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Objective: To use derivative in solving rate of change problems.
1 2 r θ where 2
The area of a sector in a circle is given by the formula A = the radius and θ is the central angle measured in radians.
a. Find the rate of change of A with respect to θ if r remains constant. b. Find the rate of change of A with respect to r if θ remains constant. c. Find the rate of change of θ with respect to r if A remains constant. 2. As air is pumped into a spherical balloon, the radius increases at the constant rate of 2 centimeters per second. What is the rate of change of the balloon’s volume when the radius is 10 centimeters? (The volume V of a sphere of radius 3.
4 π 3 .) r 3
An equilateral triangle of side length
x and altitude
h has area A given by
3 2 2 3 x where x = h. 4 3
Find the rate of change of A with respect to h and determine this rate of change when h = 2 3 . 4. An object moves along the x-axis, its position at each time t ≥ 0 is given by x(t ) = t 4 − 4t 3 + 4t 2 + 2 . Determine the times, if any, at which a. the velocity is zero, b. the acceleration is zero. 5. If a stone is thrown vertically upward from the surface of the moon with a velocity of 10 m/s, its height (in meters) after t seconds is h = 10 t − 0.83t 2 . a. What is the velocity of the stone after 3 s? b. What is the velocity of the stone after it has risen 25 m? Find equations for the lines that are tangent and normal to the curve x 3 y 3 + y 2 = x + y at the points (1,1) and (1,-1). Find equations for the lines that are tangent and normal to the curve f ( x ) = sin 2 x 1 + x 2 at the points (0,0).
1 FAM 0035 January 2010
Worksheet 5 – Rate of Change 201 0
8. 9. 10. Find equation for all tangents to the curve y = x 3 − x that passes through the point (-2,2). Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve ( xy 3 + y ) 2 = 4 x at the point (1,1). Given the curve x 2 y + 3x 2 y 3 = 4 a. Find
dy . dx
b. Find the equation of the normal line at the point (-1, 1). 11. The position of an object is given by the function s (t ) = 36 t − t 3 , for
0 ≤ t ≤10 ,
where s (t ) is measured in meters and t
is measured in
seconds. a. Find the acceleration when the velocity is zero. b. What does negative acceleration mean? c. Find the instantaneous velocity of the object when t = 5 seconds. 12. A particle moves on a vertical line so that its coordinate at time t is y = t 3 −12 t + 3, t ≥ 0. a. b. c. d. 13. Find the velocity and acceleration functions. When the particle moving upward and when is it moving downward? Find the distance that the particle travel in the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 3. When is the particle speeding up? When is it slowing down?
After an advertising campaign, the sales of a product often increase and then decrease. Suppose that t days after the end of the advertising, the daily sales are f (t ) = −3t 2 + 32 t +100 units. What is the average rate of growth in sales during the fourth day? What is the instantaneous rate of growth in sales when
t = 2?
A helicopter is rising at a rate of 32 feet per second. At the height of 128 feet the pilot drops a pair of binoculars. After t seconds, the binoculars have height s (t ) = −16 t 2 + 32 t +128 feet from the ground. How fast will they be falling when they hit the ground?
2 FAM 0035 January 2010