0 . ' + . &. 1 Ib' 1 D .I ' i.    C0I ' &. . 21 1 D ' ' .I I 1 0I I I . .02' D 0. 02':)jI &(I [@ ' .  .D *' & ' 6 .    . I ' h1 02I ' &. 1 ' I . &0 C0I>)j-gI I 1 ' . + D21 )jI. / I D. 1 + )c02I T. D21V.& .D I @ - ' . 1 . <I . .1f1 ' {?{  6 I + .  1 0     .':) I 1 'T1 0I D <= &. 1 + D I D D . C0I 1 0I(+ :-gI I 1 . ' 1 Ij- I ' D &[D D I o1 Ij- 1 - 1 0I . ' 1 D ' . .

 .

 .

Dc) / D 'j1?I . y   . )jI2Dj- z3z  J  . I I>. )j-g' 1?)j-gI .     ' -".

(  .

   {0 .

 ' ' . .D . ' 1 2@ 1 0j. D. 1 + &. &[D21V..  ' . &. Ty .I 1C-gI .?D  .D21V. 21 C. +?I 1 0. 1+  -gI )j-g' I D &. 1 I c)jI.. %$    $ & 0 2 9& 1 0I D I I . ' c. . . .Ty 6 . ' .

1 0Ij- Dj-g/IM. . -gI D21A1 D. 1 D D- . D -gIJ' . I . )jIj-". D / D z +' z35 z2&' 0 28z 2 {:z .D I @ )D. D-g/IC)j' . . 1 ' . & . I I(1 D I Ij-g/j+ I D21V. 1V. & 1 . )jIj-oD21 c. Ij- ' I[D 0I &(' &2. I 'j1V. ' 1 . 1 Ij-". I I - fD 1 D I 1 0D21]1 0I(+ )jIj-)jI . D I I I . 1 . ' )jIj-oD21 (02+ 9 . I . /*02143 I.1V. 1 +2@ 1 0I @ 4  ) D € u9 . . . ' . 1 -gD / ' ' 1 0I D )j' I .I I .I2D I 1 0D h. 1 02I .+ /I ' ?1 ' Ij- - 1 02I 576 -". I + &('*). D. 1V. Dj-*. I(1V.1V. PD ' I. & ]0j. ' / I- '*) . . 1V. (' 1 ' + 1 0j.I2D ' I Dj-g/I 1 02I .+ 1 I I- 99:6<. ' ' ' 6 &.Ic@ 0I 0I -oD Z1 0I 1 -oD . D .  /!1 02I 1 D21 I . &(' 6 'c' ' ' &(I )j-gIj0I . ].1 D I Ij.D21V. /IP&. I hI2& 1C' ' . / . 1V. ' ' 1 j&-". 1V. ' :1 I .

 .  7 € j .  xN  .

.

   C u   D  #7 >     V  &    j .

    ˆ  •   .

(   1. &   7 Iu9   .

   • ˆ   .

  }      4 G E  )  4   .

eh^Y(a f [\ r c if[de2X fai a rm irZ^a2c XZ^_i i c de c dZiiZZa m  +   f^h^Z\[iX '\a2a0x ae2fX i c dl    )  # u9 .  D ?0 8  2    V ia0( Y'gc aIX\[efk2\i f^Xc ZX] \dai Yi aDZ.    .

o’fi a r c f^] q^ r  q d^r \i c oa2X h^ a  r df_)d[_. &-gI[D 02I.1 I[D 1 0I D- . &[D 1 0I + &. Ij.ƒ U 9 . I[& 1 ]D-gI 1 0I . ii ZYa›q i \[aio i Ya af[a i \ q ] a›f^d[_fc ji c aZdad[f^e2h^a Z\i e32?t*i    D   q r r r   K ?   ' 3 Zd^] r a2l\^] f r _gc a›e2f[X i c d[l mon7p e2f^Zh^d[Zi \[c i+d^\iaYai YaX '_g\ca2X a0ex \aX X ce2Zf[dX i Y[c da lr a `i aYo a r a a f[X i o’\ f^a ] IeYf^a2df[li a a c d ] f i lY[aa r c r di e Y[r a.G)D21V. U :@ Ij- 1 0I I . N q . ' .I D I <1 02I Ij-g/j+[@ .1 Ij- & ' U 1 0I. I ]' N q . . ' 1 0IT)j-g'*)jI. 1 0Ib- I ' I.' ' D21 2     V0 2 -gI(1V.e2f^_] ec X \^e] \[fXi a›X›iir Y[Y[aa 7~ X c ldc *ge2f^de2a C0I (0' (0'j1 1 0D 1 I IJ-gI[D - I-GF ) ' &[D21V.D &[D I .G-gI - D ' I & )c02I +>D21 ' T1 0D21 .1V. eYZ f^dq a la.

&. / *Dj-gIJ&.G)D21V. :@ .'  . D . '    (    ) !.  D(+ lD .D  1l-g' IMD G@  I(1 D .

N Q.RfegUXhSVU - . Ij-oD .RTSVU aU d.   I .N OPL. .   (   .G- KML. 1 02I Ic@ +>=?-A@CBED-GFHJI.

   w  s    ’  .

    I  :  €&  0 . .

. 1 - 1 0I!)c02'1 ' I ' *' &(1V. ?DP0'*)jI Ij- 1 02I +Z1 02IC. 0I I)jIj- . )   . D 1 D *' M.  .I [1V. ' + - Dj-g/I- ZD 1 0D21 . ' 1 .' 1 D21V. ' 1]. ' I ' c. @ Ic@E1 0I 1].

… 0  .

0  w 9   .

I o_2>2"hJs2˜t*h^i9nsv t\v . - *' 7. I.I . )j-g' h6 - IJD.

&n ^ h.

ªt\fKh K fKu 2Ynt .

 t.

u@i v ni?h .

 .

4 ( 2  y   .

U  .   1 9 .  JN  .

(    .

 0 '?    u9 9 #    .

 .

. Z1 0I 9 :@ 21V.I2D [1V. ' 1 .1 I I fD .I .RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k  * . I / & . . ' +C&0D 2@ . ' + + . [1V. -gI]' ' &[D &. + . &0?1 02I 1 ' . / I E1 0. 1+[@ )D C0I I. ' WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW. 4&(' @ ' ' 1 *' &[D 21V.1 D.D I j&(I D A-g' Ij-". ' . I [@ 1 Dj-".I . . ' &.D f. 1 D . ' D I . . &[D D D 6 - @ I[I I &[D /P' 1 0j. &[D 1V. !-gI . D21V. 1 D21V.D 1 1 &2.I D . &[D & 1 0D21 I ' I D21 c-gI c. ' 1 0. 1 0 1 0I . &.D BED& -&(I.I!D I 1 0D21 . &2. ' 1 0. 1 D I jD 9 1 02I I2&. 1V.+ 1 'PD . &. I 0Ij-gIC1 0I Ij- / D21V.' + (I 0D Ij-oD21 I ]. F 2 ?0 2 ' ' I[&[D Dj-g/I- &0 . 1+ I D-gI -gI[D D ' fD + 1 - I I C0I!. 1 ' D *' ' I2D .I f1 0D21 .I2& 1V. 1 0D211 02I &0 I .D ' ' ]02I .02' D21V. & @ I 1 ]' . 1 . 1+ .I I. C0Dc) 1 -g' &[D21V. 1 D 1 0I(+JD.D 1 D I . ' *' I[&. I &(IPD *' . 1 0 ' . 6 Ij- /J. &[Dj-gI [1V. I &0 I. D. )jI 1 D I-GF D I ' 1 D. 1 0I . 1 ' '1J)j-g' h1 0I @ I &. 1V. . 1V. &j0 &0 1 0D21 . )j' 1 02I J. C.I2D .G. I (0'c'1V. ' @ fD I. &2. +!. 6 I ' ) . ' *' &[D @ .' I .D @ 1 -". ' 1 02I. ' . .. 1 ' I iI(1 *' 1 0IJ&. I [@ 1 0I 1 C. 1V. ' 1 02I 6 . ' . . . ' 1 0.

Estimates of the time scales in die casting 2  4 4     .Section 3.4.

 7  K  4  z3z  '+{ '#4 /   C0  4 C    B  4  1  y    .

4 ?   @   1 2  7   9 .

 .

 4 #  2 9 .

0 B u9 .

   .

 9 5 2 s7       ) 4 5  B&  0   s  .    4 ( B 9  .

  9.

j  )   x7  9 .

 .   .

(  .

 $ s• ˆ   N q Q.U  4  4 ? 1 . .  } Vˆ V  5    .

     R    ?   .   4     4  0    w7  0 D .   s 0    .

€ 9 .

(   U **  ) VN 0 &          . V u9 .

     J   4  9 „s†  .  4   .

.

 .   U  KNF‰ -!   D 5  5 7 ?„s† .

(  .

 .

  .

?  4 2 ’ I      s  4 5  ^ 4  J 0    4 J  7  .   4 V 0 &   D   A‚    ).

9    4 2 D .

  .

  4 .

  sN ) 2 8  0 2 D   4   .   U  9 .

I 1 0D21 . I . 1+T. 1 0' . I + &. D c. 9 C0I . / 1 0I 0D ]1 ' 1 D I /*-oD &. I 21 -gI ' I!.G- I I . ' 1 0I [1 0' + Dj- I[I .D ]02I 1 02I D. VD I. ' (0' *' -". 1+ I hI2& 1 I /b1 +c)j. -g' ' 1 02I .G- 1 0IJ'j1 0Ij- -o&(I f1 ' . 1 02I I 1 0I ' &j0T&. & 6 &2.1 I 1 02I I &. C. ' &(I]1 02I 1 +c)j..I I . ' I c)jI. .1 D 1.G-i@ .I I>I /I /:-gD I ' ]02I ' D21 I 6 -g&. -gI ' 1 0I ' Ij- I D D -o&(IT./ &2. 1+ &[D I - 6 I.    H  j    ? 0  & Nj H ƒ.!. - DP' + 1 ' "D . 1+ ). D C0I]/:-gD -g' . I I + b. -g&.U 7 C0Ib/*-oD 1+ . 1 @ (0'j1 ' -o&(I @ /*0 1 D . J)D. 1 02I D :@ 0Ij-gI . 1 +-gI[D&0b. 1 0 1V.I2D&0 1 0I @ I jD 1 C1 ' I(1 C0I I[I ) IJ1 02I I @ I 1 ' D21V. 1 +T. D -gI . ' 1 0I Ij-oD21V.. &[D &2. 1 0I 1 02I *' . .I 1 02I @ ' ' &2. D . . 1 + I ' / 1V.+ ' . 1+T. o+ . ' ' /j1 0 . ' c.1 D 1 02I>-gD21V. . 9 I!' D 6 /j1 0 I I-. + . C. ' Ij- &0 1 0I 1 0. C0I . Z1 0I I 1V. + &0D-gD&(1 Ij-".D D .. 1+l-oD I[& 1 I 0D PD ' I /I I[/ I2& 1 I I ' I I[&(1J' ' .I I ."D&. ' 1 '>&. I ]. & . 1 + .@ /*-oD 1 02I /:-gD D. . 1 +JI hI2& 1 CD. I.I!' . 1+[@ ' ' /*-oD >. &. D D.D D. / I[&(1 "I ()jI2&2. ' @ - Ij- I[& @ I(1 D I!' 1 02I 2I 1 (0' 0D I ' ' . 6 I *' . )j' 0I + &(I!1 0I 1 0I .D I]1 0D21 D. &.I 2@ D. D D b./ I *&(' I D21V. D I I 6 @ D!&. ' I(1 I. 6 C0 6 I- ' /b. - 1 ' I . 1+ -". / + I . @ I[D- . 1 02I . .I -o&(I D D.' . ' 1 02I @ ' Ij-. 1+!)jIj-". ' I . . .I . ' I[&. D21 I]I &[D D ' 1V. I . 1!. )D21A1 Ij- . 1V. D . I- 1 0I 6 I 1 0I -gI[D .D21V. 1 0 &[D . &[D 1 02I 1 0I 'j1CD fD./ I I /I- /*-oD .1f1V. 1+ . . 1+[@ I 0Ij-gI 'j1 0Ij- iI[& 1 /T1 0I . & 2I .D &. D .D f1 0I ). '1 I ) . *' D -gD21 I . Ij-oD21 I 1 1 . I . + . Z1 0I &0D-gD&(1 Ij-".' I I . . &C)j' &0Dj-oD& 1 I. ' 1 02I -gD I[I /I 0Dc)21 Ij- @     7 C0I I ' 1 0D D  .

)j-g'  . &. 1 -gD . & 1V.D 1 02I I-h1 0D &(I                 5 zOy{ T . I- I I ' )j-g' 6 + I !. ' "$ y&% {?z5 - 02I2D21 1 02I 1V. 2   '+z2  {'  2 &)     . y I I- 1 0IJ0I[D21f1 -gD E'    " y  " 4{ { .

  9  .D     n 9 .

(  .

4 8? V        9&   1  ) IU  .

   .

 .

(  q U .

  N  .

   K.

( 2  0 ?0 9  .

.  8   .  &    ( 2  ( 2  x7 s    &0Dj-oD& 1 I.

/l)j.I I )j-g' 1 ' ' . I .+ I c. I 1 0I . 1 +T' .D Ij)Dj-oD21 IC&.I -gI.i~ U H I4   s  0   ) 1V.G)D21V. I(1 Ij- &.  ( 2    (  2 ) . -g' I I . 1 +J. /<@ . Z1 'PI . .D &[D21V. ' . . I C0I I . I ) Z1 0I)j-g' .D21V. ' 1 0D21 .I!DT)j. ' . /l.':)jIj- ' I . I]&. D. . 1 02IT&.I 1 'T1 02I D .I Z.' &. 1 0 . . I-D -gI[D )j-g' 1 0I .   &[D ' . .' &. . I. I &0 1 0I j.

0  9 .

( U      s .

I @ 1 ' 21f'j1 0Ij- z C0I!&0Dj-oD& 1 I. 9 @ ' 6 . /PD .. I ' - . /J)j-g' . ?1 02I / 1V. ' 5 7 ' &. 1V. . ' . &   ( 2  1V. D . &  -ZI jD Dj-g/I-*1 0D I[&0D &(' C I .

I &.D 4 . . 1+ . .

  .

+ '‰ ˆ N)q  . I. I b.1 Ij- .

Úé\Ú8ÝðÔ ßOÚ8ÛØ Õ5ôv Wæ Ú5×8Õ%ÚOäHÝwÞPé1ßQÚO×Fæ Ô Û/ÚÔ Ü"å5ÞPêFÙ/Û8ÞÖëô  6 I [@ . :@ ŸnŸ HÖKÞPê\æ äóæ Ô ÙJÚQØ ÞVæ Ú×8Ý9ÛT×\ø*ÞPêØÕJê8è8Ó.

D z 5 ' K L.' VD. 1 0 .R?egUX<SVU WX YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW. "#"$ y&% q I &(I &. ' Ij-?)j.n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k 9~99 576 &.G-  9 U .N Q.'*)(+c-".RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N. ) 1 02I 0I[D21?1 -oD I!&. +l=?-A@ BED-GFHJI. 6 I . 1 0I ]. /*02143 9:6<.RTSVU aUd.D21V.N(O L.

Chapter 3. Dimensional Analysis  .

 )   .

  2  .

 ‚ } .

'j1 I >. 1V.   1V.1 Ij. & /1 0 . 7 C0I!&0Dj-oD& 1 I. . .. 1 0j. IJ. + ) Ty . 0Ij-gI I I. I I2&(' 5 '. ' 1 ' .

.

 .

 ) 4 ( 2   4   .

 T   )  2 ( 2    .

1V.D21V. I D& 1 D I &[D . '  • ) 4 D '&  D   9 3   ˆ . f1V. I / 'j1 I 1 0j. . . &[D 'j1f1 0I 1V. I   # 0 „s†  . 9 3 ' - D21 ' . I]D )j-oD& 1V. 1 0I .

U 4  D-g/I . .. &. / . V&(' . ' I- I   4 . .D D21 I . C0I!&0Dj-oD& 1 I. +J. A-g' I.  ' 1 I D  .1 ' ' - D %N . I + ˜ 1 ' V&-".I .D 1V.G)[1 ' 0 !  . D . ?. 1+ . f1 0I . 1 Z' /b0D Z1 ' C0I 7 0 Ij- . • — I 1 02I IC1+ 21 -gI D Ij-oD/I ). ' - / I Ij- 7 ) 02I. — 7    &.

D .

    . / . Z1 0I Ij- . & I Z' E1 0I /cD21 I 1V.  4  &    D . I 1 0. .

‘  ‘ I-  .  Ij-gI .

I U ~  5. I   9 3 1 0I D& 1 D D21 ' !. 1fD ' - .D21V. . '   1V.

. I . .

1V. I(1 I. I . /I &0Dj-oD& 1 I. ' I D I 2I!' I ' 1 02IT/ 1 0I 4   )u  ' Ij- . I   .!.I2D N)q    I .. ' 1V. . & D21V.

1Z1 ' U q  :@ .I I . + I(1 )  C  )j. ' D .

    )  .

j  4 2 D D 0 I .

1+[@ . Dj-gI @ + I [@    1V. 1 . 1V. & . ' 1 .

' 1V. .

/ &(' ' 1 I  :@ A-g' 1 0I . D  %  & Ij- -gI!' 1V.

)jI-gD21 c.I D21V. IJ.I 1 02I / ."D&. '  D21 I N)q  |U $#    9 1 0IP02I2D21f1 -oD   9  > u9 .  . . I-  ^ c. <@   )   ' .

    )u  N q  q U    .

‘   ! ‘   ! ‘ I ?I   1 'PI "! $#  ‘• I  *)   .

  )D21 0J' /P&0D  •  ‘  . . .

+ . # . 1V.U :@  )   &j0D-gD&(1 Ij-". &('*).. + c X ea2\X Xi Xc o’c Zfd+i a2f^Xh^f^Zd\_Di Yi Z[Y[`9a+ii Z q e2c e2f^f^] p ] ‚ e\] f[i ac i .  I!D  N)q ) R. J)jIj-oD21 I  ‘ •   I(1 D .U ‘ :@ 1 0I!&0Dj-oD& 1 I. ?1 -gD ' - I 1 ' N)q ) T. &  1V.  ˜ ‰ '1 I / I I[D  _g.

& . 1 0J1 02I      u . ' 1 ‘ 1 ?1 0D21 9  &(' . Dj-g/I D21V.   0j. &j0 '  1V. 4.

 ~ ) .

} I I 6 . (   ‘ • ˜ (' ‘    ! . ' :@    .

. H I 1 0I  1 0I!&0Dj-oD& 1 I.. - 1 I N)q 1 02IP0I[D21Z1 -gD •  ‘  . 1 0I .

Z1 0I  ."D&.I I ‘ •  . B ' c.

  .' - 1 0IT&0D-gD&(1 Ij-".  6  Iu9   0 4 2     &(' 9 :@ . . 1 + D21 ' I[I 2püv 2 /PI c) &. ' 71 0I D21V.Ku0p 1 D     ^   … 5„s†  . ' '  F 9 N)q  IU . /*-g' I(1 I I  9  1 D.D21V.

(  C. 1 0 ' 4   )u     ‘    ‘ • .

‘ /' 'b' I  .

l.  9 j0  .

Jn9püf  t\v .

. 1. & 1V.     C0I!-gI I 1V.&n t\v  7 .    . & 6 &2.@   . 1+ 1 '>.  1 D. D21V.

& 6 . 0 ' z 5 ' 1V. D/*-oD 6 'j1 I  ' &j0D-oD& 1 Ij-".  1 0I A@    .

I . /*02143 1V. &  1V.   '1ZI I[&(1 I +>=?-A@CBED-GFHJI.     1 02I 7~9 576 -".G- . W    . 99:6<.

b. +J1 02I .

RfegUXhSVU ‘ @ WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW. 1V.RTSVU aU d.N Q. '   ' 1 02I ! KML.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k  ) .N OPL. (  I .

4.Section 3. y 0 7 . Estimates of the time scales in die casting x T .

I ?1 ' . D- +JD ' )    • I  • ˜ z. / I ëz 0  "$ '*) D21V. 1 0J&j0D Ij-". ' Ij- . ' . C.1V. /l)j.':)jIj.

. 1V. 1 0I 0I[D21f&(' &0D-gD&(1 Ij-". . )j. "$ 1 -g'   ' - 0D  $%   .' {  " IJ. 1V. & 1V.  . C/ .' 5 . I +P. .

I )D21 0P' I ' .I N)q ) ƒU :@ '  &    D K u9 . ' N)q U :@ &(I I D h6 6 . I )Dj-oD D21V. 1V.' & 1V. ' D D I?D I 1V. I . . D- 6 . ' I 'j1 I C1 0I +!D D D. fD ' . ' ' :@ -&. & 1V.

    9 .

 y  .

.

  .

 (  A 9   )   .

!.

 I    #0 .

.

.

   ( 0 9 @ 9  ) $ 2 &     • !CN 4 K  2 U 17    4 A  2 ˜  ‰ ! y K 9 .

( .

   )  ' 4  4 (   P 0 D   2 .   .

N     .

 : U   ) 80  '    {    '   .

    .

.

   ( ( D      0  )  w0 2  )    D         s   4 '  2 ‚  '1 I!D/ 'j1 I  1 02I +   ˜ ‰  . I(1 I- )   .

 .

 ) B     j  0  .

  )j-g' I 2. 1 02I  # $# ) .

1 0 . ˜ . . ' .1 D . Ic@ &2. 1 +[@ 1 02I )  I &.   & 1V. & I )c0D •  )   &. ! . & 1V.I . I. ' ' .' . C0I /J1 0I • &. +  •  ) . )j-gI   1 0I .D If' '  V 4 {} 1V. ' &j0D-oD& 1 Ij-". (  1 02I I(1 D &j0D-oD& 1 Ij-".

   .

 4   02I.I 1 0I y /!0I[D21EI . . ) 0 z 5 ' 4   Iu9   % 9 .

 D J u9 .

  w   )u  )N q  q U    .

  € u9 .

 .  .

 ‡7   4 .

    .

 4 9    .

 .

&  *FW  . &.       C0If/ 0  ' .*. ' -1 0I ' . I 1 0I ' I . ' @ . ./ I ' .Ty D. .  92 0  <.I I. 1 0D21 0' I 1 02I .+ I .

 N u .

     .

  .

I(1 1 0I D I(1 D )21V. / & . . 0    2 0 ' ' ].  I . I[D I. ' .I . ' 1 0I ' C.

I $ J0 '  . D . Ij.1 .

D  .

' ' / Ij. ' ]. ' .+ 1 02I . ). 1 I. 1V. &. D I 1 I . D- - . & /I ZD 1V. ' @ I D I 1 Z' D )c0D I. 1 0 @ &j0D Z1 0I!&0Dj-oD& 1 I.I 1. I / ' e vuwu 2Wh@s•i  Wh.D ' 02I. &(I I(1 D &(' . D I- . 1V. & 6 I )jIj-oD21 c.+ .I @ D(+[Ij-Z. "' ' I . 1 02I D I -". TD . 1 0I )j-g' .+ .1V.' +J1 0I .I I.@ . 1 D21V. 1V. & 6 D I &[D21V. . /b1 02I>&[D .  1 02I ' . 1 D l. JD 1 0j.. />-gI[D )j-g'*)jIj.I 1 0I . :@ 1 02I1 I *. ' I IJ. I ' 6 D 1 0I 1 02I .

#i .

Ty  . D 1 02I G@ z 5 ' 1 0. 1V. &j. (0I I . C0I &j.I2D 0Ij-gI!1 ' D 1 D 6 'j1C' - . ' I  ' . ' . -gI Ij-g/' I 6 1 02IP. I /1 0 . I ' &0D I . ' - D(+[Ij- D.I2D A. &-gI[D I .

1V. 'j1 0Ij-?)j-g' -gI ' . % . &(I !0D . &0Dj-oD& 1 I. "$ @ I I I . . ' 1 0D21 j& 2      U  2 . . &0D-gD&(1 Ij-". 1 ' I 1V. &>1V. . &!1V.. 1 I 1 D .

 .

*Fž P 6 - H . ' I . Ij- D )c0D 1 '!&(' ' D )21V. & @  .

 .

2 )Q.Q U  J  .

 ?NP .

   .

   .

 V 9 .

( K       1 9 .

(   2 .

J 9 .

( .

D21V. .   8 0.+ 1 -gD&. 1 1 D I &. &. 1 02I D IZ1 0D21 I 1 I 1 0D21C1 0I I ' - 1 02I &. ' A-g' .IC1 02I. f.D21V. ' 1 . . I . ' 1 02IP&.D 1V. Ij- 1 -gD D 1 0I ' . ' I- D. & 1V. &. &. 'lD & 1V. H 02I2D21 .I?1 ' I]1 0D21 1 0I . . .' ' &(' D/ -gI & .

 I  .   .

 #   ?7      4  .

 1 Ij-gI &j0D-oD& 1 Ij-". / 1 ' / ”  • N)q ) QU    :@ Ÿ¦ î'Ô æ æ Ú8Ýü×\Û8ä Ó*Ô ÕëÕ ØMê/ä\Ú8ÛØOè5×\æ è/ê\æ ×Ø ÚTØMÓ8ÚTØåé*Ô è5×\æEÜðÞ*Ýwè^Ú^Õ. ' 1 0I ' D I- 1V.Ø%Ô Û8ã¾é\Ó8Ú8Û8ÞPßOÚ8Û8ÞPÛ¼Ô Û. .&."D&(I - .ÖbÓ*Ô è8Ó`ÕIßO×\æ æ:è5×8Õ. 1 0I].' & I D 1 Ij.ÝwÚ Eê*Ô ÝwÚ^äóÜÞ\Ýè8æ ×*ß. I ]0j.Ø%Ô Û8ãK¤ õ ¥TÝÚ Hê*Ô ÝwÚ^Õ1æ ×/Ýwã*Ú8ÝSÜÞ\ݝè5Ú1ØMÓ/×\Û Ó8Ú× .é*Ô Û/ãôëÒSÓ8Ú'è5×\æ è/ê\æ ×Ø%Ô ÞPÛ/ÕFî'Ý. I ?D&. I @ D .ô'îTÔ æ æ Ú8ÝÓ*×Õ ßO×8ä\ÚFÕIÓ8ÞÖÎÔ ÛØ Ú8ÝwÚ^Õ.

Ý×\Û8ã*ÚFÞ/Ü "! #%$ ô  Û`ÝwÚ5×\æ Ô Øðå1ØMÓ*Ô Õ.n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k 9~99 576 &.Ù8Ô Û8ä3Þ/ÜSè5×8Õ.ÝÚ Hê*Ô ÝwÚ^ä6ÜÞ\Ýè8æ ×\ßé*Ô Û8ãô3÷ê\ݝØMÓ8Ú8Ý9ßQÞ\ÝwÚ*í#ØMÓ8ÚFÜðÞ*Ýwè^Ú'ÜðÞ*ÝSõ  üè×Õ.Þ\ÝwÚ^ä ØMÓ*Ô ÕëÝwÚ^Õ.Ó8ÞÖ ß.ê8è8Ó'Ô Øè5Þ*Õ Ø  Ÿ§  Óå   Ó/×ØbÔ ÕØMÓ8Ú'æ Þ*ãÔ è  q>q K L.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N. +l=?-A@ BED-GFHJI.G- .Ø%Ô Û8ãóÖSÔ æ æ"ߐ×äÚTÞPÛ`&ù  Ø ÞP'Û ߐ×è/Ó*Ô Û8Ú'Þ\Ý ßQÞ\Ýw Ú ¤6Þ*Ýwä\Ú/ÝëÞ/ÜOߐ×ãPÛ\Ô ØMê8ä\Ú æ ×/Ýwã*Ú8ÝbØMÓ/×\Û¾î'Ô æ æ Ú8Ýbè5×\æ è/ê\æ ×Ø%Ô ÞPÛ6ÕIê8ã*ã*Ú^Õ Ø Ú5)ä ¥Iô¾ÒSÓ8Ú.Ø%Ô Û8ãEíÛ8ÞóÜÞ\ݝè5Ú'ÖÔ æ æø\Ú.ØMÓ8ÚÔ Ýëé*×*é\Ú8ÝOé/×8ã*Ú  Ô  Û  Sâ  Ò"Ý×\Û8Õ%×8èIØ%Ô ÞPÛ6ù8ú*ú*ö   ÜSØMÓ8ÚóÝwÚ^ÕIê\æ Ø ÕTÚ/ØMÝw×\é\ÞPæ ×Ø Ú^ä6Ø Þ ×\ø*ÞPê8ؐý  üè×Õ.Ô Û.Ø%Ô Û8ã`Öü×Õ è5×\æ è/ê\æ ×Ø Ú^ä3Ø Þ ø\ÚVÔ Û1ØMÓ8Ú.Ú5×/Ýwè8ÓF×\Û8ä.R?egUX<SVU WX YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.RTSVU aUd.Øåé*Ô è×*æüÝwÚ Hê*Ô ÝwÚ^ä•ÜÞ\ݝè5ÚVÕJÓ/ÞPê\æ ä ø*Ú ä\ÚIØ Ú/ÝðßÔ Û8Ú5ä. /*02143 9:6<.N(O L.\Ô Ú/Ýè5×8Õ Ø%Ô Û/ã ¤_õ  ¥ #Ó8Ú^è/Ù`Ô ØÞPêØ.'*)(+c-".øIåØMÓ8Úé\æ ê\Û/ã*Ú8Ý#ÜÞ\ݝè5ÚQ×\Û8äTØMÓ8Úߐ×è/Ó*Ô Û8Úé/×/ÝØ ÕØMÝ×*Û/ÕMÔ Ú/ÛØè8Ó/×8Ý×8èIØ Ú8ÝðÔ Õ Ø%Ô è5Õ×\Û8ä'ÚIØ è\ô £ê8Ú^Õ%Õ^í?Ó8ÞÖ ÕJé\ÞPÛ8Õ.N Q.

Chapter 3.' 1 I ' 7 &2. 1+[@   .I A.Il02I. Dimensional Analysis }   4   02I.

. / . &0 . I Iu9 +!1 02I!I 0Ij-gI . PI I )j-gI '1 I + ]-gI )jIj-". 1 ' I!. I / . I ' .  4 0 0Ij-gI &(' I . / . D 1 Ij-gI ' ]02I D. . . . &. C/ . I ' I 1 I )jI-gD21 c-gI 1 D '1 I 1 0D21 &(I D . J. . ' D 1 02I 0. . 1 D ' . . I  &('  I P&. I CD 1 D I   . . . 1 HP. .I - . I[D21 D D &(I / 1V. + &(' @ . @ 1 0D21 1 D ' + .1V. ' . IJ. +TD &[D 1 . . .   j     2 4 9    0    .

D  I[/ U ~9  4 .

   &     ”      2 I   .

' 1 I "D 1 2@ Dj--". & &(' & 1 0I &(' c- 1 0j. &(1 PD I 6 I A. . I @ HP. . )j-g' &.' I . I]1 0.' &(I 1 -oD .  2     U ‡7   9  2  2  ' I!&[D . 1 02I C0I D I-C0D 21 02' D - <1 02I D .

' I  ‘ . 0D f1 ' I[& 1 . . D . I ' . 1 + 1 0I IJ&. / .

/ D . I '+ ]1 02I I 1 'l1 0Ib02I2D21 1V. &!0I[D21 )jIj-oD21 c. &!1 I ' 1 0I . D-]-gI ' I &   9 .  &[D I 1 -oD . .I 1V. . +j. ' Ij- 1V.

  y  .

 ' 9 .

(  .

.

 D C u9    K}     D  { ). KP  ' .

1 D &0D . D &0Dj-oD& 1 I.. ?  .

( 1 0I . N)q ~ IU .

u  .

' 1 ' 0D !D .  D I /b' 1 0I c. .. D- 'j1 IJ1 0D21!.I )jI I . D 1 '>'1 02I- ' /T1 0I 1 0I -gI . @ . ' 1V. 1 I 'j1V. ' ."D&(I I A.I 1.02' 1 Ij."D&.I D21 /I .@ )jIj-oD21 6 &(I ) &. j. I ' 1 1 02I I 1 0I • ‚ %‰   * 6 ]02I  1• ' @ ' :@ . D @ 1 I. ' A-g' 1 I I I . .1 02I- )D. ' & 21 '    .)jI. ) I ' . 1 0I . . I. f1 0I c."D&(I 6 ' &. 1 0D21 I [@ 0D ' .   .D21V. &(I /:-gD . & 6 +   .I C0IJ&0D-gD&(1 Ij-".I 1 0I 6 1 -gI . .

 .

9 .

>. I 1 ' -g' )j.' D& [@ . ' &. I c) ]D I[D- )j-g' ).D21V.':)j' I- . * I.+J&. 1 ' &[D21V.I D.' ]0j. ' I K u9 .

 9 .

 ^   ”   .

1V. D 0 I(1  2  &    y 92   . D 1 0D21]D21 .

8 j    U 2 O7   :  6N  #&  0    D E 0     . '  D21V. . & 1V.&.' 21 ' • . I 1 02I )jIj-)jI . 1V. 1 . D . '   . D&.  1 0.

 .  .

 J   .

 .

 v    .

 y H 2  2 I     (  ~0  A  € 4  .

  .

      ‰• .

‘      .

F  B u9 .

.

     ‰ ! { 9  9 .

.

.

 4  / u9       ” .

.

 &%  # ‰  •     ”  ” .

   9 .

7 €    .

' 9 .

P      7 D  .

  0    …7  s        0 . 1 :@ D21Z1 0I   . Ij- N)q Qh 2?s2Ynt i  Wh.

#i .

P 1 0I   4  IT0I[D21C1 -oD   .

( 2     BN .

 .

( 9 …   > 9 .

( .

' . ' U ~>~ € 9 . I[D- &(1V. '  C0I  ”    • . '  D ' 1 02I . ' )jIj-oD21 . D 21 ' -gI D . 1 &[D :@ .& 1V. I .' 71 0I I. / )j. 1 02I j@ 1 02I . D .  &  &(' ' D21V. I A. 1V.I ' D21 I ?1 02IP0D . N)q &% # :@   1V. ) I2Dj-o&0 D fD. / 1 .1V. I D21 I &(' . '  4 4 ( 2    .I I!I 1 'l1 0I ' ' 1 0I 1V. Ij-gI -E1 02I A-g' 1 -oD &(I A-g' Ij- . / . . / + ”   r  &[D21V.  $ A  vF  1]D . ]1 0IP. b. .':)j' 1 I ' . 1V. J.

N 9  ! u .

U      &% #  *  ?  .

.

 #   D   .

 .

N)q . 1 0I I(1 .

&    . ' @ Ÿ z Ûå5ÞPÛ8Ú Ó/×. I!1 0. & I 6  6E. VF  21 D U ~ q  &(1V.

8Ú¼×*Û8å•ÚPé\æ ×*Û*×5Ø%Ô ÞPÛ  ÒSÓ*Ô Õóè^ÞPÚ.

Ø%Ô è Ø%Ô ßOÚ\ô Ÿ { ÒSÓ8Ú'Ú^Õ Ø%Ô ßO×Ø Ú'è5×\Û.è^ÞPßßOÞPÛ\æ å ê8Õ.Ø.Ú8ÛØ Õ#ØMÓ8ÚÝwÚ^ÕJÔ Õ.×\Û8è^Ú.é8ÝwÞ . .ÞPæ Ô ä ×\Û8ä æ Ô Eê*Ô äíOÞ\Ý Ø Þ3ÝwÚ8é/ÝwÚ^Õ%Ú8ÛØOØMÓ8ÚVÝwÚ^ÕMÔ Õ Ø.×*Û/è^Úbø*ÚIØðÖKÚ^Ú/ÛØMÓ/ÚØðÖKÞSÕ%ÞPæ Ô ä\Õ"ÕMÔ Û/è^ÚÔ ØWÔ Õ"×SßÔ Û8Þ*ÝÜ9×8èIØ Þ*Ý×*Û/äbä\ÞPÚ^ÕKÛ8Þ/Ø:ä\Ú^Ø Ú8Ý9ßÔ Û/ÚKØMÓ8Úè8Ó*×8Ý×8èIØ Ú8ÝðÔ Õ.Ú^ä ÚÔ ØMÓ/Ú8Ý1ø\ÚIØÖÚ^Ú8Û Õ.ø\ÚIØðÖKÚ^Ú8ÛVØðÖKÞóÕ.ÞPæ Ô ä\Õô ?ä\Þ Û8Þ/ØëØMÓ*Ô ÛÙ*í#×\Û8ä Ó8ÞPé\Ú*í"ØMÓ/×ØØMÓ8Ú^å`ÝwÚIÜÚ8ÝüØMÓ/×ØëØMÓ\Ô ÕQè^ÞÚ .èÔ Ú8ÛØ Ô Õ. èÔ Ú8ÛØ ÝwÚ8é/ݝÚ5Õ.ø\Ú1Ô ß.

/Ú^ä øIå1è5ÞPÛ.

G- KML. /*02143 99:6<.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k  6 .×\Û8äóØMÓ8Ú Õ%×\ßQÚëÜðÞ*ÝØMÓ8ڐÞ/ØMÓ8Ú/ÝüÝwÚ^ÕJÔ Õ.é\æ ÚQÕ%Ú^ÚQØMÓ8ÚTßOÞ*ÝwÚQÕMÔ ßé\æ Ô EÚ^äF×Õ%ÕJê\ß.ÝwÚ8é/ÝwÚ^Õ. +>=?-A@CBED-GFHJI.Ô Û8Ø Þ'ØMÓ8ڐè^ÞPÞPæ Ô Û/ã1æ Ô Hê\Ô ä.ԝô Ú\ô    !"$#Qô Ÿ   è5×\ÛFø*Ú.éØ%Ô ÞPÛVæ Ú5×8ä\ÕØ ÞVé\êݝ(Ú ')% *Pô &('*).×\Û8è^Ú^ÕÞ/ÜØMÓ8ÚFäHÔ Ú.8Ú/Ý@Ø%Ô Û8ãóØMÓ8ÚVÝwÚ^ÕMÔ Õ Ø.Ú/ÛØ Ú^ä äPÔ ÚVæ Ú8Û8ã/ØMÓ.+ 7~9 576 -".Ú/ÛØ Ú^ä øI&å %ÜðÞ*Ý#Ú \×*ß.Ø Þ3ÝwÚ8é/ÝwÚ^Õ.Ø.RTSVU aU d.N Q.RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.×*Û/è^Ú.N OPL.

Estimates of the time scales in die casting {?{    ' .Section 3.4.Ty .. .. ) 0 .

   .

   .' a       . 1 . j0 D 2  B jD ) .

0 . &.I1 V&2. ' &j0D-gD&(1 Ij-". .  .G)D21V.

I>. ' I z 5 ' D21V. &[D ' 4   5 0  5 9  . / ' & D D ?>Wib@AI I- 1V.  02' . I jD ) .G)D21V. ' . &J1V.

 .

  % $ ?   #  .

.

 9  g"A     .

  DJ    … .

.

.I 1 1 . + I .' . / + 1 ' ' -g' D I . ' b. T. *' 7&[D &(' ' 6 ' / D . I . -". .I[/ Dj- [@ /*021f1 ' I DT. D . ]/' I(1 I-D 1 . >  :  . )j-g' . ).G)D21V. " 9  )  . . 1 I 1 0I ' .

   0 (  .

  0  .

. / &.Ic@ I . D!1 0. 1 0 1 1 02I Ij-A@ .I I 1 02I - ]. & . +P. . I[&j0D & + I2D . D21 c.

.

.

!".

#$%.

#!&'()+*./#)0'21%.-.

#!3%4!5* Ž76 #8#)9:.:%=<> .

#+ .

CBD )4E)F#G)42%?H1I<>"# 6IJ K#G4).A. ?@.

'( Ž #L*.%4E.

M(*5. .

)QP 42#2/#)RTS/U?.%!=VW.  6NJ O..

!BYXWZU[4).

H.

42 \9V\.

!BYXY%PEU]\^2!9V\.

!B 65J .

@V\:!1?#G. #24E!#8#]:.

42 #2.

BY.

42.HO.4)+(*$:%F4).

H.

42 9V\.

9VD%Q:%F4). )B 6 _ .

H.

42 3%.

Q:.H#`3N4)2.`4!.

H.

4G 9V\.

!B 6 <VAU9:Q8<V= $cd Gb   Db „     e b •5!  N)q ~ /| U :@ .

f .

.

?.

H 1F3#gV(.

!Bh>i.

H:L9VW.

!B 6  a ?>Wib@AIHj k:.

Ml ?m u  U4g1. .

)n*. ">i. ..

H:o .

(.

`.

. #.W3.

)Bp.

LF^G) W4!.

H 1)XYq 6+r :%[.

BY.

(!1F. `'.

# '.W2BD:n3+#)3V 6 #8#).

)Bs#2)4G.?t1F<>u#[lwvi)E0x #=4)! Xy4 6 UXu%/#24!..

%4E. '(:.<> #@o*.

*i. .

 6=z .

.

. {?:%3.

 ]| ?mp6 <VAU9:Q8<V=  ) b    d    b   N)q ~ T U b •5!  :@ J .

#24E!#8#:%42#G=*".V\.

o9VW.

!BYXY.=4G#29*i:.=4!:?34).F:.

#).

49V\.

 .R?egUX<SVU  ”   } . . &b1V.N(O      aUd. D D  6 /j1 0 ” •       "‰ ‹‡    WX 1V. 1 -gD21 I1 0D21 1 0 Dc)c)jI[D- . ?1 02I ‡ T K L. '1 0 / ' . )B 7  .N Q.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N. ) 22 I ‰ d  %} "~  ) )    I 4     D C0I II jD ) I l. '        YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW. I 6 1 02I   + ) 1 02I @ } !  ”  .RTSVU ” ! .n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k     1V. '    I '    F  & 1V.  L.G)D21V. T. & ! !      ‚    .

D .  ƒ 02I. e32:t/i   &j0D-gD&(1 Ij-".I ƒ • M… q  } ‚ V  'j1 Ib1 02I 1 02I!&j0D-gD&(1 Ij-".

 j0    ' . '/+ 6 . I.1 ” I[I   !     ”     )  .

 .

/‘    80  .

&  )  . & I - I 0. +   2@ N)q ~ R U :@  .]D ?1 0I    !    ” I  d„ƒ D ' 1 0j. I   !     4.D 1 +c)j.G)D21V. &0 I . &[D ” . ' &. I 6 lD Dc)c)jI[D.

(  .

+l=?-A@ BED-GFHJI. /*02143    N)q ~ U :@  9:6<.G- qc o a rq YZ f r qi f^Xdi i Y a’a [fo q ] a2XFf r adZi q \8i € e  a r i y Xa  q ] f^d[fi c Zd iq c \ZiIdo’m Z Zr r i a Y^ca X 0a q 'f^\df[_^i a2c _Zd a  q ] f^d[f[p . I I D G†       ˆ‡       "‰  e   }           }  Š‰    9~99 576 &.  .'*)(+c-".

'   hI. I .1 0Ij'j1 I I ' . ' I D . { 0 . 1?1 D IJ. ‡7 ”^ -gD21V.+ † . Dimensional Analysis mon7p c X c i› c o q Z r i f^dii ZI_gc X e\X Xi Y[a    ‚ 0L0 ' P   . 2 /  'c' D21 I I-gD c1V. ' 1 1 0I ' .Chapter 3.I 6 1 6 1 0j. I &(IJ. & D&(1 D . 1 ' + I I 1 02I 1 02I .1 D / I 1 . .  .

7 s 9 .

( ' . . ˜ ‰ 7 C0I ‘ .

'1 I  1 0D21 — # 0j.     I[D '  . &j0 6 .

D” .

‘ ' '   .

/J1V. I N)q ~ . ' 1V.   &.ƒ U :@  .D21V. I ( 2  1 '  .  . .

/l)j-g' &j0D-gD&(1 Ij-". . 1V. ' 1V. 2IC0D 1 ' . 1 1 D A. . . <1 02Ib)j-gI D I  ‘ .   ?1 0D21 ˆ     .' D I <@ @ ]02I -oD21V. D  I D21V. 'T. CI 21 -gI I + @ D 1D .

1 ' I 1 ' 21 A-g' I c)jI. ' &.' ].I D I.+[@ @ &j0D-gD&(1 Ij-". I .+ . &. If' !. 1V. / 1V.&. &Z1V. & . D&.. ' +)j-g'*)j' 1V. / . &(1V.' 1 I *1 0I?/I.' />1V. I I 1 [@ I(1 . I ' . I .

C/ .. IJ. N)q q I U :@ . 4   1V.D21V. '  &0Dj-oD& 1 I. I . & 1V. N)q  I ' c- . . .

€  'j1?' .

. :@ I 4 '  Ij. 1 02I .+ "D 1  &(' )D-gI . 1 N)q + ]. I &[D 4 6 .

1+[@    %0 2 &[& :@ 1 02I!/cD21 I!D ‰5!  U 9 +  ‰ c * -! + &  )   . 1 ' 1 02I q ~ U q>q U .

' .

'   †     1 0j. . & •  &(1V.  . '  3  q :@  .D21V.

/l)j.I 2@ Ÿ .    N)q  ( 2  .'   &.

ëÓ/× .

ÚÔ Ý Õ`ÚHê*×5Ø%Ô ÞPÛHô  ÖKÞPê\æ äæ Ô ÙJÚ3Ø Þ˜Ó/×./Ú Ø.×\ÙJÚ6ØMÓ8Ú æ Ô ø\Ú8ݝØðå•Ø Þ è5×\æ æüØMÓ\Ô ÕóÚ Hê/×Ø%Ô ÞPE Û ¡Pè/ÙJÚ8ݝØ_ïJñW×/Ý î.

ØMÓ\Ô ÕSÚEê/×Ø%Ô ÞPÛHô &('*).8ڕ׼ã*ÞPÞä ÚPé*Ú8ÝðÔ ßQÚ8ÛØ.+ 7~!:6<.ÞTÖKÚOè5×\ÛT×8ä\äFåÞPê\ÝÛ*×*ßOÚëØ Þ. 576 -". /*02143 6 D21V.×\æPÖÞ*Ý9ÙÕ. '  .

&(' D21 '   .

1 '  D 1 0I &  .

• „s†   / ' /  .' 1  1V. † I   3 D21 ' ' +CDC&. &  6 I . 1V.

.

 6 &(1V. '  .

:@ &.D21V. .1 D j.D  . &(I . '  1 0j. -gI  Ij-gI &(' &0D-gD&(1 Ij-".G-gI   . 1 0I  . C&.

 . ( 2    )ˆ •  — 1 I(1 D .

'P'   . -gD21V.

  0 D{ 9 .

I2D ' ”  . ' . J)j' 'j1f. ( -gD21V.

D21V. '  .  ' 6 1 1 .  . ' ‘ • &% #    D • ˆ ) ')  &.

1 D D&[&('  ˜ ‰ ˆ 1 D D21V. '!' + ]02I 1 02I 1 02I 1 0D21 C0I ‚ C0I   )u  N q ~ ƒ.  . ' .' -gD21V.U ‡7  .   &(' &.

U & „s†  &  0  . ( )u 2   † N)q ~ Q.

 4 2  9 9 ~ 9 .     .

4 5  .

. F    2     2 4 9   .

( 2   Iu9    .

( 2     9  *   ( 2   4  '  . zb{  "  .

1 I "D )j' . [@   9 . 1 Ij-  .  Ij- 1f1 0I &(IJ.

   .   r ˜   :  A .

 I    s0  9      2 .

(   ”  .

‘   V• .

  .

”^  .

  " @      "  )u   .

 &    w 9 .

( .

7 D{ u   .

z Ij-gI y / _ga  c X a2ee2\i X XFXZidYia9Y^c lXa2e2ZZo’da2X ii fr d[i X Y[f q a ‚  z { 5 ' 02I.I   ' .O{   &  4   $% # ‰ .

.

‘    • & „s† † ˆ  ” .

RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k  .RTSVU aU d.G- KML. I!&[D  0 „ † s ëz 2 )  +>=?-A@#"ED-GFHJI.N OPL.N Q.

Similarity applied to Die cavity 7 C0I .Section 3.5.

    9 .

(  †  .

‘    .

‘  &%  # • &   .

”  ) ”  ”  .

D .

 4 2 ) 8 %  K  .

  $     ‡    .

  &    ) ‡7    .

.

 .  .

.

' . I 1 ' ' .IZ&(' . ' . I    1Z0D c.D21V. D21V.I2D . &[D21V.I .G)D21V. C1+c)j.I ' 1 0I /*-g' c) +j. &. I [@ + ”^ @ I. 'P' ‘/  ‰ 1 0I ' I . &[D &. . I )j-g' 1 02I ' . ' D "D 1 I D ' If&(' - D 1 0I I[&j. ' 1V.I D ED ) . & &[D21V.D 2I . ' 6 )j-g'/:. C/ + ‰"-!  . I Z. . D 1 0j. . . &. D -gD21V.

6 C0I!-oD21V. ' 4  I N)q U q :@     DN-!  . .

   .

   v0 8 9 .

( .

.

 %0 2 y   .  5  …    "    0  .

' . 1 D21V.  )u  .G)D21V. '  1V.  .

  ( .

)  .

I I &(I &(1V. 1 ' 6 . )j-g' I .D21V. 1 f1 02I ' . 1 0D21 G@ 4D . ' /I ' '1 I D I . 02I 1 0I ]-gI fD / 1 0D21 ' . ' D 1 +f1 0I 1 D/ I / I .Ty{ 0 . (   9 1 0j. (0 @          Sz2y y-% z                &' . &. . I 1 02I &. . 1 02IT-gD ..D21V./  .

4 .

.

 0 .

A$  .

N   # .

( 2   € 9 .

4 (     .

  .

 .

.

 ( U   { ? .   9 K 0 ' 9 .

(   .

#.

  {} .

 ) 0  .

.   '.

  *  1$   .

 .

0  /  4 K   V  .

 .

.  w0 .

( 2  x7 K u9 .

  4    2  #  .

 .

(  .

 0 @P 0 4  .

 I   0 s0 2     &  0  … .

 .

#  .

* 4   Iu9  4   .

   .

V 0!0 .

  7   .

  .

 {7   .

 .

 .

  .

9 s     ›  K u .

.

’  .

 .

      /  " 0 } .

• .

s•  .

s• } ” • ” •  ” •v! N)q q TU 0 0 V I   …  .

   $  0 >    .

.

.

  .

.  @0 5 u   J .0       ^  ^ y 0   u9 .

   .

 ›      .  .

I I &[& 6 c-i@ . & &. ' 'j1 0!Dj-gIC1 ' -gI )P. 1 0I . 1 .I I(1    .I 2@ / I D21V. 1 0I 'F ./cD fD )j-gI 1 ' I 1V. . ' I ].1 D 1 0j. 1 0I jD. D-gI . I 1 0D21f1 0. ' I.' ' Ij- . 1 0 1 ' Ij- j.1 0[+ T."D&. ' 1V. ?D &j0j. ' I . &.. ' )jIj-". I . 1 I. )j-". 1 0I I. ]02I D I D-gIZ/ ' . . I I 1 '!1 0I 1Z1 0IJ. . 1+ .+J&. &[D21 I Z1 02I . I [@ I 1 'c' 1J)jIj-"./*-gI. ' 1 0I 1 ' D ' D 1V.I l.  7 C0I . D.D21V.I    V&-". 1V.. 1 D/ ' cD.1 D ' &. 1 0D C. 1 -gI . ' 1 ' D I @ C0If/ D.' 1 0I . &j0 . / D )c0D . ' .I Dc)c) I .' I- *' cD )jI. .1 D I ]. 0j. j.G.D21V. I I. )D21A1 I- I 1 0I I[&.' & 1ZI .' .G) ). ' .1 D . I I /<@ @ . I[& 1V.+J&.I2D :@ 02I.G)D21V. Z1 0D21f1 0I . I D. 1 ' I . I -h1 ' :)j' ' &. /l' I2&0D . ' 1 ' f1 0I .I2&(I D21 J&. ' / I- - + 1 0I ' 1 02I D21Z1 0j. & F I .G)[1 02I. D . . I &. 1+>&. .G- . I- . + I 1 1 ' . @ . ' 1 'l1 02' 1 -gI[D &2. )j-gI / 1 02I I ' c. ' I.G-D ' \iji Ya’d\oha XbZmjlZ^k2a r d^c d[l 0aq 'g\f[i c Zd[X r _gc XFc X c ie\[i X r X\[c aZdm Z r ] f r l^ a fd^\oh^a r ' -1 02I .D 0I[D21C1 -oD C0I ' &[D . )jIj-". I Ij- I I 1 ' 0D )j-g' . &j0 D 1 Ij.D I ' - ' ' 0j. 1 0 cD / D @ 1 '1 I ' jD. 1V. &. ' .D I . ' I. ' D-gI 1 0D21?1 0I(+ - )jI."D&."D&(I ' ' - I 1 0I /cD . ' . ' & . 1V. I. 1V.I @ D N)q q R U   :@   . . ' / . . V& I . .' . ' .

  .

 A      .

  B  ^ 4    0    .

# u .

  87 ?  ^ 9 .

  .

V 4   2 .

K u9 .

 4   W      0 .

   4  .

j  .

 9 ‚ 0   W .

 4 9  5  .

   . .

s  4 >7 .

   .

C s0      (   4  .

      V u9 .

 0  w$   3 .

.

.

     s %  4  . )  K .

  …N ) 2  0 0Ij-gI 1 I D T."D&. .×Ø Ú*í+ø*Ú^è×*ê/Õ.G)D D & . 1 + Ij-CD 1 D &. 1 ' D . .ÕJê\ݝÜð×8è^Úëè5×\Û\Û8Þ/ØSø*ÚÕ ØMÝ×*Ô ãPÓØIíPÜÞ\Ýê\Û8Õ. / D .è/ê8Õ. . 1 02I . ' "D& 1 ' - -])j-gI &.è8ê/Õ.ÕIê\ÝwÚëãPÝ×8äPÔ Ú8ÛØü×\Û8ä ØMÓ8Ú8ÝwÚIÜðÞ*ÝwÚFÛ8ÞVßQ Þ . I I A-g' D. *' 4' I- I [1. 1 D 1 0I & 1 . I ?I(1 & /cD21 I!0D (0'j1 ' A-gI.D 1 0I . . 1V.@ "I ()jI[&. ' 1 02I- ()jI2&2. (I I .ØMÓ8Ú Ü_ê8ØMê\ÝwÚ*í+Þ/ØMÓ8Ú8ÝKç^ÞPÛ8Ú5Õb×\Û8äFäPÔ :Ú8ÝwÚ8ÛØQé/ÝwÞè^Ú5Õ. D/*-oD "D& 1 .I 0."D&.Õ. D 1 0I!) I 1 ' 1C0D + . I. I(1 I. /l)j-g' .Ø%Ô ßQÚQØ Þ1äHÔ Õ. I !' . - . 1 D c. ' 'j1 1 0D21 D. .Ú5ÕbÖSÔ æ æø*ÚOäPÔ Õ.I C0I .I .1 .' -gD 1 02I 6 I 1 0I 1 1 02I I. / Ÿ   ÛTØMÓ*Ô Õë×ääPÔ Ø%Ô ÞPÛ WÓ/×8ä1ÞPÛ\æ å.I .Ú5ä+ô Ÿ  ã\×*Ô ÛØMÓ8ڐäHÔ ÚOè5×8Õ Ø%Ô Û8ã. &0 ' ' I(1 . D 2I / & I 1 '!1 0I . 1 + 1 02I D . 1V. .I2D - I .ÚOÔ ØÝwÚ^ÕIê\æ Ø ÕSÔ ÛÛ8ÞTé/ÝwÚ^Õ. )D.IP1 0I)j-"..é/ÝwÞè^Ú^Õ%ÕëÔ ÕS×'é/×/Ý×*ø\ÞPæ Ô èTé/ÝwÞè^Ú^Õ%Õ5ô ¦  Þ/Ø ÚbØMÓ8ڐæ Ô Eê*Ô ä.E' . + D21 c. I. 1 G@ D21 &.1 D I ' I I I ].02'1 .I 6 I(1 Ij- .Õ. 1 'J1 0I &.Ø Ú5×8ä*åÕ Ø.I 1 ' Ic@ D I]' I[I I .+T..1 &]&.!. )j' 1 0D21 I ' . I + I Ij-oD @ I ]02I c- /I[' ."D&(I .ՐÓ8ÞÖ Ø Þ1è5ÞPÛ8äHê8èIØëÚPé*Ú8ÝðÔ ßQÚ8ÛØ ÕQ×\ø*ÞPê8ØSØMÓ8Ú ?æ æ Ô Û8ã'Þ/ÜØMÓ8ÚäPÔ Ú\ô Û. &. D 1 02I 6 <6 D I.I>& c.

RTSVU aUd.N(O L.R?egUX<SVU WX YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW./Ú8ßQÚ8Û8Ø^ô q  K L. /*02143 +l=?-A@ "ED-GFHJI.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N.G- . 576 &.N Q.'*)(+c-".n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k 9~!:6<.

Chapter 3. Dimensional Analysis    .

j  ~  D  0 9?    s  (  x0  .

  7 @ . ( ) €7  .

D   .

) 4 ( 2  D Yc Xa lr aZdc Xa i Ya q f r f^h^Z] c e q r Ze2a2X X .

.

.

  4 D   s  ?  .

 7    4    7  I D   W*   .

' 1 D21V. .G)21 1 D D C0 .G. I 1 'l&(' I ' ' 0Ij-gI I  „ I-1 0IT)j-gI )j' ' 6 I c.D . . I 1 ' Dj-gI[D :@ I . / .I I 1 0D21Z1 02I 1 )j-g' &(I .D . I . -gI &(I .11 02I C.G. 1+ . 1 D . &[D I D-gI D21V. I I !. . ' D @ I D21V. I2&(' . / &(' . . &[D 1 /)Dj-oD I(1 D . J)j' -  .I +21 -g'*). 1+ D )j' I / ' .Ic@ I I. \[X ii Zl^a2ii Yaf[k2a r flak2f] \[a )   mf^\^dd_e2ii Zc Zda  ] qf]i fa c r dY[Z`.I fD 0D ?D .i Zl^a2ibi Y[a   • & • ˆ  )j-g' &.1 Ij- 1 I 1 -gD I2D c/cD f/cD I . )j' 4  I WW {} )j./ D. I. ' 0 ' I I. 1V.+[@ /I D C0I   I 1 0D21?1 02I!D. ' - . . . . & ' E1 0I 1 0IJ&(' 1 -g' . . . 1 02I C0 . ' I   • &j. &.I>)j-gI &[D 1 0I Ij- I I(1 . I D . &. / D ' I 1V. / )jI-gD21 c. ./ I[/ . ..

D  H   w .

I(1 I.' 1 02I .2@ IJ1 0I @ I 6 6 I I @ 6 . I .&.1 D <D-gI[DP' ]D-gI 6 0Ij-gI 1 0I D&. ' ' 1C)D-oD ' I I . D .  /]1 ' .

1 + ]02I    -E&[D . .

/ ' . 1+JD 21E1 0I I]' D D21V.D  ^ &. D I[D- I. I D N)q q . I .G- I(1 I- I[&. &. ' /I 1 ' G@   wP w0 @?         9 D. 0Ij-". ' @ )21V.' &(' D.1 02I-D •r  ) •     ) •    } ) • } Dˆ ) •  .' I- I 6  Ij0D 1 02IP&-".I2Dl.D .Q U 6 I -gI D  -gD21 I?' fD -E1 0I  ) .) I I . ' :@ I . ' @ . & 1]-gI I .G-c1 I c. 17 B   I 0Dc)21 Ij- ' D I &. H + . 1 02I . "ED. 1V.

(  .

 ) • ™ r  0 Vˆ  •  &    U .+u9 N)q #   #   (  .

 .

.

1 + .1 @ &.  } ) ”  ) ”^  ) ”^  •5! 0Ij-gI &j0D I.

  J .

I-D 'j1 I ?1 0I!D21 . D + ' '   *' 1 02I 0Ij-gIJ1 0I C0I 1 &.   I(+ Z1 0IJ. ' 1D IJ02I2D21  I C0I?D.I I :@ ./cD @ 1 -oD N)q q . U   .G.

 ef[iYc a2e e Fi YaX \^hX e r c q ijc XX 2X i aop 7 s  j! .

   D 4 4 .

 7    0 9     .

4   4  .

 #  Q ‡7   V&  0J .

  4  .

 4   4 0 0 2  N  .

   10  .

 BN ^ )QDQ.T UU  92  .

    )  7 A  .

  )u  4   .

. 1V. . ' I I & 1V. ' @ I. . ' E1 0I 0 1„      . ' . .I I!)j'  .. ' CDj-gI .' 1 02I &j.U ' 1 0I ]02I A. D21V. D ?D / &./ &(' 1 0I @ . ) . N)q q ƒ.1V.. ' 1 ' 0' .I E1 0I 2I . 1V. . ' & 1V. I c. 1 -oD '  )21V. V u   9 )  ”  ” } ) ”  ”^ ) ”   ”  ) ” v • !  )    )   )  )   6 I ]02I A-gI.G)21V.' Dj-". D21V. ' 1 02I D21 1V. 1+!/I. 1 0I 1 0D21 ' &j0D 6 D21 D. 1 02I ) Ij-oD IP1 0I)j-gI .I I / :@ • .

    D  9    .

 . F    .

(  .

       .

/cD [@ . 1+ I . !1 ' I]1 0I E1 02I 1 0I + fD.   ' I . 1+!D . . . . I CD . ' D21f1 0I!I . &j. D D-". ?D )D. 1+ .+ D. 1V. &2. D. 1+b.I .1 ' 1 02I C0Ij-gI ..G. D21V.   D 1 .. &-".

  .

  4  . I U   .

   x7   D    .

4       4  4  N  F     U ‡7 4   .

5F   D 4   ‡7  .

  (  2 J      4 4  .

0  V  .

      ' c-gI 'PD .  7 ?       .

' 1 1 ' )j-gI I(1A1 I- 1])..  } - (0Dj-) C0I ' &.' C0I /J1 0I &. - Dˆ D I .I I . 1 +J.• 1 D. ) . 6 1 I 0j. I 6 . I Ij- :@ .1 )j' I I- I- &[D I)j.@ . &j0 @ . ]&(' I -".I C0I . &j. D &. . -gI )j'     . . iI(1. 1 . ' + 1?)D. .

      •  D ˆ .

         .

' I I .  6  @ U N)q 1 0I>D  ) D )[1V. 1 D 1 I . 1 +T1 ' .I2D  *)   )   N)q I U  ) :@ ¦jŸ "ØØMÓ*Ô ÕbÕ Ø.ê8Õ ØÝwÚ^Õ%Ú8Ý .×8ã*Ú*íEÖKÚ. ' ' 1 02I ]&(' .ß.

8Ú^äFÞPêݝÕ%Ú8æ ÜØ ÞF×*Û'Ô ÛØ Ú8æ æ Ô ã*Ú/ÛØbãPê8Ú^Õ%ÕMÔ Û8ãô ¦n¦ ÒSÓ8Ú8ÝwÚ×/ݝÚOÕ%Ú.

/Ú8Ý×*æ?é*Þ*Õ%ÕMÔ ø\Ô æ Ô Ø%Ô Ú^Õ5í +Ó/×.

RTSVU aU d.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k  2q .G- KML. /*02143 +>=?-A@#"ED-GFHJI. 576 -".N OPL.×*Ô Û.N Q.ØMÓ/ÚTßO×*Ô Ûè^ÞPÛ8ØMݝÞPæ æ Ô Û8ã.RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.é/×8Ý×\ßQÚ^Ø Ú8ÝwÕ5ô &('*).+ 7~!:6<./ÚOè8Ó8Þ*Õ%ÚOØMÓ*Ô ÕÞPÛ8ÚOÞPÛ\æ åØ Þ'ÞPøØ.

5. (      ‡0   {7 s     Iu9  .Section 3. Similarity applied to Die cavity  w   .

 .

    .

  .

C .

5  .

I]&.  K u9   J-      ” 9} ) ”  ”9  } ) ” } )  ” ]} ) ” )  ”^]} ) ”^ ) •  )   )   )  )     I2D ' I 'j1 I -E1 0I . D21 I .D I(1 D '1 *. J) . ' D . &[D21V. 1 0I A&(' ' - . IC1 0. 1 0D21 . ”   )   *) s„s†s•tˆ   ) ”^  .

7     0 0Ij-gI / D  ) C0I I!&.'  ).

 ) 7 0D } .

1 +  .) .

•  & Iu9    ) D C0I I .)   )  1V.

) .

)   )    › x 9    Iu9 /cD jD.G-  } .

) ' ).

 ) I }  1  ) I } .

) D21V. ' ).

 *)   )   ’ 7 b  " } .

) • .

D21V. C0I ' C0I .' .G) . ' J&. ) •  7    j0 '1 I 1 0D21]."D&(I .

' 1 ' 7 s 2  ) 6  ) C0I ' } • ) )   ) I  •   '  )  j1 IIj.1 I - I .) I.1 I[I 0 0Ij-gI 1 0I 6 [1V.

} ).) .

I ' 1 +    )  ”^ I ) '   -o&(I D21V. Ic@ ]02I  ' '  )   )   ”^ . ' -gI[D N)q :@ ~ U N)q :@ Vq U } .

)  *)   Ij-gI 1 ' •  )    D  .

)   )     .

.

 .

 h6 I   D   )  ) ”  ) .

  1 ' .

) :@ .

G- D21V. o+ :@ ) .    ” (@ :@ v  1 0I!D.

(  .

  ) v •      s 9 D D-gI D21V. '  )  )  )  )   )   )  I I 0D ?1 02I „s† †      †    )  #    ”  #     #         #         ' .

†  „s† „s† †  „s† A-g' •  D  .

 ) ”^ ).

) ”  ).

.

) ”^  ”  ) .

.

) ”^  ”  ) .

” .

    N)q  U :@  ¦n§  ÛÖbÝðÔ Ø%Ô Û8ãTØMÓ*Ô ÕÚHê/×Ø%Ô ÞPÛ1Ô ØbÔ Õb×8Õ%ÕJê\ßOÚ^äTØMÓ/×Ø *.

è^Þ*ÕJÔ Øðå.Þ/ÜØMÓ8Ú×*Ô Ý#Ô Û/ä\Ú8é\Ú8Û8ä\Ú8Û8ØëÞ/Üüé/ÝwÚ^Õ.RTSVU aUd.×\Û8ä'Ø Ú8ß.R?egUX<SVU WX U N)q  N)q TU •  ”)  •v!   .ÕIê\ÝwÚ.N Q.N(O L.é*Ú/Ýw×ØMê\ÝwÚ\ô q Q K L. Ô Õ.

1 +JD N)q RU †  )  )  )   .  )   )   )    •  . I(1 D ” 0D .

 Iu9 D š  • )  . &(' I  „s†    .

   j 10 )4 .

 D ) 1 } )   )    ) ” .

 ) .

' ?Dj-gI 1 0I   )   )  ) …  •    1 D •v! 1 -oD ). ^”   s„ † . 1V.

' } .   ) D . 1V.

)  .

.

 • } ”)  • ”)   V u .

 Iu9  .

CI . 1 0j.

)  .

)  ) . -:1 0I]/cD &.' .

-gI[D  W ž   ).

n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k 9~!:6<.'*)(+c-". 576 &. ' ' / YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.    )  ‚ @ D21V.G- . /*02143 +l=?-A@ "ED-GFHJI.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N.

Dimensional Analysis $  w0 2  9 .Chapter 3.

 ' } ). ]. f. 1 .

 )   1 0I I ' } ).

  )  [1V. '  ) y % .

.I &(I I ' 'j1 ) D(+ I!Dc) . •   •   •   )  I  ) &. .    1 0.

1C0D )c0D I N)q Q. 1 1 0I I2&.U    x7 ( 2  D :@   . .W D21 I . I . + N)q ƒ.U :@ „s†   †    †     ' D-g' .D IJ1  )    #    )    )     D 9 .D &.

1]' 1 2@ ]02I 1 0I .' - 1 0I  1V. D ' I )jIj-". [1 A.   5 0 I '  1 'J&. &P. &. I -?)D. / [@ %     I- E' 1 . '     1 0j.' *'  x    I(Fc' &j0D-oD& 1 Ij-".&(1V.I      2 5  &'  . ?W          .

' 3 2 5 I Dj-".      0 8  .? I[&(1V. (I]D  21 02I D ' .

.

' I      ‡0 ?)Dj-oD I(1 I-  0D21 I hI2& 1 . I .     )  - .

1 02I   .D 1V. / [@ _2Yn. I]&.

0p n   &2    „s†• ) ˆ @ˆ    • 4  I ~J  )) 4  I '  O$ <.

z   .

    D ! 9   .Š ) .

  J 0     €z  9 .

 s  (   @0    .  . .

4  w   7 .

  H I .

  W .

 .

  .

4 2 {      .

 ).  D 5„†   9   .D D I. Ij.'   ). .1 D. ' &. hI(+ .

   )   †  „s†  )  )  ) †  „s†  )   )   )   } ).

1 '  )  )  )    .  )  )  T.

‡H   )j-g' ).

 &[D 80 .

1 +b-oD21V.D )j-g'  N)q D21V. ' 5 2  .  1&  0     9   j0 1 D/I   $ }  U :@ )    ) -gI  . 'l&.

.

' I . Ij- . ' . + Ij- 1 + 1 I @ Ij- 1 ) 1 0I D. &[D  . 1 0I D . Ij-1 0 -oD21V. / <I. / &j0D. &  ( & Ij. / ./ -g'  .1 .   .+ 1 0I Dj-g/I + -gIj)j-gI I .+ C0I .  } ) • š  )   )   )  s „ † 1 0I ) 1 } )u 1 0D21?I 1V.

.I 2@ . I &.. I A. I ].' /*0!1 0I  2  n   &2 m . I Ij-A@ I.D 1 I . *' ) 1 6 &(' ' )D21A1 Ij- . -o&(I J1 ' I. ' .1 Ij- . &0 I!' -o&(I I 6 . I    •     ˆ   •     9 D K      .  ' ]1 02I &.     I(1 Ij- . &(1V. 1 0IJ-g' Ij.' &2. I -g&. I - I(1 Ij- - Ij- . I D &(' ' I I ' ' 6 1 -o&(I 1 ' 0. .1V. D I 1 Ij- ' E1 02I ' I 1 I D I I 1 02I I]1 0I 1 02I &. D/*-oD 6 ./+ Ij-g/j+ Ij-g/j+ 1 -oD   Ij-gI .'cI P&. 1 0I . 1 02I .

Ô ÕSè^ÞPÛØMÝwÞ . 1 ' j   1 02I- D I Ij-g/j+ . 1.@ ¦ z ÒSÓ*Ô ÕSØ ÞPé*Ô è.

/Ú8ÝwÕMÔ ×*æ?Ô ÛØMÓ8ڐ×/ÝwÚ5×Þ/ÜKØÖKÞVé\Ó*×Õ%Ú E| Þ5ÖQô ¦ { Õ%Ú^ÚOÜÞ\ÝWØ%Ô ßQÚø\ÚÔ Û8ãsH¡ è8ÙJÚ/Ý@Ø Րé/×\é\Ú8Ý &('*). /*02143 +>=?-A@#"ED-GFHJI. 576 -".RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k 6 * .RTSVU aU d.+ 7~!:6<.N OPL.N Q.G- KML.RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.

Summary of dimensionless numbers 7n n   &2 n .Section 3.6.

 4 9  .

      .

 .

   &  ?    4 9   D 4 .

4 ?   D    ‡7       ‡0 s 4 D    4 ~  .

  5   2   0 N U !$ >.

  I  0      4 9        2 4 2 )  .

1 D .0Dc) )-gD&(1V.1 D & 1V.1 D *' /J1 0D21 )j-g' )j' 1 &. I . . . Z. . '1C. 02I.1 Ij- Ij- 0D 1.)j' h1 02I I +!1 0I + I-E1 -oD . &. &. 2 " -". D 0I[D21 . ' Z0I[D21V./ . /b1 0. . &[D .I &.I *' . ' 0I[D21Z1 -gD <1 0I I-.    C0.I &0D . &.1 . . 1 + @ . &j0lD D d ˆ  ?•  02I2D21V. 1 -gD 1 D I-i@ &(I D I- .' D. 2I ]. )j' D21V. I .' VDc)jI(1V. .D 6 )jI. I>&. .@  n   &2  .02' . •   c-gI?' 1 0I[D21 )j' .. / I I 1 0I]&(' ' 1V. ' / &. V&(' . & 1V. I I 1 02IT/cD21 I &. . & 1V.& c- ' . ' +J&(' &.D ' .D />. D I[D .D21V.

K•   ' - . .

  sN I[D /cD "/' .

 ' D   J)[1V.  . '   .    .

   s .

G- 1V. 1 + I!&. ' )j' . . / I(1 Ij- 1 02I D ' I ' &.I[' 1 0I . . ' . D&0 ' &. D{    10 2. 4  .I2D&0.D21V.D &2 ' -gIj)j-gI H ' ' I ' /cD /<@ 6 Ij- 2/:0 1 0I '  1V. &?' ]02I!D.  4      4 D   A      .1V.  D VH H .

1f1 0IP02' .        1C.

+ . &[D 1 I I 1V. 1 + D21f1 0I I H . & ' *' . I I ()c02I. 1 0D21!1 0I 1 02I I ' ' I I + . 1 ' ' &. I 'j1?&j02' 6 1 I 0D J1 ' ' I>1 D .G. I[D I- D . / D&j0 / &. & 6 *' 1V. 1 I2&(' I / 0Ij-gI?1 02I]D. 1 0I &.9p@2 n  D& [@ 1 0I /cD . & . 1+ @ .. 1 1 0I I . 1 + I ?'j1 0Ij- I 'j1!&0' I I &.&./cD 1ZI . .1 1 ' )j' /'     . 1 + 1 I . &0' D21 ' & .' I hI./ @ D&. *' 1 .D ' & - I D.

1 '  • . 1—   . . {8—  •    Ij-  W . I- 1 02IP- .

.

  .

D 4 s I & )   1 D21V. & ). C0. ' .  &   ) I . D/:-gD I . 4 D  &. &  3 D21V.+ Ij-g/j+   (Ij-  I  . c-gI D21V. / I  I I[&(1V. 1 02I . Ij- @  &2 ˆ    •  . 7   Ij-A@ .I K&   Dj-g/I   .  4 5 )  4 % )  $       @ 9      $ 4   . I I[/I.

 .    ' .  0 2  4 D 7  .

   .

)     (  9  ( 2    u .

   J ‡  4 {7 5 9 .

  4  $ ?  • .I ‹  „ @ -gI!' &j0D-gI[& 1 I. I(1 D &[D K - @  E1 0I I - &. '  1 0I I-:-gIj)j-gI .   . . I(1 Ij- . j..

D . & 2   n  ' 1 0I)j-g' . {7   1$  4  > '  . ()jI[I I ' 1 0IlD. ' •   . ' D-g/I>I   '' I    0 I I D21V.G-gI[D I- 1 ' . 1 1 02IC&j0D-gD&(1 Ij-".

  4 U 8$   4  9  4 D •  1 9  .

K4 D 4  x I G0   0    4  4  ..

 9   & .

4    0   . & .

 … 0  0 2 .

 A4  s    & .

R?egUX<SVU WX YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW. ' ‰•   .'*)(+c-".+ 1 1 02I -g' .n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k 9~!:6<. . -g&. 1 0I . C0. 1V. + Ij.I -o&(I ' I Ij- '1Z) 1 ' . ]02I I. /*021f' .. / . 1 + ' 1 'C1 02I &. I &. 1 +2@ Ij- ' I . )j' I 0. 1+ I ' I ' -o&(I ' . / . . -g&. .N(O L.1V. &[D (0'j1 ' I.RTSVU aUd. . / 1 0I 1 02I I 1<1 0IC-oD21V.N Q.1 D 1 1 02I .RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N.I c1 02If/*-oD ) Ic@ .  &   9  s -1 02I ˆ ˆ K . 1+[@ L. 576 &. D /*-oD /I-g' .I 2@ I(1 Ij- D(+ D .  . /*02143 +l=?-A@ "ED-GFHJI.G- .D 1 . ']' &j.

Chapter 3. wNFH U . Dimensional Analysis     n &2      ˆ    •   4 '  2  .

  s0  5 0 .

CD21 ' 1 02I -g'*)       >29n  7   . ' . 1 + 1V. I.Dc). I .  &2 2 &2an  . . D /:-gD I 02I 1 0I *' .+ 1V. 2' Ij- ED *'  ' - I.1 Ij- -gI D21V. ]&(' Dj.     I % 0 Nn  4  A 0 „s†  . />. U •  &.1V. + . I- .

 4 0     qh^Z\[iZ+ r a mi Z i Y[a)] f[i a2X iG€e  a r i y X .

D 1 02I ' I- C. -gI[D I . ' / .I  I-h.   .  &. 1 0 D .

D 9 3 . & 0D21  I- D21 I &('*).+ . ' 1 0D21 6 -gI / 1 0I 4 &. ' 21V.

' Z' . 1 02I / 1 0I . I . .1V. I.I ' -o&(I *' )D21A1 Ij- D21V. 1 +T. I(1 Ij- . / Ij-  ! 1—   8 —    0 2 4  . 1 0J&(' .1 D jD I. C.I ' /' - @ I. / D *' ' . ]D21 ' . . . / @ . I D21 I @ ]02I I . -g&./ . D ' I- 1 0I .

I I 1 I @ .   0j. &j0!1 02I!D./ D .G.

  )   s .

     .

4     ~ 9 5  .

  7 4 .

 .2     9   J .

 .

 ) x 0  I  .

 & …$ .

& $ & y   I D{P  . .

   g"  .

Z)j-g' .I .D I ' @ 1 1 -oD ( 2   . &0]D. . H D &j0 <6 . ' ) ' &.1 & .   I ' 1 -gD21 I I .I &(I . ' 1V. ' I[&0D ' I &. I. D. / I /J). D ' ' - 1 0.' ' D j. I?&[D 1 D 1 0D21 1 02I I ' D + . ' ]0j. & )j-g' A-g' )j' 1 0I . & . I D& @ D21V. 1+ I ' I[D21 6 &(I . .G- 1':) 0.1 1 0I I 1 -oD& 1V. .

 ‡0  .

   ? .

.

4 D . I /P' I[D I 1 02I 1 ' 1 0I )j. &(1 I I . ?-gI[&(' Ij- 1 'J0D . &@  u . I I.I .1A1 Ij- 1 0j. ?1 '*). .

j.I D 1 . &[D  j - 1 'J-gI[D Ij- 1 0I ' ˜1• 5 0 1 02I # &(' I(1 I- 1 0Ij-gI D. 2   I 0I[D21 D <6       V u9 . ( 2  /P1 0I   .. 1 I ..I2D + Ij-oD Hy H   Hy } ~ q D     D cD I(1 Ij.   4   4  V . C1 0IJ&j.   .f. 1V. ' +!)D-gD -h. . 1 -gD 1 I.

      .

   .

.

)    .

I   †•    ˆ   •   s.  . 1V. ) 4  K 0   . 1 + D Dj-gI[DP. Z1 0I  C0I '1 02I-C)D-oD C0I!&-".D 7 1 02I . &. . -g&.

7 K 0 >  .

   .

 .

"D&(I †  .I . . (I CD ' .  †50         .    9 3 .

 .

.

  3   .

#.

. &. . 1V. 1 + ' ' &2. 1 0  .G)jI 50 1 -oD C. -Z).1 D I ' I &. 1+  .D -o&(I c. . ' .   ' I.

D   '  %  4     x0  -E1+ I(1 Ij- ' ).RTSVU aU d.D (0'j1 @ I. Ij-  1 . &.N Q.RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k 6 ) . /*02143 +>=?-A@#"ED-GFHJI. &. - I-i@ &-". 576 -".& 1V.I 0I I 6 j  9„s†  .  . ' 7~!:6<.G- KML. 1V.D .N OPL.

RTSVU aUd.N Q.8. &[D WX *'  '.R?egUX<SVU D 0 h+c)j.ø¥   .N(O Oq:@  -gI 7 L. Questions ¤_×¥ ¤.Section 3. / Vq K L.

/ 6 I(1 I  1 Ij-". )D21A1 I- YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.'*)(+c-".n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k . . 1 + +l=?-A@ "ED-GFHJI.D 4 . I   &.  /T.G- .D 1V.   1 'PI 9~!:6<.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N. /*02143 )21+J&. 576 &.

Dimensional Analysis 12.00 ∗ 10.00 ∗ ∗ 4.Chapter 3.00 11.00 Re10^3 9.00 ∗ ∗ 8.00 6.00   .00 7.00 0.00 5.00 2.00 ∗ 3.

G)jI ' -.G-o& Dj- @ ). 2. ' - .     I ‡ 0 I ~} 1 D 1 D I. D .00 4.00 6. almost still flow Transition zone thin boundary layer plus solidification  9 .+ 7~!:6<.00 9.00 8. 576 -". / c-gI q<@ Q  9 0 ' )D21A1 I-   .00 7. 1. s   4 1 02I (0'j1 I[I U1 U1 U2 U2  9 .00 3.)j'  .    0   1 '!1 D21V. I 1 *' . ' . /*02143 /q<@  c.I I  7 0  D{ .00 Time [sec] ƒ 7    . 1V.00 1 I. / q<@ -gI -oD 'j1 0Ij- +   . / &('*).00 10.  &2.00 5.' *' D o1 I- M+/   & D .

 A .

RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k 6#6 .N Q.   ' +>=?-A@#"ED-GFHJI. KML. 1 ' D I .RTSVU aU d.N OPL.RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.G- 1 -gI[D ?' . C.

Questions L cooling liquid  9 .8.Section 3. . &  ' ?02I2D21f1 -oD   Ij-f). / /q:@  c-gI  : D  &j02I D21V.' )    &(I I ].

1 02I .R?egUX<SVU /q:@  ~ -gI WX 7 ]02I D 2  B   ' V&2. I D H equilibrioum level H K M ¤_×¥ ¤.  Oq -1 02I!I D ) I :@ <@ 9~!:6<. / K L.G- . D21V. /*02143  +l=?-A@ "ED-GFHJI.N(O L.ø¥   T .n_ N2Xg_ ^AR k / D '  I(1 I- ' .'*)(+c-".N Q. 576 &.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N.RTSVU aUd. YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.

+ 7~!:6<.Chapter 3. 576 -".I  z . /*02143 /q<@  q c. / &('*). Dimensional Analysis D t  9 .

/ +>=?-A@#"ED-GFHJI.G- . b. E. ' .

 .N OPL.RfegUXhSVU WX!YZR[Y]\2R[XG^VL2_ `bacW.@ KML.RV^ W]OiUjaNVS[kl`m N(nj_ N2Xo_ ^VY?k 6 .N Q.' 2/:0[1C.RTSVU aU d. + .   1 'b-gI 1.

        .

=<}&1A7@<|9ivw.Z5N0'.Zh|>-A .:7)</A.:7q<Š<@&q>+(+0a41.W*6*N*10a.=&)5ZA <J(-gˆ.Jj6u6A <J*19)()hT<Š<@.:t <[.-0a™:9Ynz7:.[(+hJt\n &).=&)&).A\4sbf<Š*1.>+bJ4).y.N9.4 CED:F G@HJILKNMPOPQSRTI UVMWH XbJ&)._4-5W9Nt A\.14-A\4p.BA\4JA\4-. oYA ].10a0k.-bJ0'(qA9i5N<c0….B<sA 9.=—[&-4-.@t .x&q(-7@.N564-<=.Ÿ3‘-A .Z9)hx7:()<T<[.:ÈW>).†.ŒhJ4-t(<=.N4q7=0a5.=.@j3.-.=j1&)4).14-0ˆ./9EA\>14)A 5]( bJ*10….Ÿ3bsA  ~*1.E0‹._.:.:0T.=0a.@X ./<=.€.Œ<Š7qj1.1t 0–9N<[.|hT(N9iA\00kjm(+4)l..T5N]6<[d-.6-u-._<Ju.:A ().B0'A\4-*N]›A\*1*1._5Wl">1g9iA 5Œ0–bJ.:.1.E.=<€&)(+.4q5w5N>+>q._(1<[0|.B0aA\9wb†>-(-]w.N<=t .0a4).Nt 4_./<fh{9191gSg4).W0a.[(+5Yt_l.yb†X A <c.=&-.=nyr1‡L(+bf9)hT*6.N.14_4-._A 5~9.>+4)t915Y.=&-A./4i< u ¢6É ./bS9&)A .1hS0~.5E(+.1&)0|.e.1>)4-<[.}t .14)ƒ{]iA\5Y4).=.4).S¢“n¤£6¥x¦w§ ¨i©›ª¡«m¬s­wª ­~®Œ©}ª\¯?°m¬N«m¨N±?ª\²+³:®y´¤¨N±'µ6ª\¶w®:±?®:«Y¯3§¡ª ·i¸Nª¡µ)¹ EC DŠº »HyU?¼|½SKN¾"¿yÀ?UkI./<€7:9.-&q565i(-9iA )7_.z.1(+t64e(N0a(+.-).[l"(e>1gA 59.=./.mhc7:n ()X </._<@5Y>qA 7:7q(-&Œ.1g}b.€l.?084)hTh|.?.N()&q<Š0a./9)9šh˜.7@dsl./._&-5~.:.=].@‘)gx(+(q4)71A\4-5Žj:.5f9)hc91.E<`(+4-..=4q&N.N<€4_.=&)&-*-.y.P7q&qt A (+vw41>NA A 7:5e<LbJ()<:. (5YA <Š</7q.y]P*1‚J.f.ÁMyÂÃILÄc½ÅÀkMs¾"¾ÆR`MP½€ÇÅRxUV½yHJI"¾ 9.-5š7qg&q9i(+0€41A917:.14)91]i.[9.J9.=4c&f‘1.10 0`A <T.fA .:<@(+g>+4N9ibJA 0a7@./.19w0‹4-A .s).1>+0ˆbJnT•Œ.BA 9.@9i.xA 7:(+<_4)nJ5J‡Lg9i9)0…hT7:._5^.=9Z&).Wnx*1œ1A\()*1</.7@9).        !  "$# '% &)(+*-.1>+g}9)4_hg‹._.A\(+4W4s4)l"5Y.-A 5N-‘1]6.=.5i9)A .=>)0„(N<[A<Š].1j_*-<–.+91u8g~.=&-*1.:oi<[A\<Z0…</.(+4y4q(+9Ntg–d)ž@./(-5N.1A 9w4-.z9./5+9m(-.B&)A\4).=(+&)bS.?A hT0k.=</&)hT.1oq0w9i]+0`().ZA\4ZA\4)t A((N.€A <Z(s*N5Y0a._&-7q.3&)g.k9shT(+9i4)0?j†91.bc9)(+hc4_den X ()<@&)*1.^.=0?>)7@.@<[rq._.m(e0a.N./(+<S4q5eh†&1*)(NA 710„&(+t¡7:.NhT0V9iu“0?A .0…>69i0…9.=jc&Œ9il._t (N<[9P0…71&-0….&)9).10„A\()t A ]N(N.q.Œ(-<s._(q.=np&).:(+<'bs9w*6>_.B<[A .yt bJA vw9.+.P.Nvw0a<|>1A\(N0….9i4q9.N4)(f7:9./(._()5 < ./.k5ihTA .1.c<fl.:u".e9i0?7:jJ()g<[9i.14)0S5t A vw*N>1A\*1A 56._5~4)./&J.=0a(+.N.?4_hT.1t0…A <–vwhJ>1A 56&)9S<€<@(N&)0….N4-0?]Y>+A\464-4).0kl"j69)>NnshcA 5^’n ._&)5~.=&-A\4./.@n .=<Š&€.=A\4-&+.N.=l.@._A <Š<[7q.N].N0…&-.1087:9.>+0a.B.yn{7@9.–‰qg‹7@(+9wbS>6tA\5t A (1‘10i./.€7q>+&q./.œ14y(-.:.-.?hT9i0?jW(N0a.-.@>+.N9i0a0k<Wjxl././56<z.`A <€7@g‹91(+)bS._l.f.:0a.x0 h€7:(+A .:.919)g–h.A .P9w>6‘q()4q<”5yA 7yA\4†7:‘19.-.bs..5w4+>N4-A .=&-.kbJhT9i960?</jx.=‰qt d_7@uY9w7:4)9.c<[9N.>1At 55 .-7=A .=&)A\4).@0‹4)r-A\‘19).=]^&-.4)</.1A 0T-.103234)56.€9)-hJ.4yn9._5m9i.0a<=0„(+‰+b0….< 9l.[(N7:A\()4)<[.B5WA\4-g]†9i0L.1(+0Y4).7@.@.@A\bfq(+*64)t .:<Š(+.

y¢~n “¥°+®c±?®B¹_¸1§\¯„¹c´¤¨N±`¯?°+®N¨i©{ª¡«P¬y­wª ­~®Œ©}ª\¯?°m¨N±?ª\²+³:® .00 0.00 0.50 1.Chapter 4.06 0.00 Air Crude Oil Hydrogen Mercury Water 0.>+0a.0001 2.01 0.00 1e−05 4.03 0. Fundamentals of Pipe Flow 0.12 0.=(+b†&-4m(+.02 0.01 1e−07 0.001 0.m4-9it dc0‹()A <[.1 Yo A ].00 Head Loss [meter] 1 0.25 0.00 1e−06 8.

_<@4-5s>q.14yŸ3*+t7:A./.S (N.t A vw4N(SA>N.f4f)¢~.N.f._nfbf.N._bJd:.}.t&y>-A v.P*1 .15Y0‹7qA\AbJ0… ~.N(1oi4_0….7@r+.N—kf0<[A\._.-.@n\rq£)‘1(+™@.10k910‹0…gLA.E.y7q9.f.1.=>NrigA 9i56*10<J./4_<J..w.@.€<=AA <€].1(-0a4-./A <_]w<Jn >6&) z0…(-.

1.=A— vw&)>1.=4-A &)56.1.1>N.=&-9.-415SA\<”>)A91<[]w.&-.:<@A 46 >+>+.wl.=4).N<Š.ct 4-9Yh€.A 5N7:9)(+<'hÃ4-l.†A  gt9i.f*N9.0–0….|]N(-.†oi0?b†A 5Y]w(+A>6 ~t0…A .3./bf0…<J./9f.N<Š4_5i<€.=A .f<€7@<BA\9w4f(+bfbJ(P*1._5YA\(q4-A  ~5Ž]Œ.cuNA\.†9N9)gLh|&).=4e4-&)9i.1A v.1.:t .)A\4)*1.Z)A 56™'*q<3()A\4)</(N./7-<`A A .-.._<†<@9i>+<:0…&-.: d <' '“g9i<J.|</0a.?.Œž@0a.€gT0 t .t./9N9)<'h†-(1.N4P0…0V.[.1‘14-9N.:d60~._gw41<|.N.1t .c560…<`5i.=A\d_4& n ()0a•s.NA\t 0a9N4S.N¢~5s4)n “n7:‘:.

4 0.=.~4).t .1A\9)t 4€(Nh†0. 0 Velocity[m/sec] 1.Œ9i0~.|n .19wbf41*1A (+.S.0„7q>N&)A 5f.=5S&)(-g.yhJ>)4e<[.@h3.1<}0„h†(-.JA (-.|(q4q5ŒhJ7qt&)t 9N.:< <J.?&)dy.:*)<@<[>+./.+(/.|&).=&q&)(-(-.=EL&)./._<”5EA\4)].W.1>10A 5Ãt A vwbJ>N./.=A 4s._bf7=.5 74(/:&.N0…0a.1.=9i&)0?.|7@.–.pA 58G_A < n (+‘6‘1>-.=A vw&).[.[(+bJtT.5i‘-A 7_.Nj6./4).:¢“ÈWn w7)n A .x4-.m&).1/( 3 ! (/02.@<:rq>6(+t .g9it .0 100 1000 10000 Yo A ].=&->6.€.3A\4q9.1*+()t<c(q7@<@.@‘1._9i5s0?0….'9s9w(c46t<”dcA\4)g].:.-t 5J.=.=X &-.8 0.y¢~n “¥°+®c±?®B¹_¸1§\¯„¹c´¤¨N±`¯?°+®N¨i©{ª¡«P¬y­wª ­~®Œ©}ª\¯?°m¨N±?ª\²+³:® 9.:&)h3._A\4-7=.†oYt 9NA ].=A7-&q.=A&q&-<J(-.Lt u"9Y.:u &NA <f 0… .c.S4).-5yE–.:.|(+.?7:d€.'(+(+.-&)5Œ9)hJ‘@dz4P.A v.0B%<5:&7/1/(:&% *)=+! "D! >@C/7/?):&(/#4.-.N7_bf()<[*1.:91<PNA ()5N<H.y&1A <T0….1(+&qt+(-*1)0….JA 7@<|9w4)t¡91(+.=t&NA\4)A <3.S<[.: <@>+9.->6. #/ 0.=A\&-4^.-t (1A v.x7_9i(+-0?4_.:0‹<LA\bJ(1.10…7_<m(+4s<@&)‘19).10–4t A t v.y..-4).3*-<Š7@.[9c(NA\(€4).6.J.6 0.w&)hT.=.10….Jrit *1A\4).f0….2 0.=41&)A (+././.2 1.=t¡&)@.m9i.=A vw>+>N0a.`91)A <3.>+0a. ! 021-04365 7/(8*2! 9 5"06(/.6<:n *1X .:.0 Loss Coefficient ! "$#&% ! ')(+*-.-./919w.=4&-4q.:&)<=A.[7:(+9.:A 5W.<Š<–>+0a7@.=.14-X .1(1<[4< 0 At <3A\4-0….A145:.}>)<@g9i&-dS0(+ž@t¡9./bs<`*6(1t0….=(+&-.=.>N>NA 5ŒA 5›A <TA gJ(F.9it0“.N4y0…(-t .[(N(-A\.p4)91t.Œ<=hJA\bS<:&)&-./<J9w9w4x‘_.|5c‘1.y.t t¡ 0…(+.

_(+9.t —‹.€dA ._4)5 ]._.=.17@b˜.=&-tN.|{} u~ wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆna (N0/€"•s.=0…’ (q.N._‘1L5 .sA\4P7:9.+r)n`.19N4-g'.Z.€j14)()9)<€h€(ZA\4)*1]W0…91.s9it0zA\4-.*:d60‹A ].™S>-‘@.=&-E.%}bf&q(+*19w*_.4q5Œ9)h hJ&)g9i.=&)(+.N 0 4_. .y.=5E&-.10c4Sb†.N4_.†.0a4)J.10‹7:A\bJ(+4y.=gL&-91.=.š._dŒ<[.:.[(+‘+4qt .KŒ7_A\4-(+.=d:ri9w*1>s.1‘14)._<”*1A </0…9.s4_d^0…./.N<”0}A 9w(+4)4q(+5Pt+.=g&-9w./9./.14-Iˆ7:.37@h3././<€*1(N9.<ft¡7:(+(+*)4<[.=0¤0ad< hJg9.&-.=0a0a.w7€*q(1]N0„.@..y4+5Y>6A\bJbf.[‘1(19._()5 < gˆ(f0a9wh3b (:dy.&N>+A 4)7q5š&f7@./(N9^0…..E>6l.Œ.VB[ [ ViR@Y XjkelTm4Qielen[ ZSRporqtsvuxuzw y 7@9.qA\0 ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ 6ž ./4-./A\.bJbJ.=&-0a./t 9m7q>+(st (-<”.=9w&q(-4_.N.:<”9wA <SbJ—/.:N nSN+™:’¤4n Reynolds Number OP-QSRUTWVBX$Y Z$X\[ Y ]_^$Y `aVBbcQSdefTgQh.=0…9.@*N.=(+&)4).s(+t]6d).:<:7@>69wt bf.[&N(+A\tw46jy5+(-(+. gLM.

CED ¾ U sÀk½ ZM UŠHÅ¿.

*)>)&-(N5Y.ybf>67@4)*+9..f4q._7:bJ5 9.J(-9..JA\*17:5i. A simple flow in a straight conduit      io A ]w>60….=t .sd†A()bJ<f<:96*1(e</.A <Bbfh†7q>)*1&1<[9wA <Š714-._&-<”</. .fA\.N._&Z./A\7@0„<}9.Z&)0„(N.</t ..1>N0a0…<}A._.W9.x.3.¾~ILKN¿cU ZÄJIÆR`MWHSOPQyUkI Section 4./.=].N5m4_hTt./A >+<J.1t0ˆ5(Œn X</‘1.S¢“n ¢“¥ 8®:«+®:±‹¬N§i¹@ª †­w§¡®c³@¨+«+µi¸Nª\¯}µ+®B¹@³:±?ª ­“¯?ª ¨i« <”(+A\4qbs5S*6 .‘1*14s./5.=.7qh€>+bst A\(1bJt¡+0†9.-5w(+(q>14q51A 5^.@4q&).=.€0„(+A .€7-7@.S<[A .

?5Y.=A\ri*P*1‘1.Bl._d_A 5u| ~.c<:&1.17:4-oY().f<”7-A\A 0….kA\bJhT.=&-&).f)./.[.1>+.1.=.=*1ri0…..y—k¢“5in¤£-A  ™:.1A .W4f0‹A5N-. t4)9Y7:7-*1.^5<|9i56(17_.17:0?(+bS4PA\4-‘1.:&)n.0…bJ9.B<[A 9w<:>64m0….:A <Š.pA 5df0….15N>6t 9Y.[.=4q9Y&)5P7-.m).=)0a&-.=.:9W<Š<@X ..d_&)u†./n 9mX .l.s.@&)(+./<Š.@r+*1.< 5)YA\4-.10…4m.10„0…(+<`bŒ(+4qn 5y._t A 5Žv.:()./7:.=0•sA 7_9i(+9Yt651*qd(N0…<z(+bJ5YA..PA .[(+tN5+(-.N.1.š.A 9w9)4yh$A <†0„(->-.=&).1&)b0….|A\4E.}<@.-A.P.N.:5i)<[‰1<:.P.@0….sA9)._t .10….17:0….?hTd_(+n *6./7q.c.W>)<[0….S(-. A\9i4)0|.e.[(chJ&NA 7q& ._b†&)vw.Wvw>)*1(-0a._gˆ9._(+5E4)‘15P.J.=&)>)._55iA ‘: d ..‘@‘-dc.1(+t.=t1&).?./.=&)4-._7:.9)9)hchn A <`X ]i&-A .N.:._.'A </hT./ ~t ././._vw.W*)(+(N0…4).=0?0€bS&)g.@>N.p&)./.19Y.c&15NA 71.:<=A .f.1*+0SÃt A . l.Ž.=(N&)A\4).1€4q7@h†.1n 0…X .=&-(+.N4_.=0?&NbS*1A A\<E*1A\4-.N0A\bJ.1.=&)>N‘@.:&s.:0‹.14-4y.._]N5m.|&)4W5Y.:0…5(+<”Ab†<[.:*1<Š0…<@.BA 9w.[(+9i4q0k7@j_.N¢“4-*1n ¢“]Y0a9wnA\4-‘6X.14q&17@A <`.y._.1t (-‘@d†.=.=9)&-XhJ.1.+uY.4).y5P9._.J.S< ƒ .N0…7-0a._0…..NA </.-0…tT.[(+.B(+A\>+4q4-0a7@]y.[A\*1(+0a.=.bÆ."()&q<J0…(-</.:>+<Š<[0a.S<*10….=>+&-&)0a..-.:.?4)dW. ./]._9&)5W(-9w5.:.=<[A 0…].

|{} u- wu“‘@dŸx0ˆnk (N0/€"•s.=&1‰ š.&-. T^Zc[ [ d—TgQm4QZm/Q65nVcm/Qm4QzZzeAVBXe bc^TfTgQSdœZm/QVB^zT@Vh-TgQ e 3 V87$Q—Vh~Tg$Y enb$VBV89 T T g$Y eelTlZj$Q<.*@d+0‹A ].      oiA ].N4-]N.)A ].14).V$m-TgQœbcVxV89MD ¢ 02143 :21 ON  x‚ „c… ‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š•x‡œ–2ŠŒDˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „x›‘ „_Œ2‘ S‡$™ 7:9. RDQa^eAQk`BY =Qm4QXzT`cQ?>X$Y TAY VBXaTg$Z$X VBXQ ^eAQ `Y X/@~gZA7zTWQmCBEDGF@gQ`_Y =Qm/QX 3 Q Y e—b d Zœh.6nmoq9i0…7:.&-.10…]1de*1.+u–&-.=&1™|(+4q5ŽA .frŽœq.-(q5eA <c.>+0….JhT.c¢~n “¥€•s9i9Y5Nd <€5iA ()]w0…(+b   ‹— ¢“n¤£-™ EL91.  ! " # $  %'& () *" #  $ %.qA\0 .)A ]w&_.€91gTl">NA 5p—VAan .Z 3 TWVcmUVhIHJD KML QXzTAY Zc[ [ dR QnR@Y [ [_Z`xZA7zT@VBXQeWdeWTWQ5 h.+ - /.10z>+41A .14)]1./. œq.

/<x9Ng3t .m—[t 9N<Š<B™|A < —‹¢“n 6™ X &-._.14S.[(+4q7@.:<=A </.m0….N4_.-(q5e—/t 96<[<B™x(+4q5W.@ÈP7-A .=&).W0a.khT.N4-]N.=&).BA 9.Œ*N0a.:.Chapter 4.>NA .Z‡–.x7_(+4P‘1. .y7@9i.Nt (-.3g9i0–7-A\0„7q>+t (1087:9.f5Nx.4q5. Fundamentals of Pipe Flow &)()<S>+4NA .=&in X &+>)<_u+.4)<@&NA\*m‘1.=&)._<[<@>+0….

c7q0…9N<[<S<Š._7=.B.9)h (+4q5^(E7@9w4-<[.B.-5P()< —‹¢“n 6™  0…(-X .ml.ŒA <cA <z.@vwr+>q*1(-0…./9W7q0….191t 56g~< 7)A\0…71>6t (N0~A <      .B4PA 9.|X A\&-4-.:A <Š9._9Nvw<Š<–>)(-<Š.†56.?dml._A 7@9w.€./.<[4.—‹4q¢“(+n¤t:£-(1™`0….-5ZA <c()hJ< 0‹A .ˆ._dN(JA ."4-.[(+4_./&1.9)h   —‹¢“n ¢+™ A .[(+4-._.14)<”A .14Pg9i03(E7:9.BA 9w4in X &).4)</.

4)4q</4Ž5~.=.=<[&q<z.BA .f9)<@hx&P.=41&->)A .B9..(+A 9.=&-X &N.c56A ]w9.-&-5Nv.e.N(-4)<”.=<:&)&->).1t .=u~0„—k(-¢“&).BA 9w4S—k¢“n ¢+™–(+4)5S<:>6‘)</._vw>)(-.  u+>)<”A\4)]c.N.N>q0'bJ(-&)._bJ.y&)A 7q..=0…<†.=>-./()n .m9N&W.:6<S<z™cbf.BA\4)]       —‹¢“n 6™ hJ.

S.1<s0?A\4WbJ(N0…<€%'.Ž(N(+A\b†t >6<-.gª ­~0®kq´¤Z?¨N§¡ªd±Jr)®cµ+±k¬ ª_^@fª¡«a`›®:µ+¬Nª\¸ §\¸b ·Y¸q¬N§¡ª\¯ Z±ˆ¸1«+«+®:± m©}ª\¯?°Pµ+ª ¬ f®-¯?®_±}¨i´ z¬N«6µeoQg tk X &NA <JA <x.=u &)./5N._<”A ]w4iu —‹¢“n É6™   " !$# %  % (   +   # " $   ! #  #  "   #   &('*)+'-./9P5w0A ).+n .c.N*_.1.y 0 A\]NbfN .:0…././4s7@.6.=5{.10€5N.*:d60‹A ].=>6&).P‘19).:NZ*19w9ibJA\4E0a.Œ.z*15i0a9..[0…./&)dš.w<€7_.S¢“n wn¤£ L4MONQPSROT9UWV2X~ ³@¬N§¡³-¸N§ ¬+¯?®f¯?°6®|­w¨i©–®:±'±?®:·Y¸Nª¡±k®_µE´¤¨N±3¯?°6®c¬I€+¨^=®S®ƒ‚1¬ †­w§¡® vAw T9xzy|{ wn} 7@9."=?>A@B8CD1B7ECGF"791G>IHE._hTvw<[.1(-9w4q._&-7=.:.=4)&-]e.`>17@.=.N0…0a<€<[.|{} u~ wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆna (N0/€"•s.Œ9wA b|<zd]iA )9N.=l.P9.Œ7:0a(+.qA\0 ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ „… ._<`.[.&-.-0…7@(-9w.S.1l.Z.@A\0… .N9N4-]Ng ./5E4-.m*19)hT.m‘@d —‹¢“n 6™    (+4)5PXX h€&)&)A\.N.=&NA <zl./.§ ¬qª ­~±J®y³:±‹§¡¨q®_¹Š«a¹f`"¯?¹=°m®_³-¨i¯?´Bª ¨ifn«m op­._A 4y(+<[<:bJ.1.$JK: L4MONQPSROT9UWV2XEY [Z ]\ +^ dc BeIfhg ji lk dc _\ soQg tkueIfhg t k vAw T9xzy|{ wn} ³@s¬Nª¡§¡«i³-¸¸N§ ¬+¯?§¡®Eª ·i¯?¸N°6ª¡®mµ ­if±k®-®”¹[¯‹¬N¹_¸1§w±?¬+®Z¯ § =¨q®_¹Š§ ¹ ¨Y³_?ª\µ+¯ Wª\¶w¨Y®:±?´ ®:«+³:® i´¤¹=¨N®:±|³ |¬Ž´¤¨N³:ª¡±}±?³-¬s¸N­.9)h A <z]iA ).B&-A .5i0`9)A  &)h$().@n4q.[(+(+4)4)5P5YA\.6gˆ>+n 4)X 7@.= &i uw9.yA\4tw56*).@rq(+bs*6t .@(+bJ._vw>NA\0a.fl.9)u}h A <f0„(-(Z.P&q9N-(+g8. .10"hJ&NA 7q&P0….@0…(+.€.c.mt¡w<Š*1.@(N&-.B4yAA ._._9w.4Et .1<|0…0„.&-9).4 X &).=>)0L>)(-5YA\.Zh˜.0/21436547982:<.=0¤.=4_0‹9iA._ 4_vw./4-._.1gc4 0?>+464).

:./4N9E.-.14-‘67_.Œ4-7@.0…7:(N9.[._..=..=At¡7q>q&)&e5N.N.EC D[C ŽÁ fUVR`¿fÀ›M mMWHc½yHJI"¾UŠH I–ÄS½ QsHsHS½SK ¿fHSO ½SHJIZÁ€¾~I½ ¾ hJA\’¤4q4E&N7q./u-.B*14_Kw9.Z.(qbfbf7@*+.Z>+0?*_>+g.1.6._&-7@.-4)7=*1.B>-()A ./<”..=7:9w0…9.=(+()&)t<W.B(+A 5i4)9.E9..1.S5Y(+71A4-<Š&)<=71(+A >-9.-5m9i—VA\9Y4q.N4)./4-9.=<_<=r)n A .bsA ]w4+*1&_4-9.bf.<€.=9.Z9i460x4).(-.ƒn 4 ( Section 4._<Z<[.N.4)4z>).N4q*)4-5 (N.xh37:.=5N&-5Y. Typical Components in the Runner andVent Systems / &(' &('-.4A <z4-9.]NA4.1<m(+0`4q<[._0…7=./4›]N.B&)7:A ./.._5].4.=](-&-. <[7@._.1r+.e*1.=5c.e5w4->)5i<=.Z.c<”A\4-A ]._(q5Y7@.NnA 4_9..Bt:9NA\]+4).N0yu4-]Yj)I”A\A\0a4-4).Œ4Y’\4n A <Z././>+.p0„(q4-7=.BAA\4-9w*1.[] (+44)._.BA5~9.@0k. .=]N*1&).B*1At 9.-&-<[5 .N0„0….@.=A.4< ]N<[(+.ZX 4q&-5N.@(-(+r+.1‰qA 9w0'7:9./.1&)4-.B.Wu 4)A\ n<S4e€Y91.=4+&)4).1>+039Nt (1g†../59m7qt¡>q.=560…4.P..=*N&N0aA ./5N.B(+.s</(+.†7q>+5N‘1t (-.BA ‘1(+A 7:0?tw./.z‘1.=7@gz&-9.1.N0..1A 7:.N._.A 9w7:41(-4-™@.   .1‰q0….=0–*q&-(+.=0|./t8*q.-4-7=.4)7@]+7:9w(-9.m.B>+NA 9wA469.*-<Š4N.†AA 9..1<[.B(+4)A 5~t9.

:4)._4)(+5Zb 9i08569^91.-(10?‘@d_nS’¤4W7_()<[._&)(q.7q>q>+(-t (-.=X&-(-._.=&-(E.^.T._./>q._4i< n 9g1(q9i56gx0}.=._9N56<[bf]N.=%8&q()0…(-.>+t 5‘1.:9)9Nh$-.=b†>q.=0ˆn&).:X9.y(10…9.y(+.7:9)4-()hx-<Š<S.†ns._5 7/(L'"!.[<Š(+.=A <S.e.Bt .-4_5egt 9i(N</0a0?]6.-.1. oiA ]w>60….=.=7@&-t .N&-._.@)b†./.f._0ad4)<”A5<[‘1.W<S7:A\())4W<[.WX ‘1(+.1g„&).=>6&NbsA <J*_5i._<€.=&-5Ž&).BA A9w<B7q4W>)A <[<z<=A)9._™t@._&-5.†(q7_5N(+.=A &-.17:b.1A\4Wb -.N4)5A\4s5YA .s>q(-7q.N.=0a.N0VA\4fu.:4)<Š].:.4)•s<'919igT0….e]e‘10…(q.|A <€71t .=&)(-.A 7@&-.15Œ0a.[7q&y91gL.=.&1]6>-A .10–714q.|A\564q(-5.]N.<Šbf.1nŒ0Y. {} -u  wu“‘@dŸx0ˆkn  (N/0 €"•s.NA0a.BA4)7'gˆ5~>+9Nnc4)gY7@%(†.5f4--.=u&)d_wu–.9.-tv.=&NbSA <`A r)7:.1.sA ._&qvw(+>14)A\]N0….N0a.}</<Šd)9.=X >+&Nb A <c(+7:4)9.<._(N0 .1<[0…./..:.|.-&-&)7:.=0a(+.=0„&)(+9./.ft .A\9)t¡.znm7:oi(+A4y]w>6‘10…./t 5wA\.=&-._<”A A.BdŽ.Ž..@.0a9YA .†b†A\(+4|t¡.N.Ž(q.=]S&Œ“A uL<./.y0a.Jg‹(N.E7:.=(q&+560…9.[0a(+d_j=n`./.c4-]67@9.=bJ&i.NA 0V5 u ._)<_.=..†4).=b r17@.m0a.=&)91.1(-510'.xA\A4<J./.yl.:t 9NA vw->1.=by.'9)h<[._5E(+4)(+t d)<”A <cA < <”’¤4ŒA <[.-0a5W.0….:<@9.L91&PgT.†l.1.‰] (+4-4) '.f&)5Y9)<BA\hJ>-(+<-bJ4xuf.T<[.@.=&)¢“0a.@<T.=&)]~t .=IB&)&)&). ‘1bJ9i.Zt 4+*qt 0?d|>+(1>)0„46(+<[4)bJ.W&).*@d+0‹A ].@0a.y<=A 9.-&)()./<ybJ9i0….0 7q0…._9w5bSb A ‘1].<[>N.E.†.s71</&1./.|&)._.s>)gˆ].=<Š(+&191AbJ<fgT.N./A 9Œ5›7_bJ(10?.N<†0aA\<=4ZhJA 9.64  n .0?&q4m0a9i(-).N&q4_(+.1ELt).6A nÃ9.1A\nWbS0`oiA A .3(q(+567:4)().TAgˆ<`0…9.¢“>+n Ée4q5Jb†.[(+j|t"]+l.J7:(+._.1A 9.=0a.1<f0…5Y<_b†A¥|.=(+’¤&)4Z4).sdn w]6‘1n ./0TŸ3.P>-‘1./oi9c0a9w.=b &)..3]Wj1h€4)*6A\9)t¡>+“hJ0?‘1*1t ..BA‘10…9.B.17q0a&c.64)n‰7:.=&)>+.=A\0„4)(N]“A ].=&qhJ(-.9)h 4-.=&)0…<@(q.1<W(N0‹0„A (+t 7:(NbJ(+0a]64Ž.BA\4-] 91(+g34q5._4)4)KZ]i5^9NA\4)0ag3.'‘1..:.BA9.&)g„.A .c.919Ygzt 5+.@t d_bs)u.=7q&)0…..-A(+<Sb 4)9P(+4q915^.@.N.=A\4-&)l".=.@rq.£ “6Š‚x•x„c‡œ… –2Š‚xŒD„$ˆ†xŠ ‡‰‹rˆ…<Š Š˜‹“Œ„ˆBŽ™t‡BŽr’š „x_›‡BŒ/‘ „_‚_Œ2‘ ‘4S’”‡$™ “L‹x‡ 7:9.Wt A.=.10„.S.f<”.=A &).<[h|.BA 7Œ.y7@9w‘14_.N.:&)>-.g9ib†&)0a./.[(+4-4)9i7:0?._.=&N&->)A <S..=4E&)j19i7_4)(10L9)0?hJ9N0adgTt ._b 7:9./A\A 4x.W<Štw9Yh€.=.m&-.1. ( .BA .A 9.:.f 'u <Wh3hT(:t.|>1.10a.c03.N0a./(q7q.7@4+<[9.->)v.E].]w4)b†5>60….! C+7/0.&-|.=.=vw.N>+0>+A\t 0€4).Zb†A <†‘1(-(W.Z9i&E0a(+.Jb 91g(N.m7:l.=&-.N—k<B™z.W<[.c./.=hJ&)&N(-.BA\bf>+b 0„(q5iA\>)<z<@&)9.(q9)5Nh .1.>+4-0a-.+(@.(+4ft A 5P.B910aA\dŽ4-.=.@.=&)4-.=5N9. h€.17@0?.<[9.10€0?0a9ibJ0…9i<'0ah€.=&N‘1..Nn 4_.f7:()<[.9)4eh*1*q0…9Y(-.[.1(+4qtw5N<[./.m.=7:0…<[9..sA\Æ4S]6oi.=dZ&).<”A t).:</.NbJ4-9.@rNA <[..Pu}*1g(+0…9i9.>+4)5  .=7-&)A\A t¡(-.N<Š.1)4q.&zb .15N4f9)h†.ZA\.c9.†4qA\5w4|>1.N4P4)b†915†g`9./7:._(-‘1.[]6()0V()n]N<†.=‘+&)A\t d4)..m5~A\n 4Œ.‘1bf.=4)&)91.W.:.:.=.x—(+4)].@.|A )(c(+7qt .1dE<S0‹A91A\</4Pg`.N.hc()n<[<:X >6bJ&1A <€.1*)03</‘1. 8"J cross section R θ X 4)&)]i.[.m‘1.Z.qA\0  l'5 0 1.=.b†*)A .=.E.+A\4-A u.=.hT.=&q•s(-.=./].15S03.^L.9.[d†(+t'..x9.4q03‘q5e]6(+9i.1.0…9.fh€l.W(-.:9.1’ 4m.:<”.xA\t ._>+0…<@(q0…(q>+7@7@t.=9.mg9. 0 .ˆ5.E7_&q7q(N0a.f].Z..A\tt¡(N10a7_]6(+..-9w5s>64)0„7@.-9e7:(+./.f<” A .x.?&4)hT].N&q4_(-.JA <T.1A 0…<[<Œ.6*N&-u0….g‹(14c0zggˆ9i0…0“9.=9w&)4i.SA\4)0….(N4qA\0‹(+‰+‘+t A t vw.€.BA\A 7@<[4).*-.€<:>)71&m(P7q&q(+4)]N.eA .(+1/* 5 ! 1!/( :+3 5 (/._)(q. z9t .z9i0…l.u)&-.1bJ.N0….t.-4)5P5‘1./.z0a<=l.>+0a.@.W()A\4s<[<:.E(+A\>)4-t <[A\..=&-.[>)(m</.[9.e(Nds0at]6.14)4q7:5“.:(-(+gg„4)9i.y¢~n “¥ Ã<@j=.N.</bJ.5i&N4A A\._bS>)5^7:A .=E–&)A .s7@9wbf*+t A 7:(-.ˆ.=t &).1<Š<_0u~(+g4)9i5 0 :4*B(/12% ! 72C/7/:&1/($! 5i#&% (+:4 ( Yo A ].:(+A 9.=&)(-.-5Y5Y7:A <Š(+A\71>->)>-<-<[<Šu ..

.=4_&N.sA\4s(E‘1.=&-././.N7qb >)<[<mA <€&)<@9)>qh 5656.W<35Yh†.6.BA .>+7:4)4).@.Nn 4)56X <_&)u8.:&i<”u}A <[Aa.e.y.[&)(+.+(+n^4)7:‘1.@‘+)t.[9.:7:.B(NA 0a9.N(+4-t3]N./9 (NA\‘14›.   .-591gfA\4^7@9w(46g‹4)().! C+5 !.m.=0….=.< . i7@9w464)._.=&)hJ._<Š7q0‹A\*-.S0a(-._&)<”(+A ]w4)]N4E.j)(qA\4q5+565N<P.ˆnz.1"0ˆ</5ind)A</<Š.N0?4->6.$J JK8GC >IHE.1bŒn X &-._&-<”.:.[(+nš4q.-‘15Ã. (z0/3 ~C+021&1/(+C+5 ! 021  &(' &(' n€ CD.y¢“n Éw¥ Ã]N.m0?>64+4).44)< <=zA\bS<[.Ž(+4)4q<x(q7@5+(N.`&).k.BA </‘1A 9.:9Ã7@<=. 4q7@0a.NA\t0(NA .p._<@7@&N.=./9š(+4q.:<=A </.14)A\t¡bJ.:0„A(+d71‘6&s(Nt .14q5 #.=.m0….[./0|9Nt.<”AAa</n .[.S4q(N5w0a.N5t .[.BA 9.mš.=].6._7@.=<[*-&-.914fgLA\4-9./<[9..&).14q0‹A 7@.:.W0….).14q7@.1.mA 4)9._.f(+A\4)4f5Ž.=0‹A 7:(+t+5N.B(+.N.c9Y4_5Ng.NA0‘6<zt./.=t d^<x&).šA </.$J [<5N9w.BA A 9._.N.=9w&q4-(-<S.1’¤4 0 CED QJI~I"UŠH UkI¿fÀˆÀPIM šM s½zILÄc½yK X7@9w&)46.1A\0a4pd ._7@*).$J X &).@7@).f&q7@(-9.^(10….š7@.S.?hT&q()9<yb†..e5N0a.<”A 9wb†4-(+<-4-u8dŽ7@9w.+.:9wbJ.19Ž4s5N71.$JG> 1KC >IHE.=A\4-0„(q]67=<Œ.=0a.[n .Ž*)(N(+0a4).1*10…<[.BA 9.t (1._‘1(Y._A\08t¡.._9N<”g–A*656<Št (N./.1tLt\0…n .:.€(f<:*6t A .9.=A <”&-&1A\.108<[d-<[.:. Fundamentals of Pipe Flow oiA ]w>60….=&-&-n .   &(' &('*) .7N4-n .1<SA\0‹4+A .N(NtA\.=0…ri.14)0….n&->+.:<=XA </.:<”A <[.W>1A 7@.0/"5K14JK: HE..= z0A\‘+t¡>-.|A\4f._./.e<W464)0….yA ]w._4)bJ<”./<Š.|9i.=7@&)&-9w().Z]Y4+A\h€4-4-.4W0….[(+4q7@.[<[(+.=&-.Chapter 4.$J .=(N00„A (+7_(+t¡ .4f91g–.6./.e4š.N4_.:./d+90a*1._03<E.

l.=A  &)._..P0…./(-. +8 HE82: .N4-<E0'A A<c<PA\(š4)<”Agˆ]w>6414qA 7=.=0„(-0„.4)9)</h.1.z5Y.N&)bJ.   &(' +'-./5Z.=7:0…(+(-4).BA</9wg._.e9.zt 9Y.1&)4-.(-.=A\&)4p(-.$J JK8GC >IHE.$J X5N.

B.+.=&-&).0„(-4Œ.1A 9.e.w.=n &-.J91A\gc4s.s./5w.B7_A 9w(+4š4_.N>6bf0„(-*1.=. .=91>+g}0a.

[(+tY7:(+4Z‘1.N.=>+0….1bf*1.@7_£ (-1A .@.1A\4-0a]P.S.s0¤.x5w>+0A\4)]m."7qt¡j=.z7@9. .4)</.[(+4-.S.=&-.N0…(-.?+d_™ u (+4)5P./.Wt A vw>1A 5b†.N0a.f()<Š<@>+bJ.=j=&).=&-._5P(+t¡bJ96</.:g9i0a.y91gL.=&).e9N— gL7q.=&-.

t A 5YA .Œ<Š9.†7:()<Š.=&)."t¡ A\4-]š*1.:<fA <sbs>)71&t ._<[<Œ£BŽbSA\t¡ A <[.-7@9w4)56<B™:n '<†<:>)71&iu~.10‹A 9Y5p—‹hJ&NA 7q&A\4ebJ9N<[.

@41.w7:(-.=0‹A .BA 9w4 -A <S9wA\t¡>64)<”b†A ]w.

:7=.wA 7J7_(+l.[(+t“*10…./9Ž<†0…t 9i.b (+t¡N.:-.sA\4f.BA7:9./<JA <€5YA  ~.@X.=0„(-&).+9.4P4+4-—‹<Š.P.=&)(+4Fwn¤£ A\4Œ.[<Š(+<@>+twbJ56.qA\0 ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ „     N N       !  -.m*10….ch—.s0‹A.B0aA.17@t“. {} ~u  wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆan  (N/0 €"•s.[(+(-.10….:<Š<@>+0a.BA 9.-.@.yt A7:vw(+>14ZA 5Ž‘1.=.1._<yt .N4_.Z0?>+464).?9wdm4-71<[&).W&-.10ads<=A\4-]wt .y5.@g9i0….[76&-nz.Œ*19YA\4_.N._.=&)..N4s()<  —k¢“n¤£N£-™ .:<[<:>60….1.:u(+t t.¥ 4)<_uwdZ<@*+t A .:9š<€*)7@9w(N0„46(+4)t¡.=&).N0a.=&-.N0".  '         #" $% '&  !    N (*) &   (+) $ %  0/ .Noi0a.-(10?t d_ui./<†(+4q5pb†(+41A g9wt 5N< 7@9.`4q7@.10™ “.6uw.:]N¥ ._5W9Ng8gˆ0…9.9.:<=9wA jS</./.[(+(+4_4)._<[<@>+0….mt 9N<Š<|A <€7:9.oi4ZA ]wAa>6n ._&-7@.:<[<:>60…./91.Œ*N0a.y<@bc(+t¡w*10….+0….mt 9N<Š< —k¢“n¤B£ 6™    ha  ).:<Š.=&).ˆ.fbJ().4_9).:<Š<€._4)5W<”A7@.Sh†0A .bf*196<[.€(+4)5 —‹¢“n 6™      ‡L9)hT./.Œt 96<[<€7:(+4P‘1.Z.>)<Š.*:d60‹A ].c.=&-.ZA\0…</A <c.       —‹¢“n 6™ %}t .=&).SnS¢“dEn 67@™:9wn846h†4).=&)./.&-|.

./9P(q565E(.

P.Š4)™:5 u gˆ0A 7@.g9i4+0`4-. Section 4.S¢“n w¥³=¨+«+«+®:³-¯?ª ¨i«Wª¡«Œ¹=®_±kª¡®”¹ .m(-.&-.@X rq&)(+.1™@03n ./.hT.:._oY<PA ].-._71./9i0ˆuY(+4q5   " $% "  &(' +' j1 1B7 798K7 .:*1<=9iA </A\.9)h0…(-.[(+.=&)*).c&-—‹.SA <f91gx.sA .1&-4).E7:9.m&-.[4-(+.=.].=&-.BA 9w4   .P0….S(+4q5P7q&q(+4)]N.BA 9..S<Š91<@>+gL0a.y.?hT7=.=.$J JK8GC >IHE. 7@9wbf‘NA\4)(-.1t+.=4)&-7:./9N.W4q7@£e.m]10….&)>+9)0a.N‘14_.m-.B9 A 9w4W‘10„(+—k<[4).[(+t~l.4yg‹(q7=.N.5.s5wA\>)4f7@. Putting it all to Together io A ]w>60….:&y<”A91<[gL.>+0….$J z4s.=&).Z(N0„(+<Š(+t¡ bJ.^A <y.^bf*1*+0…t .@NL)N6.=.=t .

=&).@./.=&).khT9‘10„(+4)71&-.:.?hT.4ŒA <|7:(+t 71>6t (-.-5W()< X 9P(q565P( .BA 9.N4S.   —k¢“n¤B£ +™ ‘1. Š>+4)7@._<z(+4q5W.mt 9N<[<JA\4y.

&-.S(+4q5P7q&).|{} u- wu“‘@dŸx0ˆnk (N0/€"•s.y¢“n w ¥ $*)(N0„(+t¡ .4+4-._71jfA gL.4).>+0….sA <x]69i9i5 oiA ]w>60….qA\0 .].1t+7:9.=&).BA 9w4      ) N    x‚ „c… ‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š•x‡œ–2ŠŒDˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „x›‘ „_Œ2‘ S‡$™ 7:9.*@d+0‹A ].c9wt 5W9..-7=.

Fundamentals of Pipe Flow 7@9.|{} u~ wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆna (N0/€"•s.Chapter 4.*:d60‹A ].qA\0 ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ „B .&-.

17s&)4e(+>64N7q4qA&q5N7@(+.y(+‘1)9w(N>_0‹Ak.[.=5Prih€‘@*1dŒ.1A\A bS4S9.m.1A 0a<J.4q7@.1h 54 .[(+hŽ4-91.mA\&)4S()gˆ9._>+7@t .1&q.:(+<Št¡<_bJui96.k.4EA\7qt (N&q(-0x(+.0<†A *17@<”.=0…hT(+&).1‘10T9+‘1‘19w0„.10.JA 9.@.< (N0a.B0AA.N. &)&).|t .0…(-g‹b N(q7=A .14 X .1-.p(Ñq()<”A 7š7@9.10aA .(†t A vw>1A 5SA\4x(z7q&q(+464)._‘19w(q.=]it&)A\4-A.< 0 &NA <”‰+&).:wn<[*+.:.0…9).ztY‘@l.14 /%'&)(+4+4).c46‘1.y <@ >+rn 0¤g‹EL(q7:.T<:*1.B.{._<”*1A71.=<Š>6<€0?<[‘6.1<[t6<:>6l.1hT.=5.Œn<[91 './(+9Œ4qA\4{5^./A\94-4c.-A <z(+.†l"h|.€.=&).m&‘qbJ9w().B.W).=h &).4ql.371&)(N0…(q7@.€4Œ(-(N.c(+*1460…4).=>)&-&q<[.N.*N‘qA\by*1(+.14).c(q.-7q9).=&-(-.  "$# –       !      ED:F G@HJILKNMPOPQSRTI UVMWH A4+<[>6<:4)>-bJ.1t@7_(+4J‘1._7q¥ h&q(+4NA 7@<  4-]YA\4-.0|4Y7_.@h 9i0kj6¥•m 7 30„(@h ”‡TA\t¡a"9i9.=</&).10…5›960….1].=4-t &)d^.s./&-.:ng.bf*q(+4-d_uy’¤4)76n £ +™@n ‡L.=.f).?.:0L<`9wl./._(-.c]YA -.@n (+r+4šX*q(+&)‘14).Pt)(-l.N<[4Œ.19w0…0….=.=&).10…<z(N0….N5{‡L4-._bJ.j% 9.N&qhÃ0L(+4+.y7@9.[g'(-<S.:./._7-A .10xj14)9)hJt .E4)A <|./<Zg9i0†.1&-./._5N5~4-d†.ftA (+].+ u.^(q56.:u"._h$.&).N<Z460a<[5Y4).l.W%'&-9)h z— EL.N4in b7qJ&q96(+</4+X .dP9)9)hÃ.f<Z.1A 4-9.›4)9.&-7@.1t8‡–d)5w0„(+>6t A 7:<f‘@d }.†9).@.=>N&-AA ._4).=9W&).>-<ŠA\9)4)<[h ]s./. .1<”4|gˆA .eIV(+h3*-A\(-.=./t dJ(+9ibSg0'9iA\g0„4)9i7@(N0T.9w*14-.€915NgS.c9.-(q5iA\4)]š‘19i9wjs<@>q7q&P()< *1.gˆ]w4P0…9.N91gˆ0a9w>+gS0¤>-./</t89E._.†.=&-%'.=&)7q.0a9)._5f‘@d3.B4s.z0….^)]e.-j:(+7:<y4)(+71.1A(+<Št4)715Yl._0…KZ.Ž._.10‹A ž@.4 Bowt¡>1A 5 •Œ.=<Z&)&).N.=4).S0…9N.-5N]6.=7@&m‘1..P‘@d0a. (+‘6Mt .=56(N&1.}9il.(+*19)4).fh(+4q&)5P()<€././4-.[(+7q4_&q.-5 ._A ./.sA .10….:ds<:*1g9i.^9.=&).N*_.?._7=0„7@.=9w7@&).ŒX A\bf&)*1.=<Š&).0„0„(+(-t“1A0….=.

14).=&q(-.?d <:G:*1n .=>1&sA 5mA .w7T.:)n .1X t 9Y&N7-A A <3.10…]1d3./._5 h€t A vwA .–A <8()<[<Š9Y7-A (-._7-A .

:<Š<@>+0a.[(-.-5f9Ng".BA 7y*10….&-./<-¥ .w7|.[(+4)].f&-dq5.=&).10…]1ds(-.NtYA <   — wn¤£-™ .14).x91gx&-.€(+4_dP*19YA\4_.khT9s7:9.S.-7=.0…9N<[.10…]1dsA <x7:9.qA ].bf*19w4-.14).bf*10‹A <[.N4_.€A\4s(E0a. X &).>+t (10 71&)(+4+4-.c(+4)5s.=&-.

.

8NO N   $ %.d   .1/5 ! 1!4(  ) i7/=( &#.% :&! 1 O F@gQ L Q [ V 3 Y T&dœY evZcXœZ L Qm&Zj$Q L Q [ V 3 Y T.+ ) 5 0  (C+0.

Flow in Open Channels Fl ow ∆x y d g oiA ]w>60….Chapter 5. wn¤£6¥ L xO{9T9{|{9xOP w Ow  aU .

  .+{ } N } w RDU } N }O} UaT (+4)5~ui<”A\4q7@.

+¥ — wn 6™  $ )  %-+ <@&-*1.f7q0…9N<[<z<Š.7-&-A .  g9i0–(+4_dE*19iA\4-.-A ].:.=&)._7=.f<:>60ag‹(q7@.)™@u   )     h†&-.N0a.q.BA 9w4P—gˆ0….€A\4y.

S(-.*1>N.p.k&-d .`7c9N.10…()t .?dc-.B-A 9.N(+ t4q9Y5P7-A .=7-&-A.Nt4f9Y7-9NA g–.mt A vw>1A 5 091…(-g.=A .N7:.f71&)(+4+4)..=7)&)A\A ./).m]1dZt A v.ˆ(s>1.1’ g8t 9Y.BA\A <:5P4-*1]SA.Œoq89itt 0}9NA vw.=&-.1g–4).NA 0T5E>+A\4y41A .w.1&)0….1]60„.:.=.1t (q(--7:._<z.?&)dc.=nJn&-.†.?df]w0…91(-gLN.) A 9N]wg &_..

&)./9.y0….:0„u<Š(+<€ bŒu“<[.N(-4_*†.P9E0„5Ybcj=A\.=&)..†.AA 9.-uq&)7=h|().|(N9+0a.Œ4†(+&-(S4q.B<3AA . Iˆ~<@*1€i.w4q.=./dŒ.9N.=&-.()*19)<Š9ih˜.q5Z5YA ].=7:&)()9.._l. (+()<z4)5†.q.9)4)&-h <.].=<B&)(+‘N.=.1 4)0…€i./9i./&J4Y9mui.Bl.=71&)._A\4-5~0„._7:7)9+A 9i.=9.A7q()&-0…]../uN(-<'.&)(+.€.J<}bf.:7q7c<Š.s&).:4)(+.s]N7:.yA\bJ4q&-(-.

_7-iA ./0a. <:K“*1n .=>+&)0¤.`)B.@.NA\4)4-(-.x]Nds()< 7q.N.w0„7J5Y.

†<Š.NhJ0a4._]N7qdZ0….-4-(-<x.10…7@]19.€A\0…A</<3.f0„(+5w‘10…9.ZA .10„(+4)tY.N(P4-56.1.:uYj14).:7:<}(+(S4P*q‘1(1.=b &P.=./.(€bÆ]w0…(+oi*+A ]w&Y>6n 0…._(-().-bS()<[A\.X w&1An <3wnxt A\4-oi.-&)7-.w)73. AA\<c4)71(^0a._41<|A\bsh€>6A .N0a.=&-9).(:hJt (z4S9wgˆ4z0…9.d_4qu 7q+t¡>)uq<”71A 0a9w.W(PA\4W<@*1.

=&-bc.10…]1dm7q>+0¤).BA >-7_.15.f(-.B(+A 9.Œ91)A\.=&-.)X A ]. &-I/.:uwl.iKw._.A .=.tY4yl.`9Ng–.cd.)&-A ]w./A\9m4q7q.9)&-h$..N4_0….).=&)&-..0…>)]1.ŒA ].B4qA 7:5~(+u~t".:<Jn .Œ.=.BA 7:(+tYl.:A <|<Š<@l.z&-hJ.mi.=710‹0A\A ‘6. X &).y&)j1.S&).m. .)&-A ].1A t.15“0…]1u“dPhJA&)<|.J7:(+A <st"&)‘1.S71)0.+4mui().E()t <†A v.9).1&N4)A\0„..14-4m9)h†./hœ9WKw.|(NIVA\4Œ<:>67@*19w.9)kh Kwu“(+4)5E._d)<†5w()0…9N]+</(N.mbSA\41A\bs>6b *19iA\4-.>+9)0ah._()<[.10…]1dA\4q7q0…./9‘1. IV<@>+‘N7q0‹A .W()<[&-.&N&-A <z..=n &).=&)&-.15..=.1nf0…]1’¤4d .y7:A <s9./9m&).f4f.-7q7@0‹9.q7qA 0‹]._(+()‘1<Š.Bn A 7ŒX *1&N0….14).=>N&)A 5š.bfj14-*19)9wh†4-.1A t].:.=A <s&1A jN<|4-7_9)()h†<[.=n!&-.14)<x.w&)7Z.Œ&_A\.W.N4m4_().kt d_n&).B9YA 7_7)(+A .1&-4).[A\(-4i.q&-A ].yX .14).=<†&-.1A <|4).=0…&-.&-|.c4q7qA <S0….=&-.4m>).=9)&-h . {} ~u  wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆan  (N/0 €"•s.*:d60‹A ].A .B&-A .=&-4W.).E. " $# — wn 6™ 7@9.W&)(+*+*1.qA\0 ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ „&%   + $   $ $   +  .

&-.f7q0‹A .=&).qA ].†.1.Section 5.c. “n “¥4v R U& { L } U  hJ&).10….BA 7:(+t“&-. Introduction Y EL specific energy line Y2 2 specific thrust line Y3 3 YC Y1 1 Yo A ].>+0a.zA <|56.

"4)._5‘@d  N } P w PSU } y|xOP 0x  nU .

   — wn ¢+™   #   .

 + X &+0k>)</.|A <z56.c.

"4).c. f — wn 6™ 56X ._5P()< e.

*19iA\4-.?IBA dEb†.kA 5 ./<Œ.N9w0„0¤(-ds4-N.:<Š(+<Jt <Š4+9p>+bf&q(+‘1*+.0?>-4+<[t .=9i &E0a.†by./<'.=&-.E.B0…91A .1(+t A9)4-1h dšA 5YA\71‘14)09i]^A .4).kd_dšn bJX‘@.=&)A\41.)-4E.kX NdfA &)56A <}._.1*10–.@. "  n X &-.-d &17qA &q"<'(+vw41>) A 7:(+<_4-*1n .N0a.B9.P7:(+4  — wn 6™  ‘1b†Ÿ3.Z(-. A\5Wt A .=j_7_&-<y(+.+u"9.[./9‘1.:g9i0a.c.†.1.Nt 9Yl"t 9i7)>N7)A A.P<B(+bJ.A .14).P.WAA\.Zt_9.1()4)<-<†¥ .:<f-].kbfdh|*1A ._(+./<”9p()A <@]w7q>+41&)0…A ."&)4).=7=&)4_...=<”&6A 9.:u6(1(+(+0…‘14)._.yA\bf5iA\>+b†b  .

Z0a9w‘19i.w.‘1oi9).Ž4sl.P.|0…h 9.=A 5N<s>).^5Y(+A ._‘14+5y91>+)bfgˆ.z.=&)&)(+.c.=7_._5L7q7_K(+j4)‘@A 7:g€dE.1b 00 hJ&NA 7q&mA <€56.<[>q.

_5‘@df.>q(-. {} -u  wu“‘@dŸx0ˆkn  (N/0 €"•s.4Z— wn 6™:n NÉ “6Š‚x•x„c‡œ… –2Š‚xŒD„$ˆ†xŠ ‡‰‹rˆ…<Š Š˜‹“Œ„ˆBŽ™t‡BŽr’š „x_›‡BŒ/‘ „_‚_Œ2‘ ‘4S’”‡$™ “L‹x‡ 7:9.qA\0     ) % $    + $   +  +  $ +    .BA 9.-v."4).*@d+0‹A ].&-|.

/A\9e4P]Nh†9^&1A A\714P&W.m(+4))]N.._>6*17@0…. u+™:i.q./.4-t91k.=‘1&N`.<”t.=bS.7-4+A . .=A\*14S&-9i.BA . .c&1(+A 71£S4W&|.?&)d_4q.l.1—.`71.-9w7qb0….=A\4-&-.10?A\0…4ybJ]1dE(+9Y4-51t 9Ndfd+<[4q<-<”(+Au+.[._A\./<[9<=A\(E‘1A\t<@A .=&-&-.=._(+<zbJ4)(-gˆ.ED[º ŽÁ fUVR`¿fÀOŒUV¿ PKN¿ ¾ ED $Á€OPKN¿sQfÀ?UVRSQ XA\4)&)71.91w4SgLn wn.B.B<`A 9.9)9)hShu".m.-()l.—4Y9).`‘6bJ>-.=AA 9w.-gw7=ZA.=]14)&-dW5m.<[9).10A 0….NX 0…&)71.Œ(:<Šhp<3A <S9Y914)7:g9P71X >6._A 7_<z’\4s(+5Y>-(qA <Š<Š7@.N<-4-n3.:91<€*1g.17:0…(+(+]1t 4q71d^5Z>6tt 96(-&q<[._<|(+<Tj=.S4)s.B.0…&-.8].1.=&-&). .1nz. A 9.=h˜&)uw.:0a.. <Š5ioi7:A\A 0…]w9.N 0a’¤]N Œ4fdŒ‘17:()t.:<:<_>6n *1.-4)’7@.y.l.S.mt 9Y9.N0at œ19N.=>-9N>)<Š(+g.?tdZdW5Ngˆ0a.0…<[&-.B()<A <39w4-.?>+dW‘N7qg9i0‹A 0L.s0a.1A ].B9wAA\9wbJb 4€.@)./‘19A .9š9)h$*196._()(P<Š.@.=7:&)(+.1gL9w0….B._h <S(+7:(+4q54Z71. .=.9YA .=>q&-(-A 7@.`r+9N*+<Š-t9.`h†A\4_7:._&-\54.1.4-9i>-.l.Œ96<[<[.PA 7_A(+<mtw4)l..10…&)4)<|.mt.m<L*19.

9)h$bJ91). ./(-<ŠA\.N4-t .:.†b†7:l.:0a.1€i0a&)g5Y.L*1ti.N z4-4P..:*1h(-.=&-.[d:().BA .:bfg9i*i0a.=.:.9)4_hÃ>+df4_7_.|<c7:()<Š.et A .:&)(-<-.>+4^<_0…./.=7q&qt¡(->).)7 (eA\0 B>6<'l.:<B7q0‹A\‘1.0a. Kwn L(10?‘1.N9..'£ *+.B]NA\9.:>6t¡.1.6uY>-.—s()<x<@&)9)hJ4fA\4moYA ].>+0a.1<f<|4)9N(Œ.19 t*-A 7.e.=*N9Y&)0a569w(-.=91&)\g .=&)4y.:./.c<”A 9w.N0k4)9.&S7_bJ(+.=i— &-}.1bfbJ*Y9wn 4-X <[.1.|<@t .1A]N9wbJ.x9N.=t g 0a469YA\>+4J5wbJ>)<[.N0„t 9Y(+7->+A t._4)t(N9Y<[0?.:.[.Nt 7-(+0a]NA 4-..=&).1~0.B(+A 9._&-&-<|./9fj14-9)h|‰+>+4)56.Œ&-.=<'&)0„(-.-(+5SbJt–.|n 2341A ).0….=.NbJA\4-*). Flow in Open Channels / .?d†—z}0a.10a)(-.=9._0„<[7q(+._<[<<'&-dq7@(N9w5._<Š0„<”.:1A 71j6u6 z0?bJ.:A <Š1<”AXA\7:*q.s>+71bf£s&S*1./0€&).B.N<_4_nT.1hT*19i.10–‘6>NA\t .10…</.:9N<g A(+\4Ž4)(+(^ t d-<@.10…0x4-71<-&š.N4)t5y(--.BA089w(+44-dWA\4)71j)0aA\./7=A.1(+0+>P91.N.N0a.f.— h†.^.7:(+9.†. ’\4^£ .shJ&NA 7q&&-.-5( I?h3(-)B.-.EA <`5Y.1.1n 0…]1*1BdX .bf9)g9ihÆ*^0?bfA\A\44Ž>+t ((†(^(+7)<[4qA\.=.14)d_4Ã..)A 9.=t .?dmdE]6.stq0„(-<Š<:9.1<†4-.9w™:bJ4-n <[.|£|.eA <r.€>+4)*15w.=. Chapter 5.@719)hT0ahJ96./A 9.J*)(-g9i.>+t¡ A <}.:0a-./9y56.=‡L&).N7-t A0¤A .=]i0a&).=71&).N7:.=.€‘1.0‹A\4)‘191</.?A dm7 Š‘1>+.BA 9./9e’¤.:71()nW&)<[(+. (+4q5c%'&6>i£ 1¢i™@u:g‹(NA\t ._.=&1A <Lh3(-).ŽA 5s&_dq-5.z.-7:5e9.=./0…9i5m710k>6bA <3t (N<@0`<[&). 0 h€.5wA ]ib 0„A\(+‘+>6*1t .=9^&-.1 4E&- 8.>+bf(+bf4NbJ*)A g9w<m.=0a&19wA <†b A\4-g9i&N0?A 9 b†+(-.14-A\]›4)4.<Š&q.N(-560`.:>-0…-.T7:b†Š9.0a4< gˆ.:46&).N<[4S0€S< €iA\</4m<[d).'(N5N560a.N.10…<”A .-7:5N.&)9) h`<e.BA 9w4J(+4)5F".S7:()<Š.†.:4š</(N./u)9<@hT>q5Y9i7qA <[0?&†j:<=<eA\()*)<3(-&qA\.N(-5 0a.=0a9w>_.L(sbJ9Y56.<”.=A <[0k>)<=A\.Bu'A 9.=A*+&q._5€.ZA <`91g'<:5i&-.=bJ<[&c.m4q7q‘10….Z-.:9i.>q(-.EB56>6.BA\t A ž-A\4)]sbc()<[<'7@9w4-<Š.1gx0…<[]1.1]Nt./0V9w9Ž£ 4- 9N<Š./(+.S<_—‹<:u~A\4c>).-9N5^g .=&-.y0¤d_91A\n ..N0V‘@u dWL.W&q*1(+7:A 5w()4-t<Š]6dP.B].=4m&-(q.:t¡(->-<_.J()l.-A <Š9Nv.N0a0….4q._.14s5W t (+bJh34)9Y(-]N-5.Œ<:&-9N.c>qA\*q(-<:(-.=(1&)0?..-</oi.1h†560…]1./(-4|.[(+4q5Y‰+>)<[./9E*19iA\4-.1t¡4)>6.B(-A 9.BA.=.1.=]Nr1dJ7@.N>-0…<^(+A\4etq0…5N._.:.:<Z<BbJ7qA\4^9.@&-rqd)(+5w(Nbs0…0&€(+*6>+•Œt .£+u L(N0k‘1._4q9._56A (N]w.12x0ˆuqn "(+ n4)5f}t>+(-0a.6t A9iu17 A\<:4-Š>).Bt .@)5~4).†<[.1.:’¤4)4W<T]N. n 5N5i.E9iA <[0?<=.:&-gˆ]wd)0…t9.=0…&10(-A A.17@.:.14)d:0…]N]1.W7:(+t¡ .=g9i&)4S0z.s4)<J./7_<c.1t 9Nt¡<Š._.=4).:<3gˆ0a9wb *19iA\4-.1.|)A .=9.6t™~()<@</ .N0 I?g9w>64q 5 KP._<sA .Œ<[9wt A tvw->1..:.1.B.@&1dfNA 71A t7@96&p./4Y.=&y.N(1dc00…<f7@)9.<`.=9)&6hh€0?>-A ./<`0….=A -<|&)./.-v.:X.B.4 -—‹—i.1.z._()>)<Š.14-.:71<Št .e&qA .|l._.6<cu1n (+0a._-9w5{._(+(Nb†0…71(-&-.N0„bÆ(+4)71A\4m&+£ .:1(+.:.:-.=&N0…(-A <`.&_dq5w0…(+>+t A 7 B>6bs*ZA\4W.=&-.1.^4-.=&+&).c.1t:.NA\&)4-0c(-]e.@dS&).=./()™@9 < u .?qdŒ0ˆ(-u .'0…<_91\n gY.10a]N.†n .NA\™:0a4_n`.-.Ab†9.š4)0„(+7:<[>6.4q.-4q()5s<[.B&)At 7:A 91.=.s&_dq5w0…(+>+t A 7 B>6bs*iui(+4q5f.E‘1.J9Ng .=&).xd4)€]4 . n —[wt zA\n j”¢“4.N.1.™s0a4€.=6&-0a™–).=.z.Bu`A\.=w&-n wn.N9Y .-]N(1.y‡L0…9).N&)4-.

/ * * .

|{} u~ wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆna (N0/€"•s.*:d60‹A ].   N     ? N    7@9.&-.qA\0 8NON ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ „_ž .

  .

     N    .

.

       .

.

1&)0….4)</.=&-.W0a.y7q&q(+*-.4)9i0….=&).4W*6t .=0?>)7@.BA 9.10ˆn  D:F G@HJILKNMPOPQSRTI UVMWH &X)’¤4f./. .-()<[.   š 2T4q56.)&1A\A4Y)<|9.=._</.sA ]./.191.J.x91gL.‰.n 71t¡>+&)X bJ(+&)*-.10–7:9.Z.

n ]6 –(-.5Nn4).:t.e.:0L()-<[<s.-<[A\].s).Nt (-5Yt (-.N5›5N4P./719p>60a.1.:*p<=<[A .ct ..N7:A <Œ(+4_.B4sA 0k9.e.=4)&)5Œ.f<[.10….=A4).P(+.&)\./A . A <E.=&1)A <f.[7-()A ././].Nt.y._9›5Y<”AA  ~‘1].Zt"0a.p.yA 5Y9./0a56d^./7q(+9šbJt`.469š4p4)<[._&-<_5.-&q<[7=.@&-.?]Ndf.N9N4_4-]Y.=0J<s&).B-._A\<”0k4->+A .N.-<@5šX&NA\&)*P..=.-5“9."08g|0….-A .1t 9Y<[.s5N..1&)./.=.>+(+4p4+4q5W4-&).†.=.1<[.-0….@.B>).N4š0a.47=.1&)‘14E.=bJhT&)9./<:A<€>67:(+0…(N.f.?.=</.=(-.N().

_5~X n &-.Pt dŽA\4Z9.=bS0‹AA 7:Š0‹(+A\t~t (N./7q.ƒ7)A\ 0…7@(q./<y0a.1A\4)0‹A\]šbJ—k._.P4ŽA\A 4< <[<”9wA\bsbJ*6.14_t ./99Y56‘1._.EA\4+._<[."4-t¡ 9{A\4)]fjN4-.=0‹A X7:(+&)t~.E‘@(+df>-.N*10.1*14-0….Nt .4Zbf.10a0T.N.B9)A\b†h†.B9iA 0¤9wdN4†‰+bJ.[5Y(+At._hJ7:9./A\9{b†.-<-7=n._(q<m56(N.@(N)A\‘6.-j15 4-9w&qt(-.1A\‘+4)t]i.=()&e<[./<[<_.X &)q.=&)>+./bJ9^._<@..-&-7=.:t ./.@&-r+9i*10`.=4-ri._.E(+t¡>-0….Wt A ._<_>)n<[.10at .BAA ]w7:.†4Ž9N0ag8.h|‘qA .4^.N.=<[.:91<”.N0.Zds. n q5Y(+A <Št¡7q>->+.1tL()j1<J4)0…9).=.y.N7=.Nt.=4)&)5.:j@<”hT™|9ih|0„5A\t¡8Ÿ}4).:N]6A\.

?h3(N0a.N(N0kbJ0¤.*10„0…(+.  <:&-9w>6t 5‘1.=9w&->6. 7@9w4-<=A 5N.e(qbJ7=.bf(+t¡*+.BA 9w4-<z(+4q5P7@9..N0…(-.?7:dE9.c<S91<:gx&-..=dqri5..7P4)<_7)nA\0…71 ~>_.10„7-A (+t+<[91g„.Pt A . .Pt 5p.B-A ._./w._7@ .:.@r+‘1*N.-bS5EA\t.:.:<fu–(NA\4E0….P(+‡L4q9)(+hTt d_.bsbJ.mn .=&-r./0a9.B&qA .:(-<_-n^.c<@>q7q&EŸ3A $./.14-4<yA\4-(N./(N9p0‹A .N7_0V(+u}t“&-.=9i>q0a(+.W0a.[<[(+<”j=A 9w.=._5~n .10ag.W>)<[.:<Št¡>6<”tA A9.t .<”A\.

/9.BjN‰-(W4- 9)(1j1h 0&4)€9).anx‘1._./.S. '-.Nh|t.s.)4s./gˆ.=•ŒhJ&)(-. W1KC[1  82: H+J +(~A\4y4q>+5W(W*6*1Aj1<x964)<[5N9).-.&q (-4SB)(+n .`A\0 0„-(+<}9w4)gt¡]N9i>6.s7@]6.<3-b†./t &-(Y9.Œ4)X «f5Œ&)<ŠhT. '-.19iA 4q.J.BdA 9.B(-0aA .`>+5E4qhT7=‘@.kdm./<-9E n 7q‘1pj=./«f9E&q]+()>-(-<3<Š.ŒA\0¤4y..=4J&)9N(-.|7@4)9.†X >+.60?bJbfn .._.:.=7)&m5fA .NhJ4-.†.N.

=]yt&NA )."oq./4f..x.=&)\.1.(-9Z.x<Š<T<”]6.ŒA 5P<Š71&q(->-(). .Œ‘1A . ª A <€()<[<:>6bJ.St¡9iA\560“4)._.BA <`A\.1bJ0…5Y./A 9.=&)(-.-5m.

9)h$0„(-.f7_(+t 7q>+t (-./.4  — wn 6™    .S(+4q5m._7@.Sl.BA 9.c<Š.sA\4Zj14)9)hJ4W0„(+4-]6._5‘@d   — wn¤£-™ X &+>-<-ui]6(-./.£ * E  ?        $ -" ."t¡ A\4)]&)()<x.S(10…./.=&).f7:(+4P‘1._(sg9i0 ./9e‘1.=&).

[(N0¤._9. wn¤£6¥ Ã]N.#&.=0¤df9Ng30?>64+4-.z5N._7@.+5 0x(/1/5 5A74! (c1i#.bJ.=&y.-5Wh€A . Runner Design z0?bJ.m0k>+4+4-._<”A ].BA 9.N0–7@9w464).5 7/! C+(z5 !._56]N.4y.=&).+u69w4-. ( 03<./.NbŒn .Chapter 6. (&> 0c#!45 vents vents Mold i κ j K a b Biscuit oiA ]w>60….N08</d)</.4 .:.y7_(+4f</.! C+( 5 !&.=&NA <cj14-9)h†t .

y7q.10„&)4-(+.z0…(+.ªw€(+A\4-&q4)<:()5>6<}S0….=4+..€5Z<=.&-.&-.mA\4Pg9i‘10J0„(+‘19N4)71./.._£_0…7q(+(b†4q‘17q. ' . '-./.c./<-n X &)./9 ‘1.Wl.N4_._’¤4e0…5.9)h0…(-.6.1.:.:._0a7@59w9w*s9.f&)n ()bJ<SX 9.†bJ9iA\A\4|.=9.Z._<Sg9i0J‘19N.-h.-0…7q*1.:<=<[56A<:].$J JK8GC >IH J  aF J JB8 :I8$38"JG>Q: 1‘*1Ÿ}.=&E& <[ .m0…._7:vw(-N>)A(+.=.=&).J].kdŽt6.464)—k4)5Y.:>6<=4Z0…A .-4+>+™T4)0a9.=(-&-4q._&Z<[(-<@<[.m. .1.N4-4_./.=&Ž‘10„(+4)71&^&)()<S..-<Š(+7=l.J&-4-.m..-7qbJ.m(-./9W(1../7:‘1.Œ&-x.=0…&)‘1./0„A\9š(-4)._A nm7@ .€7:.:(-4)<Œ)5 .-&*N(q0a7q./bJ9).c.14qoY0?7@A>6]./A9W<cl.=&-9).Zh$<B0„(+(-bJ.f>+./4q<z<Œ7qªq&)&q(+.914)5wg€.S034fw<Š‘Nn¤.Œ./t 59.    ..W<@>+b9Ng`.

hT˜.y7:(+4m5Nx.= ~&-.Nbc4)7:().=*1&69Y>)A\4_<x.6<[<su 7:9.4)<[u“.     — wn 6™    h†&-.†& ªY A\4f.m*10….9)h˜0…(-.=.6ui9w4-.    Z(+4)5e.=&-.c.N.cl.10….y9i0T<:>6‘N‘)0…<Š(+714q07qA .:<Š<@>+0a./.@rq(+bf*+t .-5W.chT.m‘@d — wn ¢+™   7:Ã(+4f&)h†.=(-&). .14q7@.Pg‹(q7@.=&NA <€7:()<[.f5YA  .f]e5YA. — wn 6™   *120….cA 9.ŒA\4f.1A <z0aq.y(+t <Š9b†.c.:./& .y7:A\(+4E4fhJh†&N0A 7qA .=&q(-.=&).B.1t (-.N0a._(+4)<z(+4-dZ‘10„(+4q7q&f./.c&-g.N0¤d‘10„(+4)71&mA <†0….B<[A\<:t A >6ž-0…A\4).    — wn 6™ X &-.:-.<B4P(+bJg9i.6n ]“n`ª\u |(+4q5W<[9W9w4inxoq9i08./9m.SA .c0J.10…0.=&-.e0a./.

[(+4)7:.Œ‘:d      — wn É6™ 7@9.qA\0 ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ %    / ) /                   )    )   )   ) 0/ .&-|._vw>q(+t ._<”A <[. {} ~u  wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆan  (N/0 €"•s.S."4-.|0a.14-.*:d60‹A ].

3.Section 6.4P—SN N+™ .10"bc(+41A\*19wt .[(+4_.>q(-.>q(-.4 <— NLN+™x(+4)5P.4)< .=&)./9c]N.=&).:.BA 9.-v.|A\bf*19i0a./<8gˆ>+0¤.-v./.>q(-.Jb†9i0a. <[9wbJ.1.-v.BA 9.BA 9w4-<:&1A\*)<_n328<”A\4)]J.'0….1t (-. Introduction œq.:.BA 9.`.

:<=A </.m0a.‘-.[(NA\4   l— wn¤B£ +™    i9.S7_(+4f9.[(+4q7@.†A\4J(f‘10…(+4q7q & T7_(+4y‘1._<”A </.=&).m0„(-._vw>q(-._vw>)(-.[(+4q7@.    B — wn 6™ X &-.4).9)h 0„(-./9cl.†l.4P<— NLN+™x9.4q5iA\4)]s0…././.BA 9./.†A\4y‘10…(+4q7q&Sª)(+4)5y7:9i0k0….BA 9w4Z<— NLN6™x(+4q5P./.=&).-5c.1t (-.ŒA <†jN4-9)h†4   l— wn¤£N£)™                 N   )    .BA 9P<”A\4q7@.:<:*19.9)h˜0„(-.†0….t NA\4-]Œg9i0 .xl.c._<    — wn 6™ 28<”A\4)]m.9)h 0…(-.

.W</.-&-5.-v.Nu-4)4- 7:._.1<†>N0…A <[.x.qA\A\4y4)71gˆt¡>6>)0a56.=&)4).>q(-.1!.fh€56A\t¡9+w.cA <[X .+.S.:<=A\0…A .Bu“A 5.:1A 9w>-<y.14q#4)7@ .A <€>)4.=r6&-&-A .f.[0…(+.n  X &- .:./.=.S0… ]19N dsg– # ./A 9m<[.NtbJu A v.ybJ7@(+9w9w4-t 5P4_]w. '-.BA 9w4 l— wn¤£B+™ 0. &-.:r6<”A .m 91.       )        " ) " -" !#    #   $ ) $ "    $ )    )  .[.=&-.s4q5N.BA4)9.e0a.-5ml./<|0 ./9t.^</.6<”91Au.m<[.BA .>+0a.._7@‘1.s.7:4Y.Ž*10a.6A\.(+4)bJ]N._‘1<y.[(q(+7qtw&N0…A .@<=)A ./.=0¤9NdPg30…5i./9.=9)&-h._7=./9E.S0„56&-.†./9Ž9N.=.@.[5(+4q&-7@.s(q 7@A <|@.=5Y&)A .=<€&-.S5./.E5. ]N7q&q._</.BA 9pA\4./0a.m".=. “n “¥8dm7@9._&)<”4q._<Š<”<[A ./. '*) q 82: HE:Q>Q14J"C 8 Ã<— NLN+&)™3(-.=0…..=4Z&-&)._<”.10….st.N.N964)</0a7:.ŒA 7@</7:.=9N &)gL.=4f&-u-.Œ<_9mu6.e<Š710a>-.>)>+.WbJ?..BA0…9.4+4).hTn >)9iX .0a.N.(+4Y4qn7q&š9.X A\.W.@5w./.1A .=….1./.Œ0„(q(-N7=0….9.A.k<=A d_9wA </n 4Œ.-</./7@.=5.=]6s&)(-._9.1hJ4q&)7@9.yA\7@4Œ9w46.:>-(+n.4   θ1 θ2 oYA ].e< 0…(-.:.:.=t7:.4‘10…(+4q7q& =n X &).1./g}.>)0a._4)(q7:56.N0Vn ‡LX 9)h&).=>)<”&-.SA._.N914)g30}7:..    A <Ju“A.BA 9.Œ0…5w9.+5.:4q<”7@A .

 "  $      "  (  " " -"  $ %  x‚ „c… ‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š•x‡œ–2ŠŒDˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „x›‘ „_Œ2‘ S‡$™ l— wn¤£B+™ 7:9.*@d+0‹A ].|{} u- wu“‘@dŸx0ˆnk (N0/€"•s.&-.qA\0 .

/<€()<[<:>6b†.  $       (  %        " '&  ( (     " 8 % œq. Runner Design <=A\4)7:.Chapter 6.=&-.=&q(-.     &   (   (  (  (   " u   .N08.†gˆ>+0a.@.

 "        " '& %  (  ( "   —lwn¤£h6™ —lwn¤£_É6™   %      —lwn¤£:¢+™ —lwn¤£ 6™ .

:._<`.B.khT—[9bf>+t A\4)t .:<”™'.10<B7q.:A . "*q(14q0‹5mA <[.:9m._0„vw(+>q*P(+t‘1._.1.?hT9t A\4-.k(+hTbJ.=9w&-4m. —lwn¤£ 6™  "%"0a9w<[bf./9W9w4-.f‘15Y.1.:A Š< t A\4).?. .14Z./4f./.3hT.@4-.mt A\4).

—.

W0„hT(@‘1.=4)&)91.=.:A\.BA 9w4 7@9.£-™ 5iA  .<Š7q0„(+* @7t .Œ<[.=.B.@9w.x4qh 7@5w.@.191h 4yg–.Eh†&)(-.S.-.S.B*ŒA\4-]m56.š.19).N4e. {} ~u  wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆan  (N/0 €"•s.1.:.1n (+t (-*1.?hT.h|.kj14-hT4)]W.:A ž:9w9i4-A <:5 &1A\* ‘1.PA <Œ./.&-|.  '&      " (  %    % ( (    '&  " % &   ( )     ( —lwn¤£ 6™ 8N —lwn 6™   <@>+‘_.p&_dq5w0…(+>+t A 7p0…(q5YA\>-<-n œq.=&).:.*:d60‹A ].x4_<Š)7q./9 "  ( l— wn .1bŒ.=0…0„.1*6EL0…>-.=&-&)&).=t A\4)]ZA\4y.10„0a(+._5Evw>)‘:(-d.qA\0 ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ %B   (  ._9).=&-.BA ._.

& (   )   ( .

Introduction  (   <   .Section 6.1.

  .

|{} u- wu“‘@dŸx0ˆnk (N0/€"•s.khT9m91.*@d+0‹A ].=&).Œ0„(-././<zh†0A .BA 9W91gL.=&).=&-. & (      (  ) )  % )   ( (   (     (    )   (   ( A\4y.@.=&).10?b9Ng–.  —lwn +™   " ./.qA\0 .S<B7q0„(+*WA <     ) &   ( (+4q54-9)h˜t .10 (  x‚ „c… ‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š•x‡œ–2ŠŒDˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „x›‘ „_Œ2‘ S‡$™ —lwn +™ —lwn 1¢i™ 7:9.c.&-.

qA\0 ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ %&% . Runner Design 7@9.Chapter 6.*:d60‹A ].&-.|{} u~ wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆna (N0/€"•s.

  .$JG>Q8"JK>Q:          – ^  – p       .

      .

  .

102. -/.65.: < .  !" # #$ &%(' )+*.657598 .1.B:BCED FHG IJLK MON P Q ‰RTS1U PWV ‰ NXJJYJJYJJYJJYJJJYJYJJJYJYJJJYJYJJJJZJJJJZJJJJ\[1] IJ ^ _a` bdc U\‰TeXeó‰ N1fhgTij R V klQ+k e JYJJJYJYJJJYJYJJJJZJJJJZJJJJ\[1] IJ mn_a`&bXo k&p V R V P2q ‰&r P `&bsc U‰TeXeó‰ N&f R V klTQ9k e JYJJJYJYJJJJZJJJJZJJJJ\I&t u&v w1vyx{z2|~}€ƒ‚…„†‡X‡X†‰ˆŠZ‡X†&‹TŒ@‰Ž‰ŒyO‹‘vvv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv u” u&v w1v • –˜—€“}€T“}7—€ˆ‹1|™—€šŽ‰|7†‰ˆŽ‰›TŒyœv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv u  ž ŒyŸˆT  —$Ž—€šŽ¡ ‹TOŽ‰‡X }€ —“‰Ž —€OŽ }€y†‰ˆ¢vv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv u  £ Ž }€Ž —€Ž¤Ž—€LŽ}€y†ˆ>vv“vvvv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv u‰u ¥ ˆT —€ ‰¦„†‰ˆ|7 —€‰Ž }€y†‰ˆ>§©¨B†šª~ —™|7Ÿ¨T¨Œ¦X‡Ž‰„WyˆT$„WŽ—WŽ‰„ }€ —€y|4}€y„«du‰u ¥ ˆT —€ ‰¦¬„†ˆT|7 —€‰Ž }€y†ˆd§©¨B†šª­ —˜|7Ÿ¨¨TŒ¦«®vvv’vvvv“vvvv u‰u ¥ ˆT —€ ‰¦¬„†ˆT|7 —€‰Ž }€y†ˆd§+‹1y|7|7O¨Ž }€y†ˆƒ¨1—€†›TŒO ‡¯«°vvvv“vvvv u‰u ± Ž‰|7|˜„†ˆT|7 —€Ž}€y†ˆd§©|4}7—€y²«svv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv u ³ ± Ž‰|7|˜„†ˆT|7 —€Ž}€y†ˆd§© ¦T‹1—WŽ ŸŒyy„’¨ŸT‡X¨B« ´~vvv’vvvv“vvvv u ³ u&v w1v w µ­Ž—€LŽ}€y†ˆ|a† ¶·}€ £ Ž}€Ž —€šŽ&¸B¹“º»vvv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv u ³ IJ t _a`&b¯Q+b r ‰ Q e b R g1i j R V klTQ9k e JYJYJJJYJYJJJYJYJJJJZJJJJZJJJJ\I1¼ u&v ”Tvyx¾½~’—€ ¶¿†‰—€‡À‡X†&‹T ŒÁvv“vvvv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv u  u&v ”Tv • ¥Äà Ž‰‡XyˆTOˆT Z}€T’|7†ŒyŸT}€y†‰ˆÅvvv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv ³&x ½~ Ž}€Ž —€šŽ¤ Æ@„ }€|>v“vvvv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv ³&x ÇYÈ/ÉšÊ  Æ@„ }Ëvv“vvvv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv ³&x §+¹“ºšÌ ¹Í «7Á Æ@„ }€|/vvvv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv ³&x ÏÐ  Æ@ „ }€|Ñvvv“vvvv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv ³• ½~„†‰‡"›yˆTš‹¬ Æ@ „ }€|ƒv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv ³‰w £ ˆ —WŽ ŒA„ †ˆ„ ŒOŸT|7y†ˆ|a¶¿—€†‰‡Ò à Ž‰‡X¨Œyu v ”Tv •Óvv’vvv’vvvv“vvvv ³Ô NÉ  .34.1.>=@??A.

pQ2 Diagram Calculations ½~‹1O„Ž‰|4}€yˆ ¤‡Ž „ Tyˆ’„WŽ—WŽ‰„ }€ —€y|4}€y„Y Æ@„ }€| vvv“vvvv’vvv ³ ž ŒyŸTˆ  —“Ž—€šŽ¡ ‹TOŽ‰‡X }€ —“ Æ@„ }€|sv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv“vvvv’vvv ³ ± Ž‰„Wyˆ|7   Æ@ „ } vvvv’vvv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv“vvvv’vvv Âw ž —€ „†ˆ‹T}€y†ˆƒ Æ@„ }§.† —€‡Ž }€y†ˆ« v’vvvv’vvv“vvvv’vvv ‰” u&v ”1v w ž † †‰—“‹T|7y ‰ˆ° Æ@„ }€| vvvv’vvv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv“vvvv’vvv ‰” u&v ”1v ” ½A—WŽ‰ˆT|7yˆ }$ Æ@„ }€| v“vvvv’vvv’vvvv’vvvv’vvv“vvvv’vvv ‰” IBJ  ~b V lTN(Q ‰U b 6JJJZJJJJZJJJJYJYJJJYJYJJJYJYJJJYJJYJJYJJYJ\¼&t IBJ [n_a`&bƒMONP€b N  V U kPWV ‰ .ª™Žš’¶.Chapter 7.

y&-.150a0|.=*6&-t d.z.=5&-0z.=<x>+910k4g}<@91>+gx*+./.N.1XbS4)&)A\]it¡.B(+A\4)4-9N]5 g (+(+‘14)5š0…96(q5N5E.^9N4<[9N.e&).(+4)t¡–.Wbc‘@>)dp(<[.-&)5 . (1(+0…b <mA\bf&)A *1<z(-9i).:A\</4Z.:7@.*1.14_u8bJds(+9w(-4q4-.B&)A .m‘@*1dp‚ zƒ t5igˆ0…A ().=&)6.B%f(+A 49w |4iu ‘1u.NA ()4_]w.d 7:0„(+(+E t 71b |>6Ÿ3t (-7:.=.N&Yt n 9.&-t¡0„.-?9i. 7@5i.=.=.Nb†A\4y(+4).c—[9N£ g–1¢.m€~£ b†(+N¢+4NA™Jg.:<y<[.N<S0aƒ <-91n g€5Y5NA X ()9w].:&)5i<Œ(-A.-(N.W../7:0a.=96.=910…t¡(-\.-5N(1.€5e<[(+.N.m(+‘14qbJ.WA\A 4)9.E.:0„-7q.4)<[<Z.1().xA\gS4_7:)9.šA gT56(+o~./<EbJ..W./&).=*1&-‚. N ‰ N  V R bQ9kPWV ‰ N JYJYJJJYJYJJJYJYJJJYJJYJJYJJYJ\ ¼  IBJ I  STeXe kQ9q JZJJJJJZJJJJZJJJJYJYJJJYJYJJJYJYJJJYJJYJJYJJYJ\¼1[ IBJ ] i S b €PWV ‰ N  JZJJJJJZJJJJZJJJJYJYJJJYJYJJJYJYJJJYJJYJJYJJYJ\¼1[ ZD@F G@HJILKNMPOPQSRTI UVMWH .1<œ4)]i.`(+4eh3().:4)‚ .[(-.:&1bf<[A .=0¤.=0…>+(+0¤d-bmn€uL’ .P9w4-.B7@A .=&)5^.^‘@A\dZ4)g‹</(qbJ.[.*1X .=u._5 5Y9wA4s()‘:]._]w5Ã0…(+•Œb (N0…A <@<z&q9._9iƒ 0¤dZ5ih†A ()&1]wA 0…71(+&Zb h30…().W>-</.

=0a(+dW‘1A\A\t4yA .NA\0€4-._7:<y._5W."A\0a4)<[.=5Y&)A.€.=&q.B7:A\()4)<[] . >+É t ./(-9m.=&)7_.=A\4)0a9Y<@5w>+>)0a.S.5Y7_A ().Œ(+t 4(-.?d.:./gˆ.BA\4-b†]E(qA\7q4q&N5.A\4)>).E</.y</.y.

/.1.:4 ž-.@.=A &1].^£ Nb†É 9.A 4< .(-N5iA A<:.Œ4-t A._A\56.:V.1&W]ZbJ.N.10a>_.=.@9r+4_./*1*1< .A\9.Bv./.=—Š&-Ÿ'..[<J0…(+._<=A\4)A\7@0a]“.-4).1.:<=.-.A\0…4-.:>6._n ‰5 5f.N0…1.y4-.mgtN9igˆA <x0a0}.1A 5W)bc(+b†(-t¡>).t >NA >)ž)A\].@0A\)."1t¡<S.=b†&).[vw*1(+>10…t.6t™@5šn`56’¤4f.

N4-t ]69i91./df&-.=4)&)]P7:.?."(-t¡.B4Y0A\AbJu]w.5y<y.=*NA\bf&-‚ a.e(-A .}A(+.S(+.B.}4)A\.15t .=9Y&)]67-.:.m&_h€.J7)gxA (+.=)4)&P.P.N0„-(+t¡*P.f.=A&-4). *1ƒ .

W0kbJ>+4+9.0„(+bG†A <SA\4_.=0ˆu“>q56.=&-.1.=&1A <fbJ9Y5N.N5N4).f’\7_4()</.-.N0a..N0k0…9i0a<J91g}.>+0a.=-&).=X &N&)A 7q.=&-A 7q.B7qA 9w0„(+4i*in n <[7_9._5~n gœ19i(-08.&).N4_.E7_()</./._5Z<Š71910g8A\‘1.†u>)A (+(+<Tt4qA<:.1b†0}9.N.Œ(+4)(+t d)ž@.P."0…91t¡)5YA\.:(Ng9i0….>NA 5 bJ.ŒbJbŒvw.=&1&)A 71._.J.=.yj14)]+./<z.?5b†dŒ(+‘@9Ndt¡g .yj1]64)(-.=&)tw.=.1j10….:<:(->6.@(+ÈPj=7-()A ]6.|.N.1.sbJA 9w<c460…K./(1.f4)A ()]c.1</.Nn08.y<@t ..BA\4)] *10…9i7:.4-.=&-.10 h€.=0a&q]6(-.1t¡4q.@.PA ./7=.–t .:.=&+&y0…9.W.N7:0~(-<B.=&-.=. 0k>+4+4-oi.N.-5A\4-.fn 7q&q(+ ~*-.:<[.=&)&).†<[<JA <SA <z*1)0a9w.10a*1dE.s4EA\4-*+.c0…]Nt 9Y.SIˆ7@]69w(-bf.:A . hJ.:*1uY9i% A\4-~.4)< ZD[º ÄS½ –R`M MWH j OŒUV¿ PKN¿ X*)(N&)0a.-5(+4q5v.B&-A\.=A\4-&-]./.:uw4)5P.=&N.ŽoiA ]w>60….:<cA <†</.=. &-.}u~9N—/g“t (N.W0…()0k]6>+.-7=.>).=>q5iA .f&y(-.[(+t8A <Z*19..>+4|t6569N.-.=0…&)]N.:.B&-A 9w.z&q(N.cA <c./.x(+A\4 4q?5m.Nti(N0a.10"<B7q7@9w0„(+4)*J5w9Y>NA7:./0a<z.Z<:&-9N.SA\4)5Y<@A >+<Š7q0a./7q<B>+™z0…0…<3.']6(P(-t.-(150?0…9)‘@hdf.-]65W.c0kb†]Y./&).=A .:<Š<P—‹<[.(1t¡>-0….1()4)<Š<”.-&)5“.Œ4).Wbf*6*qt¡>+(N0a4-.Eɓn\£)™@u}(pt A v.:g <”A\A 4q]w7q4†0….|q(N0A (+‘+t .BgˆA 9.(+t 4)5m5P.4-t 5~._A -5š.=._5~5Yn A ()].BA 9.=>)&)].:-.N4mbJ9YA\4f5N./0ˆ<†n 91g35YA  ~.c4_.=0…9Y5.=./9e.>q7@./<€&q(-A\4S./5W9m.:(-<Š.< .4)]“5in A .`7@‘N9i0a.B0„(+A\._9N()g"<=.=&-.=9m&-._465e4)._vw*N>1‚ A\0…ƒ .Œ(+A\4_4q.-5“n X &).:.=]./<Š.=7:&)9.f.NA\0…0–</(+.

`<[._*+<|t¡>6hJ4)&N]NA.k0ady.c&-.-+5e™@nxA\4-’\4y.=.=&)0?b†..N7:0a(-.Bg‹A ()7_<[(+._5yb†._t¡.[(+7-t6A ./9Z.m]N.1>+*q0a(N.E9)h$bc*)(N(NA\4W0¤.?.17_4-(-.=._t .B<[A 9w././9. >+.wA 7:<Œ(-.|(-g‹().S(N0¤71.1d4-.c.N.?d_(-nx).s1h3A .=&-.md1™JoYA <[].N7q0}&PbJ(N910a.:<J<@t A\9)4yh .S&+0a<@.[&-()./n .<:.=&).T5.B—/4)A 9w9i4m0kb†—k<[(+.=.E’\4Sg9i.10…<T*1.y0…(-ɓ.@&)).=&)*).=0….@t 9Y.:0u“A .:Ng9iA .|4e*)(N(+0a4q./(_9r6A\‘1bf\. t -bJ.=>6ri*+*1*1.19Nt <Š<.+)¥€.

02! L1 (+C+5 ! 021! 1       /   O<ZefTg$Y e.~#*)!!4C5L!4 5 !7."b t¡ .  0  N   N O 0 &#&(/(/14./.5nVB`cQ[Y ef`cQ e 3 m. 7/(/:&.1>14-A 5 .p*10….&-. :&#4%.*:d60‹A ].@t A )vw.qA\0  ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ %_ž .@h3g9i(:0…d†.=9E&-.Y bcQ `MY X\P 1 B!@ 1 e b$VBV89 e 7@9..|{} u  wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆna (N0/€"•s._(N5mA\0‹A\‰)4y]+()<:>)<Z71‘1&†.

The “common” pQ2 diagram gate mold 3 gate runner 2 1 Shot sleeve Yo A ].2.Section 7.>+0a.fɓn\£+¥4v OUaP?NQyƒ{ w y ARO{ aNIT {9U! hN.

=h|9.&-bfA ._t@(N(+.=X.†&z&)gˆ(q0….?.=&y*10‹A./.m.]W4q5Y(+(+A4qtq()5Wb†]./A\9†t 4y<x7:._5Y*1ž-‚A .BA\4)A ƒ 9.=].19.4-&-&-<B./(+9m.:5+.0‹A ‘-56(+.—(-<Š.[./b.19YNb†7@A .y.=<_h|>+n A 0….0„(-.:dx(-<Š.N. yƒ{ } SP?N O{ } U 7:*1*1(-0…0….m.

&).1&60?0‹914YA\46g8n j@.=*q&)*q(-.€./0a.=X()&)]6.Tt¡7@gA\9w9i4)4)]E0i5.y.`(1.ˆ<:._.".z.

"*1A\t¡9i4-A\.1]E<”4)A<”*+./0a4)96.?Adz&).

4)4m]J.w()7_5w<Š(->+.6.B0nA A\9.A <xt A ./5Y9A .J<[9.=*)&)(N.x0¤.

w.

:./bJ.B.W.19wh€0…t¡.4 0A\?4->6.</”d .Œ<[g.^4-9.]š*Nt 5e‚ *1719iƒ &)A\4-(N5Y.B()‘@A 9.Œ*Ž0?bS9w—k5YA\*14-A."7:t¡(-1.=4^./&)./4+.10„(+0‹.-.B4qA\(+4).1.-0„5{(-7:.:>_A .=.=7@&).=.N<[.J0…(qA <[()7@9w]..B.1.BA\uLAb†7E.A <m()*6<†5N>+.BbJA\.B&PA59w.@A bŒ</.=A 9w&-.=bf.Z&)t A\.@.Z4-0…./&)9.14-’¤0…4._0‰i.

.@A\.=A\&)4-X .:9.:.S7=.B(+.:._5^&-u.†.ÈWÈWA <s7)7)AA ().:>6<_u"nb†% X ./t .)&)™cA\./&69›0?>6>)<f4+‘1.0‹A(N</bJ0„.7 7@7@t A\9i9i4).N.W<xA7:._hJ>+vwt >1t(-._(q717@7=&1.19.4W0…t </5S././A 9Ž7@(+._9i<[71<Š9Y&).Ž4-A ./]w./.B&-&)A .1<Š*)9.NA\4-.N0a03.B.Nn g€0AX <[./&qb†.:4-._.1<[4-4-<:.EA\4Pvw(+>1.=A\4q&)0…5.Z4-7q./A\4).:.e.B5N0…A.T<_.1.y>+0A‰i4)<SbJ56(+.=./9N.15^(N4-0…."]pt"4q*15ib†9iA\4)A\(q4-]^7q.6.B*1&qA 7Z9i(1A\0„t 4-(qA\4).1(10…(q<[0„.Wj1(+4)t0…9)7q.†.-A\.W0]›A <[7q.B(q.:&Nn.]6< 4)._0….ZA 7JbJ56t .=.

B]^A\t–.1]694.qA Y™.`.=bJ7)&-A9Y.NA .:./.1‰q4-5Y.nW4)4€5Y23.:>+. ._0ahT._.†569i.@IˆAq7:.€()0…<[g‹./4-9S.<€t¡bf>q— (-b†.=*N&-z‚ .[nS(+hJoit¡ &Nd_>+u1A0¤7q.S9y()bJ<[<@<@*1.?.B.1].:(+9.-.N—Vƒ 0w% .-5†.5y4 KE.=A\&)4-4_.=.164-ƒ ™."9.1A ‘1<T0?bJ.6<”(qu~A ]w7@% ./.=A &-<†.10u 4qA\b†7=% dN.@ÈW4-r+9)*17)hS./&S&)9Œ.=9Y5Yri7qA*1()j:._9.<_0‹£0„A\(+bJb n.[&q(+A ()<Št¡<s71dE&)‘1(N.

&)B£ M.=.ƒ91gLI/.=&-.BA 9w4-<Sbc(q5N.4)bJ. >-w<[.b       8N   J    0 1 XVTgQ m 5QSTgVx`\g$Zzenb$Q QXe<^j$j$Q elTWQ `MY X TgQ[ Y TWQm&ZiT^xm4QœY X—Rvg$Y 3 g—TgQ @  Y efQ L Zc[ ^ZzTWQ `\b$ZzeAQ `rVBX TgQ L VB[ ^M5nQ TWV cb QE>[ [ Q ` @LV 3 9ievZcX`Zc[ [ .E].Nž)4)A\4)567S<|(+9.@A\.[(+4_.14q()5P<[<:5i>6A bJ .Œ.[0…71(+.@71r+&†*1(-.@7qr+&N*1A\.=t >q71(+>6t6t (-b†.`.=<T&-(+.w5E5W7†>)7@0k>+9w<[. £+nJ%bJ./.1bft dEb†>-.:91<[g ._5w.B4ŒA 9w.S4qbc5f(q.=&-().17q0„()&c]NA .=(+&-b†.14-.-u 5E A\64f€./.=*+&†*1(-0…96)(q.f._7:9.1Kt+()bJ<z9Yg5N9w.fg.:.=0…&).14-*-.=.[>6(+b t\ny(+oqt¡9i9)0}d-.4q4+5t dmb†.10…A\t<T5i5wA\4)>6]S0‹A\914-g]c./w.=0„5W&)5.Nv.-464-5y4)<[.J% i™cA <J7@9w4-<[.q<=‰)A -9.=0k>q7=.N4_ .=&1A <JA <Š<@>).< 7@A <c96</*1._5W5P(+bJ4-&)dm.@<[tgA <z./5E<`A\.[0–(+(+4_.N.]N<}*1.J.[.  (+(N0…4-5wdJ>-919wg~>-.S0…t .0…./(+0ˆ9Y4_u65+.=7@&-9w.@‘6.x9^)‘1(+.=<-r1n (+bf*+t ._./A\b†.+*1uY.s()<Š<@>+bf*_.x0….)7=A\.x5YA <Š71>-<Š<”A 9w4y(+‘19w>_.10k>q0….=4y&-. 7@9w4-<[‡L./>N. “ zu  *+*1S.0a>N.6 u E |Ÿ3f% 0….BA >19wA\4S0‹A\4)*)]y(N0….x(q.[.9wt 4i5yn gX9i0~&).:9w<x4-g<[9i.1.|t¡>+(+bS4qA\54+>656bŒ.)&)A\tN4S(+*14)()0…9.1.mA\4Œ._.mt¡>)7@.-5“n X &).-0…5P.=.1<Š4-.BA 9._9EA.=&)&).1(+4q4)5Y5EA r A <c Ã0„(17:9._.N0…0….@.=n 0¤d qnn <:&-9i0a./.mbfbJbJ9Y9.ˆ0.NA\0a4q.1*1ui._(-vw.:<=.:‘@]6(+d|(N4q.c9i(@0"0…d†./4y9.1bf.564..Nt¡t"9)h€—k7@A\9w4)4-] <[.=.N&-A\0 4..}(+h€t)(+A .N4-4-.1.|(q7:7=(+.

&-. ?D F@gQZc^zTgVcm-`cVBQ evXVTE9XViRpVh~ZcXzdiVBXQ RvgVa^elQ Tg$Y e 5QSTgVB`kZcX`TgQm/QSh.Tg$Y eC5nQSTgVB`\Y e@Ze2j$VBVx`  ZeTgQ 3 V85 5VBX/5nQSTgVB` D :zY h-diVB^aXVzRtVhDZcXzdzVBXQnR@gV\^elQnTg$Y efTWQ 3 gxX$Y ]_^Q 7c[ QiZelQnTWQ[ [ 5nQZcbcVB^zT Y 2T D N  x‚ „c… ‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š•x‡œ–2ŠŒDˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „x›‘ „_Œ2‘ S‡$™ 7:9.qA\0  .|{} u  wu“‘@dŸx0ˆnk (N0/€"•s.V$m/Q—Y e@XVT `BY e 3 ^eAelQ `Y X Tg$Y enbcVxV89MDvP-Q L Qm4TgQ[ Q ele .*@d+0‹A ].

Sɓn “¥ y R{ hNQTsy  N aU wI} N w T NQP  U $P?N$ O{ } U “nc•m(+4-dy._vw>)(-.mt A vw>1A 5b†.Wt A v.[(+tYA <c0….W4).@./.10?4-9w>6t¡ A <z.BA 9w4s7:(+4P‘1._7=./.[(+t\n “nMEL9W<[9wt A 5iA ./9W]6(-.@.>+0….14-. pQ2 Diagram Calculations plunger location liquid metal reaches to the venting system starging filling the cavity { liquid metal pressure at the plunger tip or the hydralic pressure cavity filling io A ].:<Š.6n ¢~nMEL9P(NA\0‹‰)]6()<|A <S*10….-5“n “n X &-.10?bJ<†A\4‰"./.:]wt .-5W.€A\4y.=&).>NA 5bJ._(q71&-.Chapter 7.

.w7_(-.=&-.4S9Y7:7q>+0…<z5w>+0A\4)]m.BA 9.

6¥ .=&-.ˆ._t .N0k‘1by.17:4Œ7:9i()0…< 5YA\4-]W._<[<:>60….x*1<@0a.+ n  X &) ./9Z.>NA 5^b†.@.=&-."t¡ A\4)]“n “n X &-.: <m./.-5EA\4f./.BA.[(NA\4-.10….Pt A v.4Yui.f. .[(NA\4-./q9Ã(+t¡>-‘1.9)h˜0„(-.@4{.[(+4q7@.P—‹<Bv._<[<:>60….=&)&).mb†(NA\4P0….m*10a. {} u  wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆan  (N/0 €"•s..@<:)>6.m.>q(10….e<@&) 91 .^A\4-7_. (-.khT.9)hA <JA\4f.c.`<@t .@.B(+A\4)t (+] 4)7:b†. 7@9.N0"._.€.f(-.1>-0adš<=A\4-<[] .P*6t¡>+4)]N.=(-&-.@5 ).@).:.y(-.=&)&).BA\*iu 1u“7_(+4E‘1.-(+5t 7q>+g9it (-0|.BA 9.=&-.chJ&NA 7q&s7_(+4Z‘1.:h<[<:0…>6(-0….qA\0 ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ … Time           '          .BA 9.f5YA .=&)./.=&-.y7:()<[.W*+t¡>64)]N.ShJ&NA 7q&s7_(+4P‘1.9)h$0„(-.|()<[<@>+bf*-.*:d60‹A ].:5 -.=rN&)A\.ˆ T.Nt (-.14y.3.Œ0?>+464)._(N0'0a.Œ(Ž91g†<[.^./9m. \ A   bc(_rNA\bf>+b˜l.^0„7@7:.e7:56(+.[.*10…9)./.Wb†.[(+tNl.s <:(+t ./.[(+t~*10a._.cl.&-|.=&).s(-.:<=A </.=&).6u (+4q5ml. 0….-5‘@dy.S<:&-9N.BA\4-]b†(q71&1A\4).ybf<@>+&)b 91. (+4)5X .6(qn 7q&NX A\4-&-.BA\*   bc4y(_.4)<@&NA\*m‘1.Pt ()<[._.:4q.ˆ.10ˆn ɓn $t A\4).=&)._5i™@u   n hJ0‹A .=.()</‘q. q(+t¡>) .         —kÉwn¤£-™ Ã&).=&).108._<[.:./.^7Z5Yg9iA .

E7-A .Section 7.=h|&)A. >)|0<_u+a..=&)AA\<Œ.W4q(-.:-*6.š 9) h$b†q(_0„(+(-r6t¡. The “common” pQ2 diagram @dN<56tA.=&).0a.Œt<@(N&)0a.kdd^bJ7@9w.rN*-4m._.1b†.E.?<:dŒ&-9N9N.6.-91( ._&)7@./A\>)bf.N.15m)0?.:.=t &)9Y.1<Š<S0–€+hJ<Š.10…&+.=4q&-(+.P7)‘@A .ebS.N4)t 9i.2._<[.1.fg'<@./.=t&-.@..t¡>+7q4-0…]69N.1.1..@t .BbfA (_9.Wu >6A b<†56-9.-]P5Ž.-()bf<@‘N>+A\04-A\4).kA\bsd-91n g0>6b˜X &-l.   —kÉwn 6™ hJ&)X.f.=*1&).B4mA 9.

5Y‡LA 9)(+hTbJX .€<@&)9)hJ4P‘@df.N0…0L(./.@hÃ7:9.E—‹<Švw>q(10…./.NA\0abf.N0a././.c5./.†.J(+4q5Œ(y5YA  ~.š>+€~4)bJb†7@.sɓn “n X &).10"7q0….ŒbJt.@.b†n (_rNA\bs>6b *N0a.1.B9i(_A 0ar69.kA9..fdE7:*1(+9N4E<[<=‘1A\‘6./.|b$t A\4)l.19w5Yt 4i9YA n(+7)bJA .69) n h ›0„(-<:.s(+.=7@&-.BA 9.€*+t¡>+4-]6._5i™@n 4).y</.=&-.‚J4yƒ.B)08A .b (Z&NA ].^._<[<@>+0…._t5P(10…()]N<.:.†<Š(+bJ.:A\4).6n ]“5YnA ()].<@0„(:>+hJ‘)<Š4s7q0‹9wA\*-4Z./b†.14q]6037=.=*+&)*+t..1.st .14-.d9.Wt A\4).Œ.[(N0¤.&).@&).=&q*6(-t¡>+.10L<:&-*+9)t¡>6h†4)4W]N._<[<:>60….m .P—  6™€.€(+t A\4)4_.^..".Œ—  +™3(+4q5W5iA  ./.WA\4fbf7@919w>6gLbfb .@&))._5Z()< esA\4 oiA ]w>60…./9Z(Ebc(_rNA\bf>+b l.N4_.BA*19./.-A\bf(1b†™@>+n (_bÆr6X A\&-bfl.N4-9N.Pt A\4).Œ9)>+hÆ*6bt¡>+0…*+4)(-t¡]N.‘-41A <SA 9N9w(Wg€>-<`./<zgˆ0…9.N4)0Vgu5Ž9i 0„.†7_()</.14)08]NA <Œ(N.=t¡rP>+*+4-t¡gˆ>+]6>64-.=g‹(N&-gˆ0/.N()4-<z9N(m.f5N.0„(+b () <† A .10….N4_>+./>6.:<x( 5Yb†A  ~(_r6.y0L5N&).4J9Ng".bf‘NA\4q(-..š.S(+()t¡<€.N0}.9)h0…(-._(-.=&).N0ˆ0Tb†u~—k.1>+A t <z9Y4)7@7)(s.1.N0a4_<[.10`*10a._)(Pgˆ.†4).=(N(_&-r60a.BA\4)]Pb†(q71&1A\4).kX d^.BA .J5YA .=A &)(+.10~5YA (+bJ.N‘@0"df5Y.

4sA\4S.sA\4_A g.xA ./™Œt¡9y>+5N4-7q.:uz0w)._]6A <”.N.^5Œg~A\gˆ.t]P()Iˆbc<E5w0a(q0…d6.J&)4).N(N0¤0….)>6A 4)]w]N&_.=././0a.:<[.†.S5N.N9iA  0y0.N5./9w.4c.=<x&-(+.p(yt¡>+0a5i4-.=]N0…&-.B]i‘1A (+.4-. Ã<”A\bf*+t A .:g9i0kbJ.TbJ0a.:4|<Š71h€<[&).=.BA 9._0a<<[<-7qu1t.J.š9s.:7qKc<:&N>6gˆA\4-0‹t . 91>)g'<[.:bJuJ.@5Yr-A71.-91.:.1bJ 0 1.t¡>+.1 4 0n X7@‘19w.:4.p*6<Št¡(+>+bJ4-]6.|hT.x.15Y—k0…5YA .1A </0ˆ7:.1.1(+.J4).1<_.+u+<”A\4q7@.N]6&q*1.=40a&-9w.z0„*6. 0n hT*+t¡.7:]N (+.104-4q]65i5N.1n 05i A .=.=(N&NA\Ab <€*N.›kn E–0….B7@A\&)..c5N94)91.BA 9.`]NA\.1 ~A 4-(+.=&-.=A .Nt .SA <Œ(+*6bJ9.@4_>).?A dfgfA.(q(+7=4)4).=71&)&-.BA <3A919wg†./A.._&q7@(-.N.4Œ&)()<†4)9Z‘1.1-t .=&-&-.']N5ig.|A\t¡4)d†<Š]^(+.N(+A\4_t¡64).B&)0„A 9._(N0‹A\4-]Œ9.4)0….-5s9w4-.c.Ž<Šh†*+(+&)t¡bJ>6(-.N.s./<L]N./4).:.:<Š-. t¡bJ*69Nt¡>+<[4).:9in 0?b†(-.=&1A <JbJ9Y5N.=bJ&-&).1.+.[n ()(+<[X4q.BA\A 4s9.:<P]6h†(N0„&-5f.._.Nt19i0}0a.y.N9Y4 7-A .N0A q(-.y7=<Œ.@(+.14_0yq(17@0‹9wA (+4)4-5Y.=b$&)*+.N.

y56._5Œg9i0„7@.@.S9w4y.[(NA\t <JA\4f<[._.-7=.1t 56<c—k<[.10….W0…9Y5N.c<:>6‘)<Š710A\*- .cdNA .=&-.WbJ9i0a. +™      —kÉwn 6™  hJ&).m‘)(+t (+4q7@... .BA 9w4sÉwn ¢“n Z*q()]N.

14)91.bsbJ9._<x. /I 7@9./.c.§\¯?¸Nª ­Ã«a`~©}®:±'°+®:µ+«pª ¬ f¯?°+®-®s¯?®_­i±±? ®B¹Š¹:¸N~±k®m¨i´B¬+fn¯Sm_f¯?°+oI®mg 0¬Nk³- ¯ˆ¸q¬+¯‹¨N±|ª ?¹ eQf?g €1¬q±„*¹ k   $         * #  #    # #  N #  #  vAw T_xzy|{ wn}  ¸Q€q¹:¯?ª\¯ˆ¸+¯?ª¡«h`^¯?°+®Sµ1¬+¯‹¬Pª¡«i¯‹¨Z®_·i¸q¬+¯?ª ¨+«[Zm \+c+ª¡®_§¡µ)¹          Ig   k     ’¤4f.Æ56.=>q(-.=&-.§\ª\¸N¯?°mh« `“¬f®:±J­.4KZ*N‚ ƒ 5iA ()]w0…(+b % A <z56./9i0ˆn L4MONIPpRT_UsXEY ©} ª\°N¯?°P¬+¯|µ+ªª ¬¹Pf¯?°+®-®Œ¯?®_­i±L±?¨i®B´B¹Š¹:fn¸Nm9±kea®mg t¬+k`¯c¬N¯?«+°+µ®Œ©}­.=&-.y(q7=.

£    !#"m4QzV$Zz`rm/QTm/gQ Q eAQiZV m  )     —kÉwn ¢+™ ._5P()<    $%$ É."4).

&-.Qm/Q Q'&(&xTWVœTgQ 7 ZA7cQm VBX 3 3 85 5  x‚ „c… ‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š•x‡œ–2ŠŒDˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „x›‘ „_Œ2‘ S‡$™ *) ƒ 7 VBX $7 Zzj$Q .+*- -D 7:9.*@d+0‹A ].qA\0  .     gaY e XQ Qi`rVBX—Tg$Y e Zze?7$Q 3 T2D QXzT 5Z`cQ—b dam/QSh.|{} u  wu“‘@dŸx0ˆnk (N0/€"•s.

Chapter 7.yÉwn w¥ OU w PSP wI}s  nU . pQ2 Diagram Calculations Pmax 2 smaller plunger 2 1 2 2 A 3 CD 2 Q= ρ Pmax 2 Qmax io A ]w>60….

6n ui.=&).BAE–9. { wI} .c.9N4 .10….@g9i0….  A <|(+t <[9Z56./ q.

"4).9)h˜0…(-.f&)£ ._5P()<      —kÉwn 6™ .=1X&-0a.`.169)A ™.:<Š<[./.=&-.BA\t A ž-A\4)]”".y7:(+4P‘1.@.y]+(-.10adEb†.[(+t 1n|28.@).@._5P()<|(m7@9w4-<[.cl.=ri*10….f(-.>+t¡ A <€._vw>)(  —kÉwn 6™    X &-.y..N0k4)9.[(+4_./.xg9i08.f7_(-l.

._0…0…5E.N(-&-bf.|.W9wA <f4mt A vwA\9N4->1g'<=A A5.f(+gˆ9N4->6<[g–4qg7=.?h yd_u“5N0…(+(-.P5m9.A 9.|<S>+./9i.S4-.1.St 9i.1.1.=.1._<c0„(-(-A.=.=5Y0…0„A.=.=(m0a0„.=.@(- g.=A\4)4P&)</.*1&)4)..B.B&)0xA .N4).&-4NbJ./bJ./7_.=.=].1.y&q&-(-.ŒA .

1(+(+bf4-ti.w.[./7:.:5P-4P.f0…._A 9w.N7:.<[<:>+‡–>60…(-9)b†.†*17_.N(+A\4m0…4Z(-.BhT.=.x.N(+910Vt¡bJugT.:.W.=96&)71</.6()nm5.j”.=‘1>+&).

"0¤9..:4-A g.yt¡4)A\—4)</.Nt 0‹A 0a5iA\.=[5.9w&->+.g <.[]Z(+7q4-9Nj .

.w]š9i7_0a.+&-.=&)4E.=(-.A 9.Buip.

"..]{A\4-t¡>+<=*1bJA ].N.:04NA.†t¡A <ŒA\)4-9.=A9Y.

:4)4-<Š]N.:t>6<P5NbJ.e._<mB£  t .V$m!5nVcm/Q `xQSTlZ$Y [ e 7@9.y4t A v.|{} u  wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆna (N0/€"•s.*:d60‹A ].k7@>qdE9._4t7@w9wn¤4)£ 56<B™:Jn A\4P '.1.qA\0  ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™  0/ .NA <Z.:<[<cbS.=A\t¡&qA(+<Š.4-h†9).sbJ.7_bJ(+>N4ZA 965</‘1.[(+(+t .:<E¥.1:  0 !45i":4 :&% :&1/C+(    %   N       BV ^c[ `M[ Y 9<QnTWV [ QiZm2X—R@gV 3 Z<5QxVB^zTfR@Y Tg—Tg$Y e 3 [ Q L Qm \Y `cQiZ D elQ QeAQ 3 TAY VBX-D H 7Zj$Q -D  m/QiZ` 5V$m/QZcb$VB^zT Y TvY X @~gZA7zTWQm -D  F@gQ—Zc^zTgVcm~R <h.-4-5W<=bfA .       —kÉwn É6™   %   $   8N 5 0_": ( !/(+ 5 ! 0./A\.[<[<Š(+<:.=<Œ&-.fh˜&1—A .=710…&)&Ž(-.w05ÃA 7:7c(+—l.7q4)71&</&).&-.f7:.@()().=0&-™ .e<@>q0?7q>6&Y4+uL4).

The “common” pQ2 diagram Pmax Q max ∼ 1 2 ∼ DP 2 DP Pmax Q max oiA ]w>60….Section 7.yÉwn ¢“¥  N }   N.2.

—kÉwn 6™       D1  P w UaT              L4MONIPpRT_UsX~        .(N  x } yƒ{ wI} w  y OU ROT9x } nU  {ENQPSUayƒU jN$ w  { } y w  w PSP wI} <[9w‡Lt¡.1>_4q.hTA < .W&)(-).=&Œ.?hT9P .BA 9w4-<S—?Éwn¤£-™€(+4q5Ž—?Éwn 6™`h€A .B7@A 9w.=&-.khT9>+46jN4-9)h†4-<S—l(+4q5 _™xg9i08h†&1A 71&f._ vw>)(-.y.64Œu.

Kµ ³:ª\¯^Bc¬N §\©}¸N ®y°+®:¨Y« ´ h f m ono Z     \. ?¯ °6  ®W°N¬+´¤¯€¨+g §¡ ª ¹P¨i ©'¯? °+ª¡«a®f`š­ik|¬)±k±?®”¬N®u¹[«+¹_`~µ^¸1ª_±?^=¯?®m®_°+« ¬+®js¯3`w­w§¡¬+ª ·Y§\¯?¸1®y¸1«hª¡`“¬qµ ±k®_®@f±J¬ ®)¯?ª¯‹­ ¬N§ Z Sf¬+®)¯‹¯?¬N®:±?§g ª ¬N¹@ª¡§ µ6 ªk®¹f\ z¬N§\¯?¸ °6¹=f‰®® ª¡«iN¸¨i©  ±¬+¯? ®m¹s ¬N ±?«+®:µS³=¨ `.¬+f¯? ®®_^@«6®:µ+§ ®:¨.

m Z*hm \   ! vAw T_xzy|{ wn} #" L¯?ª¡§ ª qª¡«h`®_·i¸q¬+¯?ª ¨+«  $ .

0/  1 ' +* '       Zm o\  °+® N¨i©›±‹¬+¯?®c³@¬N«€Y®c¨ €Y¯‹¬Nª¡«+®:µS€ c¸+¯?ª¡§ ª qª¡« ®_·i¸q¬+¯?ª ¨+«[Zm \   É  x‚ „c… ‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š•x‡œ–2ŠŒDˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „x›‘ „_Œ2‘ S‡$™  $   %   .³:ª\¯ cZ³=¬N«€ cW¨ €Y¯‹¬Nª¡«6®_µ ¸+¯?ª¡§ ª qª¡«a`e®:·Y¸q¬+¯?ª ¨+« $  $      h`   %        .*@d+0‹A ].¬+¯?®^@®:§ ¨. ') ' +.     .  ?€ c    ¯?°6®$`.|{} u  wu“‘@dŸx0ˆnk (N0/€"•s.qA\0   .&-. &%    (') +*    -. 7:9.

pQ2 Diagram Calculations L4MONQPSROT9U  X ”® ­~®=¬+¯8­Y±k®.Chapter 7.

/.1nJt+‡L).[7:.BAi&9.:.A 5P4)<`9i0`h3*1().9wt >qdpbf(-bJ.=&-..BhJ0?A 9w>)&N7@4 A 7q.B9wA 4Ž9..0…&)]14).15“4 n i9._(+9.b†.=~>)bJ5YA9Y.[7@(+._<|</.=&-(+.14-<[0‹g<:A 9i(+>60at\bs.^=ª ¨._(N5~b†A\nT4^(-2T.:A\4m.Œ.f(+vwt¡.A <P<'I/9.=9w&)64.N4eA g3.1(+0…t .?bJ]whTt.10?914)*1g|9.17@._.=9.Žb†.1’\4e4).6A 5u.-.< ).-7@4+v.14-.4P<[9w>64q5e<Š7)A .dc</.9.yA t\5uL4).k<sd_hTu1hT9i.=&).BA .56‘1>N.414.=. t A 5YIˆA .vw4-4)>).6.1™.|.Nt¡0+./b†tz.14-t.m</(-.:9w1bfA 9wbJ>-<€9w4<[.>).bJ9Y5N.ŽA\914š% g~›.W(N0…].{bJ(+4ft 9YA v.J.BrqA 9w(+4fbyhJA\4-&).4)](+4q5^569š4)91.@rq(+b†(+4_(qdby56A\./4).W.:9›.1.=&-&-."456.=(-&-.1bft+)*-(+.?7@dŒ9wbf91gLbJ..fbJ()9Y<Š<@56>+.BtA 9.BbJ9wA 9w4-<4|.:56<-.=&-(+.B4)(-A 9w5{.=u€>6*_(+4q.@.=&-&-A ../().Nt"A <chJ0…9.=4)&)t¡56.1.c</.=.1¥P(-0?.¸_¹†® ‚N¬ †­w§¡®s©}ª\¯?° ±¬N«h`“ª¡«h`Ž´…±¨ f m ¯‹¨fnm mµ6±‹¬6© ¬Pµ+ª ¬ `“±‹¬ vAw T9xzy|{ wn} ¸N«+µ6®_±T³=¨i«)¹_¯?±V¸N³-¯?ª ¨i« ZD ÄS½ ¼|¿yÀ?UVOmUkI.[(+4q5e9.=&q(-.:K<[.=™LK &)7:.:-.ÁMyÂÃI–ÄS½ 8RxM MPH OŒUV¿ PKN¿ (.=.1<S0?&)by(+A *)<[<”<€A\4)h†]E&-.N>+. *NIˆ0a7@.€0….>-A .

(+4)A gŒ5PA .1*)4q(N560…(+<_b†n .+n *1w0…9Y(N5. ! 1/#/(+(/C+./X . ( 9   .w7P*10‹A\4)7)A\*6t .1<e4s0….=.0a.C!/ ! 0.14-t}df<@&)q9.Nu`0 .@.:.14q56<_n   5! 1/0B(/5 7/.A\4q4)(+]Z‘6(+t ._.@g9i9i0„0…5N.6./t¡<|>-._71j)A\4-]Œ.ShJ&q(-.B9wA\t¡4)x(+&)‘+()t .@rq(+byA\4)(-. 5(:65 . g .N4y. ( /:/.J&q(+*6*1.y.W<Z0a(p.% :4:&5 1/! 02* 1 i! 5 7c.-()</<[. 5S5<5 5 0 7/(C+:&% C !.m‘@dyq(10ad1A\4)]e*q(10„(+bJ./.N0a<€(+4q5P7q&).=.=&-./&19eA <e&)b†(-)9i._<_u A0a.16! 1.(+>+t¡>-t 5.x>q7@9N.=0….BA 9w4sA <|569.=0….e4_d. (/*214! *.N*14)0…569i<€5w>qhJ7@&)./9Œ.0a._)()(N<Š0¤dN9. *.P./9W<[.1A\0…4Œ.4).1&)0'.s56(+._<@q>+(+t .@.

 .

 .

 .

-b†(+t¡()dJ<[< <Š(-‹.:<`<x‘q.c&).B-A9w<i.=n É+&)™x. :>A@K8 CD.S</b†.[(-()./<Š.=. 48K7 21"7EH" ’k<}ɓ.=(+&qt (-(+.W0a.$J 3 .34q7@.           / *     +'*)+'-.$363.

BA 9.=<[.BA\(t A ž-7@A\9.W7:X 9..Z.=0…(+4)</g9i0?bJ.=&)£ .b˜.-.B()A 9./A\4-9e.1t 5~u ?Éwn¤£ 6™       ’ .s.>q(-.sA <f(+7:4Œ9.9P4q5i<[A .4 kÉwn 6™     Ad1\4mYA .[(+v.y71&)(N0…(q7@.t.<y4 <[.:.4 ?Éwn¤£ 6™x7_(+4P‘1./t <'(+4).:&1nA <x*19YA\4_.c(-.BA 76ui.bf4)bJ</.ktd1š™†œq‘q.@(+.BA 9.€7:(+4P‘1.†<Št (-./n .BA 9.=&N4A <S% *19i.`5NbJ.f(+bSA <zA\4).>q(-.@4qr+5i*NA .+A\u~4€>6.  .zrNA ._bJ5s.1.._5EA\4-.-v.S.=4q&)56.10‹A </.:n  v.=7:r1.NdZ0A.BA 9.4->q.=&).B>)A 9w5N4Zds9.Wb†(q7q&NA\4-.=)&1.t¡>6.=>-.4 kɓn\£6£-™€A\4-.=&q(-.y<@&)9)hJ4S.._65 ™ ?Éwn¤B£ 6™     oi0…9._A 9w<[4<”A 9w4f%8g(+9i4e0}% % nc‘128.=&)(-.N9Y4-56<=A._vw>)(-./9       " ?Éwn¤B£ 6™           $     $    N    J    $     $   $ !     " #    $    #         $  0 - .@.>q(-.9.x.[k(-Éw.y<@&)9)hJ4S.4-]P4)</.=./9m.   ?Éwn¤£N£-™ >6‘)</.N9“()t 5Nu"<Š<<@h†>+&)bf(-*_.BA 9w4 ?Éwn¤£-™:u“A .-v.[9w(+464-Ks._vw>q(-.1Iˆ0–7:7:9.4 ?Éwn¤B£ 6™3dNA .BAA 9w<S4Z./.BA .|A <[5Ng„.B.x7_(+4P‘1.BA\4-]m.B0a.

.

|{} u  wu“‘@dEŸx0ˆna (N0/€"•s.*:d60‹A ].&-.qA\0  ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ B . 7@9.

10a91)7_g|(-()..@0„(-)(+.4K^b†9i56.S4zt ._b5Ž._91()g <[.=&-A\A 4.NA\0k4-b .=&)(-.E./(N.=0„&)(-.=(Y&)u .=7:( &).B(-A 9.EA\4q5N.S.10*q(1n 0„(+wbJA\4).0„(+b ()<Š<@>+bJ.(+0Vu34)t\u~</A\4e./.†t\u'4).W% A <m(Ž7:9.B>+A 9.md.B•sA .@./.:9w<-4pn 56*NX.B<[% A.[(+4-./t ./9 .c4-.&q./.y.=.=<”&-™@.=56&q(+.kdz(N0…91.g9.ŒA .1.=&-.4K *1‚ ƒ 5YA ()].N*1./&)0….Œ5iA (+b†.@7:.=A].N4_.0…9.–(|% 7:9. n Iˆ7:9.*+*19N<”A .N0a.4)</.fA .69w4qu"7@bf.W(10….=.:56bJ9N..N.>+t 4debfKš4)*-*N.[(N A\4y .bs4)</>-.@.3.bfb†9.=&-.8‘1(+.[9.1t  u (+4q5  (N0a.1A <c7-4qA\56N*+<cAt 9.†91gT.W]6(-.14q5N.10*1&1A\4q.7@.< . I/7@9wbfbJ9.10?0…9.1ƒ 4Ž03(qA 5Y<s7qA &N(). b†A <Œ(Iˆ7:V*19i9.f4)(s5fgˆA >+<}4)(z7@gˆ.`9N gL[.=._.=&).4)4Œ7@.1(-t (+..=0‹A 7:(+t¡ de9.Section 7._(Yu   n XX 9e&).šb†()<[< q7@b†9w(+(+t¡4->-4-<Š.=&).Tb†.@.=*1&)9N. The validity of the “common” diagram T7_7@9i0„5iA\4)]Z.Œ.&-9i4E.B)‚ A 9.:<s.W bc ()<[<S ‘q(+A <`t (+4)4)917:.0|bf‘q()b†(+<[‘6<@9.[<[(+.y<Š<”]6A\‘N(-A\.:.9ib†0z4K()(+<[t¡bJ\<Œu 9Y‘q.:9.@b†.1-.69wnÃt (-4W. <_g9iu–I/0…9.=9.4).>)<_n  $    .P.m&-bJ.0….

 ..

fɓn “¥ É    x‚ „c… ‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š•x‡œ–2ŠŒDˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „x›‘ „_Œ2‘ S‡$™  N.¨ §\¸N«h`“ƒ® ‚1®:±3¬ c¯?ª ­Q­.>+0a.   L4MONIPpRT_UsX V §~¨Y¹=³@®y¬+¯?¯?ª °+¨+®c«[ª¡Z$«i´¤e ¨N\+± S`w¬+¬+¯?¯?®ª ¨+«W\†´…±­.\Œ§¡® ©}h°+m W®:«P¬N«6µ+µWª ¹=³_³:°1°+¬q®:±h³ `~rW®S©'³=¨.°1¬+® s³¯}°N:¬-ª¡®_­+«i­~¯}®:ª «+¹ ®:^”µE¬q±k¯‹ª¡¨E®_µ ¯?°6®N¨i©{f m ±‹n¬+b ¯?f ®†m ¬+¯T¯V© ¨ vAw T_xzy|{ wn} ¸1«+µ6®_±'³=¨i«)¹_¯?±V¸N³-¯?ª ¨i«     !   P oYA ].

&-.( y w DU ƒ UhT w a NQyƒU  A1  7:9.|{} u  wu“‘@dŸx0ˆnk (N0/€"•s.*@d+0‹A ].qA\0  .

pQ2 Diagram Calculations Pbar oiA ].>+0….$JK1 .Chapter 7.fÉwn w¥ +'*)+'  86>A@B8 > |84J 4: |821K:I.

"798 N$.

y w D U ƒ UhT w h N.

| .y(N(-.:9i(+.s.@56.yƒU  A3  X1ELA 9f9w9)h$t .BA 9.: uN._()5~<Šn3.=&)4c(-A.19Y4q7:*65671t¡>+<s>64)0…*1<3]N0….f0a.1ndŒ0ˆX u._g87=(+.@9i&-.=<'&-0….S()91<'g <@&)9) hJ 4€ .?56hT.@  .10wb†<”9./(+<@.= ‘+0….3=T34.}n 91g} vw*+>)t¡>6(-4)._5ZA\4y.Š4-&-™ d.c0?4)0…A 5y.B<[(+A 9.=.:A .BA 9w./<_‘@.=0¤&)t dc(:._./.:.7@9i9wbf0 bf*qbJ(10‹9w™3A <[469w(+Ke4)4y5fb†‘1.=&-*)&q.4P4JA\Éw4)n 71s0a.J.:u1&-u"hTd-(1.1t. <T.s7@q<z(N.=0….=&).N4 0“5YkÉwA (+n 6bJ™z.€5š.14q5N<JA <|5YA <Š7q>)<[<Š.=7@&s. .=&)&-._0~<z5Y5iA 0…7=.=&-.fh`.|</.=.:(-<`.=r1(+A\bS4q7qA\4)0….1().N./0…._7=.J.-bS7@4J9wA\9N4)4)g.1.Sg9./. Iˆ7:9.T=CED= #      . 4q9f56k<Š<37@.-bJ>+5pt .=&-(N0….t¡ 9)h€A\4)]s<Š./.:0a*+.=.=(-r1.N(-(N4|.J.L()<[h3.E.->6u(+b†t-(+./A .A ž@4).BA(+9.B]NA 9w.|7:Iˆ9.bfbJ9w46Ks.-<:0a(Y.3 T=13€Dy= D E: io A\ 0…</ ._.-A .:._7@.=..=)0„(N(-0.€<=0…A .4Yn        :.:]6tw.:<x’¤4†h€<ŠA.

q.  7_(+4 (-.  (+t¡>-._5A <(+4›A\4B.=n&q(-.ˆ.[(NA\4).

Iˆ7:9. 4ŒA\4Z`oiA <LA ]wA\4B>6.^q(+t¡>-.=()&-<€.:g9)9ihJ0a.1t ™ ) & ^ . k(q7:7:9i0…5YA\4)] .=&-.N<@0a&)./9{.bfbJ9w46KÃb†9i56./."4NA . q  X .

1j1t 9Y4-7-9)A h†._5710aA./Éw.<   #    #    $  & T@Zc[ eAVœ`xQ nVBXelTm&ZiTWQie@TgZzTfTgQ  5 L Zc[ ^QnVh  XQ L Qm 3 cZ XQ 3 Q Q ` È­ÉšÊ Î   Í  ȭɚÊ È­ÉšÊ q    º! d ] u  wu“‘@dEŸ.=ti&-7_.=]6&y(-.'A ./bS.N0+A\4)56.su1A\4-4)9)71hS0a.Tn Éw()n < zhT0?._.=.14P065Y‘1._t¡<z>+4-7_]6(+.-/&/€"•102'3& "$#% &(' )+*|{}      -D H ƒ‚x„$…F‚x„$†x‡‰ˆŠ ‹ŒŽ‡BŽr_‡BŒ/‚_‘4’”“L‹x‡ “6Š •x‡—–2ŠŒUˆŠ ‹r…<Š˜“„ˆB™t’š „c›˜‘ „_Œ)‘ Žœ™ &% .yA (+bJ.?d_t u .1()0„< (+.-g–().=<[&-.&ˆna._5PX h€&).f4NA ./.=r1.€()<[*+.:.1bJt¡\n._56]N .}&NA )<S.-u6()<Š<[.:)< .@.@(+."0….

3. The validity of the “common” diagram P1 Q ∼ 1 2 ∼ DP 2 DP ∼ 1 DP P1 u3 Q yÉ É '  & 0   R |U .Section 7.

.

x|UqN.

y+y OUqROT9x } nU $yƒ{9R  x } yƒ{ wI} w  ROT9x } nU  {ENQPSU y|U        Ay OU  w   N.

y|U.

 D1  ON } y OU nNQyƒU IUaT w _{ y .

 $  N$.

$N    * & 0 .

% % & # ./0 0132 -$32) 0 " 0 * ) 0 % 04 0 &5) 0 #!" ' *76 " - .3€D D !#" 0$*M  -$%&' 0 * )2-+*(' -$% "$#   /0 &*)2-+* ' #  ' .3= D A: ? “.+- . -/& 0 & 0 - '  * ' "   = .T= T=13WD= D A:      Ä:. < =137= ." ) '81.3 ?A?  = < DL:.>=137.//' *7612 $ :9 ) 0 >$ 0 & "$# 4 * - *   .3  A: .

" " # &E!'8$ * # * ) 0F' .&(' ) '8$ % & 01%@ & 02 .% % & # . 0C) 0 # =9  #!" ' *7612D $ 0$*&2 ." ) '8 0 " ) -/& .?@BA) 0 )16  & - ' " % '  * #  -  # ) -$ * # ' # )+0 .0." * 0 &('  * ' " * )+0." ) 0&HG$0/& # &JI I LK ( 9 MNA )+0/& 0&+ # & 022* ) 0. ' * ) * ) 0= < -' .

+0/&O.

% % & # .6P@ % %  6* # * ) 0Q>6$ * 0' '  ." )/'8$RG$0/& #  0$*&2/0 0 &E6  #S * -/'8 01+ & # ' * ) 0C>6$ * 0.

& -+* 0 A )/'  " - # * 0X W '  * '8 #  & # &7  # & % 0 & ) .//' * 0.^ S - - " 0 & 01_ '3& 0' 0+* '  #S  Ä:. '8 " 0  0$*'  '8  0 " *'8 '81.%  #  0 " - % & ## + * )+0 #% % #  ' * 0  .' ' 1'81.       0 ' $.//' * 0) 0 #!" ' *76 - T.3 Y A: .3= D A:Z? .//' * 0VU # .

’.3 ??  []\ %@' 8' $ * )2-+* * ) F * -/'8 0132.* ) 0 % & 0&^@ & 0 -+* % 04 0 & * ' % 2 I  -$Y -+* 0=) 0 #!" ' *7612`Dba.

/  ' 7* 612 ) 0 I  9dc * ) 0eD`a 9dc ? ) 0 * )+0 % 0$/0/&H' -' 0 * 0 & '  & 01 " 013fA) 0 & 0@+ # & 02 * )+0 0  0 E& .2 '8 " & 0+-$ 0 -  " - & 0 . 6g@ % %  6 * # * ) 05>6$ * 0." ) '84.

'84."$# $ * -+* 0.' ) -$* #CS 0 .//' *h6 -$%@' '8$.

+0/&O.

6g!' % ' % -+* ' # 22." *X -0 6 *) 0 !' % ' % -+* ' # '8 " & 0 -$ 0& ' * ) % 0$/0/&/!' -' 0 * 0 & '8C' #  * & -4 0&i?gj # 0@) 0 &-2 * )+0 0 0 &E6& % %  6 * #lk m&nio p o rq8p0s k t mEuXt u@v p0w o8v x s .  ' _/' Y' 0$* - ?P>6$ * 0.

*)V 0 %64 * 0 ' "  ) #  6 * )+0T #   S 0 I X~  D  .//' * 0 -' #  *^? -$ * )+0 k m&xrt s s t y o8k t mOuioOu x4z p8{ mO|8t k } . 0  0 E& 61* )+ 0 >6$ * .' .

0 ' % & # ) '  0 % 0$ #   S 0 '81.//' * 0  -+* 0g)+0.//' *h6 '81.

< [ \  ' ƒ 0 & 0+* @.3 € A: .6 * #  # #„ -+* * )/' F ' *X2-+* ' #  '  . )2-+* )2. #!" ' *76 ? % 04H!' % ' % -+* ' #  . " ) 0 "„ .3T= D A:WCAD DO?B= D A: ?T3 M‚ .     #      Ä:.% % 0.

 * # % )16$ ' " -.

_2-+* ' * ' 0&1 # &X0 W -' %  02 * )+0 & 0& '  * - " 0 * # * )+0V ' _ ' ' 0 * - U # . 8'  " & 0 -$ 01 )+0.

 * ) 0B -+* 0)+0.

 #" ' *h6B) 0 #!" ' *76 '  '8 " & 0 -$ 013 \ V&' -0  0 & * ) 0 % 0$/0/&Q!' -' 0 * 0 & * )+0 . ….

… †ˆ‡&‰@Š=‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž.

—&Œ(˜EŽ MiŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰&œ ” ‰4E” “-ŒXš " #% 6 &(' )+*žŸ  2 .

  .

  2 S 6¡.-/&8£/¤102'3& .&-Q¢.

Chapter 7. pQ2 Diagram Calculations P1 2 ρ Qmax 2 2 2 A 3 CD '  & 0 …   I .

  .

E& /0/&* ) 0H -+* 0() 0  !# " ' *76 -  * ) 0  .S 8'  ' *h64(j 0.W '8'' .    I  Pmax  . " 0Lj # @0 ) 0 &-2 * ) 0 0  0 E& 6R@ % %  6 * # * ) 05>6$ * 0' ) -$ -F' 1.&E/0/&* )+0 & 0& '  * .

0 " * ' g & 0 .' # /0.[ \ " "$# r& 8' $ * # * ) 0 "$# '' # . " 02 * )/'  * & 0 C+ & # ' * )/'  & 0& % .3T= D A:B 3WD. '  * ' "       = / A: .

822* ) 0P -+* 05)+0.

* R 0 ) 0  #!" ' . #!" ' *76  0 " & 0+-$ 0& ) 0 * ) 0 04 0 &' -' 0$* 0 & '8 " & 0 -$ 0&4 # 4) 0 &E 0 642 * )+0g -+* 0g) 0 #!" ' *76 '8 " & 0+-$ 0& ) 0 * ) 0 % 04 0 & . &0 1b   0 -/h&  612 * ) 0& 0V!' -' 0$* &(' " -0 6 #% % #  '84 * & 0.' 0$* 0 &  % 0 & 0 -$ 0&  \ .*76V 0 *>L -@6 '8 * ) 0 0@W+* & 0' 0 " -$ 0 D  #"%$ A )+0/& 0&+ # & 02 * )+0RU # & -+* 0 -+* * )+0 % 0$/0 & * ' % /0 " & 0 $.' . & -+* 0 -+** ) 0  -+* 0 '8 " & 0+-$ 0& $. 0 08 j # 0@) 0 &-2./ ' ." "$# &r'8$ * # * )+0 "$# '' #  %! !' -$& -'V2!* ) 0 % 0$/0/& " -' # ) 0 #  6 '8 . " " " # &E!'8$* # 04_2-+* ' #  …  ?* )+0P ' _/'  ' 0 * -XU # .

.& .„ 0R6 #  & % ' "„  %( !' $..' & # 4 # &* ) C  .0 < $T/CE0/37& = )  0yD Z? ' *7 6  ) ?M-4)[*)0* A) 050 ' '84-$.{ p0/ t k 1xEt 2 p v p u k % ' % k v p u8x s o s o43 q u |0k t mOu.   /$@ A :6?@. '& ' * ) 0 & * ) 0 " # '' #  0 ' -$% S - - " 0 "$#  " 0 % *'  & # $M2 * .3+T+ = * ) D 0 A:.$ " - # * " # 0@W/'  *&./^ ' S* 0 - *- " ' 0 -/-'8   *# -/)'8-$ ' * #-$%0@ W/'  -*  -'8  )40 6$ '8& -*)  ' 0F" %' 0 ' * -%   = #S )/' #  '  02 * k m y q k k o.

..% .p8/ t k 1Xo:9 wOq v p.) 0 * T 0 '84/." ' 7* 6 + # &U # & -+* 05j 0 " 023' -$%  S - - " 0 " - S 0 #S * -/'8+04M .  ' * 0Lj # 0&)+0/&™2 * )+0 # S )2-$g' -1W '8'. % #!" #YS # S " ) 0 ' -$^`U # & -+* 0 -+* * ) 0)46$ & - ' "  '  0 # +* ) 0& # / 0 -  # ) 4.m53 o*u8x nio0}7. ' " . ?A@CB8DE@GFDEHJILKMHNAFPOCQSRA@GF(QT@CBQG@VUXWZY   0 & " # $ * &7 " * ' #  []\^8_`\aJbc b:d eXfgd cgh7i5_ j k lEm]no^:d pLd p0no^_q8_r sg\.46 =<>=<>   .

d ntJb.

nunvb:d e_xwyG^8_eVno^_zp]^s8nGp%r _`_]q8_{d p|_}V~.

nt "$#% 6 &(' )+*žŸ  2.

  .

&-5¢.-/&8£/¤102'3& †e‡&‰XŠC‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž—&Œ ˜EŽ 3iŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰@œ” ‰4r” “i‘(š * . 2 S 6T¡.

The reformed pQ2 diagram    .Section 7.4.

    j   A) C 0 ' 0 * ) #  S -$ 01 # * ) 0C ' _/' B' 0 * - % & #% 0/& * ' 01 '  ' * )!'  -$ & 0 0' 0.

#"!$# %&! 2 % %   ')(+*  #)# ?@ + * . 0@6 #  ' S 0 & -  * )+0C/0 # ' 0 * &*6 # + * ) 0 &h 0 &(/01 '  .&-*X¤102'3& -$ .A) 0 -+* ) # & ^¢. '  "$# '' #  6 -$& 0 .+- " * * ' #  # +.. '8 „  0/& !$# # / ?(@$. * ' * ) " # '' #  61-$ & 0 01 # 8' :U//'  ' 0 " )2- ' "   . 04 * ) -+* '  .

)+0/& 01* )+0   '  " - "  -+* 04 S 6B * '8 ' G+'8$F -+* .% % & # . 0& * 01 -  #% * '84 - ." ) .# + U # & 0& '  * - " 0 # +b2) -/& ' # 4 % -/& *>h 01' 0.

'81* ) 0F ' * 0/& -+*X & 0  0.S  0 -+* . *> ? # + * ) 0 &7+0/&™RA) 01-4)2-/'8 .*h6 % ' " -$) -0 0 # +   " - " ) -$/0 -$H' " ) -$ !  .' # 4 * & -+* 01* ) -+* .

% ' „ 0) - ) 0 #% 0. 10 # & ' # & 032i4 * S 6 " ) -$'8$ * ) 0V -+* 0 -/& 0+.

% % & # . 0 !' -$& -' "# # %( " " # # " # # %  ' b' ) 0  A) 0 . A B @ ) 0 & 0 & 04 " 04 % & 40  " 04.% * 011'8 * ) '  S ##„ ' * )2-+* 0&)+0/&*6+* ) '8$ ' + % # %  ' S  04?N ) #   S 0 % & 01 0+* 01 '8!'8' 0$ ' #  01%L+ # &h'V # =<54<6 7  OCQ B8Q|NHzB98:8 H<." # $ * -+ *   2 ) ' " ) ' V$ 01 '8  ''  -  -+* ' 4:"`"@2 ' R *`)2- ' M5j 0/& 0 -%64 * 0' -+* ' /0/& ' )2-+* '  +." ) -  . '8$?& A )442 * )+0 -$%&' % * ' #  # + .Q>= & _ -+* ' #  …  ! ? " - S 0 * & -$>+ # &7' 01 '8+* # '8' 0$ ' #  0&^`+ & # ' -$  ? .U & " „ 0/& * .* )+.

. & -+* 02"?'9C? = # ?. =+* -+*.& "„ 0/& * !$#  * 0+- 6g * -+* 0" E .& 0T+01 ' !' S  0"  \ ^@' 8' $ '8 ' G+8' $=¢0 7&  # 0 -' F  10 _2-+* ' #  S 0 * 0 0 % # '8 * ! ? #  % 04 0 &* ' % -  % # '8+* G'? .h 0 0 K I  I D{ I ?  " ) 0 & 0 .  #  0 ' # $ * & -+* 01 * )2-+* * )+0V& -4) ' *76 0&ƒ 0 " *> /. '  & 0 …  ! ?`6/' 0   a  D a  K O N a @ HJI K HJI K IML D …  ! ( ? I  …  !D% ? )+0.* )+0  -+* 0 -/& 0+. H ON a @L  S  " (& ' % * !  & 01%& & 02 I DC I  # .

% 04 0 &* ' % 0+* & - " 0 * # &h+0/& >6$ * 0. 0$ ' *76 0 0 &E6= # ^ S 0$* 0 0 % 0$/0/&* ' % - C -+* 0 0XW ' * . ' _ ' B' 0 * . #" ' *h6 # + * ) C 0  ' _/' B' 0 * - * )+0.

' '  -+* 0 + * ) -$ S 0 .

S #  * -+*X' #  % ) 0 &(' " + # & -/'3&/) 0+* 8' $ # / & )2." ' )+0.0 $) #  * ) -+* * )+0 % & 0&%& & 0'8 * ) 0 " -4)/' *h6 " - S 0 -$^@' 011* #TS 0 . .

-/&8£/¤102'3&.-/&P* ¤ 0 '3&-2z& " „ 0 & * . * '8$? % & # )/' '8$) 0+*> .&-*X¤102'3&™2V& " „ 0 & * - RQ #   * 0 '8 !D#)# … ?.. RQ #   * 02'8 !$# #)%"S ¢.-+* 0  %¢.& 0 % & # % 0 &7 6/01 '  01B¢.

A ) '  -$%&' % * ' #  '     '&(&  ll%s i b." 4.

s i }s i5_w _`nvb8d r pC\^8b ~.p d n d pGp]hc:c:_`pn_xwUT`t{no^_Vi_WV_i_`_ lYX`p _`_ZV.

d s7w!sOV no^_V~ l ]\ _xbw!bJ}s i_w _]nvb:d r _`w!wgd pv\h8pvpod sged < e ^^:b:~n_i … ! # †ˆ‡&‰@Š=‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž.n_i  lY[i_xbwXd e{no^_zpv_x\]n d sgej kj k=sge{no^_znoib ep%d n d sge!~:_8i.

—&Œ(˜EŽ MiŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰&œ ” ‰4E” “-ŒXš *) " #% 6 &(' )+*žŸ  2 .

  .

-/&8£/¤102'3& .&-Q¢.  2 S 6¡.

Chapter 7. pQ2 Diagram Calculations  # * )2- '  ) 0 * ) 0g)+0.

) 0 * ) 0@6 -/& 0 % ## &7 6/01 ' +04M2 * ) 0 & -+* ' # # + * )+0 )+0. *>-/& 0 % ## &h 6 0& '  013 .

. * .& 0 .& 0 -/0 * 0 &7' '8 0& * )+0 S /'8 ˆ % % & 01%@ & 02 I a2 ) ' " ) " - S 0 " - "  -+* 01 -$ ' * ' g #  0 '8:¢.-/&-* ¤ 0 '3&-2& " „ 0 & * -  Q #  . * # " & ' * ' " -) 0+* .-/&8£/¤102'3& 0 * - %¢.

S  0. * 0 '8 !D#)# … ?&.S  0C ' *X -+* ' # F '8 " 0 .   S 0 -4) # ' /04MZ+ * -  # ) -$ S 0 0 $) #  * ) -+* * ) 0 " )+0." # $ '  0 & . -$ -/'3& % # & #  ' *h6 '  " & 0 -+* 04 -  $) # . Vj # 0&)+0/&™2* )/'  ' V # * / 01 '3& .

& #  0R &('8$* ) 0H. " - *.' ' " -& 0 .-/&P*X¤102'3& !$# # ( S ?@ A ) 0 & 01 '  * - " 0 '8 * ) 0:' #   * #  ' _ '  ' 0$* - U # /0 % 0 ." * ' # $L #  # * %  -&6 -  '  ' . # + * )+0 " -4) ' *76 -  " - S 0. 0& 0 " * 04 %¢./0 '8$ .

 * #eS 0 * . #  * ) 0F/0 # ' 0 * &*6 # + * ) 0 % -/& * * #  0S % & #  " 013  + + * )/'  & 01 '  * - " 0 '   ' / ' .„ 0. " -+ *&2 ' * )2-$.

" "$# +* " - "  -+* '8$ * )+0 * # * - & 01 '  * - " 0'81  * )+0 &7 0 &-!  +*T' -46/ 0 # ' 0 * & ' 0112 * ) 0C ' _/'  ' 0 * - % -+* ) '8* ) 0C' #   ' 5$) # & *&2 * )+0. '8 * # .

" - * "$# ' % -/& 04 * # * )+0& 01 '  * - " 0 '8 * ) 0 &7+0/& -  " - S 0 '  # & 04M j 0 " 02 * ) 0 % & 0&^@ & 0 -+*.. * ) 0 & 01 '  * - " 0 '  '8$ '  ' .& 0 .* )+0  -+* 02 I a2 " - S 0C+ 01 0 " * 013NA )$12 04_2 -+* ' # " …  !D% ? '  & 01 " 01 * # K K I  D  { D a  Na @  …  ! … ?  HJI K A) 0 0 0 &E6= # ^12 K D a  Na @ L ) 0 & 0 .   K L K I L ON a 2 " - S 0 @0 W % & 01% 04 '8 * 0 &7'P # + * ) 0g -+* 0g)+0.

"  -+* 0  # ' S '8 '8$ 04_2-+* ' # $ …  … ?&2 …  ! … ? -$ …  ! ?. % 0 " ' .-$ & 0 -/& & -$'8$V6/' 0  KI   . D a ) 0 &0 …  ! ?  @ . " &7+0/&  0& '  -$T % 0 " ' . #" ' *h61-$ '  * )+0 & 0& '  * - " 0 " # 0 " ' 0+*&2& 0 % & 01 0+* '8$ -.

  H   …  !D# ? A @  ~ a  ~  @   K  …  $.

I … $ ! ?  ./ > 1$..ZY[.(0%1..  K ~ a N 9.(+* %  …  !D# ?/8* . ? A B!6" # I &%1) 0')(+8* $ 04_-.>A G > 'CLB ' S > 'D* H > . -Y > % +D( <?>\A GC' S > ']* C( < .(.V2*8' 0$3* % 01%L+4%5'h' 66* 0   ? @87 K:9. @FEG&HJI6K!LJM K @SR ?TVUXW K IDT H VU  …  $6$? O  KPLQM " 6 A <?> 3* 6* .=<?> @( <.

( < * ^* .

.( <.>a< 6$Z'b.>  > ƒ > Y(+* ) > T'`.> '_.(+* %1%+D( <.1W6*8'' >  > 'E6 % +D( <.

...  S > Y[.  Y  .(/Y.O' 68* $ .%6( ..% 0(Q.hc'i* %5'4* 38* -Y > ( <?> !j* ()-.c-.(g( <?>A G > '`' S > '* g.(+* Yc' > ^@d' > (0%a( <?> 'e1.. ' > ( > '&( < .6'b. W68* '' „ 8*  > (+* Y >  > 'E61fBD%6( > ( < .(& "ml %5'.(+* %hc%5*8. * ( < ( <?> %kc > 'b.( > h.

> :.> $ ivxw K ?@ lbyVz n|p%^8sgh r wT _V}b8ic7d eJ{ es8n_{b ewp sX~ r _xbp _{d cges i_no^:d p V. M2 ( <.> ' < .( > . ' S > ` '  .s7s8noe8s8n_ j Y%kc&6:'i*  < (žŸ  k2 $.6'O >  A ( <?> %6( <.%6( >> W?(V' > ' >  6  . n' > $..(+* ) >  6 &'e.( > .6' > .pY.u . .E'  > '&( <.  >pA G > ' ' S > ' ~ a ~ a.6' > ..  S > ' >  . <.c'b.> ' > * 1.> d. 2 ~ a Y[. Q% 4o( <.. 0 ~ arqSs 8* t( < * 1S Y[$.-Y(+* Y[.

  .

 2 S 6T¡.

} .'-5¢X.6'8£/¤ > *|' †e‡&‰XŠC‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž—&Œ ˜EŽ 3iŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰@œ” ‰4r” “i‘(š .

.(+* %4  …  $ ! ? .4. The reformed pQ2 diagram 6* >   6 % )*8$ > _?. I 2*8' > $3* % > %L+4%5'h'%. * ( <  …  ! (?L+4%5' A A K 9.Section 7.

+ @ I < * Y < * .

(+* %$ .6' > > 5c %5' > :')( <.> *|' > ƒ > Y(>`%h( <.. > ( > ' .6' > .. * > -.-Y(0%5' g( < .( > > ' > 5* >[> ' < .> '* \( <?> 4% % * > Y(+* % A g .'_.> > 3* ?< > * \c%5')(Q.(+* % c'b% 6* > . h(Q. > ( > ' n( <?> `. c% > ' Z(0%d% Z(0% > .(+* % 2 I 2 $  …  $ '? > _-.' > d.( i. Y .-Y < * > 3* > &.> c%%3* S  > c < 6$3* Y.-Y < * > c > ' 4%5' e. -Y >1> (QY <.( <. .( > . c > ' 2* .6'4* % ac-.. (0% 'b% ( <. „ *841% 6( <..> .>  > * % > `.(+* %  …  ?@ D ILD ISFPOCQTKH = CFDEHJI < * Q% .> > Y.J%0. ( <. =<54< G@   8 . e.

 )  O+   W ' 8 )  4 ' O      A 8'  + .A 2 . O ) *6   8 $ ./  + '     " .

%\( > '7'P % > 2  ~ a C?TVU  . $ .j. + 8 + 0 8 .4ƒ > Y(>( <.* > (g .' > .&64 )* .6' > . hY. %M25* +Y < .> A G > ' ' > ' < * Y < * -Y   > ( . M2:( .( > .> ' >  -Y >  c' > % :' > 2 I 2D* j( % .    !"#%$ &(')"*  QD.#( <..  ` ' O42 ' 8  G 2  e' 8 *+ 7'  W  . Y% >.

(&2 X * f.6' S > Y[. Q%a.( > ..6' > .* > . % > hY.4ƒ > YV(>.K > :. A <?> 2* JY < .\.4ƒ > YV( >  S 6( <.

( < ')% < ( . %C5* ƒ > ' > ..(+* % … .(g( > 'h'Po* ( <?>  > . 6* (+* %  > _ -.

( . ?T VU  * ^.6'4* .$  ?@25% > 2& ~ a C ~ [ . .0'^%0(^* 1)-. * ( < ' > [c > Y(. $a( % S 6@  .

..  ~ a$C ~ [ K  "-> >( Y %5% „ . 6* (+* % r% +   > _ -. dc@(0%F&'e.3* G > 8" j > -Y > ( < * ec-.6' > .6' (^* QQ% ' > < ..( > .(+* %  … .(#.(0%( <.>  > .(1( <. $ ?= % 5* +Y $%V* % *  >>  .(CY  > ...( > .> d.6'P.' > .0 :...

.$  ? -%5'*80 $0(V'_.(+* % c :'mc.

+ ?Y(+* % r..( *  ?%(e. % ' > ( < .%  > : > (#$.

6' > ..(+* % \.( > .. 2of ~ a  @ v \ &'e.% + :. 0 c > ')( d' S .

.( > .% +P( <?> :.#' >   >( ^* A&@.+ -   +  1+ 0+ (') (6* 7 :+ 1+  7 B .+  !+ &+ A .' > . 6 %5'  > '4* > 12 @  ~ a I ~ a  B  ~ a  … $ / ? A ~ a ~ a @ A B  6  I ~  K  A B  6   6 I  HI "H HH I H K a   ~ a 6H     I ! 6H a " H ! H 6 HH "  ~ a  H K A B  6  I ! H I H    + .

 .+ .+ (') ( +  / !+ +  !+ !+ 3+ # 1+ 1+  2 4 1 1+  798 . + 0+ 1+ 1 1+  . - + !+ + ! .

=<7> 1+  ?@ .+ B  B C DE OP F B AGIH H AGIH H B JLKNM !JLKNM C RQ ^s.

yTSLU`_i e h } :T _i T _^8b.

q_xpCbpGb V h e\]n d sgeJsOV no^_zc b.

n_{b8i_xbAV WYX)Z [\^]A_ 6 l-qsr ^ _ }b\^:d e _ pod Ux_ b r p s#r d }zd n_`w T`t b pv_`\xsgew ~8bi.b }_`n_iza8es.

yGe'bp{no^8_ 8\ r b }{~:d ecVs:i\`_`pJns :T _ gw d p \hp pv_`w d e ^^8b ~.

n_ui t6v l-w r ^:d pCd pCi_xbpvsge:b T7r _{p]~:_x\h r b.

n d sge]b T:sghn|no^:d pL~ s7d en`j x{s i_pnohw td p0y _r r\`sg}_ ! `/a †ˆ‡&‰@Š=‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž.

—&Œ(˜EŽ MiŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰&œ ” ‰4E” “-ŒXš \b]"_c fLgih/j dbe c0lnmpo j %k Y[%kc@6d'i* < (žŸ  22 $.

 .

  2 S 6¡.

' Q¢X..6'8£/¤ > *|'   y p v 18o*y s k mRy q k rx t s | q8s s t mOu y p u8xEt u w mO/ u k 1 p vp o x p vs vp 5 s y*mOu s p. .

+.. > > _ -.  ./10 2!#   ..(+* %  …  1  1+ ?  (+* < %   4 435 3  !"!#$&%''()*. pQ2 Diagram Calculations + +\(  < * [Y .Chapter 7.

   @ .

: '*:=<'* !>!#?$@2 A 8 :.( > S    As  6 7 As K K 298.. 0( % S > ' >[> )?.#.( X < . -.    .!.

.> :. % > (+* > .> Y < . > ( <.CYM9VD(Z/.GH!IKJLNMOD'QPRBS2 D<. * ( .  ' >[> 2 > x(  . S ' :c.(0%5'f. * % t* .> * _ 6* > (Q.. -Y > % d( <?> * -Y * % g% 2( <?> ( > '  ~ a C ~   K * (0%a( <?> Y[. e.BC$:AD=E>:F2. _( > '/( <.( > W5c?. > .> Uk% '4* Y(+* % -. S ' dc..( > > 6( < 2.. % > (0%CUk% =( < ')% < ( <.( > f<?> % > (0%p( <. > * f( <?> 5*|' > Y(+* % % D( <. > d'4* ( <?> * c6')%2Y > o<. 2m%5'fY% (V'i* S . * ( p* ( <. > Y < . Y . > .( > ( <?> ?> ' * * ( > e* \c%5')(Q.> ' > * (Q. -Y > (0% ( <. * > ' > 2 > ( < * Y <t< .!VWX!2G.> * * (+* .( > .CeFfg<W!2 DHGN+. 1( <?> % > (0%a( <?> .( > W5c?. > * r( <... Y% (V'i* S .( > ' ( <?> ^% xY[.[ `_ `_ Gdc ]^ ]^ !VDba < 8A2G.-Y(0%5' < * Y < * ?Y > ( <. * ?Y' > . \c > > ^% (V'_.dc:c > * e.(+* %   f<?> Y < . * % .> :. > * o( <?> Uk% Y')% > YV(+* % Y < . (Q.( > '/* (e( :' * (0%t.8TC!)BS U8.> .(+* i. > ?> '_.6' > .> Uk% * . > % > (V'i* > o* ( < * ( 0* $. ./gh?= G\ f< * > W.> d..

* .(+* % % \  4%5' .' > ( <?> ( <?>^> ƒ > YV( %   .(+* ..\Y[. * \c > ?Y(+* % % X( <?> d.. ?> ( <?> Y < .* ( 1.> 5*|' > Y(+* % 1% ]( <?> Uk% ..+    ( ? 1+  j !+ (')?o"*pi + .(+* % #c'b% -Y > ( <?> :.> e. % d'_Y > c'b% * > * 4%5' e. &% ?> ' > i j  .6' 'b% ^%  ' > .(+* .> 2* .> %2Y.'i* % c?. > * a( <?> Uk% 8c-.. -.> > % > (V' % ( :')( <. -YV(+* % % ( <. -.+)n .. <?> ~ a* ?> ' .6' ( % P( <. rY < .6' > . -YV(+* % % ^( <?> ^% > % > (V' \ > % > (V' f* ( < e.( > !(+* * G.( > . . > (0% * > ' > 2 > ( > .* ( < * * 4%5' e. o* < .> > * % ( <?> ' > ' . P.( ( > ' j* > * > ?> (0% S > Z'b.( > . 10 % ( <.> 'X( < * c%2* (gY[% * > 'X.> Y < . S > * ( <.> * o<.6' > ' > .. > <.  %5'D. d..6' * > ' 5¤.> ( < * g.> ' >   * . ..

n  .+ +   .+ej !+   !+.l  1+ jUj  +3 k   l + !+=l  1 Uz  j .

+bq l k Sj + + g1 1+ +  Ry  +  l !+ .n j j &+ Wqxj   + Sj  +  !+  .

+   j .+=n .+ uj +  .+ Sl k +  >k !+W mq j q k      lYq n  j Wq j 1+ +   k    &  .+ !+ !+B s wj j .  j   1+   n +   l  k !+   k  k q   !+=l 1  1+ .+ Ol/   jUj !+ i 1+   k .+/4 Wq +Hs !+  + A >v !+  &r +/  i  'n .+   &   j !+B  !+B &  'n Nn + Wq j  .n .+=n  A W'l$n i    k   1  .+ - l k     .

+ B.n !+W  !++ .

+  /  .+/ 1v !+W .  + 'n Wq  .+ q  .

n   .

n  i .+  =n k .+ !+ Wq n j  !+ j  1 t  1    .+  B  .

+ .  .

.

* %5'D* # @ = I ~ Ka q 8 + e‚  +   k  s !+   s     .  4  g  ‚ ?{ c  Y%kc :'i* < (žŸ  k$.s  KF K0 5* d' > … #   ?< > ~ a s ( <?> ' > * (Q. W  q 1+  Wq$s?n !+  lm j k +   + 'n n !+ 1+ + k  l. -Y > D  ' > c' > > ( -Y < S >6< .

  .

  Fl 1 A3 s .

6' > *|' l ¡ 5¢ 8£/¤ ST  b| |r~ }  .' X.

(  … $ ( Wq+ .+ 8 1  s  †e‡&‰XŠC‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž—&Œ ˜EŽ 3iŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰@œ” ‰4r” “i‘(š  =ƒ y .. €g f<?> * \c > ( ?Y(+* % i  j ?  $n !+ 1+gs  3 < % t* 5* d' > … # !( < .

. > ' > :.( K * * h( <.4. .> '_.6' > . S > Y.( > 4%5'f.-YV(+* Y[.6' > Y% (Q.> ' > * (Q. ¡g* >  > ' > Y(  . Y . r K > ( > ' * > ( <?> '_. . ( <?> ' > 4%5' > c')% k'_. ?Y > <?> ' > ~ a > ƒ > Y(a* * 6* . X* (* 4% ( < .( . xY[. -Y > !+B 1+  k .( > ƒ > Y( #+ c'_. * 6* Y[.#.. ?Y < .* Y > % > (V' f<?> . K . > % /( <. The reformed pQ2 diagram  . > c%5* ..6' > > *|' > t..( > @( <?> .( >  .(g(0%hY[.( <?> ' > ~ ajc .-YV( -. . c > Y.. Z' > * (Q.6' > * \c%5')(Q. Y .dc:c6')%4W:* e.Section 7. > <. > % e  > ( > ' * > ( <?> .( > ..

i  .

+ j '  O  !+    .n .k .

y .

(+* %' > ( * ^.( -.+ Sj !+ ./   . ?j j  n v  q !+W   j     q !+ !+B  .' > .n q  ( ? l   A     !+ 1+ v  !+   n y !+  .:=! !VD1!#?UM <'G?:W!2 DGN+=. ?> ' .+    n     G@?. :ADGB8F!X<':=!2 DG :FA!)fg<'8F!2 DHG 0r2!#  8&.+ s  n !+B n 1 !+B   j l j .+ !+/ j  !+ .\'b.' > ' > * (Q. -Y > B‚ .+ j.. .   6  G@?. ?> ' `. :ADGB8F!X<':=!2 DG X% > _ > .

..( > .sn   Tk  Fs  + A l. f<?> ' > 4%5' > .' > .. < .* ( 4%5' 5* ƒ > ' > .. G > 'b% d. 2.-Y < * > \ > > 'b.  1+  (')?o(6* ‚ Sl !+B   j   ? . (V'_. -Y > * * > * (+* . S > 4% S  D a @ s  ~ a … $ % < * Y < Y[...6* < (]Y[% 6* ( f* ( < (V'_.k Sl l  !+ q    :+! ?j   k + .o. c')%Zc%5' (+*S % ?.(+* % @% ( <?> 2* > Y[. > % .j'_.+ q n  +B    ‚ ds 1  !+  - 1 l k !+ !+  .(+* % 2( <?> ' > * (Q. .. e. 4%5'!Y% (e' > ..+/1j  q .>  6 s ( <?> ' > 4%5' > ( <. d.( > .+ j  k  j l$n  ? j '  O   D & s !+!+   .(+* % % > _ -.> (0% .dc > G%2* :..> * @c * Y?* ( d( <?> ' e..( > 1' > ' > * eY[% d'b. ?Y > c ' > (+* 1* \. % >o  !+B>q + y  k  k !+W  l.( > ?> %2Y?* ( ( > W:* ( k. .+  .6' > .(+* % eY[.> XX% ..' > . <.* (  * „ > . o<.6'4* .( :.( >C> _ -...> (V'_.dc > * Y% ^% > S > Y.> :. .( * ( g.dc > G%2* :.' > . Y[% \c * Y[.(+* % " o<.1W6* :.> ' > * (Q..(+* % % D( <?> d.  . > % X( <. hY[.s n 1+ k j. e( <?> ?> %2Y?* ( e* ' > -Y > o* ( < * ?Y' > .. > ( <.( > ?> %2Y. (+S * e. > Y% ?> ')( > 1* (0%.> > 'i* Y[.( > %2Y[. > * > e(0%`Y' > .\Y % > .> ' > 4%5'D.( > ?> %2Y.(+* %  … $ % ' > _ 6*|' > * 4%5' e.> % .Y-'b% £ > YV(+* % :c'b% * > e( < .+  +  -   k k l  Uj B   .

i k +   !+Bn  1+    +Hs  + N  Sl.s   l 1+  .

+  1+ v 1 + q !+ + k +  l     i  j>j  .+   +   1+B1 1   1+ l  !   'n   1+    2**<=8F!V! :ADHGW8.!V'GH!  <'G?GFX-    DG* N!#? F:W! 8$DgMT!#? H8t8F<'S 28 =?*2F@w!VD 'DH0 C!>WA #?bSR8A2 8F!V'G:F!VDe!#? !#?X<.n y + j 1+     s   'n ?jR j !+   +  k n i l k  .+.+      .n 1+  1 y  n  .

#.GG?.SI #FG:FFIQ!#? )DGFI :.

!V'GH! 2Ge!#)8 #.'G.Cd!0 !#e <'GG?.SI$!0 DHI  De&%''()*8mB$H8 FGg!F@ :ADHGW8.

D!K8 *FBPAb2 8 8A( !#>8A#'Dg!T8 *FBPA : 'G BT2 8DH* !F@I?'G?@ !#? g 8 2 8F!V'G:F2G ($':F#2G?KF MOD'S($'G:F":F#'WV':=!. _ .@ !VD !#? !VD18 2 8F!V'G:FU2G #@?2  F:W! 8KDHG$!# : =8F!2G.@H.S2 8.C !# C! gm&%''(U2G?.m2 8 '**: D()gBS.!2:8 DH0 .@  G?&Cd*.:=!F@g-  C!rBA =*2.

2: '*g@?2(>FGB8A2 DGB8"DgM !#?)@?R8A2 CGUBSQH8A.@b2G 7 2 C <'S+...GH!.

F**.h? # 8A#'D' !d: DG@H<'2!HDgMgh?.GH!dX<./! ] ( H8 FGg! 8 'G)t%?:.

 #T:A'*:W<.d@8 2 CdG 'G?@$!#?"* DG.GH! 8r PA.Cd8.)DHD'@?R8A2 CGH.GG?.!: DG@H<'2! _ ] DHM'.gh ( SRHSR8A.

@$MOD'd'*<'(U2Gg<.* !2 DHGW8"0 FT:ABS2.

( '** D" a_ ]'& ^ & 2GF($!2:.PA2 8 :AD.

(UW!V'* _ HSR8&8.A G \ ]^ K (8 F: _ 'G?@ 0r2!#1e@FGB8A2!# DHM /'a$% C)( 'G?@  _ ]  <'G?GFr8F<'MO':.7 D' !#>: DGB8F!V'Gg! gSR8&8F<'U:A=8 b!#?b*2fH<'2@.>VDg< Cd#G?R8&8 DgM h?-Oh (U( .<..8A2!#1DgM 5 *.+!+.

<.b2 8$=8&8. ! !# <'G?GFQ.GH!V'G?:.

* Dg:./ ]132  'G@eMOD' !#:ADGB8F!V'Gg! DH0 F _ ] :A=8AU!# DH0 F * DB8t8)2 8 4 0  PA.(U.2! :A'G s l65i_xbw!b]T sgh.@N!VD/g  0' .

nL~:sgs:i w _xpod cge=_87_`\]nGsge~"9 ' s wgd b.

b } †ˆ‡&‰@Š=‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž.cgi.

—&Œ(˜EŽ MiŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰&œ ” ‰4E” “-ŒXš Y[%kc d'i* < (žŸ  2$.

 .

   l  s s .

6' > *|' l ¡ Q¢ 8£/¤ S { p o z p t :k 3 m*v&u8m / .' X.p k k p vXy*v p 5 s p u k o k t mEu@u p0p x p x .

pQ2 Diagram Calculations   .=8$8A#'DH0rG DH0 7 2G DHM.gSR8&8F<'U'G@Y2G 2 C<.!# !1MOD'Te:ADHGW8.Chapter 7.DHM !#?b !2 D BA.!V'GH!.=8m1M <'G?:W!2 DG.   6  # #?  C!P F* D:F2! 12 8U&%#?2 2!F@.

.=/YMOD' 1: DGB8F!V'Gg! .- C! 7 2C WA1!VDY!#U: DG@H<'2!  <'e+=.01438 [m] A A A2 2 5* :' > … !       8   t.{t         .01 [m] gate area mold gravity A-A 0.            .e+. .008 [m] flow direction L 0. - 3 0.

 .

 g .

{ ~ { F 't € }    * ~ 5* :' > … ! !  8      F ~  s { .{ { ~ { H    |  ' .  A     .{ } .

~   s ?F } ={ '{ | .

' X.6' > *|' l ¡ 5¢ 8£/¤ ST   + K .

         A  8   .

{  ~ . F$|  ~    .

  {   |Q{   ~ ~  € € ={      =   .

   Y%kc :'i* < (žŸ  k$.

  .

't > |  }   { t={t{    †e‡&‰XŠC‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž—&Œ ˜EŽ 3iŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰@œ” ‰4r” “i‘(š   .  Fl runner entrance shot sleeve 1 } |   * 8  .

Section 7.4. The reformed pQ2 diagram 2* d' > … ! $ 8 1    .

!$s     ?F } . .

.{'{b| d} .

   .

* .

*  $  ! .

  o  .

 b |     { } F     go  g  .

6' > . .(0% . ( <.> %2Y. .( > . > a% .* ( 4%5' .( > ( <?> ?> %2Y.> . '_.. f<?> % * * > * 5* :' > … ' > c' > > . > % pY[.(+* % > % q .> d.* ( aY[.(JX .-Y[Y[% (h( <?> ' > ' > % > (V' .* ( .( > .> Y% (Q.   |  -%5'n( <. ( ?> %2Y?* ( > ?> 4%5' .(+* % * > . \c..@Y[% (Q..6' > . ?> '_.. S > ' > (+* e.> ' * > ..' > d.VG > 'b% :. > ( <?>  Y% ^%  "% . Y . > .(AX ! < ! * > ( <. > 4@% X( <?> %( <?> '' > ( f<?> Y[.. Y .. Y .6' > d' > . > #% \( <?> Y% ^% .' > S . @c(+* % % Y[% (Q.\Y% (Q.(+* % % X( <?> ?> %2Y.. „ > * .(  .(ZX ' > c' > > . . > S > ' f<?> ' > ( 4%5'Y[% (Q. (fc6' > d' > Y[.> %6( <. * (+* Y V+ ( % ?> ' > (+* `.( > .( > .' > .( > 4%5' ( <?> ...( ( <.S (+* % < * Y < (Q.

> ' 2* > Y[.6' e1.( ( <?> ' > S * . (+* e.> G > 'b% A S * % 6( <. * (+* Y@' > ( o* ( < ( <. `.* ( #* :% S >S 4%5'D( <.. ' ( 0 4%5'( <.( > . ( <?> . `1.-Y <?> G > ')% 2( <?> :.j'b..> ' > ' > % > (V' \ > 4%5' > &. Y . ( S<?> c > Y.6* > 'b% ( <...( > ?> %2Y.t'_.(+* % . .(c% > ']Y[.1Y > . (+* e. \( <.( > ( < .')( < ..( > ?> %2Y?* ( 1* * > * (+* ?> (0% ( <?> ' > ' > 6( < .> S ( <?> Y% * ( > ( < +'i* < ( < .(+* ( <?> 5* > Y[.> > WY > > .( > ( < .dc:c'b%:..> .> %2Y. c%5%5' > * RjD% > ?> ' <?> ( <. * >  ' > ( * `.> Y% (Q.6' > .( > * ( 4%5' `.dc:c6')%d. W6* .6' > .. > ' * `(+* > :.-Y < * > c > ' 4%5' e.-Y <.6' > . h.( (Q.6'_. > . `..* ( < * Y < > c > % \( <?> ' > ' > *  <?! > ! ' > ' > cS ' > > .6' > .* ( S .(+* %.( > ?> %2Y.6' > f* ( < ( <. > ( <?> :. W:* :.( > ( <?> :. .(+* %.( !t% .( X 6* > ( <... .> ' > (+* e.( + Y% ?Y * % 6( < * c-.> 2* > Y[.> e1. % > % > ' ?> -%5' . -Y > A c > '_..> :. > c%5* . S > WY > > . (+* e.> % h' > ' 2* d' > … > W < * * ( ( < .( > .(+* % * < % h* 5* :' > … ! $ f<?> Y% ^% #.> %2Y.* ( 4%5' .* ( ^% (Q.dcdc'b%:. >[> < % ( < .> .(+* % hc6')% ?Y > :' > .-YV( > 'i* (+* Yj% e( <. \c..( > d.(+* % % fY[% (Q. > % X. ^% ( 6% S S> rY%S \c?. Y% (Q. ?Y(+* % 1% ]( <?> .> d.. > % S (Q.(\( < .> c%5%5' > * f< * * 2* Y[..6* > f* ( < .* ( D a ~ 9C ~ a < % @( <?> % * * > \ :.> %2Y. \c.( > ?> %2Y.(\( <. . ... .( > ?> %2Y.> Y.* ( h.> d.p'_.> d.* ( o* ( < .> 2* > Y.jY > . > ' > (+* e.r'b.-Y < * > * h( <?> +'i* < ( < .( > .( > * `Y% @c?.. 10 4%5'( <?> < %5')(f' > 'n.6' > .(+* % ( <. > '!' > _ 6*|' > > .( % e( <.> ' > 4%5' > f* ' > _ 6*|' > .. -Y <  S > Y.(.(^( <?> c' > > 'm' > * ( ?.. (+* `..'b. W:* * 2* Y[.> ' > ' > * * ^%5' > * @c%5' (Q.( > * * .-Y < * > S > Y[. &.> S %5Y?* ( .(+* % * (0% > % h( <.* Y#Y < . > p% j( <.( > ?> %2Y. * > S '_.6' > .' > ...(+* % f<?> %( <?> ' * > > Y'4* S > ( <. 'b.( > o<..> :.( > .-Y < * > -%5'D( <.> ' > ( f* ( < ..6' > t(0% ( <.(/.6' e1. > % < %5' ( > ' * h(+* > o<....> .. W:* Y[.-Y < * * * ( e.6' > ..6* .6* 2( <?> Y% ^% . e% (g( <..

-Y < * > (jD% > . ?Y% \c?.(o( <?> Y < .> f( <.> :. Z'b.-Y[Y[% (]( <?>> ƒ > YV( % !( <. :( <..' > ..> ' > :% ?%(\' > c6' > > .(+* % < % ( < .-Y < * > < * Y <h< .+ n 1  8 8   + Wq    j !+  j + 1+ !+   Y . (0%@(Q.'i* . % B !+W + .'_. f* ( < ( <?> . \c.=(  S e.\% ( <.(+* % % D.6* > Y[. (0% ?> ' > 'i* % > ' 'b%5' * ( <.> ' > ' ( > * ?> ' jc%5%5' > * > A ( <?> ' f* > 2( <?> Y[% S * ?.(+* % \% ( <?> c' > :' > . (+* `.  .-Y < * > 2* > * % .(+* % % P( <. (0% S > % ?> 8 +  !+ &   . <.> Y < . Y .6'b. „ > * (0%1. \c > 5* ?> j* <..-Y( > 'i* (+* Y % !( <?> 5* > Y. (/c' > d' > * * ^Y% (V'b% <?> f( <?> c > '* e.6' > e(0%`( <.> .> > % P( <?>  Y[% ^% #c 5* . > f<?> ( % > W-. .> 2* Y < .+&8 1+  'n 1 !+  !+ . (+* `. tc% > ' * * (Q.(+* % ' > ( * \( <.(( <?> Y% (Q.. k'_..+ k Ol/  + .-YV( > '4* (+* Y % ( <?> 2* > Y[.> c   2* .> > 5* >[> ' < .> ' ^%5' > > (Q.( |! .+    i   ?j & + .6' > Y% > 1Y?* > .( > .( <.> %( <?> ' `. > .@Y% (Q..

.

+ .+/ +   .+      ? .   + 1+gs .+  s !+W n !+  j  +  'n      s Wq .+ j + j    + !+ j & ?j !+   Wq 1+ g  lb r j    .+  Yq +  j  Sl  j     .+ j  +   q jbs      +   1+ .+/ .+   +   k .+1j .

n 1+   !++ .+  1+ .+   Qz 1+ mk k j   .+ + jUj +   q  .

n k .

$k 'n 1  )n  s  j  l k      q  j   †ˆ‡&‰@Š=‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž.

—&Œ(˜EŽ MiŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰&œ ” ‰4E” “-ŒXš j +  +  & .

n q  Y[%kc d'i* < (žŸ  2$.

 .

+   k j +   + .+W    j k  : W  k .+  sgq   +B l Q s  ? 1   l.   l  .s !+W Wq+  l   k  4n8 k  !+  t !+Wmq + !+B   k Wq 4 lE[ pCd nGd pGyGid nun_8ed e ^  p>T s7sgaxp ( .

B sj Fk  .n  .

n     j  i .

n !+W    -   U  Wq  Fl q i 1+ Nl    1 !+ .

j  k .n j. !+/ l k  n !+  l.

j  1+  .+ v + +  1       l   j n  +  .+ . l !+  j .

n k .

1+  . ?j   i   1+ .+  .+ s     Uk v j j A +  !+   j  + 1+  $n !  + j.+   .

+/  1+ l +B  !+ .+1j  Wq    !+  ( ?  ?  k xn v .+   s Wq   j t +!+ Sl 1+   n  n .+ .+B   i    1+  l 1+   Sj    k   j .+ +$n k q 1+  +!+ 1+ j .+ !+  -  l  k .n . + .+ 1+   8 !+!+   1+   1+ jUj  jUj ) .+ v + j n l1q +  k +  !+Wn +B  1+ l    j &  .+ 1+  >k 'n k  Qj !+W 1+ + Fs  j B   !+ 1 r .+/  ( ? +  i 'n K  j  jUj !+ j k +    l   .+ .+  +/ .q  l   XsHq k   + .+gs i !+ !++    +   .+/ Sl  .+/j s  +   .

n j n    j.+ !+B j  +   l j k  Wq   q . j !  + l lUq $q    q 1+)l $k 1+  !+B  j i j  k $k !+ 1+    !+!+  y    +!+  j i  + b   +! ?j  j.j +W j     n   & j U . j .

n   l  !+ !++  k + jUj   s s .

' X.6' > *|' l ¡ Q¢ 8£/¤ S 'n .

pQ2 Diagram Calculations U3 ‘‘common’’ model realistic velocity A3 5* :' > … ! ' 8 .Chapter 7.

1o(!*A" .

    D`a '{b| } .

    .

o1%$ Ho"!$ ..

*A o Ho 4  g ~ a |r~  .

-Y < * > * %Zc > '_.-Y < * > f<?> Y[% .aY[% .> c% > ' k( <?> c% > ' * (0%5' > * h.(+* * G.(Q.6' > ( %1( dc > % D%Zc > '_. > <?> >[> ^% ( 1% ( <. * Y#c \c  e% ( j% ( <?> % e. ' > > . € (')?o"* f<?> ' > .( > 5*|' > Y( S < k'_.* j( <?> ?% #Y% (+* ?% > e. 4%5'P( <. (+* e.-Y < * > Z% > ( <?> 5* > `..6* > '..> > > ' e.6* > 'D.(Q.(+* % @% D( <?> 2* > Y[.-Y < * > 1( % .

„ Y% (Q.%5' e. * Y * _ 6* $ f<?>1> ƒ > Y( % . .* .6' > (Q.6* 6* (V'b% > . #.  < Z'_.

> .. :.( > Y[..( <.> (Q.  * _ 6* r'b. Uk% '_.(+* %t% ( <?> c6' > d' > . „ * G > . * S > > '4* ?> .

(@c' > :' > .-Y < * > K q i  A l  Sl l !+B. .-Y( ?. -YV(+* % % ]( <.#Y > ' (Q.#Y% (Q. -Y > < * Y < * . * > .6' > V%D  Hj > -Y > d( <?> i.+/  ..'i* .+  uj . o* ( < Y[. > &. ^% (e.+ j Xs Wq  ?   .n j  1 + q   Wq .S * ( o<.+ j .6' -YV(+* % 1% ( <?> ?> %2Y?* ( _ -. \c.> * _ 6* ?> %2Y. (+* e.> ' > * (Q.(+* % \% P( <?>  Y[% ^%  5* > Y. S > Y[% * > ' 4%5'g.6* '_. ?KY > Y.+ +  !+  . Y% * > 'g.(  ( <?> * > (0%#.+   . S „ > ' > * (Q.(0%5' * o* ( < . . ^% .> (Q.a. <?> c% > ' dcdc 'b% ( <.

+  1 'n 1+ j  l !+BT Y  1  1+ s  y  R .n ? ln A i  1+  A l 1+ i  Wq  .+  % & +  .+ !+B - !+  y q y    +   + 1+ +&+ q .+:+ +  .+ j .+! 1  j + !+W !+W Wq 1+  A l ! ? lW !+ 4 k %A  .

6'b.+  'n !+ &  1 'n rn + + 'n + b jUj  l  k  bk .+ j  f<?> Y < .+  Sl .+ Xsdn   n j & j  j !+/ 1+ s  +   n +  + Y . j    ! j  y   i   l 1+ 'n !  lB !+  !+ j q  !+ 1+   s + q  >k s   !+ +  !+ q  .-Y( > 'i* (+* Yh% .

( > 5* > ' > #.> 2* > Y[.( < * Y < .( <?> .( > . (  .n A .(C( <.+   !+ j  &  . (+* e. 6% S > c < * #Y * > ' Y < .' > > Y'4* S > j* 5* :' > … !9/  .6'P* .6'b. i.-Y( :' > o<.-Y < * > * . 5c% > ' ^% ( * . dY < .> > Y% :'_.k   .6'b..-Y < * > 5*|' ( > ( 5* Y % > > > 'b.(+* % ?Y < .( e. ?> S >> ( 2* > > W?( > * ?> p* #( <?> c-.6' > c-.(](V'b.#c \c o* ( < % > * \c'b% ?> > .6'4* % c \c < .-Y( > 'i* (+* Y`% ]..> Y%Zc > % f( < * 2* Y * % \ c \c@* > Y < . > % > < . 2Y < .(0%  < k'_. > * > ( < .> Y < .' > % (% f( <. i ?y  + Uj l  !+! .-Y( > 'i* (+* Y % D( <. (+* `...-YV( > '4* (+* Y% ^.6*|'-* ( f<?> 5* > Y. > > YV(V'i* Y[.hc @c. * Y71c% > ' \ ( dc* Y.rc @c  * > * „ >#> \c > %5' c >> x. * Y. > ' .

+ j    . Fk  ! j Uq + v   !+  n  ! ?j s   .+n8  +  k  j  p8  m 'n  .

n  j  A l y .+/  j + k   j  q .+ l + j k       !+W   A W  j 1+  s  .+   &  Wq  !   .+ 8  + q .

n    .

n  + i  ! ?j .

+B   j   lB +  ( t  !+  s  + y  !  Wq   Xsm r ^:d p|p%d }{d r b8i(nsVsg~ _i.b.n   j  i .+1j 'n  t u s p v kk 1 p xrt s | q s s t mEu/o.-*m q k S !+ „FD!D# o |0k p v t s k t | / t k 1 k 1 p l  ƒ 9yu8m8wOq kqnXv y p |3 1 v mOo8vnV k 1 p v p xz3 m { x p v S p0s q  j l? .

n d sgeVsOVPy b.

n_iPpvtpvn_} d e{bp%^:d ~}b e.

tsOV4no^8_\^8bi.pob }_ wgd 7_i_e.b\]n_id pn d \xp bi_Cno^_p b }_7j f7h i5no^_iE}s:i_ no^_.

n d b r|_h8b.

n d sgepbi_ c:s8q8_iEe:d ec no^_'pod noh8b.

n d sge*j r ^_.n.t7~:d \.

b:r *h_`pvn d sgep p]h\^ b.

p!no^_#e_x\`_`pvpobid r t \`sge.

b.nvb:d e8_i{pod Ux_ b ew no^_'i.

n d s sOVzc bp=nsA^tw*i.b h r d \'r d *h:d w'y _i_'~8bi5n=sOVJ}Ltpnohw t d e#^:d cg^'pv\^sgsgr v~8isDT8b]T r t.no^_ pod }{~ r d .

_`w=q_8i5p%d sgeVsOV no^_=i5_.

b:r\xbpv_ `jXz V w _}zb:e8w=ns=no^:d pL}zb.

n_id b ri.b8d pv_`wdz*yGd r rd epv_8i nCd nC^_i_Vd ezno^_ Vuh.

noh i_ j Y%kc :'i* < (žŸ  k$.

  .

  Fl  s s .

' X.6' > *|' l ¡ 5¢ 8£/¤ ST †e‡&‰XŠC‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž—&Œ ˜EŽ 3iŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰@œ” ‰4r” “i‘(š  .

 > ( ( > 'nc > ' 4%5' e. -Y > ( <?> 4% % f* ?Y(+* % .4.jc%5%5'gc > P' * 4%5' e. > f<?> c?.> c?. … $ … Y ' > c' > > . < % * 5* :' > … !9/ o<.c \c (jD% > ?> ' ( <.%5' e. > ^% ( ( <?> % '_. … $ … .> > '4* % Y[% > YV(+* % @* -Y-' > .  > Y[% > YV(o* @( % g.-Y < * > o* ( < . .'gc \c Y[.Section 7.6'b. > 5Y[% > YV(+* % * -Y-' > .6'_. > e% ( ( <?> c' > :' > .-Y < * > o* ( < . -Y > :. The reformed pQ2 diagram pressure efficiency power P power η Q   8    5* d' > … !D/   8 % * * .( > .> %5'i* 5* -.> Y%  ^% \c  > ' 4%5' e.. (+* e.-Y < * > c > ' 4%5' e. (+* `. > 'i* > . *  >  < % x. 2* > Y[.>a> ƒ > Y( % g( <?> 2* > Y[. < % * 2* d' > … !9/ f<?> > '4* > Y% > Y(+* % `*  . ?Y > % ( 1( <. > [Y% > Y(+* % <?>  ?%5' e. (+* e. ?Y > ' > c > YV(+* ?> X% . 2* > Y[. >  Y > > (/c > ' 4%5' e. tc-.(f. * >  >[> 2* d' > … ! ( ? @ A B    K d ? @ 7 A B    K   ? @ 7 A B    K   f<?> ?Y(+* % … $ … . ?Y > 6( <. @. *  > 4\* ?> ' Y % > (0%( <.'_.6' > > .

    K d   K  7 A B  @  K69.6' '_.(+* %  … 4$ 6* > B K  A 9.+  Wq+  Wq .   A @ s   K d 8 q i  j .+  1 1 'n + q i  . 2* > -.6* * > ?..    K  7 A B  @ K69.  ' > ..(+* % … $ ! o* ( < … $ … * >  A B  @ K69.

+n8    F .+Nj  . }  ++  } bq .  Fl {   1+"q + n Sj  "+  i 1+!+ j  !+ Sj .   n    1+ 6+ .+  !+B i ++  | }   .

+  ! j  !+   A l & j  j  j 1 1+    1+!+  .+  A W'l i  1+!+ Wq .+  Xs  8  8 k  Wq Q .  .+  l k  . .

+/j . Wq  s n .+ !+ q q  + n j !+  l .+ j +   q Wy y l   F } !+/ .+/ I …  1+  1+  y l   I †ˆ‡&‰@Š=‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž.+ .+/Nj  .+ .+ n  Wq n !+ + j  A l  j !+ y  F n !+ i n j !+ k  } 1+  s   y s j>j 1+ !+B y On !+ j  s !+B y  $  +  .

—&Œ(˜EŽ MiŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰&œ ” ‰4E” “-ŒXš Y[%kc d'i* < (žŸ  2$.

 .

    ¡.

6'8£/¤ > *|' l  s s l  s .' Q¢X.

7 0. pQ2 Diagram Calculations 1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.Chapter 7.4 P= 1 − Q P= 1 − Q 2 P= 1 − Q 0.2 0 4 0 0.    .8 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.9 1 Q 2* d' > … ! (   .6 P 0.

(+* %  … $ # 4%5'  k. B 7  K 9.  A   #  A B   A K69.. . a(Q. ?Y(+* % o% Z( <?> 9. % (+* % 6* >  @ A 9. .   s d I A I  @ A K 9.  f<?> ' > -Y > ac' > :' >  5* c %6( ( > .  s  I  @ 7 A I A 9.  9.  B A  s  :9.  @ s   K  I  B A @ s + 9.     K  I % * > -. „ * 1% ( <?> c% * > c < * Y.

> ' 4%5'2( <. (+* e. < % * 5* :' > … !D% 8 1   .-Y < * > c > ' 4%5' e.> ( < ' >> 5* > Y[. -Y > .

 {  } '{ ~ $ Ft| }  } ={ }  k .+/ 1+ l ? &   .+ 1+   n y !+W s .

+/   5* :' > … D! %        . l  +Hs?l   3 3 3 1 i .+ 8 n !+   1+  + j 'n n  } .+ j &  On !+ j s  s  ?  Wq+   .  A   A  z z  .

^* -Y-' > .. > * .. > f* ( < .( > ( < . > Y' > .      5* :' > … > e% (V'_.(  e% ?%(0% 6* Y[.

6' > 9.> ' ((0%t( <?> . -Y > &( <. > * > < * Y < * . _( > ' 9. >' 4%5'o. . @ K s -%5' .( <?> 9.-% Y < * > c > ' 4%5' e. 1. ( <?> `!D.. c .( > .> ( < ' >[> ' > ( Y[% .

> ' ( <?> ' > -Y > c' > :' >  nY[. > Y[% * > ' > h(0% > Y% (Q. (  .

> d. > Z*  T VU  .( > ?> %2Y?* ( * ( < * Y[.. s s K * o<.

s K)K  H … ' ! f<?> A  > ' .

(+* % 8 P   8 n     ?  }  . > % ? T VU * ' > .* > ( zX ]..(+* ?> * > * (+* ?> (0% ( <.-Y < * > o< X( < * > -.  TVU f<?> .> 5* Y < .{{ t?€ €'|  .' > Y% > hY. > ' (V')% > c > % j( <.> *  > % /( <?> 5* > Y.. (+* e.

+ j +  !+  5 !+ Sj .8 =n 1+ j  n    "  i 1+  lT + j )k      Q  Sl.+   s !+ q . {  } Ft|  } .+  1+ k s +! ?j  .s   .+  j &  .+ !+ q s  1+      5 3+ j i .{ ?{ m| | }  F  ! 1+  j .

+  +  +B   1+ k Y%kc :'i* < (žŸ  k$.n  +/ l   k l .

  .

   T¡.

6'8£/¤ > *|' Fl  s s l    .' 5¢X.

+ j s .+ !+B   i  s k .n  - + Fs   .

i  =y †e‡&‰XŠC‡&‰X‹&ŒFiŽ  ‘LŒ1‘H’4Œ18“i‡4” •B–&Œi“ –$Ž—&Œ ˜EŽ 3iŽHŠ™Ž– ‰i1š• › ‰@œ” ‰4r” “i‘(š 1+ * .

The reformed pQ2 diagram * d. > (0%r.Section 7. cdc * Y.  %5'.6' > X . > > * > ' > '  .4.

> % ( <?> 9. . . .' > T U = f<?> ' > ?Y > c6' > d' > 4%5'`. ?> ' e.-Y < * >  ..' > 2* > Y[. (+* e.

(0% % >  . > ' > ?.

?Y > * ( <.* ( * > ( > ' * > ( <.dcdc')%  * e.> ' > * (Q.> ( <.(+* % % K  T VU   .> .6' > ' > * (Q.( > ?> %2Y.> ' > '  <..dcdc')%d.. -Y > * #( <.> ' > ' . A %5'  T VU @   > (0% ( <?> .-Y <?> * * ( !#  X( <?>  @ A  > -Y > &( <?> :.

> * 1( <?> * > '_.-Y < * > c > ' 4%5' e. \ H  … '6$ f<?> 5* ƒ > ' > -Y > > ( >[> ( <?> .6'4* % e.>A  . > % D( <. ?Y > * e%5' > Y% * > 'b.

(+* % * <?> ^( <?>`A  . > '  > ( ( > ' `.-Y < * > c > ' 4%5' e. -Y > c'b% -Y > .. < * <?> ' ' > -Y > tc' > :' >  f<?> c' > > ' ' > * ( -.

(( <.. a( <.> e.(+* % * :')( <?> ' > -Y.+ v +  + j n   l.( > #* * > % 2* d' > … !)! .6' > . @( < * 2* Y[. ?Y > * > * \c%5')(Q.6'b.-Y < * > c > ' 4%5' e. … ! $  ?  ? q  1+  !++  -  !+W y - u  . > ( > ' o< * % > ' .+ -  y   i &  .s l k  s ‚  j   k . (f( < .( > ( < .> ' > ' > * jc?.. > '!* .* d...+/wj  .

 !+ !++ y  + s +! j .

n .+ +  s   + q   k  l + !+   s .+ j !++ .+  Fl 'n  +  i !+/  n i n j .

+    A  .  + q  !+     .

!1!$p$ .

j 1+ j t q k   >k +! j . + q  !+ 8 'n 1 6$ j .

+  j  .+ .n n j !+ On j !+ .+B   j     + k   s .+ j  i  &  n  (')?o"*    1 .+ j !+   .+   !+W  .

.

 1 / 1   /   .

?.(P( <?> c > '2(+*|c^Y.   PB 2 atmospheric pressure DR P1 D B PB 1 D1 rode hydraulic piston …  ! …  6g}  F A  } |   plunger 5* :' >   !     E  f<?> c' > :' > ..( > ')% . >f> ..

(Q. < % a* 5* :' > … ! … o<.?. c > 'P.> . > > YV(+* ( <?> '4* Y(+* % -( <?> 4%5'_Y >  / 1 3  1 1   !   " #%$  .(f.. -Y > 4%5'_Y > .( e% c <?> 'i* Y@c6' > d' > ( < ..> > _( * > % ( <?> c > 'n* > > YV( >  * @.. * Y c6* (0% a.-YV(+* h% @( <. ( > .-Y( % f( <?>e< k'_. .( > .

')(+* Y .   + +  I +   0 ' ' + hc-.    B  - 1 T VU + .> ')% > .6' @Y.(   1 TVU @  =T Ua(0%j' > .  1 T=U @ +  -.(+* % 0 ' * ' > -Y > <?> a( <..  / +  .  * c' > :' > % .   1 TVU + +   I + 0 ' / f<?>\> -. > ( <?> e. -. ?Y > % ( <.    B  - 1 T VU @ +   . .(+* % ?. & ' (  $)   * -. -.6* + -.    B   +..(Q..> 'b% * > + -.#* > * 2* > S c ?%(+* Y > ( < .  @ +  /.  =T U + +   0 ' ( 8 1+  !+W ?.6' Z* \( <?> (Q.6' > .

!+/ .

!+/  .

 k .+ +  s 1+ .+  8  ~'. + 'n  !+ + .+  Hy .

+ mn B.     & ?j  .

l { .

q + j g ?j &   y  Hy +  y .+ 1+gs n ! ? lB .+ 1+  n n    +   !+ Wq+  gl   i  & i    1+  +  j  g1   !+!+ !+W  y   Ol j  .+    .  !+ j Aj i  d} m| n  } ={   1+ &  !+B  +  .

(=">E6=SJ 5(.(="> ?A@B:C@EDF:C?G(3FHIKJL>-:(G JM=ON-:QP&= ?R.CTUI V 5-W H 5F?&H GX:9T Y[%kc d'i* < (ZY[ 2$O\O\"\  U].  sL+ ? # B 243-5/673-598-:<.

' _^X.6'`ba > *|' l  s s l  .

Chapter 7. > -Y > * * > (Q.> c -YV(+* % \% D( <. > ( > ' 8   n +   +    .(^( <.> ' > ?Y > c > ' 2* .. pQ2 Diagram Calculations 5* :' > 0 ! . !c' > :' > .

2* > -.+/  j 1+ &  .6' '_.(+* % R + + W  @    .n > .. !+/ .

!+/    0 ')( * >  T VU B   C 1 T VU @   TVU @S   l y > '(+*|ch.( > .> %5Y?* ( . r' > ?Y > :.. ?. .

?c' > d' > .(Dc > '6(+*|c/..( > ?> %2Y?* ( e' > .. !+/ !+W j  & >k  Sl    B   -1 TVU R + +  W   0 ' %  ?y " f<?> :.-Y[Y[%5' 2* .( > (0%f( <?> * * > (Q..

.(+* % @Y% .(0%f( <?> 4% % f* > ?.

* 6* > -..  0 'O\ 6* >     .(+* %  0 ( .

  -1 TVU    &"  K    @ 0  0 N E O G  "    .

. @c(+* % `( < .   -1 TVU    &"   I K!LQM > '!( <.> .(.

( <.-YV( > '4* (+* Y*          .'_.> e.-Y < * > Y < .

+ .+ j   1+  y Uj t  !+W  y l .     i  rk + Sl  .

+/ .+ n  Wq       &)%. !+/ 9 .

 $    H zN+W & ?j %A  +   "! $ # &%w|'?  10 {  )2+%   6  Y{ ?  3   *:%  # %~  <    ! t     .

 -~ *  }  6   <  { #%   FR{& } . .# -%/.+  $# &% ( # % # s  {b~ # ?)%    !+* .

^.bkHL\]M$H'J`bHLKIM$HHLK.Y)J.diJ.\w\cJId.]AJa \]J.JzeM h)[ ejie n [ jN[ YoeJpHkM n M$Hq[Pd ONn j)Q \b T Q \b]A_ dI\cJ bkbWj)\cJFIl{HLK.\"M.[PJ`OpYV \^v]AK.J €Mi^.JI\cJtM.\cl"Fi\}eMi^. {  !  w  !+* .J n M$H€H'J.e X .\]J`bEJ.JxNM n j.KN[ ^.H'b~F1^ n uAHLKIJgY1[ JA_ M.^.]"_`_ J  JpH'_ r KN[ bwbWjIrNrNJ`b'H'bHLKNM HMybWegM n n JI\-Y1[ J~_ M.KN[ ^IJ…_ Mi^AM.by[ ^vKN[ _IK HLKN[ b…J jIM$HE[ F1^Zv(M.KN[ J`x.J~HLK.b'HE[ ^IreM.YiJI\PHLK._.JY1[ Jg_ M.b'HE[ ^._.^$HyFIl  ‚jIM$HE[ F1^ 'ƒ t$„ YiJIeyF1^.JZY1[ 7&J.J n [ jN[ YZeJpHkM n M$H(HLK. } "#    ) 2+% #"$# &%{.byM [ H€O HkV MN\b[ ^.J ZUT OWV \b _-X b'HkM$HE[ F1^NM._.rN]AJ.J diJ.j)^i^.\cl"Fi\}e [ \b ji^.J M.regM.JAMi^.bEbWjieA[ ^.J†}_`F1eeyF1^$‡ZY1[ [ J Mi^.\cus_ M.JybEMieJ9ˆ€F1|gM.Jl"Fi\}eyJ.YHLKIJ\.dI\]J`bEJ.^ K$uIY\"Mij n [ _dI\]J`bkbpji\]Jyv[ HLKN[ ^HLK._`J Y1[ J_$X M$bW[ ^.JAbWK.bkH'J.JyFIl T \^_$]AM$_ bkHE[ ^.b [PON ^.KN[ ^.r eM._.€g  !+* $# &% ={& T VU   76 9  8 y CED GFIH'JHLKNM H r K.b'HE[ ^.]"J`_ Y .FIHmb n J`JpxIJvKN[ n JyHLK.KN[ J`x.\{HE[ dyHLKIM$Hw_ Mi^|iJM.rNJdiJ._.J _`F1eA|i[ X^IM$HE[ F1^ FIl9HLK.J.regM.YZbpK.rAM$xIJ._.bkbWj)X eAd$HE[ F1^.\]J`bEJ.^$H'bZHLKIJaxIM n jIJFIlyHLK.\]J.KN[ ^IJ X Y%kc :'i* < (ZY[ k$O\"\O\  ].dI\]J`bkJ.KN[ ^.\P\]J.# -% A€g 3 > j y T VU   -1 TVU54  3 + 4 8  A@ 0   0  &= ?y     3 # { } &% ?F     y   *{ #  F '| ?t 7?  0 "B \  + 'F.YiJ.^$H'b~HLK.YHLK.bEJwvmK.JAd n ji^IrNJ.\(bku.l.HLK._S \R HE[ ds[P[ ^t HLK.JfegM hi[ eAjie/dI\cJ bkbWj)\cJFIlmHLK._ J.FN\ n MI\crNJyxNM n j.^$H'bHLK.rqeM.JAdN[ b'H'F1^[ b xIMI\.[ J`Y r K._`Ja[ bHLKNM H \cJId._.J bmFIl [ b[ ^.^.FIHmb n J`JpxIJ Mi^.

(=">E6=SJ 5(.6'`ba > *|' Fl  s s l  2 -3 596 3-598-:<.' ^X.CTUI V 5/WSH 5F?%H G(@QT ‰ .(="> ? @B:C@EDF:C?G(3FHIKJL>-:(G } JM="N-: P&= ? .

 *    3 0   .{t  *:%7 }   R  T 6 U\ W    * # %1| $ ?  9. The reformed pQ2 diagram   #"    &%  i2+% "# $# &%d{F€+*&%   )%+ $ # %~ .    s    !+* $# &%   y ?  0 B:$     3 @ B  * ? *  !={ .Section 7.# -%S* P&!         #" .4.

    + y   .

} # 1%  { .

|  +  s*:%   3 z*'t7*'{{ !   } H o# %   !(* $# &% # %   !+* .} '  # %~      } '  &%e   # *.# -% &%d{  *:%  * }.

~?.*' .

.  !{F€   .  '| < *:%   *'{ *u|'!9% } .# -% .

| 3 F .{t)%    *   }  .

  # *.|    "!+%~'.

 } #"  *&%  t  ! }   .{{ !t .   F-%   N  ! }   ~{*   'F.

~-*  ?F. } #]  *:%      #  ! #    *.  .

# -%{  + *:%   + }  s  r   .!9%~?F  # ' *   .{{ !*  "!+ % ~'." .{  #"  *&% # % } t*'{t # %   U . $#   } t*'{t.€+*'{){    % # % # ~-!   * }F} '  # %~    !+* .{.

      .

/    ')% .

/$   .

(+* Y.  $   9    liquid metal out the moving part of the control volume atmospheric pressure UP air flow in PB 2 PB 1 5* :' > 0 1= > > '_.. Y <?> e.

* Y`c6* (0% f* ( < ( <?> c > ' .(V'b% % > % ( <?>e< k'_. ?c .6' (/% P( <.% ( <?> Y% .> * 6* > (Q. 8Y% (V'b% % > .>#>. * (@* < % * 5* :' > 0 =p* Y[% (V' ?Y( > t(0% ( ( <.

* Y@c* (0% :.> * * > (Q. . * Y * 6* 1%5'n( <.>a< Z'b. < %( >> ?> ( < * Y < :% > ?%(o* ?Y > ( <. > ( > '  < * Y < * ?Y > ( <.n> YV(\% f( <.> c > ' f* ( < ( <?> 'b% > < Z'_.> c > ' 2* .

* Y <?> a( < . * ^% * o* ( < ( <?>e< k'_. > > YV(+* ( <?> 2* *|c?. > ( f<?> Y[% .(f( <?> ..> '4* Yhc' > :' > * .> < %( >[> .> ' ( .( ^% c <.(+* % ?.> .(V')% % > * (Q..(+* % > > ' 6* >  Q  $ )".6' /. > > * 5* > . % ]( <?> ' ^% -..6')% e( <.. * Yoc6* (0%  /c:c * e( <.

 $) )".

> 'gY[.6*|'  % * ..    )  **  u   !#%$'& #%$'&  #%$)&   +%. * > Y[.(+* % 0 B- Z* ( < % > ?%(+* Y > a( < . > % 42?* > (+* Y > > ' % ]( <?> .> > Y[% 1( > ' 8% ( <?> 'i* < ( < .> < %( >[> ?> o <.-3Y 2 * > % o( <. 6* > friction is neglected 8     !+B +  + .'.dc6* f<?> ' > * ?%  % * (0%p( <.   @ ! u R " u @  W  (R " @  W @  **. > > > Y( > * ?Y > ( <?> * c'b%2Y > * .> Y% (V'b% % > 4%5'n( <..(+* % % ( <.'.(g( <?> % @Y < .' .(f(V'b. ( <.(V')% % > * * 1( <.> ' t'_.0 B{ 1 e'4* (+* > ?..>j<.R/ @  W @ 0 +%.> * * > (Q.> Y[% .> ' > 4%5' > ( <.. h( <?> Y < .(0% ( <?> -.6*|' < 5 n.> c > 'D.> Y% (V'b% % >  > > YV(+* ( <?> . > % * ( ( >  /cdc 6* e..> . > * ( <..+%.. Y[% > ' .

+ j ! "q s  +  .

n   + .+   !+B Fk +  .

.+ j  q + !+  +  ?. +   'l =8  * * ^  @ * * +%.'-   1+   q H  s  k .

!+ q  A B.

 Fq "v !+W  s k  k .l  lW  j ! ? :+    1+ i +    ?j &  y  'n 1+gs !+B   !  lB   &   l .+   +   .

+ ^ 1   + !+  n i !+/ !+W j  Aj y s . j  .+ !+B ! ? lB     k Wq   +   i 8 !  b + -.

l.sHl  .

+ q  k .n ^ .

j ?.

!+/ ^ + .+  lW   sdq + + Wq b .+ .

.

W  +B 1+ 'n  .+ .

.

W g'l+ j & j j q +  l j  k .

j     .

n !+ .+ .

n j +  + k .

+ .+ s . ?j  'l  1+ l  +   @ !+/  .

+ Uv 1+ k  k .n ? l .+ !+W y s 1+  .+ & Wq .+/1j  Xsgq t l 1+  .

?j n  +    'n 1+B  k .

?j  Ol k   1+ y 1+ j n    .

(="> ?A@B:C@EDF:C?G(3FHIKJL>-:(G JM=ON-:QP&= ?R. 0 6 #7$'& ^ 243-5/673-598-:<.(=">E6=SJ 5(.CTUI V 5-W H 5F?&H GX:9T Y[%kc d'i* < (ZY[ 2$O\O\"\  U].

6'`ba > *|' l  s s l   B&B y 5 .' _^X.

Chapter 7.< > > _( < ..6' 5% ' 2f% ^( <?> Y% (V'b% % > * :% > `( . >> c' > > 0  +%. .'. pQ2 Diagram Calculations f<?> % :.

   .

 % '_.   `6   o<.(..( > % .> e.

> %5?Y * ( 1 !+B i & j i + Ol)q  1 Wq t +  k ..Y.( > 1(0%a( <?> d.  > ' > .( > ..

j   1+ l  !+B n l !+     mk  * > % n( .< > c  ?.

!+ .

n Sl 6 #%$)&  6    ^ aa. 2* ( <?> < %( >[> .(+* > -.(+* %  0 B&B 0 B 0 * .(+* % % ( <?> * 6* > (Q. Y[% > ' . a( <...> ' > ' 6* > 6   6     6            R 6  W (+* ( ..(+* %  0 B- * >     .(0% > ?.> .

   6   6   6     " #%$)& .

/  @     .

R 66  W  .

.(+* %  0 B 6* >   .  > .'m'b. 5* > ?.

   6 6    " #%$)& .

/  @     .

R 66  W    % * 4%5'   6* >    .

      N .

 " #7$'& .

/               .

    !" 8 4 . * Yac6* (0% A '* \( > ' % D( <.  *   4     1 K!LJM    N .>a< Z'_. > % D( <.> e.

 " #7$'& .

/  8 H        .

Z   !" 8 4  <?> \( <?> ( > '  " #%$'& .

      C 1        H K!LJM  N      . 4%5' * 6* > (Q. /  * > > Y( > q  .

.* ( > -..     !-" 8 4 BD%5' e. * .* @( <?> :.    .(+* %  0  $ * >  6    <    T VU   3   @ 9.( > ?> %2Y.

+ j  + l  1+   k . !+W !+ 0  B  y 0  B y 0 B 0  y   0  B 0  B-= ?y   y   . Z   !6" 8  1+  & A  1+ k .+ 1+   j  .+/ !+ . aY[.+ y l y  + !+B Fk  l y +!+ l   > '.+    .+/n .

j j k .n j.

 .

+  mk  l 1+ 4 Y%kc :'i* < (ZY[ k$O\"\O\  ].n ! ? lW  0  \ y 0 y  + G J + j +    n G J j  .

(="> ? @B:C@EDF:C?G(3FHIKJL>-:(G JM="N-: P&= ? .(=">E6=SJ 5(.CTUI V 5/WSH 5F?%H G(@QT    ‰ ƒ .6'`ba > *|' Fl  s s l   y l T  j     y 0  $ y 0 y    2 -3 596 3-598-:<.' ^X.

The reformed pQ2 diagram U3 ‘‘common’’ model realistic velocity po ssi ble ma x 5* d' > 0 $"\ f<?> :.> c > '!. -YV(+* % \% D( <.4..' > .Section 7. 6  5* :' > 0 $8 f<?> ' > -Y > c% > 'C% .( > ?> %2Y.* (   . .

> 2* > Y[. (+* e. .-Y < * > .( <. -YV(+* % #% .

( > A1 8 8  1     ri 1 i   mk Wq l. *  >  % 'b.( <.> ?%5' e.s ..

+/   + .n Un +  .

+ .

+ j gs 1n +  + + .n .

> ( >  'P.dcdc')%d.( > ?> %2Y?* ( .> d.( > ?Y(+* % #% 6  1 (Y.( <?> ( <?> c > ' 2* ..dcdc'b%:.-Y <?>  s X% . ?> ' tY% @c * Y..n j   Wq f<?>h>  c' > * % 0   * ..> ' > .-Y <?> * * ( +   %5' <?> 6   ( <?> ( <. > < % h( < .

( > . Dc > ' 2* . e%2Y[Y :'  * ( < ..* ( (Q.> ' > 'D* .> p( <?> c > ' 2* .-Y < *  > ')% o<.* ( .( > .  * d..( > ?> %2Y?* ( . > 2. c?.(+* .(+* % ^%5' > ( < .> e.( > c > 2* \% e( <. > ( > ' 6( <.> 'b.> c < * Y * e( <.  * Y.( > e.( > ?> %2Y.. `..dc:c6')%d. > Xr..> %2Y. > . 2 > > . . > ( > ' !( <?> d. (\% > +  s f< * %2YY d' > Y[. > ^% (  c > ' 2* .( <?> d.. > ( > ' .1Y% \c ( > ' c'b% k'_.6* > ( < % ( < .> :. a( <?> ' > 4%5' > * ?%( < % <?> ' > D% > ?> ' 4%5' c'_.> * ( -.dcdc'b%:.( > ..' > c > ' 5* .-Y <?>  > 'b% > Y.> > Y[..> e..  * .-Y <?> * 6* ( -%5'&.-Y <?>  > ')% > Y.. -Y < ...(DY-' > . > c' > * % 4%5'n( <.> %5Y?* (   s <. s o< P( <?> ' > * .( > * . e% > %2Y.-YV(+* @% ( <.> %2Y. kc d'mc% > ( <?> e.-YV(+* Y.  * ?> %2Y?* ( Y. > ( <?> c' > d' > 5* n> ' > -Y > .dcdc'b%:.* (   >>  d' > 0 $O\ ^%5' > > (Q. `. ]g* > k> ' > YV(  i 1+ t ?.( <?> e.. > ( > '2( < .(+* Y.dcdc')%d. *  ' > . Y .

!+/   .

+/  Wq  !+ s 1+   A B. + i g  j  -  1+  j  Ho !+  +   j. j j Xsn l#  .+ v +  ! j  Sl + j. j j m   ( ? Wq (    t  .

l  1+$n k Sl j  &  +  .   !  + Wq .

+  k  j ek  A    Fk Q j.+ n !+  ‚  A l j Xs  !+!+ l j j l  ?. + j mq )k !  j l y k +   s i  j i   y y   n   l  Wq+  + + q  1 Sl 4 s ‚ v  ‚ ‚ l  k !+B  s !+ Sl   %  s   j  On   l !+ + Sl=s 1+gsgj  k  Xs   'n !+B  k 1+ q ‚ . ?j   ?j .

s   .s  l. !+/ + j !   ? l.

+ v +  1+ k  +W .+ k  j .+  l k  j  8 y  ‚  ‚  j  . !+/  .

`.-YV(+* % `* e.. * ( ' > *|' > c% > ' f<?> c% > ' > Y[. > ' < .. >  (V'_. ]* . (+* e.6'_.. *  > ( < .\c')%2Y > %e( < .-YV( 'b% .(+* % ^% n( <?> 5* > Y[.6' > ( <?> 2* > Y[.  * *  > -> .-Y < * > > c > % < % >  Y.> * 7 > Y(+* % t% e( <.-Y < * > > c > t% h( <?> c > ' ?> %2Y?* ( .  * *  > ( <?> (+* * [.* > . .#*  %'bo f<?> > (+* % < % .-Y < * > > ( > ' (Q.(( <.> * * > (Q. e%6( <. (+* `.( * ( * > % e. > ( > ' p> % *2 > (0% > * /.(0%p( <?> Y[.( Y[% 5* (+* % * ( < ..(gc% > ' > (V'_.dcdc > 1 (h* * \c%5')(Q.> '&c?.(@(0%=' > .

%5' e. *  > e.-Y < * > *  >>.( > > .

n> YV( T   TVU .  TVU .

.-YV( > '4* (+* YY d' ?> % \( <.> ' 2* > Y[. > *       ]% . (+* e. 0  B  .1Y < .> c 5* . .'_. Z'b.  .-Y < * >1< .

 X9]   $  .

 .

 &.

(+* `. ( <?>  Y% ^% #Y < ..(^( <?> 2* > Y[.-Y < * >j< .6'_.-YV( > 'i* (+* Y    .   ( < .

*  > #%$   .   ( <?> ?%5' e.

+  j 1+ + Wq !+B  . &  i j +  j Wq +    !+B  &+ j Xs  !+ q mn  .+ 1j +B   .

+ 1  b q  .  I +B q .+  .+ j .+ Nj + 1+ j.n  .+j  Wq   +  !+ i .

+  1+ k ?.n j j  Fv  +    Wq -   s  +B  j 4 i 1+B q + .

CTUI V 5-W H 5F?&H GX:9T jUj k +  1+   j q ?s  . !+ 1+ Wq &K   +B j   k Ol    =& .+/ej  .(=">E6=SJ 5(.+Nj Sl j    B k Sl  .(="> ?A@B:C@EDF:C?G(3FHIKJL>-:(G JM=ON-:QP&= ?R.+    243-5/673-598-:<.+  . + t j s j  Y[%kc d'i* < (ZY[ 2$O\O\"\  U].

+  .' _^X.6'`ba > *|' l  s s l  y .

>> c' > > T    . pQ2 Diagram Calculations c% > !' Y.Chapter 7.

     .

%5' e.-Y < * > c% > ' . *  > .    0  <?> ' > T * ( <?> e.

dc-..> e. TVU  T U . % .6' A > `. > % D( <?>  % '_.> ( <. > c% > '* \  . :% > p' > YV(Q.( >  .  * % X( <?> c% > ' -%5' .( > o<.(D$:o% Z( <?> ?%5' `.(^* 'b% s *  (0% s   Z( <. * * ( @% ]( <?> 2* > Y[.j'b. (+* e..> Y[.> e.-Y < * > * .(/( < * . % @( < . < % j* 5* :' > 0 $8 h( <?> < . ?%(+* Y > ( < .(^( < * .> ' > .. > % 1%  ( < . *  >  % '_.( > %5YY d' .  TVU .. > * .. .. < % ^* 5* d' > 0 $ 1 (]* ' > Y% > > (0% > * `( <..( ( <?> * Y.* 6* ( % !( <.-Y < * > * ( % '_.> c'b%5Y > %( <?>  % '_.  * c% > '5% k( < * 2-* % e. T U o<. ?> '_..> .

-Y < * > 2.-Y < * >   !+ Wq  &  q .+W  +W jUj .' > ' e.+ j  q s s . > '/* > p* > Y. > f* ( < % > * \c'b% ?> > ( % C( <.+ + j k + &+  . .> ( <?> m% (0%.+ j  !+ 8   l Sj  . > c > ' 4%5' > h% ( < * e. 1( <?> ' > * ?% >> a(0% ^% .> ( <?> ' > ' > * a( <?> m% #Y[.

n 8 s k .

   Wq   k .   Wq !+!+  k   1+ i "  +  - .

?j Wq 'n j Wq  l:+ j .n  j.

n   j   1 .

n + !+/ Sq j   j.+ k 3 + Wq K  5  j .+ . ?j j i .+.8 Sl k !+1  .

 " .

&(') I   !$ )$ ?o s  !+B s  Fl 5 B Wq .+/ej  !   +   Wq       j l .

n   n   j  Wq 'n .+ + j n Sj tT 'n + 4+ Wq + 'n  1+  Wq  .+ j  .

n y !+ .+ j  " .

 ! ?o  # { } ! {{ # -%   1 %      %A  .

 .

     .

!"$#&%'  %A    # { } ! {{t     }  *:%~?.{q*." } #"$# .t1%  '.{   )%  #  .

 # %  #  F)%  -~ *  U{$!   1% }  *:%~?    ! 9!)% (   # %7&% '|    I*:% }  ={ ={ +*:%     -%  .

 .

    zY+B  .

$    .

 ! &     .

  $   .

   )   X $  .

  .

  .

(C( <?> * > ' (+* ../$%0!"$#&%' > 'PY% (V' -YV(+* % % c . hY[% \c' > * 6* * ( ( <. % . -. * ( > .(+* % > > YV( +  +  i   &  + j A B 1+ 1 !+  l  . * > 4%5' > * ( > * Y[.+ .-.> ( > 8.(g( <?> 5* Y * % .> e.    X  )-       (   ) +*.@% D( <.

> > c6* > Y > % `* 4%5' e. .n ..%6( >< % 6* Y32 [% > (e* (.> Y. . k'_.. .( c?.> ' 6* Y32 f( <?> > * 4%5'k( <?> ^% .6')( 6%2* h( <?>@>  c > '4* > .Y[% \c-. (Q.( <. < . %5Y.6')( < % . >=? 6!6 5 BD% f* ( < ( <.( (+* <?> > ( ( <?> c6')% ?Y( ' * > p> Z( <?> * @c%5' (Q. ?> (0% > ( < .+ n  +   l  !+W j 1+ v j  Sl/ t  5 1243 6798:<.(+* % < % % > > * #( <?> c'b%2Y > 5' > ' ( > > * > 5* >[> 'n* e.

< % Y <?> .> ^% (* @c%5' (Q.dc  * ( ( > Y-'_. ( > ' * ^% (. e.( <?> ' < % 6* Y32 [% Y[. * ( tc'b% -YV(.(0%(V' h% [% d' `.> c'b% -YV(+* % f< * > * c'b%5Y > * % > 'd( < . .( i. 6%5% -. c% * > .  ( k'_.(`'_. (+* e. o* e( <?> ' > 'Z. > ' 5* > Y[.-Y < * > Qa% > `* ( <. \* (g' > *|' > % > %5' 2 BD% > ?> ' > ( (+* ^( <?> c'b% -YV(+* % 6%2* * -Y < ^%5' > i.-Y < * > .dc#..-Y(0%5'* f( <. tc'b% -Y > .

+/bj  .+ !+ . > . > Wqxq  + .+ !+W .+/  1+ n j  .+ !+ g1  1+   .+ j  + !+W Wq !+B  Fl  s s l  A  q  &   Wq + x n t Xs !+W& !+B   1+ !+  j .dc@.dc > '  > > * @.Y. Y <?> . > * Y-'_.

  g1 r j !+B q  !  .+ n C'C(bkbWj)eg[ ^IrHLKNM H~\]J‚jN[ \]J.FN\]_`JA[ b~eyJ`J`H Y%kc :'i* < (ZY[ k$O\"\O\  ].eJ.rl.J_ n MiedN[ ^. lbl 1  1+  .^$H'bF1^HLK.+    j !+B  i T t H  1+  j s Wq + k  j +  .

+  l  .6'`ba > *|' .' ^X.

(=">E6=SJ 5(.CTUI V 5/WSH 5F?%H G(@QT ‰  .+   !+ Ol k g j !+!+ & Fq 1+bl 1 Tj Ol      !++   !+)  g1  .n 'n  >  1+ !+WY & X 2 -3 596 3-598-:<.l j .(="> ? @B:C@EDF:C?G(3FHIKJL>-:(G JM="N-: P&= ? .+.+/    . l +!+ .+/ q j l !+  ' l>l   Sl g y   K j. + Wq 1+ Wq  j k j 1  T+  + j !+.

* ( .( >    ?> ' . (0%hY% > 'b% -. .> %5Y?* ( * Y-' > .6' > . .(+* % * -Y > > .' > * ^( <?> * > % 2* > Y.> c > ' *  > > ( > ' * > Y% (%5 1 ( < . (0%rY <?> Y321( <?> ' > ' > * (0% >[> * :.> c% > ']' > 6*|' > > . :Y% * > 'b. > ( > ' < .  * :. > ( > 'f' > *|' > .-Y < * > 0 ( r % c * [ Y .> * 6* Y[% ( _P% :( <..6' > 2* . ?Y?* .Section 7.. ( <.2 > ^% > B > -Y > -( <?> %kc.( -%5' ( <?> > Y-'i* ( > 'i* . (+* (0% e.> Y .( > . > ' < .6' > 2* > Y[..> % > < * Y < f* :Y[% (g( <?> > . >  c% * > ..(+* 5* . (  ( <. ?> ' . (+* e. > ( > 'X* ( <..6. >[> < % 1( < ..  $  $   }  )% )&.-YV( -.6')(+* Y[% (  > -Y > 4%5' 2* ..( > ?> %2Y.> ' > Y[% > > j'_.> :% > ( <.6')% ( <.(+* @( <.> > * > ' < .(+* k>    s P6  0   + j j  + y .(c > ' 2* . *  > . > <?> ' > `.> 2* > > % > (V' 4% d']Y% 2* (+* %  . ' > ^%5' > >[> h0( % . . @c* 4%5'bY > 2. ( ?< > ' > 6. The Intensification Consideration > c > 'i* > ( (Q.+/    y   + b sn + k  Ol=sgn 1 j 1+B 1+  A  l   v    s y  0 O0 ( <.

   $ .

  .

  )% .

.

(0%1Y < % > .     ) > < ( <?> > * < (g% P( <?> c > ' % 2% >a< . ' (.

-Y(0%5' < .dcdc'b%  * `.( > .+n B j 8  n l     +B  .-Y < * > ?%( <?> ' i..> >> ?>a< . (+* e.2 > a* .> ' > '  $ uu    + $ & 0  f<?> ' > 4%5' > d( <?> Y'b. (0% > (Q.+ 1+ .+  ?.dc Y-' > .-Y > (0% % * 5* o< * ' > *|' > ( <?> * Y 6* (g(0% > % ]. (0% > ( <. k* ( <.> .+ q q      !+  q ? & .dc % > < % > P6    . > ( 2* > Y[.6' > (^c > 'X% .> < %6( >> ?> A * % d( <?> * 6* > (Q... e. (ec ..(0%hY% * > 'b. (C( <.( > #* ( <.(+* % ( <?> . > ( < * Y 2 > .(+* % @* ( <?> Y'b.. ( <.> .

j s +Hsg k . !+/ . Q 1+ j y   l/ + !+ v  k +  j.

 j  n  n + Wq$s j 1+  j  j . j j  Wq+ + j +!+  'n &   +  Wq 1+ !+/  !  .+    q +  s    j.+ j. j9 j l j .

+    .+ j  bk Sl     lN k  q    .+ n l/ i j ?.

+/  y      .s .+/  v  n .+ j . !+ 'n     +W jUj q  j !+B s y  .+ j  k      l.

n   + j   .+   l  k -  +   &  1+    ?  +!+  !+W  .+ .

+  k . + +   (+  j  1 1+ j        I+ k  lN k  + ds   n i s .

dc\% D( <. +   1   uu 0  = <. .> ( .dca* \( .< > Y-'_.6' > a(0% Y-'_. j  . +  .+  .> ' > '  + $'& +  +   + .< > < 6% ( >> ?> > Y% > * 6* Y[.( dY[% \c-.

 $       j k Q 1+ !+ Fs v j  u6u   .

> ( > ' < .> '_.> c > ' 5* . > %  s . (0% > * ( <. $ uu  f< d( <.

+  !+/  : 67?!7 = : = : 67  0 O \ y 0 y  . + +  +  .

 : 12 j y +!+ .n  .

n  .

 $   + i y U !7 =  8 %) .

/  )&.

.

 $&   ) $  $ )/    X()% .

 $$       )   .

      .

.    : ( > * Y[.(+* % .

.(="> ?A@B:C@EDF:C?G(3FHIKJL>-:(G JM=ON-:QP&= ?R.CTUI V 5-W H 5F?&H GX:9T .+ j     1+ v  .(+* % 4%5'( <?> % * 5* Y.> % * 5* Y.> * 6* > (Q.+.> * 6* > (Q.(=">E6=SJ 5(.+  j Y[%kc d'i* < (ZY[ 2$O\O\"\  U]. 1+    =  +  1+ v v 1+  & & ..oc'b%2Y > * < * Y < c' > d' > * * ?Y' > ..+ $j   Wq 'n    . > % &( <.(+* % < i' * 2. > e.(+* % c'b%2Y > (0% > :' > Y[% \c > .+  1+ n   .2?* /( <.q +  t j +  243-5/673-598-:<.* .  % d'4* /( <.

' _^X.6'`ba > *|' l  s s l   .

dcdc * > e( % > ( < % % > e.. 6c @c  (  .dcdc 6* \. 2* (+* % -. pQ2 Diagram Calculations dc^(0%\"$ \ f<?> * ( > * Y[.(+* % ^* .Chapter 7.

'$)    ]      .

% &$    E    )&.

.

@?% %!(( *<?-> Y-'. ( -> .6% ' > > . * > a( < ( % <.((0%5<?>' * ( <?( > > * Y[(+.  % oa<..> '    .> :.> * ?Y'' > ( ..-> YV.*|c(+* % * > ' 4%5'_> Y ( > < (0% % 2  %5'&T( V<?U >  c6' > -Y < > ( < D% % >  .

 /   .

( > ( < ..> > Y[% > ( < % 2Y% ^% > a(0% d.  (  <.> * (V' kY. > Y% * > 'b..(.(+* % #( <?> c > ' 2* . ( <.(+* % ?.> '_...dcdc'b%  * e. ' (@. * % f( <?> 4%5'_Y > > ^% (V'b. > ( > ' :% > ?%(. a* ?Y' > . a* @( <.

+ +? l  n 1+ l Sq !+=l .+/   Hs  y Wq  j  .+ l y j  v  Wq !+ . .+ i . 5* (+* % ?.+  g +  j +   ? l .6' #c < * a( <?> * 6* > (Q.  y  Sq y  .Y[% . 4%5'bY > (0% g.(V'4* .( > . + .+ l i 1+B %A  g$ j Hs +  l   + v  jUj .+  j .

   M$X)&.

 $  .

?> ' `. > ( > 'nY' > . Y( ?. ( > ' % * 5* Y.(+* % 6.' > c > ' 2* .. > ( > 'XY-' > . kc > ' 2* .   ?> ' `. 4%5'bY > * ' > -Y > X% .( > i. 2c' > :' > 45% ' k'i* * @( <. a( <.( > .> ' > 4%5' > ( <?> -...> )%.> ' > 5. ?> ' .

 $ '      .

   X  * 6* > (Q.  $  .

& 9'  )&.

  l k 1   j   ?.

!+  1+ k   l.s  j n  - l k ?.

!+      1+gs !+B v j  A 'n n l k  j   &  n .  j 121  .

>[> < % p( < .( > '@* ( < ....* > (+* Ytc'4* -Y.(+* % -.(h( <. * <?> Y. > < .(Q.( <.>  Y% ^%  2* . c'b% -Y > d' > . &( <?> %5' >dc' > > . > p% > (Q.  ( < * Y < .dc.> e.% .(+* Y[. * (+* Yj(V' > ( <?> ' > 4%5' > < .> e.> ' > 4%5' > c  2* ..*|c > g. * (V'b% -Y > f<?>1>. g. * (V'b% -Y > o<. * ?%( . * .( % > ?> '  o<.. k'_. . k'_.

(@c-.. .( > ?> %2Y. e. > ( > ' < . #* -Y-' > . >> hc'b%kc% > a(0% > ( > ' * > ( <?> c > ' 2* . >j< .> c > ' 5* ..+ q    .> %5Y?* ( 1%5' ?%( h. 2* Y > f<?> c > ' 2* . . > ( > ' g. > 4%5' < * Y < ( <.  * :.(+* .> %5Y?* ( > ( > ' * > <?> ( <?> ' .> g.( > .> :.  * -%5' + s :.'i* % * \c%5' (Q..> . . (+* c'b%2Y > g.* ( < . 2* Y > f<?> > ( < % % > * * ( <?> 2* > Y.dc:c >   s o< ( < * e. j* -Y-' >  .n> YV( % . > ( > ' f* n' > (`* a.. ( > ' -.( > . > ( > ' 1+  +   . > * ( <?> :.( > ?> %2Y.. > * ( <.+ g1  l ?. < .* (   s <?> + ( <. .6'b.

> 'Dc-. > ( > ' ( < .> e.... ( < ..(+* % < *|c > ( >[>  .( X v dv 5    H k .( >  T VU * ' > -Y > @.(( <.+ j + q 1  5* 1( <?> ' > .(  T U  +  Wq  s q  1+  +  q ?@ + q j   .> ' > .(+* % < *|c > ( >[>  6   /6  < .  * k y  n    k 8 ... !+ r  ‚ j + q   q &    s i  Sj !+ .   a( <.6'b.+B        +B v   <7> ?j j j +  !+ n  I+     'n rq ‚ !+ % '_.( %6( <..+     'b% ?> ( < .+      j  Uk r j  .

. (   ] > 'i* ?>> ?. (+* % 0   (Q.6'b.+ .+  +  q k l  6 7 = : 6 12  +  H   ‚ Sj    ( t    l.+ v i  q 0 B g*  T Uh* a. Y% Q( . q  N+ Sl  j +  q .s Sl.-Y < * > Y < .6' ( f* ( < `..(+* %  0  4 j .-Y( > 'i* (+* Y > ?.+   k bk q  !+W k   j    . .

+ ?. + i +  n + j  ?j j .

j j  +  j .+ 1+ j 8     +    k   1  k j.+ q l 'n    k k . !+/  4 ‚ j i   !+   &    j .

6  I > I c KP> LQM a% I < * Y < :% ?%(fc'b% * > ( <?> c% * 6* * ( !+W G +W 1 y > 'X( < .\.J u$F1ji\b'uIb'H'J.[ M n HLKIM$H 9^IJ`J`Y vm[ n n ^..e/Y)J`bk_.+/  !+B C  !+B  A >' Y+! ?j +   +  >[> 2* d' > I   n l 1+  y  .FIHg_..JZMi^._pHLj)\cJ bP[ lmu F1jv+F1j n Y n [ WJZH'F KIM$x.\]Jvm[ HLKz[ H'bAM.( .J.[ _ M n xNM n j.FN\HLK.(+* %  0   8  1+mq  n+ k  &  l   0@ C  ^.+  +  +B  g1   k .  i    j + jUj +  j  Wq+  n i + .JfeM$H'J.J z oz Y%kc :'i* < (ZY[ k$O\"\O\  ].J`u C !{J`X bL[ YiJHLK.JKi[ b'H'Fi\.(+* > -..[ |NJ`YK.j.KIMI\crNJqu F1jfMi^$u X eyF1^.JaegMi^ij$l.rNJ`b d n J$M$bEJZY\]F1dzeJZM n [ ^.\.YNxNMi^$HkM.M.Y {vm[ n n Y1[ bk_.bEbAvm[ HLKfu F1f j Mi|NF1j$HAHLK.FIH'JZl.

6'`ba > *|' Fl  s s l  s Fk  l .' ^X.

+ l + g   j j    !  A +  . !+/  g j. +   j  !   j Fv l l.s 1+  ! ?j B? gs +Tn v .+B1  + 'n B ? .

n  +   'n  .+ z 2 -3 596 3-598-:<.CTUI V 5/WSH 5F?%H G(@QT ‰   .(=">E6=SJ 5(.(="> ? @B:C@EDF:C?G(3FHIKJL>-:(G JM="N-: P&= ? .j "v  +   .

  r  .

  $%'/ %'        "!$#% & #'() *.

.F 7MB(.7=<?>A@.²_—1˜SšJžC O¡5š6¢¹“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­A” sTt º‡†‰ˆOŠC»1¼ p € }5€ z q |O½z9ˆOŠ¶‹=1|mCŽ|mxOŽ|T}OŠ p ‘ t‚ttt‚t‚ttttRttttRttttuY¾5º ’5“ ·5“\•‡–J—1˜S™›š=˜Mœ ŸžC O¡mš6¢£“J“V“V“N“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­E· ’5“ ·5“ ” ¥˜Sš6¦O§\¨9©›œ ‰žC O¡mš6¢\“V“V“N“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­E· S±O²_—1˜SšJžC O¡5š6¢¿“V“J“V“V“N“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­E· À žCÁm˜S ³¦Aš6¡.–J—³˜S™›š=˜Mœ IžC O¡5š6¢Â“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­E· ’5“ ·5“ · ª«§y¢\¢\š=˜Mœ NžC O¡5š6¢“J“V“V“N“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­E· ’5“ ·5“ ¸ ÃÄVÄ£œ ‰žC O¡mš6¢ÆÅÈÇO²_žCš9˜S§y¨6—Y¢/žC O¡mš6¢vÉ“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­Y¸ sTt Ê †‰ˆOŠÌË*ŠY½P|O{`ŽŠA} Í.¨6š6µÓ“J“V“V“N“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­EÔ sTt Õ ÖL~5CŽ¼E{ q t‚tt‚tt‚tt‚tt‚ttt‚t‚ttt‚t‚ttt‚t‚ttttRttttRttttuY¾5× sTt Ø ÙJ~OŠ ‘ zW€ |_x ‘ t‚tt‚tt‚tt‚tt‚ttt‚t‚ttt‚t‚ttt‚t‚ttttRttttRttttuY¾5× 5Ú = .²T—³˜SšJ ¯  1´Iµ¢\š6š=¦Aš¶“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­5• ’5“ ”O“ · ¥˜Sš6¦O§\¨9©›œ ‰¨6§?˜S¨6²_¢y—1˜IžC O¡mš=¢“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­A” ’5“ ”O“ ¸ ª«§y¢\¢\š=˜Mœ NS±.E<?>A4VX?8Y0Z760PF?B3F 79.< <.E2.F GIHJ85@.< 4VUW.X\8Y0Z].|T}OŠ p tt‚ttt‚t‚ttt‚t‚ttt‚t‚ttttRttttRttttuY¾OÊ ’5“ ¸m“\• ®°¯ šJ˜Sš=ÎÏ Y˜SžCšM¡ÐžC O¡mš6¢¿“N“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­Y¸ ’5“ ¸m“ ” ÑJš6µ§\ÒEǐÁ5˜S .10325460798.< 4NBP8RQO034=@.E: aOb_ced6dMd fIgih/Tj?kmlLnoqpLj sTtvu wyx..46</KL.A: A.MGN:E8OB.BD.=^_4SGN< 8AK 460B`DE.z9{P|T}m~5MzW€ |mxCtt‚tt‚tt‚tt‚ttt‚t‚ttt‚t‚ttt‚t‚ttttRttttRtttt„ƒ5s sTt …‡†‰ˆOŠŒ‹=1|mCŽ|mxOŽ|T}OŠ p ‘ t‚ttt‚t‚ttt‚t‚ttt‚t‚ttttRttttRtttt„ƒ5s ’5“ ”O“\•‡–J—1˜S™›š=˜Mœ ŸžC O¡mš6¢£“J“V“V“N“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“ ¤Y’ ’5“ ”O“ ” ¥˜Sš6¦O§\¨9©›œ Iª« O¡mš6¢“V“V“N“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“V“J“V“V“J“V“V“V“N“V“V“V“¬•6­5• ®°¯ šVS±.E2.+ -/.Q/460P764=:OBP.E<TU=46< 8576F?B [.:. 767=4SQTBP.46@CB3DE.

Critical Slow Plunger Velocity  :>=   ? 7 = : 2   .Chapter 8.

 10 +9. +*$)+*78 .0%.- %.    ! " $#&%'()+*  .*/+*/ ).?@. 1.:28%  <=& >%.  243526 .

%@ % G H<I & J26  %@ .A2 ?+24B 2C + # $ 4'D %.2C/ $%>  00E F .

*. %@KB .- %.

& + # $ !.9%K3 2L+*M6 .

%.%@ %  N<&.*$ - B0 5 /  #.

= T >.*OFQP+*+2! R0 - %K*4%'TS+ U*V +* 28*T+*6WU%XWY 0E$4:NS .W.%@9- %.W.

   KB G ('Z%@[ KB .+*$#4 + # $ (.

0 * 3M .  E$\3<728%E+*$#$].%@ % G H<F T.

^B *$#  > .

! 0.. K.

  0 %$_.0)  "% 2 *$%$8*M $ ($M.Z - .

^B *# E %O. H< F 1 5 .

.

 B24.*$ T T  " 0BQ 8  4%M>< K B   .

B a "]+* . A $ AO a.O` 8 .

B$  . E %.

.%. 2$h ` P+^  ` *  iei X26%@0  5.9  :N .bc=0F $ .BQ$%.2M28%.*$ T2 63<Qfg90E .B$#. * < 5 <0%.* 28%O+`  "% 2 *$%$8*( $ Xd N3 e28%O+` 6  ?$*$ G %.

X'DB*  26*" H9%@ [%'O "526%@  . 0 a*89 "X9 F[$53 $ G .

 0 "*jF  D`$$6 'Z%@H28Q *$ k +24.

  26%@ 0 -. l+3U F 1 ['Z%K^ %$T43<eV *  * *$1.

*Q.% %@[0  #.

 Y.B$0 "- %.*$ e 9!#O E*M $!* ]%'n4.  FgSg'VmA   `K $ !B 0B$  .$ .

Z+3jF)WK+*$.0 G.DF          _p!qsr$?= 2"o  = :6t = Mqu 6     1+*) ! a.%K2428%K* 28%O Q  0 a.- %K*7$ D.

%.

9 %@V=  `O "0E  %$X28%O $ E$4 . B  26%@  "% 2 *$%$8* $ 8d H3 428%O.*0EvT%@ 2 :l0E*73<&  (%$8*4.

.

 9jF $0 a728%O 6  &0 -. l+3w9>%\ E$& 7.  9(.

B M%'T8 5A $ !+*&$. .

 /fv mxYP>$+ 28%O+F/y@+ 0`[ ) a.Z+.

0 K26%@K  a.*]%'5d H3 28%O !#@ E$*1 5fg90E . 2 HT%I26%@ Q  %K*#)  P+^  28%O z6 940 -.Z+3jF | Z }. l+3/3l {O<F  $  <` $ ii 8* B26l .- %.

k~   * €ƒ‚ .

6%'A E'Z%@H26 - %. l+.B 94…jF+† ‡Sˆ -.%@%@V@+* 0 $>0 -.* 9<M.*&+*4 "" - %. $26 - .n„ 1 vp vw 2 H h1 v1 P1 h2 P2 L(t) yO #.

- %K*] >3$ $ a)%.*$>%'X)28% "8.*%. I.- %K*7+*&  ".

.

*  <4 & 7.+*&O >.0 $ "-+*# 9 " V. :Dd H3k†‰…Š =Fed H3 Q26%@@  %.

B  .«§Ž-‘H” ™-“+™8’H¢G•a’’H¢-™a” “O’H¢-™ešX§0™G– ‘±K™G“c™X‘k” š¤– ˜T’Z§G’l•– – ˜T¬ •– ‘l™® ² ¥v¢” ‘gšg§00™-–±j•-‘v™©-™-– §¤™"8•a’v¦¢” §—’l•a’Z™ ¨ Ž” ©G™-“+‘H” ’m˜5¯D˜³e” – – ™G“V´ ‘[ U“+§¤(” ŽA’H¢-™A™"•-“ – ˜µ-¶¶·´ ‘"® .+V.¢G•” “V£ —›™-¤G•G“c’Hšg™-Ža’!•a’(¥v¢-™¦n¢” §7—0’l•a’Z™ ¨ Ž” ©G™-“+‘H” ’9˜ ªD¥v¢-™T«-¢•G” “O§G¬ —›4­j™-¤a’®j•a’[¦v— ¨ G ’n¯™T•a0™6” ŽA’H¢-™eŽ-™k°G’v•-” ’N” §Ž ±K§Ž-™G“Y” ¬j .%.%$‹+*> &.  % " x a.- %K*@F Œa Ž-$-‘Z’H“9” •–[•Ž-—˜-‘l’Z™-šg‘4› Ž-œ0” Ž-™™-“9” ŽGœžH —› Ÿ8 j“m•-G•a’Z™—’H-” ™"‘!¡.“c™©” « ¢•"©G™X™D©G™-“. ^B#&{.•G“ ¯™-“K•Ž-– •"’Z™G“ .

J¹ ¸ `.ŠºººK`j3<»eDFfv +xPM + ¼.0<l #.½0¾¿½0¾À0Á7Â-ÃÄ ÅQÆÁÆ5ÇÁÅ+È-½ÉcÊ/Ë Ä0Á-È Ë$ÃÌ0ÁAÍ Ã ÅUÂ-ÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ)Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾ÅVÉ È-ÆeÎ ÑÒ .

Section 8.2.- %K*@` T a+24. The “common” models   m*5 g a.

$ N< .^B$ *<6#0%K289<8.  % a g ". %E$ 6$626%@%>+*$.- %.*5 8 *<5E$ %O.

- %K* =8 / \  KB 1 & E$ *$I \.B .*$ G A /.:N *</.9% " Q ". %  F %.

B  !…jF+† FSX " B 2!+*$#] KB$ $ @  <M{. ^B*$#28%E+*$#ž'D9%K2 $> 0'V%&$Z #K0`O $ ( 0%$6*M+*)y@ #.%$  (0 "" 3  0 'V &E$9<7 $%@mQ.

Z %O)%'T-+28 `Y /B* .%K* "" *.B$7$$ #K0` ` * ) /B * KB$4A E$4E$ %O. H<` (`U'Z%@X #@ E$* .

+*/) B 3 " /  I%'A E/ -+^+`Y  4$$ #K0` `Y 8N2Q+*13<>]+* -  ^+F 6* . ^B*$#E$ %O.Q$7$$ #K0` `K? .9 UFw51  KB .(%' $M $%5 0 00E ` `U9M+^3& .$ N<` I  ).00 $] #.

 $ +*#UF8$M 0.

0.-+*$#žA E$]'D9%K2 $7%.B >3. 0EJ:N "0Iy@ #. $ 0+*$#7%O.90{..0 B$ "*%) KB+ +3Z+B 2 .B  )…KF Š =0F y %@ & 2 ^ e$ * J`g .0 * 3) .

.

%   A ^K .

.

 9 >9 B  -+*#\+*7 *]* $ * ./ +X*V +*26*M:l a0/y@ #.3 =0F4 B `j).B  &…jF Š.

B K 0$ . 'ZH  G B - %.$+ .*Q g8$* :D+*!.

 =A+*86 .0 $ aQ*$%Q .6.

.-+*$# A E$> 0 0B 0F      .  $ +*#Q%@j > {.

          .

.%'e {.     V•Ÿ initial height l¯Ÿ y@ #.-+*#>A E$6'Z%@H26 - %K*&+*4 B 3> *$ 0B. $26 - .B  !…jF Šj‡Sˆ -.

.

0 E$ %O. l - .0% %@VO+*$  `@!A E$>  " - %K*$ 9<`@$.MA E> ].%@%@V@+* 0 8$ M28%E$> 5$>A EME %@.$ N<` $ 8 $%$8* +*yO #.B 94…jF jF  M$28%E+*#].$ N< ! 8 $ G g%I28%O..

0%.•G“ ¯™-“Z´ ‘[¤G•¤™-“. 4  ! #" $ ¥v¢” ‘Y•-” ’N” §ŽA’Z§A’H¢-™g§“9” œ0” ŽG•–$ .” ‘U0™-“9” ©G™¢G™-“+™®v•-‘N‘kšX™A’H¢•"’v” ŽT’H¢” ‘Y«"•-‘l™£‘l§šg™TšX•a’H¢-™GšX•a’N” «‘ ±v” – – ŽG§G’¢“c’’H¢-™e¤G“+™‘l™GŽa’l•a’N” §Ž® ‰‰ ¼w½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á7Â-ÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5ÇÁÅ+È-½ÉcÊ/Ë Ä0Á-È Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ Ã ÅjÂ-ÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ)Ê Ï ¾0Ð É ¾Å É ÈDÁÎ .^B *#T26%E$0 !3 .

J¹ ¸ `OŠºººK`j3<)»eDF(fv +xPM + .< l #.

Chapter 8. Critical Slow Plunger Velocity  .

 .

0%.5!).$.3*$@" )9-F8 ).*9%KE$%.^B 28&9  ‡ ! " #%$'&(*).*$!61/*6*>*)*:.*Q%'n$&  .3*)*<L65$*< $!:E) I  .6%'[$!A E5 ]28%E+*#].!.*-2143*$5=3*CD3*$!.*$ "mE - %.%.$.<>0).)*.< + )I B -.< /+ M JB K$!/*#.B +*Q4.).^B 28F $7l #.)*1AGH:.0/$!!./*++7= 3E58%? 14.0%.) 6*=#!)*-D).*9%KE$%. H< `Y *$$  KB \28%E$0 8'D9%K2 " - %K*$ m<M..$*&(< . E$ %O.).. $2 - .+ .0% %@VO+*$  P> $ a .%7$7 0'V0F>»X $ 0\ +*$M 0%$e ( 1 vw-vp v=0 2 2R h1 v1 vw P1 h2 P2 L(t) y@ #KB 4…KF K‡Sƒ a.

.

      .

*$ `0$.    :N…KFm†= 8$  e  v$6 %@. GE %@.B $ G k  <.%K*$O - %.%@H 0 .$ N<FA*$ .

%K*$O+*$#8 E $#AE$ %O.$ N< K B$  e$.

^B *$#E$ %O.$ N<O‡         .

 :N…KF Š=  SX " 0B2!+*$# X  *$ 'Z@.43. *638*#. . B aT%'O$A 0%@9g.

00 " n. ] 6 M'DB * .- %.*>%'g24. B ž280" O*$ G H<:l8 .9%O.B  - %K*$  F$ 'Z%@ ` 7  .

 *3M $ a B 287%ž3M.%K* "" *0F  * v$4 3%E$! $ a B 24. B  =.

- %.*$ ` K B$ - %K*7:N…jF+†$=. *]3Q G+24.

  .>% T .

      .

N .

0 *Q" " E ^BQ%'†!%@nŠKFg5B$ ` .0 $ a4. %   O P  QD  SRUT W :N…KF = V !ˆ$ Y(X +*Q .

 :N…KF ^= .

N .

B - %.  [``Z __  b ]aa \    RR  8 O+28*$ G %K*  " ('DB *$.*OFdc .hLk   8$   mlUn F1SX " 0B2!+*$#1*$ #<I M.- %.h'i  e @j  e  Z Z  \ L \  `    7g.*  0 " A'Z%@N2&‡ Z  L\     f  e   7g.*:H…KF ^ =.0%.*$ "9E$J:lžd H3bp 28%Ov $ " B 24. *3M *$ 'Z%@H28ž+*% 8$  Z  L\     >O+28*  %.

%K* %.B 9Q…jF =5   ‡ rq.0%.E%K^B28:N "0]yO #.o .- %.*=` *$JB*  e l.*$ "mE - %.%K*$O - %.*/ KB$ - %K*7'Z%@$\  KB  +*) .*$ Q%'Q*$0#K  #@+3  1 ! *$ 'Zk`g$*9#<ž.s` v t uxw zy .

  .

   .

N .

% W   |q2s } u .

  .

%.    {  { } ~ :N…KF =  ‘N™™¡.¢G•¤a’Z™-“€¬m§“O•™D’l•” – ™5” ‘l«G-‘l‘k” §Ž .

0<l #.½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á]ÂGÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ9ÃÅKÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ/Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É È-ÆeÎ ƒ‚]‚ .ŠºººK`j3<»eDFfv +xPM + ¼.J¹ ¸ `.

2. The “common” models 8$  w zy   .Section 8.

   .

     .

  U W   r        fe  .

   W :N…KF Ú = e $8 0$ .

 (+* %@KB .%@D` zy`.8'l .%KB*X'Z%@n.M%> ..

% " +3 8E - %.*$ A%'6E$ %O. H<>.

- %K*ž†>'D %.9% 8  w ".2 1.

B .

^B$#{.%$_ >.%$!F%>$ 4+*]O .0 $ -+*$#j`U$&{.

B$ $w3<]$/.

0%.*$ G  & $ e *>+*  T{.^B *$# * &. *3!.%$ +*% 4KB$.0Fg$8H<.

 .0    * B2M3  .

`8 . 4 5 9#U$ *Q *<! $%T 0 00EQ30<! 5  $ gHT% %@V9 (%'e26 $#K* B  F $>. `O *$>'Z%@Y E ^B86*m< *$#4 A#K9 U$ *º .

9 " 0B Q+*Q$!# $ 6.

 *&3Q $ a B 28&%)3Q. $ "Q.%. % "" - .*$ " *0Fg$M< .M.

0 *3]9.9 " B  Q+* $  .B 7.

*7:N…jF =e.0 *73& 8l D*& $ ‡   %~ ~  q     u zy .*n%'$4.- %K*M   OFey %@[ &.%. 0 "*!3< : Y D V *$ 2>†‰ =0` 8$      $4.*$ " *8  KB &*$ G H<4 KB - %.  % " ".

  .

'  .

  .

%   U  q     u .

  .

 " =>. fg90E .    :N…KF …=     { { w d N35:N * .

B5  KB$ - %K*).

 9 - %.280Z .*$ +. ^B  "0E U#%.

  $ 6$& "%' ^B- %.*  0 a 8.*OF»g*+*#] &@+26*$ G %.*OF !T4.^B- %.*-+* B%]%.  a%.%.3" +*M *> *  <- .

 280 $   .

.%_  + * -a.% z_ a10 / .0 *]3!'DB 9T9 HV *#&%<  U‡ _ .0`K B$ - %K*6:H…KFm††=[.     \ :N…KF ‰=  v-+  R$+*#]* - %.*:N…KF ‰=( * /  NV *#O+*# .B - %.0 *30E$ ^B 8'Z%@@  y ` *$8$e.*]:N…jF … =<   :H…KFm†º =   "y !   u w zy2 re        #y !    u  e  W@%K E+*$#K B$ - %K*:H…KFm†º =T'Z%@ ]y  Dn.0%@N 0 0.  a   :H…KFm††$= ]y  $%  & % ')( R R  z y w R R dX E$*( B 3 " 6$$ #.

%.* @+*$# .

 H<ž` . ^B*$#[E$ %O.

*/:N…jF ‰ =F85 8 "%.*#K F |#2 } 2 } 34/5)687:9<. B - %.  6*$\3<& .^B- %..7d H3bp M28%Ov*$E$gT%@ "fg E .%xT%@ "G9 #%%K*] H.*M+^37 'ZN w$ $+* $ e D *$ #<4 a%.  F58 .^B- %.#"& * ž. +*$#7?@.g:=?>A@"BC5n„ Rp›hFEHGJILK5gihMEYpONOPERQ hmh S5h WK+* .

l+3!!A E$FA$<4'Z%KB* )+*FT 243p !3% %" "0E $K B - %.$ * .O - %.['Z%@j 0.*$   -+*$#(A E$eE %O.*#)+* {B /28. !   B 9!%* K B - %. H<5%(A E$!  #.*$ %70 -.

0 $ a`nfg90E . $0 ">K B$ - %K* 6  M'Z%@X HT%O+28*$ G %K*$ .0%.½0¾¿½0¾À0Á7Â-ÃÄ ÅQÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁÍ9à ÅUÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ)Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É ÈkÁÎ ..0% x T%@ "  !3 B+  5'Z%@X ] .&" * ). B   D V¢G•a©G™X«-¢-™«/WD™5’H¢G™e“+™D¬m™-“+™-ŽG«™•Ž-!$‘Z’N” – –¤YXX-– ™"6¯D˜’H¢-™X™Z•"’N” §Ž-‘n’H¢-™D˜A¬9§Ž- [ †ºK† ¼.Q  KB ]:ZA V=U FWK+* .

< l #.J¹ ¸ `OŠºººK`j3<)»eDF(fv +xPM + .

Chapter 8.  #. Critical Slow Plunger Velocity 9/  $/ KB$ - %K* Q 4$< B$ "UF $ a+* "" *" *$0%KB .M@       =5 (#@ E$*M $     q  .

  u  {       5 ( . B - %.3" +*] ]*$ 'Z%@N2 .*]:N…jF+†Š=0`  ]  D &9 HV *#O+*#U`@%.

 :H…KFm†Š=  :H…KFm† = 5A E$E %@.           $%4 0 0E$F :       * .$ N<& #O E*]3< .

     .

 " u       O^ :H…KFm† =  fg90E . +*9%OKB$.00 $M%K.

-+26 Y.

0%..* .  - %K*&. ^B*$# ..

0F GfY<ž.

5 *$ .  %D-+*$#  #.

%  - %.  28*"  A E$ 6-+28`$$+28%O A 3 8%].*6%'v .Q+* .

X$ " 3+  N< %'Y 9 B  -+*#/A E$&'D9%K*8$*]$&%. O .

7%'e$>'D %.*&$ $ V E /$ž *$#]%'e 0%6  E$F $F $<4$*].

m'Z%@H28]?@.

*4 -2!+V .  Q .  - %K* h  F  |#2 } 2 4Y5)687:9<.:= 3 9 7+4Y9g„<4ž‚ p   @#B 5n„ [ %.l+28* (%. B a1 MA $ >..3 3  <`(3.   e%wž B$%@ 4 Qw.

*  </#% %OI'Z%@5 KB$  > 0%5  00E hh F450<& - <ž 049B a]d H3 &28%O.B$ 728%OvA $ >%.'Z%@XE$9<7 $%@9-+28> ". E %.

$  * )  @   *eE %@.0 V - %.28%OKB *$ $ " B 24.* .$ N<7:H .*=F bp |#2 } 2 >A7Z„V„ 5 4$:= =<4/5 ‚ @#B 5n„ P+^ n * / ( B *63%@H9%$T 4HT%&O+28*  %.0.

%$F  $<> $ a B 28]$ e!{.0! * $ 'Z%@T 5 5 .- %.*4%'[B N3 B *e{.%$‹ "+**  >BH3 B *$.

%$ h  FeWK+*$.0  "%K^B- %K*>A $ 8'Z%@AŠK»ƒ$<1* BV ^ <ž3B+ w28%OO'Z%@A ] KB$  > 0%5  00E h ! F4526 $ " >3$  * . 'Z%@[ KB  ! $% 0 00E   .^B$#&{.

    .

  .

  :H…KFm† = .

  .

  q s m t u .

  .

  .

N .

!%.0%.    q s }  u  {  {  } :H…KFm† = P>%.*Q$Q a 26!.%.--‘N™« /0«-š0+® ŒZŒ- ’[” ‘nŽG§G’v«-– ™"•G“@±[¢-™D’H¢G™-“K’H¢-™D ˜ W-ŽG§"±/’H¢G•a’’H¢” ‘n™ ZG•a’N” §Ž-‘n•G“c™ŽG§G’[•¤0¤– ” «"•¯– ™T™©-™-ŽA¬9§“K•T+‘ ZG•G“c™A‘k¢-§G’v‘D– ™™D©G™® Œ ª 1 §a±’H¢-™˜e«§šX™ /0§a’±v” ’H¢A’H¢” ‘v«§Ž-«G– -‘k” §Ž [ Œ'2 #7¢a˜T•-“+™[’H¢G™‘l™’9±K§Aœ“+§¤-‘Y¬Z“+§šž’H¢-™‘N•šX™gŽ” ©-™G“c‘k” ’9˜A•Ž-A’H¢G™‘H•šg™v™G¤G•-“c’Hšg™GŽa’nŽ-§G’K¬ •šA” – ” •-“±v” ’H¢T™"•-«-¢A§G’H¢-™-“+‘ ±K§“ W0® .^B 28<   U~ " #7¢G•a’•Ž(” Ža’Z™-“+™‘Z’N” Ž-œ6” ™"• [[%$YŽa˜(¤0¢a˜-‘k” «1 ‘ [ Œ'&($j‘Y’Z§e‘H•D˜X’H¢” ‘n” ‘nŽG§G’Yœ§§0™-ŽG§-œ¢(•X¬ZŽ(” 0™"•£’H¢-™˜•– ‘l§*)Z” Ž-©-™-Ž-’Z™+6•(Ž-™D±/•-««"™-– ™-“m•a’N” §Ž8Ž” ’Z‘.) «-š.*9%KE$%.26*B2 3$  * .

J¹ ¸ `.½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á]ÂGÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ9ÃÅKÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ/Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É È-ÆeÎ ƒ‚ 43 .0<l #.ŠºººK`j3<»eDFfv +xPM + ¼.

The validity of the “common” models  *$&$! "%.^B- %.*Q%'n$0 a6HT%& KB$ - %K* 8 Q      u       .Section 8.3.

:H…KFm† Ú= pqQunp!qsr!"$#%#&$'6t(#&)Mq!u* |#2#2 ~  8  4€C5 4:=ˆ‚ c @#B 5n„ "  U*$ #< *$%$8*(%Q@ a G+.

aB 24. 5+*8 M<$K B   8 .

8.B - %.!+*6 .*4:H…KFm††$= %  *%e .*+*5 .0 $ "e$( KB$  G #.

.

 <> * &$!.Z Z %K*4'Z%@[ *%K* 0.

 $ 0+*$#M%K.

0 Nl I%.%K*   3  ] 28%.B *!%'!9 " V.*QT%. *- K.V - %. T%@ /$ $ ]3*ž.1 *%$6* + *7$ a.Q0213 " S " :H…KFm†… = .B  )9  y"+  -.)   B 97 $ $ž< K B   . /.aB 24.B!%K*7 QA E `v6 .

-B2M.V B   .OF]$ž< .

\.

'Z%@5$ .$*$%.*ž$ $ 3* B O .26*$%.

 * . 7 $ fg90E .B *   B †‰‰ =`g:H$%.$ $ "Šººw<0  F A*'Z%@9B *$  <`(d H3D`!:M *$ƒ 6%Q9 " V.0 $ "-+*#x\ B .28] *  fg E .*$%@9)ž. $ )+*w@  .  "B$* 6'D9%K2 6 %\W "  T* E9  N<\:afg90E . †‰ ‰  ="= h4 `g #. `vS(H28* %.

B - %.8 .*$ e  M*$% .B$ &9 " V.g:= 5gih65N87/h EHGJILK x "  #"  " ‚?@"BC5n„ = Q " $ !  NT%3$ $  .42! "" 0 5+* 628%O+` 9 "a=T$>3$ $  . E %. OF 4 $ž9    $ "%K*Q$  +T28%OK*$E$[T%@ 0 F %^  |#2#2 } " 34/5)687:9<.

.

B 9&#%.B *$\+*]$]+* .*O`U ".0 $ a8$  9 : 9<.* @=($& .0 $ a  6. 6.0 3  8%>  $%6  00E& G B - %.% "5 9M*%E   U`" ($6.   .280m< &*%'Z%.*$ fg E .%.B$ 9<F4Y%\+^^B$ V  8<8$8 .B - %. :>= FAy %@K  .

aB 24.% G - E$Q *$<A$<$K B   .

M%K.

.

% G 6%)    H<: + =F .

B$  *<Z E - E$> ! >3$ $ až%K* M*%w3DX$ * ?@5BA NOS C7ED#K GF   e'Z%. #" _g mh "       mg *h_g3H EI5FN87/h Q WK+* .7d H3bp 28%OY 6 -.%$_ Q 1.* h z F |#2#2 >A7Z„V„ 5 4:= ‚?@"B 5„  $>{.B *$ - %. *- K.MH9%K*%.%$ +*]$ $%8 0 0E$+*ž*%8B N3 B * h F&$&{.

 B a>*9<\ *$# . ^B$#{.%$L3.

3  2 h F f0   A ^  `6#%.$+ . %.B kFg5 82! "  e@ -.%K24. B$ " "&+* .280m<!%'$8 0%T  00EQ .

 .*Q ".- %K*!%'n . B$ "  %. l "%K*M+*Q$4O a.

¢G•¤a’Z™-“ $® $  †º € ¼.½0¾¿½0¾À0Á7Â-ÃÄ ÅQÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁÍ9à ÅUÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ)Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É ÈkÁÎ .•G“^˜ON “m” ¯˜–$•Ž-5—’Z™D©G™ ¨ ©•-“+˜«"§Ža’N” ŽG™‘ ’Z§•D±j•G“+Q³(“l®QPO“+™D©” «YWg±v” ’H¢(•-” ’N” §Ž•– œ“m•ŽG‘’Z§«§Ža’N” Ž-™A’H¢” ‘“+™‘N™"•-“+«-¢6Ža’N” –Ž-§a±n£ #]¢-˜ [ Œ ² ±K§Ž-0™-“¢-§a±1šAG«-¢RL $v­U¡ $)¤•G” SPO“+™D©” /« WT¬9§“@’H¢” ‘X“c™"‘l™"•G“c«G¢ [ Œ ¨ Ž– ™‘l‘n‘l§šg™"§Ž-™X«"•Ž™k°¤– •” Že•Ž-4  --§“Y¤G“+§G©-™X§G’H¢-™G“^±v” ‘N™® Œ ‘N™™A¡.0%.’H¢-™(– ™"•-™-“+‘D¢” ¤§G¬U .kF  " Œ0J›©-™GŽA±” ’H¢’H¢-™‘N™(šX•KV§“KšT” ‘Z’lH • Wk™"‘ML $v­U¡ $žŽ-™-“.

< l #.J¹ ¸ `OŠºººK`j3<)»eDF(fv +xPM + .

^ %$+*$#M $ a B 24.** B26l .T‚?5 :=ˆ‚ @#B 5n„ 4Y7:9 g„‚  @#B 5n„  826%@K3$ $ a%.*!$'Z%. Critical Slow Plunger Velocity  |#2#2 .Chapter 8.0  +24B - %K* 83$ $ a&%.

3 "* %.%$  BH3 B *0`vŠ =8BH3B  * .- %K* ‡A†$=A6{.&A $ ! $ " 0B28>%.

B$ 5E$9<78$ ž: &28%O =` =4B*x 0.7$%.28%#*%. .

0%@N*$T.13%KB*  9<7.%K*$O - %.* O - %.0):"%$‹0<] "%.   A%$ $<  e5 4$ D.%.$ .* $=`.*$ 8 5$M'D 07+*m'l . E$ 8  $+* %' . *  @=B* ..

7.%O+* +*>8 .

^B *#T.

$ N<]%'X$&  00E& *$ *$%$8*>E %O. 2Q  +*8 . H<&%' .  26 mA 0<) 4  KB+ )%/ O ]R %7E$ %O.

^B *$#DF W@E$V %$ $ " 0B2M.

- %K* e+2M.

Q $ 5*$%7$ XV * "'ZD` Q.$  < 94+*6 XT%@ h U B .*$ " * .0%.  .

0 *7%K* <]T%K*$ 'ežB$ a $#>%' ]28%On:l0E*7'Z%@ R %&E %O.B$#.0.0  E$ %O.0  .B *$ a 2879 B   4 0# K 0 a (28%O B aU`B N3 B  * * . @=XA $ (*$%.%$ .F ST. B  - %.B *$> X!.0%@ O+*#\%\$$+. $ Q EM'Z%.$ N<KbX50<4. 2!+*$ X{.*ž H0M? 4 a%.  +2  T$<'Z%. l - . M !R %>E %@.%$QbNb 6*$7. H<Q. H<!%73 > a 28> $ +*7d H3 M28%O+F5$] 0 " V.%/. 0 " 0B >+*Q$Q  00E!0". UFI50<wB$ " 28%O'Z%@ !.2808$ /+*ž{.

6 "!H9%K*%.B$ 8 0 0B  (%@X. %@KB .

N .

 e$&.

0%OM  " ' h $F "D ^ .9%K3 2  0<  +*Q4.

q2 p!q Q # "D   q $J<$KV B  . aB 24.    " " " "  bp   .

J .

.

  ž+* )Mqu  <x "" I *$ B * " <0x@ " \  B$ - %K* F $ <$KV B  . aB 24.

  a%4 .

.

B  k` *$4 . 6 $ T .B 9 `.9% " x ".+V.  g8$*>B +*#4O   *X.- %K* `$ B .

R%@      .

V B  .#aB 24.0 F8$7< .

* 9<F6$ HA E$ )+*&$4 $%5 0 0E$ 6 28%E+*$#1< K B   # .. -B24. *)328%E+*$#%@n "" - %.

- %K*@F!y %@ 8 *$  <$ G `Y 8%@0 M*%2 DA 'X aB 24.+*] ].  % " x a. B  g.+V.

 28%E+*$#%@X*%0F5&28% 5+24.

%@m" *A+*$#>%/B *$ " *  e$  ]  #&.

28.$ * .0 * *%M3/*$0#.%@m- %K*4%'n *$ #<ž & %  * ž 8 4. .jF&S(^U{B . >3%@% 0 .

.0. 0%$   d H3 Q'Z%@N2MB - %K* &*$%! .

" 3  ] *$1 )@   *Q .

.

 % .3]2M.1$ $ %.

0%. %$<0jF&Y%O 0<` Q a%.0 $ " 6+*M 4'Z%@H2 %'X >.24.*>  E$ + 3  %]@ Q.^B- %.

BX.

*>. %#.*$ "mE - %.0%.- %K*8$428%K28*B2 .9'Z.V 2 xw»A   . F " bp |#2 2 ~   5  4Y5 /@C40‚?58B ‚?@"B 5„ +* A ".

Z+* .+.

  e .

.

B 9 …KF KFy %@[ 9#  : .*8$6.*9%K$E%K^B28Q+*>yO #.   M%.0%.

%. .0 *>3Q*#. =$A ^$ $ j  0 a T.2M.M.

  #@+3  4 *# =0FX$&28%.$ 9!%!$+*m- H28 :Z$!A EM 5 $ a B 28>%ž EQ *#.&9  ‡     s t u  .28*B 2 3  * .

  .

  "!    # s u .

  !   w :H…KFm†‰=   .

NN U      r    W   e .

   ' fe     w    ' .

N .

%.   :H…KF Šº= 8$  Œ V¥v¢” ‘g¤G•¤™-“U” ‘[•Tœ§§05™k°•šA¤– ™g§G¬U¤§§“Y“+™‘l™a•-“+«-¢5“+™-– •"’Z™"’Z§•(¤§0§“j¤G“+™‘N™-Ža’l•a’N” §Ž8•Ž-(’Z™k°G’¤-“+§«™‘l‘k” Ž-œ ® Œ'"‘N™™e“+™-šX•G“ Wg§Ž¤G•¤™ · ª&a” ŽA’H¢-™e– •-‘l’[µ-··˜"™a•-“+‘ € .

½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á]ÂGÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ9ÃÅKÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ/Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É È-ÆeÎ ƒ‚%$ .0<l #.ŠºººK`j3<»eDFfv +xPM + ¼.J¹ ¸ `.

4.Section 8.†$=     u w N . The Reformed Model  e  w  w   :H…KF Š.

N .

    O        u .

2 $ˆ28%.%%K_ * / .*I:H…KFm††=4 *$\+^3190'ZH9ˆ9 +*/ $ Q$ Gfv mx P>$+bp ( "%K^B- %K* j F dX E$*Q$8E$ %O.%_ Y . B - %.   !     U NV *$#@+*$#> .28*B 2 .%_  .243+*+*$#&K B$ -.  E$%. a .*  KB$ - %K*@F c K B$ - %K*I:N…jF Š =4 Q$ *  %#. E$0 )'D %. 4a10  RR R R    w  Z  \     R R R R       :H…KF Š =     Z  L\          8$     )  * B2M3!8 .*$ "mE - %. :N…j a F  =( *$ž:H…KF ŠŠ=A<   .'_  . H<.†=(+*% &O+28*$ G %K*  " T'Z%@H2 <   ‡ :H…KF ŠŠ = Z  \      Y  u w  fe          u  e   %.0%.B$%'K B - %.*7:H…KF Š. 4a10 .

 %  ` $6 0$ .

%@ . *3%K3" +*$]+*QH28 e%' UFX56?@.6'l .

9 G %K* 5'Z%@ 'Z%@A 2Q+*$  * 7B H3B  *(E %@.$ N<).

0 *)3>.*Q$Q $ " 0B24.B jF fv $ "]%. % 0 5 5 a.*†> $ G+ <.- %.0  .

- %.*$ 6B a+*4$&.

..90E %KB ( a.80 energy .B - %..40 momentum 12..- %K*@`@ .*]:H…KFm†‰=8   ‡ 16.. 11.20 9...00 14..60 Fr Miller ..

00 Garber 6.40 . Karni 8.

80 . 4.

. .... . .... . 0..83 . . 3.. .... . 0.. ..60 . . ... .66 0. .. . .... ..... . .. ..... .20 1.. ...17 0.00 0... . .00 0. . ... ...99 1.... . . .. .. . ... .....33 0..... .49 .. ... . 0.. .16 .

. . ... .... . .. .. .. .

^B- %. ..- %..32 1.B &* B243n $  4'DB * ..49 1.0 * 3  .^B- %. ... . . . . .B 9Q…KF j‡g5y@ %.. 1...*4%'n$&9 - E$$ #K  bp #  -h *$ˆ$ \$ $ w30* Z' %.65 h2 ^ R yO #... ..*$ %'M Gfv mxYP>$+ ) "%. .B *$ˆ 7$w a%.* k*$ #< "%K^B- %K* . . .

 0 "*ˆ+*w w G+24.

0 * 3I .  ž'Z%@H2>F P>%@9%E$D` "1 "%K^B- %K* .

.

  .%  ªNŒk¥v¢” ‘šg§™-–±j•-‘«§ŽG‘Z’H“ -«D’Z™±v” ’H¢e•A«§0§¤™-“m•a’N” §Ž5§G¬K•A•Ž-§G’H¢-™-““+™‘N™"•-“+«-¢G™-“l® †º ¼.0%.½0¾¿½0¾À0Á7Â-ÃÄ ÅQÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁÍ9à ÅUÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ)Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É ÈkÁÎ .

< l #.J¹ ¸ `OŠºººK`j3<)»eDF(fv +xPM + .

 % " ( a.- %K*!'Z%@!V *  - %.%$ƒ%/.Chapter 8. Critical Slow Plunger Velocity *<&.{.*Q%'n!'D 0Q 0B9'l .

*$MB$ "30<QO .*$ 'Z%@5%$(E$ %O.B a G %.* 9'Z%O.+V.^B- %.9% " e ".*O` G+* .%$!Fn5QO a. $ 9 FgWO%.*  <Q%. B  v. B$ " %K*!!.4 ( A$!%.9 " 0Bl R&{. H<w.- %.

%O "B+^ I.%$C: . 1 $  2!+* e{.9% 0 `T B .

B$ " a +*ž S(.$  3%K %@ @=`X 9žO a.

.

*$O ? ( F %> 8$/y@ %.B )* B 243e &3 $ "ž%K*]/.

$ N< * . ^B*$#gE %@.*$%6%K* B.

V B   C .* O< . H<M. -B2M.$   2 E$ %O.%K2428%K* <B$ "/+*QHT% x@O+28*  %.

@F $>? .

3" +*\3</d H35:kd H3k†‰…Š=0` *$ i H*g:ai H*m†‰‰K†= * )  *$ G - %K*]'D9%K2 &'D 0] B 9'l .Z+26*" j " 7%.%$ % .{.

9 " 0Bl R/{.%$L .

- %K*ž  I.*$ :N…KFm††$= *$ :N…jF Š =4'Z%@ I. B  5.B - %.  % a M a.3<7 . 0 a*.+V.

 0 a*J+* y@ #KB /…jF I'Z%@5 .

-B2M.^B$#w{.%$F.P]+^  28%OX:ZHT%I@+26*$ G %.*  =%'($1<$K B    .$.

1 M  a% .

  N <! X Gfv mxYP>$+ T a%. 0 "*.^B- %.B  …KF jF15 ]yO #. 028*X ]i H* A? .+*.B 9 $%$ A.y@ #.* > (+*Q $#.

9 B   F $ $#K928*30NT*Md H3 e? .Z+26*" .

^B- %.Z+26*" .9 B    * > Gfv +xPM + A a%.*O` Q  ?..

- %K*4%'g%.*$>.

%O+*:N  =`j (#%@%OUF $>? .

l - . $M>.B )9 .Z+26*" v9 B   6%K3" +*$I3<\i H*UT M" *6*>$]. H<A $ 8%K3 " +*:"  .E$ %O.0 .

+.

 %$8*=g6+ 8?@.6.

l+28*" O 0 0B  'D9%K2_d N3v  Q+*H.

  " - %. Z - .*: $+* ]%'X E $#=(%' 0B3. E$ %O.$ - 0  *$7 B .

0. - 0 e5 4Q? .0 @E %O. l - .V.

- %.* %'&%.*$.

BV .* =0F n*$.7 E$9<.0`   Q  $ "%K*$ 3  Q%/ $ " B 28Q (& .%O+*8  :  :Z6 .  % "%) Gfv +xPM +  "%.0.^B- %.<%'5i H* Q 0 0B  Q Q3D *]d H3 >9 B   F %$TE$D`Y "] " ž.

 B- %K*  ! F %.26.%@+* &$ E$&%w3&" *]5 ] "%.*]%'A$&? .

.  [$%$ 428 $ 0B 28* .  E$> *$ A 5*%X.B0F ] M5  <ž . & '[ 6 " <6 "" A $ T ...0 Nl 7%.Z+26*"   "  a XT98.

I +*ž)NT%.@+26*$ G %.* g< K B    . -B2M.

ž 026 ^[ *    #O 0  !.Q  M 0 0.   >6 .

*$ G+3  5'Z%@Y> 9#8*$ #<4O " +.%.

*$ "mE - %. l+3!<$KV B  . **$%3B a%]0 -. -B24.$ - %K*&/: n*$ "%K* †‰ =Fn$ 'Z%@ ` *$ #<>.0%.*M.

)  #.0 *73 a  &'Z%@v$&< K B   . aB 24. FX5! a 264.

B  T.280Z  F 'g.- %.B 9 a` $! a 28& $ (%3Q -  &'Z%@ .+*MO  9*(#%.+V.*OF65B$ `j$.9% " 8 a.0%.

*$M%K3" +*$\3< d H3 728%O+`n8 .B ]*B 243n%. ^B*$#nE$ %O.B 1*B 243A'Z%@A$žd H3 28%O. ).$ N</$ $ 6%\3&#.3" +*$+*M$Q?@.  g$ *&&%.+*.y@ #KB …KF jFž5\y@ %.3$ "9E$. 4  #v$ *>]y@ %. *I3)%.

B * B2M3 +*E$ " <ž.l+28*" Y 0 B   F6y@ %.

9%K.

B  M%'X.%@m- %K*$  %7 .

^B *$#nE %O. H<`   *$I*$.0Q$4E$ %O. H<7 : 26 ^ kFX5Md N3 !28%O$ 'Z%@ B *$ 0 "-+26 0 e$>.

^B *#E$ %O. H<F ^ bp     " # bp  p bp ^ Fp  U 2 "   #   " #" Fp  p # bp %~~  bp ^ Fp  |#2 2 } 5=7 jF .

^B*$#E %@.^ %$  .*$> $ e%&'Z%.$ N<`@%.

 %O. B    0 "-+26 8$T$ #KA%'n$&  .B /280" +F † F ŠjF  .B 9 ‡  ..

l - .0   %$  bp  "  .^B 28e%'O$8  KB 4280" :26  B 9$ [<0%.3" +*QQ. B  T$TE$%.  <4Y@"9J5== Y%%.BB aA$5  KB 4.

$ $ a5.

 %.

mH< * /*$%A$Q "%K  ).

B  &. $ "$=F   .

B  .0*" $#!%'^ +*#7+*Q$Q $% 0 00E ` R  Q  R . . F ^UF6yO+*$&$  * B 243v'D %.B * &%.2 yO #.  .B 9Q…KF ^jF jF n  "$  * B243v'Z%.

^B*$#E %O.*]:N…jF ‰ =F ªZª¥§(•¤¤™"•G“j” ŽA’H¢-™eŽ-™D°-’v•-” ’N” §Ž® ª2 .B - %. H<]3<]B +*# .

™"‘k– ’Z‘[§G¬.%.œ§0§5™k°¤™G“m” šg™-Ž-’Z‘¤™G“^¬9§“ šX™¯˜A‘l™G“m” §-‘g“+™‘N™"•-“+«-¢G™-“+‘n•-“+™g±K™G– «§šX™® .

½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á]ÂGÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ9ÃÅKÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ/Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É È-ÆeÎ ƒ‚ .0<l #.J¹ ¸ `.ŠºººK`j3<»eDFfv +xPM + ¼.

Section 8.5. Summary     #%#&8  m*M  .

%$‹+*>4 0%e 0 00EM * E$ %K.[T4 *  <$R7Q{.

7 &? .

  . (?@.

 0 "  %.B 6!  KB+ &.*4% .0  .

*$# * M$ 'Z%@ &fg90E . 628%O@ 6*. " a l+ <N %. ^B *#OE$ %O.*$0%KB ( $ AT^+Fn5 a 26. H<F $ $ e30*8 $%$8*( Xd N3 (28%O  %" ^ <8 %. *&3 a  >%& ^ %$28%O AO a.B a "+*6 $ .

DFg$6.V B  .* *.0%.*M3HT0*6 HA E$ Q * 4$4< . aB 24.- %.

.$ $ 30*/? .

 +*jFw$\280%O\'Z%@. v  %$ .Z - . B  -+*#ž$).  .

^B *#eE %@.$ N<w$ $ 30*7.

 %E jF   .

  .

  .

- %. - %.*$ HB$.   w3</d H3 &28%O.    "p Fp    qO* Q$'S* !ƒ$ 8 <aB$ - K.*!'Z%@[ KB - %.0%.*4…KF Š WU$%$ $          'Z%@   B *$mx@. E 9<+*$#/.* bp WU$%$ $/9 - E&H %@A.6*&$& B 3 " )  #.

½0¾¿½0¾À0Á7Â-ÃÄ ÅQÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁÍ9à ÅUÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ)Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É ÈkÁÎ   6 .$ V 28kF   †º Ú ¼.0%.

J¹ ¸ `OŠºººK`j3<)»eDF(fv +xPM + .< l #.

Critical Slow Plunger Velocity .%.Chapter 8.

ŠºººK`j3<»eDFfv +xPM + ¼.½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á]ÂGÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ9ÃÅKÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ/Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É È-ÆeÎ ƒ‚Ò .0<l #.J¹ ¸ `.

      & #%  "! & ' /'O )  M $'  .

A4VB`HJ@.7M@E>.E:MF ^_:qF :MB`D..E:  ! j hTg /h#" An %$ QQ 3H E E PRI7 OP A  .D.^C4VG=UWBÈ.K F 4646:O46:qB7WB38.B`F?KLB3F 8£8.>APH @ BP.A.E25H‚4MB32.:1F GNGNBÈ48q1QB33DE4µ81GiG9G94V46@Ð4.  + Œ#  #  (!   D.A:..P76F 7I4J.:.29F[qG=B`76F :MDE^.4@..464:.81F TG Q_4PD.

*$M%'A)9 .B .B+ 28* 6'Z%@(9.+*$#/ + $# $ 4. )( #K*&%'T$ME$*-+*#) <$ 2  %.

%@ %  N<F %  N<6KB$%4*V +*28*T%'# $ " A.%K* "- B T >  #Q.

%@9- %.*%'Y$%" @.

%@ % G H<`0 .

 ^ <  8$*7.0 B$ " Q%' +  # $ .B 97‰jF+†$=F/$)2 +*/. $ !A ^ Q  ]E$9<+*I:l a0\yO #..

 *40E$ .$ *E$*> 9 O`e^B3Z .%@ %  N< 9 +*$ B .

*.%@V - %.- %K*w.:  .

9%O.].0%@N . " a0 -=0`A+*$.

028*4%' E$* `K * $]2! ?+*#ž. .

 " a0 F$.9%O.

$ . 0 "*5.

*$ G  (+*{B$* .n.0%.!%'g$!E*5 9 :k+* 28% 0.

B O# $ Q:D+*>$MO = ($4* ]%'X$!^ +*$# .*M] 0  .Q * ]E . B B2_E$*-+*#@=(%.$l .

 %O.0 a F n9%K.

A0 G .B 9Q‰jF+† ‡X$M  - E$Q  Z+*  $#>.%@ )* maximum porosity shrinkage porosity " wall thickness " yO #.

0 $ -+*$#> .- %.%@9% G H<M $  4'DB *$.*4%'[$4. * " †º‰ .

Venting System Design S[26% .Chapter 9.

$l .0 $ "-+*# 28$%Oj`e M%./$)E* %.*$\+*)6 ..]E$*-+*#U`w28% "Q  < B$ ".

*I%w$/ 28% .

^B- %. 9/ *$J )90'ZH9 $ $+*\ $ & +(E$*-+*#UF 6*  <w+*ž? 26ž.*$ 8  KB+ U`@ B .B$0R7. $ " > 9 %$v a%. M $ eE . B B2 E$*-+*#U` .! * ] ^B2!+* B 2 .%@9y@ 0QY.* KB:k+*4R$+*$.0 $ "-+*#UF X . B B2  M .0 $ "-+*#@=! *$1 .

.

  /%1?$V .  3'Z%@ )  $ $ &$ž%.4 +  # $ !'D %.2 $ž28%.

.

*!%'n6E .%@9 y@9. B B2‹E*-+*$#]+*!6 .6$!%?<$#*4 5+* %O.B .0 E N<(%M9.B$! ( QE l - %.7+*%M . ^[E . B B2CE*-+*$#jFƒ$ .  * .%@mB * H<ž%ƒ2! ?\ ž$w  KB ƒ28" g *$J ] ].

 $ -+*$#) 6 O  9*8 .0A$ +.v5 $6  .9 0 g eE$ . .BB 2‹:afv  PM +H†‰ ‰ O3=FW KB0RM.B 426" +` * 5$ 'Z%@ e. * 8%M9 .

.

B .0Q*$ G %K*] +* .   $ a % 9.4> B m'l .&$ž. % . ]+*>6 .

% a G+3  )2Q ?+*$#.

  4 >'l A28%@ 4? . B 243 "%K284 * . E H<M  &26 >26%  <4%' +n * &$ 'Z%@ 6$!H2 D + ] B$ "/9 'VDFX$0 "  0 k "%K^B- %K* >  M.9%O.00 " a0 :l 026 ^   j/* B2M3 $ !T^ =F]$# $ a0 M+*]] 0%  E$! * 7.

*  E.

 " F m*M 5.  . %O.

*%.B a G %.B   " - E$O a.k`j .B  73>B a * M6*6$<M  M*$%*$0] .*!8$*$0 " "%K^B- %K* A $%.

%K*$ m<)26 . U`0E$* e$ E$%M3Em<Q* N %$F S H< .B G T$e. $ T26%. +*+*$#\:N B .*1  . 0 "*jF 63E %KB 0 <`w30 "4E$*-+ - %. ] $ 5l+242!+*$# =`j%)*$ B 9M'D90R+*$#75 +* E$*-+*# <$ 2>` *$6%*$ B 963   $#%.  E$I8$*1   - E$ <  9#7E$*>   I 0 G #K*jF %$TE$D`.%I2!+*+2Q R4$M a.

*$0 a " 8V *#'D9%K2L†x@Š   F$0 a!. .-+*$#7  KB+ 26* e%K*! E*5 9 & B$## ( *M%.0%.*{U .  G R0%'[E$*A .

%K2428%K* & .-+24B 2_   OFSX !B 0B$   D.

.

9% . l+3]$QH %@9  .  50 -.

Z+3jF ( (  ( (  ( ( (  (      " #" & o #2 } 2 ~ p!qsr!"$#%#&$'6t   5 9 2  84„     ( #&)Mqu* ‚?@"B 5„ $4 !28%OK  +*$# &>?$ . 5 a.2 &.- %. 0 a*] * & 'Z%@H28/26%@.0 E N<&A $ 8%. M:HWO .*$]3<7WO . †‰ Š=eE$ %. $ F +*& 28%O+`jWO .*>%'A +n'D %.

%$ 'D9%K2 &@ M.^ %$5+*#& $ " B 24.*M 'Z%. E H<3 $ "]%.7 )28%O'Z%@nM# $ ({.

*$ ‡†=$!# $ 6B* 9#%@0 ( *& "* %.- %.

M. .

%'(7E*0` = -26 ?+24B 2 26 $ a {.%$  M !$]* * .9%O.%1$7# $ !{.0 E N<`KŠ=e KB$ $   </ " 7? " ` =$]%.*  <I 0  " * . " 5+*QQO Q.%$ V  4.

B 126"  $ Q*%) B m'l .*O`.04*  %. B /280" v.9 "* K`j *$ =  .

 0 a B 97 6 .%)&# $ >.B .

$% M{.%K28!+*%).0 $ " ‡ . $ !  "%ž@   *- w3HT0*NT%/.% Q{.%$ :3 B (O  9*- - %K*QO )*%. 0 a B 9 FMWO .%$ƒ * )B*x@.

 0<>+*& 628%O =F SX " 0B24.

$% 4{.* ]  KB+9 A X'Z%@v.%$JM.- %.

 E H< *$]E*e? 0F S(^28% "4$/ - 28w28%O[A $ )9. 0 " 0B > - %3 3%KBXHT%]3HT0*6$6.

. 30<\ "E$V A 0 a  .9 h FJS(^n ".28%O `g5 ž ?.

- %K*7+*&. $QE*-+*$# "< "2>F8$QE*80  #. ..B . .- %K*>%' g$+* 7: g$+* †‰ =`v*#.^B$0 7 /  $ " *. g <$ 2 +*$.%K2428V.* +*.? 0` aE$V T. `e *  aE$V g 3HB .$4'Dl .

]?@.

a0:kWU . * .

+ %K† ‰  j`v.

- %K* 6+*6 .%K*V . $#)† ="=8.0%@ ].0 * G %K*  .>. *4:  " " ( .>$7 0  " * .

 "  (  )( ( ^ " " %~%~ U * U~     3>0E$ ^B 7%\3)  #[ * ) *$/ &H<.

0 $ a` I.0 OE ^B>%'    6 3%KB Ú %@A28%@ F +*& 6. .

%"$+*$#ž.* @ - %K*ž M ]  $  \ * 1$1. 0 " 0B 1V - %1'Z%@A$).0%.

 0 " 0B 1V - %   . $0 M E$ ^B$!%.*  <M 'V[ 3%KBŠ #>%'n&.

 %.*!  % " 4 ( .

%$  Q.$ "UF (. $% " )$).0 *3! $%$8*! A8$*!${.

*$ " *6 $ Q $ " B 281+*]$/28%O M3 B +*$.9 $ " e? .9 " B  ]+*]$].0 E N<%@0 &*%4 26 +*.0%.

Ž-™™™"!•a’Y’H¢G•a’’N” šX™® .•a©G•” – •¯– ™  .%K**- ^ <F Œ$¤¤G•-“+™-Ž-’H– ˜"£ ŽG§5– ” ’Z™-“m•a’H“+™A‘D“ “c˜A±j•-‘n“+™Z” “+™ G.%.

ŠºººK`j3<»eDFfv +xPM + ¼.J¹ ¸ `.‚ .0<l #.½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á]ÂGÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ9ÃÅKÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ/Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É È-ÆeÎ U.

The “common” models #2 } 2 } >A7Z„V„ 5 4:= ‚?@"B 5„ 9p P]+^  *$) A B *0`O+*$6 H <!‰º `@.2.%K* "B$.%.- %.*>+* E$*-+*# <$ 2>FX$<]3 $ "& +T28%O%K*Q'Z%K^ %$+*$#& $ a B 24.> 28%O %> .Section 9..B *X'Z%@U$5'Dl+* .

*$ " *24.- %K* ‡ † Fn%/$  *$ 'Z  a%$H26 {.%.%$ ŠjF :H.

%@VO+*#%!$8 B$%@ +*Q&.0%!E*:H .0. B 9$=A+*8$*V *$.

%$‹+*Q$&9 eE* ^UF(S+  # $ (%.0  .B - %K*>.*= jF!y **$%M{. 0 a*" - %. l+3&$Q.30< e$4   # $ 28%O " P]+^ v *$/ e B *( a.

0 $ aQ $ (.% G).%.* @ - %K* 5+*Q$28%. */3>'Z%. ] * &  E$M 9M. B  ) .% G.0.* @ - %K* F65&. $ "&  > "" *$  / *$ž.  .B 9 e'Z%@HT%>.0  .* O - %.B * ž+* *<73%@% Q 3%.%$ 3BA5 M *+*9 -+*$#MH "0Fg$!.% & *$ B *$.0%.0%..%@VO+*#$M 243 *5.*$ 5'Z%@$&. B  - %.*:N "044 026 m KB%4%'X $ .B6y * *%&{. %O.

Z=  F $!. B  - %.*$  3%KB8B* .0  .0  .3QO a.0 $ a!  8E$9<&+*9 -+*$#& * >+^.B a "$ 4+*4 7  D  28%@ Q0" + Fg$Q.*$ 6. $% >. B  - %.

$% " SX " B 28 .%  $ ('Z%K^ %$+*$#j‡ " " " " ( "   QJ* B2M35:l*V * .9%O.    "  .0KB 'Z%@v&B *$.* O - %.ž*B 243X%/$&E*a=M %$Tg * QI'Z%@A.B ]$ž.1P> .* .%.%@H9 .

.* O+*#\ "" !:N.%.%.*$ -= 24.* O - %.% .

  . B   .3HT0*!4.B 64O   * . B 9V - %&'Z%@4 $ a B 28 \* B2M3 .    `gI.  Q   .

*$ F %$ˆ$26 $ a {.0%.%.%K*$O - %. B  4$]%KB3  > ""  &:Z$0%@ - .*Q$Q%KB3  ! " [.*$ e  4H9%K*%.* O - %.0 j? a=!.*$ Q3$ $ a %.* O - %. %ž.*OF 'T.*Q$! 2M3 *(.B   F [ ">$O   * .%$` $4.%.B M$4.*$ "9E - %.*$ F   .  .%"&{.%K*$O - %.%$ %. *$]Q . B  - %.%K*$O - %.%KB " `@$0 "4.*$ (+*MQO 3$ $ a%. 0 " 0B \V - %j`A *$I .B 5N2Q+*/3<]26 $ " .*$   4H2!+*$ N " Q  K "7 N " Q  3<wB.B$ Fm*&.  .

*$ 6'Z%@6B* . 8 %.x " 2 *$J*0E83<)7%$8*)  2 F)57. B  - %.%$  26 $26 - .*$#jFg5Q $ " 0B2M.  . $% "  {.

- %K*&2 >+*Q$!9 " ".

.#" UFS(*$ 26 $26 - . ^ < 0.7*$E$vA $ .

^ %$5+*#U‡v%K*$=A $ a B 24.4+* .- %. ^B ! 28%K*#>%$Y6'Z%. $ " +*$#j`$  v (KB E  *Y% aB$ #KB " G+*$# "%K^B- %K*@F[$0 "XN %@ n 9T%K* <'D .* ! %'[%$%$+*! 528%O6 .

- %K*%' .%K* "" *A24.

 B 9M+*Q$O M e8 %.*$#j`NT%@=.

%@%@v $ " 0B2M.

%$!`  0= .- %K*!%'v$4 a%$H26 {.

%@%@X28 $ 0B 26* e0".F 6*M%.

0%.*M'Z%@X9 .½0¾¿½0¾À0Á7Â-ÃÄ ÅQÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁÍ9à ÅUÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ)Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É ÈkÁÎ .4%'n$ eA $ 8 eQ. l l %.B+9E$*( 9 OF  )( ª ¥v¢” ‘šg§™-–“+™‘D– ’Z‘n” ŽŽ-™œ•a’N” ©G™X’Z™-š¤™G“+•a’H“+™” ŽA’H¢-™T‘D¢-§G’v‘k– ™™D©G™A” ŽA’9˜¤” «"•–“m•Ž-œ™® 21 §a±1§G’H¢-™-“c±v” ‘l™£ «"•Ž6” ’g¯ ™ [1 ’” ‘T– ” Wk™•-‘N‘kšA” Ž-œŽG™œ•a’N” ©G™A’Z™-š¤™G“+•a’H“+™5” Ž(’H¢-™e” ™e«"•a©” ’m˜(“9” Ž-œ5’H¢-™” ŽK ™"«D’N” §Ž®  ‘[” ’n“+™"•– ” ‘Z’N” « [ ††† ¼.

J¹ ¸ `OŠºººK`j3<)»eDF(fv +xPM + .< l #.

2M.& Chapter 9.*$%.* . Venting System Design  G q'q! 4u *Q  *Q* )' !ˆ$*1 .%.

ž $ 4A 5 7.9 " +3 ž  (KB I B .

B 0j`n$7 a 26) 28%KB*.

9%K.

^  3<) .

^B *$#e+^Y{.%$ %KB4%'e$ "< "2>F %$TE$D`n +6 M 1.24.0%.

 **$%Q3& .0 * \ B 4  3%E$> "" 28*5. 0 a G+3  ] B 3 "" *$.

.

%$_ &%.B8.   UF65M{.

04%M{.*&$7 0 G "" *$.*  8%.%$ .

^B$ ($].

 H<:".*QE$ %O. "%.

 "%.B  /3Q 94 G B - %.%.^B 28Q.*$ !†=$!{.B Q E E( *8$E$%.*> 9 > $ (T^ =F$ 4.%$   %.

B 03<4.

 "%.*O`Š=g{.%$ V 5%KB "F 5 N Q$ *65E%K^B28 .

B$ $73<Q.

^B 28Q.%$ V 8%. %K*@`%@ =$5{.B G IOKOQ%Q$5E$%.

B 0]3<$Q.

l - .*OFn5  $ .Z - .$ & Q$Q. (E$9<Q  #E$ %O. @0  #.0 O   OF h _gµh ‰h      S+O{. -  AB .*O`@ *$) 5  $ " "%O. ^ &$!. "%.%$ X+*e$E*-+*$#6 "< "2 .0 *Q  .0 $ a4 .

 H<5 %KBv#%@+*$#5 9%KB#K( 5 .6 nE$ %O.0 * *%v?.(% 3%KB º  : F[5 +K.

* .*E9#O+*# @ E$ #@+*$#1.#.%K*$KB a=0F] &.$ ^ <5..B  8.B T:N.0%.%.0%.*.

$% {.28*$ / *%$6*ž3<7$)* 28]%' .$*$%.%$ jF&5 &.

  . <$ G .

26*$%.*4.$*$%.* X$ <5%B * 9 "" *$O+*#!$E$*-+*#40  #.

$ N<ž%@ ]*%9 .9%O. " F m* +KE$*-+*$#j` $E$*-+*# <$ 2 $ $ 4% 30 G #K*1 "%\$ 4 +eE %@. $7 0.

B B 2 E*-+*$#j`$$8 +jE %@.$ N<M9 .0I%'5 a%.B *$U‡&+*ž%$ T%@   ` P )N E ONOP LN 7[F +*5E . $0 g$ .

*8 0%KB &35 0B$.B *$ ^28% "T+*$ " *" *$0%.B$  <` *$Q50  #.04%'U a%.5 A g*$ B  0 g n$8 +[.

00]Q 28% .9 " B  5%@0 *%? .

>. Z .

 0 a B 9 F 1pTh j " " "  "  Vkmp *lEh [l %@528%O 'Z%@5.

-+*$#/]%K. O .

0)+*] E*-+*$#Q <$ 2_:.*$ G X$ž9 G "" *$.-+2MB2LE*Q 9 )O  *$%.0%.

2428 . 0. `U * ) "E$V j 3HB .$  "< "2‹+*$.0%.B .*+* 6. a B 9!V - %!%' 0 " g *6Š =F$E$*X G #.^B$0 4  $ "5 *? 0`U aE$V K.

5? .

>$7 0  `.- %. A%'%@ Y%' x %@g28%@ F B$ `>.%.*$ .*V .*$ 8+*>6 . *  %.

06.%$L M   $ " jF *7%'(O   * .BB 2 E*-+*$#\ * I 28% .0%  . 0 " 0B 4V - %>. $%  " *$.9 -+*#&.$ *0` {.0 73HT0*E$ .

&E$*-+*# %O. B  T.B Z+*$#!$ " mkxUB. Z .0.

-+28 FAy %@KE$ .BB 2 E*-+*$#j` .%K*$O - %.* g0 "" 3  0Q ^28% " +* "" *" *$0%KB 0 </:D 6. $% +*#!.

a=0`Y8+ +*$& 28% .B .*  6%K*&$ +XE%K^B28]+*&E$*-+*#/.

^B 287%'$ +6$ $ !% 3\9. .ž% 28%@ $ *w$  'Q:H. Z .B .0 $ a]E$%.

*7$1.* @+*$#1%.

*ž0E %.%K*$O - %. 0 a B 9  - %@=3'Z%@ $/.% $+*$#w.

$ 4 * I .0 * $ .

.

*1%K* <ž8$* 28%@ )$ * Š  )%@828%@9]%'$ž.

 %.*7 "9% 7 Q .

 " a l+ <.%$  *$%&*. aUF\P>%@9%E$D`Y{. $% \+* 28% 0.

% U`v$ / *$%I@   * . $ " > 9) G+2!+ k`A *$ 90'Z%@93%M.0 $ a0 F QB N*$ >%KBQ 4$I2 26 - .&E$*-+*#UF *$.$l .B -+*$#/7{.0 $ a0   .ž+*/.0  .0]{.%$ 3HT0*)$0 a7HT%w.%$L 4. ]+*w3%1.

 0 a*+*Q$>.

9 "*.  .

0 *0F[$!@   * .- %K* AA $  0%$6*6%)34+*  #.M+*!# $ "%K^B3+  N<ž:26%  <ž<$K %#* =+*ž  .B ž *$/ "%K  ).* K. %'[!. *Q:lSAWvP†‰… =F y %@T? 24.  . *ž3> 0%$6*>%I3]+*$ G #K* K.kF *    Ú  " "  "  rd " " " ( $M %. . $2! .

B l+*#ž "%K  @ K. - %.*&%'e $+ %#K 2L%'( ^B2!+* B 2   3%KB  8 28% .  `Y$/26 ?+2MB2C< K9%#*ž   $ "].

424. Z .

 B 9 * \.

 0 a B 9 F!  4  " 5 * %'X$>E%K^B28 *!%735@ 0.

28%'U$%?$<#*! T. .UFnWO%. .0U` * 4.0 *>3Q*#.

B l+*#!$^ +*$# -+287:afv  GP>$+k†‰ ‰ .3 =0Fe57 $ (NT%]  .0 * .  !2!+*+26 +F Ú  " Ú .B0`j * ]$]*$  . *$7%.  4. &%$%.O .

*$ 7. ( $I* B 28l .0 [ +24B  - %.

B .0 - %. 'Z%@U* O+*#ME$*5 %O.B *    "- .%$ KB$ *- " - E %@%. %O.$ I *$%.\ 0 0B   *$.*$ 8:l& $ "5..

 .0:N -=A%36^ @= *$>  a B$Q e -+^ *4%K.

* .B$0 "- %.B   " - E$4?@.*>%@ 0<F5$ >  `[%$T0Ek` .

0 * .* 3 4#KB " a0  8.*$ 8 * 1  $ a%. * - %.

0.BV .<%'A$/ $ M.B$ ]$] .

3& +*]$) $ " †º !x º %'KX^ +*$#Q.  ./:Z$ž  KB w280" [  . $0 G=60 -+2 >%.

 " Fn +*'Z%@N26 - %K*+* .* K.ž26% Q%'e$7 +$ $ !% 37E*IKBl+*#ž$/+* -  " $#0 (%'n!^ +*$#.T%'O8B* 9 "" *$O+*$# %'(8 > Q$ž9 .B+9\E$*4   OF1WK+* .   $ a0 $A  #. %O.0 * .

 - %.9%O. " `K+*Q8 .*$ %/*$%8. Q$!E*6 %@.

  F (  ( )( ( S+gE*-+*$#1 8. $ .  0<M 7 %.

 426$%@)%'%.

0.V - %.0.*O`Y *$\ 8 0%KB \3/B aIB*  0 a 6 .

" 3  .%.

ŠºººK`j3<»eDFfv +xPM + ¼.½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á]ÂGÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ9ÃÅKÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ/Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É È-ÆeÎ U 3 .J¹ ¸ `.0<l #.

.. The Analysis *  0 B   ].Section 9.4.0 * *%31%K3" +*$ƒB$ G+*$#  0F ST.

%$ +*žI28%. J 726%@9) G #." 3   9 B   ]  \@ ].* K.ž+*ž$E$*-+*$# <$ 2>`v * 1Š=88$*]$/2! ?+*#w.0 *!$ *ž$\ 0  " * . B  4% %K3" +* †=>6*1  0 G "" *$.07%Iž +({.

 %@.28*I30<] .00 a "0 ! 9] B$#.

 $ "0 `$$e?V . K.- %K*8%'j +v.)28%K )#0%K289<F +* $0 "..

0e5 +.0 *Q KB$.Z %@O%$(^ +*#!.

B$0 F S(*1 O - %.%@ %  N<6 .- E1 M% .Q9 .3 H.* .B+9 $>B$ "Q%'n%v.* %.

  .0  .%$L+*)$]E$*&+*)%@V%J2!+*+2Q R]$\* B28Z .%$ B$ ` +2!+* -+*#/*$0/'Z%@A.%.2M3+*$ ž$) .B$ E$*> 9 / /  0 G "" *$. v. %E / /% %K% .*$ %'$7# $ Q{. B  - %.*$ F B)0M +F : B ! +F+†‰‰Š=6 *$ž%9 & E] 0%$6*& 8$] +5.0):D+*]&E$*-+*#ž "< "2=8%)] +X{. B  - %.

 0 a B 9 &.

- .V . ` ( *$  <$ G (.0 *4  "%).0 ^ <1B * 'Z%@N2 +*] "< "2>F * .

 %E 6$ E$V $#Q +g.

  G+2MB - %K* F (   &   pq  )( 'SQu2* * $ž28%On ]. 0 " 0B $  $%.B  73&B$ "7+** B28Z .

 0 a* $ ] ž w2!+*+2 U%'2 26 - .0 0" + F %$TE$D`[24.

 $ G > #@ E$*6%> ^ $Q.

<$ G . OB* 9 "" *$O+*$#4%'$Q.

*%K28* OFn5!+*9   .0 8:"fv  PM +H†‰ ‰  =F[SX 530'Z%@9 `$!+*0#K  . B$ "  %.0 **$728%@9 " + >@ -.*$ +* aE$V %$Y "%.B V.

.

  M24. % .

 %$<0UF1S(^$) $ " 0B2M.

0 * 31? 2!+*$J *  O a. B$ " a &\.0%./ 9IB a +*) 728%Ov 9) " w "%\$ Q$<1.* .- %K* !6 . ^B$ G %K*ž%'8$ .

 0 "*].  .

DF n9w 7   &%' $ " 0B2M.

- %K* 8 . M 9&B$ ")+*M0E %.

%$ ŠjF$! +{.%&$! +[{.<  +*$g  $ a B 28%K*x@O+28*$ G %K*$ +F jF$! ++*MQ.%$  5 $ a B 28>%ž3M+*4$6E$*-+*$#& "< "2>F +*4$Q.+*#> 626%@+‡ ! † F$>2 +*]9 G " * .<  +* TB*  #%@0 ( * "* %.

M. .

00 " F ^UF$! +v%K3<$ (M   # $ 28%O+` s   F jF$6#0%.  *#KBl+*$#>$^ +*#).9%O.269<4%'E$*-+*# <$ 2 %@0 *$%(.

 %O.0 a !:k9F F9`@ # .

]3HT0*!.

  $ "QKBl+*$#>$^ +*#/.  0 %  *%+* .

 %O. " -=0F ~jF$M.

%. ^B*$#g28%E$0 ( e >. H<MKBl+*#>$6^ +*$#7.*$ " *TE$ %O.

 " ` *   (H2!+*$  3<Q.9%O.

0  .2M.B - %K* F F$6E$%. Ú  @ $#K 2_.  #@+3  !.%.^B 28!%'n!E$*-+*$#& "< "2 …jF$6E$*-+*$#> "< "2  *#.

%K*$KB 0F . %.<  +* vE%K^B26F .$ 9&%&Q.e.0 *]3 .*$> %K*#U` V  #.

 0 a*/3<> (   ‰jF$9 G " * .4%7$]  .B Z+*$#]$4^ +*$#ž.  *#4.%$` `U%@0 4*%8.B 126" @{.

%$!` !  (    *> O 3$ - .%&{. ]* B 243 -=0F †ºjF($6{.$ *$#4+*4$  `@%@P& .%$_:"y * *%&{.00 a :NKB%&4.%$ +*Q$6E$*-+*$#& "< ". %@.%$(=0F `K !*$%e  .8{. 2 †† F($> 0  " * .  *$#M+*4$6E$*   OF  ]] 3%E$] $ " 0B24./3<MQ.

^ %$5+*#I28%OU $ ! $%$8*)+*\y@ #KB ]‰KF Šž &.*$ `U$&'Z%.- %.

 %.

% "jF>S .

^B*$#.

B .0 ^ \ $ !$ž.B$ $0 !$ž  .280" +`[ *  3%%'$2 :"*%$ .

 "%.*=4.

9%K.

0%.½0¾¿½0¾À0Á7Â-ÃÄ ÅQÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁÍ9à ÅUÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ)Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É ÈkÁÎ .U7 +  9%KB#KM ] %.*$#j`@ "  #K(.%K*$KB 0F  †† ¼.

J¹ ¸ `OŠºººK`j3<)»eDF(fv +xPM + .< l #.

Chapter 9. Venting System Design yO #.B 9Q‰KF ŠK‡gSƒ G+2M.

 .*:N‰jF+†$= ne%.*  < KB$ - %K* X*$06%>3 a%.  .  :N‰KFm†= ( U  n .B - %. E$UF[Y%6 "%.26%@'Z%@!E$*-+*$#& "< "2 $&26 $ " 3  *$.<  +*$<   )(  u   . E$( 0` 6.0%'[$4 +g+*Q$4.

<$ G .0  .

9%K.

269<M *$&$&. 9- 0 %'[$! +A*&%)39 &%&!#0%.

00 " FgST.0%@ O+*#>%] $ " 0B24.0.9%O.

- %. *]3Q?@.* j`@$Q +T26 $ a (.

 0 " a] $ ^   s.

 :N‰KF Š= ~ 5E$%.< +* TB *$[ $ a B 24.^B 28!%'Q.

0 *]3!8l D*M $ .- %K* ].

  .

*]:N‰jF+†$=5 9.     5B$ ` $9 "N2 :N‰KF = 21) )( +*4 .B - %.

9 "*/3<    s .

        . . .

  ^  ‰KF =   X HX   @   $7^ +*$# .

B > +*ž žE$9<\ $%@9]. %O.0 a M%O.0.

 * KF_5 $+* J%'!{. 90'Z%@9    *$ 'Z4 /+*$ G #K* K.l %@w-+28    ` * I.%$C 190'ZH9ˆ%J $ Iy * *% {.%$L \$ $ !%.37? .%$ 4 F_5 +* "" *" *$0%KB {.

 0 a "w+*]H28 4%'$ž9 G "" *$.0>%ž${.%$` `v .

 0 " 0B V - %j`.l - .%$ WU . * $!.$ V .0 (%'(y **$%&{.

%$   !9 .+ %K†‰  =F(iA*%$6 #%'(y **$%&{.B+ &'Z%@[? .

 *]3!8l D*M $ " )(  (  s V     . .%$  4. 21  Q    s V   21 s V    8$  Z   Q   q u   %$ $     V  Z   Q     Q z   { #""   ! ‰KF =   ~ ‰KF = J & •ŽŽ-! § '§a±/¢G•-‘[¯™"™-ŽA‘Z’H-” ™™k°G’Z™-Ž-‘k” ©G™-– ˜a£•Ž-8ŽšX™-“+§-‘n¯§§ W"‘™‘l«G“m” ¯” ŽGœ’H¢” ‘('$§"±7«"•Že¯™¬9§Ž-® LO™©-™-“c’H¢-™*) – ™‘N‘£•e¯G“9” ™¬K‘kššX•G“^˜T§Ž & •ŽŽ-§+'$§"±1” ‘n¤G“+§G©” ™6” Ž $Y¤¤™-Ž-” °!­[® .%.%K*$&N2 +*4 KB - %. 0 a G+*$#&! ".* ‰jF+†$=F  $&26 $ " e{.

0<l #.J¹ ¸ `-.ºººK`j3<»eDFfv +xPM + ¼.½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á]ÂGÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ9ÃÅKÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ/Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É È-ÆeÎ U $ .

B 0`  `K e.* . &* B243v T6* * .5. .  $>P& . l - . B  3<]y * *%M{. Results and Discussion  Q  .0  .Section 9.0` `@ * 4$M.8%M$6.  V .%$ˆ.0 T'Z%@Y$5E$*-+*#> <$ 2 9 G "" *$.0%.

%K* "" *g *$! .QP& .B - %. . B B2 E$*-+*#U`$$* * .* ‰KFm†=`O * /  NV *#O+*#U` <   ‡   Q@   (  s     ^   Z  Q7 s .9 " B  4V - %jF 21& $426 ?+24B 2 E ^B%' 0F m*5E . Q* B243k` `O X.B  % 21 F WUB 3 "- B-+*$#& KB$ - %K* ‰jF @= *  ‰KF =+*% .

* ‰KF =.*4'Z%@  26 $ a >'DV . "  # $ .V - %. j+*#.- %K*\%'-+28w &*wH2!+*$ƒB$ G+*$#.  .B  $Q "%K^B- %K*4%] KB - %. *34%K3" +*$ž30<* B28Z .- %K* +*\$1. .0 E N<w $ ] I'DB* .    ( )(      Q    )(  s P s   Ú s Ú ‰KF =  F(5 0  .

 $ " 0B2M.

- %K*@F X X+24.

%@9" *v%>.

0 * .$ F T.Bv$  #.* K.%@+*v%.T%'.

V 280Y9.

AT%. 0 "* . B &]. B - %. $ - %!30NT*T$X^ +*$#e-+28A * $XE .%K* "" *M26 $ " {. 1* B243X8$* $&# $ 824.*T-+28 F   $g -+28X8 .<  +* X'Z%@A .B  !3  KB+  %žE .%$L ] 8$/26 ?+24B2 P& .

V B 97 * w.

% U` $/.%$  !.*&$ 6 {.%K*$O - %.9 " 0B /926 +* 8$$+e+* - .E ^B `gB *$X$].

9 4 M. 0 " 0B @   * .%$!F => * ]?@.ž30NT*/28%K 1. $% M{.0 E N< * /$&%KB  &* ž%'  .%K*$KB    #!*%KB#K%].

*%O. 0 " a/3<  "       21   ( "  s V  _a V   ‰KF …=   )( Z - .%K*$O - %. B  86*  21KF +*]E .0. B B 2 E$*-+*#U`U&E$%.^B 28. j.

B$ $w3< .

%$_V `Y *$)*$ B  0  . %.B @%7$4{.*7 8 .

 0 " 0B +*&$M.0 E N<]%  4*$%6+* .   $ " 3%E&$& 26% .

$l .7.

$ N<!.4.Z - .0 *  ` <   ‡ 3Q?@.B *$QE %@. $% UF5y %@v !  $ "%K*@`.*$Fg5 (. *]3!E$ Z žB *-+.B %%. 0 a B 9$=F +* +XE$*-+*#U`U].0 *]3Q%.%$   !*$%. !E ^B  %'  .0 @   ] "   )( 21 (   21   ( s V     ( " )( " _a V  ‰KF ‰= WUB 3 "- B-+*$#Q KB$ - %K* ‰jF .*$>30<] % % $+*$#>  . j.B - %.%K*$O - %. @     80*] $ $4   > 626  (!-+28 V - % 21  :   .**$ B 9 8 8$>{. l - . =A+*%Q KB$ - %K* ‰jF ‰ =` *$7B +*#!$'l .g g5 a%.Z - .   KB % 21 *$] a%&Q.* ‰KF …=`U+*Q8 .

 0 a "] $         21.

   1 8$    X$5 0.

* @ - %K* +*$ G (6.0%.B  /3Q?@.<  +*$ $ 21 $%.0M%' "%KB* 4 X$+* - $.

*OF & .0 @E ^B$ - %K*!%'n$Q KB - %.B - %.%.* O - %.G" m Ofv mxYP>$+)(.*$ -=F $&9 B   %'g 7* B26l .q*   u Q*  '   *Q  *Q* $'  (   ‰KFm†º = 243 *T.*$ +*4$.9 " a/3< O c .

 %O.*M 9.0@+*$#& ".- %.

9 "* .

B ‰KF K`6 .5?@+3  e* .

 0 " 0B e8$*8‰º ‹%'j( "9% G6 $  .

* +*4y@  #K %' F ††  ¼.½0¾¿½0¾À0Á7Â-ÃÄ ÅQÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁÍ9à ÅUÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ)Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É ÈkÁÎ . aQ $ g 5'DB * .- %.

0%. " .

J¹ ¸ ` .< l #.ºººK`j3<)»eDF(fv +xPM + .

.

$+*# $J. Chapter 9. Venting System Design .  K  280 /+*{B*$.

*$      `8 *$ I'DZ . F6y@ %.9%O.- %. B  - %. "   \$w 9 ƒ - %U` .2_%$g0" + 7.*ˆ.  .

$  26D` ( fv  PM +H†‰‰  = A $ ('Z%KB*  e$>+*{B*$.0Q%' .

V 28 $ %.*)I.

9 " 0B E$ %.

<  +*$5 KB 7 026 ^+FI5ž+*{B$* .*)ž 0  .B  +8 26./ 26 ^Y%. 28*>+*//.

F)5   . \* B2M3D` * .*7$IP& .M  ($Q%K2!+*$ *8.<  +*$D`T3 B&  #%. $ a >+*$7. %'[$4 9 ]V - %j` `. 9! B O /$ Q G+* .

 O.  280DF %/$  )+*I +5E$*-+*$#J  0  #. 9& * ˆdn%K . B B 2 E$*-+*# fv  GP>$+D` .2  ]+*\E . <I@   *>'D %.

!* B2M3  .)'Z%@8 026 ^ * 4 026 ^ 6*8$MP> .*$'l .%@8%' 21 F  'l .  .[ v'Z%@K 5 026 ^ P& .*$ fv  P>$+k†‰ ‰  =0F[$(0* - %K*(.* K.% "*!$ 8 3 $ "%. B  - %.0 * . "$+*@†‰‰ =]3<w I'l .M* B2M3[   # ` $ XA $ A $%$8*!+*%$U" + M.%@Q $ ] G #.

0 $ a0 217 ( 26 ^+F !'l .0 *73M #.K` `@$.%@ 21 (.*$%@ UF m*4$&26 H%@l  N<4 y %@vE ^B %'4 9 7V - %]#. %'n$Q.  [ *†F .

jF m*Q +UE$*-+*#U` KB$ $   <x "    .  E$&8$*Q$E%K^B26l .   $ a0 ($!E%K^B28 9 {. 0 a B 9>+* .%$ V 8%'[ +nB *-+ KB $ G  <x ""  5  .6 +v{.B %&$E%K^B28&.%$‹ Q%KB5  .

B 0)3<Q&.

 %K*@F .

*$ " * 'Vg 8 " & Q.

jF5 $].   .

. 0 a B 9M * ]$72 $ " {.%$_V M 926 +*" +*$.%.

B $ G[   <. 0 " 0B /+*/ .

x "" ) M )'DB* .- %K*)%' F y %@e 26 ^YE ^B 4%' 91 ]*%  c #"  ! ~  Z  (   !   )(    .

*$!$].  v *>%. <x "" Q " $# F ƒ$*  % Z  (  UQ  (   5#.

0%. 0 " 0B & 5.0 E$B.* .

*$8$M. *$78$*   0 "  *4%.A V `.

%K*$. EQ%$8*A V F[5 ">9 B   e  4+*MO+ .(.%K*V $ T% .9 " B  4 (.

=0`Y»e .  E %. †‰. $ WO .  630<&WO .B$ 626%.

 »eV .

k†‰  =` g$+*  +* †‰ . T+*  "</ *$ . ^ .†‰ .=`U69ž26%@ Q $ a B 28/ 6$/.=T *  T+*  a<    *$ w ^ .

*$ " * * 7  Q D" +*+* "" *" *$0%KB 0 <!'Z%@n +vE$*-+*#UF ! ~ Ú  Ú ! . 0 " 0B 7 *  26 $ "  {.%$‹V  26 +*>.0%.

yO #.B 9Q‰jF j‡5&.

 0 a B 9V - % e'Z%@[ +n * E . B B2 " %~ " E$*-+*#] ‰º " "  %'n$&.

 "%.*4 "9% G " Y%] 'Z%M6  % 8.24.0%.

  " T +*$.<  +*$D`B$ /*% .0M†$=(*$%M# $ 826 $ "   ž 'V+*\$\.  - %K* †ºº %'6  % =e 528 *+*$#.

=>$žE*]. * 3 28 $ B 9j`e *$ .0 *J3 3  %O. 0 a B 9\.  .

$ 9- ^ <7%@X%" ^ < 8$* ž%'] ".0%. 9% G FM5B$ `Y$ D.24.

 - %K* * ž%'/.

 " -=6%' . %O.

$*4‰º %'[!  % Q e .

 aUFAyO #.B 9 Q‰jF .

 0 "* $8*  ^ +*$#7.

 " 5 e0 -. l+3&8 'Z%@ . %O.

 0 " 0B w - %. $ > /'DB *$.

* F. .- %.$7* X.

 0 " 0B  9 ^ <žI.

9 " 0B \V - % =   .

"   h   "   #"  $ Q0 a.Z+3w+*\ .

y@ #KB ]‰KF KF$/.

0 E N<1+*$.9 $ "0  . 0 " 0B +*7$O ].

  4+* - OE ^B$M6*   'Z%@T +gE*-+*$#jFQ5).

 0 " 0B 7 2 +* ! ^28% " %'(  .%K* ""  * .

$0 6E$ ^B$!%'A† F . 'V 9 .j Fg .

 (+24.

  0 $ A6E*e     0B *].BB 2 E$*-+*#UF5WK+2!+ A 0 0B  8. * <&  # 8$*    'Z%@g +nE*-+*$# * ]6*   'Z%@nE$ . *3 .

* .B6…  %.- %.B K26 $ a e'D .*  ! "9%K*#K <7%.* 3<7 3%.3$ "mE$6*Q& 0  .

 %DUF  8O a. B$ "  %.*> * ]$0 a7 0 0B  8  7.

 <.0%@N . $ "Q69& ^ $> $ a B 24.9'Z.+*& ].

jF %$TE$D`.*$  & a - .$)9 OT%@N 1 6O  9* *$)$> $ " 0B2M.- %.

- %K* Q E$M%)? 2!+*ž *$ "%K28!%'2 9 ‡ † FSX a B 24.

$ 4.*OF 5 *#O+*n$ $ X%M*$ B 98$ g$Q9 G "" *$.28%O+`3 B7V $8#KB 1+*ž$1 G #.- %K*1%I$.* †1 /*$%> J9 l .%$(= $ T%  3& $ 6 026 ^.%$ * 28" ${.0+*6$Q28%K Q%M +U{.- %.

" 0 8$ 5*#O+*X G #K* $7.% " G+3  F 5#KB MO .

B /280"  =( $ ( $  0%@9 $ !. &'Z%@X + *   $&  .

% " G+3  F ( ^ .jFSX a B 24.

*$ j` j`.! $ " 0B2M. * ž†º&  !E$9<79   - .- %.

- %K* FAy %@[? 2M.

  ` !H %@g+*]B +*# Y^ .

$ a B 24.

- %.%.*  ! 0 " e *MºKF  )F .

0<l #.J¹ ¸ `-.½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á]ÂGÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ9ÃÅKÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ/Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É È-ÆeÎ U  .ºººK`j3<»eDFfv +xPM + ¼.

5.0 - %K*)6*1 $ a B 24.Section 9. Results and Discussion jF 728%Og  *w+*$O .

*   &#%@%OjF +*ž$1+* - [ " $#0 %'6  ^ +*#.- %.

 %O. " -=gM.

9 " 0B  TE$9<! 26 ^ * &+* .0 $ "5M.

$=g%>%.9 " 0B  'Z%@V.

*6  .

  4 ! 026 ^+`v * ž90'Z%@9&$]# .

/ Q ^28% 6R0 %jFSX !$>^ +*$#w.

9%O.00 " &.

 %#K9 " a0 ` M.

  $ a0 ` * 4$ 'Z%@ 5$8# .9 " 0B !+* .

9 $ "UFnSJ G #K* K.4 +*$. *g# .

B+ 0 TE$9< G #.&9 .0 *!.* K.

B . 0 " 0B >8 . ]%O.0.

 6%K* <7 5$M* . " $#0 %'T$>^ +*#I.

9%O.00 "  *$/%K* < + FX B ` 5 $ " 0B2M.

- %K*M eE$9<  $ a%.* 3  F 8$*Q$!    - % ( 26 ^+`  )(  ^UF(SX " B 24.

$ > M $ a B 24.* ~7 5 $ " a%@.- %.

 *$#M+*Q )( 9 G " * .*M‰K`U3 B !28%@ ! "*$ G - E$Fg5Q.  *$#/+*ž $ " B 24.- %. 1.

B$* </ 1.$ *$#)+*/I.- %.*$ " .9 0 M.0%.*\+*/‰I.

^B *$#  E %@.$ N<F $ .

  $ "). 7$w.*$ " *&E$ %O.$ N< .B Z+*$#ž$)KBV - %. ^B*$#>  .*%'7^ +*# .$ N<.0%.Em< 'l $ "0`!%$T0Ek` ]E$ %O.

$ *$#) $# +*). %O. " F157.

00 6 +24.7+*/28%K jFM .B )3<*#O+*T *$/* *$.*) 9 G " * .*$ 4%. */3/B$ "1 $  #.

%'X.   -+*$#] ].%@m" * .

B !'Z%@n$QE$*-+*#7 "< "2 0  #.0%{. B B2_E$*-+*$# =8 8 $ a B 24. 4 M 72!+*+24B2L 0 G "" *$.%$F Ú jF(S(*%n#.* +*>E .

- %.- %. B UF  9 l .01$1E*E$%.* F$  *$#@+*$0M$ $ %  KB$.^B 281 "%  ž 0 a ]# $ ž $ % 3\E .*.0 90'DB^ < 0.*)$ $ 8%\3& G #.

M  a%1 $ 5%\3 2!+*+2Q R "%.+*$#)+*)2Q+*$$ $7 0  " * .2666$ e%.

.

%  > 0 "Z .- %.*=F m*> +vE$*-+*#U` 8$*Q 5 $ " B 24.

l+30 v$A  B$ - %K*@F %$TE$D`*$%'DB  ^ +*$#e $ " 0B24.- %.*> !*$%  E$   U`$ 5@   *T28%O00 -.

- %.0 * +24.*(.

 %E$M$].0 B$ ") 9#.0 $ -+*$#w3.

*]%')  .B . UF " ( ~jF(SX " B 24.%@9- %.8 .280" . 1B *$ #%@ M2! ?+*$#  Q$! +X e?  B$ &%]%KB  6$>26%.

*M…7 %.- %.*$Q%'$3$ 7 $ a B 24.

0%.- %.0 $ a0 e$ & 28%@9 $ *7%K*E$*0`n * ž$]* * .3 /@   * E$ ^B$F]5B$ `Y$] B$##0 "w28$%Ož%'.%K24.0 [   I 7*$%Q? .0FIS 30DD`(28%@ .B  . I*B 243A'Z%@@   *!E* 4.%K*E$ G %K*/ >*$%6E$   U`[ * ž$ 'Z%@ &E ^B %'$).\P& . l - .*$ +*4 !28%O+Fm*726 *<>.

  . $ " B 24.0 J28%O 7  KB+ UF.

0ž $ ž30D6E*-+*$#J.*I +*$.0 * *$%/3 B aJ $ 7 .$+*#>$ KB   N<= $%.  E$ * & B * *$. F(SX " B 24.B )'Z%@8\0  #.#.*\.BA*$ B l+*#&$ - 287P& .- %.0 *J3 . ]* B243kF Ú ( (  .

*>‰ 6 .- %.

m- ^ < .

.

 %.

Z 4 $ a B 24.

` ` 5. * B 243 F Y0`[9Q$] 0  " * .- %.0  .*4$> $ a B 24.- %K*@Fe$ 0 G "" *$.B ž3$ $ a %.0&+*ME$*-+*$#] <$ 2L M'DB * .*>%'  * IP& .

- %K*4 e$P& .B$7%I & $ " B 24.B @% 21 F55MH9%@ .*$ " *( * 7 . )*B 243A 8 ].0%.

w* B 243 > 9 26 ^+F)SX Q$]^ +*# .*\ 7 9#/+*)$\+* -  " $#0 M8$   *$ƒP> .- %.

9%#. 0 " .

 0 " a0 ` 4H9%@5 ] KB$. B B 2 E*-+*$#ž P> .6* B2M3U9 .9%#.0UF m*E . $0 n826 ?+2MB2 +* "" * < *$8$ 'Z%@ T  $ a B 24.

- %K* n? .0F$ B .

%$(=X+*6 +jE*-+*$#8$* * * . $% e{. 243Y gE$9<! 26 ^ $({.4P& . 4*     \ - %U`  6Em<\  # *$/$ 'Z%@ M$] $ " 0B24.%$ˆ XE$*M*$%X.

* &.- %.

B  .*& .<>%'X]26%@+`.%@%@kM F n%$T0Ek` 99 9#  K 0 a (M .> G #..0 *13)+24..  E$0   8 +2 * ]$Q *  8%'g 28%OU 9/*$%  .3< !H %@kF1P>%@9%E$D`Y >26%@Y.

B - %K* .*$#4 $ T$E$*T   4  3%E4$  '%'$H<.9%E.0 *6 0%$  T $  %.  *$#%'& 0 G "" *$.($]9 G "" *$.%K*   - %K*$4.0F   )(       " " …jF$4.0F%$TE$D`K " + ).0  .  *#4%'g$QE*8   %@ 8  .3<]" $+*$# +*%.

9% " X ".- %K*@`6H9%@  82!+*+26 +F 'n6E$*   QBH* (%KBX%)3&3 %$   '[%'v6H<.0 . .

0 E$*.9% " e ". .*Q +24.- %.

½0¾¿½0¾À0Á7Â-ÃÄ ÅQÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁÍ9à ÅUÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ)Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É ÈkÁÎ .0%. %E$28*( !*$0jF †† Ú ¼.

J¹ ¸ ` .ºººK`j3<)»eDF(fv +xPM + .< l #.

Venting System Design &    #%# 6   7 *$  <$ G E$*I5 \$1H9%@ -=7+* @ . nE$*7   3 %$ 6 .Z - .Chapter 9.1  E*-+ - %K*1 ]. 0 $ w 7 w.

7%I +{.%@%@( *$.0 v 9 . )\9 G " * . l - . 3%E$]8 .%$L 2!+*+26 +F1 4.

*.280m< * J$I^ +*$# -+28 F $w. l - .$I#%.0 A    "% .*  /%.

" +*#1+*%/ .0%.0'Z%@n* B 28l . E H< ^ +*#U`.B  E*T 9  8$5E$*(9 G "" *$.243+* 6 .%KB*$&.0  G+2MB - %K* X%'8.0%. %E  ) ƒ28 *.24.% D.0.

 0 a G+3+  N<>%'T$># $ 5{.%$!F m24.

*]  "% A $ ( $%$8*OF  "   &  q*  $'S* T* n.0M%'A& G #.%.%K* "NB .%@9" *$.- %K* .

J¹ ¸ `-.ºººK`j3<»eDFfv +xPM + ¼.½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á]ÂGÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ9ÃÅKÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ/Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É È-ÆeÎ UÒ .0<l #.

          .

-)$/*10 %' ††‰ .".      !#"$&%')(+*.

Clamping Force Calculations $/%!" 0  *  J¹ ¸ " " 0 " .Chapter 10.ººº   » .

½0¾¿]½0¾À0Á]ÂGÃÄ Å!ÆÁÆ5Ç$Á0ÅmÈa½ÉcÊžË Ä0ÁaÈ Ë$ÃÌ0ÁeÍ9ÃÅKÂGÃÄ5¿kÃË ¾-ÂÎ/Ê Ï ¾ÐÉ ¾Å É È-ÆeÎ  ]‚ 3 .  ¼.

  .

     . .

.

       .

          .

     .

Ž ·.nn % * "G#V 0 (  *10 %'# #"aU %0  $1§ *    X 0 ( 0 r*+% )% (+#*1#0  |0 * { r*+ % %'0.ÐC¹ ½¿ Ñl¾œÒÓ¸©$Ž¾DŽª¦«.½”³’°ÆՔ· ±CŽ›ÃZ· °<¹ à ¸ Ž °Gݦ¼Å ª.³b°<«¦«»¸ ±C°GÃZ·C°Æ·³’°«C¹ Ç)Ž Ü Ã‡¯¦½Žª.836. 0 *11  0 *+0-)%'%  "  ( 0 ( 0  n " * * ))* ( ¡V)%    a * U # ^V " £ *+ % %¥*1"0 $*W  )" U * )" &%" (¦!" Y[#" %0+p "-n Cn.†e‘bIO—‹„‡†L‘’R\7‘bIaŠhKa‚ 5 Ha„C‘’KMI™˜&5 š›• ƒaH)R@ƒ…5 R@ƒOI 7 H ^KMˆ^NXKOŠœ„C†e‘ RfHLˆeˆMƒJI ‘’z„.¸ °GÃZÃZ °G°Æ¸ ®Zª.0 *10 %' *   * * )[W+$/%LV\V %'1Y ^]`_  0  '" aV 0 ( 0bV #" %# " dc  0 " $/%eVfV  *+(  " " ( #%  ( &( *+% * )  .( [S  U 0 CŸ)*   * %#* )#"~V %#*10 Ÿ  *10 %')(  " 0 !Ÿ % U Ÿ  0  *  0 " " ( #%  ( &(  "*+&(% *#%#0  a( § * *+ %  * *  *  - )(+U 0 *w$  v *10 %'  *+%%0n " 0V (/-a%^VfŸ V *  )"  0 %^.®Z½”°<·¸ · ±Cµ Ž ÃZ°EÀ´®.*  % " ( ¡ c )  $&%LVfV  * %' *   ##"   $&$&% "  0   *+%*  ( @T ##" *+( *   ##" $&$/ *  $/ 0 (  &*+#"GV 0 )  ¢S  !Ÿ $ )% ( # * ) .* n#" a&V ^]0 (¦U 0t~#_ "¤v v  000 $* ' " * a  "V  )%' )V % ."<1= >@?A = BC:D"E!1"GF 5 KQPOR H J L I M K O I N S  *  0 ( ( $.*10 %  CT  0  0 *+( * ) &( *  )U 0 ()V # *XW @T ##" *+(ZY " $.ÞZâ.ÀE°G·. U (+*+ *+% . V 0 * *+ *+% x %'." (  ( * *  )¢W* ) " @T)#(!( #"#"% *+$)(Z(0 Y *+% #%.*10 %' *  #% (.°E®Z®.!-)(/.( *+% *   .«@× ÇÇ ¾D¸ ŽŽ «´®C±C· Î ¸ À.KMP 7 KJŠD„‡†Oƒ‹‚jƒ0Šjƒa‚hƒ^ƒ^R„‡†JHa„oN1KMP†JHaŒ^ƒŽ)†JKJR@ƒJI‹HLI 7 „C†LHa„7N1KMP 7 K IJKJ„\†LH)Œ)ƒXHLIONXKQCZƒ)1„C‘’KQI…“37 †LH)„.¸ «.% S  "  " U $/U "0 * ‡ŸCŸ % 0 "žCv* v   &** " % & $/% .*  % "hg (  # "jikWhc  lV  * .U 7(.¸®¦Ý.«w¸ Ž0ÀEŽ½›·.."   U %^n    -.‚hK „‡†Jƒ ˜ c  0 ( $/% )$ U -)!&( $/%eVfV # *+( *+% *  z{  0 *+% " 0 .µ ³b«¦«¦¼@³b³J« ÀG¸Ï@°ØÕÛÏC¹ ɦ³b· ·.ÇJ¾7á¡â@â@Ð.«.)U 0 ( *  0 " $&%LVfV # *+(  $  .Z°5³Ø°G®C±!½¤¨j©$È É@ÙÔª¦ÉZ·C«¬ ÊQ³ ÊQµ «hÊÌÕ¤­@Ë#Ê$®¦Í ¯h½›³Ú°²¸ °<ÀG¸ ¸’Ž Í ±.×<Þ¦Ë@Ë@ã !ä^å .0bV 0 U  "*+%r   *+ "DsatZu Xc   ##"wv )( (&.    !#"$&%')(#*.n $/*.Ǽw®C½ °Æ±C·ÛŽ «¦Í³°G« ª¦ «¤Ã@¯´®ÉCÁ0Ž¶ ±CÃCà ±CµC«¦µ γb¸ ¯.« «”Ž æ±@Ä «žŽÖ ÀEÁ!_°<·.°<Í ¸ ¸ªZŽ Žº°G¼7½ Ä ¹ Ύ ³bÀE«.·C¼.-!" 0  zy $)0 #$/  |{   0  #" 0   c  0 (  " * 0 (Dn % "* )&} ( ( % $ 0  *+~c $  #0 $  U {  0 *+% "w " d€ ${ LyQV U ( "  H 5 R.-0/1'23"5476.+.*   U #" .v a" 0U0 *0 $  ‹ * V  ª¼.«¬ ¯´·.K‰„C†Jƒ…‚jƒ^ŠGƒO‚jƒ^ƒ)R1˜ “&‘–•b•žMƒX—Q•’H „@K†OƒaH^‚DŠ.!97:.PL‚jƒ…„‡†JHa„oN1KMP|H^‚jƒ‰ˆ)‚.Ç1ª¦°EÞ¦«¦®ÂË@½ÔÑ@®´Ñ›Á0°<ÃCß\¸ ¯´±C® ±C®ZÎ Àh«¦°Gª@³bª¦¯.RCKQƒ^Œ)ƒa‚”“&‘’„C†ˆePML •–‘ R.(% -!$&".m 0V  *10 $ U * )&% "  %^n * ) 0]7_ 0  '" aVoYqp (.

*.aU 0 $ *10 %' (&-)$  )( * #0 (  % %L§    .( *0V*  *+%U ) (&" &(V#%-( '*$    )*+ (3% )S %'* $  ) ) V " *+% %  . "( % U* . #"-!0 *+"&% " (  \ $ S n0 *1* 0)% "  ( " $/Cn ”* SL*+"v % 0 *U’U  ( )0 ( $ U )" %  * % ). What The Establishment’s Scientists Say *  # )#(#""( % 0 $) 0 * *  *+ 3n " ‡n. *+ * U  *   #% ( 0 *1" 0 Ÿ) #"U  %'(&--! " %^n*  * )*)0 * " )$"  0 *10 $ " 0 (CV ( %  #") %'- " %0(+n *  *  00 "  $"  0 *10 $ 0 0 (‡V  0* *    U  ” £ * . "  * * )#"0 * GV  % #"   S" ( aV0  !.Chapter A.-(`( * )Ÿ#* %#0  vU $&** % ))" )0)0" &(""#%%$/%e'Vf0 # 0V % ) $&( ~v ”*+(dSv a0 * V0 U’U (/ .

0/1' U 7v f} U’U Cn U’U Cn Jg #v ¡{ U ~V a§ Ot œc ‡n LV lv Gv U `n v #t aVfV 0n ŽW LVfV 1Y U 0V 0]7_ aV œv Ot U LV wn LV aV hi c#231H3G.+-).s7 []D(V!5KR4.  !"#%$&('*).

3.

Z.a7 ..l4.

S9:7ED[@7ED6HYW.RYD.S94.S9A5BMGNÛc 23 V^]7_Hb7 =[Y5n=aVw7 .s7 HU3!5K3GH(=FD=!5B9›Pn R5]9A23t6uvX7 U’U 7 RYDGuHUR U’U =5YH7 3\4G=.(9A23‰\ V RU.

RLVf\V R]DO4G= U 46W U =9:7 RYDbxc7 1n =FDGM9A26=9= U’U xc=!5K3yW.S9(Hb7 3 4G=.@H7 =[]5K=aw V 4.GNqc 23T7b( V V!R5B9?=FD64<3hR^#n 9A2!7 .S9:7ED[{3D[b7ED3G3!5K.?3HzX<M[\V RU.

R^`n HUR U’U =5K.=FDX!3OHU30V RYD.R0n&" V 7 U’U 7 RYD.g26=!Ÿ 3X!3.S9A5n=9S3GHdX<Mi9A23Žn8=64A9 9A26=919S3!D.

3!DO7ED!Ÿ 3.

S9:7 9AW9S3..S9S3H|X<M~}¤}`wr$#} xj}›yÌv£ xo=FDHTR9A235`V =Z.  R5 7ED.

123!5K3(=FDH0=FX5BRF=6HC7ED0V0]7q _ Hb7 =[Y5n=a V 5K3..

.Z3G=5K4!2N SEDgR5KHU3!5-9SRh4.

R5.W []5K=aV\V =!55]Y xU9A23&5B3‡Pn 3!5K3.5K3G4<9z.

3(4!2=FD[319SRMi c 23@V^]`_ Hb7 =[Y5n=a€ # V 7 .S9l4.a9A23\\V RU.

RLVfV RYD(4.

= U 4!W U =9:7 R]DgW.?3HOX<M(H7 34.

=.?9:7ED[g3!D[7ED3.

35B.<27EVX!3.l9SR0H3‡m 9S35< V 7ED39A235B3 U =9:7 RYD.

S9:7ED[zV =64!2!7ED3\=FD6H[F=9:7ED[HU3.9<jv 3G3!D\9A23Hb7 34G=.

Gx =FD6H&9A23@5B3G.<W U 9:7ED[…\ V 3..A7 [YDgV=5K=aV 3<9S3!5K.

?3G30\V .#5K3(VFWFRYX D U U7 M&.?RLV 3o8n =64<9S.xF9A23&5K3CPn 35B3G33jv RYW U HiDR9 U 7bA§ 3".9?= U  R#‚ v 5K=9S3FN S 9`.a9SRiX!33v 5P7 9>9S3D!O!§ DR#\v DbN ƒ P 5B5 H^‚jNzKOŠœ„C†Jƒ…‚jƒ^ŠGƒO‚jƒ^ƒ)RlˆQKJR‡‘’„@‘–KMIO6 R„ … ƒ^ŠGƒO‚jƒ^| ƒ †ˆ‡ 3 U’U xU9AV 23(RYD1V6iY =FV!V03!] 5Ì_ Lv ==!.

27E3D@Hh3@X!T 3‡9APn5B3^R\V5B3@3fZ4.

Z3.}¤=}`.

w.r$N`ˆ} £ WFHb5Q79A323!4.

=5G\V .?9:R7ED5K3U[gxe3!7 9#D[=67E4<D9A3.

W3= 55LtU’U M=FD.

:=<M 9A26=9*9A23kSW 4<ReVf\V RYD1Y~V RHU3 U 7 .HgWUVF9AV!2R3\5B9S3!. 7ED9A23qSW 4<ReVf\ SW 4<ReVf\ V RYD1YzV RHU3 U N … ƒ^ŠGƒO‚jƒ^{ ƒ ŠŒ‹ 35QM1=FD[]5P7 U M]^8^apR#v HU=5B3a9A23 =FWG9A2R5B.`5‰5K9AR25B3.¤\v 5KRYD[vN ‡ 23!D 7ED~n8=64<9.m.

xY=64.

4.

R5KHb7ED[9SRO27bVgxv7 9 7 .œŸ3!5BMhW.?3‡n>W U N … ƒ^ŠGƒO‚jƒ^ƒ{Ž c 230X7 <.

.?3.œ\v 5KR!9S3hf.5KRC=FVFV!5BRF=6462]^7c r 2=FD[3H09A23z\V 3=FD!7ED[0R0n›v 2=9`9A23=FWG9A2R5K.=5.

3(9A23 >W R06 Ÿ = U 3GHiX!R!6T 3GHa@Y 4.

RLVfV 3!D9ÔPn R5o3@!T =a(V V U 3!.

\V!5KRbHYW64<3H0=hD3Cv 9‰MUV!3 U RU[7 47\v 27 462@7 .<WF5nHvN}m=a\ V 3 U MGxY9A23Hb7 .Z4!2=5B[U3(4<R3<047 3DG9.t N›c 27 .?9 =FX. = U \V R.

?9?=FDG9DPn R5p=O5‰WUDFD3!5mR5p4.xÌ*r ‘ex-7 .\4<R]D.

?.A7EX!7 U 7 9‰MGx^\v 27 462g7 .l9A239SRYV7 4#R^*n 9A23gV6=FV!3!5>xF9A23o8n =64A9l9A2=9œor ‘&4.=FD@RYD U M\6Ÿ =!5BM v 7 9A2"9:7b\V 3UNÛc 23#9A27E5nHOV!R.

Z.=FDFDR9 # X!3#=.s7 []D3H1=5‰WUDFD35].WFDFD35v=FDHH7 3 4.SM.?3<9pR0pn 5.S9S3^r V XUW9L26=!Ÿ 3`9SR(4G= U 46W U =9S3GHoPn R5]3‡Ÿ 35QM1.

=.?9:7ED[ V =64627ED34.

S91V!R.\7E5‰5B3 U 3C6Ÿ =FDG9.s7EX7 U 7 9.Z.=FD0DR!9a3@UT 7 .MGx=FD6H@9A235B3‡Pn R5B3"9A23&\v 2R U 3@V6=FV!3!5m7 .

N 1 ’ 3!D7 41& § “*=!5QuJ”g37E5hg .´jv 3!5hi c 1§ aVfV Ôc U 23046587 9:7 4<.#=FD."=9>9?=64 @9A23&=!5B9:7 4 3C7ED09A2F5B3G30H7 IJ3!5K3!D9 L=.

N 9A23O5K3 P3!5K3.M.

3G."9A5QM09SRTHU3!DMTVUWFX 7 4.

=9:7 RYD X=.?9a5K3 P35B3G3\Hb7 HYD 9c.Z3GHRYD\[]5K= 1=!5?^8^ 23`_-5B.

2R d=FDM eD[ 7 .

2 "7 .S9?= A3.

. f89A2R]W[]2(23\= 3.

Z3G4<R]DHT5B3 P3!5K3.[U3GH19A26=9 23gH7 H <N 23(.

3h26=6H0.ZR \3026=FD6H \587 9>9S3!DiDR9S3.

`DR!9m9A23\[Y5n= =5oXFWG9m9A23#4<RYD9S3!D9cR J9A23\=!5B9:7 4 3f89A23 8=64A9c9A26=9p9A23 >4. RYDg9A23hV!5B3V!587EDG9"fP9 jRhH7 IJ3!5K3!D926=FDH \587 9:7ED[k 0XFWG9l7 9l7 ..

R RYD V qHb7 =[Y5n= 7 .`=FD(R587 [7ED6= .l9A23@V!5KRYX 3 gN p3!5K3g7 . 5BR]D[ 7 .Z3.

[ 3!D9 >5KR r9A23".

WUX "7 9>9S3GHOV6=FV!3!5 ä X 4<RYV.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­s®G¯ .

Referee 1 (from hand written notes)   .Section A.2.

         .

!"#$#% &'()+*.-.

 /0#00 ..

:8<  =&>.34356 7&8  $9.)$12 ..

.

 =)8.

?)6@A=6B?   @C $98@BD E6.

j9A23(5K3 P35B3G3.6 #: FU U kV Cn oV Ûc ( Cn ”Ÿ 0§ ?G H f§ U n U 3G=.?35B3=6H \M@5K3!XFW9>9?= 9SR(9A23(V!R7ED9S.

. =6HU3UN 23(5K3 P35B3G3.

35B.V!RU.7ED@=g.Z3 =. YW6=5B30X5K=64 s3.l4 R.s7EX 319SR09A23R5P7 [b7ED= N *VFWG9 ..?.?R \3(4<R5‰5K3G4A9:7 R]D.A7 RYD=!5K3 A3!V9L=.

9 p9SRC4 =5P7 nMg9A23&5K3 P35B3G3.

. V!R7ED9.

[]\^\_V4["`bacW`dSeTR[]WgfhS"WOXijack"VXdlmacY.JONPJOJRQ@S"TUTUV@WOXZY.N U U 7S eV KI JML.

YdV@WOXZV@WmQ@V"n o"prqtsru"vMwrxMxrory^zo"{O{muMoes}|~po •"€ wrs|Puest‚ € prxƒo^z„xO…|Oztz"u"prx^u]p • ‡u † ‰ˆ  .äeã Cn ‹Š& Œ"(/Ž U).+v+-"/ /1"+-#'‘ N.

’ S"TUV[”“kM“b["`Z•R–e`Z["TUTU["`˜— ’ V@Vl^ac–"l^icac–"lOXdV~•K\_S"`dXdacS"WmY ™ …muesrurš ä N.

Q l^SeYdV@WKXdS•rV4TUS"WmY‰Xd` [PXZV.XZl^V[]žrXZl^S"`~Ñ Y\ÉSeajWOX4±$Ò·lmacQ l Y‰ajXdžm[]XdacS"W.’ ajTUacic["`dajXœ›S"f1XdlmVY‰ž^ŸmT)ajX‰XZV4•TR[]WMžmYZQ`Zac\rXXdS)Xdl^V[]X‰X ["Q l^V~•g¡?ajV¢b[eYœXZajWm–U£‡W^–"acW^V4V@`¤1` ["•^V ¥ S"ž^`ZWm[]i¦["`‰XZacQ@ijVR§©¨ª[”›^«]¬"žmW^VU­4®"®e¯e°‡acY ’ Xd`ZajkMacW^–m± ² …mutoesMx_| • yOu³|~pµ´|]u·¶ro^zPx|~pr¸·¹epr¸|~pmuOues|Ozºo}z~w"»M»oesO¼ € ‚ƒxe…mu„{rs^umz"u]prx o"sMx| •• yeu‡†-½~x¾|Oz¿»u"pMx€| € pmueq„xO…muesr• u„xO…moexÀ€ |”xÁ|Ozºo}z”w]»M»oesM¼ € ‚t• xe…mu·€ {Ms^umz"u"€pMx o"sMx| yeu‡† ² …m•]ue€ s^u€ |Ozp xO€ …|~pr¸³z"u s^€ uexƒo"v wrxÀ€ |”xb† ² …|Oz„oesMx€| yOu { |~pMx_z wrx ² …|Ozƒ|Oz ‚ • u"prxMs^oMy xe…moex· O x m … Ä u M à à M » » ‡ p M Å  Å » r q r u ³ y O |  z x ^ x r o O y " y „ ¼ r Æ s r p b ¸ † |Ç»m{ €€ sMxro"p • uȀ x €• qÉ|]u€ • omzPx|4pr¸ƒu"pr¸|4pmuMues_z† ² …^uº{OwMvÉym| • oex€]•| € p € ‚txO…¦|Oz |4p^‚ s]»_oex| p o"pMp xºvmu·qruryOo"¼^uOq„wMprx_|"y„xO…muºs^ueʁ|Pu"Æ·{rs umzMzt|Oz„‚_|~p¦|ez”…muOq˜† å NË XaÌYW^S"X.QicV4["`˜XZSUXdl^V`ZV4[e•rV@`“lM›RXZl^V(ÍdQ@S"WmY‰XZ["WeX\^`ZV4YZY‰žm`dV~Î["Wm•„ÍdQSeWmY‰XZ[]WOX\ÉSP“bV@` Î Y‰ajXdžm[]XdacS"WmY“bV@`ZVŽY‰\_V4Q@aÐÏÉQ4[]icij›.acYTUSOYœX.

icajkeVXdlm[]XfhS"ž^Wm•¿Ó ijack"V4ij›fhS"ž^Wm•rÔ1ajW([U•racVQ@[eYœXZajW^–UTR["Q lmajW^V”Õ¡.SMV~YXdl^V ÍdQSeWmY‰XZ[]WOX\^`ZV4YZY‰ž^`ZV4Î)QSe`d`ZV4Yd\_S"Wm•gQicSeYdV@ic›UXdSRS"i̕rV4`.

YœXœ›MicVTR[eQ l^ajWmV4Y“l^V4WgacWOXdV@WÉY‰ajfh›"V4` Ó acWOXdV@WÉY‰ajÏmV@`dÔAŸ_S]X‰XZijV\m`dV~YdYdž^`ZV?“["Y["\^\^icajV~•XZSUXdl^VacW ¥ V4QXdacS"W(Yd›MY‰XdV4T֞^WOXdlm`dS"X‰XdicV4•ÉÕ(¡.[eY×bž^l^V@` ’ Q]nrXZlm[PX –"V@WmV@` [PXdV~Y6XdlmV?\^`ZV4YZYdž^`dV`ZV4ØOž^ac`ZV4•)XdS)["Q l^acV@ÙeV.XZl^VTR[]WMžmYZQ`Zaj\rX~± Û zÆmomztzPx^oexruOq|~pµxO…mutoesMx| • yOu$ÜgxO…^umz"uµzr|”xewmoex| € pz¿Æmuesru • … € z"u"p·v^u • o"wz]u xe…mue•"¼ƒ oes^€ uºvMw¦|]€yeq_|~pr¸ÂvÉy €]€•PÝ z+vMwrx„» €€ s^u³|»^{ € sMx^o]prxmy"¼ºx €€ qMu”» €€ pz”xMs^€oex^uÈxO…moe•qxt• xO…^u € ÃOà »M» p˜ÅMÅ#» qrury³|Ozx x^oryMy"¼ºÆMs pr¸Þ-½P‚}|”x¾|ezÂÆrs pr¸t‚ sƒxOÆ vmo^zr| omz"u^z |~xÀz~… € wÉyeq„v^uµo"v_z € y]wrxrury"¼„€ Ærs € pr¸}|~po"pr¼ •"€ € »^v¦|~pmoex_| € pz € ‚ƒxe…muºxOÆ €‚• omz"u^z6† ß ueÊ^uesMxe…muryOumzOz ÜKo]p}oOqOq_|”x| pmoryÂu"àO{ÉyOo"p^oex| p³|Oz¸|”Ê^u"pÀ|4p¶e…^o"{rx^uesƒá↠ !"\ —˜.[#•^V4Ydaj`ZV4•U–O[PXdV?Ù"V4ijSrQajXœ›^Õ ’ S"TUV.SMV~Y Xdl^V(ÍZQS"WÉYœX []WOXb\_SP“bV@` ÎYdaÐXZžm[PXZajSeWmY["YZYdž^TUVŽ[)W^V4“˜V4`TR["Q l^acW^V4Y4n^YdžmQ l.V@Úr\^ic["Wm[PXZajSeW S]f1XZl^VicS"–"aÌQS]f6Y‰V4ijV~QÇXdacW^–UXZl^V4YdVXœ“˜SRYdaÐXZžm[PXZajSeWmY“˜Sež^i̕KŸ_Vl^V@ic\rfhž^i ajW.

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.œAª ä Ž 4.ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

What The Establishment’s Scientists Say N ¤lmV[]žrXZl^S"`~Ñ Y["\^\^`ZSe["Q lgacYžÉY‰V@fhž^iÌÕajÙeV4Y\_V@` Y‰\_V4QXdacÙ"VXdSR[RQ@S"TUTUS"W^ic›žmYdV4•g\^`ZSMQ@V4YZY V4W^–"acW^V4V@`ZajW^–)TUVXZl^Sr• §©\?°bajW(•racVQ@["Y‰XdacW^–ɱ ’ S"TUVS]f Xdl^V`Zž^W^W^V4`ijV4W^–]XZlmY.Chapter A.

Q l^SOY‰V4W §‰­ TUV@XdV@`Ç°bTUaj–elOXŸ_VQSeWmYdac•rV4`VÚ^QV4\rXdacS"WÉ[]i¦acW.•racVQ@[eYœXZajWm–#—›eVXXdlmV[]žrXZl^S"`žmYdV4YbXZl^acYXdS Ydl^SP“µl^SP“ƒTžmQ lgacWV@`Z`dSe`b["WºÍd[”Ù"V4`Z["–"V~ÎÙP[]icž^VfhS"`?¢ Q4[]W.ŸÉVe±‡¤l^V[]žrXZl^S"`TUac–"lOX.

[]iÌY‰S WmS]XdVXZlm[PXXZl^ V .

Se`‰XZ.

TUV@`ZacQ4[]W¡.TR[]WM›\^` ["QXdajXdacS"W^V4`ZYbžmYdV [ -: ` [PXZajS)S]f  #["Y[•^V4Ydaj–eWXZ["`d–eVXbfhS"`b–e[]XdacW^–m±$¤l^V[]ž^Xdl^Se`ZÎ[]Wm["ij›rYdacY˜`dV4ajW^fhS"` QV4Y XZl^aÌYÙP[]icž^ V["Y[)–"SMSr•X []`Z–"V@X4n^[]WɕXZlm[PX.acV¢b["Y‰XdacW^ – .l .Y‰Xd` [”›MajW^–f©[]`fh`ZS"TÄaÐX.YZY‰SrQ@ac[]XdacS"Wg["Wm•.

TR[”›`ZV4Ydž^ijXZYacWg\_SMS"`.

•rV~Y‰ac–"W \É[]`dXbÏÉijicajWm–R\^`dSeŸ^icV@TRYŽ§ aj–ɱ "° ² …mu·s^ueÊ_|]u"Æmues„s^uO‚ruesÉzÈx € z]ueÊ^ues^oMy{ € |~prxÉz+ÆM…¦| • …µo"s^uÀ|Ç»m{ € sMxro"prx„x € oOqOqOs^umzMz† Û yMy„xO…mut‚ € wrs}zr| rumz·z”… € Æ}yeoesM¸^u·uesOs € s_z ‰Æmu·q € p € x·pmuOuOq·x € xro Ý " u !$#h» %·x € € € € ² qru”» • p_zPxMs^€ oexruxO…mo"'x &† …^u pmu³€ zr(| ru$Ü. † -M¼ ‚M‚É| u³|Oz„‚ewÉyMyÂƦ|~xO…ƒsOwMpMpmu"stqrumzr|”¸epz¿Æ¦|”xe…µsru"{rs^umz]u"pr" x !ª»uex^u"s yOu"pr¸Mxe…}z”w • …³omz € pmu„ÆM…¦| • …ƒ¸ € x ß Û ´r¶ Û ÅzqrumzM|”¸Opµo"Æmo"srq _ † ½~p³€ srue• ¸^oesrqmz+x  € :.xO…^• u·sruO‚rues^uOu„s^uO‚ruesOs^uOq„x omz ueà u"{Mx| pmoM) y !ª»uex^u"'s &1ܪ|Ozp xtxO…^uµo €OxO€ wmory·yOu]pr¸MxO…· vMwMxƒxe…mutsru"{rs^umz]u"prx^uOq yOu"pr¸Mxe* … ds^uMoOq·xO…^uƒo"sMx| • yeu·oe¸^oɀ |~'p •&. xO…mutoes^uMoºs^o"x| € ÜK{ÉyeuMomz"u •"€ € »^{moes^uƁ|”xO…ƒ• xO…m€ u € xO€ …mu"s·s^uO‚ruesruMu ÆM… ‚ yOoÉ|Ç» 0/21 4† 325 1 7† 698â†B½ºo~»}p xÀz~wrs^u„ÆM€ …¦| ß … Û ‚ƒÛ ¼ wµsruMoryM• y"¼ € s^u"{rs^u^z"u"prx ß Û ´r€ ¶ Û ÅÇz¿{ € €zr|~x| € * p 4½q_|”qep˜Å‰xƒ‚_|~prqµo]pr¼ ‚ € ´r¶ ÅÇz¿{MwMvÉy^| oex| p |~p³srue¸^oesrqmz+x€ xO…¦•|OzÈ{ • |4pr'x &†-½„q €• p € x³ oe¸MsruMuÂƦ|”xO…tv xO…ƒs^uO‚ruesruMumz6† ² …¦|Oz Ê^ory]wmu…^omz„x vmu oMy wÉyOo"x^uOq·o"prq o"pMp €€ xºv^€u}z”{^u • wÉyO€o"x^uOqºo^z„xO…^u·sruO‚rues^uO€umz omzMz"uesOx^uOq˜: † +myOuMo^z"uº‚_|~p^qƒo"pueàO{myOo"pmoex_| pºx xO…|OzÈ{ |~prx}|4p³xO…^uº{^o"{mues sÁ|~p ueÊ^u"ptvmuexOx^ues}|~p³¶e…mo"{Mx^uestᇆ =ˆ ¤l^V@`ZV[]`ZVY‰V4Ù"V@` []iTR[ ¥ Se`QS"WÉQV@`ZWmY Ë lm[”Ù"V[]Ÿ_S"ž^XbXZl^aÌY\m[]\_V@`~±â¤l^VRÓ T)SOYœXdÔ1TR[ ¥ Se`bSeW^VRÓ S"f Xdl^V~Y‰V@Ô1aÌYXdlm[]XÓ ajX‰ÔacYž^WÉQicV4[]`“lÉ[PXXdl^V\É[]\_V@`. † + sƒ€ qrumzr|”¸ep €• o"ptvm€ u·s^u"{rs^u^z"u"prx^•ueqvr¼³o yOoesM¸^utyeu"pr¸MxO…b† € ² …¦|Oztzr|~xO•"wm€ oex€| p o]pµ vmut‚ wOp^qºxO…rs wr¸O… wMxºxO…mu·q_|]u o^zPx|~pr¸ |~p^qewz”xMsM¼·qew^ut€ x xO• …^uÃMà »M» p˜ÅMÅ» € qruryÂÆM…¦| • …ƒq € umzÈp € x •]€ pzr|PqMues·sOwMpMp^ues qrumzr|”¸ep.

aÌYXdXdV@TU\rXZajWm–UXdSR["Q4QS"TU\^icaÌY‰lA± Ë YbXZl^V\m["\ÉV4` Xd`Z›MajW^–)XZSY‰ž^–e–"V~YœX[)W^V@“³“b[”›RS"f6•^V4Ydaj–eW^ajWm–XZl^V`Zaj–e–"acW^–#fhSe`.

[]WgajTU\^`ZSPÙ"V4TUV@WOX˜XZS)Xdl^VQSeWMÙ"V@WOXZajSeWm[]i_\ ƒY‰SeijžrXZajSeWAnMS"`aÌYaÐXXd`Z›MajWm–#XZSUYdS"TUV4l^SP“tY‰žm–"–"V~YœX [>= TR[]Xdl^V4TU[]XdaÌQ@["i¦Ÿm["YdacYbfhSe`Xdl^V'\ ƒ•^ac["–"` []TÑ Õ ² …mu„{mo"{mues}z”… € ƁzÈxO…mo"x !?&ÂxO…^uÄÃOà •"€ prÊru"prx| € pmory A{ @9B z € y]wrx| € p˜ÅMŪ|Ozx € x^oryMy"¼ Ærs €• pr¸‡.[U•rajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^–mnrSe`acYajXXd`Z›MajWm–XZS ["•^•.

Xdl^V["žrXdl^Se`ZYŽÓ []`ZVÔ Xd`Z›MajW^–)XZSR\^`dV~Y‰V4WOX4± ^Se`ajWmY‰XZ["WmQVenraÐX.acYXdl^VŽ\_SOSe`S"`Z–e["W^Ea D~[PXZajSeWKS]f Xdl^Va̕rV~["Y“l^aÌQ l.Ü CA&xO…m€Mu »oexe…mu”»oex_| • oryÈo"pmory]¼Mx| • oMytz € y]wMx| € pt‚ € stxO…muºA{ @9B {rs € ʁ|Pqru^zo"p ueà uryMyOu]prxºx € y·‚ € s}zPxOw^qO¼_|~pr¸·xO…mutuO‚O‚ru • x € ‚tÊ^oes_| € wz+{mo"s^o”»uexrues_z6† ¤l^VS]XZl^V@`TR[ ¥ S"`QSeWmQV4`dW.

XZl^V`dV~Y‰žmiÐX Y Y‰V~QÇXZajSeW.aÌYž^WÉQicV4[]`lmSP“µYd\ÉV~QajÏÉQ`dV~Y‰ž^ijXZY\m`dV~Y‰V4WeXZV4•gajW.XZl^V`dV~Y‰žmiÐX YajFW aj–ež^`ZV4GY )[]Wm.“lmV@`ZVSeŸrXZ["ajWmV4• §‰Ó fhS"`acWmYœX []WmQ@VÔ1lmSP“ƒ“bV@`ZV.

  !"\ K °Æ·œ°Gª¦« µ «.L  ¸ L¦¼ ä X 4<RYV.•  Q@["icQ@ž^ic[]XdV~•mՔ°Ç± ½Âq € p € x·wMp^qMues_zPx^o]p^q… € ƃxO…^u € sM¸^o"p¦| roex| € p € ‚txO…mu„{mo"{^uests^uryO•oexrum•z+x € xO…mu·‚ro • x xO…^oextxO…mu·s^uO‚ruesruMu„q € u^zp € xƒwOp^qrues_z”x^o"p^qȅ € I Æ H|”2 ¸ 8µo]p^I q J·Æmu"s^u ory wmyOoex^uOq‡† ² …^u <.L  «¦³bÀÆ°E®.ÀE°$· ¹ ½¤ÕDÃ.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª NM ­s® .œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.

3.Section A.“lÉ[PXXdl^V["žrXdlmS"` YT)V~[]WOXS"`. Referee 2 € sM¸ro"p¦(| ro"x| € p € ‚·xO…muº{mo"{muestq € umzÈp € xt…moeÊ^u·o]pr¼MxO…¦|4pr¸tq € Ʀ|”xO…t…¦|ezÂwMprqrues_zPxro"p^q_|~pM¸ Ox …mu •"€ p • u"{rxɀ z+{rs^umz"u]prx^uOq˜†2½~pƒs^ue¸roesrq·x€ € xO…muºwMp^qru"s_zPx^o"€prq_|~pr¸ € ‚·… € ÆIH|”¸OwMs^u 8 o"p^qIJ·Æmues^u vMx^oÉ|~pmueqâÜKxO…mu·s^uO‚Mues^uMuƒz~… wÉyeqºsruO‚ruesMsruOqºx o"puryOu”»u]prx^oesM¼º‚^y]w¦|Pq »u • …mo"p¦| • z+x^ueàMx·v €O€eÝ o"p^q •"€ »mv|~pmuOq³|~xƒÆ¦|~xO…ƒxO…mutueàO{Éyeo"pmoex| € p„{rsrumz"u"prxruOq³|~pµxO…mu {mo"{^uesb† ’ V4Ù"V@` []i¦Yd\ÉV~QajÏÉQQSeTUT)V4WOXZY[]`ZVŽ“`dajX‰XZV@WS"WgXdlmVTU["WMžmYdQ@`dac\rXajXZYdV@ijf TUSeY‰XS"f XZl^V4YdV“bV@`ZV["`dV~["Y “l^V4`dVXdlmV`dV4ÙOacV@“bV@`“["Yž^WÉQicV4[]`SeW.

“b[eYbW^V4Q@V4YZYd["`d›e± ?WmVaÌYZY‰ž^VXZlm[PX. ["`dV~["Yb“l^V@`ZVfhž^`dXdl^V4` •raÌYdQ@žmYZY‰acS"W.

aÌY\m[]`dXdaÌQžmic["`dic›ac`dkrYdS"TUV?aÌYXZl^V[]žrXZl^S"` Y˜XdV4Wm•rV@WÉQ› acWYdV4QXdacS"WmYŽ­["Wm• XZSU“˜SeWm•rV@`Ó “[]Wm•rV4`‰Ô¦S ª“aÐXZlºÍ‰V4•^aÐXZS"`Zac["icYZÎ#["Wm•.S]XdlmV@`ž^WmYdž^\^\_S"`dXdV~• QSeTUT)V4WOXZY“l^aÌQ llm[”Ù"VW^SU\^iÌ["QVacW[)XdV4Q lmW^acQ4[]iA["`‰XZacQ@ijVe± +myeuMomz"uµz”… € Ƅ»utueÊ^u"p € pmuºwMpz~wM{M{ € sOx^uOq •]€ »M»u"pMxÞMÞ .XdlmV@`.

QSeTUT)V4WOXZYÇ«PQSeWmQV4`dWÉY˜acWmQ@ijžm•^ V  “lm[PX.

Xdl^V\m["\ÉV4` Õ¤lmV\m[]\_V@`.XZS•rSU“aÐXZl.•rSMV4YbXZl^VŽXdajXdicVlm[”ÙeV.

•rSMV~YW^S]X.

[ \  #•^ac["–"` []TÖaÌY[]Wm•KXdlmV`dV~Y‰ž^ijXZY•^S"WAÑ X.•rV@ÏmW^V“lm[]X.

Xdl^VžÉY‰VŽS]f$YdžmQ l.•^ac["–"` []TRY@± ² …mu„{mo"{^ues·{rs^umz"u]prx_z+xO…^uµueàro • xƒo"pmoMy"¼Mx| • orytz € yPwrx| € p·‚ € stxO…muºA{ @9B qÉ|]oe¸M€ s^o~».`dV~[]icij›XdacVajW“ajXdl.† ² …mutsrumz”wÉy"xÉz+•"x€ |]u}€ |~pµÊ^uesM€ ¼ºÆmuMyMyÂƦ|”xO•"…ƒ xO…mu• •"€ sOs^u • €x„{ @ B q_|]o"¸Ms^o”».† € .

p^‚ sMxewMpmoex^uMy"¼‡Ü)xO…muÄÃMà »M» p˜ÅOÅ» qMury³|Ozƒ|~p sOs^u xto]p^qÀz xe…mutsrumz”wÉy"xÉz • o"pMp € xºv^u·x_|]uOq}|~pƒÆ¦|”xO…Á|”xb† \  ÀaÌY.

[)`ZV4Ydž^iÐXS"f XZl^V[]\^\mijaÌQ@[]XdacS"W.Ydl^SP“WgacFW aj–­"±$Ò·lÉ[PX.S]f×bV4`dW^Sež^icija Ñ YV~ØOžm[PXZajSeW \A± R¤l^V`ZV@iÌ[PXZajSeWmYdl^aj Y‰›rY‰XdV@TCijack"VXdlÉ[PX.

V4ØOžm[]XdacS"W ­  V"± –m± }§œ­ ° K“ajXdlW ­"n¦­”« rn^["Wm•ª­P« MÕ  ues^u½ »mwzPxtxO…^o"p Ý xO…muºs^uO‚Mues^uMuº‚ € st…|Oz •"€ »M»u]prxÞ-½”‚ƒxO…^u·sruO‚rues^uOu…moOq z]•]ue€ s| € w_z¿{rs € vmyOu”»µwMp^qMues_zPx^o]• p^q_|~pr€¸xO…¦|e€z{ € |~prx‡Ü ½È€ {rs € vmo"vÉy"¼ z~… € wÉyeq„…^oeÊ^u pzr|PqMues^uOq„oOqMq_|~pM¸ƒoƒq_|ez wzMzM| pƒo"v wrx·xO…¦|ez{ |~prx‡Üªz~w • …³omzµ|~p¶"…mo"{rx^u"stᇆ \A± )¤l^V`ZV@iÌ[PXZajSeWmYdl^aj\gŸÉV@Xœ“˜V4V@WV4ØOžm[]XdacS"W ­e§ [e°‡XdS(­O§©Q4°b["Wm•[)•^ajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^–TR[eQ l^ajWmV["Y ͉\_SOSe`ZÎmn6ÍdQSeTUT)SeWmÎ^nr["Wm•ÍdVÚ^QV4ijicV@WOX Î\_V@`dfhS"`ZTR[]WmQ@V?aÌYW^S"X.aÌYbXdl^V` [PXZajSeWm[]iS"`ŸÉ["YdacYŸ_V@l^acWm•.

QicV4[]`.

["Wm•gW^V@V~•^YXdSUŸ_V •rV@ÙeV@icS"\_V4•¦nrSe`[]X.

ijV~["Y‰X.

•rVÏmWmV4•¦± z"uMu„{rs^u"ʁ| € wz •]€ »M»u"pMx Ë XaÌY“bV@ici¦kOWmSP“WXdlÉ[PX¢  fhS"`.

[)•racVQ@[eYœXZajW^–)TR["Q l^acW^V[]Wɕg•racVŽacYWmS]X.

[UQS"WÉYœX []WOX4± Ë Wgf©["QÇX aÐX.

aÌYQSeT)TUSeWg\^` ["QXdaÌQVXdSUV@ÚM\_V@`ZacT)V4WOXZ[]icic›K•rVXZV@`ZTUajW^V¢  fhS"`žmYdVS"W•racV4Y“ajXdl = YdacT)aciÌ[]`~Ñ –e[PXZajWm–iÌ[”›"SežrXZYbacWgXZl^VŽfhžrXZž^`dVe±â×bžrX.

ŸÉV~Q@["žmY‰VTUSOYœX.

[]Wm•.ÙMaj`dXdžÉ[]icij›žmWeXZ`Z[eQÇX []Ÿ^icV.fhSe`.•racV4Ylm[”ÙeVŽWOžmT)V4`dSežmYb–e[]XdV4YŸm`Z["WmQ l^acW^– S  S]f6WMž^TUV@`ZS"žmYb`Zž^W^W^V4`ZY4nMXdS•^VXdV4`dTUacW^V[]iciAS]f Xdl^VŽfh`ZaÌQÇXdacS"W.S"f V@›MW^Seic•^YWMž^TŸÉV4`“˜Sež^i̕KŸ_VØOž^aÐXZV•r!a RQ@ž^ijX.•rV~Y‰ac–"W \^ž^`Z\ÉSOY‰V~Y@± V@WmV@` []icij›•racVQ@[eYœXZajWm–)V4W^–"acW^V4V@` Y‡ÏÉWm•QS"WMÙeV@WOXdacS"Wm["i\  )[]\^\^`ZSe[eQ lK“bS"`ZkrY ØežmaÐXZV“bV@ici¦fhSe`.f©[eQÇXdSe`ZY[eY[#fhžmWmQÇXZajSeW.

•rV4Ydaj–eWg\mž^`d\_SeYdV4Y4± ² …¦|Oz ÃMÃÇz"ueÊ^uesroryÈ{ € |4prx_z Å •"€ »M»u"prx„¸|”Ê^uÈ»u·xO…mu € {M{ € sMxOwMp|”xM¼„x € q_|ez • wzMz]umz xe…mu·‚ € yMy € Ʀ|~pr¸„{ € |~prx_z#" .ä s —˜.

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.œAª ä Ž 4.ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

xO…¦|Ozƒ|Oz„ueàr€ o • xmy"¼ºÆO…moextxO…¦|Oz {mo"€ {^uesƒoryMy·o"vÝ wrxb† € . What The Establishment’s Scientists Say ½ÈÆ € wÉyeq Ý |~p^q^y"¼ƒo^z Ý xe…muºs^uO‚ruesruMu$ÜKx € {ÉyOuOomz"uÂ{rs € ʁ|Pqru„xO…^uºp^o”»umz € ‚ o"pr€ ¼ •"€ »m{m€ o"p¦|Pumz¿ÆM… € » ÃOÃZueàO{mu"s|»u"pMx^oryMyP¼„qru"x^ues]» |4pmu¶m†eÅMÅ +^uese…m• o"{zÈxO…^ue¼ q € |”xµ q ÆMptwMprqrues  Û w_zPxMs^ory^|]oA& ÆM…^ues^u„xO…muCÃMÜs^ue¸OwÉyeoes‡ÅMÅU{M…r¼_zr| z„yOo"Ɓz q p € x³€ o"{M{my"¼ ‰{ÉyO• uOomz"€u$Üg‚ € sM¸• |”Êru+€ »uµo]v € wrxºvm€um|~pr¸txO…mu • ¼Op| • oryºo"v € wrx xO…¦€|ez+{ |~prx˜•"†B x xO…¦|O•"z„€ o"pM¼€ xO…muesºÆmo"¼b†&† +^yOuMomz"u6Ü € »^{m½ o"pro"¼·pMxOp …^oex·x·srwuMoz"umxt z”…€ Æ  » µ u o  z O x …muCÃMà »M» p˜ÅMŝA{ @9B q_|]oe¸Os^o”»o"prqÁ|”x Æ s Ý z6† ´O• wmuº• x € xO…mu€ •"€ »m€ {Mwrx^u"sºs^ueÊ € € y]wrx| € p˜Ü• x € qroe• ¼À|”xÁ|OzÈ{ € zMzr|4vÉyOu„x € • q € • xO…mu € ory wÉyOoex_| pz ‚txO…mu·¶  ‚ sµo}z”{^u |P‚_| qrumzr|~¸Op·Æ¦|”xO…³o}z”{mu |”‚_| ‚^y Æ s^oexru Zq_|]u • om€z”x|~pr¸»o€ • …¦€|~pmu &†7€½~pµ‚ro • x‡Ü.• s^u • Ê^u"s‡ÜKx € qMoe¼·• xO…muesru}|ez·oº{rs ¸O• s^o”»³xO…mo"x³oMy"s^uMoOqe¼ q u^zÈxO…mumz"u |4p^q ‚ ory wÉyeoex| p_z Ü oryMyOuOqº´_|]u +^uesM‚ru x r†  uesru„xO…mu·s^uO‚ruesruMuµ|~prxOs € qew • uºotpmu]ƾ|”qruMo € ‚txO…muCÃMÃd‚ro~» |"y"¼‡ÅO> Å 595ºxO…mu |»m{Ms €€ Ê^uOq •]€•"€ pzPxro"prx·¶  † ½4pu^• zMz"€u"p • u$ÜgxO…mu|PqruOo € ‚ ÃMɀ‚ro”» |"y]¼‡ÅM• Å |ez • |»m{Ms Ê^u pzPx^o]prx·¶  |~pµ• ÆO…¦| … p^uƒo^zMzr|”¸O€ p^uOqºÊ^ory]w^u„x o• z”{mu |P‚_• | ¸Ms € wM{ € ‚tsOwM€ pMpmu"• s_z6 † m|~p u„xO…|Ozƒ|PqruMoºÊ| yOoex^u„xO…^uºv^omzr| {M…r¼Ézr| zÂyeo"Ɓz o"p^q·xO…^€ uº{Ms qew • umz+xO…mu € {M{ € zr|”x^ux €€ sruMory"xM¼·xOs^u"p^qÉzt|~xº»mw_zPx·vmu o"vmo]p^q pmueq˜† Û xOwmoryOy"¼‡Üxe…muÀ|”qruMo ‚ÄÃMÃd‚ro~» |"y"¼‡ÅOŪ|OzÂs^oexO…mu"sºv¦(| roesOs^u$Ü vmu • o"wz"uºo • …mo]pr€ ¸^u³|~pµxO…mutqrumzr|~¸O€ p • o"pyOuMoeqtx € ozr|”¸Op•"|P€ ‚_| • • o]prx • • …^o"pr¸^u |~pƒxO…mu·Ê^oryPwmu ‚ƒ¶  † HOwrsOxO…m€ ues]» s^u$ÜRxO…muCÃMÃd‚ro~» |"• y"¼‡ÅO€ Å p €Mu"€ {rx o]pÀyOuOoOq x € oº• { €M€ sƒqr€ umzM|”¸O* p ds^uOoOqƒo"v wrxtxO…|Ozt|~pµxO…muz"u x| pÄÃMÜ{ stqrumzM|”¸Op uO‚M‚Mu €x_z ÅOÅ ‚txO…¦|OzÈv €O€eÝ &†  € Æ € pmu • o"p³qru • |”qruOqÂÆM€ …| • …µqrumÝ zr|~¸OpÀ|Oz {moesOx € ‚tÆO…moex€ ÃMÃd‚ro~» • |"y"¼‡• ÅOÅ š¹OÊ^u"pÁ|P‚·xO…muesruº€ Æ^ues^•"u„€ p » |O• zPx^o umz ÜKxe…mu o"wrxe… s‡Åz »uexO… q  ory wÉyOoex|4pr¸„xO…^ut¶  &µ|ez ‚ wrs_z"u …^uMo"{muesƒo]p^q ‚romz”x^ues·xO…mo]pµxe…muºs^uO‚ruesruMu$Åzºz~wr¸M¸^umz”x| € p·o"v € wrxÃMɂro”» |"y]¼‡ÅMÅ € ‚ƒsOwOpMpmues qrumzM|”¸Op†-½~p¾z~w"»M»oesO¼‡ÜKxO…¦|ezµ|”qruMototÊruesM¼·vmoOq}|PqruOo‡† ™ …mo"x}|Ozº¶  / •"€ p_zPx^o"prx^š ² …^u·sruO‚rues^uOu„s^uO‚ruesÉzÈx € xe…mu • omz"u„ÆM…mu"s^u·¶  |ez •"€ p_zPx^o"prxº‚ € s}z”{mu • |P‚_| • sewMpMpmuesƒqru^zr|”¸Op·vMwMxtÆO…¦| • …À|Ozp € xƒxO…mu • o^z"u|~p s^•"uM€ oMym|”xM¼b† € ² …mut ¶  q € umzÈp € xµqMu"{mu"p^q € pÉy"¼ € pµxO…muºsOwM• pMp^ues‡ÜKvMwrx • € pµxO…mu € »^v¦|~pmoex_| p ‚txe…mutsewMpMpmuesz”¼_• zPx^u”»µ• Ɓ|”xO…ƒxO…mu·q_|]u o^• zPx|~pr€ ¸»_o …¦|~p^u„ʁ|]o xO…m u ^uºpMw"»^vmuesb† ² …Mwz Üo}z”{mu |P‚_| sewMpMpmuestqMumzr|”¸Op o"pMp xº…^oeÊ^u·¶  Õ"M€ ÃZo^zMzr|”¸Op^uOq†ÅMÅUx € |”xb† ² …mu·¶ (…momzÂx € vm• u • ory • wÉyOoex^• ueqº‚ € sµo"pr¼ »^v¦|~pmoex_| pºsewMpMpmuesz”¼_zPx^u”»µÆ|”xO…µq_|]u omz”x|~pr¸»o …¦|~pmu↠½È€ Æ € wÉye€qƒÝy^| Ý uºx € ‚_|~p^qƒo"pr¼ • o^z"u„ÆM€O…m€ ues^uºxO…^uÄÃOà •"€ »M» € p˜ÅMÅU€ A{ @ B q_|Poe¸Ms^o”» q• u^z+€ Æ s € † Ý +^yOuMomz"u„sruMoOq·xO…mu„{rs ‚Ézt|~p³¶e…mo"{Mx^uestá}z”… Ʀ|4pr¸„ÆM…r¼Á|”x o"pOp xºÆ s † ¡?aÌYdQ@žmYdYdacS"W[]Wm•g`dV~Y‰žmiÐX Y –"`ZV4[PX.Chapter A.

•rV~[]i¦S"f6•raÌYZQžmYZY‰acS"WKfhSrQžmYdV4YSeWKXZl^V`ZV@–"acS"WÉY˜“lmV@`ZV   :. .

±c­  ›eVX.

 .Xœ›O\macQ4[]iA•racVQ@["Y‰XdacW^–R•racV4GY   :.acW.

± ¯XdS ± ® r± +myOuOomz"uºs^uMoOq·xO…^u •]€ »M»u"pMx_z+x € xO…mu„{rs^u"ʁ| € wzÈsruO‚rues^uOu Ë W(QS"WÉQicžmY‰acS"W1nraÐX~Ñ Y ¥ žÉYœX.[)\^iÌ[]acW(Y‰icS"\^\M›R\^acV4Q@VS]f6“˜Se`dk ½È… € {^u·xe…moexts^uO‚ru"s^uMuºq € u^zp € x» |~p^q·xO…mo"xÁ½ÈƦ|"yOy„w_z"u|”xo^z„xO…^u • …mo"{rx^u"s ew € x^u‡† ä X 4<RYV.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­s® .

Section A. Referee 3 §hXdl^V .4.

xO…^oex xO…mu„pmo~»uto"{M{muMo"s_zt|~pµxO…muºs^uO‚ru"s^u"p • uƒ|Oz„xe…muÈ»oe¸^o É|~pmupmo~»utoexµxe…muºx|»u € ‚ Ærs|~x|~pr¸·xO…^uº{^o"{muesb†    !"\ . ¤l^VŽfhSeijicSP“ajWm–)Q@S"TUTUV@WOXZY["`dVŽW^S"X.[]`Z`Z["W^–"V~•RajW(["WO›K\m[]`dXdaÌQž^iÌ[]`Se`Z•rV4`4± V@WmV@` []i 6¤lmV?XZVÚMX.ž^Xdl^Se`ZYbV@ÙeV@Wglm[”Ù"V?S"W^VS]fAXZl^VŽ`dV@fhV@`ZV@WmQ@V4Y‡XdSXdl^V4aj`SP“Wg\^ž^Ÿ^icacQ4[PXZajSeWmY˜YdajXdV4•gacWmQSe`d`ZV4QXdic› °Ç± +^u"sO…mo"{z1ÜKxO…muºs^uO‚Mues^uMuµz”… € wÉyeqƒyOuOoesOpƒxO…moex»_oe¸^o _|4pmumz • …^o"pr¸^uÂpmo~»umz„o"p^qâÜ.

lm[eY[WMž^TŸÉV4`S]fV@`Z`dSe`ZY˜ajW–e`Z["T)TR["`4nMžmYZ[]–eV["Wm•gYd\_V@icijacW^–)Xdlm[]X.

W^V@V~•XZSRŸÉV ["•m•r`dV~YdYdV4•KŸÉV@fhS"`ZV\^ž^Ÿ^icaÌQ@[PXZajSeWA± \F.­  ˜\m[]` []–e`Z["\^l ‡¤l^VŽÏm` Y‰XZYYdV@WOXdV4WmQVYZ[”›MY˜XZlm[PXXZl^ V mSP“ƒ` [PXZVŽacY.

[fhž^WÉQÇXdacS"WS"f XdV4TU\ÉV4`Z[]Xdž^`ZV"nr›eVXXdlmV`dV~YœXS]f Xdl^V\É[]` []–"` []\mlKYd[”›rYbXZlm[PXajX.acYdWAÑ X4± ² …^u·srumzPx € ‚txO…mu„{moes^o"¸Ms^o"{M…³z"oe¼txO…mut‚^y € Ætsroex^u|Ozºo·ÆmuOo Ý ‚ewMp • x_| € p € ‚·xO…mu x^u”»^{mues^oexewrs^u„•"o]€ p^q·€ xO…moexÀ |”x³ueàO{ÉyeoÉ|~pz¿ÆO…r¼b† ½È… € {muºxO…mo"x³u"Ê^uesM¼ € pmuºoe¸MsruMumz+Ʀ|”xe…º»_u xO…mo"xÁ|~• x¾|Oz • »M» pƒx € zPx^o"€ x^uto €•"€ »M» € pµomzOz”w"»m{rx_| € pƒo"prqµu"€ àO{ÉyOoÉ|4p· ÆM…r¼À|~pµxO…moex {moesOx| wÉyeoes o^z"u|”x¾|ezÂp € xÁ|Ç»m{ sMxro"prxb†2½Ɓ|Oz”…ƒxO…moexÂÝ » s^u„{mu € {ÉyeuÂÆ € wɀ yeqtq€ € .

wz”xƒxe…moexb† H_|”s_zPx‡Ü |~xƒÆ wÉyeqturym|Ç» |~pmoexru¿»o"pr¼Â» |ezPx^o u^z+xO…moexµoesru}zP¼ep pr¼]» wz Ʀ€r |”xe…µsrumz"uMoes • …}|~p³q_|]u • omz”x|~pr¸‡ÜKv^u • o"wz]uµ|”xµ‚ € s • u^zÈxO…muCÃMÃz@»_oesMx‡ÅMŝs^umz"uMo"s • …muesÉz x • …mu •”Ý xO…mu»o .

€ sƒo^zMz”w"»m€ {Mx| € pz xO…mue¼Â»o Ý u‡† Mu •"€ p^qâÜ |~xº»o Ý umz • yOuOoestx € xO…mu s^uMoeqruesºÆM…r¼txO…^uµomzOz”w"»m{rx_| p„Æ^omz+»_oOqru‡† \  â[Pf XZV@`£‡Ø   ’ l^S"ž^i̕acWm•raÌQ@[]XdVajTUTUV4•^ac[]XdV@ic›RXZlm[PXbXdl^VYdž^ŸmYZQ`Zaj\^X~Ó YœÔ`dV@fhV@`bXdSXdlmVYdV4QXdacS"WmYbacW aj–ež^`ZV)­e± ½ÈƦ|"yMy •"€ pzr|Pqru"sºxO…¦|Oz1Ü ^uex‡Ü ½·o~»p € xÁz~wrs^uºxO…¦|Ozƒ|Oz„o·¸ €M€ q}|PqMuMo‡† F\  ‡[Pf XdV4`.

V4ØOžm[]XdacS"W  ‡¤l^V@`ZVŽacY.

[)TR[ ¥ Se`["YZY‰ž^TU\rXZajSeWgTR[e•rVl^V@`ZVXdlm[]X.Y‰lmS"ž^i̕KWmS]X.

\m[eYdY “ajXdl^SežrX.YZYdž^TUajW^–RY‰XdV~["•r›KY‰XZ[]XdVÎ ‡¤l^aÌY.Y‰SeTUVŽQ@S"TUTUV@WOX~Ó Y‰Ô K<Í .

–"SMV4YbXZS)Xdl^Vl^V~[]`dX S]fXdlmacY["\^\^`ZSe["Q lKXdSUXZl^VŽÏmicijacW^–RQ@["icQ@ž^ic[]XdacS"W[]Wm•gV4Y‰XZ["Ÿ^icacYdl^V4YbXZl^VŸ_S"ž^Wm•mYS]f6aÐX Y[]\^\mijaÌQ@["Ÿ^ajicajXœ›"± ¤l^V["žrXdl^Se`ZYYdl^S"žmic••raÌYdQ@žmYZYbXdl^aÌY\_S"acWeX~± ™ uMyMy6Ü ½x € x^oryOy"¼tq_|Oz"o"¸Ms^uMuƁ|”xO…ƒxO…mu·s^uO‚ru"s^uMu € pµxO…¦|ez{ € |~prxb† ² …muÈ»o .["YZYdž^TU\rXdacS"W.

€ s ewmu^zPx| € p|~pqÉ|]u • omzPx|4pr¸}|Oz… € ƃx € u"pz”wrsru„xO…muºs|”¸O…Mxƒsro"pr¸^u € ‚ƒ‚_|"yOym|~pr¸·x|Ç»u € • ory • wÉyOoex^uxO…mu·¶  o"p^q·¸^o"x^uºÊ^ury ]€ • |”xM¼b† ² …¦|OzÈ{mo"{^ues‡Åzª»_oÉ|~p •"€ p € • uesOpÀ|Oz• … € ƃ• x r o"p^qtqru"x^ues]» € |4pmuµ|P‚txO…mu·¶  vmuC• ÃMÃZomzMzM|”¸OpmuOq$ÅMŝx oz”{mu |”‚_| € sOwOpMpm• uesb† ² …muº€ wMpzPxruMoOqO¼ zPx^o"x^u|Oz pÉy"¼µozr|PqrutuO‚M‚Mu xƒo"p^q·…momzÊ^u"sM¼³ym|» |”xruOq|»m{ sMx^o"p uÂqewmu·x Û ¹  ‡†  ‚ •"€ wrsÉz"u„xO…mu·‚^y € ƾ|ezÂp € x •]€ prx|~pOw € wz rzPx^uMoOqe¼tz”x^oex^u·o"prqÁ|Oz„oO‚O‚ru • x^ueq„vr¼Â»o"pr¼ {moesro”»uex^u"s_€ z„z”w€ • …³omz„xe…mu„€ {¦|OzPx€ € pƒÆ^uÉ|”¸O…rxâÜ.uex • Ü(oryOy € ‚ºÆM…| • …³oes^uºs^uryeoex^uOqºx € xO…mu xMs^o]pzr|”x€ | p„{ |~prxµo"p^qºp xƒx xO…muºA{ @9B q_|]oe¸Msro”»ƒ€ {muesÀz"u‡† ² …m• u„wM€ pzPx^uOoOqO¼³zPxroex^u ueà|ezPx_z pÉy]¼Á|4p³xO…^u}|4p¦|”x|]oMyºo"p^qt‚_|~pmoMy³z”x^oe¸^umz ‚ƒxO…^u}|4p .

À —˜.± Î ®.L.ä Ä ÀÌ°Gª.«D³b« ¹ «¦³b«.®Z°<¸ · L.«¦³Ø® Î «j­. u x_€ | p• † Û zºo ¸^u"p^ues^ory• sOwmyOu$ÜK…moeÊ_€ |~pr¸ƒoºÆmuryMyºqrumzM|”¸Opm€]uO• q„{ @ B q_|]o"¸Ms^o”»ƒÆ|"yMy€ {rs q"w u·€ o zr|”¸ep¦|P‚_| o"prx³|Ç»m{rs Êru”»u"prxµ|~pµxO…mu„{rs umzMzqrumzM|”¸Op†-½”xÁz~… wÉyeq„v^u·p x^uOqºxO…mo"x³o ‚ewÉyOy„{^o"{muestq_|ez • wzMzM|~pr¸ºxO…^uºwOpzPx^uMoeqO¼zPx^oexru³|OzÂv^uÉ|~pr¸º{rsru"{moes^ueq·‚ € s·{MwMvÉy^| • oex| € p oexƒxO…mu„{rs^u^z"u"prx·x|Ç»u‡†  .« Î ·‡·¦¸ L¦¼ ¹ ·C³O· L¦«w·@³LÀE«hÝ.

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.œAª ä Ž 4.œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

Chapter A. What The Establishment’s Scientists Say Ë W–"V@WmV@` []i_Xdl^VSe`d–O[]W^a D4[]XdacS"WgS]f1XZl^V\m["\ÉV4`acY.

“ajXdl V@›MW^Seic•mYWOžmT#Ÿ_V@`aÌY.† ¤l^ViÌ["Y‰X\É[]` []–"` []\mlS]fXdl^VacWOXd`ZSUacYQ@S"WrfhžmYdV4•¿Ó QSeWrfhžmYdajW^–"Ô ±$¤l^Va̕rV~[acWOXd`ZSr•ržmQV~•.Y‰lmSP“ƒl^SP“ƒXdl^V \^`ZV4YdV@WOX“˜Se`dkUÏ^X YacWeXZSRaÐX~± ² …mu„{rs^umz"u]prxºÆ € s Ý q € umzÈp € xƒ‚_|”xÁ|~prx € {^omzPx·Æ € s Ý Þ7½”xÀz”… € ƁzxO…^oextxO…mu„{momzPx Æ € s Ý |OzÂÆMs € pr¸‡Üo]p^qºvMw¦|"yeqmzÂxe…muÈ»oexO…mu~»oex| • oryÈxO…^u € sM¼ºvmu]…¦|~p^qºxO…^uº{ @ B q_|]o"¸Ms^o”».ajWgXdl^ViÌ["Y‰X Y‰V4WOXdV@WÉQVS"W.ÙP[]`Z›Y‰SeT)V4l^SP“µ•^ž^`dacW^–)XdlmVQ@[]iÌQžmic[]XdacS"WAnr[]Wɕ Y‰žmŸmY‰V~ØOž^V@WOXdic›ÙP[]`ZaÌ[PXdacS"W.\m["–"V acYbXZlm[PXXZl^V¢b¡ÀYdl^S"ž^i̕.YdS"TUV4“lm[PX“bV4[]k ‡Xdl^VacWOXd`ZSM•^žmQÇXZajSeWgV~Y‰\_V4Q@ac["ijic› •rSMV4YWmS]XÙ"V4`d›“bV@iciAYdVXXdlmVŽXdV4Q lmW^acQ4[]iAQ@S"WOXdV@ÚOXfhSe`Xdl^V\  TUVXZl^Sr•[]Wm•.

[)•raÌYdQ@žmYdYdacS"WKS"fAXdlmajW^–OY˜Xdlm[]XQ4[]Wgٔ["`d›R•ržm`dacW^–Xdl^V Q@["icQ@ž^ic[]XdacS"WA±$¤l^ViÌ["Y‰XXœ“˜SRYdV@WOXdV4WmQV~Y•rSUW^S]XÏmXXdS"–eVXZl^V@`“bV@ici¦V@ajXdl^V4` ͜XZl^V["YZY‰žmT)\^XdacS"WS]f QSeWmYœX []WOX?¢b¡}aÌYW^S]X.•raÌYdQ@žmYdYdV4•AnrŸ^žrXXdlmVajWOXdV4`dÙeV@W^acW^–UTR[PXZV@`Zac["i []Ÿ_S"žrX–eV@S"TUV@Xd`Z›)V _V~QÇX Y˜aÌYbajWÉQS"WÉY‰aÌYœXZV@WOX“aÐXZl.

ÙP[]ica̕^Î âS"kP[”›"nMŸ^žrX.

aÌYXZlm[PX“lm[]X.

›"S"ž.[]Ÿ_S"žrX~nrS"`.[]`ZVŽ–"S"acW^–XdS)XZ["ijk.

¶  …^omzx v^uts^u ory wmyO€oex^uOq‡† € ß Æ€ xO…^uts^ue€ ‚rues^€ uMu6ÅzºzPx^o"x^• u”»u"pMxº ¶  z”… wÉy"qºÊ^oesM¼‡Ü |ez”p˜Å‰xts|”¸e…rxƒo"p^qtxO…muesruO‚ s^utz »u ‚ xO…^uƒ‚ yMy Ʀ|4pr¸·q_|Oz wzMzr| € p|OzÆrs € pr¸b† ß € Æ}o"v € wrx·xO…mut‚_|”xOx|~pr¸ "wmumzPx| € p† ™ …moexƒq € s^uO‚ru"s^uMu+»uMo]pzÈvr¼ÃMÃd‚_|”x x € ¸^€ uexO…mu"smš6• ÅMÅ'´ € xO• …mu„{mo"{mu"st…^omz€ x € v^u €•]€ »m{ € z]uOq|~p³oƒsO…M¼]» |~pr¸„Ê^ues_z"uMš • Û pr¼O… • € Æ˜Ü ¸^u »• uexMs_| oryuO‚M‚ru• x_z€ oes^u„{moesOx ‚ ^u"¼Op ye€qmz¿pMw"»mv^ues ds^ueÊ_|]u"ƃ‚^y]w|Pq»u …mo]p¦| z & † €  u]p u$ÜgxO…^uµuO‚O‚ru x_z ‚ƒxe…mut¸roex^utoes^uMoµz~… ƁzxO…mo"xµ¶  Ê^o"s|]umzÂomzÆmuryOyto]p^qº…momzÂx • • € •"€ € • €  € vmu· €x ¸^s^uexOu …moru"smy š wÉyeoex^uOq˜†  ÆM…mo"xÁ|ezµ|4p pzM|OzPx^u"pMxmš Ƶq xO…mumz"u³z"u]prx^u"p umz¿p xƒ‚_|~x ?W\.¯mnm[Pf XZV@`.["`dV›"Sež –"SeajW^–)XZSX []ickg["ŸÉSežrXR͉\m["`‰XZacQ@ž^ic["`dic›UXdlmV V V4QÇX YS]f Xdl^V–O[PXZVŽ["`dV~["ÎOÕ H_|”s_zPxmy]¼‡Üg¶  z”… € wmyeqºp € xtÊ^oesM¼ƒqewMs|~pr¸·xO…^u • ory • wÉyeoex| € p_zº|”xÁ|Oz„o •"€ pzPx^o"pMx·‚ € sµo z”{^u • |P‚_| • z"uex €• ‚tsOwMpMpmu"szP¼_• zPx^u~»}o"p^qtq_|]u • omzPx_|~pr¸È»o • € …¦|~pmuâ † • Mu •]• € p^q^y"¼âÜ € p • ut€ o"pM¼ {mo"s^o”»uexrues|Oz …mo"pM¸^uOqâÜ z~w …³omz€ ¸^oex^utoes^uOo$Ü.

£‡Ø ­  Ë XZl^acW^kXZlm[PX.

ajX.

“˜Sež^i̕KŸ_V[)–"SMSr•Ka̕rV4[XZSRajWm•^acQ4[PXdVŽacTUT)V~•raÌ[PXdV4ij›KXdlm[]X Xdl^V~Y‰VV~ØOžm[PXZajSeWmY[]`ZV? \mijS"X‰XdV~•.ŸÉV@fhS"`ZV `dV@fhV@`Z`dacW^–XdS ac– m± .ajFW aj–ež^`ZV mnr`Z[]Xdl^V4`Xdlm["W“b["aÐXZajW^–XdSUXZl^VW^V@ÚOX.YdV4QXdacS"W.

Xdl^aÌY–e`Z["\^lKicS"–O[]`ZaÐXZl^TUacQ“bS"ž^i̕KlmV@ic\.Q4QSe`Z•racW^–XdSUXZl^acY.iÌY‰SÉn^TR[]kMacW^–)Xdl^V  D .–e`dV~[PXZij›RacW(Y‰l^SP“acW^–Xdl^V •r!a _V4`dV4WmQV~YajWgXdlmVŽXdl^`ZV@V\^žmT)\(Q lm["`Z[eQÇXZV@`ZacY‰XdaÌQ@Y4± -ru"prx| € p¦|~pr¸ÂxO…mut‚_|”¸Owrsru •"€ wÉyeq„v^ut¸ €O€ q}|PqruMo„vMwrxÀ½Âq € p˜Åœx³o"¸Ms^uMu„Ʀ|”xe…t¼ € wo"v € wrx xO…^u³y € ¸Àz • oryOu$Ü ½Âq € p € x}z"uMuƒo"pr¼·vmu]pmuO‚_|”xÉz6† ?W\A±­ [Pf XZV@`.S"W.[]ÚMaÌY˜S"W.XZl^V•racVŽQ4["Y‰XdacW^– TR["Q l^acW^ V  .£˜Ø(­"­ ˜¤l^VYdS"icžrXdacS"WS]f6£‡Ø(­e­Ž`dV~Øežmaj`ZV4Y˜fhž^iciAacWrfhS"`ZTR[PXdacS"W.

T)Sr•rV4i n^Xdl^VTR["Q lmajW^VQ lm["`Z[eQÇXZV@`ZEa D4V4•RŸM› ‡TR[PÚ¦n ?TU[]Úg[]WɕKXZl^V VÚr\_S"W^V4WeX.

acW(£‡Ø(­e±$¤l^V“˜Se`Z•^ajW^–)S]f Xdl^aÌY.

YdV@WOXdV4WmQVen^l^SP“bV@ÙeV@`~neTUac–"lOX.

ŸÉVacWm•raÌQ@[]XdacW^–)Xdlm[]XXdl^V4`dV acYYdS"TUV?ajWrfhSe`dTR[]XdacS"WXZSŸ_VŽlm["•KS"WKXdl^VŽTR["Q l^acW^VS]XZl^V@`bXdlÉ[PXbXdl^V~Y‰VXdlm`dV4V?\m["`Z["TUVXdV4`ZY4± Ë •rS)W^S]X Xdl^acW^kKXdlm[]XXdlm[]X.

\^`ZV4YZY‰žm`dVXdlÉ[PX.XdlmV\^`dV4TUacYdV4YS"f XZl^V•raÌYdQ@žmYdYdacS"WgfhS"icijSP“acW^–U£‡Ø(­ r± Ë XZl^acW^kXZlm[PX ?TR[PÚg•rV4\ÉV4Wm•^YTUSe`dVY‰Xd`ZS"W^–eij›RSeWKXZl^VTR["Q l^acW^VYdEa D4V?XZlm[]W(•rSMV~Y âTR[PÚ¦± Ë W–"V@WmV@` []i n „TR[PÚgacY Xdl^VacWOXdV4WmY‰ajÏÉQ4[PXdacS"W.acY“lÉ[PXXdl^V["žrXdlmS"` YajWOXdV4Wm•¦n^ŸmžrXXdl^aÌYaÌYQSeWrfhžmYdajW^–ɱ ² …¦|Ozƒ|Ozºueà^o • x^y"¼„ÆM…mo"xƒxe…muµo]wrxO… € sÉz·|~prx^u]p^qruOq˜† ² …muÈ» € qMuryºq € umzÈp € x •"€ p^‚_|~pmueq x € oz”{mu • |”‚_• | • ueàO{ € pmu"pr• x € s³‚"• wMp • x| € p˜ÜRvOwrxµsroexO…mues·¸_|”Ê^€ umz„ym|Ç» |”x|~pM¸ •• omz"um€ z† ¹MÊruesM• ¼ƒq_|]u omz”x|~pr¸»o …¦|~pmu o"pƒ Ê^oesM¼·vmuexeÆmuMu"ptxO…^u·xeÆ ueàMxMs^u~»uº‚ewMp x| pz1Ügomz q_|ez wzMz]uOq³|~pµxO…mu„• {mo"{^uesb†  • u]p • u$ÜU» € s^u|~p^‚ € sP»oex| € p|OzpmuMuOqMuOq·‚ € sµuMo • … |~prq_|”ʁ|Pq"wmoryÂq_|Pu omzPx|~pM¸»o …¦|4pmu‡† \¿­   Ë XZV@Wm•gXZSU•^acYZ[]–e`dV4V?“ajXdl.

S"WmV“[]WOX YbXdSR["Q l^acV@ÙeV•^ž^`dacW^–RYdS"icac•rajÏÉQ4[PXdacS"W1n^[]Wm•gXdlmacY ä X 4<RYV.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­   .œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.

4.Q lm["W^–"VT#žÉQ l.XZl^VÙ"Seijž^TUV@Xd`ZacQ mSP“µ`Z[]XdVŽS]fT)V@XZ["i1Y‰S)XZlm[PX mSP“ ` [PXdVŽS"f TUVX []i1YdS)Xdlm[]XÏmijiAXdacT)V~Y“aciji¦W^S"X.“ajXdl.Section A.XZl^VTR["Q l^acW^VY‰a D@Venr“l^V@`ZV4[eYbXdl^VQ@ic["TU\^ajWm–fhSe`ZQ@V"nMXZl^V\^`ZSM•^žmQÇX S]f Xdl^aÌY\^`ZV4YZYdž^`dVŽ[]Wɕg\mic[]X‰XdV4W([]`ZV"nM–"SMV4Yžm\A± ?WKXZl^VS]XZl^V@`lÉ[]Wm•¦nm“l^V@W.S"W^VŽlm[eYic["`d–eV@`[]`ZV4[#XdS TR[]keViÌ[]`Z–"V4`bQ4["Y‰XdacW^–mnrSeW^V“[]WOXZY˜XdSRacWmQ@`dV~["YdV. Referee 3 Ydl^S"ž^i̕gW^S]X.

Xdl^VTR[eQ l^ajWmVŽYda D@V"±˜¢˜SeTUT)SeW^ic›"nMXdlmVY‰l^S"X YdijV4V@Ù"VŽaÌYic["`d–eV@`~nM“l^ajicVŽXdlmVTU[]ÚrajTž^TÖ\^aÌYœXZS"WÙ"V4ijSrQ@aÐXœ›•rSMV~YW^S]X.–"SUž^\“ajXdl.

† ]€ • ² …muºA{ @ B q umzÈp xt…moeÊ^uȀ »mw …ƒ€ x q Ɓ|”• xO…ƒxO…mu z € y^|Pq_|P‚_| • oex| € pÂ{rs umzMz†7½”xÀ|Oz„• qrumzr|~€ ¸OpmuOqÂp xµx …mo"Ê^u+• »mw …tƦ|~xO…ƒxO…mu  1 z y^|Pq_|P‚_| oex| p† ² …mu|~prxru"pzr|P‚É| oex| pÂ{Ms^umzMz”wMs^uµ|Oz¿»mw …yOo"sM¸^ues·xO…^o"p † ½ ¸€ |”ÊruºwO{ÞMÞ7½”xtÆ € wmyeq·x^o Ý utoµy € pr¸ƒ• q_|Oz • wzMzr| € pº€]• x € x^uMo • …t€ ¼ € •]wµ€ xO…mu·‚ewMpr€ qro”»u"pMx^or y^z ‚txO…mu„A{ @9B q_|]oe¸Msro”»}o"p^q·xO…mu·q_|Pu o^zPx|~pr¸Â{rs u^zMz6† w p^‚ewz]€ uƒz »o"pr¼ xO…¦|4pr¸_zÈxO…mo"xÁ|~x¾|»^{ € zMzr|4€vÉyOux € wMpMs^oeÊ^uryµ|~x³oMyMyt‚ € st¼€ € wÁ|~p o}z”… sMx·{moes^o"¸Ms^o"{M…b† +myOuOomz"u„s^uMoeqƒ¶"…mo"{rx^u"sƒá s³ueÊ^u]pƒv^uexMx^ues·sruMoOq·xO…mu„ÆM… yOuÂv €M€eÝ † .Q lm["W^–"VŽTžmQ lA±  u"s^uºxO…muºs^uO‚ru"s^uMu³|Oz •"€ pr‚ewzr|~pM¸³z € »o"pr¼ƒq_|P‚O‚rues^u"pMx •"€ p • u"{rx_z+xe…moexÀ|”xtƦ|"yMy x^o Ý uƒoºÆM…¦|]yOuºx € ueàO{ÉyOom|~pÀ|”xt{rs € {mu"smy"¼b• : † +myOuMo^z"uº‚_|~p^qº…mu"s^utoµoexOx^u”»m{rx·x € ueàO{myOoÉ|~pÀ|”x·vrs_|]uO‚^y"¼˜† ² …mu}|~prxru"€ pzr|P‚É| € oex| € pÈ{rs^um• zMz~wrs^€ u…m€ o^zÂp € xO…¦|~pr¸„x € q € Ʀ|~xO… xO…m€ u„A{ @ B • q_|]oe¸O€ s^o”».

iÌYdSmnMfhS"icicSP“ajW^–R£˜Ø(­ mnMXdl^V["žrXdl^Se`ZYYdl^S"žmic•gajWɕracQ4[PXZV“lm[PXXZl^V@›TUV~[]WŸM›È͉TUa̕^•ricV`Z["W^–"V~Î#S"f XdlmV  DWMž^TŸÉV4`ZY4± Ë XacY.

W^S]X.Q@ijV~[]`bfh`dSeT aj– )l^SP“³QicSeYdVŽS"W^VŽW^V4V4•^YbXZSR–"VXXZS  D fhS"`XdlmV Xdlm`dV4VŽQ@ž^`ZÙ"V4YbXZSRQS"WMÙeV@`Z–"V?["–e["ajWA± ² …^u»_oexO…mu”»_oex| • oMyÂu ew^oex| € p_zÈoes^u·¸|”Êru"pÀ|~pµxO…mu„{mo"{mu"sb† ² …mu"¼³o"s^uºÊ^uesM¼}zr|»^{ÉyOu xO…m o"xƒ ¼ € w • o"pƒwz"u„…mo"p^q • oMy • wÉyOo"x € s„x € ‚_|4p^qº… € Ƅ»mw • … • y € z"uº¼ € wtpmuMueqtx € ¸ € x €  ‚ € sƒ¼ € wrs • … € | • u € ‚µuesMs € s˜† Û qÉ|Oz • wzOzr| € p € p¾z~w • …Á|OzMz”w^u³|OzÂv^ury € ƃxO…mu yOueÊruryº‚Os € »}o"po • oeqru”» | • {mo"{mues˜† N ×bV4Ydac•^V4YŸ_V@acW^–UajicijžÉYœXZ`Z[]XdacÙ"VŽS]f Xdl^VŽ`ZV4Ydž^iÐX Y@nr\É[]`dXS"f1XZl^VÙP[]icž^VŽS]f["WgV@Ú^[]TU\^icVŽQ4[]iÌQž^iÌ[PXZajSeW.Q@S"TUV4Y fh`ZS"TÖajX.

S"` •rV4`XdSRY‰žm\^\ÉSe`‰XXZl^acY4nrXZl^V []ž^Xdl^Se`ZYbW^V4V4•gXdSRacWmQicžm•rVŽXZl^V`ZV@iÌ[PXdacS"WÉY‰l^ac\mY˜XdlÉ[PX.TR[]kMajWm–)\_SeYZYdajŸ^icV•rž^\^icaÌQ@[PXZajSeWS]fXdl^V`ZV4Ydž^ijXZYV@iÌYdV@“l^V4`dVe± Ë W.

XdlmV4YdVŽQ4[]iÌQž^iÌ[PXZajSeWmY4± ² …^uµy^|”x^ues^o"xOwrs^ut|Ozº‚"wÉyMy € ‚}z”w • …Á|~p^‚ € s]»oex_| € p† ½P‚txO…muºs^uO‚Mues^uMu € {^u"pzÂo"pr¼ vmomzM| • ‚^y]w¦|PqÈ»_u • …mo"p| • z+x^u"àMx·v €M€eÝ xO…mu]pƒ…^u • o"p‚É|~p^q}|~p^‚ € s]»oex| € pto"v € wrx}|”xb† ¤l^V•raÌYZQžmYZY‰acS"WgS"W.žmYdV4•gfhS"`?¢b¡ÀajW.\¿­ US]f  ac– W^V@V~•^Y.

[)ijajX‰XZijVTUSe`dVQSeWmYdac•rV4`Z[]XdacS"WA±6¤l^V4`dVŽaÌY[TR[]ÚMacT#žmTCacW XdlmacY.

aÌYW^S"X.[)Q@`dajXdV4`dacS"WgfhS"`.Q@ž^`ZÙ"V"nrŸmžrXXdl^V["žrXdlmS"`~Ñ YQ`ZajXdV@`ZacS"W.S]f Ÿ_V@acW^–RSeWKXZl^V(͉`Zaj–elOXlÉ[]Wm•gŸ^` []WmQ lmÎ)aÌYYd["ac•KXdSRŸ_V Ydl^S"`dXdV4`˜ÏÉiji¦XZajTUVen^“l^aÌQ l.

S"WgXdl^aÌY.Q lmSOSOY‰acW^–U[)ijSrQ@[]XdacS"W.

Q@ž^`dÙeV[PX.

[]ici ±â¤lmV Ïmici¦XdacTUVacY.

T)SeW^S]XZS"W^VŽ•rV~Q`ZV4["YdacW^–“ajXdlacWmQ`ZV4[eY‰acW^ – U[]XQ@S"WmY‰XZ["WOX rnmYdacWmQVXdlm V mSP“ƒaÌYXdlmV \^`ZSr•ržmQÇX.

S"f ?TU[]Ú.["Wm• ^± ?Q@QSe`Z•^ajW^–XdSUXZl^aÌY.

Q`ZaÐXZV@`ZajSeWAnMW^SQ@["icQ@ž^iÌ[PXdacS"WgacY.

Se\ÉV4`Z[]XdacW^–)\ÉSeajWOX `ZV4ØOž^ac`dV~Y˜acWOXd`ZSr•ržmQÇXZajSeWS]f S"Xdl^V4`.W^V@V~•rV4• $XdlmV \^`ZVfhV4`d`ZV4•.QSeWrÏm–"žm`Z[]XdacS"WKaÌYW^SU–e[]XdVŽ“lm[]XZYdSOV4Ù"V4`4±â¢˜ijV~[]`Zij›en^Q l^SMSeYdajWm–)["W.

Q`ZaÐXZV@`Zac[mnrajWÉQicžm•racW^–)Xdl^SOY‰VŽXZlm[PXXdlmV[]žrXZl^S"` YTUV@WOXdacS"WacWKXZl^V acWeXZ`dSɱ .

Wm•gXdlmVV@Wm•.S]fXdlmV\m[]–eV­ U•^acYZQžmYZYdajSeWKXZlm[PXXZl^VY‰TR["ijicV@`bÏmicijacW^–UXZajTUVŽfh`ZS"T֞mYdacW^–[ iÌ[]`Z–"V–e[PXZVR§hS"`.

[UYdTR[]icijV4``dž^WmW^V@` ՔՔ°#“aciciAijV~["•KXdSR[RYdTU["ijicV@`TR["Q lmajW^V ¥ žmY‰X?•rSMV~YW^S]XfhSeijicSP“ƒ[PX []ici ±â¤l^VŽTU[eQ l^acW^VY‰a D@VaÌY•rVXZV@`ZTUajW^V~•.ŸO›Xdl^V\m["`‰X.

YdEa D4V[]Wm•KXdlmV`dV~Øežmaj`ZV4•gajWOXZV@WmYdaÐÏ_Q@[PXZajSeW \^`ZV4YZY‰žm`dVenOWmS]X.

å —˜.ŸM›K[]WM›S"f XZl^aÌY@±  p • utoe¸^oÉ|~ptxe…muºs^uO‚ruesruMu³|Oz •"€ p^‚ew_zr|~pr¸È»_o"pr¼À|OzMz”w^umzyOu"xº»u|~pMx^uesO{rsruextoe¸^om|~p ÆM€ …mo"xÁ|ez„€ xO…^uº{ €@ B q_|]o"¸Ms^o”» |Oz„oryOyƒo"v € wrxb† ]€ ² • …muºA{ @9B2q_|Poe¸Ms^o”»Á|Ozº‚ € sƒ…^oeʁ|~pr¸ƒo]p {mu"s^oex| pmory+{ |~prxµoextxO…mu·s|”¸e…rx·¸^oex^uºÊ^uMy |”xO¼to"p^qtxO…muºs|”¸e…rxƒ‚_|"yMym|4pr¸ºx|»_u‡† H € sµo"pM¼µ¸|~Ê^u"p   ÜxO…mues^u·o"s^utxeÆ € { € zMzr|4vÉyOuƒz € y]wrx| € pz € pµxO…muºs|”¸e…rx·…mo"p^qzr|PqMu .

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.œAª ä Ž 4.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

What The Establishment’s Scientists Say o"prq € p^u € p³xO…^uµyeuO‚Ox·…mo"p^qzr|”qru„Ʀ|”xO…ƒxO…mu³z"o~»uº¸^oex^uºÊ^ury €]• |”xM¼˜†  € Æ^ueÊ^ues‡ÜxO…mu s|~¸O…rx·…mo"p^qzr|”qru„…momztz@»oryO•"€yOuest‚_|"yOym|~pr¸º€ x_|»u‡† Û prq³oe¸roÉ|~p˜ÜgxO…^u·sruO‚rues^uOu p^‚ew_zr|~pr¸to]p xO…mu"s|OzMz”w^u‡†_| Ý u}|4p·»o]pr¼µu"pr¸|~p^uMues|~pM¸ zr|~xOwmoex| € pz ÜUÆmu·…^oeÊ^u„…mues^utozr|”xOw^oex| € p|~pµÆO…¦| • …» € s^uºxO…mo"p € pmu • s|~x^ues| € p|Oz pmuOuO• qruOq˜† ² …m€ u • yOo”»^{¦•|~pr€¸·‚ € s • u|Oz €€ pmu € ‚txO…mu • s|~x^ues|]oxO…moexƒqruexrues]» |~p^umz¿ÆM…mo"x »o …¦|~pmuµz~… wÉyeq„v^u … z"u"p† ² …mu xO…mu"sº{moes^o”»_uex^ues|ez„xO…^uº{ @ B q_|]o"¸Ms^o”».Y‰V4V@TRYbXdlÉ[PXXdlmV@›g["žrXdlmS"` Ylm[”Ù"VS"ŸmYZQžm`dV~•gYdS"TUVŽV@icV@TUV@WOX []`Z›R`dV~Y‰ž^ijXZYŸM›.•rS"acW^–)Xdl^V4aj` Q@["icQ@ž^ic[]XdacS"WmY4± 4  mS"`ŽVÚ^["T)\mijVenXdl^V)ic[eYœXYdV@WOXdV4WmQV)S]fâXZl^V)T)a̕^•ricVU\m[]` []–e`Z["\^l(S"Wª\­ RacijicžmY‰Xd` [PXdV~Y.† Ë X.Chapter A.

XZlm[PX[e Y  aÌ¢bY¡µW^S"`ZX.V4["Y‰Q SelmTUV4VY6XdajlmXZY˜ajW^ij–UacTU“baÐXZVajW^Y‰l^–#Seٔž^["iÌij•KžmV.

l^•racW^aÌYd–RQ lmacW¿["`d­4–e®"V®eÙ"¯^V4± ijSrQajXœ›#`ZV4[eQ l^V4Y6ajXZY˜TR[PÚracT#ž^T±6¤l^acY ² …mues^u³|Ozp € »u"prx_| € p € ‚·xO…muƒoryMyeue¸^uOqº‚Mo • x € ‚ÃMÃd¶  s^uMo • …mumz·|”xÉztym|Ç» |”x|~pM¸ºÊ^ory]w^u €) ‚ !1†eÅOÅ ² …mues^u³|ezÂp € q_|Oz • wzMzr| € p|~pµxO…mu„ÆM… € yOutoesMx| • yOuºÝ o"v € wrx•]€ ÃMÃd¶  s^uOo • …¦€ |~pM¸ |”xÉz+»o"à|»mw"» Z¶  / !?&1ÅMÅ^† +^uesO…mo]{zȀM€"xOݳ…muº€ s^uO‚Mues^€ uMuÂÆmo^z¿»1|OzP• x^o u"pÉy"¼ €O€e»MÝ »u"pMx|~pr• ¸ p q_|”‚M‚rue•"s^€ u]prxtoesMx_| • yOum" z  ß Û ´r¶ Û Åz+v s³o]p xe…muesƒq_|]u omz”x|~pr¸ºv &¿ÆM…¦| …t…mu …mo^z p^‚ewz"ueqÂƦ|”xO…ƒxO…|Oz„oesMx| • yOu‡† V@–O[]` •racW^–#XZl^VQSeWmQicžm•racW^–U\m["`Z["–"` []\^lgS"W.Ÿ_S]Vf$\^­"ž^neŸ^XdiclmaÌY‰V.QS"WÉY‰aÌYœXZV@WOXXdl^`ZS"žm–"l^SežrXXdl^aÌY\m["\ÉV4`4±$¡?SUXdl^V4› TUV~[]WQS"WÉYœX []WOX.\ ­   N ¤lmVžmY‰VŽS"f XZl^V“˜Se`Z•ÍdQ@S"WmY‰XZ["WeX Î#aÌYW^S"X.

["Q`ZSeYZYb–"V4S"TUVXZ`d›RSe`.

QS"WÉYœX []WOX.

["Q`ZSeYZY V@›MW^Seic•^YWMž^TŸÉV4`4nmS"`ŸÉS"XdlA± ² € xO…mu·s^uMoOqMues_z " ² …mu·s^uO‚ru"s^uMu¿»uOo"pz„o • s € zMzȸ^u € »_uexMsM¼to^zºq_|”‚M‚rues^u]prx ¸^u€ € »€u"xMsM¼to"prq³o • s € zMz ^u"¼Op € yeqmz¿pMw"• »mv^uesƒomz„q_|P‚M‚ru"s^u"pr€ x ruºpOw"»mvmues Ɇ ½ÂsruMoryMy"¼ q • p x·wMp^qruesÉzPx^o"p^• qxO…mutq_|P‚M‚Mues^u"p uÈvmue• xeÆmuMu"ptxO…^u·xeƀ € • omz"umz6† Û s^u"p‡€ ʼnx • o xOwmoMyMy"¼º xO…^umz"u omz"u^zÈxO…muz"o”»urš ۀ …^o"pr¸^u³|~pµ¸^u »uexMsM¼t€yOuMoOqɕ]€zÈx o …mo"pM¸^u € |~p rue¼Op y"qÉz¿pMw"»^vmuesºpMw"»^vmuesb† Û pr¼O… ƘÜgxO…muºs^uO‚Mues^uMuºq_|”q·p x pzr|PqMuesto •"€ »m{Éyeuex^ury"¼„q_|P‚M‚Mues^u"prxÂ{ € zMzr|4v¦|"ym|”xO¼b† ¶ € pzPxro"prxt¶  »uMo"p_zÈxO…moexƒ¶  |Oz omzMzr•|”¸epmuOq„x € oz”{mu • |”‚_| • sOwOpMpmues€zP¼ÉzPx^u”»Ü € s}ym| Ý uºxO…muCÃMà •"€ »M» € p˜ÅOÅ)» € qruMyµ|~p ÆM…¦| …µoMyMy·xe…muºsOwMpMpmu"s_zt|~pµxO…mu„Æ smy"q„…moeÊ^uºxO…muz"o”»_u·Êrory]wmu‡† ä N ?YdYdž^TUacW^–)Xdlm[]XXdl^V4›KTUV4["W.Q@S"WmY‰XZ["WeX.

[eQ`ZSeYZY˜–eV@SeT)V@Xd`Z›"nOXdlmV@WS"ŸMÙMajSežmYdij›enržmY‰acW^–R[Ï^ÚrV4• ÙP["ijž^VfhSe`.

[]iciA`džmW^W^V@`«”–O[PXZV?Yd›MY‰XdV4TRY“ajiciAYdS"TUVXZajTUV4Y.

W^S]X WmV@V4•gXZSU•^SU[UicS]X.ijV~["•KXdSUic["`d–eV?V4`d`ZS"` Y4±¤l^V4›g•ra̕.

Q4[]iÌQž^iÌ[PXZajSeWKXZSU•^VXdV4`dTUacW^VŽXdlmacY4± Û p^qt¼^uextxO…|Oz »uexO… € q|Oz„xe…muÈ» € zPx·wz"ueq»_uexO… € q|4p³xO…^u}|4p^qewzPxOsM¼ @z € »u„ueÊru"p Ʀ|"yMyµz"oe¼txO…^uµueà • y]wzr|~Ê^u »u"xO… € q & † å N ¢˜SeWMÙ"V@` YdV@ic›"nOaÐf6XdlmV@›TUV4["W(QS"WÉYœX []WOX.

WmS]XTU[e•rV.ÙP[]`Z› XZl^`ZS"ž^–elRXdl^VŽ`Zž^Wg[eYâXZl^VÙ"V@icSrQajXœ›Uٔ["`dacV4Y4nOXdl^V4WXZl^V@›lÉ[”Ù"V.["Q`ZSeYZY V@›MW^Seic•^YWMž^TŸÉV4`4nma ± V"±˜¢b¡ÀQ4[]W.

« À¤ Í · ¹ ¸ ΠΠæÀE°G³b®Z°<¸ · L!Í ¸ ¹ °Gª¦«”¸ L¦°Æ«¦³Ó±¦³b«h°E®Z°<¸ · L7¸ À L¦·.XZl^V@ac`Q@[eY‰VÙ"V4`d›)“˜V4iji ± ’ ajWmQ@VŽXdl^V4›lm[”ÙeVŽ[eYdYdž^TUV4•.ª¦·Z®.°ÔÄ.ʋ³b®¦¼.®Z°ž¸ °ž³b«´® Π՜½Û«´®.ÃZ« °L¦°E°G®¦ª@³–¸ ÕdÀ¤±.°™¯.¯´³Ø®.®CLœ±Cª ¸ ° ¹ µ·@«›³Q±C· ÃCµ ³ÓÀE±C¯¦·@ÃCÀE³b«.¯.Y‰XdV4[e•r›KY‰XZ[]XdV[]Wm•gXZl^V  )•rSMV4YWmS]XV@WOXdV4`ajWOXZSUXdl^V ^Ä  ª.·C³Ú³b«.Ä ¹®Zݦ¸ °$« ¸ µÀ™³bÀE··œj« « L Î «¦ ‡½Û·.ÊM·.L!Í ä X 4<RYV.à Џ&Î ¸ h«Û°Æ· Î «´®¦³ Lwʪ.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª  ­ ® .œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.

Referee 3 Q@[]iÌQžmic[]XdacS"WAnOXdlmV@W.fhS"`XZl^VÙ"V4ijSrQajXœ›RXZS)ÙP["`d›K•^ž^`dacW^–)XdlmV Ïmiji¦“bS"žmic•.Section A.Ÿ_VŸÉV~Q@[]žÉY‰Vf ÙP["`dacV4YY[#fhžmWmQÇXZajSeW.S"f XZl^VŽÏmici¦fh` ["QÇXZajSeWA±$¤l^V@›Klm[”Ù"VŽW^S"X •rV@ÙeV@icS"\_V4•KXdl^aÌY.Xdl^VSeW^ic›K`ZV4["YdS"WKXdlm[]XT)V4WOXdacS"W.4.

XdlmV\m[]\_V@`.ajW.[]`Z–"žmT)V4WOXYdž QacV@WOXdic›"± ruex»uzPxMs^u^zMzÂoe¸^oÉ|4pµxe…m€ uÈ»oÉ|~pt• { € |4prx € ‚·xO• …muƒoesMx| • yOu‡†E¶  € Ê^o"s|]umz‚ € s qÉ|P‚M‚ruesru"prx„sewMpMpmuesÉzÂo"p^q  stq_|]u omzPx|4pr¸È»o …¦|~pmumz†7½”xÀ|Oz{ zPxewÉyOoex^ueq„xO…moex xe…muºÊ^ury ]€ • |”xM¼·q € umzÈp € xtÊ^oesM¼ƒqewMs|~pr¸·sO€ wOp† Û €Mqɀ |Oz • wzOzr| € pƒo]v € wrx   € |ez·o"p • u]prx|”s^uMy"¼·q_|P‚O‚rues^u"pMx|OzMz”w^u„s^uryOoexruOqºx xO…muº¸ q·Ê^u]prx|~pr¸tqMumzr|”¸Opƒ‚ s·ÆM…¦| …   s^u”»oÉ|4pz •"€ p_zPx^o"prx˜† NË f XZl^VVÚ^[]TU\^icV4Yb–eajÙeV@W.

Ò·lM›g[]`ZVXdl^V(ÍdTUS"`ZV•rV@XZ["ajicV4• Q@[]iÌQžmic[]XdacS"WmYZÎ#WmS]X\^`ZV4YdV@WOXdV~•¦nrajWÉYœXZV4["•.[]`ZVY‰l^SP“W_Õ ² …mumz]uƒu"à^o”»m{ÉyeumzÈqru”» € pzPxMsroex^uxe…moextxO…muCÃMà •]€ »M» € p‡ÅMÅ)»uexe… € q|OzºuesMs € pmu € wz o]p^q·xO…m€oextxO…m• uCÃMÃdo"wrxO… • € s_z ÃMÅM• Å#»uexO… € q³z”… € wmyeq„vmuƒoOq € {rxruOq € s € xO…mu"s„»_uexO… €M€ €qmz v^omz"uOq€ pÁz |Pu"prx|P‚É| {rs_|~p |~{myOumz6†2½v^urym|]ueÊru„xO…moextxO…¦|ezµ|ezºotÊ^uesM¼·¸ q sruMomz pb† .•rSRWmS]X`dV4\^`ZV4YdV@WOXXdl^VQ lm["`Z[eQÇXZV@`ZacY‰XdaÌQ@Y˜S]f6[)Xœ›O\macQ4[]i •rajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^–UTU[eQ l^acW^V"nr“lM›XZSU\^`dV~Y‰V4WOXbXZl^V@T[PX.["iji Õ.S"f1XdlmVŽXd`ZajÙMaÌ[]i¦`ZV4Ydž^iÐX YbXdlm[]X.å)å —˜.

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.œAª ä Ž 4.ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

Chapter A. What The Establishment’s Scientists Say ä X 4<RYV.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª  ­ ¯ .

         Q  .

 .

       .

       ‰ .

 U CŸ U zS aV Ÿ n LV S &S aV ›c U )V U ‡Ÿ U U .ä Ÿ Uv U  Ìv bV 0Ÿ ž} 7SOv CT Ÿ ~v U eV U ¡v !Ÿ V U’U ÌS U ‡Ÿ U Ÿ …V U )V 0V ‡V CT 0n U )V U aV U Ž§ #v wS U CŸ wv !Ÿ fv oV U U’U CŸ X§ #v ~v <§ aV U Ûc Og U …§ #v v ÔV ^nwV S .S9?=5B9S3GH…V#Mh5K3.

”vj35B3@D3CŸ3!5 ‡ 23DXY 5K3<9AWF5.l9A23!Dly™wrÔ{-N-”Mg4G= U’U ..D3GHeNۈ } .Z3G=5K4!2xÌS*D=9AWF5K= U’U M4G= U’U 3GH¡v2=9”vL=.

2R5B9L9:7bV 3 U =9S35¤y™wrwC{ HU3CŸ 3 U R]V!3GHC7ED9SRv 2=9\7 .1DR#Œv 4.

"D3‡Œ v 4!5B3=9:7 RYD~jv R]W U HiV!5KR0Ÿ 3@X!3<9>9S3!5>N›`} VFV!5KR!T 7bV =9S3 U M9<jv RgM.= U’U 3HT}¤}`wr™#} NJS 2=6H2RYV!3H 9A26=9L9A27 .

=[R‹SJ\v 5KR!9S3= U 3<9>9S3!5o9SR y 9S3‡Ÿ 3p H06Ÿ =!5nHMGxYHb7E5B34A9SR5*R0an 5K3.3=!5K.

?3=!5n462=FD6H03HYW64..

=9:7 R]D&Pn R5L}¤}`wr$r F } fj= U 3<9>9S35w-S D3CŸ 3!5o.

WUXa"V 7 9>9S3Ha.

l9:7b\V 39SRg.t N }pR#v¥J S 26=!Ÿ 3"HU3G47 HU3GHg9A26=9`7 9`7 .Z3!D6H9A23 U 3<9>9S3!5*=FD6Hg9SRXV =aA§ 3(7 9LRYV!3D"9SR9A23VFWFX U 7 4UNwJS 26=!Ÿ3 = U RYD[@4.

R5.5K3.

V!RYD6H3D4.

xJPn R5<\V 35oH7E5K3G4<9SR5*R0cn 4<ReVf(V WFD!7 4G=9:7 RYD3Pn R5L}¤}`wr™#} x v\27 462HU3.37# v 7 9A2F]=FW U “m5K= U R#jv 35.

:46587EX!3..

&#V MhX6=9>9 U 319SROVUWFX U 7 ..

Z3g5K3G=6H@9A23.Pn R5GV =9:7 RYDbN¤`} DRYV!3D U 3<9>9S35*9SRT”h5>N`“*=!5n=FDbx  7E5K3G4A9SR5*R^`n ”@=5<A§ 3<9:7ED[fPn R5a}ž}`wr$#} xv7 .ZR@=9>9?=64!23HvNF U 3G=.2@7b(V V!R5B9?=FDG9#7ED.#= U .

N¤#c 23.Z3 U 3<9>9S35B..

N”JS 26=!Ÿ 3.<WFX)"V 7 9>9S3H@_JŸ 3&f ã t =5Q9:7 4 U 3.`R0n }¤}`wr™}`g .Mh5K3CŸ 3G= U = L U R!9aR0Ln 7ED.Pn R5GV =9:7 R]D=FX!R]WG9oV =FDMg=.<V!34A9S. RYV!35K=9:7 R]D.

Pn 35B3D4..a9SR@9A2!7 . 4<R]D.

`=64G4<3VG9S3Hif.RYD U M ä  =64.3&f  ä  9A2@7EDlr U 3CŸ 3 U =FD6Haat =FD6H0RYD U M(RYD3&Lv =.

4.

3!V9?=FD4.

34<RL V V=5B3Hg9SR s  9SR0=FDGMCX!RHM(3 U .Z3!.

Z47 3!D64<37EDgHb7 34.?35Q9´g Y .t Ndv€ 3=6H0=FX!RYW9 7 91235B3FNda WU587ED[Ž\V MhX=9>9 U 319SR ?W 7ED.

126=!Ÿ 319?=aA§ 3!D0V U =64<3=FD6H|SOjv RYD6H35jmi =5B3"9A23<M 4<Rb7ED47 H3DG9?= U kqe € 3G=6H0=FX!R]WG9a9A23.a9A2!7ED[.=.S9:7ED[vxQ1V =FDGM4!WU587 RYW.

?3 U 3<9o\V 3l!§ DR#v v 2=9lM..?3=FD6HOV U 3=.

RYW9A27EDaU§ N ]4G=FDUDR!9#X!3 7 3 3"9A23".A7 9AW=9:7 R]D9A2=9 ]= 7EDbN 23@2RU.S9:7 7 9‰M ]= 5B34<37 7ED[ >5KR r9A23 3.

.?9?=FX 7 .

`.2 3!D9`7 .\7ED6H7 7 H]W= \2Ri26=.?9 M."WUDFX!3 7 3 =FX 3Uxb=.<V!3DG9l9A23 =.

?9 L=.?3=!5n462(9SR 7 (V!5KR 39A23"H7 34G=.S9:7ED[vN o9l_-5B.s7 R]D.l3 FV!34A9:7ED[9SRi5K3G4<367 3"= j3 4<R \3#9SRg9A234 WUXbN !=9S3!5 \23!D #M&7 W.Z=FVFV!3G=5B3Hvx -5K3G= 7 .`Hb7 .3=!5K.\7ED05B3G.

3GH@9A26=9 7 915B3 R 3G.`=5KRYWFDH \R]D3.

\3!D9L9SR@9A233.M= RYD[ 7 9A2= R7 Hb7ED[ 3 X=5.?.5n=.

.?9?=FX 7 .

s7ED[&R p9A2319A5‰WG9A2.a9A23 3.2 \3DG9aHYW319SR@3 FV!RU.#=FDH@9A233!5‰5KR5B.

.?9?=FX 7 .

2 3!D9#2=. .

S9?=FX 7 .?R5K3GHeN *X!3 7 3 319A2=9a9A2313G.<2 \3!D9aHUR3.V!RYD.

1DR!9 L=FD9\V!3GRYV 319SR DR 9A26=9L9A23<Mh26=6Hi7ED 3G..S9S3GHC7ED05K3.

Z3G=5K4!2 \27 462&V!5KRbHYW64<3G.?Rex 3 3!D9A2R]W[]219A23<M !DR 9A23. RHU3 .`3!5‰5BR]D3GRYW..a9SR&HUR&. =FD6H04<R]DG9:7EDFW3G.

?3@5K3..

Z3G=5K4!2 jR5 ..

a=!5K3..A \RbHU3 .Z47 3!D9:7 _]4.

= M&5.WFXFX!7 .

2N 23<M@HR]D 9 L=FD9\V!3.

R]V 319SR !DR =FX!R]WG9l9A2367E5 "7 .

Z31R \R]D3.W.

MGN !å"ã .

  „ ’ XdV4Ù"V ?•rÙP[]` •r›  ?¡Ž¢ #n ® ­Ò V~YœX .

. My Relationship with Die Casting Establishment $@"/ 1`+e+-"Œ+J v " #  ¬e["WMžm[]`Z›  ^n¦­~®"®e¯ ’ ž^Ÿ ¥ V~QÇX ?ž^V4Y‰XdacS"WÉ[]Ÿ^icV?V@Xdl^aÌQ@Y ¡.V~[]`.aj–e–"acWmY Se[e•¦n ’ ž^ajXdV¯e¯ SeYdV@TUSeWeX~n Ë  ­4¯  ^­ Chapter B.

•^ٔ["`Z•^› Ë ["T֓`ZaÐXZajW^–UXZSUVÚr\^`ZV4YZY˜T›gQ@S"WmQ@V@`ZWmY[]Ÿ_S"žrX.¨(`~± .

Xdl^V“[”›UXdlÉ[PX  ?¡Ž¢ À[”“[]` •^Yb`ZV4YdV4[]` Q l–e`Z["WeX Y@± .¡¢ }TUV@TŸÉV4`4n Ë ŸÉV4ijacV@ÙeVŽXdlm[]XXdl^V~Y‰VŽ\_SeYZY‰acŸ^icV ajTU\^`ZS"\m`dacVXZajV~YQS"žmic•g`dV~Y‰žmiÐX.\_SeYZY‰acŸ^icVŽajTU\^`ZS"\^`ZacVXdacV4YacW.[ .Y.

acWTU["kMajW^–XdlmV•rajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^–UajWɕržmY‰Xd`Z›ijV~YdY.QS"TU\_VXZaÐXZajÙeV?XZlm[]W.XZl^V \^iÌ["Y‰XdaÌQ@Y[]WɕgS"Xdl^V4``dV4ic[]XdV~•KacWm•ržmY‰Xd`ZacV4Y4± Ë f›eS"žK“[]WOXXdSRV4W^lm["WmQVXdlmVQS"TU\_VXZaÐXZajÙeV@W^V~YdYS"f XZl^V •racVQ@["Y‰XdacW^–UacWm•ržmY‰Xd`Z›"n^›eS"žgS"ž^–eleXXZSY‰ž^\m\ÉSe`‰X.

•racVQ@[eYœXZajW^–UacWm•ržmY‰Xd`Z›V@Xdl^aÌQ@Y.

Q@[eYœXÙeV@`Z›KY‰V4`dacS"žÉYbYdlm[e•rSP“.[]WmYd“˜V4`bXdl^V ØOž^V4Y‰XdacS"WmYbXZlm[PX.["Wm•.["`dVŽ` []aÌY‰V~•l^V4`dV4ajW1± ¨ []WM›S"f XZl^V`ZV4YdV4[]` Q lK[”“[]` •^Yb`Z["acYdVŽY‰V4`dacS"žmYØOž^V~YœXZajSeWmY[]Wm•Q@S"WmQ@V@`ZWmY[]Ÿ_S"žrXXZl^VVXZl^acQ4YS]fXdl^V \^`ZSMQ@V4YZY[]Wm•.

XdlmV\^`dSrQ@V4YZY@± Ë W Xdl^VŽfhSeijicSP“acW^–\É[]` []–"` []\mlmY Ë “ajiciAYd\ÉV4iji¦SežrX.YbS"WgXdl^VacWOXdV@–e`dajXœ›RXZl^SeYdVŽajWMÙ"SeijÙeV4•KajW.

XdS QiÌ[]`ZaÐfh›Xdl^V~Y‰VØOž^V~YœXZajSeWmY@n^["Wm•gV@icajTUacWm[PXZVS]XdlmV@`\^`ZS"Ÿ^icV@TRYajf XZl^V@›gVÚraÌYœXacW.W^ajÙeV@` Y‰ajXœ›^°Ç±$¤ S)T›–"`ZV4[]X.Q@S"TU\_VXdajXdacÙ"V4W^V4YZY“ajXdlS]XZl^V@`acWm•ržmY‰Xd`ZacV4Y4± Ë []iÌYdS)“bS"WɕrV@` “lM›  ?¡Ž¢ }•^V@TUS"WmY‰Xd` [PXZV4YW^SR•rV~Y‰ac`ZV?XZSR\m[]`dXdaÌQac\m[]XdVŽajWgXdlmVajTU\_S"`dXZ[]WOX.¡.Se`Z•^V@`bXdSRacWmQ`ZV4[eY‰V?XdlmV •racVQ@["Y‰XdacW^–UacWm•ržmY‰Xd`Z›Ñ Y\^`ZS]ÏmXZY[]Wɕ.`~±$ט`ZV@ÙMaÌQ kRfh`ZS"T ?l^acS ’ XZ[]XdV .[eQ l^ajV4Ù"V4T)V4WOXZY Ë lÉ[”Ù"V TR["•rVe± ?W ’ V@\rXZV@TŸÉV4 `  ^n¦­~®"® ^n Ë acWrfhSe`dTUV4>•  ?¡Ž¢ }Xdlm[]X Ž[]`ZŸÉV4`4Ñ YbT)Sr•rV4iAS"WgXdlmVQ`ZaÐXZacQ4[]iAYdijSP“ \^icž^W^–"V4`Ù"V4ijSrQajXœ›aÌYž^WrfhSež^Wm•rV~•¦nm["Wm•¦nMXdlmV@`ZVfhS"`ZVY‰SÉnracY["ijiAXdl^VS"Xdl^V4``dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lŸm["YdV4•gS"W Ž[]`ZŸÉV4`4Ñ YTUSr•rV@i‡§ •rS"WmVŸM›.Y‰SeT)VŽS"f1XdlmVŽXdl^acW^–eY Ë lm[”Ù"V?fhS"žmWm•¦± Ë Ydž^–e–"V4Y‰XbXdSU›"Sež []Wm•["ijiXZl^SeYdVQS"WÉQV@`ZW^V~•g["ŸÉSežrXXdl^V•racVQ@[eYœXZajWm–)acWm•ržÉYœXZ`d›KXdlm[]X›eS"ž_«”Xdl^V4›KYdl^S"ž^i̕gl^V@ic\.

Y‰ž^`Z\^`ZacYdV Ë icV4["`dWmV4•Kfh`dSeT Xdl^V¨ª[]` Q l_(« .`~±$ט`ZV@ÙMaÌQ kU“aÐXZl.\^`daci6­4®e ® acYZY‰žmVS"f6¡?acV¢b["Y‰XdacW^–R£âW^–eajW^V4V@`bXdlÉ[PX  ?¡Ž¢ Àlm["Y S"WmQ@V["–e["ajWK[”“[]` •rV~•R¡.[#–"` []WOX‡XZS)Q@S"WOXdacWMž^V?lmacYb`ZV4YdV4[]` Q lRacWXdlmacY["`dV~[^± .

iÌY‰SÉnM[ ›"V~[]`f XZV@`.

TR[]WM› S]XZl^V@` Ylm[”Ù"V?Xd`ZacV4•gXdSU–"V@XXdl^aÌY`ZV@\_S"`dX4nMŸ^žrX?ajW.ÙP[]acWA± Ë X.›eS"žYœX [PXdV~•XZlm[PX.S"`S"Ÿ^XZ[]acWgXdl^aÌY`ZV@\_S"`dX4± Ë ["Wm•.[)`ZV@\_S"`dXS"WgXdl^V`ZV4Ydž^ijXZYbfh`ZS"TÄ×b`ZV@ÙMaÌQ k_Ñ YQSež^ic•gŸ_VS"ŸrX []acW^V4•Kfh`dSeT  ?¡Ž¢ #nmW^SRSeW^VXdlm[]X Ë kMW^SP“ƒS"flÉ["YŸ_V@V@W(["Ÿ^ijVXZSÏÉWm•.

ijV~[”Ù"V~Y˜TUV“bS"Wm•^V@`ZajW^–)“l^V@Xdl^V4`.

Y‰SeT)V4S"W^V •rSMV4YWmS]X“b["WOXS"Xdl^V4`ZYbXZSUkOWmSP“µ[]Ÿ_S"ž^XXdl^aÌY`ZV4YdV4[]` Q lA± Ë “aciji1\m[”› ? XZS)Xdl^VŽÏm` Y‰X.

V~ QV@TŸÉV4` ^n¦­4®"® \^ž^Ÿ^icaÌQ@[PXZajSeWÉ°˜XdlÉ[PX.“l^S “ajici¦fhž^`ZW^aÌY‰lTUV“ajXdl.Xdl^aÌY`ZV@\_S"`dX4± Ë ["icYdSUijV~[]`ZW^V4• §hacFW  ?¡Ž¢ #Ñ Y?¡.\ÉV4`ZYdS"W.

`~±$ט`ZV@ÙMaÌQ k“ajXdl([]W^S"Xdl^V4`–"` []WOXXdSR•rS `dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lKSeWKXZl^acY.¡¢ À[”“[]` •rV4•g¡.S"WÉQVŽTUS"`ZV .Yd["T)VXZS"\^aÌQfhS"`.

["W^S]XZl^V@`Ÿ^žm•^–"VX.

›eV4["`Ž§‰­4®e®"¯e°± .

`ZVŽ¡?`~±âט`ZV@ÙMaÌQ kÑ Yb`ZV4Ydž^iÐX Y `dV~[]icij›Xdlm[]X.

ajTU\^`ZV4YZY‰acÙ"V”Õ .

.[eYl^VQ lm[]Wm–"V4•Kl^aÌYTUSM•^V@i ÕÒ·lm[PX.

aÌYbXdlmVQž^`Z`dV4WOXTUSr•rV4iÌÕÒ·lM› lm[”Ù"VŽ“bVŽW^S]X.

l^V~[]` •K["ŸÉSežrX.

l^acY QSeijicV4["–"ž^V~Y˜lÉ[”Ù"VŽŸÉV4V@W([”“[]` •rV4•["W^S]XZl^V@`–e`Z["WOXbSeWgXZS"\.aÐXÇÕ Ë ["icYdS)ijV~[]`ZW^V4•gajW.S]fXdl^VS"Xdl^V4`ZYbXZSR•rSU`dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lKS"WgXdlmV XdSe\^acQŽV4WOXdajXdicV4•„Íd¡?V@ÙeV@icS"\^TUV@WOX.`~±â×b`dV4ÙMacQ k["Wm•.¡.XZl^VYd["TUVaÌYZY‰ž^VŽS"f6¡?ajV¢b[eYœXZajWm–U£‡W^–"acW^V4V@`bXdlm[]X.

±$¤l^aÌY¨(`~± â`ZajŸM›MiÉaÌY Xdl^VQ lÉ[]ac`dTR[]WgS]f Xdl^VÙeV@`Z›QS"TUTUajX‰XdV4VŽ“l^acQ lgfhž^Wm•^V4•gXdl^V`ZV4YdV4["`ZQ l1± .[]Wɕg£‡Ù”["ijžÉ[PXdacS"W.± Î Ë WgXZl^V ’ V@\^XdV@TŸÉV4`Ç« QÇXZS"Ÿ_V@`­4®e ® acYZY‰žmV"n^“bVŽijV~[]`ZW^V4•KXdlm[]X.S]f Xdl^V  ?¡Ž¢ ‡`dSrQV~YdYb¤ V4Q l^W^SeijSe–"›R¤["Ydk `dSež^\AnMacYb\m["`‰XS"fAXdl^VŽ`ZV4YdV4["`ZQ lRXZV4["T.f6QS"žm`ZYdV"n Ë ["TCYdž^`dVenMXdl^aÌY QSež^ic•gW^S"X.¨(`~± Ž["`d› â`ZajŸM›Mi nrQ lm["aj`ZTR[]W.S]f Xdl^V ’ V@WmYdS"` ’ ›rY‰XdV4T.

ŸÉVe± Ë ¥ žmY‰X.

XdlmacY.XZSUl^V4["`›"S"žm`bV@Úr\^ic["Wm[PXZajSeWA± Ë YaÐXicV@–eaÐXZajTR[PXZV”«PVXdlmacQ4[]iXdSUlm[”ÙeV[ TR[]WS"WgXdl^VQ@S"TUTUaÐXdXdV4V[”“b["`Z•racW^–#Xdl^VQ lm["aj`ZTR[]W[)–"` []WOX Õ Ò Se`dkMacW^–US"WgXdl^VYZ[]TUVŽ`ZV4YdV4[]` Q lK\m`dS ¥ V4QÇX“ajXdl.“˜Sež^i̕KicajkeV.

¨ `4± ‡`dacŸM›Oi“["Y¡?`4±Éט`ZV@ÙMaÌQ kR“l^SR[]iÌY‰S ä X 4<RYV.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­  M .œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.

XZl^VŽf©["QXbXZlm[PX Ž["`d› â`ZacŸO›Mi¦QSMSe\ÉV4`Z[]XdV4•g“ajXdl(¡.`ZV4QV4ajÙeV4•g[U–"` []WOXbTUV4WeXZajSeW^V4•["ŸÉSPÙeV"± Ë YbXdl^V4`dV[UQSeW^W^V~QÇXdacS"W.Ÿ_VXœ“bV@V@W.`~±m×±^×b`dV4ÙMacQ kSeWKXZl^VYdV@WmYdS"`\^`ZS ¥ V~QÇX.

[]Wm•g›"Sež.•^V4Qa̕racW^–UXdSU`ZV@W^V4“ ¡?`4±m×b`ZV@ÙMaÌQ k_Ñ Yb–"` []WOXS"WgXdl^VQ@`dajXdaÌQ@["iAY‰icSP“ƒ\^icž^W^–eV@`ÙeV@icSMQ@aÐXœ›K\^`dS ¥ V4QX Õ Ë “˜Sež^ic•gicajkeV?XZSUijV~[]`ZW “lm[]XXdl^V`ZV4[eY‰SeW^ajWm–fhS"`.

Q@S"WOXdacWMž^acW^–)XdSUfhž^Wm•¡?`4±Éט`ZV@ÙMaÌQ k[Pf XZV@`›"SežglÉ["•gijV~[]`ZW^V4•KXdlm[]X.

¡¢ Ñ Y []ŸmajicaÐXœ›RacWg•^acY‰XZ["WmQVijV~[]`ZW^acW^–["Wm•XZlm[PXbXdlmacYaÌYb“lO›RlmV?“["Yb[”“b["`Z•^V4•UXZl^acYb–e`Z["WeX~± Ë []TÖ[]iÌYdS)Ydž^`ZV XdlÉ[PX.•m•raÐXZajSeWm[]icic›"n Ë ijV~[]`ZW^V4•KXdlm[]X.¨(`~± .l^aÌY `ZV4YdV4[]` Q l“["Y\^`ZS"ŸmijV4TU[]XdaÌQ]± .V@W^lm["WmQV .•rÙP["`Z•r›K“b[eY–"acÙ"V@W[)ic["`d–eV["TUS"ž^WOXS]f6TUS"W^V4›RXdS Y‰Xdžm•r›.¨(`4± ?•rÙP[]` •r›gQ4[]W.¨(`~± ’ XdV4Ù"V .•rÙP["`Z•r›Klm["Y.•raÌYœX []WmQ@VŽQ@S"TUT#žmW^acQ4[PXZajSeWmY@± Ë []TCYdž^`ZVXdlm[]X.

["ijiXZl^VQ`ZV4•^V@WOXdaÌ[]iÌYbW^V@V~•rV4•gfhS"`.

YdžmQ l.YdSUT#žmQ l`ZV4YdV4[]` Q llm[eY[]ic`dV~["•r›RŸ_V@V4W(•rS"W^VacW XdlmacY.`dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lK“l^V4W.[e•^•rV4•KXdS)XZl^ V  ?¡Ž¢ }\m`dSrQV4V4•racW^–OY@± ?W^VŽTR[”›K[]iÌYdS)“bS"WɕrV@` “lM›RXdlmV@`ZVacY[)W^V4V4•gXdS•rSRYdžmQ l.`dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lA± ?W^VQ@[]WSeW^ij›K“˜SeWm•rV@` “lM›l^aÌY\^`ZV4YdV@WOXZ[]XdacS"Wg“b[eYW^S]X.

["`dV~[#ŸM›RXZl^V“bS"`Zic•¦Ñ YbfhS"`ZV@TUSOYœXV4•ržÉQ@[PXZajSeWm[]i¦V@Úr\ÉV4`‰X Y@±â¨ [”›MŸ_VŽaÐX.

•rac•^`dV~ٔQÇ["XZ`ZS"•^`ǛÕ ŸÉË V4“bajWmS"–ž^iÌ[”•g“bij["ac`Zk"•rVV~Xd•RSUXZicl^V4ac["Y.“˜Se`dkrY•r!a _V4`dV4WOXdic›RfhS"G` .ŸÉV@Xœ“˜V4V@W(¨(`~± ’ XdV4Ù"V .aÌYŸÉV~Q@["žmY‰V•^acY‰XZ["WmQV QSeTUT#ž^W^aÌQ@[]XdacS"W.¡¢ ± Ë YXdl^V4`dV[UQSeW^W^V4QXdacS"W.

`dWg–"` Xd[]l^WOVX`Z["V4Wm[e•gY‰Sel^WmacYbY.

Y‰•rV~[]ÙP` []Q ` l•r› Ë []iÌYdS)“bS"žmic•gijack"VXZS)kMW^SP“µaÐf$¨(`~± .•rÙP["`Z•r›Ñ Y•ržrXZajV~Y.›R¡XZ¢ SR ¨(Ñ Y`4± `dV~ .›"l^SeS"žgi̕rÙeacW^S"–RžmQ [lmYZ\_[PSefhYdV?ajXdXdaclmS"acW(Y["TUY Se W^V@ .

[]`ZV4[^± Ë f$Y‰SÉnr“lO›gacYbXZl^V@`ZV[)W^V@V~•XZSR\m[”›K¨(`~± .ajWmQ@ijžÉ•rV kMW^SP“icV4•r–eV["Wm•.•rÙP["`Z•r› ["•m•raÐXZajSeWm[]i¦TUSeW^ajV~YbXdS•rS)XZl^V“˜Se`dkUXZlm[PX.XZl^acY.`dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lajW.["Y•rac`ZV4QÇXZS"`S]f6V4•^žmQ@[]XdacS"W.

Xdl^VŽÏÉ`ZY‰X\^ic[eQV”Õ Ò V.“bV@`ZV.lmV“b[eY˜lmaj`ZV4•gfhS"`acW.

ajW^fhS"`ZT)V~•RŸM›R¨(`4±eÒ ["ijkMacW^–]XZS"WSeWUXdl^VŸ_V@lm["iÐfAS"f  .SPÙe—M¡?V4Q­~®"?® ŽaÌYZY‰ž^V XdlÉ[PX.¡¢ µajWRXZl^V .

[]`ZS"ž^WɕK¨ ["`ZQ lgS"` .

ŸÉV@Xœ“˜V4V@W.XdlmacY.SeWKXZl^VQ`ZaÐXZacQ4[]iAYdijSP“t\mijž^Wm–"V@` Ù"V4ijSrQ@aÐXœ›e± Ë YbXZl^V@`ZV[UQSeW^W^V4QXdacS"W.\^`Zaci$­4®"® MnM“bV?“bS"ž^i̕glm[”Ù"V?Xdl^VYdS]f Xœ“[]`ZV.

YdS]f Xœ“[]`ZV"Ñ Yb[]\^\m["`dV4WOX•^V@iÌ[”›"V4•g[]\^\_V4["`Z["WmQVŽ[]Wɕ XdlmVŽf©["QÇXXZlm[PXXZl^V`ZV4YdV4[]` Q lacW ?l^ajSUlm[eY\^`ZSM•^žmQV~•XZS]XZ["ijic›acWmQSe`d`ZV4QX.

XZl^aÌY[]`dXdaÌQicV Q@["TUVSežrX#§ .SPÙm«P¡?V4Q)­4®e?® e°‡“["YbS"W^ic›gQ@S"acWmQa̕rV4WeX []icij›RacTUTUV4•raÌ[PXZV@ic›g[Pf XZV@` Ë Y‰V4WOX›eS"ž.T#›g\m[]\_V@` []WɕK\^`ZS"\_SeYZ[]i¦SeWKXZl^VYdl^S]X.[]Wm•gS ɗOŸm[eY‰VŽ`ZV4Ydž^ijXZY Õ Ë []TÄY‰ž^`ZVXdlm[]XXdl^V4`dV["`dV`ZV4["YdS"WÉY˜\m`dV4Ù"V@WOXZajW^–  ?¡Ž¢ }fh`dSeTCQSeT)\mijV@XdacW^–[]Wm•g\^ž^ŸmijaÌY‰lmajW^–UXZl^aÌY YdS]f Xœ“[]`ZV  Ë “˜Sež^i̕ ¥ žmY‰Xijack"V?XdS)kMW^SP“·“lm[PXbXdlmV@›K["`dVe± Ë ["TÖ[]iÌY‰S)Y‰žm`dV?Xdlm[]X˜XZl^V•^[PXZV.

•rSU›"SežKXZl^acW^k^Õ  ack"V4“acYdV"n Ë ijV~[]`ZW^V4•KXdlm[]X.YdijV4V@Ù"VR§ ’ V@\rXZV@TŸÉV4`­4®e?® e°± Ò·lÉ[PX.

[]Ÿ_S"žrXXdlmVQS"WmW^V4QXdacS"W.¡¢ nÉ[]iÌY‰S)`dV~QV4ajÙeV4•K[ –"` []WOX~± Ë YbXZl^V@`ZV[UQS"WmW^V4QXdacS"W.["Wm•KlmacY \_SeYdaÐXZajSeWÉÕÒ·lm[]X.[eYbXdl^V•rac`ZV4QÇXZS"`S"f  ?¡Ž¢ À`dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lÉÕ Ë ["TCY‰žm`dVXdlÉ[PX.ŸÉV@Xœ“˜V4V@WgXdl^aÌY–"` []WOXŸÉV4ajWm–[”“b["`Z•rV~•UXdS¨ `4±rÒ¿[]ickMajW^–"XdSeW.ŸÉV@Xœ“˜V4V@Wl^aÌY`dV~QV4ajÙMacW^–#XZl^V–"` []WOX[]Wm•.l^aÌYbfhS"`ZTUV@` \_SeYdaÐXZajSeW.¨(`4±6Ò¿[]ickMajW^–"XdSeWAnrS"W^VŽS"f1XdlmV–eSPÙ"V4`dW^Se`ZY‡S]f  .

–"` []WOX“b[eY[”“b["`Z•^V4•ŸÉ["YdV4•gS"W TUV@`ZaÐX.

SeW^ic›"± .

.

SP“bV@ÙeV@`~n Ë lm[”ÙeVYdV@`ZajSežmYQSeWmQV4`dWmY["ŸÉSežrXl^aÌY`dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lA± Ë []TY‰žm`dV?Xdlm[]XXdl^V~Y‰V QSeWmQV4`dWÉYb["`dVŽž^W^fhS"ž^Wm•^V4•¦n^ŸmžrX Ë “bS"žmic•gijack"VXZSRkOWmSP“ƒ“lm[]X¨ `4±$Ò¿[]ickMajW^–"XdSeWAÑ YQ@`dV~•rV@WOXZac["icY[]`ZV acWgXZl^aÌY.

[]`ZV4[S]f`dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lA± ¤l^VŽXZl^`dV4VŽT)SOYœXacTU\ÉSe`‰X []WOX.[]`ZV4[eY˜acW•rajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^–R[]`ZVXdl^VQ@`dajXdaÌQ@["iAY‰icSP“t\^icž^W^–eV@`Ù"V4ijSrQ@aÐXœ›enMXdl^V \ f_t•raÌ[]–"` []Tnr[]WɕXZl^V`džmW^W^V@`.

¡¢ S"W.Yd›rYœXZV@TC•^V4Ydaj–eWA±â¤l^V`ZV4YdV4[]` Q lKYd\ÉSeWmYdS"`ZV4•ŸM>›  .XZl^V Q`ZajXdaÌQ@[]iAYdicSP“ƒ\^icž^W^–eV@`Ù"V4ijSrQ@aÐXœ›RaÌY.

ŸÉV~Q@[]žÉY‰VŽajX.[]ŸÉY‰SeijžrXZV@ic›ž^WrfhSež^Wm•rV~•.

ÙOacS"iÌ[PXZV4YbXZl^VŸm["YdaÌQ?\mlO›rYdacQ4Y iÌ[”“.

S]fXdl^V\  _ •raÌ[]–"` []T aÌY.Y@±$¤l^VacTU\^ijV4TUV@WOXZ[]XdacS"W.

Ÿ_V4Q@["žmYdVŽ["–e["ajWAn ajX.["icYdS)["ŸmYdS"icžrXdV4ij›žmWmY‰Sež^Wm•.

ÙOacS"iÌ[PXZV4Y˜XdlmVŸm["YdacQ\^lM›rYdacQ4Yic[”“.

Y4± ?W^VŽS]f1XZl^V[]ŸÉY‰ž^` •rajXdacV4YS"f1XdlmV\^`dV4ÙMajSežmYbT)Sr•rV4iAaÌYbXdl^Va̕rV4[ XdlÉ[PX.

\^icž^W^–eV@`.

•raÌ[]TUVXZV@`lm[eYbXdS•rV~Q`ZV4[eY‰VajWSe`Z•rV4`bXdSUajWÉQ`ZV4["YdVXdl^V–O[PXZVÙeV@icSrQajXœ›"±$¤l^aÌY QSeWmQicžmYdajSeW §©S]fXdl^V\m`dV4ÙOacS"žÉY˜TUSr•rV4iÌ°bÙMacS"iÌ[PXdV~YY‰V4Ù"V4`Z["iÉ\^lM›rYdacQ4Yic[”“.

Y.Y4± .

[U•rac`dV~QÇX.Q@S"WmYdV4ØOž^V4WmQVen XdlmV•rV4Ydaj–eWgS"f XZl^V`Zž^W^W^V4`.

acFW  .Y.Y‰›rY‰XdV@T §©["Y\mž^Ÿ^icacYdl^V4•.¡¢ }icaÐXZV@` [PXZž^`dV”°˜acY4nm[PXŸ_V4Y‰X4n VÚMXZ`dV4T)V4ij›K“b[eYœXZVfhž^i ± .

V4\m[]`dXdTUV@WOX.¡¢ An ’ bnrXdlmV¡.›"S"ž[]iÌYdSkMW^SP“n .

S"f£âWmV@`Z–"›"nr["Wm•.Xdl^V~Y‰V["`dV~["YbVÚ^QV4V4•KXdl^VŽXZV@WmY.S]XdlmV@` YY‰\_S"WmYdS"`ZacW^– `ZV4YdV4[]` Q lacW.

S]f TUacijicacS"WmY4nm[]WɕK›eVX.

\^`ZSr•ržmQVŽV4`d`ZS"W^V4S"žmY˜`ZV4Ydž^iÐX Y@± Ë []TÖXdl^VSeW^V“l^SR•raÌYdQ@SPÙ"V@`ZV4•RXdl^VQ@S"`Z`dV~QÇX\^`ZSMQ@V4•ržm`dVajWŸ_S]XZl["`dV~["Y4± Ë X.

å s —˜.lÉ["YŸ_V@V@WT› .

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.œAª ä Ž 4.ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

Chapter B.¡¢ }\m[]`dXS]fXdl^V~Y‰V[eQ l^acV@Ù"V4TUV@WOXZY4±âV@X4n^›eS"žYœXZajiciAlm[”ÙeV?WmS]X `dV~Y‰\_S"WɕrV4•KXdSUT#›K`dV4\ÉV~[PXdV~•K`ZV4ØOž^V~YœX YbfhS"`. My Relationship with Die Casting Establishment QSeWeXZajWMž^SežmYXdXdV4T)\^XXdSRTR[]keV .

[)–"` []WOX~± Ë YbXZl^V@`ZV[`ZV4[eY‰SeWXZlm[PX.

ajX.

lm["Y˜X []k"V4Wg›eS"ž ­ ›"V~[]` Y‡XZSR–"acÙ"VTUV[WmV@–e[]XdacÙ"V[]WÉY‰“bV@`ÇÕ Ë YXdl^V4`dV[UQSeW^W^V~QÇXdacS"W.l^SP“µijSeW^–UaÐX.Ÿ_VXœ“bV@V@W(["WO›KS]f1XZl^V[]Ÿ_SPÙ"V ajW^fhS"`ZTU[]XdacS"W[]Wm•.

lÉ["YbXZ["k"V4Wg›eS"žÉÕ âicV4[eY‰VY‰V4V?XZl^VajTU\^`ZV4YZY‰acÙ"V\m["`‰XZac["i —MijaÌYœXbS]fAXZl^VXdl^acW^–OY‡XZlm[PX Ë lm[”Ù"V["Q l^acV@ÙeV4•¦± Ë ["T Xdl^VŽS"WmV?“l^S fhS"ž^WÉ.

• Ž["`dŸ_V@`~Ñ YT)Sr•rV4i¦XdSUŸ_VŽXdS"XZ[]icic›K[]Wm•["ŸmY‰Seijž^XdV@ic›R“`ZS"W^–ɱ Ë []TÄ[]iÌY‰S)XdlmVS"W^VŽ`ZV4Yd\ÉSeWmY‰acŸ^icV fhS"`ÏmWɕrajWm–UXdl^V\  _ •raÌ[]–e`Z["T ajTU\^icV@TUV@WOX [PXdacS"WgXdSRŸ_V“`ZS"W^–ɱ Ë []TCXdl^VSeW^VŽ“l^SUacY `dV~Y‰\_S"WÉY‰acŸ^icV?fhSe`ÏmWm•racW^–UXZl^VQSe`d`ZV4QXb\  _ •raÌ[]–e`Z["T ajTU\^icV@TUV@WOX [PXdacS"W1± Ë []TCXdl^VSeW^VŽ“l^S •rV@ÙeV@icS"\_V4•KXdl^VQ@`dajXdaÌQ@["iA[]`ZV4[UQSeWmQV4\rX4± Ë []T XZl^VS"WmV“lmS•rV@ÙeV@icS"\_V4•KXdl^VV~QS"WmS"TUacQ4[]i`Zž^W^W^V4` •rV4Ydac–"WQS"WÉQV@\^X4± Ë WT#››eV4["`ZYbS]f6`ZV4YdV4[]` Q lacW.QS"TUV["Q@`dSOYdY []WM›`ZV4YdV4["`ZQ lKXdlm[]X.Xdl^V["`dV~[#S"f6•racVQ@[eYœXZajW^– Ë lm[”Ù"VW^S"X.

\^`ZSr•ržmQV~• žmYdVfhž^i¦`ZV4Ydž^ijXZY Ë YbXdlmV@`ZV["WO›Q@S"`Z`dV4ic[]XdacS"WRŸ_VXœ“bV@V4WKXZl^Vf©["QÇXbXdlÉ[PX.“b[eYbYd\_S"WmYdS"`ZV4•KŸO>›  ?¡Ž¢ }“lmacQ l.“b[eYQSe`d`ZV4QX["Wm•É«”Se`“l^acQ l.

[]ici_Xdl^VŽacT)\_S"`dXZ["WOX•^acYZQSPÙeV@`ZajV~Y § XZlm[PX Ë []T[”“b["`dV?S]fZ°blm[”ÙeVŽŸÉV4V@W(•raÌYdQ@SPÙ"V@`ZV4•W^S]X.

acWM—OŸmžrX.

S"žrX Y‰a̕rVŽS]f  ?¡Ž¢ Õ Ë “bS"ž^i̕Kicack"VXdS l^V4["`.

[]`ZV4[S]f V@Úr\ÉV4`‰XZacYdVY‰žm\^\ÉSe`‰XZV4•gŸM›  ?¡Ž¢ }“lmacQ laÌYžmY‰V@fhž^i1["Wm• QSe`d`ZV4QX Õ Ë YbXdlmV@`ZV[)Q@S"W^WmV4QÇXZajSeWgŸ_VXœ“bV@V4W.Y‰SUTR[]WM›S"f Xdl^V•^ajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^–UV@W^–eajW^V4V@` Y Ë lm[”ÙeV?TUV@X.[]Ÿ_S"žrX.Xdl^VŽfhSe`dV4–"S"acW^–acYZY‰žmV4Y[]WɕKXZl^VŽf©["QXXdlm[]X.•rSRW^S]XŸ_V@icajV4Ù"VacW(YdQ@ajV4WmQV”Õ ¨(S"`ZVŽ`dV~QV4WeXZij›en Ë lÉ[”Ù"VijV~[]`ZW^V4•KXdlm[]X.T#›.["WM›eXZl^acW^–UajW.

¨ Y4±â¨ []`Z–"V4i Ñ Y Q`ZV4•rV4WOXdaÌ[]iÌYajW.›"Sež^`Y‰V~Q`ZVXZ["`d›m«]["YZY‰aÌYœX []WOX4nO¤1`ZaÌQaÌ[)¨ª[]`Z–"V@i nMlm["YWmSP“ƒŸ_V@V@W [”“b["`Z•^V4•SeW^VŽS]f6›"Sež^`–"` []WOXZY[]WɕgaÌY•rSeajW^–U`ZV4YdV4["`ZQ lgS"W.XdlmV\ÉSeijicžrXdacS"W`ZV4YdV4["`ZQ lK["`dV~[["`dV”Õ .ØOžm["ijajÏÉQ4[PXdacS"W[]WɕgTUV4`dajXS"W^ic›"± Ë “˜Sež^i̕KicajkeVXdSUkMW^SP“ƒ“lm[]X.\ÉSeijicžrXdacS"W1± Ë ["TCY‰žm`dVXdlmV–"` []WOXb“["Y –"acÙ"V4WgŸm[eY‰V~•KSeW.

Xdlm[]X.[]`ZV4[^nM“l^V4`dVŽ“["YajX.[eYY‰l^V•^S"W^V[]WM›`ZV4YdV4["`ZQ lKS"W\ÉSeijicžrXZajSeW ŸÉV@fhS"`ZV~Õ Ë f$Ydl^Vlm["Y•^S"W^VŽ`ZV4YdV4[]` Q lacW..

[PXl^V@` ¥ SeŸÉÕ Ë f$Y‰SÉnracYdWAÑ XXdl^aÌY.[RQ@S"\M›RS]fXdlmV`dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lÉÕ Ë YXdlmacYXZS"\^aÌQ\m[]`dXS]f$¨ Y4±â¨ []`Z–"V4i Ñ Y•ržrXdacV4Y.\^ž^Ÿ^icaÌY‰l^V~•mÕÒ·lM›K“["YdWAÑ Xl^V@` `dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lK“bS"`ZkR\^ž^Ÿ^icaÌY‰l^V~•mÕ Ë f6aÐX?“b[eY˜\mž^Ÿ^icacYdl^V4•An^“l^V@`ZVQ@["W Ë S"ŸrX []acW.

[U•rSež^Ÿ^icV\m[”›MT)V4WOX Õ ?`\ÉV4`dlÉ[]\mY4nr“b[eYbXdl^aÌY.

Ò·lmV@`ZVQ@[]W Ë S"ŸrX []acWKXZl^VŽÏmWm["WmQaÌ[]i `dV4\ÉSe`‰XSeWgl^SP“ƒXdl^VTUSeW^V@›g“b[eYbYd\_V@WOX Õ ¤1Se–"V@Xdl^V4`“˜VŽT#žÉYœX.["WgV@ÚOXZ`Z[UYdV@\m["`Z[]XdV~•\m[”›MTUV@WOX Õ.

\^`ZS"TUS"XdVŽ•rajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^–UkMW^SP“ijV~•r–"Ve± Ë []T•rS"acW^–UT#›KžrXdTUSeY‰XXdSUacWmQ`ZV4[eY‰VXZl^V QSeT)\_VXZaÐXZajÙeV@W^V~YdY.

S]f1XZl^V•racVQ@[eYœXZajW^–UacWm•ržmY‰Xd`Z›“ajXdlS"žm`.

[]` Q lK`ZajÙP[]iÌY 6Xdl^V\^iÌ["Y‰XdaÌQ@YacWm•ržÉYœXZ`d›enMXdl^V QSeT)\_SeYdajXdVTR[PXZV@`Zac["i_acWm•ržÉYœXZ`d›enm[]Wm•gS]XZl^V@`acWm•ržÉYœXZ`dacV4Y4± Ë ["TCQ@["ijicacW^–US"W.V@Ù"V4`d›eS"W^V?XdS ¥ SeajWTUVŽXdS ["•rÙP["WmQVXdlmVkOWmSP“ijV~•r–"VŽS]f Xdl^V•^ajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^–U\^`dSrQ@V4YZY@± ¤lm[]WmkK›"SežfhSe`›"S"žm`.

.QS"WÉY‰a̕rV@` [PXZajSeWA± ’ acWmQV4`dV4ij›en V@W^aÌQ kg×["`œ—r¨(V@ac`4n âl1± ¡± ×bSe["`Z•KS]f SPÙ"V@`ZW^Se`ZY 0b„ .¡¡¢ À ¢ }TUV@TŸÉV4`ZY .•racVQ@[eYœXZajW^–UacWm•ržmY‰Xd`Z› ä X 4<RYV.WM›"S"WmV“lmSUQ4[]`ZV["ŸÉSežrX.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª  ­  .

  >)..+ Œ( .

a=9"} #N J26= 3"9A5P7 3H&9SROVUWFX 7 .q" b#' $&&/ g"/ a F U U #v 3n <V 0n eVfV ž}`wr$} $S !Ÿ U U #v U ‡Ÿ ^]7_ aV ¤}`wr$}V U U U @T aV U ^nwV ^] _ œ  &v U ¤}`wr™} &§ 0n .n GV œ{aŸ !n U #v U &v U U oS \V U ]=FW “m5n= R j3!5p7 .a9A23 PR5 \35 Hb7E5B34A9SR5*R m4<R (WFD!7 4G=9:7 RYD.

2 =5Q9:7 4 3.

. =FX!RYW9a4!5P7 9:7 4G= .<2R Œ.<2R!9L. 3.

=FD(3 != (V 3R #MCX=9>9 319SRVFWUX 7 .<2"9A23(=!5B9:7 4 3@5K3.3 3(=FD6H@9A23&V ŒH7 =[]5K= r9A2F5BR]W[]20} 1=[U=7ED3UN p3!5K3g7 .

[U=5nH7ED[CV N JRYW :WHU[3 23.

S9:7 41=FX!RYW91VUWFX 7 .X!3G3!D3DG9A2FW.9A235 } 26=.s7 =.

<2@7 9 *2=6H&9SR04.2!7ED[g9A2!7 . 7ED6H&R j7ED PR5 =9:7 RYDbN 3D= n9S3!5l”C5>N “m5n= R j3!5*.Z=7 H@9A26=9123 jRYW HiVUWFX 7 .

S9A5‰W[U[ 3FN } .RYD9:7EDUW3 \M.

?3DG9`= U 3.-/#0 1! 32)2)2 &S 9l_-5K.%.S9 Y.    "!$#&%&')(*+( .

9>9S3!5-9SRT”h5>N`“m5n= U R#vj3!5jfE}`W[ ä $[]žmiA¨+±^×b`Z["ijSP“bV@`  ?¡Ž¢ #nÉ£˜•raÐXZS"` ® ­Ò V~YœX .

aj–e–"acWmY SO["•¦n ’ žmaÐXZV¯"¯ SOY‰V4T)SeWOX4n Ë  ­4¯  ^­ x  s)t‡i ¡?V4[]`..

V4WmQicSeYdV4•KXœ“˜S(§ "°QSe\^acV4YS]f Xdl^V\É[]\_V@`RÍd¤lmVTU[]Xdl^V4TR[PXdaÌQ@["iXdl^V4S"`Z›S]f Xdl^V\' _ •raÌ[]–e`Z["TUÎ)Ydž^Ÿ^TUaÐXdXdV~•gŸM›T›rY‰V4iÐffhS"`›eS"ž^``ZV@ÙMajV4“±$¤l^acY.¨ `4±â×b` []icSP“˜V4` âicV4[eY‰V?ÏmWm•.

± ^Se`›"Sež^`QS"WMÙeV@W^acV@WmQ@V Ë acWmQicžm•rV[U•raÌY‰k. ¡  ’ fhSe`dTR[PX“ajXdl(¨(aÌQ`ZSeYdS]f XÒ  .¡fhS"`“acWm•rSP“ fhS"`ZTR[PX§h\Ø r± “ac•É°bS]fXdl^V\m["\ÉV4`4nr\_SeY‰XZYZQ`Zac\rXÇ«P\^acQXÏmijV~YS]f Xdl^VŽÏɖ"ž^`ZV4Y§hÏm–"ž^`ZV4YŽ­["Wm• e°Ç± Ë f XdlmV@`ZVaÌY.>=@?A58BDCFE<B@C<58BG7D7@H.\m[]\_V@`aÌYacWeXZV@Wm•^V4•gXdSUŸ_VQS"WÉY‰a̕rV@`ZV4• fhS"`\mž^Ÿ^icacQ4[PXdacS"WacW 46587:9<.

["WO›Xdl^acW^–)Xdlm[]X Ë Q4[]W•rSUXdSUl^V4ij\\^icV4[eY‰V•rSUW^S"X.

l^V4YdajXZ[PXZVŽijV@X.

T)VkMW^SP“± ¤lm["W^k›"SežKfhSe`›"Sež^`ajWOXdV4`dV~YœX.

acW.S"ž^`“bS"`Zk± V~Y‰\_V4QX‰fhž^icij›.Y‰žmŸ^TUaÐXdXdV4•An ¡?`4± V4W^acQ kg×b["`œ—r¨(V@ac` 0b„  [][)`Z`ZYd›Rl^SeÒ·`‰X.

<V!R]DHU3GH@9SR@9A27 .ajW^•rkMacVicV@Q@` ["Y‰XdacW^–UicacY‰X V@WÉQi ¡?¡?SracYdQk ž^TUV@WOX Y@n p3H7 HDR!95B3G. $[]žmiA¨+±^×b`Z["ijSP“bV@` U 3.

9>9S3!5>xb.?R‹SY.Z3!D9\27bVr=FD@=6HUHb7 9:7 RYD6= U RYD3"RYDXm34<30VX!3!5Ivx   s]N  ?¡Ž¢ #nÉ£˜•raÐXZS"` ® ­Ò V~YœX .

aj–e–"acWmY SO["•¦n ’ žmaÐXZV¯"¯ SOY‰V4T)SeWOX4n Ë  ­4¯  ^­ ¡?V4[]`..

•^[PXZV4•> .¨ `4±â×b` []icSP“˜V4` Ë lÉ[”Ù"VW^S]X`ZV4QV4ajÙeV4•K›"S"žm`˜`ZV@\^ic›RXZS)T›QV4`‰XZaÐÏmV~•KTR["ajiXZS)›eS"ž.

ž^–ežmYœX n¦­4®e® ajW.“l^aÌQ l Ë V@WmQ@ijSOY‰V~•XZl^V\m[]\_V@`.

Îe¤l^VŽTR[PXdlmV@TR[PXZacQ4[]iXdlmV@S"`Z›S"f1XdlmV\ _ •^ac["–"` []TRÎ["žrXdlmS"`ZV4•ŸM›gT#›rY‰V4iÐf fhS"`›eS"ž^`Q@S"WmYdac•^V@` [PXdacS"W §©[RQ4Q?“["Y["icYdSUY‰V4WeXXZS  []`Z`Z›RÒ·ajW^kMicV@`fh`ZS"T .

Xdl^VV~[]`ZijacV4Y‰X\ÉSOYdYdajŸmijVaÌYdYdž^Ve± Ë Ÿ_V@icajV4Ù"VXdlm[]XXdl^aÌY\m["\ÉV4`acY..[]`d<X D4V@iciÌ°± âicV4[eY‰V QSeWmYdac•rV4`\^ž^Ÿ^icaÌY‰l^acW^–UT#›g\m[]\_V@`acW.

S]f VÚMXZ`dV4T)VŽacTU\ÉSe`‰X []WmQ@V?XZSUXdl^V•^ajVQ@[eYœXZajWm–ÏÉV@i̕¦± Ë ž^Wm•rV4`ZY‰XZ["Wm•XZlm[PX.

Xdl^ViÌ["Y‰XVÚrl^acŸ^ajXdacS"W([]Wm•.QSeW^–"`ZV4YZY4± .›eS"ž.lm[”Ù"VŸ_V@V@WÙeV@`Z›RŸ^žmYd›K“ajXdl.

.

SP“bV@ÙeV@`~n Ë XdlmajW^kKXdlm[]XXdl^aÌY\m["\ÉV4`.

›eS"ž^`Y‰XZ[]XdV@TUV4WeX.["–"`ZV@V“aÐXZl.•rV4YdV@`ZÙ"V~Y[U\^`dSeTU\rXl^V4["`dacW^–m± Ë •rSUW^S]X.

acW.›"S"žm`.

¡.V~QV@TŸÉV4G` ^nA­~®"® icVX‰XZV@`XZSUT)VY‰XZ[]XdacW^–)Xdlm[]X Î"¤lmacY\m["\ÉV4`acY.

l^aj–el^ic›RXdV~Q l^W^aÌQ@[]!i  XdSMS)XdV4Q lmW^acQ4[]i¦“ajXdl^SežrX.[)ijV~YdY  XdV4Q lmW^acQ4[]iŸm[eQ kO–e`dSež^Wm• .å —˜.

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.œAª ä Ž 4.œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

•raÌYdQ@S"ž^WOXdacW^–U›"Sež^``dV~["•rV4`ZYbaÌY l^V@ic\rfhž^i ± Ë lm[”Ù"VTUVX.Chapter B. My Relationship with Die Casting Establishment V Úr\^iÌ[]Wm[]XdacS"WgfhS"`Sež^`–"V4W^V@` []i`ZV4["•^V@` Yc± Ë •rSRWmS]XŸÉV4ijacV@ÙeVŽXdlm[]X.YdS"TUVŽS]f6›"Sež^``dV~["•rV4`ZY[]WɕKlm[”ÙeVfhS"ž^Wm•gXZl^V@TCXdSUŸÉVÙeV@`Z›acWeXZV@icijac–"V4WOX4n^[]Wɕ fhž^`dXdl^V4`dTUS"`ZVXdl^V4›K`ZV4["ijic›Q@["`dV[]Ÿ_S"ž^XbXZl^V•racVQ@[eYœXZajW^–UacWm•ržmY‰Xd`Z›"± Ë ŸÉV4ijacV@ÙeVŽXdlm[]XXdl^V4›KQ@["W ¥ žm•r–"V fhS"`XZl^V@TRYdV@icÙ"V4Y4± .

[]Wm•glm[”ÙeV?V4ijacTUajWm[]XdV~•KTR[]WM›RS"f Xdl^VTR[]Xdl^V4TU[]XdaÌQ@["i1•rV@`Zacٔ[]XdacS"WmY˜fh`ZS"T XZl^aÌY\m[]\_V@`.V4Ù"V@`dXdlmV@icV4YZY@n Ë lÉ[”Ù"V›OacV@i̕rV~•XZS)›eS"ž^`•rV4TR[]Wm•.

XdSRYd[]XdaÌYœfh›K›"S"žm`.

QicV4["`dic›"± âicV4[eY‰VŽW^S"XdVXdlm[]X Ë “acici¦“aÐXZlm•r` [”“tXdlmV\m[]\_V@`.•rV4Ydaj`ZV?XdSRlm[”ÙeV[RÎeY‰acTU\^ijV~Î \^`ZV4YdV@WOXZ[]XdacS"WA±$¤l^aÌY\m["\ÉV4`4nrl^SP“bV@ÙeV@`~nOY‰Xdacici1QSeWeX []acWmYbXdlmVV4YZY‰V4WeXZac["icY˜XZSRŸÉVž^WɕrV@` YœXZSMSM•.

XZl^aÌY\m[]\_V@`“acijiAQ lÉ[]W^–eV.“`dajXdacW^–ɱ Ë •rSUŸÉV4ijacV@ÙeV.ajf Ë •rSRW^S"X`dV~QV@acÙ"V[)`ZV@\^ic›KY‰XZ[PXZajWm–)›eS"ž^` ajWOXZV@WOXdacS"WmYŸM›¬O[]WMžm["`d›­"n¦­~®"®e¯^nOajW.

nr[eY˜›eS"žgkOWmSP“nOaÌY˜Xdl^VQ@V@WOXd` []i\m["`‰XS]f Xdl^V Q@["icQ@ž^ic[]XdacS"WmY["Wm•.XdlmV“[”›R\  _ •raÌ[]–"` []T Q4[]iÌQž^iÌ[PXZajSeWmY[]`ZV?TR["•^V"±$¤l^VŽ\  _ •raÌ[]–e`Z["T.•rV4Ydaj–eWKXZlMžmYXdlmV\m[]\_V@`ajXZYdV@ijfaÌYS"fYZ[]TUVŽajTU\_S"`dXZ[]WÉQV"± Ë lmS"\_VŽXdlm[]X.

XZl^acY.Xdl^V•^ajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^– ajWɕržmY‰Xd`Z›"n^[]Wɕ¦nMl^S"\_V.[]`ZV4[^± ¤lm[]WmkK›"SežfhSe`›"S"žm`.›"S"žg`dV~[]icij›g•rSRY‰V4V?XZl^VacT)\_S"`dXZ["WmQVŽS"f6[e•rÙP[]WmQ@ajW^–UkMW^SP“icV4•r–eV?acW.XZlm[PX›"SežK“aciji¦Q@SOSe\ÉV4`Z[]XdV?“aÐXZlXdlmSeYdV?“l^S)lm[”ÙeV.Xdl^VŽTR[ ¥ Se`˜\m`dSe–"`ZV4YZY ajW.TR["•rV.

`~± V@WmacQ k.×b["`  ¨(V4aj` 0b„ ×bS”TUÚMV4XdT#V4`4Ÿ_n^V@¨ª` Y Q~¢˜icajT#XdaÌQ]n ’ Q@S]XdX4nrÒ·acicYdS"WAn .QS"WÉY‰a̕rV@` [PXZajSeWA± ’ acWmQV4`dV4ij›en ¡.

.

Q@ij\^žm`d•^SeajŸmW^[]–Ÿm["ij›ijikMXZW^l^SPV“µS]XZŸMl^›V@`W^acSPWM“tÙ"V~XZYœlmXZ[Paj–OX [PŽXdacS"["WÉ`dŸ_Y‡V@XZ`~lmÑ Y˜[PX.S"iciÌ[]Wm•¦n^×bV4l^ijV4`4n^¡?ž^\^`ZV"nÉ[]Wm•YdS"TUVŽS]XdlmV@G`  ?¡Ž¢ ˆOR6„ âS"acWmž.

TUVŽacWgXZl^ViÌ["Y‰XQ@S"W^–e`dV~YdY ° U’U &V U bV lV 7V kV CT U U fv U bV = 7 ‚9A2=923 ‡ 3 A9 26=9 3<9>9S35o[R9#27 r[UR7ED[@=FD6HO23 =FD=[U3GHg9SR&[3.S"icaОrfXZXdV@l^ic›V4›K““b`dSeV@W^`ZV – Yd\_S"WmYdS"`ZV4•KŸO›  .iji1Xdl^V`ZV4YdV4["`ZQ l^V4`ZY˜[]–e`dV4V4•g“aÐXZl.[]aÐWmX~•.TU“Srlm•rV@V4`ZiAVacYŸÉXd["S]YdX V4[]•gicijS"›gW.n^V@[]ÙeŸmV@YdW.¡¢ ±§ .

s7 R]D.N ‡ 3 xe5K3G=6Hh=FX!R]WG9#7 9 7ED \MhD3 9 3<9>9S 3 5 HU=9S3H =FDUW6=!5BM vx   ] t N CŸ $[]ž^iA¨È±m×b`Z["ijSP“bV@`~n U’U  ?¡Ž¢ #nÉ£‡•^aÐXZS"` ® ­Ò V~YœX .15K3 7 .?3DG9 \@ 3 2!7 .9 \3(= 3<9>9S3!5c7ED \27 462&23(4  .

.aj–e–"acWmY Se[e•¦n ’ ž^ajXdV¯e¯ SeYdV@TUSeWeX~n Ë  ­4¯  ^­ zx s .¡ V~[]`.

¨(`~±â×b`Z["ijSP“bV@` ¤lm[]WmkK›"SežfhSe`›"S"žm`f©[PÚg•^[]XdV~•.›"Sež.¡?V4Q@V@TŸÉV4`]®^n¦­~®"® acW“l^acQ l.["ijicV@–eV4•KXdlm[]X.

›"SežgYdV@WOX.

PJ)†|„C†e‘bIO—  .TUV ›"Sež^``dV4ÙMacYdajSeWmY˜XdSUT#›g\m[]\_V@`RÍZ¤l^VŽTR[PXdlmV@TR[PXZacQ4[]iXdlmV@S"`Z›S"f XZl^V\ _ •^ac["–"` []T± Î  IJƒ^Œ)ƒa‚ ‚jƒ)0ƒa‘ Œ)ƒ…HLIONXR.

ici¦XdlmV\m[]`dXdacV4YbXZlm[PX.

–eS]XXdl^aÌYacWrfhS"`ZTR[PXZajSeW.W^S"X.["Wm•KT›rY‰V4iÐf ÏmWm•gXdl^aÌY \m[]\_V@`XZSRS]f6VÚMXd`ZV@TUVŽacT)\_S"`dXZ["WmQVe± Ë •^ac•.

`dV4ÙOaÌYdV?T›K\m["\ÉV4`.

["Q@Q@S"` •racW^–#XZSU›"S"žm`Q@S"TUTUV@WOXZY.

S"WgXdl^aÌY\m["\ÉV4`4n^["–e[]acWAnrYdajWmQ@V Ë •ra̕ W^S]X`ZV4Q@V@acÙ"V?["WM›"± Ë •rV~Qa̕rV4•XdSU`dV4ÙMacYdV4•UXZl^VŽ\m[]\_V@`YdajWÉQV Ë •ra̕KW^S"Xb`ZV4Q@V@acÙ"V~•K[]WM›U`ZV@\^ic›Ufh`dSeT ›"Sež fhS"`TUS"`ZVXdlm["W )TUSeWeXZlmY4± Ë `ZV@ÙMacYdV4•.["Q4QSe`Z•racW^–XdSU›"Sež^`.

QSeTUT)V4WOXZYS"W.Y Ë YœX [PXZV4•.V~QV4T#Ÿ_V@` "®^n¦­4®e ® r± ‡ijV~["YdV?W^S"XdVXdlÉ[PXXdlmacYaÌYXZl^Vic[eYœXXZajTUV Ë “ajiciAY‰V4Wm•.›"SežKXZl^VYd["TUV\É[]\_V@` Y‰acWmQ@V Ë Ÿ_V@icajV4Ù"VŽXdlÉ[PX.ajWT›ijV@X‰XZV@`.•^[]XdV~•g¡?V4Q@V@T#Ÿ_V@` ^n¦­4®e ® rn Ë YdV@WOX ›"SežKXZl^V`dV4ÙMacYdV4•gÙ"V4`ZYdajSeWg[eY Ë YdV@Wm•KXdS["ijiXZl^VQ@QicacY‰X4± Ë `ZVǗMYdV@WOX›"SežKXZl^VYd["TUVÙeV@` Y‰acS"WgS"W ¡.T#›g\^`ZV@ÙMajSežmYb\m[]\_V@`SeW Xdl^VQ@`dajXdaÌQ@["iAY‰icSP“ƒ\mijž^Wm–"V@`ÙeV@icSrQajXœ›"± .

›"Sežg“aciciAQiÌ[]acTÄ[]–O[]acWXZlm[PX.

›eS"ž•rSUW^S]X.

`ZV4Q@V@acÙ"VŽ[]WM›S]fT#›.Y‰ž^ŸmT)ajX‰X []i ± Ë W Q@[eY‰VXdlÉ[PX.

W^S]X.•ra̕.›"Sež.Q@ic["ajTÄ[]–e["ajWgXdlÉ[PX›"Sež.

[)Q@S"\M›Rfh`ZS"T []WM›"SeW^V“l^SRacYSeWKXZl^VQ@QŽicaÌYœX~± âicV4["YdVŸÉV[”“[]`ZV.Q4[]W.XZlm[PX Ë Q lm[]Wm–"V4•KXdlmVŽXdajXdicVS]fXdl^V\m["\ÉV4` §©¡?V4Q@V@T#Ÿ_V@`~n mn¦­4®"® ÙeV@` Y‰acS"W_°$XZSRŸÉVÎ .–"V@X.`ZV4Q@V@acÙ"V?Xdl^V\É[]\_V@`›"Sež.

.

SP“tXZSRQ@[]iÌQžmic[]XdVXdl^V'\ ~_t•raÌ[]–e`Z["TÖQSe`d`ZV4QXdic›MÎm± ä X 4<RYV.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­:¯  .œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.

“`ZaÐXZajW^– §©V@TR[]aci¦aÌY ÏmW^V”°b“l^VXZl^V@`.`dV~Y‰\_S"WɕXZSRT#›V .¨ ["aji¦ŸM›K¬O[]WMžm["`d›(­ mn¦­~®"®"¯m± ‡ijV~["YdVQ@S"WmYda̕rV@`XZl^acY \m["\ÉV4`“aÐXZlm•r` [”“Wgajf Ë “acijiAWmS]Xl^V4["`fh`dSeT֛"SežgŸM›RXZl^VTUV@WOXdacS"WmV4••^[PXZVajW.[]\m\^`dV~QaÌ[PXZV?ajf›eS"ž.Ë “˜Sež^ic•.

Xdl^V\m["\ÉV4`acYQ@Q@V@\rXZV4•¦± Ë l^S"\_VXdlm[]X.

XdlmV•rajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^– acWm•ržmY‰Xd`Z›"nr[]Wɕ¦nrl^S"\_V?Xdlm[]Xb›eS"ž“acijiAQ@SMS"\_V@` [PXdV.TR["•rV?XdlmV?TR[ ¥ Se`˜\m`dSe–"`ZV4YZY acWgXZl^aÌY.“aÐXZlKXZl^SeYdV?“lmS#lm[”ÙeV.›"S"ž.`ZV4[]icic›K•rSRY‰V4VXdl^VacTU\ÉSe`‰X []WmQ@VS"f6[e•rÙP[]WmQ@ajWm–kMW^SP“icV4•r–eVŽajW.

KL„.PL‚jƒO• NaILK^“»^N‹IJK)“ „‡†JHa„œH^‚´MƒO‚’R XK eƒa•™‘ R\„.[]`ZV4[m± ’ acWmQV4`dV4ij›en ¡?`4± V4W^acQ kg×b["`  ¨(V4aj` ˆOR6„¤KMP|R.HJ•–•’NXHLI.

‰HLORCKM•bPO„.ƒa•’Nk“&‚hKQIO— ‘bIJ^•Ø.

<V!RYD6HU3GH@9SR&9A27 . U 3.P M‘ØIO—|HJ•–•™„‡†Oƒ…KJ„‡†OƒO‚d‘bIOŒ)ƒ^R@„C‘ —eHa„C‘’KMIJR&„‡†LH)„o“3†Jƒa‚jƒ‰JHaR@ƒ KMI|‘ „ p3@5B3G.

9>9S3!5o=FD6Hh4626=FD[3GHi27 .#=9>9:7 9AWHU3  b S 9A2R]W[]2G9.

N x=FDFW=5QM  x  tvN ?¡ V4[]`.

¨ `4±â×[]`  ¨(V@ac` ¤lm["W^k›"SežKfhSe`›"Sež^``dV~QV@WOX.

[]`dXdaÌQicVY‰žmŸ^TUacYZY‰acS"W[]WɕKXZl^aÌYfhS"icijSP“ .TR[]aci ± Ë []TÖW^SP“µajW \_SeYZY‰V~YdYdajSeWKS"f›eS"ž^`[]`dXdaÌQicVÎ .ž^\.V .

.SP“tXdSRQ4[]iÌQž^iÌ[PXZV?XZl^V\ )•raÌ[]–e`Z["TÖQS"`Z`ZV4QÇXZij›e± Î Ë X.

acW ¡?ajV¢b[eYœXZajW^–R£‡W^–"acW^V@V4`4± Ë •rac•.["Wm•g["TC\^`ZV@\É[]`ZV4•RXZSR`dV~QSeT)TUV4Wm•KajXfhS"`\mž^Ÿ^icacQ4[PXdacS"W.W^S"X.aÌYbXdl^VÙeV@` Y‰acS"W •^[]XdV4•¬O[]WA± ^n¦­4®"®e¯^± Ë lÉ[”Ù"V`dV~["•gaÐX.

`dV~QV4ajÙeV["WO›KV4[]`ZicajV4`Ydž^Ÿ^TUaÌYdYdacS"WmYS"f1XdlmacY.

["`‰XZacQ@ijVen Ë “["Y QSeWrfhžmYdajWm–)ajX.

“ajXdl.Xdl^VV~[]`ZijacV@`["`‰XZacQ@ijVXdlÉ[PX Ë `dV@Xdž^`ZW^V4•KXdSU›eS"žA±â¨(›g[]\_S"icS"–"acV4Y4± .

.

lm[”Ù"VŽ[]\^\m`dSO["Q l^V~•RXdlmacY.[PXXdlmV“b[”›R›eS"ž.SP“bV@Ù"V4` Ë ["T Ù"V4`d›R\mijV~["YdV4•.

acW["WgSeŸ ¥ V4QXdacÙ"VŽTR[]W^WmV@`~nr“l^acQ laÌY[]ici¦“˜VlÉ[”Ù"VV@Ù"V4`.[]\^\_V4["`ZYbXZS)\m`dSPÙMa̕rVŽÙ”["ijžÉ[]Ÿ^icV acWrfhS"`ZTR[PXdacS"W.["`‰XZacQ@ijVe± Ë X.

YaÌYT#›g\ÉSeijaÌQ› fhS"`lmaj–el^ij›XdV4Q lmW^acQ4[]iATR[]XdV@`ZaÌ[]i n Ë []TC`dV~ØežmV4Y‰XdacW^–)XdV4Q lmW^acQ4[]i¦\_V@` Y‰SeW^W^V4i¦S"W.Xdl^ V .["Ydk"V~•RfhS"`~± .¡¢ }YœX [  XZS `ZV@ÙMajV4“tXZl^V\m[]\_V@`.

Q lm["WmQVŽS"f []\m\^`dSPÙP["i nr[]Wɕg[eY Ë YZ[]a̕¦n Ë “ajiciA`ZV4QSeTUT)V4Wm•gaÐX~± Ë “aciji¦icVX.[eY“˜V4iji ± Ë Q@V@`dXZ["ajW^ic›RXZl^ajWmkXdlmacY\É[]\_V@`lm[eY[TžmQ lŸÉV@X‰XZV@`.

XZl^aÌYXdacTUV"± ’ acWmQV4`dV4ij›en $[]žmiAט` []icSP“bV@` ‡ 3 U’U SJvL=7 9S3H¡nPR5o=fv2!7 U 3=FD6H@9A23DkSY.XZajTUVXZSU`dV4ÙOacV@“µaÐX Ë “bS"žmic•gijack"VXZS \^ž^ŸmijaÌY‰lajX.[]Wm• Ë Xdl^acW^kXZV4Q l^WmacQ4[]i¦`ZV@ÙMajV4“˜V4`“ajici1[]–e`dV4V.kMW^SP“ƒS"fSež^`•rV4Q@acYdajSeWgacW “bV@V@krY4± âicV4["YdVŽ•rSRW^S]X“ajXdlm•^`Z[”“µaÐX‰—O–"acÙ"VŽžmY[)icaÐXdXdicVTUS"`ZV.?3DG9"”h5>N-“m5n= U R#vj3!5o= U 3<9>9S3!5oHF=9S3GH‰£63!X ä x   t]N ?¡ V4[]`.›eS"ž.

¨ `4±â×b` []icSP“˜V4`4n .

\m\m[]`ZV@WOXdic›"nr›eS"ž•rSUW^S]X.

lÉ[”Ù"V?Xdl^VŽXZajTUVŽXdSRicSMS"kSPÙeV@`T#›K\m[]\_V@`.

[eY›"S"ž.`ZV@\^ic›R“acijiA•rV4TUS"WmY‰Xd` [PXZV.[ W^V4–e[PXZajÙeV.\^`ZS"TUaÌY‰Ve±6£‡Ù"V4W.

XdlÉ[PX›"Sežlm[”Ù"VŽYdS"TUV?Q@S"ž^`dXdV~Y‰›e±6×bžrX[]\m\m[]`ZV@WOXdic›)Xdl^VŽ\m["\ÉV4`acY W^S"X.

ajTU\_S"`dXZ[]WOX.

["Y›eS"ž^`V@ÚM\_V@`dXZYbXZS"i̕.›"S"ž[]Wɕ Ë []TÖSeW^ic›g[UY‰TR["iji¦Ÿ_S]XZl^V@`ZajWm–UQ@SrQ kO`ZSe[eQ lA± âicV4[eY‰VŽYdV@VŽXdlmacY\m["\ÉV4`.

“ajXdlm•r` [”“W Ë []TCYdS"`Z`d›UXZlm[PX.

[]W.S"\_V@W(•raÌYdQ@žmYZY‰acS"WgS"W.XdV~Q l^W^aÌQ@[]i¦aÌYZY‰ž^V~YY‰lmS"ž^i̕KŸ_V •rSeW^VŽajW›"Sež^`TR[]–O[ D@acW^Ve± âSež.Se`›"Sež^`bXdV4Q lmW^acQ4[]i¦V@ÚM\_V@`dXZY•^SRW^S]Xlm[”ÙeV?XZSR[]–"`ZV@V“ajXdlT#› `ZV4YdV4[]` Q lA± Ë Ÿ_V@icajV4Ù"VŽXZlm[PX.["–"`ZV@V?Xdlm[]X.“bV•rSUW^S]X.

lm[”Ù"V?XdSUicVX.›eS"ž.

›"Sež^``ZV4["•^V@` Y‡XZS ¥ žm•r–"Ve± Ë ["TCYdž^`dVXZlm[PXXZl^V@`ZVŽacYWmS S]XZl^V@``ZV4[eY‰SeWmY˜XdSU›"Sež^`.

•rV~QaÌY‰acS"WA± Ë []TC["ŸmYdS"icžrXdV4ij›KYdž^`ZVXdlm[]X.

•rSRW^S"XbX []keVacWOXdSR›eS"ž^` QSeWmYdac•rV4`Z[]XdacS"WKXdl^VŽf©[eQÇXXdlÉ[PX  ?¡Ž¢ À“ajici¦lm[”Ù"VXZSUY‰XdSe\.›"S"ž.XdV4[eQ l^acW^– ’ £ ?£ G  ¢   ’ £ ’ “l^aÌQ l([]`ZV?“`ZS"W^–U["Q4QSe`Z•racW^–XdSUXZl^acY.

`dV~Y‰V~[]` Q lA± ¤lm["W^k›"SežKfhSe`›"Sež^`\^`dV~QacS"žmYbXZajTUV ¡?`4±â×[]`  ¨(V@ac` —˜.

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œAª ä Ž 4.œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

Chapter B.Xdl^aÌYTR[PXdXdV4` “ajiciAŸ_VQac`ZQ@ž^iÌ[PXdV~•KacW. My Relationship with Die Casting Establishment âicV4[eY‰VŽW^S"XdVXdlm[]XXdl^aÌYicVXdXdV@`?[]Wm•KXdl^V`ZV4Y‰XS]fXdl^VQ@S"`Z`dV~Y‰\_S"WɕrV@WmQ@V.Xdl^V•^ajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^–UajWm•^žmYœXZ`d›e± Ë ["TCY‰žm`dVXdlÉ[PX.“ajXdl›"SežgacW.

›eS"ž.Y‰XZ["Wm•.“˜Sež^ic•gicajkeVS"Xdl^V4`XdSRYdV@VŽXdlmacY.›"Sež.ŸM››"Sež^`•rV4Q@acYdajSeW []Wm•.

Dg= U 3<9>9S35™n>5BReV ] F =FW U “m5K= U R#vj35Ô£63!X ã x  t]N ¡.l9A23 U 3<9>9S35ÔS-5K3G4<367 Ÿ3Hi7ED05K3<9AWF5.V4Ù"V@W.ajfXZl^V@›g[]`ZV .¡¢ }TUV@TŸÉV4`ZY4± p3!5K3g7 .Q@S"`Z`dV~Y‰\_S"WɕrV@WmQ@V.V~[]`.

¨(`~±â×[]` .¨ V@ac`  Ë Ñ iciAlm[”ÙeVŽ›"S"žgkMW^SP“tXZlm[PX.

S"ž^`.lm[”Ù"VajWÉQS"WMÙeV@W^acV@WmQ@V4•gTUV[]Wm•gS]XZl^V@` YS"W.›eS"ž.

YajX.W^S"XŸÉVW^V~QV~YdYZ[]`Z›"± .TR[]aci¦“˜Sež^ic•.Y‰XZ[  XdSr•^[”›K“aÐXZl ›"Sež^`ž^WOXdSP“[]` •¦nMž^W^W^V~QV~YdYZ[]`Z›QSe`d`ZV4Yd\ÉSeWm•rV4WmQVe± Ë f6›"Sežglm[e•g[)“bS"`ZkMajW^–XdV4ijV4\^l^SeW^VS"`bf©[PÚgXdl^aÌY V .

aÌY Ë TžmYœX.

`ZV@\mij›RXZSU›"S"žm`ijV@X‰XdV4`.

TR[]aci¦aÐXXZSU›"S"ž.[]Wm•gX []k"VŽajXXdSRYdS"TUV@SeW^V V@iÌY‰VeÑ YS QV[]WɕKlm[”ÙeV.XZl^V@T V .`Zaj–eleX.

[”“[”›"± Ë XZ`dacV4•gXZSXZV@icV@\^lmS"W^V›eS"žKiÌ["Y‰X.

XZl^VW^V@“.“bV@V@kKS"W¤lOžm`ZY4±­”« "®#“ajXdl.

YbXZlm[PX.

“bVŽlm[”Ù"V["–"`ZV@V4•XdS \^ž^Ÿ^icaÌY‰l›"Sež^`.

[]`dXdaÌQicV"n$Í .

.

["•rÙMaÌY‰VŽ›eS"ž.W^S]XXZS)V  TR["aji¦ajX4± ’ V4Wm•.aÐX.–e`Z["\^l^aÌQ@Y[]WɕKV~ØežÉ[PXdacS"WÉY@nrSeW[U•raÌYdk_±$×bV4Q4[]žmYdVŽS]fXdl^VQ@ž^`Z`dV4WeX YœX [PXZžmYS]fS"ž^`V  TR["ajiAYd›rYœXZV@Tn Ë “bS"žmic•.SP“·XZSg¢b[]iÌQž^iÌ[PXZVXdl^V\  µ•^ac["–"` []TÖQSe`d`ZV4QXdic›"± Î Ë “b["WeXZV4•KXdS[eY‰kR›eS"ž XdSYdV@Wm•KXdlmVV@WOXdac`dV\É[]\_V@`~nr“aÐXZl.

SeW([]WM›S]f Xdl^V fhS"icijSP“acW^–  ’ ›MØOž^V~YœX~n ?TUV@–O[ Ë „Se` ?T)V4–e[)¬ ± .YdV¨(aÌQ`ZSeYdS]f X QV ® rnrÒ Se`Z>• ^± S"` Ò Se`Z• 6V4`‰fhV~QÇX ^± ± ¤l^V\^`ZS"Ÿ^icV@TCacY Ë QSež^ic•^WAÑ X.

iÌ["Y‰GX ^`Zac•^[”›e±$¤l^V@`ZVŽ“b[eYW^SU`dV~Y‰\_S"WmYdV"±6Ò VŽXd`ZajV~•[)Q@S"ž^\mijVŽS]f$•r!a _V4`dV4WOXWMž^TŸÉV4`ZY Xdlm[]X.`ZV4[eQ lK›eS"ž.ŸO›g\^l^SeW^V"± Ë Xd`ZajV~•gYdV@Wm•^ajW^–R›eS"ž[f©[PÚgYdV@ÙeV@` []i_XdacTUV4Y ¤lMž^`ZY4±$[]Wm•.

“˜VŽlm[e•gfhS"`›"SežA± .

•^[”›¨ª[]aci¦XdSU›"Sež^`.[”ÙMacW^–UW^SU`dV~Y‰\_S"WmYdV"n Ë XdSMS"kXdl^VŽf©[]Ú.aÐXXZSU›"S"ž["Y[)icVXdXdV@` S"W(¨(SeWm•^[”› e« r± Ë YdV@WOX ‡`dacS"`ZaÐXœ›  ..[]WɕKTR[]acicV4•.

[PXdXdV4WeXZajSeW.[]X Ë W^W^SPÙP[PXZajÙeV aciÐXZV@` Y@n1­"­ ­ ]Xd.

l .

Ù"Ve± ’ ± £.

±cnm¨(acW^W^V4["\ÉSeijaÌY4n^¨(ajWmWAAn ? m­ m± âS"žY‰l^Sež^i̕glÉ[”Ù"V`dV~QV@acÙ"V~•KajXXdSr•^[”›[]X.

ic[]XdV~YœXajf Xdl^aÌY.

[e•^•r`ZV4YZYacYQ@S"`Z`dV~QÇXbfhS"`›"SežAnr“l^aÌQ laÐX.Ydl^S"žmic•gŸÉVYdacWmQVajX.

“b[eYbS"W.›"S"žm`TU["WMžmYdQ@`dac\rX~± .

SP“nr“l^acicV Ë Ñ TğÉV4Wm•racW^–RSPÙ"V4`bŸÉ["Q kM“b["`Z•mYâXZSRajWrfhSe`dTC›"S"ž.S]f›"Sež^`.

["Q4QV@\^XZ[]WÉQV"nr›eS"žglm[”Ù"VXdlmV W^V@`ZÙ"VXZS)“ajXdlɕr`Z[”“ƒXdl^V\É[]\_V@`.

[]WɕKXZl^`ZV4[PXZV@WgXdSYd\^`ZV4["•KW^V@–O[PXZajÙeV–eSeYZY‰ac\g["ŸÉSežrX.

TUVŽajW.XdlmV ajWɕržmY‰Xd`Z› Ë kMW^SP“ƒ›eS"žgQ@S"ž^i̕rWAÑ X.

lm[”ÙeV?kMW^SP“W Ë “["YbXZ`d›MacW^–#XZSRQS"WOX ["QÇX›eS"žAnrŸ^ž^X Ë T#žÉYœXacWrfhS"`ZT ›"SežKXZlm[PX Ë Q@[]W1Ñ X.

V@ÚOXZV@Wm•.[]WM›Rfhžm`‰XZl^V@`.

Q@S"ž^`dXdV~Y‰acV4Y˜XdSR›eS"žA± ?Y›"S"žm`b\É[]\_V@`lm[eYŸÉV4V@W(["Q4QV@\^XdV4•An Ë VÚr\_V4QÇXXZlm[PX.

["WO›fhž^`‰XZl^V@`.Y‰žmŸ^TUaÐX.“ajici1Q4[]WmQ@V@i¦›"Sež^`“aÐXZlm•r` [”“iA[]Wm•YdV@Wm•gTUVŽXdl^V\É[]\_V@`S"W•raÌY‰kgajTUTUV4•^ac[]XdV@ic› fhS"`\^žmŸ^ijaÌQ@[]XdacS"WA± Ë f6W^S"X4n^\^icV4[eY‰V•rSUW^S"X.›eS"ž.

<V!RYD.?319SR] F =FW U ”ON-“m5n= U R#vj3!5>N mV@Ÿ(®^n¦­~®"®e¯ ¡.["`‰XZacQ@ijV~Y@± ”(MC5B3G.V~[]`.

¨(`~±â×b`Z["ijSP“bV@`  ¤lm[]WmkK›"SežfhSe`.

Î .["Q@Q@V@\rXZajWm–XZl^V\m["\ÉV4`.

SP“·XdSQ4[]iÌQž^iÌ[PXZV?XZl^V\  _ •rac["–"` []TÖQ@S"`Z`dV~QÇXdic›rÎ^± Ë YœXZ`dSeW^–"ic›Ÿ_V@icajV4Ù"VXdlÉ[PXXdlmacY\É[]\_V@`“acijiAV4W^lm["WmQVXdlmVž^Wm•rV4`ZY‰XZ["Wm•racW^–US]f ›eS"ž^``ZV4[e•rV@` YbS"WgXdl^aÌY QV4WeXZ`Z["iXdSe\^acQ"±â¤l^V@`ZVfhSe`dVenMaÐX..

“aciji1l^V@ic\.Xdl^V4TÖXdSRTR["k"V“acYdV@`.

XdlmacY.•rV~QaÌY‰acS"WÉYajW.

["`dV~[^nr[]WɕXZlOžÉY ajWÉQ`ZV4["YdVXdl^V4aj`\m`dSr•ržmQXdacÙMaÐXœ›e± Ë “bS"ž^i̕gŸÉVlm["\^\M›RXdSRYdV@VXdlmV\m[]\_V@`.

Y›eS"žgkOWmSP“ Ë ["T D@V~[]icS"žmY˜fhSe`Xdl^V•racVQ@[eYœXZajW^–UacWm•ržmY‰Xd`Z›"± Ë []TC•^S"acW^–T›KžrXZTUSeY‰XbXZSU\^`dSeTUS]XdV Xdl^VkMW^SP“icV4•^–"V[]Wm•g\^`ZS]Ï^X []Ÿ^acicaÐXœ›S"f1XZl^V•racVQ@["Y‰XdacW^–UacWm•ržmY‰Xd`Z›"± Ë •rSRW^S]X.acW(¡.\mž^Ÿ^icacYdl^V4•.acV¢b["Y‰XdacW^– £âW^–eajWmV@V@`~± .

["\ÉSeijSe–"a D@V?fhS"`.•rSeajWm– Y‰Sɱâ¤l^VŽl^aÌYœXZS"`Z›S]fS"ž^`.

Q@S"`Z`dV~Y‰\_S"Wm•^V@WmQ@V?TR[]keV4YajX.

ijSMSekK["Ybajf6›eS"žg`dV@fhžmY‰VŽXZSU\^ž^Ÿ^icacYdlajTU\_S"`dXZ["WeX ajW^fhS"`ZTU[]XdacS"W[]Ÿ_S"žrXXZl^VQ`ZajXdaÌQ@[]iAYdicSP“t\^icž^W^–"V4`Ù"V4ijSrQajXœ›"±â¤lmVlmacY‰XdSe`d›KYdl^SP“.

Y˜XdlÉ[PX.

›"SežgicSeY‰XXdl^aÌY \m[]\_V@`“lmV@W Ë Ïm` Y‰XYdV@WOXajXXdSU›"Sežgac>W .[]iÌYdSicSeY‰XaÐX.ž^–"žÉYœX~nm[]Wm•.

“l^V4W Ë `ZV4Ydž^Ÿ^TUaÐXdXdV~•KajX.

ajW.W^S]Xl^V~[]` •fh`ZS"Tě"S"žgŸM› ^V4Ÿ^`Zžm[]`Z›(­"n¦­~®"®"¯mnr[]Wm• S]XZl^V@`acWrfhS"`ZTR[PXZajSeWAnr\^`ZS"TU\rXdV~•.V4["`dic› ¡.T)VŽXZSRY‰V4Wm•gXdl^VV4TU["aji Ë YdV@WOX4± Ë []TCYdž^`ZV?XZlm[PX.V~QV4T#Ÿ_V@`~±â¤l^acY4nm["Wm•XZl^VŽf©["QXXdlm[]X Ë lm[e•.

“bV@`ZVacW T#›KYdl^SMV4Y˜›"SežK“bS"ž^i̕lÉ[”Ù"V?•^S"W^V?Xdl^VYZ[]TUV"±$¨(›K\^ž^`Z\ÉSOY‰V?“b[eY˜WmS]XbXdSUajWÉY‰ž^ijXZY["WO›eS"W^Ve±¨ ›S"W^ic› ä X 4<RYV.ajf6›"S"ž.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­:¯® .œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.

[]acTÖaÌYXdSU\^`ZS"TUS"XdVXdl^V•^ajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^–UajWm•^žmYœXZ`d›XdSUXdlmVŸÉV~YœX.

[]Ÿ^acicaÐXœ›e± Ë Ÿ_V@icajV4Ù"VXdlm[]XXdl^SOY‰V “l^SR•rSRW^S"X.S"f T#›.

acV¢b["Y‰XdacW^–R£âWm–"acW^V@V4` ° Ydl^S"ž^i̕gŸÉVacWOXdV@`ZV4Y‰XdV~•.[]–"`ZV@V“ajXdl\^`ZS"TUS]XZajW^–UkMW^SP“icV4•r–eV?acW(•racVQ@["Y‰XdacW^–UY‰lmS"ž^i̕.W^S]XŸ_VajWMÙ"SeijÙeV4•gajW•racV Q@[eYœXZajWm–m± Ë Y‰Xd`ZS"Wm–"ic›RŸÉV4ijacV@ÙeV?XZlm[PXXZl^VV4•^aÐXZS"`S]f  ?¡Ž¢ ÀTU["–e?[ D@acW^V)§ ¡.ajW[]`dXdaÌQicV4YbXZSR\^`dSeTUS]XdVkMW^SP“icV4•r–eV"± ’ Smnrajf6›"S"žgÏmWm•gXZlm[PX.

T›K[]`dXdaÌQicVŽacY.

[ QSeWOXd`ZajŸ^ž^XdacS"WgXdS)Xdl^aÌYkMW^SP“icV4•r–eV"nMXZl^V[]`dXdaÌQicVY‰l^Sež^i̕KŸ_V\^ž^Ÿ^icaÌY‰l^V~•¦± Ë •rSUW^S]XX []k"V\_V@` Y‰SeWm[]i¦acWmYdž^iÐX.XZl^acY.["Wm• Ë “aciji1ŸÉV–eic[e•XZSU["ijicSP“ƒ›eS"žgXdSU\^ž^ŸmijaÌY‰l.

\^iÌ["Q@VŽfhS"`XdlmacY.\m[]\_V@`acW(¡.acV ¢b["Y‰XdacW^–R£âWm–"acW^V@V4`4± Ë Ÿ_V@icacV@Ù"VŽXZlm[PXXZl^VTR[]–e?[ D@acW^VŽacY["W([]\^\^`ZS"\m`daÌ[PXZV.

ajW([]WM›“[”› Ë Q@[]W1±6¤lmV\m[]\_V@`“["Y“`ZaÐXdXdV4WgžmYdacW^– []ic¤ i£ XdlmVŽnm["ÏmWmijV~•Y@± XZl^Ë V“–"acij` i1[]["\micl^YdacSUQ4YQS"[]WM`ZÙeV?V@ac`dWX˜\ÉXZl^SOVŽYœX ÏmYdQ@icVŽ`dac\rXdSUXÏmÒ icV4SeY4`Z± .["`‰XZacQ@ijVe±$¤1S ["Q lmajV4Ù"V?Xdl^aÌY\^ž^ŸmijaÌQ@[]XdacS"WAn Ë “ajiciAl^V4ij\›eS"ž.

S"žQSe[UWMÙ"•rV@ac` YZYdQajSeQWKSeWO“XZ[]acijaci W^acW^– `ZV4ØOž^ac`dVŽ`ZVXœ›M\^acW^–S"f6["ijiXZl^VV4ØOžm[]XdacS"WmY4± .• ’ ml^± Se`‰± XZËij›e[]n TË “acfhij` i []Y‰a̕RV4WmXd•KlÉ[P›eX.kMW^SP“ nMÒ  .Y›eS"ž.

¡À\^`dSr•ržÉQV4YicSP“µØOžm["ijajXœ›KYdVXZž^\ []Wɕ`ZV4ØOž^ac`dV~Y˜YdS"TUV?XdacT)Ve±$Ò Sež^i̕K›eS"ž\^`ZVfhV4`bXdS)lm[”Ù"V?Xdl^V–"` []\ml^acQ.ÏmicV4Y˜XdS)Ÿ_VacW¤ Ë   fhSe`dTR[]X Õ S"`.

?3G3&2R 9A23.["W^S]XZl^V@`bfhSe`dTR[PXÇÕ Ë lÉ[”Ù"VŽV@W^lÉ[]WmQ@V4•KXdl^VQ4[]iÌQž^iÌ[PXZajSeWmY`dV~Y‰Seijž^XdacS"Wg["Wm•.\^icV4["YdVŽŸÉV[e•rÙMacYdV4• XdlÉ[PX Ë lm[”Ù"VŽQ lm[]Wm–"V4•.S9?=[39A26=9l9A23@V=FV!35 jRYW Hg_-D= M0X!3&VFWUX 7 .  U’U ÌS   # $v U U’U U ‡ 3 x -2=6H09A2R]W[]2G9`7ED9A26=9`.Z3GHeN 3=.a9A233GHb7 9SR5m2=6H V!5KR "7 .?34<R]DG9:7EDFW39SR5K3G=6H@9SR&.Ydijac–"lOXdic›RXZl^V–"` []\^lmacQ4Yb["Wm•KXdVÚMX~± ¤lm["W^k›"SežKfhSe`›"Sež^`["YZY‰aÌYœX []WmQ@V"± ’ acWmQV4`dV4ij›en ¡?`4± V4W^acQ kg×b["`  ¨(V4aj`   Œ  Z' + ""\+v+ .<23GH0=.:=[U=(4.

RYD9:7EDUW3.

W^S]X.N LV bF U #v  ä   t ¡?V4[]` $["ž^iA×b`Z["ijSP“bV@` ¤ S)T›K–e`dV~[PXY‰ž^`Z\^`ZacYdV›"S"ž•ra̕..

T›K[]`dXdaÌQicV["Y›eS"ž.\^`dSeTUacYdV4•¦± âSež["icYdSU•rac•.W^S"X []WÉY‰“bV@`T#›K\^`dV4ÙMajSežmYijV@X‰XZV@`~± Ë ["TCY‰žm`dVXdlÉ[PX.\^žmŸ^ijaÌYdl.

›"SežglÉ[”Ù"VŽ[–eSMSM•g`ZV4["YdS"WÉY‡fhSe`W^S]X.•^S"acW^–RY‰Sɱ Ë ¥ žmY‰X.

“˜Sež^i̕KicajkeVŽXdSUkMW^SP“ƒ“lÉ[PXaÐX.

aÌY4± .

[]ici Õ Ë WQ4["YdVXdlm[]X.–e["ajW1nr“˜Sež^ic•.\^ž^Ÿ^icaÌY‰l^V~•[PX.›eS"žKŸ_V\^ž^ŸmijaÌY‰lmajW^–UXZl^V[]`dXdaÌQicVŽajW.XZl^VW^VÚMX aÌYdYdž^V~Õ []WM›S]XZl^V@`aÌYZY‰ž^V”Õ.

acWeXZV@Wm•gXZS)\mž^Ÿ^icacYdl.›"S"ž.Xdl^V["`‰XZacQ@ijVen Q@["W Ë `ZV4QV4ajÙeV[)\^`ZV@\m`dacWOXYdS Ë Q4[]W.\^`ZSOS"f  `ZV4[e•RXZl^V[]`dXdaÌQicVŽ\^`dacS"`bXZSUXdl^V\^žmŸ^ijaÌQ@[]XdacS"WÉÕ ¤lm["W^k›"SežKfhSe`›"Sež^`QS"WÉY‰a̕rV@` [PXZajSeWg["Wm•["YZY‰aÌYœX []WmQ@V V@WmacQ k c 23!DkS][R!9a=.

?R]DH3= U 7ED[¡v 7 9A2zV3ovL=.?3)i 9A23&V!3!5K.WU5‰V!587 . 4!2=FD[3HvN ‡ 2GM!kf´V=<MFX!3"M.

R]WxF9A23 5K3G=6HU3!5>xY4.

=FD([]W3G.¦t<NœSY4G=FDUDR!9#7bV=[7ED37 n 9A23 U 3<9>9S35$vL=.a=FDgR!IJ3!5*9SROXFWGMkV3 RYW9.?R]D@7 .Dv\26=9L9A23&5B3=.?.

NDS# ZW.S9DvjRYD6HU3!5Ìv\2Mh23ovL=. 4.

<WFXaV"7 9>9:7ED[iV!5KRYV!RU.1f8R5*9A27 .Z= U .<WFXa"V 7 9>9:7ED[Pn R5cVFWUX U 7 4.RYD64<3!5‰D3GH0=FX!RYW97V3&DR9l.&V=9>9S3!5 R0m n .

=9:7 R]D1.

t Nap3= U Lv =.

D3GHh=hV!5KRL(V V9\5K3.M.15K3<9AWF5.

s7EX U M02=!Ÿ 3.Z= U .<W6HFH3D U M~Pn R]WUD6H…#V Mh5K3.<WF5K3UNw* r RYW U HO23@V!R.V!RYD.?319SR‹#V MhV!5KRYV!RU.xM=F2 .Z.

Z3G=5K4!29SRX!31.ZRC7b(V V!R5Q9?=FD9..

NF U 3G=.x]=FDH@M. U 3<9>9S35.?3@5K3G=6HO27 .

R]W4.

=FDHU3G47 H3&Pn R5*M.

?3 U ?n N p3!5K3g7 .R]WU5K.”h5>NÔF y 9S3CŸ 3 H^6Ÿ =!5nH!MC5B3G.?3"R]Dk£ 5P7Bx ä `} V!5  t V@WmacQ kn Ë ml [”Ù"VijV@f X.<V!RYD.

XdSRYd\ÉV~[]k“ajXdl›eS"ž[]Ÿ_S"žrX.Ù"SeacQ@VTR["ajifhSe`›"S"ž1± Ë “aÌY‰l.

“lm[]X.

[]\^\_V4["`ZYbXZS)Ÿ_V W^SeW .Ydž^Ÿ^TUajX‰X []i¦S]f6›"Sež^`\^`ZS"\_SeYZ[]i Ë acWmY‰Xd`ZžmQÇXZV4•.›"SežKXZS)fhS"`Z“b["`Z•XdSg¢b¨ ¢ºfhS"`XdlmVR­4®"®e®Q4[]ici ± Ë Q@[]W[]WɕgYdl^S"žmic•[]iÌYdS`ZV4Yd\ÉSeWm•KXdSUXdlmVØežmV4Y‰XdacS"WmY›eS"žg["`dVŽ\_SeYdajW ¥ –XZS $[]ž^i ± Ë Q@[]W.Ÿ_V`dV~["Q l^V~•ŸM›K\^lmS"W^V[PX ^­4®^± ]¯e¯^± r± å —˜.

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.œAª ä Ž 4.œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

Chapter B.?.:= U N15LV!3!5‰26=FV.<WFXa" V 7 9>9:7ED[&=FDMhV!5KRYV!R.a9A23!5K33vj3!5K313CT64.a=FDM0V!R7ED9 7ED.:= U 26=6HCV6=. My Relationship with Die Casting Establishment ¤lm[]WmkK›"SežAn ’ XdV4Ù"V ?•rÙP[]` •r› y]7ED64<319A23HU3G=6H U 7ED3onPR5J9A2=9V!5KRYV!R.Z3GH U RYD[iX!3CnPR5K3UxÌSOvjRYD6HU3!5K3GHh7 no9A23!5K3&vL=.

˜  eŒ)H^‚ e]N „ ¤lm[]WmkK›"SežKÙeV@`Z›T#žmQ lgfhS"`›eS"ž^`\m`dSeT)\^X`ZV4Yd\_S"WmYdVŽS"WgXdl^VŸ_V@lm["iÐf6S]f $[]ž^iA×b` []icSP“˜V4`4± .?3k}pRvx]7 9 4<R]W U H]DOg 9\X!3™] S =ar V .a9SRiX!3lV1=6H37EDzV#Mg4G=.”Pn R U’U R#v 7ED[g9A23"3@T!=64A91V!5KRb4<3GH]WF5B3FNÔyRvxÌSb9A23!D(.Y›eS"ž.Z3!D91”C5.3!V9:7 RYD.N  H^Ÿ =5nH!M(9A233Pn R U’U R##v 7ED[ U 3<9>9S35.Xdl^V["`‰XZacQ@ijVŽSeWKXZl^V\ _ •rac["–"` []T± Ë ["TCY‰žm`dVXdlÉ[PX.N } V5P7 U ä t]x   t `  ƒ)H) ‚ ‚.<WF5B3"9A26=9\233Lv =.kMW^SP“n Ë ["TÖXd`Z›MajWm–XZSU\^ž^Ÿ^icacYdl.

›"Sež []`ZV[”“b["`dV.Y.QV@WOXZ`Z["iXdSR•racVQ@["Y‰XdacW^–UV@Wm–"acW^V@V4`ZY4± Ÿ_VXdXdV4`.Xdlm[]XXdl^aÌYaÌYdYdž^VŽacY.S]f$QSeY‰X“˜Sež^i̕K`ZV4Ydž^ijXbfh`ZS"TÄajTU\^icV@TUV4WeX [PXZajSeWgS"f XZl^V\^`ZS"\_V@`\f_ r• aÌ[]–"` []TÖQ4[]iÌQž^iÌ[PXZajSeWmY4± .•rV4Ydac–"W[]Wm•[ Y‰ac–"WmaÐÏÉQ4[]WOX`dV~•ržmQXdacS"W.

[)\_V@` Y‰SeWg“lmS)lÉ["Y•rV~•racQ4[PXZV4•gXdl^ViÌ["Y‰X­ ›"V~[]` YbS]f lmacYicajfhVŽXdSRacT)\m`dSPÙeV.XdlmacY.“aÐXZl.XdSRl^V4ij\TUV\^ž^Ÿ^icaÌY‰l.XZSU\^ž^Ÿ^icacYdl.l^aÌYicaÐfhVXZS)Xdl^VYdžmQ@Q@V4YZYS]f Xdl^V•racVQ@[eYœXZajWm–)acWm•ržÉYœXZ`d›en Ë YœXZ`dSeW^–"ic›RŸ_V@icajV4Ù"V?Xdlm[]XbXZl^aÌY[]`dXdaÌQicVYdl^S"žmic•gŸÉVŽ\^žmŸ^ijaÌYdl^V4•¦± .Wm•g“lm[PXŸ_VX‰XZV@`\^iÌ["Q@V.XZl^V•racVŽQ4["Y‰XdacW^– ajWɕržmY‰Xd`Z›"nm["Wm•g[eYS"W^V“lmS)lÉ["YbXdacV4•.aÐX Xdlm["WºÍd¡?ajV¢b[eYœXZajW^–U£âWm–"acW^V@V4`ZÎOÕ Ë lÉ[”Ù"V\^ijV~["•rV~•.V4Ù"V4`d›eS"W^V.

["`‰XZacQ@ijVe± Ë l^Se\ÉVŽXZlm[PX.

“ajici1[]–e`dV4V “aÐXZlT)VŽXZlm[PXXZl^aÌY.›eS"ž.

[]`dXdaÌQicVY‰l^Sež^i̕KŸ_V\^ž^Ÿ^icaÌY‰l^V~•¦± Ë f6›"SežK“bS"ž^i̕.VÚr\^iÌ[]acWKfhž^`dXdlmV@` “lM› Ë XZl^acW^kXZlm[PXXZl^acY.ijack"Ven Ë Q4[]W.[]`dXdaÌQicVaÌYacTU\ÉSe`‰X []WOX4± Ë ["TÖÙ"V4`d›K–"iÌ["•KXdlm[]XXdl^V4`dV[]`ZVQSeT)\É[]W^acV4Yb“l^S["`dVŽ["•rSe\rXdacW^–)XdlmacYXZV4Q l^WmS"icS"–"›e± Ë ¥ žmY‰X.

“acYdl Xdlm[]XXdl^V“lmS"icVacWm•ržÉYœXZ`d›g“˜Sež^ic•.•rS)XdlmVYd["T)Ve± .

<WF5B319A26=91”C5.N p H06Ÿ =!5nHMgH7 HODR!9\5B34<37 Ÿ 3"9A23"4.T›KS RQ@V¤1ž^V~Yd•m[”›RŸÉV@Xœ“˜V4V@W(®  ­"­Ž[]TCQ@V@WOXd` []iXZajTUV§ ^­ e° P¯P— "® S =ar ] V .–O[]acWAnrXdlÉ[]W^k›eS"žgfhS"`›eS"ž^`kMajWɕgicVXdXdV4`4± V@W^aÌQ k ˆOR6„ Ë “acijiAŸ_VacW.

RLVfV 3!D9S.lR^‰n !>n 5KRL‚ V 9A23@5K3CnP3!5K3.

3G.Z3.f8.

33}`VUV!3DHb7 T }wt<N›}`D6Hi7 na23Hb7 HvxÌSv=aVr.

WU5K319A2=9a9A23<MgHb7 HODR9aHURO2=!Ÿ3(=FDGM(3.

<2RYW U H@7 9 26=!Ÿ 3=FDGM"3<IJ3G4<9jRYD27b1 V k…`} DMU2R#1v xMS‡Z  W.?R3CŸ3!5>N ‡ 2M .S9m9A2!7EDa§ 9A26=9 23dLv =.ÔŸ 35QM&XFW. .Ie34A9`RYD027bV v\26=9S.?RO23(H7 HODR!92=!Ÿ 33!DRYW[Y2"9:7b\ V 319SR5K3.?Mov#7 9A2R!9A23!5v9A2!7ED[.

.<V!R]DH@9SR…#V M U 3<9>9S3!5>NÔy R‹-S 26=6H@9SR&.?3!D6H27bVr=FDR!9A23!5 U 3.

˜ eŒ)H^‚ eN]„ Ë [")ƒ C T ["Y‰XdSeW^aÌY‰l^V~•XZlm[PX.9>9S3!5>N ã ãt  H)‚‚.

›eS"ž•rSUW^S]XÏÉWm•gXdacT)VŽXZSR[]WmYd“˜V4`T#›icVXdXdV4`.•^[PXZV4• ’ ž^Wm•m[”›"n .

\m`daci n   ­4®e®"¯.§h\^icV4[eY‰VYdV@VŽŸÉV4ijSP“QSe\M›RS]fXdlm[]X.

Y.± .\f_t•raÌ[]–e`Z["T.ijV@X‰XdV4` °± Ë ["T֓`ZaÐXZajW^–U›eS"žgXdSRicVX›"SežKXZlm[PXXZl^V@`ZVacY[ Y‰V4`dacS"žÉY•^[]W^–eV@`acWQ@S"WOXdacWMž^VXdS)XdV~["Q lgXdl^VQ@S"TUTUS"W^ic›žmYdV4•.

›"S"žg\^`ZS"Ÿm["Ÿ^ij› kMW^SP“¾§©aÐf$›"Sežg•rSRWmS]XkMW^SP“nr\^icV4["YdVQ l^V4Q kKS"žrX Ë  Ë Ñ Y.

“˜V4Ÿ.\  _ •raÌ[]–e`Z["TC["YbajX.YdaÐXZV“““± •^ajV4\ÉV4`‰fhV~QÇX4± QSeT°ÇnrXZl^V QSeT)TUSeW^ij›KžmY‰V~•.[]\^\_V4["`ZYacFW  ?¡Ž¢ #Ñ YŸ_SMS"krYÙMajSeic[]XdV~YbXdl^VŽÏm` Y‰X["Wm•gXdl^V Y‰V~QSeWm•KiÌ[”“.

YS]fXdlmV@`ZT)Sr•r›MWm["TUacQ4Y@nrŸ_V4Ydac•^V4YWMž^TUV@`ZS"žmYS"Xdl^V4`.

YdV@WmYdVXdl^acW^–OY@± Ë f  ?¡Ž¢ XZV4[eQ l^V4YbXZl^acY.QSeT)TUSeW.

TU[]XdV4`daÌ[]i n  ?¡Ž¢ }Q@S"ž^i̕.Y[ .ž^WOXdaci¦XdlmVajWmY‰Xd`ZžmQXdS"` YicV4[]`ZWXZl^VQSe`d`ZV4QXb\m`dSrQV~•rž^`ZV4Y4± Ë nm["Y[ ä X 4<RYV.¡¢ }TUV@T#Ÿ_V@`~n Ë Y‰Xd`ZS"Wm–"ic›R`dV~QS"TUTUV@Wɕ Xdlm[]XXdl^V~Y‰VQ@ic[eYdYdV4YbŸ_VY‰žÉY‰\_V@Wm•^V4•.ŸÉVicac["Ÿ^icV?fhSe`Ù"V4`d›iÌ[]`Z–"VŽYdž^TRYS]f6T)SeW^V@›XdS Xdl^VY‰XdžÉ•rV@WOXZY“lmS)lÉ[”Ù"V?XZ[]keV@WgXdl^V~Y‰VQ@S"ž^` Y‰V~Y@± .

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­:¯¯ .

 ?¡Ž¢ ÀT)V4T#Ÿ_V@`~nr“ajiciAW^S"X.

¡¢ }kMW^SP“acW^–"ic›UXdV~["Q l^acW^–)Xdl^V“`ZS"Wm–TR[PXZV@`Zac["i []WɕKTUS"`ZV@SPÙeV@`bŸÉV4ajWm–Y‰ž^V~•gfhS"`.ijack"VXZSUYdV@V .

•rSeajW^–RYdSm± Ë fhV@V@iAXdlm[]XajX.

aÌY.

W^S"X.YœXZ`Z["W^–"V?XdlÉ[PX ? ¡Ž¢ Á •rac•.

XdlmVajWrfhSe`dTR[]XdacS"Wg["ŸÉSežrXXdlmVQ`ZaÐXZacQ4[]i YdijSP“t\mijž^Wm–"V@`ÙeV@icSMQ@aÐXœ›["Wm•KXdl^VŽ\ _ •^ac["–"` []T []Wm•Kl^SP“tXZS)•^SXZl^V@TÄQS"`Z`ZV4QÇXZij›e± Ë []TCYdž^`ZV.kMW^SP“ijV~•r–"Ve± Ë []iÌYdSÏÉWm•.XZlm[PX ? ¡Ž¢ À T)V4T#Ÿ_V@` Y“ajiciAŸ_V@W^V@Ï^Xfh`ZS"TÄYdžmQ l.\^ž^Ÿ^icaÌY‰l.aÐX.

Ÿ_V@›eS"Wm•gŸ^a 4D []`Z`ZV.XZlm[PX ? ¡Ž¢ Á •rSMV4YW^S"X.

XdlmSeYdV“lmS)TR[e•rVŽXdl^VTUSOYœX\^`ZS"–e`dV~YdY˜ajW.“b["WeXXZSUQ@SMS"\_V@` [PXdVŽ“ajXdl.XZl^V ž^Wm•^V@` YœX []Wm•racW^–R•racVQ@["Y‰XdacW^–U\^`ZSrQV4YZY4±×bžrX.

¡¢ ³ XdV~["Q l^acW^–)Xdl^V“`ZS"Wm–TUSr•rV@iÌYTUaj–elOXV4Wm•^Y ž^\Ÿ_V@acW^–Y‰žmacQ@ac•^["iA[]Wm• Ë “˜Sež^ic•gicajkeV?XZSQ lm[]Wm–"V?Xdlm[]X.ajf .

`~± V@WmacQ kK×["` ¨(V@ac` ˆOR6„ .aÐf Ë Q4[]WA± ¤lm["W^k›"SežKfhSe`›"Sež^`X‰XZV@WOXdacS"W1nrXdacTUV"nm["Wm•.ž^Wm•rV4`ZY‰XZ["Wm•racW^– ’ acWmQV4`dV4ij›en^¡.

.

V@`ZVaÌYT#›K\m`dV4ÙOacS"žÉY˜icVXdXdV4`4± 3n GV U Z #v S 1§#t }pR ][R!9`=05K3.

RYVFV!R.Z3\9SR ”g=.?3UN ‡ ’ ! 3 D7 4 <N Øm 26=9`=gH7 IJ3!5K3!D9l9SR]D3FN`} R9S319A23 PR5 = 7 9‰Mhf a5L“*=5 A”g37E5o=.V!RYD.

M ƒaH^‚  ‚ wH^‚ ‰ƒO‘–‚   x   t âV4Y4n Ë []TClmV@`ZV"± Ë “["YbSeW.ŸO›K\^l^S"WmVŸ_VfhSe`dV Ë ijV@f X.ÙP[eQ@[PXZajSeWg["Wm•gXd`ZajV~•XZSQS"WOX ["QÇX›eS"ž.

XZSRQ@[]iciA•rž^`ZacW^–#XZl^VŽXdacTUVŽ\ÉV4`dacSr• ›"SežgacWm•raÌQ@[]XdV~•¦± .fhS"` ÙP["Q4[PXdacS"W1±6¡?ž^`ZajWm–)ŸmžmY‰acW^V~YdY˜Xd` [”Ù"V4i n Ë “b[eYbYdS"`Z`Z›XZSUW^S]XŸ_V[]Ÿ^icV.Y $[]ž^iTR[”›lm[”ÙeVTUV4WeXZajSeW^V4•Anr“˜VŽlm[”ÙeVŽ["\^\^`ZSPÙ"V~•K[]WɕK“aciji1ŸÉV\^žmŸ^ijaÌYdl^ajWm–R›"S"žm`["`‰XZacQ@ijVŽSeW Q@["icQ@ž^iÌ[PXdacW^–   ^±¤lmVŸÉV~YœXÏ^XfhSe`Xdl^aÌYaÌY[]Wž^\QSeT)acW^–UaÌYdYdž^V•rV~•racQ4[PXZV4•KXdSR\^`ZSrQV4YZYQSeWeXZ`dSei ± âicV4[eY‰V`ZV4Y‰XYdYdž^`ZV4•KXdlm[]X.

aÐX.

XZl^acY.“aciciAY‰l^SP“µž^\ajW.Y‰SeTUVS"f XZl^VaÌYdYdž^V4Y []`ZVY‰žmŸmY‰V~ØOž^V@WOXdic›\^`ZV4YdV@WOXZV4•KXdSUS"ž^`.[]\^\^`ZS"\m`daÌ[PXZV?aÌYdYdž^VŽS]f$¡¢b£ÂTR["–e[ D4ajWmV"± ’ acWmQVŽXZl^V@`ZVŽlm["YŸ_V@V4W(QS"TUTž^W^aÌQ@[PXZajSeWmY˜fh`dSeT֛"SežKXZS $[]ž^iA["Wm•KT›rY‰V4iÐf6[]Wm•.

£âÚrV4Qž^XdacÙ"V .aÌQV â`ZV4Yda̕rV@WOX4n^¡[]W(¤“[]`ZS"–ÉnekMacWm•ric›g•rac`dV~QÇX []icifhžrXZž^`dVQ@S"TUT#žmW^acQ4[PXZajSeWmYbXdSUl^acT±‡¤l^aÌY“ajici1["YZYdacY‰XajWk"V4V@\^acW^–Ul^acTÖXZajV~•gacWgXdl^VicSMS"\([]Wm• ["YZYdacY‰XajW–"V@X‰XZajW^–U`ZV4Yd\ÉSeWmYdV4YbŸm["Q kXdSU›"SežA± .

.

TR[]aciA["•^•r`ZV4YZYaÌY¤“b["`dSe– •racV4Q4["Y‰XdacW^–m± S"`Z–m± ¤lm["W^k›"SežAn ’ XZV@Ù"V ?•rÙP[]` •r›  ^Ÿ Ôv LVfV `v lV v dV v …{)T Ÿ U ^n U LV 3v W U #Y ”S U ¡v U ^n lV S-26=!Ÿ3".aÌY V .

WUXaV"7 9>9S3GH&R9A235jV!5KRYV!RU.l9SR}¤}`wr$#} xJXFWG915B3= U’U M0D3‡Ÿ35j5K3G4<367 Ÿ3Hh=C5B3V U MGN ”@=.Z= U .

S9Zk 2GMHUR3.S9a[R!9:#L v =.MUX!37 9\7 .26=FV.<DJg 9 3@TV!3G4<9S3GH&9SROX!3&5K3!V U 7 3GH@9SRk 5LV!35. U RU.\7 9ž ZW.

.”C5>N H =5KHM&DR9 L=FD9c9SR@4.

R (WFD7 4.

=9S3 #7 9A2 \31=FD6H L=FDG9 3\9SR \587 9S3\9SR 346W9:7 3 7 < 4 5K3.

s7 HU3!D9Zk ‡ 2GM&H7 H@9A23<Mg4!2=FD[39A23"9:7 9 31R 9A23=!5B9:7 4 3=FD6H&R "7 9l9A23 jR5nH >4..

5K3G4<9 M vN ‹ 3 = .R5.?R jR]DHU3!5*=FX!RYW9a9A23 Rb4.

`+v+-"+- \ / SQD(9A2!7 .=9:7 R]D7ED9A23"3!D6H0R o9A23 =[U=7ED3UN ‡ RF $@"/  .1V!5K3.Z3G4A9:7 R]D(=FDRYV!3D U 3<9>9S3!5o9SR 63GR“*=!5n=FD&7 .`.

N`“*=5n=FD[U=!Ÿ3=hV!5K3.?3DG9S3HvN`”C5..

Z3!D9?=9:7 RYDg7ED ”07EDUD3G=FV!R U 7 ..lR]DC”g=.

&\ V 30V X!3!5K.Z3 U’U YO}¤}`wr™}ˆ9SR 7 9S..GNÛ} 9l9A23(4<R]D4 U W.A7 RYD"R0na2!7 .`=FD6HŽrcWU5‰5K3!D9F 5BRC ‰34A9S.ZY9SR W.1V!5K3.M ä x   xFRYDqW@£WG9AWF5K33cp5K3!D6HU.

C§A3GHi27bV v2GM@7 np9A23.SM =.23gV!5K3..`.s7 9AW6=9:7 RYDg7 .?RO5BRU.Z3!D9?=9:7 RYDbxMSv=.

?RŽ V =FDM4..?3DG9S3Hvx9A26=9L.

RL(V V6=FD7 3.

l=5K3[UR7ED[0X=FDa!§ 5‰WUV9L=FD6Hg.a9S3G=64!2!7ED[&.ZR U HeNDSvV5BRb4<3G3GHU3GH9SR@=. 㠗˜.&\V RbH3 U .?R…V =FDM(3!5‰5BR]D3GRYW.GN`p3=!Ÿ 3V3&”C5>NÔyF9S3CŸ3 H^Ÿ=5nH!MJg ..‡§(27bV v\2Mi}¤}`wr$Œ} 7 .

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.œAª ä Ž 4.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

Chapter B. My Relationship with Die Casting Establishment U …V …§ #v U ¡n ÔV ( 0n ™  XUW.s7ED3.

a4G=!5nH0=FD6H@9SR H \319A26=9\23g26=.`=FD6H@9A2=9a..s7ED64<3@234G=FDUDR!9 :WHU[3(7 9.Z.DR !DR 3H[U3\R 9A2!7 .

x 23(4G=FDUDR!9`H7 .:46W.#7 9.?.

N ‡ =.12 3&V5B3V=5B3H PR5 #M ]W3.

<V!RYD9?=FD3.a9A2!7 .. \35B3 Mg=g.S9:7 R]D.aR5 L=.

5B3=64A9:7 R]D6k ™v &V U .RYW.¡ V~[]`.

[]Wɕg["`dVYdS"i̕mÕ Ë YajX W^S]X.¨(`~±â×[]` []WAn ¡.SU›eS"žgQ4[]`Z`d› ’ XdV@ÙeV ?•rÙP[]` •r›Ñ YŸmžmY‰acW^V~YdYQ@["`Z•g[]iciXdl^VXZajTUV~Õ(Ò·lO›^ÕÒ·lM›K•^S)›eS"žgW^S]XXdlmajW^kKaÐX ajTU\_S"`dXZ["WeXXZSR•racYZQžÉYdY“lM›KYdSUTU["WM›K•racVQ@["Y‰XdacW^–RQSeTU\m[]W^acV4Y–eSŸÉ[]W^kM`Zž^\rX.

acTU\ÉSe`‰X []WOXfhS"`žmYXdSR•raÌYdQ@žmYdY“lM›KXdl^V4`dV[]`ZVY‰SUTR[]WM›RÏÉWm[]WmQ@ac["i¦\^`ZS"Ÿ^icV@TRYacWKXZl^V•racV Q@[eYœXZajW^–UacWm•ržmY‰Xd`Z›^Õ(¡?S"WAÑ X.

›"Sežg“[]WOXXdSUTR[]keVŽ•^ajVQ4["Y‰XdacW^–RQS"TU\m["W^acV4YbTUS"`ZV\m`dS"Ï^XZ["Ÿ^ijV”.

Õ .

Wm•ajf Y‰SeTUV@S"WmV?XZV@icicY.

aÌYZQžmYZYajX.›"S"žKXdlm[]XXdl^V`ZV4YdV4["`ZQ l.Y‰\_S"WÉY‰Se`dV~•ŸM›  ?¡Ž¢ ÀacY`Zž^Ÿ^ŸmacYdlAn^[]`ZV@W1Ñ X›"Sežg–eS"acW^–)XdS Q l^V4Q kKaÐXÇÕ(¡.

S"Xdl^V4`ZYacFW  ?¡Ž¢ Õ#¡?S"WAÑ X.“aÐXZl.

Q4[]`ZV?“lmVXdlmV@` .¡¢ ³XdV4[eQ l^V4Y “`dSeW^–)Xdl^acW^–OYZÕ ?`aÌYajXXdlm[]X.›"Sež.

•rS"W1Ñ X.›"S"ž ¥ žmY‰X.

–eajÙeV[U•^["T)W_Õ Ë ["TCYdž^`dVXZlm[PX.

ajX.

acY.

ajTU\_S"`dXZ[]WOXfhS"`›eS"žA± âSežQ@ic["ajTUV~•XZlm[PX.

ajX.

acY.

ajW.Q4[]`ZVXdSU“`dajXdV["WgV@Úr\^ic["Wm[PXZajSeWgacW.XZl^V \^`ZV4YdV@WOXZ[]XdacS"WA± ’ SÉnr\ÉV4`dlm["\mY›"Sež.¡¢ TR[]–e?[ D@acW^V"± Ë “˜Sež^i̕KicSPÙ"V?XdSR`ZV4[e•ajX4± ’ acWmQV4`dV4ij›en V@W^aÌQ kg×["`œ—r¨(V@ac` Z' ).+    lg)Z/`).Xdl^VWmVÚMGX  .ajTU\_S"`dXZ[]WOXfhS"`›eS"ž."/+J    S-26=6H04<RYD!Ÿ7ED4.

1f89S3G=64!2!7ED[@9A23"3!5‰5KRYD3.3GH !=5.5BM ‡ 7ED)§ U 35m7EDzV"7 H   shfÆv23Dh23ovL=.`.?9:7 U’U vjR5G§7ED[\nPR5lm=!5B9S<3 U’U t<x9SR0=.<WFVUV!R5B9wnPR5-9A233v\5KRYD[ŽV\RbH3 U .C§ ”h5>N  H^6 Ÿ =!5nH!M\\v 2Mi}¤}`wr™}4<R]DG9:7EDFW3H&.

s7 Ÿ3"[Y5n=FDG9S.RYW.M0t<N p33vj3!D9L9SRT}¤}`wr$} =FDH09?= U s§ 3Hg9SR”C5>N  H^Ÿ =5KHMg=FX!R]WG9a9A2!7 . ’ =!5‰X!3!5hg .a9SR 27 RkyF9?=9S3 jD7 Ÿ35B.N¤}Ûnn 9S3!5L234.Z.A7 9.~\ V RbH3 U =FD6H¡n>W3 U 7ED[…V=.

=a\ V 3@X6=641U§ xe233@T V U =7ED3H@9A2=9l9A23.

l9SR&.`9A26=9Zk#it j7 .C‚ V 9A23D 3C6 Ÿ =FV!R5K=9S3Hvx]=FDHO234<RYD9:7EDFW3G.A7 =.:=<M9A26=9.M(9SR U HO27bV 9A2=93Y S Hb7 HYDJg 9 =FVFV!5BRF=6462h}¤}`wr™} 7ED9A23@5P7 []2G9DLv =<MNlfE\v 26=9 7 .`3!D9A2FW.

Z30}ž}`wr$} U 7bs§ 3G.l3‡Ÿ R U WG9:7 R]D=FDHODR!95B3‡Ÿ R U WG9:7 R]Dx 9A23.xJX!3G4G=FW.

Mg4.

=FDFDR!9l.

WUVFV!R5B9a=FDMR0n”# V Mh5K3CŸ R U W9:7 RYD6=!5BM@7 H3=.<W[[U3.GN`p3.

.S9S3Hg9A2=9&-S D3G3GHU3GH@9SR U 3G=5‰D9SR X!3!26=!Ÿ 3&X!3‡Pn R5B3h}¤}`wr$} j v R]W U H@3‡Ÿ 35 4<RRYV!35K=9S3&#v 7 9A2z\V 3UNœSJLv =.`.

Y YS =.‡s§ 3HO2!7b@V N`“mWG9&-S 5B3= U’U MgHb7 HYDJg 9a[3.<26=aA§ 3!DbNfW ‡ 2=9 2=FVFV!3!D3GHex !  =5.WU5‰V!587 .5BM!k.?3GH0=FD6H&.

9a=FDM(9.MFV!3R0ln 5B3= U 5K3.

V!RYD.#H3G.s7 []D=CL v =5KHeN eR]WxF9A23&5K3G=6HU3!5>xY4.?3FN ! =9S35Lf83DH R0n  s)t7S U 3=!5‰D3HO23@26=6H5K3G4<367 Ÿ 3HT}¤}`wr™}`g .

=FD4.

RYD64 U W6H3 v\26=926=FVFV!3!D3GH ÌYS =aV :  W.?9l.

R0cn H7 34.WUVFV U M7ED[gMGRYW~v 7 9A29A2338n =64A9S.N y 3CŸ 3!5n= U V =FDUW!8n =64A9AWF5K3!5K.

?9:7ED[ŽV =64!2!7ED3.=.

.x*bFm”ixAFo587ED4.xJ“mW U 35.

3Uxb=FD6H L “Ôy{ V!5K3.

7EDf` } V!587 U   N 23!DkvS =..\7EDi”07EDUD3G=FV!R U 7 .?3DG9S3H@9A2367E5  V!5KRH]W64A9S.CA§ 3GH@9A230V \v 2M(9A23<MHURiDR!9`=6HU=FV9a9A23@D3Cv 9S3G4!2UDR U RU[7 3.

.x)v 7 9A29A2313C6 T 4.

3!V9:7 RYD(R^on 9A230‡ “mW U 35.<V!R]D.x9A23@5B3G.a4.Z33Lv =.

RL(V V U 3<9S3".s7 U 3D4.

Z=7 H@9A26=9a9A23.3UN¤`} D6H&Z  W.S9 “mW U 35o.

Mfj v 3!5K37EDG9S35B3G.S9S3GH e2R#jv 3CŸ 3!5>xF9A23.

MhD3‡Ÿ 35 U =9S3!5o4G= U’U 3GHeNbFY3!5‰2=FV.Gxb9A23.

M U R.S9o#V M VU2RYD3@DUWa( V X!35.NÛ} 5B3V!5K3.

?3DG9?=9:7 Ÿ 33>n 5KRLr V RYD31R^n 9A23"R!9A23!5 4..

RL(V V6=FD7 3.

?RLV 3<9A27ED[@RYD 9A231R5nH35JR^n~W e3=F2x)j v 3!§ DR#dv 9A2=9j9A23 ’ =!5‰X!3!5 =FD6HO“m5B3‡!Ÿ 7 40§\\V RbHU3 U .`=!5K39SR!9?= U’U M&\v 5KRYD[vxvXUW9Ôjv 3"HR DR9a4G=!5K3 !:  W..a3CŸ 3!D(9SR U H…\V 3".?9l[UR&=‡L v =.

M.

uFM.

^–]Y N S 26=!Ÿ 3&D3Cav .RYW(=5B3@X!R!9A23!587ED[iW.i „‡†Oƒ|IOƒ^“ OIJK)“&• ƒ L—Lƒ‹‘ R¡†OƒO‚jƒ…„..”Pn R5-MGRYW([YWM.K‰R@„.H0NXHL.

I ‘ ŠdN1KMP|“œHLIJ„o„@K XH !ƒ „‡V †O=aƒ A§ 31 Q‘ 9Aƒ‹230HaHbR@7 3(„@‘ØIO4.

S9:‘bI7ED Q[hPO7ER@D„CH]‚jNŽW.9A†J2KM=9aPe•M.V!ˆM5BRUƒa.<‚ V!™3N15*KM.?P|R@R.=—.?9Aˆa5Q‚hMCKLR.

jv ƒ)3 )U’U†MvIJV KeU 3•–KJ=. ‰R]W~H ev KM7 ˆJU’U „7V„‡5BRU†O.<ƒ|V!3!IO5oƒ)=“ .<RF2ReRY"§ W =U H 9 9A23.?—M3‘ ƒ)HR1RO˜ eDR!R]9 WU .œ„.

2R5B9L9S35< V .7bV V!R5Q9?=FD9.`=.

N c 23@D3CT 9\7 .?.

W3"R0pn 9A23lL 7 3\or =.S9:7ED[|e{ D[b7ED3G3!5jfZ”@=.

M!0x WFD   7 .<W3!twLv =. HU3GHb7 4.?.

=9S3GH@9SR…V =64!2!7ED3 V!5KRH]W64A9S.DL v =.GN ‡ 23<9A23!5*9A27 .`4.

R7ED647 HU3!D9?= U xUM.

:= U 9SRT}¤}`wr™‚ Y } fZ}pR0Ÿ 30V X!3!5 ã x   I)lt =FX!RYW9 ’ =5‰X!3!58“m5K3CŸ 7 41§3jv R5<@§ fP9SR¡\v 27 462 ä X 4<RYV.RYW0X!319A23DZ  W6H[U3UN S .<WFXa"V 7 9>9S3GH0=hV!5BR]V!R.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª M ­:¯ .œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.

U 0t ›cÔv U S CŸ Ÿ !Ÿ )iDS™V U S 0V U CŸ 1§ag Dv G§`n eV wv Ot #t U 0n U’U U § ž}`wr$} V WGv Ún U 1Y zy  Ÿ 0n Gv LV ä t [W ‡Y U …{ Ì bV l{ U U ‡Ÿ U U ^Ÿ #v 0n Gv &v wn !Ÿ Ž{ U CŸ U U U U ^Ÿ 0V ^n U ¤}`wr™} )}Ûn I MS 0Ÿ U U U U #v U 0nœwrÔ{ #v fŸ ^n ^n <v on U U Ÿ U 0n Gv ‡Ÿ S 0n U ’ U U U aV &v § U } !n U’U LfV V zSJv 0x t 0ndwrw{ U #v nœS V 0n CŸ 1§ Ÿ U ¤}`wr™} GV 0t œS aV ‡Ÿ 0§)g &V …V U ~v Dv ‡v v Ÿ DS#  ”v LV U aV U £ U bV ¤}`wr$} ^]`_ aV [Wh} U ¡V 0V U U ^V Y‰}Ûn DS #v ^] _ aV U’U U !Ÿ &V U v Dv #v LV S !Ÿ aV JŸ ã t !n ¡r U ‡Ÿ U Ot ¡n t !Ÿ U U n´i h  Dv U’U U $n LV d€ -D3 3!5j5K3G4.

M =FD6H@9A23.?3G=5n462 07ED 27 R F9?=9S3 jD7 35B.7ED"9A23 V!5KRYV!RU.s7ED64<3 1=6H319A23&V!5BR]V!R.<27ED[R o9A23"=!5B9:7 4 3gX<M “ 7 ‡ = 7ED[9SRYD7EDh} 1=[U=7ED31=FX!R]WG9L9A23 jR]DHU3!5 >W 5B3G. 5BR]D[ VFWUX 7 .37 3GH0=C5B3V M <N jR@9A2!7ED[.Z= YHU3 \R]D.A7 9. jR5 >5BR 27 Rh7 .ZR n9 L=!5K3\9SR04.2= 3&26=FVUV!3D3H&.?9A5K=9S3\9A2=9\“m5K3 7 4 .:= f.

PR5 .Z3GHO2R [URRH@9A237E5*. 3.R \3FN S= .:47 3!D9:7 _]4 g=!5B9:7 4 3@X<M aN aWU587ED[&9A26=9L9:7 3 = .<2R!9l.ZR n9 L=!5K3 L=..?R =6H 35Q9:7 .

3 34.

Nlm= 3"M.= 4!W =9:7 R]D.

Z3.RYW(.

3D=FDGM  =6H 35Q9:7 .`RYD9A235K3G=9a.<W64.Z3 \3DG9S.

4.

3.

?.. =9S3 M6k p3!5K3g7 .`R .<2R!9a.S9:7ED[&4. 3G3 3"4G= 46W =9:7 RYD. =FDR9A235p7EDG9S35B3G.

R7ED647 HU3!D64<3Fx n9S3 5  vx ].Z= 9SRT} #xY9A234.?3!D9a=CV!5KRYV!RU.

<2R 7ED[(9A23&X!3<9?= 35B.R 3!5 V6=[3"R i.?R n9 L=5K3 PR5o4G= 46W =9:7ED[g9A23(46587 9:7 4.A7 RYDR .

R V WFD[U3!5 3 Rb47 9‰MGN J3<9.= .

xJDR&.`3 35jX!3.?R n9 L=5B3g2=.

3DhVUWFX 7 .\7 9 =64.<23GHeN ‡ 2M6k .

47 HU3!D9?= 9A26=9l9A23=FWG9A2R5*R 9A23"=5B9:7 4 3g7ED9A231.?.:= \3g7 .

W3 L=.1“ 7 ‡ = 7ED[9SRYDbN `D6Hh= n9S3!5 = 9A2!7 . 4.

<WF5‰V!5P7 .R \R9:7 RYD L=.`.Z3GH@9SR 3G=5‰D@7ED(9A23&f:”g=.

?.M! UWUD3   `7 .

?3..W3"R =[F=7ED319A26=9lR]D3"R p9A23@“m5K3 7 4 []5BR]WUV026=6HO5B34<367 3Hh=0V!587 <30f.

Z.s7 RYD <N Y= €.3@V7 4A9AWF5B3&X!3 R q7 Y[U3<9 } V!3!5 "7 .

\7ED9A23 =. =6HU3".?R (W64620V!5KR[]5B3G.?. [Y5KRYWFV02=.WU5K319A2=9"“m5B3 !7 4 .?9 M.

?3=64. \2M(9A23(= L=5KH L=.3=!5*9A26=9L9A27 .\7 .D 2=9l9A23G.S9 L=FDG9l9SR 3G=5.`[7 3!DbN ZW.

4.

R (V 7 .<2 \3!D9S. =5B3FN 6R5o= RYD[9:7 \3h} HU3.

= ˆ4 RU.:46587EX!3GH@9A23(4 =.aR]D9A23@V H7 =[]5K= €=.Z.?3 =9A23 =9:7 4G= HU3..

Gx 9A23<Mg4!2=FD[39A23(HU3.Z4!5P7EV9:7 RYDbN n9S3!5 Y..`3!5‰5BR]D3GRYW.?3DG9l9A23@V6=FV!3!5 =FD6H&9SR H@9A23 r=FX!R]WG92R 9A23gV H7 =[]5K= 7 .

:46587EVG9:7 R]DN ‡ 3 7 9#7 . [RRbHvxFM..

3.

ZR \3.S9 =9S3!587 = L=.:=<M9A26=9 7ED9A23@V6=.9L9A23<Mh26= 39SR0. \5KRYD[0=FDHODR ˆ9A23<M@=!5K3"9S3G=64!2!7ED[g.

9A2!7ED[@3 .?3FNmR5o=!5K319A23.

M6k J26= 3.

WUX "7 9>9S3GHg_ 3&f V6=FV!3!5K.a9SR@9A23(4.

RYD P3!5K3!D64<3@f  %$h7ED 3 3 =FDH `=FD6H PRYWF5jf 26= 3gX!3G3!D 5K3 ‰34A9S3H0RYD9A23"[Y5KRYWFDHU. j3 xUM.

RYW@4.

=FD05K3G=6H&9A23 3<9>9S3!5oM.

a9A23 3<9>9S35 >5KR ”h5>N eRYXFXN ­ ^V4Ÿ¿­4®"®e® ¤l^V Ë WOXdV4`dWÉ[PXdacS"WÉ[]i¦¤1V~Q l^W^aÌQ@["i ¢˜S"ž^WmQ@ajiâ§ Ë ¤.Z3 p3!5K3g7 .RYWF5B.¢°TUVX.

¬O[]WMžm["`d›  XdlgXdSU`ZV@ÙMacV@“µ["ijiAYdž^Ÿ^TUajX‰XZV4• []ŸÉYœXZ`Z[eQÇXZY4± Ë X.SeW.

`dV~QacV@ÙeVŽ["iji )["ŸmYœXZ`Z[eQÇX Y[]Wm• •raÌYœXZ`dacŸ^žrXZVŽXdl^V4TÖXZSUXdl^V["\^\^`ZS"\^`Zac[]XdV¢˜S"W^–e`dV~YdY.“b[eY[PXXdlÉ[PXXdacTUVXdlm[]XXdl^V4›g•rSP“WmYdV@icV4QXdV~•XZl^V[]ŸmY‰Xd` ["QXZY˜XdSUfhSe`dTÖXdl^VQ@S"`ZVS"f V4[eQ lgS"f1XZl^VR­ )YdV4YZY‰acS"WmY4±$¤l^V#¢b[]ici¦fhS"` $["\ÉV4`ZY˜fhSe`Xdl^VR­~®"®"®U¢˜S"W^–e`dV~YdY["Wm•g£âÚr\ÉSOY‰ajXdacS"W \^`ZSr•ržmQV~•ª­ \_SeYZY‰acŸ^icVŽ["ŸmY‰Xd` ["QÇX Y˜fh`dSeT֓l^aÌQ lgXZSRQ l^SMSeYdV?fh`ZS"TnrS"f XZl^acYWMž^TŸÉV4`.[]\m`dS”ÚracTU[]XdV4ij› ® ["ŸmYœXZ`Z[eQÇX Y˜“bV@`ZVY‰V4ijV~QÇXZV4•KXdSRŸ_V`dV4ÙOacV@“bV4•g["YbÏmWÉ[]iA\m["\ÉV4`ZY4± Ë •ra̕.

ajW›eS"ž^` ["Q4QV4\rXZ["WmQVŽicVX‰XZV@`aÌYacWKf©[eQÇXXdlmVS"W^VfhS"`“lmacQ l“bV“bS"žmic•gijack"VXZS)`ZV@ÙMacV@“ƒXdl^VŽÏmWÉ[]i¦\m["\ÉV4`4±â¤l^V ¢˜S"Wm–"`ZV4YZY¢˜lÉ[]ac`dTUV@W.“bVŽ“ajiciAŸ_VQS"`Z`ZV4Yd\ÉSeWm•racW^–“ajXdl []iciA[]ž^Xdl^Se`ZYYbXdSR[]WM›KQ lm["W^–"V~Yb`dV4ÙOaÌYdajSeWmYb“l^acQ l(["`dVfhV@ijXXdSUŸ_V[]\^\m`dSe\^`daÌ[PXZV"± ¤l^V¢˜SeW^–"`ZV4YZY¢˜lÉ[]ac`dTUV@W[]`ZVŽajWɕržmY‰Xd`Z›VÚr\_V@`dXZY.“acijiAŸ_V`ZV@ÙMajV4“ajWm–#XZl^VŽÏmWm["iA\m[]\_V@` Y[]Wm•.¢˜lm["aj`ZTUV@WA±$¤l^VSeW^V[]ŸmY‰Xd` ["QXicaÌYœXZV4•.

["Wm•KajX.

[eYbXdSU“l^aÌQ l \m["\ÉV4`ZY["`dVYdS"icacQ@aÐXZV4•gŸm["YdV4•gS"W[]ŸmY‰Xd` ["QXXdS"\macQŽ[]WɕKÏmXXdSR[)\m[]`dXdaÌQž^iÌ[]`.aÌYXdl^V4`dVYdS"icV•racYZQ`ZVXZajSeW.

YdV4YZYdajSeWA± Ë X.

aÌYž^WrfhS"`dXdžmWm[PXZVŽXdlm[]X.

“˜VQ@["W^W^S"XQ@Q@V@\rX.

["`dVYdž^Ÿ^TUajX‰XdV~•¦± £âWOXZV@`ZajW^–U[]W(["ŸmYœXZ`Z[eQÇX•rSMV4YWmS]X.[]ici1["ŸmYœXZ`Z[eQÇX Y˜Se`\m[]\_V@` Y“l^aÌQ l.

QSeWmYœXZaÐXZž^V[]W[]ž^XdS"TR[]XdaÌQ[eQ@Q@V@\rX []WmQ@VS"f1XZl^V[]ŸmY‰Xd` ["QXÇ«PS"`˜ÏmWm[]i \m["\ÉV4`4± ¤lm["W^k›"SežKfhSe`›"Sež^`ajWmØOž^ac`Z›"nm["Wm•K“bVŽijSMSekRfhS"`Z“b["`Z•XdSR`ZV@ÙMacV@“acW^–›eS"ž^`ÏÉWm[]i¦\m["\ÉV4`4± V4–e[]` •^Y4n ¡?V@W^W^aÌY.

R!9A23!5Úv 7 .S92=!Ÿ3.¬É± S"ŸmŸ  ?¡Ž¢ S™V(W.Z3UN`pR#v4G=FDM.<WFXaV"7 9>9S3GH@9A23 R^nlV6=FV!3!5K.

"f RYW9lR^“œn ã KOtl‚jR@=6„ 4G4<a3‘bI.RYW(3CTFV U =7ED(9A26=9lRYD U M ä R0n”V#MhV6=FV!3!5K.

VG 9S3HvN }pR!9S39A26=9L9A23R!9A23!5c5K3.

?3=!5n4623!5K.ge5n=9:7 R&R0nc=64...

4.

3!V9?=FD4.

a9A26=9lR!9A23!5LV=FV!35B.3 RYD9A237E5LV=FV!35B.\7 . =5B3"9A2F5B3G3"9:7bV\3. I ã xa\ v 27 462zV\3=FD.

.1X!3.

9>9S3!5*9A26=FDzV"7ED3UN s —˜.

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.œAª ä Ž 4.ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5     .

      "!#        .

`=FD6H0HU3G47 HU37 MGRYW H 7 A39SRi23G=5o.?9A5K=64<9S.Chapter B. My Relationship with Die Casting Establishment FU n Jg U b§ ~v Dv 3=.?31_-D6HO235B3"9A23=FX.

aR5cDR9.W4!29SRYV7 4<.

?.N ’ W3G.%& #    $  ' %0.?3Ux]7ED 2=9a.s7 R]D(=FDH0R]D \26=9aHF=<Mhf89A2!7E5nHhHF=<M <N ¤}`wr$} ~v 0t c 6! #" .?. \27 462 9A23"9SR]V!7 4&} 4!2RU.?3G.

`4. U U 0V LVfV U ¤} 0Ÿ U Øn GV ›c U <v ¡V U 2319?=FD[U3!D9:7 = [U=9S3"3 3 \3DG9#7 .

R RYD M@W.?3Hi7ED05‰WUDFD35 HU3.

.N DR 3 =FVUV!5KRU=64!2"9SR&9A2!7 .s7 [YD@26=.WFDFD35oH3G.s7 []D.\X!3G3!D(H3 3 RYV!3H9SR&=64627 3 3(X!3. 5.

9>9S3!5o4.

RYD9A5BR R 3!5-9A23D3.

\X6=. 7ED 2!7 4!2"9A237ED9S3!5‰5B3 =9:7 RYD.?3H&RYD.<27EVgX!3.3H3HhV!35 PR5 =FD64<3UN #23 D3 q=FVUV!5KRU=64!2g7 .Z47 3!D9:7 _]4V!587ED47EV 3G.

9 j3G3!D"9A23 \3.

9?= V!5KRYV!3!5B9:7 3.

. =FD6H&9A231[U3.

R \3<9A587 4.

= V=5K= 3<9S3!5K.Z46587EX!3GHeN ‡v eV ‡Ÿ U U aV CŸ U 0Ÿ U ~v   ' %0.\7 . H3G.

S9:7 9AW9S3.s7 9‰M(4<RYD.s!=7E5jV!R5BRU.  %    ' -" U U ^n ¤c U U )V aŸ aV 0V ^Ÿ DS LV U ^nŸ )V U ( U \v U U ´n 0n f§ ^n 7Ÿ aV ^V ’U U 3Ÿ )V )§ ›c U Dv ~v ( 0V 3Ÿ aV 0V d ‡Ÿ Ÿ 3Ÿ aV 0V ’ =.

.`= =!5K[3@V6=!5B9lR 9A2319SR!9?= V!R5KR.MN JRO5K3GH]W4.A7 9.

s6=7E5J3!D9A5n=7ED \3DG9.MH]W319SR 9A23"[F=.3"9A23@V!R5KR.A7 9.

x 6=646WFW ‚4.

=FD&X!3=FVFV 7 3H9SRi5K3 \R 39A23@5K3.

.ZR \3 4.A7 HYW6= =7E5p7ED"9A23"Hb7 3UN ED(.

=.Z3.

a9A23(=FVFV 7 4..

=9:7 RYDR 6=646WFW 5K3.

M4G=.\7EDg=027 [Y2 ]W6= 7 9.<W 9S.S9:7ED[ 2!7 37EDR9A235o4..

=.<W64.Z=9:7 .?3G. 8=64A9SR5BMGN D3R -9A23 A3<M.j9SR(9A231.a9A23 5B3G.<W 9S.l=5B3DR9j.

4.

3.

?..j9A23HU3.`7 .

s7 []DR -9A23 =64!WUW .SM.S9S3 gx 3..

7 9A2 2=9 =!5K319A23(HU3.V!3G47 = M9A23 6=646WFW ‚9?=FD FN 23gV5B3G.?3!D9l.?9AWHMHU3G= .

S9S3 @N m3. RYD9A23 =64!WUW r.SM..A7 [YD&5K3 ]W!7E5K3 \3DG9S.

?3!D9S3GH@9SR0=64!2!7 3 3=FD3.s7 []D46587 9S3!587 ==5B3&V5B3G..

?M.Ie34A9:7 3 =64!WUW ‚.?9S3 gN         6"!  6-< 'G'"  ' %0.

 } .

   .%  $"  -(  #0$ %& ' -< *%     "    -( 0n #v U bV U ”S ^n bV U V5BR]V!3!5oHU3.

s7 []DR o9A23"H7 34..

?9:7ED[iV!5KRb4<3.=.

1V6=FV!3!5 = Hb7 .s7 []D!7 _]4G=FDG9 MGN QD9A2!7 .Z.s7 R]D"R]D02R g 9SRh=64627 3 3=0X!3.Z.Z4!W..a4G=FD05B3HYW64<319A23 3G=6H@9:7 \31.

9>9S3!5 4G=.S9:7ED[&=FD6H0=g.<2R5Q9S35 3G=6H@9:7 \3&W9:7 7 7ED[9A23.

`7 ."V!5K3..Z3"4!WG9>9:7ED[ 3GHU[319S3G4!2UDR RU[7 3G.

Z31R o9A23.Z3!D9S3GHeN V6=!5B9:7 46W =!5*3 (VF2=.#7 .s7 (V 7 _Y3GH 4..`[b7 3D(RYD9A23&W.A7 .

= 4!W =9:7 R]D.`=FVUV5BRF=6462bN U U U CŸ #  +( %$ .F& D   $ * + (  !" $*!$#./'G%&' € 0n U ^V ž} )V ¤c DS Ÿ U U bV .

`= = .R5o4<RYD64<35.D <X MgHb7 34..  Uv XV Z  !Ÿ U e3GH]W4<9:7 RYDR c=7E5o3!D9A5n=FV \3DG95B3HYW64<3G.\7 .%&'& %  + %   )(  ' %0 .a9A23&V!5KRbHYW64A95B3 ‰34A9:7 RYD05n=9S3(=FD6H0= L=<M. ' *+(  6 .

S9:7ED[&3!D[7ED3.=.

N #23"3.35B.

Ie34A9S.s7 []D"R]D9A23(=7E5 3!D9A5K=FV \3!D9\26= 3&X!3.WFDFD35 H3G.`R a5.

3!D H7 .

5B3G[U=5KHU3GHC7ED9A23&V6=.S9.

WFDUD3!5pH3G.S9AW6H!MGxY3<IJ3G4A9S.S9:7 4.`R 9A23@5.s7 [YD4!2=5n=64A9S3!587 .?3DG9a.N EDCV!5B3G.

S9AW6H7 3HvN ’ W7 H3 7ED3G..a=5K3gV5B3G.?3!D9S3GH@R]D@2R 9SRh7 V!5BR 39A23g5‰WFDUD3!5oHU3. =!5K3 .

.?Rg9A2=9 3.A7 [YD.

l=5B3 3!D9A5K=FVFV!3GHeN U .. =7E58[F=.?.' ^n bV ^Ÿ aV  1(32 ' /+4     'G')"  %& -< %0 c 23  R#v V6=9>9S3!5‰D&7ED9A23l\V R U H0H]WU587ED[g9A237ED!7 9:7 = U V=5B9aR^no9A23g7ED´ .  %$ 0n #v  &0/  %  $  %  # '+   6  . v\27 462HU3<9S35<V"7ED3.aR]D3"R^n 9A23@V=5K=aV3<9S3!5K.3G4A9:7 R]Dg7 ..

<W64.a9A23..

4.

3.

.?.`R^no9A23(4.

?.S9:7ED[vN¤c 27 .\7 .=.

<WF5.?9AWHb7 3GH&3CTFV!35P7bV3!D9?= U’U MGN y 3CŸ 3!5n= U .W3@26=.s7ED[04<R]D4 U W.A7 RYD.X!3G3!D.V!587 .l4.

N›c 23.=FDCX!3(HY5n=Cv D~>n 5BReVr9A23"3@TV!3!587bV\3DG9S.

?3@5K3..

=FD6H  4<R]D4 U W.A7 RYD.a=5B3@V!5K3.W U 9S.

.Z3!D9S3GH0=FD6Hh4.

#7ED9A2367E5oHU=7 U MhV5K=64<9:7 4<319SR =64627 3CŸ 3&X!3<9>9S35 4.=FD0X!3&W.s7 [YD3D[b7ED3G3!5K.?3HOX<M(9A23H3G.

?9:7ED[eN ä X 4<RYV.=.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­:¯ .

] "  +J" q 9l9A23   i s }¤}`wr$} 4.

Ÿ3!5K.T9S3!5>N p3"9SR U H V\3"9A26=9oS-26=6HO5‰W&3GH0= U R!9aR0nnP3=9A235B.<W[[U3.7EDO}ž}`wr$}#N*p3".Z=9:7 R]D~v 7 9A2C”C5.N =!5‰D3!5L“*=.RYD!nP3!5K3!D64<3lS-26=6H0= U R]D[&4<R]D.

.S9S3Hg9A2=9\‡ 7 nDSOvL=FD9S3GH@9SR&[U3<9\5K3G= U 5K3.

.<2RYW U HOX!3gV!R U 7 9:7 4.GxÌ] S .<W U 9S.

a.A7 9AW=9:7 R]D@26=6HX!3G3!D@7ED(9A23@V=.?9 =FD6HO2R#v ( V W6462h}¤}`wr™} 2=6HC7bVV!5BR^Ÿ3HvNa“mW9\23!5K37 .ZRLV\3.= U’U M=64<9:7 Ÿ3FN 319SR U H…V\3&2R#v‚X6=6H@9A23.

?9?=FDHQij7 .9A2!7ED[XSY4G=FDUDR!9\WUD6H35B.<DJg 9l9A235B3 =FDM.

RYD3&\ v 2R&4G=!5K3.

=FX!R]WG9l9A23Hb7 3(4..

=.S9:7ED[h7EDH]W.?9A5QM@=FDH¡v 2R¡Lv =FD9S.#7 9l9SR  RYWF5P7 .

26kqS n MGRYWHURh4.

?RLV 37ED6H7 Ÿ 7 H]W= U .=5B3Fx V U 3G=.D\v 2R0HR04G=!5K3=FDHh=5K31.?3”.  R7EDz\ V 3FNœ]S =64A9AW6= U’U M02=!Ÿ 3&Pn RYWFDHh.

Z3".l9SRi7ED6465K3G=.Z47 3DG9:7 _]4\! § DR#v U 3H[U3"7EDgHb7 34.WUVFV!R5B9:7ED[…#V M 3<IJR5B9S.

U 7EX!35K=9:7ED[@9A23&jv R5 U H\>n 5KRLV ”07 465KR.?3DG9 U MGxe2R#jv 3CŸ 3!5>xF9A23<Mg=5B3=X"V 7EDR5P7 9‰MGN S 2RYV!319A26=9a=.=.ZR0nn 9.S9:7ED[vNbF 5B3G. U 7EDFW‡&T 7 .

?R@9SRR¡jv 34.x.

=FD U 7EX!3!5n=9S3(=FD6HOX!5P7ED[ V!5KR.

M9SR@9A23(H7 34.V!3!587 9.

=.?9:7ED[C7ED6HYW.S9A5BMGN }Ûnn 9S3!5lX!3<9>9S35*9A2=FD=M.

3=!5*.A7ED4.

3\V M(_-5B.?9f‰=FDHWFD.?3!D9Zt U 3<9>9S35*9SRkFy 9S3CŸ 3 H^Ÿ =5nH!MGx$SJPn 3.

NÛ}Ûnn 9S35Ô#V Mg4.3 U 9A26=9L9A23!5K3 =5B3"9A27ED[U.L9A26=93SOj v RYW U H U 7bs§ 39SR0=6HUH09SRg9A23=FX!R0Ÿ 3 U 3<9>9S35.

R5.5K3.

V!RYD6H3D4.

37#v 7 9A2KF]=FW U “m5n= U R#j v 3!5>xÌ-S 2=6H@9SR04.

a9A23^r V 9SRiVFWFX U 7 .?.RYD9:7EDUW319SRiV5B3G.

1V!5KRb4<3.219A23(=5Q9:7 4 U 3"=FX!R]WG9l9A23&V^]7_ N›#c 2!7 .

Z.. = U . 7 .Z4!5P7EX!3H07ED9A23@V!5K3G4<3H7ED[.S9X!39A23”Z  W6H[U3R^nv 2=9`7 .Z3G4<9:7 RYDbN JRYWbxF9A23g5K3G=6HU3!5>xQ( V W.15K3G= U’U M 26=FVUV!3D!7ED[vNžj } HUHb7 9:7 RYD6= U’U MGxFRYV!3DYW3.?R&H3G.

Z4!W.Z.L9SR9A237v 2R U 31Hb7 3"4.?9:7 RYD.s7 R]D#9SRYV7 4<.s6Hb7 ..

=.S9:7ED[g4.

5K3.M =5B3(=6HFH3HvN Ÿ 7 40§)g .RLVfV WUD7 9.

.Z3G=5K4!26k¢S .`9A23!5K3.S9:7 U’U DR5K3!V!R5B9Zk‹`} DH0HUR3.

.a9.MFV!3R0n ‡ 2=912=FVFV!3!D3GH@9SR@9A230“m5B3‡! 5K3.`9A27 .

?3=!5n4624..

RYD9:7EDUW319SROX!33>n WUD6H3HFk r =FDg=FDGMGRYD33CFT V U =7ED9SR‹\V 3@2R# o v }¤}`wr$ˆ} R]V!3!5n=9S3.

.:k S .(}ž}`wr$#} x9A23"R5B[F=FD!7 .

?9A5QM!k }  —˜.S9:7ED[h7ED6H]W.=9:7 R]DxM\V R5K37b(V V!R5B9?=FDG9l9A2=FD9A23(H7 34G=.

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.œAª ä Ž 4.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

Chapter B. My Relationship with Die Casting Establishment ä X 4<RYV.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­  .

      .

.

  Q \   ¬.

.

 .

  fT v &v U’U Ÿ U’U Ûc žc Cv U U b§ U ”S zV U ~n <V bV U U U ~Ÿ U 0n a§ U Ÿ U aV u } U U Cn U  Ôc    .

      S &n &v aV a§ Jg U QD(9A2!7 . =FVFV!3!D6H7 j3 #7 HU3!587 3"9A23&X!RYWFDHF=5QM4.

RYD6H7 9:7 R]D PR5cVF26=.s7 [YD7 _]4.?34626=FD[U3 7 9A2=g.

Z.S9:7ED[9A23(HU3!D.=FD9 HU3!D.<W \3GH@9SROX!3g7ED.s7 [YD7 _]4.s7 9‰M4626=FD[U3(7 .s7 9‰M4626=FD[U3UN p5K=6Hb7 9:7 RYD6= Mg7EDgHb7 3"4G=. =.

=FD9 7ED(H7 3"4.

\VF23!DR \3DR]D 7ED9SR@=64G4<RYWFD9.=.S9:7ED[(9A26=9j9?= A3\9A27 .?9:7ED[eN #23"=FW9A2R5 7 .DR9L= L=5B31R p=FDGM \RbHU3 7ED(Hb7 314G=.

N QD =9S35P7 = . 7 A3\.?9S3.

3 =FDH L=9S35J9A23HU3!D.s7 9‰M4!2=FD[3(7 .<D 9 =5B[U33DR]W[]2"R5p7 9aHR3.

. DR!9#V =<M >WF5B9A235 \R5K37 (V!R5B9?=FDG9#5KR 3FN ‡ 27 3(7EDH7 34.

S9?=FD9a4.s7 9‰M(4626=FD[U3V =<M=. PR5 3 != (V 3= W "7EDFW 7 .`R 3! 5 F N WU5B9A235 R5B3Fx9A23 465K3G=9:7 R]D(R m.?9:7ED[9A23HU3!D.s7 9‰Mg7 .Z3"= =5B[U3"Hb7 IJ3!5K3!D64<3g7ED 6= W3G.`=@Hb7E5B34A9 4<RYD.?3 YW3!D64<31R 9A23(HU3!D.<2F5P7ED <=[3gV!R5BRU.=.s7 []D!7 _]4G=FDG9 5KR 3@X!3G4G=FW.s7 9‰M4626=FD[3UN 4<RYD.

#4<RYD. .RYD9A5BR R W \3 7 .S9A5‰W64A9S3GH&=.

0n lV U LV ¡v U U ”n @T aV U U aV )V 0Ÿ D£ <V 0n #v \r Ôy U ¤}Ûn ‡V U’U bV 0V lV 0Ÿ U Ÿ U aV ؟ ^n fhrjN !t     "! }`D6= U R[!M9A23¡V=.?.Z3(7 . = 9:7 3(7ED6465K3 3!D9L9A23 \R 3GHC7ED9SR@9A2319A23 HF=.?35 6=9:7 RYD(R o9A23(4<R]DG9A5KR R W \3@5K3G=6HU.?37 .S9?=FD64<3 N #23"3D35B[M4<RYD. RYD9A23 3 n9`.`R]D9A23&587 [Y29 .s7 HU3=FDH 7 ]W7 HOVU26=.<23GH 7ED3"=9 =Hb7 .2R D7ED_Y[]WU5K3 jN UN bR 7 HOVF2=.s7 HU3UN n9S3!5m=.#4.

RYD.  fhj r Nä t   .?35؟6=9:7 RYD3nPR5*9A234<RYD9A5KR U Ÿ R U Wa\V 37 .

?R 3H&.`R 9A23 7 ]W!7 H R 3 \3DG9 \27 462&2=. 9SROX!3.1f LN a=FDHf jN `HURODR9#26= 3(=FDM05B3G.    #    c jr !t U hr ä t U U     $     !Ÿ 0n U …V 0Ÿ 0V ”v  $ U 23"3]W=9:7 R]D.S9A587 4A9:7 R]D.?3!V6=5K=9S3 MGN`”hW 9:7EV M(3 YW6=9:7 RYDhf jN X.

M=g4.

RYD.S9?=FD9 5K3.

.7ED UŸ    .<W 9S.

 $  hr !t hr å t f jN Ä!ʙ¸¨ Î à ® ¸ ÀE«¯¦ Ã.ÃZ°.µ «›®ZÀ j« oµ ÕD³b«´®  «¦³bÀ ã .ÀE¸ÀG°.®Z°<¸ · L”· L›°Gª@¸ Àž±C·‡¸ LZ°ÌÊ$¸ Î Î.L.ÍÄ ¹ «h­‡± Î ®.¸ Í· L”· LÔ°Gª¦«w½›®Z°Gª¦«¦½Ô®´°<¸ ¯´® Î ®ZÀh±@«´¯h°ÆÀ$®¦³b« Î « ¹ °M·.

Density change effects boundry at t=0 liquid solid boundry after some time dx A1 B1 A2 B2 £b7 [YWF5B3rLN )iÛc 234<RYD9A5KR U ŸR U WaV\3"R0np9A23gVF26=.?34626=FD[U3 yJWUX9A5K=64<9:7 RYD(3 YW6=9:7 RYD0fjrLN å t”n>5KRLV€3]W=9:7 R]DhfjrLN #tlM!7 3 U H.Chapter C.  fhrjN t  .

s7 HU3"4.  §    $ °      §    $ °        "   c#231_-5K.S9l9S3!5Gr V R]D9A23&587 [Y29\26=FD6H&.

DŸ =FD7 .ZR U 7 H&..s7 HU3=FDH&9Gj v RatÔ>n 5KRL€ V .i RYD3!twn>5KRLVr9A23 U 7 ]W7 H .s7 HU3UN¤o} 9a9A231.A7 H319A23(4<RYD9A587EXUW9:7 RYDg7 .<23GHOX!34.?R U 7 H&.RL(V V!RU.?3H¡>n 5BRe‚ V 9GvjR&"!4<RYD9A587EXUW9:7 RYD.

=g[RRbH =.=FW.\7 H3DG9:7 4G= U’U M(<3!5KRTfSDR…\V R0Ÿ 30V 3!D9lR0pn 9A231.`<3!5KRhH]W319SR  7 .ZR U 7 Hex]7 9 7 .?.?3 §    $ °  7 .

?319A23"9S3!5GV   $ 7 .l9A233v\2R U 39S3!5GV 7 .a9A233Ÿ 3 U Rb47 9‰M=9l9A237EDG9S35Ø8n =64. Ÿ=FD7 .W)V(V9:7 RYD0t<NDSQD(9A23 U 7 ]W7 HOVU26=.M fhj r Nã t # §   $ °    v 235B3 7 .<23GH¡jv 34G=FDf\v 587 9S319A23g7 HU3!D9:7 9.`<35BRTfEv\2M6kt(9A2FW.

    §   °#  $     §    °  § 4§$   .3UN  c 231_-5B.?.Z3GHC7ED(9A2319S3!5Gr V R^n 9A234N Ÿ N _ =.?9l 9S35<€ V R0pn 3]W=9:7 R]DhfjLr N `t 4G=FD0X!33@T V!5B3G.

  °‰ °  $ $  .

 §    $ °      $     $  fhj r N I)t  §   §     $ °d°      §     $ °   K ± Î «´®¦ÀE« L.ÃZ°.°Gª.½›«  ¸ ½Û« L¦ÀG¸ · L¦À™Ê$¸ Î ¯´.«¦³e·.³M¸ LZ°Æ·d«!Ã@®´°<¸ · L¦ÀEÀ<ÀEÀ<À             #  #  !              .°Æ«ÔÀE·.® L¦¯.® L  L¦·.·.« Î «  «´®¦¯¦ªD·.°$« LZ°Æ«.

      ä X 4<RYV.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­ ® .œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.

`=FRYDDH&U M@.?3"R U .?7 H034<4<RYRYD6DHg9A589S7E3!XU5GWV€9:7 RYRYD(D0=F58VF7 [YV!23G9=5B26.V9A5n=FD.A7 9:7 RYD0t<N v 235B319A23"9A5K=FD.s7 (V M ULU ´n <V jr t bV U fhrjN s)t         "  $   "!  ! "! c 2FW.?=FR DUH&7 Hv9ANÛ2c 3"2.A7 9:7 RYD@7ED9SR&. U R]D[&=.a=.s7ED64<3 9A5n=FD.?R U 7 Hh7 .`4G= U 46W U =9S3GHeNœ{ YW6=9:7 RYD fjL r N s)t 2R U HU.`9A2319A5n=FD. PR5 =9:7 R]D 3]W6=9:7 RYD0f LN #7 .<26=5.s7 9:7 R]D"9SR0.A7 H7ED 3"R^n 7 YW7 H&.`<3!5KR0.A7 9:7 RYD6= =<MG3!5 H]W319SR@9A5n=FD. .Gx3]W6=9:7 RYD0fjrLN t#7 .s7 HU34<RYD9A587EXUW9:7 RYDg7 .?R U 7 H@Rb4.U   U 7 Y W$ 7 H@ 9SR& .#=FX!R]WG9  V!5B3‡Ÿ!7 R]W.1DR!9S3Cjv R5B9A2M19A26=9a9A23&>n "5KRY! D9V!5KRY"V6=! [U=9:7 R]D(7 .. U M3vL=.#=FX!5‰WFVG91f8.`9A5K=FD.nPR5GV\3HC7EDG9SR fhrjN t)t   §     $ °          $ " S 9#7 .

H  R5*9A234. R0Ÿ 3!5-9S3^(V V!3!5n=9AWF5B3&5n=FD[U33vj3@2=!Ÿ3 ‰ƒ)„.4!WU5K.

=.Z31R^nž 465K3G=9S319A2U5K3.

3.

RYD3.

GN`”@=9A23^V=9:7 4..

4<R]D.Ÿ3!D7 3!D9L9SR0HU3.= U’U Mx]7 9 7 .

Z4!5P7EX!3"9A2319A23lVW..

2GM(<R]D3 X!RYWFDHF=!587 3.

X<M(9Gj v RiX!RYWFDHF=!5BM4<R]DHb7 9:7 RYD..GN I.

Pn 3!5 ‰ƒ)„."5K3..H ¤ 23(465K3G=9:7 R]D(R0nžŸ Rb7 H. v 2!7 4!24626=FD[U3\9A23&23G=9L9A5n=FD.\7 .

A7 9.CV¥>n 5BRe€ \ V 4.`R0mn H3D.” V 3G4!2=FD7 .<W U 9S.M4!2=FD[3G..

RYD6HYW64A9:7 R]D"9SRi5n=6Hb7 =9:7 RYDbN¤#c 23 U Rb4.

=9:7 R]D(R0n 9A233Ÿ R7 H0HU3!V!3DHU.`RYD9A23 465BM.?9?= U’U 7 .

=9:7 RYD(=FD6H0.<WF5Ø8n =64.

319S3!D.s7 RYD(3.

Ie34A9.

xb3.

m .s7EX7 U 7 9.Z30"V 7 .9?4NÛc 23@V!R.?R U 7 H&4.Z.M(R^o n 9A23W U 7 ]W!7 H&4626=FDFD3 U .ZY =FDH@9A23  R#v R^p n .?R U 7 H@=FD6H&3CŸ 3!Dg.

DŸ R7 HeN I.:=9S3oPn R5o9A2!7 .RL(V V!3D.

H 3.        V V!35K=9AWF5B3 ‰ƒ)„.

9.

a9SR9?=aA§ 3(7EDG9SR&4<R]D.xbRYD326=.A7 H35K=9:7 R]D"9A23gV!5K3.

.?.

WU5K3"3<IJ3G4<9Dc 23 U 7 YW7 HU=9:7 R]D"9S30( =FDH@9A23 U =9S3!D923G=9`=!5K3=Ie34A9S3GHh.?RLV3Cv\26=9#X<M9A23@V!5K3.

<WF5B3FNÛ}o91V!5K3.Z..

?..

WU5K3@X!3<9Gvj3.

3D9A23 =9@\ V R.

VU23!587 4#9SR@9‰MUV7 4.

A7 _]4.= U 7EDG9S3D.

=9:7 R]D@V5B3G.xaPn R5LV!5B3G.?.<WF5K39A2319S30(V V!35K=9AWF5K3(=FDH U =9S3DG923=9a=5B3 3<IJ3G4A9S3H¡Ÿ 35QMŽ" V 7 U H U MGN` R#jv 3‡Ÿ 35.?.

WU5K3@D3=!5™6Ÿ =646WFW)r V 9A23 U =9S3!D9\23G=9 =FDH@9A23 9S30( V V!35K=9AWF5B3(=5K313.

Ie34A9S3H‹\V R5K3gDR!9:7 4.

3G=FX U MGN  I.

c 23&Ÿ 3 U Rb47 9‰M(R0pn 9A23 U 7 ]W!7 H…\V 3.

9?= U H]W3"9SR@9A23@VU26=.?34626=FD[34.

=FD0X!3&5K3 U =9S3H&9SR@9A23&>n 5KRYD9 V!5KRYV6=[U=9:7 R]D@W9:7 U 7 7ED[9A23"3]W=9:7 R]DhfjL r N ä <t N›#c 23 U 3Cnn 9126=FDH&.A7 H34.

=FD0X!3.

2R#v D"9SRX!3 §  ° N c 23@5P7 []2G92=FD6H&.15B3HYW64<3HC7EDG9SR&R]D U M U 7 ]W!7 H  R#Œv =FD6H03G=.A7 U M4.s7 HU3g7 .

À Æ®¦¯h°GÃ.ÀÆ°<¸ ½›®Z°Æ«Ì°Gª¦«™¯¦ª.³b«.®ZÝ.«.®.«.®Z°<¸ · L¤°Æ·¤«.s7 9‰M@5n=9:7 Rvx   : $ N  ćª.À¤³b¯¦.± æΠ«´¼.®ZÝ.Ý.ÃZ° Õ´·.® ¯ ÎD¸ L¦¸«C°žÍ ¸ Lw°Gª¦« Î ¸ °Æ«¦³Ø®Z°GÃC³b«CÍ¤Ä ¹      .¼..® L¦¼@«¤¸ L$°Æ«¦½w±C«¦³Ø®Z°GÃC³b«™°Æ· µ «™·.L¦«¦·Z³ÆÊÇOÄ0Î « ®@ ½ ¼@«”L.® ªdL  ¸ LwÄ)°Gª.«¦³)Þ¦Ñ  «.Í«ÔL®.Շ³b· L ÀJ«!Ã.l9A23(HU3!D.Ãdª.³Ø°$®¦³–«ÕZL¦Ç^·.®¦ªDÀE« °<¸ ½Û³–«Û·.·.® «  Î ¸ L¦µ ·.<2R#\v D"9SRX!3   $  $ N$   §    $ °    $  $  fhj r N t §  „­~°  $  v\23!5K3  7 .ª.±7°Æ·d½Û¯¦«›ª.=FD0X!3.·ZLZÊeÕ «h Ý.L °$ ÀjÃCÊQ³b®«ÔL¦· °™¹ °Æ°G·Dª@ÀG¸ À®Zݦ¯´«”® Î ¯¦½›Ã «ÛÎ ®Z®w°<¸ · ÀE«´L¦®.® Π՞® µ ·.«$Ã.ÀE«  LÎ ®@±.

    ã)å —˜.

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œAª ä Ž 4.ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5  .

Chapter C. Density change effects ä X 4<RYV.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­ ¯ .

Z3!5m7 . =6Hb7 =FXG9:7 4(7BN 3UNaDRO23=9L9A5n=FD. 7 ."D3.      Å     U #v 0n 7Ÿ 0V #v 0n LV ¤c U U c 23  R#vR0n 9A23(=7E58[F=.

[ U 7 [7EX U 3=FD6Hh4.

=FD0X!3g7 []DR5K3GHeN c 27 .`7 .l9A23"4.

Z37v235B3gV!5KR4.=.

3.

`7 .CV\.?9l=FDHi23G=9j9A5n=FD..”Ÿ35QM~n8=.a=!5K314.Z.?3!5›V3G4626=FD7 .

s7 HU3!5n=FX U M .RYD. U R#j v 3!5cf.?3..

S9?=FD9.?35 =FDH09A23".7§7ED6H&R0nL7 .?9\V!R.#DFWaV(X!3!5m7EDzrm26=FVG9S35)t<Nwc 27 .&!£ =FDFDR  R#"v N ! V V U 7 . § DR#v D(=.?.A7EX U 7 9‰Mg7 . =FDh23G=9l9A5K=FD.s7EX U 314G=.œ\v 23!D9A27 .s7b 23=9L9A5n=FD.:46W.?.?37 . =FDR9A235cV!R.Z.´Pn 3!5m7 .a9A235B3g7 .s7 R]D U 3G.#=g4<RYD.3¡V\R5K3H7 .s7 R]D=FX!RYW9aHb7bV\3!D.

NÛc 23@23=9L9A5n=FD.A7 [YD7 _]4. .´Pn 3!5m7 .

=FD9`7ED4.

Z3o v 235B3"9A23!5K37 .=.  R#v 7 .#4<Re(V XUW.`.1D6=a\V 3GH&R]D ! =!5nH € 3.s7 R]DN¤c 27 . 46230" V 7 4G= U 5B3=64A9:7 R]D.?Re\V 3<9:7bV 3g5K3CPn 35B3H&9SR0=.

M U 367 [Y2bN v V = U 4.

126=.=."23=9 } 4G=.?3@X!3<9Gjv 3.Z3UNÛc 23  R#qv 7 .

3D19A23"9Gjv RCV!5K3CŸ 7 RYW. 4.

U R#ˆ v 3!DR[]29SRŽA§ 3.Pn 35cXUW9`7 .a9A23g7 .=..?R9A235< 9A5K=FD.Z3(7 .

?9?=FDG9.3V9A23\9S3^(V V!3!5n=9AWF5B34<R]D.

?9?=FD4.?3o\v 23!D=([F=.  R#l v .#7 .”Pn R5o= U R]D[&H7 .L9A2314G=.N¤c 27 .

3&f.7EDR5nH35*R0nD§ 7 U RLV 3<9S3!5K.¦.

t NwQS D.

W4!24.

?R]WUD6H7ED[&=!5K37EDhWUD7 Pn R5GV 9S3^(V V!3!5n=9AWU5K30fP9A26=9 7 .s7b( V V U 7 .?3G.a9S30V V!3!5n=9AW37 .ZR5.5KRYD6Hb7ED[g9S30( V V!35K=9AWF5K3UNœS n 9A23.S9l4G=. 3]W= U 9SR@.?3&\v 27 462~jv 3 U 7bA§ 3!t 7 .=. 4.GxF9A23=. .

?R9A235<1V = U 4.= U’U 7 .

=.Z3UN ”@=9A23^V =9:7 4.

?9 4.A7b(V V U 7 .a9A23.= U MGxY7 9\7 .

?3 u N SQDgH7 34G=.w>n 5KRLr V 9A23(4.  R#av .S9:7ED[vxF9A23"=7E58[F=.=.

œŸ 3!5BMg4 U RU.?.?319A23_-5K.ZRYWF5KHb7ED[C7ED~Ÿ 3!5BMC5n=FV!7 H…1V =FDUD3!5>N›c 27 .M9SR&.S9&\ V RbHU3 U jv 3Hb7 .Z4!5P7EX!3HOX!3CPn R5K3UN p3!D64<3Fxajv 3"4G=FD=.s7 9AW6=9:7 RYDg7 . .=!Ÿ 7 9.

?3G.l9A23  R#qv 7 ."5K3.W)\V 319A26=9”Pn R5 V=FDMR0n 9A23(4G=.

?9ÔPn R5<@V N ±.K ·o±@¸ L3«¦½Û³Ø®Z±@· °G·.À¤ L ³b.L ½w®¦ÀE± À<Àhη ÃC¸ ¯´Î ½w¸ ®Z °Æ±Z« °<«  ¸  · Íd.®Z· °ÆL «¦³Ú¸ æ® ¯hÎ °Û ³b®¦ÀE³b°™«´®!¸ L”Í ½ÛÕ¤¯´®¦À<ÀE«..®LDL ©™· 8¹ ª¦ ¸«o «.A7ED=FX U M=6Hb7 =FXG9:7 4 _ N›#c 235B3‡Pn R5B3Fxajv 37EDG9A5KRbHYW64<319A23z!£ =FDUDR  R#v =FD6H =[U=7ED@7ED=g.³b«.®¦ª¦LZÀ<«&°«  ¹½›·@ͤ«h³M©™°E¸ ®°$ª@Î ¸ ®.·C½›«7³M·@¸ ®@LÔ³b¸ «Ô³Ì°Gª¦.Àj®Z¸ ¸ L¦¼¯´¯¦¯.ÀE¨¦ÀhÄ1ÃC±¦³b«”³b« ¹¸ À$«¦³b¯´«Û· °ÆL¦·ÔÀÆ°E°Æ®Z«´°ž®¦¯¦¸ L”ªÔ¯´°G·ª@L¦¸ ÀžÀÆ°$½›¯.L.«Ô³b«´® Î ÀG¸ ½w± Î ¸ ÀE°e¯´®¦ÀE«Ô¸ ÀQ°Gª¦«Ô¸ ÀE· LZ°G³b·.±¦°Æ® À· Î Õ¦#Àj¸·´LÀ¤Ê ¸ ÀÛ°Gʙª¦½”¸«Ô°Gæªd«¦¯¦³Óª7°G³bª. ÃC·@« ³b³ «dÎ °Æ ¸·dÀ›«.«´°GÃ.® ««´µ L¦®Z¸ ¯°Ô°Æ« #¸ À”·Zʤ· ³b« LDÍ Î «´°G® ª¦ « °Æ!·o·ZÊÛ°Gª¦.®¯´«w·.±@¸ ¯ !·ZÊ ¹ ·C³)ʪ@¸ ¯¦ªÔ°Gª¦« °Æ¸ À$«¦½”L.¸ ±@ª.s7b V V U 7 .®  ·.ÀZÍL©™ª.L7³b·.

`=  R R 4.³™ÀE«® LZL ° Î ÕZ°GÇ^ª¦°G«`ª¦«¦®@³b¸ « ³ c 23  R ˆR p=7E5e9A5KRYW[Y2"9A23 3!D9:7ED[g.?9S3 €7 .?M.Í «7 a®@³b¸ «.

R (V!5K3.

s7EX 3\.Z..

WUX.S9?=FD64<3FN #235B3"=5B39A2U5K3.

Z46587EX!3"9A231.A7 9AW=9:7 R]DN UV ã"ã .aA9 26=9a4G=FDhV!R!9S3DG9:7 R]D= M(Hb7 .3 7 HU3G= RHU3 .

A P2 V2 T2 rho2 £7 []WU5K3k N )iÔr-R]DG9A5KR U ŸR U W)V31R^no9A23=.S9?=FD9a4!5BRU.?.`.&/ </\+p  frincional force P1 V1 T1 rho1 Cross Sectional area.  R#v 7ED4<RYD. < Chapter D.?34A9:7 R]D     !#               r-R]D. Fanno Flow R`).Z3.A7 H35o=[F=.l9A2U5KRYW[Y2(=@4<RYD6H]W!7 9”v 7 9A2=~n>587 4A9:7 R]DCf8.  R#l v .

Z3!5ڟ=9:7 R]D~Pn R5-9A23(4.   4<R]D.3l£7 []WU5K3k N UNÛc 23¡V=.?.

RYD9A5BR U Ÿ R U Wa\ V 37 . fZ N !t      c 23"3!D3!5K[!Mg4.

RYD.?3!5ÚŸ 7 RYD0fSWFDHU3!5o9A23(4.

Z3!5ÚŸ =9:7 R]D05B3=6H.       fZ N ä t               c 23&Pn R5n4<3=64A9:7ED[&RYD9A23=. fZ N å t G   .\7 .<587 4A9:7 RYDR^cn 7 HU3G=FX9:7 4  R#vd\t 5B3=6H.RYD.a9A23&>n 587 4A9:7 R]Dg=FDH@9A23¡\V RLV 3!D9AW)€ # V 4<R]D.

s7bV V U nn M9A23&V!5K3.    £ R5o.

?3DG9?=9:7 R]D!#Pn RR!9ADR!9S3!DR!9`D3..

Z=5 U M~Pn R5*9A23@V!5K3..Z.

.?3DG9?=9:7 R]D(4.

?.?319SR047E5n46W U =!5 6 vj3=.=FDhX!34 U RU.<Wa\V 319A23(4<RYD6H]W!7 9j9SROX!3(=@47E5n46W U =!5-9A23!5K3CPn R5K3Ux   .

   fZ N t     .

    7 .`3 YW6= U 9SR  N * 9:7 U 7 7ED[9A23(HU3<_-D7 =9:7 RYD"R0pn 9A231_-5n4A9:7 RYD~8n =64<9SR5.

  =FDH¡jv 3  }pR9S39A26=9     RYX9?=7ED9A23&Pn R U’U R#v 7ED[  fZ N ã t ‰ § -:   °   ­     "!   9:7 U 7 7ED[@9A23HU3<_-D7 9:7 RYDR0pn 9A231.ZRYWFDH&.

V!3.

S9:7 RYD~Pn R5lf  O:  `t =FD6H¡Pn R5)(  :  7ED9S3!5G‚ * V R^n 9A230”g=64!20DUWFX)V 3!5*M.3H&RYD3"4G=FDRYX9?=7ED"9A233Pn R U’U R#v 7ED[ *    # %$     fZ N I)t    ! $  %   '& r RYD!Ÿ 3!5B9:7ED[@9A2313CFT V5B3G.

. ­  $ +  $    fZ N s)t !  *  ‰ § ­  0 /1    $  $. 4<RYV.367 U H.

MU587 [Y29z– • x  —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ ä U xvX<MXa 5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 §žU¨.

œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­ M .

Section D. Introdcion SED9S3!5K[U=9:7ED[ U =.?9l3 YW6=9:7 RYDM.1.

367 U H ­ ­  $    ·­ icW /   $         !   $   ­  / 1  $  c 23g5K3.

#=~n>WFD4<9:7 RYD(R0n ãs —˜.`R^on 9A27 . 3]W=9:7 R]D=5K3&V U R9S3GHh7EDX£7 []WU5K3  £b7 [YWF5B3z N ä iD£!=FDFDR  R#vŒ=.W U 9S.

™Aš&˜.

™A›.

œh:žUŸ6 ¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

œl©Bž6 esžŸ#š.ž!§6™:Gªi¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £.   ä Ž 4.œAª Z N t)t f .

RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5 .

Fanno Flow ä X 4<RYV.Chapter D.

MU587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N “*=5Eu-”367E5 —˜.

™Aš0˜.

™<›.

œ0sžŸ6 "¡lœG¡#¢œ.

 Q£Z˜¤¦¥§FŸ.

œZ£ §žU¨.

ž!§6™:GªO¥6« ™<¬!¤ ™ K¤ £:¡aª ­  .œa©Bž! ]sžŸ#š.

       .

     .

Reference  .Chapter E.

NOC)P -QKB -7RB ?M8N S5TU .L4KE)-M3.+-/.8=<>27@?A+BDCFEG62A? E>4H2IJ4K73546=.     "!$#&%(') $ *.0+-1203546)798:2.

. ' . .        "!#"$%$%& %' )(+*".

 %  % ' !"( /10!32 54 .

'8. >.    5<=/5 >8> : >8 '?@( 'A.B*( ! M 58DC   /.

>'  ' ' '( ". 'A8 AC .

:     ( '' ' '1E 'A(  > 0 JFG( 'H/9GIJ8LKNMPORQ)MTS. "!)62/'K 57  !"869 !"8 .!GK5( /   6f  H g  % >8"8>'H/  ! >!GK'=e  "!K f %(') $ Y7     ! ihj1Z5kmlnc+[ob5$[$6pc>+q_c+rbn[\]^Hs[3!"c+utdk.3c+HZ G0 .UVWXQY$%HZ@[\]^P!_a`b5$Adc>3c $"  %0 >88>'.

 /.

/5 /  <8 ' 'v// (C % >8"8>'H/  !  "!K f %(') $ Y7       .'.

8)!"( k// /Cj./= >8 /. !/^/ /R!"8/wC ' KR 'H/a/ '.

>' K R'DCR''9 ').

H[3c+HZ}"3.€$" $kZq  k 5   #     „ @0 R'H/a/p*GJ'B9 ' !/ M >8  ."8K x5*>'zy6$)sA[3 $%{N|@HZ@c+.[\c  ~"!iHt.

.‚ )ƒ   ' !)A**". n9'A(C "!K f %(') $ Y7   ? A25'@  ?&  !"869 7 )( 9/ ') >8 .Z…{J$[†J!nskH3[Jq  k 5   #       . *".  >8 %y6$)sA[3n$%{N|@.ZYc+"HH[3c+.

H[3c+HZ # g„   g  . $ ' 'A8 M >8  >8 KR'H/a/p*GJ'u9 ' "!K f %(') $ Y7   ? A25'@  ?& ‚  7   !"869 7 )( 9/ ') >8 G‚ nƒ       5   g   !/ M >8 ‡yA$ns[\5$%{oˆ5>sAc+!61|@HZ@c+.

 'K"#  ''. '.  “  ' '.:  !"8)'  g„ %e=.0!K / .– )*GR!"8 'H/.6*GR! ' ‹~ŒŽ"!"( A*( ! M 58k/9Oc+‘Q@kH3c+.!"*. !"8>'A8 •9'H/ '.  'K     @?%/^/M! %/p*G( !‘/ )(+* M )88"*./  . 'K x)*>'u9'Bx5*'( x)*>'H/ KR  ( 'A. K'K3.Z’|@HZ@c+.H[  "!K f %(') $ Y7 !"89‰ >82( 'K GŠ   “  „5  „ # . . 5* ' 'A. 'A8 D'A” ( !"8> '  ƒ "%O .

' d*69K C & ).

' !  .

  .

  “  d2> >8  ?&  %   K'2  R ' !  GIR  !"869 !69G).

!"8/ AC% n9'( /.mš)M&.’† —˜p™.švžNš=Ÿ¡ s++k3c+_$%{=3€" Mtd!"H¢Pq$%{./  #      .R/  % '.@tHc+H"tH]~$%{jœ£š+.ZX =kdc+6~!‡ stH&|@"H[JZqLOc ^pc b%"3c $[¦   R!"8)). >2/ ' !  “     "!/ M >8 / '.3c+++c+.oq%!["sA+c+tBO]dc ZY$n{.!%šoK›"s&‡œNš Gš .š GšJž5¤  )!> '..

A( !". o¥  Š     <: &N*GJ'!"*(AC ‚ '. ! M )8  ?@8> >8>'' >8> F%(58  !G.

    'A8 ' '  &5(  R!69  g  % >8 >.9 ¨! M 58 AC 'A8 /R! >8>'.9 G!/  J' ' A2  ƒ  ‚   .

\.   nƒ   !"869L . 'A8 /J5*.

>8*"."* "§  f Š   K J/5  >8(!"(+*. .

>  ¨)8 !"(5( 90).

)!".  'K£9 ' !/ M >8 / ©[]tk3c $%P$%{ KNMPLž£† ln.z|     g  # g„  .

 % k„  .

BIBLIOGRAPHY & A2H/    Š   „ .td$%¢B¢BH"!"H!o[$)tH.ORQož£ˆXžo.¢  .!%s[\]P‡k@ˆ) $o[3H!"c+tk$[£qAH3.

. 'K !"8  '‘ !/ M >8> …I>8/ M d* '  IJ8>   'H/10o( ! >8>'H/  I>(+( >8> / & A2H/    Š !"869‰ !"(+(  .

5ƒG  ."e ').

"85(   / !"8/wC 'K >8 /.

'*"8K 'k9z2> >8> 9).[\"3c $""./ K ! )!GK'K 7 f e -6f  g   ! ' '   !"89 &)*"89/       % n 9 '( >8 /. w.ORQo|  % >8"8>'.  0 R J'.!GK)( /  %0 >8"8'./ YI>8[]tk3c $%RS6VWL†J%3./^/ !"8O 9 KR/ K'.

/^/pG* R'B9 ' !/ M >8 KR 'H/a/*k// >8  )*"869 !@ !"89FG 8 ' 'A( 'A.>' J'. 'A8 D. ' /.

Zq  „-5 „ „ #     ! ' /  .Z HtH€"$" $./ Ly6$)sA[3n$%{=¢1"3.n9.[\c  o[$)tH™adc+.

nG ƒ     Y? .

'. w:/ C /.

>'(R'A( ! M 58k/ .

R/ !"89 .'. ' !"(  >81C '. )( 'A8.9/ / '.K $  '  ''8.

!)K..6 9  !"*"( G* 9  >8B9 '9!/ M >8 L.

/  )!GK'K 7 f e  6f   g  R!GK'  .[\"3c $"%.K >>8 'H/ 5IJ8[ 6™t3c $"6AVWL†J%3.ORQo|   Š )* .

&  „ G? .

/ AC ' '. 8 !"89 ! ' !KR'. '.!/ 58 /.

' K R5/  ACN9 ' . >( !K (!">8 !"( 5/ / !GG( 'k(9  /.!/ M >>8  [ 6™t3c $"6•$n{@M¢B.[\c+tp‡ˆ$ns"![Jq"¢‘H ~)$)tHc++q   5    # -Ag  ? 62/'KJ  &?      >9.

  “   g 4 /  ?@( f % 'K.H[3c+HZX"3..>'0 '‘" !/ M >8 …0 J './^/ …yA$ns[\n$n{ |@HZ@c+.€$" $kZq    .[\c  ~"!Ht.# .

)!"( !  %  .Š >*  Gƒ   !"869 % >(+( ' G‚  .

     .

/  : )869A/ ' G¥   . ! M >8 L.R/ Y7  .ƒ ') ¡9 'A8/ G¥   !"89 4 ).IJ8LKNMPORQ)MTS./ . / 'H/ M >.!GK5( /  %0 >8>8 'HA/ K ! >!GK' e Af  gg  : ! $  !"8"2H/  Yoq%!["s+c+tu"!" =$%$%& &%( R'H/ !"869L&    !"8A/ !/    !"8kM/ !.UVWXQY$%HZ@[\]^P!‡^`6b5$6dc>3c $%  %0 >8>8 '. 4 8 /. n9 '(C  =9 ' !/ KJn95> *  w.

>' >8G>* 'A)8 ' AC /.

'9'p– 589 M )8:/ 58 /.

'A8 R! '( >8 /.' 'A 8 /R! >8".

%3c"tBž=™pd6[\t. # -   7 !K  'K GŠ %‰     %e . 'A8 R' )8 AC !BC R''  R)*"89  d*   *( '.>'u9 ' ' '( ".! YtHc+./ .8  ' …M›b"b)+c+.€  )!> '.

8 / !G.8 !"(   / ' ' ! M )8 C ! $ '.!"( !")8 !"( k// / !"869 'd– K'K >.>' R' M . '. 'A8 9)G*  >>8 05( 0 9 ).

)!".ZYc+"HH[  „ “   -5 -.  'K FG(+( >>8 Oc+rQYk.3c+HZ’|@. ¥ !"8kA/ 'A8  .

J /.

tH€c+t] "ƒ .G*  57  „ )ˆ5>sAc+!_.

>(+( !"80=*  ( / .: "%O „„ GhNb@H…QG€"H@ˆ) $ &% !)6."8D‰ >( ' !"89 58k/  IJ)8   “ ' §  \2  “ ' §  32  ¥ 'A869 'vA/ )8 .

K >>8 _"   “ ' §  \2  “ ' §  32  ¥  R!)>   .

 7 !"869 %0 >(+( 'K G‚  .

      ' . * 'K // >.B*"( ! M )8 AC !"*/ 'H/ !"860 9 '.!/ M >>8 9 'u9 ' '. M )8/  5.

 w.IJ8LKNMPORQ)MTS.!GK5( /  %0 >8>8 'HA/ K !  >!GK'=e 6f  ./ . ¥ * G¥ !"869 . '.UVWXQY$%HZ@[\]^P!‡^`6b5$6dc>3c $%  %0 >8>8 '.

J RK5*( /   .

 „  % ! /.

   %(''K / 58 57   ? A25'@  &?   !"869 7 )( 9/ ') >8 . 'A( M >>8  .Z‡@c+¢rsA "3c $%"3. 'A8 !"89 ).„  ! R' ' ' i$)!"H+c+.?G– K' >.!"(). n9 'A( >>8 C /.Z.‚ )ƒ    .[¡šY@tHc>š |@. !"( >8 G!". " * 'K›. n9 'A( >>8 C=A/ )( 9 F ! M )8 !"869….>'A. ! M .š  g@ -  #  ¥ *  ƒ   ‚ !".

/^/H* R'B9 ' .Z G0 .!/ M >>8 .tk3c $%‘$n{@bn[ $)tH]^u˜][3c #+]{J$[›!c+utpkH3c+.z|"lGQ † | O™dc Z@  !"8 : R!")8  M/    !"( C  3K8 !  !3K8 "§      …YH+.!5/ >>8 / YIJ8rM.>'  j=/ >0 8 KJ'.

 /.

>'H// / 54 .

: )ƒ      .   "%O !"869 !"8 .  ! ' <8 ' 'v// . >.

Z !r]$"+c+!"c"td"3c $%  >>8 !GK R'  . ( 'p– !/ M >>8 / .c"t1[\c+¢ c+n3H[3A"3c $%A)tp$"%{ H[3H"tHD$"_¢u$n!"H+c+.! M )8 AC .Zz$%{otdkH3c+.#& / 5( 9 F .I>8!"#$@t.! M )8 !">8 !"( 5/ / z( !J ' )( . 8 !GG( .

+-/.NOC)P -QKB -7RB ?M8N % S5T .L4KE)-M3.     "!$#&%(') $ *.0+-1203546)798:2.8=<>27@?A+BDCFEG62A? E>4H2IJ4K73546=.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Š > 89/ '   !"869‰ !"(+( !)'  ƒ  :     @? .

' !"(%9'.! M )8 K !)/ M '  . !/a/5 >8>  9 ' 'p– d*G >8> !"869FG(+( >8 ACN/./5 )8  (+*   . C ' 'A8 // ¨' !"89‡9'. '.

[\"3c $"YOc+Q@kH3c+.ORQo|’†J%3.>K /p( '' ' '958‘9 ' !/ M >8 /A)*"8958'.Z’Q@$"./^/YIJ8 [ 6™t3c $"66VW.ZY[3™a   .

!>  )!GK'K   -   % !69/ '8   0 !"89 ' '89/ '8 .%e£*   *"( 'A8   R'H/ !"86O 9 .K .

R$n{ +c nsAc+!_¢‘k HktH€[tk3.0 .nyA$ns[\5$%{oˆ5>sAc+! .3c+HZ&.t.. /.tH€c+t]    5  #    % ! ' o‚ &   Ag Y†JnsA.[£$"€"d"j3[ 6p{ .[!nsA[3c+HZ}!"c+ tdk.69 R!"*"( a*".

 /.

>'H// /   !/ '‰ 'H/ 'K38 ‚ 'HA/ 'K ' '_<K8 ' 'K 5/ . % >) 8 ! '     '( / 58    !"869E )(+( '  E  ‚       .G?@>8 >>8 ''K >>8  . ' !"(+(+G* R K.

)8 !"( k// =/ !"89   >!  '\8/ !"89/ )( 9 F ! M 58 .

  “ )* 'A8  e  !"869L !K   ƒ  „ ‰ ! 'K .€$" $kZqkš%M./^A/ 'H9/ Ly%š |@.€%š›Ht.Z.!/ M >>8 J '.>'A> 8 ).-Y  „ # . 'A)8 ! >8‘9 ' .šG‡Ht.z|  .

)8 !"(  5* ' d*69 'H/ AC 7 R! ' e >( ~" !/ M >8 & K' .

(+( >(5. K)>8 'A8 w./    #     4 /   3>8 '  %O ./ LM•ˆ% [  )!> '.

  %(  ( '   o&?   %0 >(+( 'K G‚  .

Š  ¥  .   !"89 !"(+( 'A8 . !> ). !A/ AC @IJ8LKNMPORQ)MTS 6VWXQY$%HZ@[\]^~!_a`b5$Adc>3c $%  ' N( ' '( !"89 54 . %(n9 'A( >>8 CN9 ' !/ M > 8 OKR 'H/a/ './R*5/ >>8 z.

  0 !> G‚  ¥  :  „  @ˆ)>sc+!L.tH€c+t] %ƒ .  )!GK'K=e -Af  .

 “  „  %e ."8u  ‰ >( ' !"869 )8/  IJ)8   “ ' §  32  “ ' §  \G2  ‚ ! L !R! d)8 !".

>' .

(!/ !  !"(+( ' nyA$)sA[3A5$%{£oq"!"[ "s+c+t‘OcJ˜.    ¥=§ .69  !"*"( a*".š)M Qo|  >!> 'H/    # ...

 !)).

msA!.q$%{N3€"!"c+1tdk./      ‡M q)3c+td".3c+HZ‡b%[$)tH™a .0 .

 /.

 ! <8 ' 'v//  .'.5/ /  & 5(+*.

)!GK $R  .

'RI )ƒ . .  ¥    .€"BO=q"¢Bc+t™~"!L3€"H[3¢1$)!Hq%A¢‘c+t™~$%{›QY$%¢Db%[3™^pc+#+1ˆ)>sc+!‡ˆ5 $  ' 5(+*.

"8u‰ >( ' !"869 )8/  “ ' §  32  dG* .

 ~)$)tHc++q  -5 „  #     !"9.3/2 '  ‰  : !"89‰ !"(+( !)'  ƒ  :  „„  7 ! M >8 AC›9 '9. >)8 ! /.!/ M >>8 /  []tk3c $"6P$%{.M¢BH[3c+td ˆ$ns!"[Jq"¢B.

>!"8    ‚  !"89E )(+( '  E  ‚    . 4 (8 /.

'_?@8 /.

>!"( % ' /.

#  gg  e .>n9 ’†>n£y"šoKs¢ršG‡k3€nš jd"ˆ5>sAc+!Lˆ) $  -5  -.

'  %  !"869  R' ' 62  Gƒ  ‚      4  M >. !"("/p( ©/ .>).

>K ' 'A(  >  JFG( 'H/jC   )( 0 9 K.

 'K   9 ' .IJ8LKNMPORQ)M QY$%HZ@[\]^P!‡^`6b5$6dc>3c $% IJ89 !")8 !GK)( / IJ89 !")8 !  >!GK'oe  6f  g  E ') >K8 >2  .>!".!/ M >>8 .

tHc 5tpkH3c+.€"d$[Jq$%{@^b@.Z}¢Bk3€$) !  . GJI   „   .

 %z?  “ ' §  32  E ') >K8 >2  .

GJI   „„ "=e .

' !"( >8  '/ M )8  '. DC !)  v/ >8.'\. %9 ">8 !"9.

IJ8i[]tk3c $"6 VW.ORQo|’†Jn3H[3A"3c $%AYOc+Q@kH3c+. CoC  / M )8 5(8 !/ 5. 8 '..8 !"89_x5>* !"( . '.ZX|"`b5$Adc>3c $" QY$%HZ@[\]^  N( ' ' '( !"89 54 .

 E /  !")8 ! /.  )!GK'K   .

>!"8      >82A. !"8     0  @ '  ‰ "   !"869}0oG* R 'KJ  ‚ &%O  50 R%95)* / M )8 C .

K  N. )*"8   !)62/'   /. . .

/^// )81C  \.IJ8‡KNMPORQ)MTS.>'.UVW QY$%HZ@[\]^~"!_^`6b5$6dc>3c $%  %0 >8>8 '. KJ'.!GK5( /  %0 >8>8 'HA/ K !  )!GK'Koe 6f     ‰ > ))8 !"8/p>2  RI !"869L ./ . >8 OKR 'H/a. ' !"( )(.

)!". )!"8 .:  ¥  ."e .

>'   >8 C "*.

=/ !"869/p(+>* / !"89 /..

+-/.tH€c+t]  )!> '.>'    >(8 ! d *   *( '.8 /p(+>* zy"š ˆ)>sc+!‡.N C)P -QKB -7RB ?L2/N G .  .L4KE)-M3./    # -.„- *.8=<>27@?A+BDCFEG62A? E>4H2:IJ4)7 3546=. +-/12 3M46)7 8:2.

       "!$#&%(') $ .

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.