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Giai Phuong Trinh Bac 3

Giai Phuong Trinh Bac 3

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Published by: nguyenngocdiem1995 on Jul 28, 2010
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04/12/2014

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Giaûi Phöông trình baäc 3:[ct]ax^3+bx^2+cx+d=0[/ct] (1

Phöông !ha"!#
1d$%ng a&n !h$':
a(a)t x=x*
a
b
3
+ta c,": (1

¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− ·
· + +
a
b
X x
q p X X
3
0
3
(2
-ô"i !=
2
3
2
b ac −
# .=
2
2 3
27
27 9 2
a
d a abc b + −
b(a)t /=$+-+ tha0 -a%, (2 -a% ch,'n 1a, ch,:
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− · +
− ·
q v u
p
u v
3 3
3


¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− · +
− ·
q v u
p
v u
3 3
3
3 3
2 7
2$0 ra $
3
-a% -
3
3a% nghi4ä5 c$ûa !höông trình: 0
2
+.0*
27
3
p
=0
(3
6i4ät 1,7 :
27 27
27 4
2 3
1

·
+
· ∆
q p
8ô"i
2 3
27 4 q p + · ∆
0 0
1
≥ ∆ ⇔ ≥ ∆
: (3 c," 2 nghi4ä5 thö'c:
0
1
=
2
1
∆ + −q
# 0
2
=
2
1
∆ − −q
9a ch,'n $
3
=0
1

$=
3
1
2
∆ + −q
# -
3
=0
2

-=
3
1
2
∆ − −q
:, ;," ta c," 1 nghi4ä5 c$ûa (23a% /
1
=
3
1
2
∆ + −q
+
3
1
2
∆ − −q

(<
(< 3a% c,=ng thö"c >ardan?
@hi giaûi !höông trình baäc 3 : /
3
+!/+.=0+ca"c ba'n c," th4&
a"! d$'ng c,=ng thö"c >ardan ;4& xa"c ;Anh 5,ät nghi4ä5
thö'c c$ûa !höông trình?
(a)t /*/
1
3a%5 thö%a 1,7 ch$ng+ ta c," : (2

(/*/
1

(/
2
+5/+n=0
9a 1$0 ra ca"c nghi4ä5 c$ûa (2?
Giaû 1öû (2 c," 3 nghi4ä5 3a% /
1+
/
2
+/
3

(1 c," 3 nghi4ä5
3a%:
?x
1
=/
1
*
a
b
3
# x
2
=/
2
*
a
b
3
#x
3
=/
3
*
a
b
3
9BCD 9EF9
Giaûi !höông trình : ax
3
+bx
2
+cx+d=0+a≠ 0
(a)t x=/*
a
b
3
(1

/
3
+!/+.=0 (2
Gaä! ∆=H!
3
+2I.
2
< ∆J0 : (2 c," 1 nghi4ä5 thö'c d$0 nha7t :
/
1
=$+-

nghi4ä5 c$ûa (1
< ∆=0 : (2 c," 1 nghi4ä5 K4"! -a% 1 nghi4ä5 ;ôn?
/
1
=2
3
3
p −
# /
2
=/
3
= *
3
3
p −


ca"c nghi4ä5 c$ûa (1
<
) 2 ( : 0 < ∆
c," 3 nghi4ä5 !ha=n bi4ät th$,äc 1
]
1

¸

− −

3
2 ;
3
2
p p
(
0 0 < ⇒ < ∆ p

9a ;a)t != * 3t
2
+ -ô"i tJ0?

/
1
+/
2
+/
3

[ ] t t 2 ; 2 −

(<
:$%ng !! 3öô'ng gia"c :tö% (< ta ;a)t :/=2tc,1
ϕ
+ -ô"i 0
π ϕ ≤ ≤
9ha0 -a%, (2 ta c," (2tc,1
ϕ

3
+!?2tc,1
ϕ
+.=0
3
3 3 3 3 3
2
3 cos ) cos 3 cos 4 ( 2 cos 6 cos 8
t
q
q t q t t − · ⇔ − · − ⇔ − · − ⇔ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ
>h,'n g,"c
α
1a, ch, c,1
α
= *
3
2t
q
-ô"i
π α ≤ ≤ 0
2$0 ra c,13
α ϕ cos ·
3
2
3
, 2 3
π α
ϕ π α ϕ k Z k k + t · ⇔ ∈ + t · ⇔
:,
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − ·
+ ·
·
≤ ≤
3
2
3
3
2
3
3
: , 0
3
2
1
π α
ϕ
π α
ϕ
α
ϕ
π ϕ t a c o
2$0 ra nghi4ä5 c$ûa (2:
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
·
·
3 3
2 2
1 1
c o s 2
c o s 2
c o s 2
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
t X
t X
t X
8aä0 nghi4ä5 c$ûa(1:x=/
i
*
a
b
3
+ i=1+2+3
E"! d$'ng :
Giaûi !höông trình :x
3
*Lx+H=0 (1
Phöông trình c," da'ng :/
3
+!/+.=0 c," ∆=H!
3
+2I.
2
= *
H32M0
(a)t != * 3t
2
+-ô"i t J0

t= 2
(a)t x=2tc,1
ϕ
=2
π ϕ ϕ ≤ ≤ 0 , cos 2 voi
(1

1L
4 cos 2 12 cos 2
3
− · − ϕ ϕ
) (
3
2
4
2
4
3
3
2
1
3 cos 1 3 cos 2
Z k k k ∈ + t · ⇔ + t · ⇔
− · ⇔ − · ⇔
π π
ϕ π
π
ϕ
ϕ ϕ
9a ch,'n:
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
· − ·
· + ·
·
1 2
5
4 3
2
1 2
1 1
3
2
4
4
3
2
1
π π π
ϕ
π π π
ϕ
π
ϕ
:, ;," nghi4ä5 c$ûa (1 3a%:
<x
1
=
2
4
cos 2 2 cos 2
1
· ·
π
ϕ t
1 3
12
5
cos 2 2 cos 2 *
) 1 3 (
12
11
cos 2 2 cos 2 *
3 3
2 2
− · · ·
+ − · · ·
π
ϕ
π
ϕ
t x
t x
(a=0 3a% !! giaûi ch$ng ch, !t baäc 3 ta7t nhi4=n c,%n nhi4N$
ca"ch giaûi Kha"c ngaOn g,'n hôn?

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