Causitive HAVE HAVE + DIRECT OBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE In this construction, in which the causitive use of the verb
have is expressed, have means "cause", that is have sth. done by sbd. else. It's used when you don't want to do sth. yourself so you arrange for sbd. else, generally a professional, to do it for you. Get is sometimes used in this construction instead of have. This construction is passive in meaning. He has his teeth checked regularly. Does he have his teeth checked regularly? He doesn't have them checked regularly. He must get them checked tomorrow. Emphatic DO The auxiliary verb DO can be used for emphasis, especially when contradicting a previous statement: Why didn't you tell me the truth? -But I did tell you the truth. I simply don't believe you love me. -But I do love you. QUESTION TAGS These are short additions to sentences, asking for agreement or confirmation. After neagative sentences, we use the ordinary interrogative, and after affirmative statements we use the negative interrogative: He smokes, doesn't he? She isn't studying music, is she? He wasn't driving the car, was he? They went away, didn't they? You haven't been here for a long time, have you? They could understand him, couldn't they? NOTE that statements containing words such as neither, no (adjective), none, no one, nobody, nothing, scarcely, barely, hardly, hardly ever, seldom, rarely, etc. are treated as negative statements: No salt is allowed, is it? Nothing was said, was it? Peter hardly ever goes to parties, does he? NOTE that when the subject of the sentence is anyone, anybody, no one, nobody, none, neither, everybody, everyone, somebody, someone we use the pronoun they as subject of the tag: I don't suppose anyone will volunteeer, will they? No one would object, would they. Neither of them complained, did they? Everyone warned you, didn't they? Someone had recognized him, hadn't they? ALSO NOTE: I am very smart, am I not/ aren't I? Let's go out, shall we? Close the door, will you?
The Passive Voice It is used when the main interest is in the verb activity and the person doing the action is unknown, unimportant or understood. If the agent responsible for the action is necessary to make the meaning clear, it follows the verb with BY. The subject of a passive sentence is the object of an active sentence. When the agent is an indefinite pronoun or the noun"people" it's usually omitted. The verb in the passive consists of the auxiliary verb BE ( which is in the same form as the verb in the active sentence) and the past participle of the main verb: The Present Simple Passive AM, IS, ARE + past participle The Present Continuous Passive: AM, IS, ARE BEING + past participle The Present Perfect Passive: HAVE, HAS BEEN + past participle The Past Simple Passive: WAS, WERE + past participle The Past Continuous Passive: WAS, WERE BEING + past participle The Past Perfect Passive: HAD BEEN + past participle Passive with the modals: Modal verb + BE + past participle
Also there are the passive forms of infinitive, gerund and participle. Sentences beginning "They say" or "People say" are often expressed in the passive form: Active: They say/People say that he is very talented. Passive: 1. It is said that he is very talented. 2. He is said to be very talented. Other verbs which can take this passive construction are: think, feel, expect, know, believe, understand, consider, find, report, suppose: Active: Everybody knows that this young man is very clever. Passive: 1. It is known that this young man is very clever. 2. This young man is known to be very clever. The infinitive construction in the passive depends on whether or not the verb in the noun clause refers to the same time as the verb in the main clause. If the time is the same use the present infinitive. If the verb in the noun clause refers to a time before the verb in the main clause, use the perfect infinitive: It is said that he is clever. He is said to be clever. It was said that he was clever. He was said to be clever. It is said that he has done it. He is said to have done it. It is said that he did it. He is said to have done it. It was said that he had done it. He was said to have done it. ALSO It is said that he is working here. He is said to be working here. It is said that he was working here. He was said to have been working here.
SUBJUNCTIVE The Present Subjunctive: 1. I own 1. we own 2. you own 2. you own 3. he/she/it own 3. they own The Past Subjunctive: 1. I owned 1. we owned 2. you owned 2. you owned 3. he/she/it owned 3. they owned The Past Perfect Subjunctive: had owned/had been for all persons
1. I be 1. we be 2. you be 2. you be 3. he/she/it be 3. they be 1. I were 1. we were 2. you were 2. you were 3. he/she/it were 3. they were
It is used: 1. in subordinate clauses after: I wish, if, as if, as though, if only, it's (high,about) time, I'd rather, would to God,imagine, suppose, supposing, etc. to express wishes and regrets: present: If only I were you. past: If only I had been you. future: If only I would be you. You can use WAS for the 1st and the 3rd person singular with I wish. 2. In conditional clauses: present: If I were you, I wouldn't go there. past: If I had been you, I wouldn't have done that. 3. in THAT clauses after the verbs: order, insist, recommend, demand, request, ask, propose, suggest, advocate rule, advise, agree, arrange, command, etc. ( only the present subjunctive is used here). The form SHOULD + infinitive is also possible here in British English:
They requested that the money be/ should be repaid at once. He suggests that she stay/should stay here. 4. in subordinate clauses of purpose after: that, for fear that, lest( only the present subjunctive is used here). The form SHOULD + infinitive is also possible here in British English: We eat lest we die/should die. 5. in THAT clauses after: it is better/desirable/important/essential/necessary/improbable/strange/vital/etc. (only the present subjunctive is used here). The form SHOULD + infinitive is also possible here in British English: It is important that every child have/should have a good education. 6. in certain epressions: as it were, if I were you; were I you, be that as it may, (God) bless you!,come Monday (Tuesday, etc.), come what may, (God) damn it!, far be it from (or for) me, till death do us part, God save our gracious Queen; long live our noble Queen., Heaven forfend/forbid, so be it, suffice it to say, woe betide, peace be with you, long live the king, the powers that be, albeit (a synthesis of all be it, i.e. although it be), truth be told, rue the day, would that it were, God rest ye merry gentlemen, etc. CONDITIONALS ZERO CONDITIONAL This type of conditional clauses refers to "all time", not just present, past or future. It denotes general truths, and the conjuction IF can be replaced here by when, whenever, every time: IF + Present Simple, Present Simple If you water your plants, they grow. TYPE 1 This type refers to the present or future. It's real, meaning that it expresses real conditions. Since the condition is possible, its result is also probable. IF + Present Simple, WILL/CAN/MAY + infinitive Imperative If you buy a car, it will/can/may cost you a lot. If you buy a car, drive it carefully. Ako kupiš auto, to će te koštati/može da te košta/možda će koštati puno. Ako kupiš auto, vozi ga pažljivo.
TYPE 2 This type refers to the present and the future, but its unreal, that is it expresses unreal conditions, therefore the results of such conditions are also unreal. Since this type is unreal and hypothetical, we have to express the unreality by using the subjunctive: IF + Past Simple, WOULD/COULD/MIGHT + infinitive If you invited me, I would go to your party. Kada bi me pozvao, otišla bih na tvoju žurku. If I were you, I wouldn't do it. Da sam na tvom mestu, ne bih to uradila. Although the form of the past subjunctive of TO BE is WERE for all persons, the form WAS is possible in the 3rd person singular: If it were/was warmer, I'd go swimming. Da je toplije, išao bih na plivanje. TYPE 3 This type refers to the past and it is unreal. The condition is unreal, therefore its result is improbable. Because it's unreal and hypothetical, the subjunctive is used:
IF + Past Perfect, WOULD/COULD/MIGHT + the perfect infinitive If you had given me her phone number, I would have called her. Da si mi dao njen broj, ja bih je pozvao.
MIXED CONDITIONALS Someties the condition may refer to the present and its result to the past, and vice versa. In that case we use the mixed conditionals: If I knew you better, I would have guessed that you did it. Da te bolje znam, pretpostavila bih da si ti to uradio. unreal present unreal past If I had finished my homework yesterday I wouldn't have an F now. Da sam juče uradio domaći, sada ne bih unreal past unreal present imao jedinicu. . CONJUNCTIONS instead of IF even if = even though You must go tomorrow if you are ready. = You must go tomorrow even if you aren't ready. whether...or = if...or You must go tomorrow whether you are ready or not. unless + affirmative verb = if + negative verb If you don't strat at once, you will be late. = Unless you start at once, you will be late. but for = if it weren't for/if it hadn't been for The car broke down. But for that we would've been in time. My parents pay for my studies. But for that I wouldn't be here. otherwise = or (else) = if this doesn't happen/didn't happen/hadn't happened We must be back before midnight. Otherwise, we will be locked out. We must be early or we won't get a seat. provided/providing (that), as/so long as = on condition that You can play here provided you leave no mess suppose/supposing/imagine ...? = what if ...? What will happen if the plane is late?= What if the plane is late? = Suppose the plane is late? Imagine you were rich, what would you buy? in case = if I'll stay in in case it rains. In more formal styles IF can be dropped and the auxiliary verb inverted: If you were to question me about the matter, I would deny all knowledge. = Were you to question me, ... If I had known who he was, I would've informed you. = Had I known who he was, ... If the meeting lasts longer, I'll give you a call. = Should the meeting last longer, ... SEQUENCE OF TENSES When the main verb of a sentence is in a past tense, verbs in subordinate clauses are normally in a past tense also: The Present Simple----------------------------------- The Past Simple The Present Continuous ----------------------------- The Past Continuous The Present Perfect----------------------------------- The Past Perfect The Present Perfect Continuous-------------------- The Past Perfect Continuous The Past Simple--------------------------------------- The Past Perfect The Past Continuous--------------------------------- The Past Perfect Continuous The Past Perfect--------------------------------------- The Past Perfect The Past Perfect Continuous------------------------- The Past Perfect Continuous will, can, shall, may, must--------------------------- would, could, should, might, had to
Some adverbials are also changed: now----------------------------------------------------then today---------------------------------------------------that day, the same day tomorrow----------------------------------------------the next day, the following day yesterday----------------------------------------------the previous day, the day before next week/month/year------------------------------the following week/month/year/etc. last week/month/year-------------------------------the week/month/year/etc. before ago-----------------------------------------------------before this/these----------------------------------------------that/those here----------------------------------------------------there The rule of sequence of tenses is not applied: 1. with general truths and statements: "The Sun rises in the East and sets in the West." He said that the Sun rises in the East and sets in the West. 2. with USED TO + infinitive: "He used to go out every night last year." She said that he used to go out every night the year before. 3. with the second and third type of conditional clauses: "If I were you, I wouldn't go there." He said that he wouldn't go there if he were me. "If I hadn't done it, I wouldn't have gone away. He said that he wouldn't have gone away if he hadn't done it. 4. with the subjunctive: "I wish you were here." He said that he wished you were there. 5. modal MUST, except when it signifies personal obligation: "It must be raining." He said that it must be raining. "We must obey the rules" He said that we must obey the rules. BUT "Must you go there by car?" He asked me if I had to go there by car. INDIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT STATEMENTS Indirect statements are introduced by the verbs SAY and TELL (usually) and the conjuction THAT. If the introductory verb is in a past tense, the rule of sequence of tenses is applied: "I don't know you." He tells me that he doesn't know me. He told me that he didn't know me. INDIRECT QUESTIONS Indirect questions are introduced by the verbs ASK, WONDER, WANT TO KNOW (generally) and the conjuctions IF or WHETHER (for Yes/No questions), that is the question word from the WH-question. If the introductory verb is in a past tense, the rule of sequence of tenses is applied. The word order of an indirect question is the same as of a statement. "Do you see that man?" He asks me if I see that man. He asked me if I saw that man. S P S P "Where did you go yesterday?" He asks me where I went yesterday. S P He asked me where I had gone the day S P before.
INDIRECT COMMANDS They are introduced usually by the verbs TELL and ORDER. The verb is in the infinitive: "Open the door." He tells me to open the door. He told me to open the door. "Don't call me tomorrow." He tells(told) me not to call him tomorrow(the next day). "Tell me the truth, please." He asked me to tell him the truth. OTHER INTRODUCTORY VERBS Sometimes, some other verbs can be used to introduce indirect speech: "Please, please call me." He begged me to call him. "I didn't do it." He denied having done it. "You should see a doctor." He advised me to see a doctor. "I don't want to do it." He refused to do it. "Be careful, the roof is going to fall. He warned me the roof was going to fall. "Would you like some coffee?" He offered me some coffee.
CLAUSES NOUN CLAUSES They are introduced by IF, WHETHER, THAT, or by a question word (WHICH, WHAT, WHY). A noun clause does the work of a noun or pronoun, that is, it functions as the subject or object of a verb or as a complement of the subject or an adjective. What he said surprised everybody. (as subject) No one knew if they were coming. (as object) The idea was that we should all go together. (as complement of the subject) We are sure that everything will be just fine. (as complement of an adjective) The conjunction THAT is often omitted except when the clause functions as the subject of the verb: That he was coming made everybody happy. He knows (that) he is wrong. RELATIVE CLAUSES They are introduced by the relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that for persons and things and the adverbs when and where. A relative clause provides information about a noun or pronoun. There are two types of relative clauses: defining and non-defining: 1. defining (restrictive)relative clause is a clause that is essential to the meaning of the sentence: The footballer who won the prize plays for our team. The relative pronoun can be omitted if it is the object of the verb or of the preposition in the clause: This is the house (that/which) Jack built. This is the girl (that/who/whom) I met at the party. You can even further shorten a defining relative clause (a continuous tense can be shortened to a present participle and the passive can be shortened to a past participle): The girl (who is) coming over to greet us is my sister. The film (that was) shown yesterday was an immediate success. Defining relative pronouns subject object preposition possessive people who/that (that/whom) (that/whom)...preposition whose things that/which (that/which) (that/which)...preposition of which/whose
2. non-defining(non-restrictive) relative clause is a clause which adds information that is not essential to the meaning of the sentence: Ilić, who won the prize, plays for our team. These clauses are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas and you can't use the pronoun THAT in a non-defining relative clause, and you can't omit the relative pronoun. Non-defining relative pronouns subject object preposition possessive people ..., who..., ..., whom..., ..., prep.+whom...,/ ..., who(m)...prep, ..., whose..., things ..., which.., ..., which..., ..., prep.+which...,/...,which...prep, ..., of which..., /..., whose...,
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 1. Adverbial clauses of concession Adverbial clauses of concession (or contrast) are introduced by although, even if, even though, though, no matter, however, nevertheless, in spite of, despite, whatever. They express contrast: No matter what I do, nobody is ever satisfied. Although he lives next door, I don't really know him.
2.Adverbial clauses of time are introduced by when, as soon as, by the time (that), before, while, after, (not) until. It tells us when something happens: I'll let you know when I hear something definite. These clauses can be shortened by using participles (see participles). If there is a slight difference in time, we use on + present participle, and if the actions are simultaneous we use the participle: On entering the room, he walked over to the window. Entering the room, he looked around to see who was there. 3.Adverbial clauses of place are introduced by where or wherever. They tell us where something takes place: She likes to go wherever her friends go. 4. Adverbial clauses of manner are introduced by as, as if, as though, like. They tell us how something is done: He did the exercises as his teacher instructed. She acts as if she really likes me. ( I think she does like me.) BUT if a clause beginning with as if, as though refers to something that is not really true, we use the subjunctive: She acts as if she liked me. ( She probably doesn't like me.) She acts as though she were the boss. (She probably isn't the boss.) 5. Adverbial clauses of comparison are introduced by as, as/so...as, than. They are used for making comparisons: The traffic wasn't as bad as it was yesterday. I do more work than my friends do. 6. Adverbial clauses of purpose are introduced by so that, in order that. They express purpose. In sentences referring to past time, a modal (could, should, might) is generally used in the clause of purpose: Let's shut the windows so that neighbours don't/won't complain. They bought the paint in order that the workers might begin t paint the house. 7. Adverbial clauses of cause (or reason) are introduced by as, beacause, since, for. They tell us why sth. happened. Since we were planning the party, we sent the invitations. These clauses can be shortened by using the participles (see the participles). CONJUNCTIONS 1. Co-ordinating conjunctions are and, but, both...and, or, either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also Both men and women were made to come. He can't (either) read or write. Not only men but also women were chosen. He can neither read nor write. Either and neither take a singular verb form. 2. besides=in addition to, in addition : 3. therefore=so : Besides doing the cooking, I look after the garden. I can't go. I'm busy. Besides, I have nothing to wear.
There are many people here, therefore the party will be organized here. You aren't rich. Still, you can do something to help him. They are very expensive, yet people buy them.
4. still = admitting that, nevertheless:
5. yet = in spite of that/all the same/ nevertheless:
PRONOUNS Personal pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, they. Possessive determiners: my, your, his, her, its, our, their. Possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs. Demonstratives: this/that, these/those. Reflexive pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
Indefinite pronouns and determiners: some, any, somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything, one, ones. Negative pronouns and determiners: nobody, no one, none. Quantifiers: everybody, everyone, everything, each, all, both, much, many, a little, little, a few, few, each other(for two people), one another( two, three four or more). Interrogatives: who, whom, whose, what, which. Relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, what, that whatever, whoever. WORD ORDER 1. INVERSION When negative expressions(not, never, not only, hardly, scarcely, seldom, rarely, nowhere, little, neither, nor, ...no..., no sooner) are placed at the beginning of a sentence, the normal subject - verb order is inverted, and the subject comes after the verb ( usually an auxiliary verb or a modal): Not a sound did he make! Not only could she sing well, but she could even dance wonderfully. Under no circumstances can you leave so early. 2. NEITHER, NOR, SO Neither and nor show participation in a previous negative statement: I can't go there. Neither can she. He didn't phone me. Nor did she. So shows agreement with the preceding remark or participation in the action it describes. The Canadians speak English. So do the Australians. 3. HERE, THERE Here and there can be put at the beginning of a sentence, and in this case the subject often comes after the verb unless the subject is a personal pronoun: Here comes the bus! Here is the key! There goes our train. Here comes the bride! BUT There she goes! 4. In narrative texts with dialogues the subject often comes after the reporting verb, especially if the subject is a long one, but if the subject is a pronoun, we use the normal word order: "Let's go!" said Joe. "OK," I answered. PREPOSITIONS 1. Prepositions of place: AT, IN, ON AT is used to express a location at a point. It suggests two dimensions. AT is mainly used with: - events: at a party, at a concert, at a dinner, at a funeral, at a meeting, at a wedding - addresses: at his grandmother's, at 22 Oak Street - nouns with zero article: at school, at home, at sea - public places, buildings: at the station, at the bus stop, at the post office, at the chemist's IN is used to express a position inside a place. It suggests three dimensions. It is mainly used with: - large areas: in Africa, in the Sahara, in the Pacific - outside areas: in the garden, in the field - towns, parts of towns: in Belgrade, in Vracar - rooms: in the kitchen, in the bathroom, in the bedroom - nouns with zero article: in bed in church, in hospital, in prison ON is mainly used to denote the position of something on the surface: on the table, on the bus, on the left 2. Preposition of direction and movement: TO/FROM, INTO/OUT OF, ONTO/OFF She has been to London. She has just come back from London. She went into the supermarket. She came out of the supermarket. The cat climbed onto the couch. The child fell off the chair.
We travel from our starting place to our destination. We send/post letters to people and places. We arrive in a town or country, at or in a village, at any other destination. Get to can be used with any other destination and so can reach (without prepositions). You can also get in a destination, which means "arrive at a destination". It's chiefly used of trains: What time does the train get in? We can use a verb of motion + home without a preposition: It took us an hour to get home. They went home. BUT if home is immediately preceded by a word or phrase a preposition is necessary: She returned (to her parent's) home. We can travel BY car( but in the/my/Tom's car), by bus/train/plane/helicopter/etc. and by sea/air. We can also travel by a certain route ( e.g. We went by the M4.), or by a certain place (though via is more usual). We can walk or go on foot. We can cycle or go on a bicycle or by bicycle. We can ride or go on horseback. We get in/into a public or private vehicle. We get on/onto a public vehicle. But we go on board a boat (=embark). We get on/onto a horse/camel/bicycle. We get out/out of public/private vehicle, a horse, a bicycle, etc. We get off a public vehicle, a horse , a bicycle, etc. 3. Prepositions of time: AT, ON, IN, BY: AT is used before an exact time, meal times, holidays, festivals, the words time, night and age: I began my work at 10 and finished it at midnight/noon/dawn. We'll see you at lunch. Will you be home at Christmas? He was in India at that time. Children start school at the age of six. ON is used before days of the week (alone or with parts of the day), a particular day of the month, anniversaries and holidays: Will you come to my place on Sunday? Will you come on Sunday afternoon? I was born on May1st, 1983. (BUT I was born in May.) There will be a concert on TV on New Year's Day. We arrived on the morning of the sixth. IN is used before the name of a month, a year when given alone, seasons and periods of time, and it is used with an article before parts of the day: It all began in September. We moved here in 2000. Days are short in winter. I can walk from my place to yours in ten minutes. I'll call you in the morning. BY, meaning not later than, is used before an exact time, day, month or year: I'll be home by six o'clock. We'll learn a lot by June. ON time = at the time arranged, not before, not after: The train started on time. IN time/IN time for + noun = not late: Passengers shoul be in time for their train. IN time=after a period of time: He will see the changes in the company in time (vremenom). 4. Prepositions, particles, etc. often misused: a) ABOUT or ON? (meaning "concerning") a book on agriculture ( formal) a book about Eskimos (informal) b) ACROSS or OVER? (meaning "from one side to another") The shop is across/over the road. OVER cannot be used for large areas: There is a railway across Siberia. ACROSS is used to describe movement through water: They swam across the Channel. BUT we say OVER a wall/fence(not: across) c) AT or AGAINST? AT is used for speed and price: at 80 kilometres an hour; at 10 dollars a bag AT also means "taking aim": to throw a stone at somebody (to hit) to throw a ball to somebody (to cath) to throw the ball against the wall (not taking aim) d) BESIDE or BESIDES? BESIDE before a noun or pronoun means "next to": Sit beside me. BESIDES with or without an object means "in addition to" or "as well as": There were five students there besides (me).
e) BETWEEN or AMONG BETWEEN shows division between two people, things or times: Divide this between the two of you. AMONG + plural noun is used when we want to refer to a number of people: Were they among the people present? f) BY or PAST? They are used after verbs of motion (go, run, walk, etc.) to mean "beyond in space or time": She went right by/past me without speaking. A few days went by/past. g) LIKE or AS? LIKE (=compare with, similar to, the same as, for example) is followed by a noun or pronoun: It was like a dream. I look like my mother. AS + object means "in the capacity of". It expresses the job, function or use of a person or a thing: He works as a waiter. We use the garage as a storage place. She went to the party dressed as a nun. When AS is used as a conjunction, it is followed by a subject and a verb: Do as I say and sit down. As you know, I'm leaving tomorrow. AS is also used in comparisons: She is not as tall as her elder sister. h) OF or OFF? A noun or pronoun object is always used after OF, and we can use OFF with or without an object to suggest separation. It's not nice of him/Peter. Keep off the grass! We got off the train. Take the lid off! Take your shoes off! i) OVER, ABOVE or ON TOP OF OVER (covering something): Keep the shawl over your shoulders. ABOVE (at a higher level): The plane flew above the clouds. We can use both OVER and ABOVE to mean "vertically at a higher level": A helicopter was above/over the ship. But if we refer to two birds on the tree, we say that one bird is above the other (we are concerned with the higher level, but not vertical). We cannot use over. We use both over and above to refer to rank: A general is over/above a captain. ON TOP OF (touching): Put the dictionary on top of the shelf. j) UNDER, UNDERNEATH, BELOW, BENEATH UNDER (covered by), UNDERNEATH (completely covered by) Put a mat under/underneath the coffee pot. BELOW is the opposite of ABOVE. It refers to position. The water was just below my knees. BENEATH can sometimes be used instead of UNDER, but it's safer to keep it for abstract meanings: He would think it beneath him to tell a lie. (unworthy of him) She married beneath her. (into a lower social class) k) FROM, SINCE, FOR, DURING: FROM is normally used with TO or TILL/UNTIL: Most people work from nine to five. SINCE is used for time and it means "from that time to the time referred to": He's been here since Friday. FOR is used of a period of time: for six years, for two months, etc. DURING is used with known periods of time, i.e. periods known by name, such as Christmas, Easter or periods which have been already defined: during the Middle Ages, during 1941, during the summer, during his childhood, during my holidays, etc. l) BEHIND, IN FRONT OF, OPPOSITE In the theatre: Tom is sitting in front of Mary and she is sitting behind him. But if they are having a meal: Tom is sitting at one side of the table and Mary at the other. OR Tom is sitting opposite Mary. OR Tom is facing Mary. BUT the sentence "He stood in front of me" could mean "He stood with his back to me." OR "He faced me."