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34710506 Bk Medicinal Plants

34710506 Bk Medicinal Plants

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MEDICINAL PLANTS P. P. Joy J. Thomas Samuel Mathew Baby P. Skaria Assisted by: Cini Sara Varghese S. S. Indumon P. K.

Victoria Jancy Stephen Dimpl e George P. S. Somi 1998 KERALA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station Odakkali, Asamannoor P.O., Ernakulam District, Kerala, India PIN : 683 549, Tel: (0484) 658221, E-mail: amprs@ker.nic.in 1

MEDICINAL PLANTS I II III IV V VI VII IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS CUL TIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS PROCESSING AND UTILISATION STORAGE OF RAW DRUGS QUA LITY AND EVALUATION TROPICAL MEDICINAL PLANTS A. Medicinal herbs B. Medicinal sh rubs C. Medicinal climbers D. Medicinal trees VIII IX X XI GLOSSARY OF TERMS ABB REVIATIONS NAMES OF BOTANISTS BIBLIOGRAPHY 2

MEDICINAL PLANTS I. IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products today symbolise safety in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to human and environment. Although herbs had been pr iced for their medicinal, flavouring and aromatic qualities for centuries, the s ynthetic products of the modern age surpassed their importance, for a while. How ever, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the naturals with hope of safety and security. Over three-quarters of the world pop ulation relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health care. More than 30 % of the entire plant species, at one time or other, were used for medicinal pur poses. It is estimated that world market for plant derived drugs may account for about Rs.2,00,000 crores. Presently, Indian contribution is less than Rs.2000 c rores. Indian export of raw drugs has steadily grown at 26% to Rs.165 crores in 1994-’95 from Rs.130 crores in 1991-’92. The annual production of medicinal and aromatic plant’s raw material is worth about Rs.200 crores. This is likely to to uch US $1150 by the year 2000 and US $5 trillion by 2050. It has been estimated that in developed countries such as United States, plant drugs constitute as muc h as 25% of the total drugs, while in fast developing countries such as China an d India, the contribution is as much as 80%. Thus, the economic importance of me dicinal plants is much more to countries such as India than to rest of the world . These countries provide two third of the plants used in modern system of medic ine and the health care system of rural population depend on indigenous systems of medicine. Of the 2,50,000 higher plant species on earth, more than 80,000 are medicinal. India is one of the world’s 12 biodiversity centres with the presenc e of over 45000 different plant species. India’s diversity is unmatched due to t he presence of 16 different agro-climatic zones, 10 vegetation zones, 25 biotic provinces and 426 biomes (habitats of specific species). Of these, about 15000-2 0000 plants have good medicinal value. However, only 7000-7500 species are used for their medicinal values by traditional communities. In India, drugs of herbal origin have been used in traditional systems of medicines such as Unani and Ayu rveda since ancient times. The Ayurveda system of medicine uses about 700 specie s, Unani 700, Siddha 600, Amchi 600 and modern medicine around 30 species. The d rugs are derived either from the whole plant or from different organs, like leav es, stem, bark, root, flower, seed, etc. Some drugs are prepared from excretory plant product such as gum, resins and latex. Even the Allopathic system of medic ine has adopted a number of plant-derived drugs (Table: medicinal plants used in modern medicine) which form an important segment of the modern pharmacopoeia. S ome important chemical intermediates needed for manufacturing the modern drugs a re also obtained from plants (Eg. diosgenin, solasodine, β-ionone). Not only, th at plant-derived drug offers a sta le market world wide, ut also plants continu e to e an important source for new drugs. Traditional systems of medicine conti nue to e widely practised on many accounts. Population rise, inadequate supply of drugs, prohi itive cost of treatments, side effects of several allopathic dru gs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases have led to increased emphasis on the use of plant materials as a source of med icines for a wide variety of human ailments. Glo al estimates indicate that 80% of a out 4 illion population can not afford the products of the Western Pharmac eutical Industry and have to rely upon the use of traditional medicines which ar e mainly derived from plant material. This fact is well documented in the invent ory of medicinal plants, listing over 20,000 species. In spite of the overwhelmi ng influences and our dependence on modern medicine and tremendous advances in s ynthetic drugs, a large segment of the world population still like drugs from pl ants. In many of the developing countries the use of plant drugs is increasing ecause modern life saving drugs are eyond the reach of three quarters of the th ird world’s population although many such countries spend 40-50% of their total wealth 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

on drugs and health care. As a part of the strategy to reduce the financial urd en on developing countries, it is o vious that an increased use of plant drugs w ill e followed in the future. Among ancient civilisations, India has een known to e rich repository of medicinal plants. The forest in India is the principal repository of large num er of medicinal and aromatic plants, which are largely collected as raw materials for manufacture of drugs and perfumery products. A ou t 8,000 her al remedies have een codified in Ayurveda. The Rigveda (5000 BC) ha s recorded 67 medicinal plants, Yajurveda 81 species, Atharvaveda (4500-2500 BC) 290 species, Charak Samhita (700 BC) and Sushrut Samhita (200 BC) had descri ed properties and uses of 1100 and 1270 species respectively, in compounding of dr ugs and these are still used in the classical formulations, in the Ayurvedic sys tem of medicine. Unfortunately, m uch of the ancient knowledge and many valua le plants are eing lost at an alarming rate. With the rapid depletion of forests, impairing the availa ility of raw drugs, Ayurveda, like other systems of her al medicines has reached a very critical phase. A out 50% of the tropical forests, the treasure house of plant and animal diversity have already een destroyed. I n India, forest cover is disappearing at an annual rate 1.5mha/yr. What is left at present is only 8% as against a mandatory 33% of the geographical area. Many valua le medicinal plants are under the verge of extinction. The Red Data Book o f India has 427 entries of endangered species of which 28 are considered extinct , 124 endangered, 81 vulnera le, 100 rare and 34 insufficiently known species (T homas, 1997). Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Folk (tri al) medicines are the major systems of indigenous medicines. Among these systems, Ayurveda is most developed and widely practised in India. Ayurveda dating ack to 1500-800 BC has een an integral part of Indian culture. The term comes from the Sanskrit root Au (life) and Veda (knowledge). As the name implies it is not only the science of treatme nt of the ill ut covers the whole gamut of happy human life involving the physi cal, metaphysical and the spiritual aspects. Ayurveda recognises that esides a alance of ody elements one has to have an enlightened state of consciousness, sense organs and mind if one has to e perfectly healthy. Ayurveda y and large is an experience with nature and unlike in Western medicine, many of the concept s elude scientific explanation. Ayurveda is gaining prominence as the natural sy stem of health care all over the world. Today this system of medicine is eing p ractised in countries like Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan, wh ile the traditional system of medicine in the other countries like Ti et, Mongol ia and Thailand appear to e derived from Ayurveda. Phytomedicines are also ein g used increasingly in Western Europe. Recently the US Government has esta lishe d the “Office of Alternative Medicine” at the National Institute of Health at Be thesda and its support to alternative medicine includes asic and applied resear ch in traditional systems of medicines such as Chinese, Ayurvedic, etc. with a v iew to assess the possi le integration of effective treatments with modern medic ines. The development of systematic pharmacopoeias dates ack to 3000 BC, when t he Chinese were already using over 350 her al remedies. Ayurveda, a system of he r al medicine in India, Sri Lanka and South-East Asia has more than 8000 plant r emedies and using around 35,000-70,000 plant species. China has demonstrated the est use of traditional medicine in providing the health care. China has pharma cologically validated and improved many traditional her al medicines and eventua lly integrated them in formal health care system. Green plants synthesise and pr eserve a variety of iochemical products, many of which are extracta le and used as chemical feed stocks or as raw material for various scientific investigation s. Many secondary meta olites of plant are commercially important and find use i n a num er of pharmaceutical compounds. However, a sustained supply of the sourc e material often ecomes difficult due to the factors like environmental changes , cultural practices, diverse geographical distri ution, la our cost, selection of the superior plant stock and over exploitation y pharmaceutical industry. 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Plants, especially used in Ayurveda can provide iologically active molecules an d lead structures for the development of modified derivatives with enhanced acti vity and /or reduced toxicity. The small fraction of flowering plants that have so far een investigated have yielded a out 120 therapeutic agents of known stru cture from a out 90 species of plants. Some of the useful plant drugs include vi n lastine, vincristine, taxol, podophyllotoxin, camptothecin, digitoxigenin, git oxigenin, digoxigenin, tu ocurarine, morphine, codeine, aspirin, atropine, piloc arpine, capscicine, allicin, curcumin, artemesinin and ephedrine among others. I n some cases, the crude extract of medicinal plants may e used as medicaments. On the other hand, the isolation and identification of the active principles and elucidation of the mechanism of action of a drug is of paramount importance. He nce, works in oth mixture of traditional medicine and single active compounds a re very important. Where the active molecule cannot e synthesised economically, the product must e o tained from the cultivation of plant material. A out 121 (45 tropical and 76 su tropical) major plant drugs have een identified for whic h no synthetic one is currently availa le (ta le 1). The scientific study of tra ditional medicines, derivation of drugs through ioprospecting and systematic co nservation of the concerned medicinal plants are thus of great importance. Ta le 1. Major plant drugs for which no synthetic one is currently availa le (Kumar e t al, 1997). Drug Vin lastine Vin lastine Ajmalacine Rescinnamine Reserpine Quin ine Pilocarpine Cocaine Morphine Codeine Atropine Atropine Cardiac glycosides Ar temisinin Taxol Ber erine Pristimerin Quassinoids Plum agin Diospyrin Gossypol A llicin Ricin Emetine Glycyrrhizin Nim idin Catechin Sophoradin Magnolol Forskoli n Plant Catharanthus roseus Catharanthus roseus Catharanthus roseus Rauvolfia se rpentina Rauvolfia serpentina Cinchona sp. Pilocarpus ja orandi Erythroxylum coc a Papaver somniferum Papaver somniferum Atropa elladonna Hyoscyamus niger Digit alis sp. Artemesia annua Taxus accata T. revifolia Ber eris Celastrus panicula ta Ailanthus Plum ago indica Diospyros montana Gossypium sp. Allium sativum Rici nus communis Cephaelis ipecacuanha Glycyrrhizia gla ra Azadirachta indica Acacia catechu Sophora su prostrata Magnolia ark Coleus forskohlii 5 Use Anticancer Anticancer Anticancer, hypotensive Tranquilizer Tranquilizer Anti malarial, amoe ic dysentery Antiglucoma Topical anaesthetic Painkiller Anticough Spasmolytic, cold Spasmolytic, cold For congestive heart failure Antimalarial, Breast and ovary cancer, antitumour For leishmaniasis Antimalarial Antiprotozoal Anti acterial, antifungal Antispermatogenic Antifungal, amoe iasis Amoe iasis A ntiulcer Antiulcer Antiulcer Antiulcer Peptic ulcer Hypotensive, cardiotonic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Digitoxin, Digoxin Thevenerin, Nerrifolin Podophyllin Indicine N-oxide Elipticin e Homoharringtonine Camptothecine Digitalis, Thevetia Thevetia Thevetia Podophyllum emodi Heliotropium indicum Och rosia Cephalotaxus Camptotheca acuminata Cardio tonic Cardio tonic Cardio tonic Anticancer Anticancer Anticancer Anticanc er Anticancer A major lacuna in Ayurveda is the lack of drug standardisation, information and quality control. Most of the Ayurvedic medicines are in the form of crude extrac ts which are a mixture of several ingredients and the active principles when iso lated individually fail to give desired activity. This implies that the activity of the extract is the synergistic effect of its various components. In the a se nce of pharmacopoeia data on the various plant extracts, it is not possi le to i solate or standardise the active contents having the desired effects. Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia compiled on modern lines and updated periodically is an urgent req uirement. A com ination therapy integrating Ayurveda and allopathy where y the s ide effects and undesira le reactions could e controlled can e thought of. Stu dies can show that the toxic effects of radiations and chemotherapy in cancer tr eatment could e reduced y Ayurvedic medications and similarly surgical wound h ealing could e accelerated y Ayurvedic medicines. Modern science and technolog y have an essential role to play in the process. An integrated approach for the cultivation, conservation and preservation of important plant species through pl ant molecular iology, plant tissue culture; research on the rationale and metho dology of Ayurvedic medical practice; isolation of active constituents and their development into new therapeutics; standardisation and validation of known her al medicines and other related aspects need to e focussed upon (Sharma, 1997). Despite the diverse nature of crops grown in the country and the existence of a fast growing pharmaceutical sector, the share of India in world trade is quite i nsignificant considering the large geographical area. However, this is ound to rise rapidly with etter research inputs and efficient management of the farm se ctor. So far, India has een involved in the export of only large volume raw mat erial. To achieve competitive advantage we need to resort to low volume high cos t (value) trade through value addition to the raw and unfinished products. It is therefore, necessary to develop genetically superior planting material for assu red uniformity and desired quality and resort to organised cultivation to ensure the supply of raw material at grower’s end. Post harvest storage and process te chnologies need to e developed to produce the value added finished products tha t may e directly utilised y the industry Inventorisation of her al drugs used in traditional and modern medicines for a country like India, appears to e a st upendous task, where a num er of well esta lished indigenous or traditional syst ems, including Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homoeopathy, Ti etan, Amchi, Yoga and Na turopathy are practised along with modern medicine for the management of total h ealth care system. In all these systems a large num er of plant drugs are used, although there may e some common plants. Another pro lem in correct identificat ion of plants is that the plant drugs in those systems of medicine are known y their classical, Shastriya or vernacular names. It is not easy to correlate thes e names with accepta le scientific names. One plant species can have many vernac ular classical names and one name may refer to different plant species. Chinese, Indian, Ara ian and other traditional systems of medicines make extensive use o f a out 5000 plants. India is proud to e rich in iological diversity and tenth among the plant rich countries of Asia, sixth as far as centres of diversity es pecially agrodiversity are 6

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

concerned. Nearly three fourth of the drugs and perfumery products used in the w orld are availa le in natural state in the country. India possesses almost 8% of the estimated iodiversity of the world with around 1,26,000 species. It is one of the 12 mega iodiversity centres with 2 hot spots of iodiversity in western Ghats and north-eastern region. The sacred groves are a miniature ecosystem con serving iodiversity in its pristine form. There are a out 400 families in the w orld of flowering plants, at least 315 are represented in India. According to WH O, around 21,000 plant species have the potential for eing used as medicinal pl ants. A out 5000 species have een studied (ta les 2-6). There are at least 121 major plant drugs of known structure, ut none of them is currently produced thr ough synthetic means. For developing phytomedicines as a major area of concern, it would e essential to adopt a holistic interdisciplinary approach, have a sci entific asis of the understanding of the plant systems, new innovations and the ir conservation for utilisation in future on a sustaina le asis (Sharma, 1997). Ta le 2. Plant species with therapeutic value under different plant groups (Jia xiang, 1997). Thalophytes 230 Bryophytes 39 Pteridophytes 382 Gymnospermae 55 An giospermae: a) Monocotyledones 676 ) Dicotyledones 3495 Total 4877 Ta le 3. Pla nt families containing over 100 species with therapeutic value (Jiaxiang, 1997). Family Genera 165 45 89 91 31 46 28 34 35 30 29 Species 135 331 313 208 189 146 123 118 104 101 I. Monocots Liliaceae 45 Orchidaceae II. Dicots Compositae Leguminosae Ranuculac eae Laminaceae Rosaceae Um elliferae Ru iaceae Euphor iaceae Asclepiadaceae Ta le 4. Major medicinal plants that can e cultivated in India and have esta li shed demand for their raw materials (Kumar et al, 1997). Acorus calamus Aconitum sp. Adhatoda vasica Aloe vera 7 Ammi majur Atropa acuminata Ber eris aristata Carica papaya

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

   

 

 

 

 

Catharanthus roseus Cassia senna Cephaelis ipecacuanha Cinchona spp. Dioscorea s pp. Glycyrrhiza gla ara Hedychium spicatum Heracleum candicans Hyoscyamus sp.mut icus Inula racemosa Juglans regia Juniperus spp. Matricaria chamomilla Papaver s omniferum Plantago ovata Podophyllum emodi Rauvolfia serpentina Rheum emodi Saussurea lappa Swertia chirata Urginea indica Valeriana wallichii Zingi er officinale Bacopa monnieri Boerhaavia diffusa Dudoi sia myoporoides Eclipta al a Gymnema sylvestre Phyllanthus amarus Piper retrofra ctum Panax quinquefolium Sily um marialum Ta le 5. Medicinal plants on which significant research leads have een o tained with respect to their pharmaceutical potential for which processing and agrotec hnology need to e esta lished (Kumar et al, 1997). Andrographis paniculata Arte misia annum Boswellia serrata Centella asiatica Coleus forskohlii Commiphora wig htii Curcuma longa Phyllanthus amarus Picrorhiza kurroa Sida rhom ifolia Taxus accata Withania somnifera Ta le 6. Plants which delay ageing process and form health food ingredients in s everal Ayurvedic formulations (Kumar et al, 1997). Allium sativum Aloe ar adens is Asparagus racemosus Cassia senna Curculigo orchioides Commiphora wightii Cent alla asiatica Capsicum annum Chlorophytum arundinaceum Eclipta al a Fagopyrum es culentum Glycyrrhiza gla ra Oenothera iennis Panax pseudoginseng Plantago ovata Withania somnifera 8

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

9

II. CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS Of the 2,50,000 higher plant species on earth, more than 80,000 species are repo rted to have at least some medicinal value and around 5000 species have specific therapeutic value. They are classified according to the part used, ha it, ha it at, therapeutic value etc, esides the usual otanical classification. 1. Based on part used i) Whole plant: Boerhaavia diffusa, Phyllanthus neruri ii) Root: Dasamula iii) S tem:Tinospora cordifolia, Acorus calamus iv) Bark: Saraca asoca v) Leaf: Indigof era tinctoria, Lawsonia inermis, Aloe vera vi) Flower:Biophytum sensityvum, Mimu sops elenji vii) Fruit: Solanum species viii) Seed: Datura stramonium 2. Based on ha it i) ii) iii) iv) v) Grasses: Cynodon dactylon Sedges: Cyperus rotundus Her s : Ve rnonia cineria Shru s: Solanum species Clim ers: Asparagus racemosus vi) Trees: Azadirachta indica 3. Based on ha itat i) Tropical: Andrographis paniculata ii) Su -tropical: Mentha arvensis iii) Temp erate: Atropa elladona 4. Based on therapeutic value Antimalarial Anticancer Antiulcer Antidia etic Anticholesterol Antiinflammatory Antiviral Anti acterial Antifungal Antiprotozoal Antidiarrhoeal Hypotensive Tran quilizing Anaesthetic Spasmolytic Diuretic Astringent Anthelmentic Cardiotonic A ntiallergic Hepatoprotective : Cinchona officinalis, Artemisia annua : Catharant hus roseus, Taxus accata : Azadirachta indica, Glycyrrhiza gla ra : Catharanthu s roseus, Momordica charantia : Allium sativum : Curcuma domestica, Desmodium ga ngeticum : Acacia catechu : Plum ago indica : Allium sativum : Ailanthus sp., Ce phaelis ipecacuanha : Psidium gujava, Curcuma domestica : Coleus forskohlii, Ali um sativum : Rauvolfia serpentina : Erythroxylum coca : Atropa elladona, Hyoscy amus niger : Phyllanthus niruri, Centella asiatica : Piper etle, A rus precator ius : Quisqualis indica, Punica granatum : Digitalis sp., Thevetia sp. : Nandina domestica, Scutellaria aicalensis : Sily um marianum, Andrographis paniculata 5. Based on Ayurvedic formulations in which used 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

a)

6. Botanical classification This is the most comprehensive and scientific classification. The various medici nal plants are grouped elow in ta le 7 according to their Class, Series, Order, Family, Genus and Species. Ta le 7. Botanical classification of medicinal plants (Dey, 1984, modified) Family CLASS SUBCLASS Series Order Ranunculaceae Genus (species) : I. DICOTYLEDONAE : 1. POLYGONAE : i. Thalamiflorae : a. Ranales Thalictrum (foliolosum) Coptis (teeta) Delphinium (denudatum) Aconi tum (ferox, heterophyllum, napellus) Actaea (spicata) Paeonia (emodi) Dillenia ( indica) Michelia (champaca) Cananga (odorata) SUBDIVISION : ANGIOSPERMAE Dilleniaceae Magnoliaceae Anonaceae 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

)

c) d) The ten roots of the Dasamoola (Dasamoolam) i) Desmodium gangeticum (Orila) ii) Uraria lagopoides (Cheria orila) iii) Solanum jacquinii (Kantakari) iv) Solanum indicum (Cheruchunda) v) Tri ulus terrestris (Njerinjil) vi) Aegle marmelos (Koo valam) vii) Oroxylum indicum (Palakapayyani) viii) Gmelina ar orea (Kumizhu) ix) Steriospermum suaveolens (Pathiri) x) Premna spinosus (Munja) The ten flowers o f the Dasapushpa (Dasapushpam) i) Biophytum sensitivum (Mukkutti) ii) Ipomea max ima (Thiruthali) iii) Eclipta prostrata (Kayyuniam) iv) Vernonia cineria (Poovam kurunnil) v) Evolvulus alsinoides (Vishnukranthi) vi) Cynodon dactylon (Karuka) vii) Emelia sonchifolia (Muyalcheviyan) viii) Curculigo orchioides (Nilappana) i x) Cardiospermum halicaca um (Uzhinja) x) Aerva lanata (Cherula) The four trees of the Nalpamara (Nalpamaram) i) Ficus racemosa (Athi) ii) Ficus microcarpa (Ith i) iii) Ficus relegiosa (Arayal) iv) Ficus enghalensis (Peral) The three fruits of the Triphala (Thriphalam) i) Phyllanthus em lica (Nellikka) ii) Terminalia ellerica (Thannikka) iii) Terminalia che ula (Kadukka)

Menispermaceae Ber eridaceae Nymphaeaceae Order Papaveraceae Fumariaceae Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) Capparidaceae Violaceae Bixaceae Flacourtiaceae Order Tamaricaceae Order Clusiaceae (Guttifera e) Ternstroemiaceae Dipterocarpaceae Order Malvaceae Sterculiaceae Tiliaceae Linaceae Erythroxylaceae Zygophyllaceae Anona (squamosa) Tinospora (cordifolia) Anamirta (cocculus) Coscinium (fenestrat um) Cocculus (villosus) Pericampylus (incanus) Cissampelos (pareira) Ber eris (a ristata, lycium, asiatica) Podophyllum (emodi) Nymphaea (lotus, nouchali) Euryal e (ferox) Nelum ium (speciosum) : . Parietales Papaver (rhoeas, somniferum) Arg emone (mexicana) Hypecoum (procum ens) Corydalis (govaniana) Fumaria (officinali s) Brassica (nigra, campestris, juncea) Capsella ( ursa-pastoris) Lepidium (sati vum) Raphanus (sativus) Cleome (viscosa) Gynandropsis (pentaphylla) Maerua (aren aria) Crataeva (religiosa) Capparis (spinosa, aphylla) Viola (odorata) Ionidium (suffruticosum) Bixa (orellana) Gynocardia (odorata) : c. Caryophyllales Tamarix (gallica) : d. Guttiferales Garcinia (mangostana, indica, morella) Mesua (ferre a) Camellia (theifera) Dipterocarpus (tur inatus) Shorea (ro usta) Hopea (odorat a) Vateria (indica) : f. Malvales Althaea (officinalis) Malva (sylvestris) Sida (cordifolia) Pavonia (odorata) Hi iscus (sa dariffa, a elmoschus, esculentus, ro sa-sinensis) Gossypium (her aceum) Adansonia (digitata) Bom ax (mala aricum) Hel icteres (isora) A roma (augusta) Cola (acuminata) Grewia (asiatica) Corchorus (c apsularis, olitorius) Linum (usitatissimum) Erythroxylum (coca, monogynum) Tri u lus (terrestris) Series Order Geraniaceae : ii. Disciflorae : a. Geraniales Geranium (ro ertianum) 12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oxalidaceae Balsaminaceae Rutaceae Simaru aceae Burseraceae Meliaceae Order Celastraceae Rhamnaceae Vitaceae Order Sapindaceae Anacardiaceae Moringaceae Oxalis (corniculata) Impatiens (sulcata) Ruta (graveolens) Peganum (harmala) Tod dalia (aculeata) Citrus (medica, aurantium) Feronia (elephantum) Aegle (marmelos ) Ailanthus (excelsa) Samadera (indica) Picrasma (quassioides) Boswellia (serrat a) Garuga (pinnata) Balsamodendron (mukul, myrrha) Canarium (commune) Naregamia (alata) Melia (azadirachta, azedarach) Amoora (rohituka) Carapa (moluccensis) So ymida (fe rifuga) : . Celastrales Celastrus (paniculatus) Zizyphus (juju a) Vit is (vinifera) : c. Sapindales Cardiospermum (halicaca um) Schleichera (trijuga) Sapindus (trifoliatus) Pistacia (integerrima, lentiscus, tere inthus, vera) Mang ifera (indica) Anacardium (occidentale) Melanorrhoea (usitata) Semecarpus (anaca rdium) Holigarna (longifolia) Moringa (oleifera) Series Order Fa aceae (Papilionaceae) : iii. Calyciflorae : a. Rosales Trigonella (foenum-groecum) Melilotus (officinalis) Indigofera (tin ctoria) Psoralea (corylifolia) Ses ania (aegyptiaca) Ses ania (grandiflora) Astr agalus (verus) Alhagi (maurorum) Eschynomene (aspera) Desmodium (gangeticum) A r us (precatorius) Lens (esculenta) Lathyrus (sativus) Mucuna (pruriens) Erythrina (indica) Butea (frondosa) Clitoria (ternatea) Dolichos ( iflorus) Pterocarpus ( marsupium, santalinus, gla ra) Caesalpinia ( onducella, sappan) Cassia (fistula, occidentalis, sophera, tora, o ovata, alata, angustifolia) Hardwickia (pinnata) Saraca (indica) Tamarindus (indica) 13 Caesalpiniaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mimosaceae Rosaceae Crassulaceae Droseraceae Hamamelidaceae Order Com retaceae Myrtaceae Lythraceae Onagraceae Order Caricaceae Cucur itaceae Cactaceae Order Um elliferae (Apiaceae) Alangiaceae Bauhinia (variegata) Entada (scandens) Mimosa (pudica) Adenanthera (pavonina) Ac acia (farnesiana, ara ica, catechu) Glycyrrhiza (gla ra) Prunus (amygdalus, comm unis) Agrimonia (eupatoria) Rosa (damascena, centifolia) Cydonia (vulgaris) Bryo phyllum (calycinum) Kalanchoe (laciniata) Drosera ( urmanni, peltata) Liquidam a r (orientalis) Altingia (excelsa) : . Myrtales Terminalia (catappa, ellerica, che ula, arjuna) Melaleuca (leucandendron) Psidium (gujava) Eugenia (jam olana) Barringtonia (acutangula) Careya (ar orea) Caryophyllus (aromaticus) Eucalyptus (glo ulus) Myrtus (communis) Ammania ( accifera) Woodfordia (flori unda) Lawsoni a (al a) Punica (Granatum) Trapa ( ispinosa) : c. Passiflorales Carica (papaya) Trichosanthes (dioica) Lagenaria (vulgaris) Luffa (acutangula) Benincasa (cerife ra) Momordica (charantia) Cucumis (melo, sativus) Citrullus (colocynthis, vulgar is) Cephalandra (indica) Cucur ita (pepo) Bryonopsis (laciniosa) Corallocarpus ( epigaeus) Opuntia (dillenii) : d. Um ellales Hydrocotyle (asiatica) Apium ( grav eolens) Carum (carvi, copticum) Pimpinella (anisum) Foeniculum (vulgare) Ferula (narthex, alliacea, foetida, gal aniflua) Peucedanum (graveolens) Coriandrum (sa tivum) Cuminum (cyminum) Daucus (carota) Petroselinum (sativum) Alangium (lamarc kii) 14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

SUBCLASS : 2. GAMOPETALAE Series Order Ru iaceae : i. Inferae : a. Ru iales Anthocephalus (cadam a) Uncaria (gam ier) Cinchona (calisaya, offi cinalis, succiru ra) Hymenodictyon (excelsum) Oldenlandia (corym osa) Ophiorrhiz a (mungos) Randia (dumetorum) Gardenia (lucida, gummifera) Canthium (parviflorum ) Pavetta (indica) Coffea (ara ica, ro usta) Morinda (citrifolia) Paederia (foet ida) Ru ia (cordifolia) Cephaelis (lpecacuanha) : . Asterales Valeriana (wallic hii) Nardostachys (jatamansi) Eupatorium (ayapana, triplinerve) Blumea (lacera) Helianthus (annuus, tu erosus) Sieges eckia (orientalis) Enhydra (fluctuans) Ecl ipata (al a) Guizotia (a yssinica) Achillea (millefolium) Anthemis (no ilis) Ana cyclus (pyrethrum) Matricaria (chamomila) Artemisia (maritima, vulgaris) Calendu la (officinalis) Saussurea (lappa) Carthamus (tinctorius) Cichorium (inty us) Ta raxacum (officinale) Lactuca (scariola) Tagetes (erecta) Order Valerianaceae Compositae (Asteraceae) Series Order Ericaceae Plum aginaceae Order Myrsinaceae Order Sapotaceae : ii. Heteromerae : a. Ericales Gaultheria (fragrantissima) Plum ago (zeylanica, rosea) : . Primu lales Em elia (ri es, ro usta) : c. E enales Bassia (latifolia) Bassia ( utyrace a) Mimusops (elengi) Diospryros (em ryopteris) Symplocos (racemosa) Styrax ( enz oin) E enaceae Symplocaceae Styraceae Series Order Oleaceae : iii. Bicarpellatae : a. Gentianales Jasminum (sam ac, grandiflorum) Nyctanthes (ar or-tristis) Frax inus (flori unda, excelsior) Salvadora (persica) Salvadoraceae 15

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

Apocynaceae Asclepiadaceae Loganiaceae Gentianaceae Order Boraginaceae Convolvulaceae Solanaceae Order Scrophulariaceae Bignoniaceae Pedaliaceae Acanthaceae Order Ver enaceae Lamiaceae (La iatae) Plantaginaceae Rauvolfia (serpentina) Alstonia (scholaris) Holarrhena (antidysenterica) Wrighti a (zeylanica) Nerium (odorum) Thevetia (neriifolia) Strophanthus (sp.) Ichnocarp us (frutescens) Hemidesmus (indicus) Oxystelma (esculentum) Calotropis (gigantea ) Daemia (extensa) Gymnema (sylvestre) Tylophora (asthmatica) Strychnos (ignatii , nux-vomica, potatorum) Fagraea (fragrans) Exacum ( icolor) Enicostemma (littor ale) Canscora (decussata) Gentiana (kurroo) Swertia (chirata) : . Polymoniales Cordia (myxa) Heliotropium (indicum) Onosma (echioides, racteatum) Argyreia (sp eciosa) Ipomoea (hederacea, digitata, turpethum, purga) Cuscuta (reflexa) Convol vulus (scammonia) Solanum (nigrum, dulcamara, indicum, melongena) Capsicum (frut escens) Withania (somnifera, coagulans) Atropa ( elladonna) Datura (stramonium, fastuosa) Hyoscyamus (niger) Nicotiana (ta acum) : c. Personales Herpestis (monn iera) Picrorhiza (kurrooa) Oroxylum (indicum) Pedalium (murex) Sesamum (indicum) Hygrophila (spinosa) Andrographis (paniculata) Adhatoda (vasica) Rhinacanthus ( communis) : d. Lamiales Gmelina (ar orea) Clerodendron (infortunatum) Ocimum ( a silicum) Ocimum (sanctum) Mentha (arvensis) Origanum (vulgare) Hyssopus (officin alis) Lallemantia (royleana) Marru ium (vulgare) Plantago (ovata) SUBCLASS : 3. MONOCHLAMIDEAE Series Nyctaginaceae : i. Curvem ryeae Boerhaavia (repens) 16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amaranthaceae Chenopodiaceae Amaranthus (spinosus) Achyranthes (aspera) Chenopodium ( otrys, am rosioides) Series Polygonaceae : ii. Multiovulatae aquaticae Rheum (emodi) Series Aristolochiaceae : iii. Multiovulatae terrestris Aristolochia (indica) Series Piperaceae

Series Myristicaceae Lauraceae : v. Daphnales Myristica (fragrans, mala arica) Cinnamomum (tamala, zeylanicum, glanduliferum) Litssea (se ifera) Series Thymelaeaceae Santalaceae : vi. Achlamydesporae Aquilaria (agallocha) Santalum (al um) Series Euphor iaceae : vii. Unisexuales Euphor ia (pilulifera, neriifolia, antiquorum) Phyllanthus (em lica, urinaria, n iruri) Jatropha (curcas) Aleurites (moluccana) Croton (tiglium) Acalypha (indica ) Mallotus (phillippinensis) Ricinus (communis) Baliospermum (montanum ) Manihot (utilissima) Canna is (sativa) Morus (indica) Ficus ( enghalensis, elastica, re ligiosa, hispida, cunia, glomerata, carica) Antiaris (toxicaria) Artocarpus (int egrifolia) Canna inaceae Moraceae CLASS Series Juglandaceae Myricaceae Fagaceae Salicaceae Orchidaceae : II. MONOCOTYLEDONAE : i. Microspermae Juglans (regia) Myrica (nagi) Quercus (infectoria) Salix (caprea) Acampe (papill osa) Eulophia (campestris) Orchis (mascula) Series Musaceae Zingi eraceae : ii. Epigynae Musa (sapientum) Curcuma (angustifolia, aromatica, zedoaria, amada, longa) Kaemp

 

 

 

 

: iv. Microem ryeae Piper (cu e a, longum, cha a,

etle, nigrum)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

   

 

feria (rotunda, galanga) Hedychium (spicatum) Amomum (su ulatam) Zingi er (offic inale, zerum et) Costus (speciosus) Elettaria (cardamomum) Alpinia (galanga, cal carata, allughas) Maranta (arundinacea) Ananas (sativa) Iris (foetidissima) Croc us (sativus) Curculigo (orchioides) Crinum (asiaticum) Agave (americana) Marantaceae Bromeliaceae Iridaceae Amaryllidaceae 17

 

 

 

Series Liliaceae : iii. Coronarieae Smilax (ferox) Asparagus (adscendens, sarmentosus) Allium (cepa, sativum) Urgine a (indica) Scilla (indica) Colchicum (luteum) Gloriosa (super a) Series Aracaceae (Palmae) : iv. Calycinae Areca (catechu) Phoenix (sylvestris, dactylifera) Calamus (draco) Borassus (fla elliformis) Cocos (nucifera) Lodoicea (seychellarum) Pandanus (fascicularis, odo ratissimus) Pandaneae Series Aroideae (Araceae) : v. Nudiflorae Pistia (stratiotes) Colocasia (antiquorum) Alocasia (indica) Scindapsus (officin alis) Acorus (calamus) Series Cyperaceae Gramineae (Poaceae) : vi. Glumaceae Cyperus (scariosus, rotundus) Cym opogon (citratus, flexuosus, martinii, muricat us, nardus, schoenanthus) Bam usa (arundinacea) Cynodon (dactylon) Hordeum (vulg are) Oryza (sativa) Triticum (sativum) Saccharum (officinarum) SUBDIVISION Pinaceae (Coniferae) : GYMNOSPERMAE Juniperus (communis) Pinus (longifolia) Cedrus (deodara) A ies (we iana) 18

 

  

 

 

 

 

III. CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS Most of medicinal plants, even today, are collected from wild. The continued com mercial exploitation of these plants has resulted in receding the population of many species in their natural ha itat. Vacuum is likely to occur in the supply o f raw plant materials that are used extensively y the pharmaceutical industry a s well as the traditional practitioners. Consequently, cultivation of these plan ts is urgently needed to ensure their availa ility to the industry as well as to people associated with traditional system of medicine. If timely steps are not taken for their conservation, cultivation and mass propagation, they may e lost from the natural vegetation for ever. In situ conservation of these resources a lone cannot meet the ever increasing demand of pharmaceutical industry. It is, t herefore, inevita le to develop cultural practices and propagate these plants in suita le agroclimatic regions. Commercial cultivation will put a check on the c ontinued exploitation from wild sources and serve as an effective means to conse rve the rare floristic wealth and genetic diversity. It is necessary to initiate systematic cultivation of medicinal plants in order to conserve iodiversity an d protect endangered species. In the pharmaceutical industry, where the active m edicinal principle cannot e synthesised economically, the product must e o tai ned from the cultivation of plants. Systematic conservation and large scale cult ivation of the concerned medicinal plants are thus of great importance. Efforts are also required to suggest appropriate cropping patterns for the incorporation of these plants into the conventional agricultural and forestry cropping system s. Cultivation of this type of plants could only e promoted if there is a conti nuous demand for the raw materials. There are at least 35 major medicinal plants that can e cultivated in India and have esta lished demand for their raw mater ial or active principles in the international trade (ta le). It is also necessar y to develop genetically superior planting material for assured uniformity and d esired quality and resort to organised cultivation to ensure the supply of raw m aterial at growers end. Hence, small scale processing units too have to e esta lished in order that the farmer is assured of the sale of raw material. Thus, cu ltivation and processing should go hand in hand in rural areas. In order to init iate systematic cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants high yielding varie ties have to e selected (ta le 8). In the case of wild plants, their demonstrat ion would require careful development work. Sometimes high yielding varieties ha ve also to e developed y selective reeding or clonal micropropagation. The se lected propagation materials have to e distri uted to the farmer either through nurseries or seed anks. Systematic cultivation needs specific cultural practic es and agronomical requirements. These are species specific and are dependent on soil, water and climatic conditions. Hence research and development work has to e done to formulate Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) which should include pro per cultivation techniques, harvesting methods, safe use of fertilizers and pest isides and waste disposal. Ta le 8. New varieties of medicinal plants developed in India (Gupta, 1993) Crop Psyllium Plantago ovata Variety Gujarat Isa gol-1 Gu jarat Isa gol-2 (GI-2) Characters (Institution where developed) High seed yield (1t/ha) with synchronous maturing of seed (GAU, Anand) Seed yield of 1t/ha, mode rately resistant to downy mildew disease(GAU, Anand) 19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Opium poppy Papaver somniferum Jawahar Aphim-16 (JA-16) Trishna (IC-42) Udaipur Opium (UO-285) NRBI-3 Kirtiman (NOP-4) Sweta (GS-24) Shyama (IS-34) Sarp agandha Rauvolfia serpentina Dioscorea flori unda RS-1 FB(C)-1 Arka-Upkar Khasi-kateri Solanum viarum Glaxo IIHR 2n-11 Kangaro kateri Solanum laciniatum Hen ane Hyocyamus niger EC-113465 IC-66 Aela Egyptian Hen ane AutoHyocyamus tetraploid muticus Senna ALFT-2 Cassia White flowered with serrated petals, produces oval capsules maturing early at 10 5-110 days for lancing. Yield 66kg of latex averaging 10% of morphine (JNKVV, Ma ndsur) Medium dwarf, pink flowered, serrated petals. Produces large um le-shape d capsules, high latex and morphine content.(over JA-16) (NBPGR, Delhi) High lat ex yield in Rajasthan tract (58kg/ha) with high morphine content (12.3%) and hig h seed yield (1.2t/ha) (RU, Udaipur) High latex yield in central and eastern UP. Latex yield 47-57.54kg/ha. (NBRI, Lucknow) Latex yield 45.84kg/ha, morphine con tent 11.94% in eastern U.P. Moderately resistant to downy mildew (NDUA & T, Faiz a ad) With pale white peduncle, produces 66.5kg latex/ha with 18% morphine (CIMA P) Foliage erect and incised, ears lack flowering stalk. Produces 78.1% latex with 15.5% morphine (CIMAP). High seed germination (50%). Root yields 2.5t/ha in 18 months. Roots carry 1.45-1.80% of total alkaloids; half of it yields reserpi ne + serpentine com ined (JNKVV, Indore) A composite culture, produces fast grow ing vines relatively free from diseases and pest attack; produces 50t/ha of fres h tu ers in 2 years containing 3.5% diosgenin (IIHR, Bangalore) Selection throug h hy ridisation, producing 60t of fresh tu ers containing 3.5-4.0% diosgenin (II HR, Bangalore) Plants devoid of spines, produces high erry yield at high densit y planting containing 2.5-3.0% solasodine (Glaxo, India). Completely devoid of s pines, produces high erry yield at high density planting containing 2.5-3% sola sodine (IIHR, Bangalore) Long duration crop (300 days) suita le for temperate re gions. High solasodine content in leaves (1.8%) and mature erries (4%) (YSPHU, Solan) Short duration (100 days), early ra i crop in plains. Yields 2.5t/ha of d ry her with minimum 0.05% total alkaloids (NBPGR, Delhi) A mutant characterised y yellow flower petals, produces 7.5t/ha dry her or 23kg total alkaloids/ha ( CIMAP) Vigorously growing and high seed fertile mutant, produces 4.5t/ha of dry her or 23kg total alkaloids/ha (CIMAP) Late flowering type, tailored to produce purely leaf crop in one harvest at 100 days. Foliage sennoside 20

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

angustifolia MAS-1 Japanese mint Mentha arvensis var. piperascens MAS-2 Hy -77 Siwalik EC-41911 Ocimum gratissimum Thymol asil O. viride Sacred asil O. sanctum Clocimum Thymol type EC-1828893 content (6.0%) (GAU, Anand) Yields fresh her of 37.2t/ha in 2 cuttings; contain ing 0.8-1.0% oil with high leaf/stem ratio. Matures 10-15 days early. Oil yield 290kg/ha containing 83% menthol (CIMAP) Fresh her yield 69t/ha, oil 348kg/ha (C IMAP) A tall vigorous, compact growing type, cross of MAS-2 x MA-2. Produces 78. 2t/ha fresh her , oil yield 486kg/ha with 81.5% menthol. Highly resistant to lea f spot and rust diseases (CIMAP) Introduced from China, produces compact ushy g rowth with thick leathery leaves, high her and oil yield. A progeny selection o f interspecific cross etween M. arvensis and M. piperita in USSR. High her age yield with high oil content (0.8-1%); oil contains 70-80% menthol (YSPHU, Solan) . High her age yield with high oil content, 75% eugenol (RRL, Jammu). Her yield 3t/ha, 59kg/ha oil/annum. (CIMAP, Lucknow) Superior selection with high oil yie ld 55l/ha in 110 days containing 53% eugenol and 19% caryophylline (NBPGR, Delhi ) Taking into consideration the requirements of the plants selected, an agrotechno logical package has to e developed to suit the infrastructural facilities avail a le. Research and development work has also to e carried out in the following areas (Silva, 1997). 1. Optimisation of agronomical conditions for cultivation 2 . Training in safe fertiliser and pesticide use 3. Development of fast growing v arieties with disease resistance 4. Determination of maturity and time of harves ting 5. No. of economically via le harvests 6. Methods of harvesting. Decision o n a limited scale of exploitation of medicinal plants from wild sources has to e ased on accurate inventories a out the kinds of plant resources, a undance an d the feasi ility of harvesting without damage to the ecosystem. In case potenti al candidates identified are not a undantly availa le, cultivation of them throu gh agroforestry and community forestry programmes will have to e initiated. I t his regard, development of n industries ased on medicinal plants can e include d as a priority area as niche markets for these are already availa le. Organic F arming In the recent times, agricultural scenario is witnessing a trend towards organic farming. It is seen that agricultural products produced through organic farming, without using any inorganic fertilisers and pesticides, fetch high dema nd and price in the international market.. Organic farming has its root in Natur e and it makes use of only organic materials. It o serves and learns from nature . It elieves that soil has life and cares a out its fertility. It protects the flora and fauna of the soil. Organic farming is not for a single crop ut it env isages the entire farm. The main o jective of organic farming includes mulching, crop rotation, cover cropping green manuring, animal waste, composting, io-gas slurry, iofertilisers and organic recycling. The energy sources are windmills, solar panels, small-scale hydroelectric projects and iogas. The changeover fro m inorganic to organic farming is to e carried out only systematically and care fully. Organic farming can e adopted in crops too y decreasing the 21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

dose of inorganic fertilisers rather than an immediate removal and adopting orga nic farming practices timely and correctly. Farmers have to e trained in all as pects of organic farming including o taining certification from associations tha t do the monitoring, starting from cultivation to final harvesting. As chemicals cannot e used as fertilizers and pest control agents, the cultivation is la ou r intensive requiring la our for weeding and other farming activities. Hence, de veloping countries, which have cheap la our and unpolluted land, can opt for org anic cultivation. Organic manure has to e prepared which leads to environment f riendly methods of organic waste disposal. Organic farming will reduce environme nt pollution, toxic effects due to use of pesticides and minerals and pro lems o f iodiversity conservation. The trend for green products is also increasing and it is expected that the industrialised countries will insist on ecola elling of products in tune with ISO 14000 as a condition of import. This will mean that a ny product produced has to e certified to ensure that no ecological damage what so ever has een caused during the production process. 22

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

IV. PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION Medicinal principles are present in different parts of the plant like root, stem , ark, heartwood, leaf, flower, fruit or plant exudates. These medicinal princi ples are separated y different processes; the most common eing extraction. Ext raction is the separation of the required constituents from plant materials usin g a solvent. In the case of medicinal plants, the extraction procedure falls int o two categories (Paroda, 1993). a) Where it is sufficient to achieve within set limits equili rium of concentration etween drug components and the solution. E g. Tinctures, decoction, teas, etc. ) Where it is necessary to extract the drug to exhaustion, ie., until all solvent extracta les are removed y the solvent. Both the methods are employed depending on the requirement although in industry the latter method is mostly used. In all industrial procedures, the raw material is pre-treated with solvent outside the extractor efore changing the latter. T his prevents sudden ulk volume changes (which are the main cause of channelling during extraction) and facilitates the reaking up of the cell walls to release the extracta les. To facilitate the extraction, the solvent should diffuse insi de the cell and the su stance must e sufficiently solu le in the solvent. The i deal solvent for complete extraction is one that is most selective, has the est capacity for extraction and is compati le with the properties of the material t o e extracted. These parameters are predetermined experimentally. The cost and availa ility of the solvent are also taken into account. Alcohol, though widely used, ecause of its great extractive power it is often the least selective, in that it extracts all solu le constituents. Alcohol in various ratios is used to minimise selectivity. The ideal alcohol ratio for woody or ark material is 75%. For leafy material, it is often less than 50% thus avoiding extraction of the c hlorophyll which makes purification difficult. Some materials such as alkaloids eing solu le in acids, their extraction is facilitated y adjusting the pH in t he acidic range. A num er of alkaloids can e extracted easily with hydrocar ons after they have een released from com ination with organic acids y grinding w ith alkali. It is first ground with moist calcium oxide and extracted with chlor oform. A large num er of alkaloids can e extracted directly with aqueous acids, organic or inorganic acids, and the alkalised extracts counter extracted with h ydrocar ons or other apolar solvents. Experiment used for extraction with solven ts usually comprise an extraction vessel with a heating jacket for steam heating or fitted with electrical devices, a condenser in reflux position, a solvent re servoir, a facility to convert to re oiler position or a separate re oiler and a short column for solvent recovery. Some times, sophisticated and costly equipme nt like the Carousel or the Inoxa extractor is employed. Technology for the manu facture of standardised extracts and phytochemicals is availa le and there are m any extracts already in the international market as drugs. A drug such as an ext ract of Centella asiatica can e manufactured as an extract containing a standar d quantity of asiaticoside. Similarly for senna a standardised extract of which, containing a standard quantity of sennosides a and could easily e produced w ith equipment that can e designed and constructed in most developing countries (Wijesekera, 1991). The promotion and development of processing of medicinal and aromatic plants have gained momentum recently in many developing countries. Gre en consumerism and resurgence of interest for plant ased products, li eralised and free market economy, increasing awareness a out iodiversity conservation an d sustaina le use of natural resources coupled with poor socio-economic conditio ns of native populations are ground realities for planning and harnessing the lo w-cost and purpose oriented process technologies. UNIDO has developed a Polyvale nt Pilot Plant with a view to ena ling developing countries to upgrade their tec hnology for the processing of medicinal and aromatic plants. This plant incorpor ates all salient features of a low cost, efficient, small capacity factory which can carry out solvent extraction, solvent percolation, concentration of miscell a, solvent recovery, steam distillation and oil separation (UNIDO, 1991; Silva, 1997). The design and 23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

fa rication of the process equipment need not e over emphasised, as even if a g ood design is availa le for adaptation, it must e done to fit the given situati on. The polyvalent plant is characterised y simplicity of design, installation, operation, maintenance and repair. Some of its features are 1. Modular construc tion so as to permit increase in capacity and function y duplicating or adding modules. 2. Simultaneous processing for more than one product, such as extractio n at one end, production of solid extract or oleoresins at the other. 3. Standar dised or optimised process control and measuring units, pumps and other ancillar ies can e easily replaced. 4. All plum ing and electrical wiring are simple and easily accessi le. 5. Multipurpose uses. Eg. Solvent/aqueous extraction, contin uous extraction, preparation of solid extract and oleoresins, essential oil dist illation, fractionation of essential oils and production of a solutes and concre tes or even processing of other phytoproducts. Formulation and Industrial Utilisation Medicinal plants are used as raw materials for extraction of active constituents in pure form (eg. alkaloids like quinine and quinidine from cinchona ark, emet ine from ipecacuanha root, glycosides from digitalis leaves, sennosides from sen na leaves), as precursors for synthetic vitamins or steroids, and as preparation s for her al and indigenous medicines. Products such as ginseng, valerian and li quorice roots are part of the her al and health food market, as well as the food flavours, fragrance and cosmetic industries. Certain plant products are industr ially exploited like liquorice in confectionery and to acco, papaine as meat ten deriser, quinine as soft drink tonic and cinchona as wine flavour. A large quant ity of medicinal plant material is used in the preparation of her al and medicin al teas, eg. chamomile. These her al and food uses are of great importance, also to the exporters from developing countries. Hundreds of medicinal plants are it ems of commerce, however relatively small countries are used in formulated her a l remedies. Several formulations like her al teas, extracts, decoctions, infusio ns, tinctures, etc are prepared from medicinal plants (Kraisintu, 1997). 1. Her al teas, Her al remedies: her al tea or infusion mixtures are mixture of ungroun d or suita ly ground medicinal plants to which drug plant extracts, ethereal oil s or medicinal su stances can e added. Infusion mixtures should e as homogenou s as possi le. 2. Drug extracts: They are preparations o tained y extracting dr ugs of a certain particle size with suita le extraction agents (menstrua). The e xtract o tained after separation of the liquid from the drug residue is called m iscella. It may already represent the final liquid dose form eg. as a so called fluid extract, or e used as an intermediary product which is to e further proc essed as quickly as possi le. 3. Aqueous drug extracts: The following degrees of comminution are used for the extract depending on the type of plant parts. Leav es, flowers and her s shredded (4000mm); woods, arks and roots shredded (2800mm ); fruits and seeds (2000mm). Alkaloid containing drugs powdered (700mm). 3.1. D ecoctions: The drug in the prescri ed comminution is put in to water at a temper ature a ove 90°C. The container is suspended in a water ath and maintained at t his temperature for 30 minutes, with repeated stirring. The mixture is then stra ined while still hot. 3.2. Infusions: One part of the comminuted drug is kneaded several times in a mortar with 3-5 parts of water and left to stand for 15 minu tes. The rest of the oiling water is then poured on to the mixture, which is su spended in a container in a water ath and kept for 5 minutes, with repeated sti rring at a temperature a ove 90°C. The mixture is covered and left to stand unti l cool. 24

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.3. Macerates: The comminuted drug is left to stand, with occasional stirring, for 30 minutes after the required quantity of water has een poured on to it at room temperature. The extract is then strained and made up to the prescri ed wei ght with rinsings. 3.4. Tinctures: Tinctures are extracts from drug plants prepa red with ethanol of varying concentration, ether or mixtures of these, perhaps w ith certain additives, in such a way that one part of drug is extracted with mor e than two parts, ut at most ten parts, of extraction liquid. 3.5. Fluid extrac ts: Like tinctures, they are liquid preparations, the difference eing that they are more concentrated. 3.6. Dry extracts: They are usually very hygroscopic and should therefore e ground and mixed under conditions which exclude moisture as much as possi le. Intermediate and end product must also e stored under dry co nditions. There are also liquid, semisolid, solid and controlled release formula tions or preparations. The other dose forms are injections, implants, ocular pre parations, inhalations and transdermal systems. Liquid formulations may e solut ions, emulsions, colloids or suspensions in the increasing order of particle siz e. They may e intended for administration parenterally, orally or topically inc luding administration into ody cavities. Homogeneity for the formulations is ve ry important, particularly where the active ingredient is present in lower conce ntration. A generalised production scheme include the following (Kraisintu, 1997 ): 1. Pre-processing: Washing, particle size optimisation, moisture reduction, r efinement or concentration. 2. Solu lisation: Insolu les removal, product sta il isation. 3. Primary extraction: Primary contaminations removal. 4. Purification: Secondary contaminations removal, decolourisation, concentration, recemization 5. Derivatization (optional): Chemical modification. 6. Drying(optional): Lyophi lization or spray drying Compounding of drugs According to the guidelines of for mulations, a prescription is composed of four different component parts of ingre dients as given elow (Jiaxiang, 1997). 1. The principal ingredient which provid es the principal curative action 2. The adjuvent which strengthen the principal action 3. The auxillary ingredient which relieves secondary symptoms or tempers the action of principle ingredient 4. The conductant which directs action to the affected conduit or site. It may also e a less significant auxillary ingredien t. The introduction of a polyvalent pilot plant has een the most significant co ntri ution of UNIDO to the development of the industrial utilisation of medicina l and aromatic plants in developing countries. The gap that prevented the transf er of processes and products developed on a la oratory to industry can e ridge d y introducing pilot plant processing facility and multidisciplinary teamwork. Many research and development institutions in developing countries lacked the s upport of their engineering counter parts and most research therefore was confin ed to academic pursuits. If one is to undertake commercial production of her al medicines, the vital role played y chemical engineers in translating la oratory findings to industrial scale outputs through pilot scale process parameter deve lopment has to e recognised. Developing countries need to uild up technologica l and scientific capa ilities to develop and improve the production of medicinal principles for use in their countries and to conduct R&D to develop products fo r export there y, ena ling countries to supply new markets which are eing creat ed as a result of consumer orientation of societies, increasing affluence and de mand for green products. Sustaina le use of this renewa le natural resource 25

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

will not only contri ute to rural industrial development and poverty alleviation ut also to iodiversity and forest conservation. Requirement for plant ased i ndustries Major requirements for esta lishing medicinal and aromatic plant ased industries in developing countries are the following (Silva, 1997): - Availa il ity of natural forest resources capa le of eing sustaina ly harvested. - Initia tion of systematic cultivation programmes - Selection of plants for processing ased on facilities availa le and marketa ility - Fa rication or procurement of e quipment, provision of required services (water, energy, chemical) - Transfer of expertise on agronomical practices, harvesting and post-harvest treatment. - Tr aining in methods of processing and quality control - Actual processing with ass istance from experts and NGO’s and international agencies - Packaging and storag e of finished products - Marketing outlets In some cases the primary processed p roduct could e used as a raw material for downstream processing such as product ion of medicinal principles, aroma chemicals, isolates, flavours, perfumes, extr action of pure chemicals and other consumer products. The following aspects have to e taken into consideration in designing country specific programmes for imp lementation. - Suita ility of climate and soil conditions - Availa ility of raw materials - Economic enefit, if any from export as well as import su stitution - Factors that hinder systematic cultivation and industrial production. - Approp riate technologies that could e a sor ed - Prospects for regional, inter region al and glo al co-operation - Inter agency co-operation and colla oration - Other issues such as conservation, energy, employment generation and involvement of w omen. 26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

V. STORAGE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OR CRUDE DRUGS Dry extracts are usually very hygroscopic and should therefore e ground, mixed under conditions, which exclude moisture as much as possi le. Intermediate and e nd products must also e stored under dry conditions. Annealing or sealing of th e products in suita le moisture tight synthetic foils has proved a good method f or this. Requirement of packaging materials The general requirements of packagin g materials are the following (Kraisintu, 1997) 1. Economical or low cost 2. Imp ermea le as glass or metal or of accepta le permea ility to moisture, gases, vol atile solvents etc. 3. Non reactive-relatively inert with no extraction, exchang e or interaction 4. Easy to manufacture in a wide range of shapes, prefera ly y a num er of manufacturing processes. 5. Easy to decorate and /or print y a ran ge of processes 6. Good production line efficiency-performance, with the minimum of rejects or wastage. 7. Effective as a pack(container and closure), i.e., eas y to open and reclose and use if multidose; or open if single dose, whilst meeti ng any special requirements such as child resistance, tamper evidence or resista nce, etc. 8. Easy to produce and maintain clean 9. Prefera ly readily availa le oth in terms of source of supply for raw materials and as a converted item comp onent from several suppliers. 10. Environmentally friendly 11. A le to optimise use of space when stacked or during transportation. Types of Packing Materials T he common types of packaging materials currently availa le are given elow (Krai sintu, 1997) 1. Glass: It can e found as several variants such as treated soda glass, soda glass and non parenteral. 2. Metals: A variety of metals including t in plate(tin coated mild steel) tin free steel, aluminium, aluminium alloys are widely used in packaging, eing found as rigid containers, collapsi le container s, aluminium foils, metalised coatings etc. 3. Plastics: There are five economic al materials for rigid type of containers i.e., those ased on polyethylene (PE) , polypropylene(PP), Polystyrene(PS), PVC and polyester. 4. Elastomeric material s: Elastomers can e found as a wide range of asic materials (i.e., natural ru er, synthetic polyisoprene, neoprene, nitryl, utyl, including romo-and chloro utyl, ethylene propylene diene modified (EPDM), acid silicone elastomers.) 27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

VI. QUALITY AND EVALUATION A major lacuna in Ayurveda is the lack of drug standardisation, information and quality control. Most of the Ayurvedic medicines are in the form of crude extrac ts which are a mixture of several ingredients and the active principles when iso lated individually fail to give desired activity. This implies that the activity of the extract is the synergistic effect of its varies components. In the a sen ce of pharmacopeic data on the various plant extracts, it is not possi le to iso late or standardise on the active contents having the desired effects. Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia compiled on modern lines and updated periodically is an urgent re quirement. Research on the rationale and methodology of Ayurvedic medical practi ce; isolation of active constituents and their development into new therapeutics ; standardisation and validation of known her al medicines and other related asp ects are needed (Sharma, 1997). These are some pro lems concerning the proper id entity of a num er of drug species. In many cases, a single plant species has se veral different commercial or medicinal names in different regions. Several dist inct species are often used under the same drug name. Another pro lem relates to adulteration in the market samples. In other words, authentication of the otan ical identity and ascertaining the genuineness of drug is great concern in pract ical situation. To some extent, it can e overcome y drug characterisation whic h is done y estimating their active principles, recording the anatomical featur es under microscope and their curative effects y clinical trials. When the ota nical identity of the plant is controversial, it is etter to go for estimation of the therapeutic agent responsi le for the curative effect ascri ed to the spe cies. The species rich in the ascri ed compound should e taken as the genuine d rug, those with relatively small amounts may e accepted as su stitute of the or iginal drug, and those lacking the required constituents may e rejected. Qualit y control of the phytoproducts for human consumption and world market can e ens ured y maintaining the quality of raw material adequacy of processing technolog y and quality of the finished products. Thus, the quality concept commences righ t from the choice of authentic and improved seeds (varieties) to the post harves t treatment of the raw material and to the process control for avoiding contamin ation. As such for developing phytoproducts, WHO’s, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) must e followed to satisfy the ISO 9000 certification. Recently, ISO 1400 0 certification has also ecome necessary to safeguard the environment. This mea ns certifying that the product has een developed without inflicting ecological damage whatsoever. In general, during the drug production process, the raw mater ials are su jected to macroscopic and microscopic examination and physicochemica l parameters such as ash values, analysis of ash for major elements such as Sodi um, Potassium and Calcium, alcohol solu le and water solu le extractive values a nd fluorescence analysis, quantitative estimation of phytoconstituents such as t otal tannins, total glycosides, total alkaloids, total resins and total sugars o f the raw materials as well as the formulations was carried out. The formulation s were also evaluated for the general parameters such as organoleptic properties , pH, viscosity, specific gravity, optical rotation and refractive index. High P erformance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) technique was employed to o tain ch aracteristic HPTLC fingerprints of the individual raw materials and formulations . Using the spectral patterns of the separated components, the presence of certa in raw materials in the formulations could also e esta lished. Batch to atch v ariation was also studied using HPTLC fingerprinting technique. General scheme for quality assurance of crude drugs and raw materials 28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The general scheme for quality assurance of crude drugs and raw materials as sug gested y Pei-Gen and Hui-zhen (1997) is given elow. 1. Importance of quality a ssurance of crude drugs and raw material: a) Guarantee the est final pharmaceut ical products. ) Environmental protection c) Sustaina le utilisation and develo pment of natural resource 2. Criteria of good quality: a) Good efficacy- high ac tive ingredient, high yield ) Good safety-less toxicity and side effects, minim um pesticide residues, minimum heavy metals c) Purity d) Sta ility 3. Gene ank c onservation (see also ta le 9): a) Biodiversity conservation ) To store plant g ermplasm for future uses c) To make germplasm availa le to create new cultivars d) Insitu conservation- gene anks of medicinal and aromatic plants in Asia e) In vitro conservation f) Breeding 4. Biotechnology a) Plant cell culture eg. Digita lis, Catharanthus ) Hairy root culture eg. Salvia, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Datur a stramoniun, Artemesia annua c) Tissue culture eg. Aloe, Crocus sativa, Mentha d) Genetic engineering: Isolation and purification of an antifungal protein from Phytolacca americana against American ginseng pathogens and synthesis of its ge ne and expression in E. coli. 5. Suita le growth region: In order to get higher quality of crude drugs and raw materials selection of the most suita le growth r egion for relevant medicinal plant is quite important. According to the ecologic al conditions, flora and other criteria, several regions of crude drug developme nt have een identified. 6. GAP: Good Agrotechnological Practices. Large cultiva tion of medicinal plants relies upon strong and continuing research. Plant varie ties with an a undance of desired constituents can e reproduced and improved up on under cultivation even in an entirely different area. Eg. Cultivation of Amer ican ginseng (Panax quinquefolia) in China. Attempt should e made to select app ropriate region ased on similar ecological conditions to introduce good cultiva ted variety, improve yield of the desired secondary meta olite and reduce the un desira le constituents. 7. Non polluted cultivation: In order to protect the env ironment, to sustaina ly utilise the resources and to get a good quality of crud e drug, non-polluted agrotechnology is rapidly developed in recent years. These products are commonly called as “Green crude drugs” This involve iological cont rol of insects and pathogens and use of otanical pesticides for the control of pest and diseases. 8. Post harvest technology: Right time harvesting, good proce ssing, good storage, extraction or distillation, quality control. Ta le 9. Gene anks of medicinal and aromatic plants in Asia (Haq, 1993) Country Collections Institutions 29

 

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China India Korea Malaysia Nepal Philippines Sri Lanka Thailand 2500 1400 850 450 340 220 200 100 IMPLAD Beijing and its 3 stations NBPGR, New Delhi; CIMAP Lucknow; AMPRS Odakkal i Medicinal plants gardens National Research council and Kuala Lumpur city counc il gardens Royal Botanic gardens University Her al garden, Los Banos Royal Botan ic garden, Kaudy Botanic gardens Quality control requirement of new preparation of traditional medicines 1. Presc ription and its asis 2. Literature and research data of physico-chemical charac teristic concerned with quality 3. Preparation technology and its research refer ences 4. The draft of the quality standard and explanation of medicinal material , and medicament. 5. Literature and test data of initial sta ility for clinical research 6. The reports of quality detection and hygiene standard detection of t he preparation for clinical research 7. Property and specification of the packin g material of the medicament, design draft of the la el and applied instructions General requirement of quality control standard of medicament 1. Quantitative d etermination of the effective compound or indicative component of 1-2 species of main medicinal materials in the prescription 2. Qualitative identification of s everal to half of the medicinal materials in the prescription 3. Determination o f content of P , Cd, Hg, As and limit test of heavy metals in medicines 4. Hygie nic standard: acteria < 1000/1gm, mould < 100/1gm, coli acillosis-nil 5. Determ ination of pesticide residues (organic Cl and P) in the medicament The general s cheme for quality assessment of otanicals The general scheme for quality assess ment of otanicals as suggested y Kraisintu (1997) is as follows. I. 1. 2. 3. 4 . Assessment of crude plant materials General description of the plant Parts use d Production of crude drugs-cultivation, harvesting, post-harvest handling, pack ing, storage. Quality specification: Chemical or chromatographic identification, foreign organic mater limit, ash content, acid insolu le ash content, water sol u le extractive, alcohol solu le extract, moisture content, active constituent c ontent, micro ial limit, pesticide residue limit, heavy metal limit, likely cont aminants, adulterants. II. Assessment of finished products 1. Ta lets: Weight va riation, disintegration time, identification of preservatives and active ingredi ents, determination of extractives in various solvents, micro ial limit, heavy m etals. 2. Solutions: pH, identification of preservatives and active ingredients, alcohol content, micro ial limit, Sodium Saccharic content. 3. Infusions: Weigh t variations, identification of preservatives and active ingredients, determinat ion of extractives in various solvents, micro ial limit, heavy metals, Borax. II I. Chemical Standardisation methods: TLC/HPTLC, HPLC,GLC,FTIR IV. Chemical Marke rs: Specification for raw materials, quality assurance in process control, stand ardisation of product, o taining sta ility profiles, single marker vs. fingerpri nt. 30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

V. Parameters of assay validation: Linearity, limits of quantification and detec tion, precision, ro ustness, recovery. Complex and varia le mixtures, choice of compounds to quantify, difficult sample preparation, lack of pure reference stan dards, lack of methods with adequate tolerances y analytical chemistry standard s are some of the challenges in Chemical Standardisation of plant drugs. Interna tional scheme for quality assurance of pharmaceutics International scheme for qu ality assurance of pharmaceutics involves the following standard practices. GAP: Good Agricultural Practice GLP: Good La oratory Practice GMP: Good Manufacturin g Practice GCP: Good Clinical Practice GALP: Good Analytical/Automated La orator y Practice Quality has to e uilt into the whole process eginning from the sel ection of propagation material to the final product reaching the consumer. It is therefore a management system where all steps involved in the industrial utilis ation process have to e properly and strictly controlled to produce the desired quality products. The requirements for ISO 9000 certification have to e introd uced and personnel trained so that enterprises could introduce the proper system s needed for certification. The control of the quality of the raw materials, fin ished products and of processes is an a solute necessity, if one is to produce g oods for world markets and human use. Monographs have to e prepared for each pr oduct to include all specifications developed. Modern analytical techniques have to e extensively used to develop identity and quality parameters. The machiner y and processes used in industries have to e validated to comply with internati onal standards. It is imperative that the processed products comply with nationa l and/or international specification. There are International Standard Organisat ion Specification (ISO) for many of the products. In addition, countries and uy ers can have their own requirements. Hence the products could e tailor made to conform to the uyers’ requirements. Sometimes the requirements of the uyers ar e more stringent and specific, demanding the application of good manufacturing p rocedures. Associated with quality management is the compliance with current goo d manufacturing practices. WHO requirements of good manufacturing practices have to e introduced in every project as most developing countries fall very short of GMP. Without GMP products can not e expected to e of required standards and quality. The concept of safety is almost non-existent in many developing countr ies. Safety requirements with respect to uildings, machinery and staff have to e introduced and if possi le, safety manuals have to e prepared in order to fo cus the attention of the management and staff on these issues. Stringent require ments are eing introduced presently to safeguard the environment, to reduce pol lution caused y use of synthetic materials and to conserve the iodiversity. He nce eco-audit procedures will e required for safeguarding environmental damage. Organic production will reduce the risks of contamination of products and the e nvironment with synthetic chemicals. In fact ISO 14000 requirements may have to e met in the future if the uyers insist on eco-la elling. Modern approach to s tandardisation comprises mainly examination of organoleptic characters and quali tative estimation of some salts, minerals, ash contents, pH value, etc. There is one asic difference of outlook etween the Ayurvedic and modern Allopathic sys tem regarding the therapeutic use of drugs. While in Ayurveda, whole drug is use d, in Allopathy the isolated active ingredient present in the drug is used. Ayur vedic drugs act moderately and gradually, ut Allopathic drugs react severely an d quickly. Charak has prescri ed the following four standards for effective drug s. 1. Which grow in proper season 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

2. Have attained maturity in taste, potency and smell 3. Whose smell, appearance , taste and touch remains unvitiated y the effect of weather, fire, air and ins ects. 4. Fresh Sushruta has propounded a general principle regarding accepta ili ty of plants for use as medicine. A drug may e accepted for use whether it is n ew or old provided its odour has not vitiated and its taste etc., not deteriorat ed. 32

 

 

 

TROPICAL MEDICINAL PLANTS Tropical countries are a treasure house of a wide variety of medicinal plants. S ome species are found wild, while a num er of species have een domesticated y the farmers. Many species have een grown in homesteads and ecome part of tradi tional home remedies. A limited num er of species are commercially cultivated th ough a few more have potential for large-scale production. The important tropica l and su tropical medicinal plants are discussed here highlighting the importanc e, medicinal and other uses, distri ution, otany, agrotechnology, chemical cons tituents and activity. For practical convenience of the discussion in this ook, they are classified under the following four road groups. a) Medicinal her s ) Medicinal shru s c) Medicinal clim ers d) Medicinal trees AMBRETTE Malvaceae A elmoschus moschatus San: Latakasturika Hin, Guj, Ben: Mushkdana Mal: Kasthurivenda Mar: Kasthuri- h endi Tel: Kasturi enda Tam: Varttilaikasturi Kan: Kasturi ende Ass: Gorukhiako rai Importance Am rette, also popularly known as musk or Muskmallow, is an erect annual her wh ich yields musk-like scented seeds and woos every ody through its sensuous musky fragrance. Every part of this medicinal plant is used in one or the other way . Seeds are effective aphrodisiac and antispasmodic, and used in tonics. They che ck vomiting and cure diseases due to kapha and vata and are useful in treating i ntestinal disorders, urinary discharge, nervous disorders, hysteria, skin diseas es, snake ites, pruritus, leucoderma and general de ility. Flower infusion is c ontraceptive. The leaves and roots are used for gonorrhoea and to treat oils an d swellings. Am rette oil of commerce is extracted from the seeds and is used in perfumery, flavouring, cosmetic and agar athi industries. The essential oil is employed in non-alcoholic everages, ice-creams, candies and aked foods. The ar omatic concrete and a solute, extracted from seeds are used as ase material for preparing high grade perfumes, scents and cosmetics. It is also known for exalt ing, amplifying and diffusing effects it imparts to perfumes. It lends well wit h rose, neroli, and sandal wood oil and aliphatic aldehydes. The flowers are in great demand for making ‘zarda’ a flavoured to acco in India. The seeds are mixe d with tea and coffee for flavour. The seed is rich in essential amino acids and is used as cattle or poultry feed. The stem ark yields a good quality fi re. S eeds are used to protect woollen garments against moth and it imparts a musky od our to sachets, hair powder, panmasala and incense. Its tender shoots are used i n soups, green pods as vegeta le and seed husk in flower arrangements. From perf umes to panmasalas and tonics, it is the musky musk all the way. In addition to internal consumption, its seeds are exported to Canada, France and UK ecause of its diversified uses (Srinivasan et al, 1997). Distri ution The musk plant is a native of India and it grows in the tropical su tropical and hilly regions of the country; particularly in the states of Maharashta, Gujarat , Madhyapresh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. More than 50 collections of the plant are maintained y the National 33

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi and its regional station in Akola, Maharashtra. Botany A elmoschus moschatus Medicus syn. Hi iscus a elmoshus Linn. elongs to Family M alvaceae. Muskmallow is an erect annual or iennial hirsute or hispid her of 60 -180 cm height. The leaves are simple polymorphous, usually palmately 3-7 lo ed; lo es narrow, acute or o long-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, h airy on oth surfaces. Flowers are large and right yellow with purple centre. F ruits are fulvous, hairy and capsular. Seeds are many, su reniform, lack or gre yish - rown and musk scented (Husain et al, 1992). Agrotechnology Am rette is a hardy plant which can e grown in varied climate under tropical an d su tropical conditions. It can e grown oth as a rainfed crop and as an irrig ated crop. It grows on well drained loamy and sandy loam soils. Loamy soils with neutral pH and plenty of organic matter are ideal for its cultivation. Musk of propagated through seeds. The optimum time of sowing is June-July with premonsoo n showers. The land is prepared well y ploughing, harrowing and levelling. Well decomposed FYM or compost is incorporated into the soil at 10 - 15 t/ha. Ridges and furrows are formed giving a spacing of 60 - 100 cm. Seed rate is 2-3 kg/ha. Seeds are soaked in water efore sowing for 24 hours. Two to three seeds are so wn per hole at 60 cm spacing on one side of the ridge at a depth of 1 cm and cov ered with a pinch of sand or loose soil. It takes 5-7 days for proper germinatio n. After germination, extra seedlings are thinned out leaving one healthy growin g plant per hole within 20 days. Fertilisers are applied at 120:40:40 kg N, P2O5 , K2O/ha generally. However, a dose 160:80:80 kg/ha is recommended for est yiel ds of seed and oil. Phosphorus is applied fully as asal. N and K are applied in 3 equal doses at planting, 2 and 4 months after planting. Fertilizers are appli ed 10 cm away from the plants. For irrigated crop, field is irrigated soon after sowing. Irrigation is given twice a week during the initial period and once a w eek thereafter. The field is kept weed free y regular weeding during the growin g period (Farooqi and Khan, 1991). Musk plants suffer from pests like spider mit es, fruit ores and leaf eating caterpillars. Diseases like powdery mildew and w ilt are also o served on the plant. Spider mites and powdery mildew are controll ed y spraying 30g wetta le sulphur in 10 litres of water. Pod orers can e con trolled y spraying 20ml oxydemeton methyl in 10 litres of water. The crop start s flowering a out 75 days after sowing. The flowers set into fruits in 34 days a nd the pods take nearly a month to mature. Flowering and fruit setting extends f rom Octo er to April. Harvesting is arduous. Fruits have to e plucked as soon a s they attain lack colour; otherwise, they split and seeds scatter. Therefore, weekly collection of pods is necessary and in all 20-25 pluckings may e require d as it is a 170-180 days duration crop. The fruits are further dried and thresh ed to separate seeds. The seed yield is 1-1.5 /ha Postharvest technology . The oil is extracted from seed y steam distillation followed y solvent extra ction. The concrete of solvent extraction is further extracted with alcohol to g et the a solute, that is, the alcohol solu le volatile concentrate. Properties and activity 34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

The fatty oil of seeds contain phospholipids as 2 - cephalin, phosphatidylserine and its plasmalogen and phosphatidyl choline plasmalogen. A solute contains far nesol and am rettolic acid lactone. β- sitosterol and its β- d - glucosides are isolated from leaves. Petals contain β-sitosterol, flavonoid myricetin and its g lucoside. Anthocyanins like cyanidin - 3 - sam u ioside and cyanidin - 3 - gluco side are present in the flowers. (Chopra and Nayar, 1980) Seeds are aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, diuretic, demulcent, antiseptic, stomachic, tonic, carminative, antihysteric, antidiarrhoeal, ophthalmic, cardiac and antivenum. 35

 

   

 

DATURA Solanaceae San: Dhustura Hin.: Kaladhatura Vellummattai Tel: Tellavummetta Ben: Dhatura Datura metel Mal: Ummam Kan; Dattura Tam: Importance Downy datura or thorn apple is an erect ranched under shru whose intoxicating and narcotic properties have een made use of y man from ancient time. The plan t and fruit are spasmolytic, anticancerous and anthelmintic. Leaves and seeds ar e inhaled in whooping cough, asthma and other respiratory diseases. Root, leaf a nd seed are fe rifuge, antidiarrhoeal, anticatarrhal and are used in insanity, c ere ral complications and skin diseases. Leaf is antitumour, antirheumatic and v ermicide. Flower is antiasthamatic, anaesthetic and is employed in swellings and eruptions on face. Fruit juice is used in earache and seed decoction in ophthal mia. For the rheumatic swellings of joints, lum ago, sciatica and neuralgia, war m leaf smeared with an oil is used as a andage or sometimes the leaf is made in to a poultice and applied. The root oiled with milk is used in insanity. It is also an ingredient in the ayurvedic preparation Kanakasva used in ronchial trou les, and the Unani formulations “Roghan dhatura” used as a massage oil for the paralysed part. The alkaloids of pharmaceutical interest present in the plant ar e hyoscyamine, hyoscine and meteloidine. Datura is the chief commercial source o f hyoscine availa le from natural source. Hyoscine, in the form of hyoscine hydr o romide, is used as a pre-anaesthetic in surgery, child irth, ophthalmology an d prevention of motion sickness. It is also employed in the relief of withdrawal symptoms in morphine and alcoholic addiction, paralysis agitans, postencephalet ic parkinsonianism and to allay sexual excitement. Hyoscyamine and its salt hyos cyamine sulphate and hyoscyamine hydro romide are used in delerium, tremour, men ia and parkinsonianism (Kaul and Singh, (1995). Distri ution Datura is distri uted throughout the world, particularly the warmer regions. Dat ura stramonium is indigenous to India. Out of 15 species reported from different parts of the world, only 10 are known to occur in India. They are found commonl y in wastelands, gardens and roadsides. They are distri uted in rich localities under semi-arid and arid regions of Punja , Haryana, Rajastan, and Gujarat; the Central Plateau of Andhra Pradesh and Maharastra and the southern peninsular reg ion of Tamil Nadu. Datura innoxia is indigenous to Mexico and is distri uted in Latin American countries. A wealth of genetic stock on genotypes and varieties a re maintained in several research institutes in Germany, Bulgaria, USSR and Pola nd. Botany The genus Datura, elonging to the family solanaceae, consists of annual and per ennial her s, shru s and trees. Three species,viz, Datura metel Linn., D. stramo nium Linn. and D. innoxia Mill. are medicinally important. D. innoxia mill. and D. metel Linn. (var. al a, and var, fastuosa) are the choice drug plants, rich i n hyoscine. D. metel Linn. is the most common in India. The names, D. metel Linn ., D. fastuosa Linn., D. al a Nees., D. fastuosa Linn. var. al a (Nees) C.B. Cla rke and D. metel Linn. var. fastuosa (Linn.) Safford are synonymously used y ma ny workers. Two varieties are often noted in D. metel Linn., namely the white fl owered var. al a and purple flowered var. fastuosa. D. metel Linn. is an erect s ucculent ranched undershru divaricate often purplish ranches and ovate pu esc ent leaves which are o lique at the ase of lamina. Flowers are large, solitary, short pedicelled, purplish outside and white inside. Fruits are su -glo ose cap sules covered all over with numerous, fleshy prickles, irregularly reaking when mature. Seeds are numerous, smooth, yellowish rown. (warrier et al, 1994). Agrotechnology Datura grows well in a wide range of climate from tropical to temperate conditio

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

ns. The plant thrives est in areas of low rainfall where winter and monsoon rai ns are followed 36

 

y long dry periods. Areas with annual rainfall elow 1000mm with mean temperatu re of 1015oC in winter and 27 - 28oC in May-June are ideal. The crop cannot stan d frost, high rainfall or high temperature in the plains in May-June. It grows o n majority of soils, however, alkaline or neutral clay loam soil or those tendin g to saline-alkaline reaction rich in organic matter are ideal for vigorous grow th. The clayey, acidic, water-logged or moisture deficient soils do not suit thi s crop. The plant is propagated y seeds ut it is characterised y poor and oft en erratic seed germination which can e improved either y leaching out the inh i itor from the seeds or y alternate freezing and thawing of seeds. The optimum season for raising the crop is Ra i in tropical and su tropical areas while Kha rif in temperate areas. The seeds can e roadcast sown or seedlings can e rais ed in nursery and then transplanted. Seed rate is 7-8 kg/ha for roadcasting and 2-3 kg/ha. for transplanting. The field is ploughed and disced adequately to pr oduce fine seed ed. In the case of direct seeding, seeds are drilled in rows ta ken 45-60 cm apart. The plants are thinned to keep a spacing of 30-45 cm at the time of first weeding. In the case of transplanting 4-6 weeks old seedlings are planted at 45-60 x 30-45 cm spacing. The field should e irrigated immediately a fter sowing or planting if soil moisture is inadequate. Thereafter 3-4 irrigatio ns may e given if sufficient rainfall is not received. Application of organic m anure at 10-15 t/ha and fertilisers at 60:40:40 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ha is recomme nded for the crop for etter growth and yield N may e applied in 3-4 equal spli t doses at planting and after each weeding which is required 2-3 times during th e growing season. Application of micronutrients is reported to improve the alkal oid contents. No major insect pest is known to attack this crop. However, leaf s pot, wilt and mosaic diseases cause damage to this crop. Leaf spot is caused y Alternaria tennuissima (Nees) Wiltshire and characterised y rown round to oval spots, ecoming necrotic at later stage which leads to withering and dropping o f leaves. Wilt is caused y Sclerotium rolfsii Sace; it starts with dropping of leaves and finally wilting of the entire plant. Root and foot wilt, caused y Co rticium solani, appears as damping off of seedlings and mature plants. Datura di stortion mosaic is characterised y yellowing of the veins followed y inward ro lling and distortion of leaves with a reduction in plant size. For reducing the impact of these diseases, field sanitation, use of resistant varieties, crop rot ation for 3-4 years and fungicide application should e resorted to. For the pur pose of leaf and top, harvesting is done as soon as flowering starts. Entire top containing leaves and twigs is cut, dried in shade and stored in gunny ags. Fo r seed and fruit, fully grown fruits, still green are picked 2-3 times efore fi nal harvest when the entire plant is cut from the ase and dried in the open. Th e dried fruits are then thrashed with a stick to separate the seeds. The seed yi eld is 1-1.5 t/ha. (Husain, 1993; Kaul and Singh, 1995) Properties and activity The alkaloids hyoscyamine and hyoscine (scopolamine) and meteloidine are found i n all parts of the plant. The total alkaloid content is 0.26 - 0.42 % Fruits con tain daturaolone and daturadiol while roots contain additionally ditigloyloxy tr opane derivatives, tigloidine, apohyoscine, norhyoscine, norhyocyamine, cusiohyg rine and tropine. Other alkaloids isolated from the plant are apohyoscyamine, DL -scopolamine, normeteloidine, tigloylputrescine, scopine, nortigloidine, tropine , psuedo valeroidine, fastudine, fastunine, fastusinine, 7-hydroxy-3, 6-ditigloy loxytropane (2) datura nolone and fastusic acid. The physiological effects of hy oscyamine are qualitatively the same as those of its recemic derivative atropine . This is relatively more active in its paralysing affect on nerve endings and l ess active in its stimulant action on the central nervous system. The sedative a nd hypnotic action of hyoscyamine is weaker than that of hyoscine. Atropine has a stimulant action on the central nervous system and depresses the nerve endings to the secretary glands and plain muscles. The plant or the different alkaloids have narcotic, anthelmintic, spasmolytic anaesthetic, sedative, ophthalmic, ant icancerous, antitumour, antirheumatic, antiasthmatic, antidiarrhoeal and anticat arrhal activities. (Thakur et al, 1989).

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37

ASPARAGUS Liliaceae Asparagus racemosus San, Mar, Hin, Mal: Satavari; Ben: Shatamuli, Guj: Ekalkanto, Tel: Pilligadalu, Philithaga Tam: Ammaikodi, Kilwari, Kan: Aheru alli, Ori: Manajolo Importance Asparagus is a clim ing undershru with widespread applications as diuretic, coo ling agent and an excellent safe her al medicine for ante-natal care. It is usef ul in nervous disorders, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, tumours, inflammations, vitiated conditions of vata and pitta, urning sensation, hyperdipsia, ophthalmopathy, ne phropathy, hepatopathy, strangury, scalding of urine, throat infections, tu ercu losis, cough, ronchitis, gleet, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, leprosy, epilepsy, fat igue, hyperacidity, colic haemorrhoids, hypertension, a ortion, agalactia, cardi ac and general de ility (Warrier et al, 1993). Shatavari is descri ed in Rigveda and Atharvaveda. In Ayurvedic classics it is prescri ed as a cooling agent and uterine tonic. It is the main ingredient in ayurvedic medicines like shatavari g ulam and shatavari ghrtam. Besides quenching thirst, its root juice helps in coo ling down the ody from summer heat, curing hyper-acidity and peptic ulcer. It c ontains good amount of mucilage which soothes the inner cavity of stomach. It re lieves urning sensation while passing urine and is used in urinary tract infect ions. It contains an anticancer agent asparagin which is useful against leukaemi a. It also contains active antioxytocic saponins which have got antispasmodic ef fect and specific action on uterine musculature. It is very good relaxant to ute rine muscles, especially during pregnancy and is used to prevent a ortion and pr e-term la our on the place of progesterone preparations. Its powder oiled with milk is generally used to prevent a ortion. It increases milk production in cows and uffaloes. Its preparations in milk helps in increasing reast milk in lact ating women. Its proper use helps in avoiding excessive lood loss during period s. It clears out infections and a normalities of uterine cavity and hence it is used to rectify infertility in women. The leaves are used to prepare toilet soap s. The plant has also ornamental value oth for indoor and out door decorations (Syamala, 1997). Distri ution The plant is found wild in tropical and su tropical India including Andaman and Nico ar Islands. It is distri uted from mean sea level upto 1500m in the Himalay as from Kashmir eastwards. The crop is cultivated in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Predesh and northern states in India. However, most of the requirement of the in dustry is met through wild collections from forests. It is also grown in gardens . Botany Satavari, Asparagus racemosus Willd. elongs to the lily family, Liliaceae. Aspa ragus adscendens Rox ., A. filicinus Lam., A. gonoclados Baker, A. officinalis L inn. and A. sarmentosus Willd. are the other important medicinal plant species o f the genus. A. racemosus Willd. is an armed clim ing undershru with woody tere te stems and recurved or rarely straight spines. The tu erous succulent roots ar e 30cm to 100cm or more in length, fascicled at the stem ase, smooth tapering a t oth ends. Young stems are very delicate, rittle and smooth. Leaves are reduc ed to minute chaffy scales and spines; cladodes triquetrous, curved in tufts of 2-6. Flowers are white fragrant in simple or ranched recemes 38

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

on the naked nodes of the main shoots or in the axils of the thorns. Fruits are glo ular or o scurely 3-lo ed, pulpy erries, purplish lack when ripe; seeds wi th hard and rittle testa. Agrotechnology The plant comes up well under a wide range of tropical and su tropical climate. Fertile moist sandy loam soils are ideal for its cultivation though it grows in a wide range of soils. Better root development is o served in soils in increased proportion of sand. However, a decline in the yield of the crop is noticed in s oils containing previous year’s residue of the roots. Asparagus plant is est gr own from its tu erous roots even though it can e successfully propagated throug h seeds. Since root tu ers are of commercial value seed propagation provides eco nomic advantage to the farmers. Seeds usually start germinating after 40 days an d average germination is 70% (Tewari and Misra, 1996). For the cultivation of th e crop, the land is ploughed well with pre-monsoon showers and seed nurseries ar e raised on seed eds of approximately 1m width, 15cm height and suita le length . Seed nursery should e irrigated regularly and kept weed free. With the onset of monsoon in June-July the main field is ploughed thoroughly and pits of size 3 0cm cu e are dug at a spacing of 60-100cm. Tiwari and Misra (1996) have reported that irrespective of more num er of roots and higher fresh weight per plant und er wider spacings, the per hectare yields were highest in the closer spacing of 30cm x 30cm. The pit is filled with a mixture of top soil and well decomposed FY M or compost applied at 10 - 15 t/ha and the seedlings are transplanted. Applica tion of N, P2O5 and K2O at 60:30:30 kg/ha increases the root yield. Regular irri gation and weeding are required to realize higher yields. Standards are to e pr ovided for training the plant (Sharma et al, 1992). Few pests and diseases are o served on this crop. Harvesting the crop after two years provided higher root y ield than annual harvests in pots as well as in field experiments. Irrigating th e field prior to harvest ena les easy harvesting of the root tu ers. The average yield is 10 - 15 t/ha of fresh root tu ers though yields over 60t/ha have een reported. Properties and Activity Asparagus roots contain protein 22%, fat 6.2%, Car ohydrate 3.2%, Vitamin B 0.36 %, Vitamin C 0.04% and traces of Vitamin A. It contains several alkaloids. Alcoh olic extract yields asparagin- an anticancer agent. It also contains a num er of antioxytocic saponins, viz. Shatavarisn - I to IV (Syamala, 1997). Leaves conta in rutin, diosgenin and a flavonoid glycoside identified as quercetin - 3 - gluc uronide. Flowers contain quercetin hyperoside and rutin. Fruits contain glycosid es of quercetin, rutin and hyperoside while fully ripe fruits contain cyanidin 3 - galactoside and cyanidin - 3 - glucorhamnoside. Root is demulcent, diuretic , aphrodisiac, tonic, alterative, antiseptic, antidiarrhoeal, glalctogogue and a ntispasmodic. Aerial part is spasmolytic, antiarrhythmic and anticancer. Bark is anti acterial and antifungal. 39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

GREATER AMMI Apiaceae Importance Ammi majus Greater Ammi, also known as Bishop’s weed or Honey plant is an annual or iennia l her which is extensively used in the treatment of leucoderma (vitiligo) and p soriasis. The compounds responsi le for this are reported to e furocoumarins li ke ammoidin (xanthotoxin), ammidin (imperatorin) and majudin ( ergapten) present in the seed. Xanthotoxin is marketed under the trade name “Ox soralen” which is administered orally in doses of 50 mg t.d. or applied externally as 1% liniment followed y exposure of affected areas to sunlight or UV light for 2 hours. It is also used in “Suntan lotion”. Meladinine is a y-product of Ammi majus proces sing, containing oth xanthotoxin and imperatorin sold in various formulations i ncreases pigmentation of normal skin and induces repigmentation in vitiligo. Imp eratorin has antitumour activity. Fruit or seed causes photosensitization in fou ls and sheep. Distri ution The plant is indigenous to Egypt and it grows in the Nile Valley, especially in Behira and Fayoom. It is also found in the asin of the Mediterranean Sea, in Sy ria, Palestine, A yssinia, West Africa, in some regions of Iran and the mountain s of Kohaz (Ramadan, 1982). It grows wild in the wild state in A otta ad, Mainw ali, Mahran and is cultivated in Pakistan. The crop was introduced to India in t he Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, in 1955 through the courtesy of UNESCO. Since then, the crop has een grown for its medicinal fruit in several places i n Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Kashmir and Tamil Nadu. Botany Ammi majus Linn. elongs to the family Apiaceae (Um elliferae). A. visnaga is an other related species of medicinal importance. A. majus is an annual or einnial her growing to a height of 80 to 120 cm. It has a long tap root, solid erect s tem, decompound leaves, light green alternate, variously pinnately divided, havi ng lanceolate to oval segments. Inflorescence is axillary and terminal compound um els with white flowers. The fruits are ri ed, ellipsoid, green to greenish rown when immature, turning reddish rown at maturity and having a characteristi c tere inthinate odour ecoming strong on crushing with extremely pungent and sl ightly itter taste. Agrotechnology Ammi is relatively cold loving and it comes up well under su tropical and temper ate conditions. It does not prefer heavy rainfall. Though the plant is iennial it ehaves as an annual under cultivation in India. A mild cool climate in the e arly stages of crop growth and a warm dry weather at maturity is ideal. It is cu ltivated as a winter annual crop in ra i season. A wide variety of soils from sa ndy loam to clay loam are suita le. However, a well drained loamy soil is the e st. Waterlogged soils are not good. Being a hardy crop, it thrives on poor and d egraded soils. The plant is seed propagated. Seeds germinate within 10-12 days o f sowing. The est time of sowing is Octo er and the crop duration is 160-170 da ys in north India. Crop sown later gives lower yield. The crop can e raised eit her y direct sowing of seed or y raising a nursery and then transplanting the crop. Seed rate is 2 kg/ha. The land is rought to 40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

   

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

a fine tilth y repeated ploughing and harrowing. Ridges and furrows are then fo rmed at 4560 cm spacing. Well decomposed FYM at 10-15 t/ha and asal fertilisers are incorporated in the furrows. Seeds eing very small are mixed with fine san d or soil, sown in furrows and covered lightly with a thin layer of soil. A fert ilizer dose of 80:30:30 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ha is generally recommended for the c rop while 150:40:40 kg/ha is suggested in poor soils for etter yields. The furo coumarin content of Ammi majus is increased y N fertiliser and the N use effici ency increases with split application of N at sowing, ranching and at flowering . For o taining high yields it is essential to give one or two hoeings during No vem er to Fe ruary which keeps down the weeds. If winter rains fail, one irrigat ion is essential during Novem er to January. As the harvesting season is spread over a long period of time, two irrigations during March and April meets the req uirements of the crop (Chadha and Gupta, 1995). White ants and cut worms are rep orted to attack the crop which can e controlled y spraying the crop with 40g c ar aryl in 10 l of water. Damping off and powdery mildew are the common diseases of the crop. Seed treatment with organomercuric compounds is recommended for da mping off. To control powdery mildew the crop is to e sprayed with 30g wetta le sulphur in 10 l of water whenever noticed. The crop flowers in Fe ruary. Flower ing and maturity of seed is spread over a long period of two months. The primary um els and the early maturing secondary um els are the major contri utors to yi eld. A little delay in harvesting results in the shattering of the seed which is the main constraint in the commercial cultivation of the crop and the main reas on for low yields in India. So ti et al (1978) have reported increased yield y 50 - 60% y the application of planofix at 5 ppm at flower initiation and fruit formation stages. The optimum time of harvest is the mature green stage of the f ruit in view of the reduced losses due to shattering and maximum contents of fur ocoumarins. The primary um els mature first within 35-45 days. These are harvest ed at an interval of 2-4 days. Later, the early appearing secondary um els are h arvested. Afterwards, the entire crop is harvested, stored for a couple of days and then threshed to separate the seeds. The seed yield is 900-1200 kg/ha. Postharvest technology The processing of seed involves solvent extraction of powdered seeds, followed y chilling and liquid extraction and chromatographic separation after treatment with alcoholic HCl. Bergapten, xanthotoxin and xanthotoxol can e separated. Xan thotoxol can e methylated and the total xanthotoxin can e purified y charcoal treatment in acetone or alcohol. Properties and activity Ammi majus fruit contains amorphous glucoside 1%, tannin 0.45%, oleoresin 4.76%, acrid oil 3.2%, fixed oil 12.92%, proteins 13.83% and cellulose 22.4%. This is one of the richest sources of linear furocoumarins. Ivie (1978) evaluated the fu rocoumarin chemistry of taxa Ammi majus and reported the presence of xanthotoxin , ergapten, imperatorin, oxypencedanin, heraclenin, sexalin, pa ulenol and many other compounds. Furocoumarins have actericidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, lar vicidal, moluscicidal, nematicidal, ovicidal, viricidal and her icidal activitie s (Duke, 1988). 41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

   

PERIWINKLE Apocynaceae Catharanthus roseus San: Nityakalyani; Hin: Sada ahar, Baramassi; Mal: Ushamalari, Nityakalyani Tel: Billaganeru; Tam: Sudukattu mallikai; Pun: Rattanjot; Kan: Kasikanigale, Nitya Mallige Importance Periwinkle or Vinca is an erect handsome her aceous perennial plant which is a c hief source of patented cancer and hypotensive drugs. It is one of the very few medicinal plants which has a long history of uses as diuretic, antidysenteric, h aemorrhagic and antiseptic. It is known for use in the treatment of dia etes in Jamaica and India. The alkaloids vin lastine and vincristine present in the leav es are recognized as anticancerous drugs. Vin lastine in the form of vin lastin sulphate is availa le in market under the trade name "VELBE" and Vincristine sul phate as "ONCOVIN" (Eli Lilly). Vin lastine is used in com ination with other an ticancer agents for the treatment of lymphocytic lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, te sticular carcinoma and choriocarcinoma. Vincristine is used in acute leukemia, l ymphosarcoma and Wilm’s tumour. Its roots are a major source of the alkaloids, r au asine (ajmalicine), reserpine and serpentine used in the preparation of antif i rillic and hypertension-relieving drugs. It is useful in the treatment of chor iocarcinoma and Hodgkin s disease-a cancer affecting lymph glands, spleen and li ver. Its leaves are used for curing dia etes, menorrhagia and wasp stings. Root is tonic, stomachic, hypotensive, sedative and tranquilliser (Narayana and Dimri ,1990 ). Distri ution The plant is a native of Madagascar and hence the name Madagascar Periwinkle. It is distri uted in West Indies, Mozam ique, South Vietnam, Sri Lanka , Philippin es and Australia . It is well adapted to diverse agroclimatic situations prevale nt in India and is commercially cultivated in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnatak a, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Assam. USA, Hungary, West Germany, Italy, Netherl ands and UK are the major consumers. Botany Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G.Don. syn. Vinca rosea Linn. elongs to the family Apocynaceae. It is an erect highly ranched lactiferous perennial her growing u p to a height of one metre. Leaves are o long or ovate, opposite, short-petioled , smooth with entire margin. Flowers are orne on axils in pairs . There are thr ee flower colour types , pink, pink-eyed and white. Calyx with 5 sepal, green, l inear, su ulate. Corolla tu e is cylindrical with 5 petals, rose-purple or white with rose-purple spot in the centre; throat of corolla tu e hairy, forming a co rona-like structure. The anthers are epipetalous orne on short filaments inside the ulging distal end of corolla tu e converging conically a ove the stigma. T wo characteristic secretary systems, namely a column like nectarium on oth side s of pistil and a secretory cringulam circling the papillate stigma with a presu med role in pollination fecundation process are present . Ovary icarpellary, a sally distinct with fused common style and stigma. The dehiscent fruit consists of a pair of follicles each measuring a out 25 mm in length and 2.3 mm in diamet er, containing up to thirty linearly arranged seeds with a thin lack tegumen. O n maturity, the follicles split along the length dehiscing the seeds. Agrotechnology Periwinkle grows well under tropical and su tropical climate. A well distri uted rainfall of 1000 mm or more is ideal. In north India the low winter temperature s adversely affect the crop growth. It can grow on any type of soil ,except thos e which are highly saline, alkaline or waterlogged. Light soils, rich in humus a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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re prefera le for large scale cultivation since harvesting of the roots asy . 42

 

 

ecome e

Catharanthus is propagated y seeds . Fresh seeds should e used since they are short-via le. Seeds can e either sown directly in the field or in a nursery and then transplanted. Seed rate is 2.5 kg/ha for direct sowing and the seeds are d rilled in rows 45 cm apart or roadcasted. For transplanted crop the seed rate i s 500gm/ha. Seeds are sown in nursery and transplanted at 45x 30cm spacing after 60 days when the seedlings attain a height of 15-20cm Nursery is prepared two m onths in advance so that transplanting coincides with the on set of monsoons. Ap plication of FYM at the rate of 15 t/ha is recommended. An alternate approach is to grow leguminous green manure crops and incorporate the same into the soil at flowering stage. Fertilisers are recommended at 80:40:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O/ha for i rrigated crop and 60:30:30 kg/ha for rainfed crop. N is applied in three equal s plits at planting and at 45 and 90 days after planting. 4 or 5 irrigations will e needed to optimise yield when rainfall is restricted. Fortnightly irrigations support good crop growth when the crop is grown exclusively as an irrigated cro p. Weeding is carried out efore each topdressing. Alternatively, use of fluchlo raline at 0.75 kg a.i. /ha pre-plant or alachlor at 1.0 kg a.i. per ha as pre-em ergence to weeds provides effective control of a wide range of weeds in periwink le crop. Detopping of plants y 2cm at 50% flowering stage improves root yield a nd alkaloid contents. No major pests, other than Oleander hawk moth, have een r eported in this crop . Fungal diseases like twig light (top rot or die ack ) ca used y Phytophthora nicotianae., Pythium de aryanum, P. utleri and P. aphanide rmatum; leaf spot due to Alternaria tenuissima, A. alternata, Rhizoctonia solani and Ophio olus catharanthicola and foot-rot and wilt y Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium solani have een reported. However, the damage to the crop is not very serious. Three virus diseases causing different types of mosaic symptoms and a p hyllody or little leaf disease due to mycoplasma-like organisms have also een r eported; the spread of which could e checked y uprooting and destroying the af fected plants. The crop allows 3-4 clippings of foliage eginning from 6 months. The flowering stage is ideal for collection of roots with high alkaloid content . The crop is cut a out 7 cm a ove the ground and dried for stem, leaf and seed. The field is irrigated, ploughed and roots are collected. The average yields of leaf, stem and root are 3.6, 1.5and 1.5 t/ha, respectively under irrigated cond itions and 2.0, 1.0 and 0.75t/ha, respectively under rainfed conditions on air d ry asis. The harvested stem and roots loose 80% and 70% of their weight, respec tively. The crop comes up well as an undercrop in eucalyptus plantation in north India. In north western India a two year crop sequence of periwinkle-senna-must ard or periwinkle-senna- coriander are recommended for higher net returns and pr oductivity (Krishnan,1995).

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Properties and activity More than 100 alkaloids and related compounds have so far een isolated and char acterised from the plant. The alkaloid contents in different parts show large va riations as roots 0.14-1.34%, stem 0.074-0.48%, leaves 0.32-1.16%, flowers 0.005 -0.84%, fruits 0.40%, seeds 0.18% and pericarp 1.14% (Krishnan et al, 1983). The se alkaloids includes monomeric indole alkaloids, 2-acyl indoles, oxindole, α-me thylene indolines, dihydroindoles, bisindole nd others. Dry le ves cont in vinb l stine (vinc leucobl stine or VLB) 0.00013-0.00063%, nd vincristine (leurocris tine or LC) 0.0000003-0.0000153% which h ve ntic ncerous ctivity (Virm ni et l, 1978). Other lk loids reported re vincoside, isovincoside (strictosidine), c th r nthine, vindolinine, lochrovicine, vincolidine, jm licine (r ub sine), r eserpine, serpentine, leurosine, lochnerine, tetr hydro lstonine, vindoline, per ic lline, perivine, periformyline, perividine, c rosine, leurosivine, leurosidin e nd rovidine. The different lk loids possessed ntic ncerous, ntidi betic, d iuretic, ntihypertensive, ntimicrobi l, ntidysenteric, h emorrh gic, ntifibr illic, tonic, stom chic, sed tive nd tr nquillising ctivities.

 

 

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LONG PEPPER Piper ce e Introduction Piper longum S n: Pipp li; Hin, Ben, Pun: Pipl mul; K n, M l:Thipp li ; T m: Thippili; M r: P impli; Tel: Pippp loo; Ass: Piplu. Long pepper is slender rom tic climber who se spike is widely used in yurvedic nd un ni systems of medicine p rticul rly for dise ses of respir tory tr ct. Pip l risht , Pipp ly s v , P nch kol , Pipp l y dil uh , nd L v n bh sk r chur n re common yurvedic prep r tions m de ou t of the dry spikes of fem le types. Ittrif l f ul di, Ang ruy -i-k bir nd M ju n kh d r re well known un ni prep r tions of long pepper. Its roots lso h ve s ever l medicin l uses. The root is useful in bronchitis, stom ch che, dise ses of spleen nd tumours . Fruit is useful in v t nd k ph , sthm , bronchitis, bdomin l compl ints, fever, leucoderm , urin ry disch rges, tumours, piles, inso mni nd tuberculosis. Root nd fruit re used in gout nd lumb go. The infusion of root is prescribed fter p rturition to induce the expulsion of pl cent . Th e root nd fruit decoction re used in cute nd chronic bronchitis nd cough. I t cont ins the lk loid piperine which h s diverse ph rm cologic l ctivities, i ncluding nerve depress nt nd nt gonistic effect on electroshock nd chemo-shoc k seizures s well s muscul r incoordin tion.

Distribution The pl nt is n tive of Indo-M l y region. It w s very e rly introduced to Eur ope nd w s highly reg rded s fl vour ingredient by the Rom ns. The Greek n m e "Peperi", the L tin "Piper" nd the English "Pepper" were derived from the S n skrit n me "Pipp li". It grows wild in the tropic l r in forests of Indi , Nep l , Indonesi , M l ysi , Sri l nk , Rhio, Timor nd the Philippines. In Indi , it is seen in Ass m, West Beng l, Utt r Pr desh, M dhy Pr desh, M h r shtr , Ker l , K rn t k . nd T mil N du. It is lso cultiv ted in Beng l, Chir punchi re o f Ass m, Akol -Amr v ti region of M h r shtr , An m l i hills of T mil N du, Ori ss , Uduppi nd M ng lore regions of K rn t k . Bulk of Indi n long pepper comes from its wild growth in Ass m, Shillong nd West Beng l, supplemented by import s from Sri L nk nd Indonesi (Visw n th n,1995) Bot ny Piper longum Linn. is member of Piper ce e f mily. The pl nt is gl brous per enni l under-shrub with erect or sub-sc ndent nodose stem nd slender br nches, the l tter re often creeping or tr iling nd rooting below or r rely sc ndent r e ching few metres height. Le ves re simple, ltern te, stipul te, nd petiol te or ne rly sessile; lower ones bro dly ov te, cord te; upper ones oblong, ov l, ll entire, smooth, thin with reticul te ven tion; veins r ised bene th. It f lowers ne rly throughout the ye r. Inflorescence is spike with unisexu l sm ll chl mydeous densely p cked flowers nd form very close clusters of sm ll greyish green or d rker grey berries. Fem le spikes with short thick st lk v rying from 1.5 to2.5 cm in length nd 0.5 to 0.7 cm in thickness. A number of geogr phic l r ces re v il ble in different groclim tic regions of Indi ; the most popul r being Ass m, West Beng l nd Nep l r ces. Piper officin rum DC; syn. Ch vic o fficin rum Miquel, Piper pepuloides nd Piper ch b Hunter re the other rel ted species of import nce. Agrotechnology Long pepper is tropic l pl nt d pted to high r inf ll re s with high humidit y. An elev tion of 100-1000 m is ide l. It needs p rti l sh de to the tune of 20 -30% for best growth. The n tur l h bit t of the pl nt is on the borders of stre ms. It is successfully cultiv ted in well dr ined forest soils rich in org nic m tter. L terite soils with high org nic m tter content nd moisture holding c p city re lso suit ble for cultiv tion. Long pepper is prop g ted by suckers or rooted vine cuttings.15-20 cm long 3-5 nodded rooted vine cuttings est blishes very well in polyb gs. The best time for r ising nursery is M rch-April. Norm l

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irrig tion is given on ltern te d ys. The rooted cuttings will 44

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Post h rvest technology The h rvested spikes re dried in sun for 4-5 d ys until they re perfectly dry. The green to dry spike r tio is 10:1.5 by weight. The dried spikes h ve to be s tored in moisture proof cont iners. Stem nd roots re cle ned, cut into pieces of 2.5-5 cm length, dried in sh de nd m rketed s pipl mool. There re three gr des of pipl mool, b sed on the thickness. The commerci l drug consists 0.5-2.5 cm long ,0.5-2.5 mm thick, cylindric l pieces dirty light brown in colour nd pe culi r odour with pungent bitter t ste, producing numbness to the tongue. Properties nd ctivity The spike of long pepper cont ins 4-5% piperine, pipl rtin, piperol ct m, N-isob utyl dec tr ns-2-tr ns-4-dien mide nd pipor dione lk loides, besides 0.7 % es senti l oil. Roots g ve the lk loids piperine, piperlongumine (pipl rtine) nd piperlonguminine; ses mine, methyl 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy cinn m te. Stem g ve tri c out ne 22, 23 dihydrostigm sterol. Fruit essenti l oil cont ins piperidine, c ry ophyllene nd sesquiterpene lcohol (At l et l, 1975 ). The root is plungent, h ot, stom chic, l x tive, nthelmintic nd c rmin tive. The fruit is sweetish, pu ngent, hot, stom chic, phrodisi c, lter tive, l x tive, ntidysenteric, emmen gogue, bortif cient, diuretic nd tonic. The essenti l oil is ntimicrobi l nd nthelmintic. N-isobutyl-dec -tr ns-2-tr ns-4-dien mide is ntitubercul r. Pipe rine is hypotensive, ntipyretic, n leptic, nd nerve stimul nt (W rrier et l, 1995). SERPENTWOOD Apocyn ce e 45

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R uvolfi serpentin

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be re dy for tr nspl nting in 2 months time. With the onset of monsoon in June t he field is ploughed well nd brought to good tilth. 15-20 cm r ised beds of con venient length nd bre dth re t ken. On these beds, pits re dug t 60 x 60 cm sp cing nd well decomposed org nic m nure t 100 g/pit is pplied nd mixed wit h the soil. Rooted vine cuttings from polyb gs re tr nspl nted to these pits. G p filling c n be done fter one month of pl nting.The crop needs he vy m nuring t the r te of 20 t FYM/h every ye r. Applic tion of he vy dose org nic m tter nd mulching incre se w ter retention in the soil nd control weeds. Sm ll dose s of chemic l fertilisers c n lso be used. The crop needs irrig tion once wee k. Sprinkler irrig tion is ide l. With irrig tion the crop continues to produce spikes nd off-se son produce will be v il ble. However, it is reported th t un irrig ted crop fter the onset of monsoon grows vigorously nd shows much h rdin ess th n the irrig ted crop. Crop losses c n be he vy due to pests nd dise ses. Me ly bugs nd root grubs, tt ck the pl nt p rticul rly during summer. Infeste d pl nts show yellowing nd stunted growth. Applic tion of systemic insecticides like nuv cron or dimecron will control the pests. Adults nd nymphs of Helopelt is theivor severely feeds on the foli ge which c n be controlled by 0.25% neem kernel suspension. Rotting of le ves nd vines during monsoon se son is c used b y Colletotrichum glorosporiodes nd necrotic lesions nd blights on the le ves d uring summer is c used by Colletotrichum nd Cercospor spp. These dise ses c n be controlled by spr ying of 1% Borde ux mixture repe tedly. A virus like dise s e ch r cterised by yellowing nd crinkling of le ves, stunted growth nd product ion of spikes of sm ller size nd inferior qu lity w s lso recently reported. T he vines st rt flowering six months fter pl nting nd flowers re produced lmo st throughout the ye r. The spikes m ture in 2 months time. The optimum st ge of h rvest is when the spikes re bl ckish green. The pungency is highest t this st ge. Spikes re h nd picked when they become m ture nd then dried. The yield of dry spike is 400 kg /h during first ye r, incre ses to 1000kg during third y e r nd there fter it decre ses. Therefore, fter 3 ye rs the whole pl nt is h r vested. The stem is cut close to the ground nd roots re dug up. Aver ge yield is 500 kg dry roots/h (Visw n th n,1995). Piper longum c n lso be cultiv ted s n intercrop in pl nt tions of coconut, sub bul nd euc lyptus.

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M l: S rp g ndhi, Am lpori Tel: P t l g ndhi

Distri ution Rauvolfia serpentina is native to India. Several species of Rauvolfia are o serv ed growing under varying edaphoclimatic conditions in the humid tropics of India , Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Bangladesh, Indonesia , Cam odia, Philippines and Sri Lanka. In India, it is cultivated in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil N adu, Orissa, Kerala, Assam, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh (Dutta and Virmani, 1 964). Thailand is the chief exporter of Rauvolfia alkaloids followed y Zaire, B angladesh, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Nepal. In India, it has ecome an endangered species and hence the Government has prohi ited the exploitation of wild growin g plants in forest and its export since 1969. Botany Plumier in 1703 assigned the name Rauvolfia to the genus in honour of a German p hyscian -Leonhart Rauvolf of Augs urg. The genus Rauvolfia of Apocynaceae family comprises over 170 species distri uted in the tropical and su tropical parts of the world including 5 species native to India. The common species of the genus Rauvolfia and their ha itat as reported y Trivedi (1995) are given elow. R. se rpentina Benth. ex Kurz.(Indian serpentwood) - India ,Bangladesh, Burma, Sri Lan ka, Malaya, Indonesia R. vomitoria Afz. (African serpentwood) - West Africa, Zai re, Rwanda, Tanzania R. canescens Linn. syn. R. tetraphylla (American serpentwoo d) - America, India R. mom asina - East Africa , Kenya, Mozam ique R. eddomei Western ghats and hilly tracts of Kerala R. densiflora - Maymyo, India R. micro carpa - Thandaung R. verticillata syn. R. chinensis - Hemsl R. peguana - Rangoon -Burma hills R. caffra - Nigeria, Zaire, South Africa R. riularis - Nmai valley R. o scura - Nigeria, Zaire R. serpentina is an erect perennial shru generally 15-45 cm high, ut growing upto 90cm under cultivation. Roots nearly verticle, t apering up to 15 cm thick at the crown and long giving a serpent-like appearance , occasionally ranched or tortuous developing small fi rous roots. Roots greeni sh-yellow externally and pale yellow inside, extremely itter in taste. Leaves orn in whorls of 3-4 elliptic-lanceolate or o ovate, pointed. Flowers numerous orne on terminal or axillary cymose inflorscence. Corolla tu ular, 5-lo ed, 1-3 cm long, whitish-pink in colour. Stamens 5, epipetalous. Carpels 2, connate, sty le filiform with large ifid stigma. Fruit is a drupe, o liquely ovoid and purpl ish lack in colour at maturity with stone containing 1-2 ovoid wrinkled seeds. The plant is cross-pollinated, mainly due to the protogynous flowers (Sulochana ,1959). 46

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Introduction Serpentwood is n erect, evergreen , perenni l undershrub whose medicin l use h s been known since 3000 ye rs. Its dried root is the economic l p rt which cont ins number of lk loids of which reserpine, rescinn mine, deserpidine, j m l cine, jm line, neo jm lin, serpentine, α-yohimbine re ph rm cologic lly import nt. The root is sed tive nd is used to control high blood pressure nd cert in forms of ins nity. In Ayurved it is lso used for the tre tment of insomni , epilepsy, sthm , cute stom ch che nd p inful delivery. It is used in sn kebite, insect stings, nd ment l disorders. It is popul r s "M dm n's medicine" mong trib ls. 'Serpumsil’ ta let for high lood pressure is prepared from Rauvo lfia roots. Reserpine is a potent hypotensive and tranquillizer ut its prolonge d usage stimulates prolactine release and causes reast cancer. The juice of the leaves is used as a remedy for the removal of opacities of the cornea.

   

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Hin: Ch ndr bh g

K n: Sutr nbhi

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S n: S rp g ndh

T m: Chiv n melpodi

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Agrotechnology Among the different species of Rauvolfia, R. serpentina is preferred for cultiva tion ecause of higher reserpine content in the root . Though it grows in tropic al and su tropical areas which are free from frost, tropical humid climate is mo st ideal. Its common ha itats receive an annual rain fall of 1500-3500 mm and th e annual mean temperature is 10-38 °C. It grows up to an elevation of 13001400m from msl. It can e grown in open as well as under partial shade conditions. It grows on a wide range of soils. Medium to deep well drained fertile soils and cl ay-loam to silt-loam soils rich in organic matter are suita le for its cultivati on. It requires slightly acidic to neutral soils for good growth. The plant can e propagated vegetatively y root cuttings, stem cuttings or root stumps and y seeds. Seed propagation is the est method for raising commercial plantation. S eed germination is very poor and varia le from 10-74%. Seeds collected during Se ptem er to Novem er give good results. It is desira le to use fresh seeds and to sock in 10% sodium chloride solution. Those seeds which sink to the ottom shou ld only e used. Seeds are treated with ceresan or captan efore planting in nur sery to avoid damping off. Seed rate is 5-6 kg/ha. Nursery eds are prepared in shade, well rotten FYM is applied at 1kg/m2 and seeds are di led 6-7cm apart in May-June and irrigated. Two months old seedlings with 4-6 leaves are transplant ed at 45-60 x 30 cm spacing in July -August in the main field. Alternatively, ro oted cuttings of 2.5-5cm long roots or 12-20cm long woody stems can also e used for transplanting. Hormone (Seradix) treatment increases rooting . In the main field 10-15 t/ha of FYM is applied asally. Fertilisers are applied at 40:30:30k g N: P 2O5 :K2O/ha every year. N is applied in 2-3 splits. Monthly irrigation in creases the yield. The nursery and the main field should e kept weed free y fr equent weeding and hoeing. In certain regions intercroping of soy ean, rinjal, ca age, okra or chilly is followed in Rauvolfia crop. Pests like root gru s (An omala polita), moth (Deilephila nerii), caterpillar (Glyophodes vertumnalis), l ack ugs and weevils are o served on the crop, ut the crop damage is not seriou s. The common diseases reported are leaf spot (Cercospora rauvolfiae, Corynespor a cassiicola), leaf lotch (Cercospora serpentina), leaf light (Alternaria tenu is), anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), die ack (Colletotrichum dema trium), powdery mildew (Leviellula taurica), wilt (Fusarium oxysporum), root-kno t (Meloidogyne sp.), mosaic and unchy top virus diseases. Field sanitation, pru ning and urning of diseased parts and repeated spraying of 0.2% Dithane Z-78 or Dithane M-45 are recommended for controlling various fungal diseases. Rauvolfia is harvested after 23 years of growth. The optimum time of harvest is in Novem er -Decem er when the plants shed leaves, ecome dormant and the roots contain m aximum alkaloid content. Harvesting is done y digging up the roots y deeply pe netrating implements (Guniyal et al, 1988). Postharvest technology The roots are cleaned washed cut into 12-15cm pieces and dried to 8-10% moisture . The dried roots are stored in polythene lined gunny ags in cool dry place to protect it from mould. The yield is 1.5-2.5 t/ha of dry roots. The root ark con stitutes 40-45% of the total weight of root and contri utes 90% of the total alk aloids yield. Properties and activity Rauvolfia root is itter, acrid, laxative, anthelmintic, thermogenic, diuretic a nd sedative. Over 200 alkaloids have een isolated from the plant. Rauvolfia ser pentina root contains 1.4-3% alkaloids. The alkaloids are classsified into 3 gro ups, viz, reserpine, ajmaline and serpentine groups. Reserpine group comprising reserpine, rescinnamine, deserpine etc act as hypotensive, sedative and tranquil lising agent. Overdose may cause diarrhoea, radycardia and drowsiness. Ajmaline , ajmalicine, ajmalinine, iso-ajmaline etc of the ajmaline group stimulate centr al nervous system, respiration and intestinal movement with slight hypotensive a ctivity. Serpentine group comprising serpentine, sepentinine, alstonine etc is m ostly antihypertensive. (Husain,1993; Trivedi, 1995; Iyengar, 1985).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

   

  

 

47

BAEL Rutaceae San: Bilva, Sriphal Mar, Ben: Baela Aegle marmelos Hin, Ben, Ass: Bael Mal: Koovalam Tel: Marendu, Bilvapondu Guj: Bilviphal Tam: V ilvam Kan: Bilvapatra Importance Bael or Bengal quince is a deciduous sacred tree, associated with Gods having us eful medicinal properties, especially as a cooling agent. This tree is popular i n ‘Shiva’ and ‘Vishnu’ temples and it can e grown in every house. Its leaves ar e trifoliate sym olizing the ‘Thrimurthies’-Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, with spear sh aped leaflets resem ling “Thrisoolam” the weapon of Lord Shiva. Many legends, st ories and myths are associated with this tree. The leaflets are given to devotee s as ‘prasadam’ in Shiva temples and as ‘Tulasi’ in Vishnu temples. Every part o f the tree is medicinal and useful. The roots are used in many Ayurvedic medicin es for curing dia etes and leprosy. It is an ingredient of the ‘dasamoola’. The Bark is used to cure intestinal disorders. Leaves contain an alkaloid rutacin wh ich is hypoglycaemic. ‘Two leaves efore reakfast’ is said to keep dia etes und er control. Leaves and fruits are useful in controlling diarrhoea and dysentery. Fruit pulp is used as ‘shampoo’ and cooling agent. It is also a rich source of car ohydrate, protein, fat, fi re, minerals and vitamin B and C. Fruit pulp is u sed to cure mouth ulcers as it is the richest natural source of ri oflavin (1191 units/ 100 g). ‘Bael shar at’ is prepared y mixing the fruit pulp with sugar, water and tamarind juice, which is very useful for stomach and intestinal disord ers. The rind of the fruit is used for dyeing and tanning. The aromatic wood is used to make pestles in oil and sugar mills and also to make agricultural implem ents (Rajarajan, 1997). Distri ution Bael tree is native to India and is found growing wild in Su -Himalayan tracts f rom Jhelum eastwards to West Bengal, in central and south India. It is grown all over the country, especially in the premises of temples and houses. Botany Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Corr.ex Rox . elongs to the citrus family Rutaceae. The golden coloured ael fruit resem les a golden apple and hence the generic name A egle. The specific name marmelos is derived from marmelosin contained in the fru it (Nair, 1997). Aegle marmelos is a medium sized armed deciduous tree growing u pto 8m in height with straight sharp axillary thorns and yellowish rown shallow ly furrowed corky ark. Leaves are alternate, trifoliate and aromatic; leaflets ovate or ovate-lanceolate, crenate, pellucidpunctate, the laterals su sessile an d the terminal long petioled. Flowers are greenish-white, sweet scented, orne o n axillary panicles. Fruit is glo ose, woody erry with golden yellow rind when ripe. Seeds are numerous o long, compressed and em edded in the orange rown swe et gummy pulp. Agrotechnology Bael comes up well in humid tropical and su tropical climate. It grows on a wide range of soils from sandy loam to clay loam. North Indian varieties are preferr ed to South Indian types for large scale cultivation. Twelve varieties are culti vated in North India for 48

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

their fruits. Kacha, Ettawa, Seven Large, Mirsapuri and Deo Reo Large are variet ies meant specially for ‘Shar at’. The plant is propagated mainly y seeds and r arely y root cuttings. Seeds are freshly extracted from ripe fruits after remov ing the pulp and then dried in sun. Seeds are soaked in water for 6 hours and so wn on seed eds which are covered with rotten straw and irrigated regularly. See ds germinate within 15-20 days. One month old seedlings can e transplanted into poly ags which can e planted in the field after 2 months. Budded or grafted pl ants as well as new saplings arising from injured roots can also e used for pla nting. Grafted plants start yielding from the 4th year while the trees raised fr om seeds ear fruits after 7-10 years. Planting is done in the main field with o nset of monsoon in June-July at a spacing of 6-8m. Pits of size 50cm3 are dug. P its are filled with a mixture of top soil and 10kg of well decomposed FYM and fo rmed into a heap. Seedlings are transplanted in the middle of the heap and mulch ed. Chemical fertilisers are not usually applied. The dose of organic manure is increased every year till 50kg/tree of 5 years or more. Regular irrigation and w eeding are required during early stages of growth. No serious pests and diseases are noted in the crop. Bael tree flowers during April. The flowers are aromatic with pleasant and heavenly odour. The fruits are set and slowly develop into ma ture fruits. Fruits are seen from Octo er-March. A single tree ears 200-400 fru its each weighing 1-2 kg. Roots can e collected from mature trees of age 10 yea rs or more. Tree is cut down a out 1m from the ground. The underground roots are carefully dug out. Roots with the attached wood is then marketed (Rajarajan,199 7). Properties and activity Bael is reported to contain a num er of coumarins, alkaloids, sterols and essent ial oils. Roots and fruits contain coumarins such as scoparone, scopoletin, um e lliferone, marmesin and skimmin. Fruits, in addition, contain xanthotoxol, imper atorin and alloimperatorin and alkaloids like aegeline and marmeline identified as N-2-hydroxy-2-[ 4 (3’,3’-dimethyl allyloxy) phenyl] ethyl cinnamide. β- sitos terol and its glycoside are also present in the fruits. Roots and stem arks con tain a coumarin - aegelinol. Roots also contain psoralen, xanthotoxin, 6,7-dimet hoxy coumarin, tem amide, mermin and skimmianine. Leaves contain the alkaloids O-(3,3-dimethyl allyl)-halfordinol, N-2-ethoxy-2 (4-methoxy phenyl) ethyl cinna mide, N-2-methoxy-2-(4-3’,3’-dimethyl allyloxy) phenyl] ethyl cinnamide, N- 2[4(3’,3’-dimethyl allyloxy) phenyl] ethyl cinnamide, N-2-hydroxy-2-[4-(3’,3’-dimet hyl allyloxy) phenyl] ethyl cinnamide, N-4-methoxy steryl cinnamide and N-2-hydr oxy-2-(4hydroxy phenyl) ethyl cinnamide. Mermesinin, rutin and β-sitosterol - βD-glucoside are also present in the leaves (Husain et al, 1992). Root, ark, lea ves and fruits are hypoglycaemic, astringent and fe rifuge. Root, stem and ark are antidiarrhoeal and antivenin. Leaf is antiinflammatory, expectorant, anticat arrhal, antiasthamatic, antiulcerous and ophthalmic. Flower is emetic. Unripe fr uit is stomachic and demulcent. Ripe fruit is antigonorrhoeal, cardiotonic, rest orative, laxative, antitu ercular, antidysenteric and antiscor utic. Seed is ant helmintic and antimicro ial (Warrier et al, 1993). 49

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INDIAN GOOSEBERRY Euphor iaceae San: Amalaka, Adiphala Tel: Amalakam Hin, Mar: Amla Kan: Amalaka Phyllanthus Ben: Amlaki Guj: Am ala em lica Mal, Tam: Nelli Kas: Aonla Importance Indian goose erry or em lic myro alan is a medium sized tree the fruit of which is used in many Ayurvedic preparations from time immemorial. It is useful in hae morrhage, leucorrhaea, menorrhagia, diarrhoea and dysentery. In com ination with iron, it is useful for anaemia, jaundice and dyspepsia. It goes in com ination in the preparation of triphala, arishta, rasayan, churna and chyavanaprash. Sanj ivani pills made with other ingredients is used in typhoid, snake- ite and chole ra. The green fruits are made into pickles and preserves to stimulate appetite. Seed is used in asthma, ronchitis and iliousness. Tender shoots taken with ut ter milk cures indigestion and diarrhoea. Leaves are also useful in conjunctivit is, inflammation, dyspepsia and dysentery. The ark is useful in gonorrhoea, jau ndice, diarrhoea and myalgia. The root ark is astringent and is useful in ulcer ative stomatitis and gastrohelcosis. Liquor fermented from fruit is good for ind igestion, anaemia, jaundice, heart complaints, cold to the nose and for promotin g urination. The dried fruits have good effect on hair hygiene and used as ingre dient in shampoo and hair oil. The fruit is a very rich source of Vitamin C (600 mg/100g) and is used in preserves as a nutritive tonic in general weakness (Dey, 1980). Distri ution Indian goose erry is found through out tropical and su tropical India, Sri Lanka and Malaca. It is a undant in deciduous forests of Madhya Pradesh and Darjeelin g, Sikkim and Kashmir. It is also widely cultivated. Botany Phyllanthus em lica Linn. syn. Em lica officinalis Gaertn. elongs to Euphor iac eae family. It is a small to medium sized deciduous tree growing up to 18m in he ight with thin light grey, ark exfoliating in small thin irregular flakes. Leav es are simple, many su sessile, closely set along the ranchlets, distichous lig ht green having the appearance of pinnate leaves. Flowers are greenish yellow in axillary fascicles, unisexual; males numerous on short slender pedicels; female s few, su sessile; ovary 3-celled. Fruits are glo ose, 1-5cm in diameter, fleshy , pale yellow with 6 o scure vertical furrows enclosing 6 trigonous seeds in 2-s eeded 3 crustaceous cocci. Two forms Amla are generally distinguished, the wild ones with smaller fruits and the cultivated ones with larger fruits and the latt er are called ‘Banarasi’(Warrier et al, 1995). Agrotechnology Goose erry is quite hardy and it prefers a warm dry climate. It needs good sunli ght and rainfall. It can e grown in almost all types of soils, except very sand y type. A large fruited variety “Cham akad Large“ was located from the rain shad ow region of the Western Ghats for cultivation in Kerala. Amla is usually propag ated y seeds and rarely y root suckers and grafts. The seeds are enclosed in a hard seed coat which renders the germination difficult. The seeds can e extrac ted y keeping fully ripe fruits in the sun for 2-3 days till they split open re leasing the seeds. Seeds are soaked in water for 3-4 hours and sown on 50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

previously prepared seed eds and irrigated. Excess irrigation and waterlogging are harmful. One month old seedlings can e transplanted to polythene ags and o ne year old seedlings can e planted in the main field with the onset of monsoon . Pits of size 50 cm3 are dug at 6-8m spacing and filled with a mixture of top s oil and well rotten FYM and planting is done. Amla can also e planted as a wind reak around an orchard. Irrigation and weeding are required during the first ye ar. Application of organic manure and mulching every year are highly eneficial. Chemical fertilisers are not usually applied. No serious pests or diseases are generally noted in this crop. Planted seedlings will commence earing from the 1 0th year, while grafts after 3-4 years. The vegetative growth of the tree contin ues from April to July. Along with the new growth in the spring, flowering also commences. Fruits will mature y Decem er-Fe ruary. Fruit yield ranges from 30-5 0kg/tree/year when full grown (KAU,1993). Properties and Activity Amla fruit is a rich natural source of vitamin C. It also contains cytokinin lik e su stances identified as zeatin, zeatin ri oside and zeatin nucleotide. The se eds yield 16% fixed oil, rownish yellow in colour. The plant contains tannins l ike glucogallia, corilagin, che ulagic acid and 3,6-digalloyl glucose. Root yiel ds ellagic acid, lupeol, quercetin and βsitosterol (Thakur et al, 1989). The fru it is diuretic, laxative, carminative, stomachic, astringent, antidiarrhoeal, an tihaemorrhagic and antianaemic. 51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

INDIAN BDELLIUM Burseraceae San: Gugulu, Mahisaksah, Koushikaha, Devadhupa Hin:Gugal Mal:Gulgulu Tam, Tel: G ukkulu Commiphora mukul Kan: Guggul Ben: Guggul Importance Indian dellium is a small, armed, deciduous tree from the ark of which gets an aromatic gum resin, the ‘Guggul’ of commerce. It is a versatile indigenous drug claimed y ayurvedists to e highly effective in the treatment of rheumatism, o esity, neurological and urinary disorders, tonsillitis, arthritis and a few oth er diseases. The fumes from urning guggul are recommended in hay- fever, chroni c ronchitis and phytises. The price of guggulu gum has increased ten fold in te n years or so, indicating the increase in its use as well as decrease in natural plant stand. It has een listed as a threatened plant y Botanical Survey of In dia (Dalal, 1995) and is included in the Red Data Book (IUCN) and over exploited species in the country (Billare,1989). Distri ution The center of origin of Commiphora spp. is elieved to e Africa and Asia. It is a widely adapted plant well distri uted in arid regions of Africa ( Somalia, Ke nya and Ethiopia in north east and Madagascar, Zim a we, Botswana, Zaire in sout h west Africa), Ara ian peninsula (Yemen, Saudi Ara ia and Oman). Different spec ies of Commiphora are distri uted in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnata ka states of India and Sind and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan (Tajuddin et a l, 1994). In India, the main commercial source of gum guggul is Rajasthan and Gu jarat. Botany The genus Commiphora of family Burseraceae comprises a out 185 species. Most of them occur in Africa, Saudi Ara ia and adjoining countries. In India only four s pecies have een reported. They are C. mukul(Hook. ex Stocks) Engl. syn. Balsamo dendron mukul (Hook. ex Stocks), C. wightii (Arnott) Bhandari, C.stocksiana Engl ., C. erryi and C.agallocha Engl. In early studies a out the flora of India, th e ‘guggul’ plant was known as Commiphora mukul(Hook. ex Stocks) Engl. or Balsamo dendron mukul (Hook. ex Stocks). It was renamed as C. rox urghii y Santapau in 1962. According to Bhandari the correct Latin name of the species is C. wightii( Arnott) Bhandari, since the specific name ‘wightii’ was pu lished in 1839, prior to ‘rox urghi’ in 1848 (Dalal and Patel, 1995). C. mukul is a small tree upto 3 -4m height with spinescent ranching. Stem is rownish or pale yellow with ash c olored ark peeling off in flakes. Young parts are glandular and pu escent. Leav es are alternate, 1-3 foliate, o ovate, leathery and serrate (sometimes only tow ards the apex). Lateral leaflets when present only less than half the size of th e terminal ones. Flowers small, rownish red, with short pedicel seen in fascicl es of 2-3. Calyx campanulate, glandular, hairy and 4-5 lo ed. Corolla with rown ish red, roadly linear petals reflexed at apex. Stamens 8-10, alternatively lon g and short. Ovary o long, ovoid and stigma ifid. Fruit is a drupe and red when ripe, ovate in shape with 2-3 celled stones. The chromosome num er 2n= 26 (Warr ier et al, 1994; Tajuddin et al, 1994). Agrotechnology Guggal eing a plant of arid zone thrives well in arid- su tropical to tropical climate. The rainfall may average etween 100mm and 500mm while air temperature may vary etween 40°C in summer and −3°C during winter. Maximum relative humidit y prevails during rainy season (83% in the morning and 48% in the evening).Wind velocity remains between 20 25 km/hour during the year is good. Though they pref er hard gypseous soil, they are found over sandy to silt loam soils, poor in org anic matter but rich in several other minerals in arid tracks of western India ( Tajuddin et al, 1994). Plants are propagated both by vegetatively and seeds. Pla

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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nts are best raised from stem cuttings from the semi woody (old) branch. For thi s purpose one metre long woody stem 52

of 10mm thickness is selected and the cut end is treated with IBA or NAA and pla nted in a well manured nursery bed during June July months; the beds should be g iven light irrigation periodically. The cuttings initiate sprouting in 10 15 day s and grow into good green sprout in 10 12 months. These rooted plants are suita ble for planting in the fields during the next rainy season. The cuttings give 8 0 94% sprouting usually. Air layering has also been successfully attempted and p rotocol for meristem culture is available in literature. Seed germination is ver y poor (5%) but seedling produce healthier plants which withstand high velocity winds. The rooted cuttings are planted in a well laid out fields during rainy se ason. Pits of size 0.5m cube are dug out at 3 4 m spacing in rows and given FYM and filler soil of the pit is treated with BHC (10%) or aldrin (5%) to protect t he new plants from white ants damage. Fertilizer trials have shown little respon se except due to low level of N fertilization. Removal of side branches and low level of irrigation supports a good growth of these plants. The plantation does not require much weeding and hoeing. But the soil around the bushes be pulverise d twice in a year to increase their growth and given urea or ammonium sulphate a t 25 50g per bush at a time and irrigated. Dalal et al (1989) reported that cer cospora leaf spot was noticed on all the cultures. Bacterial leaf blight was als o noticed to attack the cultures. A leaf eating caterpillar (Euproctis lanata Wa lker) attack guggal, though not seriously. White fly (Bemisia tabaci) is observe d to suck sap of leaves and such leaves become yellowish and eventually drop. Th ese can be effectively controlled by using suitable insecticide. Stem or branch having maximum diameter of about 5cm at place of incision, irrespective of age i s tapped. The necrotic patch on the bark is peeled off with a sharp knife and Bo rdeaux paste is applied to the exposed (peeled off ) surface of the stem or bran ch. A prick chisel of about 3cm width is used to make bark deep incisions and w hile incising the bark, the chisel is held at an acute angle so that scooped sus pension present on the body of the chisel flows towards the blade of the chisel and a small quantity of suspension flows inside the incised bark. If tapping is successful, gum exudation ensures after about 15 20 days from the date of incisi on and continues for nearly 30 45 days. The exuded gum slides down the stem or b ranch, and eventually drops on the ground and gets soiled. A piece of polythene sheet can be pouched around the place of incision to collect gum. Alternatively, a polythene sheet can be spread on the ground to collect exuded gum. A maximum of about 500g of gum has been obtained from a plant (Dalal, 1995). Post harvest technology The best grade of guggul is collected from thick branches of tree. These lumps o f guggul are translucent. Second grade guggul is usually mixed with bark, sand a nd is dull coloured guggul. Third grade guggul is usually collected from the gro und which is mixed with sand, stones and other foreign matter. The final grading is done after getting cleansed material. Inferior grades are improved by sprink ling castor oil over the heaps of the guggul which impart it a shining appearanc e (Tajuddin et al, 1994). Properties and Activity The gum resin contains guggul sterons Z and E, guggul sterols I V, two diterpeno ids a terpene hydrocarbon named cembreneA and a diterpene alcohol mukulol, α-c mphrone nd cembrene, long ch in liph tic tetrols- oct dec n-1,2,3,4-tetrol, e icos n-1,2,3,4-tetrol nd non dec n-1,2,3,4-tetrol. M jor components from essent i l oil of gum resin re myrcene nd dimyrcene. Pl nt without le ves, flowers n d fruits cont ins myricyl lcohol, β-sitosterol and fifteen aminoacids. Flowers contain quercetin and its glycosides as major flavonoid components, other consti tuents eing ellagic acid and pelargonidin glucoside (Patil et al, 1972; Purusho thaman and Chandrasekharan, 1976). The gum resin is itter, acrid, astringent, t hermogenic, aromatic, expectorant, digestive, anthelmintic, antiinflammatory, an odyne, antiseptic, demulcent, carminative, emmenagogue, haematinic, diuretic, li thontriptic, rejuvenating and general tonic. Guggulipid is hypocholesteremic (Hu sain et al, 1992; Warrier et al, 1994).

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INDIAN GINSENG Solanceae Importance Withania somnifera San: Aswagandha, Varahakarni Hin: Asgandh, Punir Mal: Amukkuram Tam: Amukkira Te l: Vajigandha Mar: Askandha Guj: Ghoda Kan: Viremaddinagaddi Indian ginseng or W inter cherry is an erect ranching perennial undershru which is considered to e one of the est rejuvenating agents in Ayurveda. Its roots, leaves and seeds a re used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicines, to com at diseases ranging from tu erc ulosis to arthritis. The pharmacological activity of the plant is attri uted to the presence of several alkaloids and withaniols. Roots are prescri ed in medici nes for hiccup, several female disorders, ronchitis, rheumatism, dropsy, stomac h and lung inflammations and skin diseases. Its roots and paste of green leaves are used to relieve joint pains and inflammation. It is also an ingredient of me dicaments prescri ed for curing disa ility and sexual weakness in male. Leaves a re used in eye diseases. Seeds are diuretic. It is a constituent of the her al d rug ‘Lactare’ which is a galactagogue. Aswagandha was o served to increase cellmediated immunity, prevent stress induced changes in adrenal function and enhanc e protein synthesis. Milk fortified with it increases total proteins and ody we ight. It is a well known rejuvenating agent capa le of imparting long life, yout hful vigour and intellectual power. It improves physical strength and is prescri ed in all cases of general de ility. Aswagandha powder (6-12g) twice a day alon g with honey and ghee is advised for tu erculosis in Sushruta Samhita. It also p rovides sound sleep (Prakash, 1997).

Distri ution Aswagandha is elieved to have oriental origin. It is found wild in the forests of Mandsaur and Bastar in Mandhya Pradesh, the foot hills of Punja , Himachal Pr adesh, Uttar Pradesh and western Himalayas in India. It is also found wild in th e Mediterranean region in North America. In India it is cultivated in Madhya Pra desh, Rajastan and other drier parts of the country. Botany Aswagandha elongs to the genus Withania and family Solanaceae. Two species, viz , W. coagulans Dunal and W. somnifera Dunal are found in India. W. coagulans is a rigid grey under shru of 60-120cm high. W. somnifera is erect, evergreen, tom entose shru , 30-75cm in height. Roots are stout, fleshy, cylindrical, 1-2cm in diameter and whitish rown in colour. Leaves are simple, ovate, gla rous and opp osite. Flowers are isexual, inconspicuous, greenish or dull yellow in colour o rn on axillary um ellate cymes, comprising 5 sepals, petals and stamens each; th e two celled ovary has a single style and a ilo ed stigma. The petals are unite d and tu ular. The stamens are attached to the corolla tu e and ear erect anthe rs which form a close column or cone around the style. Pollen production is poor . The fruit is a small erry, glo ose, orange red when mature and is enclosed in persistent calyx. The seeds are small, flat, yellow and reniform in shape and v ery light in weight. The chromosome num er 2n = 48. The cultivated plants have s iza le differences from the wild forms not only in their morphological character s ut also in the therapeutical action, though the alkaloids present are the sam e in oth (Kaul, 1957). Some otanists, therefore, descri ed the cultivated plan t distinct from wild taxa and have coined a new name W. aswagandha (Kaul, 1957) which is contested y Atal and Schwarting (1961). Agrotechnology Asgandh is a tropical crop growing well under dry climate. The areas receiving 6 00 to 750mm rainfall is est suited to this crop. Rainy season crop requires rel atively dry season and the roots are fully developed when 1-2 late winter rains are received. Sandy loam or light red soils having a pH of 7.5- 8.0 with good dr ainage are suita le for its cultivation. It is usually cultivated on poor and ma rginal soils. Withania is propagated through seeds. It is a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

54

late kharif crop and planting is done in August. Seeds are either roadcast-sown or seedlings are raised in nursery and then transplanted. Seed rate is 10-12 kg /ha for roadcasting and 5kg/ha for transplanting. In direct sown crop plants ar e thinned and gap filling is done 25-30 days after sowing. Seeds should e treat ed with Dithane M-45 at 3g/kg of seeds efore sowing. Seeds are sown in the nurs ery just efore the onset of rainy season and covered with light soil. Seeds ger minate in 6-7 days. When seedlings are six weeks old they are transplanted at 60 cm in furrows taken 60cm apart. The crop is mainly grown as a rainfed crop on re sidual fertility and no manure or fertilizers are applied to this crop generally . However, application of organic manure is eneficial for realizing etter yiel ds. It is not a fertilizer responsive crop. One hand weeding 25-30 days after so wing helps to control weeds effectively. No serious pest is reported in this cro p. Diseases like seedling rot and light are o served. Seedling mortality ecome s serious under high temperature and humid conditions. The disease can e minimi zed y use of disease free seeds and treatment with thiram or deltan at 3-4g/kg seed efore sowing. Further, use of crop rotation, timely sowing and keeping fie ld well drained also protect the crop. Spraying with 0.3% fytolan, dithane Z-78 or dithane M-45 will help controlling the disease incidence. Spraying is repeate d at 15 days interval if the disease persists. Aswagandha is a crop of 150-170 d ays duration. The maturity of the crop is judged y the drying of the leaves and reddening of erries. Harvesting usually starts from January and continues till March. Roots, leaves and seeds are the economical parts. The entire plant is up rooted for roots, which are separated from the aerial parts. The erries are plu cked from dried plants and are threshed to o tain the seeds. The yield is 400500 kg of dry roots and 50-75kg seeds per hectare. Post harvest technology The roots are separated from the plant y cutting the stem 1-2cm a ove the crown . Roots are then cut into small pieces of 7-10cm to facilitate drying. Occasiona lly, the roots are dried as a whole. The dried roots are cleaned, trimmed, grade d, packed and marketed. Roots are carefully hand sorted into the following four grades. Grade A : Root pieces 7cm long, 1-1.5cm diameter, rittle, solid, and pu re white from outside. Grade B : Root pieces 5cm long, 1cm diameter, rittle, so lid and white from outside. Grade C : Root pieces 3-4cm long, less than 1cm diam eter and solid. Lower grade : Root pieces smaller, hollow and yellowish from out side. Properties and activity Aswagandha roots contain alkaloids, starch, reducing sugar, hentriacontane, glyc osides, dulcital, withaniol acid and a neutral compound. Wide variation (0.13-0. 31%) is o served in alkaloid content. Majumdar (1955) isolated 8 amorphous ases such as withanine, somniferine, somniferinine, somnine, withananine, withananin ine, pseudowithanine and withasomnine. Other alkaloids reported are nicotine, tr opine, pseudotropine, 3,α-tigloyloxytrop ne, choline, cuscudohygrine, n ferine, n hygrine nd others. Free mino cids in the roots include sp rtic cid, glyc ine, tyrosine, l nine, proline, tryptoph n, glut mic cid nd cystine. Le ves c ont in 12 with nolides, lk loids, glycosides, glucose nd free mino cids. Ber ries cont in milk co gul ting enzyme, two ester ses, free mino cids, f tty o il, essenti l oil nd lk loids. Methods for lk loid’s analysis in Asgandh root s have also been reported (Majumdar, 1955; Mishra, 1989; Maheshwari, 1989). With ania roots are astringent, bitter, acrid, somniferous, thermogenic, stimulant, a phrodisiac, diuretic and tonic. Leaf is antibiotic, antitumourous, antihepatotox ic and antiinflammatory. Seed is milk coagulating, hypnotic and diuretic. 55

 

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NEEM Importance Azadirachta indica Meliaceae San: Nimbah, Prabhadrah Hin, Ben: Nim, Nim Mal: Aryaveppu Tel: Vepa Ori: Nimba T am: Vembu, Veppu Pun: Bakam,Bukhain Guj: Limba Kan: Bevu Mar: Limbu Neem or marg ose tree, also known as Indian lilac is a highly exploited medicinal plant of In dian origin, widely grown and cultivated throughout India. Every part of the tre e, namely root, bark, wood, twig, leaf, flower, fruit, seed, kernel and oil has been in use from time immemorial in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Nimbarishta, nimbadi churna and nimbharidra khand are well known preparations. It is valuable as an antiseptic, used in the treatment of small pox. Small twigs are used as tooth brushes and as a prophylactic for mouth and teeth complaints. Extract from the leaves are useful for sores, eczema and skin diseases. Boiled and smashed leaves serve as excellent antiseptic. Decoction of leaves is used fo r purifying blood. Neem oil is used in soaps, toothpaste and as a hair tonic to kill lice. Seed is used in snake bite. The fruits and leaves being renewable, pr ovide sustainable returns. Different parts of the fruit are separated into compo nents and each one produces derivatives of varying chemical nature and utility. Neem derivatives are now used in agriculture, public health, human and veterinar y medicines, toiletries, cosmetics and livestock production. Applications as pes ticides, allied agrochemicals, plant nutrients and adjuvants for improving nitro gen use efficiency are of much importance. Neem kernel suspension (1%) is a hous e hold insecticide. Pesticide formulations containing azadirachtin are now comme rcially available in India, USA, Canada, Australia and Germany. Neem cake is ric h in N, P, K, Ca and S. Neem Meliacins like epinimbin and nimbidin are commercia lly exploited for the preparation of slow and extended release of nutrients incl uding nitrification inhibitors (Eg. Nimin). Extracts of neem seed oil and bark c heck the activity of male reproductive cells and prevents sperm production. Neem seed oil is more effective than the bark for birth control. Neem based commerci al products are also available for diabetes treatment (Nimbola, JK 22), contrace ptive effect (Sensal, Nim 76) and mosquito/ insect repelling (Srivastava, 1989; Tewari, 1992; Parmer and Katkar, 1993; Pushpangadan et al, 1993; Mariappan, 1995 ). Distribution Neem is a native of the Siwalik deccan parts of South India. It grows wild in th e dry forests of Andra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. It has spread to Pakis tan, Bangladesh , Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Middle East Sudan an d Niger. It is now grown in Australia, Africa, Fiji, Mauritious, Central and Sou th America, the Carribeans, Puerto Rico and Haiti. The largest known plantation of nearly 50,000 trees is at Arafat plains en route to Mecca in Saudi Arabia for providing shade to Haj pilgrims (Ahmed, 1988). Botany The genus Azadirachta of family Meliaceae comprises two species: A. indica A. Ju ss syn. Melia azadirachta Linn. and A. excelsa (Jack) Jacobs syn. A. integrifoli a Mers., the latter being found in Philippines, Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo and New Guinea. Neem is a hardy medium to large, mostly evergreen tree attaining 20m hei ght and 2.5m girth. It has a short bole with wide spreading branches and glabrou s twigs forming a round to oval crown. The bark is thick, dark gray with numerou s longitudinal furrows and transverse cracks. Leaves are imparipinnately compoun d, alternate, exstipulate and 20 38cm long. Inflorescence is long, slender, axil lary or terminal panicle. Flowers are white or pale yellow, small, bisexual, pen tamerous and bracteate. Stamens 10; filaments unite to form a moniliform tube. G ynoecium is tricarpellary and syncarpous, ovary superior, trilocular. Each carpe l bears two collateral ovules on parietal placentation. Fruit is one seeded drup

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e with woody endocarp, greenish yellow when ripe. Seed ellipsoid, cotyledons thi ck fleshy and oily. Neem has chromosome number 2n = 28. Neem trees tend to becom e deciduous for a brief period in dry ecology. Ecotypes, exhibiting morphologica l variation in root growth, leaf size, contents, bole length , canopy, infloresc ence, fruit bearing, seed size, shape and quality exist in natural populations. 56

Agrotechnology Neem grows in tropical arid regions with high temperatures, altitudes between 50 m and 1000m, as little rainfall as 130mm/yr and long stretches of drought. Well drained sunny hill places are ideal. It grows on most kinds of soils including d ry, stony, shallow, nutrient deficient soils with scanty vegetation, moderately saline and alkali soils, black cotton, compact clays and laterite crusts. Howeve r, silty flats, clayey depressions and land prone to inundation are not conduciv e for its growth (Chaturvedi, 1993). Soil pH of 5.0 to 10.0 is ideal. It brings surface soil to neutral pH by its leaf litter. It has extensive and deeply penet rating root system capable of extracting moisture and nutrients even from highly leached poor sandy soils. Neem propagates easily by seed without any pretreatme nt, though it can be regenerated by vegetative means like root and shoot cutting s. Seeds are collected from June to August. These remain viable for 3 5 weeks on ly which necessitates sowing within this short time. Seeds may be depulped and s oaked in water for 6 hours before sowing. Seeds are sown on nursery beds at 15x5 cm spacing, covered with rotten straw and irrigated. Germination takes 15 30 day s. Seedlings can be transplanted after two months of growth onwards either to po lybags or to mainfield. Neem can be grown along with agricultural crops like gro undnut, bean, millets, sorghum and wheat. It is also suitable for planting in ro adsides, for afforestation of wastelands and under agroforestry system. For fiel d planting, pits of size 50 75 cm cube are dug 5 6m apart, filled with top soil and well rotten manure, formed into a heap, and seedling is planted at the centr e of the heap. FYM is applied at 10 20 kg/plant every year. Chemical fertilizers are not generally applied. Irrigation and weeding are required during the first year for quick establishment. More than 38 insect pests are reported on Neem wh ich may become serious at times. The important ones are seed and flower insect ( Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood), defoliators (Boarmia variegata Moore and Eurema sp. ), sap suckers ( Helopeltes antonii Signoret and Pulvinaria maxima Green) , root feeders (Hototrichia consanguinea Blanchard), mealy bug (Pseudococus gilbertens is), scale insect (Parlatoria orientalis) and a leaf webber (Loboschiza Koenigia na)(Beeson, 1941, Bhasin et al, 1958, Parmar, 1995). They can be controlled by t he application of 0.01 0.02% monocrotophos or dimethoate. No serious diseases ar e reported in Neem. Flowering starts after 5 years. In India flowering is during January May and fruits mature from May August. The leaves are shed during Febru aryMarch and a full grown tree produces about 350 kg dry leaves and 40 50 kg ber ries per annum. Fresh fruits give 60% dry fruits which yield 10% kernel which co ntains 45% fixed oil, on an average. After 10 years of growth the wood can be cu t and used as timber. Properties and Activity Dry Neem leaves contain carbohydrates 47 51%, crude protein 14 19%, crude fiber 11 24%, fat 2 7%, ash 7 9%, Ca 0.8 2.5% and P 0.1 0.2%. Leaves also contain the flavanoid quercetin, nimbosterol (β-sitosterol), kaempferol and myricetin. Seed and oil contains desacetylnim in, azadirachtin (C35H44O16), nim idol, meliantrio l ,tannic acid, S and amino acids. Neem cake contain the highest sulphur content of 1.07% among all the oil cakes. Trunk ark contains nim in 0.04%, nim inin 0. 001%, nim idin 0.4%, nim osterol 0.03%, essential oil 0.02%, tannins 6.0 %, marg osine and desacetylnim in (Atal and Kapur, 1982; Thakur et al 1989). Neem ark i s itter, astringent, acrid, refrigerant, depurative, antiperiodic, vulnerary, d emulcent, insecticidal, liver tonic, expectorant and anthelmintic. Leaves are i tter, astringent, acrid, depurative, antiseptic, ophthalmic, anthelmintic, alexe teric, appetizer, insecticidal, demulcent and refrigerant. Seed and oil are itt er, acrid, thermogenic, purgative, emollient, anodyne, anthelmintic depurative, vulnerary, uterine stimulant, urinary astringent, pesticidal and antimicro ial ( Warrier et al, 1993). 57

 

 

 

 

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CINCHONA San: Cinchona, Kunayanah Cinchona spp. Hin: Kunain Mal: Cinchona, Quoina Ru iaceae Tam: Cinchona Importance Cinchona, known as Quinine, Peruvian or Crown ark tree is famous for the antima larial drug ‘quinine’ o tained from the ark of the plant. The term cinchona is elieved to e derived from the countess of cinchon who was cured of malaria y treating with the ark of the plant in 1638. Cinchona ark has een valued as a fe rifuge y the Indians of south and central America for a long time. Over 35 a lkaloids have een isolated from the plant; the most important among them eing quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine. These alkaloids exist mainly as salts of quinic, quinovic and cinchotannic acids. The cultivated ark contains 7-10% total alkaloids of which a out 70% is quinine. Similarly 60% of the total alkaloids of root ark is quinine. Quinine is isolated from the total alkaloids of the ark as quinine sulphate. Commercial preparations contain cinchonidine an d dihydroquinine. They are useful for the treatment of malarial fever, pneumonia , influenza, cold, whooping couphs, septicaemia, typhoid, amoe ic dysentery, pin worms, lum ago, sciatica, intercostal neuralgia, ronchial neuritis and interna l hemorrhoids. They are also used as anesthetic and contraceptive. Besides, they are used in insecticide compositions for the preservation of fur, feathers, woo l, felts and textiles. Over doses of these alkaloids may lead to deafness, lind ness, weakness, paralysis and finally collapse, either comatose or deleterious. Quinidine sulphate is cardiac depressant and is used for curing arterial fi rill ation. Distri ution Cinchona is native to tropical South America. It is grown in Bolivia, Peru, Cost a Rica, Ecuador, Colum ia, Indonesia, Tanzania, Kenya, Zaire and Sri Lanka. It w as introduced in 1808 in Guatemala,1860 in India, 1918 in Uganda, 1927 in Philip pines and in 1942 in Costa Rica. Roy Markham introduced the plant to India. The first plantation was raised in Nilgiris and later on in Darjeeling of West Benga l. The value of the tree was learnt y Jessuit priests who introduced the ark t o Europe. It first appeared in London pharmacopoeia in 1677 (Husain, 1993). Botany The quinine plant elongs to the family Ru iaceae and genus Cinchona which compr ises over 40 species. Among these a dozen are medicinally important. The commonl y cultivated species are C. calisaya Wedd., C. ledgeriana Moens, C. officinalis Linn., C. succiru ra Pav. ex Kl., C. lancifolia and C. pu escens. Cinchona speci es have the chromosome num er 2n=68. C. officinalis Linn. is most common in Indi a. It is an evergreen tree reaching a height of 10-15m. Leaves are opposite, ell iptical, ovate- lanceolate, entire and gla rous. Flowers are reddish- rown in sh ort cym iform, compound cymes, terminal and axillary; calyx tu ular, 5-toothed, o conical, su tomentose, su -campanulate, acute, triangular, dentate, hairy; cor olla tu e 5 lo ed, densely silky with white depressed hairs, slightly pentagonal ; stamens 5; style round, stigma su mersed. Fruit is capsule ovoid-o long; seeds elliptic, winged margin octraceous, crinulate-dentate (Biswas and Chopra, 1982) . Agrotechnology 58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

The plant widely grows in tropical regions having an average minimum temperature of 14°C. Mountain slopes in the humid tropical areas with well distri uted annu al rainfall of 1500-1950mm are ideal for its cultivation. Well drained virgin an d fertile forest soils with pH 4.5-6.5 are est suited for its growth. It does n ot tolerate waterlogging. Cinchona is propagated through seeds and vegetative me ans. Most of the commercial plantations are raised y seeds. Vegetative techniqu es such as grafting, udding and softwood cuttings are employed in countries lik e India, Sri Lanka, Java and Guatemala. Cinchona succiru ra is commonly used as root stock in the case of grafting and udding. Hormonal treatment induces ette r rooting. Seedlings are first raised in nursery under shade. Raised seed eds of convenient size are prepared, well decomposed compost or manure is applied , se eds are roadcasted uniformly at 2g/m2, covered with a thin layer of sand and ir rigated. Seeds germinate in 10-20 days. Seedlings are transplanted into polythen e ags after 3 months. These can e transplanted into the field after 1 year at 1-2m spacing. Trees are thinned after third year for extracting ark , leaving 5 0% of the trees at the end of the fifth year. The crop is damaged y a num er of fungal diseases like damping of caused y Rhizoctoria solani, tip light y Phy tophthora parasatica, collar rot y Sclerotiun rolfsii, root rot y Phytophthora cinnamomi, Armillaria mellea and Pythium vexans. Field sanitation, seed treatme nt with organo mercurial fungicide, urning of infected plant parts and spraying 1% Bordeaux mixture are recommended for the control of the diseases (Crandall, 1954). Harvesting can e done in one or two phases. In one case, the complete tr ee is uprooted, after 8-10 years when the alkaloid yield is maximum. In another case, the tree is cut a out 30cm from the ground for ark after 6-7 years so tha t fresh sprouts come up from the stem to yield a second crop which is harvested with the under ground roots after 6-7 years. Both the stem and root are cut into convenient pieces, ark is separated, dried in shade, graded, packed and traded . Bark yield is 9000-16000kg/ha (Husain, 1993). Properties and activity Over 35 alkaloids have een isolated from Cinchona ark, the most important amon g them are quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine, cinchophyllamine and id ocinchophyllamine. There is considera le variation in alkaloid content ranging f rom 4% to 20%. However, 6-8% yield is o tained from commercial plantations. The non alkaloidal constituents present in the ark are itter glycosides, α-quinovi n, cinchofulvic, cinchot nnic nd quinic cids, bitter essenti l oil possessin g the odour of the b rk nd red coloring m tter. The seed cont ins 6.13% fixed oil. Quinine nd its deriv tives re bitter, stringent, crid, thermogenic, fe brifuge, oxytocic, nodyne, nti-b cteri l, nthelmintic, digestive, depur tive, constip ting, nti pyretic, c rdiotonic, ntiinfl mm tory, expector nt nd c lc if cient (W rrier et l, 1994; Bh kuni nd J in, 1995). 59

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GLORY LILY Lili ce e S n : L ng li, Vis ly , Agnishik ,Sh kr pushpi, G rbh gh tini M l: Menthonni T m : Akkinichil m Guj: Dudhiy v chn g K n: N ngulik Ben: Bish l nguli Ori: D ngog h n Glorios superb Hin : K lih ri P n: K ri ri M r: N g k ri Tel : Ad vin bhi Import nce Glory lily is gl brous herb ceous climber which yields different types of trop lone lk loids of medicin l import nce. The m jor lk loids re colchicine, 3-de methyl colchicine nd colchicoside. There is nother lk loid gloriosine which p romises to be even more effective th n colchicine in pl nt breeding for inducing polyploidy. The genus h s import nce in the orn ment l horticulture due to its bright flowers nd wiry climbing stem. The roots nd rhizomes re used in tr dit ion l system of medicine. Its bortif cient nd ntipyretic properties h ve been mentioned in ncient cl ssics “Ch r k ”. The n me G rbh gh tini is due to this bortif cient ctivity. They re useful in the tre tment of infl mm tions, ulcer s, scroful , hemorrhoids, pruritus, dyspepsi , helminthi sis, fl tulence, interm ittent fevers nd debility. The root is given intern lly s n effective ntidot e g inst cobr poison. A p ste of the root is lso used s n nodyne; pplic t ions in bites of poisonous insects, sn ke bites, scorpion sting, p r sitic skin dise ses nd leprosy (N dk rni,1954; Ch udhuri nd Th kur; 1994). Distribution The pl nt is distributed throughout tropic l Indi upto n ltitude of 2500m nd in And m n isl nds. It is lso cultiv ted in tropic l nd South Afric , M d g s k r, Indonesi nd M l si . It is reported to be cultiv ted in some p rts of Eur ope. In Indi it w s cultiv ted in RRL, J mmu in 1960s. Recently it w s t ken up by Indi n Council of Agricultur l Rese rch(ICAR). Cultiv tion of the pl nt is m ostly confined to the Southern st tes of Indi besides its collection from wild sources. Bot ny Glorios superb Linn. belongs to Lili ce e f mily. It is gl brous climbing he rb with tuberous root stock grows over hedges nd sm ll trees. Stem is 6m long w hich grows to height of 1.2-1.5m before the stem br nches. Le ves re simple, ltern te or whorled, sessile, ov te-l nceol te, 17x4.5cm, tip elong ting into spir lly coiled tendril, b se cord te nd m rgin entire. Flowers re l rge in t ermin l r cemes; peri nth segments 6, line r, flexuosus nd deflexed, b s l h lf bright yellow, upper h lf red; st mens 6; ov ry gl brous, 3-celled. Fruits re c psules, line r-oblong, upto 6.8cm long, 3 equ l lobes, one or two lobes shorte r in m lformed fruits; green dried to p le nd then bl ck colour, dehisced into three sections. Seeds re ov l in sh pe, test spongy, embryo cylindric, 30-150 seeds per c psule, p le or nge tt ched to the sutures. Tubers re cylindric, l rge, simple, ‘V’ shaped with the two limps equal or unequal in lenth pointed tow ards end brownish externally and yellowish internally. (Narain, 1977) Agrotechnology 60

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This is a rainy season plant and sprouts well in warm, humid and tropical condit ions. It should be grown in sun as the plants in shade become weedy and thin and move towards light. G. superba is a shallow rooted plant and grows well in a va riety of soils either clay or sand through out India. It grows well in a light p orous soil with good drainage. For vigorous growth, greater blooms and strong tu ber, a mixture of soil, sand and compost manure is recommended. The propagation is mainly by tubers, by division of rhizomes. Seeds remain dormant for 6 9 month s and due to hard seed coat, about 20 30 days are required for germination and s eeds may take 3 4 years before it matures to flower. Treatment of seeds by gibbe rellin(1 3 ppm) resulted in higher yield of colchicine in the plant and higher p roduction of tubers. In tissue culture, young sprouts are cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s medium (Msb) supplemented with kinetin (1 4 mg/l). Direct regenerati on of the explants are obtained. The seeds and rhizomes are sown usually in the last week of June to mid July. The rhizomes are planted by splitting carefully i nto two from their ‘V’ shaped joints ( two buds being at the extreme end of each rhizome) in lines 20cm apart at a distance of 20cm (while seeds are sown in lin es at a distance of 4 6cm apart). They are watered regularly when the plants are growing. After green shoots appear 2 3 showers are weekly. The irradiation of t he plant at 42% natural sunlight intensity increased the production of tuber and colchicine. They usually takes 6 10 weeks to flower after sprouting and then se t on fruits. The fruits ripen at the end of October and after that aerial shoot eventually dies, leaving the fleshy tubers underground. The tubers are dug out w ith great care. An individual plant produces 50g tubers on an average. The avera ge yield is approximately 4000 5000kg of rhizomes and 1000 kg of seed per hectar e. The content of colchicine is usually 0.358% and 1.013% in tubers and seeds, r espectively. Post harvest technology Lixivation of the material is done with 70% ethyl alcohol. Concentrated under va cuum to one third of its volume and extracted with chloroform for colchicine and related substances concentration of the aqueous phase to syrup which is extract ed 6 8 times with a mixture of CHCl3 alcohol (4:1) to yield colchicoside. Properties and activity The flowers, leaves and tubers contain colchicine, superbin, N formyl deacetyl c olchicine, demethyl colochicine and lumicolchicine. Tubers also contain gloriosi ne. Leaves in addition, contain chelidonic acid, 2 hydroxy 6 methoxy benzoic aci d and β-sitosterol glucoside. Colchicine, demethyl colchicine and colchicoside h ave een reported from seeds. Rhizome is oxytocic, anticancerous, antimalarial, stomachic, purgative, cholagogue, anthelmintic, alterative, fe rifuge and antile protic. Leaf is antiasthmatic and antiinflammatory. Root shows antigonorrhoeic a nd anti iotic activity. This plant has poisonous effect to enviroment and livest ock. The toxic properties are due to presence of alkaloids chiefly colchicine (C lewer et al, 1915). 61

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LIQUORICE Papilionaceae San: Yashtimadhu Tel: Yashtimadhukam Glycyrrhiza gla ra Hin: Jathimadh Mal: Irattimadhuram Ben: Yashtomadhu Pun:Muleti Tam:Athimadhuram Importance Liquorice or Muleti is a perennial her or undershru a out 1m high. Its dried p eeled or unpeeled underground stems and roots constitute the drug which is an im portant constituent of all cough and catarrh syrups, throat lozenges and pastill es. This has een used in medicine for more than 4000 years. Hippocrates (400 BC ) mentioned its use as a remedy for ulcers and quenching of thirst. Dioscorides, the father of Greek medicine descri ed this drug in detail and considered it us eful for maintaining shape of arteries and in urning stomach, trou le of liver and kidney, sca ies, healing of wounds and as a remedy for eye diseases. It has een used in Ara system of medicine for more than 600 years from where it has een adopted to modern medicine (Gi son, 1978). The commercial name of the dried rhizome and root of the plant is liquorice which is used as flavouring agent and the taste coorigent in pharmaceutical and confectionery industries and its prod ucts are widely reported to e useful in ulcer therapy. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpe ne glucoside, is the principal constituent of G. gla ra which is 50 times sweete r than sugar.

Distri ution Liquorice is native to Mediterranean region, South Europe and Middle East. It is widely distri uted in Spain, Italy, Greece, Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, p arts of USSR and China. However its cultivation is limited to small areas in USS R, UK, and USA. In India, it grows in Punja and Jammu and Kashmir. Semi arid ar eas of Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarath states are suita le for the cultivation o f Liquorice. However, its commercial cultivation has not yet een possi le and t he domestic requirement is largely met through imports. Botany Glycyrrhiza gla ra Linn. elongs to the family Papilionaceae. The word Glycyrrhi za is of Greek origin meaning ‘sweet’ and gla ra means ‘smooth’ which refers to smooth fruit of the species. This is a tall perennial, self pollinated her or u ndershru a out 1m high with long cylindrical urrowing rootstock and horizontal creeping stolons which reach 1.5-1.8m in length. Leaves are alternate, pinnate with 9-17 leaflets. Leaflets are yellowish-green, 2.5-5cm long, ovate and o tuse . Flowers are pale lue arranged in a raceme and 1.25cm long. Calyx is glandular and pu escent. The pods are gla rous, red to rown having 3-4 seeds. Rhizome is soft, flexi le and fi rous with light yellow colour and a characteristic sweet taste. Agrotechnology This plant thrives well in su tropical areas with very warm summers and cool win ters with a rainfall not exceeding 500mm. Semi-arid and arid areas in su tropica l zones 62

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

are not suita le for the cultivation of this crop. It does not tolerate high hum idity and waterlogged conditions. Well drained light loam soils which are rich i n calcium and magnesium with slightly alkaline pH and free from stones are ideal for this crop. There are a num er of varieties of this crop among which Spanish , Russian and Persian liquorice are quite common. Commercial varieties are Typic a, Regel and Herd. This is propagated y seed, ut usually multiplied vegetative ly either through crown cuttings or stolon pieces. In the case of crown cuttings , 10-15cm long crown pieces with 2-3 uds are planted vertically at a distance o f 0.6-0.7m in rows 1-1.5m apart. However, most of the liquorice is propagated th rough stolon pieces of the a ove size planted horizontally, prefera ly on ridges during spring at the same distance as a ove. Rapid clonal propagation is also p ossi le y tissue culture technique. Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented w ith 6- enzylaminopurine and indole-3-acetic acid favoured multiple shoot product ion without any intervening callus phase. These regenerated plantlets can e tra nsferred to earthen pots in the glass house and after a rief hardening phase, t hese are transplanted in the field with a high rate (90-95%) of survival. This p lant normally does not require much fertilizers ut in deficient soils, it is e tter to apply 10-15 tonnes FYM per hectare efore planting. The field should e immediately irrigated after planting in spring and after the crop has sprouted, it requires very little irrigation. Space etween the rows should e kept free f rom weeds. Short term vegeta les like carrot or ca age can e planted etween t he rows for additional income. In order to produce good rhizome, flowering shoot s are clipped. No serious disease except leaf spot caused y Cercospora cavarae has een reported in this crop. Roots are ready for harvesting after 3-4 years. The root is dug when the top has dried during autumn (Novem erDecem er). A trenc h 60cm deep is dug along the ridges and the entire root is lifted. Broken parts of the root left in the soil, sprout again and give another crop after 2-3 years . Thus liquorice once planted properly can e harvested for 10-15 years. Postharvest technology Harvested roots are cut into pieces of 15-20cm long and 1-2cm in diameter. They are washed and dried upto 6-8% moisture in the sun and shade alternately which r educes the weight y 50%. The average yield of dried roots varies from 1-3 tonne s per hectare depending on the variety, soil and climatic conditions. Properties and activity Roots gave a num er of compounds the most important ieng a glucoside, glycyrrhi zin which gave glycyrrhetinic acid on enzyme hydrolysis. Root also contains flav ans, flavones, iso-flavanoes and coumarins including a 4-methyl coumarin, liqcou marin, gla ridin, gla rene, 4’-0-methyl and 3’-methoxygla ridin, formononetin, s alicylic acid, 0-acetyl salicylic acid which has een isolated first time from n ature, hispagla ridins A and B and 4’0methylgla ridin.On hydrolysis it also gave two molecules of d-glucuronic acid, each linked with β1-2 linkage to 3-hydroxyl of the sapogenin (Elgamal et al, 1969) Glycyrrhizin is antidiuretic, antiinflam matory, expectorant, antiulcerous, antihistamine. Glycyrrhizic acid is antiviral . The roots are emetic, tonic, diuretic, demulcent, mild laxative, aphrodisiac, trichogenous, expectorant, emmenagogue, alexipharmic, alterant and intellect pro moting. 63

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

64

GREATER GALANGAL Alpinia galanga Zingi eraceae Hin:Kulainjan; Mal:Aratta, Chittaratha; Tam:Arattai; San:Sugandhamula, Rasna; Gu j: Kolinjan; Kan: Dum a-rasmi; Mar: Kosht-Kulinjan; Tel: Pedda-dumparash-tram Importance The greater galangal, Java galangal or Siamese ginger is a perennial aromatic rh izomatous her . This plant is cultivated for its rhizome in tropical areas of so uth and East India. Because of the presence of essential oil, the rhizomes are u sed in ronchial trou les and as a carminative. They are also useful in vitiated conditions of vata and kapha, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammations, stomatopathy , pharyngopathy, cough, asthma, hiccough, dyspepsia, stomachalgia, o esity, dia etes, cephalagia, tu ercular glands and intermittent fevers. It is one of the in gredients of medicated “Pan” used for removing the foul smell of the mouth and g etting relief in throat inflammation. In Ayurveda, “Rasna-saptak-kwath” and “Ras na-adikamath” are used as antiinflammatory decoctions. In Unani, it is an ingred ient of aphrodisiac preparations, “Majun Mugawivi ma Mumsik”, “Majun Samagh”, an d antispasmodic nervine tonic “Majun Cho chine” and “Lu a Motadil”. It is also used in “Arq Pan” as a cardiac stimulant and carminative. Distri ution The Java galangal is mainly distri uted in Eastern Himalayas and South-West Indi a. This is very common in West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Kerala, Karnataka and throu ghout the Western Ghats. It is cultivated also in these places. They are also fo und in countries like Sri Lanka and Malaya. Botany Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd. elongs to the family Zingi eraceae. It is a pere nnial her , a out 2m high with lower portion covered with smooth leaf sheaths. T he leaves are roadly lanceolate, 30-60cm long and 10-15cm road. The flowers ar e arranged in erect, terminal panicles. composed of numerous spreading dichotomo us ranches each with two to six, pale greenish-white faintly fragrant flowers. Fruits 1.25 cm long, o long, constricted in the middle or even pear shaped, thre e sided and deep orange red in colour. Seeds are ash coloured, three angled, fin ely striated towards the hilum. Both the seeds and rhizomes have pungent aroma. Apinia calcarata (Linn.) Willd is another species of the genus with much medicin al importance. It is shorter in stature ut stronger in aroma than Alpinia galan ga. Agrotechnology Siamese Ginger comes up well in tropical climate. It grows on a wide range of cl imates and soils. Well drained hilly areas and places of 1400m high altitude are good for its cultivation. This is commercially propagated vegetatively y rhizo mes. The field should e ploughed to a good tilth. All the stones and pe les sh ould e removed. Organic manures at 10t/ha are applied during land preparation. Seed eds are prepared with 1m readth, 2m length and 15cm height. Small pits are made at 25cm spacing a ove the seed eds and 5cm long rhizomes are planted. Seed eds are covered with dried leaves. It is irrigated immediately after planting. Regular weeding is needed during the initial stages of crop growth. This is cult ivated also as an intercrop in coconut or ru er plantations. Rhizomes are 65

 

    

 

 

 

   

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

dug out after cutting the top portions when the crop reaches 1.5-2 years of matu rity. The average yield is 10-15 tonnes of fresh rhizomes/ha and the driage is 2 5-30%. The collected rhizomes are washed and cut into pieces of 5cm long and dri ed in sun for 4 days efore sale. Properties and Activity The rhizome contains tannins and flavonoids, some of which have een identified as kaempferide, galangin and alpinin. Seeds contain 1’-acetoxychavicol acetate a nd 1’-acetoxy eugenol acetate, antiulcer principles caryophyllenols I and II, npentadecane, 7-heptadecane and fatty acid methyl esters. Rhizomes yield essentia l oil containing methyl cinnamate, cineole and d-pinene and sesquiterpenoids. Fr esh rhizome yielded 18 monoterpenoids of which α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene a s major compounds and 17 oxygen containing monoterpenoids with cineol, terpinen4-o1, and α-terpineol s minor compounds. The rhizomes re bitter, crid, thermo genic, rom tic, nervine tonic, stimul nt, revulsive, c rmin tive, stom chic, di sinfect nt, phrodisi c, expector nt, broncho-dil tor, ntifung l, febrifuge, n tiinfl mm tory nd tonic. Rhizome is CVS nd CNS ctive, diuretic, hypothermic. Seed is ntiulcer tive. Rhizome spr y in ether, over sp ce showed high knock d own v lues g inst houseflies. Alcohol (50%) extr ct of rhizome is nti- mphet m inic. Un ni physici ns consider it good for impotence. 66

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COMMON INDIGO

P pilion ce e S n:Nilini, R nj ni, Nilik , Neel m, Aklik , Asit , Bh dr ; Ben, Guj:Nil; Hin:Go uli; M l: Neel m ri; T m: Averi; Tel: Aviri, Nili; K n: Nili; M r: N li; Ori: Ne li Import nce Common indigo or Indi n indigo is br nching shrub which grows upto 2m high. Ni li is reputed drug produced from this pl nt which is used in yurved for the promotion of h ir growth nd it forms m jor ingredient of prep r tions like ni libhring di oil. This is the origin l source of n tur l indigo. Due to ntitoxic property it is lso good remedy for poisons. According to Bh v pr k s , nili is purg tive in ction, bitter, hot, cures giddiness, bdomin l enl rgement, v t r kt , gout nd intestin l obstruction. The decoction or powder of the pl nt is used in whooping cough, bronchitis, p lpit tion of the he rt, enl rgement of th e liver nd spleen, dropsy, dise ses of lungs nd kidney, epilepsy nd nervous d isorders. A poultice of the le ves is recommended in skin dise ses, piles, ulcer nd h emorrhoids. A wine gl ss full juice of the le ves is dministered in the morning with or without milk for three d ys to those who h ve been bitten by m d dogs. Root decoction is given in c lculous dise ses nd used s n ntidote to rsenic poisoning. The seed of the pl nt is powered nd steeped in rr ck or rum , yield tincture, which is used to distroy lice. Indigo, the dye extr cted fro m the le ves, is soothing b lm for burns nd sc lds, insect stings nd nim l bites. The synonyms vis ghni nd sodh ni indic te the ntitoxic nd l x tive pro perties of the drug nili, respectively (Aiyer nd Kol mm l, 1960). Distribution This pl nt is distributed in South nd South E st Asi , tropic l Afric nd is i ntroduced in tropic l Americ . In Indi , it is found lmost throughout nd culti v ted in m ny p rts. Bot ny Indigofer tinctori Linn. syn. I. summ tr n G ertn, Pigmentum indicum belongs to P pilion ce e f mily. This is br nching shrub which grows upto 2m high. Ste ms nd br nches re green; br nchlets silvery pubescent. Le ves re ltern te, s tipul te, imp ripinn te nd got 7-13 le flets which re elliptic-oblong, membr n eous,1.7x0.9cm, shortly mucron te, p le green or bluish. Flowers re sm ll, rose -coloured in xill ry r cemes. C lyx 5-cleft, g mosep lous; coroll p pilion ceo us; st mens di delphous; ov ry sessile with short incurved style ending in c pit te stigm . Pods re line r, cylindric l, 25cm long, deflexed h ving 8-12 se eds. Agrotechnology The Indi n indigo requires good sunlight nd grows well in hilly re s. This is usu lly prop g ted by seeds. Seeds re very sm ll nd the seed r te is 3kg/h . S eeds require pretre tment for good germin tion s the seed co t is h rd. Seeds re mixed with s nd nd ground gently to bre k the seed co t. An ltern te method for enh ncing germin tion is dipping the seeds in boiling w ter for second. A fter pretre tment seeds re bro dc sted. Bro dc st the seeds prefer bly mixed wi th s nd 2 or 3 times its volume to ensure uniform cover ge. The seedbeds should be covered with str w nd irrig ted. Seeds germin te within 15 d ys. Seedlings re re dy for tr nspl nting fter one month. For the l nd prep r tion, the soil i s brought to fine tilth by ploughing 2 or 3 times. C ttle m nure should be ppli ed t the 67

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Indigofer

tinctori

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r te of 10t/h s b s l dressing nd incorpor ted into soil long with l st plou ghing. The best time for sowing is September-October. Weeding h s to be done two times; 3 weeks fter sowing nd 6 weeks fter sowing. Pl nts st rt flowering 23 months fter sowing. H rvesting is done by cutting the pl nts t this time, t height of bout 10cm from ground level. Irrig te pl nts fter h rvest. Subseq uent h rvests c n be m de t 1.5-2 months interv l. Four to five cuttings c n be t ken in n ye r depending on the growth. A few pl nts per plot re left withou t cutting to set seeds. Ripe pods re to be h rvested in the e rly morning to pr event loss of seeds by sh ttering during h rvest. Properties nd Activity A blue dyestuff is obt ined from the indigofer which does not exist re dy forme d, but is produced during ferment tion from nother gent existing in the pl nt, known s indoc n. Indoc n is yellow morphous of n useous bitter t ste with n cid re ction, re dily soluble in w ter, lcohol nd ether. An rtifici l prod uct indigotine is m nuf ctured chemic lly nd used s substitute. Indirubin is nother component of the pl nt. The pl nt is deobstruent, lter tive, ntitoxic , nti sthm tic nd ntiepileptic. Aeri l p rt is hypoglyc emic, CNS depress nt nd ntitoxic. The le ves, flowers nd tender shoots re considered to be coolin g, demulcent nd lter tive. Le f is ntiinfl mm tory. Root nd stem is l x tive , expector nt, ntitumourous, febrifuge, nticeph l lgic, ntidote for sn ke bit e, nthelmintic nd promotes growth of h ir. Root is divertic. Indirubin is nti neopl stic nd h s toxicity. Nili is ntitoxic, purg tive nd l x tive. Indigo i s s id to produce n use nd vomiting. 68

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MALABAR NUT Adh tod beddomei Ac nth ce e S n:V s k , V s ; Hin:Adus ; M l:Chitt d lot k m; T m:Adutot ; Tel:Add s r mu Import nce M l b r nut or Adh tod is l rge evergreen gl brous perenni l shrub, 1.2m in h eight. It is cultiv ted for medicin l uses, fencing, m nure nd s n orn ment l pl nt in pots lso. The shrub is the source of the drug v s k well known in th e indigenous systems of medicines for bronchitis. V s k le ves, flowers, fruits nd roots re extensively used for tre ting common cold, cough, whooping cough, chronic bronchitis nd sthm . It h s sed tive, expector nt, ntisp smodic nd nthelmintic ctions. The juice of the le ves cures vomiting, thirst, fever, der m tosis, j undice, phthisis, h em tenesis nd dise ses due to the morbidity of k ph nd pitt . The le f juice is especi lly used in n emi nd h emorrh ge, in tr dition l medicine. Flowers nd le ves re considered effic cious g inst rhe um tic p inful swellings nd form good pplic tion to sc bies nd other skin c ompl ints. M ny yurvedic medicines re tr dition lly prep red out of v s k lik e v s risht m, v s k s v m nd v s h reeth ki which re effective in v rious il ments of respir tory system. The drug VASA prep red from this pl nt forms n ing redient of prep r tions like V liy r sn di k s y m, Chy v n pr s m, Gulgulutikt k m ghrt m, etc. The lk loid v sicinone isol ted from the pl nt is n ingredie nt in cert in llop thic cough syrups lso. Distribution. V s k is distributed ll over Indi upto n ltitude of 2000m. This pl nt grows on w stel nd nd sometimes it is cultiv ted lso. Bot ny Adh tod beddomei C.B.Cl rke Syn. Justici beddomei (Cl rk) Bennet belongs to th e f mily Ac nth ce e. This is l rge gl brous shrub. Le ves re opposite, ov te , l nceol te nd short petioled upto 15cm long, 3.75cm bro d, m in nerves bout 8 p irs. Flowers re white with l rge br cts, flower he ds short, dense or conde nsed spikes. Fruits re c psules with long solid b se. Another pl nt Adh tod zeyl nic Medicus, syn. Adh tod v sic Nees, Justici dh tod Linn. of the s m e genus is very closely rel ted pl nt which is most commonly equ ted with the drug VASA. This is seen growing wild lmost throughout Indi while A. beddomei i s seen more under cultiv tion. The l tter is c lled Chitt d lod k m bec use of i ts sm ller st ture, sm ller le ves nd flowers. Agrotechnology V s k is seen lmost in ll types of clim te. It prefers lo my soils with good dr in ge nd high org nic content. It c n be grown well both in hilly nd pl in l nds. Commerci l prop g tion is by using 15-20cm long termin l cuttings. This i s either grown in polyb gs first, then in the field or pl nted directly. The pl nt is cultiv ted s pure crop or mixed with pl nt tion crops. The l nd is plou ghed repe tedly to good tilth nd the surf ce soil is broken upto depth of 1 5cm nd mixed with fertilizers. The beds re prep red with 1m bre dth nd 3-4m l ength. The cuttings re pl nted during April-M y into the beds t sp cing of 3 0x30cm. FYM is given t 5-10t/h in the first ye r. Regul r irrig tion nd weedi ng re necess ry. H rvesting is t the end of second or third ye r. Roots re co llected 69

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70

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Properties nd Activity Le ves yield essenti l oil nd n lk loid v sicine. Roots cont in v sicinol nd v sicinone. Roots lso cont in v sicoline, dh todine, nisotine nd v sicolino ne. Sever l lk loids like quin zoline nd v licine re present in this pl nt. T he pl nt is bitter, stringent, refriger nt, expector nt, diuretic, ntisp smodi c, febrifuge, depur tive, styptic nd tonic. V sicine is bronchodil tor, respir tory stimul nt nd hypotensive in ction, uterine stimul nt, uterotonic, bortif cient comp r ble with oxytocin nd methyligin. Uterotonic ction of v sicine is medi ted through the rele se of prost gl ndins.

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by digging the seedbeds. Stems usu lly dried nd stored.

re cut 15cm bove the root. Stems nd roots

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COOMB TEAK

Verben ce e S n: Gumbh ri; Hin:G m ri, Jug ni-chuk r; M l: Kumizhu, Kumpil; Guj: Shew n; Pun :Gumb r; M r: Shiv n s l; K n: Kummud ; T m: Uni, Gum di; Tel: Gumm di; Import nce Coomb te k, C nd h r tree or K shmeeri tree is moder te sized, un rmed, decidu ous tree which is vit l ingredient of the ”d s mul ” (group of ten roots). The whole pl nt is medicin lly very import nt. It promotes digestive power, improve s memory, overcomes giddiness nd is lso used s n ntidote for sn ke bite nd scorpion sting. Roots re useful in h llucin tion, fever, dyspepsi , hyperdipsi , h emorrhoids, stom ch lgi , he rt dise ses, nervous disorders, piles nd burn ing sens tion. B rk is used in fever nd dyspepsi . Le f p ste is good for ceph l gi nd le f juice is good w sh for foul ulcers nd is lso used in the tre tment of gonorrhoe nd cough. Flowers re recommended for leprosy, skin nd blo od dise ses. The fruits re used for promoting the growth of h ir nd in n emi , leprosy, ulcers, constip tion, str ngury, leucorrhoe , colpitis nd lung dise se. Wood is one of the best nd most reli ble timber of Indi . It is used for m king furniture, pl nks, c rri ges, printing boxes, music l instruments, sh fts, xles, picture fr mes, jute bobbins, c lipers, ship buildings, rtifici l limbs nd stethoscopes. In south Indi the b rk of the tree is used by rr ck m nuf ct urers to regul te the ferment tion of toddy. The pl nt is lso grown in g rden o r venues (Dey, 1988; Siv r j n nd Indir , 1994). Distribution The pl nt is found wild throughout Indi from the foot of Him l y s to Ker l n d An d m ns, in moist, semideciduous nd open forests upto n ltitude of 1500 m . It is lso distributed in Sri L nk nd Philippines. Bot ny Gmelin rbore Roxb. Syn. Premn rbore Roth. belongs to F mily Verben ce e. I t is n un rmed deciduous tree growing up to 20m height with whitish grey corky lenticell te b rk, exfloli ting in thin fl kes. Br nchlets nd young p rts re c lothed with fine white me ly pubescence. Le ves re simple, opposite, bro dly ov te, cord te, gl ndul r, gl brous bove when m ture nd fulvous-tomentose bene t h. Flowers brownish yellow in termin l p nicle. C lyx c mp nul te, pubescent out side nd with 5 lobes. Coroll showy brownish yellow with short tube nd oblique limbs. St mens 4, didyn mous nd included. Ov ry is 4 ch mbered with one ovule e ch; style slender ending in bifid stigm . Fruits re fleshy ovoid drupes, or nge yellow when ripe. Seeds 1 or 2, h rd nd oblong. Agrotechnology Coomb te k is sun loving pl nt. It does not toler te drought. But it grows in light frost. R inf ll higher th n 2000mm nd loose soil re ide l. The best meth od of prop g tion is by seeds but r rely prop g ted vegit tevely by stem cutting s lso. Seed form tion occurs in M y-June. Seeds re dried well before use. They re so ked in w ter for 12 hours before sowing. Seed r te is 3kg/h . Seeds re sown in nursery beds shortly before r ins. Seeds germin te within one month. See dlings re tr nspl nted in the first r iny se son when they re 71

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Gmelin

rbore

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7-10cm t ll. Pits of size 50cm cube re m de t sp cing of 3-4m nd filled wit h s nd, dried cowdung nd surf ce soil, over which the seedlings re tr nspl nte d. 20kg org nic m nure is given once ye r. Irrig tion nd weeding should be do ne on regul r b sis. The common dise se reported is sooty mould c used by Cort icium s lmonicolor which c n be controlled by pplying suit ble fungicide. The tree grows f st nd m y be re dy for h rvesting fter 4 or 5 ye rs. This pl nt is coppiced nd tr ded. The roots re lso used for medicin l purposes. The tree m y st nd up to 25 ye rs. Properties nd Activity Roots nd he rt wood of Coomb te k re reported to cont in gmelinol, hentri cont nol, n-oct cos nol nd β-sitosterol. The roots contain sesquiterpenoid and apio sylskimmin, a coumarin characterised as um elliferone-7-apiosyl glucoside and gm elofuran. The heart wood gives ceryl alcohol, cluytyl ferulate, lignans, ar oreo l, gmelonone, 6”- romo isoar oreol, lignan hemiacetal and gummidiol. Leaves yiel d luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, hentriacontanol, β-sitosterol, quercetogenin an d other flavons. Fruits contain utyric acid, tartaric acid, and saccharine su s tances (Asolkar et al, 1992; Dey, 1988). The roots are acrid, itter, tonic, sto machic, laxative, galactogogue, demulcent, anti ilious, fe rifuge and anthelmint ic. Bark is itter, hypoglycaemic, antiviral, anticephalalgic and tonic. The lea ves are demulcent, antigonorrhoeic and echic. Flowers are sweet, refrigerant, a stringent and acrid. Fruits are acrid, refrigerant, diuretic, astringent, aphrod isiac, trichogenous, alterant and tonic (Warrier et al; 1995). 72

 

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INDIAN BEECH Pongamia pinnata Papilionaceae San: Karanj; Hin: Karanja, Dittouri; Ben: Dehar karanja; Mal: Ungu, Pongu; Guj, Mar, Pun: Karanj; Kan: Hongae; Tel: Kangu; Tam: Puggam; Ass: Karchaw; Ori: Koran jo Importance Indian eech, Pongam oil tree or Hongay oil tree is a handsome flowering tree wi th drooping ranches, having shining green leaves laden with lilac or pinkish wh ite flowers. The whole plant and the seed oil are used in ayurvedic formulations as effective remedy for all skin diseases like sca ies, eczema, leprosy and ulc ers. The roots are good for cleaning teeth, strengthening gums and in gonorrhoea and scrofulous enlargement. The ark is useful in haemorhoids, eri eri, ophtha lmopathy and vaginopathy. Leaves are good for flatulence, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, leprosy, gonorrhoea, cough, rheumatalgia, piles and oedema. Flowers are given in dia etes. Fruits overcomes urinary disease and piles. The seeds are used in inf lammations, otalgia, lum ago, pectoral diseases, chronic fevers, hydrocele, haem orrhoids and anaemia. The seed oil is recommended for ophthalmia, haemorrhoids, herpes and lum agoThe seed oil is also valued for its industrial uses. The seed cake is suggested as a cheap cattle feed. The plant enters into the composition of ayurvedic preparations like nagaradi tailam, varanadi kasayam, varanadi ghrta m and karanjadi churna. It is a host plant for the lac insect. It is grown as a shade tree. The wood is moderately hard and used as fuel and also for making agr icultural implements and cartwheels. Distri ution The plant is distri uted throughout India from the central or eastern Himalaya t o Kanyakumari, especially along the anks of streams and rivers or each forests and is often grown as an avenue tree. It is distri uted in Sri Lanka, Burma, Ma laya, Australia and Polynesia. Botany Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre syn. P. gla ra Vent., Derris indica (Lam.) Benne t, Cystisus pinnatus Lam. comes under family Papilionaceae. P. pinnata is a mode rate sized, semi-evergreen tree growing upto 18m or more high, with a short ole , spreading crown and greyish green or rown ark. Leaves imparipinnate, alterna te, leaflets 5-7, ovate and opposite. Flowers lilac or pinkish white and fragran t in axillary recemes. Calyx cup-shaped, shortly 4-5 toothed, corolla papilionac eous. Stamens 10 and monadelphous, ovary su sessile, 2-ovuled with incurved, gla rous style ending in a capitate stigma. Pod compressed, woody, indehiscent, yel lowish grey when ripe varying in size and shape, elliptic to o liquely o long, 4 .0-7.5cm long and 1.7-3.2cm road with a short curved eak. Seeds usually 1, ell iptic or reniform, wrinkled with reddish rown, leathery testa. Agrotechnology The plant comes up well in tropical areas with warm humid climate and well distr i uted rainfall. Though it grows in almost all types of soils, silty soils on ri ver anks are most ideal. It is tolerant to drought and salinity. The tree is us ed for afforestation, especially 73

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

in watersheds in the drier parts of the country. It is propagated y seeds and v egetatively y rootsuckers. Seed setting is usually in Novem er. Seeds are soake d in water for few hours efore sowing. Raised seed eds of convenient size are prepared, well rotten cattle manure is applied at 1kg/m2 and seeds are uniformly roadcasted. The seeds are covered with a thin layer of sand and irrigated. One month old seedlings can e transplanted into poly ags, which after one month ca n e planted in the field. Pits of size 50cm cu e are dug at a spacing of 45m, f illed with top soil and manure and planted. Organic manure are applied annually. Regular weeding and irrigation are required for initial esta lishment. The tree s flower and set fruits in 5 years. The harvest season extends from Novem er- Ju ne. Pods are collected and seeds are removed y hand. Seed, leaves, ark and roo t are used for medicinal purposes. Bark can e collected after 10 years. No seri ous pests and diseases are reported in this crop. Properties and Activity The plant is rich in flavonoids and related compounds. Seeds and seed oil, flowe rs and stem ark yield karanjin, pongapin, pongagla rone, kanugin, desmethoxykan ugin and pinnatin. Seed and its oil also contain kanjone, isolonchocarpin, karan jachromene, isopongachromene, gla rin, gla rachalcone, gla rachromene, isopongaf lavone, pongol, 2’methoxy-furano[2”,3”:7,8]-flavone and phospholipids. Stem- ark gives pongachromene, pongaflavone, tetra-O-methylfisetin, gla ra I and II, lanc eolatin B, gamatin, 5-methoxyfurano[2”,3”:7,8]-flavone, 5-methoxy-3’,4’-methelen edioxyfurano[2”,3”:7,8]-flavone and αsitosterol. He rtwood yields chromenoch lco nes nd fl vones. Flowers re reported to cont in k njone, g m tin, gl br s pon in, k empferol, γ-sitosterol, quercetin lycocides, pon a labol, isopon a labol, 6-methoxy isopon a labol, lanceolatin B, 5-methoxy-3’,4’methelenedioxyfurano[8, 7:4”,5”]-flavone, fisetin tetramethyl ether, isolonchocarpin, ovalichromene B, p on amol, ovalitenon, two triterpenes- cycloart-23-ene,3β,25 diol and friedelin a nd a dipeptide aurantinamide acetate. Roots and leaves give kanugin, desmethoxyk anugin and pinnatin. Roots also yield a flavonol methyl ether-tetra-O-methyl fis etin. The leaves contain triterpenoids, gla rachromenes I and II, 3’-methoxypong apin and 4’-methoxyfurano[2”,3”:7,8]-flavone also. The gum reported to yield pol ysaccharides (Thakur et al, 1989; Husain et al, 1992). Seeds, seed oil and leave s are carminative, antiseptic, anthelmintic and antirheumatic. Leaves are digest ive, laxative, antidiarrhoeal, echic, antigonorrheic and antileprotic. Seeds ar e haematinic, itter and acrid. Seed oil is styptic and depurative. Karanjin is the principle responsi le for the curative properties of the oil. Bark is sweet, anthelmintic and elexteric. 74

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ECLIPTA Asteraceae Eclipta prostrata San: Bhrngarajah, Tekarajah; Hin: Bhamgra, Mocakand, Ba ri; Ben: Kesutthe, Kesra j; Mal: Kannunni, Kayyonni, Kayyunnni; Tam: Kayyantakara, Kaikeri; Kan: Kadiggag araga; Tel: Guntagalijeran; Ara : Kadim-el- int Importance Eclipta is one of the ten auspicious her s that constitute the group dasapuspam which is considered to destroy the causative factors of all unhealthy and unplea sant features and estow good health and prosperity. The mem ers of this group c ure wounds and ulcers as well as fever caused y the derangement of the tridosas - vata, pitta and kapha. It is used in hepatitis, spleen enlargements, chronic skin diseases, tetanus and elephantiasis. The leaf promotes hair growth and use as an antidote in scorpion sting. The root is used as an emetic, in scalding of urine, conjuctivitis and as an antiseptic to ulcers and wound in cattle. It is u sed to prevent a ortion and miscarriage and also in cases of uterine pains after the delivery. The juice of the plant with honey is given to infants for expulsi on of worms. For the relief in piles, fumigation with Eclipta is considered ene ficial. A decoction of the leaves is used in uterine haemorrhage. The paste prep ared y mincing fresh plants has got an antiinflammatory effect and may e appli ed on insect ites, stings, swellings and other skin diseases. In Ayurveda, it i s mainly used in hair oil, while in Unani system, the juice is used in “Ha Misk een Nawaz” along with aconite, triphala, Croton tiglium, Piper nigium, Piper lon gum, Zingi er officinale and minerals like mercury, sulphur, arsenic, orax, etc . for various types of pains in the ody. It is also a constituent of “Roghan Am la Khas” for applying on the hair and of “Majun Murrawah-ul-arwah”. Distri ution This plant is widely distri uted in the warm humid tropics with plenty of rainfa ll. It grows commonly in moist places as a weed all over plains of India. Botany Eclipta prostrata (Linn) Linn. syn. E. al a Hassk. is an annual, erect or postra te her , often rooting at nodes. Leaves are sessile, 2.5-7.5cm long with white a ppressed hairs. Floral heads are 6-8 mm in diameter, solitary and white. Fruit i s an achene, compressed and narrowly winged. Sometimes, Wedelia calendulacea, wh ich resem les Eclipta prostrata is used for the same purpose. The leaves contain stigmasterol, α-terthienylmeth nol, wedelol ctone, dismethylwedelol ctone nd d ismethylwedelol ctone-7-glucoside. The roots give hentri cont nol nd hept cos n ol. The roots cont in poly cetylene substituted thiophenes. The eri l p rt is r eported to cont in phytosterol, β-amyrin in the n-hexane extract and luteolin7-glucoside, β-glucoside of phytosterol, a glucoside of a triterpenic acid and w edelolactone in polar solvent extract. The polypeptides isolated from the plant yield cystine, glutamic acid, phenyl alanine, tyrosine and methionine on hydroly sis. Nicotine and nicotinic acid are reported to occur in this plant. The plant is anticatarrhal, fe rifuge, antidontalgic, a sor ent, antihepatic, CVS active, nematicidal, ovicidal and spasmolytic in activity. The alcoholic extract of enti re plant has een reported to have antiviral activity against Ranikhet disease v irus. Aqueous extract of the plant showed su jective improvement of vision in th e case of refractive errors. The her al drug Trefoli, containing extracts of the plant in com ination with others, when administered to the patients of viral he patitis, produced excellent results. Properties and Activity 75

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TERMINALIA Com retaceae Terminalia spp. The genus Terminalia includes a large group of medicinally valua le trees. They elong to the family Com retaceae. The most important medicinal species of the g enus Terminalia are the following. 1) T. arjuna (Rox .ex DC) Wight & Arn. San: A rjunah, Kaku hah; Hin: Arjun, Kahu, Kahua; Mal: Marutu, Nirmarutu, Venmarutu, At tumarutu, Pulamatti; Tam: Attumarutu, Nirmarutu, Vellaimarutu, Marutu; Kan: Madd i. It is a large evergreen tree commonly found in Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Peni nsular and India. It has uttressed trunk and spreading crown with drooping ran ches. Bark is smooth, grey outside and flesh coloured inside, flaking off in lar ge flat pieces. Leaves are simple, su -opposite, o long or elliptic, coriaceous, crenulate, pale dull green a ove, pale rown eneath, often unequal sided, nerv es 10-15 pairs and reticulate. Flowers are white, arranged in panicles of spikes with linear racteoles. Fruits are ovoid or o long with 5-7 short, hard angles or wings, the lines on the wings o lique and curving upward (Warrier et al 1996) . The ark is useful in fractures, ulcers, urethrorrhoea, leucorrhoea, dia etes, vitiated conditions of pitta, anaemia, cardiopathy, fatigue, asthma, ronchitis , tumours, internal and external haemorrhages, cirrhosis of the lever and hypert ension. It is used in fractures and the powdered ark is taken with milk. The a rk powder is diuretic and has a general tonic effect in cases of cirrhosis of li ver. The ark has een considered y the ayurvedic physicians as well as y mode rn practitioners as a cardiac tonic. It is given as a decoction with milk (NRF, 1998). In Ayurveda, “Arjunaghrita” and “Arjunarishta” are two important cardioto nic preparations of this drug. Fruits contain flavanones - arjunone and 5,7,2’, 4’ - tetramethoxy flavone and a chalcone - cerasidin. Other constituents are β-s itosterol, friedelin, methyloleanolate, gallic acid, ellagic acid and arjunic ac id. Bark gave a triterpene arjungenin, triterpene glucosides I, II and III. Stem ark gave flavones - aicalein and arjunolone characterised as 6,4’ dihydraxy 7-methoxy flavone. Stem ark yields oxalic acid and tannins esides complex gly cosides (Bhatra et al, 1980). Bark is alexertic, styptic, antidysenteric, astrin gent, antiasthmatic, fe rifuge, expectorant, cardiotonic aphrodisiac and diureti c. Fruit is deo struent. Stem- ark is CVS and CNS active, diuretic and a ortifac ient. Aerial part is CNS depressant and semen coagulant. 2) T. alata Heyne ex Ro th. Syn. T. tomentosa (Rox . Ex. Dc.) W & A. San: Dharaphala, Saradru, Sajada; H in. Ain; Ben: Asan, Paishal; Mal: Tehm ara; Tam: Karramarda, Karu Murutha, Marud am, Pudavam. This tree is distri uted in Himalaya from Kangra eastwords to Goalp ara in Assam and southwards throughout the Peninsular India, upto 1200 m. The a rk of the tree is widely used in ulcers, fractures, ronchitis and diarrhoea. Hy drolysis of the gum gives oligosaccharides, disaccharides and monosaccharides. L eaves and fruits give β-sitosterol. Bark is diuretic, antihaemorrhagic, styptic, cardiotonic and semen coagulant. 3) T. ellirica (Craertn.) Rox . San: Aksha, A nilaghanaka, Baheduka, Harya, Kalinda; Hin: Bulla, Sagona; Ben: Bahera, Baheri; Tam: Akkam, Kalanduri, Tani; Tel: Bhutavasamu Tadi, Tandra, Vi hutakamu. Belliri c Myro alan is distri uted throughout India, upto 900 m. Its ark is used in ana emia and leucoderma. The fruit is used in ronchitis, strangury, sore throat, di seases of eye, nose, heart and ladder, hoarseness and piles. It forms an import ant constituent of the ayurvedic drug ‘triphala’. Furits contain β-sitosterol, g allic and ellagic acids, ethyl gallate, galloyl glucose, che ulagic acid and a c ardiac glucoside ellaricanin. Alcoholic extract of 76

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the fruit possesses ile-stimulating activity. Alcoholic extract, 30 mg/kg does not affect lood pressure and respiration, ut a higher dose of 60 mg/kg produce s a fall in lood pressure. Furit has anticancerous and flower has spermicidal a ctivity. Bark is mild diuretic. Fruit is astringent, antidropsical, antileprotic , antiinflammatory, antidiarrhoeal, anti ilious, stomachic, antiasthmatic, tonic , anticephalgic, echic, anthelmintic and attenuant. Kernel is narcotic. Semi-ri pe fruit is purgative. Gum is demulcent (Husain et al, 1992) 4) T. ialata steud . White Chugalam or silver grey wood is a common tree of Andaman Islands. Its a rk is used as a cardiac stimulant. 5) T. Catappa Linn. San: Grahadruma; Hin: Bad am; Ben: Bangla Badam: Tam: Natuvdom, Vadhamkottai; Tel: Vedam, Voda Movettilla; Mar: Jangli Badama, Nat Badam. Indian Almond or Tropical Almond is a popular tr ee cultivated throughout the warmer parts of India including Andaman Islands and other adjacent island. Oil from the kernel is a su stitute for almond oil. The leaf is used in sca ies and colic. Husk and endocarp contain tannins and pentosa ns. Oil from kernel contains oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Heart wood and stem ark contains β-sitosterol and its palmitate. Heartwood in additio n contains terminolic acid and triterpenic methyl esters. The aerial part of the plant is diuretic. The ark is astringent, mild diuretic, cardiotonic and antid ysenteric. Leaf is sudorific, antirheumatic, antileprotic and anticephalalgic. 6 ) T. Coriacea (Rox .) syn. T. tomentosa (Rox . ex. DC.) W. & A. var. coriacea (Rox .) C. B. Clarke Tam: Anaimikkuvam, Sadagam; Kan: Banapu; Tel: Tani. Leathery Murdah is a tree co mmonly used as a cardiac stimulant. It is widely distri uted in the drier and wa rmer parts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu upto 1350 m and in Central India. It s ark is mainly used as a cardiac stimulant and in atonic diarrhoea and callous ulcer. It is also CVS active. 7) T. myriocarpa Heurck. & Muell. Arg. Ben: Panis aj; Ass: Hollock, Jhalna. Hollock is a tree of the Himalayas widely distri uted from Nepal to Arunachal Pradesh and in Assam at 1000 m. The ark is cardiac stim ulant and mild diuretic. Bark give β-sitosterol, fructose and 4,4’,5,5’,6,6’ - h exadydroxy diphenic acid dilactone. Bark also contains tannis - ellagic, gallic, che ulinic and che ulagic acids. 8) T. Pallida Brandis. Tam: Vellai Kadukkay; T el: Tella Karaka, Velama Karka. The plant is distri uted throughout south India, upto 600m. Its ark is a mild diuretic. 9) T. Paniculata Roth. Mal: Marutu, Pe Marutu, Ven Marutu; Tam: Pei Kadukai, Ven Maruthu, Ilai Kadukkay, Marudu, Pullat ti; Tel: Nimiri, Pulamaddi, Putamanu, Pulanallamanu; Kan: Maruva, Matti. Floweri ng Murdah is a tree which is widely used in opium poisoning. It is distri uted i n the Western and Eastern Ghats, upto 1200m. The ark is used in parotitis and f lowers in opium poisioning. Heart wood give 3, 3’-0-di-methylellagic acid and 3, 4,3’0-trimethyl flavellagic acid, β-sitosterol, an uncharacterized triterpene ca r oxylic acid; a glycoside 3,3’ di-0 - methyl ellagic acid - 4 - monoglucoside a nd 0 - penta methyl flavellogic acid. The stem ark is anticancerous, diuretic, cardiotonic CVS active and shows antagonism of amphetamine hyperactivity. Flower is anticholerin (Husain et al, 1992) 77

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10) Terminalia che ula Retz. Syn. Myro alanus che ula (Retz.) Gaertner Eng: Che ulic myro alan; San, Ben: Haritaki; Hindi:Harara, Harir, Har; Mal:Kadukka; Ass:H ilikha; Kan:Alale; Mar:Ha ra,Hirada; Ori:Harida; Guj:Hirdo; Pun:Helela; Tam:Amag ola; Tel:Karaka Che ulic myro alan is a medium deciduous tree, the fruit of whic h is a common constituent of “Triphala” capa le of imparting youthful vitality a nd receptivity of mind and sense. It is a major constituent in the ayurvedic pre parations like A hayarishta, A haya modak, Haritaki khand, Triphaladi churnam an d Agastya rasayanam. In allopathy it is used in astringent ointments. In unani s ystem, it is used as a lood purifier. The pulp of the fruit is given in piles, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, costiveness, flatulence, asthma, urinary disorders , vomiting, hiccup, intestinal worms, ascites and enlarged spleen and liver. Pow der of the fruit is used in chronic ulcers and wounds, carious teeth and leedin g ulceration of the gums. The ark is a good cardiac tonic. The fruit is valua l e for its tannins and dyes. The wood is used for uilding purposes, agricultural implements, plywood and match ox industries. It is also grown as a shade tree. The plant is found throughout India chiefly in deciduous forests, on dry slopes upto 900m especially in Bengal, Tamil Nadu, West coast and Western Ghats. The p lant is also reported in Sri Lanka, Nepal and Burma. Terminalia che ula Retz. sy n. Myro alanus che ula (Retz.) Gaertner comes under family Com retaceae. It is a medium sized deciduous tree with a cylindrical ole, rounded crown, spreading ranches with dark rown ark and rownish gray heartwood. Leaves are simple, alt ernate or su opposite, ovate or elliptic ovate with short petioles earing 2 gla nds elow the lades. Flowers pale yellow or white in 4-10cm long axillary spike s. Calyx tu e hairy pale yellow and 5 lo ed; no petals. Stamens consist of 10 fi laments su ulate, anthers small; ovary inferior, 1-celled with 2-3 pendulous ovu le. Fruit is a drupe, ovoid glossy, gla rous, faintly angled and yellow to orang e rown in colour. Seeds are hard and pale yellow. Kernel oil of Che ulic myro a lan contains 6 fatty acids viz. Palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, arachidic an d ehenic acid. The fruits contain che ulinic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, ch e ulin and tannin. Leaves contain terpenes and saponins and β-sitosterol is pres ent in the ark (Beri, 1970; Khalique and Nizamuddin, 1972; Miglani and Chawla, 1974). Fruits are astringent, purgative, tonic, carminative, alternative and ant ispasmodic. Flowers and fruits are antiviral and hypoglycaemic. Wood is oxytocic and hypothermic (Husain et al, 1992). Agrotechnology Terminalia species are, in general, su tropical trees. Young plants prefer shade while the matured plants tolerate light frost and drought. It grows well in hil ly areas. This is propagated y seeds. Natural multiplication happens rarely due to the poor seeds germination. Seeds soaked in water for 48 hours efore sowing in seed eds which should e covered with straw after sowing. It is watered imme diately. Usually it takes 3-5 months to germinate. It can e transferred to poly ags at two-leaf stage. One-year-old seedlings are ready for transplanting. For transplanting, pits are made of 50cm cu e at a spacing of 4m. Organic manure, ad ded regularly, promotes growth. Irrigation is required during first year. Weeds should e removed regularly. This plant grows slowly. It fruits within 6-7 years . This is continued for many years. It is coppiced well. Fruits are collected im mediately after falling down or covered with soil to protect it from pests. Frui ts dried well in sun and used or stored. The hard seed coat is removed efore so wing. 78

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

COLEUS Lamiaceae Coleus spp. The genus Coleus of the family Lamiaceae (La iatae) comprises a num er of her ac eous medicinal plants which are particularly employed in home remedies for vario us ailments. Three species are most popular and commonly cultivated. They are Co leus aromaticus, C. vettiveroides and C. forkoshlii. 1. Coleus aromaticus Benth. syn. C. am oinicus Lour., Plectranthus am oinicus (L our.) Spreng. Eng: Country orage, Indian orage; San: Karpuravalli, Sugandhavalakam; Hin: Pat harchur; Ben: Paterchur; Mal: Panikkurkka, kannikkurkka; Tam: Karpuravalli; Kan: karpurahalli; Tel: Sugandhavalkam. It is found through out the tropics and cult ivated in homestead gardens. It is a large succulent aromatic perennial her wit h hispidly villous or tomentose fleshy stem. Leaves are simple, opposite, roadl y ovate, crenate and fleshy. Flowers are pale purplish in dense whorls at distan t intervals in a long slender raceme. Fruits are or icular or ovoid nutlets. The leaves are useful in cephalagia, otalgia, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, coli c, diarrhoea, cholera, halitosis, convulsions, epilepsy, cough, asthma, hiccough , ronchitis, strangury, hepatopathy and malarial fever (Warrier et al,1995). 2. Coleus vettiveroides K.C. Jaco , syn. Plectranthus vettiveroides (Jaco ) Sing h & Sharma. San: Valakam, Hri eram; Hin: Valak; Mal: Iruveli; Tam: Karuver; Tel: Karuveru, I t is seen in tropical countries and cultivated in gardens. It is a small profuse ly ranched, succulent aromatic her with quadrangular stems and ranches and de ep straw coloured aromatic roots. Leaves are glandular hairy, roadly ovate with dentate margins and prominent veins on the ark. Blue flowers are orne on term inal racemes. Fruits are nutlets. The whole plant is useful in hyperdipsia, viti ated conditions of pitta, urning sensation, strangury, leprosy, skin diseases, leucoderma, fever, vomiting, diarrhoea, ulcers and as hair tonic. 3. Coleus forskohlii Briq. syn. C. ar atus Benth. Hin: Garmai Kan: Magani eru, Makandi eru Guj: Maimul It is a perennial aromatic her grown under tropical to temperate conditions for its carrot-like tu ers whi ch are used as condiments in the preparation of pickles. Its tu erous roots are an exclusive source of a diterpenoid forskolin which has the unique property of activating almost all hormone sensitive adenylate cyclase enzymes in a iologica l system. It is useful in the treatment of congestive heart failure, glaucoma, a sthma, cancer and in preventing immature greying of hair (Hegde,1997). Agrotechnology The Coleus group of plants grows in tropical to su tropical situations and in wa rm temperate climatic zone on mountains of India, Nepal, Burma, Sri Lanka, Thail and and Africa. It comes up well on the sun exposed dry hill slopes from 300m to 1800m altitude. A well drained medium fertile soil is suita le for its cultivat ion. it is propagated vegetatively through stem and root cuttings. Vine cuttings to a length of 10-15cm from the top portion are most ideal for planting. The la nd is ploughed or dug to a depth of 15-20cm and ridges are formed 30cm apart. Vi ne cuttings are planted on the ridges at 30cm spacing after incorporating asal manure. 10t of FYM and NPK at 50:50:50kg/ha are incorporated into the soil. Top dressing of N and K is also suggested for improved yields. Weeding and earthing up at 45 days after planting along with topdressing is highly eneficial. Bacter ial wilt and root knot nematode are reported in the crop. Drenching the soil wit h fungicide, deep ploughing in the summer, urning of crop residues and crop rot ation are helpful to tide over the disease and pest pro lem. The crop can e har vested after 5-6 months. 79

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Properties and Activity The medicinal property of Coleus am oinicus is attri uted to codeine, carvacrol, flavones, aromatic acids and tannins present in the plant. The essential oil fr om the plant contains carvacrol, ethyl salicylate, thymol, eugenol and chavicol. Leaves also contain cirsimaritin, β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside and oxalacetic aci d. Leaves are itter, acrid, thermogenic, aromatic, anodyne, appetising, digesti ve, carminative, stomachic, anthelmintic, constipating, deodorant, expectorant, diuretic and liver tonic. Coleus vettiveroides is itter, cooling, diuretic, tri chogenous and antipyretic. Coleus forskohlii roots are rich in diterpenoids like forskolin, coleonols, coleons, ar atusin, cyclo utatusin, coleosol, coleol, co leonone, deoxycoleonol, 7-deacetylforskolin and 6-acetyl-7-deacetylforskolin. It s root is spasmolytic, CNS active, hypothermic and diuretic. Forskolin is ronch odialative and hypotensive (Hussain et al,1992). Forskolin is also useful in pre venting the clotting of lood platelets, in reducing intraocular pressure in gla ucoma and as an aid to nerve regeneration following trauma (Sharma, 1998) 80

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

TINOSPORA Menispermaceae Importance Tinospora cordifolia Tam: Amridavalli Ori: Gulochi San: Amrita, Guduchi; Hin, Ben: Giloe; Mal: Amritu, Chittamritu; Kan: Amrita all i; Tel: Tivantika, Tippatige; Pun: Batindu Tinospora is a common clim ing shru which is used in medicine, usually in the f resh state, though it is commercially availa le in the dried state. It is pro a ly the most useful preparation acting as a tonic and aphrodisiac. As a tonic it is est given in infusion with or without milk. It is a popular remedy for snake - ite and leprosy. It is generally prescri ed in general de ility, dia etes, fev er, jaundice, skin diseases, rheumatism, urinary diseases, dyspepsia, gout, gono rrhoea and leucorrhoea. It is a constituent of several preparations like guducha yado churna, gududyadi kwath, guduchilouha, amritarista, sanjivanivati, guduchi taila, amiritastak kwath, etc. The juice mixed with the pulp of long pepper and honey is a house hold remedy for gonorrhoea. Several oils for external applicati ons are prepared with amrita and applied to skin diseases, rheumatic affections and other nervous complaints. A small quantity of ruised stem soaked for three hours in half a litre of water and strained com ined with ammonium acetate is ad ministered in intermittent and milder forms of fevers. It is rendered more agree a le with cinnamon, cloves and other aromatics. (Viswanathan, 1997). Distri ution The plant is widely seen in tropical countries like India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka an d in Andaman Islands. It is mostly found trailing on forest trees, fences and he dges along the oundaries. Botany Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers ex Hk. f & Thoms. syn. Menispermum cordifoliu m Willd, Cocculus cordifolius (Willd) DC. elongs to the family Menispermaceae. It is a clim ing shru with rough corky ark. Leaves are gla rous, cordate 5-10c m road, acute or accuminate. The plant is dioecious. Male flowers are in fascic les; sepals oval; petals half the length of sepals. Female flowers are usually s olitary, having ovary on the fleshy receptacle. Fruits are red when ripe. Agrotechnology Giloe requires a warm humid tropical climate. It thrives well in deep fertile so ils which are rich in organic matter. It is propagated vegetatively y stem cutt ings. A out 1015cm long stem cuttings having at least 2 nodes are planted in the field or poly ags. Treatment of cut ends with hormones gives etter results. Th e usual planting time is with the onset of monsoon in May-June. Usually it is pl anted along oundaries or near y tall trees and allowed to trail on the trees or hedges and hence regular spacing is not followed. While planting, adequate amou nts of organic manure are applied. Once the plant is esta lished no much managem ent is needed. The stem is the most economic part. Harvesting can e commenced a fter one year and usually partial harvesting is followed depending on the necess ity. The stem and root should e collected in hot season when the concentration of the itter principle is the highest. A full grown well ramified plant may giv e 2-3kg vines, which are cut into smaller pieces and traded either fresh or afte r drying. The plant contains cordifol, tinosporidine, tinosporide, per erilin, h eptacosanol, βsitosterol, cordifolone, tinosporon, tinosporic acid, tinosporol, cordifolide, tinosporine, magnoflorine and tem etarine (Husain et al,1992). The plant is antigonorrhoric, stomachic, antispasmodic, antiinflammatory, stimulant, diuretic, emetic, antidia etic, aphrodisiac, antiperiodic, antileprotic antirhe umantic and tonic. The root is an emetic in large doses. The tincture and extrac t are alterative and tonic and in a less degree antiperiodic and diuretic. (Dey, 1980).

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

Properties and Activity 81

DESMODIUM Fa aceae Importance Desmodium gangeticum San: Anshumati, Salaparni; Hin, Ben: Salpani; Mal: Orila; Tam:Pulladi; Tel: Gita naram Kan: Murelehonne; Mar: Darh; Guj: Salwan; Ori: Salaparni Pun: Shalpurhi De smodium is a small shru which is the chief of the ten ingredients in the Dasamu la kwatha of Hindu medicine. Roots are useful in vitiated conditions of vata, an orexia, dyspepsia, haemorrhoids, dysentery, strangury, fever, gout, inflammation s, cough, asthma, ronchitis, cardiopathy and de ility. The unani preparation “A rq dashmul” contains these roots. It is considered a curative for leucorrhoea an d for pains due to cold (Warrier et al, 1995). Distri ution The plant is widely distri uted in the tropics and su tropics. It grows wild in the forests of India up to 1500m. It is also cultivated in the plains and in the lower Himalayas. Botany Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC. syn. Hedysarum gangeticum Linn., Desmodium gang eticum var. maculatum (Linn.) Baker., elongs to the family Fa aceae (Papilionac eae). It is an erect diffusely ranched undershru , 90-120cm in height with a sh ort woody stem and numerous prostrate ranches provided with soft grey hairs. Le aves are unifoliate, ovatelanceolate, mem ranceous and mottled with grey patches . Flowers are white, purple or lilac in elongate lax, terminal or axillary racem es. Fruits are moniliform, 6-8 jointed, gla rescent pods, joints of pods separat ely pu escent with hooked hairs, joint separating when ripe into indehiscent one seeded segments. Seeds are compressed and reniform. Agrotechnology Desmodium can grow in a variety of climate and soils. However, it prefers tropic al and su tropical climatic conditions. Although it can grow on all types of soi ls, waterlogged and highly alkaline soils are not suita le. Light sandy loam is preferred for commercial cultivation. It is propagated through seeds. Seeds can e planted directly in the field or seedlings raised on the nursery eds and tra nsplanted. Transplanting always gives etter results in commercial cultivation, as it gives assured crop stand. Planting is done at a spacing of 40x20cm on flat eds or ridges. Organic manures are applied at the time of land preparation and thoroughly mixed with the soil. A little quantity of phosphatic and nitrogenous fertilizers are also applied for etter crop growth. The inter-row spaces etwe en plants, oth in the field and nursery should e kept free from weeds y frequ ent weeding and hoeing as the plant suffers from weed competition, especially du ring early stages of growth. Manual hand weeding is usually done. Irrigation of seedlings just after planting is good for crop esta lishment. Although it can e cultivated as a rainfed crop under humid tropical conditions, irrigation every month is eneficial during summer. The root is the economic part and harvesting can e commenced after 8-9 months. A out 500- 700kg roots can e harvested from a hectare of land per year. Properties and Activity The root contains gangetin, gangetinin, desmodin, N,N-dimethyl tryptamine, hypap horine, hordenine, candicine, N-methyl tyramine and β-phenyl ethyl amine. The to tal alkaloid fraction showed hypotensive activity. The root is itter, antiinfla mmatory, analgesic, aphrodisiac, constipating, diuretic, cardiotonic, expectoran t, astringent, antidiarrhoeal, carminative, antiemetic, fe rifuge and anti-catar rhal (Thakur et al, 1989). 82

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

GARLIC Liliaceae Importance Allium sativum San: Lasunah, Rasonah; Hin:Lasun, Lahasun; Ben: Lashan; Mal: Vellulli; Kan: Bell uli; Tam: Vellaipuntu; Mar: Lasunas; Ass: Naharu; Tel:Vellulli, Tella-gadda; Guj : Lasan Garlic is one of the important ul crops used as a spice or condiment w ith medicinal value throughout the world. It possesses high nutritive value. Its preparations are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and vata, cough, whoopi ng cough, ronchitis, asthma, fever, facial paralysis, flatulence, colic, consti pation, atonic dyspepsia, helminthiasis, duodenal ulcers, pulmonary and laryngea l tu erculosis, opthalmopathy, cardiopathy, fatigue, leucoderma, leprosy, hyster ia, haemorrhoids, sciatica, otalgia, lum ago, swellings, splenopathy, hepatopath y, pneumonopathy, anthralgia, sore eyes, ear ache and dental caries (Kumar et al , 1997). Distri ution Garlic is a native of Southern Europe and it is cultivated all over the world.. It is grown throughout India; Gujarat and Orissa eing the leading states. Botany The genus Allium of Liliaceae family comprises a num er of species. The importan t ones are the following: A. sativum Linn. syn. A. porrum Linn. A. cepa Linn. A. ampeloprasum Linn. A. ascalonicum Linn. A. leptophyllum Wall. A. macleanii Bake r. A. schoenoprasum Linn. A. tu erosum Rox . Allium sativum is a scapigerous foe tid perennial medicinal her with underground compound ul s covered over y out er white thin scales and with simple smooth, round stem, surrounded at the otto m y tu ular leaf sheath. The leaves are simple, long, flat and linear. The flow ers are small and white arranged in rounded um els mixed with small ul ils. The entire um el is enclosed in a tear-drop-shaped mem ranous spathe. Flowers are u sually sterile (Warrier et al, 1993). Agrotechnology Garlic can e grown under a wide range of climatic conditions. It prefers modera te temperature in summer as well as in winter. Short days are very favoura le fo r the formation of ul s. Garlic requires well drained loamy soils rich in humus , with fairly good content of potash. Garlic is propagated y cloves or ul lets . In the hills, sowing is done in April and May. Types with old and compact clo ves and thick white covering sheath are preferred for planting. Ootty-1 garlic i s an improved variety y clonal selection released from TNAU, Coim atore. Garlic may e roadcast, planted in furrows or di led at the rate of 150-200kg cloves /ha. In furrow planting, cloves are dropped 7.5-10cm apart in furrows 15cm deep and covered lightly with loose soil. Cloves may e di led 5 to 7.5cm deep and 7 .5cm apart in rows which are 15cm apart with their growing end upwards and then covered with loose soil. A asal dose of 60kg N and 50kg each of P2O5 and K2O ar e applied along with 25t/ha of FYM. 60kg N is given as topdressing 45 days after planting. First irrigation is given immediately after sowing and su sequent irr igations are given at 10-15 days interval depending upon the soil moisture avail a ility. The last irrigation should e given 2-3 days efore harvesting to facil itate easy harvest and minimum damage to ul s. First weeding and hoeing is to e done at one month after sowing followed y a second weeding one month after fi rst interculture. Hoeing at a out two and a half months from sowing loosens the soil and helps in setting of igger and well-filled ul s. Garlic is attacked y Thrips ta acii which 83

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

  

       

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

     

   

 

 

 

 

 

causes withering of leaves. Application of methyl demeton 25EC or dimethoate 30E C at 1ml/l will check the pest incidence. Leaf spot caused y Alternaria solanii can e controlled y spraying Dithane M.45 at fortnightly intervals at 2.5g/l o f water. Garlic is harvested when the tops turn yellowish or rownish and show s igns of drying up. The plants are uprooted, tied into small undles and kept in shade for 2-3 days for curing. Average yield of garlic is 6-8t/ha. ( Kumar et al , 1997.) Properties and activity Garlic ul is reported to contain volatile oil, alliin ( S-allyl-L-cysteine sul foxide), S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and allinase. It is rich in vitamins like thiamine, ri oflavine and niacin. Volatile oil contains allicin (diallyl thiosu lphinate), an active odour principle of garlic. Other major compounds present ar e diallyl disulphide, diallyl trisulphide, allyl methyl trisulphide and allyl me thyl disulphide (Husain et al., 1992). Garlic ul is antirheumatic, stimulant, diaphoretic, expectorant, diuretic, antispasmodic, astringent, antiparalytic, an tileprotic, aperient, fe rifuge, carminative, stomachic, alterative and emmenago gue. The essential oil is hypocholestrolemic, hypotensive, antitumour and antidi a etic. Diallyl disulphide and diallyl trisulphide from essential oil have larvi cidal action. Bul s also have anti- acterial, and anti-fungal activity. 84

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

POMEGRANATE Punicaceae San: Dadimah; Hin: Anar, Dhalim; Ben: Dalim; Mal: Urumampazham, Matalam, Talimat alam, Matalanarakam; Tel: Dadima; Mar: Dalim a; Guj: Dadam; Ass: Dalin Punica granatum Tam: Madalai, Madalam; Kan :Dalim e; Importance Pomegranate has long een esteemed as food and medicine and as a diet in convale scence after diarrhoea. The rind of the fruit is highly effective in chronic dia rrhoea and dysentery, dyspepsia, colitis, piles and uterine disorders. The powde red drug oiled with uttermilk is an efficacious remedy for infantile diarrohoe a. The root and stem ark are good for tapeworm and for strengthening the gums. The flowers are useful in vomiting, vitiated conditions of pitta, ophthalmodynia , ulcers, pharyngodynia and hydrocele. An extract of the flowers is very specifi c for epistaxis. The fruits are useful in anaemia, hyperdipsia, pharyngodynia, o phthalmodynia, pectoral diseases, splenopathy, ronchitis and otalgia. The fruit rind is good for dysentery, diarrhoea and gastralgia. Seeds are good for sca ie s, hepatopathy and splenopathy. The important preparations using the drug are Da dimadighrtam, Dadimastaka churnam, Hinguvacadi churnam, Hingvadi gulika, etc (Si varajan et al, 1994, Warrier et al, 1995). Distri ution Pomegranate is a native of Iran, Afghanistan and Baluchistan. It is found growin g wild in the warm valleys and outer hills of the Himalaya etween 900m and 1800 m altitude. It is cultivated throughout India, the largest area eing in Maharas tra. Botany Punica granatum Linn. elongs to the family Punicaceace. It is a large deciduous shru up to 10m in height with smooth dark grey ark and often spinescent ranc hlets. Leaves are opposite, gla rous, minutely pellucid-punctuate, shining a ove and right green eneath. Flowers are scarlet red or sometime yellow, mostly so litary, sometimes 2-4 held together. Stamens are numerous and inserted on the ca lyx elow the petals at various levels. Fruits are glo ose, crowned y the persi stent calyx. Rind is coriaceous and woody, interior septate with mem raneous wal ls containing numerous seeds. Seeds are angular with red, pink or whitish, flesh y testa (Warrier et al, 1995). Agrotechnology Pomegranate is of deciduous nature in areas where winters are cold, ut on the p lains it is evergreen. A hot dry summer aids in the production of est fruits. P lants are grown from seeds as well as cuttings. Mature wood pieces cut into leng ths of a out 30cm are planted for rooting. The rooted plants are planted 4.5-6m apart. When planted close, they form a hedge which also yields fruits. Normal cu ltivation and irrigation practices are satisfactory for the pomegranate. An appl ication of 30-45kg of FYM annually to each tree helps to produce superior qualit y fruits. The pomegranate may e trained as a tree with a single stem for 3045cm or as a ush with 3 or 4 main stems. In either case suckers arising from the ro ots and similar growths from the trunk and main ranches are removed once a year . Shortening of long slender ranches and occasional thinning of ranches should e done. The fruit has a tough rind and hence transportation loss is minimum (I CAR, 1966). Properties and Activity Pomegranate fruit rind gives an ellagitannin named granatin B, punicalagin, puni calin and ellagic acid. Bark contains the alkaloids such as iso-pelletierine, ps eudopelletierine, methyl isopelletierine, methyl pelletierine, pelletierine as w ell as iso-quercetin, friedelin, Dmannitol and estrone. Flowers give pelargonidi n-3, 5-diglucoside apart from sitosterol, ursolic acid, maslinic acid, asiatic a

 

   

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

cid, sitosterol-β-D-glucoside and gallic acid. Seeds give malvidin pentose glyco side. Rind gives pentose glycosides of malvidin and pentunidin. Fluoride, calciu m, magnesium, vitamin C and phosphate are also reported from fruits. Leaves give elligatannins-granatins A and B and punicafolin. 85

Rind of fruit is astringent, fruit is laxative. Bark of stem and root is anthelm intic, and fe rifuge. Rind of fruit and ark of stem and root is antidiarrhoeal. Pericarp possesses antifertility effect. Fixed oil from seeds are anti acterial . Bark, fruit pulp, flower and leaf are antifungal. Aerial part is CNS depressan t, diuretic and hypothermic. The flower uds of pomegranate in com ination with other plants showed excellent response to the patients of Giardiasis (Mayer et a l, 1977; Singhal et al, 1983). 86

 

 

   

 

CURRY LEAF Rutaceae San: Kalasakh, Kaidaryah Mal: Kariveppu, Karuveppu Tel: Karivepaku Murraya Hin: Mithinim, Katnim Tam: Kariveppilai, Karuveppu Ass: Narasingha, Bishahari Koenigii Ben: Barsunga Kan: Kari Baeva Importance Curry leaf, a plant of homestead gardens has gained importance as a commercial c rop and is cultivated for its culinary and medicinal value. The plant is highly esteemed for its leaves which promote appetite and digestion and destroy pathoge nic organisms. It is reported to e useful in emaciation, skin diseases, hemopat hy, worm trou les, neurosis and poisons. They are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, hyperdipna, colic, flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery, vomitin g, inflammations and foul ulcers. “Kaidaryah” drug is prepared using this plant which improves voice, stimulates digestion and destroys concocted poisons in the system. The important preparations using the drug are Kalasadi kasayam, Pamanta ka tailam, Jatyadi tailam, Jatyadi ghrtam, etc (Sivarajan et al,1994). Distri ution Curry leaf is seen in the foot of the Himalaya and Bashahi eastwards to Sikkim a nd Peninsular India, upto 1700m. It is also found in Sri Lanka, Burma, Indo-Chin a, South China and Hainan. Commercial cultivation in India is limited to Tamil N adu and Karnataka states. Botany The genus Murraya of the family Rutaceae includes the following species: M. Koen igii (Linn.) Spreng. syn. Bergera koenigii Linn. M. Exotica Linn. syn. M. panicu lata (Linn.) Jack. Murraya koenigii is a small aromatic tree with dark grey ark and closely crowded spreading dark green foliage. Leaves are imparipinnate and alternate. Leaflets are alternate, o liquely ovate or somewhat rhom oid, gland d otted and strongly aromatic. Flowers are white, arranged in much ranched termin al corym ose cymes and fragrant. Fruits are su glo ose or ellipsoid erries, pur plish lack when ripe and 2-seeded (Warrier et al, 1995). Agrotechnology Curry leaf tree does not choose a specific climate and can come up even in dry c limate too. In places where minimum temperature goes elow 13°C, the growth of t he shoot will e slightly affected. It comes up well in light textured red soils . DWD-1 and DWD-2 are two improved varieties released from UAS, Dharwad. Curry l eaf is propagated y seed. Main field is to e ploughed repeatedly. A spacing of 90-120cm is followed on either side. Pits of size 30cm3 are dug out one month efore planting and filled with top soil mixed with well decomposed FYM at the ti me of planting. Healthy seedlings are planted in the centre of the pits. Then lo ng furrows are formed connecting all the pits to facilitate easy irrigation. The seedlings are irrigated once in 5-7 days upto 3 years and once in 15 days after wards. The field should e kept free from weeds. Plants may e trained and prune d to maintain a ush of 1m in height. For etter growth and yield, each plant is fertilised with 20kg of FYM esides 150:25:50g of N, P2O5, K2O/ year. Attack of aphids in the vegetative stage can e controlled y spraying of dimethoate at 2 ml/l of water. Leaves from such sprayed plants should e harvested only after 10 days. Spraying car endazim at 1g/l can take care of leaf spot diseases. The cro p comes to first harvest at the end of first year. The yield of leaves account t o 400kg/ha at the end of first year, 2000 to 2200kg/ha in the second and third y ear harvested at an interval of four months and 2500kg/ha in the fourth year har vested at three months interval. From fifth year onwards it is harvested at 2.53 months interval giving an yield of 3500-5000kg/ha (Kumar et al, 1997).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

Properties and Activity All parts of the plant, especially the leaves are rich in car azole alkaloids. T hese include mem ers with (i) C13 - skeleton -murrayanin, mukoeic acid, mukonine and 87

 

 

mukonidine; (ii) C18 - skeleton including gerinim ine, koenim ine, murrayacine, koenigine and koenigicine (koenidine); and (iii) C23- skeleton containing mahani m ine, mahanim icine, isomahanim icine, mahanine, mahanim inine, murrayayazoline , murrayazolinine, murrayazolidine, cyclomahanim ine and icyclomahanim icine. O ther car azole ases include mukoline, mukolidine (C13 group, from roots), mukon icine (C18 from leaves), the iogenetically significant mukonal (C13, stem- ark) , mahanim oline (C23, root- ark), isomurrayazoline (C23, stem- ark). The leaves gave a coumarin glucoside, scopolin also. Essential oil from leaves contained βcaryophylline, β-gurjunene, β-elemene, βphellandrene, β-thujene as major constit uents. The roots, ark and leaves are itter, acrid, astringent, cooling, aromat ic, demulcent, depurative, anthelmintic, fe rifuge, stomachic, appetising, carmi native, antiinflammatory and antiseptic. Aerial part is spasmolytic and antiprot ozoal. Root is antiprotozoal, CVS active and has effect on nictitating mem rane. Leaf is hypoglycaemic (Hussain et al,1992). 88

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COSTUS Zingi eraceae Importance Costus speciosus San: Pushkara, Kashmeera, Kemuka; Hin: Ke u, Keyu, Kust; Ben: Keu, Kura Mal: Cha nnakkizhangu, Channakoova; Tam: Kostam; Mar: Penva; Tel: Kashmeeramu Costus is o ne of the plants which contains diosgenin in its rhizome. It is widely used as s tarting material in the commercial production of steroidal hormones. The rhizome s are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, urning sensation, flatu lence, constipation, helminthiases, leprosy, skin diseases, fever, hiccough, ast hma, ronchitis, inflammation and aneamia. It is used to make sexual hormones an d contraceptives (Warrier et al,1994). Distri ution The plant is widely distri uted in Asia and other tropical countries like India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and China. In India, it occurs mostly in Arunachal P radesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, Assam, Tripura and Kerala. Botany Costus speciosus (Koenig.) Sm. elonging to the family Zingi eraceae consists of two varieties viz., var. nepalensis Rose., found only in Nepal and Arunachal Pr adesh and var. argycophyllus Wall., having a wide distri ution in India. The pla nt is a succulent her with long leafy spirally twisted stems, 2-3m in height an d horizontal rhizomes. Leaves are simple, spirally arranged, o lanceolate or o l ong, gla rous a ove, silky pu escent eneath with road leaf sheaths. Flowers ar e white, large, fragrant, arranged in dense terminal spikes. Bracts are right r ed. The single stamen present is perfect, lip large with incurved margins. Fruit s are glo ose or ovoid capsules with o ovoid or su - glo ose seeds (Warrier et a l,1994). Agrotechnology Costus can e raised under a wide range of agroclimatic conditions. It prefers s andy loam soil for good growth. Propagation is y rhizomes. The est season for planting is AprilMay. The seed rate recommended is 2-2.4t/ha. The spacing adopte d is 50x50cm. After an initial ploughing FYM or poultry manure should e applied at the rate of 30t/ha and the field is to e ploughed again irrigated and prepa red to o tain a fine seed ed. Furrows are opened and the rhizome pieces are pla ced horizontally at a depth of 8-10cm and covered with soil. Care is taken to pl ace the eye uds facing upwards. After 70-75 days a out 90-95% sprouting is o ta ined. Desiccation of the young sprouts have een o served in the hot summer mont hs, necessitating li eral water supply during the period. As Septem er-Novem er is the period of maximum tu erization at least two irrigations should e given a t that time. One during the sprouting period of the crop followed y two more ke eps the crop fairly free of weeds. Application of 37t/ha of poultry manure and f ertilizers, 60kg P2O5 and 40kg K2O /ha as a asal doze, along with 80kg N/ha app lied in 3 equal split dozes will take care. Crop is harvested at the end of seve n months. Harvesting includes 2 operations, cutting the aerial shoots and diggin g out the rhizomes. Cost of production of diosgenin ranges from Rs. 271300/kg (A tal, et al,1982). Properties and Activity Tu ers and roots contain diosgenin, 5α-stigm st-9(11)-en-3β ol, sitosterol-β-Dgl ucoside, dioscin, prosapogenins A and B of dioscin, gracillin and quinones. Vari ous saponins, many new aliphatic esters and acids are reported from its rhizomes , seeds and roots. Seeds, in addition, contain α- tocopherol. S ponins from seed s re hypotensive nd sp smolytic. Rhizomes possess ntifertility, nticholinest r se, ntiinfl mm tory, stimul nt, depur tive nd nthelmintic ctivities (Huss in et l, 1992).

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89

ECLIPTA Aster ce e

Properties and Activity 90

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Bot ny Eclipt prostr t (Linn) Linn. syn. E. lb H ssk. is n nnu l, erect or postr te herb, often rooting t nodes. Le ves re sessile, 2.5-7.5cm long with white ppressed h irs. Flor l he ds re 6-8 mm in di meter, solit ry nd white. Fruit i s n chene, compressed nd n rrowly winged. Sometimes, Wedeli c lendul ce , wh ich resembles Eclipt prostr t is used for the s me purpose. The le ves cont in stigm sterol, α-terthienylmeth nol, wedelol ctone, dismethylwedelol ctone nd d ismethylwedelol ctone-7-glucoside. The roots give hentri cont nol nd hept cos n ol. The roots cont in poly cetylene substituted thiophenes. The eri l p rt is r eported to cont in phytosterol, β-amyrin in the n-hexane extract and luteolin7-glucoside, β-glucoside of phytosterol, a glucoside of a triterpenic acid and w edelolactone in polar solvent extract. The polypeptides isolated from the plant yield cystine, glutamic acid, phenyl alanine, tyrosine and methionine on hydroly sis. Nicotine and nicotinic acid are reported to occur in this plant. The plant is anticatarrhal, fe rifuge, antidontalgic, a sor ent, antihepatic, CVS active, nematicidal, ovicidal and spasmolytic in activity. The alcoholic extract of enti re plant has een reported to have antiviral activity against Ranikhet disease v irus. Aqueous extract of the plant showed su jective improvement of vision in th e case of refractive errors. The her al drug Trefoli, containing extracts of the plant in com ination with others, when administered to the patients of viral he patitis, produced excellent results.

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Distribution This pl nt is widely distributed in the w rm humid tropics with plenty of r inf ll. It grows commonly in moist pl ces s weed ll over pl ins of Indi .

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Import nce Eclipt is one of the ten uspicious herbs th t constitute the group d s pusp m which is considered to destroy the c us tive f ctors of ll unhe lthy nd unple s nt fe tures nd bestow good he lth nd prosperity. The members of this group c ure wounds nd ulcers s well s fever c used by the der ngement of the tridos s - v t , pitt nd k ph . It is used in hep titis, spleen enl rgements, chronic skin dise ses, tet nus nd eleph nti sis. The le f promotes h ir growth nd use s n ntidote in scorpion sting. The root is used s n emetic, in sc lding of urine, conjuctivitis nd s n ntiseptic to ulcers nd wound in c ttle. It is u sed to prevent bortion nd misc rri ge nd lso in c ses of uterine p ins fter the delivery. The juice of the pl nt with honey is given to inf nts for expulsi on of worms. For the relief in piles, fumig tion with Eclipt is considered bene fici l. A decoction of the le ves is used in uterine h emorrh ge. The p ste prep red by mincing fresh pl nts h s got n ntiinfl mm tory effect nd m y be ppli ed on insect bites, stings, swellings nd other skin dise ses. In Ayurved , it i s m inly used in h ir oil, while in Un ni system, the juice is used in “H b Misk een N w z” long with conite, triph l , Croton tiglium, Piper nigium, Piper lon gum, Zingiber officin le nd miner ls like mercury, sulphur, rsenic, bor x, etc . for v rious types of p ins in the body. It is lso constituent of “Rogh n Am l Kh s” for pplying on the h ir nd of “M jun Murr w h-ul- rw h”.

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S n: Bhrng r j h, Tek r j h; Hin: Bh mgr , Moc k nd, B bri; Ben: Kesutthe, Kesr j; M l: K nnunni, K yyonni, K yyunnni; T m: K yy nt k r , K ikeri; K n: K digg g r g ; Tel: Gunt g lijer n; Ar b: K dim-el-bint

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Eclipt prostr t

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BRAHMI Scrophulariaceae Importance Bacopa monnieri San: Brahmi, Sarasvati; Hin: Barami, Jalnim; Ben: Boihim-sak; Mal: Brahmi, Nir r ahmi; Tam: Nirpirami, Piramiyapundu; Kan, Mar: Nir rahmi Brahmi or Thyme leaved gratiola is an important drug in Ayurveda for the improvement of intelligence an d memory and revitalisation of sense organs. It clears voice and improves digest ion. It is suggested against dermatosis, anaemia, dia etes, cough, dropsy, fever , arthritis, anorexia, dyspepsia, emaciation, and insanity. It dispels poisonous affections, splenic disorders and impurity of lood. It is useful in vitiated c onditions of kapha and vata, iliousness, neuralgia, ascites, flatulence, lepros y, leucoderma, syphilis, sterility and general de ility. The whole plant is used in a variety of preparations like Brahmighrtam, Sarasvataristam., Brahmitailam, Misrakasneham, etc. In unani Majun Brahmi is considered as a rain tonic. Distri ution The plant grows wild on damp places and marshy lands in the major part of the pl ains of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and other tropical countr ies. Botany Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Pennell. syn. Monniera cuneifolia Michx., Herpestis monn iera (Linn.) H.B. & K. elongs to the family Scrophulariaceae. It is a prostrate , juicy, succulent, gla rous annual her rooting at the nodes with numerous asce nding ranches. Leaves are simple, opposite, decussate, sessile, o ovate-o long or spatulate, entire, fleshy, o scurely veined and punctate. Flowers are pale l ue or whitish, axillary, solitary, arranged on long slender pedicels. Fruits are ovoid, acute, 2-celled, 2-valved capsules and tipped with style ase. Seeds are minute and numerous (Warrier et al, 1993). Agrotechnology The plant grows throughout the warm humid tropics upto 1200m elevation. Brahmi g ets esta lished well in water logged fields. The plant is propagated vegetativel y y stem cuttings. Land is prepared y ploughing 2 or 3 times. Two to three ton nes/ha of cowdung or compost is applied and the field is again ploughed and leve lled. Stem cuttings, 10cm long are spread at a spacing of 20cm. Waterlogging to height of 30cm is always required. Rooting may start within 15-20 days. It will spread over the field within 6 months. Regular application of organic manure wil l take care of the manurial requirement. Weeding once in a month is required. Ca re should e taken to maintain water level at a height of 30cm during the growth period. No serious pests or diseases are noted in this crop. Harvesting commenc es from sixth months onwards. Brahmi leaves can e collected once a month. After 3 years, the whole crop is harvested and removed. Fresh cultivation can e carr ied out in the same field. Properties and Activity Earlier workers have reported the isolation of the alkaloids rahmine and hespes tine and a mixture of 3 alkaloids from the leaves. Mannitol and saponins were re ported later. Su sequent work descri ed isolation of some C27, C29, and C31 hydr ocar ons and etulic acid from this plant material. A systematic examination has resulted in the isolation and identification of two saponins designated as aco sides A and B. Bacoside A has chemical structure represented as 3-(α-L- r binopy r nosyl)-O-βD-glucopyranoside-10, 20-dihydroxy-16-ketodammar-24-ene. The mixture of acosides A and B on hydrolysis give four sapogenins, glucose and ara inose. The constitution of acogenin A, has een esta lished as 3β-30-dihydroxy-20(5)25-epoxy-22-methyl-24-nor-dammar-22-en-16-one. Bacogenin A2 has een shown to e an isomer of acogenin A, differing in configuration at C-20. Bacogenin A4 has een identified as e elin lactone. The plant is reported to have shown ar itura

     

 

 

   

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te hypnosis potentiation effect. The plant is anticancerous and improves learnin g a ility. It is used as a tranquilliser. The plant is astringent, itter, sweet , cooling, laxative, intellect promoting, anodyne, carminative, digestive, antii nflammatory, anticonvulsant, depurative, cardiotonic, ronchodialator, diuretic, emmenagogue, sudorfic, fe rifuge and tonic (Basu et al, 1947; Rastogi et al 196 0). 91

 

 

 

 

INDIAN CROCUS Zingi eraceae Kaempferia rotunda San: Bhumicampaka, Bhucampaka, Hallakah Hin: A huyicampa Mal: Chengazhuneerkizhe ngu, Chengazhuneerkuva Tam: Nerppicin Kan: Nelasampiga Tel: Bhucampakamu, Kondak aluva Mar: Bhuichampa Importance The tu ers of Indian crocus are widely used as a local application for tumours, swellings and wounds. They are also given in gastric complaints. They help to re move lood clots and other purulent matter in the ody. The juice of the tu ers is given in dropsical affections of hands and feet, and of effusions in joints. The juice causes salivation and vomiting. In Ayurveda, the improvement formulati ons using the her are Chyavanaprasam, Asokarishtam, Baladthatryaditailam, Kalya nakaghritham, etc. The drug “HALLAKAM” prepared from this is in popular use in t he form of powder or as an ointment application to wounds and ruises to reduce swellings. It also improves complexion and cures urning sensation, mental disor ders and insomnia (NRF, 1998; Sivarajan et al, 1994). Distri ution The plant is distri uted in the tropics and su -tropics of Asia and Africa. The plant grows wild in shaded areas which are wet or humid, especially in forests i n South India. It grows in gardens and is known for their eautiful flowers and foliage. It is also cultivated as an intercrop with other commercial crops. Botany Kaempferia rotunda Linn. elonging to the family Zingi eraceae is an aromatic he r with tu erous root-stalk and very short stem. Leaves are simple, few, erect, o long or ovatelanceolate, acuminate, 30cm long, 10cm wide, variegated green a o ve and tinged with purple elow. Flowers are fragrant, white, tip purple or lila c arranged in crowded spikes opening successively. The plant produces a su glo o se tu erous rhizome from which many roots earing small o long or rounded tu ers arise (Warrier et al, 1995). Agrotechnology The plant is a tropical one adapted for tropical climate. Rich loamy soil having good drainage is ideal for the plant. Laterite soil with heavy organic manure a pplication is also well suited. Planting is done in May-June with the receipt of 4 or 5 pre-monsoon showers. The seed rate recommended is 1500-2000kg rhizomes/h a. Whole or split rhizome with one healthy sprout is the planting material. Well developed healthy and disease free rhizomes with the attached root tu ers are s elected for planting. Rhizomes can e stored in cool dry place or pits dug under shade plastered with mud or cowdung. The field is ploughed to a fine tilth, mix ed with organic manure at 10-15t/ha. Seed eds are prepared at a size of 1m rea dth and convenient length. Pits are made at 20cm spacing in which 5cm long piece s of rhizomes are planted. Pits are covered with organic manure. They are then c overed with rotten straw or leaves. Apply FYM or compost as asal dose at 20 t/h a either y roadcasting and ploughing or y covering the seed in pits after pla nting. Apply fertilisers at the rate of 50:50:50 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ha at the ti me of first and second weeding. After planting, mulch the eds with dry or green leaves at 15 t/ha. During heavy rainy months, leaf rot disease occurs which can e controlled y drenching 1% Bordeaux mixture. The crop can e harvested after 7 months maturity. Drying up of the leaves is the indication of maturity. Harve st the crop carefully without cutting the rhizome, remove dried leaves and roots . Wash the rhizome in water. They are stored in moisture-proof sheds. Prolonged storage may cause insect and fungus attack (Prasad et al, 1997). The tu ers cont ain crotepoxide and β-sitosterol. Tu er contains essential oil which give a comp ound with melting point 149oC which yielded enzoic acid on hydrolysis. The tu e rs are acrid, thermogenic aromatic, stomachic, antiinflammatory, sialagogue, eme

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

   

   

     

tic, antitumour and vulnerary. 92 Properties and activity

93

SWEET FLAG Araceae San: Vaca, Ugragandha, Bhadra; Tam: Vasampu; Kan: Bajai; Hin: Bacc, Gor acc; Tel : Vasa Vadaja Acorus calamus Ben: Bach; Mal:Vayampu; Importance The sweet flag is an important medhya drug, capa le of improving memory power an d intellect. It is used in vitiated conditions of vata and kapha, stomatopathy, hoarseness, colic, flatulence, dyspepsia, helminthiasis, amenorrhoea, dismenorrh oea, nephropathy, calculi, strangury, cough, ronchitis, odontalgia, pectoralgia , hepatodynia, otalgia, inflammations, gout, epilepsy, delirium, amentia, convul sions, depression and other mental disorders, tumours, dysentery, hyperdipsia, h aemorrhoids, intermittent fevers, skin diseases, num ness and general de ility. It is reportedly useful in improving digestion, clearing speech and curing diarr hoea, dysentery, a dominal o struction and colic. It is also useful in infantile fever, cough ronchitis and asthma. The drug is reported to cure hysteria, insa nity and chronic rheumatic complaints. The rhizome is an ingredient of preparati ons like Vacaditaila, Ayaskrti, Kompancadi gulika, Valiya rasnadi kashaya, etc. Distri ution The plant is a native of Europe. It is distri uted throughout the tropics and su tropics, especially in India and Sri Lanka. It is found in marshes, wild or cul tivated, ascending the Himalayas upto 1800m in Sikkim. It is plentiful in marshy tracts of Kashmir and Sirmoor, in Manipur and Naga Hills. Botany Acorus calamus Linn. elonging to the family Araceae is a semi-aquatic rhizomato us perennial her . Rhizome is creeping, much ranched, cylindrical or slightly c ompressed, light rown or pinkish rown externally, white and spongy within. Lea ves are right green, distichous, ensiform, ase equitant, thickened in the midd le and with wavy margins. Flowers are light rown and densely packed in sessile cylindric spadix. Fruits are o long, tur inate erries with a pyramidal top. See ds are few and pendant from the apex of the cells (Warrier et al, 1993). Another species elonging to the genus Acorus is A. gramineus Soland, the roots of whic h are used in tonic, antiseptics and insecticidal preparations (Chopra et al, 19 56). Agrotechnology Acorus is a hardy plant found growing from tropical to su tropical climates. It needs a good and well distri uted rainfall throughout the year. It needs ample s unlight during the growth period as well as after harvest for drying the rhizome s. It may e cultivated in any good ut fairly moist soil. It is usually grown i n areas where paddy can e grown. It comes up well in clayey soils and light all uvial soils of river ank. The field is laid out and prepared exactly as for ric e, irrigated sufficiently and after ploughing twice, watered heavily and again p loughed in the puddle. Sprouted rhizome pieces are used for planting and pressed into the mud at a depth of a out 5cm at a spacing of 30x30cm. The rhizomes are planted in such a way that the plants in the second row comes in etween the pla nts of the first row and not opposite to them. FYM is to e applied at 25t/ha. F ertilisers are applied at 25:50:60 kg N:P2O5:K2O/ha/yr. Whole of FYM and 1/3 of N, P2O5 and K2O are to e added in the field during March - April as a asal dos e. The remaining 2/3 of nutrients is to e given in two equal split doses at 4 m onths and 8 months after planting. The field is to e regularly irrigated. A out 5 cm of standing water is to e maintained in the field in the eginning. Later , it is to e increased to 10 cm as the plant grows. The field is to e regularl y weeded. A out 8 weedings are to e carried out in all. At each weeding the pla nts are pressed into the soil. The plant is attacked y mealy ugs. Both shoot a nd root mealy ugs can e controlled y spraying the shoot and drenching the roo

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

   

 

 

 

 

 

ts of grown up plants with 10 ml Methyl parathion or 15ml Oxydemeton methyl or 2 0ml Quinalphos in 10 litres of water. The crop is ready for harvest at the end o f first year. The field is to e dried partially so that sufficient moisture is left in the 94

 

soil to facilitate deep digging. The leaves start turning yellow and dry, indica ting maturity. The rhizome will e at a depth of 60cm and having a out 30-60cm s pread. Therefore, harvesting is to e done carefully. The rhizomes are to e cut into 5-7.5cm long pieces and all the fi rous roots are to e removed. Yield of rhizome is a out 10t/ha (Farooqi et al, 1991). Properties and Activity Rhizomes, roots and leaves yield essential oil. The important constituents of th e Indian oil are asarone and its β-isomer. Other constituents are α nd β-pinene , myrcene, camphene, p-cymene, camphor and linalool, sesquiterpenic ketones like asarone, calamone, calacone, acolamone, iso-acolamone, acoragermacrone, epishyo unone, shyo unone and isoshyo unone. Alcohol present is preisocalamendiol. Sesq uiterpene hydrocar ons like elemene, elemane and calarene are also present. Tric yclic sesquiterpenes present are caryophyllene, humulene, guaiene, S-guaizulene, arcurcumene, δ-ca inene, ca inane, calamenene, calacorene, ihy rocalacorene(ca lamenene), ca alene an selinene. Roots yiel acoric aci as a main constituent in a ition to choline. Plant also yiel s a flavone iglycosi e- luteolin 6,8-Ciglucosi e. β-asarone is the major constituent of essential oil from rhizome (D an iya et al, 1958,1959; Raqui u oula, 1967). Rhizome is insectici al, pisici a l, spasmolytic, hypothermic, CNS active an analgesic. Essential oil is anticonv ulsant. Rhizome is acri , itter, thermogenic, aromatic, intellect promoting, em etic, laxative, carminative, stomachic, anthelmintic, emmenagogue, iuretic, ale xeteric, expectorant, ano yne, antispasmo ic, aphro isiac, antiinflammatory, su orific, antipyretic, sialagogue, insectici al, tranquillizer, se ative, analgesi c, antithermic, antiasthmatic, hypotensive, respiratory epressant, aperitive an tonic. 95

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CATECHU Mimosaceae Importance Acacia catechu Mal: Karingali; Tam: Karunkali; San:Kha irah; Hin:Khair, Khaira; Ben: Kuth; Tel: San ra, Khan iramu; Kan: Kaggal i Catechu is a me ium eci uous tree commonly use as a loo purifier an for leo prosy an leuco erma. Catechu or Cutch tree ark is useful in melancholia, conju nctivitis an haemoptysis. It is useful in vitiate con itions of kapha an pitt a, catarrh, cough, pruritus, leprosy, leuco erma, skin iseases, helminthiasis, anorexia, iarrhoea, ysentery, foul ulcers an woun s, haemoptysis, haematemesi s, haemorrhages, intermittent fever, inflammations, o ontopathy, anaemia, ia et es, splenomegaly an pharyngo yna. The gummy extract of the woo (kath) is usefu l in laryngopathy, flatulence, anorexia, ulcers, woun s, helminthiasis, leuco er ma, leoprosy, skin iseases, urorrhea, colporrhagia, erysipelas an o ontopathy. For leprosy, root, leaf, flower, ark an fruits are ma e into a ecoction whic h is given orally as well as for external ressing. In Unani system it is use i n “Marham Kharish Ja i ” for skin iseases. “Kha irarisht” is an oral me icine, while “Marham” is for external application. Distri ution It is wi ely istri ute in tropical countries. In In ia, it is o serve from th e In us eastwar s to Assam an throughout Peninsular In ia. Botany The genus Acacia elonging to the family Mimosaceae consists of a num er of spec ies. The important ones are liste as elow: A. catechu Will . A. caesia Will . A. ara ica Will . A. concinna DC. A. farnesiana Will . A. ferruginea DC. A. inst ia W. & A. syn. A. caesia Will . A. jacquemontii Benth. A. leucophloea Will . A. mo esta Wall. A. pinnata (Linn.) Will . A. pycnantha Benth. A. senegal Will . A . suma Buch-Ham. syn. A. suma Kurz. A. catechu is a mo erate size eci uous tre e, 9-12m in height with ark greyish or rown rough ark an hooke short spines . Leaves are ipinnately compoun , leaflets 30-50 pairs, main rachis pu escent w ith a large conspicuous glan near the mi le of the rachis. Flowers are pale ye llow, sessile in pe uncle axiallary spikes. Fruits are flat rown po s, shiny a n with a triangular eak at the apex an narrowe at the ase. See s are 3-10 p er po . The gummy extract of the woo is commercially known as ‘ Kath’ or ‘Cutch ’. The cutch availa le in the market is rittle, of ifferent shapes an ark r own in colour. On reaking, it is foun to e shiny an form crystal like pieces (Warrier et al, 1993). Agrotechnology Catechu is suite to hilly areas an rocky places. The plant is propagate y se e s. See s are soake in water for 6 hours an sown in see e s. See s germinate within a month. At four-leaf stage, see lings are plante in poly ags. Two mont hs ol see lings from the poly ags are use for transplanting. Pits of size 50cm cu e are taken at a istance of 4-5m etween plants an fille with topsoil, sa n an rie cow ung in 1:1:1 ratio. See lings are plante in these pits. Applic ation of organic manure every year uring the rainy season is eneficial. Regula r wee ing is to e carrie out. Pruning of ranches an ten er shoots 96

 

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eveloping from the ase of the plant can e one from secon year onwar s. Tree is to e grown as single stemme one. Flowering an fruiting commences from fou rth year onwar s. At the en of tenth year, the tree can e cut an heartwoo co llecte (Prasa et al, 1997).

Properties an Activity Heartwoo contains kaempferol, ihy ro kaempferol, taxifolin, iso rhamnetin(+)af zelchin, a imeric procyani in, quercetin, (-)epi-catechin, (-)catechin, fisetin , quercetagetin an (+)-cyani anol. The main constituent of heartwoo is catechi n an catechu tannic aci . Catechin is a mixture of at least four isomers an L( -)epicatechin has een isolate an characterise (Rao et al,1948; Husain et al, 1992). The ark is anthelmintic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory an antileprotic. The flowers are antigonorrhoeic. The cutch from woo is anthelmintic, tonic an aphro isiac. Bark an cutch are anti iarrhoeal, astringent an stomachic. Cyani anol is hepatoprotective. The woo is hypoglycaemic, antiinflammatory an hypot ensive. The stem is spasmolytic an antiviral (Husain et al, 1992). 97

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SOLANUMS Solanaceae Solanum spp. Solanums comprise a very important group of me icinal plants having multifarious uses. These plants elong to the family Solanaceae an genus Solanum. A num er of species are reporte to e me icinal which are riefly escri e elow. 1. S. anguivi Lam. syn. S. in icum auct. non Linn. Eng: Poison erry; San: Brhati, Simhi; Hin: Barhauta, Birhatta; Mal: Puthirichun a, Cheruchun a; Tam: Karimulli, Puthirichun ai; Kan: Ramagulla; Tel: Cittimulag a, Tellamulaka It is foun throughout the tropics, in plains an at low elevatio ns. It is much ranche , very prickly un ershru , 0.3-1.5m in height. Leaves are simple, large, ovate, su entire, sinuate or lo e . Flowers are lue in extra-ax illary cymes having stellately hairy an prickly pe uncles. Fruits are glo ose erries, re ish or ark yellow with smooth or minutely pitte see s. Its roots a re useful in vitiate con itions of vata an kapha, o ontalgia, yspepsia, flatu lence, colic, verminosis, iarrhoea, pruritus, leprosy, skin iseases, strangury , cough, asthma, ronchitis, amenorrhoea, ysmenorrhoea, fever, car iac isor er s an vomiting. Roots itter, acri , astringent, thermogenic, ano yne, igestive , carminative, anthelmintic, stomachic, constipating, resolvent, emulcent, epu rative, iuretic, expectorant, aphro isiac, emmenagogue, fe rifuge an car ioton ic. 2. S. ulcamara Linn. Eng: Bittersweet, Bitter night sha e; San: Kakmachi; Pun: Ru a arik It is foun in tropical situations in In ia an Sikkim. The plant is rich in alkaloi al glyc osi es like solamarine, tomati enol, solaso ine an sola ulcine. The erry an t wig are alterative, antisyphilitic, iaphoretic, resolvent, narcotic, iuretic, antirheumatic an use in liver isor ers an psoriasis. 3. S. erianthum D. Don, syn. S. ver ascifolium auct. non Linn. San: Vi ari; Hin: Asheta; Mal: Malachun a; Tam: Malaichun ai, Anaisun aikkai Pun : Kalamena; Tel: Rasaga i The plant is istri ute over the tropical an su trop ical zones of In ia. The plant contains alkaloi s an steroi al sapogenins. Leav es an fruits contain solaso ine, solaso iene, solaflori ine, iosgenin, vespert ilin an pregnenolone. The plant is CNS epressant, antiinflammatory an useful in urns. 4. S. melongena Linn. Eng: Brinjal, Egg plant; San: Varttaki; Hin: Bengan, Ba anjan; Mal: Vazhuthina T am: Kattirikkai; Kan: Ba anekaya, Do a a ane; Tel: Vankaya, Niruvanga It is mai nly cultivate as a vegeta le throughout the tropics an su tropics. It is an er ect or suffrutescent, her aceous, arme or unarme perennial shru . Leaves are s imple, large, entire an lo e . Flowers are lue, in clusters of 2-5. Fruits are large, white, yellow or ark purple erries of ifferent shapes cappe with thi ck persistent calyx. See s are many, yellow or cream an iscoi . The roots, lea ves an unripe fruits are useful in cholera, ronchitis, asthma, o ontalgia an fever. The roots are laxative, analgesic an car iotonic. Leaves are sialagogue, narcotic an antiherpetic. The unripe fruits are itter, acri , sweet, aphro is iac, car iotonic an haematinic. 5. S. melongena var. incanum (Linn.) Prain syn. S. incanum Linn., S. coagulens F orsk. San: Brihati; Hin: Baigan; Mal: Cheruvazhuthina It is a her aceous prickly plant foun in warm humi tropics. It is grown almost throughout the year in the plai ns an uring summer on the hills. It grows 0.6-2m in height. Leaves are simple, alternate lo e . Flowers are lue or white, 5 lo e , calyx with spines. Fruits

 

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are ellipsoi erries. The plant is a constituent of the asamoola which helps t o overcome vitiate tri oshas an cures yspepsia, fever, respiratory an car ia c isor ers, 98

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skin ailments, vomiting, ulcers an poisonous affections. In Ayurve a the formul ations like Brihatya i Kashaya, ashamoolarishta, In ukantaghritam, Dasamoolahar ithaki, etc are the important preparations with the roots. It is also use in th e treatment of toothache an sore throat. The fruit is reporte to stimulate the intrahepatic meta olism of cholesterol. Roots are antiasthmatic an stimulant. Leaves are use in cholera, ronchitis an asthma. Fruits are useful in liver co mplaints. 6. S. nigrum Linn. syn. S. ru rum Mill. Eng: Black night sha e; San: Kakamachi; Hin: Makoy, Gurkkamai; Mal: Karimthakkal i; Tam: Manathakkali, Milagutakkali; Kan: Kakarn i; Tel: Kamachi, Kachi It is se en wil throughout In ia. It is an erect, ivaricately ranche , unarme , suffru tescent annual her . Leaves are ovate or o long, sinuate-toothe or lo e an gl a rous. Flowers are 3-8 in extra-axillary rooping su um ellate cymes. Fruits ar e purplish lack or re ish erries. See s are many, iscoi , yellow, minutely p itte . The whole plant is useful in vitiate con itions of tri osha, rheumatalgi a, swellings, cough, asthma, ronchitis, woun s, ulcers, flatulence, yspepsia, strangury, hepatomegaly, otalgia, hiccough, opthalmopathy, vomiting, car iopathy , leprosy, skin iseases, fever, splenomegaly, haemarrhoi s, nephropathy, ropsy an general e ility. The plant is itter, acri , emollient, antiseptic, antiin flammatory, expectorant, ano yne, vulnerary, igestive, laxative, iuretic, car iotonic, epurative, iaphoretic, fe rifuge, rejuvenating, se ative, alterant an tonic. in Assam an Khasi hills in In ia. Its root is

8. S. stramoniifolium Jacq., syn. S. ferox auct. non Linn. San: Gar ha a; Hin: Ram aigan; Mal: Anachun a; Tam: Anaichun ai; Tel: Mulaka It is o serve in In ia in the states of Assam, Maharashtra, Karnataka an Tamil Na u. Its erries contain glycoalkaloi s such as solasonine an solaso ine. Its ro ots an erries are echic, antiasthmatic, antirheumatic, antiviral, anticancero us an spermici al. 9. S. surattense Burm. F. syn. S. xanthocarpum schra . & Wen l., S. jacquinii Wi ll . Eng: Yellow- errie nightsha e; San: Kantakari, Ni ig hika; Hin: Remgani,Kateli; Mal: Kantakarichun a; Tam: Kantankattiri; Kan: Nelagulli; Tel: Callamulaga It i s foun throughout In ia an Pakistan in ry situations as wee on roa si es an wastelan s. It is prickly, iffuse, right green, suffrutescent, perennial un e rshru , with zigzag ranches. Leaves are ovate-o long, hairy on oth si es an a rme on the mi ri an the nerves. Flowers are luish purple, in extra-axillary cymes. Fruits are gla rous, glo ular rooping erry, yellow or white with green veins, surroun e y the calyx. See s are many, small, reniform, smooth an yell owish rown. The whole plant is useful in vitiate con itions of vata an kapha, helminthiasis, ental caries, inflammations, flatulence, constipation, yspepsi a, anorexia, leprosy, skin iseases, hypertension, fever, cough, asthma, ronchi tis, hiccough, lum ago, haemorrhoi s an epilepsy. The plant is itter, acri , t hermogenic, anthelmintic, antiinflammatory, ano yne, igestive, carminative, app etiser, stomachic, epurative, su orific, fe rifuge, expectorant, laxative, stim ulant, iuretic, rejuvenating, emmenagogue an aphro isac. Fruits contain solaso nine, solamargine an solaso ine. 10. S. torvum Sw. Eng: West In ian Turkey Berry; Hin, Ben: Tit aigan; Mal: Kattuchun a; Kan: Ka u Sun e; Tam: Sun aikai, Amarakai; Tel: Kun avustic, Kotuvestu; Ass: Hathi hekuri It is seen throughout tropical In ia, particularly in Orissa, Bihar an Manipur. The plant is CVS active an use in splenomegaly. Fruits an leaves contain sol asonine, solaso ine, juru ine, juru i ine, torvonin, torvogenin, chlorogenin, pa

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7. S. spirale Rox . Hin: Munguskajur It is seen wil iuretic an narcotic.

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niculogenin, sisalogenone, neosolaspigenin an 11. S. trilo atum Linn. 99

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solaspigenin.

 

Eng: Clim ing Brinjal; San: Alarka; Mal: Tutavalam; Tam: Tu uvalai; Kan: Mullumu sta; Tel: Telavuste It is mostly seen in South an Western In ia. The plant cont ains alkamine an solamarine. The erry an flowers are echic an use in ronc hitis. The alkaloi solamarine is anti iotic an possesses antitumour activity. 12. S. viarum Dunal, syn. S. Khasianum C. B. Clarke Hin: Kantakari It is wi ely istri ute in Khasi, Jaintia an Naga hills of Assa m an Manipur upto 2000m an in Sikkim, West Bengal, Orissa an in the Niligiris . The plant an erries contain solasonine (which on hy rolysis yiel s solaso in e), solamargine, khasianine, nantigenin, solaso ine, iosgenin an saponin-solak hasianin. The plant is spasmolytic an CNS active. The erry is a source of sola so ine use in the synthesis of corticosteroi al hormones. Agrotechnology The agrotechnology for the solanaceous group of plants are almost similar. They come up very well in tropical an su tropical climate upto 2000m altitu e. They can e raise on a variety of soils goo in organic matter. Propagation is y se e s. The see lings are first raise in the nursery an transplante to the main fiel 30-45 ays after sowing when the plants attain 8-10cm height. During rainy season, planting is one on ri ges while uring summer in furrows, at a spacing ranging from 30-90cm epen ing upon the stature an sprea ing ha it of the plan t. The transplante see lings shoul e given temporary sha e for 2-4 ays urin g summer. FYM or compost at 20-25t/ha is applie at the time of lan preparation . A mo erate fertiliser ose of 75:40:40 N, P2O5, K2O/ha may e given. P is give n as asal ose, N an K are applie in 2-3 split oses. One or two intercultura l operations are nee e to control wee s. The plants nee earthing up after wee ing an top ressing. Irrigation is nee e at 3-4 ays interval uring summer an on alternate ays uring fruiting perio . Plants nee staking to avoi lo ging ue to heavy earing. Shoot orers, mealy ugs, leaf we ers an miners are note on the crop, which can e controlle y spraying mil insectici es. Root knot nemato e, wilting an mosaic iseases are also note on the crop. Fiel sanitati on, crop rotation an urning of crop resi ues are recommen e . 100

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STROBILANTHES Acanthaceae San: Sahacarah, Sairyakah; Tam: Kurunji, Sinnakurunji Hin: Karvi, Kara; Stro ilanthes ciliatus Mal: Karimkurunji, Kurunji; Importance Stro ilanthes is an important shru use in the treatment of rheumatism. The roo ts are useful in rheumatalgia, lum ago, siatica, limping, chest congestion, stra ngury, fever, leuco erma, skin iseases, inflammations, cough, ronchitis, o ont algia an general e ility. The leaves an ark are useful in whooping cough, fe ver, ronchitis, ropsy, leuco erma, leprosy, pouritus, inflammations, scrofula an fever (Warrier et al, 1995). Distri ution It is istri ute in tropical countries, such as In ia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan an in a few su tropical countries. It is o serve in In ia, throughout the evergree n forests of Western Ghats upto 1200m. It is also cultivate . Botany The genus Stro ilanthes elonging to the family Acanthaceae consists of 3 specie s namely, S. ciliatus Nees.,syn. Nilgirianthus ciliatus (Nees) Bremek S. auricul atus Nees. an S. callisus Nees. S. ciliatus is a slen er shru with su quan ran gular white otte ark green or purple stems an ranches. Leaves are ark gree n, elliptic, accuminate at oth en s, serrate, gla rous with 6-7 pairs of main n erves. Flowers are white to lilac, arrange in axillary slen er gla rous spikes. Fruits are very rarely forme . A ventitious roots arise from a few asal no es also. The main roots as well as the no al roots are use as raw rugs (Warrier e t al, 1995). Agrotechnology Stro ilanthes prefers silty loam soil, mixe with san , for goo growth. It grow s a un antly in river anks, lowlan s an plains. The est season of planting is May-June. The fiel is to e ploughe to a fine tilth an mixe with 5-7t/ha of FYM/compost/ rie cow ung. See e s of size 3m length, 0.5m wi th an 15cm hei ght are to e ma e in which 10cm long stem cuttings are to e plante at a spaci ng of 30cm etween plants. Rooting occurs within 20 ays. Two wee ings shoul e carrie out at 2 months an 4 months after planting, followe y organic manure application. Irrigation is not a must ut uring summer months it is eneficial . The plant is not attacke y any serious pests or iseases. Harvesting can e one at the en of the secon year. For this the plants are to e cut, roots ug out an collecte . Roots are to e washe well, rie in sun an markete . Root s, leaves an ark constitute the economic parts (Prasa et al, 1997). Properties an Activity The leaves an stem yiel essential oil which is of goo me icinal value. The ro ots are itter, sweet, thermogenic, emollient, iuretic, fe rifuge, iaphoretic, epurative, antiinflammatory an tonic. Leaves an ark are iaphoretic, expect orant, epurative an fe rifuge. 101

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FENUGREEK Fa aceae Importance Trigonella foenum-graecum San: Methika, Methi, Kalanusari; Hin: Meti, Mutti; Ben, Mar: Methi; Mal: Uluva; Tam: Ventayam; Kan: Mentya, Menlesoppu; Tel: Mentulu, Mentikura; Ara : Hula aha Fenugreek or Greek Hayes is cultivate as a leafy vegeta le, con iment an as me icinal plant. The leaves are refrigerant an aperient an are given internally for vitiate con itions of pitta. A poultice of the leaves is applie for swelli ngs an urns. See s are use for fever, vomiting, anorexia, cough, ronchitis a n colonitis. In the famous Malayalam treatises like ‘Pa hyam’ ‘Kairali’ an ‘Ar uno hayam’, uluva is recommen e for use as kalanusari in Dhanvantaram formulati ons of ‘Astaghra ayam’. An infusion of the see s is a goo cool rink for small pox patients. Pow ere see s fin application in veterinary me icine. An aqueous extract of the see s possesses anti acterial property (Kumar et al, 1997; Warri er et al, 1995). Distri ution Fenugreek is a native of South Eastern Europe an West Asia. In In ia fenugreek is grown in a out 0.30 lakh ha pro ucing annually a out 30,000 tonnes of see s. The major states growing fenugreek are Rajasthan, Ma hya Pra esh, Gujarat, Uttar Pra esh, Maharashtra, Punja an Karnataka. It is grown wil in Kashmir an Pun ja . Botany Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. elongs to family, Fa aceae. It is an annual her , 30-60cm in height, leaves are light green, pinnately trifoliate, leaflets too the , flowers are white or yellowish white, papilionaceous an axillary. Fruits are legumes, 5-7.5cm long, narrow, curve , tapering with a slen er point an con taining 10-20 eeply furrowe see s per po . There are two species of the genus Trigonella which are of economic importance viz. T. foenum graecum, the common m ethi an T. corniculata, the Kasuri methi. These two iffer in their growth ha i t an yiel . The latter one is a slow growing type an remains in rosette con it ion uring most of the vegetative growth perio (Kumar et al, 1997; Warrier et a l, 1995).

Agrotechnology Fenugreek has a wi e a apta ility an is successfully cultivate oth in the tro pics as well as temperate regions. It is tolerant to frost an freezing weather. It oes well in places receiving mo erate or low rainfall areas ut not in heav y rainfall area. It can e grown on a wi e variety of soils ut clayey loam is r elatively etter. The optimum soil pH shoul e 6-7 for its etter growth an e velopment. Some of the improve cultivars availa le for cultivation are CO1 (TNA U), Rajen ra Kanti (RAU), RMt-1(RAU) an Lam Selection-1 (APAU). Lan is prepare y ploughing thrice an e s of uniform size are prepare . Broa casting the se e on the e an raking the surface to cover the see s is normally followe . Bu t to facilitate intercultural operations, line sowing is also a vocate in rows at 20-25cm apart. Sowing in the plains is generally in Septem er-Novem er while in the hills it is from March. The see rate is 20-25kg/ha an the see s germina te within 6-8 ays. Besi es 15t of FYM, a fertiliser ose of 25:25:50kg NPK/ha i s recommen e . Entire P,K an half N are to e applie asally an the remaining half N 30 ays after sowing. First irrigation is to e given imme iately after sowing an su sequent irrigations at 7-10 ays interval. Hoeing an wee ing are to e one uring the early stages of plant growth an thinning at 25-30 ays to have a spacing of 10-15cm etween plants an to retain 1-2 plants per hill. Roo t rot (cause y Rhizoctonia solani) is a serious isease an can e controlle y renching car en azim 0.05% first at the onset of the isease an another aft er one monthof first application. In a out 25-30 ays, young shoots are nippe o ff 5cm a ove groun level an su sequent cuttings of leaves may e taken after 1

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5 ays. It is a visa le to take 1-2 cuttings efore the crop is allowe for flow ering an fruiting when po s are rie , the plants are pulle out, rie in the sun an see s are threshe y eating with stick or y ru ing with 102

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han s. See s are winnowe , cleane an rie in the sun. They may e store in g unny ags line with paper. An yiel of 1200-1500kg of see s an a out 800-1000k g of leaves may e o taine per hectare in crops grown for oth the purposes (Ku mar et al, 1997). Properties an Activity See s contain sapogenins- iosgenin, its 25-epimer(yamogenin), tigogenin, gitogen in, yuccagenin, 25-2-spirosta-3-5- iene an its β-epimer. See s also contain a C 27-steroi al sapogenin-pepti e ester-fenugreekine. See s, in a ition, contain 4 -hy roxyleucine an saponins-fenugrins A-E:two furostanol glycoxi es-trigonellox i e C an (255)-22-O-methyl52-firostan-3β,22,26,triol-3-O-α-rh mnopyr ns syl(1-2 ) C-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1-3)-β-Dglucopyranoxi e-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoxi e. Other chemical constituents are sterols-β-sitosterol an cholesterol, flavone Cglycosi es-vitexin, iso-vitexin, vitexin-2”-O-P-coumarate an vicenin-2. Flavonoi squer cetin an luteolin, flavonoi glycosi e-vicenin-I. Invitro see ling callus cultu re gave flavonoi s-luteolin an vitexin-1-glycosi e. An essential oil is also re porte from see s. Leaves gave saponins-gracecunins A-G, flavonoi s- kaempferol an quercetin; sterols-βsitosterol, sapogenins- iosgenin, gitogenin coumarin-sco poletin is also reporte from the plant. See s are itter, mucilaginous, aromati c, carminative, tonic, iuretic, thermogenic, galactagogue, astringent, emollien t, amophro isiac, antirheumatic, CNS epressant an antiimplantation. Fenugreeki ne is hypoglycaemic, iuretic, hypotensive, car iotonic, antiphlogistic. It show e 80% inhi ition of vaccina virus. 103

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LEADWORT Plum aginaceae Plum ago spp. The genus Plum ago elonging to the family Plum aginaceae is a popular an me ic inally very important group of me icinal plants. Three species, namely P. rosea, P. zeylanica an P. auriculata have een i entifie . Among these P. rosea an P . zeylanica are important ones. Plum ago, in general is an esteeme reme y for l euco erma an other skin iseases. The synonyms of fire like agnih, vahnih, etc. are attri ute to this rug to in icate the very urning action of the root, ca using listers on the skin ( aranah). The rug is use only after a equate curin g an purification. Root is the officinal part an it enters into the compositio n of preparations like Citrakasavam, Dasamularista, Gulgulutiktaka kasaya, Yogar ajachurna, etc. 1. P. rosea Linn. syn. P. in ica Linn. Eng: Rosy-flowere Lea wort; San: Citrakah, Dhahanah; Hin: Lalcitra, Raktacitra; Ben: Lalchita; Mal: Kotuveli, Chettikko uveli, Chuvannakotuveli; Tam: Chenkotuv eli, Cittiramulam; Kan: Kempacitramula; Tel: Yerracitramulam Rosy-flowere lea w ort or Fire plant is a native of Coroman el Coast. It is foun throughout In ia, in moist situations as well as cultivate . The roots are useful in yspepsia, c olic, inflammations, cough, ronchitis, helmenthiasis, haemorrhoi s, elephantias is, chronic an intermittent fever, leprosy, leuco erma, ringworm, sca ies, hepa tosplenomegaly, amenorrhoea, o ontalgia, vitiate con itions of vata, kapha an anaemia. It is a pretty su scan ent perennial shru with semi-woo y striate stem s an flexi le ranches. Leaves are simple, alternate o long, short cuneate at t he ase passing into a very short amplexicaul, exauriculate, an re ish petiole . Flowers are right re , arrange in long terminal spikes. The calyx ri s are c overe with stipitate, ifarious an su sessile glan . Corolla tu e is slen er a n four times as long as the calyx. The stout roots are cylin rical, irregularly ent, light yellowish rown with smooth surface having short transverse shallow fissures at the regions of the ents. A light yellowish juice excu es from the cut surface. A healthy plant may pro uce 18-20 stout roots (Warrier et al, 1995) . The chemical constituents inclu e plum agin an sitosterol glucosi e. Clinical trials have emonstrate that plum agin oil from P. in ica is useful in common wart (Satyavati et al, 1987). The roots are acri , astringent, thermogenic, anth elmintic, constipating, expectorant, antiinflammmatory, a ortifacient, alterant, anti-perio ic, carminative, igestive, su orific, narcotic, gastric, nervous st imulant an rejuvenating. Root is a powerful sialogogue an vesicant. 2. P. zeylanica Linn. Eng:White flowere Lea wort; San:Chitraka; Hin, Ben:Chitarak, Chitra; Mal:Vellak otuveli Tam: Sittragam, Chittiramoolam; Kan: Vahini; Mar: Chitraka; Tel: Chitram ulam White flowere Lea wort or Chitarak is foun wil in peninsular In ia an m ostly in West Bengal. Root is use externally in leprosy an other skin iseases or o stinate character, aphthae, a scesses, influenza, piles an anasarca. Juic e is use externally in sca ies an ulcers. One of the important preparations of Chitrak is “Yograjguggal”, prescri e for arthritis, rheumatism, etc. The other well known preparations are “Chitrak A ivati” an “ Chitraka Haritaki”. In Unan i system it is an ingre ient of “Aqaruva-iKa ir”, “Ha Ashkhar”, “Ma’jun Bala ur ”, “Ma’jun Raig Mahi”, etc. It is a ranche un ershru . Roots are long an tu e rous. Stem is striate. Leaves are simple, alternate, short petiole , ovate or ov ate-o long, acute with entire or wavy margin, 7x3.8cm an gla rous. Flowers are white, arrange in terminal spikes. Calyx is tu ular, glan ular-hairy. Corolla t u e is slen er; lim rotate an 5 lo e . Stamens are 5 on a isc. Style is slen er with 5 stigmatic ranches. Fruit is mem ranous capsule enclose within the p ersistent calyx. The roots of P. zeylanica have een exhaustively stu ie an na phthaquinones have een isolate , namely, plum agin, 3-chlroplum agin, roserone (Si hu et al, 1971; Pa hye et 104

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al, 1973), 3,3’- iplum agin(Chitranone), zeylanone an iso-zeylanone an a couma rin, elliptinone (Sankaram et al, 1976, 1979). It also contains 1,2(3)-tetrahy r o-3,3’- iplum agin an plum azeylanone. The leaf is antirheumatic. Root is appet iser, su orific, relieves pain, vasicant, iuretic, caustic, anti iarrhoeal an expellent of phlegmatic tumours. Root is uterine stimulant. Root an fruits have antiimplantation activity. Plum agin in uces antiimplantation, has a ortifacien t an antiovulatory activity an causes selective testicular lesions in ogs. It is also a mitotic inhi itor. In lower concentration it ehaves like a spin le, poison ut in higher concentration it exhi its ra iomimetic, nucleotoxic an cyc lotoxic effects. It also has anti acterial, antifungal an anticoagulant activit ies an shows antagonism to amphetamine hyperactivity in mice. 3. P. auriculata Lam. syn. P. capensis Eng: Blue flowere Lea wort; Mal: Neelakotuveli The lue flowere Lea wort is of ten grown in gar ens throughout In ia (Moos, 1976; Chunekar, 1982; Sharma, 1983) . It is a native of Cape Province in South Africa. It is a constituent of many A yurve ic rugs (KAU, 1991). The plant is a su shru growing to a height of 1-1.5 m. Leaves are elliptic to o ovate, 3-4 x 1.5-2cm. Inflorescence is a raceme of l ength 3-4cm. Corolla is lue to violet. Stamens are 5 in num er. Flowers an fru its may e upto 12 in num er (Matthew, 1995). Agrotechnology The plant is grown in tropical to su tropical ecosystems. Warm humi tropical cl imate is most suite . They come up well in almost all types of eep an well ra ine soils. It is propagate vegetatively y stem cuttings. Three stem cuttings of size 15cm long are plante in poly ags of size 14x10cm. IAA an IBA treatment s will improve rooting of cuttings. The lan is to e ploughe well. A out 4 ton nes of FYM are to e applie , mixe thoroughly an see e of size 50cm rea th , 1.5cm height an convenient length are to e prepare . On these e s pits are taken at a istance of 25cm an the roote plants are transplante from the poly ags. Regular irrigation an wee ing are to e carrie out. In the secon year w ith the onset of monsoon, see e s are again refreshe after a ing a out 4 tonn es of FYM. At the en of secon year tu ers are collecte . Care shoul e taken to wear gloves, else the chemical plum agin present in the roots will cause urn ing sensation. The collecte tu ers are washe , tie into un les an markete . Plum ago yiel s a out 7-10t tu ers/ha with goo management (Prasa et al, 1997). 105

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MESUA Clusiaceae Mesua nagassarium San: Nagapuspah, Nagakesarah; Hin: Nagakesar; Ben: Nagkesar, Nagesar; Mal: Nagap puvu, Nagachempakam, Nanku, Vayanavu, Churuli, Eliponku; Tam: Nagappu, Nanku; Ka n: Nagasampige; Tel: Nagakesaramu, Gajapuspam; Mar, Guj: Nagchampa Importance Mesua or Ironwoo tree, commonly known as Nagapushpam is an important me icinal plant which fin s varie uses in Ayurve a, Si ha an Unani. Leaves are use in the form of poultice which is applie to hea in severe col s. Bark an roots in ecoction or infusion or tincture is a etter tonic an are useful in gastritis an ronchitis. Fixe oil expresse from see s is use as an application for cu taneous affections, sores, sca ies, woun s, etc. an as an em rocation in rheuma tism. Drie flowers pow ere an mixe with ghee, or a paste ma e of flowers wit h a ition of utter an sugar, are given in lee ing piles as well as ysentery with mucus. They are also useful in thirst, irrita ility of the stomach, excess ive perspiration, cough with much expectoration, yspepsia, etc. Leaves an flow ers are use in scorpion stings. Syrup of the flower u s is given for the cure of ysentery (Na karni et al, 1976). In Ayurve a, it is an ingre ient of “Nagake shara-a i-Churna”, use for acillary ysentery an in “Naga Keshara Yoga”, for piles. In Unani system, the rug is an ingre ient of large num er of recipes lik e, “Jawarish Shehryaran” a stomach an liver tonic, “Ha Pachaluna”, an appetise r, “Halwa-i-supari pack” a general tonic, etc. (Thakur et al, 1989).

Botany Mesua nagassarium (Burm.f.) Kosterm. syn. M. ferrea auct. non Linn. elongs to t he family Clusiaceae. It is a me ium size to large evergreen tree, 18-30m in he ight an with re ish rown ark which peels off in thin flakes. Leaves are simp le, opposite, thick, lanceolate, coriaceous, covere with waxy loom un erneath, an re when young, acute or acuminate an with inconspicuous nerves. Flowers a re white, very fragrant, axillary or terminal, solitary or in pairs. Stamens are numerous, gol en yellow, much shorter than the petals. Fruits are ovoi with a conical point surroun e y the enlarge sepals. See s are 1-4 in num er, angula r, ark rown an smooth (Warrier et al, 1995). The flowers of Ochrocarpus longi folius are also sometimes referre to as Nagakesara. This tree is foun in the W est Coast of In ia (Thakur et al, 1989). Agrotechnology The plant prefers plains, river anks or places which o not experiences moisture stress for its luxuriant growth. Silty loam soil is suita le for its cultivatio n. The plant is propagate y see s. See formation occurs in Novem er-March. Se e s are to e collecte an sown in see e s or poly ags. 3-4 months ol see lin gs are use for transplanting. Pits of size 45cm cu e are to e taken at a ista nce of 3-3.5m an fille with a mixture of 10kg FYM, san an top soil an ma e into a moun . See lings are to e transplante into small han pits taken on thes e moun s. FYM is to e applie twice a year. Regular irrigation an wee ing are to e one. The tree flowers in the fourth year. Flowers can e collecte , rie in the sun an markete (Prasa et al,1997). Properties an Activity See oil gives 4-phenyl coumarin analogues-mesuol, mammeigin, mesuagin, mammeisi n an mesuone. Bark gives ferruols A an B. Heartwoo gives xanthoneseuxanthone,

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Distri ution The plant occurs in su -tropical to tropical areas of East In ia, An aman Islan s an Western Ghats, upto an altitu e of 1500m.

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mesuaxanthones A an B an a tetroxygenate xanthone name ferraxanthone. Stame ns give α nd β-amyrin, β-sitosterol, iflavonoi s- mesuaferrones A an B, an m esuanic aci . Bark yiel s a lupeol-type triterpenoi also name guttiferol. See oil is rich in oleic, stearic an palmitic aci s. Linoleic, arachi ic an linol enic aci s are also present. 106

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Mesuaxanthones A an B an euxanthone are antiinflammatory, CNS epressant an a ntimicro ial. The essential oil from the stamens is anti acterial, antifungal, a nthelmintic an that from fruit is antifungal. Oral a ministration of a compoun preparation containing Mesua ferrea (flowers), Foeniculum vulgare (see s), Curc uma zeo aria (tu ers), Nigella sativa (see s), Terminalia che ula (see s) an T. arjuna (stem- ark) exhi ite antiimplantation activity in rats. An Ayurve ic pr eparations containing M. ferrea has haemostatic an astringent properties an is particularly useful in uterine lee ing. Aerial part is CVS active, spasmolytic an iuretic. Phenol containing fraction of see oil is antiasthmatic an antia naphylaxis. Bark is use as tonic after chil irth. Bark an unripe fruit is su orific. Leaf an flower is an anti ote for snake ite an scorpion sting. Flower u is anti ysenteric. Flower is stomachic an expectorant. See oil is antirheu matic. Unripe fruit an flower is astringent (Husain et al,1992).

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BAUHINIA Caesalpiniaceae Bauhinia variegata San: Kancanarah, Kovi arah; Hin: Kancanar; Ben: Rakta Kanchan; Tam: Sigappu-man arai Mal: Man aram, Chuvannaman aram, Malayakatti, Kongu, Konguman aram; Tel: Da eva Kanchanamu, Man ara; Kan: Ullipe, Kanchavala, Kempu Man ara Importance In tra itional me icine, Bauhinia is extensively use in glan ular iseases an as an anti ote to poison. The rug is also reporte to e useful in ysentery, iarrhoea, piles an worms (Kurup et al, 1979; Sharma et al, 1983). They are usef ul in vitiate con itions of kapha an pitta, iarrhoea, ysentery, skin isease s, leprosy, intestinal worms, tumours, woun s, ulcers, inflammations, scrofula, protoptosis, haemorrhoi s, haemoptysis, cough, menorrhagia an ia etics. Usiras avam an Can anasavam are some of the preparations using the rug. An important Ayurve ic preparation, “Kanchnar Guggal” contains ark of this plant. In Unani s ystem, the flowers are use in “Ha Mussafi Khun”, for skin iseases, the ark i s use in “Sufuf Kalan”-an aphro isiac. Distri ution The plant is istri ute in the Su -Himalayan tracts from the In us eastwar s an throughout the ry forests of In ia, ascen ing to 1300m. It is also cultivate throughout the plains.

Botany Bauhinia variegata Linn. syn. B. can i a Rox . elonging to the family Caesalpin iaceae is a mo erate size eci uous tree with vertically cracke grey ark, woo mo erately har , greyish rown with irregular arker patches. Leaves are of 2 leaflets, connate for a out two-thir s up. Leaflets are ovate with roun e apex, 10-15cm long, pu escent eneath when young an coriaceous. Flowers are white or pink, the uppermost petal arker an variegate usually appearing efore the le aves in short axillary or terminal racemes. Stamens are 5 an stameno es a sent. Fruits are flat ehiscent po s with 10-15 see s (Warrier et al, 1993). Other im portant species of the genus Bauhinia are as follows. 1. B. tomentosa Linn. It is the yellow or gol en flowere one, commonly known as Manja Man aram. It is foun in Africa an Asia. In In ia it is foun wil in ry eci uous forests an often cultivate . The plant is anti ysenteric, anti ote for snake ite an scor pion sting an also use in liver complaints. The ark is astringent. Root ark is vermifuge. Fruit is iuretic. See is tonic, woun healing an aphro isiac. 2. B. purpurea Linn. Pink Bauhinia or Camel’s Foot tree is foun in South an S. E. Asia. In In ia, i t is foun in eci uous forests. Root is carminative an tonic. Bark is astringe nt an anti iarrhoeal an is use in ulcer an goitre. Flowers are laxative. The experimental stu ies con ucte y Sijoria an Prasa (1979) on animals in icate that B. purpurea is very effective in normalising the thyroi glan . 3. B. racemosa Lam. The plant is foun in Su -Himalayan tracts, in U.P, West Bengal, Central an Sou th In ia. The leaf is anticephalalgic an antimalarial. Bark is astringent, anti iarrhoeal. The see s are anti acterial. Stem- ark is CVS an CNS active, hypoth ermic an anticancerous.

4. B. mala arica Rox . Mala ar Mountain E ony is foun in Su -Himalayan tracts, from Kumaon to West Ben gal, ascen ing to 1350m, Assam, Bihar an South In ia. The flowers of this plant are anti ysenteric.

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108

5. B. retusa Rox . The plant is istri ute in north-western Himalayas from the Beas eastwar s, Him achal Pra esh, U.P., Orissa, M.P. an A.P. The gum of the plant is emmenagogue, iuretic an can e use externally in sores. The see is hypoglycaemic an hypo cholesterolaemic. The aerial part is CVS active an has effect on respiration. 6. B. vahlii W.&A. Camel’s Foot clim er is foun in Punja , Bihar, Assam, Ma hy Pra esh, An ra Pra esh an Tamil Na u. Leaf is emulcent. See is tonic an aphro isiac. Stem is CV S active, antiarrhythmic an spasmolytic. Agrotechnology Well raine hilly areas are i eal for the cultivation of Bauhinia. The plant is see propagate . See s are forme in Fe ruary-March. See s are to e collecte from the rie po s, soake in water for 12 hours efore sowing in see e s. At four-leave stage they are to e transferre to poly ags. Two month ol see ling s from poly ags are use for fiel planting. Pits of size 60cm cu e are to e ta ken an fille with 10kg rie cow ung mixe with topsoil an forme into a moun . On these see lings are to e plante at a istance of 67.5m. Irrigation is to e given in the first year. Two wee ings an application of organic manure once is require in a year. The plant is not attacke y any serious pests an isea ses. The plant flowers on the thir year. At the en of tenth year the tree can e cut an woo use for me icinal purposes (Prasa et al, 1997).

Properties an activity Flowers contain flavanoi s-kaempferol-3-galactosi e an kaempferol-3rhamnoglucos i e. Stem ark yiel s hentriacontane, octacosanol an stigmasterol. Stem yiel s β-sitisterol, lupiol an a flavanone glycosi e-5, 7- imethoxy flavanone 4-O-α-Lr h mnopyr noside-β-D-glucopyranosi e. See s possess human loo agglutinating act ivity. Stem ark is hypothermic, CNS active an epressant. Bu , flower, leaf an stem ark are anti acterial. Stem possesses juvenoi activity. Bark is alterati ve, tonic, antileprotic an antirheumatic. Bu is anti ysenteric. Root is carmin ative an anti ote for snake ite. Bark, flower an root promote suppuration. Bar k an u are astringent an vermifuge (Husain et al, 1992). 109

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GYMNEMA Asclepia aceae Gymnema sylvestre San: Mesasrngi, Ma hunasini; Hin: Gu mar, Merasimgi; Ben: Merasingi; Mal: Chakka rakolli, Ma hunasini; Tam: Sirukurumkay, Sakkaraikkolli; Kan: Ka hasige; Tel: Po apatra; Mar: Kavali

Importance Gymnema, Australian Cowplant, Small In ian Ipecacuanha or Periploca of the woo s is a woo y clim er. It is reporte to cure cough, yspnoea, ulcers, pitta, kaph a an pain in the eyes. The plant is useful in inflammations, hepatosplenomegaly , yspepsia, constipation, jaun ice, haemorrhoi s, strangury, renal an vesical calculi, helminthiasis, car iopathy, cough, asthma, ronchitis, intermittent fev er, amenorrhoea, conjuctivitis an leuco erma. The fresh leaves when chewe have the remarka le property of paralysing the sense of taste for sweet an itter s u stance for some time (Warrier et al, 1995). The rug is escri e as a estroy er of ma humeha (glycosuria) an other urinary isor ers. Root has long een rep ute as a reme y for snake ite. Leaves triturate an mixe with castor oil are applie to swollen glan s an enlargement of internal viscera as the liver an s pleen (Na karni, 1954). The rug is use to strengthen the function of heart, cu re jaun ice, piles, urinary calculi, ifficult micturition an intermittent feve rs (Sharma,1983). The rug enters into the composition of preparations like Ayas krti, Varuna i kasaya, Varuna ighrtam, Mahakalyanakaghrtam, etc. They suppress t he activity of taste of tongue for sweet taste an for this reason it was consi ere that it estroys sugar, hence the name Ma hunashini or Gurmar an has een prescri e as an anti- ia etic. The cru e rug as well as its rie aqueous extr act is mainly use in ronchial trou les. Distri ution It is a tropical clim er. It mainly grows in Western Ghats, Konkan, Tamil Na u a n some parts of Bihar. The plant is cultivate in plains of In ia ut the rug is mainly important from Afghanistan an Iran. Botany Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.)R. Br. syn. Asclepias germinata Rox . elonging to the family Asclepia aceae is a large, woo y much ranche clim er with pu escent you ng parts. Leaves are simple, opposite, elliptic or ovate, more or less pu escent on oth si es, ase roun e or cor ate. Flowers are small, yellow an arrange in um ellate cymes. Fruits are slen er an follicles are upto 7.5cm long (Warrie r et al, 1995). Two allie species, G. hirsutum foun in Bun elkh an Bihar an Western Ghats an G. montanum growing wil in Eastern Ghats an Konkan are also use for the same purpose an are also calle “Gurmar” (Thakur et al, 1989). Agrotechnology The plant can e propagate oth y see s an stem cuttings. See lings are to e raise in poly ags. Pits of size 50cm cu e are to e taken, fille with 10kg r ie cow ung or FYM an covere with topsoil. On these pits a out 3-4 months ol see lings are to e transplante from poly ags. Trailing can e facilitate y e recting poles an tying the plants to the poles. The plant will attain goo spre a within one year. Regular wee ing, irrigation an organic manure application a re eneficial. The plant is not attacke y any serious pests or iseases. Leave s can e collecte from the first year onwar s at an internal of one week. This can e continue for 10-12 years. Fresh or rie leaves can e markete (Prasa et al, 1997). Properties an Activity Nonacosane an hentriacontane were isolate from the hexane extract of leaves. A n attempt to isolate nitrogenous compoun s le to the isolation of amino aci s s uch as leucine, iso-leucine, valine, allanine an γ- amynobutyric acid. Isolatio

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n of trimethyl amine oxide was of particular interest. An alkaloid ynamine whic h is a trace constituent was isolated and identified (Sinsheimer et al, 1967). A ntisweet constituent of the leaves has been found to be a 110

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mixture of triterpene saponins. These have been desi nated as ymnemic acids A,B ,C and D which have the ymnema enin and ymnestro enins as the a lycones of ym nemic acid A and B and ymnemic acid C and D respectively. These are hexahydroxy triterpenes the latter bein partially acylated. The su ar residues are lucuro nic acid and alacturonic acid while ferulic and an elic acids have been attache d as the carboxylic acid. Chewin of leaves reduces sensitivity to sweet substan ces. Effects of ymnema extracts had been variable. While verifyin the effect o f G. sylvestre leaves on detoxification of snake venom, it has been reported tha t a toxic component of venom ATP and ymnemate bind at the same site inhibitin venom ATP-ase. The active principles which have been identified as lycosides (7 ymnemic acids) su est that the topical and selective anaesthetic effect of th e plant mi ht result from the competition of the receptor sites between lycosid es and the sweet substances (Warren et al, 1969). The leaves are antidiabetic an d insulinotropic. Gymnemic acid is antiviral. The plant is bitter, astrin ent, a crid, thermo enic, antiinflammatory, anodyne, di estive, liver tonic, emetic, di uretic, stomachic, stimulant, anthelmintic, alexipharmic, laxative, cardiotonic, expectorant, antipyretic and uterine tonic. 111

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INDIAN SENNA Caesalpiniaceae Importance Cassia senna San: Svarnapatri; Hin: Sanay, Sana Ka Patt; Ben: Sonamukhi; Mal: Sunnamukki, Cho nnamukki, Nilavaka; Tam: Nilavirai, Nilavakai; Tel: Netatan edu Indian Senna or Tinnevelly senna is a shrub very hi hly esteemed in India for its medicinal valu e. The leaves are useful in constipation, abdominal disorders, leprosy, skin dis eases, leucoderma, splenome aly, hepatopathy, jaundice, helminthiasis, dyspepsia , cou h, bronchitis, typhoid fever, anaemia, tumours and vitiated conditions of pitta and vata (Warrier et al,1994). It is used in Ayurvedic preparations; “Panc ha Sakara Churna”, “Shat Sakara Churna” and “Madhu Yastyadi Churna” used for con stipation. Its use is widespread in Unani system and some of the important produ cts of this system containin senna are “Itrifal Mulayyin”, “Jawarish Ood Mulayy in”, “Hab Shabyar”, “Sufuf Mulliyin”, “Sharbat Ahmad Shahi”, etc. used as a mild laxative (Thakur et al, 1989). Distribution The plant is of Mediterranean ori in. It is found in Somalia, Saudi Arabia, part s of Pakistan and Kutch area of Gujarat. It is lar ely cultivated in Tirunelveli , Ramanathapuram, Madurai and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu. Botany The enus Cassia, belon in to the family Caesalpiniaceae, comprises of a number of species, namely, C. senna Linn. syn. C. an ustifolia Vahl. C. absus Linn. C. alata Linn. C. auriculata Linn. C. burmanni Wi ht. syn. C. obovata (Linn.) Coll ad. C. lauca Lam. C. javanica Linn. C. mimosoides Linn. C. obtusifolia Linn. sy n. C. tora Linn. C. occidentalis Linn. C. pumila Lam. C. slamea Lam. C. acutifol ia Delile. C. sophera Linn. C. senna is a shrub or undershrub, 60-75cm in hei ht with pale subterete or obtusely an led erect or spreadin branches. Leaves are paripinnate. Leaflets are 5-8 in number, ovate-lanceolate and labrous. Flowers are yellowish, many and arran ed in axillary racemes. Fruits are flat le umes, reenish brown to dark brown and nearly smooth (Chopra et al,1980, Warrier et al, 1994). In commerce, the leaves and pods obtained from C. senna are known as “ Ti nnevelly Senna” and those from C. acutifolia Delile. as “Alexandrian Senna”. The leaves of C. acutifolia are narrower than C. senna, otherwise both resemble to a lar e extent (Thakur et al, 1989). All the true Sennas have the portions of th eir leaves unequally divided. In some kinds the lower part of one side is reduce d to little more than a line in breadth, while the other is from a quarter to ha lf an inch in breadth. The dru known under the name of East Indian Senna is nea rly free from adulteration; and as its properties appear identical with those of the Alexandrian and the price bein less, it probably will supersede it in ene ral practice. Its size and shape readily identify it (Graves, 1996). A rotechnolo y The plant requires a mild subtropical climate with warm winters which are free f rom frost for its rowth. Semiarid areas with adequate irri ation facilities are ideal for 112

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cultivation. Areas havin hi h rainfall, humidity and poor draina e are not suit able. Li ht or medium loamy soils with adequate draina e and pH varyin from 7.0 -8.2 are preferable. In South India both summer and winter crops are possible. T he plant is propa ated by seeds. The seed rate required is 15-20k /ha. Seeds are sown in October-November (winter rainfed crop) or in February-March (irri ated crop). Hi her seed rate is required for unirri ated crop. Seeds are sown in line s 30cm apart. Application of 5-10t of FYM/ha before plantin or raisin a reen manure crop is beneficial. About 40k N and 25-50k P2O5/ha applied as basal dre ssin and 40k N/ha applied in 2 split dozes as top dressin ave better yield. While the rainfed crop is rown without irri ation, the irri ated crop requires 5-8 li ht irri ations durin the entire rowin season. The crop requires 2-3 we edin s and hoein s in order to keep it free from weeds. Alternaria alternata cau ses leaf spot and dieback but the disease is not serious. In North India, the pl ant is attacked by the larvae of butterfly Catopsilia pyranthe which can be cont rolled by plantin the crop in March-April instead of June-July. Under irri ated conditions, the first crop is obtained after 90 days of plantin . The leaves ar e stripped by hand when they are fully reen, thick and bluish- reen in colour. The second crop is taken 4 weeks after the first harvest and the third 4-6 weeks after the second one. The last harvest of leaves is done when the entire crop i s harvested alon with the pods. Yield under irri ated conditions is nearly1.4t of leaves and 150k pods/ha and under unirri ated conditions is 500-600k leaves and 80-100k pods/ha. The leaves are dried in thin layers under shade so as to retain the reen colour and the pods are hun for 10-12 days to et dried. The l eaves and pods are cleaned, raded and marketed (Husain et al, 1993). Properties and Activity Leaves contain lucose, fructose, sucrose and pinnitol. Mucila e consists of al actose, arabinose, rhamnose and alacturonic acid. Leaves also contain sennoside -C(8,8’di lucoside of rhein-aloe-emodin-dianthrone). Pods contain sennosides A a nd B, lycoside of anthraquinones rhein and chrysophanic acid. Seeds contain β-s itosterol (Husain et al, 1992). Leaves an po s also contain 0.33% β-sterol an flavonols-kaempferol, kaempferin, an iso-rhamnetin. Sennosi e content of C. acu tifolia is higher ranging from 2.5% to 4.5% as compare to C. angustifolia rangi ng from 1.5 % to 2.5%. The purgative activity of Senna is attri ute to its senn osi es. The po s cause lesser griping than the leaves. Leaf an po is laxative. The leaves are astringent, itter, sweet, acri , thermogenic, cathartic, epura tive, liver tonic, anthelmintic, cholagogue, expectorant an fe rifuge. 113

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NAGADANTI Euphor iaceae San: Danti; Hin: Danti; Baliospermum montanum Mal: Danti, Naga anti; Tam: Nakatanti; Tel: Nelaji i Importance Danti or Naga anti is a stout un ershru with numerous flowers. Root, which is t he officinal part, is use in a ominal pain, constipation, calculus, general an asarca, piles, helminthic manifestations, sca ies, skin isor ers, suppurative u lcers an iseases cause y the mor i ity of kapha an pitta. Root paste is app lie to painful swellings an piles. Leaves cure asthma an see s are use in sn ake ite (Kurup et al, 1979; Sharma, 1983). The rug forms an important constitue nt of preparations like Dantyarishta, Dantiharitakileham, Kaisoraguggulu gulika, etc.(Sivarajan et al, 1994). Distri ution The plant is foun throughout the su -Himalayan tracts from Kashmir to Khasi Hil ls. It is common in West Bengal, Bihar an Central an Peninsular In ia. Botany Baliospermum montanum (Will .) Muell-Arg. syn. B. axillare Bl., B. polyan rum Wt . elongs to the family Euphro iaceae. It is a stout un er-shru 0.9-1.8m in hei ght with her aceous ranches from the roots. Leaves are simple, sinuate-toothe , upper ones small, lower ones large an sometimes palmately 3-5 lo e . Flowers a re numerous, arrange in axillary racemes with male flowers a ove an a few fema les elow. Fruits are capsules, 813mm long an o ovoi . See s are ellipsoi smoo th an mottle (Warrier et al,1993). Agrotechnology The tropical plant is suite to almost all soils. It can e cultivate either as pure crop or intercrop. It is propagate vegetatively y cuttings. A out 15-20c m long roote cuttings are use for planting. Pits of size 50cm cu e are to e t aken at 3m spacing an fille with rie cow ung, san an top soil an forme i nto a moun . On these moun s, roote cuttings are to e plante at 2 cuttings/mo un . Cuttings esta lish within one month. Wee ing is to e carrie out at this t ime. Application of organic manure after every 6 months is eneficial. Irrigatio n uring summer months is prefera le. The plant is not attacke y any serious p ests or iseases. Roots can e collecte at the en of secon year. The roots ar e to e cut an rie in sun efore marketing. The yiel is a out one tonne root /ha (Prasa et al,1997). Properties an Activity Roots contain iterpenes, aliospermin, montanin, phor ol-12- eoxy-13-O-palmitat e, phor ol-12- eoxy-16-hy roxy-13-O-palmitate an phor ol-12- eoxy-5β-hy roxy-13 – myristate (Ogura et al, 1978). Alcoholic extract of plant showe hypotensive activity in experimental animals (Bhakuni et al, 1971). Antilukaemic an cytotox ic activities have een emonstrate in the esters of oth 12- eoxyphor ol an 1 2- eoxy-16-hy roxyphor ol, isolate from B. montanum (King-horn, 1979). The root s are acri , thermogenic, purgative, antiinflammatory, ano yne, igestive, anthe lmintic, iuretic, iaphoretic, ru efacient, fe rifuge an tonic. See is purgat ive, stimulant, ru efacient an anti ote for snake ite. See oil is antirheumati c. Leaf is antiasthmatic an woun healing. Root an see oil is cathartic an a nti ropsical. Stem is anti- ontalgic. 114

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PURGING CROTON Euphor iaceae San: Jepalah, Danti ijah Hin: Jamalgota Tam: Nervalam, Sevalamkottai Tel: Nepala Ben: Jaypal Croton tiglium Mal: Nirvalam Importance Purging croton or croton oil plant, a small evergreen tree with separate male an female flowers, is one among the seven poisons escri e in Ayurve a. The rug is well known for its rastic purgative property. The rug is foun to e usefu l in ascites, anasarca, col , cough, asthma, constipation, calculus, ropsy, fev er an enlargement of the a ominal viscera. The see paste is a goo applicatio n for skin iseases, painful swellings an alopacia. The see -oil is useful in c hronic ronchitis, laryngeal affections, arthritis an lock jaw. Misraka-sneham is an important preparation using the rug (Na karni, 1954; Dey, 1980; Sharma, 1 983).

Botany Croton tiglium Linn. elongs to the family Euphor iaceae. It is a small evergree n tree, 4.56.0m in height with ash coloure smooth ark an young shoots sprinkl e with stellate hairs. Leaves are o long to ovate-lanceolate, o tuse or roun e at the 2-glan e ox, acuminate, mem raneous, yellowish green an minutely toot he . Flowers are small, unisexual, males on slen er pe icels, females larger an on short thick pe icels. Fruits are ovoi or o long trigonous capsules. See s a re smooth, testa lack an enclosing re ish rown oily en osperm (Warrier et al ,1994). Other species elonging to the genus Croton are as follows: C. aromaticu s Linn. C. cau atus Geisel C. jouera Rox . C. mala aricus Be . C. o longifolius Rox . C. polyan rus Rox . syn. Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg. C. reticulatus( Chopra et al, 1980) Agrotechnology The plant is propagate y see s. See s are to e sown on see e s an a out 2 m onths ol see lings are use for transplanting. Pits of size 50cm cu e are to e taken at 3m spacing an fille with rie cow ung, san an topsoil an forme into a moun . The see lings are to e plante on these moun s. Irrigation uring summer months is eneficial. Application of organic manure after every 6 months is esira le. Wee ing is to e carrie out one month after transplanting. The p lant is not attacke y any serious pests or iseases. Fruits are forme at the en of first year. Fruits when ripen an start to crack are to e collecte , ri e in sun, then the outer shell is remove an again rie for one ay efore ma rketing (Prasa et al,1997). Properties an activity Oil contains phor ol myristate acetate ( Husain et al, 1992). See s contain upto 20% protein an 30-50% lipi s. Iso-guanine-D-ri ose (crotonisi e) an saccharos e were isolate from the see s. In fractionation of croton oil, liqui -liqui i stri ution proce ures prove to e the separation tools of choice. The per hy ro genate parent hy rocar on of phor ol is a perhy rocyclopropa enzulene calle ti gliane an phor ol is 1, 1aα, 1bβ, 4, 4a, 7aα, 7b, 8, 9, 9 -dec hydro-4 β, 7α, 9 β, 9aαtetr hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1, 1, 6, 8α tetr methyl-5-H-cycloprop [3,4] benz [1.2-e] zulen-5one. Phorbol, tetr cylic diterpene with 5, 7, 6 nd 3membered ring h s 6 oxygen functions. Phorbol ccounts for 3.4% nd 4- deoxy- 4α - phorbol for 0.29% of the weight of croton oil. Twentyfive phorbol-12, 13-diest ers h ve been detected (Hecker et l, 1974). A toxin croton 1, mol. wt 72,000 h s been isol ted from the seeds (Lin et l, 1978). Phorbol myrist te cet te cti

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Distri ution It is istri ute throughout North In ia. It is cultivate an South In ia.

in Assam, West Bengal

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115

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v tes nitroblue tetr zolium reduction in hum n tive, rubef cient nd nti-dote for sn kebite. er, thermogenic, emollient, dr stic purg tive, tic, ntiinfl mm tory, vermifuge, deterent, di irrit nt nd rubef cient.

polymorphs. Seed nd oil is purg The seeds nd oil re crid, bitt digestive, c rmin tive, nthelmin phoretic, expector nt, vesic nt,

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ALSTONIA Apocyn ce e S n: Vis ghni, An d n ; M l: An liveg m;

Import nce Alstoni is l rge shrub with str ight bole nd growing upto bout 6m height. T he roots re useful in skin dise ses, erysipel s, leprosy, cobr bite nd other venomous bites, epilepsy, f tigue, fever nd ot lgi . The fruits re useful in s yphilis, ins nity nd epilepsy. The pl nt is believed to repel sn kes.

2. A. spect bilis R. Br. It is l rge evergreen tree seen in tropic l forests of And m ns. The b rk cont ins lk loids such s lston mine, dit mine, echit mine nd echitenine (Chopr et l,1980) Agrotechnology The pl nt is prop g ted m inly by seeds. Seeds re to be sown on seedbeds nd ge rmin ted ones re to be tr nsferred to polyb gs. About three months old seedling s re used for tr nspl nting. If seeds re not v il ble, thin stem cuttings c n be pl nted in polyb gs nd rooted cuttings used. Pits of size 60cm cube re to be t ken t 3m sp cing, filled with dried cowdung, s nd nd topsoil nd m de int o mound. To this mounds seedlings from polyb gs re to be tr nspl nted. Irrig tion is essenti l during e rly st ges of growth. Applic tion of org nic m nure e very ye r is benefici l. Regul r weeding is to be done. The pl nt is not tt cke d by ny serious pests or dise ses. Flowers re formed in the first ye r itself. It c n be used for medicin l purposes fter seven ye rs of growth. Fruits nd r oots re the economic l p rts (Pr s d et l,1997).

Properties nd Activity The pl nt is rich source of indole lk loids. Alk loids re present in v rious p rts. Stem b rk nd root cont in venen tine, lstovenine, 3-dehydro lstovenine nd reserpine. Stem b rk cont ins venoxidine (venen tine Nb -oxide), nhydro ls ton tine, kopsinine, ven lstonine, ven lstonidine(ven lstonine-6,7-epoxide), ech itovenine nd veneserpine. Fruits cont in echitovenidine, (+)minovincinine, echi toserpidine, echitoserpine, echitoveniline, 11-methoxy echitovonidine, 11-methox

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1. A. schol ris R. Br. This tree is common throughout Indi . The b rk is v lu ble in debility nd fter effects of fever, chronic di rrhoe , dysentery nd c t rrh l fever. The milky j uice is pplied to ulcers nd rheum tic p ins, mixed with oil nd dropped into e r to relieve e r che. Dit nin is the ctive principle of the b rk, possessing p owerful febrifuge properties. The b rk is stringent, tonic nd febrifuge (N dk rni, 1998).

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Bot ny Alstoni venen t R.Br., belonging to the f mily Apocyn ce e, is l rge shrub t o sm ll tree up to 6m in height with greyish brown b rk nd bright yellow h rd nd woody root. Le ves re simple, rr nged in whorls of 3-6, membr nous, l nceol te, m rgins w vy, finely cumin te, m in nerves numerous, close, p r llel nd u nited by inter m rgin l nerve. Flowers re white, rr nged in termin l sub umbel l te cymes or in r cemes. Fruits re fusiform with st lked nd be ked follicles, t pering t both ends. Seeds re m ny fl ttened with tuft of h ir t e ch end (W rrier et l, 1993). Other import nt species belonging to the genus Alstoni re the following.

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Distribution The pl nt is distributed throughout Indi 00m elev tion.

in deciduous forests in re s up to 18

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Alstoni venen t T m: Sinn pp l i; K n: Add s rp

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y (-) minovinicinine, echitoserpiline, (-)vinc difformine, 11-methoxy()vinc diff ormine nd venoterpine. Le ves cont in echitoven ldine, echitoveniline, lstolen ine, de cetyl ku mmiline, polynuridine, dihydropolynuridine nd r uc ffrininolin e. The yellow tint in b rk is bec use of the presence of ∆3- lstovenine. A numbe r of indole lk loids h ve been further isol ted from the pl nt. In ddition to lk loids fruits cont in β-amyrin acetate an lupeol ester of β-hy roxy aci (Hu sain et al,1992). The root is itter, astringent, thermogenic, epurative, antit oxic, fe rifuge an ano yne. The alkaloi alstovenine in lower oses exhi ite m onoamine oxi ase inhi itor activity, while in higher oses it showe marke cent ral stimulant effect. Veninatine exhi ite reserpine like activity. Alcoholic ex tract of the fruits showe initial activation effect on acetylcholine esterase, followe alternately y inhi ition an activation of the enzyme. 116

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HOLOSTEMMA Asclepia aceae Importance Holostemma a a-ko ien San: Jivanti; Hin: Chirvel, Charivel; Mal: Atapathiyan, Atapotiyan, Atakotiyan; Tam: Palaikkirai; Tel: Palagurugu; Mar: Du urli, Shi o i; Guj: Kharner, Khiravel Holostemma is a twining shru with large flowers. The roots of Holostemma are u seful in ophthalmopathy, orchitis, cough, urning sensation, stomachalgia, const ipation, fever an tri oshas. The leaves, flowers an fruits are eaten as vegeta le. The root is also use in spermatorrhoea. It is use in preparations of Vi a rya iganam, Dhanwan haram thaila, Manasamithravatakam, Balarishta an Anuthaila. It is also useful in eye iseases an it imparts resistance to iseases.

Distri ution The plant occurs in tropical countries. In In ia, it is foun in Himalayas, Dehr a un, Konkan, Bom ay, Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala an Tamilna u. It grows over he ges an in open forests especially on the lower slopes of the hills. It is also istri ute in Sri Lanka, Burma an W. China. Botany Holostemma a a-ko ien Schult. syn. Holostemma annulare (Rox .) K. Schum., Holost emma rhee ii Wall. elongs to the family Asclepia aceae. It is a laticiferous tw ining shru with large conspicuous flowers. Leaves are simple, opposite an cor ate. Flowers are purple, arrange in axillary um ellate cymes. Fruits are thick follicles, 9 cm long, cylin rical an luntly pointe . The roots are long upto 1 m or more, irregularly twiste , thick an cylin rical. When ry it is yellowish rown to rown lack in colour with nearly smooth surface earing white scars a n small epressions. A mature root is a out 1-2 cm thick when extracte for use (Warrier et al, 1995). Agrotechnology Holostemma prefers a tropical climate. The plant is propagate vegetatively y s tem cuttings, ut mainly y see s. The see s are collecte from the plant in Nov em er-Decem er efore eing isperse . See s are cleane , rie an store for s owing. The store see s after soaking in water for 4-5 hours are sown in the see e s. A out one month ol see lings are then plante in poly ags of size 14x10c m which are fille with soil, san an rie cow ung in 1:1:1 ratio, respectivel y. Poly ags shoul e kept in sha e an irrigate . A out 1-1.5 month ol see lin gs are rea y for transplanting. Pits of 30cm cu e size are taken at 11.2m istan ce an fille with 10kg rie cow ung an san . This is covere with surface soi l an forme into a moun . See lings are transplante on to the moun s from the poly ags carefully. Regular irrigation is to e given till flowering. To ai in trailing, staking is given one month after planting. Flowering an fruiting occu rs in Novem er-Decem er. Harvesting can e one at the en of secon year when t he vines start rying up. Harvesting is one y igging up the tu ers. The tu er s are cut into pieces of 10cm length an rie in sun efore sale (Prasa et al, 1997). Properties an activity

Holostemma tu ers give α- myrin, lupeol nd β-sitosterol. Alanine, aspartic aci , glycine, serine, threonine an valine were etecte chromatographically (Hussa in et al, 1992). The root is anti ia etic, antigonorrhoeic, echic, alterative, tonic, lactative, ophthalmic, emollient, stimulant, aphro isiac, expectorant an galactagogue. 117

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ASHOKA Caesalpiniaceae San:Asoka, Gatasokah; Tam: Asogam; Saraca asoca Hin:Asok, Asoka; Ben:Ashok; Mal:Asokam; Kan:Asoka a, Aksunkara; Tel: Asokamu, Va njalamu Importance Ashoka, the sacre tree of Hin us an Bu hists, possesses varie me icinal uses . The ark is useful in yspepsia, fever, ipsia, urning sensation, visceromega ly, colic, ulcers, menorrhagia, metropathy, leucorrhoea an pimples. The leaf ju ice mixe with cumin see s is use for treating stomachalagia. The floweres are consi ere to e uterine tonic an are use in vitiate con itions of pitta, syp hilis, cervical a initis, hyper ipsia, urning sensation, haemorrhoi s, ysenter y, sca ies in chil ren an inflammation. The well-known Ayurve ic preparations a re ”Ashokarishta” an “Ashokaghrita”. Ashokarishta is prescri e in leucorrhoea, haematuria, menorrhagia an other iseases of genitourinary system of females. Distri ution Ashoka is foun almost throughout In ia, except North-Western In ia, upto 750m. It is also foun in the An aman Islan s. Botany Saraca asoca (Rox .) e Wil e. syn. S. in ica auct. non Linn. is a me ium size evergreen tree growing upto 9m height with numerous sprea ing an rooping gla r ous ranches. Leaves are pinnate, 30-60cm long having 2-3 pairs of lanceolate le aflets. Flowers are orange or orange yellow, arrange in ense corym s an very fragrant. Fruits are flat lack po s, leathery an compresse with 4-8 see s/po . See s are ellipsoi o long an compresse . The ark is ark rown to grey or lack with a warty surface. The thickness varies from 5mm to 10mm. The entire cut surface turns re ish on exposure to air. Polyalthia longifolia (Annonaceae) is equate with the name Asoka y some (Kapoor & Mitra, 1979; Chunekar, 1982) an is often use as an a ulterant of the genuine Asoka ark or as a su stitute (War rier et al,1996). Agrotechnology Asoka grows well in areas with well istri ute rainfall an in slightly sha y a reas. Asoka requires soil rich in organic mater an moisture. The est season of planting is June-July. It is also grown in summer, if irrigation facilities are availa le. The plant is see propagate . See s are forme usually uring Fe rua ry-April. See s are collecte when they are ripen an fall own an are sown aft er soaking in water for 12 hours on the prepare e s. See s germinate within 20 ays. The see s are then plante in poly ags. 2-month-ol see lings from the po ly ags are use for transplanting. Square shape pits of 60cm epth are taken at 3m spacing an fille with topsoil, san an rie cow ung. On this the see lin gs are plante . Application of FYM at 10kg/tree/year is highly eneficial. Chemi cal fertilisers are not usually applie . Irrigation uring summer months is esse ntial. No serious pests or iseases are generally note in this crop. If properl y cultivate , Asoka can e cut after 20 years an the ark collecte . It is cut at a height of 15cm from the soil level. If given irrigation an fertilisers, th e cut woo will sprout again an harveste again after 5 years. This can e cont inue . When it is ifficult to cut the tree, the ark can e peele off from one si e first. When the ark grows an cover that part, the other si e can e peel e off. This is also continue (Prasa et al, 1997; Karshakasree, 1998). Properties an Activity

Flowers give β-sitosterol, flavonoi s an flavone glycosi es-quercetin, kaempfer ol-3-O-β-Dglucosi e, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucosi e. The anthocyanins present are p elargoni in-3, 5- iglucosi e an cyana in-3, 5- iglucosi e. Bark yiel s catechol

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an sterols-(24ζ )-24-methyl cholest-5-en-3β-ol, (22E, 24ζ )-24-ethylcholesta-5 , 22-dien-3 β-ol and (24ζ )-24-ethyl cholest-5-en-3β-ol, a wax containing n-alka nes, esters and free primary alcohols. Alcoholic extract and glycoside P2 from s tem ark is oxytoxic. Aerial part is CNS active, hypothermic, CNS depressant and diuretic. Stem ark is anticancerous, has spasmodic action on ra it intestine and cardiotonic action in frog and dog. Seed is antifungal. Stem ark is astring ent, antileucorrhoeic, anti ilious and uterine sedative. Flower is uterine tonic , antidia etic and antisyphilitic. Stem ark and flower is anti ilious (Husain e t al, 1992). 118

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

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GARDEN RUE Rutaceae Ruta chalepensis San: Gucchapatra; Hin: Pismaram, Sada , Satari; Ben: Ermul; Mal: Aruta, Nagatali ; Tam: Aruvadam, Arvada; Kan: Sada u, Nagadali; soppu, Simesdanu; Tel: Sadapa, A ruda Importance Common rue or Garden rue also known as Her of Grace due to its service in the Roman Catholic Church for sprinkling the holy water among the con gregation, is an aromatic perennial her . The plant is useful in vitiated condit ions of kapha and vata, strangury, fever, flatulence, colic, amenorrhoea, epilep sy and hysteria. The oil acts as a stimulant for uterine and nervous systems. Th e fresh leaves are used for rheumatalgia. The juice o tained from the leaves is given to children for helminthic infections and is good for odontalgia and otalg ia (Warrier et al, 1996). The dried leaves, powdered and com ined with aromatics , are given as a remedy for dyspepsia and with the fresh leaves a tincture is ma de which is used as an external remedy in the first stages of paralysis (Nadkarn i, 1998). Distri ution The plant is a native of South Europe and it is found in su tropical countries. It is commonly cultivated in Indian gardens. Botany Ruta chalepensis Linn.syn. R. graveolens Linn. var. angustifolia Sensu Hook. f. elongs to the family Rutaceae. It is an aromatic perennial her growing upto 75 cm height. Leaves are compound, shortly petiolate with ultimate segments o long or o ovate-o long. Flowers are yellow. Fruits are capsules and shortly pedicelle d (Warrier et al, 1996).

Agrotechnology The plant is suited to areas which are a out 1000m a ove mean sea level and with moderate rainfall and sunlight. The plant can e propagated either y seeds or stem cuttings. Seeds are to e sown in seed eds. Stem cuttings of length 20-25cm are to e planted in poly ags for rooting. A out 3-4 months old seedlings can e transplanted to pots and harvested when plants attain 6-8 months age. In highl ands land is to e ploughed to a fine tilth, mixed with organic manure and seedl ings are to e transplanted at a spacing of 45cm etween plants. Irrigation is e ssential during summer months. Regular weeding is to e done. The plant is not a ttacked y any serious pests and diseases. Harvesting commences from sixth month onwards. The economic part is the whole plant and the oil extracted from it (Pr asad et al, 1997). Properties and Activity Roots contain coumarins-xanthyletin and (-)- yakangelicin. The alkaloids are rut acridone-epoxide, gravacridonol and its monomethyl ether, gravacridonchlorine, f uracridone, 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-N-methylacridone, iso-gravacridonechlorine, dict amine, r-fragarine and skimmianine. Skimmianine is also present in leaves and st em. Leaves and stem also contain graveolinine (1-methyl-2(3’,4’-methylenedioxyph enol)-4-methoxyquinoline). Aerial parts give coumarins ergapten, xanthotoxin an d psoralen. Coumarinimperatin has also een reported from the plant. Her contai ns alkaloids such as kokusagenine, rutamine(methylgraveoline) and graveoline(1-m ethyl-2(3’,4’methylenedioxyphenyl)-4-quinoline). Tissue culture of the plant giv es furacridone alkaloids1-hydroxyrutacridone-epoxide, rutagravin and gravacridon ol. Gravacridondiol and its glucoside have een o tained from the root tissue cu lture. The essential oil from leaves, stem and root yielded aliphatic ketones in cluding 2-nonanone (10-35%), undecyl-2-acetate (0.515%), 2-nonyl acetate (trace10%), nonylacetate, nonanol, 2-nonylpropionate, 2nonylpropionate, 2-undecanol an d its esters. The oil from roots gave pregeijerene also. The plant is spasmolyti c which is due to the presence of ergapten, xanthotoxin, the essential oil and a coumarin. It is also antispasmodic, emmenagogue, irritant, a ortifacient and a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

nti- acterial. Leaf is analgesic, antirheumatic, antihysteric and anthelmintic ( Husain et al, 1992). 119

 

GREEN CHIRETTA Acanthaceae San: Bhunim ah, Kiratatiktah Mal: Nilaveppu, Kiriyattu Andrographis paniculata Hin: Kakamegh, Kalpanath Tam: Nilavempu Ben: Kalmegh Kan: Kreata Importance Kalmegh, the Great or Green Chiretta is a ranched annual her . It is useful in hyperdipsia, urning sensation, wounds, ulcers, chronic fever, malarial and inte rmittent fevers, inflammations, cough, ronchitis, skin diseases, leprosy, pruri tis, intestinal worms, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemo rrhoids and vitiated conditions of pitta (Warrier et al, 1993). It is used to ov ercome sannipata type of fever, difficulty in reathing, hemopathy due to the mo r idity of kapha and pitta, urning sensation, cough, oedema, thirst, skin disea ses, fever, ulcer and worms. It is also useful in acidity and liver complaints ( Aiyer and Kolammal, 1962). The important preparations using the drug are Tiktaka gheta, Gorocandi gulika, Candanasava, Panchatiktam kasaya, etc. (Sivarajan et al , 1994). A preparation called “Alui” is prepared y mixing powdered cumin (Cumin ium cyminum) and large cardamom (Amomum su ulatum) in the juice of this plant an d administered for the treatment of malaria (Thakur et al, 1989). It is also a r ich source of minerals. Distri ution The plant is distri uted throughout the tropics. It is found in the plains of In dia from U.P to Assam, M.P., A.P, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, also cultivated in gard ens. Botany Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall ex. Nees elongs to the family Acanthacea e. It is an erect ranched annual her , 0.3-0.9m in height with quadrangular ra nches. Leaves are simple, lanceolate, acute at oth ends, gla rous, with 4-6 pai rs of main nerves. Flowers are small, pale ut lotched and spotted with rown a nd purple distant in lax spreading axillary and terminal racemes or panicles. Ca lyx-lo es are glandular pu escent with anthers earded at the ase. Fruits are l inear capsules and acute at oth ends. Seeds are numerous, yellowish rown and s u -quadrate (Warrier et al,1993). Another species of Andrographis is A. echioide s (Linn.) Nees. It is found in the warmer parts of India. The plant is a fe rifu ge and diuretic. It contains flavone-echiodinin and its glucoside-echioidin (Hus ain et al, 1992). Agrotechnology The est season of planting Andrographis is May-June. The field is to e ploughe d well, mixed with compost or dried cowdung and seed eds of length 3m, readth 1 /2m and 15cm height are to e taken at a distance of 3m. The plant is seed propa gated. Seeds are to e soaked in water for 6 hours efore sowing. Sowing is to e done at a spacing of 20cm. Seeds may germinate within 15-20 days. Two weedings , first at one month after planting and the second at 2 month after planting are to e carried out. Irrigation during summer months is eneficial. The plant is not attacked y any serious pests or diseases. Flowering commences from third mo nth onwards. At this stage, plant are to e collected, tied into small undles a nd sun-dried for 4-5 days. Whole plant is the economic part and the yield is a o ut 1.25t dried plants/ha (Prasad et al, 1997). Properties and Activity Leaves contain two itter su stances lactone “andrographolid” and “kalmeghin”. T he ash contains sodium chloride and potassium salts. Plant is very rich in chlor ophyte. Kalmeghin is the active principle that contains 0.6% alkaloid of the cru de plant. The plant contains diterpenoids, andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11-oxo-andr ographolide, 14-deoxy11,12-dihydroandrographolide, 14-deoxy andrographolide and neoandrographolide (Allison et al, 1968). The roots give flavones-apigenin-7,4-d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

io-O-methyl ether, 5-hydroxy-7,8,2’,3’tetramethoxyflavone, andrographin and pani colin and α-sitosterol (Ali et l, 1972; 120

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Govind ch ri et l, 1969). Le ves cont in homo ndrogr pholide, ndrogr phosterol nd ndrogr phone. The pl nt is vulner ry, ntipyretic, ntiperiodic, nti-infl mm tory, expector nt, depur tive, sudorific, nthelmintic, digestive, stom chic , tonic, febrifuge nd chol gogue. The pl nt is ntifung l, ntityphoid, hep top rotective, ntidi betic nd cholinergic. Shoot is ntib cteri l nd le f is hypo tensive(G rci et l, 1980). This is used for the infl mm tion of the respir tor y tr ct. In Chin , rese rchers h ve isol ted the ndrogr pholide from which solu ble deriv tive such s 14-deoxy-11, 12-dehydro- ndrogr pholide which forms the s ubject of current ph rm cologic l nd clinic l studies. Apigenin 7,4’-O-dimethyl ether isolated from A. paniculata exhi its dose dependent, antiulcer activity i n shay rat, histamine induced ulcer in guinea pigs and aspirin induced ulcers in rats. A crude su stance isolated from methanolic extract of leaves has shown hy potensive activity. Pre-treatment of rats with leaf (500mg/kg) or andrographolid e (5mg/kg) orally prevented the car on tetrachloride induced increase of lood s erum levels of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase in liver and prevented hepato cellular mem rane. 121

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WORM KILLER Aristolochiaceae San: Kitamari Hin: Kiramar, Kitamar Tam: Atutinnappalai Aristolochia

Distri ution The plant is found in Sri Lanka, Ara ian countries and tropical Africa. In India , the plant is grown in Deccan and Carnatic Plateau. Botany Aristolochia racteolata Lam. syn. A. racteata Ret . elongs to the family Aris tolochiaceae. It is a perennial prostrate her with weak, gla rous stems. Leaves are simple, alternate, reniform or roadly ovate, cordate at the ase with a wi de sinus upto 7.5cm in diameter, reticulately veined. Flowers are solitary with a large sessile or icular ract at the ase. Perianth tu e is cylindric with dar k purple tip having revolute margins. Fruits are o long-ellipsoid 12-ri ed gla rous capsules. Seeds are deltoid with slightly cordate ase (Warrier et al, 1993 ) Another important species elonging to the genus Aristolochia is A. indica Lin n. The plant grows wild throughout the low hills and plains of India from Nepal to West Bengal and South India. It is a valua le anti-dote to snake ite and to ites of poisonous insects as scorpion, etc. It is given in cases of cholera and diarrhoea after macerating with lack pepper corns. The juice of the leaves has stimulant, tonic and antiperiodic properties. Agrotechnology Shady areas and well-drained soils are most suited to Aristolochia. The plant ca n e seed propagated. 3-month-old seedlings raised in poly ags are required for transplanting. Pits of si e 50cm cu e are to e taken at a distance of 3m and fi lled with sand, topsoil and dried cowdung. To these pits, the seedlings are to e transplanted. Regular irrigation and organic manure application is eneficial. The plant is to e trailed on iron wires tied to poles. The plant is not attack ed y any serious pests or diseases. Plant attains good spread within one year. Leaves can e collected for the next 10 years. Roots and leaves constitute the e conomic parts (Prasad et al, 1997). Properties and Activity Leaves and fruits yield ceryl alcohol, β-sitosterol and aristolochic acid. Root contains aristolochic acid. Seeds give an alkaloid magnoflorine, aristolochic ac id, fatty oil comprising palmitic, stearic, lignoseric and oleic acids and β-sit osterol. The plant is anthelmintic, cathartic, antiperiodic and emmenagogue. Lea f is antigonorrhoeic, larvicidal and used in ec ema on children’s leg and ulcers . The plant is oxytocic (Husain et al,1992). 122

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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racteolata

Mal: Attuthottappala, Atuthinnappala Importance The racteated irthwort or worm killer is a perennial prostrate her . As the na me suggests it is a killer of intestinal worms especially roundworms. It is also used in vitiated conditions of kapha and vata, constipation, inflammations, ame norrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, foul ulcers, oils, syphilis, gonorrhoea, dyspepsia, co lic, skin diseases, ec ema, artheralgia and intermittent fevers. The plant is an insect repellent due to the presence of aristolochic acid, which is poisonous t o man and livestock. Plant is also used against scorpion sting. Seeds ground in water to form a lotion and used for softening hair. Powdered root is used in fer tility control.

FICUS Moraceae Ficus spp. The genus Ficus constitutes an important group of trees with immense medicinal v alue. It is a sacred tree of Hindus and Buddhists. Among the varied num er of sp ecies, the most important ones are the four trees that constitute the group “Nal pamaram”, namely, F .racemosa, F. microcarpa, F. enghalensis and F. religiosa ( Athi, Ithi, Peral and Arayal respectively). 1. Ficus racemosa Linn. syn. F. glomerata Rox . Eng: Cluster fig, Country fig San: Udum arah, Sadaphalah Hin: Gular, Umar Ben: J agya dumur Mal, Tam, Kan: Athi Tel: Udam aramu, Paidi Gular fig, Cluster fig or Country fig, which is considered sacred, has golden coloured exudate and lack ark. It is distri uted all over India. Its roots are useful in treating dysenter y. The ark is useful as a wash for wounds, highly efficacious in threatened a o rtions and recommended in uropathy. Powdered leaves mixed with honey are given i n vitiated condition of pitta. A decoction of the leaves is a good wash for woun ds and ulcers. Tender fruits (figs) are used in vitiated conditions of pitta, di arrhoea, dyspepsia and haemorrhages. The latex is administered in haemorrhoids a nd diarrhoea (Warrier et al, 1995). The ripe fruits are sweet, cooling and are u sed in haemoptysis, thirst and vomiting (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer et al, 1957; Moos , 1976). Nalpamaradi coconut oil, Candanasava, Valiya Arimedastaila, Dinesavalya di Ku ham u, A hra hasma, Valiya candanaditaila, etc. are some important prepara tions using the drug (Sivarajan et al, 1994). It is a moderate to large-si ed sp reading laticiferous, deciduous tree without many prominent aerial roots. Leaves are dark green and ovate or elliptic. Fruit receptacles are 2-5cm in diameter, su glo ose or pyriform arranged in large clusters on short leafless ranches ari sing from main trunk or large ranches. Figs are smooth or rarely covered with m inute soft hairs. When ripe, they are orange, dull reddish or dark crimson. They have a pleasant smell resem ling that of cedar apples. The ark is rusty rown with a fairly smooth and soft surface, the thickness varying from 0.5-2cm accord ing to the age of the trunk or ark. Surface is with minute separating flakes of white tissue. Texture is homogeneously leathery (Warrier et al, 1995). Stem- ar k gives gluanol acetate, β-sitosterol, leucocyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucopyrancoside, l eucopelargonidin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, leucopelargonidin -3-O-α-L-rh mnopyr n oside, lupeol, ceryl behen te, lupeol cet te nd α- myrin cet te. Stem- b rk i s hypoglyc emic nd nti-protozo l. G ll is CVS ctive. B rk is tonic nd used i n rinder pest dise ses of c ttle. Root is ntidysenteric nd ntidi betic. Le f is ntibilious. L tex is ntidi rrhoe l nd used in piles. B rk nd syconium is stringent nd used in menorrh gi (Hus in et l, 1992). 2. Ficus microc rp Linn. f. syn. F. retus uct. Non. Linn. S n: Pl ks h; Hin, Ben: K m rup; M l: Ithi, Ithiy l; T m: K llicci, Icci; K n: I tti; Tel: Pl ks Pl ks h is the Ficus species with few br nches nd m ny dventi tious roots growing downw rd. It is widely distributed throughout Indi nd in S ri L nk , S. Chin , Ryuku Isles nd Brit in. Pl k s h is one of the five ingredi ents of the group p nchv lk l i.e, five b rks, the decoction of which is extens ively used to cle r ulcers nd douche in leucorrhoe in children. This decocti on is dministered extern lly nd intern lly with s tisf ctory results. Pl ks h is ccl imed s cooling, stringent, nd cur tive of r kt pitt dosh s, ulcers, skin dise ses, burning sens tion, infl mm tion nd oedem . It is found to h ve g ood he ling property nd is used in prep r tion of oils nd ointments for extern l pplic tion in the tre tment of ulcers (Aiyer nd Kol mm l, 1957). The stem-b rk is used to prep re Usir s v , G ndh t il , N lp m r di t il , V liy m rm gu lik , etc. (Siv r j n et l, 1994). The b rk nd le ves re used in wounds, ulce rs, bruises, fl tulent colic, hep top thy, di rrhoe , dysentery, di betes, hyper dipsi , burning sens tion, h em orrh ges, erysipel s, dropsy, ulcer tive stom ti tis, h emoptysis, psychop thy, leucorrhoe nd coporrh gi (W rrier et l,1995) F. microc rp is l rge gl brous evergreen tree with few eri l roots. Le ves

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re shortpetioled, 5-10cm long, 2-6cm wide nd pex shortly nd bluntly picul te or slightly em rgin te. M in l ter l nerves re not very prominent nd stipules re l nceol te. Fruit recept cles re sessile nd globose occurring in xill ry p irs. It is yellowish when ripe without ny ch r cteristic smell. B rk is d rk grey or brown with smooth surf ce except for the lenticels. Outer b rk is cor ky nd crust ceous thin nd firmly dherent to inner tissue. Inner b rk is light nd flesh coloured with firbrous texture (W rrier et l, 1995). It is lso equ ted with m ny other species of the genus. viz. F. 123

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infectori Roxb., F. rnotti n Miq, F. l cor Buch-H m nd F. t lboti King (cf. N dk rni, 1954, Singh nd Chunek r, 1972; K poor nd Mitr , 1979; Sh rm , 1983). The b rk cont ins t nnin, w x nd s ponin. B rk is ntibilious. Powdered le ves nd b rk is found very good in rheum tic he d che. The b rk nd le ves re str ingent, refriger nt, crid nd stom chic. 3. Ficus bengh lensis Linn. Eng: B ny n tree; S n: Ny grodh h, V t h; Hin: B t, B rg d; Ben: B r, Bot; M r: V d ; M l: Per l, V t vriksh m; T m: Al m r m, Per l; K n: Al ; Tel: Pedd m rri; Guj: V d B ny n tree is l ticiferous tree with reddish fruits, which is wound round by eri l dventitious roots th t look like m ny legs. It is found in the Sub-Him l y n tr ct nd Peninsul r Indi . It is lso gr wn throughout Indi . It is widely used in tre tment of skin dise ses with pitt nd r kt predomin nce. Stem-b rk, root -b rk, eri l roots, le ves, veget tive buds nd milky exud te re used in medicine. It improves complexion, cures erysepel s, burning sens tio n nd v gin l disorders, while n infusion of the b rk cures dysentery, di rrhoe , leucorrhoe , menorrh gi , nervous disorders nd reduces blood sug r in di bet es. A decoction of the veget tive buds in milk is benefici l in h emorrh ges. A p ste of the le ves is pplied extern lly to bcesses nd wounds to promote supp ur tion, while th t of young eri l roots cure pimples. Young twigs when used s tooth brush strengthen gum nd teeth (N dk rni, 1954; Aiyer nd Kol mm l, 195 7; Mooss,1976). The drug forms n import nt constituent of formul tions like N l p m r di Coconut oil, S rib dy s v , Kumkum di t il , Kh dir gulik , V liy c nd n di t il , C nd n s v , etc. (Siv r j n et l, 1994). The eri l roots re use ful in obstin te vomiting nd leucorrhoe nd re used in osteom l ci of the li mbs. The buds re useful in di rrhoe nd dysentery. The l tex is useful in neur lgi , rheum tism, lumb go, bruises, n sitis, ulorrh gi , ulitis, odontop thy, h emorrhoids, gonorrhoe , infl mm tions, cr cks of the sole nd skin dise ses (W rrier et l, 1995). It is very l rge tree up to 30m in height with widely spre ding br nches be ring m ny eri l roots functioning s prop roots. B rk is gree nish white. Le ves re simple, ltern te, rr nged often in clusters t the ends of br nches. They re stipul te, 10-20cm long nd 5-12.5cm bro d, bro dly ellip tic to ov te, entire, cori ceous, strongly 3-7 ribbed from the b se. The fruit r ecept cles re xill ry, sessile, seen in p irs globose, brick red when ripe nd enclosing m le, fem le nd g ll flowers. Fruits re sm ll, crust ceous, chenes , enclosed in the common fleshy recept cles. The young b rk is somewh t smooth w ith longitudin l nd tr nsverse row of lenticels. In older b rk, the lenticels re numerous nd closely sp ced; outer b rk e sily fl kes off. The fresh cut surf ce is pink or flesh coloured nd exudes plenty of l tex. The inner most p rt of the b rk djoining the wood is ne rly white nd fibrous (W rrier et l, 1995). The b rk yields fl v noid compounds A, B nd C; A nd C re identified s differ ent forms of leuco nthocy nidin nd compound B leuco nthocy nin. All the 3 w ere effective s hypoglyc emic gents. Le ves give friedelin, β-sitosterol, flav onoids- quercetin-3-galactoside and rutin. Heart wood give tiglic acid ester of ψ taraxasterol. Bark is h pogl cemic, tonic, astringent, antidiarrhoeal and anti diabetic. Latex is antirheumatic. Seed is tonic. Leaf is diaphoretic. Root fibre is antigonorrhoeic. Aerial root is used in debilit and anaemic d senter (Husa in et al, 1992). .4. Ficus religiosa Linn. Eng:Peepal tree, Sacred fig; San:Pippalah, Asvatthah; Hin:Pippal, Pipli, Pipar; Mal:Ara al Ben: Asvatha; Tam: Arasu, Asvattam; Kan: Aswatha; Tel: Ravi; Mar: Ash vata, Pimpala Peepal tree or Sacred fig is a large deciduous tree with few or no aerial roots. It is common throughout India, often planted in the vicinit of t he temples. An aqueous extract of the bark has an antibacterial activit against Staph lococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It is used in the treatment of gono rrhoea, diarrhoea, d senter , haemorrhoids and gastrohelcosis. A paste of the po

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wdered bark is a good absorbent for inflammator swellings. It is also good for burns. Leaves and tender shoots have purgative properties and are also recommend ed for wounds and skin diseases. Fruits are laxative and digestive. The dried fr uit pulverized and taken in water cures asthma. Seeds are refrigerant and laxati ve. The latex is good for neuralgia, inflammations and haemorrhages (Warrier et al, 1995). Decoction of the bark if taken in hone subdues vatarakta (Nadkarni, 1954; Ai er and Kolammal, 1957; Mooss, 1976; Kurup et al, 1979). The important p reparations using the drug are Nalpamaradi taila, Saribad asava, Candanasava, Ka rnasulantaka, Vali amarma gulika etc (Sivarajan et al, 1994). 124

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It is a large deciduous tree with few or no aerial roots. It is often epiph tic with the drooping branches bearing long petioled, ovate, cordate shin leaves. L eaves are bright green, the apex produced into a linear-lanceolate tail about ha lf as long as the main portion of the blade. The receptacles occurring in pairs and are axillar , depressed globose, smooth and purplish when ripe. The bark is gre or ash coloured with thin or membranous flakes and is often covered with cr ustose lichen patches. The outer bark is not of uniform thickness, the middle ba rk in sections appear as brownish or light reddish brown. The inner part consist s of la ers of light ellowish or orange brown granular tissue (Warrier et al, 1 995). Bark gives β-sitosterol and its glucoside. Bark is hypoglycaemic. Stem ar k is antiproto oal, anthelmintic and antiviral. Bark is astringent, antigonorrhe ic, fe rifuge, aphrodisiac and antidysenteric. Syconium, leaf and young shoot is purgative (Husain et al, 1992). Agrotechnology Ficus species can e cultivated in rocky areas, unused lands, or other wasteland s of the farmyard. The plant is vegetatively propagated y stem cuttings. A few species are also seed propagated. Stem cuttings of pencil thickness taken from t he ranches are to e kept for rooting. Rooted cuttings are to e transplanted t o prepared pits. No regular manuring is required. Irrigation is not a must as a plant is hardy. The plant is not attacked y any serious pests or diseases. Bark can e collected after 15 years. Ficus species generally has an economic life s pan of more than hundred years. Hence ark can e regularly collected from the t ree. Root, ark, leaves, fruits and latex form the economic parts (Prasad et al, 1995). 125

 

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WEST INDIAN MEDLAR Sapotaceae San: Bakulah Hin: Bakul, Maulsiri Ben: Bakul Mimusops elengi Mal: Ilanji, Elanji Tam: Magilam, Ilanci Barsoli, Bolsari Importance Tel: Pogada Kan: Pagademara Guj: Spanish cherry, West Indian Medlar or Bullet wood tree is an evergreen tree with sweetscented flowers having ancient glamour. Garlands made of its flowers are e ver in good demand due to its long lasting scent. Its ark is used as a gargle f or odontopathy, ulitis and ulemorrhagia. Tender stems are used as tooth rushes. It is also useful in urethrorrhoea, cystorrhoea, diarrhoea and dysentery. Flowe rs are used for preparing a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Powder of dried flower s is a rain tonic and is useful as a snuff to relieve cephalgia. Unripe fruit i s used as a masticatory and will help to fix loose teeth. Seeds are used for pre paring suppositories in cases of constipation especially in children (Warrier et al,1995). The ark and seed coat are used for strengthening the gum and enter i nto the composition of various her al tooth powders, under the name of “Vajradan ti”, where they may e used along with tannin-containing su stances like catechu (Acacia catechu), pomegranate (Punica granatum) ark, etc. The ark is used as snuff for high fever accompanied y pains in various parts of the ody. The flow ers are considered expectorant and smoked in asthma. A lotion prepared from unri pe fruits and flowers is used for smearing on sores and wounds. In Ayurveda, the important preparation of Mimusops is “Bakuladya Taila”, applied on gum and teet h for strengthening them, whereas in Unani system, the ark is used for the dise ases of genitourinary system of males (Thakur et al, 1989). Distri ution It is cultivated in North and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. It is grown as an avenue tree in many parts of India. Botany Mimusops elengi Linn. elongs to the family Sapotaceae. It is an evergreen tree with dark grey fissured ark and densely spreading crown. Leaves are o long, gla rous and leathery with wavy margins. Flowers are white, fragrant, axillary, sol itary or fascicled. Fruits are ovoid or ellipsoid erries. Seeds are 1-2 per fru it, ovoid, compressed, greyish rown and shiny (Warrier et al, 1995). Other impo rtant species elonging to the genus Mimusops are M. hexandra Rox . and M. kauki Linn. syn. Manilkara kauki Du .(Chopra et al, 1980). Agrotechnology Mimusops prefers moist soil rich in organic matter for good growth. The plant is propagated y seeds. Fruits are formed in Octo er-Novem er. Seeds are to e col lected and dried. Seeds are to e soaked in water for 12 hours without much dela y and sown on seed eds. Via ility of seeds is less. After germination they are t o e transferred to poly ags. Pits of si e 45cm cu e are to e taken and filled with 5kg dried cowdung and top soil. To these pits, a out 4 months old seedlings from the poly ags are to e transplanted with the onset of monsoon. Addition of 10kg FYM every year is eneficial. Any serious pests or diseases do not attack the plant. Flowering commences from fourth year onwards. Bark, flowers, fruit an d seeds are the economic parts. β-sitosterol and its glucoside, α-spin -sterol, quercitol, t r xerol nd lupeol nd its cet te re present in the eri l p rts s well s the roots nd seeds. The eri l p rts in ddition g ve quercetin, dih ydroquercetin, myricetin, glycosides, heder genin, ursolic cid, hentri cont ne

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nd β-carotene. The ark contained an alkaloid consisting largely of a tiglate e ster of a ase with a mass spectrum identical to those of la urinine and iso-ret ronecanol and a saponin also which on hydrolysis gave β-amyrin and rassic acid. Seed oil was comprised of capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidi c, oleic and linoleic acids. Saponins from seed are spermicidal and spasmolytic. The aerial part is diuretic. Extract of flower (1mg/kg ody weight) showed posi tive diuretic action in dogs. Bark is tonic and fe rifuge. Leaf is an antidote f or snake ite. Pulp of ripe fruit is antidysenteric. Seed is purgative. Bark and pulp of ripe fruit is astringent (Husain et al, 1992). Properties and Activity 126

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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CASTOR Euphor iaceae San: Erandah, Pancangulah; Hin: Erandi, Erand; Tam: Amanakku, Kootaimuttu, Amana kkam Ceti; Erandamu, Amudamu Ricinus communis Ben: Bherenda; Mal: Avanakku; Kan: Haralu, Manda, Oudla; Tel: Importance Castor is a perennial evergreen shru . The Sanskrit name erandah descri es the p roperty of the drug to dispel diseases. It is considered as a reputed remedy for all kinds of rheumatic affections. They are useful in gastropathy such as gulma , amadosa, constipation, inflammations, fever, ascitis, strangury, ronchitis, c ough, leprosy, skin diseases, vitiated conditions of vata, colic, coxalgia and l um ago. The leaves are useful in urns, nyctalopia, strangury and for athing an d fermentation and vitiated conditions of vata, especially in rheumatoid arthrit is, urodynia and arthralgia. Flowers are useful in urodynia and arthralgia and g landular tumours. Seeds are useful in dyspepsia and for preparing a poultice to treat arthralgia. The oil from seeds is a very effective purgative for all ailme nts caused y vata and kapha. It is also recommended for scrotocele, ascites, in termittent fever, gulma, colonitis, lum ago, coxalgia and coxitis (Warrier et al , 1996). Oil is also used for soap making. Fresh leaves are used y nursing moth ers in the Canary Island as an external application to increase the flow of milk . Castor oil is an excellent solvent of pure alkaloids and as such solutions of atropine, cocaine, etc. is used in ophthalmic surgery. It is also dropped into t he eye to remove the after-irritation caused y the removal of foreign odies. Distri ution It is a native of N. E. tropical Africa. It is found throughout India, cultivate d and found wild upto 2400m. Botany Ricinus communis Linn. elongs to the family Euphor iaceae. It is a monoecious e vergreen shru growing upto 4m. Leaves are alternate, palmatifid, 6-10 lo ed, ea ch 1nerved with many lateral nerves and peltate. Lo es are lanceolate, thinly pu escent elow, margin serrate and apex acuminate. Paniculate racemes are termina l with male flowers elow, female ones a ove. Perianth is cupular, splitting int o 3-5 lo es, laceolate, valvate, margin inrolled and acuminate. Filaments of sta men are connate and repeatedly ranched with divergent anther cells. Sepals are 5, su -equal, lanceolate, valvate and acute. Ovary is glo ose, echinate, 3-locul ar with 3 ovules and pendulous. Styles are 3, stout, papillose, stigmatiferous. Capsules are 3-lo ed and prickly with o long seeds having smooth testa and mar l ed, shiny and carunculate. R. ron e King and R. africanus are two good garden v arieties which are known as Italian and East Indian Castors, respectively (Mathe w, 1983, Grieve and Leyel, 1992). Agrotechnology Castor is cultivated oth in the plains and the hills. As it has deep root syste m it is hardy and capa le of resisting drought. It does not withstand waterloggi ng and frost. It requires hard dry climate for proper development of fruits and seeds. It requires a welldrained soil, prefera ly sandy loam or loamy sand. High soil fertility is of less importance as compared to the good physical condition of the soil. It cannot tolerate alkalinity. It is generally grown in red loamy soils, lack soils and alluvial soils. The plant is seed propagated. The seed ra te required is 5-12 kg/ha (pure crop) and 3 kg/ha (mixed crop). Seeds are to e sown on a hot ed early in March. When the plants come up individual plant is to e planted in a separate pot filled with light soil and plunged into a fresh ho t ed. The 127

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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young plants are to e kept in glass houses till early June where they are harde ned and kept out. The suita le season of growing is kharif season. The crop is u sually sown in April and planting is done in early July. The land is to e ploug hed 2-3 times with the onset of rains and is repeated after rain. The spacing re commended is 60X90cm in case of pure crop ut it is seldom cultivated pure. It i s usually grown mixed with crops such as jowar, arhar, chilly, groundnut, cowpea , cotton, etc. 10-15t FYM/ha and 50kg N, 50kg P2O5 and 20kg K2O/ha will e suffi cient. Addition of neem cake is eneficial as it increases oil content. There sh ould e sufficient moisture in the field at the time of sowing. A month after pl anting, weeding and earthing up is to e done. The plant is attacked y hairy ca terpillar, castor semilooper, castor seed caterpillar, etc. which can e managed y integrated pest management measures. The leaf light disease occurring in ca stor can e controlled y spraying with Bordeaux mixture 2-3 times at 15 days in terval. Harvesting of ripe fruits can e done from the end of Novem er till the end of Fe ruary. The fruit ranches are picked when they are still green to avoi d splitting and scattering of the seeds. The pods are to e heaped up in the sun to dry. Then the seeds are to e eaten with stick and winnowed. Roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and oil constitute the economic parts. The average yield is 500600kg/ha (Thakur, 1990). Properties and Activity The eancoat yielded lupeol and 30-norlupan-3β-ol-20-one. Roots, stems and leave s contain several amino acids. Flowers gave apigenin, chlorogenin, rutin, coumar in and hyperoside. Castor oil is constituted y several fatty acids (Husain et a l, 1992). Seed coat contained 1. 50-1. 62% lipids and higher amounts of phosphat ides and non-saponifia le matter than seed kernel. Fresh leaves protected agains t liver injury induced y car on tetra chloride in rats while cold aqueous extra ct provided partial protection (Rastogi et al, 1991). Root and stem is antiproto oal and anticancerous. Root, stem and seed are diuretic. The roots are sweet, a crid, astringent, thermogenic, carminative, purgative, galactagogue, sudorific, expectorant and depurative. Leaves are diuretic, anthelmintic and galactagogue. Seeds are acrid, thermogenic, digestive, cathartic and aphrodisiac. Oil is itte r, acrid, sweet, antipyretic, thermogenic and viscous (Warrier et al, 1996). Cas tor oil forms a clean, lightcoloured soap, which dries and hardens well and is f ree from smell. The oil varies much in activity. The East Indian is the more act ive, ut the Italian has the least taste. Castor oil is an excellent solvent of pure alkaloids. The oil furnishes se acic acid and caprylic acid. It is the most valua le laxative in medicines. It acts in a out 5 hours, affecting the entire length of the owel, ut not increasing the flow of ile, except in very large d oses. The mode of its action is unknown. The oil will purge when ru ed into the skin (Grieve and Leyel, 1992). 128

 

   

   

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

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CUCURBITS Cucur itaceae The family Cucur itaceae includes a large group of plants which are medicinally valua le. The important genera elonging to the family are Trichosanthes, Lagena ria, Luffa, Benincasa, Momordica, Cucumis, Citrullus, Cucur ita, Bryonopsis and Corallocarpus. The medicinally valua le species of these genera are discussed e low. 1. Trichosanthes dioica Rox . Eng: Wild Snake-gourd; San: Meki,Pargavi, Parvara, Patola; Hin: Palval, Parvar B en: Potol; Mal: Kattupatavalam, Patolam; Tam: Kom uppudalai; Tel: Kommupotta Wil d snake-gourd is a slender-stemmed, extensively clim ing, more or less sca rous and woolly her found throughout the plains of N. India, extending to Assam and W. Bengal. Tendrils are 2-4 fid. Leaves are 7.5x5cm in si e, ovate-o long, corda te, acute, sinuatedentate, not lo ed, rigid, rough on oth surface and with a pe tiole of 2cm. Flowers are unisexual. Male flowers are not racemed ut woolly out side. Calyx tu e is 4.5cm long, narrow, teeth linear and erect. Anthers are free . Fruit is 5.9cm long, o long or nearly spherical, acute, smooth and orange-red when ripe. Seeds are half-ellipsoid, compressed and corrugated on the margin (Ki rtikar and Basu, 1988). The unripe fruit of this is generally used as a culinary vegeta le and is considered very wholesome and specially suited for the convale scent. The tender shoots are given in decoction with sugar to assist digestion. The seeds are useful for disorders of the stomach. The leaf juice is ru ed over the chest in liver congestion and over the whole ody in intermittent fevers (N adkarni, 1998). The fruit is used as a remedy for spermatorrhoea. The fresh juic e of the unripe fruit is often used as a cooling and laxative adjunct to some al terative medicines. In ilious fever, a decoction of patola leaves and coriander in equal parts is given. The fruit in com ination with other drugs is prescri e d in snake ite and scorpion sting (Kirtikar and Basu, 1988). Fruits contain free amino acids and 5-hydroxy tryptamine. Fatty acids from seeds comprise elaeostea ric, linoelic, oleic and saturated acids. The aerial part is hypoglycaemic. Leaf and root is fe rifuge. Root is hydragogue, cathartic and tonic. Unripe leaf and fruit is laxative (Husain et al, 1992). The plant is alterative and tonic. Leav es are anthelmintic. Flower is tonic and aphrodisiac. The ripe fruit is sour to sweet, tonic, aphrodisiac, expectorant and removes lood impurities. The other i mportant species elonging to the genus Trichosanthes are as follows. T. palmata Rox . T. cordata Rox . T. nervifolia Linn. T. cucumerina Linn. T. anguina Linn. T. wallichiana Wight. syn. T. multilo a Clarke 2. Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. syn. Cucur ita Lagenaria Linn. ; Rox . Eng: Bottle gourd San: Ala u Mal: Katuchuram, Churakka Hin: Lauki, Jangli-khaddu Tam: Soriai-kay Ben: Lau, Kodu Tel: Surakkaya Bottle gourd is a large softly pu escent clim ing or trailing her which is said to e indigenous in India, the Molucas and in A yssinia. It has stout 5-angled stems with ifid tendrils. Leaves are ovate or or iculate, cordate, dentate, 5-a ngular or 5-lo ed, hairy on oth surfaces. Flowers are large, white, solitary, u nisexual or isexual, the males long and 129

   

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

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females short peduncled. Ovary is o long, softly pu escent with short style and many ovules. Fruits are large, usually ottle or dum - ell-shaped, indehiscent a nd polymorphous. Seeds are many, white, hori ontal, compressed, with a marginal groove and smooth. There are sweet fruited and itter-fruited varieties (Kirtika r and Basu, 1988). The fruit contains a thick white pulp which, in the cultivate d variety (kodu) is sweet and edi le, while in the smaller wild variety (tamri) it is itter and a powerful purgative. The seeds yield clear limpid oil which is cooling and is applied to relieve headache. The pulp of the cultivated forms is employed as and adjunct to purgatives and considered cool, diuretic and anti il ious, useful in cough, and as an antidote to certain poisons. Externally it is a pplied as a poultice. The leaves are purgative and recommended to e taken in th e form of decoction for jaundice (Nadkarni, 1998). In the case of sweet-fruited variety, the stem is laxative and sweet. The fruit is sweet oleagenous, cardioto nic, general tonic, aphrodisiac, laxative and cooling. In the case of itter-fru ited variety, the leaves are diuretic, anti ilious; useful in leucorrhoea, vagin al and uterine complaints and earache. The fruit is itter, hot, pungent, emetic , cooling, cardiotonic, anti ilious; cures asthma, vata, ronchitis, inflammatio ns ulcers and pains. 3. Luffa acutangula ( Linn. ) Rox . Eng: Ridged gourd; San: Dharmargavah, Svadukosataki; Hin: Tori, Katitori; Ben: G hosha Mal: Peechil, Peechinga; Tam: Pikangai, Prikkangai; Tel: Birakaya; Kan: Ka dupadagila Ridged gourd or ri ed gourd is a large monoecious clim er cultivated throughout India. It is with 5-angled gla rous stems and trifid tendrils. Leave s are or icular-cordate, palmately 5-7 lo ed, sca rous on oth sides with promin ent veins and veinlets. Flowers are yellow, males arranged in 12-20 flowered axi llary racemes. Female flowers are solitary, arranged in the axils of the males. Ovary is strongly ri ed. Fruits are o long-clavate with 10-sharp angles 15-30cm long, tapering towards the ase. Seeds are lack, ovoid-o long, much compressed and not winged (Warrier et al, 1995). The leaves are used in haemorrhoids, lepr osy, granular-conjunctivitis and ringworm. The seeds are useful in dermatopathy. The juice of the fresh leaves is dropped into the eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis, also to prevent the lids from adhering at night on account of ex cessive meihomian secretion (Nadkarni, 1998). Fruits are demulcent, diuretic, to nic, expectorant, laxative and nutritive. The seeds are itter, emetic, catharti c, expectorant and purgative. The other important species of the genus Luffa are : L. aegyptiaca Mill. L. acutangula var. amara Clarke L. echinata Rox . 4. Benincasa hispida (Thum .) Cogn. syn. B. cerifera Savi. Eng: Ash gourd, White gourd melon; San: Kusmandah; Hin: Petha, Raksa; Ben: Kumra Mal: Kumpalam; Tam: Pusanikkai; Kan: Bile Kum ala; Tel: Bodigummadi Ash gourd o r White gourd melon is a large trailing gourd clim ing y means of tendrils whic h is widely cultivated in tropical Asia. Leaves are large and hispid eneath. Fl owers are yellow, unisexual with male peduncle 7.5-10cm long and female peduncle shorter. Fruits are roadly cylindric, 30-45cm long, hairy throughout and ultim ately covered with a waxy loom. The fruits are useful in asthma, cough, dia ete s, haemoptysis, hemorrhages from internal organs, epilepsy, fever and vitiated c onditions of pitta. The seeds are useful in dry cough, fever, urethrorrhea, syph ilis, hyperdipsia and vitiated conditions of pitta (Warrier et al,1993). It is a rejuvenative drug capa le of improving intellect and physical strength. In Ayur veda, the fresh juice of the fruit is administered as a specific in haemoptysis and other haemorrhages from internal organs. The fruit is useful in insanity, ep ilepsy and other nervous diseases, urning sensation, dia etes, piles and dyspep sia. It is a 130

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       

 

 

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good antidote for many kinds of vegeta le, mercurial and alcoholic poisoning. It is also administered in cough, asthma or respiratory diseases, heart diseases a nd catarrah. Seeds are useful in expelling tapeworms and curing difficult urinat ion and ladder stones. The important formulations using the drug are Kusmandara sayana, Himasagarataila, Dhatryadighrita, Vastyamantakaghrita, Mahaukusmandakagh rita, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). Fruits contain lupeol, β-sitosterol, n -tria contanol, vitamin B, mannitol and amino acids. The fruit is alterative, laxative , diuretic, tonic, aphrodisiac and antiperiodic. Seed and oil from seed is anthe lmintic (Husain et al, 1992). 5. Momordica charantia Linn. Eng: Bitter gourd, Carilla fruit San: Karavellam Mal: Kaypa, Paval Tam: Pavakkai , Paval, Pakar Hin: Karela, Kareli Tel: Kakara Bitter gourd or Carilla fruit is a ranched clim ing annual which is cultivated throughout India. It is a monoecious plant with angled and grooved stems and hai ry or villous young parts. Tendrils are simple, slender and elongate. Leaves are simple, or icular, cordate and deeply divided into 5-7 lo es. Flowers are unise xual, yellow and arranged on 5-10cm long peduncles. Fruits are 5-15cm long with 3-valved capsules, pendulous, fusiform, ri ed and eaked earing numerous trian gular tu ercles. Seeds are many or few with shining sculptured surface. The root s are useful in coloptosis and ophthalmopathy. The leaves are useful in vitiated conditions of pita, helminthiasis, constipation, intermittent fever, urning se nsation of the sole and nyctalopia. The fruits are useful in skin diseases, lepr osy, ulcers, wounds, urning sensation, constipation, anorexia, flatulence, coli c, helminthiasis, rheumatalgia, gout, dia etes, asthma, cough, dysmenorrhoea, im purity of reast milk, fever and de ility. Seeds are useful in the treatment of ulcers, pharyngodynia, and o structions of the liver and spleen. The leaves and fruits are used for external application in lum ago, ulceration and one fractur es and internally in leprosy, haemorrhoids and jaundice (Warrier et al, 1995). T he drug improves digestion, calms down sexual urge, quells diseases due to pitta and kapha and cures anaemia, anorexia, leprosy, ulcers, jaundice, flatulence an d piles. Fruit is useful in gout, rheumatism and complaints of liver and spleen (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer and Kolammal, 1966; Mooss, 1976; Kurup et al, 1979). Kacc oradi taila is an important preparation using the drug (Sivarajan et al, 1994). The seeds give triterpene glycosides, named momordicosides A, B, C, D and E, whi ch are glycosides of cucur it-5-en-triol, tetraol or pentaol. Leaves and vines g ive tetracyclic triterpenes-momordicines I, II and III ( itter principles). Imma ture fruits give several non- itter and 2 itter cucur itacin glycosides. Four o f the non- itter glycosides, momordicosides F1, F2, G and I and the itter momor dicosides; K and L have also een characteri ed. Fruits, seeds and tissue cultur e give a polypeptide which contained 17 types of amino acids and showed hypoglyc aemic activity. Fruits also give 5-hydroxy tryptamine and a neutral compound cha rantin (a steroidal glucoside), diosgenin, cholesterol, lanosterol and β-sitoste rol. Leaf is emetic, purgative and anti ilious. Fruit is stomachic, tonic, carmi native, fe rifuge, antirheumatic and hypoglycaemic. Root is astringent. Fruit an d leaf is anti-leprotic. Fruit, leaf and root are a ortifacient and anti-dia eti c. Leaf and seed is anthelmintic. Seed oil possesses antifeeding and insecticida l properties. Unsaponifia le matter from seed oil exhi ited pronounced inhi itor y activity against gram negative acteria. Seed and fruit are hypoglycaemic, cyt otoxic and anti-feedant (Husain et al, 1992). Other important species elonging to the genus Momordica are as follows. M. dioica Rox . M. cochinchinensis Spreng . M. tu erosa Cogn. M. alsamina Linn. 131

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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6. Cucumis melo Linn. syn. C. melo Linn. var. cultis Kur ., C. pu escens Willd., C. callosus (Rottl.) Cogn. Eng: Sweet melon San, Hin: Khar uja Tam: Chukkari-kai, Thumatti-kai, Mulampa ham Ben: Kharmul Mal: Mulam Tel: Khar uja-dosha Sweet melon is a creeping annual extensively cultivated throughout India, found wild in India, Baluchistan and tropical Africa. The stem is creeping, angular an d sca rous. Leaves are or icular-reniform in outline, 5-angled or lo ed, sca rou s on oth surfaces and often with soft hairs. Lo es of leaves are not very deep nor acute and with 5cm long petiole. Female peduncle is 5cm. Fruit is spherical, ovoid, elongate or contorted, gla rous or somewhat hairy, not spinous nor tu er culate. Cucumis melo includes two varieties, namely, C. melo var. momordica syn. C. momordica Rox . C. melo var. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller. syn. C. utilissimu s Rox . The fruit is eaten raw and cooked. Its pulp forms a nutritive, demulcent , diuretic and cooling drink. It is eneficial as a lotion in chronic and acute ec ema as well as tan and freckles and internally in cases of dyspepsia. Pulp mi xed with cumin seeds and sugar candy is a cool diet in hot season. Seeds yield s weet edi le oil which is nutritive and diuretic, useful in painful discharge and suppression of urine. The whole fruit is useful in chronic ec ema (Kirtikar & B asu, 1988). Seeds contain fatty acids-myristic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic; aspar agine, glutamine, citrulline, lysine, histidine, arginine, phenylalanine, valine , tyrosine, leucine, iso-leucine, methionine, proline, threonine, tryptophan and crystine. Seed is tonic, lachrymatory, diuretic and urease inhi itor. Fruit pul p is ec emic. Fruit is tonic, laxative, galactagogue, diuretic and diaphoretic. The rind is vulnerary (Husain et al, 1992). 7. Cucumic sativus Linn. Eng: Cucum er, Common cucum er; San: Trapusah; Hin, Ben: Khira; Tam: Vellarikkai , Pippinkai; Kan: Mullusavte; Tel: Dosekaya Mal: Vellari Cucum er is a clim ing annual which is cultivated throughout India, found wild i n the Himalayas from Kumaon to Sikkim. It is a hispidly hairy trailing or clim i ng annual. Leaves are simple, alternate, deeply cordate, 3-5 lo ed with oth sur faces hairy and denticulate margins. Flowers are yellow, males clustered, earin g cohering anthers, connective crusted or elevated a ove the cells. Females are solitary and thickly covered with very ul ous ased hairs. Fruits are cylindric al pepo of varying si es and forms. Seeds are cream or white with hard and smoot h testa. The fruits are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta, hyperdipsia, ur ning sensation, thermoplegia, fever, insomnia, cephalgia, ronchitis, jaundice, haemorrhages, strangury and general de ility. The seeds are useful in urning se nsation, pitta, constipation, intermittent fevers, strangury, renal calculus, ur odynia and general de ility (Warrier et al, 1994). The leaves oiled and mixed w ith cumin seeds, roasted, powdered and administered in throat affections. Powder ed and mixed with sugar, they are powerful diuretic (Nadkarni, 1998). The fruits and seeds are sweet, refrigerant, haemostatic, diuretic and tonic. Other import ant species elonging to the genus are: C. trigonus Rox . syn. C. pseudo-colocyn this C. prophetarum Linn. 8. Citrullus colocynthis (Linn. ) Schrader. syn. Cucum is colocynthis Linn. 132

 

 

 

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Eng: Colocynth, Bitter apple; San: Visala, Mahendravaruni; Hin: Badi indrayan, M akkal Ben: Makhal; Mal: Kattuvellari (Valutu), Valiya pekkummatti; Tel: Etti-puc hcha Tam: Paitummatti, Petummatti; Colocynth or Bitter apple is found, cultivate d and wild, throughout India in warmer areas. It is an extensively trailing annu al her with ifid tendrils angular ranching stems and wooly tender shoots. Lea ves are deeply divided, lo es narrow thick, gla rous or somewhat hairy. Flowers are unisexual, yellow, oth males and females solitary and with pale-yellow coro lla. Fruit is a glo ose or o long fleshy indehiscent erry, 5-7.5cm in diameter and variegated with green and white. Seeds are pale rown. The fruits are useful in tumours, ascites, leucoderma, ulcers, asthma, ronchitis, urethrorrhea, jaun dice, dyspepsia, constipations, elephantiasis, tu ercular glands of the neck and splenomegaly (Warrier et al, 1994). It is useful in a normal presentations of t he foetus and in atrophy of the foetus. In addition to the a ove properties, the root has a eneficial action in inflammation of the reasts, pain in the joints ; externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. The fruit and root, with or without is ru ed into a paste with water and applied to oils and pimpl es. In rheumatism, equal parts of the root and long pepper are given in pill. A paste of the root is applied to the enlarged a domen of children (Kirtikar and B asu, 1988). The fruit is useful in ascites, iliousness, jaundice, cere ral cong estion, colic, constipation dropsy, fever, worms and sciatica. Root is given in cases of a dominal enlargement, cough, asthma, inflammation of the reast, ulcer s, urinary diseases and rheumatism. Oil from seeds is used for poisonous ites, owel complaints, epilepsy and also for lackening the hair (Nadkarni, 1954; Dey , 1980). The important formulations using the root and fruit are A hayarista, Ma hatiktakam kasaya, Manasamitravatakam, Cavikasava, Madhuyastyadi taila, etc. (Si varajan et al, 1994). The powder is often used as an insecticide. The extract sh ould never e given without some aromatic to correct its griping tendency (Nadka rni, 1998). Fruit contains a glycoside- colocynthin, its aglycone-α-el terin, ci trulluin, citrullene nd citrullic cid. Unripe fruit cont ins p-hydroxy benzyl methyl ester. Roots cont in αel terin nd hentri cont ne (Hus in et l, 1992). C olocynth is, in moder te doses, dr stic, hydrogogue, c th rtic nd diuretic. In l rge doses, it is emetic nd g stro-intestin l irrit nt nd in sm ll doses, it is expector nt nd lter tive. Colocynthin is c th rtic nd intensely bitter p rinciple. It h s purg tive ction. All p rts of the pl nt re very bitter. The fruit h s been described s c th rtic (N dk rni, 1982). 9. Citrullus vulg ris Schr d. syn. C. l n tus (Thunb.) M ts. & N k i. Eng: W ter melon; M l: Th nnim th n; S n: T r mbuj ; Hin: T rbuj; T m: Pitch , D h rbusini Ben: T rbuz W termelon is n extensively climbing nnu l which is l rgely cultiv ted through out Indi nd in ll w rm countries. It h s thick ngul r br nching stems. Tendr ils re bifid, stout nd pubescent. Le ves re long, deeply divided or moder tel y lobed, gl brous or somewh t h iry nd h rdly sc brous. Petiole is little sho rter th n the limb nd villous. C lyx-lobes re n rrowly l nceol te, equ lling t he tube. Coroll is yellow within, greenish outside nd villous. Lobes re ov te -oblong, obtuse nd prominently 5-nerved. Fruit is sub-globose or ellipsoid, smo oth, greenish or clouded, often with gl ucous w xy co ting. Flesh is juicy, re d or yellowish white. Seeds re usu lly m rgined. C. vulg ris v r. fistulosus Du thie & Fuller. syn. C. fistulosus h s its fruit bout the size of sm ll turnip, the seeds of which re used medicin lly. The fruit is t steless when unripe nd sweet when ripe. The unripe fruit is used to cure j undice. Ripe fruit cures k p h nd v t nd c uses biliousness. It is good for sore eyes, sc bies nd itchin g. The seeds re tonic to the br in nd used s cooling 133

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medicine. An emulsion of the seeds is m de into poultice with the pounded le v es nd pplied hot in c ses of intestin l infl mm tions (Kirtik r nd B su, 1988 ). Fruit juice is good in quenching thirst nd it is used s n ntiseptic in ty phus fever with cumin nd sug r. It is used s cooling drink in str ngury nd ffections of urin ry org ns such s gonorrhoe ; in hep tic congestion nd intes tin l c t rrh. The bitter w termelon of Sind is known s “Kirbut” nd is used s purg tive. Seeds yield fixed oil nd proteids; citrullin. Seeds re cooling , demulcent, diuretic, vermifuge nd nutritive. Pulp is cooling nd diuretic. Fr uit-juice is cooling nd refreshing (N dk rni, 1982). 10. Curcurbit pepo Linn. syn. Pepo vulg ris et P. verrucosus Moench Meth. Eng: Pompion, Pumpkin, Veget ble M rrow; Hin, Ben: K dim h, Kond , Kumr , S fedk k du; Tel: Bud degumm di, Pottigumm di S n: K rk ru, Kurk ru, Kushm ndi M l: M t h n, M th Pompion or Pumpkin is climbing herb which is considered to be n tive of Amer ic nd cultiv ted in m ny p rts of Indi . The stem nd le ves re with h rsh prickly rm ture. Foli ge is stiff, m or less rigid nd erect. Le ves re with bro d tri ngul r ore pointed outline nd often with deep lobes. Coroll is most ly with erect or spre ding (not drooping) pointed lobes, the tube n rrowing tow rds the b se. Peduncle is strongly 5- ngled nd little or much exp nding ne r th e fruit. The fruit is cooling nd stringent to the bowels, incre ses ppetite, cures leprosy, ‘k ph nd v t ’, thirst, fatigue and purifies the blood. The lea ves are used to remove biliousness. Fruit is good for teeth, throat and e es and alla s thirst. Seeds cure sore chests, haemopt sis, bronchitis and fever. It is good for the kidne and brain. The leaves are used as an external application f or burns. The seeds are considered anthelmintic. The seeds are largel used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian hemp, and the root for a nefarious pur pose, viz., to make the preparation more potent. The seeds are taeniacide, diure tic and demulcent. The fruit is cooling, laxative and astringent. The leaves are digestible, haematinic and analgesic. The other important species belonging to the genus Cucurbita is C. maxima Duchena, the seeds of which are a popular remed for tape-worm and oil as a nervine tonic (Kirtikar & Basu, 1988).

11. Corallocarpus epigaeus Benth. ex Hook. f. s n. Br onia epigaea Wight. San: Katunahi; Hin: Akasgaddah; Mal: Kadamba, Kollankova Tam: Akashagarudan, Gol lankovai; Tel: Murudonda, Nagadonda Corallocarpus is a prostrate or climbing her b distributed in Punjab, Sind, Gujarat, Deccan, Karnataka and Sri Lanka. It is m onoecious with large root which is turnip-shaped and slender stem which is groov ed, zigzag and glabrous. Tendrils are simple, slender and glabrous. Leaves are s ub-orbicular in outline, light green above and pale beneath, deepl cordate at t he base, angled or more or less deepl 3-5 lobed. Petiole is long and glabrous. Male flowers are small and arranged at the tip of a straight stiff glabrous pedu ncle. Cal x is slightl hair , long and rounded at the base. Corolla is long and greenish ellow. Female flowers are usuall solitar with short, stout and glab rous peduncles. Fruit is stalked, long, ellipsoid or ovoid. Seeds are p riform, turgid, brown and with a whitish corded margin. It is prescribed in later stages of d senter and old veneral complaints. For external use in chronic rheumatism , it is made into a liniment with cumin seed, onion and castor oil. It is 134

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used in case of snakebite where it is administered internall and applied to the bitten part. The root is given in s philitic rheumatism and later stages of d s enter . The plant is bitter, sweet, alexipharmic and emetic. The root is said to possess alterative and laxative properties (Kirtikar and Basu, 1988). Root cont ains a bitter principle like Bre onin (Chopra et al, 1980). Agrotechnolog Cucurbits can be successfull grown during Januar -March and SeptemberDecember. For the rainfed crop, sowing can also be started after the receipt of the first few showers. The seed rate and spacing recommended for the cucurbits are given b elow: Plants Bitter gourd Snake gourd Bottle gourd Ash gourd Pumpkin Cucumber/Me lon Water melon Seed rate (kg/ha) 5.0-6.0 3.0-4.0 3.0-4.0 0.75-1.00 1.0-1.5 0.50.75 1.0-1.5 Spacing (m) 2.0x2.0 2.0x2.0 3.0x3.0 4.5x2.0 4.5x2.0 2.0x1.5 2.0x3.0 Pits of 60cm diameter and 30-45cm depth are to be taken at the desired spacing. Well rotten FYM or vegetable mixture is to be mixed with topsoil in the pit and seeds are to be sown at 4-5/pit. Unhealth plants are to be removed after 2 week s and retained 2-3 plants/pit. FYM is to be applied at 20-25t/ha as basal dose a long with half dose of N (35kg/ha) and full dose of P (25kg) and K (25kg). The r emaining dose of N (35kg) can be applied in 2 equal split doses at fortnightl i ntervals. During the initial stages of growth, irrigation is to be given at an i nterval of 3-4 da s and at alternate da s during flowering and fruiting periods. For trailing cucumber, pumpkin and melon, dried twigs are to be spread on the g round. Bitter gourd, bottle gourd, snake gourd and ash gourd are to be trailed o n Pandals. Weeding and raking of the soil are to be conducted at the time of fer tilizer application. Earthing up ma be done during rain season. The most dread ed pest of cucurbits is fruit flies which can be controlled b using fruit traps , covering the fruits with pol thene, cloth or paper bags, removal and destructi on of affected fruits and lastl spra ing with Carbar l or Malathion 0. 2% suspe nsion containing sugar or jagger at 10g/l at fortnightl intervals after fruit set initiation. During rain season, down mildew and mosaic diseases are severe in cucurbits. The former can be checked b spra ing Mancozeb 0.2%. The spread o f mosaic can be checked b controlling the vectors using Dimethoate or Phosphami don 0.05% and destruction of affected plants and collateral hosts. Harvesting to be done at least 10 da s after insecticide or fungicide application (KAU,1996). 135

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MEDICINAL YAMS Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea spp. The growing need for steroidal drugs and the high cost of obtaining them from an imal sources led to a widespread search for plant sources of steroidal sapogenin s, which ultimatel led to the most promising one. It is the largest genus of th e famil constituted b 600 species of predominantl twining herbs. Among the tw ining species, some species twine clockwise while others anti-clockwise (Miege, 1958). All the species are dioceous and rhizomatous. According to Course (1967) , this genus is named in honour of the Greek ph sician Pedenios Dioscorides, the author of the classical Materia Medica Libri Quinque. Some of the species like D. alata and D. esculenta have been under cultivation for a long time for their edible tubers. There are about 15 species of this genus containing diosgenin. So me of them are the following (Chopra et al, 1980). D. floribunda Mart. & Gal. D. composita Hemsl; s n. D. macrostach a Benth. D. deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb; s n. D. nepalensis Sweet ex Bernardi. D. aculeata Linn. s n. D. esculenta D. alata L inn. s n. D. atropurpurea Roxb. D. Globosa Roxb; D. purpurea Roxb; D. rubella Ro xb. D. bulbifera Linn. s n. D. crispata Roxb. D. pulchella Roxb.; D. sativa Thun b. Non Linn. D. versicolor Buch. Ham. Ex Wall. D. daemona Roxb. s n. D. hispida Dennst. D. oppositifolia Linn. D. pentaph lla Linn. s n. D. jacquemontii Hook. f . D. triph lla Linn. D. prazeri Prain & Burkil s n. D. clarkei Prain & Burkill D . deltoidea Wall. var. sikkimensis Prain D. sikkimensis Prain & Burkill Among th e above said species, D. floribunda, D. composita and D. deltoidea are widel gr own for diosgenin production. 1. D. floribunda Mart. & Gal D. floribunda Mart. & Gal. is an introduction from central America and had wide adaptation as it is successfull grown in Karnataka, Assam, Meghala a, Andaman a nd Goa. The vines are glabrous and left twining. The alternate leaves are borne on slender stems and have broadl ovate or triangular ovate, shallowl cordate, coriaceous lamina with 9 nerves. The petioles are 5-7cm long, thick and firm. Va riegation in leaves occurs in var ing degrees. The male flowers are solitar and rarel in pairs. Female flowers have divericate stigma which is bifid at apex. The capsule is obovate and seed is winged all round. The tubers are thick with ellow coloured flesh, branched and growing upto a depth of 30cm (Chadha et al, 1 995). 2. D. composita Hemsl. D. composita Hemsl. according to Knuth (1965) has the valid botanical name as D. macrostach a Benth. However, D. composita is widel used in published literatur e. It is a Central American introduction into Goa, Jammu, Bangalore, Anaimalai H ills of Tami Nadu and Darjeeling in W. Bengal. The vines are right twinning and nearl glabrous. The alternate leaves have long petioles, membraneous or coriace ous lamina measuring upto 20x18cm, abruptl acute or cuspidate-acuminate, shallo wl or deepl cordate, 7-9 nerved. The fasciculate-glomerate inflorescence is si ngle or branched with 2 or 3 sessile male 136

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flowers having fertile stamens. Male fascicle is 15-30cm long. The female flower s have bifid stigma. Tubers are large, white and deep-rooted (upto 45cm) (Chadha et al, 1995). 3. D. deltoidea Wall. ex. Griseb. D. deltoidea Wall. ex. Griseb. is distributed throughout the Himala as at altitu des of 1000-3000m extending over the states of Jammu-Kashmir, H. P, U. P, Sikkim and further into parts of W. Bengal. The glabrous and left twining stem bears a lternate petiolate leaves. The petioles are 5-12 cm long. The lamina is 5-15cm l ong and 4-12cm wide widel cordate. The flowers are borne on axillar spikes, ma le spikes 8-40cm long and stamens 6. Female spikes are 15cm long, 3. 5cm broad a nd 4-6 seeded. Seeds are winged all round. Rhizomes are lodged in soil, superfic ial, horizontal, tuberous, digitate and chestnut brown in colour (Chadha et al, 1995). D. deltoidea tuber grows parallel to ground covered b small scale leaves and is described as rhizome. The tubers are morphologicall cauline in structur e with a ring of vascular bundles in oung tubers which appear scattered in matu re tubers (Purnima and Srivastava, 1988). Visible buds are present unlike in D. floribunda and D. composita where the buds are confined to the crown position (S elvaraj et al, 1972). Importance of Diosgenin Diosgenin is the most important sapogenin used as a starting material for s nthe sis of a number of steroidal drugs. For commercial purposes, its β-isomer, yamog enin is also taken as diosgenin while analysing the sample for processing. Vario us steroidal drugs derived from diosgenin y artificial synthesis include cortic osteroids, sex hormones, ana olic steroids and oral contraceptives. Corticostero ids are the most important group of steroidal drugs synthesi ed from diosgenin. First group of corticosteroids regulates car ohydrate and protein meta olism. Th e second group consists of aldosterone, which controls alance of potassium, sod ium and water in the human ody. The glucocorticoids in the form of cortisone an d hydrocortisone are used orally, intramuscularly or topically for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, other collegen diseases, ulcerative colit is, certain cases of asthma and a num er of allergic diseases affecting skin, ey e and the ear. These are also used for treatment of gout and a variety of inflam mations of skin, eye and ear and as replacement therapy in Addison’s diseases. T he minerato corticoides, desoxycorticosterone or desoxycortone are used in resto ring kidney functions in cases of cortical deficiency and Addison’s disease. Bot h male and female sex hormones are also synthesi ed from disosgenin. The main ma le sex hormone (androgen) which is produced from disogenin is testosterone. The main female sex hormones produced are oestrogen and progesterone. Recently oestr ogen has also een used in cosmetic lotions and creams to improve the tone and c olour of skin. One of the main uses of progesterone during recent years has een as antifertility agent for oral contraceptives. These artificial steroids have increased oral activity and fewer side effects, as they can e used in reduced d oses. Oral contraceptives are also used for animals like pigs, cows and sheep to control fertility and to give irth at a prescri ed period in a group of animal s at the same time. These compounds are also used to reduce the interval etween the lactation periods to have more milk and meat production. Anti-fertility com pounds are also used as a pest-control measure for decreasing the multiplication of pests like rodents, pigeons and sea gulls (Husain et al, 1979). Although yam tu ers contain a variety of chemical su stances including car ohydrates, protei ns, alkaloids and tannins, the most important constituents of these yams are a g roup of saponins which yield sapogenins on hydrolysis. The most important sapoge nin found in Dioscorea are diosgenin, yamogenin and pannogenin. Diosgenin is a s teroid drug precursor. The diogenin content varies from 2-7% depending on the ag e of the tu ers. Saponins including 5 spirastanol glucoside and 2 furostanol glu coside, 4 new steroid saponins, flori unda saponins C, D, E and F. Strain of A a

 

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nd B are o tained from D. flori unda (Husain et al, 1979). Rhi omes of D. deltoi dea are a rich source of diosgenin 137

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and its glycoside. Epismilagenin and smilagenone have een isolated from D. delt oidea and D. pra eri (Chakravarti et al, 1960; 1962). An alkaloid dioscorine has een known to occur in D. hispida (Bhide et al,1978). Saponin of D. pra eri pro duced a fall of lood pressure when given intravenously and saponin of D. deltoi dea has no effect on lood pressure (Chakravarti et al,1963). Deltonin, a steroi dal glycoside, isolated from rhi omes of D. deltoidea showed contraceptive activ ity (Biokova et al, 1990). Agrotechnology Dioscorea species prefer a tropical climate without extremity in temperature. It is adapted to moderate to heavy rainfall area. Dioscorea plants can e grown in a variety of soils, ut light soil is good, as harvesting of tu ers is easier i n such soils. The ideal soil pH is 5.5-6.5 ut tolerates fairly wide variation i n soil pH. Dioscorea can e propagated y tu er pieces, single node stem cutting s or seed. Commercial planting is normally esta lished y tu er pieces only. Pro pagation through seed progeny is varia le and it may take longer time to o tain tu er yields. IIHR, Bangalore has released two improved varieties, FB( c ) -1, a vigorously growing strain relatively free from diseases and Arka Upkar, a high yielding clone. Three types of tu er pieces can e distinguished for propagation purpose, vi . (1) crown (2) median and (3) tip, of which crowns produce new sho ots within 30 days and are therefore preferred. Dipping of tu er pieces for 5 mi nutes in 0.3% solution of Benlate followed y dusting the cut ends with 0.3% Ben late in talcum powder in moist sand eds effectively checks the tu er rot. The t reatment is very essential for o taining uniform stand of the crop. The est tim e of planting is the end of April so that new sprouts will grow vigorously durin g the rainy season commencing in June in I ndia. Land is to e prepared thorough ly until a fine tilth is o tained. Deep furrows are made at 60cm distance with t he help of a plough. The stored tu er pieces which are ready for planting is to e planted in furrows with 30cm etween the plants for one year crop and 45cm e tween the plants for 2 year crop at a out 0.5 cm elow soil level. The new sprou ts are to e staked immediately. After sprouting is complete, the plants are to e earthed up. Soil from the ridges may e used for earthing up so that the orig inal furrows will ecome ridges and vice versa. Dioscorea requires high organic matter for good tu er formation. Besides a asal do e of 18-20t of FYM/ha, a com plete fertili er dose of 300kg N, 150kg P2O5 and K2O each are to e applied per hectare. P and K are to e applied in two equal doses one after the esta lishmen t of the crop during May-June and the other during vigorous growth period of the crop (AugustSeptem er). Irrigation may e given at weekly intervals in the init ial stage and afterwards at a out 10 days interval. Dioscorea vines need support for their optimum growth and hence the vines are to e trailed over pandal syst em or trellis. Periodic hand weeding is essential for the first few months. Inte rcropping with legumes has een found to smother weeds and provide extra income. The major pests of Dioscorea are the aphids and red spider mites. Aphids occur more commonly on young seedlings and vines. Young leaves and vine tips eventuall y die if aphids are not controlled. Red spider mites attack the underside of the leaves at the ase near the petiole. Severe infestations result in necrotic are as, which are often attacked y fungi. Both aphids and spider mites can e very easily controlled y Kelthane. No serious disease is reported to infect this cro p. The tu ers grow to a out 25-30 cm depth and hence harvesting is to e done y manual la our. The est season for harvesting is Fe -March, coinciding with the dry period. On an average 50-60t/ha of fresh tu ers can e o tained in 2 years duration. Diosgenin content tends to increase with age, 2.5% in first year and 3 -3.5% in the second year. Hence, 2 year crop is economical (Kumar et al, 1997). 138

 

 

 

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IPECAC Ru iaceae Importance Cephaelis ipecacuanha Ipecac is a small evergreen her with much ranched eaded roots. It is used in powdered form or as liquid total extract, syrup and tincture. Ipecac syrup in sm all doses is used as an expectorant, as it is well tolerated y children. It is used in treatment of whooping cough. Ipecac with opium as in Dover’s powder is u sed as a diaphoretic, tincture and syrup. Emetine hydrochloride in the form of i njection is used for treatment of amoe ic dysentery. Emetine ismuth iodide is a lso given orally for amoe ic dysentery. Ipecac is also used as gastric stimulant and as an anti-inflammatory agent in rheumatism. Distri ution The plant is a native of Bolivia and Bra il. It is cultivated in Mungpoo, near D arjeeling and on the Nilgiris, especially New Kallar, and at the Rung ee Cinchon a plantation in Sikkim. Botany Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.) A. Rich. syn. Psychotria ipecacuanha Stokes. elon gs to the family Ru iaceae. The plant grows upto 0.7m high, with slender cylindr ical stem. When mature the roots are dark rown and have transverse furrows givi ng it a eaded appearance. A ove ground stem is quadrangular and trailing with f ew or new ranches. Leaves are opposite near the top of the plant and alternate elow, 5-10x3-6cm area, dark green a ove and pale green underneath. Flowers are white, sessile, funnel-like, less than 1cm wide and are orne in dense clusters. Fruit is purple with two stones containing single seed (Husain, 1993).

Agrotechnology Ipecac prefers an average rainfall ranging etween 2000-3000mm and evenly distri uted. Maximum temperature should not exceed 38°C and the minimum not elow 10°C . It thrives well in tropical mild humid climates similar to Malaysian rain fore sts. Virgin forest soils rich in humus are ideal for Ipecac. It prefers deep med ium fertile soils which are acidic and rich in humus, potash and magnesium. Soil should e well drained and protected from wind and storm. As Ipecac grows only in shade, it can e cultivated as an intercrop, or planted in artificially shade d eds. The plant is propagated oth y seeds and vegetatively y root, stem and leaf cuttings. Vegetative propagation is preferred to maintain genetic uniformi ty of the plant. Most of the commercial plantations are raised y seeds. Raised seed eds of 2x6m si e are made and are mixed with well rotten leaf compost and sand. These are provided with shade on the top as well as on the sides. Seeds ar e drilled or roadcasted in the eds and watered regularly. Seeds take 3-5 month s to germinate. Seed treatment with limewater for 48 hours or H2O2 improves germ ination. It has een o served that providing mulch or lack polythene in nursery eds improves germination as well as results in control of weeds. The suita le season of planting is January-March in West Bengal. Seedlings are planted in pro duction eds at a spacing of 10x10cm after they are 8-12 weeks old. In West Beng al, it is a practice to transfer seedlings to other nursery eds efore eing tr ansferred to final production seed eds. FYM and leaf compost application is requ ired during second and third year. Super phosphate applications is found to impr ove root growth. Frequent irrigation is required. Waterlogging should e avoided . Both the seed eds 139

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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and production eds should e kept free from weeds. Seedlings are often attacked y damping off fungi like Rhi octonia sp. in nursery. It is etter to treat the seeds with a suita le seed dressing fungicide efore planting. Fusarium wilt ca used y F. moniliforme has een reported from India. The plants are ready for ha rvesting after 4 years. The roots should e dug out, washed and dried in the sun . Rhi ome and root are the economical parts (Husain, 1993). Properties and Activity Ipecac root contains 2.2-2.5% total alkaloids. The main alkaloids are cephaeline and emetine. In addition, it also contains psychotrine and psychotrine ethyl et her. The drug also contains a crystalline glucosidal tannin, starch and calcium oxalate (60-70% of the alkaloids is emetine). Root contains minor amounts of O-m ethyl psychotrine, emetamine, protoemetine and others. Other constituents of ipe cac include choline, glycoside-ipecoside, saponins, resins, tannins-ipecacuanhin , an allergen composed of mixture of glycoproteins, ipecacuanhic acid, a neutral monoterpene acid and calcium oxalate. Cephaeline could e converted into emetin e on methylation. The powdered dried rhi ome and root cause severe asthmatic att acks and vasomotorrhinitis. Emetine hydrochloride is anti-amoe ic. Root is emeti c, expectorant and diaphoretic (Husain et al, 1992). 140

 

 

 

 

 

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CURCUMA Zingi eraceae Curcuma spp. The genus Curcuma elonging to the family Zingi eraceae comprises of a num er of species which are medicinally very important. Among them, the most important sp ecies are descri ed elow. 1. C. amada Rox . English: Mango ginger Mal: Mangainchi San: Amrardrakam, Karpuraharida Tam: Manka yinci Hin: Ama-haldi Tel: Mamidi Allam Mango ginger is cultivated in Gujarat and found wild in parts of West Bengal, U. P, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. It is a rhi omatous aromatic her with a leafy tuf t and 60-90cm in height. Leaves are long, petiolate, o long-lanceolate, tapering at oth ends, gla rous and green on oth sides. Flowers are white or pale yello w, arranged in spikes in the centre of tuft of the leaves. Lip is semi-elliptic, yellow, 3-lo ed with the mid lo e emarginate. The rhi omes are useful in vitia ted conditions of pitta, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, ruises, wounds , chronic ulcers, skin diseases, pruritus, fever, constipations, strangury, hicc ough, cough, ronchitis, sprains, gout, halitosis, otalgia and inflammations (Wa rrier et al, 1994). The fresh root possesses the smell of green mango and hence the name mango ginger. The rhi omes are used externally in the form of paste as an application for ruises and skin diseases generally com ined with other medic ines. Tu ers ru ed with the leafjuice of Caesalpinia onduc is given for worms (Nadkarni, 1982). The essential oil contains α-pinene, α- nd β-curcumene, campho r, cuminyl alcohol, myristic acid and turmerone. Car-3-ene and cis-ocimene contr i ute the characteristic mango odour of the rhi ome. Rhi ome is CNS active, hypo thermic and it shows potentiation of amphetamine toxicity. Tu er is trypsin inhi itor and is effective against Vi rio cholerae (Husain et al, 1992). The rhi ome s are itter, sweet sour, aromatic, cooling, appetiser, carminative, digestive, stomachic, demulcent, vulnerary, fe rifuge, alexertic, aphrodisiac, laxative, di urectic, expectorant, antiinflammatory and antipyretic (Warrier et al, 1994). 2. C. aromatica Salis . Eng: Wild turmeric; San: Aranyaharidra, Vanaharidra; Hin: Ban-haridra, Jangli-ha ldi; Ben: Ban Haland; Mal, Tam: Kasturimanjal, Kattumanjal; Tel: Adavi-pasupu; K an: Kadarasina Wild turmeric or Cochin turmeric or Yellow eodoary is found wild throughout India and cultivated in Bengal and Kerala. It is a perennial tu erou s her with annulate, aromatic yellow rhi ome which is internally orange-red in colour. Leaves are elliptic or lanceolateo long, caudate-acuminate, 30-60cm long , petioles as long or even longer, racts ovate, recurved, more or less tinged w ith red or pink. Flowers are pink, lip yellow, o ovate, deflexed, su -entire or o scurely three lo ed. Fruits are dehiscent, glo ose, 3-valved capsules. Rhi ome s are used in com ination with astringents and aromatics for ruises, sprains, h iccough, ronchitis, cough, leucoderma and skin eruptions (Warrier et al, 1994). The rhi omes have an agreea le fragrant smell and yield a yellow colouring matt er like turmeric, and the fresh root has a camphoraceous odour. The dried rhi om e is used as a carminative and aromatic adjunctant to other medicines (Nadkarni, 1998). Essential oil contains α- nd -β-curcumene, d-camphene and p-methoxy cinn amic acid. The colouring matter is curcumin. Numerous sesquiterpenoids of germac rone and guaiane skeletons have een identified recently. Rhi ome has effect on respiration. It is spasmolytic and shows antagonism of amphetamine hyperactivity . Rhi ome is an anti-dote for snake ite and carminative (Husain et al, 1992). 141

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3. C. longa Linn. syn. C. domestica Valeton. Eng: Turmeric; San: Haridra, Varavarnini; Hin: Haldi, halda; Ben: Haldi; Mal: Ma njal, Pachamanjal, Varattumanjal; Tam: Mancal; Kan: Haldi, Arasina; Tel: Pasapu Turmeric is cultivated all over India, particularly in W. Bengal, T. N and Mahar ashtra. It is a perennial her , 60-90cm in height, with a short stem and tufts o f erect leaves. Rhi ome is cylindric, ovoid, orange coloured and ranched. Leave s are simple, very large, petiole as long as the lade, o long-lanceolate, taper ing to the ase upto 45cm long. Flowers are pale yellow, arranged in spikes conc ealed y the sheathing petioles and flowering racts are pale green (Warrier et al, 1994). Turmeric occupies an important position in the life of Indian people as it forms an integral part of the rituals, ceremonies and cuisine. Due to the strong antiseptic properties, turmeric has een used as a remedy for all kinds o f poisonous affections, ulcers and wounds. It gives good complexion to the skin and so it is applied to face as a depilatory and facial tonic. The drug cures di seases due to mor id vata, pitta and kapha, dia etes, eye diseases, ulcers, oede ma, anaemia, anorexia, leprosy and scrofula. It purifies lood y destroying the pathogenic organisms. A paste of turmeric alone, or com ined with a paste of ne em (A adirachta indica) leaves, is used to cure ringworm, o stinate itching, ec ema and other parasitic skin diseases and in chicken pox and small pox. The drug is also useful in cold, cough, ronchitis, conjunctivitis and liver affections (Nadkarni, 1954; Kurup et al,1979; Kolammal, 1979). The rhi ome is the officinal part and is an important ingredient of formulations like Nalpamaradi taila, Jat yadi taila, Narayana gula, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). Turmeric paste mixed wi th a little limejuice and saltpetre and applied hot is a popular application to sprains and ruises. In smallpox and chickenpox, a coating of turmeric is applie d to facilitate the process of sca ing. The smoke produced y sprinkling powder ed turmeric over urnt charcoal will relieve scorpion sting when the part affect ed is exposed to the smoke for a few minutes. Turmeric and alum powder in the pr oportion of 1:20 is lown into the ear in chronic otorrhoea (Nadkarni, 1998). “H aridra Khand”, a compound containing powdered turmeric, sugar and many other ing redients is a well-known preparation for cold, cough and flu, and for skin disea ses. In Unani system, roasted turmeric is an ingredient of “Ha Narkachur”, used as antidysenteric for children (Thakur et al, 1989). Essential oil contains arturmerone, and ar-curcumene as major constituents. Some of the other compounds a re α- nd β-pinene, sa inene, myrcene, α-terpinene, limonene, pcymene, perillyl lcohol, turmerone, eugenol, iso-eugenol, eugenol methyl ether nd isoeugenol met hyl ether. Curcumin nd rel ted compounds h ve lso been reported s m jor const ituents of the rhizomes. Recently number of sesquiterpenes h ve been reported from C. long , viz., the sesquiterpenoids of germ cr ne, bis bol ne nd gu in ne skeletons (Hus in et l, 1992). The study of sesquiterpenes h s reve led new compound curlone (Kisoy et l, 1983). The cryst lline colouring m tter curcumin (0. 6%) is diferuloyl meth ne (M thews et l, 1980). Stigm sterol, cholestrol, β -sitosterol and fatty acids, mainly straight chain dienoic acids are reported (M oon et al, 1977). Curcumin, the colouring agent and major constituent of C. long a, is said to possess local as well as systemic antiinflammatory property which has een found to compare favoura ly with phenyl uta one (Srimal and Dhawan, 197 3). An extract of the crude drug ‘akon’ containing the rhi omes exhi ited intens ive preventive activity against car on tetrachloride induced liver injury invivo and invitro. The liver protecting effects of some analogs of ferulic acid and p -coumaric acid, pro a le meta olites of the curcuminoids have een also evaluate d (Kiso et al, 1983). Curcumin is antiinflammatory. Rhi ome is antiproto oal, sp asmolytic, CNS active, antiparasitic, antispasmodic, anti acterial, antiarthriti c, anthelmintic, carminative, antiperiodic, emollient, anodyne, laxative, dirure tic, expectorant, alterative, alexertive, fe rifuge, opthalmic and tonic.

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4. C. edoaria (Berg.) Rosc. syn. C. erum et Rox ; Amomum edoaria Christm. Eng: Round edoary; San: Kachura, Shati; Hin: Kakhur; Ben: Sati; Kan: Kachora Ma l: Manjakoova, Adavi-kacholam; Tam: Kichiliki hangu, Nirvisham; Tel: Kacheramu T he round edoary or Zerum et is mostly found in India and S. E. Asia. The plant has 4-6 leaves with 20-60cm long lamina. The leaf lamina is o long-lanceolate, f inely acuminate and gla rous on oth the surfaces. Flower stalk is 20-25cm long, emerging efore the leaves. Flowers are yellow, while the flowering ract is gr een tinged with red. Calyx is 8mm long, corolla tu e is twice as long as the cal yx. Capsule is ovoid, trigonous, thin smooth and ursting irregularly. Tu ers ar e palmately ranched and camphoraceous (Thakur et al, 1989). The identity of the plant sources of the drug Karcura is a matter of de ate. There is difference of opinion among men of Ayurveda, as to whether Sati and Karcura are the same drug or different. Many authors consider them different and equate Sati with Hedychi um spicatum Smith. and Karcura with C. edoaria, oth elonging to Zingi eraceae (Kurup et al,1979; Chunekar 1982; Sharma, 1983). Some others treat them to e t he same and equate it with C. edoaria (Kirtikar and Basu, 1918; Vaidya, 1936; N adkarni, 1954; Kapoor and Mitra, 1979). However, the source of Karcura in Kerala in the recent times has een Kaempferia galanga of the same family. The rhi ome of C. edoaria is used as appetiser and tonic, particularly prescri ed to ladie s after child irth. In case of cold, a decoction of long pepper (Piper longum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), edoary and honey is given. In Ayurveda it is an in gredient of “Braticityadi kwatha”, used in high fever (Thakur et al, 1989). Root is useful in flatulence and dyspepsia, and as a corrector of purgatives. Fresh root checks leucorrhoeal and gonorrhoeal discharges. Root powder is a good su st itute for many foreign foods for infants. For worms, the juice from the tu ers i s given to children. Juice of the leaves is given in dropsy (Nadkarni, 1982). It is an odoriferous ingredient of the cosmetics used for the cure of chronic skin diseases caused y impure or deranged lood (Nadkarni, 1998). Essential oil fro m rhi omes contains α-pinene, d-c mphene, cineole, d-c mphor, sesquiterpenes nd sesquiterpene lcohols (Hus in et l, 1992). The novel sesquiterpenoids which h ve been isol ted nd ch r cterised re cuzerenone, epi-cuzerenone, isofur noger merene, curcum diol, curcumol, curcumenol, iso-curcumenol, procurcumenol, dehydr ocurdione (Hikino et l, 1968, 1971, 1972), germ crone-4, 5-epoxide, germ crone, germ crone fur nodienone, curcumenol, iso-curcumenol, curcum nolides A nd B n d curcumenone (Shiob r et l, 1985). The st rch left fter the extr ction is pu rified nd sold s commodity of cott ge industry in West-Beng l under the n me ‘Shoti’ (Rao et al, 1928). Eth l-p methox -cinnamate has been isolated from the alcoholic extract of the plant (Gupta et al, 1976). Rhizome is stomachic, diure tic, and carminative and gastrointestinal stimulant. Other important species of Curcuma genus are C. angustifolia Roxb. (Vellakoova) C. caesia Roxb. (Black ging er) C. leucorhiza Roxb. C. pseudomontana Grah. C. rubescens Roxb. Agrotechnolog Curcuma species are tropical herbs and can be grown on different t pes of soils both under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Rich loam soils having good draina ge are ideal for the crop. The plant is propagated b whole or split mother rhiz omes. Well developed, health and disease free rhizomes are to be selected. Rhiz omes are to be treated with copper ox chloride fungicides and stored in cool, dr place or earthen pits plastered with mud and cowdung. The best season of plant ing is during April with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers. The land is to be p repared to a fine tilth during Februar -March. On receipt of premonsoon showers in April, beds of size 3x1.2m with a spacing of 40cm between beds are to be prep ared. Small pits are to be taken in the beds in rows with a spacing of 25-40cm. 143

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Finger rhizomes are to be planted flat with buds facing upwards and covered with soil or dr powdered cattle manure. The crop is to be mulched immediatel after planting and 50 da s after first mulching. Cattle manure or compost is to be ap plied as basal dose at 20-40t/ha at the time of land preparation or b spreading over the beds after planting. Application of NPK fertilizers is beneficial and found to increase the ield considerabl . Weeding is to be done twice at 60 and 120 da s after planting, depending upon weed intensit . Earthing up is to be don e after 60 da s. No major incidence of pest or disease is noticed in this crop. Leaf blotch and leaf spot can be controlled b spra ing Bordeaux mixture or 0.2% Mancozeb. Shoot borers can be controlled b spra ing 0.05% Dimethoate or 0.025% Quinalphos. Time of harvest usuall extends from Januar -March. Harvesting is g enerall done at about 7-10 months after planting depending upon the species and variet . Harvested rhizomes are to be cleaned of mud and other materials adheri ng to them. Good fingers separated are to be used for curing (KAU, 1996). 144

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INDIAN SARASAPARILLA Asclepiadaceae Hemidesmus indicus San: Anantamulah, Sariba; Hin: Anantamul, Magrabu; Ben: Anantamul; Mal: Nannari, Naruninti, Narunanti; Tam: Nannari, Saribam; Tel: Sugandipala; Kan: Namadaballi Importance Indian Sarasaparilla or Countr Sarasaparilla is a climbing slender plant with t wining wood stems and a rust-coloured bark. The roots are useful in vitiated co nditions of pitta, burning sensation, leucoderma, lepros , skin diseases, prurit us, asthma, bronchitis, h perdipsia, opthalmopath , hemicrania, epileptic fits, d spepsia, helminthiasis, diarrhoea, d senter , haemorrhoids, strangur , leucorr hoea, s philis, abcess, arthralgia, fever and general debilit . The leaves are u seful in vomiting, wounds and leucoderma. The stems are bitter, diaphoretic and laxative and are useful in inflammations, cerebropath , hepatopath , nephropath , s philis, metropath , leucoderma, odontalgia, cough and asthma. The latex is g ood for conjunctivitis (Warrier et al, 1995). The important formulations using t he drug are Saribad asava, Pindataila, Vidar adi leh a, Draksadi kasa a, Jat adi ghrita, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). The Hemidesmus root powdered and mixed wi th cow’s milk is given with much benefit in the case of strangur . In the form o f s rup, it has demulcent and diuretic proportions. The root, roasted in plantai n leaves, then beaten into a mass with cumin and sugar and mixed with ghee is a household remed in genito-urinar diseases. The hot infusion of the root-bark w ith milk and sugar is a good alterative tonic especiall for children in cases o f chronic cough and diarrhoea (Nadkarni, 1998). It has been successfull used in the cure of venereal diseases where American Sarasaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L inn.) has failed. Native doctors utilize it in nephritic complaints and for sore mouths of children (Grieve and Le el, 1992). Distribution Hemidesmus is distributed throughout India, the Moluccas and Sri Lanka. Botan Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R. Br. s n. Periploca indica Linn. belongs to the fam il Asclepiadaceae. It is a perennial, slender, laticiferous, twining or prostra te, wir shrub with wood rootstock and numerous slender, terete stems having th ickened nodes. Leaves are simple, opposite, ver variable from elliptic-oblong t o linear-lanceolate, variegated with white above and silver white and pubescent beneath. Flowers are greenish purple crowded in sub-sessile c mes in the opposi te leaf-axils. Fruits are slender follicles, c lindrical, 10cm long, tapering to a point at the apex. Seeds are flattened, black, ovate-oblong and coma silver white. The tuberous root is dark-brown, coma silver white, tortuous with transv ersel cracked and longitudinall fissured bark. It has a strong central vascula ture and a pleasant smell and taste (Warrier et al, 1995). The A urvedic texts m ention two varieties, viz. a krsna or black variet and a sveta or white variet (Ai er, 1951) which together constitute the pair, Saribadva am. The drug is kno wn as Sariba. Svetasariba is H. indicus. Two plants, namel , Ichnocarpus fructes cens (Apoc naceae) known as pal-valli in vernacular and Cr ptolepis buchanani (A sclepidaceae) known as Katupalvalli (Rheeds, 1689) are equated with black variet or Krsnasariba (Chunekar, 1982; Sharma, 1983). 145

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Agrotechnolog Hemidesmus is propagated through root cuttings. The root cuttings of length 3-5c m can be planted in pol bags or in the field. The can be planted in flat beds o r on ridges. Planting is done usuall at a spacing of 50x20cm. Heav application of organic manure is essential for good growth and root ield. Inorganic fertil izers are not usuall applied. Frequent weeding and earthing up are required, as the plant is onl slow growing. Provision of standards for twining will further improve the growth and ield of the plant. Properties and Activit The twigs of the plant give a pregnane ester digl coside named desinine. Roots g ive β-sitosterol, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy en aldehyde, α- myrin, β-amyrin and its a cetate, hexatriacontane, lupeol octacosonate, lupeol and its acetate. Leaves, st em and root cultures give cholesterol, campesterol, β-sitosterol and 16-dehydropregnenolone. Leaves and flowers also give flavonoid glycosides rutin, hyperosid e and iso-quercitin (Husain et al,1992). “Hemidesmine”- a crystalli i le princip le is found in the volatile oil extracted from roots. Some suggest that it is on ly a stearoptene. It also contains some starch, saponin and in the su erous laye r, tannic acid (Grieve and Leyel, 1992). The root is alterative, fe rifuge, anti leucorrhoeic, antisyphilitic, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, tonic, galactoge nic, antidote for scorpion-sting and snake- ite, antidiarrhoeal, lood purifier, antirheumatic and aperitive. Essential oil from root is anti- acterial and the plant is antiviral (Husain et al, 1992). 146

 

 

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INDIAN SENNA Caesalpiniaceae Importance Cassia senna San: Svarnapatri; Hin: Sanay, Sana Ka Patt; Ben: Sonamukhi; Mal: Sunnamukki, Cho nnamukki, Nilavaka; Tam: Nilavirai, Nilavakai; Tel: Netatangedu Indian Senna or Tinnevelly senna is a shru very highly esteemed in India for its medicinal valu e. The leaves are useful in constipation, a dominal disorders, leprosy, skin dis eases, leucoderma, splenomegaly, hepatopathy, jaundice, helminthiasis, dyspepsia , cough, ronchitis, typhoid fever, anaemia, tumours and vitiated conditions of pitta and vata (Warrier et al,1994). It is used in Ayurvedic preparations; “Panc ha Sakara Churna”, “Shat Sakara Churna” and “Madhu Yastyadi Churna” used for con stipation. Its use is widespread in Unani system and some of the important produ cts of this system containing senna are “Itrifal Mulayyin”, “Jawarish Ood Mulayy in”, “Ha Sha yar”, “Sufuf Mulliyin”, “Shar at Ahmad Shahi”, etc. used as a mild laxative (Thakur et al, 1989). Distri ution The plant is of Mediterranean origin. It is found in Somalia, Saudi Ara ia, part s of Pakistan and Kutch area of Gujarat. It is largely cultivated in Tirunelveli , Ramanathapuram, Madurai and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu. Botany The genus Cassia, elonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae, comprises of a num er of species, namely, C. senna Linn. syn. C. angustifolia Vahl. C. a sus Linn. C. alata Linn. C. auriculata Linn. C. urmanni Wight. syn. C. o ovata (Linn.) Coll ad. C. glauca Lam. C. javanica Linn. C. mimosoides Linn. C. o tusifolia Linn. sy n. C. tora Linn. C. occidentalis Linn. C. pumila Lam. C. slamea Lam. C. acutifol ia Delile. C. sophera Linn. C. senna is a shru or undershru , 60-75cm in height with pale su terete or o tusely angled erect or spreading ranches. Leaves are paripinnate. Leaflets are 5-8 in num er, ovate-lanceolate and gla rous. Flowers are yellowish, many and arranged in axillary racemes. Fruits are flat legumes, g reenish rown to dark rown and nearly smooth (Chopra et al,1980, Warrier et al, 1994). In commerce, the leaves and pods o tained from C. senna are known as “ Ti nnevelly Senna” and those from C. acutifolia Delile. as “Alexandrian Senna”. The leaves of C. acutifolia are narrower than C. senna, otherwise oth resem le to a large extent (Thakur et al, 1989). All the true Sennas have the portions of th eir leaves unequally divided. In some kinds the lower part of one side is reduce d to little more than a line in readth, while the other is from a quarter to ha lf an inch in readth. The drug known under the name of East Indian Senna is nea rly free from adulteration; and as its properties appear identical with those of the Alexandrian and the price eing less, it pro a ly will supersede it in gene ral practice. Its si e and shape readily identify it (Graves, 1996). Agrotechnology The plant requires a mild su tropical climate with warm winters which are free f rom frost for its growth. Semiarid areas with adequate irrigation facilities are ideal for 147

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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cultivation. Areas having high rainfall, humidity and poor drainage are not suit a le. Light or medium loamy soils with adequate drainage and pH varying from 7.0 -8.2 are prefera le. In South India oth summer and winter crops are possi le. T he plant is propagated y seeds. The seed rate required is 15-20kg/ha. Seeds are sown in Octo er-Novem er (winter rainfed crop) or in Fe ruary-March (irrigated crop). Higher seed rate is required for unirrigated crop. Seeds are sown in line s 30cm apart. Application of 5-10t of FYM/ha efore planting or raising a green manure crop is eneficial. A out 40kg N and 25-50kg P2O5/ha applied as asal dre ssing and 40kg N/ha applied in 2 split do es as top dressing gave etter yield. While the rainfed crop is grown without irrigation, the irrigated crop requires 5-8 light irrigations during the entire growing season. The crop requires 2-3 we edings and hoeings in order to keep it free from weeds. Alternaria alternata cau ses leaf spot and die ack ut the disease is not serious. In North India, the pl ant is attacked y the larvae of utterfly Catopsilia pyranthe which can e cont rolled y planting the crop in March-April instead of June-July. Under irrigated conditions, the first crop is o tained after 90 days of planting. The leaves ar e stripped y hand when they are fully green, thick and luish-green in colour. The second crop is taken 4 weeks after the first harvest and the third 4-6 weeks after the second one. The last harvest of leaves is done when the entire crop i s harvested along with the pods. Yield under irrigated conditions is nearly1.4t of leaves and 150kg pods/ha and under unirrigated conditions is 500-600kg leaves and 80-100kg pods/ha. The leaves are dried in thin layers under shade so as to retain the green colour and the pods are hung for 10-12 days to get dried. The l eaves and pods are cleaned, graded and marketed (Husain et al, 1993). Properties and Activity Leaves contain glucose, fructose, sucrose and pinnitol. Mucilage consists of gal actose, ara inose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. Leaves also contain sennoside -C(8,8’diglucoside of rhein-aloe-emodin-dianthrone). Pods contain sennosides A a nd B, glycoside of anthraquinones rhein and chrysophanic acid. Seeds contain β-s itosterol (Husain et al, 1992). Leaves and pods also contain 0.33% β-sterol and flavonols-kaempferol, kaempferin, and iso-rhamnetin. Sennoside content of C. acu tifolia is higher ranging from 2.5% to 4.5% as compared to C. angustifolia rangi ng from 1.5 % to 2.5%. The purgative activity of Senna is attri uted to its senn osides. The pods cause lesser griping than the leaves. Leaf and pod is laxative. The leaves are astringent, itter, sweet, acrid, thermogenic, cathartic, depura tive, liver tonic, anthelmintic, cholagogue, expectorant and fe rifuge. 148

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

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NAGADANTI Euphor iaceae San: Danti; Hin: Danti; Baliospermum montanum Mal: Danti, Nagadanti; Tam: Nakatanti; Tel: Nelajidi Importance Danti or Nagadanti is a stout undershru with numerous flowers. Root, which is t he officinal part, is used in a dominal pain, constipation, calculus, general an asarca, piles, helminthic manifestations, sca ies, skin disorders, suppurative u lcers and diseases caused y the mor idity of kapha and pitta. Root paste is app lied to painful swellings and piles. Leaves cure asthma and seeds are used in sn ake ite (Kurup et al, 1979; Sharma, 1983). The drug forms an important constitue nt of preparations like Dantyarishta, Dantiharitakileham, Kaisoraguggulu gulika, etc.(Sivarajan et al, 1994). Distri ution The plant is found throughout the su -Himalayan tracts from Kashmir to Khasi Hil ls. It is common in West Bengal, Bihar and Central and Peninsular India. Botany Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell-Arg. syn. B. axillare Bl., B. polyandrum Wt . elongs to the family Euphro iaceae. It is a stout under-shru 0.9-1.8m in hei ght with her aceous ranches from the roots. Leaves are simple, sinuate-toothed, upper ones small, lower ones large and sometimes palmately 3-5 lo ed. Flowers a re numerous, arranged in axillary racemes with male flowers a ove and a few fema les elow. Fruits are capsules, 813mm long and o ovoid. Seeds are ellipsoid smoo th and mottled (Warrier et al,1993). Agrotechnology The tropical plant is suited to almost all soils. It can e cultivated either as pure crop or intercrop. It is propagated vegetatively y cuttings. A out 15-20c m long rooted cuttings are used for planting. Pits of si e 50cm cu e are to e t aken at 3m spacing and filled with dried cowdung, sand and top soil and formed i nto a mound. On these mounds, rooted cuttings are to e planted at 2 cuttings/mo und. Cuttings esta lish within one month. Weeding is to e carried out at this t ime. Application of organic manure after every 6 months is eneficial. Irrigatio n during summer months is prefera le. The plant is not attacked y any serious p ests or diseases. Roots can e collected at the end of second year. The roots ar e to e cut and dried in sun efore marketing. The yield is a out one tonne root /ha (Prasad et al,1997). Properties and Activity Roots contain diterpenes, aliospermin, montanin, phor ol-12-deoxy-13-O-palmitat e, phor ol-12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-13-O-palmitate and phor ol-12-deoxy-5β-hydroxy-13 – myristate (Ogura et al, 1978). Alcoholic extract of plant showed hypotensive activity in experimental animals (Bhakuni et al, 1971). Antilukaemic and cytotox ic activities have een demonstrated in the esters of oth 12-deoxyphor ol and 1 2-deoxy-16-hydroxyphor ol, isolated from B. montanum (King-horn, 1979). The root s are acrid, thermogenic, purgative, antiinflammatory, anodyne, digestive, anthe lmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, ru efacient, fe rifuge and tonic. Seed is purgat ive, stimulant, ru efacient and antidote for snake ite. Seed oil is antirheumati c. Leaf is antiasthmatic and wound healing. Root and seed oil is cathartic and a ntidropsical. Stem is anti-dontalgic. 149

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ALSTONIA Apocynaceae San: Visaghni, Anadana; Mal: Analivegam; Alstonia venenata Tam: Sinnappalai; Kan: Addasarpa Importance Alstonia is a large shru with straight ole and growing upto a out 6m height. T he roots are useful in skin diseases, erysipelas, leprosy, co ra ite and other venomous ites, epilepsy, fatigue, fever and otalgia. The fruits are useful in s yphilis, insanity and epilepsy. The plant is elieved to repel snakes. Distri ution The plant is distri uted throughout India in deciduous forests in areas up to 18 00m elevation. Botany Alstonia venenata R.Br., elonging to the family Apocynaceae, is a large shru t o small tree up to 6m in height with greyish rown ark and right yellow hard a nd woody root. Leaves are simple, arranged in whorls of 3-6, mem ranous, lanceol ate, margins wavy, finely acuminate, main nerves numerous, close, parallel and u nited y inter marginal nerve. Flowers are white, arranged in terminal su um el late cymes or in racemes. Fruits are fusiform with stalked and eaked follicles, tapering at oth ends. Seeds are many flattened with a tuft of hair at each end (Warrier et al, 1993). Other important species elonging to the genus Alstonia are the following. 1. A. scholaris R. Br. This tree is common throughout India. The ark is valua le in de ility and after effects of fever, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery and catarrhal fever. The milky j uice is applied to ulcers and rheumatic pains, mixed with oil and dropped into e ar to relieve earache. Ditanin is the active principle of the ark, possessing p owerful fe rifuge properties. The ark is astringent, tonic and fe rifuge (Nadka rni, 1998). 2. A. specta ilis R. Br. It is a large evergreen tree seen in tropical forests of Andamans. The ark cont ains alkaloids such as alstonamine, ditamine, echitamine and echitenine (Chopra et al,1980) Agrotechnology The plant is propagated mainly y seeds. Seeds are to e sown on seed eds and ge rminated ones are to e transferred to poly ags. A out three months old seedling s are used for transplanting. If seeds are not availa le, thin stem cuttings can e planted in poly ags and rooted cuttings used. Pits of si e 60cm cu e are to e taken at 3m spacing, filled with dried cowdung, sand and topsoil and made int o a mound. To this mounds seedlings from poly ags are to e transplanted. Irriga tion is essential during early stages of growth. Application of organic manure e very year is eneficial. Regular weeding is to e done. The plant is not attacke d y any serious pests or diseases. Flowers are formed in the first year itself. It can e used for medicinal purposes after seven years of growth. Fruits and r oots are the economical parts (Prasad et al,1997). Properties and Activity The plant is a rich source of indole alkaloids. Alkaloids are present in various parts. Stem ark and root contain venenatine, alstovenine, 3-dehydroalstovenine and reserpine. Stem ark contains venoxidine (venenatine N -oxide), anhydroals tonatine, kopsinine, venalstonine, venalstonidine(venalstonine-6,7-epoxide), ech itovenine and veneserpine. Fruits contain echitovenidine, (+)minovincinine, echi toserpidine, echitoserpine, echitoveniline, 11-methoxy echitovonidine, 11-methox

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

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y (-) minovinicinine, echitoserpiline, (-)vincadifformine, 11-methoxy()vincadiff ormine and venoterpine. Leaves contain echitovenaldine, echitoveniline, alstolen ine, deacetylakuammiline, polynuridine, dihydropolynuridine and raucaffrininolin e. The yellow tint in ark is ecause of the presence of ∆3- lstovenine. A numbe r of indole lk loids h ve been further isol ted from the pl nt. In ddition to lk loids fruits cont in β-amyrin acetate and lupeol ester of β-hydroxy acid (Hu sain et al,1992). The root is itter, astringent, thermogenic, depurative, antit oxic, fe rifuge and anodyne. The alkaloid alstovenine in lower doses exhi ited m onoamine oxidase inhi itor activity, while in higher doses it showed marked cent ral stimulant effect. Veninatine exhi ited reserpine like activity. Alcoholic ex tract of the fruits showed initial activation effect on acetylcholine esterase, followed alternately y inhi ition and activation of the en yme. 150

 

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PURGING CROTON Euphor iaceae San: Jepalah, Danti ijah Hin: Jamalgota Tam: Nervalam, Sevalamkottai Tel: Nepala Ben: Jaypal Croton tiglium Mal: Nirvalam Importance Purging croton or croton oil plant, a small evergreen tree with separate male an d female flowers, is one among the seven poisons descri ed in Ayurveda. The drug is well known for its drastic purgative property. The drug is found to e usefu l in ascites, anasarca, cold, cough, asthma, constipation, calculus, dropsy, fev er and enlargement of the a dominal viscera. The seed paste is a good applicatio n for skin diseases, painful swellings and alopacia. The seed-oil is useful in c hronic ronchitis, laryngeal affections, arthritis and lock jaw. Misraka-sneham is an important preparation using the drug (Nadkarni, 1954; Dey, 1980; Sharma, 1 983). Distri ution It is distri uted throughout North India. It is cultivated in Assam, West Bengal and South India. Botany Croton tiglium Linn. elongs to the family Euphor iaceae. It is a small evergree n tree, 4.56.0m in height with ash coloured smooth ark and young shoots sprinkl ed with stellate hairs. Leaves are o long to ovate-lanceolate, o tuse or rounded at the 2-glanded ox, acuminate, mem raneous, yellowish green and minutely toot hed. Flowers are small, unisexual, males on slender pedicels, females larger and on short thick pedicels. Fruits are ovoid or o long trigonous capsules. Seeds a re smooth, testa lack and enclosing reddish rown oily endosperm (Warrier et al ,1994). Other species elonging to the genus Croton are as follows: C. aromaticu s Linn. C. caudatus Geisel C. jouera Rox . C. mala aricus Bedd. C. o longifolius Rox . C. polyandrus Rox . syn. Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg. C. reticulatus( Chopra et al, 1980) Agrotechnology The plant is propagated y seeds. Seeds are to e sown on seed eds and a out 2 m onths old seedlings are used for transplanting. Pits of si e 50cm cu e are to e taken at 3m spacing and filled with dried cowdung, sand and topsoil and formed into a mound. The seedlings are to e planted on these mounds. Irrigation during summer months is eneficial. Application of organic manure after every 6 months is desira le. Weeding is to e carried out one month after transplanting. The p lant is not attacked y any serious pests or diseases. Fruits are formed at the end of first year. Fruits when ripen and start to crack are to e collected, dri ed in sun, then the outer shell is removed and again dried for one day efore ma rketing (Prasad et al,1997). Properties and activity Oil contains phor ol myristate acetate ( Husain et al, 1992). Seeds contain upto 20% protein and 30-50% lipids. Iso-guanine-D-ri ose (crotoniside) and saccharos e were isolated from the seeds. In fractionation of croton oil, liquid-liquid di stri ution procedures proved to e the separation tools of choice. The per hydro genated parent hydrocar on of phor ol is a perhydrocyclopropa en ulene called ti gliane and phor ol is 1, 1aα, 1bβ, 4, 4a, 7aα, 7b, 8, 9, 9 -dec hydro-4 β, 7α, 9 β, 9aαtetr hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1, 1, 6, 8α tetr methyl-5-H-cycloprop [3,4] benz [1.2-e] zulen-5one. Phorbol, tetr cylic diterpene with 5, 7, 6 nd 3membered ring h s 6 oxygen functions. Phorbol ccounts for 3.4% nd 4- deoxy- 4α - phorbol for 0.29% of the weight of croton oil. Twentyfive phorbol-12, 13-diest ers h ve been detected (Hecker et l, 1974). A toxin croton 1, mol. wt 72,000 h s been isol ted from the seeds (Lin et l, 1978). Phorbol myrist te cet te cti

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v tes nitroblue tetr zolium reduction in hum n tive, rubef cient nd nti-dote for sn kebite. er, thermogenic, emollient, dr stic purg tive, tic, ntiinfl mm tory, vermifuge, deterent, di irrit nt nd rubef cient.

polymorphs. Seed nd oil is purg The seeds nd oil re crid, bitt digestive, c rmin tive, nthelmin phoretic, expector nt, vesic nt,

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ASHOKA C es lpini ce e S n:Asok , G t sok h; T m: Asog m;

Distribution Ashok is found lmost throughout Indi , except North-Western Indi , upto 750m. It is lso found in the And m n Isl nds. Bot ny S r c soc (Roxb.) de Wilde. syn. S. indic uct. non Linn. is medium sized evergreen tree growing upto 9m height with numerous spre ding nd drooping gl br ous br nches. Le ves re pinn te, 30-60cm long h ving 2-3 p irs of l nceol te le flets. Flowers re or nge or or nge yellow, rr nged in dense corymbs nd very fr gr nt. Fruits re fl t bl ck pods, le thery nd compressed with 4-8 seeds/pod . Seeds re ellipsoid oblong nd compressed. The b rk is d rk brown to grey or b l ck with w rty surf ce. The thickness v ries from 5mm to 10mm. The entire cut surf ce turns reddish on exposure to ir. Poly lthi longifoli (Annon ce e) is equ ted with the n me Asok by some (K poor & Mitr , 1979; Chunek r, 1982) nd is often used s n dulter nt of the genuine Asok b rk or s substitute (W r rier et l,1996).

Flowers give β-sitosterol, flavonoids and flavone glycosides-quercetin, kaempfer ol-3-O-β-Dglucoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside. The anthocyanins present are p elargonidin-3, 5-diglucoside and cyanadin-3, 5-diglucoside. Bark yields catechol

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Agrotechnology Asok grows well in re s with well distributed r inf ll nd in slightly sh dy re s. Asok requires soil rich in org nic m ter nd moisture. The best se son of pl nting is June-July. It is lso grown in summer, if irrig tion f cilities re v il ble. The pl nt is seed prop g ted. Seeds re formed usu lly during Febru ry-April. Seeds re collected when they re ripen nd f ll down nd re sown ft er so king in w ter for 12 hours on the prep red beds. Seeds germin te within 20 d ys. The seeds re then pl nted in polyb gs. 2-month-old seedlings from the po lyb gs re used for tr nspl nting. Squ re sh ped pits of 60cm depth re t ken t 3m sp cing nd filled with topsoil, s nd nd dried cowdung. On this the seedlin gs re pl nted. Applic tion of FYM t 10kg/tree/ye r is highly benefici l. Chemi c l fertilisers re not usu lly pplied. Irrig tion during summer months is esse nti l. No serious pests or dise ses re gener lly noted in this crop. If properl y cultiv ted, Asok c n be cut fter 20 ye rs nd the b rk collected. It is cut t height of 15cm from the soil level. If given irrig tion nd fertilisers, th e cut wood will sprout g in nd h rvested g in fter 5 ye rs. This c n be cont inued. When it is difficult to cut the tree, the b rk c n be peeled off from one side first. When the b rk grows nd cover th t p rt, the other side c n be peel ed off. This is lso continued (Pr s d et l, 1997; K rsh k sree, 1998).

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Import nce Ashok , the s cred tree of Hindus nd Buddhists, possesses v ried medicin l uses . The b rk is useful in dyspepsi , fever, dipsi , burning sens tion, visceromeg ly, colic, ulcers, menorrh gi , metrop thy, leucorrhoe nd pimples. The le f ju ice mixed with cumin seeds is used for tre ting stom ch l gi . The floweres re considered to be uterine tonic nd re used in viti ted conditions of pitt , syp hilis, cervic l dinitis, hyperdipsi , burning sens tion, h emorrhoids, dysenter y, sc bies in children nd infl mm tion. The well-known Ayurvedic prep r tions re ”Ashok risht ” nd “Ashok ghrit ”. Ashok risht is prescribed in leucorrhoe , h em turi , menorrh gi nd other dise ses of genitourin ry system of fem les.

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S r c soc Hin:Asok, Asok ; Ben:Ashok; M l:Asok m; K n:Asok d , Aksunk r ; Tel: Asok mu, V nj l mu

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and sterols-(24ζ )-24-methyl cholest-5-en-3β-ol, (22E, 24ζ )-24-ethylcholesta-5 , 22-dien-3 β-ol and (24ζ )-24-ethyl cholest-5-en-3β-ol, a wax containing n-alka nes, esters and free primary alcohols. Alcoholic extract and glycoside P2 from s tem ark is oxytoxic. Aerial part is CNS active, hypothermic, CNS depressant and diuretic. Stem ark is anticancerous, has spasmodic action on ra it intestine and cardiotonic action in frog and dog. Seed is antifungal. Stem ark is astring ent, antileucorrhoeic, anti ilious and uterine sedative. Flower is uterine tonic , antidia etic and antisyphilitic. Stem ark and flower is anti ilious (Husain e t al, 1992). 152

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

GREEN CHIRETTA Acanthaceae San: Bhunim ah, Kiratatiktah Mal: Nilaveppu, Kiriyattu Andrographis paniculata Hin: Kakamegh, Kalpanath Tam: Nilavempu Ben: Kalmegh Kan: Kreata Importance Kalmegh, the Great or Green Chiretta is a ranched annual her . It is useful in hyperdipsia, urning sensation, wounds, ulcers, chronic fever, malarial and inte rmittent fevers, inflammations, cough, ronchitis, skin diseases, leprosy, pruri tis, intestinal worms, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemo rrhoids and vitiated conditions of pitta (Warrier et al, 1993). It is used to ov ercome sannipata type of fever, difficulty in reathing, hemopathy due to the mo r idity of kapha and pitta, urning sensation, cough, oedema, thirst, skin disea ses, fever, ulcer and worms. It is also useful in acidity and liver complaints ( Aiyer and Kolammal, 1962). The important preparations using the drug are Tiktaka gheta, Gorocandi gulika, Candanasava, Panchatiktam kasaya, etc. (Sivarajan et al , 1994). A preparation called “Alui” is prepared y mixing powdered cumin (Cumin ium cyminum) and large cardamom (Amomum su ulatum) in the juice of this plant an d administered for the treatment of malaria (Thakur et al, 1989). It is also a r ich source of minerals. Distri ution The plant is distri uted throughout the tropics. It is found in the plains of In dia from U.P to Assam, M.P., A.P, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, also cultivated in gard ens. Botany Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall ex. Nees elongs to the family Acanthacea e. It is an erect ranched annual her , 0.3-0.9m in height with quadrangular ra nches. Leaves are simple, lanceolate, acute at oth ends, gla rous, with 4-6 pai rs of main nerves. Flowers are small, pale ut lotched and spotted with rown a nd purple distant in lax spreading axillary and terminal racemes or panicles. Ca lyx-lo es are glandular pu escent with anthers earded at the ase. Fruits are l inear capsules and acute at oth ends. Seeds are numerous, yellowish rown and s u -quadrate (Warrier et al,1993). Another species of Andrographis is A. echioide s (Linn.) Nees. It is found in the warmer parts of India. The plant is a fe rifu ge and diuretic. It contains flavone-echiodinin and its glucoside-echioidin (Hus ain et al, 1992). Agrotechnology The est season of planting Andrographis is May-June. The field is to e ploughe d well, mixed with compost or dried cowdung and seed eds of length 3m, readth 1 /2m and 15cm height are to e taken at a distance of 3m. The plant is seed propa gated. Seeds are to e soaked in water for 6 hours efore sowing. Sowing is to e done at a spacing of 20cm. Seeds may germinate within 15-20 days. Two weedings , first at one month after planting and the second at 2 month after planting are to e carried out. Irrigation during summer months is eneficial. The plant is not attacked y any serious pests or diseases. Flowering commences from third mo nth onwards. At this stage, plant are to e collected, tied into small undles a nd sun-dried for 4-5 days. Whole plant is the economic part and the yield is a o ut 1.25t dried plants/ha (Prasad et al, 1997). Properties and Activity Leaves contain two itter su stances lactone “andrographolid” and “kalmeghin”. T he ash contains sodium chloride and potassium salts. Plant is very rich in chlor ophyte. Kalmeghin is the active principle that contains 0.6% alkaloid of the cru de plant. The plant contains diterpenoids, andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11-oxo-andr ographolide, 14-deoxy11,12-dihydroandrographolide, 14-deoxy andrographolide and neoandrographolide (Allison et al, 1968). The roots give flavones-apigenin-7,4-d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

io-O-methyl ether, 5-hydroxy-7,8,2’,3’tetramethoxyflavone, andrographin and pani colin and α-sitosterol (Ali et l, 1972; 153

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Govind ch ri et l, 1969). Le ves cont in homo ndrogr pholide, ndrogr phosterol nd ndrogr phone. The pl nt is vulner ry, ntipyretic, ntiperiodic, nti-infl mm tory, expector nt, depur tive, sudorific, nthelmintic, digestive, stom chic , tonic, febrifuge nd chol gogue. The pl nt is ntifung l, ntityphoid, hep top rotective, ntidi betic nd cholinergic. Shoot is ntib cteri l nd le f is hypo tensive(G rci et l, 1980). This is used for the infl mm tion of the respir tor y tr ct. In Chin , rese rchers h ve isol ted the ndrogr pholide from which solu ble deriv tive such s 14-deoxy-11, 12-dehydro- ndrogr pholide which forms the s ubject of current ph rm cologic l nd clinic l studies. Apigenin 7,4’-O-dimeth l ether isolated from A. paniculata exhibits dose dependent, antiulcer activit i n sha rat, histamine induced ulcer in guinea pigs and aspirin induced ulcers in rats. A crude substance isolated from methanolic extract of leaves has shown h potensive activit . Pre-treatment of rats with leaf (500mg/kg) or andrographolid e (5mg/kg) orall prevented the carbon tetrachloride induced increase of blood s erum levels of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase in liver and prevented hepato cellular membrane. 154

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GARDEN RUE Rutaceae Ruta chalepensis San: Gucchapatra; Hin: Pismaram, Sadab, Satari; Ben: Ermul; Mal: Aruta, Nagatali ; Tam: Aruvadam, Arvada; Kan: Sadabu, Nagadali; soppu, Simesdanu; Tel: Sadapa, A ruda Importance Common rue or Garden rue also known as Herb of Grace due to its service in the Roman Catholic Church for sprinkling the hol water among the con gregation, is an aromatic perennial herb. The plant is useful in vitiated condit ions of kapha and vata, strangur , fever, flatulence, colic, amenorrhoea, epilep s and h steria. The oil acts as a stimulant for uterine and nervous s stems. Th e fresh leaves are used for rheumatalgia. The juice obtained from the leaves is given to children for helminthic infections and is good for odontalgia and otalg ia (Warrier et al, 1996). The dried leaves, powdered and combined with aromatics , are given as a remed for d spepsia and with the fresh leaves a tincture is ma de which is used as an external remed in the first stages of paral sis (Nadkarn i, 1998). Distribution The plant is a native of South Europe and it is found in subtropical countries. It is commonl cultivated in Indian gardens. Botan Ruta chalepensis Linn.s n. R. graveolens Linn. var. angustifolia Sensu Hook. f. belongs to the famil Rutaceae. It is an aromatic perennial herb growing upto 75 cm height. Leaves are compound, shortl petiolate with ultimate segments oblong or obovate-oblong. Flowers are ellow. Fruits are capsules and shortl pedicelle d (Warrier et al, 1996). Agrotechnolog The plant is suited to areas which are about 1000m above mean sea level and with moderate rainfall and sunlight. The plant can be propagated either b seeds or stem cuttings. Seeds are to be sown in seedbeds. Stem cuttings of length 20-25cm are to be planted in pol bags for rooting. About 3-4 months old seedlings can b e transplanted to pots and harvested when plants attain 6-8 months age. In highl ands land is to be ploughed to a fine tilth, mixed with organic manure and seedl ings are to be transplanted at a spacing of 45cm between plants. Irrigation is e ssential during summer months. Regular weeding is to be done. The plant is not a ttacked b an serious pests and diseases. Harvesting commences from sixth month onwards. The economic part is the whole plant and the oil extracted from it (Pr asad et al, 1997). Properties and Activit Roots contain coumarins-xanth letin and (-)-b akangelicin. The alkaloids are rut acridone-epoxide, gravacridonol and its monometh l ether, gravacridonchlorine, f uracridone, 1-h drox -3-methox -N-meth lacridone, iso-gravacridonechlorine, dict amine, r-fragarine and skimmianine. Skimmianine is also present in leaves and st em. Leaves and stem also contain graveolinine (1-meth l-2(3’,4’-meth lenediox ph enol)-4-methox quinoline). Aerial parts give coumarins bergapten, xanthotoxin an d psoralen. Coumarinimperatin has also been reported from the plant. Herb contai ns alkaloids such as kokusagenine, rutamine(meth lgraveoline) and graveoline(1-m eth l-2(3’,4’meth lenediox phen l)-4-quinoline). Tissue culture of the plant giv es furacridone alkaloids1-h drox rutacridone-epoxide, rutagravin and gravacridon ol. Gravacridondiol and its glucoside have been obtained from the root tissue cu lture. The essential oil from leaves, stem and root ielded aliphatic ketones in cluding 2-nonanone (10-35%), undec l-2-acetate (0.515%), 2-non l acetate (trace10%), non lacetate, nonanol, 2-non lpropionate, 2non lpropionate, 2-undecanol an d its esters. The oil from roots gave pregeijerene also. The plant is spasmol ti c which is due to the presence of bergapten, xanthotoxin, the essential oil and a coumarin. It is also antispasmodic, emmenagogue, irritant, abortifacient and a

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nti-bacterial. Leaf is analgesic, antirheumatic, antih steric and anthelmintic ( Husain et al, 1992). 155

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WORM KILLER Aristolochiaceae San: Kitamari Hin: Kiramar, Kitamar Tam: Atutinnappalai Aristolochia bracteolata Mal: Attuthottappala, Atuthinnappala Importance The bracteated birthwort or worm killer is a perennial prostrate herb. As the na me suggests it is a killer of intestinal worms especiall roundworms. It is also used in vitiated conditions of kapha and vata, constipation, inflammations, ame norrhoea, d smenorrhoea, foul ulcers, boils, s philis, gonorrhoea, d spepsia, co lic, skin diseases, eczema, artheralgia and intermittent fevers. The plant is an insect repellent due to the presence of aristolochic acid, which is poisonous t o man and livestock. Plant is also used against scorpion sting. Seeds ground in water to form a lotion and used for softening hair. Powdered root is used in fer tilit control. Distribution The plant is found in Sri Lanka, Arabian countries and tropical Africa. In India , the plant is grown in Deccan and Carnatic Plateau. Botan Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. s n. A. bracteata Retz. belongs to the famil Aris tolochiaceae. It is a perennial prostrate herb with weak, glabrous stems. Leaves are simple, alternate, reniform or broadl ovate, cordate at the base with a wi de sinus upto 7.5cm in diameter, reticulatel veined. Flowers are solitar with a large sessile orbicular bract at the base. Perianth tube is c lindric with dar k purple tip having revolute margins. Fruits are oblong-ellipsoid 12-ribbed glab rous capsules. Seeds are deltoid with slightl cordate base (Warrier et al, 1993 ) Another important species belonging to the genus Aristolochia is A. indica Lin n. The plant grows wild throughout the low hills and plains of India from Nepal to West Bengal and South India. It is a valuable anti-dote to snake bite and to bites of poisonous insects as scorpion, etc. It is given in cases of cholera and diarrhoea after macerating with black pepper corns. The juice of the leaves has stimulant, tonic and antiperiodic properties. Agrotechnolog Shad areas and well-drained soils are most suited to Aristolochia. The plant ca n be seed propagated. 3-month-old seedlings raised in pol bags are required for transplanting. Pits of size 50cm cube are to be taken at a distance of 3m and fi lled with sand, topsoil and dried cowdung. To these pits, the seedlings are to b e transplanted. Regular irrigation and organic manure application is beneficial. The plant is to be trailed on iron wires tied to poles. The plant is not attack ed b an serious pests or diseases. Plant attains good spread within one ear. Leaves can be collected for the next 10 ears. Roots and leaves constitute the e conomic parts (Prasad et al, 1997). Properties and Activit

Leaves and fruits ield cer l alcohol, β-sitosterol and aristolochic acid. Root contains aristolochic acid. Seeds give an alkaloid magnoflorine, aristolochic ac id, fatty oil comprising palmitic, stearic, lignoseric and oleic acids and β-sit osterol. The plant is anthelmintic, cathartic, antiperiodic and emmenagogue. Lea f is antigonorrhoeic, larvicidal and used in ec ema on children’s leg and ulcers . The plant is oxytocic (Husain et al,1992). 156

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FICUS Moraceae Ficus spp. The genus Ficus constitutes an important group of trees with immense medicinal v alue. It is a sacred tree of Hindus and Buddhists. Among the varied num er of sp ecies, the most important ones are the four trees that constitute the group “Nal pamaram”, namely, F .racemosa, F. microcarpa, F. enghalensis and F. religiosa ( Athi, Ithi, Peral and Arayal respectively). 1. Ficus racemosa Linn. syn. F. glomerata Rox . Eng: Cluster fig, Country fig San: Udum arah, Sadaphalah Hin: Gular, Umar Ben: J agya dumur Mal, Tam, Kan: Athi Tel: Udam aramu, Paidi Gular fig, Cluster fig or Country fig, which is considered sacred, has golden coloured exudate and lack ark. It is distri uted all over India. Its roots are useful in treating dysenter y. The ark is useful as a wash for wounds, highly efficacious in threatened a o rtions and recommended in uropathy. Powdered leaves mixed with honey are given i n vitiated condition of pitta. A decoction of the leaves is a good wash for woun ds and ulcers. Tender fruits (figs) are used in vitiated conditions of pitta, di arrhoea, dyspepsia and haemorrhages. The latex is administered in haemorrhoids a nd diarrhoea (Warrier et al, 1995). The ripe fruits are sweet, cooling and are u sed in haemoptysis, thirst and vomiting (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer et al, 1957; Moos , 1976). Nalpamaradi coconut oil, Candanasava, Valiya Arimedastaila, Dinesavalya di Ku ham u, A hra hasma, Valiya candanaditaila, etc. are some important prepara tions using the drug (Sivarajan et al, 1994). It is a moderate to large-si ed sp reading laticiferous, deciduous tree without many prominent aerial roots. Leaves are dark green and ovate or elliptic. Fruit receptacles are 2-5cm in diameter, su glo ose or pyriform arranged in large clusters on short leafless ranches ari sing from main trunk or large ranches. Figs are smooth or rarely covered with m inute soft hairs. When ripe, they are orange, dull reddish or dark crimson. They have a pleasant smell resem ling that of cedar apples. The ark is rusty rown with a fairly smooth and soft surface, the thickness varying from 0.5-2cm accord ing to the age of the trunk or ark. Surface is with minute separating flakes of white tissue. Texture is homogeneously leathery (Warrier et al, 1995). Stem- ar k gives gluanol acetate, β-sitosterol, leucocyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucopyrancoside, l eucopelargonidin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, leucopelargonidin -3-O-α-L-rh mnopyr n oside, lupeol, ceryl behen te, lupeol cet te nd α- myrin cet te. Stem- b rk i s hypoglyc emic nd nti-protozo l. G ll is CVS ctive. B rk is tonic nd used i n rinder pest dise ses of c ttle. Root is ntidysenteric nd ntidi betic. Le f is ntibilious. L tex is ntidi rrhoe l nd used in piles. B rk nd syconium is stringent nd used in menorrh gi (Hus in et l, 1992). 2. Ficus microc rp Linn. f. syn. F. retus uct. Non. Linn. S n: Pl ks h; Hin, Ben: K m rup; M l: Ithi, Ithiy l; T m: K llicci, Icci; K n: I tti; Tel: Pl ks Pl ks h is the Ficus species with few br nches nd m ny dventi tious roots growing downw rd. It is widely distributed throughout Indi nd in S ri L nk , S. Chin , Ryuku Isles nd Brit in. Pl k s h is one of the five ingredi ents of the group p nchv lk l i.e, five b rks, the decoction of which is extens ively used to cle r ulcers nd douche in leucorrhoe in children. This decocti on is dministered extern lly nd intern lly with s tisf ctory results. Pl ks h is ccl imed s cooling, stringent, nd cur tive of r kt pitt dosh s, ulcers, skin dise ses, burning sens tion, infl mm tion nd oedem . It is found to h ve g ood he ling property nd is used in prep r tion of oils nd ointments for extern l pplic tion in the tre tment of ulcers (Aiyer nd Kol mm l, 1957). The stem-b rk is used to prep re Usir s v , G ndh t il , N lp m r di t il , V liy m rm gu lik , etc. (Siv r j n et l, 1994). The b rk nd le ves re used in wounds, ulce rs, bruises, fl tulent colic, hep top thy, di rrhoe , dysentery, di betes, hyper dipsi , burning sens tion, h em orrh ges, erysipel s, dropsy, ulcer tive stom ti tis, h emoptysis, psychop thy, leucorrhoe nd coporrh gi (W rrier et l,1995) F. microc rp is l rge gl brous evergreen tree with few eri l roots. Le ves

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re shortpetioled, 5-10cm long, 2-6cm wide nd pex shortly nd bluntly picul te or slightly em rgin te. M in l ter l nerves re not very prominent nd stipules re l nceol te. Fruit recept cles re sessile nd globose occurring in xill ry p irs. It is yellowish when ripe without ny ch r cteristic smell. B rk is d rk grey or brown with smooth surf ce except for the lenticels. Outer b rk is cor ky nd crust ceous thin nd firmly dherent to inner tissue. Inner b rk is light nd flesh coloured with firbrous texture (W rrier et l, 1995). It is lso equ ted with m ny other species of the genus. viz. F. 157

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infectori Roxb., F. rnotti n Miq, F. l cor Buch-H m nd F. t lboti King (cf. N dk rni, 1954, Singh nd Chunek r, 1972; K poor nd Mitr , 1979; Sh rm , 1983). The b rk cont ins t nnin, w x nd s ponin. B rk is ntibilious. Powdered le ves nd b rk is found very good in rheum tic he d che. The b rk nd le ves re str ingent, refriger nt, crid nd stom chic. 3. Ficus bengh lensis Linn. Eng: B ny n tree; S n: Ny grodh h, V t h; Hin: B t, B rg d; Ben: B r, Bot; M r: V d ; M l: Per l, V t vriksh m; T m: Al m r m, Per l; K n: Al ; Tel: Pedd m rri; Guj: V d B ny n tree is l ticiferous tree with reddish fruits, which is wound round by eri l dventitious roots th t look like m ny legs. It is found in the Sub-Him l y n tr ct nd Peninsul r Indi . It is lso gr wn throughout Indi . It is widely used in tre tment of skin dise ses with pitt nd r kt predomin nce. Stem-b rk, root -b rk, eri l roots, le ves, veget tive buds nd milky exud te re used in medicine. It improves complexion, cures erysepel s, burning sens tio n nd v gin l disorders, while n infusion of the b rk cures dysentery, di rrhoe , leucorrhoe , menorrh gi , nervous disorders nd reduces blood sug r in di bet es. A decoction of the veget tive buds in milk is benefici l in h emorrh ges. A p ste of the le ves is pplied extern lly to bcesses nd wounds to promote supp ur tion, while th t of young eri l roots cure pimples. Young twigs when used s tooth brush strengthen gum nd teeth (N dk rni, 1954; Aiyer nd Kol mm l, 195 7; Mooss,1976). The drug forms n import nt constituent of formul tions like N l p m r di Coconut oil, S rib dy s v , Kumkum di t il , Kh dir gulik , V liy c nd n di t il , C nd n s v , etc. (Siv r j n et l, 1994). The eri l roots re use ful in obstin te vomiting nd leucorrhoe nd re used in osteom l ci of the li mbs. The buds re useful in di rrhoe nd dysentery. The l tex is useful in neur lgi , rheum tism, lumb go, bruises, n sitis, ulorrh gi , ulitis, odontop thy, h emorrhoids, gonorrhoe , infl mm tions, cr cks of the sole nd skin dise ses (W rrier et l, 1995). It is very l rge tree up to 30m in height with widely spre ding br nches be ring m ny eri l roots functioning s prop roots. B rk is gree nish white. Le ves re simple, ltern te, rr nged often in clusters t the ends of br nches. They re stipul te, 10-20cm long nd 5-12.5cm bro d, bro dly ellip tic to ov te, entire, cori ceous, strongly 3-7 ribbed from the b se. The fruit r ecept cles re xill ry, sessile, seen in p irs globose, brick red when ripe nd enclosing m le, fem le nd g ll flowers. Fruits re sm ll, crust ceous, chenes , enclosed in the common fleshy recept cles. The young b rk is somewh t smooth w ith longitudin l nd tr nsverse row of lenticels. In older b rk, the lenticels re numerous nd closely sp ced; outer b rk e sily fl kes off. The fresh cut surf ce is pink or flesh coloured nd exudes plenty of l tex. The inner most p rt of the b rk djoining the wood is ne rly white nd fibrous (W rrier et l, 1995). The b rk yields fl v noid compounds A, B nd C; A nd C re identified s differ ent forms of leuco nthocy nidin nd compound B leuco nthocy nin. All the 3 w ere effective s hypoglyc emic gents. Le ves give friedelin, β-sitosterol, flav onoids- quercetin-3-galactoside and rutin. Heart wood give tiglic acid ester of ψ taraxasterol. Bark is h pogl cemic, tonic, astringent, antidiarrhoeal and anti diabetic. Latex is antirheumatic. Seed is tonic. Leaf is diaphoretic. Root fibre is antigonorrhoeic. Aerial root is used in debilit and anaemic d senter (Husa in et al, 1992). .4. Ficus religiosa Linn. Eng:Peepal tree, Sacred fig; San:Pippalah, Asvatthah; Hin:Pippal, Pipli, Pipar; Mal:Ara al Ben: Asvatha; Tam: Arasu, Asvattam; Kan: Aswatha; Tel: Ravi; Mar: Ash vata, Pimpala Peepal tree or Sacred fig is a large deciduous tree with few or no aerial roots. It is common throughout India, often planted in the vicinit of t he temples. An aqueous extract of the bark has an antibacterial activit against Staph lococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It is used in the treatment of gono rrhoea, diarrhoea, d senter , haemorrhoids and gastrohelcosis. A paste of the po

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wdered bark is a good absorbent for inflammator swellings. It is also good for burns. Leaves and tender shoots have purgative properties and are also recommend ed for wounds and skin diseases. Fruits are laxative and digestive. The dried fr uit pulverized and taken in water cures asthma. Seeds are refrigerant and laxati ve. The latex is good for neuralgia, inflammations and haemorrhages (Warrier et al, 1995). Decoction of the bark if taken in hone subdues vatarakta (Nadkarni, 1954; Ai er and Kolammal, 1957; Mooss, 1976; Kurup et al, 1979). The important p reparations using the drug are Nalpamaradi taila, Saribad asava, Candanasava, Ka rnasulantaka, Vali amarma gulika etc (Sivarajan et al, 1994). 158

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It is a large deciduous tree with few or no aerial roots. It is often epiph tic with the drooping branches bearing long petioled, ovate, cordate shin leaves. L eaves are bright green, the apex produced into a linear-lanceolate tail about ha lf as long as the main portion of the blade. The receptacles occurring in pairs and are axillar , depressed globose, smooth and purplish when ripe. The bark is gre or ash coloured with thin or membranous flakes and is often covered with cr ustose lichen patches. The outer bark is not of uniform thickness, the middle ba rk in sections appear as brownish or light reddish brown. The inner part consist s of la ers of light ellowish or orange brown granular tissue (Warrier et al, 1 995). Bark gives β-sitosterol and its glucoside. Bark is hypoglycaemic. Stem ar k is antiproto oal, anthelmintic and antiviral. Bark is astringent, antigonorrhe ic, fe rifuge, aphrodisiac and antidysenteric. Syconium, leaf and young shoot is purgative (Husain et al, 1992). Agrotechnology Ficus species can e cultivated in rocky areas, unused lands, or other wasteland s of the farmyard. The plant is vegetatively propagated y stem cuttings. A few species are also seed propagated. Stem cuttings of pencil thickness taken from t he ranches are to e kept for rooting. Rooted cuttings are to e transplanted t o prepared pits. No regular manuring is required. Irrigation is not a must as a plant is hardy. The plant is not attacked y any serious pests or diseases. Bark can e collected after 15 years. Ficus species generally has an economic life s pan of more than hundred years. Hence ark can e regularly collected from the t ree. Root, ark, leaves, fruits and latex form the economic parts (Prasad et al, 1995). 159

 

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WEST INDIAN MEDLAR Sapotaceae San: Bakulah Hin: Bakul, Maulsiri Ben: Bakul Mimusops elengi Mal: Ilanji, Elanji Tam: Magilam, Ilanci Barsoli, Bolsari Importance Tel: Pogada Kan: Pagademara Guj: Spanish cherry, West Indian Medlar or Bullet wood tree is an evergreen tree with sweetscented flowers having ancient glamour. Garlands made of its flowers are e ver in good demand due to its long lasting scent. Its ark is used as a gargle f or odontopathy, ulitis and ulemorrhagia. Tender stems are used as tooth rushes. It is also useful in urethrorrhoea, cystorrhoea, diarrhoea and dysentery. Flowe rs are used for preparing a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Powder of dried flower s is a rain tonic and is useful as a snuff to relieve cephalgia. Unripe fruit i s used as a masticatory and will help to fix loose teeth. Seeds are used for pre paring suppositories in cases of constipation especially in children (Warrier et al,1995). The ark and seed coat are used for strengthening the gum and enter i nto the composition of various her al tooth powders, under the name of “Vajradan ti”, where they may e used along with tannin-containing su stances like catechu (Acacia catechu), pomegranate (Punica granatum) ark, etc. The ark is used as snuff for high fever accompanied y pains in various parts of the ody. The flow ers are considered expectorant and smoked in asthma. A lotion prepared from unri pe fruits and flowers is used for smearing on sores and wounds. In Ayurveda, the important preparation of Mimusops is “Bakuladya Taila”, applied on gum and teet h for strengthening them, whereas in Unani system, the ark is used for the dise ases of genitourinary system of males (Thakur et al, 1989). Distri ution It is cultivated in North and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. It is grown as an avenue tree in many parts of India. Botany Mimusops elengi Linn. elongs to the family Sapotaceae. It is an evergreen tree with dark grey fissured ark and densely spreading crown. Leaves are o long, gla rous and leathery with wavy margins. Flowers are white, fragrant, axillary, sol itary or fascicled. Fruits are ovoid or ellipsoid erries. Seeds are 1-2 per fru it, ovoid, compressed, greyish rown and shiny (Warrier et al, 1995). Other impo rtant species elonging to the genus Mimusops are M. hexandra Rox . and M. kauki Linn. syn. Manilkara kauki Du .(Chopra et al, 1980). Agrotechnology Mimusops prefers moist soil rich in organic matter for good growth. The plant is propagated y seeds. Fruits are formed in Octo er-Novem er. Seeds are to e col lected and dried. Seeds are to e soaked in water for 12 hours without much dela y and sown on seed eds. Via ility of seeds is less. After germination they are t o e transferred to poly ags. Pits of si e 45cm cu e are to e taken and filled with 5kg dried cowdung and top soil. To these pits, a out 4 months old seedlings from the poly ags are to e transplanted with the onset of monsoon. Addition of 10kg FYM every year is eneficial. Any serious pests or diseases do not attack the plant. Flowering commences from fourth year onwards. Bark, flowers, fruit an d seeds are the economic parts. Properties and Activity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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β-sitosterol and its glucoside, α-spin -sterol, quercitol, t r xerol nd lupeol nd its cet te re present in the eri l p rts s well s the roots nd seeds. The eri l p rts in ddition g ve quercetin, dihydroquercetin, myricetin, glycos ides, heder genin, ursolic cid, hentri cont ne nd β-carotene. The ark contain ed an alkaloid consisting largely of a tiglate ester of a ase with a mass spect rum identical to those of la urinine and iso-retronecanol and a saponin also whi ch on hydrolysis gave β-amyrin and rassic acid. Seed oil was comprised of capri c, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, oleic and linoleic acids. Sap onins from seed are spermicidal and spasmolytic. The aerial part is diuretic. Ex tract of flower (1mg/kg ody weight) showed positive diuretic action in dogs. Ba rk is tonic and fe rifuge. Leaf is an antidote for snake ite. Pulp of ripe fruit is antidysenteric. Seed is purgative. Bark and pulp of ripe fruit is astringent (Husain et al, 1992). 160

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HOLOSTEMMA Asclepiadaceae Importance Holostemma ada-kodien San: Jivanti; Hin: Chirvel, Charivel; Mal: Atapathiyan, Atapotiyan, Atakotiyan; Tam: Palaikkirai; Tel: Palagurugu; Mar: Dudurli, Shidodi; Guj: Kharner, Khiravel Holostemma is a twining shru with large flowers. The roots of Holostemma are u seful in ophthalmopathy, orchitis, cough, urning sensation, stomachalgia, const ipation, fever and tridoshas. The leaves, flowers and fruits are eaten as vegeta le. The root is also used in spermatorrhoea. It is used in preparations of Vida ryadiganam, Dhanwandharam thaila, Manasamithravatakam, Balarishta and Anuthaila. It is also useful in eye diseases and it imparts resistance to diseases. Distri ution The plant occurs in tropical countries. In India, it is found in Himalayas, Dehr adun, Konkan, Bom ay, Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu. It grows over hed ges and in open forests especially on the lower slopes of the hills. It is also distri uted in Sri Lanka, Burma and W. China. Botany Holostemma ada-kodien Schult. syn. Holostemma annulare (Rox .) K. Schum., Holost emma rheedii Wall. elongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. It is a laticiferous tw ining shru with large conspicuous flowers. Leaves are simple, opposite and cord ate. Flowers are purple, arranged in axillary um ellate cymes. Fruits are thick follicles, 9 cm long, cylindrical and luntly pointed. The roots are long upto 1 m or more, irregularly twisted, thick and cylindrical. When dry it is yellowish rown to rown lack in colour with nearly smooth surface earing white scars a nd small depressions. A mature root is a out 1-2 cm thick when extracted for use (Warrier et al, 1995). Agrotechnology Holostemma prefers a tropical climate. The plant is propagated vegetatively y s tem cuttings, ut mainly y seeds. The seeds are collected from the plant in Nov em er-Decem er efore eing dispersed. Seeds are cleaned, dried and stored for s owing. The stored seeds after soaking in water for 4-5 hours are sown in the see d eds. A out one month old seedlings are then planted in poly ags of si e 14x10c m which are filled with soil, sand and dried cowdung in 1:1:1 ratio, respectivel y. Poly ags should e kept in shade and irrigated. A out 1-1.5 month old seedlin gs are ready for transplanting. Pits of 30cm cu e si e are taken at 11.2m distan ce and filled with 10kg dried cowdung and sand. This is covered with surface soi l and formed into a mound. Seedlings are transplanted on to the mounds from the poly ags carefully. Regular irrigation is to e given till flowering. To aid in trailing, staking is given one month after planting. Flowering and fruiting occu rs in Novem er-Decem er. Harvesting can e done at the end of second year when t he vines start drying up. Harvesting is done y digging up the tu ers. The tu er s are cut into pieces of 10cm length and dried in sun efore sale (Prasad et al, 1997). Properties and activity Holostemma tu ers give α- myrin, lupeol nd β-sitosterol. Alanine, aspartic acid , glycine, serine, threonine and valine were detected chromatographically (Hussa in et al, 1992). The root is antidia etic, antigonorrhoeic, echic, alterative, tonic, lactative, ophthalmic, emollient, stimulant, aphrodisiac, expectorant and galactagogue. 161

 

 

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BLACH MUSALE Curculigo orchioides Amaryllidaceae San: Musali; Hin: Kalimusali, Mushali; Ben: Talamuli; Mal: Nilappana; Guj: Musal ikand Tam: Nilapanai; Tel: Nelatadi Kelangu; Kan: Neladali Importance Musali is a small, geophilous her , the tu erous rootstock of which is used as a rejuvenating and aphrodisiac drug. It cures mor id vata and pitta, improves com plexion and is useful in general de ility, deafness, cough, asthma, piles, skin diseases, impotence, jaundice, urinary disorders, leucorrhoea and menorrhagia (N adkarni, 1954; Aiyer and Kolammal, 1963; Mooss, 1978). Rootstock is the officina l part and it enters into the Ayurvedic formulations like Vidaryadighrta, Vidary adi lehya, Marmagulika, Musalyadi churna etc. The Pharmacognosy of C. orchioides has een discussed y Aiyer, Kolammal (1963), Raghunathan, and Mitra (1982). A i liographical study on C. orchioides has een done y Pandey et al (1983). Dis tri ution The plant is found in all districts of India from near sea level to 23 00m altitude, especially in rock crevices and laterite soil. It has een recorde d to occur in the su tropical Himalayas from Kumaon eastwards ascending to 1800 m, the Khasia hills, Bengal, Asssam, Konkan, Kanara, the western peninsula and M adras extending south as far as a Cape Comerin. It is also distri uted in Sri La nka, Japan, Malaysia and Australia.

Botany Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. syn. C. mala arica Wight, C. revifolia Dryand, Hyp oxis dulcis Stand elongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. Musali is a small her ac eous plant with cylindrical rootstock. Leaves are simple, sessile, crowded on th e short stem with sheathing leaf ases. Flowers are right yellow. Seeds are la ck, deeply grooved in wavy lines. A detailed description of the plant is as foll ows (Victoria, 1998). Rootstock is straight, cylindrical, tu erous, 5-22cm long, 0.5-0.8 cm thick, rownish surfaces marked with closely spaced prominent transv erse wrinkles in the upper or asal half. It ears a few stout lateral roots of 5 or more cm long. Lateral roots are dull white in colour and spongy externally. The fresh cut surfaces of the rootstock has a starch white colour and mucilagin ous. A few fi rous roots also occur. Leaves are sessile or short petiolate with sheathing ases, 15-45x1.2-2.5 cm si e, linear or linear lanceolate, mem ranous, gla rouus or sparsely sofly hairy and plicate in ud. The leaf tips when contac ts the soil, develops roots and produce adventitious uds. Inflorescence is axil lary, scapose racemose, the scape very short and hidden among the ases of leave s underground, clavte, flattened with the pedicels, racts and the ovary conceal ed in the leaf sheaths. The lower ig flowers on the scape are mostly isexual a nd the upper small ones staminate. Flowers are epigynous right yellow, isexual or unisxual with lanceolate, mem ranous ract.. Perianth gamophyllous, rotate & six lo ed, locate at the top of a slender sterile long extension of the ovary y means of which the perianth is exposed a ove the ground. Perianth lo es simila r, elliptic o long 1.2-1.6 cm long, 0.2-0.3 cm road, outer lo es hairy on the ack, inner ones sparsely hairy along nerves. Stamens 6 in num er, filamentous fi liform, short 2mm long, adnate to the ase of the perianth lo es, Anthers linear or linear lanceolate, asifixed and sagittate,.Ovary inferior, hidden among the leaves usually elow the ground, tricarpellary syncarpous, lanceolate and trilo cular with a fairly long slender eak or extension -the stipe. Ovules many in ea ch cell attached y a distinct long funicle. Style short columnar, 2mm with a 3 lo ed stigma. Lo es elongate, erect and appressed. Fruit is a capsule a out 1.52cm long, 8mm road, o long, gla rescent with a slender eak and spongy septa. S eeds 1-many, o long, lack, shiny with crustaceous testa grooved deeply in wavy lines.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

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Properties and Activity Rao and Beri (1951) have identified glucose, mannose, xylose and glucuronic acid from the rootstock of C. orchioides. The rootstock is also reported to contain glycoside, polysaccharides (hemicellulose and other polysaccharides), starch, re sin, tannin, mucilage, fat and calcium oxalate. The hexane extract contains an a lkaloid-lycorine, sterols including β-sitosterols and sapogenin identified as yu ccagenin (Rao et al, 1978). The flavone glycoside from the rootstock has een id entified as 5,7- dimethoxy glucopyranoside (Yadav et al, 1974; Sharma et al 1975 ). Mehta et al (1980) have isolated a num er of fatty acids from C. orchioides r oot oil y GLC techniques. They are palmitic, oleic, linolenic linoleic, arachid ic and ehenic acid. Ku o et al (1983) isolated a new phenolic glycoside namely, curculigoside from the rhi omes and its structure has een elucidated as 5hydro xy-2-0-β-d-glucopyranosyl en l 1,2,6-dimethoxy en oate. Yamasaki et al (1994) developed HPLC method for estimating the curculigoside content in curculigo rhi ome. Two new aliphatic hydroxy ketone 27-hydroxy tricontan-6-one (M. P. 84-85o C ) and 23hydroxy tricontan-2-one (M. P. 109-110 o C) were isolated from the rhi o me y Misra et al (1984). They also isolated 21-hydroxy tetracontan-20-one and 4 -methyl heptade canoic acid from the root stock. Porwal et al (1988) have isolat ed and identified three new compounds from the rhi ome as Nacetyl-N-hydroxy-2-ca r amic acid methyl ester, 3-acetyl-5-car omethoxy-2H-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro1,2,3,5,6 -oxatetra ine and N, N, N , N -tetra methyl succinamide. The rhi omes of C. orch ioides yielded a new phenolic glycoside corchioside a, characterised as orcinol3-β-D-xylopyranosyl- (1→6)β-D-glucopyranoside and hentriacontanol (Garg et al, 1 989). A new aliphatic compound has een isolated from the rhi omes and character ised as 25dihydroxy-33-methyl pentatricontan-one (Mehta et al, 1990). Misra et a l (1990) isolated a new natural triterpene alcohol-Curculigol charactrised as 24 -methy cycloart-7-en-3- eta-20-diol. A novel pentacyclic triterpene has een iso lated from the rhi omes of C.orchioides and characterised as 31methyl-3-oxo-20-u rsen-28-oic acid (Metha and Gawarikar,1991). Xu and Xu (1992) and Xu et al (1992 a, ) have isolated 13 cycloartane type. Triterpene glycosides from C. orchioid es rhi ome and characterised them as curculigo saponin A-M. The root stock are m ucilaginous, sweet, cooling, itter, emollient, diuretic, aphrodisiac, depurativ e, alternative, appetiser, carminative, viriligenic, antipyretic and tonic (Siva rajan and Indira, 1994; Warrier et al, 1994). The uterine stimulant activity of the flavone glycoside extracted from C. orchioides has een studied y Dhawan an d Saxena (1958), Sharma et al (1975) and Dhar et al (1979). The plant extract of C. orchioides showed hypoglycaemic, spasmolytic and anticancer properties (Dhar et al,1968). Phagocytic activity (Ku o et al, 1983) and immunoadjuvant activity (Oru et al, 1982) of phenolic glycosides, curculigoside isolated from the rhi o me of the plant have een reported. Porwal and Mehta (1985) discussed the medici nal importance of the plant and its use in indigenous system of medicine as a to nic. Sharma et al (1991) reported the influence of MAK an ayurvedic food supplem ent constituting C. orchioides against Dimethyl en anthracene induced mammary tumours in rats. Samanta (1992) reported the modulation of male infertility y A yurvedic drug, which constitutes C. orchioides. Immunostimulant activity of C. o rchioides has een demonstrated y Saxena (1992). Immunological activites of cur culigo saponin G were assayed in mice and the results showed that it promoted pr oliferation of spleen lymphocyctes very significantly and increased the weight o f the thymus in vivo in mice (Xu et al,1992). Pharmacological studies in China, on the alcoholic extract o tained from the plant showed several active effects s uch as adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, sedative, androgenic and immunopromoting activities (Xu et al, 1992). Curculigo orchioides is distri uted widely throughout the country. The demand of the raw materials and derivatives of the plant for the indigenous drug industries are satisfied mainly from the wi ld source, depleting the natural population and thus the species have ecome ext inct or endangered. Ansari (1993) have reported C. orchioides as a threatened pl ant from Madhulia forest of Garakhpur. Augustin and Sou a (1995) also considered the plant as an endangered species. As the information on the cultivation of C. orchioides is scanty, it is very necessary to develop suita le agrotechniques fo r the domestication and large-scale cultivation of the plant.

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STRYCHNINE Loganiaceae TREE Strychnos nux-vomica San: Karaskara; Hin: Kajra, Kuchila; Mal: Kanjiram; ; Tam: Itti, Kagodi, Kanjira i Mar:Jharkhatchura; Kan: Hemmushti, Ittangi; Tel: Mushti, Mushidi; Ori: Kora, K achila Importance It is a large deciduous tree, with simple leaves and white fra grant flowers. Strychnos is highly toxic to man and animals producing stiffness of muscles and convulsions, ultimately leading to death. However, in small doses it can also serve as efficacious cure forms of paralysis and other nervous diso rders. The seeds are used as a remedy in intermittent fever, dyspepsia, chronic dysentery, paralytic and neuralgic affections, worms, epilepsy, chronic rheumati sm, insomnia and colic. It is also useful in impotence, neuralgia of face, heart disease, spermatorrhoea, skin diseases, toxins, wounds, emaciation, cough and c holera. Leaves are applied as poultice in the treatment of chronic wounds and ul cers and the leaf decoction is useful in paralytic complaints. Root and root ar k used in fever and dysentery (Nadkarni, 1982; Kurup et al, 1979). Distri ution The plant is distri uted throughout India in deciduous forests up to 1200m. It i s also found in Sri Lanka, Siam, Indochina and Malaysia. Botany Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. is a large tree elonging to the family Loganiaceae. Leaves are simple, opposite, or icular to ovate, 6-11.5x6-9.5cm, coriaceous, gla rous, 5 nerved, apex o tuse, acute or apiculate, transverse nerves irregular an d inconspicuous. Inflorescence is many flowered terminal cymes, 2.5-5cm across. Bracts (5mm) and racteoles (1.5mm) small. Flowers are white or greenish white a nd fragrant. Calyx 5 lo ed, pu escent and small (2mm). Corolla salver shaped, tu e cylindrical slightly hairy near the ase within and greenish white, tu e much elongate than the lo es. Tu e 7mm and lo es 2.5mm long. Lo es 5 and valvate. St amens 5, filaments short, 0.1mm long. Anthers 1.5mm su exerted, linear o long. O vary 1.5 mm, pu escent, 2 celled, ovules one to many. Style 9mm, stigma capitate . Fruit is a erry, 5-6cm diameter, glo ose, indehiscent, thick shelled, orange red when ripe with fleshy pulp enclosing the seeds. Seeds 1-many, discoid, compr essed, coin like, concave on one side and convex on the other, covered with fine grey silky hairs. The leaf fall is during Decem er (do not shed all the leaves at a time) and new foliage appears in Fe ruary. Flowering is during March - Apri l and fruiting during May Decem er. Fruits take a out 8-9 months to mature. Properties and Activity Strychnine and rucine are the most important and toxic alkaloids present in the plant. They occur not only in the seeds ut also in roots, wood, ark, fruit pu lp and hard fruit shells. The minor alkaloids present in the plant are vomicine, α-colubrine, β-colu rine, pseudostrychnine and N-methyl-sec-pseudo rucine (nova cine). Loganin a glycoside is also present (Warnat, 1932; Martin et al, 1953; Gu ggis erg et al, 1966; Bisset and Chaudhary, 1974). Chatterji and Basa (1967) rep orted vomicine as the major constituent alkaloid along with unidentified alkaloi d in leaves and identified another alkaloid kajine (N-methyl pseudostrychnine) f rom the leaves of very young plants. Root ark of S. nux-vomica yeilded 4-hydrox y-3-methoxy strychnine, 4 hydroxy strychine, nor-macusine, a new alkaloid 12β, 1 3α dihydro-12α-hydroxy isostrychnine n med protostrychnine (B ser et l, 1979) m ethoxy strychnine, nd m v curine (Guggisberg et l, 1966). Le ves nd root b rk lso yeilded 11 new lk loids. 10-hydroxy strychnine, 3-12-dihydroxystrychnine, 12-hydroxy–11- methoxy strychnine, 3-12-dihydroxy164

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11-methoxy strychnine,12-hydroxy strychnine-N- oxide 12-hydroxy-11-methoxy stryc hnineN-oxide-19,20–dihydro isostrychnine, 16α, 17β dihydro-17α-hydroxy isostrych nine, Omethyl-m cusine B, 16-epi-o-methyl–m cusine B nd normelinone B (B ser n d Bisset, 1982). De nd D tt (1988) isol ted 5 terti ry indole lk loids viz. s trychnine, brucine, vomicine, ic jine nd nov cine from S.nux-vomic flowers. Bi sset et l (1989) isol ted nd identified two phenolic glycosides s lidroside n d cuchiloside – compound consisting of s lidroside nd n tt ched xylose unit , from the fruit of S.nux-vomic . Rodriguez et l (1979) isol ted n indole lk loid from the seeds of S. nuxvomic nd identified s 3-methoxy ic jine. A new lk loid 15-hydroxy strychnine h s been isol ted from the seeds nd the structu re of the lk loid est blished by spectroscopic d t (G leffi et l, 1979). C i et l (1990 ) isol ted 4 new lk loids isobrucine, isobrucine N-oxide, isostrych nine N-oxide nd 2 hydroxy–3-methoxy strychnine from the he t tre ted seeds of S . nuxvomic nd the structure of the lk loids were determined by 13 CNMR (C i e t l, 1994). C i et l (1990 b) studied the ch nges in the lk loid composition of the seeds during drug processing. S ily et l (1994) determined the miner l e lements in Strychnos nux-vomic . Cors ro et l (1995) reported polys cch rides f rom the seeds of Strychnos species. Seeger nd Neum nn (1986) reviewed the physi co-chemic l ch r cteristics, occurrence, identific tion, utilis tion, poisoning, toxicity, kinetics, differenti l di gnosis nd ther peutic uses of strychnine nd brucine. Aspergillus niger, A. fl vus nd Pencillium citrinum showed regul r ssoci tion with Strychnos seeds nd effectively deterior ted the lk loid conte nt of the seeds (Dutt , 1988; Dutt nd Roy, 1992). Nicholson (1993) described t he history, structure nd synthesis of strychnine which occur in the seeds of S. nux-vomic . R w l nd Michoud (1991) developed gener l solution for the synth esis of 2 z bicyclo (3.3.1) non ne substructure of Strychnos lk loids. Vill r e t l (1984) nd H y k w et l (1984) developed HPLC method for the n lysis of strychnine nd brucine. Gr f nd Wittliner (1985), Kostennikov (1986) nd G ito nde nd Joshi (1986) suggested different methods for the ss y of strychnine nd brucine. Bi l et l, (1996) developed new method for the ss y of lk loids in S. nuxvomic . The seeds re bitter, crid, lexeteric, phrodisi c, ppetiser, ntiperiodic, nthelmintic, digestive, febrifuge, emmen gogue, purg tive, spin l , respir tory nd c rdi c stimul nt nd stom chic. The b rk is bitter, nd tonic nd febrifuge (N dk rni, 1954; Kurup et l, 1979; W rrier et l, 1996). The qu rternery lk loid from the root b rk of the Sri L nk n pl nt exhibited muscle-re l x nt ctivity (B ser nd Bisset, 1982). Antimicrobi l ctivity of indole lk l oid isol ted from the Strychnos nux-vomic w s studied by Verpoorte et l, 1983. Shukl et l (1985) ev lu ted the effic cy of R sn digugglu compound consisting of S. nux-vomic , on rheum toid rthritis nd found to be effective in reducing infl mm tory oedom nd rheum toid rthritis. It lso exhibited n lgesic ctiv ity. A compound Un ni formul tion cont ining S. nux-vomic signific ntly ttenu ted withdr w l intensity in morphine dependent r ts (Z t r et l, 1991). Sh h n et l (1994) studied the effect of Un ni drug combin tion (UDC) h ving Strychno s nux-vomic on the bstinence syndrome in moder tely nd severely morphine depe ndent r ts. The UDC strikingly suppressed the bstinence syndrome w s seen to po ssess centr l depress nt nd n lgesic ction. Melone et l (1992) reported bruc ine-leth lity in mice. P nd nd P nd (1993) nd S ty n r y n n et l (1994) re ported ntig stric ulcer ctivity of nux vomic in Sh y r ts. B nerjee nd P l ( 1994) reported the medicin l pl nts used by the trib ls of pl in l nd in Indi f or h ir nd sc lp prep r tion nd S. nux-vomic being used to cure lopeci (b l dness) by the trib ls. Trip thi nd Ch ur si (1996) studied the effect of S. nu x-vomic lcohol extr ct on lipid peroxid tion in r t liver.

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IX. ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT % o C α β γ @ a.i. Ass Ben Ca CNS CVS D e et al FYM GLC Guj ha Hin HPLC hr ie k K Kan Kas l L m M&AP Mal Mar M N O O P p pp Pun Raj S San sp, spp t Tam Tel TLC var viz vol yr Per cent De ree Celsius Alpha Beta Gamma At the rate of Activ e in redient Assamese Ben ali Calcium Central nervous system Central venal syste m Dextro-rotatory Example and others Farm yard manure ram Gas liquid chromato r aphy Gujarathi hectare Hindi Hi h pressure (performance) liquid chromato raphy h our that is kilo Potassium Kannada Kashmiri litre Levo-rotatory metre, milli Med icinal and aromatic plants Malayalam Marathi Ma nesium Nitro en Oxy en Oxy en Ph osphorus pa e pa es Punjabi Rajasthani Sulphur Sanskrit species tonne Tamil Telu u Thin layer chromato raphy variety namely volume year 166

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X. NAMES OF BOTANISTS Alef. Alst Ar Backer Bal Bartl. Batsch Bedd Boj Borss Braun Blanquet Burkill Ca v Christm Clark Colebr Collet. Corr Coss Cramer Crepin. Czern. De Wilde Desv Die ls Don Druce Dunal Eberm Ehrh Ener, Forsk Friis G. Don Gaenep Ga nep Gandich Gau d Gilib. Guerke Haw Haworth Herrm. Heyne Hout Houtt Hunter J. Burm Jacq Jowitt J uss Juss Ker-Gawler Koch Koeni Kosterm Kunth Kuntze Kurz L. Herit Alston, Arthu r Hu h Grafit Backer, Cornelis Andries Balansa, Benedict F.G. Bartlin A.J.G.K. Batsch Beddome, Richard Henry Bojer, Wenceslas Borssum Waalkes Burkill, Issac He nry Cavanilles, Antonio Jose Christmann, Gottlieb, Friedrich Colebrooke, Henry T homas Louis H. Cramer De Wildeman, Emile Au ust(e) Joseph Desvaux, Au uste Nicaise Diels, Friedrich Lu uri Emil Don, Geor e Druce, Geor e Clarid e Dunal, Michel Felix J.F. Ehrhart F orsskal, Pehr Friis, Ib Don, Geor e Ga ne pain, Francois Gaudichaud - Beaupre, C harles J.E. Gilibert Gurke (Guerke), Robert Louis Au ust Maximilian Haworth, Adr ian Heyne, Benjamin Houttuyn, Martin W. Hunter Jacquin, Nicolaus Jussieu, Adrien Hen ri Laurent de Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de Ker Gawler, John Bellenden Koch, Grun ber Christian Theodar Koeni , Johann Gerhard Kostermans, Andre Joseph Gulliaume Henri Kunth, Karl Si ismund Kuntze, Carl Ernst Kurz, W. Sulpiz L’Heritier, Char les Louis 167

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Labill Less Link Lippold Lour M. R. Maire Maton Medicus Mich Miers Millsp Miq Mo on Murray Nash Nees Oken Orte a Osb Parker Pellet Pennell Perr. Pers Pierre Poir et Poisson Prain Radlk Raeush Rafin Rehd. Rendle Retz Robs Rosc Roth S. M. Almei da S. Manso Sar ent Schott Schrank Schult Sims Skeels Sonner Spra ue Spren Stap f Steud Stocks Suresh Sw Swartz Swin le Taub Thonn Thumb Thw Urban Labillardiere, Jacques Julien Houtton de Lessin , Christian Friedrich Link, Joha nn Heinrich Friedrich Lippold, Hans Loureiro, Joao de Maire, Rene Charles Joseph Ernest Maton, William Geor e Medikus, Friedrich Casimir Miers, John Millspau h, Charles Frederick Miquel, Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Moon, Alexander Murray, Johan Andreas Nash, Geor e Valentine Nees von Esenbeck, Christian Gottfried Daniel Ok en, Lorenz Orte a, Casimiro Gomez Osbeck, Pehr Pennell, Francis Whittier T.A. Perry floreat Persoon, Christiaan Hendrik Pierre, Jean Baptiste Louis Poiret, Jean Louis Marie Prain David Radlkofer, Ludwi Adol ph Timotheus Rauschel, Ernst Adolph Rafinesque - Schmaltz, Constantine Samuel Re hder, Alfred Rendle, Alfred Barton Retzius, Anders Jahan Robson, Norman K.B. Ros coe, William Roth, Albrecht Wilhelm Silva Manso Antonio Luiz Patricio da C.S. Sa r ent Schott, Heinrich Wilhelm Schrank, Franz Paulavon Schultes, Josef Au ust Si ms, John Skeels, Homer collar Sonnerat, Pierre Spra ue, Thomas Archibald Spren e l, Curt Polycarp Joachim Stapf, Otto Steudel, Ernst Gottlieb von Swartz, Olof Peter O. Swartz Swin le, Walter Tennyson Taubert, Paul Hermann Wilh elm Thonnin , H. Thunber , Carl Peter Thwaites, Geor e Henry Kendrick Urban, I n atz 168

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Vahl Vent Voi t Voi t Watt Wills Vahl, Jens Lorenz Moestue Ventenat, Etienne Pierre Voi t, Johann Otto 169

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GLOSSARY Abortifacient Abscess Absorbent Acne Acrid A alactia A ue Albuminuria Alexipharm ic Alexiteric Alopecia Alterative Amenorrhoea Amentia Anaemia Analeptic Anal esi c Anaphrodisiac Anasarca Anaesthetic Anodyne Anorectic Anorexia Anthelmintic Ant iasthmatic Antibiotic Anticoa ulant Antidiarrheal Antidote Antidote Antidyspepti c Antiemetic Antihemorrha ic Antihypertensive Antiinflammatory Antilithich Antip eriodic Antiphlo istic Antipruritic Antipyretic Antirachitic Antirheumatic Antis corbutic antiscrofulous Antiseptic Antispsmodic Antitussive Antiuric Anuria Aper ient Aphrodisiac Aphthae Apoplexy Arthral ia Arthritis Ascites Asphyxia Astrin e nt An a ent that induces abortion A localised collection of pus caused by suppur ation in a tissue Any a ent which attracts and sucks up ases or secretions from a wound. An inflammatory disease occurrin in or around the sebaceous lands Bi tin , pun ent Absence or failure of secretion of milk Malaria The presence of se rum albumin and serum lobulin in the urine Antidote to poison Protective to inf ectious diseases Loss of hair-a malady in which the hair falls from one or more circumscribed round or oval areas, leavin the skin smooth and white. Causin a favorable chan e in the disordered functions of the body or metabolism Failure o f menstruation An arrest of the development of the mind from birth to early a e. Lack of enou h blood in the body causin paleness Havin a restorative or stimu latin effect, as on the central nervous system Relievin pain Havin the power to lessen or inhibit sexual feelin Diffused dropsy in the skin and subcutaneous tissue Inducin loss of feelin or consciousness A medicine that allays pain La ckin appetite A condition of havin lost the appetite for food Destroyin or ex pellin worms Relievin asthma Killin disease causin microor anisms Inhibitin the clottin of blood Preventin or controllin diarrhea An a ent which neutral izes or opposes the action of a poison Substance that counteracts the effects of a poison Relievin dyspepsia or indi estion Stoppin emesis or vomitin Control lin bleedin Reducin hi h blood pressure Controllin inflammation An a ent whi ch prevents the formation of calculi or promotes their dilution Preventin the r e ular recurrence of a disease Actin a ainst heat or inflammation Preventin or relievin itchin Counteractin fever Preventin or curin rickets A condition that causes inflammation and pain in the joints and muscles Actin a ainst scurv y Treatin scrofula or tubercular swellin s of the lymph lands A chemical steri lisin substance to kill or control patho enic microbes Opposin spasms or convu lsions Controllin or preventin cou h Counteractin excessive acidity in the ur ine Complete cessation of the secretion and excretion of urine A laxative or mil d cathartic A dru which stimulates sexual desire Ulcer on the surface of a muco us membrane A sudden loss of consciousness Pain in joint Inflammation of a joint Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity Inability to breath Cau sin soft tissues or drawin to ether 170

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Atrophy Balanitis Bechic Beriberi Blennorrha ia Brachycardiac Bronchopathy Bubo Cachexia Calculus Calefacient Calibration Calmative Carbuncle Carcino enic Carcinoma Cardiac Cardiac depressant Cardiodyni a Cardiokinetic Cardiopalmus Cardiopathy Cardiotonic Carminative Cataplexy Catar act Catarrh Cathartic Cephalal ia Cephalic Cephalopathy Cerebropathy Chola o ue Cholera Cicatrizin Cirrhosis Colic Colitis Collyrium Colonal ia Colonitis Colon orrha ia Colpitis Colpoptosis Colporrha ia Coma Conjunctivitis Consumption Contr aceptive Contusion Convulsion Corn Counterirritant Coxal ia Coxitis Croup Cystal ia Wastin of a tissue or or an A condition of inflammation of the penis or of the clitoris Anythin which relieves or cures cou h A deficiency disease caused by i mbalance of carbohydrate and vitamin B Free dischar e of mucus Makin the heart beat slower Any disease of the bronchi An inflammatory swellin of a lymph land Depressed habit of mind A concretion formed in any part of the body usually com pounds of salts of or anic or inor anic acids A remedy which ives rise to a sen sation of warmth Demonstratin that a measurin device produces results within t he specified limits of those produce by a reference standard device over an appr opriate ran of measurements Sedative An infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue by Staphylococcus aureus Causin cancer A mali nant epithelial tumour eve ntually becomin fatal Relatin to the heart Slowin the action of the heart Pai n in the re ion of the heart Re ulatin or stren thenin the heartbeat Palpitati on of the heart A morbid condition of the heart Keepin the heart functionin no rmally Dru causin the release of stomach or intestinal as A condition marked by abrupt attacks of muscular weakness Opacity in the crystalline lens of the ey e which may be partial or complete A condition in which the mucous membranes of the nose and breathin passa es are inflamed, often chronically Havin the power of cleanin the bowels-pur ative Headache A remedy for disorders of the head An y disease of the head Any disorder of the brain A dru which causes increased fl ow of bile into the intestine A severe infectious epidemic disease due to Vibrio cholerae Promotin the rowth Pro ressive fibrous tissue over rowth in an or an A severe spasmodic ripin pain Inflammation of the colon An eye-salve or eye-w ash Pain in the colon Inflammation of the colon Hemorrha e from the colon Inflam mation of the va ina Prolapse of the va ina Hemorrha e from the va ina The state of complete loss of consciousness Inflammation of the conjunctiva Pulmonary tub erculosis Any a ent or device used to prevent conception An injury to tissue tha t does not break the skin A violent involuntary contraction of the skeletal musc ulature A small circumscribed painful horny rowth An a ent that causes local in flammation of an area Pain in the hip Inflammation of the hip joint Any conditio n caused by respiratory obstruction Pain in the urinary bladder 171

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Cystitis Cystodynia Cystorrhea Dandruff Decon estant Demulcent Dental caries Den tal ia Dentifrice Deobstruent Deodorant Depurative Dermatitis Dermatopathy Derma tophytosis Desiccatin Diaphoresis Diaphoretic Di estive Diphtheria Discutient D isinfectant Diuretic Dizziness Dropsy Dru Dru product Dru substance Dysmenorrhoea Dysopia Dyspepsia Dysphonia Dyspnoea Dystocia Dysuria Ecbolic Ecla mpsia Eczema Edema Elephantiasis Elixir Embrocate Emetic Emmena o ue Emollient E mphysema Empyema Encephalitis Encephalopathy Enuresis Epilepsy Epistaxis Errhine Erysipelas Inflammation of a bladder, especially the urinary bladder Pain in the urinary bl adder Mucous dischar e from the bladder Dead scarf-skin separatin in small flak es Relievin con estion, as of the mucous membrane Soothin Decay of teeth Tooth ache Any liquid, paste or powder used for cleansin the teeth. Relievin or remo vin obstruction Removin the odour An a ent that purifies blood Irritation or i nflammation of the skin Any skin disorder A superficial infection of the skin ca used by a fun us Deprivin of moisture Sweatin A dru which induces perspiratio n Improvin di estion A specific infectious disease caused by virulent strains o f a Bacillus Removin tumours Havin a lethal effect upon erms Promotin the fl ow of urine Sensation of imbalance of a stable relationship with the immediate e nvironment An excessive accumulation of clear or watery fluid in any of the tiss ues or cavities of the body An a ent that is used therapeutically to treat disea ses. It may also be defined as any chemical a ent and/or biolo ical product or n atural product that affects livin processes A finished dosa e form, for e ., a tablet, capsule or solution that contains a dru substance An active in redient that is intended to furnish pharmacolo ical activity or other direct effect in d ia nosis, cure, miti ation, treatment or prevention of diseases or to effect the structure or any function of the human body Difficult or painful menstruation D efective vision Indi estion Difficulty or pain in speakin Difficulty in breathi n Difficult parturition Difficulty or pain while passin urine Tendin to incre ase contractions of the uterus and thus facilitate childbirth An attack of convu lsion associated with hypertension in pre nancy A nonconta ious inflammatory dis ease of the skin with much itchin and burnin Fluid retention by the body causi n swellin and discomfort Gross lymphatic edema of the limbs leadin to hypertr ophy A dru capable of prolon in life indefinitely To moisten and rub Causin v omitin Medicine intended to restore the mensus Softenin A patholo ic accumulat ion of air in tissues or or ans Accumulation of pus in a body cavity Inflammatio n of the brain and spinal cord due to infection Any de enerative brain disease I nvoluntary voidin of urine An affection of the nervous system resultin from ex cessive or disordered dischar e of cerebral neurons Bleedin from the nose An a ent causin increased nasal dischar e An inflammatory disease enerally affectin the face marked by a bri ht redness 172

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Escharotic Euphoriant Expectorant Extract Febrifu e Felon Filariasis Fistula Fla tulence Frenzy Galacto enic Galacto o ue Galactorrhea Gan rene Gastral ia Gastro dynia Gastroenteritis Gastrohelcosis Gastrome aly Gastropathy Germicidal Gin ivi tis Glaucoma Gleet Glycosuria Goitre Gonorrhoea Gout Gripe Haematemesis Haematur ia Haemoptysis Haemorrhoid Haemostatic Halitosis Hallucino enic Heart palpitatio ns Helminthiasis Hema o ue Hematinic Hematorrhea Hemicrania Hemiple ia Hemolytic Hepatal ia Hepatic Hepatitis Hepatodynia Hepatome aly Hepatopathy Hepatosis Her nia of the skin A caustic substance that creates a mass of dead cells or scab Produc in a sense of bodily comfort and well-bein and the absence of pain or distress Aidin the secretion of the mucous membrane of the air passa es and the removal of fluid by spittin A concentrate of dried, less volatile aromatic plant part obtained by solvent extraction with a polar solvent Anythin which reduces fever A deep infection around the nails of toes or fin ers Infection with filarial ne matode worms An open channel from the anus or rectum to the skin near the anus P resence of excessive as in the stomach or intestine Violent temporary mental de ran ement Promotin the flow of milk Medicine that promotes secretion of milk Ex cessive or spontaneous flow of milk Necrosis and putrefaction of tissue due to l ack of blood supply Pain in the stomach Pain in the stomach Inflammation of the mucous coat of the stomach and intestine due to bacterial infection Ulceration o f the stomach Enlar ement of the stomach Any disease of the stomach Causin dest ruction of micro-or anisms Inflammation of the in ival mar ins around the teeth accompanied by swellin and bleedin Increased intraocular pressure and its con sequences Chronic dischar e of thin mucous from the va ina Excretion of su ar in the urine Enlar ement of the thyroid land An inflammatory disease of the enit ourinary passa es characterized by pain and dischar e A disease of purine metabo lism characterized by attacks of arthritis with an associated raised level of se rum uric acid A sharp pain in the stomach Vomitin of blood The presence of bloo d in the urine Spittin of blood A bleedin pile Havin the power to arrest blee din Offensive odour of the breath Producin hallucinations Abnormally rapid and irre ular beatin of the heart Morbid state due to infestation with worms An a ent that promotes the flow of blood Stimulatin the formation of blood cells and hemo lobin Copious hemorrha e Headache confined to one side Paralysis of one si de of the body Destructive to red blood cells Pain in the liver Havin to do wit h the liver Inflammation of the liver; jaundice Pain in the liver Enlar ement of the liver Any disease of the liver Downward displacement of the liver The protr usion of an internal or an throu h a defect in the wall of the anatomical cavity in which it lies. 173

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Herpes Herpetic Hydra o ue Hydrocele Hydrophobia Hyperdenosis Hyperdipsia Hyperd iuresis Hyperemesis Hyperhydrosis Hyperorexia Hyperpraxia Hypertension Hypertens ive Hyperthermia Hypnotic Hypochonodriasis Hypo lycement Hypotension Hypotensive Hypothermia Hysteria Impeti o Impotence Infusion Insanity Insecticide Insomnia Installationqualification Intermittent fever Intoxication Irritant Jaundice Kidn ey stone Lactation Lactifu e Laryn itis Laxative Lenti o Lesion Leucoderma Leuco rrhoea Leukaemia Liniment Linthontriptic Lithiasis Lumba o Mali nant Mammillitis Masticatory Melal ia Melancholia Menolipsis Inflammation of the skin or mucous membrane with clusters of deep seated vesicle s Treatin skin eruptions Promotin expulsion of water or serum A circumscribed collection of fluid in the tunica va inalis testis Exa erated fear of water as in rabies Proliferation of landular tissue Intense thirst of relatively brief d uration Excessive secretion of urine Excessive vomitin Excessive perspiration E xcessive appetite Abnormal activity; restlessness Hi h arterial blood pressure T endin to rise the blood pressure A very hi h body temperature Inducin sleep or a state resemblin sleep A state of mind in which the sufferer is much preoccup ied with his health Lowerin the level of blood su ar in the body A fall in bloo d pressure below the normal level Tendin to lower blood pressure Greatly decrea sed temperature A neurotic disorder with varyin symptoms An inflammation of the skin associated with discrete vesicles due to streptococcal infection Inability to perform the sexual act due to failure of the reflex mechanism A hot extract of either a plant part or its exudate with either water or an or anic solvent. M ental disease of a rave kind Any a ent which kills or destroys insects The cond ition of bein unable to sleep Documented verification that all key aspects of t he installation adhere to the appropriate codes and approved desi n intentions a nd that manufacturers recommendations are duly considered A re ularly recurrin fever General condition which results followin the absorption and diffusion in the body of a soluble poison An a ent that causes inflammation Yellowin of the skin and other tissues caused by the presence of bile pi ments Small, hard stone that may form in the kidneys and cause intense pain The secretion of milk by ma mmals Retardin or causin cessation of the secretion of milk Inflammation of th e larynx Havin the action of loosenin the bowel A brownish or yellowish spot f ound on the skin, enerally on the hands, arms or face often caused by exposure to sunli ht A wound Any white area on the skin An abnormal mucous dischar e from the va ina Blood cancer A liquid or thin paste applied to the skin to work as a pain reliever An a ent that effects the dissolution of a calculus The formation of calculus of any kind Pain in mid or lower back Threatenin life or tendin t o cause death Inflammation of the nipple A substance that is chewed to increase the flow of saliva Pain in the limbs A mental illness in which the predominant s ymptom is melancholy, depression of spirits, unhappiness and misery Temporary ce ssation of menstruation 174

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Menorrha ia Menostasis Metropathy Metroptosis Metrorrha ia Metrorrhea Micturitio n Mi rai ne Morbid Mumps Myal ia Mydriasis Mydriatic Myrin itis Narcotic Nasitis Nauseant Nepholithiasis Nephral ia Nephritis Nephropathy Neural ia Neurasthenia Notal ia Nyctalopia Obesity Odontal ia Odontopathy Olea inous Opacity Operation qualification Ophthalmia Ophthalmodynia Ophthalmopathy Opthalmitis Orchial ia Or chiopathy Orchitis Ostal ia Osteomalacia Otal ia Otopathy Otopyorrhea Pancreatit is Paraple ia Parkinsonism partiurient Pectoral Pectoral ia Performancequalifica tion Pertussis Pharyn itis Pharyn odynia Pharyn opathy Phythisis Pneumonia Pneum onopathy Excessive or prolon ed menstruation Failure of menstruation Any uterine disease Prolapse of the uterus Uterine, bleedin , usually of normal amount occurrin at completely irre ular intervals, the period of flow sometimes bein prolon ed Abn ormal uterine dischar e The act of passin urine A periodic condition with local ised headaches, frequently associated with vomitin and sensory disturbances Rel atin to disease Epidemic parotitis, an acute infectious disease caused by a vir us Muscular pain Dilation of the pupil A dru that dilates the pupil Inflation o f the tympanic membrane A dru that induces sleep Inflation of the nose An a ent that causes nausea Presence of renal calculi Pain in the kidney Inflation of th e kidneys Disease of the kidneys A painful affection of the nerves due to functi onal disturbances or neuritis Nervous debility Pain in the back Ni ht blindness An excessive accumulation of fat in the body Toothache Any disease of the teeth Oily, reasy An opaque or non-transparent area documented verification that the system or sub system performs as intended throu hout all anticipated operatin r an es Referrin to conjunctivitis Pain in the eye Any disease of the eye Inflati on of the eye ball Pain in the testis Any disorder of the testis Inflammation of the testis characterised by hypertrophy and pain Pain in the bones Softenin of the bones, resultin from vitamin D deficiency Pain in the ear Any disease of t he ear Purulent dischar e from the ear Inflammation of the pancreas Stroke affec tin one side Parkinson’s disease characterised by ri idity of muscles and tremo r of the hands Inducin the contractions of labour at childbirth Effective in di seases of the chest Pain in the chest Documented verification of the appropriate ness of critical process parameters, operatin ran es and system reproducibility over an appropriate time period Whoopin cou h Inflammation of the mucous membr ane and underlyin part of the pharynx Pain in the pharynx Any disease of the ph arynx Any wastin disease in which the whole body or part of the body is involve d Inflammation of lun tissue Any disease of the lun s 175

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Pneumonosis Pneumorrha ia Poliomyelitis Poultice Procreant Proctal ia Proctoptos is Prophylactic Pruri o Pruritus Psoriasis Psoriasis plantaris Psychopathy Ptyal ism Pur ative Pyorrhoea Pyrexia Rachial ia Radiculal ia Radiculitis Ramitis Rect al ia Rectitis Refri erant Renal Renal calculi Renopathy Resolvent Resorptive Re storative Resuscitative Retinitis Revulsive Rheumarthritis Rheumatal ia Rhinal i a Rhinitis Rhinodynia Rhinopathy Rickets Roborant Rubefacient Sarcocele Scabies Scald Scaldin of urine Scleritis Scrofula Scurvy Sedative Sialo o ue Sinovitis Sinusitis Somatal ia Somnifacient Somnolence Any lun disorder A severe haemoptysis An acute inflammation of the anterior hor n cells of the spinal cord due to an enterovirus infection A soft mush prepared by various substances with oily or watery fluids The dru which be ets Pain in t he rectum Prolapse of the rectum Pertainin to the prevention of the development of a disease An eruption of the skin causin severe itchin Itchin A condition characterised by the eruption of circumscribed discrete and confluent reddish, silvery scaled lesions Psoriasis of the sole Any disease of the mind Excessive s ecretion of saliva Stron laxative A dischar e of pus A condition characterised by the presence of pus Pain in the vertebral column Neural ia of the nerve roots Inflammation of spinal nerve roots Inflammation of a nerve root Pain in the rec tum Inflammation of the rectum Coolin Relatin to the kidneys Calculi relatin to kidney Any disease of the kidney Causin resolution of a tumour or swellin A idin reabsorption of blood from bruises Havin the power to restore or renew he alth The act of restorin to life Inflammation of the retina Causin revulsion i n drawin away of blood from a patholo ical area to another area Rheumatoid arth ritis Rheumatic pain Pain in the nose Inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane Pain in the nose Any disease of the nose A disturbance of the calcium/phosphorus metabolism which occurs in the rowin child as a result of vitamin D deficienc y A stren thenin a ent Havin the action of counter irritant Fleshy swellin or tumour of the testis Sarcoptic infestation of the human skin particularly a con ta ious skin disease caused by invasion of the epidermis The lesion caused by co ntact with a hot liquid or vapour Severe burnin sensation durin micturition In flammation of the sclera Tuberculous cervical adenitis with or without ulceratio n A deficiency disease due to lack of Vitamin C Actin on the central nervous sy stem to produce sleep An a ent that increases the flow of saliva Inflammation of the synovial membrane of a joint Inflammation affectin the mucal epithelium of a sinus Body pain Causin sleep Sleepiness 176

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Soporific Spanomenorrhea Spasmolytic Splenal ia Splenitis splenohepatome aly Spl enome aly Splenopathy Stimulant Stomachal ia Stomachic Stomatal ia Stomatitis St omatopathy Stomatorrha ia Stupefacient Styptic Sudorific Suppurative Syphilis Sy rup Taeiniacide Tetanus Thermople ia Thrombosis Tincture Tonic Tonsilitis Toxaem ia Tranquilizer Trauma Tricho enous Ulemorrha ia Ulitis Ulocace Ulorrha ia Ulorr hea Un uent Urelcosis Ureteral ia Ureteritis Urethritis Urethrorrha ia Urethrorr hea Urocyst Urocystitis Urodynia Urolithiasis Uro-edema Uropathy Urorrha ia Uror rhea Uroschesis Urticaria Uteral ia Uterine sedative Inducin sleep Scanty menstruation Helpin to relieve cramps and other muscle co ntractions Pain in the spleen Inflammation of the spleen Enlar ement of spleen a nd liver Enlar ement of the spleen Any disease of the spleen Makin a body or an active Pain in the stomach Aidin the stomach and di estion Pain in the mouth G eneralised inflammation of the oral mucosa Any disorder of the mouth Hemorrha e from the mouth Inducin stupor Havin the power to arrest bleedin Actin to inc rease perspiration Pus formin A conta ious venereal disease A water and su ar s olution to which are added flavourin , medicinal, or some other desired in redie nts An a ent that kills tapeworms An infective disease due to the toxins of Clos tridium tetani Sun stroke A blood clot that may partially or wholly block the fl ow of blood throu h a blood vessel A medication that has its medicinal a ent dis solved in alcohol An a ent that is used to ive stren th to the system Inflammat ion of the tonsil The condition of eneral poisonin caused by the entrance of s oluble bacterial toxins into the blood Dru employed to calm or sedate people or animals A patholo ical alteration of the supportin tissues of a tooth due to a bnormal occlusion Stimulatin the rowth of hair Bleedin from the ums Inflamma tion of the ums Ulceration of the ums Hemorrha e from the ums Bleedin from t he ums Ointment Ulceration of the urinary tract Pain in the ureter Inflammation of the ureter Inflammation of the urethra Flow of blood from the urethra Abnorm al dischar e from the urethra The urinary bladder Inflammation of the urinary bl adder Pain on urination Urinary calculi Edema due to infiltration of urine Any d isease of the urinary tract Excessive secretion of urine Involuntary flow of uri ne Retention of urine Itchin , inflamed skin caused by an aller ic reaction to a dru , food, or substance in the environment; also called hives Pain in the uter us An a ent that relaxes the muscles of the uterus 177

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Uteritis Va initis Va inodynia Va inopathy Validation Vasoconstrictor Vasodilator Vermifu e Verminosis Verti o Vesical Vesicant Viscer ome aly Vulnerary Wart Wash Inflammation of the uterus Inflammation of the va ina Pain in the va ina Any dis ease of the va ina Establishin documented evidence which provides a hi h de ree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meetin its pre-determinant specifications and quality attributes An a ent that narrow s blood vessel openin s, restrictin the flow of blood throu h them An a ent tha t expands blood vessels, allowin more blood to flow throu h them A dru that ex pels worms Morbid state due to infestation with worms Dizziness Referrin to the urinary bladder A counter irritant stron enou h in some cases to cause blister in Abnormal enlar ement of the viscera Soothin or healin wounds and sores A c ircumscribed cutaneous excrescence Liquid medicinal preparation for external use 178

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IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahmed, S. I. 1988. Potential of usin the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) for pes t control and rural development. Neem Newsl., 5:49-55. Aiyer, M. N., Namboodiri, A. N. and Kolammal, M. 1957. Pharmaco nosy of Ayurvedic dru s, Trivandrum, Aiye r, K. N. and Kolammal, M. 1960-1966. Pharmac nosy of Auyrvedic dru s, Trivandrum Nos.4-9 Aiyer, K. N. and Kolammal , M., 1963. Pharmaco nosy of Ayurvedic Dru s, Dept of Pharco nosy, Uty. Of Kerala, Trivandrum. Ali, M. E. Biswas, K. M. and C howdhury, S. A. 1972. Andro raphis paniculata. VI. Root flavones and their sturc ture. Pakist. J. Scient. Ind. Res., 15:33. Allison, A. J., Butcher, D. N., Conol ley, J. D. and Overton, K. H. 1968. Paniculides A, B and C, bisabolenoid lactone s from tissue cultures of Andro raphis paniculata. J.chem. Soc., Chem. Commun.,2 3:1497. Ansari, A. A., 1993. Threatened medicinal plants from Madhauli forest of Garakhpur. .Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany.17 (10); 241. Asolkar, L.V ., Kakkar, K. K. and Chakre, O. J. 1992. Second Supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants with Active Principles Part I (A-K). (1965-81). Publications a nd Informations Directorate (CSIR), New Delhi. pp.18-20. Astry, M. S., Bhalla, N . S. and Malhotra, C. L. 1959. Chemical Investi ation of Herpestis monnieri. Ind ian J. Pharm., 21:303. Atal, C. K. and Schwartin , A. E. 1961. Aswa andha, an an cient Indian dru . Econ. Bot., 15 (3):256-263. Atal, C. K. and Kapur, B. N. 1982 . Cultivation and Utilisation of Medicinal Plants. CSIR, RRL, JammuTawi, India. 727p. Atal, C. K., Dhar, K. L. and Sin h, J. 1975. Chemistry of Indian Piper Spe cies. Lloydia 38:256. Au ustine, A. C., Souza, L. D., 1995. Conservation of Curc uli o orchioides- An endan ered anticarcino enic herb symp. Recent advances Biot echnol. Application Pl. Tiss. Cell Cult. 22-24 June 1995, CFTRI Mysore- 570013. Banerjee, D. K. and Pal. D. C. 1994. Plants used by the tribals of plain land in India for hair and scalp preparation. 4th Internat. Con . Ethnobiol. NBRI, Luck now. Nov.1721, 340. Baser, K. H. C., Bisset, N. G. and Hylands, P. J. 1979. Prot ostrychnine, a new alkaloid from Strychnos nuxvomica. Phytochemistry, 18 (3):512 -514. Baser , K. H. C. and Bisset, N. G. 1982. Alkaloids of Sri Lankan Strychnos nux-vomica. Phytochemistry , 21 (6):1423-1429. Basu, N. K. and Lamsal, P. 1947. Investi ation on Indian medicinal Plants. II. Hydrocotyle asiatica. Quart. J. P harm., 20:137. Basu, N. K. and Walia, J. S. 1944. Chemical investi ation of the leaves of Herpestis monnieri. Indian J. Pharm., 6:84. Bauxter, R. M., Dandiya, P . C., Kandel, S. J., Okay, A. and Walker, G.C. 1960. Separation of hypnotic pote ntiatin principle from the essential oil of Acorus calamus Linn. of Indian or i n by liquid- as chromato raphy. Nature., 185:466. Beeson, C. F.C. 1941. The ecol o y and control of forest insects of India and the nei hbourin countries. Vasan t Press, Dehra Dun, India. Bennet, S. S. R. 1987. Name chan es in flowerin plan ts of India and adjacent re ions. Triseas publications, Dehra Dun-248001, India. p.766. Beri, R. M. 1970. Phytosterol in some plant materials. Indian Oil Soap J ., 35:274. Bhakuni, D. S. and Jain, S. 1995. In Chadha and Gupta 1995. Bhakuni, D. S. Dhar, M. L., Dhar, M. M., Dhawan, B. N., Gupta, H and Srimal, R. C.1971. S creenin of Indian plants for biolo ical activity. Part III. Indian J. exp. Biol ., 2:91. Bhar ava, K. K. and Seshadri, T. R. 1974. Chemistry of Indian Medicinal Plants, Eclipta alba and Wedilia calendulacea. J. Res. Indian Med., 9:9. Bhasin G. D., Roonwal, M. L. and Sin h, B. 1958. A list of insect pests of forest plan ts in India and adjacent countries. Part 3. Indian Forest Bulletin, Newsl. No. 1 71 (2) (Ent.). Bhatia, K., Lal, J. and Swaleh, M. 1977. Utilization of barks of Terminalia species from Uttar Pradesh . Indian Forester., 103:273. Bhide, M. B. and Chandak, J. T. 1978. A new alkaloid from Dioscorea hispida. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 40:235. Biala, R. G., Tits, M., Walters, J. N. and An enot, L. 1996. A ne w HPLC method for the assay of alkaloid in Strychnos nux-vomica and Strychnos i natii. Fitoterapia, 67:163-165. 179

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VIII. Database on tropical medicinal plants Scientific Name Family Distribution India Habit Shrub Propa ation Part used Seed Seed Activity/Properties Diuretic, demulcent,antiseptic, carminative Cytotoxic, antifertility, abortifacient Hypothermic, CNS active, anal esic, aphrodisiac An thelmintic, antiinflammatory, hypotensive Anthelmintic, expectorant, emetic, ano dyne Cardiac, stimulant, diuretic, astrin ent, Stomachic, tonic, anti-flatulent, tranquilizer Astrin ent, diuretic Abelmoschus moschatus Malvaceae (Linn.) Medic us Abrus precatorius Linn. Papilionaceae Plains and hills of India India, Sri Lanka climber seed Roots, leaves, seeds Seed, root, bark, leaves Bark, heart wood Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet Acacia catechu Willd. Malvaceae herb Seed Mimosaceae India tree seed Acalypha fruticosa Forsk. Euphorbiaceae Acalypha indica Linn. Euphorbiaceae India India Shrub herb Leaves, roots, stalks, flower seed Whole plant Achyranthes aspera Linn. Amaranthaceae India herb India herb Acorus calamus Linn. Araceae herb rhizome rhizome Adhatoda beddomei C. B. Acanthaceae Clarke Adhatoda zeylanica Acanthaceae Medicu s Ae le marmelos (Linn.) Rutaceae Corr. Aerva lanata (Linn.) Juss. Amaranthaceae

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Hills of Kerala shrub Lower Himalayan shrub ran es Forest of himalayan Small tree tracts, central and S. India Tropics and subUnder shrub tropics, Africa, Asia herb India S. India tr ee Small tree Seed and ve etatively Seed, ve etatively Seed, root Whole plant mainly root Leaves, root, bark, Expectorant, diuretic, flowers alter ative Root, stem, Hypo lycaemic, leaves, fruits antifun al, CVS active Anthelmin tic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory,antibacteria Antilithic Bark, leaf Roots, fruit s Antispasmodic, antiasthamatic Antiprotozoal, hypo lycaemic Immunomodulator, hy po lycaemic, anticancer Stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, emmena o ue Stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, emmena o ue Anti-inflammatory, hypotensive Anthelmintic, pur ative, oxytocic CVS & CNS active, diuretic, hypothermic, antiulcerative CVS & CNS active, diuretic, hypothermic, antiulcerative CVS & CNS active, diuretic, hypothermic, antiulcerative Antimalarial, hypotensive, anthelmintic Depurative, febrifu e Galacto enic, emollient A eratum conyzoides Linn. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Alan ium salviifolium (Linn. f .) Wan . Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Benth. Allium cepa Linn. Asteraceae Simarubaceae Alan iaceae Mimosaceae Liliaceae India, Burma, Sri Lanka, Africa, Australia India Tree seed herb Bulb Bark, flower, seeds, leaves, roots Bulb, seed Allium cepa var. a re atum Allium sativum Linn. Liliaceae India herb Bulb Bulb, seed Liliaceae All over India herb

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Cloves, bulblets ve etative bulbs Aloe barbadensis Mill. Liliaceae India, Florida, W.Indies, Asia herb Leaf juice, Elio (dried um) rhizome Alpinia allu has Rosc. Zin iberaceae W. hats, Sri Lanka, herb Malaya, China, India W. hats, Sri Lanka, herb Malaya, C hina, India Himalaya, Assam, Bihar, W. hats herb rhizome Alpinia calcarata Rosc. Zin iberaceae rhizome rhizome Alpinia alan a Sw. Zin iberaceae rhizome rhizome Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br. Alstonia venenata R. Br. Amaranthus spinosus L inn. Apocynaceae India especially W. tree Ghats India India, native of America shrub herb seed Bark, leaves, milky exudate Roots, fruits Root, leaf Apocynaceae Amaranthaceae seed, ve etative seed 186

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Amomum subulatum Roxb. Amorphophalus companulatus (Roxb.) Bl. Anacardium occiden tale Linn. Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Andro raphis paniculata Nees Anisochilus carno sus Wall. Zin iberaceae Araceae Anacardiaceae Asteraceae Acanthaceae Lamiaceae E. Himalaya, Ben al, Sikkim, Assam India Tropics Ben al, Arabia India, Sri Lanka herb Seed, rhizome Corm seed Seed, oil herb tree herb herb Corm, seed Bark, leaf, fruit root Whole plant Leaves, oil N. Circars, Mysore, herb Malabar S.India, Sri Lanka India Java, Sri Lanka, Malay a, Burma Tropics Tropical India, E. Archipela o Native of Mexico, India india In dia India herb tree tree tree palm seed seed seed Seed Stimulant, stomachic alexipharmic, astrin ent Antiasthmatic, antiemetic Anthelmi ntic, antiasthmatic Cardiac stimulant, sialo o ue Antipyretic, alterative, febri fu e Stimulant, diaphoretic, expectorant Anisomeles malabarica R. Lamiaceae Br. Annona squamosa Linn. Annonaceae Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker Areca catechu L inn. Moraceae Meliaceae Arecaceae Leaves, essential Stimulant, diaphoretic, oil astrin ent Whole plant Pur ative, suppurative seeds Bark, seed febrifu e Anthelmintic, astrin ent, anticancer Ar emone mexicana Linn. Papaveraceae Annual seed Seed or kernal, root, tender leaves, catechu Milky juice, seed, Astrin ent, fres h root anthelmintic, aperient Leaves, root antiphol istic Di estive, diuretic, a nthelmintic Antidote, leprosy, dropsy Ar yreia speciosa Sweet Aristolochia bracteolata Ham. Aristolochia indica Linn. Convolvulaceae Aristolochiaceae Aristolochiaceae Climbin shrub twiner twiner Seed, ve ., Root, rhizome Artemisia pallens Artemisia vul aris Linn. Asteraceae Asteraceae Poona, Alndi, Jejuri Sub shrub tree Seed Roots, leaves, fruits Stimulant, emmena o ue, alexiteric Whole plant

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Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. Aspara us racemosus Willd . Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. Moraceae India tree Seed Moraceae Liliaceae Oxalidaceae Tree India, Andaman and climber Nicobar islands India, Burma Ever reen tree Eve r reen tree Tree Seed Seed, root Seed Averrhoa carambola Linn. Oxalidaceae Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Azima tetracant ha Lam. Meliaceae India, Africa Seed Seed Antipyretic, anthelmintic Leaves, flowerin Anthelmintic, tops antiseptic, expec torant Roots, leaves, Antidiarrhoeal. fruits. Seeds, Astrin ent, wood, latex car minative, tonic Bark, leaves. fruits Astrin ent, anaphrodisiac Tuberous roots Sp asmolytic, anticancer fruit Astrin ent, stomachic, refri erant, coolin Leaves, root, fruit Laxative, refri erant, Bark, leaves, flower, seeds, oil Leaves, root s Antiviral, anthelmintic, insectcide, antiseptic diuretic Salvadoraceae Decan, Sri Lanka, Coromandal coast Throu hout India in wet places Sub Himalayan tracts, W.Ben al, Bihar India, Lower Himalaya herb Seeds, ve etative ve etativel Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Pennell Baliospermum solanifolium (J. Burm.) Suresh Bamb usa bambos Druce Scrophulariaceae Whole plant Barbiturate, hyponosis potentiation effect CVS active, hypotensive, diuretic Emm ena o ue, anthelmintic, astrin ent, stimulant Euphorbiaceae Under shrub Roots, leaves, seeds Interior stalks, youn Poaceae Thorny bambo Seed, tiller Barleria mysorensis Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Bauhinia racemosa Lam.

shoots, leaves

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Acanthaceae Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Malabar, Travancore shrub S.Asia, India Bark, flower, root Leaf, bark Astrin ent , carminative, laxative Astrin ent, anthelmintic, cephalal ic 187

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Bauhinia tomentosa Bauhinia varie ata Linn. Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Sub-Himalayan tracts, Dry forests Throu hout Ind ia Tree seed Root, bark Hypothermic, CNS active, anti-bacterial Astrin ent, anti pyretic, anti-septic Biophytum sensitivum (Linn.) DC. Blepharis boerhaavifolia Blepharistemma corymbo sa Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. Oxalidaceae herb seed Whole plant Acanthaceae Rhizophoraceae Nycta inaceae India Under shrub Creepin herb ve etative

Herb and root Bombax ceiba Linn. Bombacaceae India Tree seed Brassica campestris Linn. Brassiccaceae Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern. & Coss. B rassica oleracea Linn. var. botrytis Linn. Breynia patens Benth. Bridelia crenul ata Roxb. Brassicaceae Brassicaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae India India India herb herb herb Shrub Tree Climbin shrub seed seed seed Laxative, diuretic, expectorant, emetic, pur ative, anthelmintic, febrifu e Gum, seed, Astrin ent, leaves, fruit, bark, demulcent, diuretic, flower aphrodisiac, emetic Stem, root, Aperient, diuretic, leaves, seeds rubefacient Seed, oil Aspe rient, stimulant, emmen o ue Bridelia scandens (Roxb.) Euphorbiaceae Willd. Bryonia sp. Cucurbitaceae Butea monosperma (Lam.) Papilionaceae Taub. Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn.) Caesalpin iaceae Roxb. Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Caesalpiniaceae India, Tropical Himalya, Sri Lanka, South East Asia, Malaysia India Deciduous tr ee S.India, W.Ben al seed

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Climbin

Gum, seeds, flower, bark, leaves Seeds, nuts, root, bark, leaves Heart wood Anthelmintic, astrin ent, aperient Antiperiodic, antispasmodic, anthelmintic, fe brifu e Anti-cancer, antiinflammatory, semen coa ulatin Tree seed Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Millsp. Calamus travancoricus Bedd. ex Hook. f. Callicarpa tomentosa (Linn.) Murray Calotropis i antea (Linn.) R. Br. Papilionaceae Arecaceae Verbenaceae Asclepiadaceae India shrub seed Seeds, beans, leaves Tender leaves Root, bark febrifu e shrub Milky shrub seed Whole plant Calycopteris floribunda Combretaceae Lam. Canan a odorata Hook. f. Annonaceae & Thom. Capparis sepiaria Linn. Capparis zeylanica Linn. Capsicum annum Capparidac eae Capparidaceae Solanaceae India Woody shrub tree seed Depurative, anthelmintic, expectorant Leaves, fruits, root Stimulant, anthelmint ic, laxative Oil from flowers Anti-rheumatism, antimalarial, antidiarrhoeal S.India shrub Climbi shrub India Annual shrub fruit Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. Careya arborea Roxb. Sapindaceae Throu htout India Herb Roots, leaves, seeds seed Bark, leaves, flower, fruits Lecythidaceae Deciduous tree India Soft wood tree Herb

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herb seed

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Carica papaya Linn. Caricaceae Seed, mount Fruits, latex layerin

Thermo enic, di estive, carminative, cardio tonic Antibacterial, hypotensive, an tirheumatism Astrin ent, thermo enic, expectorant Anti-fertility, anticoa ulant, anthelmintic Carum bulbocastanum Koch Carum carvi Linn. Apiaceae Apiaceae Oil Stomachic, carminative 188

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Caryota urens Linn. Arecaceae Tree Shrub Throu hout India Throu hout india Tree Under shrub seed Juice, spirit, nuts Cascabela thevetia (Linn.) Apocynaceae Lippold Cassia fistula Linn. Caesalpiniac eae Cassia occidentalis Linn. Cassia sophera Linn. Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniace ae Seed seed seed Whole plant Whole plant leaves Anti-viral, anti-cacer, hypo lycaemic Diuretic, antibacterial Spasmolytic, anthe lmintic, antiseptic Astrin ent Hypotensive, sciative, stomachic Throu hout tropical Under shrub India Tree India herb Deciduous shrub Climbin s hrub Tree India herb Casuarina equisetifolia Linn. Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Don Catunare am nut ans (DC.) Tiruv. Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Juss. ex Ga nep. Ceiba pentata (Linn.) G aertn. Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss. Cicca acida (Linn.) Merr. Casuarinaceae Apocynaceae Rubiaceae Vitaceae Bombacaceae Apiaceae seed seed Wood, bark, leaves Whole plant Berry Astrin ent, refri erant ve etative Gum, root, youn Alterative, laxative, leaf antidiabetic Whole plant Nerve tonic , brain tonic Seed, seed oil Bark Amoebicidal, anal esic, diuretic Astrin ent, s pasmolytic, diuretic Chenopodiaceae Meliaceae herb Euphorbiaceae Tree seed oil Bark, oil Stimulant, carminative Cinnamomum camphora Lauraceae Nees & Eberm. Cinnamomum verum Presl Lauraceae Cis sampelos pareira Linn. Menispermaceae Cissus quadran ularis Linn. Citrus auranti folia (Christm.) Swin le Vitaceae Rutaceae Ever reen ve etative tree Ever reen seed aromatic tree Climbin plant Tendril c

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limber Thorny tree seed Citrus limon (Linn.) Burm. Rutaceae f. Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. & Hook. f. Clematis triloba Heyne ex Roth Cleome ynandr a Linn. Cleome viscosa Linn. Rutaceae Euphorbiaceae Ranunculaceae Capparidaceae Capparidaceae India Thorny shrub seed Stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, febrifu e Root, bark, leaves Stomachic, diuret ic, anthelmintic Whole palnt Aphrodisiac, carminative Fruit juice, rind of Stoma chic, fruit antiscorbutic, anthelmintic Rind of fruit, fruit Stomachic, juice ca rminative, antiscorbutic seed tree Whole plant leaves Herb herb seed seed Whole plant antifun al, anthelm intic, carminative Anthelmintic, Hypo lycaemic Antispasmolytic, expectorant, car minative Antiinflammatory, demulcent, vermifu e Pur ative, diuretic, laxative Hy po lycaemic, antiprotozoal Cardio tonic, anticonvalasant stimulant Pur ative, re fri erant, antacid Dietetic, nervous stimulant Poison, anticancer,astrin ent Alt erative, sedative Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. Clitoria ternatea Linn. Coccinia randis (Linn.) Voi t. Cocculus hirsutus (Linn.) Diels. Cochlospermum reli iosum (Linn.) Alst. Cocos nucifera Li nn. Coffea arabica Linn. Verbenaceae Verbenaceae Drier parts of India india shrub seed bark Roots, leaves Woody shrub seed Verbenaceae Papilionaceae Cucurbitaceae india India India shrub climber climber seed seed leaves Menispermaceae Tropical& subtropical India India S. India, Sri Lanka, Archipela o S.India, Sri lanka shrub Seeds, roots, leaves Ve etatively Roots, leaves, by stem fruits cuttin s Roots, leaves Cochlospermaceae Arecaceae Rubiaceae

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Deciduous tree Tree Lar e shrub seed seed seed Leaves, flowers, um Flowers, roots, fruit, oil, ash Seeds, leaves 189

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Coffea robusta Coix lacryma-jobi Linn. Coldenia procumbens Linn. Coleus amboinic us Lour. Coleus zeylanicus (Benth.) Cramer Colocasia esculenta (Linn.) Schott Co mmiphora caudata (Wt. & Arn.) En l. Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks) Stocks Rubiaceae Poaceae Bora inaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Araceae Burseraceae Burserace ae Africa, Asia, Rajasthan, A.P, Assam, M.P India Perennial herb Tree Small tree India India Perennial rass herb herb seed seed Roots,seeds Leaves Stem cuttin leaves Stem cuttin leaves corm seed S eed, ve etative cuttin s, rafts seed seed Leaves, corms Roots, leaves Roots, le aves Styptic,stimulant, rubefacient Astrin ent, aphrodisiac, diuretic Nypolipaem ic, hypocholesteraemic, aphrodisiac Diuretic, cathartic,depurative Antirheumatic appetisin , di estive Connarus monocarpus Linn. Coriandrum sativum Linn. Connaraceae Apiaceae India Shrub Herb Fruit, root fruit Aromatic, stimulant, carminative, antibilious Thermo enic, ano dyne, opthalmic Hypotensive, antifertility Laxative, rubefacient Expectorant, di estive, haematinic Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr. Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm. Crataeva re li iosa Hook. f. & Thom. Cressa cretica Linn. Crossandra infundibuliformis Crota laria juncea Linn. Croton ti lium Linn. Menispermaceae Zin iberaceae Capparidaceae Convolvulaceae Acanthaceae Papilionac eae Euphorbiaceae W. hats of T.N and Climbin Kerala shrub India Herb Small tree India Shrub Shrub Stem cuttin stem rhizome rhizome Bark, stem Whole plant seed N.India Tree seeds Leaves, roots, seeds seeds Astrin ent, expectorant Di estive, carminative, antiinflammatory Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. & Schult. Curculi o orchioides Gaertn. Curcuma amada Roxb. Asclepiadaceae Amaryllidaceae Sub tropical Himalaya, W.Ghats India Climber Whole plant Root Hypo lycaemic, spasmolytic, anticancer Appetiser, carminative, di estive, demulcent Demulcent, anthelmintic Spasmolytic, carminative, stimulant Anti-inflammatory, emollient, depurative Emetic, alexipharmic Thermo enic, carm inative, depuratve Anthelmintic, laxative, aphrodisiac Zin iberaceae Rhizomatous rhizome aromatic herb Herb rhizome rhizome rhizomes Curcuma an ustifolia Roxb. Curcuma aromatica Salisb. Curcuma lon a Linn. Cyathul

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a prostrata (Linn.) Bl. Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thom. Cymbopo on citrat us (DC.) Stapf Cymbopo on flexuosus (Steud.) Wats. Cymbopo on martinii var. moti a Roxb. Cymbopo on martinii var. sofia Cymbopo on nardus (Linn.) Rendle Cymbopo on nardus var. confertiflorus x C. jawarancusa Cymbopo on pendulus Wats. Cymbopo on winterianus

Zin iberaceae Zin iberaceae Wild throu htout india India India India India Keral a India India India rhizome rhizome Herb Zin iberaceae Amaranthaceae Menispermaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poace ae Herb India Twinin herb Perennial rass Perennial rass Perennial l rass Perennial rass Perennial rass Perennial rass Perennial rhizome rhizome roots Roots, leaves Seed, slips seed, slips seed, slips seed, slips seed, slips Whole plant Oil Leaf, oil Antiseptic, carminative, rubefacient Poaceae India slips Poaceae Poaceae India seed, slips slips India 190

rass Perennia rass

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Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. Cyperus rotundus Linn Dalber ia latifolia Roxb. Poaceae Cyperaceae Papilionaceae India Tropics India Perennial rass Herb ve etative Whole plant Haemostat, vulnerary Antiinflammatory, antipyretic, anal esic Anthelmintic, anti pyretic, anal esic Emetic, narcotic, anodyne, antispasmodic astrin ent Antiinfla mmatory., aphrodisiac, anal esic Ve . by tuber Bulbous tuber seed Whole plant Datura metel Linn. Solanaceae India Sub-shrub seed Whole plant Delonix re ia (Boj.) Rafin. Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees Desmodium an et icum DC. Desmodium yrans DC. Desmodium pulchellum Backer Desmodium triflorum (L inn.) DC. Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. Dioscorea flori bunda Caesalpiniaceae Poaceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Poaceae Dioscoreaceae Dioscoriaceae Native of Central America, India, China Indi a Lower hills and plains of india India Tree seed leaf Under shrub shrub seed seed seeds Roots Bark, flower Whole plant Perennial seeds herb Perennial tin s seeds rass Climbin herb Tuber climber Tuber, stem cut

Antidiarrhoeal, antihaemorrha e Expectorant, alacto o ue Astrin ent, diuretic A ntidysenteric, antisyphilic Carbohydrale, protein metabolism Carminative, astrin ent, laxative, aphrodisiac, anaemia Astrin ent, diuretic, tonic

Tuber, leaf tubers

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Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. Dolichos biflorus Backer Ecbolium viride (Forsk.) Me rr. Eclipta prostrata (Linn.) Linn. Ebenaceae Tree Unripe fruit, leaf, fruit, bark seeds Papilionaceae Acanthaceae Asteraceae Sri Lanka, India, Africa, Malaya India twiner Shrub herb seeds seed Whole plant Elephantopus scaber Linn. Asteraceae India Elettaria cardamomum Maton Embelia ri bes Burm. f. Zin iberaceae Ri id herb Perennial herb India Climbin shrub herb Roots, leaves Seed, sucker seed Antihepatic, hematicidal, CVS active Astrin ent, alterative, febrifu e Anticepha lal ia, antiemetic Contraceptive, acaricidal, antibacterial Sudorific, vulnerary Myrsinaceae Fruits, roots, leaves Whole plant Emilia sonchifolia DC. Ensete superbum Entada pursaetha DC. Erythrina varie ata Linn. Asteraceae Musaceae Mimosaceae Papilionaceae India Tropics India, Sri lanka, Thailand, Laos Australia, India Australia, India Brazi l, India Tree Seed, stem cuttin seed seed seed seed seed seeds Bark, leaves irritant Galacto o ue, anthelmintic Eucalyptus citriodora Myrtaceae Hook. Eucalyptus lobulus Labill. Myrtaceae Eupa torium triplinerve Vahl Asteraceae Euphorbia hirta Linn. Euphorbia nivulia Buch. Ham. Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Tree Tree Sub shrub Stra lin

herb Tree

Dried leaves, um, oil Febrifu e, carminative, antiseptic Dried leaves, Diaphore tic,antiperiodi flower tops, twi s c, expectorant Seed, leaves Galacto o ue, diu retic, aphrodisiac Expectorant, di estive, stomachic, abortive Whole plant Laxat ive, antibacterial, alexipharmic Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. Euphorbia tir ucalli Linn. Euphorbia tri ona Haw. Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae

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India Herb Milky juice Tree 191

Evolvulus alsinoides (Linn.) Linn. Excoecaria a allocha Linn. Ficus ben alensis Linn. Convolvulaceae Euphorbiaceae Moraceae India Sub-Himalaya, Peninsular India Herb Tree Tree seed Whole plant leaves Aerial root, bark, leaves, buds, fruits, latex Root, leaves Tonic, alterative, febrifu e Pur ative, alterative Hypo lycaemic, astrin ent, Ficus exasperata Vahl Moraceae Antiasthmatic, antidysenteric Ve . by stem Root, bark, leaves Astrin en t, acrid cuttin bark Astrin ent, antiseptic Ficus heterophylla Linn. f. Moraceae Ficus microcarpa Linn. f. Ficus racemasa Li nn. Moraceae Moraceae India Sub_Himalayam tracts Ever reen tree India Tree Ficus reli iosa Linn. Moraceae Tree seed Flacourtia indica Merr. Flacourtia jan omas (Lour.) Raeusch. Garcinia ummi- utt a (Linn.) Robs. Geophila reniformis Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis Glorios a superba Linn. Flacourtiaceae Small tree Flacourtiaceae Clusiaceae Deciduous shrub Trees Bark, leaves, tender shoots, fruits, seeds, latex Root, fruit Antibacterial, hypo lycaemic, anthelmintic Depurative, diuretic seed Bark, leaves, fruits Astrin ent, refri erant, diaphoretic Leaves, dried fruits A strin ent, thermo enic, constipation Rubiaceae Urticaceae Liliaceae Tropical India, S. Africa Roots, rhizomes Climbin herb Seed, rhizome, tissue culture Whole plant Oxytoxic, uterine, stimulant Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC. Glycyrrhiza labra Linn. Rutaceae Papilionaceae Mediterranean re ion, S. Europe, Middle East India India, Af anistan, Iran Under shrub Gmelina arborea Roxb. Verbenaceae Tree climber

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Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. Asclepiadaceae Antiinflammatory, antianaemic, antirheumatic Seed, crown Roots, dried stem Antid iuretic, cuttin , expectorant, emetic, stolon diuretic pieces Whole plant Hypo l ycaemic, antiviral, stomachic ve etatively Whole plant Antidiabetiic Hedyotis corymbosa (Linn.) Lam. Helicteres isora Linn. Rubiaceae Sterculiaceae Suffruticose annual Lar e shrub Herb Whole plant Root, bark, fruits roots Aperient, pectoral, refri erant Demulcent, lactifu e Errhine Antibacterial, anti viral Demulcent, febrifu e, emollient Aphrodisiac, antiscorbutic, antibilious Ap erient, antirheumatic, resolvent Heliotropium indicum Linn. Bora inaceae Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R. Br. Hibisc us rosa-sinensis Linn. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. Asclepiadaceae Malvaceae Malvac eae, Hibiscus tiliaceus Linn. Malvaceae India, Sri Lanka, Twiner Ve . by root Roots, leaves, Moluccas stem Tropical Afri ca, Asia Ever reen Stem cuttin Roots, leaves, woody shrub flower Tropical Afri ca, Seed, leaf Asia, warmer parts of India Root, flower, bark W.Ben al, Peninsul ar India, Andaman &Nicibar islands Deciduous tree Tree India, Sri Lanka, Burma, W.China India Twiner shrub seed, root cuttin roots Root, fruit, stem Bark, leav es, seeds Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Don Holoptelea inte rifolia (Roxb.) Planch. Ho lostemma ada-kodien Schult. Homonoia riparia Lour. Apocynaceae Carminative, expectorant, anthelmintic Ulmaceae Asclepiadaceae Euphorbiaceae Antidiabetic, antiviral Diuretic, anti onorrhoea, antisyphilitic Febrifu e, anth elmintic, Hu onia mystax Linn. Linaceae Peninsular india Scandent shrub Root, bark 192

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antiinflammatory Hybanthus enneaspermus Violaceae (Linn. f.) Muell. Hydnocarpus laurifolia Flacourtiaceae (Dennst) Sleum. Hy rophila schulli (Ham.) Acanthaceae M. R. & S. M. Almeida Ichnocarpus frutescens (Linn.) R. Br. Indi ofera tinctoria Linn. Apocynaceae Papilionaceae India India India W. hats India herb Tree Shrub Whole plant Seed oil Roots, leaves, seeds, ashes Leaf, root, stalk seed Whole p lant Root Antileperotic, diuretic Diuretic, antiinflammatory, aphrodisiac Febrif u e, antisyphilitic, Antipiretic, anticephal ic Aphrodisiac, alacto enic, cholo o ue Climbin shrub shrub Climber

Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. Convolvulaceae Ipomoea pes-ti ridis Linn. Convolvulaceae Ixora coccinea Linn. Rubiaceae Shrub F lower, root Antileucoderma, antidiarrhoeal, sedative Anthelmintic, diuretic emme na o ue Emmena o ue Pur ative Jasminum randiflorum Linn. Jasminum sambac Ait. Jatropha curcas Linn.

Oleaceae Oleaceae Euphorbiaceae India Jatropha landulifera Roxb. Euphorbiaceae Jatropha ossypifolia Linn. Euphorbiaceae Justicia betonica Acanthaceae Tropical America, India, Andaman & Nicobar islands S.India, Shrub W.Ben al,Andam an & Nicobar islands India Shrub Shrub Twinin ever reen shrub Climbin shrub Shrub Stem cuttin Oil, root Antirheumatic, antiparalytic, pur ative Emmena o ue, pur ative, emetic Emetic, a ntiperiodic, insecticide Leaves, bark, seed Bark, leaves, root stalks Justicia endarussa Linn. Acanthaceae f. Justicia wynadensis Acanthaceae Kaempfe ria alan a Linn. Zin iberaceae Under shrub W. hats India Under shrub Perennial herb rhizome Root, leaves, bark , Emetic, antiperiodic stalks Tuber Stimulant, expectorant, diuretic, carminativ e tuber Thermo enic, siala o ue, vulneray Pulp, leaves Emetic, pur ative Kaempferia rotunda Linn. La enaria siceraria Zin iberaceae Cucurbitaceae India India Aromatic herb rhizome Climber Lantana camara Linn. var. Verbenaceae aculeata Moldenke Lawsonia inermis Linn. L ythraceae Leea indica Merr. Leucas aspera (Willd.) Spr. Limnophila indica (Linn. ) Druce Limonia acidissima Linn. Vitaceae Lamiaceae Scrophulariaceae Rutaceae Leaves, flower Stem cuttin Whole plant Nut, whole plant

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India India India India Ever reen shrub Ever reen shrub Shrub Annual herb Deccumbent herb Deciduous tr ee seed Whole plant Whole plant Root, leaves seed Whole plant Antirheumatic, antimalarial Antibacterial, antiinflammatory Astrin ent, sudorifi c, acrid Insecticidal, antipyretic S.India Fruit, leaves oil Antiscorbutic, antibilious, demulcent Lippia nodiflora Mich. Litchi chinensis Sonner. Verbenaceae Sapindaceae China, India W. hats Tree w. hats Tropics India Tree Her b seed Rhizome Anthelmintic Rhizome Astrin ent, refri erant, aphrodisiac Berry, leaves Fruit, leaves Leaves, root antiseptic Lobelia nicotianifolia Roth Lobeliaceae ex Roem. & Schult. Macaran a peltata (Ro xb.) Euphorbiaceae Muell.-Ar . Maesa indica Wall. Myrsinaceae Man ifera indica L inn. Anacardiaceae Maranta arundinacea Linn. Zin iberaceae 193

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Melia azedarach Linn. Meliaceae India, Sub Himalaya Japan, J & K, UP, Punjab Tree seed Bark, leaves flower oil oil Antidiarrhoeal, deobstruent, diuretic Carminative, expectorant, antifun al Antii nflammatory, CNS depressant Mentha arvensis Linn. Lamiaceae Aromatic herb sucker Mesua na assarium (Burm. f.) Kosterm. Michelia champaca Linn. Clusiaceae Ma noliaceae North eastern India Tree Andaman & Nicobar islands Eastern Himalaya, Ever reen Assam, S.India tree Tropical America, Tropical India North Andaman & Nicobar isl ands Peninsular India Under shrub Seed Flower oil seed Mimosa pudica Linn. Mimosaceae seed Mimusops elen i Linn. Sapotaceae Tree Seed Bark, root, flower Expectorant, fruit, oil abortifacient, contraceptive Root, le aves, Pur ative, stem antidropsical, antiinflammatory Bark, flower, Spermicidal, fruit, seed spasmolytic, diuretic Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Nycta inaceae Root, leaves, stem Pur ative, antidropsical, antiinflammatory Herb Bihar, Khari

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hills, India Sub-Himalayan tracts, UP, India India, Andaman & Nicobar islands In dia Deciduous tree Tree Root, leaves, Seed, Ve etative seed Antidiarrhoeal Mollu o oppositifolia Linn. Aizoaceae Morinda umbellata Linn. Morin a oleifera L am. Rubiaceae Morin aceae Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) DC. Mukia maderaspatana (Linn.) M. Roemer Murraya koeni ii (Linn.) Spren . Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. sapientum Kuntze Papilionaceae Cucurbitaceae Rutaceae Musaceae Climber Climber Shrub Tall herb sucker Mussaenda frondosa Linn. Rubiaceae Tropical Himalaya, Dehra Dun Scandent shrub Seed Myristica fra rans Houtt. Myristicaceae Moluccas, T.N, Tree Kerala, A.P, Assam W. hats, TN, Karnataka India Under shrub Shrub Terrestrial orchid Outer Himalya, Assam, W.Ben al Warmer India Lar e shrub Nare amia alata Wt. & Arn. Nerium oleander Linn. Nervilia ara oana Gaud. Meliaceae Apocynaceae Orchidaceae Seed Root, bark, leaves, Abortifacient, seed spasmolytic, antibacterial, Root, leaves , Emmena o ue, seed antichorein, vermifu e Root, leaves, Carminative, sudorific, tender shoot aperient Bark, root, leaves Febrifu e, tonic, stomachic Root, leav es, fruit, Anthelmintic, stem antiscorbutic, depurative Whole plant Vermifu e, d iuretic, antiasthmatic, spasmolytic Seed, aril Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, ab ortifacient, Root, leaves, stem Chola o ue, antibilious Root, leaves, bark Cardi o tonic, CNS active, spasmolytic Whole plant Galacto o ue, diuretic Leaves Antii nflammatory, febrifu e, chola o ue Root stalk, flower Stomachic, antidiarrhoeal Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Ochrocarpus lon ifolius Ocim um americanum Linn. Ocimum basilicum Linn. Oleaceae Nymphaeaceae Clusiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Tree Lower hills of India Punjab Branched seed herb Aromatic herb seed Carminati ve, diaphoretic, stimulant Flower, seed, root Carminative, antidysenteric, stimu lant, demulcent Whole plant Antiparalytic, anti onorrhoea Whole plant Ocimum ratissimum Lamiaceae Linn. Ocimum ratissimum Lamiaceae Linn. var. cloci mum Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. Lamiaceae India seed seed India

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Under shrub seed Operculina turpethum (Linn.) S. Manso Opuntia dillenii (KerGawler) Haworth Convolvulaceae Cactaceae India Climber Shrub Leaves, root, seed Expectorant, diaphoretic, enito urinary deseases Root Pur at ive, antidote, antiinflammatory Stem cuttin Whole plant Anti onorrhoeic, antiin flammatory, pur ative, 194

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Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Vent. Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. Ou einia dalber ioid es Bi noniaceae India Tree Root, bark, fruit, seed Astrin ent, carminative, pur ative, spasmolytic Lamiaceae Papilionaceae Herb Deciduous tree Annual or perennial herb India Bark Astrin ent, acrid, sudor ific, styptic Oxalis corniculata Linn. Pavetta indica Linn. Oxalidaceae Rubiaceae Phoenix dactylifera Linn. Arecaceae Dry re ions of Gujarat, Rajastan, Punjab Coromandal coast Throu hout warmer part s of India S.India, Kashmir India, Himalaya W.Indies, tropical America Himalaya, Kashmir to Bhutan India Tree Phoenix pusilla Gaertn. Arecaceae Tree Herb Tree Annual herb seed Seed Seed Phyllanthus amarus Euphorbiaceae Schum. & Thonn. Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Eupho rbiaceae Physalis minima Linn. Pimenta racemosa J. W. Moore Pinus Roxbur hii Sar ent Solanaceae Myrtaceae Pinaceae Coniferous tree Perennial root Stem climber Piper betle Linn. Astrin ent, anodyne, antiseptic Root, leaves, Pur ative, wood antidropsical, ant icephalal ic Fruit, um, fresh Antiasthmatic, sap expectorant, astrin ent, antid iarrhoeal Fruit pulp, seed, Febrifu e, um antidiarrhoeal, laxative Whole plant Antihepatotoxic, antibacterial Root, bark, leaves, Antiviral, CVS active fruit, Leaves, fruit Diuretic, pur ative, anti onorrhoeic Fruit, leaf, oi, seed Carmina tive, stomachic, antiseptic, fever Pine oil Antiseptic, expectorant, carminative , stimulant cuttin Leaves, oil, root Antispasmodic, carminative, stimulant Whole plant Piper chaba Hunter Piper lon um Linn.

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Piperaceae piperaceae W.India, Nepal, W.Ghats Climber Ve etative Root, dried spi kes Antitubercular, anthelmintic, antibacterial Fruit Antibacterial, anthelminti c, hypertensive Whole plant Antitubercular, emollient, diuretic Root Sialo o ue, vesicant, stimulant Piper ni rum Linn. Piperaceae Eastern and weatern Climber hats, TN, Keara India Ve etative Pistia stratiotes Linn. Araceae Plumba o indica Linn. Plumba inaceae Native of Sikkim, India India India Herb Ve etative Plumba o zeylanica Linn. Plumba inaceae Plumeria rubra Linn. Po ostemon patchoul i Hook. f. Polyalthia lon ifolia Benth. & Hook. f. Pon amia pinnata (Linn.) Pier re Portulaca oleracea Linn. Pothos scandens Linn. Premna inte rifolia Linn. Apoc ynaceae Lamiaceae Annonaceae Papilionaceae Portulacaceae Araceae Verbenaceae Herb Tree Ve etative Leaves, root Uterine, stimulant, abortifacient Root, bark, flower, Cathartic bechic, fruit an tidontal ic Stem cuttin Drier parts of India India India Tree Tree seed Bark Febrifu e, fun itoxic Antibacterial, antifun al, insecticidal Liver, spleen, kidney complaints Antileptic, lacto o ue Antirheumatic, stimulant, bechic, astrin ent Diuretic, a ntidropsical Laxative, diuretic, lithontriptic Antilithic, spasmolytic Astrin en t, antibilious, antirheumatic Haemostatic, antiemetic Seed, ve by Leaves, seed, root root Whole plant Depurative, antiscorbutic Root, stem Whole plant Costal re ions of India India India Himalaya India Tree Lar e tree Perennial und er shrub Small tree Premna latifolia Roxb. Verbenaceae Leaves, bark Kernal oil Kernal, tender branch Root seed Root, leaves, flower, fr uit

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Prunus amy dalus Batsch Rosaceae Prunus cerasoides D. Don Rosaceae Pseudarthria viscida (Linn.) Wt. & Arn. Psidium uajava Linn. Papilionaceae Myrtaceae 195

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Psoralea corylifolia Linn. Papilionaceae India Annual herb Root, leaves, seed Antidiarrhoeal, diaphoretic febrifu e Seed Leaves, stem, Hypo lycaemic, bark, heart wood, CVS active um Heart wood Antibilious, diaphoretic, febrifu e Root, seed, flower, antifertility, fruit antibacterial, hypothermic R oot, leaves, seed Appetisin , antibacterial, anodyne Root, seed Antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive Stem Carminative, astrin ent, di estive Whole plant Blister pro ducer, depurative Root, leaves, Antiprotozoal, flower, seed anticancer Root Diur etic, CNS active Antineoplastic, antiinflammatory Decreases capillary fra ility Diuretic, demulcent Coolin , diuretic, alacto o ue Antidiabetic, astrin ent Exp ectorant CVS active, antibacterial, antifun al Oxytocic, CNS active Emetic, hypo thermic CNS depressent, antifun al Anticephalal ia, antidiarrhoeal Astrin ent, a ntiinflammatory Astrin ent, anticephalal ic Astrin ent, febrifu e, stomachic Ant iparalytic, aphrodisiac Anabolic, emolient Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. Punica ranatum Linn. Papilionaceae Tropical S.India Tree Papilionaceae Punicaceae AP Iran, Af hanistan, India Deciduous tree Shrub seed Seed, air layerin

Raphanus sativus Linn. Rauvolfia serpentina (Linn.) Benth. ex Kurz. Rhaphidophor a pertusa Schott Rhinacanthus nastus (Linn.) Kurz. Ricinus communis Linn. Brassicaceae Apocynaceae Araceae Acanthaceae Euphorbiaceae India India Herb Herbaceous Seed under shrub Stout climber Under shrub Tree Seed Rotula aqautica Lour. Rubia cordifolia Linn. Ruta raveolens Linn. Bora inaceae Rubiaceae Rutaceae India Hilly dists. Of India India Climber herb Herb Gi antic rass Perennial ss Woody climber Herb Tree Seed

Ve . by stem Root Ve . by seed Whole plant, oil Stem cuttin Root, stem Stem cut tin Root, stem Root Saccharum arundinaceum Poaceae Retz. Saccharum spontaneum Poaceae Linn. Salacia reticulata Wt. Celastraceae India, Andaman & Nicobar islands Coromandal coast Dry re ion of India Sansevieria Roxbur hiana Haemodoraceae Schult. Santalum album Linn. Santalaceae

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ra

Tender shoot, rhizome Heart wood Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) Voi t. Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke Scaevola taccada Caesalpiniaceae Asclepiadaceae Asteraceae Goodeniaceae India, Andaman & Nicobar islands W.Ben al Kashmir, HP, UP India Tree Twiner Sub shrub Shrub Seed Bark, leaves, flower, seed Stem, root Root Leaves, stem, bark, fruit Bark, kerna l, oil, seed Bark, leaf juice Root, Seed Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Sapindaceae Oken Sesbania Linn.) Poiret Sida acuta Burm. f. Malvaceae

randiflora Papilionaceae (

Sub Himalayas, Lar e tree Kashmir, W.Ben al Assam, W.Ben al Soft wooded tree War mer parts of India Plain of India seed Sida cordifolia Linn. Malvaceae Root, seed Sida rhombifolia Linn. ssp. Malvaceae retusa (Linn.) Borss. Solanum americanum M ill. Solanaceae Solanum khasianum C. B. Solanaceae Clarke Hotter parts of India Sub shrub Whole plant seed Khasi, Na a hills, Assam Shrub seed Spasmolytic, Synthesis of corticosteroi dal hormone Seed Stimulant, anticholesterolemic Root, berry, leaves Antiasthmati c, antirheumatic Fruit Spasmolytic Berries Solanum melon ena Linn. Solanaceae var. insanum (Linn.) Prain Solanum surattense Burm. Solanaceae F. Solanum torvum Swartz Solanaceae Solanum violaceum Orte a S olanaceae India India India Perennial herb Perennial under shrub seed seed seed 196

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Solanum vir inianum Linn. Solanaceae Sphaeranthus africanus Linn. Sphaeranthus i ndicus Linn. Spilanthes calva DC. Asteraceae Asteraceae India Herb Whole plant W hole plant Diuretic, alterative, aphrodisiac Diuretic, expectorant, febrifu e, s tomachic Asteraceae India India India Tree Tree Spondias pinnata (Linn. f.) Anacardiaceae Kurz. Stereospermum Bi noniaceae suave olens DC. Strychnos nux-vomica Lo aniaceae Linn. Strychnos potatorum Linn. Lo aniaceae f. Symplocos cochinSymplocaceae chinensis (Lour.) S. Moore Syzy ium aromaticum (Lin n.) Merr. Syzy ium cumini (Linn.) Skeels Myrtaceae India S.India, W. Ben al Himalaya, Kashmir Tree Deciduous tree Tree Seed, Ve Seed India Ever reen tree Lar e tree seed Myrtaceae India seed Syzy ium jambos (Linn.) Myrtaceae Alst. Syzy ium zeylanicum DC. Myrtaceae Tabern aemontana Apocynaceae divaricata (Linn.) Roem. & Schult. Tamarindus indica Linn. Caesalpiniaceae India India Sub-Himalaya, W.Ben al, Assam India Lar e shrub seed seed Antidontal ia, spasmolytic Bark, leaves Antidi estive, antiscorbutic Root, bark, flower Diuretic, antiinflammatory, aphrodisiac, antibilious Bark, leaves, seed Spasmolytic, muscle relaxant Leaves, unripe Diaphoretic, fruit, seed alexeteric, demulcent Bark CNS & CVS active, hypotensive, antiinflammatory Dried flower, bu d Carminative, oil antispasmolytic, antiemetic, stimulant Bud, leaves Astrin ent , carminative, diuretic, antidiabetic Bark, leaves, fruit Astrin ent, diuretic S timulant, vermifu e, antirheumatic Latex, root, flower Antiinflammatory, antidia rhhoeal Root,ashes, leaves, flower, fruit, seed Root, wood, bark Anti onorrhoea, pur ative, antiasthmatic Diuretic, anthelmintic, expectorant, anticephalal ia R oot, leaves, seed Anthelmintic, oil alexipharma Bark CVS & CNS active, diuretic, abortifacient Bark, kernal, fruit astrin ent, cardio tonic, stimulant, anticanc er Bark, oil from Diuretic, astrin ent, kernal, leaves cardio tonic Fruit, flowe r, stem, Antispasmodic, bark hypo lycaemic Flower, bark Anticholerin, diuretic, cardio tonic Bark Root, bark, fruit, leaves Root Cardiac stimulant Whole plant

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Shrub cuttin Tree seed Tectona randis Linn. f. Verbenaceae India Tree Tephrosia purpurea Pers. Papilionaceae India Perennial herb MP, Bihar India Tree Tree Seed Seed Terminalia arjuna Wt. & Arn. Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Terminalia cat appa Linn. Terminalia chebula Retz. Combretaceae Combretaceae Combretaceae Combretaceae India Tree Seed Seed Terminalia paniculata Roth Combretaceae India, sub Himalaya, Tree deciduous forest Western and Tree eastern hats Drier parts of India Tree Ever reen tree India India Terminalia tomentosa Wt. & Arn. Thespesia populnea (Linn.) Sol. ex Corr. Tiliaco ra acuminata (Lam.) Miers Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. & Thom. Tinospo ra malabarica (Lam.) Miers Trachyspermum Roxbur hianum (DC.) Spra ue Tra ia invo lucrata Linn. Combretaceae Malvaceae Menispermaceae Menispermaceae Menispermaceae India Apiaceae Euphorbiaceae Warmer re ion of India Astrin ent, antibilious, antiviral Antidote, CVS active hypothermic Climber shru b Stem cuttin Stem, leaves, root Antiviral, hypo lycaemic, anticancer Climber s

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hrub Stem, leaves, root Antiviral, hypo lycaemic, anticancer Herb Fruit Emetic, emmena o ue, antiasthmatic Twinin herb Root, fruit Diaphoretic, alterative 197

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Tribulus terrestris Linn. Trichopus zeylanicus Zy ophyllaceae Dioscoreaceae India India India Trichosanthes cucumerina Cucurbitaceae Linn. Tridax procumbens Linn. Tri onella foenum raecum Linn. Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr. Typha elephantina Roxb. Ty phonium fla elliforme Uraria la opoides (Linn.) Desv. Ur inea indica Kunth Aster aceae Papilionaceae Annual or perennial herb Herb Seed, suckers Climber Seed Fruit, leaves Leaves, Whole plant Antileprotic, haemostatic CNS active, hypothermic Cytotoxic a ainst human carcin omal cells Herb Wild India Kashmir, Herb Punjab, Upper Gan etic plains Climber Seed Leaves, seed Diuretic, CNS depressive, hypotensive Root, leaves Bacteriostatic, emetic, cathartic Ripe fruit, rhizome Astrin ent, antidysenteric Asclepiadaceae Typhaceae Araceae Papilionaceae Liliaceae India Herb Ve . Bulb Expectorant, cyano enetic Antipyretic, Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. ex G. Don Vanilla planifolia Vernonia anthelminti ca Willd. Vernonia cinerea (Linn.) Less. Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash Vite x ne undo Linn. Orchidaceae Orchidaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Herb Annual herb Root, juice Poaceae Verbenaceae India Shrub Vitex trifolia Verbenaceae Aromatic shrub Tendril climber Vitis vinifera Linn. Vitaceae Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr.

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Asteraceae Anthelmintic, stomachic, diuretic Whole plant Astrin ent, diaphoretic, antirheum atic slips Whole plant CNS active, antimicrobial Stem cuttin Antiinflammatory, anal esic, CNS depressant Leaves, root, fruit, Antiinflammatory, expectorant, em mena o ue Stem cuttin Ripe fruit, leaves, Haematinic, stem, flower rejuvenatin suppurative juice of leaves Alterative, anticephalal ic Seed Root, leaves Anabo lic, alacto o ue, CNS active Antibiotic, abortifacient Tonic, aphrodisiac, febr ifu e Antidropscidal, stimulant, stomachic Astrin ent, antidiarrhoeal Seed Withania somnifera (Linn.) Solanaceae Dunal Woodfordia floribunda Salisb. Wri ht ia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br. Zin iber officinale Rosc. Lythraceae Apocynaceae Zin iberaceae Drier parts of India Under shrub India, Himalaya Central peninsular India Shrub Tree Perennial rhizomatous herb Seed Flower Leaves, bark, seed Rhizome Rhizome Zizyphus ru osa Lam. Rhamnaceae Bark 198

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IX. Scientific, En lish and vernacular names of tropical medicinal plants Scientific Name Abelmoschus moschatus (Linn.) Medicus Abrus precatorius Linn. Ab utilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet Acacia catechu Willd. Acacia intsia Willd. En lish Ladie’s Fin er, Okra Wild liquorice Sanskrit Hindi Ben ali Mushkdana Malayalam K asthurivenda Tamil Varttilai-kasturi Kannada Kasturi-bende Lata kasturika Guj Gunja Atibala Guncai Kan hi Chimhati Potari Kunni Ooram Karin ali Incha Balamunja Kuntumani Tutti Karumkali Gunji Shrimud ri ida Ka ali Cutch tree, Black catechu Soap bark Khadirah Khair, Khaira Kuth Acalypha fruticosa Forsk. Acalypha indica Linn. Indian acalypha Achyranthes aspe ra Linn. Acorus calamus Linn. Adhatoda beddomei C. B. Clarke Adhatoda zeylanica Medicus Ae le marmelos (Linn.) Corr. Aerva lanata (Linn.) Juss. A eratum conyzoi des Linn. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Alan ium salviifolium (Linn. f.) Wan . Albizia chinensis (Osb.) Merr. Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Benth. Allium cepa Linn. Allium cepa var. a re atum Allium sativum Linn. Allophyllus serratus Radlk. Aloe barba densis Mill. Alpinia allu has Rosc. Alpinia calcarata Rosc. Alpinia alan a Sw. Prickly chaff flower plant Sweet fla Sinni Kuppaimeni Nayuruvi Vasampu Adutoda Adatodai Vilvam Cerupulai Pumpillu Per umaram Alan i Katturinjil Va he Venkayam Irulli Chinni Kuppi Utrani ida Bajai Haritamanjari Apaman ah Kuppikhokhli Muktajari Circita Apan

Buch Bakas Bakas Baela Chaya Uchunti

Kuppameni Vankadaladi Vayampu Chittadalotakam Aadalotakam Koovalam Cherula Appa Perumaram, Pon iliam Ankolam Vaaka Nenmenivaka Ull, Savalla Chuvannulli U ra andha , Vaca Vasa Adusa Vasaka Bilva Sriphal Bhadra Visamustih Mahanimba A rusha Bel Chaya Visadodi Maharukh Dhera kanujera Siris Pyaj Malabar nut Bael tree Holy fruit tree Adumuttada Bilvapatra Goat weed Nayitulasi Dodda Guddada oni Hottuban e Doddaba e Nirulli Sa e leaved alan ium Ankolah Sirisha

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Akar kanta Amluki Siris Pyanj Siris tree Onion Small onion Garlic Shirisha Palanduh Lasunah Triputah Lahasun Tippani Ghikumari Taro Lashan Veluthulli Vellaipuntu Belluli Sisidale Lolesara Mukkannanpezhu Amalai Ghrtkumar Kattarvazha Malayinjikkuva Chittaratha, Kolinchi Aratha, Chittaratha Ezhilampala Analive am Kanta-notiya Mullancheera Dadmari Ba ri elachi Ol Kalluruvi Perelam Chena Sirukattalai Indian aloe Ghrta kumari Taraka Lesser alan al Kulanjan Chatwan

Greater alan al Su andhamul Kulainjam Rasna Alstonia scholaris Devil tree Sapta parnah Shaitan ka (Linn.) R. Br. jat Alstonia venenata R. Alstonia Visa hni Br. Amaranthus Prickly Tanduliya Katalichaulai spinosus Linn. amaranthus Ammannia ba ccifera Blisterin A ni arva Dadmari Linn. ammania Amomum subulatum Greater Ela Bari elachi Roxb. cardomom Amorphophalus Elephant foot Arsa hana Zaminkand compa nulatus yam (Roxb.) Bl. Anacardium Cashew-nut tree Vrkkaphalah Kaju occidentale Linn. Anacyclus pyrethrum Pellitory Akara-karava Akara-kara DC Arattai Elilappalai Sinnappalai Kulluk-kirai Nirumel neruppu Periya yelam Karnai kilan u Dumbarasmi Janthalla Addasarpa Malluharivesoppu Dodda-yelakkai Suvarna Hiji-badam Akara-kara Kasumavu Akkikaruka Mundiri Akkirakkaram Gerubija 199

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Andro raphis paniculata Nees Anisochilus carnosus Wall. Anisomeles malabarica R. Br. Annona squamosa Linn. Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. Aphanamixis polysta chya (Wall.) Parker Areca catechu Linn. Green chiretta Bhunimbah Kakame h Punjiri-kapat Codhara Sitaphal Kalme h Kiryath Mathilkkoorka, Karppooravalli Karimthumba Nilavempu Karpuravalli Kreata Doddapatri Malabar catmint Vaikuntah Mahadronah Custard apple Sitaphalam Upas tree Rohituka tree Valakala Rohitakah Irattaipeyamaratti Karitumbe Sitaphalam Atta Ali Semmaram Sitaphala Ajanapatte M ullumanthala Ata Harinhara Tikataraj Aatha, Seethappazham Maravuri, Arayanalli Chemmaram Arecanut palm Betelnut palm Ar emone mexicana Prickly poppy Linn. Mexican poppy Ar yreia speciosa Sweet Aristolochia bracteolata Ham. Aristolochia indica Linn. Artemisia pallens Artemisia vul aris Linn. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Artocar pus hirsutus Lam. Aspara us racemosus Willd. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. Averrhoa car ambola Linn. Elephant creeper Woolly mornin creeper Worm killer Bracteated birt hwort Indian birthwort Davana Indian worm weed Fleabane Jack-fruit tree Wild jac k Aspara us Cucumber tree Pu ah Bramhadandi Supari Bharband Supari Siyalkanta Kamuku, Adackamaram Brahmadanthi Pakkurnamaram Ponnumatai Adike Datturi Samudrapalak Samandara ka-pat Kitamari Kitamar Go uli Samudrappacha Samuttirapalai

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Samudravalli Aaduthinnappala, Adutinnappalai Easwaramooli Isharmul Garudakkodi, Karalakam Dav ana Makkippoovu Isvaramuli Davanam Makkippu Adumutta adi Isvari Isvarmul Gopataputtipalai Davana Manjapatre Damanakah Davanah Na adoni Panasah Lakucah Satavari Brihaddala Kathal Kanthal Plavu Aanjili Palavu Anjali Ammaikodi Tamarattai Tamarattai Halasu Hebbalasu Aheuballi Kamarakshi kamarakshi Satavari Kamaran a Shatamuli Kamarak Kamarak Satavari Vilimbi Aarampuli Carambola, Star fruit, Chinese ooseberry Azadirachta indica A. Mar osa tree Jus s. Indian lilac Azima tetracantha Mistletoe Lam. Berrythorn Bacopa monnieri Thym e-leaved (Linn.) Pennell ratiola Baliospermum Castor oil plant solanifolium (J. Burm.) Suresh Bambusa bambos Thorny bamboo Druce Spiny bamboo Barleria mysorens is Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Bauhinia racemosa Lam. Bauhinia tomentosa Bauhinia va rie ata Linn. Biophytum sensitivum (Linn.) DC. Blepharis boerhaavifolia Blephari stemma corymbosa Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. Bombax ceiba Linn. Karmaran ha Kamaran a Nimbah Kundali Brahmi Danti Nim Nim Aaryaveppu Essanku Brahmi Na adandi Vembu Ichanka Mulsan a Nirpirami Nakatanti Bervu Bileevuppi Nirbrahmi Danti Kanta arkim Trikanta ati ai Barami Boihimsak Jalnim Danti Danti

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Vamsah Kantabams Kutuasi Mula Chulli Mun il Bidiau Camel’s foot tree Vanaraja Lalkachna Sveta kanchan Kachnal St.Thomas tree Aswamantaka Kachnar Kancanar Rakta kanchan Banraj Kanchan Rakta kanchan Jhalai Mountain ebony Kancanarah Velutha mandaram Mandaram, Malayathi Kanjanam, Kattathi Chuvanna mandaram Mukkut ti, Nilamthen u Murikoottipacha Mandari Manthari Arikka Kanjani Si appu mandari Kempukanjivala Vana samti e Kadatti Ullippe Jhullapuspah Lajjalu tintanali Ho weed Pi weed Red silk cotton tree Punarnava Salmali Neerkuruntha, Arumarachedi Gadahpurna Gandhapurna Thazhuthama Semal Rokto simul Mullilavu Saatarani Mullilavu Sanadike komma Boona adamara 200

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Brassica campestris Linn. Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern. & Coss. Brassica olerac ea Linn. var. botrytis Linn. Breynia patens Benth. Bridelia crenulata Roxb. Brid elia scandens (Roxb.) Willd. Bryonia sp. Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Caesalpin ia bonduc (Linn.) Roxb. Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Millsp. C alamus travancoricus Bedd. ex Hook. f. Callicarpa tomentosa (Linn.) Murray Calot ropis i antea (Linn.) R. Br. Calycopteris floribunda Lam. Canan a odorata Hook. f. & Thom. Capparis sepiaria Linn. Capparis zeylanica Linn. Capsicum annum Card iospermum halicacabum Linn. Careya arborea Roxb. Carica papaya Linn. Swedish turnip, White mustard Indian mustard, Red mustard Cauliflower Katasarshapa Kalisarson Sarsapah Rajika Rayi Kalisarsan Raisarisha Velutha kaduku Kaduku Katu u Sasave Cauliflower Bahupraja Kalamahoma d Punarmurin a Mulluven a Cherupanichi Bahupatra Flame of the forest Fever nut Bonduc nut Brazil wood Red ea Palasah Latakaranjah Patran ah Tuvari Gar unaru Mala Kanjikkottam Parasa Kalicikkai Patun am Tuvarai Muttu a Gali a Patran a Kari udu Nayibettu Dhak Palas Plasu Palas Kantikaranja Natakaranja Kazhanchi Patam Tuvari Dhal Bak am Arhar Chappan am, Sappan am Thuvara Cheruchooral, Kattuchooral Bestra Massand ari Akanda Kattuthekku Erikku Pullanni Vettilaippattai Erukku Minnarkoti Ardri Ekka Kuppasa Gi antic swallow Arkah wort Susavi Madar Kokkarai Ylan -ylan Kakadoni Jal kanthari Gitoranj Red chilly Raktamarciah Lalmirca Kapa lphoti Kumbi Lalmorich Kaliakara Pachachempakam Manoranjitham Kakkathondi Karthotti Mulaku Karunjarai Tondai Mila ay Mudukkottan Kumbi Ayma Pappali Shema-shera am Shimai- jeerakam Kuntalpanai Apoorva sakpaka Kadukattari Mullukattari Mensinakai A ni-balli Kavalu mara Heart’s pea Indravalli Balloon vine Wild uava Katabhi Slow match tree Papaya Lataphatkari Uzhinja, Valliuzhinja Kamber Pezhu Erandakarkati Pappita Kala-azim Jeera Mari ka jat Jira ram Pi eon p

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Kappa/Kappalam Seema jeerakam Carum Choondappana Manja arali Paran imarai Carum Bulbous caraway bulbocastanum Koch Carum carvi Linn. Caraway Caryota urens Linn. Cascabela thevetia (Linn.) Lippold Cassia fistula Linn. Elephant’s palm S ritalah Fish tail palm Ba ani Indian laburnum Golden shower Kitamalah Amaltas Sonali Kanikkonna Konnai Kakkaemara Cassia occidentalis Ne ro coffee Linn. Stinkin weed Cassia sophera Linn. Senna sophera Casuarina equisetifolia Linn. Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Don Catunar e am nutans (DC.) Tiruv. Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Juss. ex Ga nep. Ceiba pentata ( Linn.) Gaertn. Beef wood Periwinkle Kasamardah Kasamarda Kasaumdi Kasunda Jan lisaru Kalkashunda Ponnaveeram Kalkashunda Ponnanthakara Jau Kattadi Ponnavirai Pon-navarai Savukku Doddata assa Kasamardah Chabaku Nityakalyani Sudabahar Ushamalari, Sudukattumallikai Nityamalli e Savakkottappacha Kara Tripadi Kattupi randai Godhapadi Goalilata White silk cotton Sweta salmali Saphed tree simal Shwet simul Panjimaram, Seemappoola Pancu Ilavum Apurani 201

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Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. Chukrasia tabular is A. Juss. Cicca acida (Linn.) Merr. Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm. Cinnamom um verum Presl Cissampelos pareira Linn. Cissus quadran ularis Linn. Citrus aura ntifolia (Christm.) Swin le Citrus limon (Linn.) Burm. f. Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. & Hook. f. Clematis triloba Heyne ex Roth Cleome ynandra Linn. Cleome viscosa Linn. Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. Clitoria ternatea Linn. Indian pennywort Mandukaparni Brahmamand Tholkhuri uki Sweet pi weed Chikrassy Country ooseberry Camphor tree Chanana Lavaliphala Karpurah Harfarauri Kapur Ch ikrassi Hariphal Kudan al, Vallarai Kudakan, Muthil Kattayamodakam Chuvanna akil Arinelli Karppoo ram Chunda-kadalai Arinelli Indu Karpooram Ilavarn am Karuwa Appatta kodi Perand ai Elummicchchai Periya elumichai Pambalimasu Nilappalai Kadu Kodu- vama Dallmaris Aranelli Karpoora Cinnamon Velvet leaf Darusita Ambastha Darucini Akanadi Dalchini Akanadi Harjora Karuva Malathan i Padavali Manjora-valli Nimbae Adament creeper Aszthisanhara Hadjora Country lime Rou h lemon Forbidden fruit M aha- nimbu Chan alamparanda Ka zi-nimbu Ka zi-nimbu Vadukappulinarakam Bara-nimbu Bara-nebu Cherunarakam Mahanimbu Karlajuri Bablumas Odaku Madhukarkati Chakotra Indrayava Garari Chakotre Bodadara a Bowstrin hemp La huparnika Murhari Aja andha Wild mustard Clerodendrum Beetle k iller Varada Vata ni An aravalli Hulhul Hurhur Urani Bharan Bomanhati Ansarisha Hulhuria Perumkurumba Aadunarivelam Kattukaduku, Ariyavila Peruvelum Cheruthekku Na velai Naykadu u Thazhuthazhi Chirutekku Morhari Naadusaive Ta i Gantubaranji Clerodendrum Clitoria Bhantaka Aparajita Bhant Aparajit Bhant Aparajit

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Periyilam, Peruvelam Sankhupushpam Peru ilai Kannikkotti Girikarniballi Coccinia randis (Linn.) Voi t. Cocculus hirsutus (Linn.) Diels. Cochlospermum r eli iosum (Linn.) Alst. Cocos nucifera Linn. Coffea arabica Linn. Coffea robust a Coix lacryma-jobi Linn. Coldenia procumbens Linn. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Cole us zeylanicus (Benth.) Cramer Colocasia esculenta (Linn.) Schott Commiphora caud ata (Wt. & Arn.) En l. Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks) Stocks Connarus monoca rpus Linn. Coriandrum sativum Linn. Ivy ourd Broom creeper Ink berry Yellow flowered cotton tree Coconut tree Arabi an coffee Robusta coffee Job’s tears Bimbika Kanturi Telkucha Koval Kovai-kodi Tonde-kayee Da adiballi Arasina P[atalu aruda Patala arudi Huyer h Girisalmalika Gal al Pathala arudakko Kattukkoti di Seemappanji Konjillam Narikela Nariyal Kawa Kawa Narikel Kafi Kafi Then u Kappi Kappi Kakkappalunku Cherupulladi Tenkaimaram Kaapi Kaapi Kunthumani Seruppadai karpuravalli Ten u Kafi Kafi Kolti-baeja Gavendhukah Gurusamkru Gur ur Tripakshee Tripun ki Pathurchur Paterchur Indian bora e Country bora e Karpuravalli Panikkoorkka Iruveli Karpurahalli Taro Coco yam Alupam Kaccalu Kachu

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Chembu Kilippanjimaram Chaembu Kachchi Indian bdellium Gu ulu Gu ul Gu ul Gul ulu Gukkalu Gu ul Kurial Coriander Dhanyakam Dhani am Dhane Malli Kottamalli Kothambari 202

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Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr. Cosmosti ma racemosa Wt. Costus speciosu s (Koen.) Sm. Crataeva reli iosa Hook. f. & Thom. Cressa cretica Linn. Crossandr a infundibuliformis Crotalaria juncea Linn. Croton ti lium Linn. Cryptolepis buc hanani Roem. & Schult. Curculi o orchioides Gaertn. Curcuma amada Roxb. Curcuma an ustifolia Roxb. Curcuma aromatica Salisb. Curcuma lon a Linn. Cyathula prostr ata (Linn.) Bl. Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thom. Cymbopo on citratus (DC.) Stapf Cymbopo on flexuosus (Steud.) Wats. Cymbopo on martinii var. motia Roxb. Cymbopo on martinii var. sofia Cymbopo on nardus (Linn.) Rendle Cymbopo on nardu s var. confertiflorus x C. jawarancusa Cymbopo on pendulus Wats. Cymbopo on wint erianus Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. Cyperus rotundus Linn Dalber ia latifolia Roxb. Datura metel Linn. Delonix re ia (Boj.) Rafin. Dendrocalamus strictus (Ro xb.) Nees Desmodium an eticum DC. Desmodium yrans DC. Desmodium pulchellum Bac ker Desmodium triflorum (Linn.) DC. Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf Tree turmeric Daruharida Jhar-I-haldi Haldi achch Maramanjal Maramancal Maramanjali Costus Tree leaved caper Pushkara Varunah Rudanti Kust Barna Rudravanti Kura Barun Rudravanti Vattolam, Vaduvalli Channakuva Neermathalam Azhukanni Kanakambaram, Padathikon i ni Kilukki Neervalam Kilippalvalli Gharahuroo Kostam Narvala Vuppu mari kazhantu Pavillakurinja Sanappu Nervalam Pa alkodi Chan akosta Bilpatri Abboli e Sanabu Japala Adavi palchedi Sun hemp Pur in croton Sanabu Jepulah Sanabu Jamal ota Karnata Sanpat Jaypul Musali Man o in er Wild arrow root Wild turmeric Turmeric Amradrakam Tavakshira Kalimusali Amahaldi Tikhur Talamuli Amada Tikhur Ban haland Haldi Nilappana Man ainchi Vellakkuva, Kattumanjal Kasthurimanjal Manjal Cherukadaladi Nilapanai Mankayinci Kua Kasturimanjal Mancal Cirukatalati Patakilanka Vasanapul lu

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Neladali Ambahaldi Aranyaharidra Jan li haldi Haridra Haldi Kadarasina Anasina Small prickly Raktapamar a Lal circita chaff flower plant h Pata root Patha Path West Indian lemon rass East Indian Lemon rass Bhustarah Gandhatran Padakkizhan u, Padathali Gandhabena Injippullu Injippullu Majji ehallu Palmarosa, Dhyamakah Rosha a rass Jamrosa Gandhabei Palmarosa Palmarosa Munkilppul Gaijini Kamakher Ceylon citronella Jamrosa Kamachi pillu Jammu Lemon rass Java citronella Dhub rass Barmuda rass Nut sta Durba Dub rass Palmarosa, Gin er rass Ceylon citronella Guchch

Jammu inchippullu Java citronella Karuka Muthan a Eetti, Veetti Neela ummam Gulm ohar, Alasippumaram Kallanmula Orila Thozhukanni, Ramanamachedi Kattumuthira Nil amparanda Balidarbha Siruppullai Darbhaibhul Arukampillu Koral Itti Vellum matta i Hariali Tun e adde Ibadi Dattura Na armotha Motha Shisham Kaladhutara Sitsal Dhatura East Indian rose Shishapa wood Datura Dhustura Gulmohar Male bamboo Desmodium Va nsha Salaparni Banskaban Salparni karael Salapani Kalmoon il Pulladi Bidiru Murelehonne Jatsalpan Tripadi Sacrificial rass Darbah Kudali a Davoli Garh tapi Kodalia Darbha Jenukkadi 203

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rass Niladurva Mu

Dioscorea bulbifera Potato yam Linn. Dioscorea floribunda Medicinal yam Diospyro s melanoxylon Roxb. Dolichos biflorus Backer Dre ea volubilis (Linn. f.) Hook. f . Ecbolium viride (Forsk.) Merr. Eclipta prostrata (Linn.) Linn. Elephantopus sc aber Linn. Elettaria cardamomum Maton Embelia ribes Burm. f. Emilia sonchifolia DC. Ensete superbum Entada pursaetha DC. Eryn ium foetidum Linn. Erythrina varie ata Linn. Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. Persimmon Horse ram Ratalu Banalu Kachil, Pannikizhan u Marunnukachil Ebony Muthira Velipparuthi Odiyamadantha Kay yonni, Kayyunni Aanachuvadi Elam Wizhal Muyalcheviyan Kalluvazha Kodi kilan u He enasaru Dir hapatraka Abnus Kulattha Hemajivanti Kulatti Nakchikkni Udajati Tekarajuah H astipadi Ela Vidan ah Sasarutih Bham ra Gobhi Elaci Va vidan Hirankhun Kend Kirti kalai Titakun a Udajati Kesraj Gajilata Chotti elaci Biran a Sudhimud i Karum dumbi Kollu Kodippalai Nilambari Kayyantukara Anashovadi Elam Vayu-vilam a Muyalccevi Abanasi Hurali Du dhike Kappukarni Kaddi a aru u Nayee nali e Yelakkai Vayuvilan a

Blue fox tail Nail dye Trailin eclipta Prickly leaved elephant’s foot Cardamom Embelia Elephant creeper African coriander Indian coral tree Eucalyptus Paribhadrah Barabi chian Gila ach Malamanjadi, Kakkavalli Africanmalli Chillu Doddakampi Dadap pamkara Palitamadar Murikku Yukkali Kalyana murukku Harivana Eucalyptus lobulus Blue um tree Labill. Eupatorium triplinerve Ayapana tea Vah l Euphorbia hirta Linn. Australian asthma weed Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. Euph orbia thymifolia Linn. Euphorbia tirucalli Petroleum plant Linn. Milk bush Eupho rbia tirucalli Linn. Euphorbia tri ona Haw. Evolvulus alsinoides (Linn.) Linn. E xcoecaria a allocha Blindin tree Linn. Ficus ben halensis Banyan tree Linn. Fic us exasperata Vahl Ficus heterophylla Linn. f. Ficus microcarpa Linn. f. Ficus r acemosa Linn. Cluster fi Ficus reli iosa Linn. Peepal tree Sacred fi Nilanir asa Ayaparnah Na arjun Yukeliptas Ayaparna Lal-dudhi Ayapani Barokherni

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Yukkali Aiyappana, Mrithasanjeevani Nilappala Karpoora maram Ayappani Taila Amampatihaiarasi Akki ida Patra-snuhi Du dhika Trikantaka Sij Dudhiya Sehund Sij Dudiya Lankasy Ilakkalli Nilappala Thirukkalli Na a kalli Sittrapaladi Katathuhar Thirukkalli Kallimullu Visnukrantha A aru Nya rodhah Syamakranth a Gan wa Gan wa Bar ad Bot Vishnukranthi Komatti Peral Therakam Trayamana Plaksah Udumbarah Pip palah Asvatam Kamarup Gular umar Pippal Bhuii-damar Vallitherakam Kamrup Itthi Thirukkali Mundukalli Vishnukrantamu Kampetti Alamaram Vishnukranti Tilla Ala Kodi athi Kallicci Atti Arasu Adavibende Itti Atti Aswatha Ja a dumur Atthi Asvatha Arayal Flacourtia indica Governor’s plum A hori Merr. Flacourtia jan omas Puneala plum Vikankatha (Lour.) Raeusch. Garcinia ummi- utta Gambo e Vrksamlah (Linn.) Robs. Kancu Paniyala Bilatti-amli Binja Paniyala A hori Neernelli, Thaleesapathram Kudampuli, Kudappuli Sattaikala Vayyinkarai Kodukappuli Nakkehara u Hulumanike Punarpuli 204

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Geophila reniformis Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis Gloriosa superba Linn. Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC. Glycyrrhiza labra Linn. Gmelina arborea Roxb. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. Hedyotis corymbosa (Linn.) Lam. Helicteres isora Linn. Karinkudun al Aanachoriyanam Glory lily Visalya Kalihari Bisha Ashshoura Menthon ni Kuttippanal Akkini chilam Kattukonci Nan ulika Kasarkana Asvasakothah Gir iti Liquorice Coomb teak Periploca of the woods Yastimadhu Gumbhari Madhunasini Parpatah Avarttani Vrscikali Sariba Anantamul On drapuspi Jatimadh Gamari Merasim i Daman pappar Marodphali Siriyari Anantamul Jasum Patwa Yastomadhu Irattimadhuram Gomari Merasin i Kumizhu, Kumbil Chakkarakkolli Parpad akappullu Atmora Hatisura Anantamul Joba Lal mista Bopla kurchi Idampiri-valampi ri Thekkada Naruneendi, Nannari Chemparathi Mathippuli Pooparuthi Kudakappala Athimadhuram Uri Gumadi Sakkarakolli Parpata am Valampiri Telkedukkai Nannari Ce mparutti Sivappu kasmakkai Attu paruthi Kutasapalai Athimadhura Kummuda Kadhasi e Parpatahullu Kempukaveri Celubalada idha Namadabat hi Dasavala Pulicha keera East Indian screw tree Heliotropium indicum Indian turnsole Linn. Hemidesmus ind icus Indian (Linn.) R. Br. sarasaparilla Hibiscus rosaShoe-flower plant sinensis Linn. Hibiscus sabdariffa Roselle Linn. Hibiscus tiliaceus Yellow mallow Linn. Holarrhena Tellichery bark pubescens (Buch.Ham.) Don Holi arna arnottiana Hook. f. Holoptelea inte rifolia Indian elm (Roxb.) Planch. Holostemma adaHolostemma k odien Schult. Homonoia riparia Lour. Hu onia mystax Linn. Climbin flax Hybanthu s enneaspermus (Linn. f.) Muell. Hydnocarpus laurifolia (Dennst) Sleum. Hy rophi la schulli (Ham.) M. R. & S. M. Almeida Ichnocarpus frutescens (Linn.) R. Br. In di ofera tinctoria Linn. Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. Ipomoea pes-ti ridis Linn. Ixo ra coccinea Linn. Bala Kalin a Bopla Kurci kuda Kod asana Karche Holi ar Tapasi ida Cheru, Charu Cirabilvah Jivanti Jalavetasah Kamsamarah Amburuha Rattan-purus Nun -boro Cibil Chirvel Jalbent Aavil, Njettavil Adapathian Aattuvanchi, Kallurvanch i Mothirakkanni Orilathamara Karunjari Avali Kanji Palaikkirai Kattuarali Mothirakkanni Purusharatnam Sannapasanabela Mrema Maroti tree Tuvarakah Calmo aru Marotti Maravattai

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Vayalchulli Black creeper Ulpalasariba Kalidudhi Shyamalata Palvalli Udarkkoti Kappunabadaberu Indian indi o Giant potato Ti er’s foot Nilika Kairividari Nil Bhilaykand Nil Neelamari, Neelichedi Bhumikumar Palmuthukku a Pulichuvadi Thechi, Chethi Pichak am, Pichi Kudamulla Averi Palmudama i Pulichovadi Cetti Pichi Kotimalli ae Kundumalli e Katalamanakk u Adalai Kattuamanaku Nili Nadakumbala Jasminum randiflorum Linn. Jasminum sambac Arabian jasmine Mallika Ait. Jatroph a curcas Linn. Pur in nut Dravanti Jatropha landulifera Roxb. Jatropha ossypi folia Tua-tua Linn. Nikumbu Flame of the Paranti woods Spanish jasmine Jati Ran am Jati Mo hra Jun li erand Undarbilyu Rajana Jati Mo hri Kiskara Malli ae Dundumalli e Belioudalu Karithrukuharalu Hattielai karalu Pahari erand Kadalavanakku, Kattavanakku Lalbheranda Kannatti Chuvannakadalavana kku 205

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Justicia betonica Justicia endarussa Linn. f. Justicia wynadensis Kaempferia a lan a Linn. Kaempferia rotunda Linn. La enaria siceraria Lantana camara Linn. va r. aculeata Moldenke Lawsonia inermis Linn. Leea indica Merr. Vata ni Paduthamara Nilanair undi Ja atmadari Vathamkolli Kurinji chandumula Kacholam, K achooram Bhucampakah Abhuichamp Bhuichampa Chen azhineera kizhan u Katutumbi Tit alauki Kodalau Churakka Caturan i Caturan Arippu Karcurah Candramula Kaccolam N erppicin Sorakkai Arisimalar Kacora Nelasampi e Kadusore Kadu ulabi Vataikkoti K arinekki Indian crocus Bottle Henna Medhini Chatri Dronapuspi Ambuja Kapitthah Vashira Mehanti Mehandi Mylanchi Marutani Ottanali Tumbai Maduran i Gadhapatri Tumbe Kurkurjihava Kurkurjihava Manippiranda Chota lalkusa Kuttra Katbel Bhuikora Leec hi Leechi Nala Chota halkusa Karpur Kathbel Thumba Man anari Vilarmaram Neerthip pali Litchi Kattupukayila Leucas aspera Thumbe (Willd.) Spr. Limnophila indica (Linn.) Druce Limonia acidi ssima Elephant apple Linn. Lippia nodiflora Mich. Litchi chinensis Sonner. Lobel ia nicotianifolia Wild tobacco Roth ex Roem. & Schult. Macaran a peltata (Roxb.) Muell.-Ar . Maesa indica Wall. Man ifera indica Linn. Maranta arundinacea Linn. Melia azedarach Linn. Mentha arvensis Linn. Mesua na assarium (Burm. f.) Koster m. Michelia champaca Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn. Cuckoo’s joy Arrow root Pride of India Mint Mesua Golden champa Sensitive plant Vilankaymaram Podutalaei Ilichi Upperichedi Bela Devanala Nala Kandele Vattakkanni Ramjanu Amrah Tavaksri Mahanimbah Pudina Na apuspam Champakah Lajjal u Bakulah Krishnakeli Phanija Pitadaru Si ruh Shalmali Atma upta Tirkoskai Mun a na Tut Gonca A umaki Sajna Tut Alkushi Bilari Amb Tikhor Mahanimb Pudina Na akes ar Champaka Lajjavanti Bakul Gulabbas Jima Am Ararut Ghoranim Podina Na esar Cha mpaka Lajak Bakul Krishnakeli Jima Kattuvizhal Mavu Kochikuva, Kuva Malaveppu Pu dina Na akesaram, Churuli Chempakam, Champaka Thottavadi Elenji Anthimalari Kaip pujeerakam Kudalchurukki Muri a, Morin a Kambilimaram, Yusham Naikurana Mukkappe ram Vamari Mamaram Kuvai Malaivempu Putina Na appu Sempakam Thottalvadi Ilanci P attarasu Kachantari Nuna Murunkai Kambali Punaikkali Musumusukkai Upali e Tanipela Mavu Kavihettu Turakabevu Chetamaru u Na asampi e Sampi e Nacik e idi Ra ademara Chandra malli e Parpataka Poppili Murun a Brahmadaru Nasu anni ourd Wild sa e

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Mimusops elen i West Indian Linn. Medlar Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Four O’ clock pl ant Mollu o oppositifolia Bitter cumin Linn. Morinda umbellata Linn. Morin a ole ifera Drum-stick tree Lam. Morus acedosa Griff. Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) DC. Muki a maderaspatana (Linn.) M. Roemer Murraya koeni ii (Linn.) Spren . Musa paradisi aca Linn. var. sapientum Kuntze Mussaenda frondosa Linn. Myristica fra rans Hout t. Cowha e Curry leaf Adam’s fi Kalasakh Kadali Mithipam Kela Barsun a Kela Kariveppu Vazha, kadalivazha Vellila Jathi Kariveppalai Kadalivalai Kari baeva Balehannu White lady Nutme tree Sriparnah Jati Bedina Jayphal Na -balli Jaiphal Vellai-ilai Jatimaram Bello-ti ida Jajikal 206

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Houtt. Nare amia alata Wt. & Arn. Nerium oleander Linn. Nervilia ara oana Gaud. Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Ochrocarpus lon ifolius Ocimu m americanum Linn. Ocimum basilicum Linn. Ocimum ratissimum Linn. Ocimum ratis simum Linn. var. clocimum Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. Operculina turpethum (Linn.) S. Manso Opuntia dillenii (KerGawler) Haworth Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Vent. Ort hosiphon stamineus Benth. Ou einia dalber ioides Benth. Oxalis corniculata Linn. Pavetta indica Linn. Phoenix dactylifera Linn. Phoenix pusilla Gaertn. Phyllant hus amarus Schum. & Thonn. Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Physalis minima Linn. Pimen ta racemosa J. W. Moore Pinus roxbur hii Sar ent Piper betle Linn. Piper chaba H unter Piper lon um Linn. Piper ni rum Linn. Goanese ipecacuanh Indian oleander T riparnika Karavirah Padmacarini Ni ht jasmine Indian red water lily Indian laure l Hoary basil Sweet basil Shrubby basil Clocimum Sacred basil Indian jalap Prick ly pear Indian trumphrt tree Java tea Chariot tree Inda Indian sorrel Date palm Small wind date palm Can eri Kharjurah Parusakah Tamalaki Indian ooseberry Sunb erry Bayberry Chirpine Betel pepper Ben al pepper Lon pepper Black pepper Saral ah Tambulavalli Chavika Pippali Maricam Kumbhika Amlaka Mrdukuncika Amrulsak Kha jur Palavat Jaramala Amla Bhui amla Amlaki Amrul Khajur Surasah Trivirt Vidara S yonakah Poojatulasi Tarbut Na phana Sonapatha Tulsi Dudhkalami Na phana Sona Par ijatah Tinparni Karavira Sthalapadma Harsin har Harsin har Karabi Nilanarakam Ar ali Orilathamara Pavizhamulla Nilanara am Sivappu arali Orilattamarai Pavillamal li e Allittamarai Surabunnai Nayttulaci Tirunitturu Elumicha tulasi Parijata Bil itavarai Sarun i Nayitulasi Kamakasturi Elumicha tulasi Nelarin a Kana ilu Aruna kamala Chhota kamal Punna tulasi Na kesar Aranyatulasi Barbari Vridha tulasi Van

Rakta kamal Velutha ambal Na kesar Kalatulasi Punna Katturamathulasi Babauitulasi Babauitulasi Ramathulasi Ram tulasi Ram tulasi Karpoorathulasi, Kat tuthrithavu Clocimum Krishnathulasi Thrikolpakkonna Palakakkalli, Na athali Pala kappayyani Poochameesa Karuttutulasi Kumbham Na adali Palayudaycci Karitulasi Si ade Dabbu alli Tattuna Tinisah Tinnas Tinis Thodukara Puliyaral Pavatta Eenthappana Chitteenthal Keezharnelli Nelli Nariven ai Karimutalae Pavattai Periccamkay Siruintu Kilanelli Neli Tottakali Kattukaruva Caraladevadar u Ilaikkodi Pavetae Kajjuri Indu Kirunelli Amalaka Guddahannu Gandamanasu Sarala Viliyadabal li Chavya Bandhapariy Bandhapariy Njottanjodiyan a a Cheenamulaku Sarala Pan Chab Piplamul Kalimirc Jalkumbhi sarala acah Charalam Pan Choi Piplamul Kalimirch Takapana La lchita Vettila Ben lathippali Thippali Kurumulaku Kodappayal Chethikkoduveli Vel lakkoduveli Poomaram Pachapat Debdari Pachila Aranamaram Poovallikodi Karanja Un u/ Pon u

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Thippili Mila u Ayastamarai Cittramulam Sittara am Kallimandarai Kadir pachai As o u Bilichinee Gani alu Pu am Thippali Olli manasu Antharan a ae Kempucitramala Vahini Kadusampi e Patchetene Assoti Pistia stratiotes Linn. Water letuce Plumba o indica Linn. Plumba o zeylanica Li nn. Plumeria rubra Linn. Red flowered leadwort White flowered leadwort Po odo tr ee Chitraka Chitarak Chitarak Ksiracampaka Golenci Pacholi Ulkatah Debdari Ameta Karanj Karanja Po ostemon Patchouli patchouli Hook. f. Polyalthia lon ifolia Mast tree Benth. & Hook. f. Poly onum chinense Linn. Pon amia pinnata Indian beech (Linn.) Pierre Hon ae 207

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Portulaca oleracea Linn. Pothos scandens Linn. Premna inte rifolia Linn. Premna latifolia Roxb. Prunus amy dalus Batsch Prunus cerasoides D. Don Pseudarthria vi scida (Linn.) Wt. & Arn. Psidium uajava Linn. Psoralea corylifolia Linn. Pteroc arpus marsupium Roxb. Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. Punica ranatum Linn. Raphanu s sativus Linn. Rauvolfia serpentina (Linn.) Benth. ex Kurz. Rhaphidophora pertu sa Schott Rhinacanthus nastus (Linn.) Kurz. Ricinus communis Linn. Rotula aqauti ca Lour. Indian parselane Brihalloni Baralunia Baraloniya Cheriya olicheera Karikkirai Aanapparuva, Paruvakkodi Munja Nappa Anaparu a Mann ui Pacha mullai Duda orai Adkebiluballi Takkila Headache tree Dusky fire brand mark Almond tree Bird cherry A nimanthah Arni Bakar Ganiari Gohara Badama Padmakah Salaparni Badam Patmakath Badam Padmak Badham Pathimukham Moovila Vadumai Patumu am Neermalli Koyya Karpo am Ven ai Budami Padmaka Guava tree Babchi Indian kino tree Perukah Vakucai Asanah Amrud Bakuci Bijasal Peyara Bavachi Pitsal Pera Karkolari Ven a Keli Somaraji Hannemara Raktachandanam Dalimbe Mulan i Sutranbli Red sandal wood Raktachandan Raktachanda Raktachanda Rakthachandanam Sivappu ah na na chandanam Pome ranate Dadimah Dhalim Dalim Mathalam Madalam Radish Serpent wood Mulika Sarpa andha Muli Mula Mullanki Sarpa andhi, Amalpori Elithandan Jui pana Bherenda Na amulla Aavanakku Kallurvanchi Manjistha Ermul Ten Ka ara Manch atti Arootha Amadarbha Kusadarbha Ekanayakam Murva Murba Muramachi Mullanki Chiv an Amalpodi Anaittippali Na amalli Amanakku Seppunirin i Manjitti Aruvadam Munji Pekkarimpu Ponkoranti Marul Chandrabha Chandra a

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Snake jasmine Castor Sphotyabhuja n am Yuthikaparni Palakjuhi Erundah Erand Na amalli Maralu Rubia cordifolia Linn. Indian madder Ruta raveolens Linn. Garden rue Saccharum Devil su arcane arundinaceum Retz. Saccharum Thatch rass spontaneum Linn. Salac ia reticulata Wt. Pasanabheda h Manjistha Mamjith Gucchapatra Munjah Kasah Vairi Pismaram Sudab Ra msar Kas Manjusta Sadabu Munji Darbhe Ekanayakam Maru a Sansevieria Indian bow strin Murva roxbur hiana Schult. hemp Santalum album Lin n. Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) Voi t. Saussurea lap pa C. B. Clarke Scaevola taccada Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken Sesbania randi flora (Linn.) Poiret Sida acuta Burm. f. Sida cordifolia Linn. Sida rhombifolia Linn. ssp. retusa (Linn.) Borss. Solanum americanum Mill. Sandal tree Ashoka Moo n plant Chandanah Asoka Somavalli Santal Asoka Somlata Chandan Ashoka Som-lata Chandanam Asokam Somalatha Chandanam Aso am Somam Bavanna Asokada Somlata Costus Fan flower Kustah Kuth Kottam Bhadraksham Kostam Vellamutta am Pumarata Attikkirai Malaitan i Nilatutti Kuruntotti Kostha Lac tree, Ceylon Mukulakah oak Swamp pea A astayah Horn bean leaved Bala sida Ba la Brela Bala Kasum Hathya Bariara Bariar Jam limethi Kusum Bak Bonmethi Brela Pitabala Poovam A athi Kurunthotti Kattooram Aanakkurunthotti Sa ade A asi Vishakkadi Kadira-baeru Ceruparuva Manithakkali 208

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Solanum khasianum C. B. Clarke Solanum melon ena Linn. var. incanum (Linn.) Prai n Solanum surattense Burm. F. Solanum torvum Swartz Solanum violaceum Orte a Sph aeranthus africanus Linn. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Spilanthes acmella var. olr acea C. B. Clarke Spilanthes calva DC. Spondias pinnata (Linn. f.) Kurz. Stereos permum suaveolens DC. Strychnos nuxvomica Linn. Strychnos potatorum Linn. f. Sym plocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. Moore Syzy ium aromaticum (Linn.) Merr. Syzy i um cumini (Linn.) Skeels Syzy ium jambos (Linn.) Alst. Syzy ium zeylanicum DC. T abernaemontana divaricata (Linn.) Roem. & Schult. Tamarindus indica Linn. Tecton a randis Linn. f. Tephrosia purpurea Pers. Terminalia arjuna Wt. & Arn. Termina lia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Terminalia catappa Linn. Terminalia chebula Retz. Terminalia paniculata Roth Terminalia tomentosa Wt. & Arn. Thespesia populnea (L inn.) Sol. ex Corr. Tiliacora acuminata (Lam.) Miers Chunda Brihati Bai an Cheruvazhuthina Yellow berried ni htshade West Indian Turkey berry Kantakari Rem ani Tit-bai an Tit-bai an Kantakarichunda Kattuchunda Putharichunda Velutha adakkamanian Adakkamanian Kupp amanjal Kantakattiri Sundai-kai Nela ulli Kadu sunde East Indian lobe Mundi thistle Mundi Murmuria Rashiera Visnukkarantai Gorakmundi Paracress Ho plum Amratakah Patala Strychinine tree Karaskara Pipulka Amra Paral Kajra Nirmali Bholiya Ambra Parul Kuchila Nirmali Akkikaruka Ambazham Pathiri Kanjiram Kadakam, Thettamparal Pachhotti Ampalam Pad iri Itti Akkolam Kamblivetti Sannavanamu li Ambatemarra Hude Ittan i Andu u Lodha Clearin Clove Grambu Black plum Rose apple Jambuh Campeyah Jamun Jam

nut tree Tiktaphala Lodhrah

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Njaval Chamba, Jamba Njara Njaval Champai Marun i Nantiyavattam Jambuva Pannerale Nerkal Nantibattu Gulab jamun Gulab jamb East Indian rosebay Tamarind tree Teak Wild indi o White murdah Belleric myrobal an Indian almond Chebulic myrobalan Flowerin murdah Black murdah Portia tree Nandivrksah Chandni Nanthiarvattam Tintrini Sakah Sarapunkah Arjunah Aksha Grahadruma Haritaki Marutu Dharaphala Ha ripuccah Ampli Sa aun Sarphomka Arjun Bulla Budam Harara Tentaul Se un Bannil ach Arjun Bahera Ben la Haritaki Valanpuli Thekku Kozhinjil Neermaruthu Thanni Nattubadham Kadukka Poomaruthu Puli amilam Tekku Kattukkolincai Atumaruttu Tani Nattuvadom Ama ola Pei Karramar da Cilanti Amli Te a Phanike Arjun Vibhita Badami Alale Maruva Matti Aini Arasi Kuri Ain Paraspipal Asan Palaspipal Karimaruthu Poovarasu Vallikkanjiram Ba amushad Tilakora a Amrita Giloe Giloe Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora (Willd.) Hook. f. & Thom. Tinospora malabarica (L am.) Miers Trachyspermum Ajowan roxbur hianum (DC.) Spra ue Chittamrithu Amridavalli Amritaballi Sudarsana Ajamoda Gurch Ajmud Padma ulancha Randhsni Kattamrithu Ayamodakam Patchiundih Asamatavomam Ajamodhavoma 209

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Tra ia involucrata Indian stin in Linn. nettle Tribulus terrestris Puncture vin e Linn. Trichopus zeylanicus Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn. Tridax procumbens Li nn. Tri onella foenum raecum Linn. Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr. Typha eleph antina Roxb. Typhonium fla elliforme Uraria la opoides (Linn.) Desv. Ur inea ind ica Kunth Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. ex G. Don Vanilla planifolia Vernonia a nthelmintica Willd. Vernonia cinerea (Linn.) Less. Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash Vitex ne undo Linn. Vitex trifolia Vitis vinifera Linn. Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal Woodfordia floribunda Salisb. Wr i htia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br. Zin iber officinale Rosc. Zizyphus ru osa Lam. S nake ourd Dusparsa Goksurah Varahi Cicindah Barhantia Gokharu Bichati Gokhrru Kodithoova Njerinjil Aaro yappcha Kanchori Nerinci Turaci Ne alu Paraval Banchichan Kattupadavalam a Thelkuthi Methi Antamul Ho la Uluva Vallippala Aatt udarbha Karinthakara Putaval Kripodla Fenu reek Indian ipoecacuanh Elephant rass Methi Lataksiri Eraka Methi Antamul Mohitrina Ventayam Naippalai Anai korai Menlesoppu Nipaladaberu Jambuhallu Prishniparni Indian squill Vanda Kolakanda Rasna Pithavana Jan lipyaz Rasna Chakulia Jan lipyaz Rasna Cheria Orila Kattulli Maravazha Nari ven ayam Adavi irulli Bandanike Vanilla Purple fleabane Ash-coloured fleabane Vetiver Five leaved chaste tree Th ree leaved chaste tree Common rapevine Somraji Aranyajiraka Sahadevi Usirah Nir undi Sinduvarah Draksa Baksi Sahadeyi Khas Samhalu Saphed samhalu Drakh Somraj Kuksim Khas-khas Samalu Pani An ur Vanilla Kattujeerakam Poovankurunthal Ramacham Karinochi Vellanochi Munthiri Kat tu shira am Kadujira e Poovamkurunthal Sahadevi Vettiver Nirkundi Nirnochi Kotumuntiri Kalsarji Amukkir am Dhattari Tantampalai Inci Todari Vattiveru Lakki- idda Nekkinocci Draksah Gun

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ta ala aru Viremaddina adi Bela Kirikodasi e Ardraka Belahadu Kanika Indian insen Fire-flame bush Pala indi o Gin er Pitabhrin araj Pitabham ar Kesraj Manjakkayyunni ah a Ashwa andha As andah Ashva andah Amukkiram Dhataki Svetakutajah Ardrakam Davi Dudhi Adarak Churna Dawai In drajalu Ada Thathiri Danthappala Inji Thodali 210

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Correct citation: Joy, P.P., Thomas, J., Mathew, S., and Skaria, B.P. 2001. Medi cinal Plants. Tropical Horticulture Vol. 2. (eds. Bose, T.K., Kabir, J., Das, P. and Joy, P.P.). Naya Prokash, Calcutta, pp. 449-632

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