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Tai Lieu Boi Duong Hinh Hoc Phang

Tai Lieu Boi Duong Hinh Hoc Phang

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Chuyend~

HINH HOC pHANG IIiIIIII..&::.I __

Hinh h9C Hi mot chu de quan trong trong chuang trinh toan trung h9C co sa. Nam virng cac kien thirc va ki nang giai toan a cap dO nay, hoc sinh se co mot

. sire bat tot de co mot nen tang vfrng yang ve hlnh h9C a cap phd thong trung h9C. Chuyen de nay diem qua cac dinh If va bai toan quan trong nhat trong chuang trinh hinh h9C c~l' trung hoc co sa. Vi day la chuyen de nang cao nen cluing toi se khong trinh bay cac dinh If co ban nhu dinh If Thales, dinh Ii Pythagoras, dinh If, tinh chat cua phan giac.,; .

Dum day la cac chu de se duoc de cap, Ngoai ra, mot so dinh Ii, cong thirc, bai toan khac se duoc trinh bay dum dang he qua hay bai tap.

- Duong thang Euler

- Duong tron Euler

- Duong thang Simson

- Duong thang Steiner

- Dinh Ii Ptolemy

- B~t dang thirc Ptolemy

- Tir giac toan phan

- Duong thang Newton

- Dinh If Ceva, Menelaus, dinh If Desargues

- Duong tron Apollonius

- Bai 'toan con birom

- Dinh Ii Euler ve tam giac pedal

- Mot so quy tfch co ban.

- Mot so bai toan dJ!I1g hinh bang thuoc va compa.

300

Bai toan duong tron 9-di~m Euler diroc nha toan hoc EULER· (1707 -1783) dira ra 'va chtrng minh cho sau diem ban dau, do la trung di~m cua cac canh cua tam giac va hlnh chieu cua cac dinh cua tam giac len cac canh d6i dien cua chung cung nam tren mot dirong tron. Den nam 1820, BRIANCHON (1783-1864) va PONCELEI (1778-1876) chirng minh them rang dirong tron di qua sau diem n6i tren cling di qua trung diem cua cac doan n6i tu tnrc Him den cac dinh cua tam giac. Ten goi "Duong trim 9-die"m" diroc gioi thieu boi TERQUEM nam 1842.

Viec phat hien ra dirong tron Euler khong chi di qua trung diem cua cac canh cua mot tam giac rna con di qua sau diem con lai la mot trong nhimg kho tang quy bau cua hlnh hoc sa cap hien dai,

1. £lUong tron 9-di~m Euler

Bai toan 1. Cho tam giac ABC c6 H la tnrc tam. Khi do trung diem cac canh cua tam giac ; chan dirong cao ha tir A, B, C urong irng xu6ng BC, CA, AB ; trung diem cua HA, HB, HC cung thuoc mot dirong tron. Duong tron naygoi la dirong tron 9-di~m Euler cua tam giac ABC.

Truck khi di vao viec cluing minh chi tiet; ta xet b6 de sau :

B6 de: Cho tam giac ABC co H la true tam. GQi Ao, Bo, Co Ian luot la hlnh chieu cua A, B, C urong irng tren BC, CA, AB. GQi Ma la trung diem cua Be; Oa Ia trung diem cua HA. Chirng minh rang : Ma, Oa nam tren duong tron

ngoai tiep tam giac AoBoC o- A

Chung minh (h.5.1). That vay, ta e6 BBo 1- AC tai Bo => BBj; = 90°. Hoan to an nrong tu, ta

ciing co BCj; =' 90°. Tir do' say ra duoc B, C, Bo, Co cung thuoc dirong tron duong kfnh BC, .

han ntra Ma con la tam cua dirong tron do. Lap Co

luan urong tu, ta ding chirng minh diroc cac tll giac sau day nei tiep duong tron : tll giac

CoHAoB, HBoCAo, ACoHBo, trong do o, la tam cua dirong tron ngoai tiep tll giac ACoHBo·

C

,..... .... ,2

§1. DINH LI DVONG TRON 9 -DIEM EULER.

.... . 2 . ,

DVONG THANG EULER TRONG TAM GIAC

Hinh 5.1

301

----- ------- ----- ---

Khi ay, ta duoc BOMaCO = 2.CoCBo = 2,CoBBo = 2,CoAoH = 2.HAoBo

=> BOMaCO = CoAoBo·

Suy ra CoAoMfio noi ti€p,tue lit Ma E (AoBoCo).

(1)

--- ----- ~ ------

Ta Iai co 0aBOH = a aHBO = BoCAo ~ BoCB => 0 fio la tiep tuyen tir 0 a den

dirong tron ( Ma, B2C). lap luan nrong tu cho OaCO'

Suy ra OaCOMa = OaBOMa ~ 90° => CoOfioMa noi tiep dtrong tron, Tir (1) & (2)suy ra d.p.e.m. 0

Tro lai bai toan ban dau,

Ta goi ab, O; Ian hrot la trung diem cua HB, HC.; Mb, Me l~ hrot la trung diem cua CA, AB. Khi do, lap luan nrong ur bai toan 1, ta co : 0b,Mb, 0e' Me thuoc (AoBoCo)· Do vay o: o; o; Ma, Mb, Me' Ao, Bo, Co la 9 dilm cung thuoc mot duang tron. Day chfnh la dirong tron Euler cua tam giac ABC. 0

NhtJ,n xet (h.5.2) : A

Neu ta goi A I la diem d6i ximg cua H qua BC ; ~ la diem d6i xung cua H qua Ma' Khi ay, ta co:

---

AIBAo = HBAo = BoBAo.

- -

Nhimg BoBAo = AoAC = AI AC.

- -

Do vay AI BC = AI BAo = AI AC.

Suy ra AI E (ABC).

Mat khac de thay HBN aC la hlnh blnh hanh, Dodo

--- --- ----- ----- ----

BNaC=BHC=CoHBo =180° -CoABo =180° -BAC,

dieu nay chimg t6 N a E (ABC).

AoMa gia day dong vai tro la dirong trung blnh cua tam giac HAINa. Suy ra

----- °

AoMa II AINa· Nhirng AoMa'= BC 1. AAI. Suy ra AINa 1. AA} => AA}Na = 90 .

Do vay A, N a se la hai diem d6i xtmg nhau qua tam 0 cua (ABC), dan den A, 0, N a thanghang,

X~t trong tam giac AHNa, goi G la trong tam eua tam giac. Khi doG E AMa'

va A~ = ~. Suy ra G cling la trong tam cua tam giac ABC. M~t khac HO la

a

mot trung tuyen tir H cua tam giac AHNa. Suy ra G E HO.

. Hinh 5.2

302

(2)

2. Oltdng thing Euler cua tam giae

Tir nhan xet tren, ta co diroc noi dung cua bai toan duang thang Euler cua tam giac,

Bai toan 2. Cho tam giac ABC co H, G, 0 Hin hrot la tnrc tarn, trong tam, tam dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac, Khi ~y H, 0, G th!ng hang. Duong thang chua H, 0, G duoc goi la duong thang Euler cua tam giac ABC ..

Hem ntra tam duang tron 9-dilm Euler cua tam giac ABC con nam tren duang thdng Euler cua tam giac ABC va la trung diem cua HO.

That vay, ta co.

.10

OMa//OJ-l, OMa= 2·AH=H a'

Suy ra 0aOMJ-Ila hlnh blnh hanh. Do vay, neu goi E == MaO a n 0 H thi E la trung diem cua o ~ a' Mat khac tam giac MaO aAo la mot tam

giac vuong tai Ao noi tiep duang tron 9- dilm Hinh 5.3

Euler cua tam giac ABC. Suy ra E la tam cua

duang tron Euler cuatam giac ABC. Diem E chfnh la trung diem cua HO.

Duong thang Euler co nhieu tfnh chat thu V! rna cho den gan day ngiroi ta van con tiep tuc tim ra. Vao nam 2006, mot kien tnic sir ngiroi Hy Lap Rostas V ittasko co dua ra mot bai toan thu V! nhu sau

Gid su ABCD La mot tu giac noi tiep co cae duang cheo edt nhau tai P. Chung minh rang cae duang thdng Euler cua cae tam gidc PAB, PBC, PCD, PDA dong quy tai mot diem.

1. (VMO 2009) Trong mat phang eho hai diem c6 dinh A, B (A khac B). MQt diem C di dong tren mat phang sao eho ACB = a = eonst (0° < a < 180°). Duong tron tam I nei tiep tam giac ABC va tiep xuc v6i AB, BC, CA Ian hrot tai D, E, F. Cac dirong thAng AI, BI cAt EF Ian hrot tai M, N.

a) Chung minh rang M N co dQ dai khong d6i.

b) Chung minh rang dirong trim ngoai tiep tam giac DMN luon di qua mot diem e6 dinh khi C hru dong,

303

Bai toano Cho tam giac ABC noi tiep trong duong tron (0). Gift s-(r S la mot diem nam tren (0)' sao cho S khong trung voi cac dinh A, B, C cua tam giac.

Gift sir AD, Bo, Co Ia hlnh chien cua S urong irng tren caccanh BC, CA, AB. Khi

d6 AD, Bo, Co thang hang. Duong thang chua A

--

AD, Bo, Co diroc goi la duang thdngSimson cua

S dOl vai tam gidc ABC.

Bai toan duong thang Simson c6 th~ xem nhu mot he qua kha hien nhien cua dinh If Euler ve tam giac pedal (xem §10 trong chuyen de nay). Song viec dung mot dinh If manh M chtrng rhinh dinh If ve dirong thang Simson khong phai la mot phuong an hay. Duong thang Simson c6 tM diroc chimg minh kha dan gian

being phuong phap bien d6i g6c thong tlurong, Hinh 5.4

That vay, ta c6 Cii;S = ~ = 90°, suy ra tu

--

giac AaBoSC la nr giac noi tiep, suy ra BoAoC = BoSe. Mat khac, vi ABSC noi

---. --- --- --- ---

tiep nen CoBS = ACS = BoCS => MCaB co MBoC (g.g) => BSCo = CSBo

=> liSCo = W· Nhirng VI AaBCoS III tu giac noi tiep (~= liC;S = 90°) nen liSCo ~ ~ => W = %c => Co' AD, Bo thang hang. 0

Dieu ngiroc lai cua bai toan dirong th~ngSimson ciing dung. G,I tM la "Neu M la diem chay trong mdt phdng cua tam gidc ABC sao cho M kh6ng trung vai cac dinb cua tam gidc va hinh. chieu cua n6 xuong cdc canb cua tam gidc ndm tren mot duang thdng. Khi d6 M ndm tren duang tron ngoai tiep tam gidc ABC".

Phep chimg minh menh de dao xin diroc danh cho bandoc.

2. Cho tam giac ABC nhon c6 cac dirong cao AA', BB', CC'. Chung minh rang cac dirong thang Euler cua cac tam giac AB'C', CA'B' va BA'C' dong quy tai mot diem.

3. Cho tam giac ABC voi g6c A khong vuong. G9i D la mot diem sao cho

--- --- -----

DBA = BAC ='·DCA.

Chung minh rang dirong thang Euler cua tam giac ABC di qua D.

,,3,' ., """ 3.

§2. DUONG THANG SIMSON VA DUONG THANG STEINER

304

Luu j : Neu goi B), A) va c) Ian IUqI: la diem d6i xirng cua S qua AB~ BC va CA. De thay A), B I' C) thang hang. Tuy nhien, dieu dac biet cua dirong thang

chua AI' B), CI la n6 di qua tnrc tam H cua tam giac ABC. That vay, 6 § 1 ta dfl

biet rang neu goi He, H B Ian IUqI: la cac diem d6i xirng cua H qua' AB, AC nrong

irng thl khi d6 HB, He thuoc (0). LUll Y tfnh chat nay, bay gio ta diroc :

--

HC)C = H BSC (tinh chat d6i ximg true), Mat khac, VI HB ,E (0) nen

Hinh 5.5

- --

HBSC = HBBC = DAC = HAC (vi AEDB la ni giac noi tiep, trong d6 D, E

- --

Ian IUqI: la hinh chieu cua H tren BC, CA) => HC)C = HAC => HAC)C la ttl

-

giac noi tiep => C)HC = C)AC = SAC (tfnh chat d6i ximg true) =

-- -

SHeC = SHeH = B)HHe (tinh chat d6i ximg true) => CHC) = HeHB) =>

B), H, C) thang hang, suy ra A), B), CI, H th~ng hang. Vay H thuoc duong thang di qua A I ' B), C I .

Duong thang nay diroc goi la duang thdng Steiner ella S doi v6i tam giac ABC. De thay ro han img dung cua dirong thangSimson va dirong thang Steiner, ta xet cac vi du sau

Vi du I. (De' chon d9i tuyin du lBMO ella Rumani, 2001)

Cho tu giac ABCD noi tiep dirong tron tam a ban kinh R. V6i E la mot diem bat ky nam tren (0), ta goi K, L, M, N Ian IUqI: la hlnh chieu cua E tren DA, AB, BC, CD. Chtrng minh rang N la tnrc tam cua tam giac KLM khi va chi khi ABCD la hlnh chir nhat,

Gidi (h. 5.6). GQi G va F Ian IUqI: la hlnh chieu cua E 'len AC va BD. Theo dinhIf dirong thang Simson, ta c6 ngay cac bo ba diem sau thang hang (K, L, F), (M, N, F), (K, G, N), (M, L, G). GQi G', F" la giao diem

20A-TAI LI~U GKCT H1NH HOC 10

L

305

M EM D la dirong trung blnh cua tam giac CGF =:> (MEMDMd II (AF) == (GF) =:> Me la trung diem cua CA cling dong thai la trung diem cua BD .Ta e6 trong tam giac EBD, EM e la dirong eao dong thoi ciing la dirong trung tuyen =:> tam giac EBD can 0 E =:> EB = ED. Mat

--- -

khac EBC = EDC =:> tam giac EBME va tam .giac EDMD bang nhau =:> EME

--- ---

= EM D =:> GC = CF =:> tam giac CFG can 0 C =:> CGF = CFG. Ma

.--- --- ---- --- ----. ---- ---

BAF = GFC, FAD = FGC =:> BAF = FAD =:> FA la phan giac g6e BAD

Hinh 5.7

thu hai cua EG va EF v6i (0). Ta thay rang KL II AF', MG II BG', GD II KN, F'C II M N. Do d6 N la true tam tam giac KLM khi va chi khi .

KF j_ MN ¢:;> AF' j_ F'C va MG j_ KN ¢:;> BG' j_ G'D.

Matkhac AF' .L F'C ¢:;> -;:p;c = 90° ¢:;> 0 E AC.

Tuong 11, BG' .L G'D ¢:;> 0 E BD. Do d6 N la tnrc tam cua tam giac KLM =:> o la giao diem cua AC va BD ¢:;> ABCD la hinh chft nhat.

Ngiroc lai, gia sir ta da e6 ABCD Ia hlnh chtt nhat, 'qe thay rang v6i moi diem E di dong tren (0) thl N la tnrc tam cua tam giac KLM. 0

Vi du 2. (IMO 2007). Xet 5 diem A, B, C, D, E sao eho ABCD la hinh bmh hanh va bl5n diem B, C, D, E cung nam tren mot dirong tron. G9i I la mot duong thang qua A. Gia sir I cat doan DC 0 F va BC 0 G. Gia sir EF = EG = EC. Chirng minh rang Iia phan giac g6e DAB.

Gidi (h. 5.7). G9i ME' MD, Me ldn hrot la hlnhchieu cua E len CB, CD, BD. Ta e6 thea gia thiet ban dau thi E thuoc duong

tron ngoai tiep tam giac BCD, suy ra Me, MD, ME thang hang (direng thang Simson). M~t khac EG = EC = EF nen E la Him dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac GCF =:>

ME, M D la trung diem cua CG, CF =:>

D

---

, hay Iia phan giac BAD. 0

BAITAP

4. Cho tam giac ABC noi tiep dirong tron (0). S}, S2Iahai diem di dong tren (0) va d6i xung nhau qua O. G9i ~}, ~2 nrong trng Ia duong thang Simson cua S},

306

20B-TAI LI~U GKCT H1NH HOC 10

A

S2 d6i voi tam giac ABC. Chung minh rang D.} vuong g6c voi D.2 va giao diem cua D.}, ~2 chay tren mot dirong tron c6 dinh.

5. Cho tu giac ABCD nQi tiep dirong tron (0). GQi dA, dB' dc, dD la cac duong thang Simson cua A, B, C, D nrong Ung d6i voi cac tam gia~ BCD, CDA, DAB,

ABC. Chimg minh rang dA, dB' dc, dD dong quy.

6. Cho tu giac ABCD noi tiep dirong tron (0) va M la mot diem nam tren m~t phang tu giac. GQi X, Y, Z, T, U, V thea thu tv la hlnh chieu cua M xu6ng AB, BC, CD, DA, AC, BD. GQi N, P, Q IAn hrot la trung diem cua XZ, IT, UV. Chung minh rang neu M thuoc (0) thl N, P, Q thang hang. Bai toan con dung khong neu M la mot diem bat kl trong mat phang ?

§3. DINH LI PTOLEMY

Dinh If Ptolemy la mot trong nhtrng dinh If dep cua hlnh hoc sa cap, c6 rat nhieu irng dung trong viec giai cac bai toan hlnh hQC. Dinh If nay c6 mot phat bieu het sire dan gian :

Dinh Ii Ptolemy. Tu giac 16i A~CD noi tiep mot dirong tron khi va chi khi tong cua tfch cac cap canh d6i bang tfch hai dirong cheo, nghia la

AB.CD + AD.BC = AC.BD.

C6 nhieu each khac nhau de cluing minh dinh If

nay. MQt s6 chirng minh se duoc trmh bay trong phan bat d~ng tlurc Ptolemy. Dum day ta trinh bay mot clurng Vlinh sir dung dirong th~ng Simson.

Ha DA} vuong g6c voi BC, DB} vuong g6c voi AC va DC} vuong g6c voi AB thi B}, A}, C} thang hang vaAIBI +BICI =AICI (1).

Ap dung dinh If ham s6 sin cho cac dtrong tron dirong kfnh DC, DB, DA va cac day cung AIBI, AI C I va BI C I nrong irng, ta c6

Hinh 5.8

- -

AIBI = DC.sinACB, AICI = DB. sin ABC, B}CI =AD.sinBAC

'_

307

B

Lai ap dung dinh If ham s6 sin cho tam giac ABC, ta co . C AB 'nB AC 'nA BC

sm = 2R' SI = 2R' SI = 2R'

Thay vao d~ng thirc (1) va rut gon, ta thu diroc

AB.CD + AD.BC = AC.BD. D

Dinh If Ptolemy co nhieu img dung trong viec giai cac bai toan hinh hoc lien quan den cluing minh va tfnh toan. Sau day, ta se xem xet .mer s6 img dung cua dinh If Ptolemy ve tu giac noi tiep trong viec chimg minh mot s6 cong thirc hrong giac va hinh hQC.

Cong thirc tinh sin(a+ /JJ

-

tren hai nira dirong tron, sao cho BAC ~ a,

J5AC = 13. Ap dung dinh If Ptolemy, ta co

AB.CD + AD,BC = AC.BD. (2)

Mat khac, apdung dinh nghia cua ham s6 hrong giac, ta co

AB = AC.cosa, BC = AC.sina, CD = AC.sinf3, DA = AC.cosf3.

Cu6i cung, ap dung dinh If ham s6 sin cho tam giac ABD, ta dtroc BD = AC.sin(a'+ fJ).

V 6i a + 13 la cac goc nhon, dung duong tron dirong kfnh AC va chon cac diem B va D nam

Hinh 5,9

Thay vao (2), ta diroc

sin(a + jJ) = sina.cosf3 + sinf3.cosa. D Dinh li Pythagoras

Xet hinh chtr nhat ABCD. R5 rang day la mot tu giac.noi tiep, Vi the ta co AB.CD + AD.BC = AC.BD.

Do AB = CD, AD = BC nen tir day suy ra

AB2 + BC2 = AC2 D

Dinh li ham so eosin

Xet tam giac ABC v6i cac canh BC = a, CA = b, AB = C. DJ!I1g diem D tren dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac sao cho AD = BC va AC = BD (D -chfnh la

308

H~ thtrc Feuerbach

Cho tu giac ABCD noi tiep trong mot duong tron, khi d6

2 2 2

BD ,SACD = CD ,SABD +AD ,SBCD'

Chung minh. Theo cong thirc tinh dien tich thl

S - AC.AD.CD S _ ~B.AD.BD S _ BC.RD.CD

ACD - 4R 'ABD - 4R 'BCD - 4R

Do d6 (4) nrong duong vm

2 2 2·

BD .AC.AD.CD = CD .AB.AD.BD + AD BC.BD.CD

(4)

diem d61 xirng ella C qua trung true ella AB). GQi E va F Ian luot la hlnh chieu ella C va D tren AB. Ap dung dinh If Ptolemyeho tu giac A~ __ ·-;F __ -4:___""}' noi tiep ABCD ta e6

AB.CD + AD.BC = AC.BD. (3)

Mat khac, CD = AB - AF - BE = AB - 2BCeosB.

Thay CD = AB - 2BCeosB, AD= BC_, BD = AC

vao (3); ta c6 .

AB2 - 2AB.BC.eosB + BC2 = AC2

Hinh5.10

hay

2 2 2

b = a + c - 2ac.eosB. 0

hay la

AC.BD =AB.CD +AD.BC. 0

Nhu vay, e6 the thay dinh li Ptolemy nrong dirong voi h~ thirc Feuerbaeh.

Dlnh u Carnot

Xet tam giac nhon ABC noi tiep trong dirong tron tam 0 ban kinh R. GQi x, y, z la cac khoang each tir 0 den BC, CA, AB nrong (mg. Khi d6

x+y+z=R+r

trong d6 r la ban kfnh dirong tron n<)i tiep tam giac.

Chung minh (h. 5.11). GQi D, E, F Ian luot la trung diem cua cac canh BC, CA, AB. Ap dung dinh If Ptolemy cho tu giac noi tiep AEOF, ta duoc

AF.OE + AE.OF == AO.EF ~ c.y+ b.z = R.a.

309

c.x + az = R.b, ay + bx = R.c.

Cong cac ding thee ve thea ve, ta diroc

(b + c)x + (c + a)y + (a + b)z = R(a + b + c)

<=> (a + b + c)(x + y + z) = R(a + b. + c) + ax + by + cz <=>x+y+z=R+r

(VI ax + by + cz = 2S0BC + 2S0CA + 2S0AB , S

= 2S ABC va r = -) 0 p .

A

Ttrong nr

"

Viet diroi dang hrong giac, dinh If Carnot chfnh

Ia he thirc .

cosA + cosB + cosC = 1 + ~. Hinh 5.1 J

Chii Y·h~ thirc nay dung voi moi tam giac, V6'i he thirc hlnh h9C, dinh If Camot van dung trong tnrong h9P tam giac tu, nhirng neu chang han A tu thi ta co -x + y + z = R + r.

7. Cho tam giac ABC noi tiep trong dirong tron (0) va AC = 2AB. Cac duong thang tiep xuc voi dirong tron (0) tai A, C dt nhau tai P. Chimg minh rang BP

------.

di qua diem chfnh giira cua cung BAC.

t

8. Cho tam giac ABC co 1 la tam dirong tron noi tiep, 0 la tam duong tron ngoai

tiep va G la trong tam. Gia su rang 0iA = 90°. Chirng minh rang IG song song voi BC.

9. (IMO Shortlist) Gia sir M, N la cac di~m nam trong tam giac ABC sao cho MAE = NAG, !iiiA =:·NiiC. Chirng minh rang:

AM.AN BM.BN CM.CN _ 1

AB.AC + BA.BC + CA.CB - .

10. (VMO 1997) Trong mat phang, cho dirong tron tam 0 ban kfnh R va diem P nam trong dirong tron.(OP =d < R). Trong tAt ca cac nr giac 16i ABCD noi tiep trong dirong tron (0) va co hai dirong cheo AC, BD vuong goc va dt nhau tai P, hay tim tu giac co diu vi 100 nhat va tu giac co chu vi nho nhat, Tfnh cac gia tri 100 nhat va nho nhAt nay thea R va d.

310

Suy ra BA.CD = EABD (2)

Mat khac, hai tam giac EBC va ABD cling dcng dang,

BA BE--

do co BD = BC va EBC = ABD.

Til do. EC AD

BC = BD'

Suy ra ADBC = ECBD. (3)

Cong (2) va (3) ta suy ra

AB.CD + AD.BC·= BD.(EA +i;C).

Ap dung bat dang thtrc tam giac, ta suy ra AB.CD + AD.BC ~ AC.BD.

'B

D

',.., ~. ,

§4. BATDANG THUC PTOLEMY

Dinh 11 Ptolemy co nhieu rna rong khac nhau, trong do mot rna rong thu vi va co nhieu irng dung chinh la bat dang thirc Ptolemy.

Bat dAng tlurc Ptolemy. V6'i 4 diem A, B, C, D bat ky tren mat phang, fa co

AB.CD + ADBC ~ AC.BD. (1)

Rat thii V! la bat dang thirc tam giac (AB + BC ~ AC voi ba diem A, B, C bat ky) Ia mot tnrong hop dac biet cua bat d~ng thirc Ptolemy. That vay

Chia hai ve cua (1) cho BD, ta duoc .

CD AD>

AB BD + BC BD - AC.

Neu chon D "du xa" thi til day ta se suy raAB + BC ~ AC.

Dieu nay nghe cling ngac nhien, tuy nhien loi Ich dem lai cua s1,1' d~c biet hoa nay khong nhieu, vi chang Ie lai dung bat d~ng tlnrc Ptolemy cao sieu de chimg minh bat dang thtrc tam giac v6n diroc coi nhu tien de.

Tuy nhien, !UQt logic rat W nhien dan chiing ta den mot y nrong htru Ich han :

Nhu vay bat d~ng thtrc Ptolemy co lien quan den bat d~ng thirc tam giac, V~y la bat dang thirc Ptolemy co the diroc chtrng minh nho vao bat d~ng thtrc tam giac ? Qua la nhir vay. Phep chirng minh durn day se minh chimg cho luan diem nay:

Dung diem E sao cho tam giac BCD dong dang voi tam giac BEA. Khi do, theo tfnh chat cua tam giac dong dang, fa co

BA BD

=

EA CD

Hinh 5.12

311

B

Dau bang xay ra khi va chi khi A, E, C thang hang, tuc Itt khi A va D cung nhln BC dum mot g6c bang nhau, va khi d6 tu giac ABCD noi tiep. 0

Bat d~ng thirc Ptolemy c6 nhieu Ung dung trong cac bai toan bat d~ng thirc hlnh hoc, d~c biet la trong cac bai toan so sanh d¢ dai cac doan thang. Tnroc het ta xem xet img dung cua bat d~ng thirc Ptolemy trong viec chtmg minh mot s6 ket qua kinh dien cua hinh hoc phang.

Diem Torricelli. Xet bai toan "Cho tam giac ABC bar kYo Hay tim dilm M trong mat phdng tam gidc saocho MA + MB + MC dat gia tri nhti nhdt",

'Diem M tim duoc diroc goi la diem Torricelli cua tam giac ABC. C6 the giai ngan gon bai toan nay bang each sir dung bat d~ng thirc Ptolemy nhu sau :

Tren canh BC, dung ra phfa ngoai tam giac deu BCA'. Ap dung bat d~ng thirc Ptolemy cho tu giac MBA'C ta c6

BM.CA' + CM.BA' ~ BC.MA'.

Til d6, do CA '= BA' = BC nen ta duoc BM+CM~MA'.

Nhu the

AM+BM+CM~MA +MA'~AA'.

Tuc la

AM + BM + CM ~ AA' (la hang so).

Dau bang xay ra khi va chi khi i) Ttl giac BMCA' noi tiep ;

ii) M nam giua A va A'.

De thay ta c6 the tim diroc diem M thoa man ca hai dieu kien nay khi va chi khi tat ca cac g6c cua tam giac ABC deu khong Ian hem 120°.

Hinh 5.13

Neu chang han g6c A > 120° thl diem M dn tim se chfnh la diem A (ban doc tv cluing minh!). 0

R5 rang phirong phap n6i tren c6 the ap dung cho bai toan t6ng quat hem :

"Cho tam gidc ABC va cdc sdthuc duang m, n, p. Hay tim dilm M trong mat phdng tam giac sao cho m.MA + n.MB + p.MC dat gia tri nho nhdt",

Tat nhien, cluing ta cling se gap phai tinh hu6ng nrong tv nhu tlnh hu6ng tam giac ABC c6 mot g6c Ian hem 120° nhir a tren,

312

A

Bat dAng thirc Erdos-Mordell. Cho tam giac ABC. MIa mot diem bat ky nam trong tam giac, Dat xl = MA, X2 = MB, X3 = MC ; PI' P2' P3 Ian hrot la khoang each tir M den BC, CA, AB. Khi d6 ta c6 bat dfing thirc

xl + x2 + x3 :?2(PI + P2 + P3)'

C6 rat nhieu each chimg minh ket qua kinh dien nay. Sau day chung ta trinh bay phuong phap chimg minh sir dung dinh If Ptolemy.

N6i dai AM cat dirong tron noi tiep tam giac tai A'. Ap dung dinh If Ptolemy cho tu

giac noi tiep ABA'C, ta c6 E

AB.CA' + ACBA' = BC.AA'.

H~ A'D vuong g6c v6i AC va A'E vuong g6c voi AB thi r5 rang

A'B 2 A'E, A'C 2 A'D.

Do d6 a.AA' 2 c.A'D + b.A'E

A'D c A'E b

hay 1 2 AA"a + M"a'

Nh A'D P2 ,A'E P3 ' d'

irng -- = - va - = - nen nr 0:

AA' X AA' x

1 1

C b

Xl 2 P2'- + P3'-'

a a

Tuong tu ta c6 cac danh gi~ cho x2' x3' tir d6

xI +x, + X3 ;, PI (~ + ~ ) + p, (: + ;) + P3( ~ + :) ;, 2(PI + Pz + P3).

Dau bang xay ra khi va chi khi tam giac ABC deu va M trung v6i tam 0 cua tam giac .. O

Phep chimg minh bat dfing thuc Ptolemy cling nhir each til bat d~ng thtrc Ptolemysuy ra bal d~ng thirc tam giac cho thay bat dfing thirc nay c6 the ap dung de danh gia d¢ dai cac doan thang, Viec dung tam giac deu BCA' ra phia ngoai trong Uri giai bai toan Torricelli chfnh la mot each lam mau mire de ap dung dUQ'C bat d~ng thirc Ptolemy.

Hinh5.14

Y nrong chung la : De danh gia tong p.MA + q.MB, ta c6 the dung diem N sao cho p.NA = q.NB. Sau d6 ap dung bata~ng tlnrc Ptolemy thl diroc

NA.MB + NB.MA 2 AB.MN.

313

Tir d6 pNA.MB + p.NB.MA ~ AB.MN <=> qNB.MB + p.NB.MA ~ AB.MN MN

<=> p.MA + q.MB ~ AB. NB'

Chu y rang diem N la co dinh, nhir the p:MA+ q.MB da duoc danh gia thong quaMN.

Y nrong nay la chia khoa de giai hang loat cac bai toan eire tri hlnh hoc. Ta xem xet mot so vi du :

Vi du 1. Cho diem M nam trong g6c nhon xOy. Hai diem A, B Ian hrot thay d6i tren Ox, Oy sao cho 20A = 30B. TIm vi trf cua A, B sao cho 2MA + 3MB dat gia tri nho nhat.

Gidi. Ap dung bat dang thirc Ptolemy cho tu giac OAMB, ta c6 OA.MB + OB.MA ~ OM.AB.

Tir d6 20A.MB + 2.0B.MA ~ 2.0M.AB <=> 30B.MB + 2.0B.MA ~ 2.0M.AB

<=> 2MA + 3MB ~ 2.0M. (~ J

VI tam giac OAB luon dong dang voi chfnh n6 nen ~ la mot dai IUQ'ng khong d6i. TIt d6 suy fa 2MA + 3MB dat gia tri nho nhat bang 2.0M. (~ J Dau bang xay ra khi va chi khi tu giac OAMB noi ti€p. 0

Vi du 2. MQt Iuc giac c6 dQ dai 6 canh deu bang 1. Chung minh rang IlJC giac d6 c6 it nhat mot dirong cheo chfnh nho han hay bang 2. (Duong cheo chfnh la dirong cheo chia luc giac thanh hai tu giac),

Gidi. Khong ngo goi y cho 1m giai bai toannay lai la mQt d~ng thirc lop-mot : ""."1 voi 1 Ia 2"".". Va de thirc hien phep cong hai canh thanhra dirong cheo d6, ta se ap dung bat d~ng thtrc Ptolemy.

Xet luc giac ABCDEF. Xet tam giac ACE. Khong mat tfnh t6ng quat, c6 the gia sir CE la canh Ian nhat trong tam giac, ap dung bat d~ng thirc Ptolemy cho tu giac ACDE, ta c6

ACDE + AE.CD ~ AD.CE Tird6,doCD=DE= 1 vaCE~AC,CE~AEnentasuyraAD~2. 0

314

BAITAP

11. (IMO SL 1997) Cho luc giac l6i ABCDEF c6 AB = BC, CD =DE; EF = FA.

Chti . h'; BC DE FA 3 D' b' ? khi nao ?

irng min rang BE + DA + FC ~ 2" au ang xay ra 1 nao .

12. (IMO '2001) Cho tam giac ABC voi trong tam G va d¢ dai cac canh a = BC, b = CA, C = AB; Tim diem P tren mat phang tam giac sao cho dai hrong AP.AG + BP.BG + CP.CG dat gia tri nho nhat va tim gia tri nho nhat d6 thea

a, b, c.

13. Cho dirong tron (0) va day cung BC khac dirong kfnh. Tim diem A thuoc cung Ian BC cua duong tron de AB + 2AC dat gia tri Ian nhat,

14. Luc giac l6i ABCDEF c6 ABP la tam giac vuong can tai A, BCEF 18. hinh binh

hanh, AD = 3, BC = 1, CD + DE = 2 J2. Tfnh dien tich luc giac. .

§5. TO' GIAC ToAN PHAN

Hinh gorri tu giac ABCD c6 AB cat CD tai E, AD cat BC tai F diroc goi la tu giac toan phdn (h. 5.15).

Tu giac toan phan c6 mot s6 tinh chat sau :

Tinh chat 1.' Cac duOng· tron ngoai tiep cac tam giac BCE, CDF. ADE, ABF cung di qua mot diem. Diem nay goi la diem Miguel cua tU A.r-----~;----~

, .E

giac toan phan,

Chung minh (h. 5.16). GQi M,la giao diem ella hai dirong tron (ABF) va (CDF).

Ta e6 : (MC, MB) = (MC, MF) + (MF, MB)

= (DC, DF) + (AF, AB) = (DE, AD) + (AD, AE) = (DE, AE) = (EC, EB) (mod n)

~M E(BCE).

Chung minh nrong nr ta e6 M E (ADE). 0

Hinh5.15

Hinh5.16

315

Tinh chat 2. GQi OJ, 02, 03, 04 Ian hrot la tam cua cac dirong tron (BeE), (CDF) , (ADE) , (ABF). Khi d6 OJ, °2, 03, 04 ' diem Miquel M cung thuoc

mot dirong tron. F

Chung minh (h.5.17). Ta c6 °1°2, 0203' °301 Ian lirot la cac trung tnrc cua MC, MD, ME. VI the cac hlnh chieu cua MIen cac QUOng thtmg nay la trung diem cua MC, MD, ME nen chting thang hang. Tir

d6 suy ra M E (01°2°3) (dinh If dao cua dinh If ve dirong thang Simson) .

Cluing minh nrong tu, ta cilng c6 M E(010204) 0

Hinh 5.17

Tinh chat 3. Chan cac dirong vuong g6c ha tir diein Miquel MIen cac dirong thang AB, BC, CD, DA cling nam tren mot dirong thang (dirong thang Simson).

Chung minh (h. 5.18). Do M E(CDF) nen cac hlnh chien cua no len CD, DF, FC thang hang (dirong thang Simson)

Chirng minh urong tir cho cac diem con Iai. 0

Hinh 5.18

Hinh5.19

Tinb chdt 4. Cac tnrc tam cua cac tam giac BCE, CDF_, ADE, ABF cling nam tren mot dtrong thang (Duang thiing Steiner clla tu giac).

Chung minh (h. 5.19). GQi M Ia diem MiqueI cua t11 giac toan phan. Phep V! tu tam M, ti s6 2 bien dirong .thang Simson cua m6i tam giac BCE, CDF, ADE, ABF thanh dirong thang Steiner cua tam giac d6, di qua tnrc tam tam giac . (xem §2). Tir tfnh chat 3 suy ra cac dtrong thang Steiner cua bon tam giac tren trimg nhau va dirong thang d6 di qua tnrc tam cua b6n tam giac. 0

Nhan xet. Hai dirong thang Simson va Steiner song song vffi nhau.

316

317

Tinh chat 5. Cac trung diem ella cac doan AC, BD, EF cung nam tren mot dirong thing (Duong thdng Gauss).

Chung minh (h 5.20). G9i H, I, J, K, L, G Ian hrot la trung diem cua AC, BD, EF, BE, EC, CB.

Taeo:

H, G, {nam tren dirong thang song song v& AE I, G, K nam tren duong thang song song voi DE J, L, K nam tren dirong thing song song voi BF

F

HG JL IK AB FC DE

=> HL . JK . IG = AE . FB . DC'

Ap dung dinh 11 Menelaus d6i voi tam giac BCE va dirong thing ADF, ta eo

AB 'FCDE

AE' FB . DC = 1

Hinh 5.20

HG J L I K 1 H I J h Z h' (di h If MId? d6' ,.

=>. HL . JK . IG = => ,., tang ang in 1 ene aus ao 1 voi tam

giac GKL). 0

Tinh chat 6. Duong thing Steiner va dirong thing Gauss vuong goc vci nhau.

Chung minh (h. 5.21). G9i H, Klan hrot la tnrc tam ella cac tam giac CDF, CBE.

G9i M, N Ian 1 trot la trung diem ella cac doan BD, EF.

Khi do HK, MN Ian hrot la cac duong thing Steiner va Gauss ella ttl giac

to an phan, F

----+

Ta eo M N = MD + DE + EN

---t ---t ----+ -----+ ----t

HK.2MN = HK.DE + HK.BF

MN = MB + BF + FN

=> 2MN = DE + BF.

---+ ----+ ----+ ----+ ----+

= (HF + FB + BK)DE + (HD + OE + EK)BF

----+ -------+ __ -------f ---to ----+ -----t ----t ---t ' ----+ ----+ ----+

== HF.DE + FB.DE + BK.DE + HD.BF + DE.BP+ EK.BF

Hinh 5.21

---+ --+ ----+ - -+

= FB.DE + DE.BF = O.

V~y HK _l_ MN. 0

, :1-

§6. DUONG THANG NEWTON

Bai toan 1. Cho ttl giac ABCD ngoai tiep duong .tron tam I. GQi N veM la trung diem cua cac dirong cheo AC va BD. Khi d6 M, I, N cung nam tren mot dirong thiing ..

Duong thiing nay duoc goi la duong thdng Newton cua ttl giac ngoai tiep

ABCD: D

Chung minh (h. 5.22). N6i dai DA va CB elit nhau tai P. Tren (DA) lay diem D' sao cho PD' = AD va tren (BC) lay diem C' sao eho PC' = BC.

De y rang do M va N Ia trung diem cua BD va AC nen ta e6

dt(MAD) + dt(MBC) = dt(MAB) + dt(MCD) == ~ dt(ABCD)

dt(NAD) + dt(NBC) = dt(NAB) + dt(NCD) = ~ dt(ABCD).

Theo each dung diem D' va C' va hili diing thtrc tren, ta e6 . dt(MPD') + dt(MPC') = dt(NPD') + dt(NPC')

Hinh 5.22

=:> dt(MD'PC') = dt(ND'PC') =:> dt(MD'C') = dt(ND'C')

=:> MN II D'C'. (1)

Mat khac do ttl giac ABCD ngoai tiep dirong tron nen ta e6 AD + BC = AB + CD. Tud6

1

dt(IAD) + dt(IBC) = dt(lAB) + dt(ICD) = "2 dt(ABCD)

Lf luan tirong tv nhtr tren ta cling e6

1M II D'C'.

re (1) va (2) suy ra M, I, N thiinghang. D

Duong thiing Newton eq mot tnrong hop d~e biet kha dep la bai roan sau :

Bai toan 2. Cho tam giac ABC. Duong tron nqi tiep tam I cua tam giac tiep xuc vm canh BC tai D. GQi M la trung diem cua BC va N Ia trung diem cua AD. Chung minh rang M, I, N thang hang.

318

c

(2)

Dinh. li Ceva. Cho tam giac ABC va cac diem A}, B}, C} Ian hrot thuoc cac canh BC, CA, AB. Khi d6 AA}, BB}, CC} d6ng quy khi va chi khi :

A}B B}C CIA _ 1 AC'BA'CB - .

} } }

(1)

o daynr giac ABCD bien thanh tu. giac suy bien ABDC v6i g6c BDC = 180°. TAt nhien la cac each gi~i neu tren vc1n t6 ra hieu qua. N goai ra, do tinh chat dac biet cua n6, bai toan con c6 nhieu each giai khac, Xin diroe danh cho ban doc phan tim kiern them cac Uri giai nay.

15. Cho dirong tron (0) dirong kinh AB. MIa diem lily y nam trong (0). Duong phan giac tir M cua tam giac AMB car (0) tai N. Phan giac ngoai g6c AMB cat NA, NB Hin hrot tai P, Q. AM dtt dirong tron dirong kinh NQ tai diem thu hai R, BM cat duong tron duong kinh NP tai diem thu hai S. Chung minh duong trung tuyen ke tir N cua tam giac NSR di qua mot diem c6 dinh,

§7. DINH LI CEVA, DINH LI MENELAUS vA DINH LI DESARGUES

Bai toan 'dong quy va thang hang la nhfrng bai toan phd bien trong hinh hoc va c6 nhieu each de chimg minh. Trong bai.nay, chung t6i xin neu ra cac dinh If cd dien va ducc xern nhu Ia cac tieu chuan de chtrng minh 3 dirong thang dong

quy hay 3 diem thang hang. .

1. Dinh Ii Ceva

Trong chuong trinh 16'p 7, ta da biet rang trong mot tam giac thi cac dirong trung tuyen, cac dirong phan giac, cac dirong cao dong quy. Thuc ra d6 chi la tnrong hop d~c biet cua nhfrng bo ba dirong thang dongquy diroc xac dinh trong dinh If sau day.

Chung minn (h. 5.23). (=» ChoAA}, BB}, CCI dong quy, ta chimg minh (1)

. 01<\ sir BBl, CCI cat dirong thang qua A song song v6i BC Ian hrot la I va K.

Ap dung dinh If Thales ta c6 :

319

A1B B1C C'A _ 1 AIC· B1A· C'B - .

re (1) va (4) ta c6 ~:; = ~:; ~ C1 == C,· (Do C1 va C' cung thuoc canh AB).

(4)

B1C _ BC.CIA _ AK B1A - Al 'C1B - BC·

K

I

(2)

Han nita ta c6 :

AI AM AK A1B AI

--=--=--~--=-

AlB MAl AIC AIC AK

(3)

Hinh 5.23

(~) Gia sir ta c6 he thirc (1), ta can chirng minh AAl, BBl, CCI dong quy.

Goi P la giao diem cua AAI va BB1, C' la giao diem cua CP va AB. Khi doap dung ph fin tren ta c6

Vay AA1, BB1, CC 1 dong quy tai P. 0

B¢ ba dirong thang AA 1, BB l' CC 1 dong quy nhir tren diroc goi la b¢ ba duang thdng Ceva va cac doan thang AA1, BB1 va CCI goi la b¢ ba doan thdngCeva. Dinh If Ceva la dinh If ~a ban nhat dung de chimg minh cac dirong thang dong quy, ta c6 the xet mot vai vi du sau day.

Vi du 1. Chimg minh rang trong mot tam giac :

a) Ba dirong trung tuyen dong quy ; b) Ba duong phan giac dong quy ;

c) Ba dirong cao dong quy ;

d) Ba dirong trung tnrc dong quy.

Chung minh. Xet tam giac ABC.

a) Ba dirong trung tuyen AM, BN va CP dong quy.

Th~t vay ta c6 Z~.~~.~; = 1.1.1 = 1. Theo dinh IiCeva, AM, BN va CP dong quy tai G (G la trong tam cua tam giac),

b) Ba duong phan giac AD, BE va CF dong quy.

A' d ' h ha d' h . , ,DB AB EC BC ,FA CA

P ung tm c at uong p an giac ta co DC = AC; EA = BA va FB = CB .

320

21A-TAI LI~U GKCT H1NH HOC 10

321

D de DB EC FA AB BC CA 1 h di h u Ce 'AD BE 'CF'

o 0 DC' EA' FB =. AC' BA' CB = ,t eo m 1 va ta eo , va

dong quy tai I (/ la tam dirong tron noi tiep cua tam giac ABC).

e) Ba dirong eao AH, BI va CK dong quy. A

Truong hap MBC nhon (h. 5.24)

" AK AC

Ta eo MKC (/) MIB => AI = AB

BH AB ~ABH (/) ~CBK => BK = BC

CI BC

~BCI (/) ~ACH => CH = AC'

Hinh 5.24

Do d6 Z~. ~~. :~ = 1, thea dinh If Ceva thl 3 dirong thang AH, BI va CK dong quy tai mot diem duoc goi Ia tnrc tam cua tam giac.

Truong hop MBC til tai A.

GQi 0 la giao diem cua BI va CK. Khi d6 A ia tnrc tam cua tam giac OBC nen OA.1 BC, suy ra 0 E AH.

d) Ba duong trung true du' d.; de dongquy.

GQi M, N, P iiln hrot la trung diem cua BC, AC va AB. Khi d6 da, dh, de Ia ba

dirong eao cua tam giac M N P nen dong quy. 0 '

Vi du 2. Cho tam giac .ABC va dirong tron tam I noi tiep tam giac tiep xuc v6i cac canh BC, AC va AB Ian hrot tai D, E, F. Khi d6 cac duong thang AD, BE va CF dong quy tai mot diem.

Chung minh. Ta e6 BD = BF, CD = CE va AE = AF. Suy ra Z~.~~.;~ = 1, thea dinh If Ceva thl cac dirong thang AD, BE va CF dong quy tai mot diem J (J duoc goi la die"m Gergonne cua tam giac ABC). 0

2. D!nh u Menelaus

Phan tren chung ta da thay mot tieu chuan d~ 3 dirong thang dong quy, trong phan nay ta se xet mot tieu chuan d~ 3 diem thang hang thong qua dinh If sau :

Dinh li Menelaus. Cho tam giac ABC va ba diem A', B' va C' tren cac dirong thang BC, AC va AB sao eho : hoac ca ba diem A', B', C' deu nam tren phan keo dai cua ba canh, hoac mot trong ba di~m tren nam tren phan keo dai cua

= =

A'C A'M' B'A B'C"

A'

mot canh con hai diem con lai nam tren hai canh cua tam giac (*). Dieu kien can va dll d~ A', B', C' thang hang la

A'B B'C C'A

A'.C· B'A' C'B = 1. (5)

Chung minh (h.5.25)

(=» Cho A', B', C' thang hang, ta chirng minh (5)

Tir C ve dtrong thang song song vm AB cat A'C' tai M.

Ap dung dinh If Thales ta co :

A'B A'C' B'C B'M

A

Mat khac ta co

CM B'M, CM A'M

CA = B'C' va C'B = ArC"

C'A (A'M.B'C')

suy ra C'B = (A'C'.B'M)·

, ,A'B B'C C'A A'C' B'M (A'M.B'C') ,

Dodo taco A'e'B'A'C'B = A'M'B'C" A'C'.B'M = 1.

B

Hinh 5.25

(¢=) Cho cac diem A', B', C' thoa man (*) va (5), ta clnrng minh A', B', C' thang hang.

Gia sir B', C' nam tren 2 canh cua tam giac va A' thuoc phan keo dai clla canh con lai. GQi B" la giao di~m cua A'C' va !lC.

Khi do h h' . h tre , A'B B"C C'A 1 (6)

1 0, t eo c ung mm tren ta co A'C' B"A' C'B = .

re (6) va (5) ta co ~::~ = ~:~ => B' ;: B" (vi deu thuoc canh AC). V~y A', B', C' thang hang.

Trong tnrong hop 3di~m A', B' va C' cung thuoc phan keo dai cua cac canh thi chimg minh nrong nr, 0

Nhan xet. H¢ thtrc (1) va (5) la gi6ng nhau, tuy nhien vi trf cua cac diem tren cac canh la khac nhau.

Ta xet mot vai vi du irng dung dinh If Menelaus d~ cluing minh ba diem thang hang.

322

21B-TAI LI~U GKCT HINH HOC 10

Minh 5.26

Vi du 3. Chtrng minh ding trong mot tam giac, chan dirong phan giac trong cua hai goc va chan dirong phan giac ngoai cua goc thu 3 la th~ng hang.

Chung minh (h. 5.26). Cho tam giac ABC, A

goi BE, CF la hai duong phan giac trong ~. .

vaAD la phan giac ngoai. (E E AC, F E AB· .. E

vaD E BC). F

Truac het ta thay 3 diem E, F va D thoa D Be

dieu kien (*) (E, F thuoc canh AC va AB con D nam ngoai doan BC).

Mat khac, thea tinh chat duong phan giac (trong hoac ngoai), ta co

DB AB EC BC FA CA

DC = AC' EA = BA' FB = CB'

DB EC FA AB BC CA

Suyra DC'EA'FB = AC'BA'CB = 1. 0

Vi du 4. Cho tu giac ABCD ngoai tiep duong tron (I), goi M, N, P, Q Ian hrot la cac tiep diem cua (l) voi AB, BC, CD va AD. Cluing minh rang NP, MQ va

BD dong quy.

Chung minh (h. 5.27). Theo gia thiet ta co :

AQ =AM,BM =BN, CN= CP,DP =DQ.

GQi 0 la giao diem cua N P va BD. Ap dung dinh If Menelaus cho tam giac BCD ta co

OB PD NC OB· NB

OD'PC'NB = 1 => OD = PD'

Kh' de ,OB QD MA NB QD

Iota co : OD'QA'MB = PD'MB = 1,

ap dung dinh li Menelaus cho tam giac ABD thi 0, M, Q thang hang.

V~y NP, BD va MQ dong quy. 0

3. Ilinh Ii Oesargues

Dinh 11 Menelaus cho ta mot tieu chutin de chimg minh ba diem th~ng hang, va sau day chung toi xin gioi thieu mot dinh if cling duoc xem nhir la tieu

chuan de chtrng minh ba diem thang hang.

Dinh li Desargues. Cho hai tam giac ABC va A'B'C'. GQi M la giao diem cua AB va A 'B', N la giao diem cua AC va A'C', P la giao diem cua Be va B'C'. Khi do M, N, P thang hang khi va chi khi AA', BB' va CC' dong quy.

o

D

Hinh 5.27

323

Chung minh (h. 5.28).

(<=) Cho AA', BB', CC' dong guy tai O. Ta chirng minh M, N, P thang hang.

Ap dung dinh If Menelaus eho tam giac OAC voi ba diem N, A' va C', ta e6 :

o

NA C'C A'a ---=1

NC' C'O' A'A .

(1) p

PC B'B cia

Tuong nr ta e6: PB' B'O: C'C = 1.. (2)

MB A'A B'O

MA' A'a' B'B = 1. (3)

Hlnh 5.28

va

re (1), (2), (3) ta e6 ~~. ;~. ~! = 1, do d6, ap dung dinh If Menelaus eho tam giac ABC, ta e6 M, N, P thang hang.

(=» Cho M, N, P thang hang, ta chimg minh AA', BB', CC' dong guy. Xet hai tam giac MBB' va NCC' ~6 MN, BC, B'C' dong guy tai P.

Ta e6 a la giao cua BB' va CC'. Hon nita A la giao cua MB va NC, A' la giao cua MB' va NC'. Do d6 thea chirng minh phan tren, ta e6 0, A va A' thang hang, hay AA', BB' va CC' dong guy. 0

Vi du 5. Cho tam giac ABC va AD, BE, CF la bo ba dirong thang Ceva. GQi P la giao cua DE va AB, N la giao cua DF va AC, M la giao diem cua EF va BC. Chung minh rang M, N, P thang hang.

Chung minh. Xet hai tam giac ABC va DEF e6 AD, BE, CF dong guy. Ap dung dinh If Desargues ta e6 ngay dieu can chimg minh. 0

BAITAP

16. Chtrng minh rang trong mot tam giac, ba dirong thang n6i trung diem ciia m6i canhvoi trung diem cua doan thang Ceva bat ki xuat phat tir dinh d6i dien cua canh d6 dong guy.

17. Cho tam giac ABC va dirong tron tam I noi tiep tam giac tiep xiic voi cac canh BC, CA,AB Ian hrot tai D, E, F. GQi D', E', F' Ian IUq1 la diem d6i xirng cua D, E, F qua I. Clurng minh rang AD', BE' va CF' dong guy.

324

A

~

B DeE

Hinh 5.29

18. Tren cac canh AB, AC cua tam giac ABC vuong tai A, ngtroi ta dung cac hinh vuong ABEF va ACGI a ben ngoai tam giac. GB cat dirong cao AH tai O.

Chung minh rang ba diem C, E, 0 thang hang. .

19. Cho 3 duong tron c6 ban kinh khac nhau trong d6 khong dirong tron nao chua dirong tron khac, Tirng cap duong tron c6 cac dirong tiep tuyen chung ngoai cat nhau tai mot diem. Chung minh rang 3 diem d6 thang hang.

§8. DUONG TRON APOLLONIUS

Chung ta nhac lai tfnh chat cua duong phan giac trong tam giac : chan cac duong phan giac xuat phat tir mot dinh cua tam giac chi a canh d6i dien thanh hai doan ti l~ voi hai canh ke voi hai doan ay. Cu the a hinh ve 5.29 :

DB EB AB

= =

DC EC AC'

v an d~ dat ra la lieu c6 con nhirng diem nao khac D va E cling c6 tinh chat nhu vay, chang han diem M nao d6 trong mat

h" " h h' M B AB

P ang co tin c at MC = AC'

Cau tra loi la c6. Ta ve duong tron c6 duong kfnh la DE va lay mot diem M bat ki tren dirong tron nay (h. 5.30).

Tir D ke dirong thang song song voi EM cat MB, MC Ian IU91 tai H, G.

T' . DH _ BD DG _ CD a co: EM - BE' EM - CE

,BD CD • DH DG

rna BE ='CE nen EM = EM =>DH=DG.

B

Hinh 530

Mat khac MD .L HG nen MHG la tam giac can tai

M MD r h ., " , BMC MB AB( DB) 0

=> a p an grac cua goc => Me = Acl= DC .

Bay gio ta se rna rong bai toan tren bang each thay ti s6 1~ boi mot s6 dirong k bat ki.

325

--

MC, MD Ian hrot la phan giac trong va phan giac ngoai cua AMB. Do d6

Ciif.j = 90°. Suy ra M thuoc dirong tron dirong kfnh CD.

Dao lai, Lay M bat kt thuoc dtrong tron dirong kinh CD. Ta can clnrng minh MA =k MB .

Neu M trung C hoac D thi hien nhien.

Neu M khac C va D, qua A vi'S dirong lJ

thangvuong g6c voi M D cat M B tai E va dtMC tai H.

,AE BA

Ta co DM = BD = 1 - k Hinh 5.31

, AH = AC = 1 - k ( , kt = DA = CA ::;:: DC - 2AC = 1 .; 2 CA) .

va DM CD 2 VI DB BC DB - BC CD .

Do d6 AE = 2AH, suy ra H la trung diem AE, suy ra ME = MA.

T' -d' ,MAME DA k

U otaco-=~=-=

MB MB DB .

(Chu y : Neu dung do dai dai so thi ta khong phai xet k > 1 hay k < 1).

Vay v6i k "* I, quy tfch nhirng diem M thoa man ~~ = k Ia duong tron dirong kinh CD. 0

Ngiroi ta goi dirong tron nay la duang trim Apollonius ti so k (:;# 1) dung tren dOfJ,nAB.

BID. toano Cho hai diem A, B co dinh va so thirc dirong k. TIm tap hop tat ca

hf d'? M h- MA k

n irng iem sao c 0 MB = .

Gidi. Ta xet hai tnrong hop sau Truong h9P 1 : k = 1.

Khi d6 MA = MB. Quy tfch nhtrng diem M la dirong trung tnrc cua AB. Truong h9P 2 : k ;c 1. Ta tim loi giai trong tnrong hop k < 1.

G9i C, D la diem chia trong, chia ngoai doan thang AB theo ti so k, nrc la

~~ = ~; = k (C nam gifra A, B va D nam ngoai doan AB). Khi d6 M _ C,

M D h -, - b" , N"' M kha C 'D T ,MA CA DA "

- t oa man ai toan. eu ac va . a co MB ::;:: CB ::;:: DB nen

326

327

Tren day Hi dirong tron Apollonius cua doan thang, ngoai ra d6i voi tam giac, ta con co cac duong tron Apollonius duoc xac dinh nhu sau :

D6i voi mot tam giac bat kl, ta co dirong tron Apollonius lien ket vci m6i dinh diroc xac dinh nhir sau : Do la dirong tron co dirong kfnhla chan cac dirong phan giac trong va ngoai xuat phat til dinh do. Ta co 3 dirong tron Apollonius nrong img lien ket voi 3 dinh cua tam giac.

Ta co cac dinh If sau :

1l>

Dint: li 1 : Trong mot tam gidc, m6i duang iron Apollonius lilt ket vai mot

dinh thi true giao voi duang iron e6 duang kinli fa canh. dol dien voi dlnb d6.

D!nh li 2 : Ba .duong tron Apollonius eua mot tam giac cung di qua 2 diem. Dinh. li 3 : M6i duang tron Apollonius thi true giao vai duang tron ngoai tilp tam giac. Duong thdng di qua hai giao diem eua cae duang tron Apollonius di qua tam duang tron ngoai tiep tam gidc.

Sau day chung ta xet mot vai vf du lien quan den dirong tron Apollonius.

Vi du 1. Cho tam giac ABC khong can. Diem M thay d6i trong tam giac sao cho AMC - B = AMB - C. Chung minh rang M thuoc mot dirong tron c6 dinh.

Gidi (h. 5.32). Dl!I1g ra phfa ngoai tam giac ABC mot diem N sao cho MNC (f) MM B. Khi do

AN = AC va BAC = MAN

AM AB

-

Suy ra MMN (f) MBC, do do AMN = ABC,

suy ra

AMC - ABC = AMC - AMN = CMN. (1)

- -

Mat khac ANC = AMB va ANM = ACB.

Hinh 5.32

-

Suy ra AMB - ACB = ANC - ANM = MNC. (2)

Til (I) va (2) ket hop voi ghi thiet ta co CiiN == CiiM, suyra CN = CM.

D de MB CN CM BM AB kh d'· V M h d'

o 0 AB = AC = AC' suy ra CM .= AC ong 61. ay t uoc irong

tron Apollonius dung tren doan BC ti s6la AB. D

. .. AC

Vi du 2 (Iran 1997). Cho tam giac ABC noi tiep dirong tron (0). Diem M thay d6i tren cung BC (khong chua A) cua dirong tron (0) (M khac B va C). GQi I, J Ian hrot la tam dirong tron noi tiep cac tam giac ABM va ACM. Chirng minh rang dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac MIJ Iuon di qua mot diem co dinh,

Gidi. GQi N la giao diem cua (MIJ) va (0).

MI cat (0) tai E, MJ cat (0) tai D. Suy ra E, DIan hrot la diem chinh giira cac cung AB, AC nen co dinh. Hem ntra ta c6 EA = EI = EB vaDA = DJ =DC.

Xet tam giac N1E va tam giac NJDc6

NEi = NDJ (cung chan cung MN),

-

E1 N = DJ N (cung bu veri hai g6c bang

nhau Ia NIM va NJM).

Suy ra I1NIE en I1NJD (g.g)

NE E1 AE ?

~ ND = DJ = AD khong dol.

Do d6 N thuoc dirong tron Apollonius dung tren doan ED ti so 1~.

Vay N la giao diem ella dirong tron tren va (0) nen co dinh (A la giao diem con lai cua hai dirong tron tren). 0

BAIT!P

Hinh 5.33

20. Cho bon diem A, B, C, D thang hang thea thu nr d6, AB -::;c CD. Diem M thay d6i sao cho AMB = CMi5. M khong thuoc AB. Cluing minh rang M thuoc mot dirong tron co dinh,

21. Cho tam giac ABC khong can. GQi I, J Ian hrot la tam dirong tron noi tiep va bang tiep g6c A cua tam giac ABC. Chung minh rang IJ Ia mot tiep tuyen cua

h . dt , 'A 11 . d d BC h '?' l' IB ,JB

ar irong tron· po oruus irng tren oan t eo cac ti so a IC va JC'

22. Cho tam giac AB.C: Hai diem phan biet M, N thay d6i sao cho

MA MB MC 1 Chii . h ri d' h? MN di di ?

NA = NB = NC 7:-. irng min rang irong tang 1 qua mot iem

co dinh.

328

§9. DINH Li CON Bl1CJM

Dinh li (Bai. toan con bu6m). Cho day cung PQ cua mot dirong tron. Ve hai day cung AB va CD khac cua dirong tron di qua trung di~m M cua PQ. GQi giao diem cua AD va BC voi PQ la Xva Y. Khi d6 M cling la trung di~m cua XY.

Chung minh. C6 nhieu each cluing minh chimg minh cho dinh If nay, dum' day trinh bay each chimg minh cua Coxeter va Greitzer.

Ke cac duong vuong g6c. xl' YI tir X, Y xu6ng AB va X2' Y2 tir X, Y xu6ng CD. Dat a = PM = MQ, MX = x, MY = y. Ap dung tfnh chat cua tam giac dong dang, ta c6

X = ~ = x2 (1)

Y YI Y2

Xl AX Y2 = CY

x2 XD

J; = YB'

Tir d6 suy ra

2

X Xl X2 Xl X2 AX XD pX.XQ

7 =~. Y2 = Y2'J; = CY' YB = PY.YQ

(2)

(3)

(a - x)(a + x) a2 - x2 a2

= (a + Y)( a - Y) = a2 _ i = a2 = 1.

Hinh 5.34

Hinh 5.35

Suy rax = y.

Trong clnmg minh tren, ta sir dung tfnh chat ~ = PXXQ va CY.YB = PY.YQ suy ra tir cac cap tam giac dong dang PXD en AXQ va CYQ en PYB.

C6 1 each chirng minh khac cho dinh If tren nhir sau : GQi 0 Ia Hun dirong tron

va I, J Ian hrot la trung diem ella BC va AD. '

Do tu giac OMYI noi tiep nen ta c6

. ----

MOY = MfY.

22A-TAI LI~U GKCT H1NH HOC 10

(4)

329

-

MOX = MIX.

(5)

Ttrong tu ta co

M~t khac, do hai tam giac MCB va MAD dong dang va MI, MJ la cac trung

tuyen urong irng nen .

MIY = MIX.

(6)

-

Tu (4), (5), (6) suy ra MOY = MOX, suy ra tam giac OXY can vi co OM vira

la dtrong cao vira la dirong phan giac, tu do MX = MY. 0

Chu y la dinh If con bu6m van dungneu ta n6i AC va BD keo dai cat PQ tai X va Y' (day duoc goi la con bu6m ngoai),

Ngoai hai each clurng minh tren day, dinh If con bu6m con co nhieu each chtrng minh khac va co nhieu rna rong thu V!. Ban doc co the tham khao them a trang web: http://www.cut-the-knot.org/pythagoras!Butterfly.shtml

§10. DINH LI EULER VE TAM GIAC PEDAL

Cho tam giac ABC va mot diem M bat ky trong mat phang tam giac. HC;\ MX, MY, MZ Ian hrot vuong goc voi BC, CA, AB. Khi do XYZ diroc goi Ia tam giac pedal (hoac tam giac ban dap) cua tam giac ABC irng voi diem M. Tam giac pedal co nhieu tfnh chat thii vi, chang han

Dinh li 1 (Dinh Ii Euler). Cho tam giac ABC noi tiep trong duong tron tam 0 ban kfnh R. MIa mot diem bat ki nam trong mat phang tam giac, HC;\MX, MY, MZ Ian lirot vuong goc voi BC, CA, AB. Khi do dien tfch tam giac XYZ co tM tfnh theo dien tfch tam giac ABC va khoang each M 0 theo cong thrrc sau

I M021

SXYz = 4SABC 1- R2 .

Chung minh : Ta kf hieu Sxyz = Sl' SABC = S.

N6i dai AM, BM, CM cat dirong tron ngoai tiep tai cac diem X', Y', Z tirong

. - ---

tmg. Ta co ZXM = MBZ (tu giac BZMXn<)i tiep).

MBZ = ARY' (B, Z, A th~ng hang va B, M, Y' thang hang) ARY' ::; AXi' (cung chan cung AY').

330

22B-TAI LI~U GKCT HINH HOC 10

331

- -

Tir d6 suy ra ZXM = AX'Y'. Tuong tv YXM = AX'Z'.

- -

Tir d6 suy ra ZXY = t:X'Y' . Ta se kf hieu hai g6c nay nrong ling la X va X'.

Tac6 J

Sl = ~ XY.XZ.sinX

= ~ MC.sinC.~B.sinB.sinX (dinh If ham s6 sin)

= ~ MB.MY. :i, .sinB.sinC.sinX

= ~ IM02 - R21 :~, .sinB.sinC.sinX (phuong tfch, tlMBC en tlMZY')

1 IM02 R21 BC . C ·nB sinX'

= 2" -. .sm .SI . Y'Z'

1 1 M02 ACBC . C (·nB AC sin X' = lR)

= 8" - ~ . .sm SI = 2R' Y'Z' 2

2

= ls 1 - M02 . 0

4 R

Dinh If Euler la mot ket qua thii V! va sau sac cua hlnh hoc trong tam giac, Dinh If nay c6 nhieu hequa hay. Chung ta se xem xet mot s6 he qua d6 :

Duong thang Simson. Tir ket qua cua dinh If Euler, ta thay neu M nam tren dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC, nrc Ia neu OM = R thi dien tfch tam giac pedal bang o. Dieu d6 c6 nghia la tam giac XYZ suy bien thanh dirong thang. Va nhir vay, ta dff cluing minh duoc mot ket qua quen thuoc sau day:

Dinh li 2 tDuang thdng Simson). Cho tam giac ABC n¢i tiep trong duong tron (0). M la mot diem bat ky tren (0). HI:l MX, MY, MZ Ian hrot vuong g6c vm BC, CA, AB. Khi d6 X, Y, Z cung nam tren mot dirongthang.

Duong thang di qua X, Y, Z diroc goi la dtrong thang Simson trng voi diem M. Tfnh chat thii V! nay c6 tM chimg minh kha de dang rna khong can thong qua dinh If Euler, sir dung tfnh chat cua tu giac noi tiep (xem them a §2).

Cong thtrc Euler. Khi M trung voi I la tam dtrong tron n¢i tiep tam giac thl XYZ la tam giac noi tiep trong dirong tron tam I ban kfnh r, c6 cac g6c X, Y, Z

nrong Ung bang 90° ~ A 90° - B 90° - C nen ta c6

2' 2' 2

Sau day, chung ta se lam quen vm dinh If qua mot s6 vi du co ban.

Vi du 1. Cho duong tron (0 ; R) va diem M c6 dinh. Tren (0) lay cac diem A, B, C sao cho tam giac ABC deu va d~t AM = x, BM = y, CM = z. Clnrng minh rang tam giac rna d¢ dai cac canh la x, y, z c6 dien tich khong d6i khi A, B, C

thay d6i. .

Guii. GQi (T) la tam giac c6 d¢ dai cac canh la x, y, z. DJ!I1g D, E, F Ian hrot la hlnh chieu cua M tren cac canh AB, BC, CA cua tam giac ABC.

Theo dinh If sin ta de dang c6 diroc .:

DE DF EF . 0

MB = MA = MC = sm60

DE DF EF .J3

¢:>-=-=-=-.

Y X z 2

Suy ra : tillEF dong dang vci (T) thee

, 'd' d l' Jj u so ong ang a 2'

SDEF (.J3)2 3 4

=> S(T) = 2 = 4" => S(T) = TSDEF

F

S 2 2 'nX . Y'nZ A. B C S r

XYZ = r SI sm SI = cos "2 cos "2 cos "2 .= . 2R

, Tir d6, thay vao dinh If Euler, ta diroc

r 1 ( 102 J 2 2

S- = -S 1- -r-« - ¢:> 2Rr=R -10

2R 4, R2

¢:> 102 = R2 - 2Rr.

Ta thu diroc mot ket qua dep mat khaccua hlnh hoc phang (diroc goi la cong thtrc Euler)

Dinh li 3. (Cong thuc Euler) Cho tam giac ABC noi tiep trong dirong tron tam o ban kfnh R va ngoai tiep duong tron tam 1 ban kinh r. Khi dO khoang each 10 c6 the tfnh thee cong thuc sau :

102 = R2 - 2Rr.

Of

Hinh 5.36

Do DEF la tam giac pe,dal dJ!I1g ttr diem M cua tam giac ABC nen thee dinh If

, . IR2 - OM21

Euler, ta co duoc : SDEF = 2' ,SABC'

4R

332

Ma duong tron (0 ; R) va diem M co dinh, MBC deu nen S ABC co dinh => SDEF = canst 0

Vi du 2. Cho tu giac loi ABCD noi tiep trong dirong tron tam 0 (v6i 0 nam ben trong tu giac), Goi MNPQ Ia ni giac rna cac dinh lAn'luqt: la hlnh chien cua giao diem 2 dirong cheo cua tu giac ABCD den cac canh AB, BC, CD; DA. Chimg minh rang:

S < SABCD

MNPQ - 2

Gidi (h.S.37). Goi K la giao diem 2 dirong cheo AC va BD cua ttl' giac ABCD.

De thay KM N Ia tam giac pedal dung ttr diem K cua tam giac ABC, do d6 ap dung dinh If Euler ta duoc :

SKMN IR2 - OK21 R2 _ OK2

-- - - (vi K a

SABC - 4R2 - 4R2

trong tu giac)

Hinh 5.37

Lam nrong t1,1' eho cac tam giac KNP, KPQ, KQM va cong cac ket qua lai :

R2 _ OK2.

SKMN + SKNP + SKPQ + SKQM = 2 .(SABC + SBCD + SCDA + SDAB)

4R

R2 - OK 2 R2 - 0 1

=> SMNPQ = 2R2 .SABCD s 2R2 .SABCD = 2SABCD·

D~ng thirc xay ra ~ OK2 = 0 ~ OK = 0 ~ K == O. 0

BAIT!!>

Z3. Cho tam giac ABC, M la mot diem bat kl trong mat phang tam giac, XYZ la tam giac pedal cua tam giac ABC irng v6i diem M. Cac duong doi ximg qua cac dirong phan giac cung dinh (con goi Ia duang dOl phdn gidc) cua AM, BM,

CM dong quy tai mot diem MI, XIYIZI la tam giac pedal cua tam giac ABC

333

img voi diem MI' Chung minh rang 6 diem x, f, Z, XI' fl' ZI .cimg nam tren mot dirong tron (goi Ia duang tron pedal ung vm diem M cling nhu img voi diem MI).

24. Cho 4 diem trong mat phang, trong d6 khong c6 3 di~m nao thing hang.

Chung minh rang cac dirong tron pedal cua 1 diem tuy y trong chung ung voi tam giac tao boi 3 dinh con lai dong quy tai mot diem.

25. (Serbia and Montenegro 2003) Cho tam giac ABC co tnrc tam H. GQi D, E, F lftn hrot la chan cac dirong cao ha tir cac dinh A, B, C. GQi P la diem doi ximg voi A qua BC, Q Ia diem doi ximg v6i B qua CA, R Ia diem doi ximg voi C qua

AB. Chung minh rang neu SDEF = SPQR = T thl ta c6 T = ~S hoac T = S (voi S la dien tfch tam giac ABC).

A A' _,. ?

§11. MQT SO QUY TICH CO BAN

Bai toan quy tich la dang to an thirong gap trong chuang trinh toan phd thong. De doan nhan quy tfch, cluing ta can c6 kien thirc v~ mot so quy tfch co ban. Ngoai ra can c6 kha nang du doan quy tfch qua suy luan cling nhir qua cac phep dung hinh chfnh xac,

Cac quy tich co ban

1) Tap hQP cac diem each deu hai diem co dinh cho tru6c la dirong trung tnrc cua doan thing noi hai diem d6.

2) Tap hop cac diem each d~u hai canh cua mot g6c Ia dirong phan giac cua g6c d6.

3) Tap hQP cac diem each duong thing cho tru6c mot khoang khong d6i la hai duong thing song song voi duong thang d6.

4) Tap hop cac diem each deu hai dirong thing song song la mot dirong thing song song v6i hai duong thing d6 (di qua trung diem cua doan thing bat ki c6 hai dau rmit Ian hrot nam tren hai dirong thang song song d6)

5) Tap hQP cac diem each deu mot diem cho tru6c mot khoang khong d6i la mot dirong tron,

6) Tap hQP cac diem co cung phuong tfch doi voi hai dtrong tron la true diing phuong cua hai dirong tron d6.

7) Tap hQP cac diem c6 t6ng khoang each den hai diem cho tru6c khong d6i Ia mot elip.

334

335

8) Tap hop cac diem c6 gia tri tuyet d6i cua hieu cac khoang each tir diem d6 den hai diem cho tnroc khong ddi la mot hypebol.

9) Tap hop cac diem diem each deu mot diem cho tnroc va mot dirong thAng cho truce Ia mot parabol.

1 0) Tap hop cac diem c6 ti s6 khoang each tir diem d6 den mot diem cho tnroc va den mot dirong thang cho tnroc khong ddi la mot dirong conic.

Cac dang quy deb thuong gap

Dang J. Cho doan thang AB va s6 k > O. TIm tap hop cac diem M sao cho MA2+MB2=k.

Gidi. 09i Ila trung diem cua AB, ta c6

2 2

MA2 + MB2 = k <=> 2MI2 + AB = k <=> MI2 = 2k - AB

2 4

Neu 2k < AB2 thi khong t6n tai diem M.

Neu 2k = AB2 thi diem M chfnh Ia diem I.

Neu 2k > AB2 thl tap hop cac diem M la duong tron tam I ban kfnh ~2k - AB2. 0

2

Dang 2. Cho doan thang AB va s6 thuc k. TIm tap hop nhirng diem M sao cho MA2-MB2=k.

Gidi. 09i I la trung diem cua AB va H la hlnh chieu cua M tren dirong thang AB.Tac6

MA2 ., MB2 = k <=> HA2 - HB2 = k <=> (HA + HB)(HA - HB) = k

<=> 2HI.BA = k <=> IH = k . Suy ra H Ia diem c6 dinh.

2AB .

V~y tap hop cac diem MIa duong thang vuong g6c voi A!J tai H. 0

Dang 3. Cho doan thAng AB va cac s6 thuc a, b, c (ab '* 0) . TIm tap hop nhfrng diem M sao cho aMA2 + bMB2 = c.

Gidi.

Neu a + b = 0 thi aMA2 + bMI? = c <=> MA2 - MI? = .:.. (da giiii quyet cr dang 2)

a .

Tnrong hop a + q "t; ° :

GQi I la diem sao cho alA + bIB = (5 (I c6 dinh). Khi d6

2 2 --->2--->2

aMA + bMB = c <=> aMA + bMB = c

<=> a(Mi + lA)2 + b(Mi + IB)2 = C

<=> (a + b)Mi2 + 2Mi.(alA + bIB) + aIA2 + bIB2 = C 2

<=> MI2 = c(a + b) - abAB = d

(a + b)2

Neu d < ° thi khong t6n tai M. Neu d = ° thi M trung I.

Neu d > ° thi M thuoc dirong tron tam I ban kfnh Jd . 0

Dang 4. Cho doan thang AB va s6 thuc k > 0, k"t; 1 . TIm tap hop cac diem M

MA saocho MB = k.

Kef qud : T~p hop cac diem M sao cho ~~ = k (k > 0, k ;It 1) la mot dirong tron va dirong tron nay diroc goi la duong tron Apollonius (xem §8. Duong tron Apollonius).

26. Cho tam giac ABC c6 BC c6 dinh can dinh A thay d6i sao cho ' BAC = a khong d6i. Hay tim quy tfch trong tam G, tnrc tam H, tam dirong tron noi tiep I cua tam giac ABC khi A thay d6i.

27. Cho hlnh vuong ABCD. M la mot diem thay d6i tren BC. N6i AM, DM dt DC, AB nrong trng tai P va Q. N6i BP, CQ dtt nhau tai K. TIm quy tfch diem K khi M di chuyen tren BC.

28. Hai dirong tron tam 0 va O' cat nhau tai hai diem A va B. Mot cat tuyen thay d6i qua A cat dirong tron tam 0 tai diem E va cat dirong tron tam 0' tai diem F. Hai dirong th~ng OE va O'F dt nhau tai diem M. TIm tap hop cac diem M.

29. Cho mot g6c nhon Oxy va mot diem M nam trong g6c ay. Til M ta ke cac dirong vuong g6c MH xuongcanh Ox va MK xu6ng canh Oy. TIm tap-hop cac diemM thoa man dieu kien MH + MK = I, trong d6/la mot d¢ dai cho tnroc,

336

337

§12. MQT 56 BAI ToAN DlING HiNH BANG THVac vA COMPA

Trong hlnh h9C, dung hlnh la mot van d6 quan trong, Bai toan dung hlnh cling giup cluing ta phat trien.diroc nhieu ki nang, h6 tro cho cac bai toan chtmg minh, quy tfch va tfnh toano Nhirng hien nay dung hinh rat It duoc cac giao vien va h9C sinh quan tam, phan 100 cac em h9C sinh chi lam cac bai toan chirng minh, tfnh toan, tim quy tfch. Danh rang d6i voi nhiing bai toan clnrng minh thl khong can ve hlnh that chfnh xac nhirng doi khi gap phai nhiing bai toan nhat thiet phai ve chfnh xac thlhau het nhai bo tay (chang han nhiing bai toan dao trong quy tfch, dung mot hlnh vuong co dien tfch bang dien tfch tam giac cho tnroc ... ).

Mot bai toan dung hlnh day du gam 4 biroc, do la

Phdn tich : Gia su bai toan da dung dU(_1C, ket n6i cac yeu t6 de suy ra each dung. Cach dung : Neu cac biroc dung hlnh thoa man yeu cdu cua bai toano

C FtUng minh : Chung minh tfnh dung dttn cua phep dung da neu ra.

Bien luan : Bien luan s6 nghiern cua bai toan, tim cac dieu kien de bai toan co nghiem.

Sau day la nhirng bai toan co ban ve dung hlnh bang hai cong C1,l thuoc thang va compa.

a) cac bai tom eo ban v~ dung hinh

1) Chia doi mot goc.

2) G~p doi mot goc,

3) D1.JIlg mot duong thang di qua mot diem cho tnroc va vuong goc voi mot duong th~ng cho tnroc.

4) D1.JIlg mot duong th~ng di qua mot diem cho tnroc va song song voi mot dirong thang cho tnroc.

5) Chia mot doan thang thanh n phan bang nhau.

6) D1.JIlg tam ciia mot dirong tron cho tnroc.

7) D1.JIlg tiep tuyen cua mot dirong tron tai diem nam tren duong tron.

8) D1.JIlg tiep tuyen cua mot dirong tron di qua mot diem nam ngoai dirong tron,

9) D1.JIlg cung chua g6c tren mot doan cho tnroc. 10) D1.JIlg tiep tuyen chung cua hai dirong tron,

11) Qua mot diem da cho dJ!I1g mot dirong tron tiep xuc vm hai dirong thang song song.

12) DJ!I1g mot dirong tron tiep xiic voi mot dirong tron da cho va mot dirong

thang a tai mot diem A cho tnroc. . \

13) DJ!I1g mot dirong tron tiep xiic voi mot dirong tron da cho tai mot diem da

. cho va mot dirong thang da cho. .

14) DJ!I1g mot dirong tron tiep xuc vm hai dirong tron da cho, d6i vm mot trong hai dirong tron d6 thi tiep xuc tai mot diem dll cho.

15) DJ!I1g mot dieri1 chia mot doan thang cho tnroc thea mot ti s6 cho tnroc. b) M9t s6 bat t~p dung hinh co ban

1) Cho tnroc doan thang c6 dO dai 1. Hay dJ!I1g cac doan thang c6 d¢ dai

i) 2 ii) ~ iii) .~ iv) .J5 v) :(/5.

HUOng ddn :

iii) Dung dinh If Thales.

. iv) Dung dinh If Pythagoras.

v) Dung tfnh chat cua tam giac vuong : Tam giac ABC vuong tai A c6 dirong cao AH thi AH2 = BH.CH.

2) DJ!I1g tam giac ABC biet a, b va me

HUOng ddn : Gia Slt dJ!I1g diroc tam giac ABC. N6i dai trung tuyen CP mot doan PC' = CP thi duoc tam giac CAC' c6 CA = b, AC' = a va CC' = 2me

3) DJ!I1g tam giac ABC biet b, a + c va C.

Huangddn : Gia Slt tam giac ABC da dJ!I1g dtroc. N6i dai CB ve phfa B toi diem D sao cho BD = BA. Khi d6 tam giac ACD c6 g6c C da cho, AC = b va CD = a + c nen hoan toan xac dinh. Dinh B la dinh cua tam giac can BDA, do d6 la giao diem cua trung true doan AD voi CD.

4) DJ!I1g tam giac ABC biet ma, mb' me

Huang ddn : Gia sir tam giac ABC da dJ!I1g xong. Trung tuyen AM, BN, CP

cat nhau tai G. GQi D la trung diem cuaAG thl tam giac GDN c6 GD = ~a,

GN = ~b va DN = ~c hoan toan xac dinh, Tir d6 tiep tuc xac dinh A, B va C.

338

,

5) Dung tam giac ABC biet s; hb' he. Huang dan: Sir dung aha = blu, = ch; = 2S.

BAIT~

30. Dung mot tam giac biet canh day a, goc a dinh A va diem D la giao diem cua canh day voiphan giac cua goc trong a dinh A.

31. Qua diem A, hay dung mot dirong tron ban kfnh R sao. cho tiep tuyen ur mot .

diem B cho tnroc toi no co dQ dai cho tnroc.

32. Dung mot hinh blnh hanh biet mot canh va hai chieu cao.

33. Dung mot hinh binh hanh biet day, chieu cao va goc giira hai dirong cheo.

34. Dung mot tam giac biet day, goc d6i dien va chieu cao thuoc mot canh ben nao do.

35. Dung mot tam giac biet a, A va rna.

36. Dung mot tam giac co chu vi 2p, goc A va chieu cao ha.

37. Dung mot tam giac biet goc B, goc C va trung tuyen rna.

38. Dung mot tam giac biet goc A, hb va rna-

39. Dung mot tam giac biet day a, goc A va trung tuyen mb.

40. Dung mot tam giac biet goc A, day a va ban kfnh r cua dirong tron noi tiep.

41. Dung mot tam giac biet cac ban kinh R, r va mot goc cua tam giac.

42. Trong mot dirong tron da cho, dung mot day sao cho no diroc nhin tir ba diem . da cho duoi nhfrng goc bang nhau.

43. Trong mot dirong tron da cho, noi tiep mot hinh chir nhat sao cho hai canh cua no di qua hai diem da cho.

44. Trong mot dirong tron da cho, noi tiep mot tam giac vuong biet mot goc nhon va mot diem rna mot trong cac canh goc vuong di qua.

45. Trong mot duong tron da cho, noi tiep mot tam giac co mot goc da biet sao cho hai canh cua no di qua hai diem da cho.

46. Cho mot diem a trong dirong tron. Dung qua diem do mot day sao cho hieu cac doan thang diroc chia boi diem do bang mot dQ dai cho tnroc.

339

340

47. Dl!I1g mot hinh binh hanh sao cho hai dinh lien tiep a tai hai diem da cho va hai dinh khac nam tren mot dirong tron da cho.

48. Qua hai di6m cho tnroc tren mot dirong tron, dung hai day song song sao cho t6ng cua chung bang mot doan thang da cho.

49. Dl!I1g mot hlnh binh hanh co d¢ dai duong cheo da cho va co cung dien tfch voi mot tu giac da cho.

50. Dl!I1g mot hlnh chir nhat co d¢ dai dirong cheo da cho va co cung dien tich voi

mot tam giac da cho.

51. Dl!I1g mot tam giac biet a, ha va b2 +c2•

52. Dl!I1g mot tam giac biet a, ha va b2 - c2.

53. Dl!I1g mot tam giac bier a, A va b2 - c2.

54. Dl!I1g mot tam giac biet a, A va ti s6 hai canh b'va c.

55. Dl!I1g mot tam giac biet a, ha va ti s6 hai canh b va c.

56. Dl!I1g mot tam giac ABC biet phan giac BD va cacdoan th!ng AD, DC rna no chia canh d6i dien.

57. Dl!I1g mot tam giac biet day va cac giao diem cua day voi phan giac va dirong cao.

58. Dl!I1g tam giac ABC bier a, b, rna'

59. Dl!I1g tam giac ABC bier B, a + b. C.

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