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Apa Itu Penyelidikan

Apa Itu Penyelidikan

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Apa Itu Penyelidikan ?

Menjalankan penyelidikan bermaksud mencari maklumat lebih lanjut mengenai sesuatu perkara , menyelami lebih lanjut, menjalankan kajian menyeluruh atau menyiasat dengan lebih mendalam. Penyelidikan di definasikan sebagai penyiasatan yang penuh berhati-hati, mendalam, secara bijak dan meluas mengenai sesuatu perkara atau subjek spesifik, dengan bertujuan meningkatkan dan meluaskan ilmu pengetahuan manusia sejagat. (Manheim, 1977, mukasurat 4) Penyelidikan adalah aktiviti penyelesaian masalah yang membawa kepada pengetahuan dan penemuan baru dengan mengunakan kaedah mengenalpasti dan persoalan yang sedang digunapakai oleh sarjana-sarjana didalam bidang tersebut. (Helmstadter, 1970, mukasurat 5) Penyelidikan adalah suatu penyiasatan atau ujikaji yang bertujuan menemukan dan mengintrepretasikan fakta-fakta, mengulang semula teori yang diterima didalam penemuan baru atau amalan penggunaan teori atau undang undang dan peraturan baru atau yang digunapakai semula. (Woolf, 1975 mukasurat 984) Penyelidikan adalah persoalan berhati-hati atau pengujian bertujuan mendapatkan atau menemukan maklumat atau perhubungan dan mengembangkan dan mengesahkan pengetahuan tersedia (Rummel dan Ballaine – Research and Methodology in Business) Penyelidikan Saintifik adalah kaedah penyelidikan bersistematik dan diperhalusi dengan mengunakan peralatan dan prosedur tertentu bagi mendapatkan penyelesaian bermakna bagi sesuatu masaalah dari pengunaan kaedah yang tidak membawa makna (Rummel dan Ballaine – Research and Methodology in Business) Kerjasama adalah dipohon dari peserta kursus untuk memperbetulkan terjemahanterjemahan berikut , petikan diambil dari nota Hj Kamudin. Rasional permintaan ini adalah untuk melihat sejauh mana peserta memberi kerjasama dan membuktikan : Ho : peserta kursus metodologi adalah kumpulan yang hanya mementingkan diri sendiri ; Ha : peserta kursus metodologi adalah kumpulan yang tidak mementingkan diri sendiri; Mari kita sama-sama tunggu dan lihat beberapa ramai dari peserta yang akan membantu menterjemahkan perkara ini. Tetapi saya yakin ramai akan buat tak peduli sahaja. Ciri-Ciri Penyelidikan • • • • • • Ia bermula dengan satu persoalan didalam pemikiran seorang penyelidik Ia memerlukan satu perancangan Ia menuntut kenyataan yang jelas mengenai sesuatu masaalah Ia melibatkan permasaalahan utama dengan permasalaahan berkaitan Ia mencari tuju arah melalui hipotesis berkenaan Ia melibatkan fakta dan makna fakta Ia adalah berhubungkait Menghimpun dan Menganalisa Data (Prinsip 4A)

• • • •
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Availability (Sumber Tersedia) ia adalah agak sukar untuk mendapatkan data dari menentukan jenis data yang diperlukan Authenticity (Perakuan) penyelidik mestilah memastikan ketepatan data Adequacy (Mencukupi) merujuk kepada perolehan data samada mencukupi bagi membolehkan kesimpulan sah dinyatakan Validity (Kesahan) penyelidik hendaklah memastikan data dan maklumat adalah tepat dan sah
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Jenis-Jenis Penyelidikan Sejarah (Historical) Membina semula perkara yang selepas secara sistematik dengan mengumpul, menilai, mengesah dan sintesiskan fakta bagi menemukan rumusan yang dipertahankan. e.g. Kajian Asal-Usul Agama Islam di Malaysia bergantung kepada data sekunder yang diperhatikan atau pengamatan; mestilah mantap, bersistematik dan banyak serta bercambah; bergantung kepada data primer, dimana penulis memerhatikan kejadian yang direkodkan; kritikan asas mengambil kira nilai data dalam bentuk kritikan luaran yang mempersoalkan kesahan dokumen dan kritikan dalaman yang mempersoalkan ketepatan dan kerelevanan data; menyelidik informasi dari sumber yang banyak termasuk bahan-bahan lama dan yang tidak diterbitkan. Petikan (Descriptive) Menerangkan populasi atau kehendak minat secara sistematik dan tepat e.g. Kajian dan definisi keatas bilangan jawatan didalam Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam Kajian keatas petani-petani Malaysia berteraskan perasaan untuk menerangkan keadaan pengumpulan rumusan data yang bercirikan petikan Kajian Tindakan Membentuk kaedah baru dan jalan menyelesaikan masaalah dengan aplikasi terus dengan kehendak dunia pekerjaan menghubung terus keadaan sebenar dengan perubahan orgnisasi menyediakan rangkakerja teratur bagi menyelesaikan masaalah fleksibel dan digunapakai pengstrukturan semula dengan insuran Kajian Tinjauan (Exploratory) Mengkaji sesuatu masaalah, fenomena atau hal baru dalam aturan bertujuan mengetahui, menganalisa atau memperakui masalaah, fenomena atau hal yang dikaji. Dijalankan bagi membolehkan kajian dijalankan atau dijalankan kemudiannya Kajian tinjauan berusaha untuk mendapatkan jawapan bagi soalan-soalan berikut : samada masaalah itu benar-benar wujud, apakah jenis masaalah yang dihadapi, berapa beratkah masaalah tersebut, patutkah kita menumpukan dan memberi perhatian kepada masaalah tersebut. Bergantung kepada tahap liputan kajian Melibatkan pelbagai disiplin Bergantung kepada objektif kajian eg. Kajian pengesanan awal Kajian Hubungan (Casual Relationship) Kajian ini mencuba untuk menwujudkan hubungkait pembolehubah. Kajian ini bermaksud sesuatu perkara atau hal adalah factor penyebab atau penentu kepada hasilan perkara atau hal yang dikaji.
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Bergantung kepada penentuan pembolehubah dependent atau independent Bergantung kepada ketepatan data yang dikumpul Bergantung kepada kekuatan hubungkait e.g hubungkait diantara program latihan dengan produktiviti Kajian Eksperimen Kajian ini adalah untuk membuktikan atau memastikan sesuatu keputusan melalui ujian yang dijalankan mengikut sesuatu prosedur atau kaedah sebelum sesuatu rumusan di nyatakan Bergantung kepada kaedah atau teknik ujian dijalankan Bergantung kepada bilangan /unit ujian yang digunakan Bergantung kepada kesahan dan kepbolehpercayaan data dalaman References What Is a Research What Is A Survey A Guide To Writing A Research Paper Social Science Research Network American Educational Research Journal American Journal of Education American Journal for Vocational Education Research British Educational Research Journal British Educational Research Journal Australian Educational Research Journal Statistics Research Educational Journal Proses Penyelidikan Proses Merancang dan Merekabentuk Penyelidikan Tentukan masalaah sebenar/spesifik penyelidikan (Define) Mulakan dengan menumpukan permasaalahan sebenar (Initiate) Nyatakan alasan sebenar tujuan menjalankan penyelidikan (Justify) Nyatakan objektif menjalankan penyelidikan (Objective) Kaji semula maklumat asal (Literature review) Sejarah masaalah penyelidikan (History) Membuat jangkaan peluang kejayaan (Estimating) Konsep masaalah penyelidikan Pandangan mengenai kajian semula maklumat asal Kerangka teori masaalah penyelidikan Soalan-Soalan Penyelidikan Hipotesis yang akan dijalankan Populasi yang akan dikaji Memilih dan menentukan kaedah penyelidikan Kaedah penganalisaan yang akan dijalankan Data yang akan dikumpulkan Kaedah pengumpulan data Memilih dan menentukan alat pengumpulan data Menulis laporan Mengurus dan mentadbir penyelidikan Ciri-Ciri Proses Penyelidikan
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Masaalah dinyatakan dengan jelas Hipotesis dinyatakan dengan jelas Masaalah adalah bermakna (significant) Anggapan yang dibuat hendaklah dinyatakan dengan jelas Batasan kajian dinyatakan (Limitations) Isitilah/makna sesuatu perkara hendaklah dinyatakan (terms) Hubungkait permasaalahan dengan penyelidikan sebelumnya hendaklah jelas dam nyata Rekabentuk kajian hendaklah dinyatakan sepenuhnya Rekabentuk kajian hendaklah sesuai dengan penyelesaian permasaalahan Rekabentuk kajian hendaklah bebas dari sebarang kelemahan Populasi dan sampel kajian mestilah dinyatakan Kaedah persampelan adalah sesuai Kaedah pengumpulan data atau prosedur hendaklah dinyatakan Kaedah pengumpulan data atau prosedur hendaklah sesuai dengan penyelesaian permasaalahan Kaedah pengumpulan data atau prosedur hendaklah digunakan dengan tepat dan betul Kesahan (validity) dan kebolehpercayaan (realibility) bukti dan fakta kajian dikumpul dan di adakan Kaedah yang sesuai digunakan untuk penganalisaan data Kaedah penganalisaan data hendaklah digunakan dengan betul Keputusan analisa hendaklah dinyatakan dengan jelas dan benar Rumusan hendaklah dinyatakan dengan jelas Rumusan hendaklah disokong dengan penemuan bukti yang diperolehi Rumusan dan kesimpulan kajian hendaklah terbatas kepada populasi dari mana sampel diperolehi Laporan hendaklah ditulis dengan jelas dan teratur Laporan hendaklah di atur dan disusun secara logic Nada laporan hendaklah adil, saksama, tidak berat sebelah dan saintifik

METODOLOGI PENYELIDIKAN 2004 (Untuk Kajian Biasa)
Rumuskan Masaalah Asal

Rumuskan Hipotesis

Jalankan Penyelidikan Awal

Temuan METODOLOGI Permasaalahan Berlainan

Rumusan PENYELIDIKAN 2004 Semula Permasaalahan

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Jalankan Penyelidikan Sebenar

(Untuk Kegunaan Kaedah Saintifik/Akademik) Rumusan
Semula Hipotesis Data Asal

Analisa Pendapat (Estimation) Penyelidikan

Penemuan Hasilan Kenal Pasti Masaalah

Rumusan Ubah Hipotesis

Teori
Hipotesis Model Kajian Awal Cadangan Tolak Hipotesis

Pengumpulan Data

Analisa Data

Ujian Hipotesis

Penerimaan Hipotesis

Penemuan

Rumusan

Cadangan

Panduan Pembentukkan Hipotesis Kajian dan Mengenalpasti Permasaalahan Sebelum kita meneruskan, disertakan sedikit keterangan mengenai hipotesis.
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Menurut Fraenkel (1993) menyatakan hipotesis ialah merupakan suatu ramalan terhadap kemungkinan dapatan di dalam penyelidikan. Menurut Ahmad Mahdzan Ayob (1992) menyatakan bahawa hipotesis ialah merupakan saranan sementara tentang hubungan antara dua angkubah (atau lebih) yang didapati melalui deduksi. Menurut Maleske (1995) menyatakan bahawa hipotesis ialah merupakan peramalan terhadap apa yang akan berlaku pada masa hadapan. Ianya berbeza dengan teori yang merupakan penerangan tentatif berkaitan kenapa sesuatu tingkah laku itu berlaku. Jenis – jenis Hipotesis Di dalam membentuk hoptesis terdapat dua jenis yang utama (Mohd Majid,1998). Antaranya ialah : 1. Hipotesis Induktif. Di dalam hipotesis ini ianya dibentuk melalui proses cerapan. Di dalam hipotesis ini penyelidik akan menentukan susur galur dan kemungkinan hubungan antara pemboleh ubah yang dikaji. Hipotesis deduksi. Di dalam hipotesis ini ianya dibentuk daripada teori. Ianya akan memandu penyelidikan ke arah sistem pengetahuan yang lebih umum.

2.

Kelebihan menggunakan Hipotesis Menurut Fraenkel (1993) menyatakan kelebihan menggunakan hipotesis di dalam penyelidikan ialah : 1. 2. 3. 4. Penyelidikan boleh dilakukan dengan lebih mendalam. Dengan memulakan dengan hipotesis ianya melibatkan falsafah sains. Dengan menggunakan hipotesis ianya dapat mengesan atau tidak hubungan antara perkara yang dikaji. Mengetahui perkara yang ingin dikaji.

Ciri – Ciri hipotesis Di dalam membentuk hipotesis yang baik terdapat beberapa ciri hipotesis yang baik. Antaranya ialah : 1. Menduga hubungan antara dua atau lebih pemboleh ubah. Dengan kata lain ianya cuba untuk mengkaji sama ada kedua – dua hubungan tersebut mempunyai hubungan ataupun tidak (mampu diuji). Hipotesis tersebut seharusnya dinyatakan secara logik, jelas dan terang. Dengan kata lain ianya harus seragam dan tepat terhadap apa yang ingin diukur. Selain itu ianya berupaya untuk diuji sama ada hipotesis itu ditolak atau disahkan. Ianya cuba untuk mengenal pasti apakah hubungan antara kedua – dua pemboleh ubah tersebut. Ini bermaksud bahawa ianya cuba untuk membandingkan sama ada terdapat perkaitan atau tidak pada bab hasil dan perbincangan. Hipotesis itu juga seharusnya bersifat khusus dan bukannya bersifat umum. Jelasnya hipotesis yang dibentuk adalah khusus kepada sesuatu perkara yang ingin diukur. Ianya tidak boleh melebihi daripada apa yang seharusnya dan bersifat umum. Jelasnya ia perlu mengukur pemboleh ubah – pemboleh ubah yang dikaji sahaja. Hipotesis yang dibentuk juga seharusnya berbentuk khusus agar ianya berupaya dijadikan panduan. Jika hipotesis tersebut adalah khusus, secara tidak langsung ianya
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2. 3.

4.

5.
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6. 7. 8. 9.

akan memudahkan proses untuk memastikan terdapat hubungan / perkaitan atau perbezan antara pemboleh ubah - pemboleh ubah tersebut. Sesuatu hipotesis tidak seharusnya mempunyai pertimbangan nilai, moral atau etika iaitu saranan yang menyatakan sesuatu itu baik atau buruk (Ahmad Mahdzan Ayob, 1992). Hipotesis yang dijalankan seharusnya dinyatakan secara konsepsi sahaja dan tidak dinyatakan dengan operasional (Ahamd Mahdzan Ayob,1992). Mempunyai hubungan antara teori yang ingin dikaji (Sharma et al, 1988). Perlu spesifik terhadap perkara yang ingin dikaji.

Pembentukan Hipotesis berasaskan Tanggapan Di dalam menentukan hipotesis kajian, penyelidik berhadapan dengan realiti dua tahap yang penting bagi memastikan pengukuran kajian dapat dijalankan. Dua tahap tersebut ialah : 1. Tahap Operasional. Bagi tahap opersional penyelidik seharusnya mentakrifkan fenomena - fenomena di dalam istilah yang boleh diperhatikan dan diuji. Ianya hampir sama dengan definisi operasional. Tahap Konseptual. Bagi tahap konseptual penyelidik seharusnya mentakrifkan fenomena - fenomena dalam istilah yang asas (dasar) bersama dengan kejadian lain. Konsep sedemikian sememangnya sukar untuk diukur. Ini kerana ianya melibatkan definisi yang luas. Ianya hampir sama dengan definisi konseptual. Jelasnya penyelidik perlu menggunakan definisi operasional di dalam proses pengukuran.

2.

Pengujian Hipotesis Pengujian hipotesis ialah satu proses untuk memastikan sama ada sesuatu andaian saintifik yang dilakukan itu diterima atau sebaliknya. Tujuan utamanya ialah untuk menentukan probabiliti (kemungkinan) yang sesuatu itu adalah benar dan dapat disokong oleh fakta. Daripada sini hipotesis kajian boleh dibentuk sama ada hipotesis tersebut berarah atau tidak berarah. Hipotesis yang berarah ialah merupakan hipotesis yang menentukan arah jangkaan jawapan kajian dan sebaliknya bagi hipotesis tidak berarah. Pernyataan Hipotesis Di dalam membentuk hipotesis terdapat dua jenis hipotesis yang sering digunakan. Antaranya ialah : 1. Hipotesis Nul (kosong)

Hipotesis ini adalah merupakan hipotesis sementara yang tidak pincang (Mohd Majid, 1998). Ianya adalah merupakan hipotesis negatif atau menunjukkan tiada perbezaan / tiada terdapat persamaan / tiada perhubungan / tiada terdapat perkaitan antara kedua – dua pemboleh ubah (sama ada berarah atau tidak berarah). 2. Hipotesis Alternatif / penyelidikan

Ianya biasa dibentuk pada peringkat awal sesuatu penyelidikan (Mohd Majid, 1998). Hipotesis ini digunakan sebelum data dicerapkan. Ianya adalah merupakan versi hipotesis positif atau menunjukkan terdapat hubungan / terdapat persamaan / terdapat perbezaan / terdapat perkaitan antara kedua – dua pemboleh ubah (sama ada berarah atau tidak berarah).
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Selalunya di dalam penulisan kedua – dua hipotesis nul dan alternatif ditulis sekali. Walau bagaimanapun terdapat juga hanya hipotesis nul sahaja yang ditulis. Ianya banyak bergantung kepada penyelidik. Ini tidak bermaksud hipotesis alternatif tidak wujud ; ianya tetap wujud. Walau bagaimanapun hipotesis nul adalah amat diperlukan kerana ianya mampu untuk membuat interpretasi terhadap tujuan hipotesis dan interpretasi. Ini terutama jika ianya diterima atau ditolak. Cumanya jika hipotesis nul ditolak maka pilihannya adalah hipotesis alternatif.

Beberapa perkara perlu diambil kira dalam menjalankan pembentukan hipotesis dan mengenalpasti permasaalahan. Di antaranya adalah kita perlu tahu akan : 1. sebab dan akibat/kesan 2. objektif – pencapaian, ruang diantara perancangan dan kejadian kemungkinan 3. pencapaian dan polisi atau dasar 4. rangkakerja polisi iaitu pelaksanaannya 5. kajian awal 6. penyelidikan/kajian sedia ada 7. sejarah atau latar belakang 8. kaedah membuat penilaian 9. penjelasan 10. komen , komplen 11. trend semasa 12. perubahan pada persekitaran 13. ruangan diantara kejadian sebenar dan perancangan 14. laporan dan kejadian sebenar Pengunaan Pembolehubah bagi Pembinaan Hipotesis Pembolehubah (variables) adalah satu bahan yang berlainan bentuk. Ia adalah simbol bagi pernomboran atau nilai yang dinyatakan e.g jantina, pendapatan, kelas sosial dan sbgnya. Pembolehubah yang di waikil oleh X boleh dimasukkan sebagao sebarang nilai set e.g. dalam kes kepandaian kita memberi nilai sebagai contoh rendah hingga tinggi atau 50 hingga 100. Pembolehubah juga boleh mempunyai hanya dua nilai seperti jantina (lelaki, perempuan). Jenis-Jenis Pembolehubah 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
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Pembolehubah bebas (independent) adalah pembolehubah yang menjadi penyebab sesuatu perkara kejadian Pembolehubah bersandar (dependent) adalah pembolehubah yang dihasilkan oleh kesan pembolehubah bebas Pembolehubah aktif adalah pembolehubah yang boleh dimanupulasi seperti cara pemakanan, kepercayaan politik Pembolehubah penyumbang (attributes) adalah pembolehubah yang boleh dimanupulasi tetapi boleh di ukur seperti sikap manusia, kebolehan Pembolehubah discrete adalah pembolehubah yang boleh diukur secara unit menyeluruh seperti bilangan anak didalam keluarga Pembolehubah berterusan (continous) adalah pembolehubah yang boleh mewakili nilai diantara dua nilai yang diberi seperti tumbesaran kanak-kanak Pembolehubah terkawala dalah sama dengan pembolehubah berterusan Pembolehubah tidak terkawal adalah pembolehubah yang dihasilkanmelalui sesuatu perkara yang berpunca dari perkara yang lain Pembolehubah kualitatif adalah pembolehubah seperti keadaan rumah, keadaan kesihatan
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10 11 12 13 14

Pembolehubah discrete dichotomous adalah pembolehubah yang mempunyai hanya dua kelas atau gred seperti Ya atau Tidak, Mati atau Hidup 11 Pembolehubah Kategori Terhad adalah pembolehubah discrete yang mempunyai 3 hingga enam gred seperti taraf perkahwinan -> bujang, bertunangm berkahwin, janda, duda 12 Pembolehubah Kaetgori pelbagao adalah pembolehubah yang mempunyai enam hingga 20 gred seperti gred sekolah 13 Pembolehubah Random adalah pembolehubah yang nilai-nilainya ditentukan secara proses tidak sengaja yang tidak dikawal oleh pemerhati 14 Pembolehubah Constant hanya mempunyai satu nilai K dimana K adalah sebarang pilihan

Pengukuran dan Pengskalaan Statististiks menumpukan kepada dua jenis perkara iaitu penerangan data dan juga pengaruh pembinaan sesuatu populasi yang berdasrakan maklumat terkandung didalam sampel. Tersurat dalam perkara ini adalah kita sebenarnya boleh membuat pengukuran ciri-ciri berkenaan. Pemalar dan Pembolehubah (Constant dan Variables) Apabila pemerhatian keatas sesuatu fenomena atau sesuatu hasilan ujian berterusan didapati tidak berubah ianya dipanggil “malar” (constant). Contoh bagi malar ialah jika kita bertanya kepada semua peserta didalam kelas ini berapakah harga yang dibayar untuk memperbaharui lesen memandu kita akan dapati bahwa jawapan yang diberikan adalah sama. Apabila pemerhatian terhadap sesuatu fenomena berubah dari satu ujian ke satu ujian yang lain ianya dipanggil pembolehubah. Contohnya adalah apabila kita bertanya berapakah yang dibelanja oleh pegawai-pegwai INTAN untuk makan tengahari tentunya kita akan dapati jawapannya tidak sama kerana perbelanjaan makan tengahari adalah berbeza dari seorang pegawai dengan yang lain. Ahli sains sosial biasanya menumpukan pada pemerhatian pembolehubah. Rumusan dan ringkasan data akan lebih mudah jika pemerhatian dibuat keatas pemalar. Tiada mana-mana maklumat teori diperlukan untuk dijadikan sandaran jika nilai-nilai pemerhatian adalah constant dari satu ujian ke satu ujian yang lain. Pemerhatian terhadap pembolehubah kuantitatif hanya boleh mengambilkira nilai beberapa bilangan tertentu dan ini dipanggil pembolehubah berasingan (discrete variables). Contohnya bilangan kanak-kanak didalam sesebuah keluarga. Apabila pemerhatian dibuat keatas pembolehubah kuantitatif yang boleh mengambil kira pelbagai nilai bilangan pada peringkatperingkat tertentu ianya dipanggil sebagai pembolehubah berterusan (continous variable). Bukan semua pembolehubah yang digunakan didalam bidang sains sosial adalah kuantitatif contohnya status pekerjaan bagi seorang keseorang yang lain . Pembolehubah kualitatif adalah satu pemerhatian yang berubah jenis tetapi bukan pada tahap. Skala Pengukuran bagi Pembolehubah Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif Ahli sains sosial bersetuju bahawa ada empat skala asas bagi membuat pengukuran. Ia berubah bagi tahap ke satu tahap dalam mengumpulkan jenis bilangan pembolehubah. Skal yang dimaksudkan adalah nominal. ordinal, interval dan ratio. Skala Norminal Skala Nominal menerangkan kategori tertentu dengan nama. Kategori ini dipanggil tahap skala. Semua pembolehubah kualitatif diukur dengan skala nominal. Contohnya, kaum boleh dibahagikan kepada empat jenis iaitu Melayu, Cina , India dan lain-lain agar semua pemerhatian setiap bakal repsonden boleh diukur atau dikategorikan pada tahap peringkat tertentu.
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Bagaimana pun nombor-nombor ini tidak mewakili mana-mana nilai dan kita tidak boleh menyatakan peringkat-peringkat tetap tertentu bagi tahap-tahap tersebut Skala Ordinal Skala ordinal mengabungkan ciri-ciri skala turutan dan ciri tambahan yang diperhatikan boleh disusun atau diletakkan dalam turutan dari rendah ke tinggi. Walaupun pada skala ordinal kita boleh meletakkan tahap pemerhatian dari rendah ke tinggi, kita tidak boleh menetapkan jarak diantara satu tahap. Contohnya kita boleh mengkelasifikasikan kakitangan awam kepada empat , kumpulan A, B, C, dan D tetapi kita tidak boleh menyatakan status tahap atau jarak diantara kelas tersebut adalah sama diantara satu yang lain. Skala Interval (Skala Selang) Skala interval mengabungkan semua ciri-ciri ordinal atau nominal dan kita boleh menyatakan jarak atau had bagi sesuatu skala. Contohnya adalah seperti Ujian IQ yang sama tahap dijalankan bagi 8 buah sekolah di sesuatu kawasan , jika purata ujian skor bagi setiap sekolah seperti yang ditunjukkan dibawah , kita bukan sahaja boleh mengkelaskan purata IQ tersebut dari tinggi ke rendah tetapi kita boleh juga mengetahui jarak sebenar, yang diukur dalam unit skorbagi ujian IQ terebut diantara sekolah-sekolah terlibat. Berdasatkan purata skor IQ, skor sekolah 7 lebih mirip dengan skor sekolah 6 dari skor sekolah 8 Keputusan Purata IQ Sekolah 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 IQ 150 128 126 125 122 120 110 75

Satu ciri kurang baik skala ini adalah punca skala tidak dinyatakan yakni kita tidak tahu dimana 0 diletakkan, dengan tidak mengetahui dimana 0 diletakkan pada skaal bermakna , kita tidak boleh mengesahkan nisbah pemerhatian. Sebagai contoh kita mungkin ingin mengetahui nisbah bagi IQ Sekolah 1 IQ Sekolah 8 = 150 75 = 2

Keputusan yang diperolehi tidak membenarkan kita menyatakan purata pencapaian IQ pelajar tahun 6 pada Sekolah 1 adalah dua kali lebih baik dari pelajar Sekolah 8. Jika 0 boleh dinyatakan pada skala selang, skala tersebut menjadi skala nisbah. Skala Ratio (Nisbah) Skala nisbah mengabungkan semua ciri skala selang dan ciri tambahan yang membentuk tahao skala. Contohnya kadar kelahiran, kadar kematian, ketinggian, berat, bilangan pelajar. Kesemua keempat-empat skala berbeda keupayaan mereka dalam mengkelaskan data. Kriteria Pengukuran Tiga kriteria utama dalam membuat penilaian dalam pengukuran ialah kebolehpercayaan (reliability), kesahihan (validity) dan sensitivity. Kebolehpercayaan (reliability)
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Soerang tukang jahit mengukur kain dengan mengunakan pita pengukur, mengukur dengan tepat , panjang kain yang perlu dipotong dan jika tukang jahit tersebut membuat ukuran berulang dan sentiasa menanggar ukuran yang sama adalah dikatakan pengukuran menggunakan pita pengukur adalah boleh dipercayao. Apabila hasilan proses mengukur disiapkan , alat pengukuran dikatakan boleh dipercayai. Kebolehpercayaan digunakan bagi mengukur keputusan yang sama berbilang kali sepanjang masa. Secara amnya, kebolehpercayaan adalah tahap pengukuran dimana ianya bebas dari kesilapan dan menghasilkan keputusan yang tekal (consistent, tidak berubah) Ujian yang digunakan adalah Alpha-Cronbach. Kesahihan (Validity) Tujuan pengukuran ini adalah untuk mengukur apa yang kita ingin ukurkan. Kesahihan menyatakan pemasalaahan mengenai samada pengukuran yang dijalankan mengukur apa yang sepatutnya diukur. Kebiasanya kesahihan mengukur kandungan (content), kriteria (criterion) dan konstruk (construct) Sensitiviti Skala sensitiviti adalah konsep pengukuran yang mustahak apabila perubahan sikap atau hipotetikal konstruk dikaji. Ia merujuk kepada kebolehan instrumen mengukur dengan tepat kelainan jawapan dan rangsangan. Dimensi (D) dan Elemen (E) bagi Konsep (K) Pembelajaran Pembelajar an (K)

Kefaham an (D)

Mengingat (D)

Aplika si (D)

Jawapa n Diberi Dengan Tepat (E)

Membe ri Contoh Yang Sesuai (E)

Mengingati Sumber Selepas Seketika (E)

Menyelsaik an Masaalah , Mengunaka n konsep, faham dan mengingat (E)

Mengabungk an Sumber Bahan dengan Bahan Berkaitan (E)

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Proses Pengukuran Asingkan Peristiwa Emperik Bentuk Konsep Minat Huraikan Konsep Pembentukan dan Operasi Bentuk Skala Pengukuran Nilai Skala Mengikut Kebolehpercayaan dan Kesahihan Gunaka Skala

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Teks: Measurement and Scaling Concepts I. WHAT IS TO BE MEASURED? A. Concepts B. Operational Definitions II. RULES OF MEASUREMENT III. TYPES OF SCALES A. Nominal scale B. Ordinal scale C. Interval scale D. Ratio scale E. Mathematical and statistical analysis of scales IV. INDEX MEASURES V. THREE CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENT A. Reliability B. Validity 1. Face or content validity 2. Criterion validity 3. Construct validity 4. Convergent validity 5. Discriminant validity C. Reliability versus validity D. Sensitivity I.WHAT IS TO BE MEASURED? Any researcher has the opportunity to select a measuring system. Unfortunately, many measurement scales used in business research are not directly comparable. The first question the researcher must ask is "What is to be measured?" This question is not as simple as it first seems. A precise definition of the concept may require a description of how it will be measured, and there is frequently more than one way of measuring a concept. Further, true measurement of concepts requires a process of precisely assigning scores or numbers to the attributes of people or objects. To have precise measurement in business research requires a careful conceptual definition, an operational definition, and a system of consistent rules for assigning numbers or scales. A. Concepts: Before the measurement process can occur, the researcher has to identify and define the concepts relevant to the problem. A concept (or construct) is a generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes. Concepts such as brand loyalty, personality, and so on, present great problems in terms of definition and measurement. B. Operational definitions: Concepts must be made operational in order to be measured. An operational definition gives meaning to a concept by specifying the activities or operations necessary to measure it. It specifies what the investigator must do to measure the concept under investigation. An operational definition tells the investigator "do suchAzizi Page 2009-08-12

and-such in so-and-so manner." Exhibit 13.2 presents some operational definitions and measures of job challenge from a study on the quality of life.

II. RULES OF MEASUREMENT A rule is a guide instructing us what to do. An example of a measurement rule might be "assign the numerals 1 through 7 to individuals according to how brand loyal they are. If the individual is an extremely brand loyal individual, assign a 1. If the individual is a total brand switcher with no brand loyalty, assign a 7." Operational definitions help the researcher specify the rules for assigning numbers. III. TYPES OF SCALES A scale may be defined as any series of items that are progressively arranged according to value or magnitude into which an item can be placed according to its quantification. In other words, a scale is a continuous spectrum or series of categories. The purpose of scaling is to represent, usually quantitatively, an item's, a person's, or an event's place in the spectrum. The four types of scale in business research are as follows: A. Nominal scale: The simplest type of scale. The numbers or letters assigned to objects serve as labels for identification or classification. The first drawing in Exhibit 13.3 depicts the number 7 on a horse's color. This is merely a label for betters and horse racing enthusiasts. B. Ordinal scale: This scale arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitude. In our race horse example, we assign a 1 to a win position, a 2 to the place position and a 3 to a show position. A typical ordinal scale in business asks respondents to rate brands, companies, and so on as "excellent," "good," "fair," or "poor." We know that "excellent" is better than "good," but we don't know by how much. C. Interval scale: Exhibit 13.3 depicts a horse race in which the win horse was two lengths ahead of the place horse. Not only is the order of the finish known, but the distance between the horses is known. Interval scales not only indicate order, they measure order (or distance) in units of equal intervals. The location of the zero point is arbitrary. The classic example of an interval scale is the Fahrenheit temperature scale. If the temperature is 80 , it cannot be said that it is twice as hot as a 40 temperature. D. Ratio scale: Ratio scales have absolute rather than relative scales. For example, both money and weight are ratio scales because they possess an absolute zero and interval properties. The absolute zero represents a point on the scale where there is an absence of the given attribute. However, for most behavioral business research, interval scales are typically the best measurements. E. Mathematical and statistical analysis of scales: The type of scale utilized in business research will determine the form of the statistical analysis. Exhibit 13.4 shows the appropriate descriptive statistics for each type of scale. IV. INDEX MEASURES This chapter thus far focused on measuring a concept with a single question or a single observation. However, measuring more complex concepts may require more than one question because the concept has several attributes. An attribute is a single characteristic or fundamental feature pertaining to an object, person, situation, or issue. Multi-itemed instruments for measuring a single concept with several attributes are called index measures, or composite measures. For example, index of social class may be based on three weighted averages: residence, occupation, and residence. Asking different questions in order to measure the same concept provides a more accurate cumulative measure than does a singleAzizi Page 2009-08-12

item measure. V. THREE CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENT There are three major criteria for evaluating measurements: A. Reliability: Reliability applies to a measure when similar results are obtained over time and across situations. It is the degree to which measures are free from random error and, therefore, yield consistent results. There are two dimensions of reliability; repeatability and internal consistency. Assessing the repeatability of a measure is the first aspect of reliability. The test-retest method involves administering the same scale or measurement to the same respondents at two separate points in time to test for stability. If the measure is stable over time, the repeated test administered under similar conditions should obtain similar results. High stability correlation, or consistency between the two measures at time one and time two, indicates a high degree of reliability. There are two problems with measures of test-retest reliability; first, the first measure may sensitize the respondents to their participation in a research project and, subsequently, influence the results of the second measure. Further, if the duration of the time period between measures is long, there may be attitude change, or some other form of maturation, of the subjects which will affect the responses. The second underlying dimension of reliability concerns the homogeneity of the measure. An attempt to measure an attitude may require asking several questions or a battery of scale items. To measure the internal consistency of a multiple-item measure, scores on subsets of items within the scale must be correlated. The split-half method, when a researcher checks the results of one half of the scale items to the other half, is the most basic method for checking internal consistency. The equivalent-form method is utilized when two alternative instruments are designed to be as equivalent as possible. If there is a high correlation between the two scales, the researcher can conclude that the scales are reliable. However, if there is a low correspondence, the researcher will be unsure as to whether the measure has intrinsically low reliability, or whether the particular equivalent-form has failed to be similar to the other form. Both of the above methods assume that the concept is uni-dimensional; they measure homogeneity rather than over-time stability. B. Validity: The purpose of measurement is to measure what we intend to measure. For example, in measuring intention to buy, there could be a systematic bias to identify brands "I wish I could afford" rather than the brand usually purchased. Validity addresses the problem of whether or not a measure does indeed measure what it purports to measure; if it does not, there will be problems. Researchers attempt to provide some evidence of a measure's degree of validity. There are three basic approaches to dealing with the issue of validity: 1. Face or content validity: This refers to the subjective agreement of professionals that a scale logically appears to be accurately reflecting what it purports to measure. 2. Criterion validity: Criterion validity is an attempt by researchers to answer the question "Does my measure correlate with other measures of the same construct?" Consider the physical concept of length. If a new measure of length were developed, finding that the new measure correlated with other measures of length would provide some assurance that the measure was valid. Criterion validity may be classified as either concurrent validity (when the measure is taken at the same time as the criterion measure) or predictive validity (when the measure predicts a future event).
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3. Construct validity: Construct validity is established by the degree to which the measure confirms a network of related hypotheses generated from a theory based on the concept. In its simplest form, if the measure behaves the way it is supposed to in a pattern of intercorrelation with a variety of other variables, then there is evidence for construct validity. This is a complex method of establishing validity and of less concern to the applied researcher than to the basic researcher. 4. Convergent and discriminant validity: Convergent validity is the same as criterion validity because a new measure is expected to predict or converge with similar measures. A measure has discriminant validity when it has a low correlation with measures of dissimilar concepts. C. Reliability versus validity: The concepts of reliability and validity should be compared. Reliability, although necessary for validity, is not in itself sufficient. The differences between reliability and validity can be illustrated using the rifle target in Exhibit 13.5. D. Sensitivity: The sensitivity of a scale is important; particularly when changes in attitude, or other hypothetical constructs, are under investigation. Sensitivity refers to the ability of a instrument to accurately measure variability in stimuli or responses. The sensitivity of a scale which is based on a single question or a single item can be increased by adding additional questions or items. In other words, because index measures allow for a greater range of possible scores, they are more sensitive than single item scales.

METODOLOGI PENYELIDIKAN DAN ANALISIS STATISTIK 2004

Asas Menjalankan Kajian • • • • • •
Research forms a circle. It originates with a question in the mind of the researcher, and ends with an answer to the question. Research cannot continue if the aim of the research is not stated clearly and unambiguously. An elaborated plan of procedures that are going to be followed is a precondition. Research starts with the demarcation of the main field of the search (the problem) and the division thereof into smaller manageable subdivisions (subproblems). Direction is given to the research by means of setting applicable hypotheses which are based on suppostions. Research has to do with factual knowledge.

Cadangan Menjalankan Kajian (Research Proposal)
A research proposal usually consists of the following elements:

• • • • •
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A title A problem statement/question A subproblem statement Hypotheses statement Demarcation of the terrain of study (assumptions, limitations and delimitations)
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• • • • • • • •

Definition of terminology Indication of the importance/significance of the study Review of related literature A careful and detailed analysis of the proposed research procedures A time schedule A budget (where applicable) Researcher's qualifications A resource list

Before an attempt is made to start with a research project, a research proposal should be compiled. For the beginner researcher, this is usually the most difficult part. It is, however, the most important aspect of the research project and should be considered carefully by the researcher. This does not only require subject knowledge, but also insight into the problem that is going to be investigated, so as to give logic and structure to research envisaged. The research proposal can be envisaged as the process (step by step guidelines) to plan and to give structure to the prospective research with the fina1 aim of increasing the validity of the research. It is therefore a written submission to spell out in a logic format the nature of the design and the means and strategies that are going to be used.

1 The Title The title is usually only formulated after the research problem and subproblems have been stated in a more or less final format. The research project title should demarcate the following: • • • • • the WHO or/and WHAT is researched; the WHERE; the WHEN; the HOW; and an indication of the ENVISAGED SOLUTION or possible NEW PRODUCT.

2 Problem Statement It was previously mentioned that research forms a circle. It starts with a problem and ends with a solution to the problem. Problem statement is therefore the axis which the which the whole research revolves around, because it explains in short the aim of the research. Prospective researchers can search within their own subject field for suitable problems. What should, however, be mentioned, is that not all identified problems within a scientific field of study is suitable for research. The prospective researcher should think on what caused the need to do the research (problem identification). The question that he/she should ask him/herself is: Are there questions about this problem to which answers have not been found up to the present? The research problem should be stated in such a way that it would lead to analytical thinking on the part of the researcher with the aim of possibly concluding solutions to the stated problem. The following aspects are important when formulating a research problem:
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The research problem should always be formulated grammatically cor rect and as completely as possible. You should bear in mind the wording (expressions) you use. Avoid meaningless words. There should be no doubt in the mind of the reader what your intentions are. Demarcating the research field into manageable parts by dividing the main problem into subproblems is of the utmost importance. Main problem (Aim of the research project should be clearly stated) Subproblems (Means to reach the set goal in a manageable way contribute to solving the problem)

The following serves as an example: • •

The main and subproblems should, however, form a research unit. After you have stated the research problem, you should continue to formulate the relevant hypotheses. 3 Formulating Hypotheses From the literature it is concluded that a hypothesis is a tentative statement, that implies a proposed answer to a problem, setting accountability and responsibility of effective research procedure as high priority (De Wet, Monteith, Steyn & Venter 1981 :76). It should, however, be emphasized that in no way a hypothesis statement can claim to be the only solution to the problem. It serves only as a point of departure - the chain between the theory and the research that leads to the broadening of knowledge (Smit 1983:19). Hypotheses are thus tentative statements that should either be acknowledged or rejected by means of research. Because hypotheses give structure and direction to research, the following aspects should be kept in mind when formulating a hypothesis: • Hypotheses can only be formulated after the researcher has gained enough knowledge regarding the nature, extent and intensity of the problem. Hypotheses should figure throughout the research process in order to give structure to the research. Hypotheses are tentative statements/solutions or explanations of the formulated problem. Care should be taken not to over-simplify and generalize the formulation of hypotheses. The research problem does not have to consist of one hypothesis only. The type of problem area investigated, the extent which encircles the research field are the determinating factors on how many hypotheses will be included in the research proposal.

• •

A research hypothesis is usually stated in an explanatory form, because it indicates the expected reference of the difference between two variables. ln other words it verifies the reference that the researcher expects by means of incorporating selected research procedures. The research hypothesis may be stated in a directional or non-directional form. According to Landman (1988:86) and De Wet et al, (1981:80) a directional hypothesis statement indicates the expected direction of results, while a nondirectional one indicates no difference or no relationship. ln order to assist you in formulating a research hypothesis, you should ascertain the criteria used in formulating hypotheses. 3.1 Criteria for the formulation of a hypothesis According to Srnit (1983: 20-21 ) the following criteria are of importance in formulating hypotheses. A hypothesis should: •
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stand a test;
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• • • • • • • •

be expressed in clear language; be in accordance with the general theme of other hypotheses statements in the same field of study, and should be regarded as valid; be. co-ordinated with the theory of science; be a tentative answer to the formulated problem; be logical and simplistic; consider available research techniques (to be able to analyze and interpret the results); be specific; and be relevant to the collection of empirical phenomenons and not merely conclude value judgements.

3.2 Hypothesis formulation From the aforementioned it is clear that hypotheses can be formulated in more than one way. Smit (1983:21) demonstrates the latter by using the words ...if and ... then when formulating a hypothesis. The following serves as an example: If first-year students pass through an orientation programme then they will be better equipped for study success. You schould take note that the results after the word then, are not necessarily true, but could be, in cases where the wording after the word if is true. 3.3 Hypothesis testing Landman (1988:12) explains the term hypothesis testing as follows: The purpose of testing a hypothesis is to determine the probability that it is supported by facts. For the testing of a hypothesis, knowledge of applicable variables of the researcher is an important assumption. An explanation of the term literature survey with regard to 4 Demarcation of the Terrain of Study In this section a precise indication is given of the scope of the research with indication of the assumptions made, limitations and delimitations of the research before the research is started. 5 Defining of Terminology/Concepts An indication is given of how the researcher interpreted and is going to use terminology/ concepts in the research report. This is very important, because some concepts/terms are often used in different meanings by different authors. 6 Indication of the Importance/Significance of the Research The researcher should indicate and defend why it is necessary to undertake the research. The benefits that will result from the research and to whom it will be beneficial should be indicated. 7 Literature Survey To conduct research regarding a topic, by implication means that the researcher has obtained sound knowledge with regard to the research topic. It is therefore imperative that the researcher, at the time of the submission of the research proposal, clearly indicates what theoretical knowledge he possesses about the prospective research. A literature search therefore will entail the literature the prospective researcher has already consulted. An overview of the literature anticipates the background knowledge of the researcher and a possible classification of the content for the purpose of stating the research problem. This should also reveal the importance of the contemplated research. A literature search therefore simplifies the formulation of hypotheses for the researcher. According to De Wet et al. (1981; 40 - 41 ) the aim of a literature study is to:

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• • • •

give all-round perspectives on the latest research findings regarding the topic; indicate the best method, scale of measurements and statistics that can be used; interpret the research findings in a better way; and determine the relevancy of the prospective research.

It should further noted that the research design must be accompanied by a preliminary list of references consulted by the researcher during the preparation of the research proposal. The list should include the mast recent publications on the research topic. It must however be emphasized that this reference list by no means is sufficient to complete the research project - it must be augmented during further literature searches as the research process continues. 8 Analysis of the Proposed Research Procedures The researcher supply here a careful and detailed analysis of the proposed research procedures he/she intends to follow. 9 Time Schedule A detailed proposed time schedule is supplied. 10 Budget (where applicable) A detailed indication of the funds needed to undertake the research. This is necessary where the researcher intends to apply for funding from the FRD, etc. 11 Researchers Qualifications A list of all the qualification the researcher obtained up to date. 12 Resource List The list of resources used will only include resources referred to in the research proposal. Use the APA style. An information pamphlet is available from the library. 13 Technical Editing of the Research Proposal Although the research proposal is considered the preliminary planning of a research problem, it should comply with the following requirements: • • • • • • It should preferably be typed in double spacing on size A4 paper. A margain of 4cm is required on the left side of the paper. A front page. The name and surname of the researcher. Opening words to the effect of: Research proposal prepared for a project with the following title: ...................

The following should also accompany the research proposal:

Apart of the aforementioned format, Leedy (1987:107-108) recommends the following guidelines to assist you in structuring your presentation logically: • • • • •
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The programme and its milieu State the problem. State the subproblems. State the hypotheses. Demarcate the terrain.
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• • •

Define the terminology. Indicate the importance of the study. Review related literature • • • Relevant data. Research methodology. The proposed handling of each subproblem. • • • • Data required. Where will you find the data. How will you obtain the data. How will you calculate/interpret the data.

The calculation and interpretation of data:

Subproblem 1

Subproblem 2 .......................... Framework for the prospective study Landman (1988: 88) holds the view that preparing a research proposal is an important task, especially when the researcher wishes to obtain funds for the research project. He emphasizes that the research proposal format should include the following: • • • • • • • • The statement of the problem. Hypothesis formulation. The significance of the problem. Definitions, assumptions, limitations and delimitations. Review of related literature. A careful and detailed analysis of proposed research procedures. A time schedule. Budget

What should however be emphasized is the fact that the research proposal forms part of the research project, and is not merely a means to acquire funding. If you want to obtain funds for your research project, a definite recipe does not exist for preparing a successful application. The basic guidelines given by Leedy (1985) and Landman (1988) should suffice. A well prepared research proposal is characterized by an orderly logical outline. It should be emphasized that various disciplines and different research types, requires different approaches and methods.

Permasalaahan Kajian (Research Problem )
Research forms a cycle. It starts with a problem and ends with a solution to the problem. The problem statement is therefore the axis which the whole research revolves around, beacause it explains in short the aim of the research. 1 WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROBLEM?

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A research problem is the situation that causes the researcher to feel apprehensive, confused and ill at ease. It is the demarcation of a problem area within a certain context involving the WHO or WHAT, the WHERE, the WHEN and the WHY of the problem situation. There are many problem situations that may give rise to reseach. Three sources usually contribute to problem identification. Own experience or the experience of others may be a source of problem supply. A second source could be scientific literature. You may read about certain findings and notice that a certain field was not covered. This could lead to a research problem. Theories could be a third source. Shortcomings in theories could be researched. Research can thus be aimed at clarifying or substantiating an existing theory, at clarifying contradictory findings, at correcting a faulty methodology, at correcting the inadequate or unsuitable use of statistical techniques, at reconciling conflicting opinions, or at solving existing practical problems. 2 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM The prospective researcher should think on what caused the need to do the research (problem identification). The question that he/she should ask is: Are there questions about this problem to which answers have not been found up to the present? Research originates from a need that arises. A clear distinction between the PROBLEM and the PURPOSE should be made. The problem is the aspect the researcher worries about, think about, wants to find a solution for. The purpose is to solve the problem, ie find answers to the question(s). If there is no clear problem formulation, the purpose and methods are meaningless. Keep the following in mind:

• • • • • •

Outline the general context of the problem area. Highlight key theories, concepts and ideas current in this area. What appear to be some of the underlying assumptions of this area? Why are these issues identified important? What needs to be solved? Read round the area (subject) to get to know the background and to identify unanswered questions or controversies, and/or to identify the the most significant issues for further exploration.

The research problem should be stated in such a way that it would lead to analytical thinking on the part of the researcher with the aim of possible concluding solutions to the stated problem. Research problems can be stated in the form of either questions or statements.

The research problem should always be formulated grammatically correct and as completely as possible. You should bear in mind the wording (expressions) you use. Avoid meaningless words. There should be no doubt in the mind of the reader what your intentions are. Demarcating the research field into manageable parts by dividing the main problem into subproblems is of the utmost importance.


3

SUBPROBLEM(S)

Subproblems are problems related to the main problem identified. Subproblems flow from the main problem and make up the main problem. It is the means to reach the set goal in a manageable way and contribute to solving the problem. 4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The statement of the problem involves the demarcation and formulation of the problem, ie the WHO/WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WHY. It usually includes the statement of the hypothesis.
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5 CHECKLIST FOR TESTING THE FEASIBILITY OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Is the problem of current interest? Will the research results have social, educational or scientific value? Will it be possible to apply the results in practice? Does the research contribute to the science of education? Will the research opt new problems and lead to further research? Is the research problem important? Will you be proud of the result? Is there enough scope left within the area of reseach (field of research)? Can you find an answer to the problem through research? Will you be able to handle the research problem? Will it be pratically possible to undertake the research? Will it be possible for another researcher to repeat the research? Is the research free of any ethical problems and limitations? Will it have any value? Do you have the necessary knowledge and skills to do the research? Are you qualified to undertake the research? Is the problem important to you and are you motivated to undertake the research? Is the research viable in your situation? Do you have enough time and energy to complete the project? Do you have the necessary funds for the research? Will you be able to complete the project within the time available? Do you have access to the administrative, statistic and computer facilities the research necessitates? TOTAL:

Tajuk Kajian (Research Topic)
The research topic or title should be specific and clear. The topic should indicate the WHO/WHAT, WHEN, WHY, WHERE and HOW clearly. It is the focus of your research. The following factors should guide the selection of a topic/title:

• • • • • • • • •

the feasibility of the research the uniqueness of the research the scope of the research the topicality of the research the polivalence of the research the profitability of the research the coverage of the researchers daily job the theoretical value of the research the practical value of the research YES Does the title include NO

CHECKLIST FOR ASSESSING THE TITLE FORMULATION:

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7

the WHO/WHAT? the WHEN? the WHY? the HOW? Does the title include the problem stated? Does the title include the solution to the problem? Is the tile clear and to the point? TOTAL:

Kaedah Kajian (Research Method)
The research method you will follow, is directly connected to your problem statement and goal of research. Because the research goal and problem may vary different methods of research can be utilized. Research is a purposeful, precise and systematic search for new knowledge, skills, attitudes and values, or for the re-interpretation of existing knowledge, skills, attitudes and values.

The various kinds of human science research can be subdivided according to three criteria: 1 The measure of generality and applicability:

• • • •
2

basic research applied research in-service research action research

The level of ordering:

• • •
3

descriptive research prophetic research diagnostic research

The measure of control by researchers:

• • • • • • •
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library research field research laboratory research

METHODS OF RESEARCH: Exploratory research Experimental research Ex post facto research Correlation research
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• • • • • • • • • • •
1

Descriptive research Testing research Case studies Sociometric research Instrumental-nomological research Interpretative-theoretical research

OTHER NAMES GIVEN TO RESEARCH: Micro-study Macro-study Longitudinal (diachronic) study Cross-sectional (synchronic) study Pilot study

AN OVERVIEW OF SOME RESEARCH METHODS: Action research Action research is regarded as research that is normally carried out by practitioners (persons that stand in the field of work). It is a method par excel lance for instructors/trainers. It enables the researcher to investigate a specific problem that exists in practice. According to Landman (1988: 51) this requires that the researcher should be involved in the actions that take place. A further refinement of this type of research is that the results obtained from the research should be relevant. to the practice. In other words it should be applicable immediately. This means that the, researcher, as expert, and the person standing in the practice, jointly decide on the formulation of research procedures, allowing the problem to be solved (Jacobs et al. 1992: 431). Action research is characterized according to (Jacobs et al. 1992: 45) by the following four features: Problem-aimed research focuses on a special situation in practice. Seen in research context, action research is aimed at a specific problem recognizable in practice, and of which the outcome problem solving) is immediately applicable in practice. - Collective participation. A second characteristic is that all participants (for instance the researchers and persons standing in the practice) form an integral part of action research with the exclusive aim to assist in solving the identified problem. - Type of empirical research. Thirdly, action research is characterized as a means to change the practice while the research is going on. Outcome of research can not be generalized. Lastly, action research is characterized by the fact that problem solving, seen as renewed corrective actions, can not be generalized, because it should comply with the criteria set for scientific character. 2 Historical research Historical research, as the term implies, is research based on describing the past. This type of research includes for instance investigations like the recording , analysis and interpretation of events in the past with the purpose of discovering generalizations and deductions that can be useful in understanding the past, the present and to a limited extent, can anticipate the future (Landman 1988: 65). Historians should consequently aspire to getting to the original events that took place and therefore the researcher is dependent on the availability of documentary sources.

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According to Klopper (1990: 62) collected data for historical research should pass the following test before it can be applied for research purposes namely: • • external evidence or criteria that will account for the authenticity of the information should be included; internal evidence or criteria should be included that will explain the meaning of the data.

Although the chronological sequence of events should be precisely acknowledged , researchers should bear in mind the fact that mere compilation of chronological events is not considered research in itself. An investigation can only be regarded as scientific research when the researcher interprets the events that took place by pointing out their relationship to the problem investigated, and explaining their meaning. On account of the voluminous data that historians collect, it is extremely important that attention should be given to a specific plan for the obtaining and organizing of information as well as the retrieval thereof, before this type of research is attempted. Lastly, it should be mentioned that historical research also encompasses research concerning the origin, development and influence of ideas of the past. As examples, aspects like the origin, development and influence of communism, democracy, capitalism etc can be mentioned. Should you like to do this type of research you can consult the recommended literature listed in the bibliography. 3 Descriptive research The term descriptive is self-explanatory and terminology synonymous to this type of research is: describe, write on, depict. The aim of descriptive research is to verify formulated hypotheses that refer to the present situation in order to elucidate it. Descriptive research is thus a type of research that is primarily concerned with describing the nature or conditions and degree in detail of the present situation (Landman 1988: 59). The emphasis is on describe rather than on judge or interpret. According to Klopper (1990: 64) researchers who use this method for their research usually aim at: • • demarcating the population (representative of the universum) by means of perceiving accurately research parameters; and recording in the form of a written report of that which has been perceived.

The aim of the latter is, that when the total record has been compiled, revision of the documents can occur so that the perceptions derived at can be thoroughly investigated . Because the total population (universum) during a specific investigation can not be contemplated as a whole, researchers make use of the demarcation of the population or of the selection of a representative test sample. Test sampling therefore forms an integral part of descriptive research. In descriptive research the following steps should be included: • • • • • • •
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Problem selection and problem formulation. The research problem being tested should be explicitly formulated in the form of a question. Literature search. Intensive literature search regarding the formulated problem enables the researcher to divide the problem into smaller units. Problem reduction. Hypothesis formulation. Test sampling. The researcher should determine the size of the test sample. Information retrieval. The application of appropriate information retrieval techniques to comply with the criteria set for authenticity and competency, is relevant. General planning. Any research requires sound planning.
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Report writing. The report entails the reproduction of factual information, the interpretation of data, conclusions derived from the research and recommendations.

You should make sure that you understand the meaning of the terminology used. Consult the recommended sources for detailed explanations. However, further reference must be made to aspects related to test sampling.

Test sampling

As mentioned previously, when descriptive research is exposed, demarcation of the population become unavoidable. Test sampling therefor forms an integra! part of this type of research. Two important questions arise frequently when test sampling is anticipated by researchers, namely: How big should the test sample be? - What is the probability of mistakes occurring in the use of test sampling (instead of the whole population)? Special care should be taken with the selection of test samples. The results obtained from a survey can never be more authentic than the standard of the population or the representatives of the test sample, according to Klopper (1990: 64). The size of the test sample can also be specified by means of statistics. It is important for the researcher to bear in mind that it is desirable that test sampling be made as large as possible. The most important criterium that serves as a guideline here, is the extent to which the test sample corresponds with the qualities and characteristics of the general population being investigated. The next three factors should be taken into consideration before a decision is made with regard to the size of the test sample: What is the grade of accuracy expected between the test sample and the general population? - What is the variability of the population? (This, in general terms, is expressed as the standard deviation.) What methods should be used in test sampling?

Bias saying

When you attempt descriptive research, you should take care that the test sample reflects the actual population it represents. The following example holds validity for the latter: you cannot make a statement regarding all first-year students if you do not include all first-year students in your research. If you do make such a statement, you have to select enrolled first-year students at all the tertiary institutions or a balanced proportional manner, and include the latter when you select your test sample for your research. Landman ( 1988: 91) points out that, when a test sample does not truly represent the population (universum) from which it is drawn, the test sample is considered a bias sample. It then becomes virtually impossible to make an accurate statement or to predict about the population. 4 Experimental research This type of research is known in literature by a variety of names. Synonyms are, for instance: the cause and consequence method, before and after design, control group design and the laboratory method. Landman (1988: 82) summarises experiential research when he states that it is research designed to study cause and consequence. A clear distinction between the terms experiment and experimental research should be evident. In the former there is normally no question about the interpretation of data in the discovery of new meaning. Experimental research, however, has control as fundamental characteristic. The selection of control groups, based on
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proportional selection, forms the basis of this type of research. Experimental research is basically the method that can be applied in a research laboratory. The basic structure of this type of research is elementary: two situations (cause and consequence) are assessed in order to make a comparison. Following this, attempts should be made to treat the one situation (cause) from the outside (external variable) to affect change, and then to reevaluate the two situations. The perceivable changes that occurred can then be presumed as caused by external variables.

Control group

Because: control is a fundamental characteristic of this type of research, control groups are a prerequisite. Control groups are selected from a group of selected persons whose experience corresponds with that of the experimental group. The only difference is that they do not receive the same treatment (Landman 1988: 58).

Variable

In order to do experimental! research, it is necessary to distinguish clearly between the terms dependent and independent variables. In experimental research it is a prerequisite that the researcher should be able to manipulate the variable and then to assess what the influence of the manipulation on the variable was. A variable is any characteristic (of man or his environment) that can take on different values. Objects are usually not considered as variables - but their characteristics are. As example the following can be considered: a transparency is not a variable (it is an object). The characteristics of the transparency are variables, for example the colour, design etc. In other words, a transparency as an object can take on different values.

Independent variable

According to Landman (1988: 98) the independent variable is the circumstances or characteristics which the researcher can manipulate in his effort to determine what their connection with the observed phenomenon is. This means that the researcher has direct control over the variable. As example of an independent variable, is study methods.

Dependent variable

The dependent variable, on the other hand, is the circumstances or characteristics that change, disappear or appear when the researcher implements the independent variable. For example, learning content that should be mastered (student performance) is the dependent variable, while the manipulation of study methods by means of different teaching methods, is the independent variable.

Internal and external validity

The importance of control in conducting experimental research has been pointed out earlier. A further pre-requisite for this type of research is validity. Validity is a term used in research methodology that indicates the extent to which a test complies with the aim it was designed for. (You should ensure that you understand the terminology used.) Internal validity Internal validity means that the perceived difference in the independent variable (characteristics that change) is a direct result of the manipulation of the obtained research results, and therefore possible to conclude. In experimental design, emphasis is placed on the way in which reference between independent and dependent variables should not be confused by the presence of uncontrolled variables (Landman 1988: 97). External validity External validity means that the results of the experimental research should be applied to a similar situation outside the
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experimental design. The results of the experimental research can then be confirmed in similar situations. (The findings are then considered general.) 5 Ex post facto-research Experimental research, where the researcher manipulates the independent variable, whilst the dependable variable are controlled with the aim of establishing the effect of the independent variable on the dependable variable, is also applicable. The term ex post facto according to Landman (1988: 62) is used to refer to an experiment in which the researcher, rather than creating the treatment, examines the effect of a naturally occurring treatment after it has occurred. In other words it is a study that attempts to discover the pre-existing causal conditions between groups. It should, however, be pointed out that the most serious danger of ex post facto-research is the conclusion that because two factors go together, one is the cause and the other is the effect. Jacobs et al. (1992: 81) refers to the following procedures when conducting ex post factoresearch: The. first step should be to state the problem. Following this is the determination of the group to be investigated. Two groups of the population that differ with regard to the variable, should be selected in a proportional manner for the test sample. Groups, according to variables, are set equal by means of paring off and statistical techniques of identified independent and dependent variables. - Data is collected. Techniques like questionnaires, interviews, literature search etc:. are used to determine the differences. - Next follows the interpretation of the research results. The hypothesis is either confirmed or rejected. Lastly it should be mentioned that this type of research has shortcomings, and that only partial control is possible.

Hipotesis (Hypothesis)
1 WHAT IS AN HYPOTHESIS? An hypothesis is a preliminary or tentative explanation or postulate by the researcher of what the researcher considers the outcome of an investigation will be. It is an informed/educated guess. It indicates the expectations of the researcher regarding certain variables. It is the most specific way in which an answer to a problem can be stated. Mouton's (1990: Chapter 6) and Guy's (1987: 116) presentation of the hypothesis: Mouton: Statement postulating a possible relationship between two or more phenomena or variables. Guy: A statement describing a phenomenon or which specifies a relationship between two or more phenomena. 2 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN HYPOTHESIS AND A PROBLEM Both an hypothesis and a problem contribute to the body of knowledge which supports or refutes an existing theory. An hypothesis differs from a problem. A problem is formulated in the form of a question; it serves as the basis or origin from which an hypothesis is derived. An hypothesis is a suggested solution to a problem. A problem (question) cannot be directly tested, whereas an hypothesis can be tested and verified.
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3

WHEN IS AN HYPOTHESIS FORMULATED?

An hypothesis is formulated after the problem has been stated and the literature study has been concluded. It is formulated when the researcher is totally aware of the theoretical and empirical background to the problem. 4 THE PURPOSE AND FUNCTION OF AN HYPOTHESIS

• • • •
5

It offers explanations for the relationships between those variables that can be empirically tested. It furnishes proof that the researcher has suffucient background knowledge to enable him/her to make suggestions in order to extend existing knowledge. It gives direction to an investigation. It structures the next phase in the investigation and therefore furnishes continuity to the examination of the problem. It should have elucidating power. It should strive to furnish an acceptable explanation of the phenomenon. It must be verifiable. It must be formulated in simple, understandable terms. It should corresponds with existing knowledge.

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN HYPOTHESIS

• • • • •
6

TYPES OF HYPOTHESES

Hypotheses can be classified in terms of their derivation (inductive and deductive hypotheses) and in terms of their formulation (research - directional and non-directional and statistical or null hypotheses).

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

It is a relationship between variables and indicates the nature of the relationship. If A is valid, B follows ... If you hit a child with a cain, he/she will cry. Schools in which pupil-teacher relations are open/friendly will have less unrest than comparable schools where pupil-teacher relations are closed/tense.

NULL HYPOTHESIS

"You are wrong, there is no relation; disprove me if you can" (Kerlinger, 1973) There is no difference between pupil-teacher relations in unrest schools and pupil-teacher relations in comparable schools which experience no unrest. NB

• • • •
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An important requirement for hypotheses is TESTABILITY. A condition for testability is CLEAR nad UNAMBIGUOUS CONCEPTS. A research hypothesis (inempirical research) has to do with relationships between empirical phenomena. The concepts in a research hypothesis must posess single references (indicators) or denotations to identifiable phenomena in reality. A central theoretical thesis refers to hypotheses in more theoretical studies.
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Pengumpulan Data ( Data Collection)
There are four ways of gathering data:

• • • • •
1

Literature study Observation Questionnaires Check lists Measurement

LITERATURE STUDY

A thorough literature study is an indispensable component of all research. It familiarises the researcher with both research which has already been done in his field as well as with current research. A literature study makes the researcher aware of what the current train of thought is, as well as the focus of existing and acceptable thought regarding a specific topic. lt also helps him demarcate the boundaries of his research theme. When doing this, he finds ideas for his own research theme and for possibly processing his data. The researcher also gains personally by his literature review. It fosters a certain attitude and leads to the attainment of certain skills: * It develops the ability to recognize and select the significant and the relevant, without getting lost in trivialities. * * It helps in gauging the quality of research material and in planning his research accordingly. It develops a critical attitude regarding others' research as well as his own efforts.

* It trains him to be an astute observer especially in respect of certain obstacles, making it possible for him to avoid them. * Knowledge of relevant literature helps the researcher to define the boundaries of his field. 1.2 The role of a literature study in research The literature study helps the researcher to: * select a research problem or theme. Relevant literature enables the researcher to discover where inconsistencies, wrong designs and incorrect statistical conclusions occur. Often research reports are concluded with recommendations regarding research which still needs to done. The researcher's thinking can be shaped in this way, which in turn will enable him to: * * define the boundaries of his field; establish the size and extent of his research;

* consider the procedures and the instruments which he will use in his research. After having considered other researchers' procedures and instruments, the researcher becomes more sophisticated in the choice of his own; * see his own problem in better perspective through a better understanding of the underlying theory. This enables him to establish whether his research will make a contribution and what the value of his contribution would be; * avoid unnecessary (non-purposeful) repetition of research already undertaken. A researcher often develops a brilliant insight into how to tackle a problem, only to discover, through a study of relevant literature, that someone else has already done so; * better evaluate the significance of his own findings. This applies especially in respect of which techniques were used, and which contributions were made to gaining a better understanding of the problem, etc;
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*

formulate his hypotheses with sharper insight;

* carry out his research more purposefully. In time he learns to eliminate the unnecessary. He learns from the successes and failures of others. 1.3 Types of literature In studying works dealing with earlier (and acceptable) research, two types of sources, especially, come to the fore: * Comprehension literature, ie books and articles by experts in which they state their opinions, experiences, theories and ideas on concepts and constructs within a specific problem area, as well as their opinions on what is good or bad, desirable or undesirable, valuable or worthless regarding insight into specific concepts or constructs. For the young researcher it is very useful because it helps him to understand the validity of correctness of theories (outdated, existing or newly formed) better. It also shows him where there are shortcomings in a specific field (thus requiring research). It also shows its strengths which he may wish to pursue. * Research literature: This includes reporting in respect of research already undertaken in the field (and is currently drawing attention) and gives the researcher a good indication of successes and problems in respect of research procedures, design, hypotheses, techniques and instruments. * The results of studying these two types of literature are thus a personal frame of reference, i.e. an insight into the body of basic knowledge, possible differences, underlying theories, et cetera. * It furthermore leads to a greater awareness of those matters within the field which have already sufficiently been demonstrated and proved, as well as those matters still requiring more in-depth research. 1.4 Primary and secondary sources Primary sources of a specific type of information are the original works, books, magazine articles, films, sound recordings, et cetera, which reflect the information firsthand. Secondary sources include commentaries, explanations, elucidations et cetera, which other writers have done on the primary sources. It is desirable (especially in historical research) that, where possible, the primary source should preferably be consulted. T here are, however, problems with consulting primary sources. * The source is out of print, has been destroyed or is unobtainable. Then secondary sources have to be consulted. * The primary source is in a foreign language, rendering it inaccessible for the researcher. Translations have to be used with the expressed knowledge that such translations are possibly inaccurate or even incorrect. Sometimes it helps to read an expert's comment on the translation. * The primary source is so complicated and advanced that the researcher cannot understand it. It then helps to read explanations in technical dictionaries, encyclopaedias or elementary handbooks. This, does not mean, however, that secondary sources are of no value whatsoever. The researcher could possibly encounter many useful references to primary sources in his study of secondary sources.

1.5 Systems of documentation Consulting specifically focused documentation systems can be very useful. These are systematically arranged sources of reference or literature dealing with a specific subject which have appeared. They have many additional references to related themes. The following are some examples of the most useful indices and/or sources of information:

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* The Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC) which has a "Current Index to Journals in Education" (CIJE) series. Every English article of any significance dealing with Education which has been written since 1969, has been included in this series and has been indexed and crossreferenced according to key words. * The system of documentation of the "Deutsches Jugendinstitut" in Munich (Germany): All German and most English literature is read, briefly summarised, printed on cards and bound in a book. The cards can be torn out and filed. An example. * * * The "Encyclopaedia of Educational Research" (very similar to the ERIC); The "Review of Educational Research" (very similar to the ERIC); The "British Education Index" (very similar to the ERIC);

* The Institute of Contemporary History (INCH) at the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein's documentation systems. At this Institute all South African magazines and newspapers are read, cuttings are taken and documented according to key concepts. RAU is linked to the system by telephone. If one dials a relevant number, the cutting appears on a television screen. Photostats (very indistinct) are available at 20 cents per page. * The system of documentation and computer printout service of the HSRC. This contains printouts of research which has been done in South Africa in specific subjects. 1.6 Making notes The following general guidelines should be useful when making notes: 1.6.1 Start with the most recent works and work back to earlier (timeless) works: your chances of adhering to outdated or faulty theories are then much smaller. Earlier misunderstandings and obscurities can be eliminated at this point. The recent works should lead you to older works by referring to them - not vice versa. 1.6.2 You should preferably start with the works of recognized writers dealing with the specific theme. For example, research on human thinking which does not refer to writers such as Ausubel, Fenerstein, Bruner or Piaget is incomplete. Then too, it would be unforgivable not to read the original works of such writers. 1.6.3 Further, it is worthwhile starting with articles, treatises and dissertations. This kind of literature is usually very well-documented and will quickly put you on the track of other relevant sources. 1.6.4 Before reading a source in its entirely, you should read the summary, precis or abstract of the book or article in order to ascertain whether or not it is at all relevant. This will save much time and will spare you much frustration. 1.6.5 Before making notes, you should skim through the whole chapter, paragraph or section in order to ascertain whether, and if so how, the section links up with your own problem. This will help to determine the kind of notes to be made. Much valuable time can be saved in this way. 1.6.6 Work on cards and not on scraps of paper. Write your notes directly on to record cards, and save yourself the double trouble of rewriting. (You will also eliminate the possibility of unnecessary errors made while rewriting your notes from scraps of paper on the cards). Cards (as a result of their stiffness and uniform size) are easier to handle and file than scraps of paper or the backs of envelopes. 1.6.7 For this reason, it is a sound habit always to keep a few record cards on hand (in the pocket of your jacket, in your handbag) so that ideas can be jotted down as soon as they occur. Such ideas may occur in the bus, while you are waiting to see someone, or while listening to a lecture or presentation. 1.6.8 You should select a comfortably sized card. I personally fine 150 cm x 100 cm (6" x 4") the most useful. It is small enough to fit into a jacket pocket and yet big enough to allow for plenty of information.
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1.6.9 In order to facilitate filing and sorting, and to allow for flexibility, a single piece of information (thought, opinion) should be entered on a single card. You should preferably only write on one side of the card. In cases where more than one card is used to enter a specific argument (or episode), cards which belong together can be kept together by means of elastic bands. 1.6.10 The source and a relevant page number should be clearly entered on each card. This will later eliminate many frustrations. 1.6.11 Each card should have a suitable heading/key word. This facilitates filing and retrieving information. Apart from this, it already serves to structure the chapters of the research report. 1.6.12 You should try, as far as possible, to summarise the writer's thoughts in your own words. This eliminates the danger of plagiarism, and will force you to try to understand the information. You should only rewrite verbatim those thoughts which you cannot paraphrase better. In such cases you should ensure that you rewrite the quotation absolutely correctly. Each punctuation mark, each capital, must be correct. Be careful to spell correctly. 1.6.13 You should clearly distinguish on your cards if you have written (1) a direct quotation; (2) a paraphrased summary or your own comment. 1.6.14 Very long quotations should rather be photostatted and pasted on to the cards - this will save time and eliminate unnecessary rewriting errors. 1.6.15 Neat handwriting is not a requirement. Retyping notes, or first taking them down in shorthand and later rewriting them neatly, is an unnecessary waste of time. 1.6.16 useful. You should plan ahead and acquire a sturdy filing system. Initially, shoe boxes are very

1.6.17 A final remark - each source should be dealt with as accurately as if you will not handle it again. 1.7 What should be included in the literature survey (bibliography)? * The sources which should be included depend on the final format of the research report. For example, fewer sources will be mentioned in an article than will be done in a thesis or dissertation. * There are, however, timeless sources (e.g. Beknopte Theoretische Paedagoaogiek by Langeveld which was written in the Forties). Sometimes too, the researcher wishes to indicate an historical image of the rise of a direction of thought, and then he needs to reach far back. 2 OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE Observation means that a researcher studies or observes a specific situation or type of situation. 2.1 There are 5 steps which together make up the observation technique (of the classic scientific method): 2.1.1 2.1.2 The natural phenomenon is observed Conclusions are drawn

2.1.3 Hypothesis and premises are formulated or predictions are made. All three these are based on observations. 2.1.4 Subsequently a procedure is designed which may be used to test the hypotheses. 2.1.5 Further steps follow concurrently, as well as simultaneously: the further extending, refining and restructuring of existing/new theories. This method developed rapidly once observation was supplemented by: * * the classification, organization and structuring of the observed information and combining observation and an evaluation technique.

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This development was made possible by especially the development and use of aids such as the microscope and the television camera etc. Further, there was a gradual change from the observation of natural phenomena to the studying of simulated conditions in laboratories. 2.2 The technique of observation is especially suitable when research is comparative, evaluative, experimental or when it takes the form of a survey. However, it is a very expensive form of research and is mainly use for "deep" or "below the surface" investigations. In the case of surface research, the technique of questioning is preferable. However a technique of observation can be used here too.

3 QUESTIONING The four most important data-gathering techniques in which questioning plays a role are: interviews questionnaires check lists critical incidents.

3.1 Interviews In the interview, the researcher talks to the respondent and obtains information directly. 3.1.1 Advantages: a) Flexible. In-depth. b) Situation can be adapted. c) Reasons for answers can be sought. d) Clues can be followed up. e) Yields a higher percentage of answering. 3.1.2 Disadvantages: a) Time. b) Costs. c) Difficult to analyse responses. d) Subjectivity. 3.2 Types of questions Structured or unstructured.

3.3 The questionnaire The questionnaire is usually more superficial than the interview. It is usually used in group work. The questionnaire is especially useful to obtain information about reasonably big groups. 3.3.1 Advantages: a) Relatively low costs. b) Can involve large groups. c) Usually information that can be easily interpreted.
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d) Each question is answered. 3.3.2 Disadvantages: a) Inflexible. b) Information not in great depth. c) Individuals may ignore the questionnaire. 3.3.3 Types of questions (Interviews and questionnaires) Closed questions Only indicated responses are allowed. Open-ended questions Any response is allowed. 4 THE CHECK LIST If a researcher has ensured that he has made provision for all the possible alternatives to each question, and that the respondent need merely tick the answer, the questionnaire is called a check list. A check list is structured and the questions are closed. 4.1 Advantages: a) Convenient to answer. b) The statistical processing of data is uniform. 4.2 Disadvantages: The respondent may be irritated by not being able to find his specific chosen answer among the given alternatives. 4.3 Critical incident This is used if the researcher wishes to gauge in great depth what the respondent's opinion is or how he feels about a matter. A situation (incident) is presented to the respondent, who must then voice his opinion. 5 THE TECHNIQUE OF MEASURING Often the information which the researcher hopes to obtain is so difficult to obtain that he/she prefers to use existing media to "measure" (or, stated in anthropological-personological terms: to evaluate the respondent's position with regard to some or other construct). 5.1 One of the most common forms of measuring is physical measuring, e.g. the mass, length of a child; his endurance, as reflected by the number of push-ups which he can do in one stretch; his nutritional condition as reflected by the thickness of the skin when tested at the triceps. 5.2 Then there are numerous objective tests used in educational research. Here one distinguishes between: * * * aptitude tests proficiency tests achievement tests.

Menginterpretasi data (Data Interpretation)
The application of statistics in research is well documented. Before choosing a statistical method for your own research project, knowledge regarding scales of measurement is a prerequisite. Scales of measurement per se have to do with the allocation of numerical values to characteristics according to certain rules. Measurement can thus either be quantitative or qualitative. The quantitative level of measurement includes among other things, aspects such as interpretation and paragraph analysis, whilst the quantitative level of measurement focuses on
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measures such as nominal, ordinal, internal and ratio levels of measurement. The latter are basic scales of measurement and will be briefly outlined. 1 Measuring scales

Nominal measurement

Nominal measurement includes the awarding of a numeral value to a specific characteristic. Tr~is type of measurement is the most basic form of measurement, because it measures the lowest level that can be measured and is therefore considered a scale of measurement with limitations. The following serves as an example of nominal measurement: A researcher wants to determine the profile of the academic background of his students. For this he/she might need information regarding the specific level (HG, SD, LG) his students passed during their matriculation examination. The different matriculation subjects would then be listed i.e. Mathematics, English, Geography etc. To each subject passed on the higher grade a numerical value 1 will be allocated, and the numerical value 2 for a pass in the standard grade and so forth. The numerical value 1 does not mean half of 2, it merely indicates a difference. This scale of measurement is used mainly for the compiling of frequency tables (Smit 1983: 208).

Ordinal measurement

Ordinal measurement is applicable in cases where a criterion/characteristic is awarded to numeral value in terms of a specific order (thus the name of the scale). The ordinal scale implies that the entity being measured is quantified in terms of either higher or lower, greater (more) or lesser (less) without specifying the size of the intervals (Leedy 1993: 38). The numerical 1 can be the highest, whilst 3 could be the lowest. The following serves as an example of measurement on ordinal level: A school wants to select the best student of the year. After the evaluators (in this case the teachers) have nominated the best students, the finalists should be placed in rank order according to the set criteria in order to determine the best student. In this case the numeral 1 is an indication of the best student, and therefore the winner. The ordinal scale of measurement can be applied to determine the median, percentage, rank order, correlations and percentile (Smith 1983: 209).

Interval measurement

The interval scale of measurement is characterized by two features, namely: - equal units of measurement (equal intervals); and - a zero point which has been established arbitrarily (Leedy 1993: 38). The latter indicates that there is not an absolute zero point. There is therefore a specific: relationship between the distance (interval) of the numerical value and the different sizes of a characteristic. Because of the before mentioned characteristics, this measure scale is considered to be a more advanced type of measuring scale. An increase or decrease of the one characteristic goes hand in hand with an increase or decrease of the other. The interval level of measurement enables the researcher to compromise between aspects and to indicate clearly how much more the one has of a characteristic than the other. As an example of this type of measurement the following is given: an individual intelligence score is 110 whilst another is 100. The difference between these scores is exactly 10. It should also be remembered that intelligence measurement has no zero point. A second example of interval measurement is the Lickert attitude scale. The interval scale of measurement is therefore suitable to calculate arithmetic mean averages, do standard deviations and determine correlation studies, provided that the researcher takes care that the preconditions set for each scale of measurement, are abided by.

Ration measurement

This is considered the highest order of measurement that exist, because of the fixed proportions (ratio) between the number (numerical) and the amount of the characteristic; that it represents. What should be mentioned is that, when ration levels are measured, a fixed (absolute) zero point
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exists. Ration level of measurement thus enables researchers to determine whether aspects possess something of a characteristic or not. The following can serve as example of ration level of measurement: The average weight of a gymnast is 55 kilograms. On the other hand, the average weight of a rugby player is 75 kilograms. Kilograms are expressed in constant units, and a zero point does exist, because "no weight" can be determined. Because scores on this type of measuring scale possess absolute values, any type of arithmetical calculations are allowed. 2 Characteristics of measuring scales With any type of measurement, two considerations are important - validity on the one hand and reliability on the other hand.

Reliability

Reliability is the term used to deal with accuracy. A scale measurement is considered reliable if it measures that which it is supposed to measure. Further refining of the term reliable is that, when a test is repeated by the same researcher i.e. with a different group representing the original group, the same results should be obtained .

Validity

Validity on the other hand is concerned with the soundness and the effectiveness of the measuring instrument (Leedy 1 993: 40). From the literature consulted four types of validity stands out, namely: - content validity, - prognostic validity, - simultaneous validity; and - construct validity. Content validity deals with the accuracy with which an instrument measures the factors or content of the course or situations, under study. Prognostic validity on the other hand relies basically upon the possibility to make judgements by virtue of results obtained by the instrument. The judgement is future orientated. Consider the following as an example: it can be predicted from the matriculation results of a prospective student that he would be a successful medical student. Simultaneous validity is tested by comparing one measuring instrument to another one that measures the same characteristic and which is available immediately. The second, as a criteria, checks the accuracy of the first measure and sets a standard against which to measure the results. The data of the measuring instrument should correlate with equivalent data of the criterion. Construct validity is interested in the degree to which the construct is actually measured. 3 Classification of statistical methods Before a researcher can use a statistical method for his research, he should be familiarized with the various statistical methods as well as the prerequisites for the implementation thereof. Because of the circumference of statistical methods, an in-depth discussion cannot take place for the purpose of this element. It will suffice to highlight the basic statistical methods. Statistical methods in the broadest sense are classified into two main groups namely descriptive and inferential statistics.

Descriptive statistics

Smit (1983: 212) sees descriptive statistics as the formulation of rules and procedures according to which data can be placed in useful and significant order. Landman (1988: 94) states that descriptive statistics deals with the central tendency, variability (variation) and relationships (correlations) in data that are readily at hand. The basic principle for using descriptive statistics is the requirement for absolute representation of data.
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The most important and general methods used are: Ratios. This indicates the relative frequency of the various variables to one another, for example 1. - Percentages. Percentages (%) are calculated by multiplying a ratio with 100. In other words it is a ratio that represents a standard unit of 100. - Frequency tables. It is a means to tabulate the rate of recurrence of a specific measurement, for example a specific achievement in a test. Data arranged in such a manner is known as distribution. If the distribution tendency is large, larger class intervals are used in order to acquire a more systematic and orderly system. In order to understand and interpret a frequency table, you are referred to Huysamen (1976: 24).

The histogram. The histogram is a graphic representation of frequency distribution and is being used to represent simple frequency distribution. Characteristic is a vertical line (the y axis/ordinate) at the left sideline of the figure and the horizontal line (x axis) at the bottom. The two lines meet at a 90 grade angle. Because frequencies should be divided into class intervals, the benefit of graphic presentation is that data can be observed immediately.

Frequency polygon. The frequency polygon does not differ basically from the histogram, but is only used for continual data. Instead of drafting bars for the complete histogram, a dot indicating the highest score is placed in the middle of the class interval. When the dots are linked up, the frequency polygon is formed. Usually an additional class is added to the end of the line in order to form an anchor. Cumulative frequency curve. The frequency on the frequency table is added, starting from the bottom of the class interval, and adding class by class. The cumulative frequency in a specific class interval can then clearly indicate how many persons/ measurements perform below or above the class intervals. In other words, from cumulative frequency tables a curve can be drawn, to reflect data in a graphic manner (Smit 1983: 213).

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Percentile curve. The cumulative frequency can also be converted into percentages or proportions of distribution. From such a table, one could read certain percentages or promotions of persons or cases, with regards to a certain point on the scale. The scale value in which 10% of the score in a distribution falls, is regarded as the P 10 (10 percentile). Those in which 25% of the score falls is the first quarter of P25 etc. (Smit 1983: 213).

Line graphic. During the previous graphic presentations the historical line (X axis) indicated the scale of measurement, whilst the vertical line (Y axis) indicated the frequency. In the case of a line graphic, both axes (X and Y) are used to indicate the scale of measurement with the aim of indicating a comparison between two comparable variables (Smit 1983: 214).

4

Central tendency
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Central tendency is defined as the central point around which data revolve. The following techniques can be employed:

The mode

The mode is defined as the score (value or category) of the variable which is observed most frequently. For example: 375864595 From the above mentioned, the mode equals 5 because 5 appears to be the most frequent score amongst all the numbers (occurred 3X).

Median

The median indicates the middle value of a series of sequentially ordered scores. Because the median divides frequencies into two equal parts, it can also be described as being the fiftieth percentile. 10 13 14 15 18 19 22 25 25 The median in the above-mentioned is the fifth score, that is 18. There are 4 counts on both sides of the numerical value 18. In cases where you have, for instance: 10 13 14 15 18 19 22 25 26 29 there are 2 numerical values indicating the median. By dividing the result by 2, the median can be determined. The fifth score with a numerical value of 18 and the sixth score with the numerical value of 19 are in the middle of the sequentially ordered scores. The median for the above mentioned scores is therefore 18 + 19 ) 2 = 18,5. Because 18,5 does not occur in the sequentially ordered scores, Huysamen (1983: 50) states that one should in cases of these rather refer to the 18.5 percentile.

Arithmetic mean

The arithmetic mean refers to a measure of central tendencies found by adding all scores and dividing them by the number of scores. The following is an example: 5 2 6 1 6 = (Sum total of

scores

) N

Thus 5 + 2 + 6 + 1 + 6 = 20, because there are 5 scores, N = 5, and the sum total of the scores (20) is divided by 5.

Standard deviation

The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of dispersion of a distribution of scores. The deviation of each score from the mean is squared; the squared deviations are then summed, the result divided by N-1, and the square root taken (Landman 1988: 94).

Inference statistics

Apart from descriptive statistics that deal with central tendencies, statistical methods enabling researchers to go from the known to the unknown data also exist. This is to say to make deductions or statements regarding the broad population as the samples from which the 'known' data are drawn. These methods, according to literature are called inferential or inductive statistics (Landman 1988: 95). These methods includes estimation, predictions, hypothesis testing and so forth.
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In conclusion the role of statistical methods in research is to enable the researcher to accurately utilize the gathered information and to be more specific in describing his findings. For more details on statistical calculations you are referred to Huysamen (1976). 5 Self-test 33 44 62 60 8 8 6 44 61 81 86 69 80 75 54 66 73 50 80 72 42 71 87 46 73 56 63 69 88 86 49 a) The following marks were allocated to students during a test they wrote:

Compile the following on the scores presented to you: frequency distribution histogram frequency polygon. 7 11 3 12 21 3 16 31 34 12 22 8 18 9 19. 12 10 5.

b) Calculate the arithmetic mean, mode and median of the following: c) Determine the mode and median of the following: SOURCE LIST Huysamen, GK 1976 Beskrywende Statistiek vir Sosiale Wetenskappe. Pretoria: Academica. Landman, WA 1988 Navorsingsmetodologiese Grondbegrippe. Pretoria: Serva. Leedy, PD 1985 Practical Research: Planning and Design. Third Edition. New Tork: McMillan Publishing Co. Smit, GJ 1983 Navorsingsmetodes in die geesteswetenskappe. Pretoria: HAUM. 7 ANSWERS TO SELF TEST

b Modus Median c Modus Median =

= = = =

15 21 16 12 12

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