Sei sulla pagina 1di 190

CENTRE OF aARCHAF;.

0LOGY - PUBLICATIONS 2

YTE
ACTA ARCHAEOLOGICA Vol. 76;1, 2005
ACTA ARCHAEOLOGICA SUPPLEMENTA VI
CENTRE OF WORllJ ARCHAEOLOCr (CWA) - PUBUCATIONS 2

"
LIGA
COPPER AGE STRATEGIES IN BULGARIA

Fieldwork carried out under the Auspecies qf


Vends/av Gergov, Ttlish Museum & Klavs Randsborg, Universiry of Copenhagen
Edited by Klavs Randsborg

INGA MERKYTE
with contributions by
S0REN ALBEK,JESPER S0RENSEN 0STERGAARD & PETAR ZLDAROV
supported by
Maya Dimjtrova, Rumen Peykov & fieldworkers

K@BENHAVN
BLACKWELL MUNKSGAARD

2005
PE3IOME HA E1>JIfAPCKII E3lIK/
SUMMARY IN BULGARIAN
KbCHOX3J1KOJIIITHOTO CCJIlIll.IC B MCCTHOCTTa JI'bra Koi;1'O e pa3I10JlO)KeHO cemnU;CTO B MeCTHOCTTa
cc H3MIlpa Ha OKOJIO 1 Km ccacpHO 01' c. TemulJ, fl'bra e orpaHIi'lCH 01' cCBep 11 tOr 01' AcpeTaTa Ha
051l.111H3 4epBCH 6pSlr, nnCBCHCK3 05J1aCT (ctmr. ce30HHli nOTOU;lt, a B nO,llHO)KlleTO My npOTH'1a
1.1). Ha 1.2 Km IOIKHO 01' Hero e pa3nOJlO)f(CH ,ll,pyr MaJlKa peKa (1'. Hap. Gapa), KOSlTO cera 3axpaHBa
aGeKT 01' C'bU~1l.S1 nepHOJl:, J13BCCTCH K3TO TClIIIW· cltCTeMa 01' TpU .sI30Bllpa, 1i3BCCTHU KaTO S130BllP
Pe~:WrJITe. B Hero ca npC,ll,CTaBCHH TplJ CTpOltTCJI- rOplllt .abOHUK. Pa3KOllKHTe Ha ceJUllUeTO ca pa3-
HII XOpH30HTa 01' XaIlKOJnITa 11 eA"" 01' T. Hap. 275 m 2• Ge3 Jl;a ce
nOJlO)KCHlI Ha OOl1.1:a nJlOll.\ 01'
"npeXOj1CH" nepuoll, MCIKIl.Y K3MCHHO-MC,ll,H3T3 " BKJIK)lIBaT np06HltTe TpaHweu. )J,"bJ100'{lIl1aTa Ha
paHHo6pOH30Ban enoxu. H3CJ1CJl:OBaTCJlCKaTa COH./l:a)Klfl'e Baplfpa MC)f{Jl:y 0,5-1.2 m, C"b06pa3Ho
CTpaTernSl "pI! 3anO'(BaHCTO 113 npOY'lB3HJHIT3 B CTpaTcrHSlTa Ha npoytiBaHe ca nOJ1GpaHII onpcnc-
Jlbra AD rOJl5lMa CTcnCH 6ewe npenonpc.o;CJICHa 01' J1CHH apCaJlII, B KOItTO apxeonOrW-leCKII.sIT KOH-
PC3YJlT3TIITC 01' pa3KOllKlfTC Ha CCJJIIIl.ICTO B TeKCT e 1f3CJ1eJ.l:BaH I.I.SIJlOCTHO 11 B J1CTaHlI, YCTaHO'
Pcn:yntTc, nonbJJHeH~l c AaAH" 01' 05CKTUTC Cano- BII ce, 'IC MSlCTOTO e 06HTaBaHO HCKOJlKOKpaTHO.
BCI..I-rOJlCMaHOBO KaJIC " nltI1pa. TC3n llaHHII Hai't-paHHOTO CCJ]lHu;e, HapC'IeHO fl"bra 1, JtaTUpa
nopOJJ:Hxa O'13KB3HCTO, 'le ~fOraT Aa nOCJTY)l(3T OT lIa'{a1l0TO Ha K'bCHlISI XaJlKOJlllT. CJlC.D;H 01' Hero
K3TO AOCT3T"'b"IHO ,ll,06pa OCHOB3 33 1f3rpa)f(A3HCTO ca lIaMcpCHlI caMO B OTACJlIIIl 'l"aCTH 01' pa3KonaHa-
Ha MO.n;CJl 3a pa3Blt1'IICTO Ha nOCenmUH.I1R )KIIB01' B Ta IIJlOll.{. B 1O:>KHIfSl Kpaft Ha oGcKTa ca pCrlfcrpnp-
flora, 110 KoeTO C Oll.{C no-sa)KIIO H 3a npocne,lVI- aHIf OCTaHK" 01' CJ.l:Ha crpaAa, OTHaC.sltUa ce KoM
saHeTO Ha .n;BlDKeHUCTO Ha xopa It IUl:CIf B pcrnOHa. nbpBn XOpIl30HT. TSl e IIMaJla MaCIlBHa ./l:"bpBeHa
D;ocera "poy'lBaHIISlTa lIa npaUCTOplf'lCCKIf CCJlM- KOHCTPYKUf1.s111 CTeHII OT IIJlCT. J],"bJDKIlHaT3 (I e 7.6
2
uta B 3anMHa 6'b!lfapuSI ca OnltCBamf npelJ,UMHO rn, 3 >KlIJ1IUl.{HaTa nJlOlll 06xnall.{a 39-40 m .
U30mtpaHJI SlBJlCHlISI, KopenupaHIl f1laBHO Ha 6a3- OpucHTlIpaHa c CCBCp-lOf. B tOrOU3TOtiHlISI 'br'bJl
aTa Ha pa3ml'IHM nmOBe HaxOAKH. MUKpO' oewe OTKpl1Ta '1aCT 01' K3MeHHa HaCTllnKa, Hanpa·
perUOH"bT Ha C. TeJUtm npe./l:Jlara e,llHa KopeHHO BeHa 01' Aoope copn1pall <I3KbJl, C'b./l:bp>Kal.U
pa3JUI'lHa clITyaUItSl, npcnasal.l.la 1l0-USlJlOCTHa HC- IIS1Cb'l"HltK If Kaq,}IB KPCM"bK CbC cncllU 01' BOJl;Cn
TOplftlCCKa KapTltHa, cpaBHIfMa C n03HaTaTa 01' TpaHClIopT (epl1r. 11.5). KCpaMII'lHll'I'C C'b.lJ,OBe OT
Bne'laTJl5lBaUlltTe CCJlIfI.l.lHIf MOrlfJlII B lO)KHa )Kllnltll.leTO IIMaT T"bMHa 113Jl"bCK3Ha nOB"bpXHOCT.
D"bJ1raplfSl. B Ta31f CBeTJUHia nOH5lTIISI KaTO HSlKOH 01' TSlX ca yKpaccHII C rpaepllTHa YKpaca,
npOCTpaHCTBeHa opraHlI3auuSI, npOMeHII B KaKTO It C 'I~PBCH umf )K"bJIT nnrMeHT (Ta6no 6:1·
nJlaHlfpOBKaTa Ha ceJUflu;aTa 11 CTpOMTeJlHIITe Tex- 7), <lpe3 KOCTO BHj:J:IIMO cc OTKpoSlBaT 01' npej:UtMHO
H01TOflm, np0Jl:"bJT)KlfTeJlHOCTTa Ha 06IiTaBaHC, CBeTJ1aTa MOHoxpoMHa KcpaMIIKa, xapaKTcpHa 3a
KaKTO II nplltilfHllTC 3a HanycKaHcTO HM, 6uxa Mor- CJIe./l:Bal.l.laTa epa3a. He 6c HaMepcHo 3al1.0BOJlllTCJl-
.HI Jl:a 6bAaT nOCTaBeHli B eTlHa 1I0-UlltpOKa BpeMe- HO 06HCHCHUC 3a npWIIlHIITC 33 HanycKaHeTO Ha
sa u reorpaepcKa nepcneKTIlBa, pa3KpUSal.l.la Jl:1t- cemllueTO fl"bra 1.
HaMIIKaTa lIa noceJUIU-l:HIUI )KHBOT 01' K"bCHaTa Ka- HOROTO CeJUfw:e ~ fl',ra 2 e OCHOBaHO OKOJlO
~tCHHO'MeAHa enoxa. 4400 r. "p. Xp. (K3JJ1l6p~lpaHIlJl;aTII). nO./l:paBHSlBa-
06eKTl,T B MCCTHOCTTa n"bfa cc Ha~Hlpa B KpaS! HeTO Ha TepCHa e IlPCllll3BUKaJlO ,lIon'bJlHIfTCJIHIf
Ha nmpoKO nJlaTO, BUCOKO 20 rn " pa3nonO)l(eHO HapyweHIfSl Ha J1eCTpYKI~ItIfTe 01' "PCAXOj:J:HaTa
Ha 195 m HaAMopCKa BlICOtillHa (epltr. 1.2 u 1.3). epa3a. ApxeOJlOrU'leCKIITC pa3KonKII 6S1xa C'bcpe-
06eKT'bT B MCCTHOCTTa Pe./l:YTlITe c pa3nonO)KeH Jl:OTO'leHJI rnaHHO B'bpXY MaTep"aJlHliTC OCTaHKJI
B"bpXY C"bll.{OTO "1IaTO, Ha tOf03anaA 11 ceBepOlt3- 01' TOBa ceJllll.l.lc. Han"bllHO ca npoy'leHII Tpll )KIlJJ-
TOK nJlaTOTO HMa B"bJIHHCT PC1Icep. HOC'bT. Ha Hll.la. TSlXIIOTO pa3n03HaBaHc ce OKa3a JleCHO, T'bH
8 Acta .-Jrchaeologica

KaTOToa3 cenllUlC e 3arllHanOOT nmKap Ii 'fepae"- IKIlJllllllaTa 6S1xa paJKpUTll ce,o:CM rpo6a. 8 CAllll-
aTa ropSlna M33Ul1K3 RellO OI.JCpT3S3we rpaHIfI~ltTe Il}lT,OT KOIITO 6S1xa HaMepcHH OCTallKU OT ,ll8a Jlll-
Ha CTpyKTypIlTC. B ceBcpHaT3 'laCT 113 p3JKO- ;:t1l811,lIa.
n3HIIH TepcH ca OTKplfTlI MlIoro6poiiHH nap\leT3 H3rne>K,[la pa3KOnaHlUIT apean nonana B
BapOBIIK. no,ttpCACHII B nonyKp"br 111111 oaaR. no- lIoKpaliHllHHTC Ha cenllllle OT PaHHaTa IipoH30Ba
;106H3 nOAPcJJ:6a Ha KaM"bHIfTC SlBIIO OI.JCpT3B3 oc- enoxa. paJllOOO>KCIlO nO-BJlCOKO Ha nnaTOTO. Her-
HOB liTe Ha HSlK3Ksa crp3Jt3, AOpU "PH JlllnCaT3 Ha OBIITe ,[leCTpYKI.VIll "IaCTU'-fHO 3aCThnBaT 1f3TO'lHa-
C.lean OT OnO;.KapeHa M33I1JIKa. Ta rp3HllLl,a Ha CCnlllllCl'O JI'bra 2, K3KTO Gc yCTaH-
Crpa.na I no rOORMa creneH npllnOKpUB3 ;.Klln"- 08eHO 'lpe3 onp06BaHIUI C p'b'lHa COHJJ:a. OT T03U
wero OT npcAlfWH3T3 4>333. K3TO cna50To OT- nepuo,[l ca OTKpllTII MHO>KCCTBO KepaMU'-IflJl <l>par-
1U10HCHIIC Ha 113TOK. Aopn nOBTapSl 0P"CHTaUlISrra MCJlTlI Ha nOB'hpXH0CTJ'3. a HaXO,ll;JGlTe OT e,ll;Ha
Ha no-palfH3T3 KOHCTpYKUIUI (Ta6Jlo 2). Pa3Mcp- Sl"Ma CDC CUrypHOCT ce OTHaCRT K"b~1 paHH06poH3G-
liTe it ca 6.50XS.70 ffi. a o6lfTacM3n nnollt 3aC~la BaT3 Kynrypa OpnSl"-Can08e1.1. npyra $1M3. npeCll'-l-
28.3 m2• Crp3A3 2 SCpoSlTHO ~1O)Ke n:a ce nplle~fe 33 3ma crpana 3. Cb.!t'bp>Ka xapaxrepHII CDp;OBC 33
CTaHnapTeH MOne.rt. Tbil KaTO "IaCTlI<fHO pa3KD- KynTypa 6acapa611 OT PaHHG->KeJlSl3HaTa enoxa.
nallOTO CbCC.llHO )I{UlIlIwe IfM3 non06Ha /l,"bJDKIIHa Ta311 S1Ma ce ,ll;aTUpa OKO,10 875r. np. Xp. OTKpuxa
(Ta6no I). B1>HWHJlTC pa3MCplf Ha crpa,Aa 2 ca cc 11 e.l1UHII"IHJlllaXO,llKII OT K"hCH3Ta 3IlTII"IHOCT.
7.4X6.0 m. a 061ITac~laT3 n!lom C 34.5 m 2. Crpana HaxO.llKI1Te. OTKPUTII npl! p33KOnKJlTC Ha fl"'hra
3 C 113It-.a.DJTra OT npoy'-lcHIlTe (Ta6no 1). HeuH3n ca n0,l{J10>KCIIII Ha penlllla cnellHanll31lpaHlf 113C-
,lfhJDKIlHa C 8.45 m. a WllpUHaTa B cpe.a.HaTa '-faCT e nC.llB3HUSI. 0poy"lBaHero Ha KepaMJlKaTa (rn. IV II
5.90 m. B"bTpCWHOTO npocrpaHCTBo 06xBauta V). 1l0Ka3Ba Jl3KJlJO'-IUTeJlHO pa311006pa311C npll
2
37.80 m . )KUJlIIIl.l3Ta ca 0pJICHTIfP3Htl ceRep-JOr. HCI"iHOro npoUJB0!1CT80 It nocra8S1" no,lI B'bnpoc
C 1l3IUUO'-fCHIIC Ha crpa.a.a J. npoY'-fBaHIUITa CO'-laT. CDl1.lCCTByaaLUaTa xpoHonOrllSl, Tb" "aTO Kcpa-
'IC BXOJl1.T C 6un pa3nonmKCH Ha K»)({HaTa crcHa, a MIl"lHII KOMnnCKCIf, Tpa.llllLl,UOHIlO CB"hpJ831l1l C
nCIl.lTa - Ha ccacpllaTa. p33nH'-IHJI c1Ja31l Ha KaMeHHO-MenHaTa cnoxa. 6S1xa
3ananllaTa 'lacr Ha CCJlIlIl\CTO HC e 3aCTpOCHa. OTKpll.sallll 3ae.llHO B e,[l1l08peMeHHO CDI.LI,CCT-
no BpcMe Ha <l>a3aT3 J11.ra 2, B CKJIOHoaCre Ila syRal1.l11 )f(llnlfU{a. H3Y'-laa3UCTo ua HaXO,lIKIlTe OT
Bb3BIlWCHlleTO e U3KonaH nJIItTbK poB C ,[tDJl60- "pCM'hK (rn. VII). nOKa38a e"cn110aTaLl,llSl'Ta Ha
'11IHa 0.8 m. 00 BCSlKa UCPOSlTIIOCT CDOPblKCHIICTO CypOBIIHII. npOll3XO>KJl.alllll KaKTO OT MCCTHII. T3K3
C TpSl6BaJIO na 3aTPYAHI1 JlBllIKCIl11CTO no CKJIOlla. 11 OT CpaBHIlTeJTIlO OT,ll;anC'lCHIt Haxo,o:llllla.
KOCTO BCpOHTIIO C cnYIKcno 3a 3al1.1IfTa Ha ,llOMaW- CblllOTO Ra>Kll 11 3a HCMano6pOlIHIlTe KaMCHHIl
2
IlIl )f01BOTHII, 3arpaACIIII Ha 500-550 m uc06l1Ta· Op'bAIUI. (rJT. VIIl). KOItTO lIJrJle>K,lIa ca 611nll cnlllO
llaHa TCpHTOplUf. 1..{pC3 onp06Banc C p'b'1I!1I COHAIl TOJIKOBa Ra>+<:1II1. KOJIKOTO TC31l OT KpCMbK 11 KOCT.
6c yCT3HOSCHO, 'le IKIIJIIlLLI,aTa OT JI'bra 2 ca 3ac- HaXO.llKl11'C 01' 06pa60TCHa KOCT (rn. IX). IlpCJl·
Manu TCpUTOpllSl OT 50 x 55 rn, KaTO 06Ll\aT3 un0ut CTaS}!.T Ll)l.n CllCKrbP 01' AeHHoCTlI, OTpa3S1salllll
Ha CCnlll1.lCTO, 3aCJ\HO C I13rOpCm1TC iKlIJIUutHII npIlJIO>+<:CHIlCTO Ha T03U MaTepf1aJT 3a ynoancT-
1900 m 2 (£Pur. 11.1).
!lCCTpyKLI,IlIl, C ,llOCTUrana BopSlBaHCTO, KaKTO Ila C>KC,llHCSHII HY>K1lll. TaKa If
CcnlllllcTo J1'bra 2C H30CTaBCHO CJIC!I nO>Kap. Ha .l1YXOBHII nOTpc6uOCTll. Oc06ello Ba>KHO 3a pa3-
C'bnOCTaBSlHCTO Ha naTIITC, llony'-lcHIl "IPC3 C-1411 OllpaHCTO Ha AIIHaMHK3Ta Ha ,[lpe8HOTO C1'O-
AMT u3cnCJ\BaHlISI OT Pe,llYTIITC U J1'bra "pe,llnon- naHCTBO C 1I3cnC;:tsaHCTO Ha >KIfSOTllHCKIlTe KOCTU
ara. '-IC CKOpO CJIe,ll HanyCKaHeTO Ha CCJJHLLI,eTO (rn. X). To [lOK338a. 'le pomlTa lIa OTrnC>KllaHCTO
J1"hra2 C nOCTpoellO HOBO CCJIlll1.lC Ha PcnynlTc - Ha Apc:6eH 11 Ha C,lI'bP paraT AOOUT'bK rlocrenellHo
PC.u.yrllTe 11. H3OCTaBSlHeTo Ha o6eKTa B MeCT- npepaCTBa OT nCliHOCTC BTopOCTcnCHHO 3Ha'-lCHUC
HQCTTa JI'bra C npo.ll'h.'I>KIIJIO no OKono 4000 r. np. 3a npCXpaHaTa, 11.0 0TPaCbJ1 C HanDJlHO ca~IOCTO}l­

Xp. npe3 Tona BpeMe K)>KHaTa My '-IaCT C TenHO 3Ha'ICIIIIC.


npCB'bpHaTa B HeKponon. HcnocpenCTBCHO no Translation Peror Zidarol'
I. INTRODUCTION
History ml!)' be a myth, but artifacts, which are historit:al looked" in terms of larger Copper Age research pro-
events, are /lOt. ThI(Y are signifiers, becomin.g myths as we
jects, the latter focusing on the classical tell areas.
interpret them with our words.
J.D. Prown 1996:26, rephrased. such as the Thracian plain or Northeastern Bulgaria.
Tells are few in NW Bulgaria and studies of temporal
change consequently less straightforward. The ma-
jority of settlement investigations in the region han'
THE PROJECT produced a mass of isolated phenomena, which can
The Liga-project originated in 1999, when the core only be grouped with the help of one or another par-
Danish archaeologists of the project from the Univer- ticular type of ceramic vessel. Therefore, a site for
sity of Copenhagen were guest students at Sofia's excavation was chosen in a particular sub-area, \\'hich
State University, Bulgaria. The supposed "Tran- perhaps has seen the most substantial research in :\.. ,'
sitional period", covering the gap between the Chal- Bulgaria. The idea was to piece all available e\idence
colithic period (or, rather, the Copper Age) and the together, focus on a highly detailed excavation, and
Bronze Age, was one of the issues then discussed. recreate the use of the landscape in the Copper .-\ge
Lack of finds and excavations, confusing C-14 dates, as chains of large and small movements of people.
etc. did not help in finding an answer to the problems. their ideas and actions.
For a scholar with Scandinavian background this
seemed to have an extra dimension, since the "Tran-
sitional period" in Bulgaria was also a transitional THE SITE
period in Danish prehistory - the transition from for- LOCATION: GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY
agers to farmers, indeed from Ertebolle to Tragtb<e- The archaeological site of Liga (Bulgarian for "Graz-
ger (TRB)/Funnel Beaker culture. Interaction with ing Fields", or pastures) is situated about one kilo-
Bulgarian archaeologists raised aspirations to seek metre north of the modern village of Telish in Cherv-
solutions by taking action. en Briag Municipality, Pleven County (Fig. 1.1 '. The
orthwestern Bulgaria (together \-vith the Rhodop- first major archaeological investigation in the area
eSi is considered to be the part of Bulgaria where was undertaken at the nearby Late Copper Age settle-
Copper Age culture survived the longest. Ironically, it ment ofRedutite ("Redoubts" - the Turkish army de-
is also the part of the country that has been "over- fending the area in 1877), on the eastern fringes of
Telish. The Turks constructed a lunette at Redutite.
which was at first acknowledged as an archaeological
site during attempts to reconstruct the bastion in 1976
(Neikov 2001). V. Gergov, then of Pleven Regional
Historical Museum, started the excavations in RedUl-
ite in 1977. In 1979, he undertook several trench-
surveys in the area. The aim was primarily to gather
information for the Archaeological Map of Bulgaria.
As a result, he found rich graphite-painted pottery at
Liga, 1.2 km north of Redutite, indicating the pres-
ence of yet another Late Copper Age settlement.
The site of Liga is situated at the edge of a broad
plateau, 20 m high and 195 m above sea level (Fig,
1.2 & 1.3). The Redutite site is located on the same
plateau. Towards southwest and northeast the plateau
Fig. 1.1. Geographical position of Telish in Bulgaria. has a wavy appearance. The hillock chosen for the
10 Acta ArchaeoLogica

Fi~. 1.3. u~ ~ilt. \ic" from Ill<' :\onh.


Liga II

Uga seu!cment is delimited by ravines Il1 the south chernozems prevail. These have good waleI' retention
and north, which were created during seasonal runoff and humus contents ranging between 3.00 and
or water. This process is still ongoing and has made 3.55%; they are basically considered highly fertile so·
a negative, though limited, impact 011 the preser· ils (Neikov 200 I). The leached form of chernozcms
\"alion of the archaeological remains al the slopes. was mOSl likely also easily accessible with prehislOric
The topography of the whole region is characterized ploughing techniques.
by a series of plateaus, generated by tectonic block The immediate vicinity of the Lig-d site is character-
fractures (Hansen 2000). These are usually running ised by twO types of soils. The site itself is silllated on
from East to 'Vest, determining the dynamics of the an area of the forest soils, which arc considered tOO
diStribution of settlement. The North-South orien- heavy to lill with prehistoric technology (Denndl &
tation of the regional liver Aows is also making an ''''ebley 1975). It can be assumed that this area would
impact on settlemem patterns. The edges of the pla- have supported forest vegetation and been used for
teaus have been favoured by selllers throughout pre- browsing and acquisition of winter fodder (Denndl &
h.istory, especially during the Late Copper Age. Webley 1975). The soils to the West of the site, across
.-\t lhe fOOl of the sile there used to be stream. the stream, had a higher sand component and \\"I::re
However, from 1960---.1963 onwards, with the cre- superbly suited for prehistoric crop cultivation.
ation of a local irrigation sy~tem, the water of Ihe
~tream is collected behind three dams in what is
knoll"ll as the Lake of Gorni Dabnik (Neikov 2001). CU:\t,\TE.
Topographic features indicate that the stream was The climate ill Bulgaria is shaped by two a(ljaccllt
nllming towards the north and was pan of the catch· major water basins - the Black Sea and the ~It'ditf'r­
me-lli area of the ViI. Rivers Vit and Iskar are the two ranean Sea - and, by the ranges of mountains. Il"hi,h
major tributaries of the Danube in the region; they direct or block the movement of ail' masses. Thl'
,H\' also framing the archaeological sites at Telish. Black Sea and especially the :'vlediterranean SC(\ ha\·e
Tht' distance to the rivers is about 8 km. River lskar great water heat accumulation capacites (Issar 2003 .
.1.1$0 distinguishes itself by being a major access route This enables [he basins to act as temperature regtl·
through the Balkan Range. It is runnning in deeply lators of the overall region (Issar 2003). Telisb bt:IOIl(!'
CUI \'alleys fanning gorges, which even today are onc to the Danubian billy plain, which encompa"t"'
.:.1' the few transport corridors of the North-South a.xis. heights between 30 and 200 m above sea In·el. btll i,
TIlt' area of Tclish is also rich in subsurface springs. cm off from these favourable effecls by the range of
.-\.n 8-10 m thick layer of clay, grey in colour, is the Balkan Mountains. Compared \l"ith other H'~()Il'
:nlling up the upper part of Ihe plateau at Tclish. in Bulgaria, the Danubian hilly plain is the coolt"!
Tht' seasonal erosion of the slopes at the riverbed one, open to chilly Continental winds/air ~tn-a1l1'
~J.ldc access to thcse clay deposits readily available. from NOlth and Northeast (Dimitro\· 1979 .
The remains of an old bridge, ca. I.') m long, dis- The lowest winter temperatures are reaching lllil1l1'
.:·)n.'red some 30 m sOUlh of the settlement, indicate 3O-35°C, the mean temperature in January beinc
tilt' ~ite of a wedge. All this is suggesting that access around minus 1° (GHCN). By contrast. summer tcm-
:.:. ti'eslm-ater and clay, the main building materials, peratttres are the highesl in the cuuntry. Due to thl'"'
:'~~'Iher with an easy route across the stream were low altitude, spring is coming early (0 the region ill
.::itical in cboosing the exact' scttlemellt site. mid-i\'larch the lemperatun: of the soil is more th.1ll
Tilt' present \'miety of soil types in the surround- 5°C 5-10 cm below surface, and by tht' 10th !It"
:::?, 01 Telish is also encompassing small patches of April - above 10°C) (Dimitl'O\' 1979)..·\utumn i~ "I,.,
.lJUlial ~oils. moderately to intcnsely leached cherno· arriving at the same extended pace.
zc:n- charaCteristic of lower altitudes), dark brown In lerms of winds, the \illagers of Tdish are nutic-
?,="t'~ 10 grey forest soils (characteristic of higher alti- ing that I\~nd direclions are aflecting the dilllatf': tilt;'
r.Jd,;~. i.t;' .. the phucaus) and, occasionally, islands of population has e\"Cn neated a loeill etymology 1(1 de-
c";~,ld~>d loess :\"'eikm' 2001). i\loderately It:ached scribe the cold western \\'ind and the I,'arm somht'l"ll
12 Acta Archaeologica

onc ,:Neikov ~won. In \villlertimc, western \vinds pre- in a chain of events thal caused the termination or
vail. In the summer, winds arc mostly blowing From the Copper Age culture.
the 'Vest or the ~()Ilh. The etTcct of the ""inds is more
extreme on the plateau \Vhel'e the archaeological sites
are situated than in the modern village, lying in the THE COPPER .AGE AN]) ITS GCLTURAI.
depressed plain. AFFILTATIOl\'S
Indeed, plotting temperallllT data collected during Lse of the term "Chakolithic" !:rathcr than "i\eneo1-
tlw period 1951 1990 (GHCN:, it can be demoll- it hie" or "Copper Age \\'hen describing roughly the
strated that the regions of PleVf'l1 and Vrac-.t with time-span l.wtwf'en SOOO and 4000 HC, has become
the largest concentmtion of sites of the Krivodol-Sal- common in Bulgarian writings. Still, the term "Cop-
cuta-Bubanj Hum la culture, to which Liga belongs- per Age" seems a slightly more handy onc and will
arc making up Cl veritable "depression of cold" in the be used here, \vhile the notion ofChalcolithic culLures
winter. The fCf:..r iOIlS have the 100\'('sl mean January is also accepted - semantics none\,vithstanding.
temperatures in the coulllry l:001y 100vL-lnds were con- In a publication of 1948 byJ.H. Galll, \,vrittrn aher
sidered, belmv 400 III in altitude,:, namely -O.9°C his research in the Balkans, mainly Bulgaria, in 1938-
and -1.0°C, respeuivdy. The situation onlv im- 1939 (and published after his death in 194;"), when
proves South ofS()£ia and East of Ruse/Osam, where shot by Germans as a prisoller of W,u\ this author
tlu: meanJanuary tf'mperarures are abovf' freezing. argues in favour of llSf' of the term "Chalcolithic" as
To what extent tbis inlormation can be lranstCrred opposed to "Late NeoIithic" :'(';'aul HHR, 79). Gaul
10 the Copper Age is too early to say. The pattern \vas was basing his arguments on the presence or natural
perhaps similar, but tlw dleCls of generally \varmer copper in l3ulgaria and on Ihe plf'lltiful copper im-
climatic ("(llldilions - peaking during the climatic ()pti- plements in the Gumelnita culture :or '"Bulgarian
mum around 3800 BC might have made the diller- IVlound CultUI1:":'. During the late 194o.~, knowledge
ences less perceptible :e.g., in terms of h'TaLing poten- of sites which later became attributed to the western
tial during \Iinknime:. Krivodol culture was still limited. Caul was men-
.\Iore dramatic to Copper .ARe peoples were the tioning Okol Glava, northwest of llie village of Cnily-
('(lllsequcnces of the Black Sea transgression:Todoro- ane and finds !i'om the caves of :\lorovica and De-
va 19391. By the end of the Copper Age ,:Phase Vama vetaki ,:l)evctashkata:'. At the time, material from
Ill" the level orthe Black Sea was lower than at pres- these sites was treated as being pan ofthe "Bulgarian
ent. H. Todorova's excavations in Durankulak at the f\fonnd CuIture", but intuitively Gaul had f-,'Touped
Bulgarian coast have thus demonstrated that the the repn:sentative finds in the same plate ,PlaLe
'I'ater level there \vas 1 In lower than todav. Further LXIV) of the publication. Staying in the Balkans, he
to lhe south, at SOLopol and Ropotamo, still on the also became acquainted with finds £i'om Bubanj,
coast, water tables \\'ere between :3 and ::> meters stored at the museum in Ni<; and prO\iding him \vith
100vrr than loday I'odorova 199R:. Sueh differences an opportunity to establish parallels between Okol
'ITn:, supposedl')', rdated to tectonic movements Clava and Hubanj :Caul 1948. 108\ Tlw author
caused by rapid IlleiLing of the Arctic iee ITodorova riglid') concluded that "the interrelations of our
19~1Ir:. I\lound Culture r=Gumelnita] are swiftly observable
According to H. Todorova, the highest water table on the one hand, and on the olher, seem to lllCrg(,
compared to the present one is dated to the cnd of into as yet unsatisE:i.CLorily defined pt:ripheraJ eOlll-
.'ith millennium BC and Ialer, reaching a maximum plexes" (Caul 1948, lOj\.
around 3500 HC'. Gradual climatic warming tram- Knowledge about lhe late Copper Age started to
[armed the favourable conditions, expetienced by the aceumulatc rapidly during the pos!-\var period. The
early agricultural communities in the Balkans, into developmellt was paralleled in Romania, Bulgaria
cmironmental ddtTioraLion by drought~ and flood- and Serbia. The eponymic site of Krivodol was partly
ings of the fertile plains :Todorova 1998:,. Thus, excavated in 194G bv V. l'vlikov :'.\1ikov 19-181. Ht,
changing climate is seen as the first "Domino piece" recognised the presence of a Late Roman f()rtress
liga 13

(hence the local name of the sile: "Tepeto" or "Kale- ~Iedieval


times. Two shallow moats, ca. 1.0 III and
lO") on lap of thick debris fonned during the Copper 1.2 m deep, were dug across lhe weslern land bridl!l"
Age. The landscape at Krivodol is indeed dramatic. during scuJemem phase JIb.
TIle steep hill \,'here the sile is located is practically In Serbia, dose ro Ni~, ),1. CaraSanin staned ~~_.
unapproachable from three sUlTOunding sides. The tematic exca\'ations of Bubanj aftel" earlier treil,h -Ut'-
only access is across a northern land bridge. At the veys by A. O~ic-Sla\'etic in 1934 (Cartclanin 193-;
fOOl, River Botullya is running. Concerned with the The excavatioilS COlllinued from 1954 to 1958 Car.l-
management of loos<: soils, Miko\' chose to put his ~nin 1957, 1976). The site is situated on a protrtldill:l
excavation trenches in the western periphcI)' of the tongue-like plateau, 195 m above sea [evel, on the 10:1'1
site. Due 10 natural landslide, he discovered 8 or 9 bank of Nisava. The cultural layers had a thidll('"
building horizons. These observations wefe later cor- of 2.50-3.16 m and eomained also Early Neolilhi,
rected by repealed excavation by B. Nikolov (Nikolov Straccvo finds. The most import result was a suhdi\;·
198'~). The latter subdivided lhe discO\'crcd prehis- sion of the recognized building horizons itllo pllil_l"_
toric cultural remains (of 2.4 to 2.8 III in thickness) la (Late Copper Age), [b and 11 (Early Bronze _·\I!t·
into j building horizons, all belonging la the laiC phases Baden-KoslOlac and COlofeni Ill) & rtI ,G[in:l
Copper Age. Each main scttlement burned down. I1I of the MBA) (I). A neighbouring sitc, Vclika Hum-
Both :\Iikov and Nikolov mentioned the existence of ska Cuka, a hill-top settlemem, was exc;l\{tl('d
fortificalions (a stone wall suppol1cd by a frame of synchronously \\~th Bubanj. The recovered c,;dt:"Il,"
wooden poles) on the site in the Copper Age. echoes the findings in Buhal~ (Gara~nin 1983.
Subdivision of the well-known Cumelnila Culture Thus, the composile name, Bubanj-Hum la, which i-
in Romania started in 1951 after lhe exca\'ation of often used to denote affiliating cultural phenomena of
lhe hillock of Piscul Comi~nllui close to Salcul3 by the Late Copper Age in Eastcm Serbia.
D. Berciu (I 96 Ic). Before him, in 1916, and in 1919- A turning point in correlating available infor·
1920, lhe sile was excav,Hed b)' I. Andrie~u, who mation and formulating future research din:C1iOIl:) oc·
performed the first methodologically sound exca- curred in 1959 at an intemational symposium ill
vation in the country. but failed to publish the results. Czechoslovakia (Bohm & Dc Laet 1961). The leadine-
In 191 7, C. Schuchhardt made a few trenches at Sal- theme was the Neolilhie (and "Aeneolithic") in EIII'-
CUla. All the finds were taken to Berlin but never pub- ope. Among 4-5 dcleg;llcs from 17 dincrent eounu;... -
lished. In 1947, the site amacted altelllion from a were scientists \\'ho today arc justly recognised as 11ll'
new team of Romanian archaeologists, but their find- major developers of the present perceptions of nd·
ings were not mediated eithet'. So, all knowledge lural developments during the Ncolithic-Eneolithic/
aboul this important sile is based on lhe four tl'enches Copper Age ill the Southeastern parts of Europl': _\ I.
made by Berciu. Gimbutas (Lithuania/USA), N.Y. Merpel1 (Rus~i" .
The site is located on a tongue-like hillock, which D. Berciu (Romania), M. Garasanin (Serbia,. G.
riscs some 25 m above the surrounding valley, thus Ceorgiev (Bulgaria), and several others. Tbi~ crucial
"naturally fortified". A weSlern land bridge is con- event should thus be considered the birth of Ihe no-
nccting it with another hillock. Bcrciu established scv- tion of "Krivodol·S;\lcula-Bubanj Culwrc" ,h('I"l'
er.dl layers at S:'ilcula. On tOp of layer I of the Early KSB), presented at the gathering in a sllon. ahlllH
Neolithic Startevo·Cri~ cuhure was the sterile layer telegram·like statemelU by Bereiu (196Ib). His 01):,('1'-
of a hiatus. Above this was found horizon 11, subdi· vations made 011 the characteristics of this cultur.11
vidcd illlo a, b, and c sub-phases. ll1is horizon, to- unit are still correct. Bcrciu defined the area of thl;'"
gether ,\~th rhe following horizon Ill, marks the end KSB culture as rH\' Bulgaria, S Romania (Oheni:t.
oflhe Copper Age. ?\Iaterials from these layers define Eastern Banal) and E Serbia (to Pclagonia and Skopj('
the S:ilcuta cuhure. The last, more or less wdl defined in the FR.Y. ~lacedonia). During the symposium.
phasc is horizon [Vi this represents the early phase of
the post-Chalcolithic period. Later surface finds al the 1. For the sake of unifomlily. ,hl' chronological division aco;"Il",,1
si le span from the cnd of the Early Bronze Age till in Uulgolria is ;:pplicd in lhr lexl, cf. Fig. 1.5.
1+ Aclo AI'choeologiLo

o, ,
400km

0,- Cua.neno......
Tnpo.,... ~ Sfedro SlOg 11 [lllffi] -.0

LJ KGKVI ~
.... ,,-.... Lenssa? ~TiR8~ • Bolgrad-Alde...

G<SB f.
len\lYI'I
~'''- D Are~ of graplVl8
palnled poltefY

l:~ 1.... , :\bin Law Col'p('r .\~ C"u!1urnl complun in SoUlh(',lSlern Europt'. according 10 Todorm<l and \'ajSO\ TodolU'" &. \'ajSO" 2001.
slighlh modified.

Bl'rciu also prcS<"1l1cd his iltlCmpts to make the first remains from :,\,\" Bulg,u;a. The \<llIey ofStruma, in
rorrd:llioll of materials from the Salcu\a. Kri,·odol. SW Bulgaria. is under the direct influence of K.SB,
Buhanj and Gumclni\il ~itcs 1961a. albeit the latter region is also marked b}' other cul-
tural impulses. The southcml1lOS1 known site of lite
KSB culture in Bulgaria is \'aksem-Skalelo Cochad-
PROflLE OF THE KSB CULTURE licv 2001 . In Romania. this cultural group is mainl}
rhe KSB is considered a Imc Copper Age cultural sprc;ld in Oltcnia, up 10 the river Olt. but also known
~rollp. which plimalily is recognized through cultural in a narrow strip ofW i\lumenia (lhe left bank orthe
liga 15

Oh and the southern pan of Arge~ county) and in SE paillted [[OOoro\'a 1986). Among the distinctin~
Banal (Ihe county of Caras Sevenn), or, shortly, in forms of the Romanian Saleula culture, according to
Southweslem Romania. In YugosIa\;a, KSB is sp~ad Bcrciu, are two-handled cups. small squat cups and
in the E..ulern pan of Serbia bUl ilS influence is also bowls ,'o'ith thickened and invertt...d rims; decoration
identified in Kosovo, as well as in ~Iacedonian Pela- includes graphite painting and colour incrustarion
gonia (fa~ic & Tasic 2003). In Eastern Serbia the (Bcrciu 196Ic).
neighbour of KSB lO the WCSI is Vinca D. In Ro- 'nms, the description of KSB pottery is reAecting
mania and Bulgaria, KSB is bordcling towars the difierent scholarly attitudes tOwards variations and
East 011 a big culruraJ complex termed Kod<':adermcll- charactelisrics. The margins in E Serbia arc ratlwr
Gumelnita-Karanovo VI (KGK VI), and Varna (Fig. wide, and any shard with graphite paint would lx-
lA·. considered as belonging to KSB, while in Bulgaria,
"'hat lhen is scpar<Hing th(' KSB culture from the where graphite paillled poue!)' is prevailing from
neighbouring cultural groups? the coast to the Rila ~lountains and lx:yond, tilt'
In fonner Yugosla\~a, the priority when defining definitions are slIicter. Intuition is often at help in
Bub;lI~-Hum sites was gi\'cn 10 their topographic po- the non-written world of semi-<:onscious filtering of
~it.iOll. The seulemenlS were usually found on flal- overlapping cultural tr.iits. Generally, the ceramic
urall~' protected e1evalions, or, in caves. Thus, a site assemblage of KSB is defined by \'esscl" \\ith op-
on top ofSkopje hill is considered as the most westeOl posilely placed handles, which are a rarity in the
KSB outpost, The sctuers of the Vio(;a culture, by KGK VI complex, and dominance of positi"e
fOlllrast, were linked to multi-layered tell senlements, graphite decordtion, also rare in KCK VI, wher,'
T('Us are also the prevailing settlement type in ule negativc patterns ovenvhclmingly prcvail (1'odoro,'a
K.odzadermen-Gumclnila-Karanovo VI (KCK VI) 1986).
..:uhure, Exceptions comprise settlements on pile plat- TIlere are apparently no discussions as to U1e lx-
ronl1S, such as Negovantsi and Krainitsi, in the KSB ginning of the Copper Af:,>e in Bulgaria (Fig. 1.5.
,11"('a. and the so-called plateau settlements in the Thus, the Icmporal division suggesled by B. l\ikolo,
K.Gt\. \'1 area (Todorov3 1986). There have been sev- has so far not been debated {Nikolov 1992\ Till'
eral auempts to define some of the KSB settlemenL~ earliesl sub-phase is by Ihis author named aftcl" till'
.u tells [fodorova 1986; Nikolova 1999); the issue Brenitsa site, and the subsequelll twO after the Grade-
!"~'~t: ~oldy on special definitions and will be fUl'lher shnitsa sile (Nikolov 1992), The middle Copper ,\ct'
di;.cll~st'c1 below. remains somewhat ephemeral, wilh only Dyakm'o ,ill'
PoHt'ry styles and decorations are thought to be the as representative in the Struma \'alley (fodoro"a
:11,)~r rdiable trait in defining cultural regions, Carns- 1986; Gohadficv 199i), In general, there are no di,-
.:.nin defines the characteristic pOltel)' ofBubanj-Hunl pUles in considcling the KSB as the successor of tl\l'
~ tine. highly polished, and made from micaseous Gradeshnil.S3 culture (Gcorgicva I 995b)_ It is al:.o IX'-
.:I.w~ 19i6). The characteristic shapes are cups,jars lieved thal the KSB culture was formed in \ \"'''ICII1
-.•ith t\\O handles, and beakers (so-called "kamharoi"), Bulg-dria around the middle of the 5th millennium
.c \\('11 as \'oluminous amphoras (Garasanin 1976). and then s.pread nonhwardl' and westwards C,"Or~t'­
Oi,,:-u":.ing pottery of the Kri\'odol culture in Blllgar- \"<l I 995b). Therefore, Ihe earliesl sites arc knmm onl~

:..._T 0001'0'0. nOles that the most conspicuous feature in Bulgaria. The laler development of Ihe cllhun." ha ..
:- tht" high amount of cups with double handles. pots recently h«ome a subject of numerous discus,iun,.
...nd jars \\ilh narrO\\'ed neck and two or four handle.'\, resulting in a variety of chronolog1cal schemes e.!l.,
:";." I~ \\ilh im'el1ed or thickened rim, biconic vessels, Nikolov3 1999). Ceorgieva has demonstrated lh.tr in
?iu2"s for O\'cn, and jirt-us.stIJ (c[ below) [fodorova lerms of macro-rq~ion:d trcnds, Ihe mosr plau.. ihl<:
:';081>. The surface is often roughened with the help solution is to \~ew KSB as undergoing four pha ..l.... ul
...:' b:l.rhotine. impressions, incisions 01" pinched decor- devclopment (Ceorgieva 199,,)b1. A rapid inne:t ..(· tn
.iU,-,Il. Graphite pailll is applied on vessel neck or lhe number of sites is seen during phases 11-1\'. Thi-
·h,)ukkrs, in case of bowls tbe whole interior is often is also the time when Ihe cultural impact of thi: 1"111-
16 Acta ArdlOfologica

Period Phase Struma Basin NW Bulgaria E Serbia Ollenia Thrace


BC. calibrated I IRhodooi M.l Banal NE Bulaaria

EZERO
w EARLY Sitagroi Va-b COTOFENI- BAOEN (KARANOVO VIII
N OIUA-5AOOVEC
z -260012500 OikiHash YAMNAYA
OW IIlaob
o:\)
"'<
--'0
<1\<0 -3300I320O
IS~agroi IV)
VakseY06
Liga 4

Ga~lin 11

,,,
,,
, Herculane
11-111
CERNAVODA III
CERNAVOOAI
~z_ Kolarovo It Redutite IV ,, Bubanj-HI.m lb PEVEC
a:Qffi ,, saleula IV
I-~Q.
Rebal1tovo ,
Vaksevo· Liga 3 ,, saleula III
Sk~eto Galatin I
Krivodol
w-v
BUbanj-Hum la KODZADERMEN -
LATE Redutite III GUMELNITA-
Vaksevo5 Krivodol'-1I1 ,, saleLJta IIb-e KARANOVO VI
·4000I390O
(S~agroi
,, (KGK VII
w IIIB-G) Redutite. ,, 9
,, ~

\)
<
0:
KoIarovo I Liga2
SadoveC-GI.K. e
~
"
~
S3leuta lIa
N
VinCa 0
w
Q.
Liga 1 w ,
Q.
0 ,,
U ,
MIDDLE
-<55<>'_
Dyakoyo ?
,,, VinCa C
III ~bno5-6 Redut~e I ,, POLYANICA
,
EARLY
49OO1485G-
Sitagroi ilIA
Dikili Tash lie
Gradestvlica
,,, ? MARICA

46r0'4550 II

I
Slatino 3-4
Dikili Tash JIB
Slatino 2
Dikili lash t1A
Borovan

Brenica 6-3
• VinCa B2Ie

'·ig. 1.5. Chronologic.,1 mbk wilh ke)' siles diseusS(cl in lhe le.~l and main euhur..1 groupillgll. Ore)' colour marks lhc period and ~ilcs "'id\
afliJialion 10 lhe Kri\'odol.S~k\lla·Bubanj HUlll la complc.~ (Ksm.

lure advances towards E..'lslcm Serbia and Ohenia definition of (WO main KSB phases. The bound:u)· is
(GoooW"'~ I995bJ (F;g. 1.6). made between sites \\~lh painted ponery (graphite or
l:.aslem Serbia and lhe regions funher wesl were white or red pigments) and those, which arc lacking
Ihe last 10 experience KSB impact. This is indirectly such decoration (fasic 1990; 1995; Lazic & Sladic
confinncd by the lad: of sites \dth more Ihan onc 1997;. Apparemly. there is still a lack of conscnsus on
KSB occupation as opposed 10 Ihe multi-horizonal which phase should be .seen as the earliesl ([asic
settlements in Bulgaria. The stylistic analyses of POl' 1990; 1995: Lazic & Slarlit 1997 , creating some con·
lery from the discO\'ered KSB sites, 10 some eXlclU fusion as to whether Bubanj.Hum la. with graphite
supponed by slraligraphic data, ha\'c resulted in Ihe painted ceramics. l"CprCSCl1lS the firsl or the second
liga 17

~E
r~. 1.6. Dislribucion of investigated KSB la siles (dots). I - KotMOvO, 2 - Pipcritsa, 3 - Ur{'no\il~t, 'I - Sandanski. j K,~Ii.\n .
• - Dragodan, 7 - Valu(:\"o, 8 -YunatsilC,9 Dolna K07.n;lsa, 10- Ktaynil,i, 11 - "bIOI Fucha, 12 - tzvor, 13 :-;cgu":ltllSi. 1-1- R.lc!,.m: •.
. ~ Pemik.Krakra, 16 OushinlSi. 17 - Gllilyanc.Okol Clava, 18 - GUllllxl\1si-l'ckliuk, 19 - Tcle... cn-"Ior(l\'il~l ("all'. 20 - Rd}.H~"'''·
~lUhin grad. 21 - Rcbarkovo-llihugcrd., 22 - i\lndra. 23 - Lovtth, 2-1 5taro Sdo-Yordanon.'l Kale. 2,j - Corn;! KrmlcnJ·I7\ ..r.,
." Coma Kf~mcna-Zamintt.27 - Kunino. 28 - Agicn-<khilm•• C31't'. 29 - Kamcno Pok, 30 - rJe..'claki C:w('. 31 - (:h('"I'\<,1I n,'~.
': - SadO'\:«-Eu:ro, 33 - Sadm-o::·KakIO, 3-1 - Sa<Jo,.~-GokmanO\(1 Kak. 35 - Pipra, 36 Gaoon:·i\larb.:n - G,'/larT-DoInOI" ,,",."
"~ - TdiJ1-Rtdutilc:, 39 - Banitsa-~Iilin Kamak, -HI - Tclish.Liga. -11 - BuJW',=-7.anog-.t1a, 42 - Okhodc:n. 43 - (~-Oam\.lIloo\ -
~1.u;..o,."(J Kak-. +1 - Krinxlol, 45 ~ BlIrbche\'O-Kanoo.· "r.okh., 46 - RakC'\'O-Chuljcn' kamak. ·n ~ Gala\in.(.11u!.;:II... -18 IkI"ul1l"
~"In("ni"h. -19 - Okhrid,!)() - ~lonlana. 51 - Lc:su... ·Gol:lla :\Iogila. 52 Lau... -Gradi~(t'IO. 53 - :\lalor.td .H - Rt-li B"-;l2·)'I.I1~
1Urr..lk...n Lc-khdlC'\'O-Kostadin. 56 - Upllhsa, 57 - I<.nt$hcni\Sa'!\oI"()\':IllSka Mogila, ~ - Sormllk'\"()-Oant'\lll ),1~l.a . .>9 Yal.n1'l'·\·
),l··..z ib\... 60 - :\Iizi)lll, 61 - Slaliyska Makhala-8agadlina. 62 - !Ilakresh. 63 - S1atina. 6-1 - OsLrO\1J1 Corbului. 6J - Bailt' H('!\u!.,,:·-
H..pIM Cavt'. 66 - Girta ~larc, 67 Vadastrn.. 68 - ~kula, 69 Humska Clmka, 70 - BUbaIU, 71 - Rlldna GI.II-a.;1 '-djk........ I\..•:,.
D:.liuluj. i3 SmtdO\~lc. 74 - KO\~lo\'o, 7.5 - Zlouh P«ina, 76 - KriH:lj, 77 - KOrUm1>-V"jaga "=air.. 78 Hi<ar.;9 G.,dll1l1.l·
ao - Skopjt', 81 - Bakamo Gurnn(l. $quarts mark other t'ont("mpor.ll')' Silt'~ illlhc n.-gion. rn("mioned in the l('XI,

~t.l~t" of KSB dC\'clopmcnt in former Yugoslavia (Laz· REVIEW OF PREVIOUS RESE.\RCH


:.: ~ Sladit 1997). -nlC relation between KSB sites, The larger region or Tdish fi...., ('";lIne imo il)("U. 1lI
t""J>t"cially those of fonner Yugoslavia, will probably 1934 with the exca\<ttions al Sado\'ec fi~. I.; ...\,
~l"main unresoh-cd until a proper set of absolute dates first, Bulgarian archaeologists. I;uf'r joim-d b\· (Jl'r·
:... ntablis,hed. man and Austrian sehola",. \\'ere il1\("~t1gatllll! Lilt'
18 .-lela Ardweologica

Fig. 1.7. Satellite map ofth<' Tdi.h region with distribution of kno" 11 Copper Age ~itC's (<::I'~.).

Anliquity fortifications (61h ccnlllty AD, as dated by Another importam archaeological landmark in
coins) in a vicinity of Sadovec (Welkov 1935: 1'odoro- Tdish region is Pipra, situated 8 km south of the
\'a Simconov<I 1968; Uentzc 1992). or these sites, village. Like the site at Sadovec, Pipra has been val·
Go1cmanovo Kale also cOlHaincd prchislOIic ma- ued for its natural defensivt: featmes; in fact, it was
telial, which later has been subdivided in Lale Cop- one of the fonified junctions to prOtect mOvt;melll
per Age, Early (Orka-Sadovcc) and ~Iiddle (Chna along the Roman road between OCSCllS (Gigen) and
U1) Bronze Age, and Early Iron Age (Hallstan ma· Stargosia (Pleven) (!\cikov 2001). In the early 1970s,
terial) (1'odol"ova 1992; Alexillldrov 1992). The site lhe si le \\'as btiefly investigated (Gergov, pcrs.
was occupying a rocky terrace sleeply rising la mOrC comm.). It has been established that besides Late
than 20 III above the riverbed of ViI. The site was a Antiquity fortress buildings, spread over an oblong
natural stronghold accessible only from the north. In hill of65X35 m, there were traces of an Early Iron
prehistoric times. Ihe location has also been valued Age settlelllCIlt. Later intensive pining on the site by
due to ahlll1dalll resources of flint in tht: lower part looters has also demonstrated that the celllral pan
of the limestone terrace. holds at least five building horizons, which can be
figa 19

Kaleto

J·lg. 1.8. SiltS of ucrn alld Kalclo al S,ldo\'cc, a. ~("Il from F•. ~ole ,h.. ramp"rt :ll Kalel....

attributed to the Copper Age, prim,nil)' the earlier by so-called hiatus layers, which bear \\itne~~ tu ,iQ:-
pan of the KSB (pers.observation). Significantl}', all nificant episodes of aO<lndOlllllellt. Hence. till" n'-
( lpIXr .\ge settlements seem to have been burned search at Liga was initially dri\'en b} the expeCt,tli'lll
to fill in these chronological gaps and to traCt' tilt'
settlement at Uga is dynamics of shifts in settlcmelll in Ihe micro-re{!ioll.
:.olJ'b\. Redurite. where exc3\'ations went on for
:?O H'ar>. Separated by the short distance of
1:1 km the twO silcs are not only geographically 5..\DO'-EC-I-:ZERO & ~\OO'·F:CK.\LETO

.li-o temporally related. RcdUlitc lUmcd out to be During Ihe Ihree fieldwork ..easons at Liga "Ollll" t"il-
a w('U·pre~eIYed SCttlement wilh four temporal erg)' was im'ested in re<;Cue \\ork at a ,ill', whirh ..lp-
~. The earliest settlement was founded in the peared to hold material from SC\'cral Copper. \I!t
Copper :\ge Gradeshnitsa phase;, while the settlements. The site was disco\crcd ilear Sado\l"\. -
~ub:.eqllel1l ~'ttl('mcnlS wcre of late Copper Age, km southeast ofTelish, and i~ actually illlWO part...1
the last onc representing the initial phase of the lower and older onc named SadO\·cc-Ezero. and .11)
o-c.JJed T ran~i[ional pCliod (Gcrgov 1992a). No SllC- upper and younger called Sado\'Cc-K.aleto \\"dko\
-J<m \\a~ recorded between the two Latc Copper 1935 (shorl notc; i\lilO\'a-Dzollm:\ 1979. 61 Fil!
\:: _ -<,ttlemClHS. I t1 fact. all phases were interspaced 1.8). Despite the re5CllC char<1ct('r of thi~ ilH'l:,tig,llinn.
Aria .Irdwfologica

..oil and \egelation. ilnd no trace.. of human <lCth;t~


haw left aJl~ impaCl on it'> appearance. The hillock.
at it'> hi~he'l and most llonhem poilH. i~ approxi-
mately 173 m aoo\'c the sea level. The ntngc of hills
is rising on:r the sile by 7 m on a nonhem ,ide and
by more than 15 m on the southem one.
The investigation of the site was initiated during
the summer of 2002 after repons on digs carried on
by wry acu\'e local 100lcrs. The looters had dug three
main trenches reaching rock bottom through cultur.tl
deposits 3.5 ·1-.0 m thick, as well as scvcral other
trenches. The trenches werc actually "archaeological"
in nature. \\;lll vCltical profiles, which could easily be
cleaned and studied (Fig. 1.9). Six building horizons
were recorded in the largest trench. spanning a rul]
Copper Age sequence,
Due to the natural remoteness of the site, the con-
ditions of presclY<llion werc exceptional. Four of thc
settlement horizons had traces of conflagration while
the remaining olles had been lefl to slow decompo-
sition. [\'en in 1:\ycrs where day items were Ilot ex-
posed to fire. their state of prescr..ation was remark-
able Fig. 1.10 & I, I I . Among the most imponant
finds was a burial of a woman, placed in prone posi-
tion in a pit measuring just 65X45 cm. This evcm
took place during a pcriod po:.tdating the Copper Age
and presumably before the Early Bronze Age proper.
The twO earliest occupation phases ofSadovcr-Ez.
cro sile are dat<..d to lhe beginning of the Copper Age.
During the L..te Copper Age the seu..lers $t;trIed to
occupy also the cdl{c of the nonhcrn rallKe of hills,
forming a plateau. The site on the hill~ is locally
ill particular Saclm'ec-Ezl'l"o yielded significant known as Sado\'cc-Kaleto. Apparently, at that time,
chronological and other information. which I\ill be the inhabitants must ha\'e started to use a kind of
prc~emed in full in a future work. drawbridge. for the distance that had to be overcome
Traces of the e"rlil'st oCCllpation were found 011 a between the tWO hci~IHs, abruptly separated by the
,addle-like hillock, llleasuring 65X·W m. SUITOlltldccl riwr, was only 7 m, or less, Not long after the expan-
by high and ne'HI}' 90 degrees ~tccp nmges of lime· sion, the sitc in thc canyon was abandoned, the scttJc-
,Wile hills. A nalTQ\\ pa.';S<IKc through the hills is CUI ment cominuing on the more accessible plateau,
hy the river Bclilka. a tlibutary of\"il. which is alm051 The SadO\'cc-Kalcto site was also heavily damaged
lllllloliceable in the landscape sillce it runs deep down by the looters. \\'ho had e\'en used eXGI\'ating machin-
helow the rdngcs. cncilding the hillock. el)'. Rescue work was therefore carried Ollt lhere, too.
The nonhcrn pal1 of the hillock, approximately '-I h appeared that afler the close of the Copper A~c. the
III alX>\-c the tin'r. is hi~hcr than the southern onc. Kalcto settlement conunm:d. directly into the E..'lrl}
Due to this natllnll [01111. aeolithic sand fonning the Bronze .\ge. u;thout an}' significant interruption or
occupation layers only accumulated on the solllhem dramatic material changes, In thal sense, this site is
pan. Thus. the 1l0nhcnl pan remains uncoI'crcd by truly exceptional. I)otlcry of the so-called Tmnsilional
Liga 2]

Fil\. LID. Soullwfl] [Tellch al Sado\'cc-Ezl.To. Rrm~in' of r.ate Copper Age m"ell. lhree times n:built nnd <l<lj,l!"'11l ,!ora~c bin.

Period. as \Vdl as of the earliest Bronze Age (Orlea-


~ado,'c(" type), have been recognised in the collected
mateli"L UlHil now, there arc only a dozen of such
Transitional siles known in lhe whole or Bulgaria.
An interesting structure investigated at Kalcto was
a semi-circular rampart surrounding the site from Lhe
acce'sible northern side and ending at the steep edges
of lhe plateau. The rampart was constructed in IwO
"lonc \\"alls with compact layers of soil in between and
a 'Oil COWl". No doubt there has also been a palisade
at the lOp. The only archaeological finds recorded in
connection with Ihis unique structure were shards of
the Early Bronze Age.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
.-\" implied. the research object.ives 101' Liga and ad-
jacelll "itcs were to a high degree dictated by the out- Fig. 1.1 I. Sl(>l'agr hin ....1' unh"knl dol\. "',lClo\'c(-l:.lrn"
_~(/{/ _-hrhaeologita

\"1Ilt' of tht- l'XC:lV'\Iioll~ at Rt-dutite. Information on ,It a sitt as more important tban the issu{'s of cultural
t\\ 0) I..w: Copper _-\ge sculements. supplemented "it It differcntiation \\;,hin each temporal episode. Scandi-
d,ll:l 011 till' ,o-c;llkd Transitional Period, was COIl- Ili.l\ian archaeology suffers from its own limitations:
.icit'rl-d a good ,tarting poilll for building-up a local research projects have to give way to an administra-
.t'quclll..-e of land-uS{" and, most importantly, for trac- tive archaeology producing general models of house
ing mO"em('nt~ of peoples and ideas. Complex ap- types, settlements and land use but almost completely
prnadlt·s to the regional data enabled the perspective devoid of small-scale highly detailed inform.nion.
to Ix> brO<ldcned in SCOpe and to link a limited project Therefore, conscious efforts were invested at Uga in
10 a much "ider cultural-gt:Ographic;,1 setting. So far, identifying and disclosing all structures to their fullest
the- majority of settlement inn~stigations in Western extent, folloh'ed by highly thorough documentation
Bul~t1ria han= produced a mass of isolated phenom- procedures. '1l1is approach has, for instance, enabled
t'lla, "'hich have only been coupled up with the help us to study the excavated materials ,,;th an explicit
of particular t}1>CS of artefacts, A different situation focus on indi\';dual structures and acti'ities, produc-
pl't'sented itsclfat Telish, \\ith an opponunity to pro- ing case sensitive - or historical- results_
duct' and to piece together c\·idence into coherent his- As dcrives from the logics of these considerations,
torical sequences, resembling those of the southern answers were also sought to explain the existence of
an'a of impressi\'c tells, In this light, issues such as the scemingl)· opposed settlement modes in SE Europe.
~patial organisation of the lig-a site, changes in the The KSB culture is often defined by geographical
planning of scttlement and its architecture, duration fluctuation, observed through settlements ,,';th limited
and causes of abandonment, etc. could be set in a recurring use. TIle immediate eastern neighbour of
brO<ldcr temporal and geographical perspective, the ,,-S8 - the KCK VI complex - is traditionally
I'('vealing the "dialccucs" of a L.ue Copper Age settle- charactclized by multi-layered settlement mounds,
ment. i.e., tells, reflecting continuous spatial attachments:
The ambition in the present case was nevcr to ex- How can material data explain such differing subsist-
cavate the whole settlement, as at Rec!utite, but to ence strdlegies and, in the case of KSB, less tangible
concentrate on few areas where the archaeological mechanisms to sustain the social and spiritual cquilib-
contexts could be im·c.<;tiWllcd fully and at great de- dum of society? With a full awareness of the fact that
tail. 'nlUS, the chosen strategy is in contmst to both not all variables can be identified, several specialist
the usual Bulbrarian excavation practice and the main sludies were designed to produce a detailed cultural
trends within the Scandinavian archaeology_ Pres- profile of the Liga site, hence to provide data for com-
cntly, in Bulgaria, witb limited funding for archae- parative studies, The main ovcrall objccli\·c was to
ological projects, there arc no big scale research in- demonstrate the potential of integrated studies tar·
itiatives, like the ones that could be experienced dur- gcted to translate the cultural fingerprints of sile and
ing' the Communist cl'a (e.g., Todorova 1982). :\'10:>1 landscape into proper chronological sequences and
projects arc designed to cover the depth rather than cultural strllctures.
the width, viewing tIle issues of temporal development
H. THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROCESS
)oIL 1110DOI,OGI(:,\L CO\~II)I.It.\II():\~
lion ubdilid"d into . .ond.Il:-(· l1''- H \ .trIr1 HR \. thf'
& l:.XC,\\', llOX TECII'IQLL.."
...lInr lilm' It .Ippr.trrcl.h.n both tilt" (/llltr,,1 'nnd.t,,'l"
rht: ,ill' of Li!.:,1 ";IS c'\({.l\-.I(\'d dunl1j{ 'lin'\' 'umllwr
~1·'IMlII~ from 2000 till :1OfI:1. 1)1lIilll.: tll(' third '\'.1.'1111,
nI), h.\. 1,lid ,Ino- 1I1f' old .,1'\ ....
trrn.h .1II.lllJr
,wic::hbourim: ,nda~(' nil..'l flrnt.lin,·d ulKldmi.LI
.111 impon.IIH t'l.'>k Wit... to unckrt.IKl" rt'<;{ m' 1;"'\((';,-
tr.\C('" of h,lhil.ui(OIl. rh" limit- of th,' LoUrr II)nd,~,"
\.uion\ ,\I S.ldo\l:c-EztTO ,lIId S.L<!ml't"-K.II\,to.
\I(·n.- C\,·llIu.lll\ t"xp.lIldt"d. bt.·(omim: p.tn Ill' d largf'
rill' I'XC.I\.lh:d arca .1\ UIfoI " :17:1 1Il 2 excluding
1l'I:nch Ilf 1".11I m. In order to ("'\I"hli h .1 ."n iu\!:
~lJl"\cy In'Ilc!Il:,:;, Fil.\". ILl. Surr.lcl· inn... tilf.ltion, at
~1r.Hilil·d (ollt'o::linn or fin<6, Ihi, In'nd, I\,I III lum
the ,ill: in 2000 did nOl n'w.,1 ,1Il~ 'Ix'cific cOlleen. ~ulxli\iekd into four 'Ondagt"'\ 110\..5. i, h.\ & hB
1I";llion of finds. In order 10 ,.Lli~l} hOlh tht, Hrati- flu: l\l... tl·nmm,t '-Ond.t£:t" no. [ did nnt 1'("\(',11 .111\
g'~lphie objc('[i\'c~ and to catch !II(' di,tribll(iOIl of ex-
nidclll lr:ltl" of hum,1I1 ani\it), •\ dOI.I·n oJ' ,h.,rr:b
perll'{l ~lrll(tul':ll remain... ,I Il';ll1<;{'U cO\ninK 2X30 111'1\: uneo\crl'd ill .\ Ihin 1;" t'r of humu' O.lh O.:!6
III was sel ,.Iong the IOIJogmphic,Llly .1l1tirip,tlcd CCIl- III Ihick 011 lOp of ;1 'Itrilc 1.1)--I·r /)1' p..hbl.·... Dl'<pit("
lral ,lxi~ or the sile. sl:lrling li'om till' \\cstt'l"11 limit ,10pinA' il ",l~ ob\~olls th.ll lhi, pMt of Ih,' hillock
01' the p1:L1C:lll. This transect I';\~ nliClllatl·d \f-E. It 1'.1" nncl' lI~cd for comtmClion of" .111\ pcnn.11ll'1Il
co\,cl'cd olle of the tl\O minor _ul'\'Cy m:nchcs of 'Intctul'.... Th.. n...xI "ondal.,'C. no. :l. .tl,u g;llc limit<:d
19i9, _till 10 bc ~CCl1 :IS dcpl'cs.,ioll~ in thc IC1Tain IFig. rcsult::.. ,\fief' cxc;I\;l\illg ,I la~t'r of humll\ HA m thick.
11.2). The re-opcncd survey trcllch. Ilhich undoubt· tlli~ '<Olldal\l' 11 ;I~ .lb;lIldoncd. Lllt'r drillim,,, r('lf'alrd
cdly had de"trayed Ihe pen.lilling ,tlllClural cultural 111<: rem;lin, of ,tmClurc'" in Iht e;iSlt'mmU,1 p.m. n.a
remains. 'I;I~ imendcd as a cOlUral prafilt' for till' e.x- III bclo\1 tlw ~Uli.ICC.
1';I\':Ition of IIC\\' lrenches. pl'o"iding .l plior under- ,\11 '\Ond.l~t'" \ICn: CXC:Jnllrd in ,lrIJiu-ar, Id\ ....... of
slalldinc; of the n;l\lI1'C of dCl>o<ilS .md $Oils. . ;) 10 cm. Tht' bulk malerial \\;~ '\Om'rI.lIld rollfilcd
.\ nc;u·b\· Thracian prc~urn;,hh IUllllllll'. holdlllg lCp:u~..dy-: p0ltel"\. all 'Ion..... ;lIld llim .....tnim.LI bUIlI....
;1 locll lllc:lslIremcllI pilbr made of COIlCrl'le ill lhe ,Illd burlll'(l d.lub. .\11 indi\idual find, dl.ll..ttl0'0Ut.:
tOp Ixcamc the main referencc Imint ~or T1l.lpping. cer.trnic pien:". vuulld 'Ionf"l. llilll or boil" im-
11 hich emured :t com'crsion of Ihe rd.llI\'c IIlC;l.5urc- plemcntS ,lIld Iheir concclllr:ltion, C·It..•1 hl".lp oLlm,
T1lenb of the inn::lIti!r-nion 10 Ihe .1!>'\Dlme..\ Total mal baIW..... ~ "dl a:. I),·uticul.lf ;,J,mpll.... "t"rr lIuli-
Station 1\~1.5 used in mca~urinL::. Thc s.lid tr;IlI:lll."C1 \I"'iI.:I \idu,llh l'l'Con!('(1 in Ihrtt dimcll,ioll' "ilh Ih(' lllt,1I
subclil'ided illlo smaller ulli!.'> of2X5 Ill. To "-II'C timl' SI.ltioll.
.lIt(l m.IIl'p(mc... Ihe dl'Cisioll 1'':1'' 1,Iken to c"C:tI~ue \\'.lIer ,it'\im: \\.1.5 PCPibll'lIlh allt'mpll'(l durilll!
onh elel) sceone, wnt. " ""1'm '" .",.I 'l<l,,,iblc
r- 'Ir.ni· e.leh ,c,!'on. bUl did 1101 l,rin: IIIC 1'''IJCl'Ic<! "",Ill!.).
• I
~1'lphic comparison bell' cell ,onc .IAI's .LIl{ 1 cr"ucd'\
c'. • Durinc: Ih,' fiN SC,l.'i(111 .1 "l>cci.11 1101.ltioll pl.1ll1 I'.b
1.II·gcr .lll\'cSlll{:llee
" ' arca. 0"", IgI \ ,I lid ICllt'l-';~ 01 lhe (omtnl..:lt·d. Ilhill' dllriuc: lilt· 'I'(olld Iidd....,.II.llp.li,,'l1
Gl'l'l:k :tlphab~1 \ICI'C applic(l for 1.lhclting for!!.11.3}. .1 1~lIhcr IlltllC l·tJicicnt mClhod I'.l" .Ipplit·d: I h,' ~"rJ
" "III Illll1e.
" ' IIHII ,uc" I1 "• "nlt·,!'I' 1'.1' eutl.'cll·d inlo ncl bag" I,illl tll'II,,-' 1I11",h.lOIlI.lIn·
111',11'111" . c, \\ou!(l
. .IHoI'·
c r i I ' ) ' nil'
10 cSl.ll)li"h (lnl\' Ihl' 1\'e,tCI"II borc!.-r" 0 tIC 'I C.I ,I . iliA ouc blll'h'l. .md ,icI'l'd ho!dinio: lIlt" b.,~, ~hrcnh
under ,I 1~lpid \I .11,'1· ''In;;III1. Soil fcw ".llt·r '10:1 lll)ol ",L~
<1ctel'mincd 11\' lhc IcalUl'e" of tire 1:1I1(1'1'.lp': lr.Hhl·1'
."mt"IISI""
" "11"Ill"'''' I ''rc. , ,1"0 under· cotll'('wd IrOIH Ihl' .Irc,l" of <p....Ti;d inICIl"'I. 'lIdl ,L'
.Ibl'upt ~I('lpt·"l. (I'l .
" ,.1Ill-: of til" Ihl' fI,M)!" .m:.1 ,Irollnd .1 "Wr:I1!I' bin or ,.m 01t·11. ,Ill"
lakt'n .Iillll'<l ,11 p1'011< .11I 011 'l"\i"ll ClIlll'e
.
. ' . I~ ., n,,"1t . ,I nc" '\(.... '11011 >11ill·\l.I\,III'(1 h"OIl1 1110: W;I\I.... Onl\ .1 11'11 l)l'I,·nu.11
an:;1 u,cd for O<'cupallon.•
. . • \ •• Il\" ,uulhclll <J0IJC, p,tl.'t'nl:w.,t,mit".11 l'l'lll.lin~\\ ... ro: t.YIJ!....'I('(I;L' Ihe n.·,oh
was "(·!t-cl..d for ,·XGI\~'IlOll
" k 1.1\'.,I ofhunll'(l of,h,·..... df,Uh. Ol1ll'r 1"I·,ldul...... ud•••' llim duI''' .111<1
.llc drilling' n'IT.lkcl :1 t IIIC' . ' cl.wo. .a
. '.. r'
"troll!; lIl<h••,uon (l tu: pn..... IUT ..
of h.I"n.lllolI
., 'lnll- ...h,II"(I,. 110:1.... ,11,,) limill'd in Ilumh,·r. perh.Jp.. dU.'· h'
tlU' .lIn·.ld\ imcll,iH' .tllI·mion ci"'1I It> 'udl !md..
. - -
1lII"". ,\ 11"I'lIrh of ;,X,) III ".1' (1)<'lwd for 1I1\t"IIl,'iI'
.1 fla .1 n11Oro/flgim
·,~

-, -~
-_-:.r--\ -

\
,,

\
, o

, o

o 25m

tIlE ILl. Top<lII;i~ map afLio ..lIb indio'ion aflh" oa,':Ul'd ~ and buih W\OClutft olus;a:! dolrk gn,. UIWJ.tu.:. EquidUpUC'<""
nU<\.> lhr
~ ...... on """"' DOl ~ "~<Wb.d \me ltW'b Iht-:Itn of Iht- Up :! 'on.tkrncnL \\ ..:11; d.uhcd Iin<" ,,~
d bPrd.:n ~ Iho: liD I ~ nc.- d...h.d a- ltW'b Ihr nltDsioft uf Up. .. [.•ut. I:lronz., "It'" ;tllkmcnl.
OS m. (:t ....
...", r
dtp....... _Iho: tnn.ia ..... t.. carIirt-~ uf 19.'1 \lI ~ ....n: Woe"~' S.. \Ibd.:..
t
lili:" II! 1'I,;,n of u.e, rnllral ,~ ,~ !'mm E. :\Ott ~.
~ m ,hr l""";n " " " ' , . nrtitT dll:,/ilUnT\ un.:ba of
]Q,ll

I'"It" IU Pbfl of Un '"'~ .. uh n<2'--" iIliCbtn. ' " - docilJ


:lnd lrucn tndiottc- ~ na\-.t III . " tbt" •
during !Ill: e:<ca\"3Uon. Genernlh. it can be "Uted iliat
m..v. ID:?OOI addtUoru/ ..nd III _ 0): 'vnor 1 ~ ,.
onl} limited infomlauon disappeared \\ hen \'<!lcr
unorhn "1DlI "lllllO' -.brrn ~qf Iho: -= .aDd"" "-.-
siC\ing was not applied. D~ siC\ing was ;ilio I of 1..10. :! S«tor 2 ~ ...... <If ~ anodwo<
aucmpled. "ith a siC\"(' mOih ofSXS mm. bUl Jumpi- Cl'kn1lll! H _ ~ .t I <If Ua :..

ness and the se\1:t"C dn'n~ of the ~il mack this a


\1:~ time-<:omiuming task. aho "ith only limiLed R"-
sulb. sp.lccd at inl(:n"'3b of:!1) m. Para1Jd ;ili~1.5 \\UC'
The firsl field campaign p.1n1r unco"crcd lhe rc- >Cl up "ith help of lhe Total Surion and rom~
mains of three habilauon "lnICl\II"CS. During lhe f~ld orient:alt'd ::-;..s. In ~me ea..-.eo. the U"'.UL-et:t alimmolI
campaign of 200 I Ihe gO\1:nting qratc~ \\~ to un- was diet.llW h\ the natural oricm:arion of the 6dd.
cover the 10lal remains of lhe pn:hi~toric houses. All ancfaclS .. cre colltttw pcr 10 rn, then ba~
l1lt:_refon:. aJn:ad} in\"t:"'ur;r:ucd areas \\en: sur- :U1d coumed..·\I1~thcr. an arca ofapprm:. 1500 m'
rounded by a ne" SCl of sonda~ accordilll! 10 pn=-. w:e; imensi\"ch <l1n"('\·w. The m:ajorit\ of the fickb
dictioll5 of lhe dimt'nsiolls of Ihe SlnlClUrcs. A srSlt:m around Uga IIcre cuh.i\";uw ~ in 2000. mn-
of St."Ctions was also cre.lIed Fig. 11..1 . The ne" sand· ing the conditioru; of ~uJ"\"t'\ falvurabk. pie
ages wcn: assi!.'lIcd a digit and :1 !cller. so Ulal :ill squares mcasurinl.! I OX 10 m "«11100 10 bc oprim.a.l in
sollCbgcs \';lh tIll' digil 9 .ll"c connectcd ,,;Ih House n:spondinl; 10 UIC n:quirernclll.> alld aims of <uch "tIr-
l. with dib';' -I Hou~c 2, .md wilh digil JO House .3 \'C~, i.e.. 10 find lhc IXII'der'S of the' occupation, or to
lFig. 11.3). uncover possible rOl:atiOlls or "C'ltlemellt. Di,.,tribuoon
map.••ho.. ed ,('ver.ll COllcemr3UOru.. "hich :ap!X'.u't'd
10 Ix miskadirll:. IhoUl.;h. rOlllp.lred "ith infonnarion
SURVEYS AND DRILLlNGS ~Iined b~ tIll' drillim..... ::-;",·C'nhdl."Q;. the :ruJ"\'C\~
SUI"'crs around Lig:l IICI\: conducled on several oc- hcJp<.'(! 10 eSl;lbli.h Ihe e"i,;ll'llfC of .Ill Edrh Brollzc
c,lSio115 \,ilh diffeI"Cnl dq,'1"ces ofinlClIsil). These IICn: Age >eul..nll'l1I p.lnh o\'t'r1appint: the' CoppC'r .\i:l:
aimcd 10 "~l:Iblish IIll: ~i:l;e of lhe scnlelll,:llI alld ilS Lit:a 2 "t·ltlClI1l'tIl. Thi~ rT"ulted in .\ hit:hcr ..,,-:arcilCSl>
land-use, .IS well as for idrlllif};lIg ncw .llTha<.'Olo&';cal in sonilll; till' ('XC.II.Ued 11I.1IC'ri,ll... \,hich ;ilio hdd
siles. Thc innlledi:ue sl1lTOulIding" of lhe sile \,cn.· B1'01I:I;(" . \ge lind". undinl! procrdul't'< b\ drillint:
also im'cslig:'tecl with the help of drilJillgs "ilh gt-'O- 1"C\'l:aJed Iht" 1l0nhenl and the C';lSI('nl bomcf'!; of th.:-
logical augcr'S. The survey" "'('f{' b;l~ 011 fidd-\\ ,dk- Copper. \,!:'l." QCl.'up.ltion.
l1H~ il11cn~ht" ,unT\'S WCl'(' Ii",-usnll"lll l'\\CI prime
illS. '!l\C proClodure CIII,tikd .1 It'am of -1-5 l>crson,;
.k/a . hd/(/(%g;m

arc:;u; the area bm-un RroUUlt and Uga. and tht ~. as al:;o those of dlC subsequent period:. dat;l
area around liZl .and. tht pre<cnl-da\ mm. h ap- availabk umil thc 6th ccntun' .-\0 . mOl cd b.1ck lO
pearro that ttrUin are~ had r::qx:rirnn:d inu:nor hu· mc plains at thc stre:lIn. ICa\;;lg lhc highland for ril-
man auenuon lhrouirhoUl the ~t. \\ hile other.; II'crt ua.! arulitiCli and cro..'Ction of tumuli.
complrtrh i~o~ Th~ mentioned ~tmch bc:twttn Differing lraditions of scttling arc of great int:rc,~.
dlt two site!< did nOl PTO\;de a ~in~t archaoological sincc lhe\' demonstratc that continuolls occuP:lllOI1 LS
ancfaCl. despitc rc:pcatrd sU"'~y~. BI rontmsl, tht nOl nceded 10 creatc ~palial allac!lI11cnt". Ctlhu~l
cd~ of the dam. ~y rorrespondin~ 10 tht course memories may lakc a gcneral fonn and hence 1l1:~11I'
of the pa..~t _Iream. had r'\;dcl\t1~ been J ton:-JrcJ. fcsl themselves lhrough recognition ;l1ld IC!o::l1lific;JllUll
;lI\rnctin~ «'uJ.in~ and cltploilaUoll from :"'oolithic of human :tItemliolls in a land~capc. such as [k:lL~III[t'
tim~ orw..ardJ., . .. 1 1 1 1 'illl cui·
aCU\1lLL'S or Ihe pn.'scncc of p anls oac e( "
Diffcrt"nt n-quirc:mrnt! for spacc and occupation lUra! ~it,'1lifiC:l1I[c.
an' refil"Clcd in mc ~ulcmclI\ dyn:uniC!> of lhe area. ·nll: ~eolithi[ and E:uly Copper Age scldeII1Cl~"
Durin~ Ihl' :"'rohthic and tht Earh Copper .~t Ihl': . . . ~III1:1b
. 1.,
arc found on rclauwly hgll1 sOIls. c or IlrchL"1
In~CT Iyin~ are:u on lhl' Idi bank of l!ll' fonner . . -' I~)b-,Lb'
LOnc ulbgc er. abovc. Such 3rcas "en' P _
"lKam "en: prd~.....hik durin~ Luer pcricxb tllC 11
uc.aJl'(\. 101l~ before lhe Wltc Coppt'r A~l' oco 'Il.\\10
-'--
hil..·!lrr him! .md rathl':r more: dr.ulUtil pLuCJ.u was r \<lC
on t.he platcau. ~'[ral <harcb of Laic COPI>C .:",
ra, ,rnI tor toMtkmmL lbc propIc of thr Earh Iron .1_.1:
.....te • • -I' ·h Off·~It.(,
Ul-"CQICl'(.'d In lIu' c:arhcr fields .uc l I al _
UJ "':"<'Y'.>W.Jll P111O.' er- ~1:Ju.>( [nU.)I"';'I ~1lI. -S -.'0 '11Il1/ .1IIbl'(lo 11'''J.lq pllC :l1!zut:nb p.... punO'I·II.'1I
'\. ",tl'1"!U" ,,.,, 'lI~vnb Ul .....I1<ll{ .)11I 'IIr" .llll JO \IU.llU.'iIlJJ :UlIpnpul ' ':l~!~ U! WIll O! 01 dn 'Plqlpd
j" la'llu.J.'.;l\fl <11 .'loud "np <'rl\ tl-'lI.l.l1 ,'pl\\ 11/ I;t·O
pu~ P 11'Jl1 \(1 1>.JlrIl!N1W \! \\01:1(1 .'I.' \1:1 Jlll. ·.l!P!;)I:
".......'r' '" '.If'''' IU.)11111'.... .lrtp'l<un J"llll~ .nll uO "111' 1\ \IIIIOJ!I~ ·j.lIll'lll J!I1l:"'Uo .lu!J IP!-" P;'IS"!UI\CP'Pul.'S
~ ,," "l.fl'(l ..1110' U! 1I0IUTU1,-.IO.' .'141 OJilluoddn> .lJ.'" JO JJ.\I·I \.u:i I' \q p.\J.HO) 'I:''' 'tlOlI!'1 JIII '1:lI:dull
W., ~.;: /" J.'II"Wl."!p r 411l\ ~N.ld .Hl"'·1\ ',l1lb!Ulp.ll J!u;'IOJodOJ'fll1~ ;).1,~pU ·U!C,U.l1 U.:).\.:I SU!":.:uJ pili: '1~
'lnrp pur .)[111">' 1·/" ....."11 .)41 'll-'t:.>l01 "lU!od J,:I,\I:I llO!1 -m11 ,liP :l1l!dt.:'I~ H! i.:i,I.:IllJ IjJlllU P.:llS;).\U! s.I.1fll:t~ :uI.I.
",'TUt..."p "1f1 III J.lilrw .1!ui:luo JO IU;lllIOJ 111I!11 l' pUt· ':):I\, J.'Iddo:) .111~[ .1Ifl.l0 \.lI:d J:l!l.lI::l.'lI/1 :i'u!--ll1p P.'lIIS!1
(l"U"ll'W ;tmpl1I1q i11l'Ul .llp n.>I Wl:) '.1:11';) IU,'lfll1()o; -ql'I',' .... " [c..'1n .11!' :lIp 11: 11IJI11:l[ll:l~ lSJ!} :lIU.
.llfl Ir p.lJ.HI1.....!P .\J;)II 'iU!l:Ul.lJ 11:JnJ]IUI' ,"H!ll:lUJOJ L'\'II"TIJ.J 'r" '!D\' ~:hI.IO:) .Ism,r 'I van
-t11 I'UIU "4.t 'lUJW;)PI>- 1U"n~lh ;llll JO J"OI[1

U"fl P.'!"I'd,\PP!--" .lJOW ;UJI\ ";>;llOI[ ;llll '3" OI.\\S


JO utlnnu .• u,) fY.J.lu.ll'l t: pt:IJ lUJIU.)lll3> I l:2ln ,"I4.L '(i; 'Idl
·unumn.).,u./" l.".lJl." ,"11{1 i1l1!Jllt:2ul 'llns:u .l\lsnpuo;) JJU1:J~;l(ldl' 11:JI1I1:U ~I! p.mlll"P{lql:I~'JU! I\'IP 'J!l!
W1' ~po.td l<>U P'P "uU!fi!JP :ltfl .l.'tII' ·P"II'!I(It:h.l - '!IJI! 1II!1U1lI1 hU!-,JlI!P JO S:'I!-'a!i t: I).JJII:I!-'xb,:J UO!lc.)()1
~ IOU .l,f'I{ 'lU.)IX.l 'I! ''Q!WII 'U.lI!Hl'\ .141 '\jUl:d ;)41 'puq .10 lo[d l(1!-':b-JplloU C 5u!t110;).1(1 ,1.I0pq Suol
'JIt11! W.;l\flOl>'l ;l1J1 JOJ 1w:n:::-l ,..lJ1' p"lran...HIll ;'Il{l JO 'IJ~J III ·0\' \JI1lU.lJ '/19 ;'lIp J.llJt: l);)uuoJ ;).'1:)\\ s.J;I\t:1
nnd UJ.>1cr-.l pm: w.llllnos .l1f1 UI ~'lp.lI"OU'rw \1110 tp!-,-~nwlIIlIPoq 11:111 p;lpnpUO;) Jot:! Uc:l 1! ·SUO!Il:.\J;)S
~'" IU.JW.:>flI..... 1~ ;)U .(; can ·1U"W.lpl.n II\.lnb.l<. -qo ;)!lld~!II:.IIS uo p:»"I'U 'umnOJ alll "! pt:.:ud';lp~"
~ .xp J.t IU.>wq<1jqn-..l JO .llllO .)1{1 IC 1I0!Jt:1;)iJ.l\ ~ \Cpol 11:1\,;) 'p!II" .lJ!lJl:.ld t: :uy .\q ;);)ut:.n:JjJ
J> .,u~ r J.llJe ~q:tp .llll p.lJ.'I1II.l \p1!1 !,--"OJ
.lJIJ p:ncd.1.I :JU!I~!PU! '<;U!I'W:U J>.:l.U~IPJO IUlIOIUl:: 1Ilt::l
-n1p.>tU .>n' II! ww <: I !,--"oo.mp JO \.).).J!d ncws -!J!lill~ C reil ;)UO J,lVCp pu~ JJ 1\01 :lILL ·p.lIIS!I~II!1
pt.n' ..... nntl -'!U1'.aJo II! 4;)!-' J.lW[\.lWP p.1wllqUI1 -\!P Jq 1II~ 1!05dol Ip!-'-snumll JO s.JJ\l:1 0\\.1.
,~ l' no p..l-<t.1lklJ.lJ 'l'1I \1fI:J')1I~ IJJ!II\\ ·11I.'Iw"IlI.l5 'snumll .10 J:lWI 'tJ!111 ~ l):)uUOJ .:l.\~11 1I0!1t:.\!I[ID Pllcl
;llfl J'l u<·urllIlW.11 .l1f1 p.;»-ntD 1'Il1I \\ l.lIlOI'llOU '! I1 JO spo!-';)d 'SIl!I'IIl;IJ ICJ~OIOJCIPJ~ Jlp JO UO!I;)IUI5:lP
',;.)Iqqxl ':>41 UJ':>'\I.)(I "J.lllI'W Ipnlll p.l5nt::l "\1'11 S-.lU!-'1 :JU!IU~ld JOJ Slip SJlpU.l.IJ.
~..a.Ju p.>1I·lnwluJ!' \q p.;m~.:u;) Jnolo.) JJ1JI'P C plIC ·pJl:.bu!-\ l' Olll! JpCIU 51'\\ :)I!S Jlp '\'111111:1,) IPGI ,lIp
~~I·~·l.xl p.J11'ru.l \q p·l\I:J!PtIl ~. '~III:lwJ\Cd II:Jnlcll JO pll.'l ;lIp 1\' 'ICOS pUC cl:):lIIS JO SPJ:lII lCll1lU1I110,)
,..,. P.111·U.:uddl' 11.1,)(1 ,HI'II PIn/HI ~;'hl1otl .11p PUIlOJC
JO .liU!7t:.L.'l JOJ pJSll pUt: P:JIt:.\!1InJllll ,\I:POI ~! I!
IJ'II"lfj'pd JU J.I\I·1 ;HlI, 'Hln!:I"1 U! UJ t·O C'O nU!-'':~1
'S,")!ldlll! f,5PP!~1 Rl1!ZI:'IQ"l ,"IlUt.:U ;)IP SV ·tSI:d .11p 11!
:lIp ...... "~.ll 1101 IIfJ nU!IlUI:I~ U:l:l(l .1\1'11 01 JC,lddl'
S')!I~\!I')I'\lll'UI JO .1U:lJS ,11[ I 1I.1:lq SI:II din .10 :l1!S ,1IU.
Plnn\\\,'4 1 '1Im'l .JJ.I\\ ~.",nOII .141 U,l ..I.\\ ·W.W' U.',\.l
S:)IIV\~NAO NOI.LVIV}\OJ ':I,LlS
JlW'''' .\[IIl1 '.jJ,'II'\. \.1,1 'I.' ,1")JI1~ P,\J] I' .1'1'.lJJ 01 b'1I ~<.tl
IOU ........ '" 10,,) ...111.... .:up '\Ip'nl.)\·' ·P"IC.'IIU,\U! IOU .:1.'1,)\\
Io.Id.-IJ" w""IUuU ·'ttl ·IU.I!"!H.:lU! 11,1')(1 .lWII Plll(HI '!lll
"0661 jJppol_1 "fI/J~l ,,~.ldl·;)'
.UU~ p~lIrlp Inll "'11 ·l.Jd.• JI\ .1111 pUt· '1Ill·.lJh ,)11 1
'PUl'1 pJ1II1'1" JO IU:lIII>'1p,ll \lou'tJC J!J0Is!lpJd \1I1'
011'"'-'1' '! 1/-"1111\ ''''&)1' IU.:lI,;tll .nu 'uo!1I'dluJ(J JO
JO 3'ii1'q ,)11111' lqnup nu .1.'1;'1'\ ,';)IJ ·5.xHI 1!05 'S.UJIlOS
r.:t.n: ~I pu-edu "I ,dUJ.lIlI· 11'" nllh_.IUIH\ '1'11 IP!I{\\
-;U\I'P 'J.lll· \\ JU \llll(I"I!C \1' sU0!1!PUOJ 11:.111\1"11 '~"1
'.lOJP. UJ;o'{UI'''; ;>111 u...."p p.nr...Jd.lp w ... 110. ,nl,LII'
-.)IIlJJ,\·l" ·.II'lI'I!n"lIl:JlIllllJ Si.: SI·,1.II.' JI·IIl.l!UI·d ).l.lFh
Jot{J '.IA'1 "I'nj({ "1/1 i1ull,.,d:u .11.... Wf.JI VUlllll .11/1
p.xlpll IllItl \\ ·...'11·1<1111.)1 .H!I!Ir..iClJ 1I!1'UJJ JO .l.lIIJh!XJ
JO dt)1 .IlfJ ,....ifJur< .\..0./1 'UUIlI'U\P .I" III >ll 'ru l'UIl.! J( ~
.llll .)lI'J1PIIt 01 \UU.l> .):]\. J.l(ldo:) .111-1 .'lIp ~u!-,llP
Oll't"jJnt .Jtf1 :;lndmJ 01 p.IUP1' ~J"'IIl." l-..l~ .141 '\
\1' :Ill' .'UII" .up 11' uOlll'dl\.uO \:!uu.Ul.l.)j '\lIl'u!.:1
\U 1ft i'-O '1 \rl ..'llJ" KoII'lI!lll .HII .11Il1\,
-<.>Wg 10 0l:>U~ .I'll d""', ....Of•.IJI' '11'1 \1'lll"l " J.l\"1 IOU .'If)
({j.lI·....U p.l11·n I.. ,1.1,11\ \1l1.l11[.l[lI.l\ ,1111 .'1.111 J,)II 11 'IIUI\I' \ll
~, U'OIUlI)lJ1 "JI·U'''j.lr, Illl\\ pUI" II'!PIJ,)J'"OI
'1 11 ) JfJJ p .... n'I'nWllIllIUU pili' \11,\1'.111 \1'" 1111'.111' .llp
"p-\ ~ W WW; I 'UI".li! WlIljJ.llIl pUt' ~Il",,) Ill! 11
Jl'l 1 1U'q ~PI .JIII "" 1',1.'11' .llp \I'IP ,.III·lIPU! .)IIUpn,l
~ "! p.'I'.Q! .>I{I 'l'IllIrlrlrlll j"I p .....l \111'11"1'1'.1
"llll! 'WII\I'(hll.M! I'~n U!l'lIl ,IIIIIII!.\\ p.lll.lllllO I ~PlllJ

£Z lJ';jn
I.lC\ 2 'ITO'lI) COI'I'~.R .\CI: ~1:rrl.~:'\'L'IT
\round HOO ne ralibr:lI<:d \cf. b.... lolll..1 11<'\1 M'III..,·
;nrm Li~,I:2 II,IS e~I.lbli,hed .11 lhe \il ..·. L""\'d
It'n~lrr. were ,-I\';110::d on Ihe l'Cl1I:lill\ of lht· l.ij.t;! I
dlle1lill~, r;l\1~ing ,cvere <!o::,II'IIClioll of till' dchl;' of
Ihl' pI~\'iom occUp:lliollal phase. The f"rl lhal Ihe
10" hOll~1' lIIound; eomplised of llllhl11'1lcd d.l\ \\.t)
.lppI~d,llctl. prO\;dil1g linl' and casil) formed fOUI1(I.I·
tion~ for Ih..., IIl'\I dl\t:lIings. Such lawI':'! llull' good
fioo",. l'1\,lhlill!:" Ihe pl~Sl'r...;uion of a colterenl SUrf.Il'I'
durilll.': Ihl' t,ltlin: USl'·lifc of a dwclling.. b ,I con,\\,-
qUC'IlCf, u:rr.t,in!:" was more proUOllllC'ct! nOli ,md:1
mort' daoor.ttC' dcliigll of Ihl' >Ctllcml'lll cn::llcd. 1111:
arch;!~c,t1 inve-<ug:.luon \1";15 Illainh t'oIlCl'ntr~llcd
on lilt' m,lIl'nal \ CStil:"t-'S of thi..-. <.cUICllU:nl, ,
lllf"(,~ dll·dlilll.,"S Wl'n: rul1~ ill"~lig,ll(~1. 111flr
prr-tt\'I"d po-~ ob \-.;:U ;I.lo IM f"\lmt of dc!;lruc- iOClllirlr.IUOll W:b C'a.\i\ due co the fact th,1I Ihe -('Itle-
tion dthn.... ".I» ;.6 m. 10..- R.).. >1' msi<k I!~ hOllS(' ,,-a:, men! of Ij~ 2 was bt;mL-d do'I·n. and r\:ddi,h bUnJcd
Iimr pL1.-t~ PI. 3. :.-.onda~ 8.\ Onh onc !a\er <bub c1c,lrh OUllin -d the smIClUI'O>. III lhl' nonhent
If l\nor nlUkI 1x I"f'COl!1lL'C'd. C~I111pult'r'.lidl:d li$l- \).In of lhe a:('a\~.II -d arc;!. numerous lime,lone' "frC'
imul.ltinn.'- IT\Tai Ihal "rult'nine.llftl....of" i. Iht' IDIbI di)('()lcn'd. \I hiclt di'pla\'cd a scmi.circul:tr or o\,,;d
clfn.."ti\T lIlt-.!.lb 10 i~ illulIlllUUon ofioct'nOr1i;h pallem. SlOll\,\ in mch ~onligtllmions ,11'1' ohliou,1I
1i1.':11I b rdlC'd~ ('IT the noo.... 1~ll"'<Il 2003 . B, ron- , ,,'\(\'1.'1\
~lnlCIUI~11 fc.:alllrc,. m f.U:l hO\l~t' IOU1\( UIIOI '.
I~I. "hil('1\ing oflhe 'I<tll~ art' not addiuA mort' lighl IIhell I.lc\(inll; prcSl'!"'cd bnnlcd dauh. r
10 dIe mlt'nl.""I.l <11.!.cc..\l Ill<.' SE ~"lmer of the hol\!;('" HO\l..c ! \1';\. di'\Co\'cIl:d almost CXlICII) on lOp "
11 -a, p.m of .I I"el.~1\l.lr 'tone !l.1.I·Clllcnt made of" ;ucr- Ihe house f1\)11l lhc prniolls oceuplllioll111 IU1I;1.0 11 ·
IH~m "cll·<;(InOO robbl", of "md,tonc and bro\\11 flim With a sli~hl devi:uiOIl 10w;\1'(I< dlC EllSI it f01l0l,"('1I
rt',ldlinl.': 10 12Xj-1ll CIll in ,i1.(' Fit:, 11.5. Bcmnd ,',
IIle onCIll.Lllon 0 rI H:
i"car lcr eon)l1't1( ,'''11
lu 1'1 . 2.
Iht, ..,udi1\(' or me hou-,:,I)n Iht' wUlhcm ..tope, \~'aS'\ Hou~ 2. as could bt: dL'{!uccd from the ocr:l>io l1.LI
OCCUlTl'nc..· 0 r large frngtnems ofpollcl"\. ",L' I - .
thi.-l t1\er of di....-.mkd polte~. ,mim;d bonC:!i and )<)~,ihh
'lollC t,~Jb. .lI1lOnl: \\hidl hamm('r '-tonc" "c:re th.., aho Co\crin~ I"('m:lins of a pn:\;om comlrtlction, ,11·
l1ll In:qUClll- Onc o( dK" mOl" <prcl.lcular limb l.hou~h the rdalion<hip bcl\\CCIl the 1\\0 ,1l1.IUUtl"
"'>Inl'" from the af".!. ilbidc dk" h..lL.... <;(InWl.':c 9\'. 1
could 1101 be csmbli,hoo due 10 I.lck or 11101'1' ,lIb"I,1I '
Liga 29

III in \,idlh .mrl n.R III d,..,), fll"\ no", lw\'t' rn-
cinloo Ihe f"l\Ii~ lullo.. J.. hI!. I I t, I hi, I",... h "Ill'
dUI! 10 C~"Il' -I""t"pn lop.'_. III p.tn" nur 1''l\I,I,u.
Ihe \\""'1. ,\ I"Nhnk- l.j nn In rll.lm..ltT l1<';lr ilK'
In'nch 011 Ih,' \' .....' ..01 -lop.... pc-rh..ap' illmr;l 1haJ.
.1 fenc( \I,1lI 1'1tt1C"d .U"111! Ih(' 11l;'1\< h. ""p.lr:l,iI1C UI('
L11ler from Ihe ....· ltk"l\"nl. nit 'un. \ In-,,, ~ .-bo
pnl\oo Ih,ll di"".,rd of \I.\'"' \1,\' Inlll",lkd Onh
Iltloil(llifIC.,m amount' of ,h,ml, from tI... I.i.:.. ~
<enknll'llI \'f"1l;' di.....·... H·1l;'<1 nil t/1<' I,~"", .IIul ... tiE
foe'l of Ih(' hillocl.
Finalh. il ,hllllld h..· nOlrd Ih,u .1 h,lndJUI n/ ..... Ih.. r
lial <kbn,. '111l" .1I"Ca E.~I (If 1-1011«:" :1 \'.15 u~ filr uil! .md tlli,L-II.ull..1 ,h.anb. \,m,llIlt"ntC"d Ililh dC"''1,h
diSC;lrd of broken pOllen, lood r\·lIl.1in,..'lId ""'P'·'" incL'<'(llil1..... ,md pit_. Oh"ll Ililh ... hilt lim.. illrm....
ci;uh .15hC"" 1'1. 3. G D I1Il" <.,.111,' -<)11 of m:m·ri.d I.mon. d.,t....I In Ilw I~"'h Cnp!'.:r \ ...... (.,.........JIIUI .....
I'~IS discoWl'cd .Il Ihi. 'e.... ,ill" ill Lilfo' I. 111l" .H"C.l (\1hu~ \H~1l;' 11."lI1d ril:. 11 7 111.' di ,rilnui'H, "I
hclo\l 1·lou"l" 3 \I .I~ llUl full\ ill\'t..'lit::II,,-d. bill e1e,lr Ihc''': _It.lrd~ .11 !..ill.1 d,II:' nOI !'H'_nu .lm l>;lrti, u1ar
Ir;u:~ of pn'lioll~ occUp.ltiOll \len' ,,<t.lbla,hed. (kill' 1),I!lem, "","('pl Ihal Ihl' hit:he', llulllbl"T. 1ll,'1I' IhlTt"
OINl~lIing Ihal '-llder 'lI1IClIlr:,1 rel11.dn.> \lere 11'o,..d 10 ,h.nd•. 1'.\' li/lmd ill Ih,· "."ll" ,Ill'" .11 I/nu...· l. ...-"
(1"C:lle •• klel Icn~.(I'd p1..lfol1ll lor .1 IIC\I (h'ellillll. '11ll(1U1l"o I'" f,,·.lIuT\'"' 1.1ll I..· l'd,w:d III Ihi.. I"·rind.
risilll.l hi~l1<'r Ihall llulI'" :!, ,.n·clI"ilint! 10 Ihe ""(Cl- 1111' ,-.id ,h.ln!- ,Ill h.I\I' ,ran'_ "f ........ ,.Il;' " ... ",K!.'f\
\~,tion pl'Ofih- PI. J. ,\ HI. bun,illll. '" Ih,' mO·1 ,Ipp.m·m "·'I'I.lI1.11i,," ._ Ih,ll Ih('\
IH·r>.- blUUt:!H ", tl1l' 'lit' h\ Ill\" Lil.!.• ! inh.,hu,UIl-.
Ib~ed 011 the,e ulN'" .'Iion, il l.lll. lelll.lIlI·el\. be
.lS$,"ncd lh.1I lite g.,!, 1)<'I\lC"1I 11", 1\10 -elll,'rnelll.> p.,:rh.,p' .1' e,nli..... du,' 11' tlu'ir t1i_llllt,i,,· om.unt·l1-
,,~,~ Ilot (If .1 ,ignili,"ull lenglh. e,ell ,hulII;:h il i. I.Hion .1I1d e(lnH~"lil1t: uril:hl ll'il u,louL 11,,· .1'......... 1
l11:lrk"d h)' :, (h~lII':l\i,· ('h:lllt:,· in I)<llh·....· Il"t.·hno!o!>\ ~·llkl11l·1I1 "f 1,:,.rI\ COPI""1" \lll" ..1.'1" .- ..i'Il.u... l ill"
.lfTU"_ d,,' ,m:.lI11. 1111" !'....lnlil.· .ill' .ol..., lidd ..... 1-
(scc 1.1..-10"').
Thc l.ig;' '! inhnhil.ull~ ,11.-0 m.lClc lIlooific.lli,'n, d"nu' "n .1 n.nll.lllr.II .....1 (iT:.d.... lmu'"' ...·uklll..·I1I.
.\p.lTI from Ih,l1. 1111'1'1' i, ullh "m' m<l,\·ln''''11 L.trh
10 Ihe hillock, With IIIl' help of 1\1" 'u........ ,rel1\h,·,
aCl'O", 111C \I",[I'm .lI1d ,oUII",nI ,101>1", il h,._ b':"n COPP"!" \~......·ul,Ill<"lll in.1 n,inil\ .,t ldi-h li.n....."
<lcmOIlSl1,Il"d Ih.II .• ,h,.lIu\I dilCh VI' Irrnrh. C,l. 1.5 Ill!H
30


tU: 11 Q ,:,;,'" 11"""" \i:'r 1">I'..n Imm U~.,

''C- IIIl. , ...... d ... 1Iwdo .............-d '" lloo- ,...... f!.r,_ \l:r
p< dimerniom heint: 1..iOx 120X 1.13 m. Th,' (I.,rl..
brown et,,\ loom fill can be ........ooalcd wilh domo:,m
"cU\itih. IOdlldin~ fr.u,'1llclll,'(1 pOller)". :t fe" hom.'''.
and othcr o~lIic m,L1en,ll,
LIe;. \ (OM"JI. \(.1 (L\It:llJl.\
_\lo,()o al Ir~1 10 fmglllellt'> of 011,' di,tinCliw \I·......d.
TIK' U\rol ':' ...,tUrmnIl "OL' .mandnllcd ..heT J. confLl_ panh intact at the li1llt: of dllx>-iLion. \'en' recor<kd
~'I\l. The: prtoomit\ of C-l-l and .\.\h (1;11('\ ;l.\-ail.
from Ihr uPI)tr layen of Ihe pit !;'j!-;. Il.S. 'Illi~ n,<;..cl
able fnun Rf-duUlt' .md Ul;.l Imp!"'" Uul '01.111 arln
dilfc~ much from the main bo(11 or E... td} UrOlllc. \lole
th.. ilbandonmcm {If tht: U~ 2 ..... ttlcnK'lIl J. 1\(\,
Sh"rds di,co,.cred on Ihe s;le. b~)lh in lem,.. of.' \cn
..ntkmem "'~ Nabli"}lf'd .1\ ROOUUlC, RL-dutitt' 11
fiO(' sand ",aull\':. In,:diUlll bT"O\'lI colour. and .1 fine
"Ilk" ahandonmcm Ilf UIr.l ..ilt' Lt, l<'d until ca. -woo
~urfac(' fini~h. It i~ decor.lIo:d w;lh \el) ..hallo"
BC..\1 Wt tim\;. the ""ul!K'm pan of UK' sile was
",,1l:'(1<"d for 01 ttmMCI'\ ",ith 'C:'\'rr.U burial\. In thl' ~C!i racmhlint: lIulln~ !';uh"r 111,111 I-;rominl.:

('":X(:ilulni an~ a1f)!\('• ...:"ot"l\ l,'r;wn 11a\'r' I~n di...


hrncc oflen C'.tlkd Ihcudo-IhllCSI. "hich .,ro: oTJi-l1l-
CI1\'t'rM. Ollt" ~\t' hnldin~ "-'maill\ of IWO indhid_ i-ed in .I hcnin~bOI1C p.lIlem. r\ 6 n1ln bmad 1];,1-
wh. loo "ii\l1llhCOllI\ di",O\'t'r'> i. <bcribed in Cha(l'" lopped 1001 w;u applil'(l for dl'(:or.tliol1, Such dt:cor-
Icr XI bd,,\\ alioll i~ (ommon during lhc Co\ofcni [ pha~t' (ROllloln
19;6. In Ihe ,"UIlt: pil were olhc,' E"lrh' 1I1'ollzt: r\~t:
..hards with exaCI p;mllld~ from lh.. 'ucighhoUllng
!Je,,\ 4 L\RI\ IlRO'1l. 'C1. ~ilt:S:n S"do\'cc, 111 lIlOSI c"ses. EMIr BfOll~,C !\t;t: pal'
Durin~ tilt' \...;.Id. Bmn7J' A~.. Ill!" cx('.w.llcd art:a "'" ICl) could ht: ~p,tr:ued c;l,i1r from Copp•.:r Agc pN-
pan of .. marwn,tl .Kti,;\\ ;wne for a ~lIlcmcm lcry dUt: 10 ilJ, mediu1ll lO CU,lI'st: \,Il\d~ lhbrk~ ,lIld
hi~h .. r up 'Jl\ lh~ 11J.lll-,tu. "!lIT (OCf'UIl;llion,,1 dellri. Qf rou~h fed, since OllWmtl ~lipped surf:,cc~ "t:rc ralcl~
Ihl> ,,;t!, !l.In], IIwrl"llllinl\ th,- t'a!llo;Ol lirnil, of lht; preserved l;'j)). IL9, The ril11s "re lI~lmlll' ('I~lllCI:ll'·{1.
U~a 2 ":Il]cmrlll. ,<.' hll' ''«'11 "''''l.lhli,hcd Ihroulo\h ~Iraight ur I:\'cned, ,l11t! olicll willl :1 row or perfi)r,
dnUm~. Ill!" full ('''Will <,f LIl<' 1l"11l/.t; '\I:~ '>Clll~1I11:1l1 aliOllsjU\l helm, lhe lip, 11I(i~cd dccOI"li"t1 i.. f(l\l~ld
nnl drl'·!ll,inrd. hUl 'un.Il" Imd, from lhe ~llr,
"'il.'o 011 Ih e h'tIldlcs, \,hi(;h ;11"<' eilht:r b...."d Itu ,llld nb-
TQundilll: fi.·ld, POIlI1 "1 a tom id"l";,hl,· ,i/,e. Ik...id,,, l~n-..h:tpt.'d or .....mi-o\'.,1 ;lI1d 1I:"'1'OW. t\pplit:d del"OI'-
..c;aurred 1)l,U.. !) ,h,,'nl\. f'mnd ll'U.t1, in ~rtor 'I dUOll is knO\l1l 'I) well. Such clt'nH'IIl.\ of dCC01~llioll
On.. pll I' ""lh n'n.um~ dntil,UlnllH lh•. LlI.\. 'Ill: ha"e :, vc"-'.,
I, n.M( I ~p,l\m
. , (1"l1hullllll
,. . . ,. ~llht:l
.IU( " ,.
h..d all 'J\..J ,h;'IW .m,1 "~ "ti~'Il.11t.u', '" , IOllR ll:ll\por:,l dur:lIioll,
, , -. • 11<'
Compamli\t' lll,lUcl)' is I(lund ,11 ::l;ldo\,<"-
I.iga
3/
Golt'm'llImn K.,It· I ,xlnr"I,' Ill/lll: 111I1:!. S,ldo\"\'I'
K.t1t·1u (1II1pllhli~ll<'d. ,I .,1 ... ,\<". ,md .\Inll~..Ji('\'(> Ill!' 'up \\.1 pl.",·(llllUJ, Ill" 1"1,,1 '"" um.I,'"
\ ,','C·I, \.ilh 1.,Ulll'lk ,h"ri/"l1l.,IJ~ lIUIN!. ""fl' rlr Hr-
CGer ll'lI IIJ;q. Clo,(' p.II.t1II·I~ .m· "I... , [rJUlld.H rn(Jr!'
"I,·t! I.ith I ',rdnl .rll,l, "uliufll 1Il1!,r< 1<111 "r niM-rl
di.~1.1II1 ~ill'~ liI,,' LlNo Inl\l'!' hmi/1II1\, AI fino,l(in
in fi· Iflllll ,\ hill hill(" I"w' \\., IIIH,IUl "11 Ih(" um.
('I "I. 1l1;1)}. "llll,ll~il" IIlI'l'r hrn;"ntll. X\', XII
liL,· 11' ,,:],. 111111''' h"IL" 111"m Immr,lwI,.h .drrr
K.l\il1l~'.Il·OI Cl .d. l'I'n •. md Dil..ili I.rlh 111" St'feri.
Ih.,r. till' pr' \\.1 Idl,·tl \\ilh lh.. 1111" Ill;t ll .. ;a, rJUlr
.1(1l-~ 19%,.
illl o . 'Hil from 11ll' 1'1\\,· I I.I\<""" b.. ill\{ Illm" " ··It."K
Thl' nlltur;d profih' of Ill<' I"r~('r Tdi.,h rcXioll i~
illllJ il' oril,.-in.11 h"ri",u, I hi .lI 1'/.111. "".l-V'C! VImt
1101 ~,·t ('omplt'lnl. EX('.l\",iorb h\' 11, "i)(/urlJ\"a "lld
(only,i,,,. in rnfll{llili"n "' Ill., C,"I,'11l .1l"J 'lrpdr "i
\'. \'dkOl III 19iH ,tt S.ldoH·r.Goll'IIJ,1I10'O K.t1e ~I'e
Ih(" pil, 1)I".lrilll; ill numl Ih.!1 Ir"m hN 1~I'1 lh.. dis-
~rollllds 10 ~uPIXJn 11ll" ~lllC~I'~Il(lIl b) P Roman of
(IJ'ntd fr.:lI~ml'lll "fum'lll" \,. .....·1 "'llh IIIClr hLo:k
the CXi~lcllcC of.1 di~tillCI cullllml unil Il'mwd Orka-
~hill\ 'Urf"l" . n''''mhll'd Ih" p"llrn "f Ih.· J~, r
S;ldOH"C cultUI"C '11.I"'orO\";l I!JlJ:? HrmCH·r. r("("I;!It \ot·lunnrlll.
n:comidl'r;l\iom of .'I'.lil;lbk. lhotl~h lill1ilfd d.Il.1 ~U£:­ 0.1)(1 m I" rhl:' ~lIh "f 1111 I'll "';1.' ,I nn ul..r h.al-
~L'St Ih;ll Or!t'.I-S"dO\oc 'hould in r.'CI bt, ';"\wd .15 101' pil dillll'Il"'''l.' "f 1.11I,clIlI; III Ihl. , .."won!
., southern 1,'I;;'rIl ofCo\ofeni' cuhull" Ak\(.,llldl'O\' Ibl, of chaRo.t1 .lIld I.IJlCI·r PWl;" ,.f1.11, If'lollt'd ... ",od
1992: 1996. ChrolloloJ.:lc"II\. it eorT't"ponds "llh lhe up 10 ; cm ill di.Illl<"Il'l', and "illl III \i ih,.. rin~
cnd of Co\ofeni I ,15 n:('l)rdcd in S-:'\'\\ Romania 1"'0 "',nlpl,..... of I"wxl t..L'·1I rmm lilt' I'll "',.n· ",,"t'\,'o
lhe n,III.11, Tr;III~ h ,lIIia..md ~ Ohl·"i.1 . \k~.lIIdrO\ nizt'd I" (.. ~1.,llIln,.. 1, :\.lIion.t1 -'Iu....urn "r
1992: 1996. Consequt'llllr, the Ikollz,' . \~,. pone.... Dcnm,'rL.•1' b"illll (nl/ll dmduou,."'" (~.....n u p.
from UIfo' ~hollld ,,1'>0 be (Lm·d lU E.'rl, Urolllt·. \~e I'rob.lbl" lhe 1\\" pilI .lIl'· .......ltl.ll.'tf. lh.. h..1I"" orlt'
I. Di;'1o,'11o-;tie flilll ,'l'lef:1t1S ~uPIM)n Lhis d.lle, bcill~ t~ ...' lilt' fln·pl.IIT \\hrtl" Ihl" .. 11"'1' \-nIIl'b
Fin:tlll. il \hould be.' lIIemi(llll·d Ih.1l a fc\\ ,h.,rd, n:('ciH'd Iheir '<~:(lI1d.lf\ huminI,'".
\\t're found "hieh nti~hl be: ,1Ilribrued 10 IIIl' L.llt· \11 four If"->cl, \\ell" irl('IIuhed I" \1 Drmilr.... a.
ISronzt" A~e. Thrir pro,en.lllee i, unkno.. n. 1I,~IOril.t1 ~Iu>('ulll of I ~"" h. !lull:.'n...... "llrr-rnw.
lin~"lJflh,· B.~wrabl (u!turt'. Ivun.1 I>n I"'lh h.mb "I
Ill(" 1..0'\<'1' D.lIluhe i".. in ~Julhl"m R"ul.mu ..od
UC \ 5: !-\tU,Y IKO' \(;1. Xonhem Bul~.u-j.. Ilt).. l, "ill,lhllt"fl nm .t' " ..II.t,
Around H75 BC 'dmreo.d. L';1-20li09. 2725=10 BI' 1::1111\ \\ilh 1.111 h.,lldl...... M" ,.id.-l, 'I'"'.,d III till fn..'1"n
.1 slI,mgt' rirual ..." takill~ pl.L1I' in lIlt' el'lllr:d p,art of IhroLJl;hoLJl lh(' .. hok ,., till; 1..lrI. lom \1.:" .. hil,.
Ihe hiJIod.. of UIf.', An 0,,11 cleep pir of I.OOXI.26X um~ .. ilh r.dl. h"riwnt.t1I\ floned u('( k, .!rt' I, I "m-
1.12 III " •• ~ dug ,llld.1I 11·;....1 fi,ur H' ,,·1. pial cd ill il mon..\ hnc ,-omp.It"un· m.rll·n.d" Ih"pl.'H·rJ b, Ill"
.11 lhe bouoln IIIl' .m'" hdl)" pmfill' h....lk, p.lIth ~rr;:.. ·c ~"()(" uf 11ll' ....vfmtril.. 1I HUIlUlu', \ ·r.u., fn..'1"1l
il1lrr,it'clil1l:: Illl' pil. \\.r~ nOl mH"li~ll"d .md I~i!,')' 1I,1Il\CI 11l7h U,,,->cd "11 1ll1'1.t1 hnck lh" rnhunwullll
holds addi,iOll.,1 infonmlliorll Fif.:' H.ln I. Dll;"'II1~ l,"r.:'H· ".,s d,H"d I" Ill!' 71h cerrrUf\ lJe '-I, IM, .ill
lhe pil ".1. lInl .111 e,l'}' 1...L, ,intt' lIre pl.ll"'t· eho'>Cl1 "·urpnr.:11 o'llcnlllo.' lIf II.I'-lr.:,h, 1Tl.III'n.,1 h,,,-, I)<"en
hdd Ihiek drbri, "fhUrllnl COppl'I' '\l,'e d.1U1l bdollr,:- .Ichi,·\"t"(l lhrough ('urrd.rIJHlI' "id, rnrl.d fln<l It i,
iug 10 rhe ",,11, 1,( Ilul"e 3. I'I·rh"1'5.m ... rempl 10 genemH, bdined Ih.1l Ihl' 11.1.... ,1'.,111 luhu,,' 'l.lnn!
exp.llld lhe pit ill dirTeli'lIl of •..o lll·r ,()il~. re"Jlled ill amrmd BOO IIC .wd•. lllllrdJIII: III dilrt'rirll: .11·'"
ir,. ,'bl<'r,g form. 1\11 ,,·...,d~ h,'ld rr."'·' or ,e'l're M.'('- ni,led I,ll 1/11' hll, III 11,,· 1111 'I·trlll" lie II.ul>c1
ond,rrr huminI-:. irwhrdiu)o,' ., h",d will, fhlll·d ~ip '~J1d 1'l7lil.
11 big Clip "'irh "ne h;llldh' lo.'0illg hrlo.'ll .r1Jo1n·I' us nrn. ,\ "'Ilkrnenr III 1'..11'1. Imn .\~t· d.lIl· ".1' ,,1'·Iluli,..1
.Il till' fUlIl "f 11,.. pl.'lr,'u "'JIll' llHI n...I,'1' ,"'-,ulh ,'1
rhl' 111.:.1 hill,,,L (:'·l'Illl'.IM·I",,'nrm, 1."L".llli.
\\ lit. f,," "" "pi;""'..•11 rll<' Ih~","~"' ,.f 'h" I"""'''' l'"hht~'j(IO'
,Il" ",... k In 1,,~d.1 .\1." '"l..,;lr, Jl \ ,~, ,h. I~"",~ rh" ,,,·,,..1
<l",,,,,,~", 1'1 I,,"jn·' 1"''''''1'''''' '"'' h"\" 'h" ~"ll",,, ~l< llT~r,,·
"n,r.""I"""~'"""d,,,(1 \1.b.." .... \I\I"' .......
... ~.d ,",,,,,d..
fill c..",... I '''(''<II,.HI'''' ,..... ""d,L", h.... ,~, .. ,,,'
:tl

-atl"lI"lI ~ dNrll\ro I" Ill(' modrnl 1,,1ot: ;ll1d oul\ 11 pro,ickd II1fo.,n,\lioll (/11 C\lIllI'1lI1)llIoU)' 1)/1111"1") ,I~
Ihr ocriL\lnn..oI \hard <:...11 1~ r,'llllti on il' ban4-
I,dl ;\~ 1l1·W~ nil Ihe d,'lil1jo; of IS''',ll~lhi "',,,,,1<, ,,,
'I,ncn.tl uf Ill(' l~r" In>!, '\I,'l' is oflen fmulti ill Ili~
IM§t"d on Ollt' r.uh,·r pn-ci!!C t\~IS dale.
";Iholll de..r 'lruclund .LRLlialiOI1I nr r\'l;n 11LL'l1O'il"'.
(,\"(m,:;n.L 1')<11 ~mclill1l"\, 111( Wl1lrllU an; sc-"kd
hy mud pl,!lolc,- " c<mlp"r"lJlr \ilualio1\ ha~ Ix-.:n
Il.u",-uhol,m;call} an..lp_cd III M bll.;\rm" and 1 IJ(;\l.l.\II.Ai\IIQLIl"Y ~lljCl...' IUK\ ,\1)
~Ief"rtO',1 1"".;\lm" ,md ~llfan<J\.1 I!.I'J7' It "~po ·l1,c pcriod het\\crll Ihe hll n'ulUI)' ,lIld llll" ('1111 1)(
Ihe blh AI) in M,me \I\ldit·~, lhe Ill"l-:illllilll> Hf Ihe
I"'alm Ihal " 'Ill' from ., .... "1I-d I'.:irll Iron '\lo\c pil
I'll nu. 3 ,Il Ihc MlC IJf LII,·f,hmma Itogo zino\'u '11- 7lh AI)l is knuwlI in lInlloi'lri:1 a~ 1.IIt, Allliqnil) (~l'
1.'1,"', !)"ulhc""i'llI lIuh:;nill rolll,lined ,I con.;dcr.,hle r..lrll' 1I}"I.:uuinc ll<"tlod. AI Tdi_h, '1'ltll'l11l"ntS ofll'"
,1ll1"Urtl of \I,,'d~ of Lt'n, eulillan!i I,'mili; fnllU "fRu. 11I'nud, .lIld 1110\1 l'mllolbll' ,11", " "'''H'''''}' "n'
m,'" '11. \I'nc!" C,n,·x lp, ....·d~d, and >omc \Ct'd, or knO"1l fm m hU111 hallk~ (11 lIlt' IIU,d('I'11 1:1k,', IH,I Ih,'
Trif"liUll1 'p n,'I;\!" du, cri "Cr<' ..1"1l f"und. n'll1llilll :U,· rapidl)' rli"lPIIC,Il'illlo\ dn,' I" dig_ ,'Ild
11", CU1LU'ul ur Ill.. Ul(a pit "", nlll im'l;<;li"';\I..d Ilt'cll III"llloillillg II} lh,' Ill"'~lIn' It'llll,'r,;. TIll" ('1\11 "j
IMI:u·ulll'lani\ ,,111'; lll"\ .-rlhck " IlIe filiI! i~ ,m ""pon_ 1~"l1l' t\lIliquil) i~ ll'llll'M'lIWc! ,11 Ug".
.1111 c'lluribuUllll lQ lhe 'IUIl} or dl'· Lid, Iron "1:"" 1\ I.,rg.·, bUI ,h.,II,." pil ("I,I.'\;. dllil"ll,i"",: ·Ij)(
2.1xO.t1 nIl ",I) l\·n>rdl"(t on Ill<" ",ullll"rll slup"s "f
33
11H' ,il'.. p.IIII"II) d"'I1<'\1II1( (:"PllI'r '1:" 1;1\1"" 'I
tl1l' "HUIt"11I ,·t!Iol" "I Ill\' I'" II.'~., pil,- "t '1"11'" ,,,·il.:-
ill.,tilllt 1""111 .' 1.i,l(,1 I IM\"lru'llt hI:. 11', '1'1""_
1'11111, tin' 11011"111<'111 hi",I",.. d 1IIl1ltrr ,1I1(1(1I1Jo: "f lit,·
pit; :'111"111111' I'''''' m,ult' eo 11'111011,' Ilu' 'Wilt·" hut
"\1'11111.,11\ Ihl' I1lill.llI\I· ".1' .lti't"ll up 11,,- 1."ltlltU "I
Ihl' pil ehl," t"ltm" thl' ud.",' "I Ilu' ,tmw I h, pit
h.•d " 1,lI11I'1' nw,I.". "PIl,lr .. mll rnl'Ull(ul.'t I.""",
.iu,' mU' h .• lf "I tIll" pl\ \'.l\ ,-0(, .'I,'I,·d. II1U, h n''''lII-
hi illR Ih.11 "I ., I'" h""...· ""1"\ lu·lt, rtl\(,'III" "" •• 'nh'm,
of Ih., pit. ill.ludi,,1.: 'm,tll h"l(1111'm, of IM,n.. 1") ,md I ne. II 11 I'. . n d... I .. I... \'''''l''P'! ...... ,••••
;lIIil11 •• 1 hOIIl"" '111(1(1"1 Ih,t! Ih,' 'Inll nu .. ",h 1I"'d fi,r
••n"ml.'I) d"IM",11 of ",,,It· Ril(lu ,'I 11lt- ",utheOl
nll.:\' Clflh,' pit \\,l\.' ,1t,.II,,\\ lM,I\lholt- "uh., dl.lIn,·ln
of 15 Im; rhi,., dllull1ln,l) ,"""Nl,1,,-d "ieh 1111' I'". "f ('lit. ',fill H"n 1'~III/I;UIII I\iu, I ill! H( .d.
hUl i~ p"'l)IO...· i' 1111, ,'rt"in 111<' lW.tr,·,1 1.,,(' ,,,. "hil.- ,,'I,lli\1 .hro'll'~f>l[\ 'U~ I .. d"r.'llnll "f eb.-
ei{luie~ ,,'nll-ml'nl \,." idnll;hnl durinl( '111\\"" It' • CIlPIM."r \l(" .,f !I1111 '1(11) \'-Ir 1'111111 ,a.-1I1 !l11I'
1I1.ll. !1Il,l 11\ : \ " "t 111(,1 '1'1111111(: 1,,1 (;"""1,,,,1& n"J... lJin I'''''.
rh(' IMl1l"T) dl"U\I"rt'd III 11... ,,;e hmi, '· .... Irl 1'.'1',,1. 'n..,hrr p,,,hl,,,", tlt,u ('.1 I ,lw' h.. j",,,·n ,11"lIlt
Id. in ,1 ... m,lI....i.11 1<110\111 htll11 ~"d'l\N" KUJ'l1l.lnll\ ',~,I)I) "nd '4l1li'11(' wnd r., ,Iu'l"r III '''""In IIr'f1INi..,
II)I,!, I1 i\ " 1II"UI'r III 1tM"t1 1)('11,'1\. ';1'1'\ in ('"lout, ,. 1'1lu""'M."n,'n .. huh " 11'" rd"I...1 u, ',Ihl'r"",,n
lII,ul.· "f ""'I·Wql..,-,,,1 d,l\ wi,h""1 ,111\ C('II1I'I;rir1l: ,"" r elll' IM·".lIlunlf "Ihllr,'II"" I UI\I' ch pt.. no
inl"ll1"o", Uf n •. l\il1~ III ,11l' ""LIf.' lil(_ 11.11 ,'11 nil.. ,un "pl.ufi>nn'- "r rh .. 11~.. nu • It""".........,..u
Iht di'll.\nl,d lim h,l~mnm nllt...,.,clI Lie. hr-m."r." lX'<'ult~ril\, .. hi,h .."t."" ru h.. 11, ,,1...1 Ihr''''IfI''''1I
10110\' iUl( Ill\' \1I1(1:<'\II'd d,tlml: hum So,doll'l", till' SE tun~)(·.I.lIl1lnl hr hlll\ ,. 1'1.11" 1"1 ron..-nc P,-r,
rim' d.,e<' It) 11'1' hell ,I) KUflll.tlltl\ 1'1'11.11(1 h,ll>' "" dUI' U, ", \"1 uI1Ln, ..... pll\uc.tl f,"l"r hue
" ..m' Il~dl r.. ch., mlhu""r "I ......'1......1 '''''"1'..1
l,hul<'I11"11.1 '"'J.IlllH·\ 1'1"1 ~lUdll" m,,,l.- I", \\.lr-
,',\I~ IH 11 '\0 ,:\n 1'0SS[III.1, .\N{)~I.\I.lI:"-; reil ,till! Il.ml..", 111 till" \,.~\,U1 h~\l' "I.. ,II,·",,'n·
"1",1 lIul/:.ui.1II C-I I d.I"'\ h,'\I' I,,'r" I:,·ru·l.llrd I" "r,'ll'd 11"'1 1.1I1,,,••u I" 'n et,u.-- e"II' I u" lu In ,11I,llh.. r
,Ill' Ill',liu G-III.lhuc,llon, \\nhl" Iltt' fi,ltl1l'IWtl.. of Ih"lr .,pp,,,n1\!. ,Ill" 'l'n,1t11 Ilrri, ...l,. \.hi,h ,I/\' n,,1
IOUpCI,.li"1I inili.lI"d in I')hl 11\ eh." 1.11"".u(>1\ 11 \,11\1,,,,(11,, Ill<' C_II ....·.lUt·It"· \\,1111'11 '''111 II.."L",
Quill'l & (;. Kuhl ,Ul,llh., lIull(.ni,<I' [11,111111., "r\r- I'mil [h,' In",r I"HIIOUIlI"d 1(.11' III ('-11 11,,,<,, Ill'
dl"t',,1I1h1 {G, (;c'''l'.I:i... ,'i; 11 1"dlll\I\,I, 1Il7',tlllll['" hC\<"""1I ,,>Inn ,wd ""Ill Ill' ,."r'·'l"'l1Ihm: I" Ih.'
frul11 (;f) ditli'cc'lI( 1',,'hi.lo,ril '"l"' h,IIC' IM'C'l1 d.lwd ",udl.,Ii'l'ul.'d 1I1111("n,lI1 I "''''1I1"n,,1 p.·nud \\.tr-
\G"r...t1mf & 11, ,j.ldlil'l I (I'll •. Sill It I,ll):" 1",(1) tlf i", n'n .lIld Il.m~,'\ Iq/Ill 11"'rd,,,,', il h,,, l"~'n ,,~.
fi)l11Hui"11 i. Jol"llI'l",III) ., l't'lilllfll' llw,1 fi,r 'i.hinl( 1111' ,;ncO'I[ th,llIUhll1,,1 ;11I1'lhllll\ .,1 (h'·lwn,,,II,,-,,,, ...,
maill i"'III'~ uf,ultlll.11 d,'\!'lupIlWtll. hUI 111 Ihi' I.''>t' Ill<' rml "I Ih,' (:,'1'1"'-' \It'· ,,,ulellt" I.,ul\ Il"mlt· \~\­
n'II"ill pl'luli:uili," ,I ... · 1"H',IIl'l1.
lml\ '1('111 fr"lI1 11I"(h,,,I,,I"II" .11 hlllll,lli"n'
0111' (,f Ih,' ]Jl'ullh-ul' .'"1t,·n" Ill<' C"I'I~'r l'l(c'. ~.nllpJ", ,nil... (nil",,,, UII,I ""ll' 'l11omlll... 11(' ell<'

I'i .."tl)', Ih,' I~ll" (:"111'1'" ,'l(" 111.11,'1;11], h'lIIl 1111' '1h" ""1('1'-"111 1.,h"'.,I,,,.... 1)"i''''11 "I 1"11 PIn,,, ..
ut' 11.111)'.,1., (K.,pil,11l tlill1illi,"", {;,Il.• rin, .11111 Ko!.,- L·pJl,.d.I, -"''''d''1I .11,,1 \\I .... d,n..,1 hI (, I'".. 11,-11 \11
r,,\'n (;Ill .. 11'.• 1'1)' IwlollJ.(illll I" 11", KSH 'pll(."I<' l,t IIl- """1'1," lI1\d""H'''1 ,'.Iud."d 1..1",r"e"l\ J1""·I·,hu,·,
Ilucl1,e) Im',' 1""'11 Iliad" "Ill' IIIt'I".ll1d >"'.,,~ I'~' illllmliltJ,llll'-'"I'.III11'"llI \luh '"Oil. ,.",1 Iltt· 1,,(11,..
}'IIIUll,:. I" jlllll:" 1111111 11", ,I" h...."luJolil.ll. 1<',-,,,11 "l'n' 0 I'C I'HI"l(",l ,I' 'l"J~,,(... II,) {; ['" "n'
\1t,)~'·lllI'r. ",... 11 ... unpln ,,,.,," 'uhnu(I, d I"tlt "I
(Gllr..dod & 1I'!J.IlI'i", l'I')l,'. \1 tlu' '.1111<' UII.... lh,'
,-h,n'\I,,1 .,1111 11110' "I IN'un 111( Ill.' Ih,''''
\dlul,' CU!,!,I'1 .\1.\" h,.. 1""'11 d.II,·d hI " '1',111 "I 111111'
34 . Ir/n . lrrllONl1ngirn
CllHbnlll'd Rcrcrcnn'
\lethod l.JIb.oo j ·'("l.1 d~'ro C.I.hl:l'Ill'
Silt
m.ltria!
5~!'i +/• .\'i J2JO-l()7lI (j'l~l.k,rl &.
B1n11l~ ",m
rim n (cnd C-I..I -I05{l....l(\.tO Il,f all) t~ \ I m
..h.1...:1 J_~:;tl-l2:!n (j,lf\lIorl .\;
Knh'.JolI ' C-14 81n ~lIJ
-"" W~ +I-I~

JHO-t220
IIn JUJIC\ 19%

Kn',~'l{ 11 C-1..1 BIn 21 n

11, \27,%
-"" 5:9!'i +t- Jll

5090 -+1- lSll


..l\\}tl-4170
..lJOO.3600-1 s
G,'N.!''lff &.
nl.~,;Wj}I':\ 1lJ%
G,w.,..f &
~~hn 11 (l(J'll,cr\ C_1J

BIn ~'4lI
"""'" ~+I-'iO
J600-3100-1,s
-l.H0-1220
U<l':K.!J:io:\ 1996
Gi>NIorf &
ROOuIRe 11

R.......UUl(' m
C-IJ

C-t..l Btn 266';


"""
ct\aJr03l 52-10 +/- (il
4190-4170
J22()...l.!OO
1l1l':!dJ\C\ 19%
GnNlorf 01:
4151).4120 BUJ:ldlil'\ 1~96
4()9(j..3970
R,'dulilc m 51-10./·40; 3870-3865 Gursdorf &
(-14 llln 22-11
~"'" 3855-38-10 I)ujadlb 1996
3830-3815
Rl'duutc III (·1-1 IIIn n·n ch!lfCool 5130 +/. 50 ·mO-l2(\() Gllrsdorf &
-11-10-4120 IJnjadJic\' 1996
408U-]970
R('dulIlc 111 C-1J Illn 224,1 ch~oal 5395 +1· 70 -1]-10-4220 GUrSllurf &
-l200--\ I so BOj:ld>icv 1<)\11'
4110-4100
Redutnc III (-\4 IIIn B8S
,""""" 5430 +'- 50 434().4240 Gorsdorf &
BO;:ld1.ic\' 19%
Rn!utnc Ul (-14 BIn 22.t.l rhan;oal :5170+(-45 4{}..\().J9.fO Gursdurf &
3S.fO-3820 Bo;:u!J.ic\ 1996
U~I J AMS Ca-JOl\07 -2.f 6 5545 +/- 45
IU~;a J A.'15 Ua-20!i08
,"""'"
-2:·17 5650 -t/- 45
4.fOO..J3JO-1 s
.w6O-J32().!s
J5JO-U5Q..1 s
Up2 A_\IS I.:a-~IO
'''''''001
-24
46OO-J350-!s
5490 +/- 45
Upl A.\15 1.:1-21562
,"""'"
-223 51OO-t/-J5
4J70_GJ().ls
-U6O-J2J{)....zs
4000-3940-1li
Ii~J A.\15 1.:1-21"6J """
-22 5215 +/- 55
,w5l}3900- 2li
JO:5o-396().. Is
)U~I J
I rcuounun:ued1j
AM5 Ua- 21 'i().I
"""
-\9,1
bo~
545U +/- 35
417()..39JQ..2s
4295-425O-I~
I ~~a:5 fBawubi. AM5 Ua-20609 -24 2725 +/_ 40
4]6O-J220-2s
EAl 905-S25-ls
etlarcoll
Salcula lib (-14 GrN-I99fl , 940-8oo-2s
5475+1-55 44l5-4J20_1~ B:mkolT &Wima
S:tku\a lie (·]4 GrN-1989 , 4450-4170_25 1'J90
5450+1.55
4420·J IlO-1s Bun\.;off & Winlcr
SakU\a lie (-\4 GrN·1985 , 4450·4050-25 19\11l
5450+/_55
44 20-4120-1 ~ Ibnlwff & Willlcr
I,. 11 12,l:..b1o";a!l ".a..Lk I." (' 4J50-4050·2s 19\1H
• -"",,~ ""li<a,1Jon
d>.'<d """I*' f'bI" IJ...• ~"dll"'cn"" ~n:a", •.,,:>, ,I '" ''''''l'lr\ ef I•,~, ""
_...__..
.
Lig.":2 S650±45BP
"--.~._--
...... "... - 35

Lig.'::! 5-l90±45BP
--4-
SaJell!a lib s.t~S±55BP
-----4--
SaJcuI:l ne 5-tSO±$5BP
~
Krivodoll W5:b-I5BP
~
Reduule 11 ~OO±5OBP
~
Reduule III S-BO±5OBP

Redutite III 5J9;;£'OBP


-b-
-----J!I!!.-
I
Redlltile III 5::!40±45BP
---lH-
RTdutite '" 5::!10±60BP ----8--
Redutile III 5::!JO.:L50BP
-M-
Redutile III 511~5BP
~
Pipra (end plmse) 5:!95±45BP

Kl'ivodolll 5::!95±40BP

Lig." J 52 I5±55BP
---
---
~ i
Liga 3 5160±45BP ~i4.
Galntin I S09O±:!80BP

6000calBC SOOOCalBC 4000caIBC JOOOCalBC :!OOOCaIBC


Cabbrnred d3ft
,,~ 11 1.1 C'~"'l""'~"W a.... , .. hhr.."..I'iklK••"b~, .. «"O , • .alI ..,.ulJhk """1"'"' 'n,,,r.nl I""" ,h< <............ "~8 r.. < mpIn.. ........t
I".&J!'" d li~ 11.11

~.orllplr, \,..r~' ,,-l"fled from ClIlilc " ,iL:lIili,.UII l1lUnlx.T ",,11 ut 11,,[(\,,· :1, lh" Mt',l of "OI.'lt· di,I'.........r; C,.-
uf ,alllpk~ ba,..,,] 011 Iheir rqm''''llIl1li'';I', UUllCXI ::l06{»l in'ilk I-I"n'," I: L·.I":!Oti III do,," III till" ""'n
and ,'mow,[ ord',llTu,d ill Ih,. ',lIupl,', rhe "lll'lllioll 0(1/,)",," :l
".1' tcrllnt'(J flIl Uga:!..\,\IS d.,d'll: .,11hi' "'1111'''1';,1 \1\ hil"'llll,d ",,,,d. 'hI' 'ource "L1Jl'hn"," ...Ullp" ....
Cpi'>lKk lll'ill~ COll-iell-red lIlt" hill'"",1 ""1"tl1~" nUl"(," (:om he "Ilxlil id,../ Il1ltl ""I t·r...r 'OiL<; .1\:,' '-.11'-.,'''....
'IC"JccWd "'''l1pll"s 1\l"I"C "_,,,,,-i,m.. l "-11h (",Il h of Ilw rhe p,,,lhol.... 111(11•.11'" Ih.ll. h,·..,ck-- I'H!:'. Ill'" ,,/
lh...·•· ("W,ll,llt'd hou,..", l".,_:..Ifk,(l7 mu'uk lh,' L ,I,n,' ,ill' ",-n' u...... / h, ,h."
1,,'1,.... h"ile"''' Tht· bll::-
36 .leftl.lrrht/l'f)/i!j!im

~t qll:nllil\ ".h (lf ll't"t"'\ 8 9 cm in di.ulll'ltr, lhr ,,\1nl' hun.11. I\w of Ihe <l.II,·, l'.,·:!ISli2 & L·.,_
n('\I !\T\lllp l)('inl: .1bo!U I.; cm 111 di.lnl('l('r..md th(' :!ISti3 .ho" do'\" It'lT\p(lr:11 .lllinil\. "hilt- elu' lhinl
third tll(' intt'm:\1 l'I'ltlf <upponinl: pO!'I' Ill) III :!3 C.l-:!15til i!' nlolrk,,.j h\ .\ .illllilil.ull di\cl.:~~nn· .tIIl!
("111 in di.lm('tM". In ...minI: !he ... lttlJlb. I~bk 01.'. tht'!TfotT n.~1IT1l'<1 .1' 1:11<1'. Ul..d\. il ".l~ .Lni.'O',.j bl
rlUTt'llCt'o of till' l:bl t!nJll]l 'WIT di....--:tnkd in onkr 10 Lht' '1.lhilil.im~ chcmil:tIII\'.I\lI1('llI t'\cn.i'ed 011 ~Hnc
minimitt Iht -<JkI..II'("('~ <'11'('(1. of lhe IMdl1 pl\:"CI'wd ptill,;p,11 l}(lIU"S.
11 .hOll]d Ix- TlOlM. Ih:1I 110 ehal't'('O,;ll ...,mp]~ ,,"{'re X(l .-Ilan.-o.l] ,-,nlP1l'. I:'ollld he .L~O("i.llcd wilh etw
mmTT'l:'d from th<' e~rli""l '<!tk'm('1ll horizon. Lilr,l E.'I"\' !ironic . \~ ren):tin, .Ll lh....il \ .in~1c •. nn"lt.
1. llti, -rllkmrnl 1\--:"'- 011" poorh p~,,"l"d. ;;inct' it of ....h:tI\."\);.1 "';\$ 1\'CQ\'{"t'l'(l fmm lh E,'11'1I Imll .\~,.
""'" a~11dollCd and Idi C\llQ>C(110 tl.lI1I1".t1 dt,,"Ompo. pit L':t-20t.i09. 1..01\ pmb.:.bilil\ 11I:t11,';1I~ do JlO! ~';\1'
~tion. L..1ter on. tht dc-bn< ,,;u iurorpor:urd ill Iht gmllllCh. 10 doubl it- l':llidil~ and l1lak\·s i. all import_
b."'lS(' (If t1\(' <\lh,~qu('m Lir.;.t 2 -e'ldcmcnl. anl ronltibm;on l(l Ih(' I\'giol1[\1 dU"Ollol(l1.,';l".11 ~
1be I)\'eo('~ of ~I't"l "llhin th<' -ellkmcnt or quellC<'.
Li~ 2. t"\~1I I,ilh lt1"l'"{' ~>-, r.ti>C'rl impon:llll qu('<. Calibr:uion plol> ufaJl :t\,;\it..blc C-II/.\..\IS dill."
rion. IT'ii:Irdin~ their <btt. For IlK- Souc or OOI\Si.',trlln. frum lilt' {'On' an'.' Ilf "SIl b .11\' pl",'l"lllcd ;n .• wp'
Ihl'l"(" hum:m hone ,,'mpks "l'IT «']\Ttoo from lhe :tr.lIl" \,Ibll" I·ig. [1.131.
m. THE COPPER AGE

OCCUPATIO
ATUGA
l'SI: OF SI'.\CE WITH I:\" lilt ""IXI LL\ILyr IIl,}n Ih....... t1f LiI{.1 !. In.. ~llr'r.tI LI\\1tlt mcbC !Inn-
.\n upl.met po<itiull j, common tor thr Ill.l,inrm of Ihd....., h.I\'(' I......·n qUill' 'lInW.r Ul Ihe' r.-Q ph.I.on, .-
KSll ~ih·'. '1111' Ul.f.!loeulc-m<:m \\ilh 1\\0 OXt:up..nion {It-.lrh {kmnn'lf.unJ tn !hI' ".~ "rirnt.lIIllJn or;aD
Jlh,I!ol'~ of 1~1I1' Copper Age c1.lIe i.. 1lI11 .111 r,u~ptilln_ 'Imr!UI't"- t'n Ihf '<11.'. 11,1' ....til1l.1lrd nll'm.d knl(th
Loe.lIed nn .1Il ":<!)(I<ed pl.nr,1lI l:il!.. III I . 11 IMd 10 ....rlht' IIll\" unC~l\rml. p..nh p~",nt huu "'-lic:o
cop" "ilh the .........,:rif\ of IIw 'H'_lt'm .met nNtlll'm I i., 7.li m. Ih.. (',mll.II"1 illlrnul 'J'-Kr brmt 39-.fO
"iruk "hieh p•.'rll.lp>- \H~n' k .., .11!.1,TTl.""i\t' Ihell c1ur tlI~ 1
lO !l-Clll'mll, ...mner dim.lti. ("ondilion. Ono: of 'he: .\ 111II1h {In-pt:r lIt'llthl h.t.> llt"t"lI .uhin"1 .I11Ot.11
pn~'t:lIli\'l' l\·<pom.c:s ''.is 10 n~.'h· ,I <kIN' ('nnll"'"r. lhr IL..... {'I' 'IMl"r in Ih.. Li~ ! '<"Itlrm.. m I"hrn'
,ltiOll of h"u.....·< within 111<' ...·III.·III'·lIt. 1'111: irk.• nf a h{lu<c' ,,,'n' l"ull\ ulltl" .. n-d 1....' t'lhrr "'lh IMn- ,>I
<I'lllrml'lll mode "illl.1 uniflllln ,lIld d"lbt'l.IH)Ul of .mmh,·r lhrrc hl\lI...·', 111.. 1,1(".1\1011 of Iht' 'lm,tu"",
hOll'" 'tmClIl1't" iml·fCh.m~:inl( ";Ih .1".lllIllril:nt.Llt~1 in lh.· "·1l1.'mClIllontinnrd dll: Oh"..",.llit'n llw' Ihl'lr
_Ir,'l'!> ,)I' p.llh. is no doubt .1 I'dll'("linll or nlllll'I11IKll"- di~lribUliol\ ,md otirlll,lliull ''l'!"C pn'(ktcnllin''ll I"
,u'y 1l'111plnll'< "f .p.lli.d nrwmi~llinll. IIhid! ong- thl"r \lf Iht· lil'l ph.•" ..
in,llt'd ill Ihl' dcnsd\' occupied Ii'll 'clllt·lIw11l~. rh.. hilln.l dl{l""ll ror ll\l' C{lpp"r ",:... '("nit·
.\moll~ lhe bc'l e",II11pl,'~ ,m' E:ul\ Cnppl.·I' ,\,,'1.' lcl1~ III\'IllS .11 Iht: rd~l.· .ll " pblt'.lU h." [>Ilt. limilrd
li~e I'oh.mil.'., (NE nlll~'l1i:. or, I.·\ell ".Irliu. 1"1.'1>- dd~lI,i\r pn'peni.... \-lSlhili" 10\,.11\:1:, Ill\" w.'t t'
lilhic 'lITllp.uiom :11 K,u";lllo\O ur 0\. h•• m\ ,>-Gqr.U'1 limit..d h\ •• r"i'1I1'>: Icrr.tin. lol\,lrtl- Ih\' \',,,,1. tit.-
l'odoIU\,1 & \':~><l\ 19'J3. SlIrh ,lnlt·\llral.lu'ln;llJ: lidd 1'1' \i'lhilll\ nlflltb ""I~r. l,..i"l: 7 R lo.m I...
i~ :.1",) .trh .ml.II:''I)U' in won_, of pmlt'l."li'lll 1",m ho,;· ",ltll- X\\ ..i Lm !tll\"rrl' \\ .md.i i . \.m ''''''.Irtf!;
lile .lU.u:b .md CIT.lI;Oll of ,Iwherrtl \H'rL.I\ll1' ,,1,,0:' $\\' P.·rh.'I>- lhl' hdd ilKIic.lIC'- the dim 11"\1 1>1 " ...'.a!
oUlside Ih.. buildin!,,,,. BUl il i, n"lr1flillll: in "'l1lb uf mOH·m.. m' .llId n.. I....lI'\.:,. "'lh lIt.l 1M""lilJf<. 1" he- no·
IThuildlll\: ur c\;p.m"ioll of old 'tnlll.. n...... \ml IlftCII !><:>.'Ird I'n'lll lh\' i'-t..'l .. r bdO\, \ m....btit .ilk"l l,f
it IMd 1>1.'1':11 [u.II ill promQlil1l: 1:1.,1 :md UI1ITH'"ihk' Ill\' l.tU\'r Itk.l I' lhf !iLd\ "'1>lrllt.T ,>I' l'>fl"'!t'd \,n·
tk'lOlf'I;OIl of "-'nlem\"lIIs b\ hIT. \\'ilhill thl' .IIT.I of \inmml'nh 1."••• "1, t1lf' U"I.
lilt' KSU ("ultUIT. "u["h tr;ldili,>n, of ....ttklll,·m "l1f.Ul- nK' \1'''' ("{II:'." 1.1 the I'blr.lU "..., 11'11 unhulil I"h,.
i-..lion e.1Il Ix- 'mCt-d b;l. I,; If.) lilt' 1\,1;11('(1 E."'h (','pper .'lY'.' "I' .M)) i'>t.l Ill: "..., tklimu.-d lJ\ .J'>J- m lht'
I\\:C••1.\ dl'1!I011'Ir:Ur<! b\ lhc di,uihmK.m llf hOIL"-'" \\""'1 .Ind "'''' ut' Itou_ in c.LqCm .h1T\ 110"1 \.' 11,",",
.11 Gr:l{lc,hnil".1 ,1'"iLoIO\ 19i I. I !I'IT Ihn~ lllllldllll: liunrd. Ilutin\: U\:.l '!. lhe .,Jope," "t'1T nl.lJr o.l...,.,-
b, .1 ,h.lU"" dill h t'r llTlIlh .,,,n ll,8 III dCT!, n..,
hon/.llll' \,,'IT .lpph'ing lh....... 111" "llUt'1l1 01 U,..· of
di...:'I\ ,,1'.1 Ik"lh,>!,' I.i <"111 in du.nlt'lt'r ,... lhe ('....o.l.
'Il,tC,·.
t'nl ,id I' lilt' In·I\.' It ''M'rh.II'' ut<li, .11.... Itwl .I " ,.."lrll
c\ unifllrm ch"'I"n'll I'MIl"m of IUlIN' ,UlllmrY" I'
C,-,IL'lnllli"u 1> ...•.."ml.... n'inl.l Ih... Irr-n. It \\ h<·thrr
,.1,.., lIo!<'Il ••1 I jg;t. d"'pilf' Ihe hlllilnl .m.'.l of n··
Illl.' ".1" .' p,IIt "k ur ult'rrl\ ., li'nrt'. ,u.h .ltT.ln.......
'c,lIl"h, h i, ,'\l'1I po"ihk Itl tlt-H·t! 1t·llIp"t .•1dl.m,>:"'-
Inl'lll iIlU'lIll.·d h' mlllhn mn"'lll.. nl bt>lh ,'','''" .md
in "". "f'Il.lCC h} COlllP,lIill~ Ill\' (,,,. C"PP"r ,~~,.
. 1 ,I' "t Ill\' 11""1 "I' lh.· ,r"IM·'. ~1tl\il,lI lll'I •• ll.lli"H1' ''''IT 11,1( ,>1"'· .... "1
'){'I'Up.llioll~. :\, 11It'lIl1UII"(, " (l'IlT''
,It Ill\' ,'.1'1,'111 ,·t!t.:e Ill' Ih.· .... nl.·lIlt·111 \I", 11th.... \ 'lit...
COPP"I' .\~t: ,,'IlI'lIlt'lll
1 (I ·
.IN,I 11 ' ".,. Iltll ,., ,,,'It IlIl"

M'IY,'{1 : " I I "~,,',,


,.,'
..1"-' 'I_. ,'m"1111l1h'" uf tIll' ,1,lIlt·!"
. I,),. 1..I,!:,I 1.'N.·, ".11...1.,,-,. 1\ 1',<11
di'llIrhill,>: 11... n·lll.llth
,
ht· ,·m'.-!lId.'Illll,1l ll\l' U'.' n . '1"'"" ill U",I ~
I•",I'
. I.·"
. . I'
f,.n'H.lItlt'll 11l,1ll III .lit',··'1 nit· ,h,,·tlIl11t' "t 1.1,>:,1
, ' 1
1
"Cl " ~Jl,lIilllh mlllY' {1'IM·.....'l •• ' "I'll" • 1.\1'="1' 1II '"l'
"
:m

nisltd ho:w, ,.... ",JUId tu'T 1W'rn malk in ~bC ~. ,,-a; Ihe <m;III~. Ihe ('xlcmal dinll:n_iom being
," munur drnund.. b<' it .l fomul denurcation or 6..iOX5.iO III 101;11 ;n"a 36.,)4 Ill!-, Ihe illlClllall}
~ ~ !Of liuSlocL. Thn mu1d IlOI h:l'T .l,-albbk :J.rca b 78.3 m~ PI.:!. HOII)C 2 is l)Crhap~
t-n ~n rif«ti'T ptUlC'CUnn ;ur.lUbl au.lcb.. llK: biter mc olle. Idli<'h ap"tin lhe bt....1 10 .1 'lIppO$cd S"UI-
nucln 31 M1' !':lIt Iu.\T ('Om(' oh;l ,urpri.'I', "illl W:lr. darn. >illl."l: a 1)''Inll eXC'3\<II\-"I:1 ncighoouring hou<c
no..... ~hinll. Ihroul!h the- lilch fO~lcd hicllet had a ,imilar lenl:lh PI. 1 . 111c C"ICOMl dimcn"ions
l\1n~ m';mnmt'tll> urthc I'llunu.
of liou>oC 2 ;Ire io4X6.0 Ill. thc imclllal arca bein!:
l1lt' I~h>c~ Ilmtik of the ~t1~m abo 34.5 Ill!. Ihe IQlal al1;;\ 4..045 m~. Hou-e 3 "~I.> lhe
him< 011 a >ptei:.li-ed u'"' of Ihe delimited td~ .'ITa.. IOllllCSl alllonft Ihe inw<lil;;llt-d hou-e, 1'1. I ...\ >omc-
\' UK, ,,.]ur of li'1:"IOCl ",,-, ~\inl1; in 'Iq> "ill!
"h;lI im:gul:tr shape i,like!\ ., 1\·lk'Clioll of eOllSu~lim
11.... ~P1JO'oC'd rdaU\T drclinc of I(TOUnd-w;l\cr oo,.ro
due IQ lhe lerrain ,er. du' o.ielllalion of lhe ,'.I_lcm
.. ~..utu", SI\(OIT:lu 1<l8U .. 11 ""M llCCC!l.\:an to ensure
wall. "erhall" ;\ChicI emCIII of par.llk! COllrse~ of Ihe
pn.K('("lion of Ihi.., lh.. I"lU.Ill ronUllunal COInmodil\.
wall. W;lS hindert't! h} Ihe cin;ulII,I:m{'<' Ih:1I 11,.. "Ili-
Lil.ch. the '110>1 fll'qurlll fonn ofCopI>Cr. ~ w;uf.~
lude alom; Ihe c;menl 1,.,11 "';IS higher Ih,," along lhe
" ..... nOI bn.,..:r .lIQC hUl <null-'GI.Ic r:1\~n~ raid.,
I't"<tent onc. House 3 I'.tt RAj 111 lOll!; and 5.90 1\l
;'Umro :11 <l/'(Clin~ cnck. lncickm..J.I,. ,ilnilar cudm-
urn ;1\ tdlW> lw. r IIl't'I1 .tU....l00 in Other L:Ut Coppcr
"idc in thc middle ]I.m 'el1lenml !tonglh.\. The illlern·
.\~ "<'nlm..,nt>, Ulcli.ldil\~ ,he fonifi,'(j 'i<'lllcmcn~ of .uly ;waibbll' all:'1 I"IS 37JlO III~, lh" lotal ,II"C.I '18
l...am;n'1< and l..."ur;, Got,\.l ~1O!ci1", ""m.,n:I,>iOIl 1lI~. ·nlll~. Ihcre is a It·,,d,'ne.. for 1:"'Hcr hOIl...·" to he
'\lloJl'l\ l!1n er bell", eelllrnll) loc:ued in lit,· >eld"lllelll.
Sound.il1~ (:.I" the 'cm,il1 "\<'0 hdpro "<lJhlish Iha. -nit 'In'el~ or p,I";lge, 'lr lhe ,eltl"melll ,,"'re 2.70
th., hou;<:, of Lil(.l :1 ",...... O("ull,ing an area of ca. 3.00 III \\id,· ,md Oll"llI:ncd E.\\'. TI,e bOIl":s ,,'er..
~n)(j~ m, '11", IQl,,1 Mea "ilh hum"d rCIl1din~ f 'p.tced hy illl<T\~lh uf G.lIl) 3.00 III :",d ","C,'l"d ill .1
h\lildil1l;~ l'"Xlculk'd u...., t,l. l:lOO lilt, howeler l:;~. cheqll~'r manller,.\O 11t.1I 'p.«e' betwecn hOll>l's "en'
11,.1 \11 hUll,,'" "tre, ,l\ 'nclm'Jlled. rcC1al1~lar and "clo:>t'd" h)' lh" \\~,Il, of ;ulj.lfelll '"1I('lU"e~. 1I:lscd OIl
nncm.ll''t! \.~, lInusr I. hl(';u"d Oil Ihe wmh the, av'lilahl.. ,1.lla ,.. "I .1~'Ul1lilll: ., llllifl'rm di'lI'i-
cm
hU1l11ll "f thc tIH,elUl'n. il i~ ",I., 10 pr,.(li'·1 ,lUll lh"
ilg(l
3q

t
DO- I
d
.000 /
I

,ODD
000
DD
- ----\
:::----....:
• ""
Fi~. JII.t. S"~"'d ........"m..,ioo ","Ill<" ll~ t ,..,11,,,,,,,,1. lhrl. pn .......... ma.1.:I boo,"" .. hith 11..,.. brm nubli>b<d tlunur;h MQ\_
,b.
1",,,,,1...-,, {"",,,,""od ,n "urnh.n,,~ '~>lr", ,... ,.... i"n''''~'oo 'In><',un!......m.... Ud" etn""""" ~ p<r'di<1td..-..

-'CIIJcmCIll CQI1l;,incd 20 22 conlcmpor.tl"\ houso nizcd. 001 l)Ob .md implcmcl1to. pbcrd ouWclc "'en;
Fit:. 111.2. Such CStim:ulon is :Slren~hClloxll.n obscr· PCrlwll" u,cd 10 ,n..an, llJc larllOn of Ol p.lnicubT
'Ollloll!l from IIC:II'b~ lu:duliu;. allllO>I IQlalh ~'l:C"..- hQu>chold.
'~IlI-':1. :lI1d other WIC CQppcr Agc ~ilC>o. "hich 110''-'; .\lowm<:1Il OKro!\'! the ....Idemem "01> DOl <tr.U\:hl-
prO\id\.'tI full-"e;t1c infon1l:11ion on I;l\-(.Itu~ of'lrne- fon'-ard. Qnc lud 10 folkwo the 'Ul"C'U ;and livcI
lUn;jI IGcll."O\. pen. oon1l1l.. p;nl~ <i",,; lhe entire: illlel'1'truc!ur.u <p.1CC ,,-a. oticn
$e'cr.,1 .,cli';I~ .m::Li h:l\'<: 1)<:Cl! idcmirw:d in lhc filled "ilh h,'«ps of hOlL<dlold re:fusc. Pnxnful"l;'\ f..,.
exc:'\~lled pan of lhe Ug:l 2 "Cllkmclll. \\"orbhops halKllint!:" of ".I.>le .In; 1101 complete" £'kM froen the-
"c,'t: proh.,I.JI~ often n:loc:ued. ~in{'e Ih,' di.coll:rcd e.'l:G1\.ulon. D.....Jlilr Ihe fan dCI hc:ap! ('fban.... :and
I't:m.,il\~ do 1101 ,upporl ;111 id,·., of TM.:nn.Lt1et11 I."k- broken pom'l'\ '",n; dl.-ol\ercd :11 Lhe nonh<-m ".ul
~I)(:dfie .Lrt·.L~. R:uher. Wt' :tl't: ...-einl.: n·I!<-<'lion. of L1t1- of 1-I0I1St· I. .I.' "dl .1) in the .uT.. bcrv."C11 H~ !
al11uiJ.;uous. itllctl>e .md ternpomril} 1't:'lritu'd e\ellls. ;mcl J. and th.1I 'Om,' r,mccmr:uiOIl " ... l'b~n"l:'d .11
SO'11e of th,' :I<:t;\;lic•. t10l udn!-l pi.,,·... d ... pnul.lIlt. cl,.. SE ,·,Imer of Hum 2. thi; prob.thh onl, rrpn--
"'en: ,,1'0 carticd Oul it1sid,' 11". htJuw" hut !1,·t,,·r:,Il} :><;11l$ tClIIPOr:II~ dj'po ,I, of rcfu>c OOIlU.....· lro "ilh
it !;,.','t11< Ihal 11,,: t1HLjo.il)' of {'hot'c. ".LS ctlHdll,·lt-.:1 hOIl>dlLlld .ltli,il;t·' rI..· I,"cr. "hich l...d I;',m,ro be-
uutdoor,;. [n I:,... t. Mtth lIuch','"'d wllh-ull"l1l< ,'ould ""'CII Huu,," '1 ,1[111 :1. ;~ (I"me-tic in ori~';n: n.,,-llin~.
IIIL"I' applied:m cXIl.mded uOliun of·'II.,h;ltl'" ,,JmJU 1II.,iI1lCt,;t'K'·.•1Ilt! ,-k.II1;1I1.: <.>1" limta'·..... !rfl .Ill .l..-b'
Hodd... r l~l9Ol. inCO'1>or:tlit1~ 'J>:,n' ,,,r,,,ulld;n~ Iht· bJUqlliul "itlt ;ndl"tl>tb "f, .ttilou. l"he .,rr.. \M\....
hotl\Cs. Nu fOIlIl:,1 oUldoor d;,i,i,'", fmtld hI.' n ..... ~- bclw.....n 2. i .lud 3_1l m in widlh ;md .-u<JIJ n....TI hold
1 ',I,..
,.llllll1 '101
· ,tnlt:tun:s of Lir.;.1
'
'1 'H·rt.· rl-pt',llin"
Ihe l)rC\ioll~ ...-ulelllCIIl. ,md Ilhlt 'he
1 1.IHll'"I.f
11'"
. ",ln" , \,_,I
nu... .. '1>;ICl'" lI~"d
- for n:ftl't:. di'llo;l'o11 hdd the
n~"~
...11\1(' JllI ••,.. .....
,Inrim:: both Illnte,. nle 'uppon re"t·
",Ih rt1~,ll('l1 (kpo..i" of fn....lm ,lIe~ mUSM:I .. of the
'\ IKn......... ntl, l.ll·,l COlllPn-"\o1 <pcnC'<i. ,IPIMl"l'ml\
brou~hl to Ih(: ,lie from the f1ei~hlxlUriJl't 'In·.1I11 A,,·
t . Shell, of tilt:<'(: mll~b "ehO: cm·
d rtJ..-t:n.•., <V>

plu,f'd for d ror.ttint: 1 'l.'\; ";Ih so-c.tllcd "",lil in-


O-Qon- p.lllem... . .
.\pan from Ihe tktcrilxd p;fIlCnl of drspo",~l tlll-
mNli.ll...h olltside the houses. the o-.--cr.dl h;.ndhng of
l"l'fu~ remain. unl..llO"1', Generally. the <Irect~, "here
tnilll\ ouedoor ;jcli\itie' "en: taking pJ..ce "t:rt: kepI
c\r,lll ofrefu'l" Fir;:. 111.3. 111t: fe" c.-:anlpkl of ,mi-
n"tl Ixn".... rt'I"ordcd in .,reel afCa5 C;l1I 1)1: atll;hulcd
In llO~l-ckpo,ition:l1 lr.ln.fonmltion. No irldi('";,tiort~
ha,(" b"l'n found of Ihc e0ll1111011 pr.relice of dispos,tl
in Tdi<h \ill:IJ:C 10 push CI't'I)'lhi,,!; beyond tilt: l'dge
of tht· hOIl,drold "rc", prcfcr.1blr illlo tllf' "II'COII'
(t';,linr;: ,tre;UlI, Ort Ihe contr.tl)'_ as Ihc t\\'o Irt:\Iche..
"cm", Ill\: ,IOIlt:. haw rc,c:lled, Ihis ",1:1 nOI lilt: C:l'>C
:It Ug;,. St.'\'t'r.,l il\\'e,tilf.\lors ha,e reportt:d Ilml ref·
I'll: III ....,,"'" An'OI hr1"...." , " .... a(l,..;h _'urn,. ,,.,, U>I,' '\.l~ disc;lrClcd in pits behind Ihe ho"',·... "In::,d)
fmrn, d 1'1.1
dUI: 10 procure eb~ for buildinltS. Such pil'. althoul;th
witholll dj,tinet referenccs to their COlllcnt:>, art: s,"lid
10 h,I'e ~n found at 7_"llIlincts :lIul Gr.ld......hni"..
thr ult.ll mal" of rtfwc- pn>dun:d In OUo:' or t"'Q Xil..oIQ\ Illi4; 19i5. :-:0 'uch pib "cre disco'cred
h..u......htW,k O\'l'r ....... ~ Umt". Oonk"tk .lnimal-. like :11 UI;.l. hOt'C\-er. and neither .11 fulh c):e,lt';tl,-d
&~.utd pi~ "'en 11<' douht u,.,(j r" dnuur onr.uUc Ilcil::hbourinll; R.."(!utitt:. Al bolh silcs d.lt for Ihe
rtf...". nnt 'I1it;abk ji'T hum.m ("t,nsumpu"n 'lrUt"1Ure< "~obtained from day -rich dcpo..it~ al the
),I.sbcolocial doll... ,,1.-0 .uP'Pl'" .Ill imcrprt-":l.1i<lll foot of the plalt'au.
of llu., inll'nuuouroU art", ;I., llcinll; lb('(!. f<,r mll.\o:' ~mr of the aClitit, trac~ an: 1101 str.tight(oT\,.u"ti
di"fl<>'l3.1 In fan. it "' .... tbe nnll p.m (of the in\~ti. 10 illlerprct, lilt ceramic \cssc!" pl;,('"cd outside
1:"1I:d J.n"a.. '" hidl held n-tdt-nee \If l1nd 'nail.. of UIC' h"u~. do-.c: to Cfllr.t\lCCS, \'·cre thl'")' phtccd tht:I'c for
Hd"'ilbo:' famih .l) ro:'J","ed 1)\ '\ .\Ildrea..nl 2 . de,min" or \lor.,~e, or did the\ mark Iht: :'I"t:,1 oftht:
c..'ll<'tlll:l\:<:n &: Cambridl:C nni'eNl""-. in 2001. Ia" nW,tl priOTlO Ihe lire thal I~nllimllcd Lig,1 2? The
\llcir I,~nrt: illdKau:" ~ 'ulflcit'lIl amount of or.
1~"t1in:tlllh;,-.cof UJ;'O' 2 is predicled lO h:I\t: bt:louf:''(\
I.,r.mi, lkbm prc-t'm r'>I" ....,~, .,1l1.,'inl.\, ~r\;\ib uf the H,._
ro Ih... ".I!'meT I,an of Ihe ycar, mO~1 pl'ob,'bl)' till"
\i\ I'"rnati~ lM't"i,.., arc .,1...., .ull"lIl<- fur hum'llI ("011-
\t'Cond half of Ihe W\llmcr "'hcrc Ollldour tIIc;,I, "n,'
'umplinn om their liuul,-d lllunh..·,' ;UlO '·'flI."t'i.,Jl\ th.,
1i1wl) <o"unon, Thi, predictiOIl is b,''''rl nil Illl'" oh';l'r·
p"..,.,nee Ilf ju,<:nik r'111~"('1I\,ui\l'" du nO! ,uPlxll'l
,,,("h .UI a 'ulllpuon, ',ninn rhar no 1o:1~lil\ "'as fOlllld in l1w (;onWhll'l'S of
rhe rnal,ICllhl\.,<ic;,1 d,Il,' ('\,·u wnfrnl\' ,he ob>t:r. Lil.\., 2, rci-;,ml1e.... of line eOl\dirioll~ of Ilre"",I"\~'lioll
.Ult! lhe "Illllil.nion of soil HOlation pron.dlln'S, In-
dl.'t'd, rcm'ered plam maerofm~;ls ,If't: f,'''. Only
'hrt.'t' Hr-tin. (If Tritiellm dicCocul1l, ,dl within dchri.
or daub 1"U1IlCh'd "ilh chopped Str.l"~' ''''U' found.
L.rga I1
Olher IMI:'l'olJOI,mic;,1 s.'llllph'~, rC';t'''cd b\ S, K.,'l:
(3 of Ihe N.l1ional ;\ [USt'Ill'1 orlkmn,"'k, com•• irwd a
f.·" 'It-ocd, ofjuuiller tl unipcnJ< <'K:l'"i., .md Comdi.m
ch(lT\ dO~,""'UlXI ConlUS m.lS I~'. bolh mUcflcd from
Ih.· ",.<Ie area IlelWttn Hou\(li 2 & 3. Illc lallCt '1 le -
6es rillenS from. \U!,'USI lilI Ill( cnd ofSeptt'mbr:r .• nd
m.l) Ihus indicnc Ihc period of 5enkmt·nt corllla-
~Iion; in t.el. Ihc bcginnin~ of .\U"'''15I ,,"ou[d be
mosl [il.el, for Ihi,;. since. as noted .,1>0\ .... '10lK" of
Ihe ~:r.lin bius eomaincd ;"l~' gr.t.ill.\. dC"pilC Aomtion
applied on Iheir (onICIl5. In6dcm•• 1I~. Ihc IIl.1JOril) of
.....np[es wen.- rejecled b) not being c;,lcin.ncd. and
Ihen:fol'e rc,;:an:lo.·d as unreliabk.
Are.•s of produelion are more easil~ recognized.•\
cle"r eoncellll,nion of flakes .md <':.:h:1I1511.:<I core< be-
hind House :2 indic.ues Ihal flinl 100[, I,c.'e produced
ht·re. All n"kcs were idclllified ,IS Uc[onJ.,'ill£ 10 mill
Sourcc.~ .n Sado\tcc. 7,3 km I:::'SI of Liga. Thc dircc-
liOIl or disuiburion or Ihe flakes ~uggell~ Ih:rl IIH; Hilll
kllapper 11.\5 silling :n Ihc n·.,r ""ll or 1·louse 2. ill ~i~. III 1 1l<,1 t1r~t all~.n r",u..11Il rh<- -,,,..... " a..-a
frOll1 or !·Inu<;c 5. Some 3--4 m \\'1:>1 of till' ,Il"t:;. ";Ih
llim dl'bim~'t· IWO red deer arnlt;." IICI'I' round [Fig,
iliA'. perh;'I>- prep'Il,:d for prodllClioll or borl<' 1001$ 1I01cled [CM .lltclllioll Ih.1ll Ihe u:lI o<ltlelllnl13 in lhe
or Cl en llintkll.lpping 100[5. like .mder b.llon5 or ham- ·1l1r..ei.lIl pJ.,in ur ill ~onh('aslcm llull{J.r1.:I. Ill.. Irn-
1Ilers. House '1 also holds Olher t"\;denel: offlim han- dition of tNC.m:h ".r; 1101 elllphasizill~ ilK" Iln-d ror
dling. ·nn.!s. a muhilude ofslll.11l chil>" II.'~ discOl't:n-d collle""..,[ dlla but "ol!> mtilaler.tlJ, OricllUlnl In-
bOlh inside .md oulSidc .his SU·UCIUn:. T\lo con: ;,n::as \lOInb Ihe (o[kctttm or crr.lll1i.: nl.lterial. cnn"dcn-d
of .,cli';I) "en: identifi..-d. ouc inside Ihe house:.1l Ihl: leno, 'UplOl fin ehmnoln{!ic-;o1 .md cuhural onkrinl! h
<OUlhem ".i1l. not f.--.r from .he SE: remer .mt! <.ilI "o\!; not UIIU'U.t1 10 m.de a fC\< stll.J.ll lrendl<'" OIl ;a
1I;!llin Ihc :tone or d.1.rlil:!lu comill!: from Ihe door sill:. "llleh 1I0uld rele••l Ihe <tr"til,,'1'aphil pi .\I<'n of
opening. allOlher ollu;idc. aloug Ihe \OUlhem peri- poncn bUI Ill" .• fuller come"l of <lnKlIIn:<; ami r -
phe') or Ihe c.lSlcm wall until dl~ .In:.' of 0r:1\1: :"0 IU~ Oliell '1.eh hmiled 'U"aln.';"" !u\t" !ud di>.l.....
2 of Ug;\ J, ITOlb ron><:q...·nel" III .1 lllunln. "here le-lfinllt" (.l ..r-
ch;,eol(ll!icc:cJ n:nl.llll> "ere .md ilKin:'d. .tnc more
eommon Ih.1II .u~h •• eol.JoI,"" proper. G.ml mcnUUll'
USE OF SI'.\CE AT OTHER KSIl CUI.TURE Ih.I!.' f:.'lIluU> 11'11. De'cb;U'~"n.1I lite IOt.n l.r:\l.lnl'"
SETI'LE:\ 11':;-' IN'TS "";lS eXQI.lled b, lre.l>unc humel" .cJnc.,d\ in 1'111

From Ihe \"en firsl c:':('::I\"liolls ,n Okol CI.I\.' .lIld G.nrl J9~t1 .•\1 Iht· ,ne ur Pip"'l. B km ....'mh 1" Lil:".t.
l'ekliuk, whid; en~ntuaJl} bCC'Ulll' n:o:ugni""d .,~ Ksn ,,·ilh rich n:m.utl, from CUPIX"T .\~, ~:'U'h In", .\~"\"
sil"', '11',1111' ,I ("t'lIlUr)' h,IS p.I>s,·d IOall1 19111, NClcr- .lIld I_lie ,\mi<luil'••..,"{"r:11 'Ul"le, lTt"ndll" "l're
Ilwlcss. lIw ,UllOlllll of .tI'ail.,blc: d:"., un :>('ltlc:lllClll Ul.ldc in 1976. nle l',·"rh...In.· 'liIJ unpuhll>hrd. bill
p"ucrns, Il't' of 'p."·c. and tJlhcr' ,r rr ,mgcllwlll, ",ilhirr IIr,· ,ill' lr,,, ,ill,·e ,llrm"l diMppo.·.u"{"d ,I> IIH' h"..ll
,I .cllll'nl<'1ll i~ ~lill r.nhcr morl,',I. Tlrel'l' ,m' ,,"'wr;r! loo'c." h.11 I.' d,llWd il ,. illr ("'C'p .lIld e~I"n>i, ,. In:ndl-
I'c.,surr, 101' thi<. For m;my rc.It'S I-:SB -.cllll'Ull'ulS lll- e•. >(ullt'lirnc, ,'wn '·1111'10' illl( he.I'·" r'I.,·.II,rtion m,,-
chillel"l. Funl,..nmm:. Ill<' J..d "fpuhJi•.llion, "11 ",.
o:;".II;On, i•.1 'o(",,"n.' hind•.u":r "hen aUt"rnl'lim: 11'
11... a,,'ht>' i, war.·r"l ,,, I),. .s...tN"~ h.a'lI:, , ",...1 ,\Ill"''''''
.:lS'l'"-'-' ,h,' ,ndl.r",lol,.;, .•1 -.il.... "I HulI:.ll1.\.
"r IN,,m,ut fiN ,,,,,,l,.,.,,~ 1...1.or<>l.... a"'...J ..."'1......
·1 rln ./ rrhl1f1J/lIg;(lI

n,.. _u.. ,\1 r..


RN\uutr -it.. L.l~I ,-.f !t_h .md .I,..... ne" '"l" I-l l'""Ill. ..·... of .m old. .lIl{". or. tlIll'. or Ih,·
1<\ U..:.l ",h.. "nh k~1\ ,u... h.lt h,I' !JolTII .Ilm,"!
\l.t 11,,1I I ·',llmu'l· ,'olLld Ill: IIlCO'1Xlml,'d 11110 Ill<'
IIC'"
, - III bOlh 1.I~C- the 11....1' htlLlw ""11.1111
I1IW.. I 'Im,lhb
.-mireh ..".1\.,,....1 .. ,dlldin~ 11l,l(km ,k"'lnl.u,\tl.11
Ol.... upirrl .1 '11l.1l1cr .11'l".1 Ih;\n c,lrlil·r. Fin.lllt ..L 11\'"
Ih.- ""'1"01 ,.....rif'htl'\ .md "'" " .. IhlT(' h,'U""'" I~·lt
L '-'l:.trin~ ,>ftht- ",t n,.. ~IIC a~:t ,I
, Ihc I~rillhrn '-'r.h.... 'l'tllcl1u;11I could Ix' laken
unc".l\.ll.... _..I Ut".. .
".~ 'I">.im"n\ into u,... O"',"r IIl11e. ,I sli~11I e"p:tll~ion or 11Ie -.ell le-
.
,·,01""1<""" rK" .• " - ht--. -
Illl ,h"lll;IlI(: n
Ol'l:3n1.'·
11I('111 tm, •• m,. the [..-1.>t .. -;u. notro. Ih.. C.I,ICI11 pan
..tlOO ,,,- ....·Ilkmnll -pa,T durilUl th.. Corp"r \I.'t'. ut
thr' 1"<"",,11_ ,'>t- "'''.1utKon J.rt ,nil "\\.1itill(: propc'r puh.. ,IL'<l "itt,.....,in(: mo.'t or Ihe collstntetioll and re-('Oll'
'tru(lioll initi:lli\"C'-. I'rdirnin.trih a\~li1.lbk illfor...
1"'.111'11\ __ QIH
n.. "It ".1> lIl\'C'lmh~ h.-tl.C"C1l I~_, .lnd 1.._ "l.1ti~\n .1110"" lhc lint.llioll Ihat up to lhn;(' gener_
~>\ 1118;: 19"l~.:a; 19!.l::!b: 1994: lQQt.i; Co<n:o\ ..I ation~ of 11011:>(", ("311 be n"('()l.!I1i1.cd in Rt:duti... 1.1 .•\1
..1 I!i&i: J.nd.I....."'>ll.-u cotntlll,lIIi,.lIM1n'b l1I.. nllllll- 011(' lim... :t> mam ,." 30 33 hOIL ma~ ha\"e CXI~tl-d.

~. lilt, lr.p'~rhi,al loc-.UKlI\ "",-,mill", II\;\I of but dLlrin~ the fin,ll ph.lsc of thc M:ukm('1!t onl) 23
Ilf'"ll:hhourin(: UI;.j. Ddimill'd h\ pbin ,md T:!\illt">-. 25 hou~ ocrupil"fl thc silc. '!1IC imem:ll hou!>C 'I),lce
th.. _it.. I' ocilll.1tl'd I'll ont of Iht hill'lt,"'1 poinh of tht :It Rt"fILllilC I1 i> :17 m~ on tI,c a"cra!;,'C, hill ir the
pl,Mall and ha> .1 E,r Ix'nn tidcl of.\i>ibilil\ I~\~ .• ~ .malln ~nd gcncmlion hOl1't:!i arc ,Ideled, olll\"
-,
3-'
Ih.. \\l"'I than U\Col. TIlt moorm \1lb~ Ilflrhsh" m-.
l\im: .'1 il' fool. "hcre .1,11.0 ran .1 'Irc.nn frd b\ nu- Rcdutilc 111. of mOl 'I; Ihall 2500 Ill~. "~IS c~tah[ishcd
mc-m\l~ <ill;n~ in tit...\I'l".1 rOil .. hui1din~ horif.on~ on 111<" tnp of .• 0.20 III Ihick "hi:l1us I"ycl·... cO\'l"rilll:
h.1\1· lJn'n rttol;lli...-d. -n,.... arli,·_I. ~n. I. held re· lite burncd remain, of thc prc\;OUS occupalion. 1)(....
nl.lill' <If thc £.arl\ Coppc'r .\1.,'(' "ith r,d...-rl P0!1cl""l spilc .1 ,ignifiC:L1ll lellll>oral dincn;nec, Ihis plHl'e .1[50
of Gnuk·Jmil",1 ""Ill'. 111(' hou!oC"'> .'I'l' l'l"pnn,"{1 to be folio,,", both Ihc Il....hnologiea[ :llId Ihe archileetuml
8 q III lonll' :l.lld i-1i m ,ddr. OriC-IIlllt.-d E·\\: l11t trcllds of the ])1't.·\;OUS OIlC in lenns off cohel'CIII con·
imrmJ.! 'll.1n" would halT brcn aPllro~imat('h 3;- 38 ttntr:l\ion of hOLlSC5 .t~ "cll as a fix...-d spalial division
m' _Tb...... nlrm...m cr:ued 10 txi~t ah.. r a m;lJOr firt. of th.. scn!c'llCllI. RL"fILuit(' 111 also h:td :; Il)WS of
Ruiklitll: horiz..n :-00. 11 of UI<' Lat.. C.or!)(r .\1,'1: hOLl~ bill th(' ;\I"("a OCCUpil-d b) buildillb'S ""3S SOIlIC-
"a> fi\Uud dll'l"Cth on ..arlicr -ettlcmml drhri.., "hich
"hat di,pl.1c,"{1 to\,.Im" th.. SoUlh. as cornp,ln."d ,,;th
h.&d -.ufft'n"d tmm _ub...-qllfml l('\~UiIlI: Rc.-dutitt' 11.
Ih.. Rcdutilc 11 'iCnlcment. TIlc houses pn."SCn'l"fl :11I
,u'O mchnll' in a firt. appear<, 10 h.ll\~ bcrn "d1 pI'(.
X·S oricnulion \\;Ih a sli~llI dC\;:tlioll 10\\~lrcls the E..
...-n.-d MId prot"id.-; \";l\u.:ahlr dau on Ih... >p.ltial ar-
r~K"nl 1'£ a Copper _~ ,<ltkmclII Tbt al'(.1 "'"
bUl Ihrir sac is smallcr. '1u; 3\"cragc illtemal arc.1
r.ul~ Ixt\\cclt 2i.60 and 28.00 1lI~_ 110 doubt re..
''''1.-upird I... '>l1"IKt~ C":\:IMldinl: O\\T :HOO m 2 Tht
flcclinll' a dimilli,hin(: famil\ size. "111<: CtUr.J.IICr<i or
-.:ulnllcm and It, immrdi;ut .lCti\lt\ 1:11n.. ran\:oo be-
[\<,<"m ~ ;uo and -.1900 m~_ Th(' O\'lT.illIa\QUt of .... ".Ic-
in
the hou.e:s \,,'re ~ti1lloc:llcd Ihe somhem ,,~.1I. '11c
Ill<'1l1 ('(l~"lnd, "ith thr «"kIll" di.... u_...-d aJxt,.....
Wstanc.. bel\\<'Cn Ute hou.a varies from 0.5 10 0.9 m.
but Ihc "'Il<"el'" :tre \\;der Ihan pre\iou,I). 3.5 _I.:;
TIt(' rn....,..... "('T(' ~ In 'i ""''- Ori"nul('(i :-0.
" "ilh a .Jil!ht &:..i:nion IO\\-..rch t and lot1l:lr:.lt('(i b\ m. '111i, '\('111....1I1rlll ".1' prob.lbly r.J.lhcr short.li\"cd
-u·..... t_ rtmllinll' E-\\" 111<' .. nu..alK.... \\('1'( ill d,.. >ouu~. COIIII\;lred 10 ~Imilc 11. Tr:.lct.-S or rcbuilding .LI"C fcw.
,'m ".ill rh.. 'trttb " ..!"t.• •,boUl 3 n, \\id... \,lninl; 28 31 hOLl mil:h. ha\(' existcd :It onc time.
h..'" 1I !.b ,md 3_1 Ill_ hi ,hI' 11\"\1 la\nut. Ih.. di,- Rcdlll;'I' IV ".IS discovered dil'Ccll\· 011 Ihe hunL....d
';Ul lk"t",... n 1111: hnu>('!, "J.! on" 1k"1"""1I 0.6 ,Lud dell..;, of th... Pll'\;OllS st:u!ctn... nt. bc._pil.... a c1,,>c
11_8 m. bUL th(' di,t.ll1L(' Il'!"t.." h;I:~"r in Ih,' l'"C!lL1".e (Jf ~Lraligraphic relationship. RcdUlilc IV dCI1l01l'lf:tl ....._.1
,rhuildinll' \\l,... n n,'" htlu~, ''''Il' huilt in pl:lc... of eh:ar hre;jk wilh l":lIl' COPP"r Ag,. I1~LdiliolL>. bOlh ill
,~d U1W\ th.. d,stanc," b"I"wn ho"...., l"uuld t'xll.lnd ICOn\ of poucl""l ,lI1d in house ol;clllatiUIl. Th,' "p,ui:11
w Ut 1.3 m. '"~ moll'. ilL,"", Ilnx-.. dLlt..... for buildilll: .'rrall~..,mcll1 of .he seul...mcnt is no, kllO\\'1L (IltlpLlb.
1"""
a '1ruetu,·.. 1Il ,h....II.,"('.. d\ c<l.lhli'lwd ....111... m"lll lilh,"d,. bu, Ihc 1H)"s<.~ "cre L10W oricllt:,wd 1::""\\', with
"'-1.. <l1""".-d: Thr huu..• ..Quid I... built it, " trul, .... 1I'r.Iltl"l~ .11 Ilw (',lsl rn ,ideo Tlw sClIlcnlt'llt ".'_
5I. l:hl1, dislll.1r~'d to" d~ lh... Somh ...·I.uive to lilt"
i
l.iga

_lI'boroc IloI.o a.... ~ .... ('"n. 0:0C0I"l.z-.r,;~<yf2Oll1l.tub.~ I~ 'I P"''''''''-I


Lign:! 5650±<l5BP
(crunoalj oI540-44SG.II
~
0I6OO-oI3SG.2.
Lign::! 55<l5±<l5,BP
IdwcCl8lt "OG-oIloIO-l.
"60-01320-2.
Lig.1::! 5<l90±<l5BP
(cl\lWCOll/) 01370-01320-11

......
"60-42010-2,
RedtUlle D 540Q±50BP 0I3oI0-0I220-h
(,*OS)
oIJSG-421().2&
RedUlite ID 5-l30±50BP 0I3oIG4220-h

1--
(cl\Jrcoal)
oIJ6O..oI21().2.
RedUllte ID 5395± ~OBP
-----II!Uo!!''''!.'.....- - _ 4301O-o1220.h
4J6G4(M().2.
RedUhte ID 5::!<l0±-l5BP
I-I
Redutlte ill 5::!40±60BP
1-""
Rcduhte ID S::!30±50BP
..... III oIoso.397().h
411().3960-2.
0I05l).J97().h
4150-3950-2&

1-""
Redutlte ID 51-0±-l5BP
405l).397().h
4110-3950-2&
4~3!W().1.
,,-"" 4050-391().2&
Li2c13 516O±-l5BP
""""I -~_ ......=-~- 40l)0..Jg.&().1.
.c.oso.3900-2s

-
Lign 3 5::!15±55BP

5000cnlBC <l5()()C'alBC
!,ot,&
4()()()Q,IBC 3500calBC
.cOSO-3960-I.
417()'J9,t0-2s

~i~ III 'i. ~."Il> 'If ..... ,,~"'io~~tl ~I ..I ("~l<t...~, 1 ~11<"' ,,{ """I'" ~,.,jhbk rn"" Ulf,1 ~ ...I Knl"",. \11 w,•• d"", , '" ,h..... blo- '" ......1.<-
""h 11.,..".,,, ",,,,,l>cl'. \,1,,£1, ''' 1 1hI ,I <lIh"r.tl o..~~,Itt ...", ...,..
~" I~, Ik~ 2. ~.'" Rnl",,<.- 11 .....1 III ..... I..... rh fbb;:; ~
r, Gr",~ I <k"I<,,,-,n"~'r ,hi., l!J'l.r·' mn'cml_...~, ...i" ."It, Il<o,hnur lJJ

pH·\'jOIl' on,", roUl' hOIl~c' wcn' c\,'n discOlcJ't:(1 ;n I;.,ull cI.ll.-c1 Ihmullh t.dtill.Ut-c1 ,n·d,. I ..... oth.. r C-
,11, arc:, nOI ll)cd b... rorc. DCl.dled infor01.Ilion is .l\~,;I­ I"' '!lnple, from R.-chui,c I..'R' pt.·rh.,I" IIIl'I.'I;....nh
.,hit· 011 o,w hou~,' '~l1l> {eer!;OI I ~!}fi1. Thb j, .,p.,id.,], :mrilmtccl to I'h.I>c III in'le.,d of I'h.,x· 1I n,<"
hi.llU-'
7.:10 "I Illn~ \9.:10 III with lhe .'p,id.,] c"d .md 1,90 1.I'cr OCI"cc" R.·d"Ull· IJ .,,,c1 Ill" ,tl..., "l ·r\l..l In
'" wide. The pr,·,.'lle,· 1'1' I ,·s.,.!, or \()o(.. ,lI,·d "Schdu- lh,· t..llihr."t-cl r.ldio;.'.nhotl d.ll.·,: il j,. '''~'I: lt..1 I.'
c"hcnkcl" lype i, ell-.n·l> Ill.,dll~ lhis "·Illem.·'" in uw h.,\'C tHe-d fnr c;,. :lOll \ ,'."" R.·d"lll.· III ....'rn·'l"u"l,
Tr.lllsitional I'Cliocl Ill"hel'll I.."l' Copper .\I:C .",cI 10 ,Ill' c1.n.·, "hl.lin.·/! li,r Ull.' Ct;,\<· I. "hid, lhu,
E:,d)' IIrnnzc t\g". m.1I bt ' '·Olll'·"'IIOr.ll' ,,;,h ,h" .,·Ul\'tll'·lll 1" R.·t!uUI"
S,'\'('" (:-1 I clal... :".,.. 1\ .Iil"bk ii"I"JIll tu-dud,C Fig. II1 l)Ceup.uion.,1 ph.lX·,
1115). Tak"1l ;11 n"U"nrli"" \fi,h Li!=.,. lhe ()(TU- O,her C"pp.'r '\1:" ';1.... ill.1 li,-init\ .,f Id;~h 10.""
pmioll.1I ph:"," of ,h.· I\.. l ,h.·s 1""\' elc-.... h ;n"'r- no, I"l,,"id"d .,," c,,,,.'I\I"\'· "lli.",n.lli'lll <In lh.. 11'"
lillk,·d. !'hcn' i, .1 ,mu,'lh ll~tll,ili(l" l>c"""'ll Jj~1 :! of 'p.IO· wilhin "'uknwtl ,. Link ,. I;.n,,,\ 11 .d , l'n Ih.·
.",d It·clllIil.· 11, It'fluli,e I1 ,..·.,,,p.lli,,".1I ph.".' ,. n'" "'''11.;"".11 ",,11,'. \ {JUll.. llifli:ll'lll Il.llll·m l' ~·n ltl .\
./r/(I.lldwrologim
H
.1 ', .. ,hl'. ""h(' .ln'l
, 1!'l·(11i..1' lJuilding .11 Z.l1l1i.

-.--- c ~., " melll 11\


Ill'" ".b ,lIuund :?OOO ml. .
'Ill 11n\',' O'T\lp.uion ph.",,~ (A. 11 & C, ,\
A' :~'r ~
• •
lX'ill~
ron . . ri"
.,, l:llnim'\) t'onll'~ "'Iml~n, I) ._
I " ,ht' olrk'l
.. ,elk: .:- I
-.!. i 0J hou"-.... !lll",e \,,'''' di,"ibllll'(l in ..1 rd.lll"o:lI ellS'
/ 'L '0;'"
. .
.;.j'
••• . . , 0 0 ' -"

)Cl"('(! p,llIen1, \,.ilh di'l,mn" 1.ll\I.,'lllg. hel" ,'('11 2 1 l


."
'j .'
..J i"\ ,--"I 1;\llcl "• I " , Of fnllr -nll,ll't'
-., hml<t" bdo,,~nJ.: 10 lel,..l B.

... ll{'\':)
;- \ thl'C'C welT onelll.llcd E·\\' \.'lUrancc< from E ,llld
' ,. , ,. \ onc :\"s ('llU'anN' fmm S. The C).:I('nlal Icnglh \1.1$
. ,';. 'L{ :',l) ..
-
.. •,_.-D i ... .Il) \'1
' .
~\

" I:L
r.U1~

..iO
~
.",_ ut:
'--"'('('11 •i •50 and 6.iO m. 11\l' widlh bCI\'eell
,

:md 5.;0 m. 'nil' mean i111cOIal <I':'c,· IS 2;:1.30


m Z the .;(":.Ic of Ihe pllbli_lll'd plan is unfortUl\:lldy
_

1
. , . -' \y.o T°-1 •.,!-. \ J'IOI Pf'C("L'C. Ihe I:l\1lt lIl:.r!,,.ln bein,t; .,boUl onc quarter

S\ rw:\ '; -'.t. ./


of:. melfC in both di ...... liOlls,. \,jlh ,,,ch <p:,cing, up
\ 1010· N hou~ 1113\ hale e(H:xisl,"d,

~-~J .' -\ 1\
~
.\ S\1>lem of tftllchc."'i I'Cft al-.o n.--corded .11 the elX>-
mmi~ 1-11<: Copper .\~ sile of Kn\'(xlollO Ihe l,c<I
~,,"

--
orTdi~h. 1'''0 p,1I'alld muTl')\\ mO-lIS \\cre enclosing
.... • .. the \ill' from Ih.... X. and on .... d.. . q) and wide up 10 I
1.. 111., ~"'II"""",,"""""-'~.I, ........ I \fin m Ircm::h from lhc Eo pt.'oonal ob.'oCl'\~llions made
\1\ ~ ...... \\ tw-. a. "- \ ............. loo r=r--
from upon ilL<pcctiol1 of Ihe dal1l:I/o:e made by inlense
HI •...-.1 \1.....-, ' ..... 1 _ , (.-..-.- H....-cinI\I--. In:nchinJ.:: In modem 1000.. . n,
\,4L,1 ............
Lool.:in~ c\'CII I,id.... r, Ihe b''''1 eomp,amth'c infor-
mation on lht· \1><: of \IMCC is from 1-I0IlliIS:'. \ 'cliko
TJ.ITIO\'O Ccnlml Uul~"an.t" in \pil . . of Ihe I:lcl th:lI
lhe: sil.... is nOI rcbled 10 Ihe KSB cuhurt., Fig. 111.6,.
p;mh puhli_hrd l..l.le (~I)jX'T . \~ ->Clt1"fTl('nl at 7_'\m- '1,<: \patial o'1\"nis:llion is \\ell all..Med ,md h.lS p,tr-
i.t"'l-- \..1.010\ 19T1 Thr« on:upauonal ph."l..'<:S of allds 10 Ihe sil'''' al Teli<h. Con~lucntly. Ihe pnnC'ip.,1
WIt' ('oppn-\~ lLlt' '\I.'fl' .lu.... tro
here••dl hunted <patial c1emcnt>. lud common ongin. I-!omil"';l is a 1..11
dm.ll. 11'1<" 'I'" l' l'O(:.llro un ;) l'O("b hilL dOIl~alro
>elllcmenl, 5 m in hti~l\l. The l..te<t hon7.01l. "hich
11\ \:.~ dim,-nnn. "ith m.L\.nll.il dmICIl>ion~ of iOX40
d:llCS 10 Ihe 1011'' '1 pt:riocl of the Copper Agc. held 22
ID.lllt'.m-.l i~ rith m 'prinl1;' From :'\. \\ and S. 1111:
in Ih.. public;ltion:n houscs tAng-dol 1958: 1959;
'\lte l_ prull"Cll-n h\ 'Il'ql.•lhmpl ~Iopt..... re;achinl.\ 16
1961, and fidd reports), The 101011 :,rea of lite .ile is
m in heil:ln. whilt' tIn tlw L \It!,,. lhe hillock slopo
2-140 m~, bIll llle area uscd for buildiug oul)' cotll-
d"",1 1.,.,... d",III\. 111f ...... ldcl1lt'lll \\.1.5 enclosed b\ a
Il ri lol'!i abouI I i50 1800 m~. Thc houses were oncn·
,l.l1i"dI- or I('n~ ... ru1l111ll1: .1lonL\ Ill<: rol.\~ (If Ih., hill.
lall'tl :\-S. with "IIlr:mces from Ihc S, :md .l1'l~ll\gt;d
.l' ;ttl'__ l,·d In \)('\>\\1.)1"" On the \Outhcm ,lopes. al_
in a uniform manner Wilh .,).:hllly CUlling SlI·eelS. Poss-
nU"1 HI Ih" middle, " ..n; lr.\Cl" of \el anOlher IMralld
f.. nco;o_hl\: cOINrun;on. 11,\, ,'a!olnn l.1ud bndl;c \qS ibly, Ihere is al"o c·\1den<.e of n'buih .tr'HClllrc•. A~ .11
li>nifird I" l\HI p••r:,lId d,,..p mo.,t>. .1110 ,',<nI1\'11 ".d!> li:lish. lhe larj.\c'i' Itouses (('ud 10 he pln.. ed ('<'llll~,lIy
Ill" "rd, Ih.' ....·uknwl1l cre.",~ hy Ill<' ",xc:" .ut:d soil; 11:r. Ix:lo" j, The mc~m imernal ~1l'C:' 01' 111<.: <llll("lU"CS
is30'31.5m'!.
;, ,...i,·\ "f IK"lh,,\..- "err di~mefl'd ull th .. lOll of
c;J,h ".,11. indil.l1il\~ Ih,· 1l'\'\Cllf\' 'Jf mUll' Ilalisaon. In Ea'km S'·I·hi.l, Ihe only ITI'lain illfol'll1:,liol1 Oil
'Ill\' "''''WOI "nd uf Ilk ....·Ulemt:lll il e , Illca.<.unnl; 11'1<' of ~1l"Cc .,1 KSn <itc' is fi·01l1 l~llU,llti tC;llll;.lllin
lUX 10 nl. ".1' Idlll"l buih Cl1l. 'Illi~ 'IMC\'. ,i1llilar ill 1?.'l7; T"i/' 19951. Tlm·!' eupll!'!' :\j.\c 11,,11'(" \\'1'1-';
-U'\Ittur,· tll 11ll' "1>1"1\ p,.. " Il"ilr Ih" <J0IWS m l..i~l, dl'>l'o\'cred. ,Ill l"l.:.-t:tngul,'r. Olll' had llll" illlt·nl.ll di-
"." "l,,l.r,,,,...d fmm the n'rn"inilll; p,lI1 of the S<:llle_ rllt'n~iull' lJf li.·IX5.i lH, tll(' ,'\.Iil:tblc <p.l('e lJdllg
35.2 11\~. 'Ill1' hOIr....-" \HTC oliellt"U'd N-S .11Id pl:n::"d
Uga

"1,IIIlt'r dO~l' 10 c;lch 0,111'1''' G'lr;'(.min 1957; 'J:lsit


IXin(lII in .HI) \('",t1"lll(IIl, pr(l\i<l.· pn"'mifrnl ,.. li.
191J5\. '1'111: l'lItr:mc Ilefe lromlhc S.l hi~ cvidclll;e
IJIOIllC • "rr.Hll.:Cnwnl' ,Uld rontc'lIl \\llrn conmll"n
'\l'l'm, to cOllfonn to .h,· l!ull-;..,;,lII 'itc~.
of pn'",·n..llln" .m· t:l\ountbk. ..., .. I l.ilf.....1.....1"\ .._
Rom,'ni,1Il d,lIa on lilt' u.-.c uf 'll.ll'C i~ limi'nl to tilon~ .md 1Il1('l)ITL.lIi(H1, ;it dlf" httu..-h"ld Ir\rl ,orl'
S.l1clll·l. Ikrt"iu rcpom th.l1 16 "hulS" \\('1'(" r«ordcd mdt'('(1 p" ,illlt-
iu 19,:) I from thl' L:lIe COPlx'r •\l.,'l' byel"', prim.,nly
. \) Olll' l,'.u" of (;opptr ,\t:r .In hit...- I was lit king
honmu lie Ikrciu 1961b, 11,c III.t-'o:lmmll diml'Il_
Oll! the 1.,\OUl, mmi,,\( from un.. pJ.>1 '<0 an"lll<'T,
,ioll~ I\l:Te 2,7 m Limes 1.7 rn, (lIll' llltlrc I\ide l'n.
OIh(I'" l<Ottld .tln-.ldy bot' 'ldnin~ ,,, pmcurr IotriJrllll2'
lr:mecs beil1g in the southl'nl I\,lik Abundant (l('(:ur-
m:l'eri.lh lilr Ihl' (h,,:lIinlt\. 'rn"lT \U.' .. n~J fnr i...
rence of burned walde poilllS lo... m:b ,I ...tldc ,md \OIIC1I1CIlI of l"Wn. communlly nJl"Inh"r Rt,~
d,mu conSlrucLion. The "huts" "efe ol}fomized along <Cldcnlt'lU IalOtlt .lItd die m.mn.. r I,f torulrmc-nt Irr-
all E-'" line. I-Io"clcr. the '1ll.lll ~izc .lI\d irregular!} milJ.lllon lik.. dl.. ,uddrn ,lb.md'Olltllt:"lII "j l...l~" I
rouuded Sh.lpC of these m1lctllrc~, ,'$ rccon,lnlClCd or thl' COllfl,Il.:r:ltirm of U";i:! indic .Ur l!ul loI"IlI,·-
from .1 1Il1ll,bcr of prescn.'l'd I)t),tholl's .donc. iClS lllCllI" Ilcre C"oIL'lnl(led cnmmun.llh Ulrr ;i .h,,"
douh's ,IS to Ilhedlcr thcsc fC.llUfCS \\crt' correctly period of limc ,md 'h.lrl'(l common r.,,("'
imcrprctcd. RC<Cl"\~iliou i~ slrellglhetll'd by the re- Since Ihe lIt.lill huildin~ m,lIcrbl, ""f(' d.ll .lOd
lll:1illS of (\\'CllS. A I~ ..hcr "d] prl"t'l"vcd lo\\er p.lrl of l\Oucr, lhe:;c mu" h.llC l)("clI am"IIEllhc dj, l,llin\t IJr_
all Ol'l'n II~IS found ill "HIll" 110, 11, The dimcnsions '01" of Ihe IOC,Hinn of Ihe '>Clllc:-mellh. HOlh rould br
of the (1Vl'll wefe 1.5X!.,1 Ill, Ihus morc Ih:m 2/3 of limnd ,Il lhe foot ufdll' Ulf'1 <itc. I'rot__ urinEl nr\\n<td
Ihc prcslll'H'd "hm'·. Thc opcnin~ of Ihe OI'CII i~ to· for limhel' fr:lIl1l"'; .md mof'iup!,o", 'IOm.., t( or r.1l111c!J'
wards Ihe N. \\hieh coml~ldiclS Ihl' <ujo;ge5lcd sou,h· tion, re,'(1 or <U';lll fur ruofillll in ,uch .Ill .unOUlll IhJI
cm oriClltation of Ihc emr.llIcc 10 'hc "hut". The it Ilould ~ali~f\ lite dem;l.Il£b of lIlt' "hol,' '<:IlIemcn,
pos.hnles arc likclr dclincalinl; \\urkshop ~1>:ICl'S ,or would 1101 h,ll'e been ul11'roblclllJUC It" lnm,n dut
'pl:"fol1l1s) r.l\hcr than bcin~ hOU<'l' ".1115. cach .md ("\~I'\ 'Ionc bil,,~r UMII ;i f.'t ".b hmUl:hl
10 'he sile, It 1t.IS .11.0 been C-'L.,bli.,hC'd dl.l' UI.. nl';tl'l"-'I
~un:e of lillll"'IOIlC. \\ hich \\ a.; .1bullrLlIl l'l)nUl!h tn

ARCIIITECTURE AND I-IOUSEHOLD 5l1ppl\ m.lll·nJI for hou..<c found.lliolL'. "ob .tIm..-.t -t
ORGANll_\TION km .0 Ihe Somh of ,h.. site. \\lll'Ula' thi., ror l'\l'n
IIOl ..... ~ rRl-cn:IU.s fUMher 'lI1IRr' "en- u,rd i" unLncnlll. bm in ;ill\
Tllntin~ 10 'hc i$-<ucs coIIIIl't:.cd \\ilh an:hi,CClUr'l: and GbC. ,uth t.:lSk \\ould h.,\~ brcll n'n. dilOCuh In ~­
the U"C of 'pace within .1 built stnIClun', i, is impon- eOIllJlli"h lIitllOll' thc Il.-'C of.rM.""u'Z tl"ell·m.- dnm-
ant to cmph.lSi7C Ihat hou-e .md <cnll'melll ,lIT con- ill,IIKC ,If,Idull t-,mlt- in .hc bon.. ';IllIP/" nmfirm_ w
I1CL!l'd Il.:U1S of the prdli.'lOnc pcrception o~ Sp..1(l'. ql.:nifil.lIIU' nf .hl'-'C be,.","" ill Ltbour ;ind lInl mr-rrh
Ikt,h relit-c. lrndilioll. :IW>lrCllC.», ,md ,!(bpl.moll.. \1- in me.ll (OlNmlplioll cf. Ch"pl.. r X, <>11 ,JJlun..-..r
Ihou~h d,c border..; bcl\\l'Cn C"llt·l.:Q';I" .In' not ,,,iCI. he'IlC' It h.!.> becl1 l"kul.llro 111,11 Ih.. n(;il,Ut:d ..rc;t
il i~ bclit'wd th.ll Ihc} rdlcel dillcrrlll k\'CI~ of (on- alolll' hdd >0111(' lOO lEl <Ion<-....
sciousncss \\hCll aClion' Ilcrc t.lk"llllunrll.: prim.'r:- ,IS Tr:ll'C'" pn.....· nl'(l (11 li~1 I hou'l:'-'.II the ",'ulh.. m
wdl .IS ~l·l·ond.ll) COlblillUiull,!1 pnllt''''''c', Tr.ldition~ ,lop<'" vflhc ,it... Ill',lr "itn,,,. III 110.. u.... "f " ..hu I
dicl,lIC Ihc gClwr.d l.lyoul of ",nl"l ncn'. ,l~ .Ilol~ becn I)()l." I(lr tlH' \I .dk "lIlt .1 di.III1t;I..r "I' :?I) .?_l, Ill, rhl'
illll,'ll,lll'd :I],OVC. t\\\~l\·CII.·.<5 m,luit,·,t, il,df III I hc IX'" tOlllld.lli"'l-. IOIl,Jr." Ut<' ,lope> " ... n;' '1,lbillft"<l. ,'-, t,m
.,itirm of larl-:cr housc~ for ,pc'd,d pl11!JIl" ur hOl~.\C' h., 'CI'1l tinm .1 d,IH'1 1""l(h 45 l'1Il "idc pn·...·n ... r
h"ld, ct'lllr>lllr ill Ihe ,1'Ilit'l11Clll, wlu1c- "d.'P~:IIl.(Jll dcplh 17 1111 Ibid. ,kbl;,. of 1""t't.HI' Urlb,u.,.. 1 l"IT'
l':m I", 1l<>1"d ill conslllW,iol1 of ,m,rlll-I' tr"IN'S III 111· d,,, 1"" ..,f (OUI'<' indi(.'liul: Iltc IN' Ill' ... ut!'- .1IId
hihilil\/\ :lI\';I~ Iikc clo,,' In ,Iolx". d.lull huildirll: lcdmi<lllc'
SCllit"llH'l1l pl'llll1ing i~ nfkn u,,·d I~' "~Il~l('.lln~c·r- Prior I" Clu'-'l\1Jninn ,,1' UIl' Ut<.< I IN.,N..... tbl Il'r-
1,11"1" I,,'rl' ,''''.th'(l. ~'1I1" (It" th.. old ,ut1~I'-'" ...>il \l,h
'1,111 d -lllJ.: 0 r '>tJ'("lt
--, I .'-,
- ,,\\holl', ir- ,,)tl.d nl'g>llll~,".m.
, -, ,- "Ul',' " I I'C'llll,,1lom- 1'('1IItl\l.'(], 1'<"Ulliul! in l"lx)o<ul'(' of ,I l,l<'f "I 1'0.4>1:""""-
,llld"\I'uco,moUl-"" 'bIlll'l'"
./(Itl.lrdmro!ogiro
the ,:1..'1' nf 111'11"'" I ,llld 3, rhe el'l'.l\ioll of It'l'd
li'r ill'I.IlK," III Ihl' mll1hl"nl I)\'ti"hn, "f Ill<' hmN,',
'Urflff" Led 10 diiIi'l'cll1i,ltiOll ill ,Ihitude, '11 th,lt lh e
,'UI,io.: it, nnnhlTn "',lH, "lit'''' it "',1' ,IPI''''t"i.lll.'d ,1'
oH'I~11I ,1PI)t'af:.UKI' nf tlw Ill'" 'ellkmt'111 would l<lk e
.1 n,lIur.t1 !l.I\\·l\lnll_ nu· '\'nkl' ,,,'1'1' hil.!hh .1",11'1'
thl" [onn of ,I ...., Ii\', of 101< ~I,li ..(".l~t·" For 1'\,t1l1pk.
,.llhl' l.w('r .llld uit'tlll' 1)("1".lltl... "x\)\"mc: 11. <"\)('-
tht" dillrrcncc in kwl hl't"e,'1l lhe round:ttiOIl~ ,II1d
ci.ill\ in I!lt" iIlhT',m..-mr.t1 Art",,--, nu' "'1:111... m.lllll('r
llool'lo of Hou"c :.! ,lIld it, ,',lqC'rll lIdghbolll", HOIl'e 3.
of ("\l"Nlrt' l"Il'n kd Illt'.U'h ron,hl'lnlh dUOlll: th('
IH'luld h.we l)('l'n 0,3 111. 1l11llhe hOlN' <illt.lled Nonh
1'''''' .Iti"n Ih.lt thl' 1'1.1\Tm("U( ",I' m,lI1·nl.lc!t". In (,1("1. of 11011>(' :.!, and on th(' ',11111' IOIll.,.;ll1din.ll1ine, \\ ould
the "'uk'1' ,11..... Ill\l"ttod ("1lt"nr- in ""fl'"atinl! 'tonl'
p.1\l"1nmt,. _\ '<!lull 'u, h p.u('h \I ....~ inll'"'li!t,ltt-d in an ha\'\: appean-d 10 1)1' !'ling highl'r Ih;1I\ }-IOII'I' 2 :md
,lrt'a Jud~ 1<1 I.· iU'1 "ubid<.· Ih,' ('.blt"nl ,.,111 (If Ihl' .11 Ihl' ....mlc kn'! ,15 I-Iou-e 3.
t"" ..\ Ati'd U"a 1 hOIl'< lie. 1\ j lll~' 1),\' I'nU'1ll \l ~ On('(" un" Ic\ocl <llrf:.II'(,' \\('ft- fonned. aClion~ \\en'
Tllade- or "dl·",nro and I,at('r-nmntkd '1I,'I\f", rt'J.l'h· lall'lI to 'tabilizl' Ihe found.llioni, Se\ cml It'Chnical
inc III I.:! cm in kn.,h. Thl' fulll'\h:1lI of Ihl' P.l\~ -,olllUOIl;. could be ob'C.... cd in lhl' primc ca'\(' of Li~1
mc:-nt .£Jld tl' orit.-m;\ll<ln "rt' n"t bIn"1\. 2. ,\ IhicL l:l\~r of dlam" from the c<lflil'''l OCC\l-
l~ I('('h,..-.I.~cal knt.... kd~ of IlK Ulr,l I ....·uk'" p.ltioll 1'"':l5 "prc.ld in Ihe 'Outh,\C,"tenl pcl-ipher~ of
1,.l1-o m.mif.....tro m rt'lffiI),lt'lliPll'-plNt'rro floor. in· House I. llli, p.ln of the hOll~ \\,IS the wcakMt ;'"
'\KIr Iht' h"u-l"<. 1'lT'Cl'\("(\ in ;I paldl\ p.1111'Tl1 ;,,1 the it W,I' h-illl~ \"(~l'\ d~ to Ihe r.llhl'r ~lcl'pLy (k·
"'UtY ko.-d ;I., the .....id p.l\l:mml_\1l U'';lt'('> l>f inlrmOl! >CC"udin~ .JCl!x. llm,. the I.wer of <hards hcll>t:d to
:.uTan~n1 "rtl' <!i-tuf'btd tr. thr -ub'<qul'n1 ~t· maim.t in a p1:Jin 'urf."lcc. <I"bilize tlR' found,ltions,
tlrr< nf Ult.l .:!_ In t1ll'ir .Illt'"fllpl 10 ('\"t'n thl' Il'mUn. and pT"O\idl' floor i'lOlalion, in Ihl' CittiC of Hou.scs 2
\lhi...h no duubt tud thl' hiLh Olp,,(".tr.lIllY ofold hou-'C Olnd 3, shallo\\ lrendll" l\t're du~ :tnd filled ,,-ith a
mnun<h. Ih('\ pu..hed \)J.n of tM roltuml dt'bn" for- comp.tCI Ia\cr of c1;lI 1'1. 3. Some of Ih,1I c1a~ "as
\lard 1'......I'd.' Iht' OOI:t' of thr ,\luthl'nl .Jopo.. Thi, abo ')ll"l'ad ilt>icle Hol,l;.c 2 in ordt'r 10 I'VCIl lhe floor
TTUll'1"i.al -I.l'I,-d I~thl'r .Ind h~ Ilr()\i(\"d Iht" l;"rgI"'l le\"el. foundauon~ .lIld f";pt'CialL~ thl' comeI' :lfe:IS
;lmnU!ll {If..mall hnd, dl1~ to Ihl' (,olI"lie>1 -<:IUenu_"m, \'cre funhcr 'u....ngthened \\-ilh lhe help of nIbble of
lbr kngth \.l" lht" Ilrrind bo:-I\\ttn fir two oocu- limo.tone. .\pparenu,. limestone_ for foundations
pau'JIl- i." ;1,- mmunnro, IWI I.Jmwn. PQII«\ ~11~l<l:'<b \lere uset:llo a hi~her dcgn:e for Ihc house' created
ltul I:'<-nlual ch.IO~"" in crramic tr..diuon; had 1.11:1'11 in areas ,,-ilhoul 'Inlclur.l! debri.~ from lhe prn;olls
,,1.Ilr in the hi.nu.' p,ericld. BUl hoth ""'1' of \)()lI('1'\
occupation. as "~IS Ihe GISC \\ilh the pMth t:XC:I\-;IIl:d
C.1fT\ (fu un<'ti\ e fr;lIlHl'"' of l!lt" KSB cuhurt'. and ~
hou!oCS in Ihe nonhem pcl-iphel"Y of Ihe ime',ig:ucd
r.nhrr r,uh ,\.\1\-<1.-111' tlf U~ ::! 'U~~b IhOlt the
are;I, 'n,~ hOllS<':' "ere onh oUllined 11\ rows of
lCI1lp<,r.lI c\i'I;lll\<- bo:t"CI'n the two <ctUcmcn\', was
lim~tolles cudo,ing f:.Uher fr.:f.,'1nell1t·d bu; C0111p:,ct
nOl ,it!;llifK;lIlI_\\.o. tlU' lraln. of Ihe 'tnJl'lural re-
COlll"cnlr.lliom of 1>Ollell. Daub \\.IS onL~ ocf:lsioll-
main., Hf thl Ue;t I (OClUIl.lUOll had not di,.;lppcan:d
.:\1 thc Ullle nf thc fOllndltioll of U\i-l 2, Timber
~L\ f~ul\d hcre and ollL; :IS ,I thin ht)'er poiuling to
lIltell~IIC po<l-dq>ositioll:1L d~'U1IClioll. Built on the
fran".... .Ind puk... ({Juld '\clL h,I\C been \-isiulc elen
orih'inal surface of lllc hillock with limitcd levelLing
rc-t1'<-d ..fin the ab,l1ldonmelll, "hile Unuurnl-d
d.lub will, urt,o:tnil Icml,,'r would ha\c made '1'1'1:1'\ me:\Surc\ l:lkell. thesc hOllse~ "et'e pl'OlCcted Iw ~I
fertile ~'fI,ulld fnl .dl 'On, of bmh) \'C~Cl,llion. ' thinm:r byer 'lf soiL lhan lhe rull)' elCc:w,IlCc! ;l1CS
funh··, er m, ',',.,ll~ (eIlIOl\Sll~ll.,~ llml dw slale or pn's,'!"'
, 'luch 'lie, ~lCtcd .... 'Upl'l'llle ,'1::('11\, "hell 'upIKlrt_
m~ 1~,.t1lm(huOll,' ,md frmLlll1~ COlnll1U1MI idcI11ilic~. l'allOll Il'liglu I'Vell he predelermilu'd b\' eirnllll-
In 'plle Olll' IIll"W ,Ippe.tmn~ ,ml! "'h.lI....er '>Cllti- \lallrcs
._ ,),-ior '" " l~" ron'lnlCUOll'. '
ot .1 stnlClUl'e,
mrnl~ lle'lnl ill lonmlun,,1 1\I1l1\'11'\ ~"." . , . I h., foundation lrcndlt'~ \,ao;.,£! li'olll 0.3 to 0.4 III
~ a '1~n
would .l\\,'kc .•\1\ old ,itl h,ld 'll·a~I,." ,~" ..-d , .anl.ta;e~ .III widlh . \\'~~',.
' ..... en IX> ,,', wlIh. pOlllted
. ~lld~ \"'re set
\<)0. H"u!.C m'lUnd,
,
of unh,,, led '-1'"
~ ~
'" \l
'd ."
e"" \' le ~nlo.foul\d'llitll\. TIlt' majority or lh~~e were IJ !J fill
Iran fomm-d 11110 ILIt 1l1.111'lnm for Ill''' ,,_. HI dl:l.me!t'r, Q'~C,ISIOl\:I
__' " . .
~', lInclel' pol.·s, \\uh lh.· (1-
,.
." _ 'ultures, "meter of l'i c ' ' d
1<" reu.... of I'Il...l,)U' t uhur"l ddl,," ",..., oh"'I'\'ed ill - Ill, ""!'e u'n1. S.llllples or ,',lkm;,tc
\\OOd collccll"'·"", .
l\ r ou....· _ 1I1'!"t· d,'lel'llIlllI'd hy C .
Liga 17
1\1,llmros :l~ ~tcming fmlll homll'l',llll C"rpilll1S be-
tUlll~l, but it i~ ulIccn,tin \\hcllu:r Ilomlx'am \\,1\ u<cd
ill housc comtructioll 01' ;15 fire 1\ClOd. ~inc(' .• 11 piec~
were n:eo\'Clwl from lIll: Mea clo~e l(I Ihe nl't·ll. The
thinner I)()lcs werc grouped in lJ.lil'5. the di,t,mcc Ix-
t\\CCll them beillS ;'OOlll 10 IS Clll. The p(Jle~ Ilcn'
illlen,OVl:n \Iilh rods .md twi~.."\ .\Ild plalitrr.:d with
daub. Sincc .111 lumps ofbumed d.llIb I'cre collttlt'd,
it \\.IS ~iblc 10 dilfercmi;uc bet\\cen \';\liOIl5 "'?CS
of d,mb m.m·i:" in terms of composition. li .Ippciln:d
ilmt the core :lrea of a wall. ,It le.I$1 at Ihe level of
foulldatiOIl (the preser\"ed pan~ of walls did nOt e:.:.
ceed 0.'1 m) 1'';15 plastered "ilh dauh eolltilining
quartz t;'rains 2--1 mm in size as Ihe main tempering
l!Uueria!. IdClltifteation of this cort' hdl>l..-d 10 c~tablish I ~ III 7 "ump lJi ......" 'nth ""I......... r(~. ~"Ilor¥. ...
the precise course of \\.llIs in pl.lces of Ihiek aceurnu-
w.m_,
1,Ition of bllmed daub. Generall~. d.lub \\ith .m .Id-
mi:.:t\ll"c of 15 -201l u ofchoppcd Sll~1II \\'a~ applied. h
has beell c;I!culated thal :t sl,md:trd house ill the Uga l>os.sibiJiI} oflxill': t'inkolll Triticum murUIt,(Jturn It
2 scUIClIlent 1I'0uld rt'<Juire betwcen 9.6 ami 11.6 nrt should Ix· .1C1<kd lh.lt .111 pien" "fd.mb \I('rt' wl!t·ol·d
of non-oJ1:,'anie building componcllls. .md ~lUdit"(1. ;"\0 Ir:ICt'!i of {"olourine "a.. C'H"r I;.und.
The c1ar deposits at Lig:1 appc.lr lIS a hornogellCOu:. indic:nint:;: Ih.1t t.he struelUrt" OlPI)t".trro .L' ~ 00,,(',
\;I)cr with occ;lSiollaJ inclusions of n.-d h'ICIIl.uitc, or "nIl." roof \\;\5 ~uppont-d b\ lIlCI'nl,l! JX>"I.- Ol.il, twJ
Ol~Il\L\e (goclhilcl ochrc .IS \\c11 as olht'r fcrro\l~ ac- I>osthole" "hich (ould be .ltIribUlt-d t(\ tht' fU"f'lIp-
cumulations in the forlll ofthill oxidised flakes, These ponill~ conSlruttion, OU[\ 1\\0 \'ere found: 'HIt'" In
wefe 1011 lid aUIltIdallllr in Ihc d"su'uctiOIl debris. Housc I .lIIc! ;IIlOlher in I-Ioml' 2. bOlh III Ihe limn 01
l'louse wall~ \Icre rcacltill~ 0.35 0.-10 III in IhickllL'SS reltlain~ of m.lSSi>c 1'01['<;, '!5 cm in dLulll"tt'r, pueetl
at thc foundation Icvel. e\"CII lhough tht, imendtod dil'l.'CLt) 011 thl; floor .md SUpptlfCl-d hi. '."n..... In LtI<:'
thickness \\';b not c-xn'('(iinL\ 0,32 m, I-lichcr up. the C.LOC of Housc 2, Iht' p<',t \\';'" \UllJ"Onro h\ Ira~C"nl'
walls mUSI have been koso ffias..ivc. be.lrim; ill mind of th.: 'MIme ~md_lOne roe!,;. ,h.1pnf 10 I"rrr-pnnd
the relative lightllCSl> of Ihe timber framc, COllll);ICt with tJII' "lundt'd fonn <lflht' PO"!. CnIL'C(llI'·lItJ,. Ihe-
flakcs of rI.lub wilholll .lI\) ;Idmi.xlufe poillt lo".m:1s disco\cl"i:d 'o;mfulOllI' nxb \\t're .11Ii...... tt"d h\ tin- meh
.1 clay coaling of the 11'.111,. llll'cstigation oftltt· rt'co\"- ll;mpl.'r:uUt'l·, of lht' fill.tl fin' .1IId h.ld ~ r:u \;",<1.. \p.1rt
crcd lumps of daub IHlI'C also provided cI~dcncc ch;ll Iium that. no other t·eI1.lin 11:1('(', IIf Illll'nt.tl pt"c.
freshlv harvc~ted SII":I\\'O \\cre lIscd for lempcring. '\t'n: foulld. but Ihl' prl·....·nct'" of n.1l lilll,"'tum'" ubI.k
poinli'ng to chc p.anicllbr Ixriod of Ihe ,car for hou~ tit<: hOll....... indicalt' .h,1I (ItJler 1',)_1., ",.rt' ...... tull: £Ill
construction, Qne of Ihe lllmp. COnl.lilled part of an ,uch. Ilm, pm.t,'Ccr:d frlllll tfc,.·.n
car \Iith the ".-ruino still silting in ic .il che liml; of d.nlb Linlt' io kIlO'''1 .IOOut the n"l(,I~ tht'lII~IH"', t'l.lt'J>l
cClllpering (Fig. III.i,. ,\ I,inwrilll.l c•• r \\ould not be Ih.lI d." 'pl.",lcrrd ",1O<:I"u I(\\,"' IIl"HIe up Jl.111 .. f ch..
ablc to k"cp it~ grain) chIt, 10 10" It'llllxr:ltllrc'< .lIld intcriur ,Oll;lnICliun, nl~' l,h,.·rI.J.UOIl i, inlnT\'d
humidily, S. Karg, :t""i~lt'd I)\' I~. Kodl (.1}. who 1.".ld" frOI n ,Cl erl'l~' 1.1" rned li ,1I,'1llen., l,r d.lub "ilh Illll'rlm,
a caM of the holl: Ilmck 1)\ lhe ".11', h.l~ ,·'I•• hh,hed uf IloIr:lllt-1 101,.... st:Hm' Jll UIl ill di.lIlll·ter, .1' "dJ .L'
Ih,'1 the ear in que'tiun ';'ich ,Ill prul>.lbilil\ <wrns pit'U-" (,I' .--,kin.unl umtx-" 1(,lIl1d '1r.ICi""...plu• .J.lh
from emlller \\ he.1l Trilitllln dic{"OCUlll , with .' <1it.;:11I hil.lh in J.IH"" of <L.uh_ Ic b ,11"" "I'" Ct' "'''UfJk'' IJut
hilu....... h.J.d t:>lbl.,-d n'..k .l> inJJt;.J.lnlln ,·L" m"Ik"I"
,\ hiehh lIIf"nn.llI\t' ntll.....''''u ". 11101011.-1, loo"" d1_
'nl~ .nnh"r .. ~"-~I<rul I" 0. b .• "'_'h In.- ",.d",~ ........, .....
n.'\CIl'l!.11 Kllo.l>.uf..'nnnl fie IIIN t;... u1I<1!::I &--
r.'" "r thr ....n"n '" .Ilr f"-d~~"<"I'" .L."I,
,, ',,'111\' nll' ,lIl·.,'1lI ,,\,m"'" ,ulll,I'I'"
"\1.' , Ut" . . ' .'
rn ••"11 h,I\I1'~ ""-1\ ,hI' \\'I1,ln"l1<1I1 01 ,Ill' {1,'lIbl',1
'".lI.. . llllh..... lltJ'-".'-'I"II.l11d .1,-'1l1\l,... 1 Ih,1I tilt', ""11'
huilt h\ th,'lr \"m'll!' nr I:nuhlp.trI'!U" 1 hll', 1111' ·'11·'
{\l 1111""\- h,.u.......11\ h." c"1I11,1.."(II" hc ,11 k.,·1 101>1
5(l H·"tI'- ••.. t1\·'I)<.",11II1: 1l\ Ihe- .11:.e- nflll(' mhlll1lel"ll.
nit" .1.1' I"r fe-...III d....hin\:. ",I~ n"'-"d "',11t 'hllll:
'-"1111 Ill'rl""'''ltl, .'lIilll,.'~.. Illl.llmlin~ I{I .'ppl\\"i.
nMtch I ~ 'Iflhl' 1,11••1 nI,,., \"iUMI dll1\\: \I." ,'"",
\i(1.'n"(l hi hI' .1 h"II"" .1I1I'1I'-\IIn· IIt.m ('11.• 11, "hidl
n-qUl..."l .,cl,hli,lll.ll P"TI,\f;II;"ll, Ille- ""m""> "l',r
"~Il.\lh c<""pl,llnl1\~ .,1)("<11, tramp\.'!1 11001">, "hidl
ha,,,.m 111\('\ I'll. !',l..·t! <lI,.t.rr: .ll\{"(' .1 1100" i, tl~I1\lP"
1'(\. 11 " illlp,,'-.\,IJlto 10 I'\"\'n lhe- 'lIl{,l.e dliT,iH~I),
"N,"" d.l\" \,'ill n"l ,Idh.·r\.· 10 111<' old '111'111"" ;1\ d,"
\l1,...., io..., ", Il'\ ,·lIiu!l. (If:, 1I,'()\" \"tmM f('qlli1'l' pl.",•.,..
ing \11111<" "hok ,11",1. nOI jll'l p.lld"",,
I,", III a I 1.0, ,,~~lrl> ,~ l~ ...... ,l... ,n~,"l '" ilK 1."1< ('.~,,..,
\,. ,...tl .., ",~\l.o,"'m"," \lll' {;.,ll l'lllI
1"111' "., 1'lIl g.,I,!t-11 111"[' w,'rc 'uppo""'(! b)' ,I SI nw-
11Il'<' "rp'''l' ,111(1 1){',II11S wilh llll' b"rk pt"lcd "le ,'Oil'
Ill" trll 111 11ll' 1lI,I\Illl"1' of ".1 1\l,llrh~l;d"bou"·". i,....

I:""IIl"" Ihr,r l1\"lrl"....·I"·U\i,'ll ,,\ th.· ","IW h"u.t ";,,h1lu' 11,,' Ilf n,li\ •. III r.b(· of ,Ill '·:II'lIl1"I\I,'I..: MI,"11 .1
\"n1l m,h•.II1"'> Ih,1I tlll" 1\1<'\(1..1, "Ill hI' In;.1l.'1:1 ,~.I 'll1"l1ln" \,,'uld ,1l.ll.e. bUl1l01 collal'''·. the ini;.nllt'I"
"''''1110''1: "nd uml",lm111:1"'\LlI't' "lmf"l1u.llioll on ...id, IlIl' ,,)ulId \)\ hh h.ld a (li.mlcl<',. or ,Ipl'w;<.il n,lIt,
1I... lll:nrrJJ .•pp.:.\ral"" 01 Ihr ,tm,tu""" 11,,1 "'''1(' " li CIll ,l1ld I\en' 'uppo1'lclI 11\ 1l,llliml'Slnnes, ~il\CI'
",.wo\ Al..., I.. " 'Cfl\'lb lintLl''''''11 III 1"n1l' ,,\ hIKIIlU: din" I ('Ollt.It I "hh lh.· il\Xlr "ould ('.m$.: Ihem 10 foe
"n elf< 11\"(" ..... ut..1l'l \U the' t'llI: .,1 ", .."'t
I ndrllty In-.rn. ;In'hMt*~ ,11 ,1.1\.1 h,.,I)l;'Cn mudl
nn ul.luon. Il\l~ ol)!;C\,\.llitlll "." .1(111.111> \I$l-d 10 inIC'l)f('1 Ihe
pn-.cn,'l' of tI,11 hm''''lOl1c< wilhin tl\l' hU\I\C' of Ui<-I
n\Ultk<ll... ~I.d "n ha..."'...." . III \1..lni.. ular :2 .. nd JILtliht"t! Ihe hmi\t~1 number of P',,'holt-s,
n>\lO.-.:nurn:. Itlt- n.lturr "I l'rrhl,,,.n\ ""hnn:lurt'. l)omr lde,IS ,lhoUl ho,,~ l"OlI>ln":lio1l. likt· "1}:;1I1i~.
haikimt; In:hniqllir", b'-;IIt; • "IKllllt.n.... er.tlb. 1;'\\, .\llOn III 1.II)\lur. fOllSlllUPliou of b"i1dilll: m.lIt·rial,.
11....,...11 1'1l,1 I~.l 1'1141., '\nmhr""'.... tht' .•
"!Ir of It'o,,,~ md .." 1.'11 li,i.\\!o: conditium. (",Ill .,1", h,'
I".. p.u'.J1rl. IU till" ml.l 1".11 UI:..t "rr h)UIKlm ~ ~.tS\Jol'(I 1"'lII lh.· '''\''-'rh 'Urczno e.spclimC1I1' cl.,,·
'I'm Bu1~.uUJl ,-i11..~ "tlt"rt' ,lm\)",,1 lltltl'<'l .m~ .I 'it:nrd III m:Olhl"'IC\ \C\\II·~[lhlcrr.Ull'allSI.I\i.c h"u ....· ,
I "ntm,," ...,,:hl, I ,t'Il.:l -1''''1 1Il"!.... U,," ,11" fr'" "1111,, fl\tlll Cht"'I,, l'I.'ln.:n:>I., 19116. In lhe;r [I'" of h",il
I,,""..... III "'11-11 will pn,m"lr .Ill UIKkr-\.:ln<II\l1:. "llh,' m.l\l·ri.• I~, Iht"Sl" hOll"'" rc;.cmbk Ihc pn·lthllllie \".nlt-
Im'UII*'" h"hl\l<ll~'l'l""1 \\:." d"rllllll:' ... ull>l;ulli.Il1, and d.lult ,'on llllfllom ,11 11\:;\.
\)lI.,.-ll>.1rJJlrb ,,<'Tt:: r.m\1lI\l-l, ..,,,,,ll-d. hill \I,n'\(' of 11.1' 1It.·lIlo ..·.uu dt·l11\'n~Ir..II"(I 11m\ (\,Iub;1I\:. lIf
Ill<" '''11 IN< \",,,.01 "kml'lll\ dId >('t-m III tOll'l"'p.,md ".1\1\.: \\,dl, ".1< '111<' llf.he \"'n 1.';;1 ."sl, in ,h,' ('llll'
\l'1\ ",·11 "llh lhr un"""',,,,,l l... t .... ,'I UI(.I, '11,,: in,
'1I1lniu'l.l1 t h"il\<' 0P"I~It<li,..:, il ,I\'O 1,:qllin',1 ,I p,U-
'I"" ,,-d h"u...... 1IU" "d"" \("\'\ ,. ,I' ~1"1 "1:.1' ...hr,\" >0 I;, Ilhlr IMt ... ,ille,· ".III\c "'o1'l ralllllll)' ,UI'!l"1'1 ,I h,)"I'r
Ihrll 1Il.1IlIlrIMIIl:C I' I,,,,, mClI'1\I"u, .lI,d 11"'ir US" or" ,'.:n,llu ,,"t'111o:111, \I hich tillS 10 drv '(l1IwWhnl lJ\'flll "
p",h"I" .•1,« k" illll·lt;,· Ih,1ll 1II lhr ,.,,,. ul' <I-,..Ilil1\:.
.1 IIt'\\ I.I\<'I"\'.\U IK' ,Idlll'd. 1. I'lo-i""''':\ ,\ ""I<'~ 1h,11 po,IS
il,,,,...., O...l.""ll,tlh .• 'It''' I." ••, u! <I.lUh ",I' .ldd.'(1 wIlh h'lrl Ill" InI\·!:I.lled in d.,ub ",11I~ """Id ,lltl~Il"'
III ,\".... lit" .-mc\..., in .hr ".IIl-, hlll 110 <lilt'. "h"\I
"l)(\(!..',nllll\ nl,,·.I~. l' ,i!'l:UIl1>,.Il\l·,: lh,ll illllil'.II':' .,
.. \,...1. 1'1"1'''11<'<1 ,h.ll ",mk (01 1""'1' "'"Ir ll\'ln~ .....
hilt h cl"IlI,lII{\ ,11 l.il(.' lll,..lch.,rkiul: " ......'" ~Illh ,,~ llilll
pl."l~ duntl~ """U.... \I"11 11", lI'u.,lu·pl, i, Ih.u in
\("r.IP"..... \\ luth ,IUll.llI) ,Il\' ""r. 1ll111lc1'''''' III •hi' IIi1l1
.."h .. ,.t...:' '>l1t" ,,,,,,kll,,,1 Ill<" 1Il"1 ,n, .n huild.I
"""-llIhl.l\:." (f, Ch.Illtl'l" \'11. hrio"
Ltga 19

lIlt' 1"IWI111ll'1I1' ,1110 1.\'1'1' ,I hlll1 on Ih,· nlll'lllllp-


-
lir111 ul moL,· " .Ill 1I111'''rt.mt ploM,",n I Iif' "I'"nl.d
linll ,'l 1Il.'!l'Il,L1,.•\ I "IX 1.2 111 II,tlllt· ,HId tl,wh hou<;c 'Ilhl1icllI "','m, 10 hI' tilt· I "U·tnl<lI"n .. f "f'" nu,", In
\\lIh I~I till Ihnk \\,tll, ,uul" htllollll tIt ''\ III.n Ihr lilt· .s;,IIIII'l 01 tlu' "MJI .llltt Id.tll\r" ~""-"'I"IJI( .. 1'1-
..id~I' I,oinl H'~llIln" 2:. 111\ I,u..d. 12110 ImUlchl" du", . .,.1 1I1.It th, C (ll,t....1It 11".,," 1111 'hl 1'11,11 IIJl
d5 1.11 III hlll~ .md 1.'1 Hll Ilmk "I ",ltlll', S I Ill' lilt" '!llnLc· j'\.-m... ,n., 1'1111, 11"""-'1. ,t.-.plr '"Il,h
It,", ,mtlllMMI m~ "fh,u\nll'd 1't",h1lLt Il'n"- J\ 1101' ..fr.,n. ,11..\rr Hf milL, ",11.,1 , ,,,,ulllULaIr unrIr,
I,ll hOll"'" ,,",II'd "uh 1'\(." \'''''H .d\O rt'fIUllro h.lr. tilt' "",f \1 I.ql". U It" 1 11 1'1.• 14, !In:l dwl 1Iw.
'1"lil1~ "f.11I ,\It·.1 01 lfIOllm·' JI""""1Il ,wkl" .I,lu"lI, I 1.1\""1""" I", ,1n.lllq "I (,ot:M!.-!Cu(& or tOr
~'M It I'1;l1I.llitlm r,li<,t' "CI,"M" dIMII", ,tllOU' t1~ Ir-.- hid,· ....."LIll~. hut thr .1II"'IlILI .,( ( () P £ouId I..
dll .... II.I1 .1 "11I11)11111I Ilf 1't'("(1I,,,...,, ruufin1l; uf C;opp..:r f..t.l1 rflr hum.tll
.\I.,~ hlMI\I le mu\! h.I\I· 1.........1 "\<'I'\ l..htlrinu" ("\TII 111011... ].11 l.ilr" "·Il'.un...1 t"I... lorntr I....' thr I"J'If
imIIO....,,11k I.I .. L In IIJn·t IlIr d.. III.IIM" tl JU'I '!fir \ffi.\J1 £(lII.<tIUlIl<>Il 1II11:111 h.l\r 1><'r'fI rUrndnJ tu tlA'r' ~
'lC"ulrmrlll Illt· h"u\(" lIludd, ..UI· r.lIhM" t.K"i1ll0l '10 t'tnf,t1tt .. ,t! thr h..ll.... tI,,!' , rr.. lIJllI: JI thdfrrn:l tpa'l:
the I.....' llr nf nlttfllllt, .1'KIt- Imlll .1 fn. ruqltion.., e.~.• lOUL....1t 11. In.-.l (11111>1.". t.to 1......lnn Ibr ,.M,(
K'ltl1dlfknllrll, "hrrr IMr.,lkl Ir.t,rf'o(' m,.:I.>JOrn tln ptNhuln. I:" '1Jl rftnnJrd ca.. I .. jf\Cl
ill .h.a'llI"lrr,
t11r nlilM mil.\!lt Iif' IIIIC'llrr,"I.l.' IlltllL. tit he..un.' Fit:: fe. III • (ldJrT
Ihe- ....lllwTII .. .ill,t! Iht' ""nJI"lIln'
IIIH ht>U .. m: fX'rtul'" .11..... l->nhrd. hw lhrir __-
In Icnn, of IlIr"I1M fc.llun-... Ihc Oh-VIO rspen- n'Mlndllll:" \\rll' no<t Jm I~tt"t:l. mrr thr ,~-:urd
the dr(1mr f.K·
II1C'lIh dCll\(liIl,tr.ll("(III\,;1I "lolllilllt " ...' ... "Kla~ """ di...... -.wIhe- lamu f1l f . - ......
Ulf in Ihr link" 1,",,1c-<1 IU hc"t .1 1\("-1'0(" .n "dl .u i\l Thu'. thr h"u.... Inl"l£l,",1O uom pn::"C"lItrd helT n:l't
Ill(' "hdll\ h) '11,1.1111 It'lIlllrr,lIl1n' l'\cillao\ .. IQ&; nn .....nplt-mmt.an h..t _... idrn&r hrinc «JaIbInrd
nlitL n •• ru\,'" "'Mlk1Im",id,' brUM" L-.;oluionn. hUl_ rn;om bo.<th lI'l\L'C'" 1..10; J. ..ocI OUJlI.oncd I:J\ hidl' ....
III tum.•ll'O .. n M~i,,· .1111"1111I "f fud III c.l.~ of;J I'n'l"'~ In 1:I"u..- I Inlrm..al .ur.mgtlilO 11b,.,.d

fin'. L'liIlMUtm, "cn- .11.., 1Il.1I1t 1111 ..ITlIlUlIl ~.r"Qold .... "VC'" ..nd Ib'lnhUUnn ,t! 1''''10-1'\ ..I,.... 1Ddr<.1du..d b-
«"lluin:d Ii,.. hl",ull1l.\ l'k-uM"n..... 11lfkJ ,\hhooe.h Ihe c.;to;h htlOJ~ m(lihl.ru-b....... 11.... ' .....1 1olpt.... thr oI£ftW
\:,:I;\)I"mul"nl.11 'Inklun' \\.1.' 'l'lllt_'Ulllcrr.Ulc..n .II\(I ,iIU.lU,>I1 UpVII di...... ".·" Ilw 'n.
urNruo.lltllB.&IT pn'
Ihert"lnn' t1K"nn,tlh '(KJK"\,Il.lI pn"'<"tlnl. tlk" ,IIIIOUI1I:> f,onnnlln \MlurM:1 R "1"""1.UII. 'i
It,·
IIX'd "If thl' n;p"rinll'l1t IIKII•.• th.1I ,,11("11 Ihl" QUt-
~ilk 1I'1I1IIC'r;IIU!\' "," hd,n, ,,·m.
1I11"11.~'C h...-..til1"1l of
1 l'\IlRIl1R ....
,I h'MI"-" (Ifr,1 I:! Ill' In n.olH 11I '''lnd 11I.1 OOIll<'
(\\t'n t,fll'll,) m: u'uld pm,itk- IIIt.. m.l) trllllX'I'"·Uun-< \11 h.,II._ III I..I~I "rn 'U11..:"'.nMIflw-t1 1I"",-nt"T, thr
uf "l' I.. 7 1 IOC 11... hl't·,Ulol.,t! u-etl JU'I Ii'r ulI..,lcin"!l illlt'nl.11 '1"1'-1' \\.1' ,uhcll".I lllU" .. ,,1''''",
l.L L lIJIIrI

'''lulc1, '"1 ,1 '(',lrI, h,L'1' Ii,r mU' hl'll"-,,hnld. "".,ch 1-1":. III III ~,It;h ~ "rl I"U"'....lth.. "'-'qJ'fnf
>llIIIC 111'11'. nit' tkllll '1),llTI"'hll1d tl1l' "'Cll... hit.:h u·;,diu....m.1I llll" ,i,,1O" blll \\.1' .u......"Ltpl"') I" IM l...n·
".r, pl,lLI'd {luCIII, nil Ih,' tlo"r, "'l1hll11{'d .old """11 ,it!u.Ll 110'1"11, "I ".H h h"'h"h"ld Oo.\,.l)"'luIh." rMt~
.. h,·n Ih,· hn' \\,1' hI. \1 1Ir.·lll", 11 ".I~ .,1"1.1 ,.... I.lh· !".IU<'IlIlI.llmil' "'Ill.... ",1' 1.11l11": rJ.h'· \1II"">: thr
11:1< inllll\l\.,hlo- h"II.'1· 11I'1"I1,IUtlll' ".1' ,h.. ""'u Ib,
li,I"'d 1l,.11 I'H' .,dlll" .md Ihl"" Ihild""'1I "IIUItl nc.-.:l
'11.1' 01 Iht' "\I'll Il'rrl'""I~ ,uti, It' lilt" .. c,,· ,>f th.. 11<1\1.....
:1.0 :I..i 111~ pt 'p.UT lill Ih,·,r ,In'plllLt .m.lllI:cmCllh
Ih,,,, 1110' 1.11'1:'....1 "11'1I.lurt· 11.IIN' I ,11...., h.ul th"
(l'I"in"I'", ,I l'IUhl. I.u......·.. l ,,,,·n "ult dun'·II'hlll' ,,) I -.'\ 1.1 rn ru:
1\ "'ri," ill l'Iilll,lh' "'lwlinwlIl' ,.,ni,·cl tllll .tt 1Ill"
111.11 & I:!. \ ,,,'11.1" """"'It ,m.,It,·! ,11 "11 .....' dl.'-
l~'i'" F.., ]",rllUt'lll.d C"III1)', n,·\1I1I.u'k ill l'I!1ll 2()O,l
1"II"'I"'d ill IIf'll"':!. tilt' {hl1l~n,i,U1' h,·m.: 1 :.!:., 1.1-'
,·"uli"," Ih" 1i11ltill~' nill11 Ilk"", N.A. ~Il!lkl'. C:~'l'­
111.0..l. lIlt' 11''''1 "I,h,' 01,,'11 l"<lIll,II,,· ,IN~nl ...1fn"n
"ullal"'1I 1I11i, "I",il'. 11"'....,,11.11 , '1111111.\. \, I~:il'C. il \\.L<
dt'lil,,,,,,, .,u·t! IIt,ll rill' IIl'.lllll~ dkl'l "t I.,kllll.: .1I1111Mb
itll":' \1111,111I'" j, lilllill'lt, illn,·,~,in~ Ih,' Il!Om 1"111- \ Ilk' Au,l~.. "('~" lut lo' \ .. I"" , K,· ',,.,,.- ~,.~
p"I,Illll" "llh Oil<' dl'I'lt"', .11 ",,"'1 ,ho",.. ,ol,t't""""k'."""~ IM. _1,1 _1
n..llh \,I"JI"I" h,,,t' dl'lIl,1I1'11,'1t"{t Ih,u th.· ,un,I.I-
",I..........,.........." .. ,.Iow..............
';0 !rln .Irrhm'fllogim

,•

I
- 'IL ,
~ l~ ~ '"""..... ~ d.,~ """""1nl hUln 11,,,,... I, I"" ''''''I~r",r",rd 1,) ,-",knrr " ...""k<l ,,'
," I"""'~. '1'Jl<> .,{."-", ~tId '''b•• Ii"". ~... 1"....."''''1'''."'..,,'~ ,,, u,~'"""'d <b'~.
1'1 III "'--.1 , """'", ," un
Ibrr I".. IV. ." ..,"" '" lIltnn.1l _&nar1'"""
kt-non.""'''.oo <In"" 1'1 11. 1"..".;".
Ligo 51

a<>
·1 r la .1 rrhaf rl illf.:/ff1

I •

1

-
III 11 11....... 1 , .... I..... thr 1-.

the- ~ dc:hrU tI buf'tK'd daub in Hou...c- I. di<lmrl.r:r. Th" cb} held orxanic temper ill smaller
..nd Ib sW- c;onnut he ~ "'itb u:naint\ ;unounl' than Ihe w.ub u..ro for "'.dl.... "In.. cia}' u~
h .. .., an arrrpt"d principk' ~"nTlin~ ~ u'"' r,( for thI:' ha.,", ohl.., o'.en ",-;u tcmp..n-d ",ith '\:;tnd alld
illll,nul ~ IQ pbtt me, O\t-n OIl ilic: ";lr md of the qllart~ ~"',lin... of '2 I mm.
mom. in f.u1 a.t rn" middle r,( tI.., \lllrrinr nQrth~'m 'nil: ovens in Ilou!lCi 2 and 3 undcrwelll rt...<;wra"
....u md up t m fmm It. 1111" ,,,-.:;n ",;a.. OPP(l'Iil<' of tion" mdir.J1inl1j, .I prolunlo;ed u~.d of Ih" dL...ice, On
thr rntr3n<1r •• dw- lJor.",.. -.itu..tni in thr ~tht1Tl ,,(W 'lU(h ~"n. th" (";UC of I-I()U)C 3. " I..yer of
...... Thr:- onh &-'uu..n ..", I'fI(1 in H"u\t l. .. I!f'fl' -lam. "'''-, if"lC:llll'~ulalCd in Ihe dome- by the Ill:'" laycr
tbt 00.01 W;" pbcni ;l\ me, "("\1<"m .. .ill. '\u ~idnlc:1: •.,( dl~ hnin~, '111;. mu 1 have improved the lhenn,~1
,,f th" etltnJl(:" tu.. llC"nl dilC,,,MTd in tlu. 0Ut", H,.... " propenlL"'lo of Ihe oven, JlmlonWI1Jo; the period of 1ll':1l
.....-r. il nil 1J(' UOoumn:l lIul ar;crsa fmm 1I1e ~,uth rurliation. In tlll' better Ilrr""C'l"'l'd 1Iou~., 2 and 'I, .'
..ould lu,,: Ilffn e.xnpOC-<Urd dlk I... ~, ;lOO clay plulI; "''" f<)\Jnd at ~I"I(" "'elU. rr"pec:th't:ly I1 and
!Jr.. . . "''»le ~_ dr northnn .. ..u .,(
lI"1(" loflWo': 13 cm in dWnrttT HI;. 111.13:2, 3 " Such plui;!i "Cn'
_l...nl\ indir4lr\t- Ul \nTm'A' an mtr.ul«. m.W1I11j, u.v:d f'>f do-illl1j, th.. O\ClI hole<. .tt 11.., 1CI1', m.nk 10
tI......_nn .. ~ and ;o.n Q._'I"TTI r:tltr..... ". thr mtK1 1lllprO\l: Iho:: draft" In hoth l"'-l;n Ihr plul(S "eft'"
Iilrh "'U~Jll. Thr '1'.l:Jl> "r.r con trucu:d on till: IOC-"lCd r,t" 1 m a",,,) fmm .ht: (J\'('m, likc1} indic.ttil1~
fit" ... bo. fi....1 "nnin~ a 11~l\h nilrd pl.atf"nT1 of Ih..1 firr "'d) lIet ;11 Ihe tim" of Ihe conll•• ".-r:ttion of
.. 11'1\<' I:> em: thr """,nin~ ~'IfJ"'~rd t~ roc.m. n"" the:' "h'M ""lI..mrnL .\1..,0 a ftrc.\rwel Lf b,,1oI'> "'.OS
:J\m> "'''''"' ........ in ~..oo doJlllt"d. unin~ w~ fr:.und in ck..... a.~i.lIirm .. ith tile fA~ru I i~"
;o.n abu I '<D tiu<l.. fA' ,LI\ pb>lrT ,.,...,rint; lilt' 111.13:1 &.111.11
(O«,(,ltltrO\rn madt-flt..ilt' ..., I I,,)rmin
"nu, iU CC'WII) "". m,,) 1)1" "xtl'lldcd ",ilh cl;<) \lI1X'.
-",

,~ III 12 11 ... 3,..-afthr

e.,. .. .
.." ' ..
.. ,. .... .. ."
......
""

.. ".
.
.. ~ ..
....
'" .. 11
2
.. " ....
e .. "
....
..
..
..
"
..
. ....
" !I ..
.... .... ...... .. .....
""
................
... ".. ". .....
.. ""\
..
4

.. .. ".. .. """"" . .
......" "" .. " ." .
1

lilllllll.lI.........I.o.... I ..llh .............,fI.... I ........ .,..,(,!.!


3
g~~ 4
,,,_,p__ ~""b~
.Ida .lu!lllr'lIlngirt/

I '" III 1,. 11,,,,... 1. ""rnLlI ,!.IIlh " ..11.

tine "Cl',' (,mml !·ig. 1l1.l5). TIlt' t\,O \\.III~ \\cn·


onh pn'\<"""d In:l heighl of 0.15 111. Thl' [('"gc" \\.111.
I ,e III 14 I ,.... ,~...l ..>td ,., I'" ,,," h,~ In ... n"''''~ nnl...,. ,t"" nmning E·\\', i.,'.. ll.lr.,lld to till' IHH"thl'l'll 11.,11 of 11,<:
hn,,""~ "'11'" .~ ,,"]/"", 11""" J hOI1'1'. 111l~ ra. 0./10 m long :lIId 0.10 thirk. I'l'rhap~
it~ \I(',t,,1'1\ "lIrl ".I~ \upp0l'lcd by a llI.t,~i\"e. likdy
ro(jl~~lIllpmlil1g ptN. 1'.1I'l Ofll\{" ill~t.llhllioll \\.IS eOI-
"Iu(h 'lIT uhrn illlrlllfl'ln:1 ;I., ph.llIll' ,... mhol, ;md "red h) .1 thick I.l),·r ofhllOlcd d.ll,h. \I hiell lmmper-
"«11 ;1.., rt'lllllrtp.l"-" I,) lilt" nmUllnll '>()o(""lIl:d rd .1 del.uled \lUd} of Ihc di\'islon. The ~llo'"It'r \\ ..11
\I"tll<'r G(~,- fiCllrim"', 1I"ulint: lIIall\ ~hob", MlIllIinl:, ~·S \\";I5.1l le;...., 0.60 In long .1IId prc,mll.lhl)
-1 "d"n... ,I. 1~,; Grrgm ~(J(ltl lit:. III 11: I .\ pr.lg- !\;Id a Ihillll'"" of 0.15 111.
m.111< im"rpfl't:.uinn ",,\lld, "lIun I lhe "llh.llloi" wilh HOll"" 2 ".1' cquipped "ilh., gl~lill pilho', \\hich
mrwlluf\..... -«ing Ihrm ;\\ p;ln, "fbdlm' 1111~ I.Hln m,nl,' up .m impon.tnl p:ln of Ihe imlllO\ .Iblt' 111\'cn-
,,)(',1., upponC'd IJ\ clhl1<~lphi, al ull-.<"",ation~ and 10"" ,\hhllllgh Ihe \e,<;c1 \\:.a.s cOI51,,:d by .1 r.,ll,·u ".111,
In mllh-w.",n. ~hil,n IQil 'mwlllt"b, mock-m dimclI'.iOlI' could h,: olimal('d fmlll 'hI' PI"~"""'<!
rn:"rd, un .\fn<;.lI1 Il";)dHl"ll.lIlnrl.tll\l~"11 pr.lCtic..... f"'~'ln('1lb. l1,t pitllOS Il.Id ;In o\~ll \1"'lx·. C.I. 1 III
m"l:J<:~ .md I",bd", .tl..., '111"''''>0 .1 ph.llli, lTl('anintt of IUlIt: .IlId 0.;0 III hit:h. It ,,-.<§ placed .1\ lilt' e.Ulenl
.I.., lul"". pl.rillt:. thcrn 11, ,I. h"UI.111l1.cd ul1i\'l:~ ".111 .md 'lllTQllllcktl I" SC'\CII ~m.t1lcr 'T'i'lCh Fig.
.. hrfT ,I. mdtinJ:: {unl3<'C i.!' .UII ltkr,-d a f,·m.ilc and \11 III & 111.17. !n ~J>ile of hiJ.;h {·XIX"CI.llitJn\ ,the
Ih.. hdlO\\ J. nw.. d ..m ..m '1:.,. lle Bam" 111'l; jluh,,, h"d .1 C.lI):lcil\ 500 lilenl. I'\ClI '>(Iil flot.llion
111" nnh fmd of .. (I." 1"1,,...11 Utt.1 I',\) made do..., did lWl produrc .m} p"la,-obotanK;;,I,e'idm·.
III 11... Oltll of 1100..... I. 'ut:.l:,("\,int: 11"t! il ilia, hale ·11,,· 'IOl'lg,· ront.line,", III l-IuuSC" 3 "ere ftlUml ill
bl:k",~ 10.1 h"uICh"ld hell, .... Il"C'(I,O n,kiud1(' the tht· "'llIU' IJ.lI' ofllw house .IS "I)O\e, i.c.. do,,' 10 ,he
fut frum l!I""int: rimkn n"'llll"inrri Wilh 1111: help uf C.I'lt'm ""ll (I;'j~. 1Il.91. 0111) 01lC mil(ln ha\'r IX"II
hIT.'" ",,1 "'t: IIdt,,, o..,ull. Ih., fine! uf dm:r copp,:r
dUI; illl') Ihl' \Oil. '" i" hasc ".I~ .llon(l~1 fOllr dmn
11,'"'' "'t: hd(m in IIou,"" I lll,1l \lI1IIIUM .1 m,·tall"r. 'Mm)\\e!" tlmll ,hI:' opening. the In:ight heing ca. 75
1ti{.1l hnl
1'1ll. TIL(' I"'m:tillinl( \'eMel~ in Ihi~ dU'le," at I!-a't
\ for"",1 clivi,i'lII "l '1J.l'C \'.l\ fill1nd ill 1'10,,><:1. 1:1 lien' '1\'1 ......'IIj.\ed i" •• p.lrtieu[;,,· l),(t1l·l"Il. 011
Iml 11' PUl'jllN." i, nt" rI,·.II. no, In'l. hit:h ,h;\ d;\i~illn
till' ''''\lnll ,i(1o- ufllie 0\'1'11. ill the N\\' con"," nfthe
l,nltino\U\ ".". I"" IX'1xndi, utII' (1.11lh ".,11, "r";ncd
h'llI,t, \\.I~ .1 Ill'nu:melll ill~lal1nliun 1l1l' grindillf:: .1
.1Il t"l1<I'"Ul'C ill till" ,,,,,,I1l·m 1>,1'1 "f tlll" n'01l\ in
rlITlIl.lr p1.'lfilllll, C.1. I nl ill di:uIII.:lcr "II"lo.ed to-
"lulll th,,", n·r.uni, \" ...1. nil" d""1l b01l1 .md t"o
lI.ml, lIlt' "'om hy .1 10 Cm hif:h .Ind .cl 1I till Ihid;
hilt 1"",,1, I)d(L,.d ,,,,,t.tl1lt"l d,.{{>r.",.d "itll b"rho_
...1I1 1'10\, I11 la TIlt; pl:.ltfonll " ... left "pcn .It th,·
Liga
J'

I ,~, Ill, Ih. 11"".... l . •~"'.,"" "r 1'''10", ",,10 .,tlio(c'" , ......1.

SOllthcn! sidl'_ Within this l'nclO'\Irc 1"15 found ,I on lhC'C.•\ bC:lnl .J1)(I\l' the: O\t:n in lIowc ~ mu.'1
mas-.i\"C milling SlOne knH~r IMn \\ith;1 dl"CP u§c- ha\c heen ckcor:llcd with .J dol\ amhmpomnrpAA
wear depression. Two <m.llkr milJinl; stOIlC'< uppl:r fil;\lnne. 'Inn~ up Ihrnu\!h ruspet1>I(IIll h,*, in tM
p;lns wen' di~O\ercd c1tXc b>_ Item Fi\!_ \'1,2, llul .Jp'ln from um. .ill odttor tind'I
The other hOllSl.><i did nO! pmducc .m> l,...-illdin~ in- "elT found dirccth on the 11..01' with no .Jpp.uTOl II!II:'
stall.l1iom ,lilt! onl> held finds of hand <Ion...... pl.l~l-d of pl,"fonns. t.;lbk",. or the Jiloe. 10 f-1nu."" lno=" al.\()
:11 Ihe ~IOr:IW· >'1"'\Sl·ls. I-Iowe\ er. the present" of 111.1",_ llH) lilllt"lOlle roe"" .1 tnam.." d.lr IlII Ollt" .md .J
ivc J;lindillg <Iuncs. 100 "ei~lll) to rdlen ,it.:nilic.Lrlt ,m.tller roundl-U om- 'h,'pt-"tflO fil e,teh other. Thl'ir
posl-depo<iliollUI l!~msp{)l"mlion. in Ihc "~lI'eCI" l.re.' ,L«oci,uioll \,ith lilt" ,,:roup of \t:W;:6 ,Il thl' emr.lllce
indic:lles Ihlll grinding ,,~....Iso earned out ()llldo\l~. m.,} illdi.:lle lh.1l lh.,\ IIt'n: mt:.Jl1l 10 ,it on. liloC'!\
I nvcsli~:llions of.Irlef.lcl di~tribllliollS, incJudill~ re· \IIot'n .·.lIint: Fi~_ IIL10,
cordings of llu: "ngl.,. of it"'I11~, point 10 lh., exi,tence nil" l110'0t f."l\ourahlt: condition. of p.........-n'aliull
of $Omc sOrt of shd\"c~. 1l,".IIII, such d ..:!ln "ere "cr,' met in HOtl........ :.! .md 3. -nl........ multi-limo:uoru.l
ins la lied .11 dlC e,t:;teOl \, .111. ,., ill I..ou........ :I ,md I buildinlr\ "C'n; 'Irut:lUIt'd -olllC\\h.Jl dilfeR'111h Ill-
Fi~_ IlUl. IIU9 & 1'1. ,;. 111(,' ~hC'!\"l~ \\("re pl'rh"I" l... rn.oIl\. bul folJo"cd thc '<.JfII(' rnnllal ltll\O"f't.' (111
intelKk-d .IS "exhibition ~.," for di,pl.L\ of lhe fille"l lhe .L..... of 'P;Oa'. 111,' ""'Jlk (:oppc:r ,\:.:• .lJTlul«U1rC
1)QIlC!). bUI .•1.0;0.1 ne(,·"Sit\ to ....In-limited <p.lel', .\1 ".1' hOLl..in!.'.ill mhl'ritrd order. "hlth .l1k"'rd e:.lCh
leaS! 15 'e'....·b in I-Iou,.. 3 llluSt h....: ht'C'J1 'I.,d~"(l iudi\lcI".11 hOLL...:hold 10 .. ull'o(:nbc 1<> It.tnm<>.fI 1K'l'Tfl.'
011 such ,hd\"(" .11)()\"c Ihl' hit: '1Or.'t.:'- eont.•in.·..... n", .md wmllmnal i(klllill~"'..\/1 ad.Lp".lti'>f.- .Jlld rdu-
hOllS<' walls ,,,'n' :lbo d,'l''''~'led Idlh h.L1lL..oint: 1,.,,,1,. "tliOlh l'l'n; unckn .•lo...II mlhin ..",:h lr.ull....."'rl. bul
often reaching 10 cm in dbmell'l' (;011 p,'rflll,LI"d hc- ill 'pit.· ..fllot: unir.mnil\ I'dlccl,'C1 in ..-nkml·ltt !.I..;rlll
lull' Ill<' lip ,dlh., ,il1~lc h.-.k .wd "ith 1r:,C'" "f,d,•.,- .'nil Jlliutipl.·, l,'owlllin~ the lur"ri"n 01 hnU-l"hold
,iuns 0.'11 Ihe h.,ck ,idel, mmh lil.c '>OLl\,-nir pl.u.·, ill'I.III.'I;'ltl,. th"n' " ......d."-' n>um Ii,r /;\>lI'I";uu. >lI :uv;I
n(n,.ldal"'. $I...II-e, \,el" pl'l'>h.,hl, .1150 ;"sl.,II,"(II...- ril .ill'. ,r' ...:ell ill lhl' p;.ni, ul.lr illl nll<'1"\ t,f the indi-
Iw~"Cn the PO'L, <\ll'porljll~ th.- r"of con'lllIlu.m. ,id".11 h"u...: -«" hd,m
111t" rn.tin ....u , "f Ihl' .trucrurr-- l' rho '~linr
Som.. of lh.. ,LOllt· illll'lt-llWllh ""IT I'rnb,.bh IIl.Kcd
hr 1Il 18 \hU",11. pL"I,,",, do.. ,n.."'" m 11... 1.'11' C,,,,,..., \~
1<11 AI ""<11,"1<"""",, \ \lllllbt 0"1'
1<," 1"<111<1 '" 11"".... 3 3rrr,
G,,,,I l'IUl,

r1udin~ fr.lI;~ll1rllt~ of .1 hi!: do!lCd ",Iter jar f,'uncl in


, 'It 111 I 11,.... 'he 11 ' ."..1 ,4 th" IM"'........ r'M''''' ~I Ih. four ...-::p.1I ,lit' I"IU,II'I.,. !Fig, 111.22 & 1'1. 11; I),
pOll I.. Ul~ 11., ,,,..01 rhr fluon of the hou'-C~ were h'[lt ch::'Il. III It'\\'
.lrc.!.S I' hc", p;lrn of unhl1rnl'1:1 noon \\ cre l"I-'Co~~lIi§cd
.l..\ .1 o/t"' ~11'Cnidl cb. " C\cn Ihoroul.\h cx,lIllillOllioll

tl"&IT(l l...l;\o ,om th.. nllrolllr<, and ,hf' (JI,'{'Il. ,llu,l1ro l"'lUl.\hl ,u'l'ri~ill~h 1l1{)(k~1 fC<,uh., :\p,u·t frolll till'
01\ l'PI","'Il" f'lIn, "f th.. "M,rn. ,\Inn~ the \·...'tl·m ",,11, Ibm rhip\ n-ronlt-d in 1-101"''' 2, 11ll" 11001' dchli~ onl)
,., UW 1I1'l'"n, \\,..' ,UI ,lIT,1 ,l' i~wd f"r Inn~-tl'nll "llr- fompri~l"d "f:, fc" picces of flint.; 1101 cl\:cet,{ling the
,t~, lwo 11 I<Mod· tulf, or th.. im-dihll' \;t1u;lhln of till' ,ill' of" fin~en1,lil
h,1U!It" I1m I:Qin hin' "lid "K"ht"\. "hieh dt'l>!otH-d Iksitk<. Ihc utiht,lrian or potelll;,IIl~ Illilitmi:lIl in-
In.. ttr"ll"'l p"llI'l'\ "'<"n' dJ.... ,,'t'.ro thelT. ,,,ubI.,, till' , ..mon of the ~lnlClIlr~.." it \\.!.S e,idell1 Ihat Ihe
m'nt I..... uulul \ \ f'M,md III lI"u"" :! ",l.' 'l.llldl1l~ hO\heS ,01..0 held reli!!;ioll\ dCIIlClll';. HUIlSf' 2 \\ ,IS
3t th,· IInm<'l\.Ibk ~n pithl)', Ii~. 111 16 & I i. Ilu- equipped will, a h:,"~il1g ,mthropolllorphic figllrin",
,lH.I ",. tl1ftlll' ('\Tn \\,1' mnnru,:d with fuod Ptl'l)o f:I'tenec!to 0111' or tile logs "hovc ,md 10 the "'esl tlf
0If,l11<0I1 ,md h, ,n·tl'ml "m,\l:'''. I h<' I,.-rilldlllt.: in<I,II· Ihe onm, LT nfonUI1,lld). only Ihl' lo"er half of the
ttlion ,,\ U'I\IK' 1 ".I 1"\\lId hnt The "un" p,le" in h~lrine \\,l\ discO\en:d l'i/ol. \'1.2. bUl iu posilioll
Unu ! "'''-~ UtTUp}rd In thTT"l" hili; oprn \.-w;;L, .md \\ithin Ihl' ';IN(:tUlt·.llI ,,('11 .t'o use·l\e;,r InICt·S around
.. "'!no&Ilrr "'l<" t')IlWll\l1l~ 13 f1"lnn~, ".llenUJl'II .1 hO'I' m.,dl· ill the :,rl',1 Ilf 11,,: fcrt 1«:l'e ~oll\illrillg
lld,hln .Ind a .null b"flnil'" rup "'"t' IId!)'I, Olhn indi~,l(i()ns nf 1111' plaC\,: 01 tit<" fi~llIil1C ill tilt' hOll'C,
.........·1_ funlwr ,11"n~ \h.. "1"11"" W;Il! uulil,lIt, 111,11 In Ihl' NE p,lI'l 'Jf 1111' IMl'lly "l\:r;"~lled I"IOU'll: 'I"
.tI"" un olrrol "',l' u"'d f"r prql.lr.llmn "I fuod. liLd\ 'urroull(kd h\ l>u\\l~ and \lIJU. 'I";\S.I compte".:l} pre·
....u",ll1l. 'of \.·rr.l1_ '" \ll<" 1LL.c.\ "',·ll-pn·...-nro lun. ""nn:l fi).,'llril1", ,I <,o-c;t1led ·'Siltint.: Godde'oS"" Fi~.
rtltrolll"n "I' 1""...,1 "'ol dl"I"t'rcd ,It Ih.. "')Ulh..nl IIl:H '\'-1<110 the fi).,'lJrillc,,~ ,I '"Ixmr', "hif'h :.p-
;tit ,..- 1hu....- 1. n"l lol' lmm tlu' ,"ml";\\1t' 'Ill" 'itu- 1)I·.ued III be till' !VleTh\·et Im'er l),In of lilt" ~illlil:lI'
duun \""XI"""d durinl! ,'xr;l\,III"n 1""lil'(l ,1'111U11 fi\o:Urill<', Ul1H'lininf: ,1I1 q~~.like uhj,'ct in CI:I)'. TIll'
\oll!"d: uHllund'''d h. 1)<1\\1, .md ,. du..... lI "" ,,'1. ,I bit.: di'pl.l, i \HI douht oriKilHll, lIIil~LUrlol1.l) \''>C''pill~ re'
"\101\. "l, mhhnl>\. L,tr \kdl~"\.11 "'U\) lUITTn. Un! ,i1~riltlhur,11 t",nrh dllNil11o; h) Ic'>S Ihall 5 CIlI \ 1'1.
hrlol ;all ill"" I \ lfl Ill! 1II:.!' Wt'u' Ih.....· lhe 10·...
\ 'nll he"d 01 Ih.. fit.:llIllle \\.IS r<'Co\\'red Cl. Olle
I.."
tll.,'" .., . 111<".1' nlil\ rollllll( "d' .... 1..1Ilt.: plol'" III IIlt'U" '\(Inh of the bud., 'mouthh I'm through Ih..
11". ,.."nh"nl "nol"fI1"' h"u,,', I ])"""'P lonhm\t'd
'''''ll h)'I'I'IUl>lIill!:. TIlt' fi\o:Ul;I1I' W,I~ r.,"';111o; ~""th. Wo
I" th, Ildni.llll I'n""'nrd phlll"t"' f"!Il1 II"u",' :1, LIl.
W,lI'll~ ,I'l' jlrnul1l1'd ellll.mee. Ikl111ld it WCI'C fi.... hi·
.H

li~ III 1'1. ,\ "" nr f;'~ hironj, r",>< r.1I1r" r",,,,., ,hrlr.lik lII>lall~lin" at 'hr f: \\ "." ,'"
~
•.,.
'R
, .'Olr " 'n' ............
'.LL •••
hu
__ ,
~""I"" .. ,11,
"1",..,,1 'rmr;,1 .id... s.", .. 1<.. 1'1 I

collie ('Ill'''. sl••ckL-d 0111' in till" olher I'i~. 11I.19'. 511I.111 p'·l'SOll.Il Ul.·.ISlln:'o IjJ,;e ;t rollcnion .. f kmll:
'illeSt: must 1"1\1: fallen from .1 _IIt'JC ,Il lht' C.1511:m h!.lck-s. J,;cpl 10000C'lher ill a k:uJler pouch, m.L.'I("m
\\.tll, "I)()\I; the fib'lHinc. TO/o:clitcr with lhl' (Ill" \\cre cr.lfl.'tl fi"'1lrill~ .md 10\,\ :tll \\t'"1T kft behind Fill:
,I flim bhuM: and ;lIt cud-scmper. Close 10 lhe <f.lded 11.1.21 & ilL! 1 111c alailabk dua ..tIT d' HlU~
CllP~ were another 11'0 CllllS of the '\.11llC" 1)'JlC. Thl~ limiled 10 the thr("(' fulh cxe:t1.Uffl ..tlld indilidwJh
seven cups 1Il:1) e\'el1 poinl l(I the 'lUmber of illh•• bi- fumi.dH:d h,lllS<.'"< '''lh diffcrinll: h..i>lori~ of plT'('r-
1.1Ill5 in the housc. 1.lIioll. 1111I it .......·11\.1 111,11 infubiWnl,' of H{>ll'< I. ;It
The dC'I(:ribcd di~pl:tr~ arc lhu) .1 rdlcclion of tlu: Ill<' 1II.,n.,<iIl> of the 'Cnkment. lutl <om,," Lime' to t:UI-
Illllhifllllclional 1I,t!Urc of lilt' COPI)t'f .r~(' house. It'Ct their I,!lu.,blt"• .IS Gill be ob-icnn:l fl"(l"l thC'
"hen: the wHit.L1i,1Il ,Illd the dlU••l ~phcrc, ,Ire iJllC- limill'tl (Illantill .Uld t\~ of Sllktl! finw 1T'(00t'"rcd
/':....01 led P:II'I' of 1111: JIJIllu.J (WIJ/I ~I(Ioddt'f 1ll9O). N"ilolh. "hell comp•• n:d "ilh thc othe'r '\\0 IruCturt"'\" \Jl
bourillt; It.:dutilt- nl,L) c,'cn hale l'CI'C.III'cl l~nl1.Il":1Il hou..., t"~pt·ri .. nccd lhe ,11llt:' dc1,'Tl:'<:" tlf bumill~.
i'htaJl.lliom t'd:ncd lO Copp.'r t\f.:" ril",I!s. QIW (lflh~ rc.lehinl: ill 'O,m' pl.lce_ lemper:ltun;,. up 10 l.'tO() dC"-
hn\!'t·~ in HOI;l.on III COl1lailll,d " cJ.I)' "cb, illlcr· I'n·...., .Co c.ln ht, jlldl:t'tj lrom pi.'CC5 of d,l\ ,1.111, ~
prclcd .IS ,LIl ahcr (Gf'I'J,:o\' 1992hl. This \\,I~ ~1.lIldillg cialll fi-"lIn I/OU.I· J ill r.,u illdic.llin,;: Ih,lt lin° Illll_t
ru th., 1I0I"(h.'I'11 "~IJI, ~IlITOlllld('d Ill' .'Pl),lt'eJ1l dOUl- 11;11'" ~1:11"lt'd from ltw l"lX'( ,\u "-:prrinll'n1;1t U.1""
c~li(' IWII.'I)', DCllUlrk I ta, .lrl11'lI1'IJ~Hcd 111011 tlte erf,..:I..' 01'.1 lire .1"'
The 1.ij.;.1 :1 ,cult'mcll' \'~I~ "h.llldoIU'd ,I' Ih., n:<IJlI lIlllch le,-_ l,lIlllihl.. in \I;lulc ;lnd d;lub hUlL'l:' II
of ,I dl'~lmClitll1 1:;1I",'d br " J.:I"t',1l 1"'11\'1";,1 fin', '1111: ,1.lrtl'tl iillll1tlll' 11001' !rwl Of.1 h"I.I...• 1-I.III..«'n I~il
C:lo:I1O"'d ""llmins poilll 10 .1 ~lIddl'l1 .md Illlt'>:P"('I"d 'nit· u-,II.lp.,.cd 1\ .dl_ IH~rt" ded.iu' in PIT'o('r\ ,Ui,,"
Man "f Ih., fin', mU<1 pl"(,h"hll '<1>1111·,,1"'1"(" .-1(1..... tu of ,tMer.u-b, 11111', lt1l" (',l;"'m lI..tll 01 11011>(' I, l.tllinl.:
Ih.· ("cnln: of .....Illcm.·nl. \ ·c,,,,1.-. ~lUl1" .md b"llt· lool~, illl\.Hl"I_. 1000i'lher "ith Ihe ruo( ....·..tlcd .•U inlent""
.lelfl .lIdlf/rologim

I:l~l'illl\, in RNhuile _,11 ti'lIr \il1dul!iHg. I~Olb i11l' 1..lIe


\. ,)l1C~' \CtT!:U\ HI9:2a), III K l1nK!ol .,11 fi\l'
.0PI}Cl" •\''\'
:'! . , ,...
\;\ik"lo\ I~13·1\. in S,ldoWI'·EJ:I'ro ~)llr 0111 \) ~~x. 111
Z;ul1lnt'C .11Ilhrn' (Nikolo\ 1975\. Just 10 IllCIIllOll a
i1:\\ of the I ~l\C Copper .\gc \'x.llnplcs. Tlm... ,11 le.lst
80" ~ of the" dl-'IUdicd KSB 'cnlelllt'rlIs ended Ill' in
IhmM.. \11 Oilier I"C/;ioll< ,he !It.'rccm,u,w ~'Cl1li 100,cr,
ho"c\l'r. The Copper .\I!;t' ldb of NE Bulg:u;a. 5)'S-
Icmaticall, in\T~li~\It-d in the 1970s and -80s. demo
h 111_ 1 1 !ant ....- . .lur<'d I" tit t",h 1'I1hrt. ~""nd In OI\,U~IIt' Ih.1l auk 33° 0 of the I_lIe Copper c\!-TC scttle-
H, 'O«'1hrr ..."b A ~ 01 , ....'"'- 1111'11I pha..-c; ,ho\\ 1r:tC'C'"
of gn:,1l fin"! the :I\"ailabk
dal;} mainl) bcloll1.,"S to the c,Il'licst ph:lSC of KG" \'11
Todoro\":l. 1982. ll,c pcrccl1I:lgc is {"'ell lo\\(;r in the
in Ux- C~<tCTll potn ollhi._ ~U\leture. F.'I\'ourablr ron- urtier p:ln of the period.
WDoru. \\ttt,u-o cre.llro '" !he ......u~ of !he WC"I- OilTtJ~nl e."v!:matiolls for grc:u fin."! ha\1: 1,..:clI put
nn "all •.r H""" 3. Thi- \\"311 co)\~1't'd thc o·..en :tIld fon,.uti. r.lnging from ho_tile all:lcks to rilUal :ICtS. h
Ux- itnm .ldj.K'('1lt III il. ~ c~\cm pan oflhc hou,,;(' cannOl be: c-"dudt:d that hoslilc aUacks "ere a real
" .... aL-o ""';'Tf'C'd in do:--tfUrtion dcbrn, -omc of il Ihreat in the Copper :\1:\1'. h is also possible Ihat a
cominl! from thc n.'I(l( The C;I.l.tfm ,,-:ill of Hou.-e: 2 rimali,;t-d pcrcrption of sculelllent was common. ~...
rolbp-«I in C"-'1nn dittttion. crntinc a cover for the ing hOlbC'i :l.Ild objccb :IS li'ing organisms. \\ hich arc
nflL~ .locumubted in !he adpccnl intr.lStnx:tural born and can die. evcn create a line of henl:lgc
"P"t-'('. 'rcmiot:h. 'OIIH' pan.. of tht' walb of Hou~ 2 Bailey 1990; 1996: Chapm:m 2000).
rmuined "Wldiot alter me fire r.ldrd :llId crealed :\1. SIl:vallo,it. stlld)ing conll:l.gr.ucd l\...."olithic
..hdlcrcd an"ob for an accumulation of ~il. \\ilieh also \ loc.. houses. is secillg Ihcsc :l.S c:\l)rcssions of prac-
filkd the e.. \'i~ of tht' !>aid O\~. prelt'T'linl:\to .omc tict:s to assure cominuity :l.lId ,isibilily in the mne-
ex\C1l1 the oricinal -NPC of the dolllt'. Illonic domain of 5OCiel}': Ihus. she is suggt:sting Ih:n
"auk and <hub boo _Wt'T(' also buill b,' the Ra- connagr.ttion should be' regarded as a cultural trait
IDafu.. \ 1U'U\'i\b, the famou,. Hr<! ccmuT'\ BC Roman among earl~ agncuh\Ir.l1 comm\lIlilil'S tSle''allo,it
tncitlCCT and archil«1Ur.l1 mean,\. cOllsiden.-d such 1997 . To suppon Ihe claim Ihat houscs \\'ere bumI'd
"lrUCt\lI"O a cheap 00\ dan~T'O\b ~ulxtitute to adobe illdi,idu:l.ll~ hence deslroycd ddibcr:lIdy in :t con-
hou~ He "TOtc. - ..\,. for 'waltlc and <hub' I could trolled fashion\. she refers to the hick of dlcct on
"i41 that il had llC\tt htttl ilwemcd. TIle more it soils in areas bcl"CCtl hOll~, :15 dCllIOLlstr.lIed by
Si\"" in tim(' aud ~n, in ~pact'. \he gre;\Ier and the
examples al Opal·O. YUbTQsla\·ia. Ho\\'e"cr, n."CCI1\
more ttlleral " the di)<lS(("r mal il ma\ cauS('; for il
expcrill1clllal work 011 Ihc enCCb of fin: on soils havc
i, madc to call::h fin". li]";(' lorchn. h seen" lx:ller.
proved thal Ihennal tr:U1sfonna,ion only occurs in
thcrdore. to "pend on walls of bunll brick. and be al
\'Cry r.lrc cases, e.g, on fernlh';lIou~ soils which :tre
cxpa1SC-. lIwn 10 sa\C \\'ith ',,";mlc and dauh', and be
influenced by hcating above 500°C (C:tllli & un-
in dam:cr.\nd, in the )IUCCO c(l\'Cnnl;. 100, il makes
ford 2001). Thcrefore, the only cerlaill way 10 sus-
crack.- from \Iit' in)id<' 1l\ Ihe arr.lnl:\crn~l\I of iu ~Iuds
l:tin lilt' idea of conll'ollcd conf1:tgr:lIiolls is lO (km-
.llld 1l:irtJ.. For thC'C $\'odl "id, rnOiSluN: :b lIlty arc
OllSll~\Ie that :1 hou~c, or a group of houses, in ;1
daubed. 'Old lhl'll Contract :t1I lllli' dry, and b~- their
scldclIlcnt wcre singlt:d Olll 10 hc pUl 011 fin:,
'hnn\;jn~. cause Ih(' loOlid SlUCCO 10 ~plil" YilnJlius
Such pmclices \\'l'I'C .lclllalh' cal'l'ied Olll ;1\ lhe
"Dc ,\n'hil('('IUr.I" ""iii.20. pp, i7-58,:15 eill'd h:'
R.lpp 2002, 26i ' Dalli~h lrOIl Ag... \;lIage of HOlide (2nd CI'IUIII")' IIC"
It ",h ,Umf,r<i\ a rull' r.l\her Ihan an Cl[ctption lh'll hI CClltury AD). wlll."r......onflagration "~IS :111 inSlnl-
ment of cOlllrol uf ~p.lCC (H\~ISS 19115). As rq';'lrds lcll
a .(;npJl<'r .~.- 't'nl"nwnl "'" Il'nnina\ed b~ fin:. .-\l
SCltlement.!. , ,I·· .
~,1l1lH.; ,Ill ,1ft'"
1Jy ,)lIrmllH
. 1 .
(ceaymg
Ut:""" OIW out .l '",, 'Iot\dl'nll'nl,) I'ndcd in conftl_
11011"-'5 ,dso seClllS 10 be llll' b,'sl choice ill ll'rlll~ of
if)

r;~ IlllI .\~pof,........ I.dtIoro\.....-d""""'II''''''''~.~Im.,mlr.a,,,,,,,, \'I"....... ;J>~ID .. bilI: ~ .. -...p rm.... T


tbr- Lb' mr-.d'

[illlc and (,I1C~ <peril. Indttd, <C\t·r.t! '\Jch ,il~"'. c.~., cion, "(I'"('c"'cred In Laic C<'flPl'f .L..... hou....., ~"
lilt' Copp\'r Age Ru.c Iell. NE Ilul:r-ui<l. hold 1.'"\;- poilllill~ Inn.lrd, ,I ,i<>Jcm dt'alh, ~ i,.li~', ,.,~

dcuce 011 l).Inial burning. Or"h.II~·,cr n,lturt' Hojad- b\ ,kdclal .1Il.lh,<, .\bL,,",llO\.1 :..'01111 ,\ <I'lJlI.

lie\ 2001: Gcor!,..il.'"\· & .\ngdm 195;,. I'o,,,ihl\, abo .md "II....."'."ion. Thi., indirt"Cth COlIU".Iru. I, ""M:lII\"
lh..' O\'~:\I~)\,o \'11 sCllh:l1It'l1l of .\lid(lIe Copp~'r .\gl' \it'" .ldjUIIU ,"~t."tiOll th.ll Iht· .un,'un! t'f '>r"I<.l1"lt'
cl:llc \\;j~ p,ll'liall~ bllrlll·d 'Todot'O\'1 19U:? I~Ul !l1l' m.lll'l;,llll,cd in mlc ,lIld d.mb .m:hitn::lIln- ".I-'
tntal :lball{lomueHl of KSB ~Clllc-rl1l'm~ ill the "~Ikl' of I.ll,!:'· CllOIlt:h tll ·IY( .l.> fud to h.Jl.. t/W' .1.1\ [O.l
!-:1"I':1l fire~ ('all" fo!' Olher .'xpl,Il1,uillll', Il~dcklll'tl ,I.nt' Sll"\ .lntl\ i, 19:!17

Rq;al'c1ill!( hoslik ,lIl,ICk:.. ~ll('h 111,1\ h,I'" l.lkt·u B."t·c! (Ill till" nl",'n.,llitlll_.>;'\ Ut:.1 :!..I riIU.t! r~; ,n
phtrc Wilhulll k,l\"illg ll~j('''''< uflUUl1,ll1 ,;,Iim'. [11 l:u I. tor lhl" nllltl.ll,'T:uinn. "hi,h [c·nnin,ll<...1 th ·nl.....
olll\' .t1111l' h.ll, OrHO[llil~,II,\IIt:l'Ill' I!Un ,1l1c1 \'llll- m~'llI. f.lIll11'1 h.; .....I.lhblwtl, R.llh<T. ch, C\l'''·IIo.T
.It,ilt', ,md l)l~<,ibl, al-o I{'N', ,I' cl"'111l111'I1.lt,'d h\ Ihl" 'Upp"I1' n Mll.ui,>n ,11 Ill(" tin... ,\I- II III ,,>,; ut
I:"~"l o·'\·\,llu.lli('11 oftl1l' t"".l\,Uiml n"lllt, r,l(lom- ortill~..1 ,ilU.lli.m .;imil.tr [., [he- ,>ne 1'1.'" Jrdcod:u lhe

\,t 1!1B6: .\l.lh,lml\,t 21)00: noj,ul>it" ;!illll . ,~d'·l\.ll~ full\ .. \.-.1\.11,,,\1 R..-dullll" ...'ttlell1rlll t;.·,l.:"\ 99.:-
,...re lllUud in,idl' IIU' bUlllnl ,lllU tllO", Illc....· .J.d· Ik.lrim: in rlllm"! Ihe hi,,-h mUllhn... 01 , >,;,:.toon
.Idd .lrrh(lfIJltlg;ft!
60

l;a-........ a ntu••] .\("thit, of 'lld, ;j n:I1Ufl' WQuld poilll prnb.-.bh intact lUl,l1l\ of Ihe items were indeed unaf-
(,mw, 3. ~Il-<k-lru("ti,(' (\TIl _uicidal. p.\'Chol~ of r~lcd or on!> mode<lh ,.lfl"(:U:d bl" fire " bUI there
...:rim. "hich ~,
unlild- RL-ju\l.·nilOOn aCl> mi"hl "en: no ~if!Il' of pr:l~lalic :IClions' to felch or look
h.1\" I)<TU n:fll:"'\hilll:. bill f('~lar _[;In, fronl 'Ol:r.llch for rc·u.....blc ilems.
"c~ jlf\lb.1Uh prllTiwd .t'o .1 fri!:luC"n;n" pel"'\lCcti,c. Sonlt' C'>tim:llion can .llso be m,lC!l' on hl1maIL I'C-
In facl ..... ch ~nc:T;\ti"n of tilt' K"n
cu!tUIT \\;llo prob- «)u~ emplO\cd. 11 has Ilttll general!> accepted th:.l
.lhh narW I" "lK"h unhaPJ1l (l>nn;l~tion n;peri. lhe sUlalle<;1 -.ocio-«onomic unit of early a\:.'Ticultural
elln""'. ~etie, i< lilt" houscholcl. compl;sing :, nucleated or
Ind."M1. Ihl' fin... _hould rnthrr Ix- rcll;,micd ;1.'> ace;· eXlcnckd fillllil, TI;m~ham & KnHic 1990)_ Ackno" I-
denh. ko=d .md ""3I. .lS rn."£ribro In \itnn;lB. ~u· cdgino;:: the cOllCC."J>\ual complcxit~ of the Icnn ICr.
ckau:d ..ntknu·l1l'> <.itU.llni on dC"<ltro ilL"" han: ell' Sahlilb 1972 . in this stud,. a hou.chold is mkell 10
iO'o't"d I~ "illlb fmm 'h," Ilbill'" "hid! ..\ould pro- be ,I kin-h:l.'o\.-d rc<id,'mial group (fdngham & Krstic
mOle tile- 'prrad of Itn: ";Ihin :l '>Clllcmtnt. e<>]lcciall) 1990\, which im<:g,~no.:s .111 11l<:11I!x..". :,1<0 lhe .. ged
durin~ th.. ummcr "hen the hoU';c "all, "en: drinl ,,"d Ihe children. -Ille imet(r.ltion is SUSlained by com-
(Jf "iJltn humidit\. mon h~,usint.:. inl"ohcm..-Ill in d.li!, aClivitiL";;. allt! in
),Iodem th.-lIdl!T'. ad\Tni;illt: Iheir roolinj( -;Cf- rnrinl\. Ahhough dil;sioll of hou~hold :I(liviti...... is
,it,-•..11"''-1\ <"m hv l\'I1lI;n,L': their l1H:;ln~ of pl'l:- confined to .\ rmlle!" SPCCUl:lli\'c level in :lrchaeo!ob'}"
cautirm ••cail~ I fin', S",mf m:l.k ,l \aver of'r'l'sulll. or the inlem:<l in,tall.uiom ,lIld i11\"'lllOri<:~:l1 Libra cle..r-
""'" ot1K"'r rte;ot'llth dnl:'kopt'd rln:'~'lam m;ueria4. h indicolle tlte :lUUlllonlOlh Il:twre of the ~ ..I ulIib.
Pcrh;l\>, lhi., n:pLa.in. "Ir. ("Ien "oodo;,n poIe;11 (j~, I'hieh inh..hilcd Ihe an:hilo.:ClUl';ll ~p;.co:s. Hencc, in
("It'll III rhe roof. '';is pl.IMen..'(! ";lh day: i"ll:llion thi, ".,,\ ll"nieul:lI' cas<:, it is pos.sibk «) I;mplo}' hOll~<:
m,-.' linos thal "en' ,110>l1 fire pruwnin~. Wh"l n·m:li.. ~ .",d hOlL...:h\lld as S\,1I011, ms.
puzzliul/.. h",,("\"t'T'. i!> lh.ll "hn' a conlb~alW ""'Ilk. E.,tim:ni{ln~ of I;ouscilold 'iu:s \.11'\ between 3 5
mem ,.." .dl"ll1do>nl"d. t1'"'" "a.. no Iookin~ h.-.cl. ;is
1)<:lVIn~ l);"ic f"mil~ 10 6 8 <:x;..,ndcd r.... ntH}
if w.IMxl la". "t'tt prol,"C1i.n~ It> conl~·nt> ..\1 U~ .•. Ch:.prn:m 1981; Tripko,;c 2003). IkcClllly, tiles<:
...ml" 01' 1111' h,!U...· i1l\e1\luri~" <1:tH'd expo,,-'(! .md
nUlllllI'~ hal'c 1)<:"" ~Ilpporlcd by :Ill c.x..-.II.njoll~ .n
Ugn
01

the tell of "Ul1<ltSile, Pa7_ardji1.: :\1:U""I01 ,I ::0000, In L-i"'UUI of E-\\' ",I.lYt"~- :rnd -1TiK:IU"",, uti.. nl.lIro \_
1.I~er5 belol1!..oill~ 10 the fil1.lII.':II(· Copper .\L,'C 'Cnle- S. Cencr:,J1\. Iht-'IT ".lS .1 m<tr1.:cd difTem\u.uinn In
lJJelll 'oril.,oinalh occupyint: Clt. 0.85 h.l, ,1.:elet,u Il:- h011Sl" ,i,((-. ~i_\ IIf the hou..~ (t)lll.linnl lckul ""_
1ll;lins of ·11 indhiduab "ell: found .\I,Il"';lIl(J\~1 m,lill' ,lhhout:/I 'Ollle \\tTc Ld:inlt ;a fuU ....1 t.,.
20fK1, Fi/o:_ I: panl> pR'St·rYl.-·d rem.lin,,_ like ,1.:ulls. oom", pl'rh,lll1< .UI indic.l.Unn uf ....·;l\"t'''::in~ /" ..ild
,'Il: illcludt:d in this number" 28 persons "CIl: fOUlld .mim.tb .Ifl."r Ilw .Ih.."llldolllllen! "f lhr "'·II.... nJ<'ot
1>;111; on hon.c !loor5, ofiell 011 101' of fr:I.t:ll1elllw or 1111: ,kd"1ol1 Iinrb oclwecn the bunlCd h"U)n. .L~
itll.let ceramic n~b_ and ro...cred "ith bUnLt-"(1 '1,llt'd b, \ .\1.'l,,'rlO\.I• .J.rc proper bun.tl.. "hrrT
arrhilecluraJ dcbri~_ Scn:r:11 skelelom "cn- found ill dl., h(l(h ".l' 1'111 illlO .1 hll("w f"'~ili..n "lnd ....
Ullll,lluriLl I)()SIUR'S, «lmc be,lrin~ trilce, of,ire, 011(' (onlll.llllt"d h\ ~r:t\l' l!OOlb, u>u..uh pt'lIen. Ill<"
In.tle h,ld de"r <i~'lls of 11(",ld ir~uri.·,. rhis r.:m,lrk- '(erl.trio Ih", IIllpJit.... ,I ITIUnl of Ih.. _uni'inl: p..ut
.Ihle discover) is Ihe fir51 "cll-d()('"lIl11ent,'d It'SllIlIOI1l (If lhe t"OIllIllUlli". llidn~ prt'j'l'er IIT.llllWIll 1" Ih("ir
co illlcr-collll11Ulloll eb5Jll~~ in 111l' pl'ehi'lon of Ilul- d.',,<I 1lI."mlwr., 1l1i_ 111 il~lf i> .• ,ilflliti,.1I11 -1.11('0
!Vu;:!. ~loreo\"er. il pln,id,', n·icl.'II("c on Ihe 11l1l11- IIlem .Ib/,nl _01:;••' b.:h.l\iour (If .1 Cupprr \I:t' pOpll-
ha of illliahil'lIllS ,.lwelted 10 (·.!Ch hOllw. 1~l11nins J.lliurI, lI1di'-.llin~ Ih,u the ,lpp.m:1l1 /.Id Ill" huri.tl, 1I1
of nine hOIl,e, "ere ITcorrkrl. hUI uul> flI1l' ".l' ill- Ihe I",-,!::iun. il1l1udin~ dlt, rhr:.ci.Ul pl,lin. "jlh tfl<"
\'C,d~:lI ... d fullr. The fe.1 \\"t·n· ('illwl' .'rod,'d lO ,.11)- n"'cplic]I1 ol.\'l~ 111J1~.ui.1 the f.unoll. \.lnlot J:l'l\\....
ing degrees. lrillg :11 ,lope,_ dnlnl"'d I" 1.1I,'r _hulIlcl Ill'l '''-' 1.lh"ll ,l' nn::ui\e e\id"lll'e hUI r.uJlt"r
In-lItlle,. vr lI'ing panl> ill dw nul \t'l ill\'·'"Lr.lIerl rh ,tll .udt.'e"l,,!..';,·," prohlo:m. One h"u ... ,·,"II.\ll1rtl
h.tlf of tl1l' .... uJcmcnl. 'Ill!' hou'l" \\ en: ,or1~1ll\::ed i" .J.ekl," l'<·n1.llI1_ of 1\'<) illdi'idu.u.. I"" !h,u_ ,.1
,I I~llht"r cli,p.el....."(1 p;IIlCrll •• Ihhou~h \\ilh Ih" 11'11.11 four. "hik lht' n'm,linin!: Ilm...... h"u'f'" nmt.unnl ,......
.Ir/(/ .lIthf1'·Il/og;m

and .Iolad< 1"''Un.l ....., t,...."" l<~lhrT.n 11... "'"' '" 11,,,,... 3, 11_ ,,~,.. n"", h~~I, l'l" ,,'lC",h....
.. pnt..o f t ,If nlhrT '... olhn 1'"'.h..I'" m.ol<n.o! ,,~ .. ..tl.., ,1... '''r'' 1~"1t

'J'''' IJ\ h h\(' , .mcl M"I.,'n in<li,idu.,\" indudill~ 100 1'10 indi\idu.lk Illi, i, ;n ,l••-md,nll:'" with im·
,hilrirrn_ Ik"ring 111 mind dw '''l.t.! Tluml.ll:r uf indi-
plir.uiun, frOnl n'('"~'m 'lu<Iil" in hr.,i" dn-doplm:ut
'1du;,\' .fl . <i"illt·d "m"n~ ni,w hon,,·'. lh... t\l'r;l~('
,lnd loOI;i,ll 111h"r.u tiou I.\~"r IM'pul.llioll\ h,l\'iu~
h·,,,...,h,,k1.lln'Uutt In I' indtlidu.•\.. ph" Ih.., 'UT-
cliflieuhi.', iu hmn;(l"ill~ ,I~ .)11<"-
\,\,,"'. 1'",I"lhl, Ill<" I.ul:n hnu".., .tl"" hdd 'non'
R. I)unllotr h.ls Ihll\ nOI;(~'(1 ,I "rtlll~ (tlrrt'l.lli'l11
1""PIt- lh"n 11..· n...ll.-r "u'
b'-'I\',·"" lh(' ")\'"i,tl hdt.,vluur tlfpri"1:lll." .ulcl th.· ,ifl'
Illr I111""n .I\.,il.,h\t- h'lu\(· 'llolU· "I .t '>('lll"ntl'nt
of Ih('ir nco,;on"il;. '''~:::'''tlll~ lb,ll Ill<" 1I",'d 10 ill'
'-;Ul ,11", h.. u,,-d to l'nedi" llu· 'if'" of ,hl.' tlltn-
n",N' /o;n,up 'W', .tllll h"ll'" "M'illl HUlllllt-sil)", .,ewd
munm \"'''Ihn~ '" R "'.Iroll. ontO ,mli,·idu;tl ,t\CI"-
;l~ .t llwd',lIli'I" nf ",I"uiol1 il' 11". "\011,'111"111 of
"1,'<" In ,n- ,. 'nn." 'm',"'m·' intluding "()"'~".
lalllt' n,'U( nni,,·, I)unb.,r I'N'.; I')tIGl. E"t:t hli,hillg "
l,thk' n, "'.u"ll I"h! 11", 1.\Un ....,. n,n pr",..,llI
I1COl"'l11.·S ,~uio tn lilt' 1'l'~1 Oflli'·)u,lill." I: l. lit" pt"'-
,n 1,;:::;, "h,·n· ,-."h pn.... m. ,", lhr .l\"I.I~'·' ,n.tI
dirt;; lh.,t lilt' 11\<1\1 "U;'ni\'('ll t;ln'tiol1illf.: 1111lllitll
h,,,,· ,,'quil,·d 'm" h.tIr ,hi, 'I'."" '" ,Ii:::lul\ ,n"rt..
-11... 1.i:::.1 ~ h"m..... "I :m In "'. inlt'11MII, .md Hl ~t'(IUp " ill 'ol1,i,\ llf appl"lldll l:tll'l) 1;,0 1ll"IllIJl.'l'1I (i.•'..
-,(I m ",1<'11",11,_ l1M\ ,In" It,I\'' ,u""UlllUlll,'h',1 an tlm:\' lim,'~ ,(\ 'llall) ." c1,impalll.C"t·s). /\l'p,""'II1I)'.
,',wn,h·d t.nnil\ "I' .11,""1 ,,',,·n itHh\,Idll,tl,. .\'" ""h p'\'diruoll ..1'11", ,.plimul11 J.;tllllp ~i/.'· i, ,,'p'
""1',in::: d,,· i/" "flh,' h"II"'h"ld ," -, i. i. i, n;. po,1t'd hI' gl'llupillg IMt\<'I"\1\ prl"\.,!t-m .11 di1li'r"ul
1><"'1,·<1 .h.ll " "h,,1.- ""lIlo-lIIt'lIl ,h,' "f., "I l.i:::., :.!, kwl' ',f hum.llI \'II"I.·t), ." """mplit1t'd hI' ntlllh.tr·~
1'- \"1111'" ,'<I "I 111 1.! h"II" h..d.t !llll'ul."j'm of n'...·,,,.. h "11 11111(10-.,\ .11111 hi'\"r;, d,ll.t,
11". mai" clt,tll,·"J.;l.' or lilt' loiJ.;., p,..~,., I \',(\ It, 1'"-
Li"ga

n1l'cr lllld ~1\1(1)' Ihc ~trllCl11nll 1l"l11aillS ill thtir filii


Nc\'el'1hdc,~. it i.. ,L1r(',ld, nu" 11I)'o ibtl' 10 t,lll' th.u
CXll'llt, iIllclIlp,inR 110t 0111)' to look ,11 tlll' \",Inaliom
Ih" ('011('('11111,,1 \I.trcilll,' pHim (r,r RI'dUlitl' ",l th,.
in POll~'I)' produclioll hili ;It~o IQ 1'l"l'lIgnill' Ihc '1'"
saInt' ,'~ for Li~a_ For ill C.lIlU', II h" bl't'n fn .."rl'<.!
lin","ll ill II11ich ,IU' 1>OIlcIl II;IS u~cd, i\lJowiuR ;,
in diSt::lI«ions Inth the ":'0(,1\ ,11(11' th,lt, J.mf)n~ ",h"r
fncll{U)' iron)' to\l.Ll'd' loc,.1 l);t~ion for 1)(Iltt!)' rc,
siml!:,ri,i,'s "ilh UIf-" ,11l' hOIl'>l" ,lt i<c"dullt(' .11"1 IMd
~c:ll'd, (pcdi:cll)' lmdCl"lt;mdabk in Ihe ligln of ,he
o\tn~ in~I"llt-d .1\ ,hr middl,. of IIH' nnnhl'n' ",ul.
amOll111 ,md appMI'llt •• ppro•• c1mbilit) of IXluen as ., emrancco in Ihl' 'IOllthl'l11 (>n{' (f (;('~U\ 1'1'1.101.
501111::1' of infol'll1:llionl. elfort~ "'eTC rIl.ldt, ,It Ug:, 10
Some confu~ion has bern fn·.I1l'd III lh(' It'onin,
include olher "lOko.:ns", "ith cqu,,1 dCJ.;ree of ,men- 0101,"1 11'1('(1 to dCI.:nhe buildlllli; InlmlllLJ(,~, Fnr 111-
tion, into Ihe llni\t;I'$C ("rcatcd b) thc pOllcry, SI,lIIfC. \' Ger~OI. "hrn dio,cu lIIlt Ihl' 11IIdin~".\I ~_
The 1II11hropolo!.1' of lL'Clmol1Jt.,1 onc~ ,m inSlnl' dlltilc. llll'ntioll' th.Il,' !)f'('i"l huildjn~ In.hlll'1Ut' II,t..
mCnlal ,Ippro:,ch ,'idinlo: in n:cOJ,'nilion of social apph..-d 10 erect tlu' hUll Gl'fXtJl I'I'I.!J.; 1Q"I,
groups through ,m"lr~~ of mundlllC producls sueh as 30 I , Wilhoul definitinn•• md "l1h a 01l're: rdtll'rn r
utili';II;.m poIlC!). lools, and ,u'C/lIlcC!lIrc Lcmol1nicr 10 ,hc <truclm ,Il l-anOIl\ rnpflh,' ~ll,"'<! (' (,1\01.11"(1
1992\. h is bdiC\'ed th.1I soci.L1 infonll.nion is 'toR'(1 l:n 'I: Pauel h,!If ,I «"nun .Illl), hI' "pll/iM U'I' t('on
in Ihc sleps and choices m:ld,' dllnll~ m,lIlu[l\:llIrc as "gl/ntJhlt1W" in Ru, i,m, ,\t lhr I.U1'l(' IIm('. (;c~
well .,~ use of l1I:\lcri,,1 CUltllTt" Smrk Cl .'11. 1995: "ith mcntion, thl' U<C of 1'01.", i I:? ("In III di.IIIlt'ICr dUI!
referenc"\. Such bc:h:l\iOllml \'anatiOIl rdk'Cled III into fOulld;lIion tIT/I( h~'$ .11 .... t'n. _'iH till (Ill. .md 111.11
thc malenal culture i' dClcnlllllilli; "h:1I is lIamed :, thc d"dlinl('> of c,leh RrduUII' ,(,lIkmnJl " .. no
It:dlllological ""It·, .\rrhiu:CtllTC is considered Ihe bllnlC(l, hCIlCC:' thc ~'OO(I Ilft"<:n J.lj(lll l>"~l\ 11)<, .!.t;
11IOSI comple-x ahlmll~h "IJ.O Ihe mO'! i"fonu,lIin: me- 1991. 301 ''(;In.h,ma'' III RIb.".1Il hllOkI be I"-J.It__
diUlu of ,~"("hnoIOj,ojc;Ll \tylc ,St.lrk Cl at. 1995, Con- l.ltt'(l ,I!> pU; 01' Imr Pu; b 1l,('rt'Ii" e. 1-1. ., odm\" ,I.
'ITllction lechniq,u:" choier of 1II:llcri,,15.•1I1d use of in hl'l' pl'l"'iCl1laUlln of lhl' pTl'llI'lOm dndopm..m uf
domc.sllc space .m: IT:lit~ lhal dCIl10n~!r:lle ., panicu- Buh"..,n.'. '''ill''i Ih,l\ "Ihl' huildm\,'" ('IC.II,'11'd III "-"1_
lar fe.ili,·ucc 10 ch,lII~c ,,5 opposcd to sl\lislic van, ish h.II'1' thicl d,II-(:O'crcd ,•.111, ""tl1(>\ll p"'1 or
llliol1). and ;Ire oH"1\ ~i~lIifil~trI' illdic-•• lol'I of -ocial ",udc" '!o.klr"O\,' :lOIl!.:!88 1he I'.,rh l'"hli,.lUnID
bOlllld.,nc~ (St"rl.. I·t at 1995\. b) !'asscl 011 ,h.. SCnlUlIl"-" ,I' Inpt.lu: ha\<' .tbt, It'd
t\ccordil1~ to I .,nom dcfillition~ of culture. re:ganl- OIher.; 10 p"TJllc~inl! t:IlllluliulI', l' Il:.. t1,(' ~ I'f
Ic$S of \dwlhcr tht;se llf~ clllpl1.,.izill{,' bcha\iour:'l ",Idobcll" in (OIl<lnHlion ul tIlt' hull ...... L,;(.,nl\llI &
');jll~ms or fecurrin~ <ct, of nI.llcn,11 n:m:,ins. 1~"Chni, LIl.Il\llici 2CMU, 11 '1
c.d SI) I~ is 1',111 of th~ "p.,cl..,lgt;". Not .L11 ,lSpccts of .1 Poundcd ,'.Ir,h. 01' "i~'lrnn' l'i'1." .,n: ta"" .Ip-
culturnl p,.d,l,!:c ,Ire: hcill~ lr:IIl'l11illt:d ii\H1, ,I ",<i\cn plicd to d,''Crilll' e,lflh lUlIlp.Ulctl h\ rallll1liull: R..t.1'1'
core .Irca, hOllClcr, 1l1,lkill~ U>l1g10l1lI'r:lte< such ,IS 200~h '1'1". ,1(1',lIIt"~('Ulh ...... hlliquc " rWlll' lC1I"pll-
th ... "SII culturc lc~s wcll dcfillcd, Tlms. il is il11porl- c,lIcd lh,lII I'.~., ".mlc ,lI1<1 d.lIlh, 1'1'1: ".,ll, cl,. lint
allt '0 ,H:coun, Ilot ollll for onc Ir:lil o"rh:l' llll' <Ill. bum, ,lI1d bumim: "f.1 lh.lld1('d or Il','(l mol ""uld
istks of 1'0lh'l). bUI ,LISt) fut" Mchill'Ctlln.' 'lIld use of h,II'C 1('1"\ til11ill'd 1l11·rtll,r1 Ctll"t'l" Ulll ('\I'll ...IlNIII:
Sp:lCC. alllong mall)' lJlh~r thin",,,,, ,I Il'de'"l11: uf ,h,' dl'. Thc c[',:.-rill" Ill' pi...· ".lIl, L'
D"'pi1t' lil11it,ltif)n~ III Iht; :,,"ChilnlLll~11 d,ll., from dqlClldcllt ulI .' "dl.b"t,ulco'd "'II1II<:"n;,'I1 "I" "'1\\
siit's alllihut"c1 Ho the KSU I'utllll\·. it i< pos.<ibk 10 1ll,11"ri"I, ill "rdn III jln""lll ,hrilll,'I:". III 1;11 I, ullh
,I ,m"Il,Ulllllull ofdl} j, IIr"d"d .1I1I111",rr III,U! Jtr'u
lllld"I'I,lkc 't:\'t:rnl OI'er;,1I <UIllIl:uiwll" .,dding 10 ,I
bt:lIc,' ulld"I'Slallding "f Ill<' KSlI rllh\ll~iJ prolilc, c1'I) , ..,
ro.:<u ,.111 r;'jll{ ,'nNlltl ,'>'""
',lllp· •

S"cmingl)', 1':II'i,uiul1 nUl 1)(' It'I'd ,I'i ,I 1~'IlII~IT:L1 ,i~"Il' The 1~llllllll'd ,',Ill hi'" IUli'lul' i, "m'" 11 ill 111I11:,Ln,1
IIll"'. ""I'"cI,III)' ill r,1 'C~ II'hCI'C Inli )1-11 mlr' '11 10 "bl'lIllcd
on llH' ",'ncml IH)'nlll I>f ,I .cllkllH'Ill, ,r~ ~TI',II Il<Jtc.n-
. ,. ,. . ,. , . "'., ,',". Idl,h,I~,'(hllll"
till 111111' "t:<P,·t" 1'(1'1):.. n . (, er l!or 11."",,,,, "hu"u,~ \ J),,,~,, ... ,,,~ \n ha. ..- \I
Sil", "hidl .litl,,,".,il',' dc(;ukd pllhln.mull ("0"""'111- 11,~\ & I) 1"""1' I"jl) "'~ 'l'~"'.,j ,n Iht< ("n.-• .tI K,blt-
inl-: lhe i"IlI' of 11'" <>1 'I""'" ill d"lnnli, ,·unte"1'. "lcr"I~"
.. ldll .ITfharologi((l

e.\.C'q)tiotl.lhl\ of 11ll' 1'(-li,h·lWmite ~it(' is ba5Cd on


m bOOt lhe: 'C\..ti1hK ;Uld Iht' [..ar" C,,'MX1". \~ Co-
.. ~ -"13.1 .\\ the- '\"ro.'lhlro.: "'lte .>1 GulublUlIl... er.
f.--u:< plTlllLO<-- IktilC\ :!OOO; Todol'O\";l 2003. .
...n..un.t in Ihe' SIn1llU \~. the' lC"Chluq\J( h.l.!_ ror- "no...-inl,! Ih.1t m;tn\ other L.'IC" Copper .\\,'t" ~1lC5
:th ~ .,x....,-rihrd a.. .I -bo:Alm-d.I\ - l('£hmqlX'. in Buhr.uu h.wt' hotL<c"> ...-ith <ulJslamial ...-oodC"n pol-
:bm dr buiJdin,,; mlum.U ~did Q<>l duI(,- from mal
('{ dr cum.-.uncbm! Innm- l:'x~ ~1l13.1 In
C" III ltlC1r wall,. diam(icr of 15-25 cm . it is prol)'lblc
m;1I the heht \\";lU ron,!ruCtioll in me l(-luh ra;ion
~ cm;n.mmenw C'OIl.m::lim. E..en lhe houses of
dr ctho.: ~ m.vn:l cl Bulc:uU- _r.unnxd Nnh
~ MT .Ibo,., m.._n. pn11lAlih 1\I Ihe' ll<lI'them the: Rtdmile 1\' buiktinll; homOll ofpost.Coppcr .\t;e
r-m of dr ('OUIllf\. ~·ludirll~ lhe ~ of Pk\~ dale dctllfOmlr.l.tinl!;t ~er.tl break ...-iul earlier sl\l-
( ..",iud!:in I~~. IQ C ~.. ICI8J. 19; Th<: istic and ICl:hnokM.;cal ll'':Iditions had a liC;lll frame
..;aB,. lIt- ~ bou,..e. .l.lT ~ ~ b6m~ O..i--{l.b COl1$l1UC1cd for dlUbint:; Gergm 1996. 111e con·
m ttu.- I1l.d' of ;l ch\ miXl'd "lth ctwl "hich u sumplion of...-ood ;lnd pombly clearint:: 100 could well
-h.pcd in.l" ~ ~ outli~ the- ~ GnH-- ha\'!: beTn l!IT.ltcr man me natural ~ellcr.llion pace:
~";l I~ 19; Th<: ,,-;t]b a~ buih ofb\'t'TS 0.5(1 m of the uus of the mnon.
Iu.-:h. me Iini.<hed ~ compo-cd of fi,:~ <uch b\"tt<- Looking at the brooder piClu~. me :t\~lilable infor-
~";l1~.19-. million on KSB houses u restricted.
Rc!uminc: 10dr Tripok~~. the5C" ha\'!: bttn There: are: onl> a fC', cas<:s offull~· CXCl\";lted an:hi-
~bed ~ -built of thicL poks. joined by wicker- l..-etur.tl relllains. GenC"r.tIl). the built sln,cturcs eom·
" rl. ~ pb..<laOO 0\'1:1" with day- ~Ionlfolit 1959; ply \\;Ih Ule d~bcd principles. Fe\\ e.xecptiotlS.
bul aL-o Gimbu~ 1956: Pa....c\.; & Chnml.:h 1963: <ueh :l$ tlll:~ ~Ione hoU!iC5 al Calatin. NW Bul!>'ao;1
Swtl., el.u. 19!!;. ~53. Ht!'-. 6-1 & 65. TI\C u.e of Gc:orcie-'a 1995b and Ikligo\"o. E Scrbi:l (Nikolit
pounded cMth h ooh found in OOf1Jl«rion ";lh floors 1998 en:clcd on tllC 101' of stony hills may reflC:<:1 an
.IDd cnndim! ~ ibtd.. Th~ it ilo not OOITN1 to ::llhplaoon rather UI."l1l ch.1nging archilcctur.11 pon-
.Ippk dr pounded anh Imn to Tripohl: fealures.. cipIc:s.. Copper .~ societies were: nOl dcvoid of inno-
The ~ ~ cL lbc Tripokl: cuhu~ and. 10 .I \-ati\l: polcntial. but me faimful subscription to C011-
cnwn 01l"r1l. cL dr Gumdni~ rultuR: ;u; kno..-n in !Unl p;111e:m.-. of .sc:nlc:mefn :lJ'r.lIlganem and house
~Iukb\u..oo l1:r.linc_ U:... the.l.lT3.> ofl...o¥.n D;anu- buildine: mal indicate thal archila:tu~ was go>'Cmcd
be- .-l. l.o<ou Pnil i" ch:uxInUcd b\ ~ b\ less langibk idc;u m:m thc: me~ n«d for shehcr.
bo:..- pbl:fonm.. The hou.e pLufonm ""CTC m:::;utd 1bc >CItlemelll Ollld thc: l10mc can mlb be \i~\cd a.-.
-a the bdp cL w. mIb teil1pucd ..;m pbnt ~ ;an 'l2'CIl1 of communal Klc:nti'Y·.
bid tidW\ UfXlD .I ..oodm bo..e und firm in §(I(I'IC
c;a,ro. the n:6 "''n'r fifai pm- to Ihcir ~I
<::ban.-.b !~; Pasd: 190').;). fl, a... ciltd ~ 8cjId:dti
Ill-a. 61 & >,. ~.I teduIiQl QUDoo for mabne-
n-rES OF S~~IE.yrSITES
RaooIl.l1.1J1d wpra_rc:gionaI PCDPCCri\"l:!I hil\1: Pf"O\~
~ i:l, mono dosc:k- rc:6ted 10 ~ than 10 the
,_led ant. trdmiqut. \'4 ~ .IJId 0'0-etU in hiah.l\ \OlIuabk for the: undcmanding of I.:i1r.1 :I"d
\iddt:d ;t far mo~ emnpla pictun: of a L'le Copper
T l'IfXIIT "'ere: ~ ..;lb dr u>c of "Olttline: and
..\~ settlement lhan hiuleno assumed. The lnl-
cbab. boooe-tt Cham1lh 1%5; ~L I~. 8. a...
ciJ.~ ~ Bcjkkchi 19;8. 01 & b: ditional icka is that the secmim;ly shon-Iin:d KSU
Ik:anne: all tlm in mind.. il i" -lOIfe 10 conclude that settlement. "en: rrWltly located at hillh a1litudt:s. or
the hou:o in ~tilC "'nT daub houx-o "'lh a rcla- in ca.-n. in COntroLSt to tlle long-lasting tell scn1cmcn15
ti\~ Iirllt. but dcme "'lluJ.: cnllltl"UCtion. This i!; :Wo of Ute KC" \"l compla; on Ihe ·Ilunci:ln pl:lin 10
india.loO ~ !he fr.uunmb cL walb from Rcduule of Ibe ca5l of "S8 e.g.. Todoro\':t 1986l. The ~illlpli:.lic
burned lUub "'ib a hiclt COIllt"'l1t of cb\ C'Xhibitcd at :t.iSumpuon that tells a1wa),s rc:p~m a pcnn.l1ll:lII
me- H~qfonal ~1u.<cUJn (I/" P1n~n. TIle >il/ll<" ctmslruC_ occup;lUon h;u bee" challcng<ed by bl\"otig:llions ,11
lIOn I«hniquc "'ll.'. U noIoO. record.-d in ~J.ICCT11
the Pod~rits:llcll ill XI: Bulgaria.. demonmming Ih:1I
l.lza. Hcnox. it an br dun.->rl>lr.illrd m...t the 5Q\C'd repealed cpiJodo of rning W;ller tablC$ forced Kulers
.
10 abandoo:, me Id! and lTlO\'C: to d.... 10c;llion" Uaik\.
f.1g(l
6.1
1999). 011 Ihe other hand, elll';'I~.tlons .11 Redulite.
II'C mc:uurc', ~lIIr the I,Irk of tIJIJooW"dphic rnlnr_
nexI to Lig;., h.l\e produced evidence that KSB 5Ct-
tions, such \ftdemenl \eCS " dcID.(' ennC!"IlIr.:alirm "f
tiel"!! fell a Stroll!; ,1ll00chmenl 10 ee",tin p[;,e~, per_
hOIl5l':_. ere;ltin~ a ,harp di\i i"n het"!"en I~ built
ceived 10 be pi\ olal in lhe ,!:eographicll ;uld eUltur-al
alld tht llnbuilt '1>.1(e. "rho:- 3rt',l ()("fupll~d I,., hou.\M
land"e;IIJoC· 'nlis is 5Cell not onl) through reoceup:nion
r.:1ll~ bcl"een 0,18 and O. iO ha; Ihf" m...jr'lrll'\ nf IlIn
of the s.... nle 'p:lce but also in n:buildinl; and Clllemion
an: :,rollnd 0,2 hd. "ith bcl\<offn 20 ,md ]5 h......,...
acti\'ities. pl:ci;tlly durill~ Redutile 11 Gergm·. per-
D Opm·fIU itIu.-!J1JI,f "lIltwntJ "rre ~ C':\Ubmhcd
$.l:omll1. '.
Onc such "<15 recorded hcl" .......n Teh h and 5.Jdo"...:.
In and around Telish mainly 10 the ea5t then: arc
follOl.ing information rrom 10caJ l"Midt-nb. The: ~Ir "'
;.t least fi\'e ty}JC!l of 5Cnlemelll. thus.
marked a5 SX on tht map fill:. I 'i .inca: no loca1
,t\ Stro"!!wJds. such as S.1dO\-a;.Golcm.mO\"O Kale. name could be OOl.linro. It ~ Iline on the Io-.rr ltT-
with ol1e OCCtll);.dofl ph.:uc Todorol'a 1992, and Pip- ratt by a strcarrt. ~dwll\ .JopInfl: upwards tOlO-;ud"
r.I_ "it1l a minimum of five pen. inspection of treas-
the Xorth. The lop of the terrace i> matUd '" 1\<00
un: humcr pits in 2000. 2001 . 200'1'. These sila arc pTl:Sumabk Thr.&cian lumuli. In a pIouehed 6dd MId
11alumUy prolttlcd by Sleep slopes al thrtt sides. an area of COl. 0.2 ha "ere I-n'\ m;un, ~ of Uta:
being onl) accasiblc b) bnd bridges or less SIeq> Copper ,u,: pou~ and miUin2 roon. laIC .uad
.slOJX"$. L·nfonun;ndy. Pipr.l has '11:\l:r been properl) post-Roman pot:ten "'";l.lI ~ proem_ ~ ... d\ .u hu-
in,estigau:d. and Ihe remaill'l of the L:lle Copper Age man bono. So incbca.tions of ~tIcm=l could be
<ctt.lemelll :ll Colemano\'o K.-.Je ha\(' been damaged found 00 the hi!.!htr hins: ;rrc:a.s around 'loch bo-
by Latl.'r occup;lIion. Other stronghold.. found cl.sc- kin!!: scltkmtnb hall: been ~fuol i~red and
when: in thc KSB area appl.'ar 10 have been addition- an: mad) IlOIOO in SUI'\~ reporu.. ·Tbc majQnn ~
ally fortified ~ eanh or I:\CIl slonc "'alb. doubk- also SC\l:reh da~ b1 imtnIDe culti1';100n and
trenches and palisades - e.g.. Okhodtn Kalelo :\"lko- UIUS less allr..ro..~ arc~COIlh than the hicla alti-
10\' 1968, 7_"I.minclS XikolO\ 1975, Kri\'odoI :\lko- lude sito..
101 198-1 and pl.'1"!l. observations of lreasure humcr E 0J0u are common in thc T dish~cc an::a.
m:~neha ill 2001 and 2002, Tht strongholds an: L:nfonunald). the bi~t, suilabk for akmil~ oc-
usually oblon!.!, 1()l'IguC- or eUipsc--sll."I.ptd hilb. "hieh cupation, hall: suffered dama~ b1 modcrn InC. C-2_
imp....n limilation... 011 Ihe .'oC:ltIl.'ml.'nt size. tht available production of fela-Hie: c~ L:p;trearn. on the
are:l being around 0.2 ha "illl a maximum capacity ri\'er \ it. occupational dcbm has been m...co.-end m
of 20 23 hou...es.. Not aocidcnt;,lly. :ill th~ locations tht Gl\l:'li orOehi1ata and 11.!kn. OC\cta1:i al to."CCh.
"en: l;lIcr eho.cn for hcal;l) fortificd l...ale Antiquif) funltcr al'';1I. remaim the fillC"l cx:unpk of C:I\~
5tronghollb. «ttlement... :\likOl & D!ambazO\ 1960 c.1\~"CIUr­
B .\JUror JI/U u:ilil d~11 aut» "l:re euabli!;hcd at mcnts mn be diffen:nualcd .lC'COrtIinl;l to the imcnsin
ob5cure locations :md hence lelllatil·ek imcrprelcd as of ocrupation. but UIC majoritl ~ffi) 10 be It'tllpor:l1
rcfut::cs. -1111.' onl) f:X:Ullple in the Ti::fu.h ~.jon i!; S3. illdlel"!l for rn:ro...mtn. dc<pile prc<.c~ of built 1nK.-
do\"(:c·E:ze:ro. :1 saddle-lil:e hillocl: in a Cln)"on bclOl' ,"=
HI ,he end of the Copptr .\I:t' ;! llC\\ n"JX' of-e11k-
r.:l.I1gd of high rising hills. '111.' area useable for s,nJC-
lUres "';l'i 0.075 O.OIl ha, thus onl) 8 10 houk' m:,) melll emerged in ,he: KSH area. ,.. ptJt tb.,n:.:,
Il:Ile exi'jl<.-d ,11 onc :md the ..ulle time. ·Ilu: ocell' round ill "ell,md ;area" jtl(:h as XCItOI,,-ui ~';l
palion,tl debri, of Sadon-c·ElCro cm be subdi\idL-d 199501 ,U1d Krajmliil dO$<' 10 I'emik toclwct.tin
in 6 building hOlil.Ons \\ilh a 101:.1 IhicknC§.'i of alm05t 2003;, : Ih~ r~lI1ble the ...arlier Jrulcrn....m... at \al'Tl.l
4 111, Elsc..'herc in lhe KSB Mca. refu~e pl.1cn ,lfl' 1~1k<· on Ihe UlOId: Se'1 Co.L>l_

established on hilhop5 in remOle :trea,. c.g.. l'eL:1iul: NOlle or lht' :tlxl\em...lllioul"(1 .il.." are ~ati( bul
al Sofia l'ell:O\ 1%4,. rather ehall";nt:: in function and purpl"". ~.... 'l"\.-t:.c-
Cl Opm-air pla/ttlu JllllmrmlJ, ~urh a~ R<"<iutile. :tnd ero .1,Ulcb OUI a5 tit!" Ix-<l ....'(.'lIllpl..., Dunnl: the ...nd of
I1g", were CSI.lbli.§hcd ,11 IIU" edge of a pl,'leau ''1lh :. tlu: Copper. \!:C. "t th,' tim'" t,rll' 4th ~It.lcn",n, (lilt of
eomm.llIdin~ \ie" orthe surroundil1[;l'. bUI no defelb- b', th... sile,tIJo indudrd p.tn vfthc" l'It'lchbounl1C '\.ldt:>.
66 .Ido .lrrl/lU'ldo.eim

\1;'I."·K.tkl'll.",-.11i1\ 111(' ['",",),lnUl" "'lIh'IIWIll \\,1' ,t-· U""


\'....·.",I1t'tu; 1 ,,'mllllC' ,h.IIl" fl'.llllle, "jlh
j(." Im in f'\"'l.'T<'I(~ld.1\ n-." ,11.'1\' "llh 11<1 "'\ll\llnll I'tlll,-I' In'm rhl" S.• d,'n...· .ill'<, Ilu\\ to, n. ;" Inll\: .l~
tilt' hili dmJll\l-I'I1(\ltI~i,.tl ,,'Utili,;I, nf,lw pOllrl" in
,lU <o('UI,.11lfnl dUI';nl! ,h.. l1!m' ,.frhr '<M',lltnl 1"',111-
Qlion.lljJol·nnd. a, \H"1I.1._ in Ih.- 1~l'h .lIld i_ICe Un>llJc' 'lllt·.rinll h.I' tloll~'ll 1"l,lhli'lwd. 'IU h nlllsitll:I~l\iOll'
_~ ..md in 1_\11"' .\miquil\ IAIl,.r .111. rh., ,ill" ".1' Il'<'ri h.l\1' huk , •• ll1e. relll.un...·I,. i\ e.m hI: ;I~uml·fl th;ll
,t••\ Ctni,u.llI hun.11 ,ilt". In ,Ilt' E.. uit Rll1t\7C' .\\l;l" 11,,- ,Il k.N 1'''1 'Cllknll'Ill' (,Ol',i<lt'(L ".g.. 111 0IX·tl-,lir
-.ill' "a.' f,'f1i!iord m a m.t·....i\l· ...tll "t"I1l"lllcn\ and.1 dcft'nrll'd ,itl' ill ih hintnl.l1Id (6 10
It l' dif11fult III ,,,,.lhh,h h,">\, Ill.un of the 'f"ulf'- km .1\\.1', .kkno;l\\kdgt·melll ut Ihl' Ilil1\ ~)un'I's :u
mrllb in Iht' Tdi,h ~,ln IH'T\" i"Onu'Illp<'r,u, I'm- S;ld,lIC(' and l'ipr.• indic,ul" lh;1I lhl' 5l:1I1c~ :ll UI;.I
1c.'T\ fl'\l11l G.-k-m.lflm't"l Ka.... h.n ("u,"t 1)'1I":llIel> III Sol- "CT"<' t:lIuiliar :lho ";Ih the..... loc.ltiti('s (er. Chapter
dO"ff·[""'l'\l.1l Ihr rimr ,If it- "\l),lll,i,)n 01110 S.lrlo- \'11. hdo".
IV. CERAMIC FINDS
I'IU~"'ER\'.\ I'lOi'l'
nll'Ihod' li,t prnc.... inv; pou("n \\("tr dMil(fl...d \\ilh
lk'pilt' Iht, rdlli....h limiled lhid'l\c,-, nf IIIl' cuhuml n:f"'U'ntr III Ih(" m.lltri,1I pmdlKed I~ Ill(" I~l{a 'J.
dl'IJoo,il' .11 l.i\fol, t'on(lilioll' of IJfl"Cl"\ ,llinn \"1) .i~, 'oCUlrlll{'nl, I iN of ,Ill. Ihc in\ li~"ln" 10 ... 0' f.vnj
nific.lIltl~ depending: 011 dr:plh. Ihc dh.·(u of "hich \\ilh ,I hll~ ,1l11</Unt of .harm from !fulurhrd nt un.
ht'illt: ,1e,Ith olm:I"\.lhll· on pOllC'" , 111 Ill<' 10\\(:<1 ccn.,in COIllr-xt. St-nmdh. o:<ipecialh durin... Ih.. 1it"1
1,I\l'l"'. l.it.:•• l. the ""rr.'ce ofllll' pOlle'1 ,1l.lnL, h ce- ~,,,·,(Jn. 11t(" qU.IIiI.,li\l:· diffctt"nliation r.lf pr>tl"''''! dp-
rllt·lilt·d by thl' c;Ilcarcoll~ soil•. TIll' Il.Ilin,"iOtl orflim pearo'cl 10 1)(' 11Intl{'d IlJ jun 1\\0 rnl~n", ttMrY .md
,lrter.I(U is likl'wisc progn·"'iCd. In Ihe upper cuhural '("1"1 CO,'!"C \\al"(". ;1..' ba...oo on fabric.' .md urfact
hori't.on of Lil(.I '1, the: calc;,n:om e;ll\~ronmcnt Ims tr(",lImenl.. \11 •• Urmpb.1l Ihi) 'I,I~ IQ diffttt"nUotI("
('r'Catt't:l high pH \'llucs of Ihc '\Oil H••'ccort:lim; 10 hCI\'1:-cn e'(c,I\.II('d 'h.• rtb did not produc(" cal('I:tJnn
lilmus p.tpcrl. I'rOh:etl'd only by., lhin hl)l'r of h,,· Ih,u could bt' re.,dil} and unJ.mhi~IfJLnI) r('(~lil>t'd.
mu~, the POIIC')' is further .11I;:eled by moiSllllc and l~o\'c'1 of 1\ hok IC">>cls pro.idcd inform.t1inn on
fhlCIllHliollS of Icmperalurc. Dudng lhe summcr dl)' 1ll0lvhn1oKir.Ll fc;uurc5 and ~uh'I;'nti,u{'d 'hJpt'o
.,. obsen't:d on location ill '1000 tlll: soil scc" cmcks OriCnl1lICtl tt·cordinK. E\'enm:Ill). Lhn.:c pt1X'~,in~
up 10 0.5 m tll·ep. Thc comhined ;It'liom nf ph)'siral pl'occdlll'c) cloIH'd, wilh l"l"\~ng de~rcc. ftf mm-
aud chemie:al pruperties OflllL' ~oil h.lvc lhus re.ullt:d plndt): sIre,unlint·r1 rorting of ~h;u'lli au::ordin~ 10
ill n'hlli\'dy poor conditions of pn·"cl"\.IIiotl for top- Lcmrcrin~, codcd 5Onin~ of <h,lrds acctJrdjn~ In
le\'d 1>o1lt:')'. Some shards 'lpp•.:.lt· wilh ".lShcd OUl or morpholufjir'll If:litl> .md IlJl{;ICC IfC.nmcm .•md. de·
cxfoli,lted $1ttf.'1ces. in wmc C:lSCS 10 such .1 degtet: l"ilcd tlc<criplioll of \I holc or rccon51r1lct"bl... \' ..::b
Ih,lI IlIe oril:,'inal surfhcc can h:mll) be r'Ccognised. or con<picuou~ ,e'~'l I).I~. Fot all th~ pnxC"> in~
This is p.lI,icubrl} common for ,lrc.1S oU15ide Ihc procedures ,. Sl.lncllrdiscd d:u.I .httl \\;1$ ooil!l1ro
hOUSC5 \,hete; Ihe poue",! \1.15 1101 ;lffccled b} >;(,"<:ond· COrTC<pondin~ 10 Ihe enlrie< of a pouel"\ d"l.lb.l-'<'.

"'1 burning or prOtccled by .1 It"'" penncable 1"yet of "nle m"in cxc;l\,Ucd arc:l of'1;5 ml ('.'lCludin~ 'Ut·
f;,llcn <mlclUr.ll debris. Olicn Ihe upper I.l\ct of a \e\ trenclie< yielded a1mOSI 1.300 klf ofJX>lt...1"\ Pol-
'hanl i, 1l.Iking in Ihin S('ldes Ill;lkin~ rcc(~llilio., of le"'! fr.tl.,"Inelll.t1ion IlImed up 10 be 10\\ \\ilh .m .l\'t"t-
(k'cOf:uion .1lId finishing ;1 cOlllpliC::lIed 1.1,,;1....\PP.lt- .II;e of20 IZ pet 5h.lm cxdudinll \\hoIr \C"...:I. Ot plll-
eml)', 1I01lt: of Ihe dC5(:ribcd f;ICIOl" had am nOlC- le..... COI1CCIllf:llioll.• 011 house fIoor<. The dnrrtT of
worthy imp.KI on bones. fr.ll:'lllt:rtI.llion did nOl "ppe;rr 10 be lIuetu;nil1ll in ,u,\
I>::Inem depelldint:l 011 lht: dt'J>lh: incbcaLinll UI"I lhe
~'l:rnl~III"(1 arca h;ul undert:onc Iimllcd po<l-dcpo-
l'OlTERY: SORTING I'ROCEDLlRES 5ition,,1 di.'llImmcr. In f"cl. it (::UI be concluded. t.lwl
I'ollc')' processing .11 Lig:l ",IS dic\;\led b} rt::alilies Ihe c,'I:('.I\ •• IOO IMn of Ihc 'CltJcmrm ".ill Ihe beller
.llre.,d)' prclot:nting Ihetllsch'C5 durin!,: lht: exc;l\~'lio~,. prt'l>Cl"\cd om:. \\'11<'11 .tlllhe 1.U1d ofTcli..'h bco;.lme
As \\ork progrc:.scd. il bcramt: c\idetll th,u 1I.,e In:utl irncmi\'d} cuhh.lll:tI. Ihc t:.xC;l\~ucrl p.ln of Ill(" 'Cnlt:-
rnCIll >CIMf:ucd from tit... ;lr.tblc b, .1 I'l);ld " ....
bod)' nf pOllt:ry "~IS I'd.llcd 10 Ihe l.iK.1 2 Cpl-odl' .u
nOI det:p-ploll~hcd, In r.lel. tJ,e OOt'prc-e"Td n:-
Iht: Silt:. Siguific:ult amount ofpnllCI) 11.,; "~';() c~l.
m.lins "en.: di'>('o\crctl undcr un: flJ<ld.
II'C!L:d from Lig:1 I l;lycrs bUI diloCrt'lc (11t.du.lll,'e (h,·
tinClion, !JI'III't:t:1l thc IWtl St:ls o(pUlLel)' .I11uI\l:d for
:Ill immedialc $cp:Il~lLion of mixcd 1ll.lll·d.Ll., Th.·
»011 n;>:c: 01' ~ll. \IIJls n \II'1.lIl:\'(; :\1 \1'1.111 \L
<,uuc lI~b C,'CIl morc .Ipp.m:nt ill Iht' ''''Ill' of oc·
G"llc,~Ll CrUdClll'" of ,ht' pollef'l erc.lled Ihe Itn-
r.,_ion:.1 OCCUlTcnCI", ofslmrd' fil)tIll.uer periods.
pl'CS>ioll Ih.u il 11.1\ rd.lled 10 Ih., 1.11.."1 ph....... of Ih...
Almo,. all <lLtdic5 focu<cd Oil Ihc llUlncrou,> .",d
Copper. \J,!c. ,uppo.ctIl, m.lrked b\ .m Ul<:fC.WIIIl me
bCllcr pte;'t:n "d '\:Inains of Litr.l 2•. LlI(""i,,~ R't dCbC- of of).::lllic .Illd I:'<p.-ci....tl\ ,hdl lelllpcmlJ,! Gnll\,"IC\.\
up im'c<li~:lIion of., homogcnl'{)u~d.u., -el. rill"', Ihc
68
H'tlnt"l. \\('illhlnl .1Ilt! ,oc:lcd .1I1-ordillll; In ddmj,illn,

.-
m_",""-_
11

1\
"'~_

•• ( _ ... ,~-

h
on ,11.. li,ll.t fllll"\ .IH~1 Sh.lrd.. of Ulh~r pniod.. Ih.1I1
,hl" U~ .. '1 'l:uknll'111 IH'n.' <"I),ll,lIed lInd 111';1[\"(\ .H-
runlim:1\ \\"h('l1 Ilo"ibk... Il'lh' ,,;t~ mud.' Oil ',·'...·1
-ilc hill I'r '111all In ('a5t.~ of rim~. the tim dj.Ullcl,·r.
\ .-..-_lo(_ _
thicuK"-\ ,.r \\;tll ,lIld ,(',,<.'I \\lx' I;lJX'n/dO'«! \ ~I
'1 , _ • ...MT n.-.lro ,,\! ,\(.'11 Conmll'lll\ .md dm,,;nll;" "c~
'1I'~
,._.a.<;--.lo _ _ • nudt' ,-.r r;1I't' ;md C\l't'plioll.11 fC;IlUft'<> of <hapc and
ll. _ _ ' : - - & 1 _ ... _ -
.....
"-."""""_I.C_....._
(krorali... n. 111c dU.l CTlU' _httl .11Io'wd OTIC 10 0:'
.....
.._-
ll_.n... tkct on o:1.ltion\ hcl\\ccn sn'Cml _h,m:l~ or _halll!
UI _ . e.--... _ _
• ";lh \t'wrnlmoq)hological ;ltlrilllllcs.
UII
.\d,no\.lcd~l1~ IIMl dilTcrclll \'e<<eII\lX~ have dif-
""
,...
,"-_
,~_-.J ferall liff'-<pam and \";t,...in~ llallcms of fr:t~men­
lie 1\ T.............. ",,"" . . VC"¥'- ...... pt. - ...
laoon RXc 198i. Table 9.4; Onoll et at 1993. this
- , • • L.h.-..:oL «<tlllit proccdurt' ,,-a.o; con... idercd mcaniniful in cs-
ublishinl!; a ~ll:rn1 prolile: of Ih poneI') produclion
durinl!; the U!j-l 2 settlement. .\s nOll-od. lhe >oninl!;
l~l ll~mort'. 00I1.pla.-qiC indusiom became lhe procedurt' did not include" holt: vL"SSCls or _hard con·
rtl(l!A <icnificam \~ in <lul'd ~runl! duni'll! the etntn.lion~ o!hc,...·cd on house noofS. Funhcnnon:,
fiN ~a.'«l- In tnCl!l ~ indul.ioo.\ ..~ COlAA di.~ thr initial <oninl!; prottdure b:bCd on non-pl:l.!otic in·
~ b\ frnh brWcint! ..ith IOIUK oM r.llTh .to dusions dcmolblrnlro. ;u, ju...1 mentioTled. thal the: dc:.
b&nd ~ "'a-' utni. "The proco:dun: imU\~ ~ IrrCt' of fr.u:mentation ''';is the 'I.lITIe throul!;hout the
cC Wni- from ~ __ ('1Q<~ unll inlO ~ b,'Cf'\ a~in "ith exception of the poneI' d&~en:d
~1Otnnp=1U'!m.ll~_ \'ithintaeh~. on house floors. pointing loward... rdalcd po5t-dcpo-
shard. "l:Tt' funhr.T subdindtod acrordinll; to morpho- sition:ll hislOries..\Jbeit lhe: numbers are not con'
InciGaI lr.Lib. drwr.l.lion. :md a<qluon;al or nOl('_ sidcn:d ab>oIUlc. lhe frequency of appc:lr.mce of for-
.. ontr. f",antn."§., Whm l(Intd. ;ill w!tb "nl: mal attributes or .U1i"acc l!'CaUllcm Icchniqucs \\.IS
COUl1II:'Ci ~ .. ridiKd. 1llc tou! munhn "0&> 12.642 ~ 10 be dia~O!tic. exhibitin~ 'le:ncrnl idc:~
ttunk ..~ ~"8 k:e .\"." ~ I.) diffQ"CDllrnr on POItCT\ production. Information '<';is elllel't'd inlO
pa1ll2 Et1JUP ..~ "' .bhdvd. but oM 11 of !hoe it ditta1usc §klllming from 230 ba~ or 5i5 kg of ct'-
zppan:d lO br Mi'istiea'h ou:nific:ull "-It! IY I ramic sham....

orr\IIJJ) DI.SCkll"no:\ 01 \L:..M:I.S .\."1} SHARD


CO'CI~..tll-\110':.
I'ouer. TeCO\.-cnd in cbcd and undislUrbed C()flI(;.'(U
• MIll \<Ol§ trC:ll1ro \\ilh opcciaI :meution. This in-
dudcd \\bok "~b as \\cU as shard conccl1lr.ll ions
:uJd sln~c rnaenostic or olhcr....isc infonn.lli\'c ... hard>
lnomugh retording was undcnakCll holh imide: .lud
OUUltlt: lhe buildings, in places of "~l5tc deposition
and in area.-; of particular omdoor aClhilics. Field re-
cordinR; proccduf'C3 included 3D lIleasurclncnl of in·
dnldu...ol potlC'f'\ lO-tlers ;u poIygOlll or poinu
m..pPo:d ..iUllOt.tl SIiIUoo TS 1'1.4.:\ .l.,'1'3phic rq>-
retcnliltion of cO/llexlual information dl'3\\'inl: 1'1_
4 B. p1lO1O documentation and imml"tliale dc:5crip-
Vga
lion of \l" ...·1 t\lJlC~. 'Iil!t", of Jlr~n .,riflll. dlrn:tinrl~
proprr t..mpt'nnl( mdtl"ri.tJ. 1Hl....d on ,}wo '"-UilmlllJf/C
of f.I.II, pll'ilioll\ rim/boUorll Ix.... moll in rrl.tU'JI1 10
Utd! It rrfkcu d trthnol."" rhtMc. 01..-.J1J,..... ill'
",'ch IJllwT . t'IL budl dts("ril)tirm " .. ~ funl1l'T n- .11<0(1 p". iIJ11" th.-.t .ntlt!ll"r ""1U1'Ct' r,( d.n .Ilth IKh
1>.lIIdtd ... h,," ,harm!\( -.cl, \\eft' rul!«lrd ,me:!
('Qn'UI1l("m " .... minrd. C" 2· ilt thr- -ur.m. .. t...n- k'• •
I~~~. and ....,iened indi,idual numl)(" of lotaI
'oOn.t1 r("~lion of d .., "<&,' tninlf plMo:'. F"uwJIv
St.,lion n'H:.15UKmenL Soil from thl" \"t" I, ".L' abo a vnall JMn of;all h.trds lImf>01/: U_ .. fn. (lU'-
<,;lInpkd, Ille I~H:~xc;l\"au(ln procalurn indudcd
mc:m~ nf Late \nl;qult}- pollen Cntlr.;omn:l ""' (1nl"
c",ln:ful Ck·.lllinl.l. mClldi0lO; and p;lniaJ rn'or.uion. if mica. indirdun2 tlidl ilt /n.'1 001" 0tfw0T ~rtC ,j cb\-
n~t"d. dra,,;ni;. and metrical. ,no'T'ho~. and has htTn in wc. .
IcdmolO1(iaJ tiocriptiOIl.•\lmo<t 300 ... hok or rtton- Thl" ""rtin2 of pOllen .hafd.,. lICcon:!inlf to) tlton-
SInICl.,blc \'C'I-eb "en: doco...c:n:d from prim""" con. p1:utic inc!u1iQn. occurrin2 in lilt- bbric prodlKt:'d th.-
rats :Illd 100. predominanLl\ smaller cuI" and ...bo\e Ibl of 1') dilTerl'tlt combtlliltiom!;, ttTml"d tcm-
00..15, rl:cO\crn:! from unccnain om:~ . HO\\C'\er. pc"rin~ ~up" f(IUr lmlUp" ;}re rtp~trd bo, \'O'n
Il3rd of the 300 \~6 was only gr.. phirall) I"«on- sm;dl numb<:" and mj~1 in fact rdteel cxpt"ri~M\1
sln,cled in pan. 'incc: 11\(:ir r«OllSlruclion. due 100 or foft:ign ori'rn,. Onpnic lJ1;l!ter ""as the mt...1 mm-
hij.;h fr:\I;mclll.ltion orland fragility, would be 100 mono Such m;\\, be fft:Sh plalll m;lterial (mm 'f'n
limc-eonsulIlinl;. fine ~ k';I\;nll; linear \oid~ in a <cetion 10 crude-
5traws with corrr:oJll)nding somC"-hat ;}IlI{UL'lr \oim.
or allium[ dun/ol. '111<: sc:cond :rnd third in imporuncC"
I'OTrERY RA\\' "IATERIALS AND FABRICS is qu.'lf!7. and chamotte ~. of a1m()l;1 C"quaJ impon_
Initial infonll.l1ion on I':\W m;l1erials u'led in pOHCI') alll:e. Quarnls;uld is found in a mnl!!' of 'iW:J..
production at Uga "'as g-til1l:d lhrout:h bumcd pieco though mosl frcqucmh in lp'aim- bct"ttn I 2 mm.
of d.mb. lksidcs imcmionalJ~ added apL'Utics. 'he Fine ponel) m.a.~ ronujn qu:uu panidc::t <>1" onh 11.5
d;tub conlained bigger lumps ofcalcarrom incluOOn! mm. The inclw;inru ;u-c mostly rounded. bul 0Ull!;Uhr
and ochn::. indicating Utat these "cn:: occtJning n,ll- ones arc ;Wo oa:urrinl.l. mwlh in qUlle hid! frc.qucn.
ur.J.iJ~ in the clay deposits in qucstKIIl. 'nlCrdon:. an, cia. $c\~ ~m, sancblonel. onc rcac~ !2 an
modest occurnntt of C3karrous inclusiom or ochre in Icnl!;lh_ disro\m:d 011 the si"; .. en: <c'\crm bumn1
in pollcn "01.'1 comidcn:d nalur.J.i, A rich depo!:il of :md brillle. easih COlmbbnl! imo!iCJl=llC u.um. "Ilr
~imc:m..n clan likd, 6-8 m in thic.kJ~ was dir ;rngular form md sW: of these- ltf2im COI'TCbtc "'lib
CO\1:rcd at' the foot .i the plalcau "ht:n: the site is the quartz inclusions found in the fabric of JDl1 of tfx-
situated. "nc cla~ is lighl grt". in colour and comains ~ a1IO\\inJ,! the iI.WI1J1pcion th:u Juch >tonn
'cl') line plant malcrial. Other impuriu(".. as oc- could indeed h3\'t' ocn-nl ;u .. <ouru !Or qlUltZ tern-
<"MionaJh len!iC:5 of <and or iron rich fbb tcnd to pcOf12. Ch=KHle or 2TUl.! is apparinl! Ul ~I
lump in !lCpoll':\IC layen. The 10\. [eu:1 of impuritio abun.bnce. It can br ~ 2-1 mm or find.
"'as appreciated b} Late. \miquil} pOllen ~111cd in cllllhcd 0.5-1.0 mm. ",ben it appe;tr" in combi-
the an::a: th~ did nOI need lC\ilption 10 n:linc thc 1CI0011 "ilh other lempcrinll: moucriab. il URWh
da~~ for hie;h qu;"it~ producu. 'Iltc CoPI~r :\Ilc POI- domin;llt'l. like the other tempcrinll: m;l1a1;W. ch.:un-
tcrs, b~ COlltr.l.'il. had 10 makc proper chOlcC!ll of tem- ottc ,,-;U lilcd (or production of both COiI~ and fine
pocrini; nl,lIcrial 10 achiC\"'C a b.llanccd romposlUon of ..-ard. in boI:h Ulf.I I nd 2. In the case:- of COolnC
1):l.';IC SUil.,blc for prchistoric firing conditions. "~lrcs. il ...Ll almost ";1\3 pn:sent. The m.ult p"n

Ex'llllin.,tiOll of thc paSlc rai>l--d lhe kno.,,' prob- of the ch.unolte ori~rl.lte from cnnhed potten but
lem of" hcn prcscnce of :tpl;lStics in cbp shou~d Ix: fired clar" "", also noted distillglli~hed '" a mor.,
I'L'K'lrdcd ,IS natura!. or. imClllionaJ. 'nlC focu~ IS on pulverulcm 'I.U"'. E\idemh. the b3sic tC'Chl1011x!ica1
f;,bric lypes COIlI;tining quam: indusiom. 'Ill~ upper llrncriptiollS in\Ul,oo elt, mixed "lth ort:;llI.ic m;utt"r
la)cl'J of the c1;t) deposi", at the sitc com.un fine· dnd 5t",'II;lh.,lIl'<I "lth 011.. or both o( the h..1'Ckun.-
"'!':Iincd sand. and Ule decision ".b Ihu~ tIl.,dc:,o lreat e1emelll.. qu..nz/';1I1d ;lnd chamoue.
.111)· con~idc:rdblc :Ullount of qll.lnl mdu.uon~ ;U The ll.>C of c,.)(drnIlU mdusiom "015 ;U,o unpon·
;0
th1l' p,l1.tll.-l ill til1ll' HI I Jt.:.l. nlt~. IlL,LIlT;"I. '1\'lIl1JllI't.:
>I'.ill ,h.•o' , ,,,". wcl ","11'
"m \1 k.l-'t ,I h • In.m:!l h.III'..... I'. hn\,ner.•utnhlll'·'\ t" l1w KGK
. I·
ammllU <ll .-.Inum la
m\fl.lU-- Inn.- ,>T"" •
,.
lit 11.. hUI
h,,- ••r \1 ,UIIlIl.11 "'lupin DuI' III tht' I'ln;:t' tI".nuitl nl
n....u ,hdl,. in hrni ,IJt<,. Ih....... a,_,
nnrun'
. ,',"
h ... , '
lin<k "I\h nMIt·li.• l In 1111 I" II hOll"" \I ' ill\ .·'tit.:.III·d.
, _L ~I hrtl .. 11 ,l IIoU',
.rUot-"h -.oli lIKlu'lOn" r,l."" ".'1; , J,-... rihr,1 .lml phnh~'1~.plll'd I. Con :rn;nt.: t,'lIIlkT'
>f ~ noo.pLl.'11C n'll·ntu."tll' \.,l.' ;nl,! nlJtrli.\b.•• ~·,'I 1Il1ifol1nit\ in coml,;n.l\i.l1I t"ro:i,,,
Ibc ,llIltlUm I I ..-nI II~rih-
1tIt"Jn-JI(' llIIITquc",'" ~ ,..m"hn1 r< . , .\1 Bomil,I, C.\k,IR"l'"' lIldmiol1' domin,l1e.•lHell in
iJlro .-......'ldnTd .... inu~tlUt..wh .addc-d romhin.lli,m ,,;Ih 1\rl:.Ill;1 Il\.lller. ,<ldol1\ \\;Ih (hol111-
, n-JI nl,IN
\monc. Iht' ."'Ilr'1t"'JDr'" "rrr """ .
f"'III·....
onr. Ill\.: 11<.(' llf ,md i< \t'l"\ I;mitl-d. "hilt- ,ome l)tll-
,lurd, n.-hh trrnpet'l"d \11th .'1\l,hrd Ibm l -I mm
IcI'\ l' <lnh Irlllpcrt"d \\ ill\ org:mic m;lUl'r 11'1' di.-
_.. qUolTU' ,mu.
.!.nu _.. 'och 1.-.n1'l<"n1lC.
. ...,._-- I'r-..-o", ". ...' 1-.It-
....111·" ,If .1 rcl.llivrh hillh rCl'rt·$t.·Ill •• tion ('of ory{olllir
lC"tffl "n .1 h.mdi\ll 01 ,holm,. "Ill'.. rq>!'t"<lIIIIIl,! ILe..
m;tIlC" Ilod 11' 11ll" "Ixo~nilion Ih.1\ org:lI1ic Icmperint.:
liu.I.-"alkd anci rrtali\"rlI "o::U·til't'd ,'("0....1, ,11 kMI
I' "flcn llH'r1tlokcd in Copper. \gc l>oncl) frolll Hul-
"", , Iht, lunrt;on of" hKh h.\, nOI ll('t'n r-:l.lhh.'lk'd.
It.1riJ.. Olher COJJlp;\r.l1i\c llt1die~ 'lI£..lll·q Ihat tl\(·
l'our I,-,unci in lhr LiIl"J 2 ....·IlIMll\"nt dLlfcl' from
Ihr 11<1110:: vi Li'f.\ I nnl "ni, in qualil'. hUI a["o in 1".,riJ.I;OI1 in tl·11I1>Clinl.\ eombimlliOlll (1ll1illg Ug:L '1 i.
:I rdl('("lion of o,(lCi,L1 plwlIomcll:! diM'"us.>cd in sceliml>
....'ml)O'ition "f Ihl" ll"lIIl..-nnl,! UIlI,mllt'Jl.I' \\11rrras
It:-llIp.. rine. Gmu!" 1\· .1nd IX er. l'i~ 1\ I m.ll.. up bclo".
thr l'I'I'ferrcd (Omposil;on in both Copl"'r .\~c 't·tlle·
nll:m,. the occum:ncr of Gmup' I .1I1d 11 i, Jll\lrh
hit;h..r in Lit;:! I lhan in Lilf.l :2 Group III OCOU'5 ill DECOR.\TION
htllh >elllcmenl.'. bUI "ith a Mie.lnh hil,!her pcm:ma~ 1111' fn.'<Juell'l of deeol~t1cd <lwrds from 1Jga :.1 [in·
in Lil<-l ] Lig:l I pone.... J1.-o Ilmdurro (Xlne.... "ilh cludin~ rinh. \\ hich .Ire more oliell lefl ulldcconl1cd
tempcrinc. matcriab of Group Y bUI "<'re I\">I in fa· Ihan hod•• hardSI i~ high: 3I BB. in kt.:. This;l perhap'
'''\Ir of cUa.~ cb" than Ih.. I!()UC!"> of Lil;!a 1. nOI 'UT]lriSinC. ,iller: lhe mOSI common fonn of "dec·
R..nurlJ.blt. ,inwlh 00 pour.... "ith ornnic oon· or.uion" t,o, 'urf,-.ee nlstiC:l1ion. no doubl imen(kd 10
'UlUrnt,o, ;OOllC ha.' been altribulrd 10 Ihi' Lil,!:l 1 <,cult-.. be funetir:mal. In l.,'t:ncral. nlstieauon of the <urtlec is
mml. "hich ~ onh ~t.: Irn'lperine: 1lf'OUP"- 3chiC\-ro bt :!ppl~int; a Ihiek breI" of e\;ly 10 ;1 ,~ ..d
"The Iitt ofindusiom I> the, olllt'r '-:lrUbk thal dif- in Iralher.h.ard <laiC. Depending 011 thc p;lll<,m ~f
l=tu~ Lic.a I pollen fnlltl thal of Li~ 2. disuihulion orlhe appliro clay. Buh;arian 5(;hola~.dl~:
\\~ tht ~ proportion of non~ in- f('rt:nu:u(' bel"cal "b;.rbOlinc·· and ··fin~'C" u-:uhng
dU~I""" in Un ] pou~n fall "ilhin tl\(' 'OUe inlen.u olher arch.1COIOt;isl> "ould call bolh fonns b;.rhOline
I ] mm. the mlN. fl't'qucm inclUStom $Ue lin arowld <utfacc llr.llH\("ll .\OCOrdiIIS to Ihe Bull.....ria.'1 tra-
O..i mm in the ca.-.c: of li~ I.
dition of dacription b;Lrbotinc is an :lppliGLllOn of
Gcncn1J,. the pOllen of Lit;a I i~ rqlrr.entrd bt thirl ~ip. "hith crca'tC'i rough snrtlce< ill no P:lllicu-
fille "0Ul:l\ TJl4do, of "cll-'IOTlcd fabrio "ilh mO(k-ral~
1U\l",mu of inclusion•• hOTllOt;enom in \.itt ;1l\d "ith
\ar pal1enl. '\11;le linger lrailing, as Ihe n:m... 1< <11 7-
t.:C'\Un~. ;, ,II§(! ., rough relief applie;nion. the shp
nHoun r.lIll!;in~ from I!T'<'l IIJ blacl. ~lurl>l:U Cdo ur
being dislribull-o on Ihe .\"face br 1r.,ilillS lingers j,(\
Chart. lOYR-3/\. IOYR-I/1. IOYR·5/:! E...mh
Ih:!1 parallel ridt:;cs .Ire r.liscd in .1 ccnnin IMtlc.rll.
bumi\lloo. lustrous. and ofirn <,xtl"l:'mel~ 'him .u~, . . , ,·,..'rI10n
U.\II:\ y I lOn1.0111.ll or I'{:rtical {l'clleclmg I II' ( I •
fjl('('t ..dd " funher dimen iOIl 10 Ihl....· CCI';unin. in
f "
o Ir:"·'·1I1~). Although sotnetimcs bOlh 1~']lCS " f I'll'lt-
COIIIT:lJ1 "ith the cO"-I'>t." hrown roloul"I:d lIOUC" of . . . ,. de·
LiJ{<':! lot't: hdow . • C.llIOll 'nLglu l>c combillc(l l'I'ith olhcr del·onlllll.. ,
In ..n .'llcmpt 10 rJbc,ill cfUnpar.ni'·e dat... nudil'l; InO:lltJ, ,"\d ere'IlO: ., (cn.lin il'1prc:;sion tJf C:>;Chl'I\'lI),
, , ~ "<Iam-
"ere abo undertaken on find, frulll Ih.. 1I0tllL!.>;l 'Idl 'uc I surf.I(C 11'I'.,UlICnt is llI"inly I'c",;,,'I'e( ",1"
111$10.... ~Iwcum of YeliloEtmO\u nu: up!>l'r
'l'nleffi,,"t of Ihi>. tlOll u "ell lII\'",u~.l1cd ;md daleS to
the Late CopJlt'r .\11<' .\n~I')I 1'J58; l~j9: 1%1.
-un 1"IU01U(l11 q "mll'-.lO;);'p J" ;l(hl 1I0lUlUO-l ,- Ill!." p,ml!JO'o"" U;lUO ;U" SI',-,!d. p:.<!:lII! JO p;,sOdlIlO;l
•.l.ldllf....:> lU~'U .'1' \C" ;"'U') :I'll "! 1'....11 ;>(1 §lll;>ll".1 . :l1I!1l~!'lJl1(ll 1lI;llll1C,>JI .:>;I'!.pns 1'111 '. ;I!J(I':J
PII1(U U:l111 'pHI" p.llU '11/1 :JU!W'U 1(11),111:1"..:13.1 ~ .. ;'I!lldl'.J~) >II'~',)I':U' ",:.I 110 'p""IlI;lp lIP'U;I;I :l1I!~!I~'
P1110.llU:l111 u;'a."Pq :I..lll1'!>!P aliI IUO,) I' Ill!" .1;>111'1:; J,)U':I '''11 '1I0!I'!.l'O.,p IPIII!,'d ;l1!'1dl;.l,,'i' JOj :l11l1!1~111l~"
.<)1 punoq "'P!I' 0·"1 :i"!>!1 j),1l1'a.n <I'" UO!I1'lIl:lIU SI'll;I:IS i><llIl:I!lIl ""'!'!:JII! 'S11ll.L 'SlIO!'!:JIl!jO dl;l'l :I'll
-I'IW' 1'~1Ir1> Wlp 1l1l!,llrlUl! '~IOP JO "'I!I"(I!JI<!P I'll! Ill!,., p:lltU:>:\';III,l,'q 0\'1" ,',\1ll1 ,\.t:1l10d IPlllpld ,),!lldl~l:l
l),lY'''CI(' \1!Jl'llh"i;>,J lI!"lJa:J I' <! :>..1,)11,1. ';,,'1\1 ·l'l!.:[l<lop jO ,)!I~!.J:>I;":.Imp ,'lIJ,lIwd J'I:>lI!I!,\..IIl;l .10 1':.I!d, 'Jllln;)
'J!J U! P;l§!III':lJO ';lII!1 III!ofjo SIU:ll111d X:lldlllO J ''\POfI
;11011" ,1111 J,l,\O §IU;'II"d X:lldlllO;) :uo'" ll! .10 S;ltI!1
IIlIIlO7.!J0ll II! p:l \om (Will (; 01 dn) J{:l!15 "!IP p.lllllllq
~"'/1 ~~)' "",.",1, ~,,,u,, d ..
1_"" 'lll"''''UtU'1' ~ .><noli Ul l",r~'1 m »>-.><", ~'U .~ \I ~!.l .10 dJ"ll> " 'll!." :>JJl'lll §! 1l0!'FlU[ '(·B9(;) P:IS!jll! S!
UO!/I:.IO:l;l1' JO ;l(Li.1 IlUUJlllO;l l§OlU ::1111 '(lill!I!t:JI Jaliu!J
I'll': ::Ill!IOfjJl!l1 :lU!PJuj;US1p '§! 1111111 ,u:l\lod 1),)11;.10
,;131' p:l11l3UIfiI;.lJ JO 11l1l0Ul" ;11011 \\ ;1111 JO B,,!;(; 1l!111~\\

'0
~. /(f=--;
. ~~>: )) ~~I 1I0!1l:J0J:lP JO UO!lnq!JIS!p ::1111 l\" SU!llOlTI

IIn,,< \.t;).\
"~!I!IUllllb
U! llIq '1U;JoS;:Ut! OS'Jll S! UO!J1:JO»P JXJll1!Cd

/
~L::
:l1!lldt:.ili pU\! (P§!;I""""3 "U;>""I!l 3.le UO!II:JO;l:>P ;I;)llJ
-JllS P:>II,luq pm: 1).')I/3I1:J;)5 'plllU 's;»--~oq IPS!l:J 'UO!11l
-JOO3I) IPSPU! 'S,:l!IS 'll~\\ pjss:>.J<lw! 'S}!d/S:lllll:ll.md
JllIMIIl'!J1 .10 P.JPUIlW pile SUO!~dlll! ll:llls OSIIl
= ~ :SUIlpJ0;) 110 lI::>!Jo 'SIJ~S'5:lJdw! d~jiil1!J pilI: [!1l1U::IS
-U!) p!'"S :11/1 jO §UO!j':U!(/UIOCl m;u~!p 01 P;lI!Ut!l S!
~lll:llJlfil;.lj 1';l1j,)II0:l ::1111 UIooj U::I:>S ::>(1 ue:> s\: '!Pllb!1l
-11;);11 1I0!IIlJOj,)P ;lII:.Ioql:[:l ;).Iom jO :lJ!oU;ld:u :UU.
'::Inb!IIlIj,')l lU:llll
-11':>.11 :I::ICJJIlS :>.\!It:..loaap " 51: tllllll J:llpt:..1 '[1l110!IJlIllj
I: S,' P:l,\\;)!.\ U:I::I(I ;1,\1111 Ismu 1I0!IIl:l!ISlll .\..I:'IHod ll11p
uO!jdlllns~,' :lIp l1U!,\\OIlI: ';I.lt:..1 S! IU;lllt::lF' :'1110 llIl,!l
:"'0111 jO p:Jsodulo,) 1I0!IC.lO:l,lP '.llIC.l;>U:I:) ·fhl!!!':.Il J:li'!
-II!J JO :l1I!IOftJ"(1 s;I'\lo.\ll! 1l0!IIIU!(IIUO:l jO :)(L{I w,mb
-;lJj bOlll :Ul.J. ·§I:lS1;.U :>1°11"\ lUOJj "Spur 01 p:>IIl:>S,IJ
.d;lJJ:lpun Iqnop 011 .\:lu:lnb:UJ 11 'SpJlll[S :lIp JO "BI: 110
punOJ '! SIIl:llll:lFl j,\!II;.IOj:>p (Ile U! pSI:a 1 [ :1:1..11[1
Jul 0"1 jO 1I0!lllll!qUlOj V ',\poIl P:lW:I!IS1U :lIp IlIOJJ
ll;):I"/ U1 !J Pjlllo()U1~ :llll S:lll;.llld:>s \I:1ijo §uo!ss;udw!
d!l- pt!" /.10 l!"IU:lllll!J JO uOI:UOJ 11 JO pm'q 1':III07.!J0ll
\-' '.',,!;(; .\1110 dn ,1J{IlUl 1I0!It:..lOa:lp jO s;xHj llu!II!"UI
':>.1 ':>11.1. "J;)(JoJd 3U1\O(jJl.'f1,l0 o,,~, pUl: ~lImCJI J:>:iu!J
jO S1'\\ .,.,oq "I:UI''!s 1),')I~O;)'lP JO :'nt 9,,1 UO P,lSI'j]
'(; u.'in)O 3111'j(11I1..... 'il' :1111 U! '1511It.... \ s! :ut.'." p.>lI'.l
-!I"U jO lIf>l}JoduJd ':>11.1. "PL'fIUl! ,},\~I'-'ql' :iU!'!IIJ!UIUI
PIJI' 'SPIo,,)\ :>lJI-1JOjUt.u '~:lt:J..Ins liu!dduii J:I\l,X!lIUlll'
':lU :"','.\ 1':.I:I\:l\ U! p:lll'f).')Jdd,' ;l(l 1II',l Ill;lUlll',UI
,')JI:J..Inlo 'l){'\ jO\I!II·UOll.llU!J :lIlt .. "ol,xI .1,1\ ' .. D..
;W!.\.L .. ~Il'>,lJnl ifU!1lI.."/dmllo,, .'>!UI))!11 pill' "1,"",1\
p:l(h'll\ PJJI'(I "1.'''''>1 JiJ":JOI'i a!q "! Will ',,:>11'" 111\.1

It v:Jn
72
1.1111 'qUI'.\lt·11 \\ilh ill\i,ccl lilll·'.• 1\·.UillJ.: .I hOIl"}'_
. .\ '\ ._\' "iftft "h;dl
Jl"'""unn. wilh hn..,-m.II' .11l". 1111:< ,,1 ' - ' • romh ,Mlll'm
('an hi" uoillim li"o.l!. Ill.m l'llhl'r 'Id,', III tl.,uhll...li- hllPl\"'"~Il' m.l{k "ith ,lldl, .\1 riJ.:ll1 .l1\J.:k, .In·
m,n.,n.tl 11'" nlllll1l<'1l .11111 pt'l1...ntll....lm ,I pindlll\l: l,t1<'n t;'J\lIl,1 ,'11 ,lwuld,'1 III hi, onk III nllll'r hip.lnit,·
Ill.lonrr. l'hi, I'll\" ,.t ,It·",r.tli,~n •.m .\1", I~' ..,~n, \"N'I, J"ft. Snnil.lI 1\I}I' 01 ,kn'I.lIion ,'.m .II!'O I~
,i,klTl\ .1 nl,li••mt'n .,1' th.. 'llrl.ltT. 'Illn~ ,1111'\1 lhl' .-IT,I\I"\ "ilh hllltl·rn.lib IK'illlt prt·"c<! illlO cl;l\ .11
"hnk \'("....1,..rl·.1 \1.\' l~.ll.....i in ,I,..h 1lI,llml"r. !"IT' rli<11I .Uli<k :!°o. III hlllh l.I"·'. impn'",ions h.l~c .1
qUI"OIh.. dll' r.1"{" 1' .I1'.:o.r,llI"ll " u-ni ltl "IT.m: .1 ll:lml" \tl''l"Clll ,h.ll'I'. bllt till' 011," 1Il:1{1c with ~hell
r;oi...-d !l.Il...1 mlntdcd III "''P'lr.ltr Ihe' nn:l trolll Ihe ('(\C\"' \1Io'llikeh fn',!m.ll\·r IIIIN,d, ofthc ~Iicrocoll­
\'t'TI\.\inm,;: \'l.ln ••fll1<' h.>d\ 1I mi.:\ll,ll",1 he u...-d I., chbea C.(llllprc,,,. 'IJ<:cie,.• I~ idl'ntifil'd h~ N. ,\ndrc·
IrmliTWt{" h.\rl..,uIK' (IT Iin~r tr.\llio<: Ol,tk.lll<'n. a..o:n. COP(,l1h.l~n •• lId ..lIllblirh.:e unit cl""iti,'S. in
"hi,h u,u.Uh dt't" 00>1 ill\,>I'T!hr 0('t:1. Rrlllro to :?OOI arc <:i~lij;('.llllh Im;Mder. Idc;llh. Ihis 1}1>C" of
111<' t\'f'C' "'. drt.... Uli.nn i, a tnl(' rr1i"f m·... raDQll: an
onl.unt'nl.lIion II~ intended 10 rn'ale :1 paHcm of
.lpplK-d ...,rdolll "ilh lin~nl.lIl .md/or Iin~ip un-
l~nic,lI ".IIe-.. as tht' oricnt.llion of imp",-~ions w:u
pl'C"'"j\l"-' ~l" \., IlK' pJl"\il'l\l.... lh" i., al'>(\ \1><11 10
ch.anl!inc from nm to 1'0".
-<par.no' r.~ .. ItK' nt"Cl.lwm the b,..m (IT to .1ctnnU-
.\mnll~ Iht' ran:: I'lle' arc cxci~l:d dceor:ltion .3',
ale L'nl.lln pan, u,wlh IlK' -J,.l\JJdC'r<. 0"-.\ \......-d.
and graphile 2'0'. UOlh l\1X"~ rcprcscllled b} a num-
1lK' ~ dn·...ratinn rffl"t'1 .....' fin~nip Impn:--<ion
ber of ~hanb e;ilin~ imprcs.,ion of rumplex pallcms
mukl.lli<> bt ",hint.'d ",th a <lid, \lilh fbnl"Jl('(\ tip,
R.u.....d d.-conl...., " ... .11'>(\ u.'C"CI in a mol'( t'l.bor- romhtin~ of multiple lines. E.",c1st--d decoration is
;ur m:uurr. \pPIird cordon, Octa.,jonalh \li!h '01llC\,hal deeper 111:111 Ihe inci'L-d, but is silui1:lr in
C\~nh 'Prcad fin~nip imp~\I"m on lop rould bt ~'t' "idlil.
u-rd 10 (T'(';lle rumple.. Ilallrtn' (In;.aniztd in circlc<: 1111.' la-I ~icuifiGlntl\ represented decor:ltion I)1X
and <piral, MId nbIiqllt' pnl\u\xr.tOCt'" 5~ •. Another I', is pOllcn "ilh scr:lIched or brushed $urf."Ia'. Sofl
"''Pt fA r.li.'C"CI rk<:or.l.lion I, ~ bo--e< on:anUrd in da\ was bmshl--d "il11 ;1 bundle of coal'SC grass stems
a 'lint:k h"rlwntall'O\l or C'O\nio~ pan or \he \nlCl or similar material, Such decoration is IISII:III) appliL-d
boc:h ~, Thil. "'1lC' or dt-roration has 001 beeo di,.. 00 Ihe "hole vessel ~urfacc in inlcrchanging din:c-
('('<\~ on whnk \ -cb .11 Uca. tiOIU: ~mclimC5 a lIlorc rc!,"\llar p:menl was c::rca,,:d
l"inr'-ware potkT\ <uch :I> bironic ja~ and bowls bl bl"U!ohing onlv selcclcd p;llchcs of Ihe surface.
an: frntuenth dC'U'lr.IlM "'Ih Rminl!; It'Chniq~ 6' •. POlle!) nlstieation IL'Chni<!llcs h:l\'e also been ap-
H\lI~ can be arran~ in concenn'it: ardes or oblique plitd by Ihe pollCT'5 of UIfoI I. but less fi·equelllly. hl-
Illl('!; around IlK' <.h\lulder of wpanile. dO'Cd \"CS'<:ls. stead. paimed I)QUC!) held .1 much grealer pro!)ol'lioll
lkn,i~ art:' <kror.ncd around the hp and rim on Ihe of tIll: ,herd:u;:e. "ilh C01l\plex b"-;Iphilc pallcms prc-
Imide. !)cnnin~h, lhi~ decoralion l'lJor i, fC!C\'t'd 10 \':1ilinl:. bUl in combinalion wilh red, ydlo\l alld
more exclust\'~ POUCT\ I\'PC!>. "hite paims [1'1. fit Cmphilc motivcs "cre llSually
.\ rtlati\~ly a:ommon 1}1>C of decoration during Ihe made in cOlllbinations of line group' {35 !illl-OS, 1.5-
Coppcr .\1l;C I, cre:ued "ilh Ihc hdp of puoclalesl :1.0 mill broad\. bUl Olhcr e1el1lcllIS such :IS ImtchLo<l
~h:illOl, PI~, wl\lt'h ;lTe produrM "illl a slIIall Slick lriallgl~ or meanders arc .•Iso p\'\·$elll. ORL'll f,'l':lphile
"11h eldln o:--a1.• uian~ut.r. or. orcasionallj, lIMTQW is cOlllbincd "'llh thuing. 1':lilllecl dceor:ltiOIl W:lS
rcclanL:Ular up :)0., 5.ometimL'S lhl" <lick was sluck ".milll} found 011 lhc uppcr p:ll'l of \"cS-.-els. SOlllcliml:.5
UUII, die.cl,,,·
. :ll :11\ alw!c
,,' Ihe TCSullin"" p a " emrescm_ nms wcre .,Iso 01'llOlmcIIled I"rOI1l whhill, lhc mOSI
fin~enip/nail
'
bllllJ.; Inanl:Ular . illlllrcs ',"
,,11,. ·\1 us
. lnlC dabOl',lle pallcrn~ being fuulld in Ihe illlcnol' of
o.r d~'Cllr:l\lon \1.1> apphcd in TC1lC;IICd ~ ,..
• •u" ~ .llIu !iOlllc- \)<),,15, eOl'<:ring Ihe ",hole s\lrf:lc(;, 1\I(~i,ed decor:l\io1\
.1

1I1l1L'" oo\·cred Ih\· IIhole 'urfaee. l'r~~'lu~nuy .\ row!> or is ~lso commOIl. occ:l,ionally wilh "hill.' 01' red illcruS-
o,-a1 OT nalTO" fn:la1ll:U1:lr \llJn~l\lal~'" ,\1\: 'horizon_
1'lUon.
V. POTTERY AS SOURCE
OF INFORMATION
I'RI::."J:NT.\TIOi\' OF I1A"li\
1)(1"('('11 C0J!prr '\1,'" RcdUliu: III .md Rt'dulit(' 1\,
Prior 10 ,I (li~u!>iSioll of the iS~llC' I't"l.lled 10 pOller)"
Ihe 1.lll!,"r ph.~ ,lllrihUII:d 10 Ule ..o-<dUrd lran-
produclion. lhere is ;1 lleed 10 m,lke ,t pre'oCIll'IIion of ,itiondl I'rrilod to the 1:"lrh Broru.e . \~ !oluch daliJlI\'
lh,' d'll;\sel. \\ hich Ihis 'lUd} i~ l)'l~d Oil. AI inform,l_
II,U III cOII('onL11Kr "ilh published inf()ml.lu'lJI .lnd
lill" the ,h;lru 1II:llerial is. il call nelcr di~lo\C lhc full
funhenllorc confimwd h~ cOl1Suh.lIiom "ilh Bull:.
complcxit}. 1.. c1molo~';cal :l!i idl',nion;11 of lilt' ceramic ...i.1Il 5Chola!' 1100.C'('r.•,fin Ih(' full di>l:lr"ul't" IJf
production: hence. the below cOnsideralions ,Ire 1),lscd HOIl5C 3..I~ \odl .15 p;:tni.Ll d~C>'uro of IJtlwr budl
on COmplCle or ne'lrl)' complele ~pccill\cns discol'Cred SlmClUrc'. Ihc'lC' idc;tll I.crc .toolhhed.
in ccrl,lill COlllCXI!i, primaril)' inside buih 'IntClllre~, Home 3 ".l'l lhe hi~ltc...,t structure eIKOllnll'~d al
HOllSC I (pI. 1) is represented b~ 30 complele or Ihe ,ile linlental ~p.II;C of 31.8 m:, The:: pollt't\ II,l'l
rceoll<;lrUct.Lbk cer:1Il1ic \'cssds, foulld in IlII are;t of disuibuled in ,L much Inore conccnlr.th'd m,lon!,"r
28.3 m 1; lhis IIlLlIlOCr is significallll~' 1011(:r Ihan 11lO~e lh:Ln in Ihe Olhel' hOlI.'IC'S, 51 reeOIl!ilnlcmbl,. ,!,"'\)(,'I\
of Ihe l'emailling 111'0 houses, NC\'cl'lhelc.~<;, Ihc damsel were discOH:n:d (1'1. 10 I~h The bulk p;tn \\,IS foulld
is impon,L111 sillec il illcludl:.~ l'eMcls wilh :lIH1lob';es in in :1 heap of shards al lhe eaSlern waIL Clt'"rI), lhi~
Ihe olhel' hOllll(:S, indiC.llCS Io.:~cls ,n'r:Ul~l'd on shell'cs. The bho:e~1
l'louse 2 probably rCI1;1,15 lIlt' full"<;l infonmLlion on comainel'll\'oluma r",tehing 250 lilres I"'il' ~l,mdill~
.m origin:ll COlleClion of vessels ()'1. 8 & 9). De<;pile on the /loor. "hile :,I)()le, 'm,Lller la>cb "ere 'lad":,d
lhe f:,C1 Ihat lims of \'wcls In sitll "ere in somc pl.lces in ,11 le;l'll 11.'0 le' cls, .\ kndin~ of \'C5SCls cOIH:entr.tled
di~\'ercd jlJSl 15 cm belo" Ihe <;urulce. Ihe area oc- 011 qu.t1ilalilc!r oll~I;lIlding pOllen \lilh \\('II.bllr-
cupied by lhc house: h;1S sulfered littlc d.mMgc duc 10 nishL-d liltlll ~urf:.lcr~. dccOr.tltd "ilh P.-.intM or com-
sllbsequclll aClhilics Ulall hal'C Ihe OIher hOLlSL'5, In plc'\: incised p.lllenl'l. EI1:n thc bi~"'1 ~IOr:Il:l' con-
gt:neml, Ihe malerial of House 2 ,imem;11 'p;lce of tainen had onll a 1Il0der.tle inclll'iion fn-qu"1KI and
3-1,5 m~1 ~ dominalc.'tl by IInsophislK;;llt-d. nmicalt'd \\en: bc:lIer fired Ihan Ihe COld!: pollen from !he fil"ll
or plain surf:lce pollet;. fin:d :u 10\\ lemper:ulln::s. me::nLiont'd hOLllCl. I1 "hole or ne::arh '''Ink tr.aphue
;111(1 ..bulldLlllh lempen.'tl "ilh o'l.':tnic 1II,lIIer and painll'tl It:SSCL. \\'cl't" di5COl'cn:d Pl I:! In facI. thi.
chanlOlle :IS Ihe maill conSlilUel1l:ll. SUrf:.ICe:: bumish- was Ihe onll hou..: al UIj.l 2 thal cOIH.litlC'(1 I\'r.Iphilt:
ing is :Ipplied 011 Ihe inlerior of olll} :l fCI' IXlI\ls, QUI painted potlcn Somc .lrch;ll:oIot;i>~ IUlC lried 111"-
of ,12 \cssd~. 16 can be classified .15 Coolrsc:. 2-1 ;15 ICt; plain Ihe:: lid of 1.!r.tphile P;lilllr:d potlC!' on C(>ppcr
COlII"IC .md onl), 2 as fine ware pOIlCI)', "Ille l.utcr Al;le ,ilCS I.ilh poor pn:scn~luon Todofll\.1 e::1 .LI
,Lre Ihin.wallL-d hiconic jugs (\I,dl Ulid.n,,,,-, r:l\ll,<illl;l 2003 ..\1 Ulf.I. Ihi.-l i~ nOI die:: C~. ~in(c tmIphlle::
Uclwcell 35 mill). decor:lIed Wilh f1lllin~ ,md slll,tll paimins \\,~ done prior 10 bunlishinL!. "hich had .1
hos..'lCs 011 lhe shoulders, The l'rt.'\~liling dt:eor:llioll dur:lblc proll.'Cole nnl,..cl on pollcn ~urfJ("-
ledlllique, except for barbOline ,md lill~er lr1liliult, i~ if is imporllLlIl IQ 11011', llt.U ~'raphirc l),ulL! ".l' nOl
fin~el'lmil/lillgerlip imprcssioJl~ (2:1 I'c"clsl. No fCsel'\'l,<1 for ~1lI,llll'r \,(...~ds. ofiell im"!'JJrclcd ... 10.:1(/
pailue(! \\';In' has been discol'ered in Ihis hou..·. The scr\'in~ ones, bUI \\,IS .,1>0 "pplkd IQ \Olunllnou~

lIumher of shape~ i, limiled 10 9. :111 !idling wilhin Ihe clo~ed 1'01l1,tin,,~ lI~d fur slOmse. Thc m.lIIller (If

fmm"l fepcl'wire of Ihc KSB t:uliur~, , surlhec lI'e,,1I1I1'1l1 ,md (b:or:uioll is Ihus c1ulCr 10 Ihe
1-I0\l'W~ l & 2 WCll; mainl)' iUI""LLb'1lled dUI111J; lhe e;Ldr pan uf thc Copper. \se Ill,m 10 i~ 1"nllill,Ll
fil'SI fiL'ld c.Ul1p,Ligll (2000). IJ,lscd 011 Ilw pullel...·. bolh ph.tICI. ,Iccol'dill!l: l(l Ihe l'IXdOf.,<iGll ord"""L! <\_u.'nb
SII'lICILII'C' were (1;,led 10 lhe \t'ry cnd of lIlt' Copper 'Cl up in Bu!l.;;ui,l. III [In. I I. l(x1oro,~t. \'1:;UJlll;l lit..
Age, l1w S<:lIlemelll or Utr.L 2 \\~'S initir,lh pl.,ce::d in ,i1e in 2001, r:u'<"d till: i~tll' "helller Ihi.~ pouct\
he,wt:cll Ihe la't 1\\0 sclllelllem~ of Kcd"lite, Ihal is. ,IJOuld be d,ued 10 lit,· E.lrh U>ppcr .\ge::..\Jl Ihltt
. kta .ln1/(/((lIO,l.';r'1I
].,,'l ,11111 ',Ill,hill!, 11ll' ,11-111:111,1, ..I llll' Ildl-
I11f"nlll,,1 m,lIl1'lll',m, 11011"l.lIioll, 'ICIII"I,'I, :"
tllll. h ,L' lh,' klh,,,k,IIo!I' (lll lll1' C.lPIWT ,\gc is I'\:-
'ill,Wt!, _lIdl ,I 'llllphh",l \,lIld illl<'ll1iol1.,II) nmg.
, ~...'r,L1t'd pirllll1' "Ill h,m:!I\ 1)1: lnlC'. rh,' t'\'idellC','
Oil Ihl' \lI.IUl'1'\ pnJ(hL'liUIl :ll till,l ,'onli,nIlS III
Ih... (If ,Lll b,'W'T LLlI"'lig,ll.-(1 ,il"S. rhe gr.lphit..
p,lilll',,(\ Ilt11lt'I'\ nh"1l h,.. Ihl' rh.lr.lcl .. r of mm
I,. \ I I'...... _...-.l .."h _..el·oft<t'\ I I"~.wol, IlroduCli,m, illdlt.:,l\in~ Ih;,.1 it ",I~ IM'iCd ollloc,t11~
p<.-itit_..-. ,_fIlC' t... C'h~:I,...... Ll Ui .11.lil,lhk kllo" kd~,', 110\\ then might it be ex·
p1.ul1ed th.'l onc \\01110111 from ,I IMni<-ular housc
\\;\!l c.lmim~ ".Iler frOlll Ih,' ~tr",1ll1 .lllhe fOOL of

UIf.I ill.' dull \\";ller jar. "hilt: her n..i!.:hbour for


hou-'C" \\t'n" "-.... 1'\"' Irmp"r.all\ l.......lIld IhrotLlo':h Ihl"ir IIll" ."unc pLL1'po~' ",L~ mill!.: :I wcll-lmmbh,-d,
,p.tu.u lTL:unlll<'" ~ "rU ~ l"Tnain \'('~l, "ilh .1 _hint gr,lphill" \MlmL"(1 jar if nOI in l..mlS ofindi-
lu..:h dr(rn' ,.r rr-nnhLJ,mt. I'Ilt"N Iil.rh prod~ of
\idua\i_lll?
the .... Olt r->ltC'1' 3 ,\5 to Ihe lI11plil.llium for an::h,lcological re<c;u"(h
Iltu... Ihr C'.l.-.trI\<T III qu.Jlioun'h di\~nt \
,tr.llC1.,';('<.: ,\re wc doinJl; lh,' ri~ht things? With-
.I.,~hlA~ 'IrmmLll~ tTOm "lIlltmpor.1llC'OW1 ~Inll'
oul ~m~ imo dccp(·r disc\ls.l.ion, it is t:'idclll Ihat
cuW' I~ ...... tT.lI Iml""1J.nt q~... hoprfull\
onll romext.d('<.illIlL-d c:o:c;.:"~ltion ;md recording
.lll."'l"tl'd In thr 1000"""Illr
I'l'l:lttdurcs can pro\ide a reliable profile of;1 sile.
I \, to tltol' bUlh ,tnl\:turn; Cm rotllcmpor.1n
'\nK1UW' "llh qU.lll1J.ti\"l+' difftrrnt COIlIC'llb Ix: 'nll~ u'ual Bulg:ui:1Il Ilrllcticc: U'cnch c:o:ca\";llion
funrtioil.&1h tqWlt'(P lllc usual COIKnll of;\Il in limited ,Ireas is c!"C;l\illR r:llsc ,upposioons, tern·
tu;t.IJ.t"r '" In .I.'\l~ diff,",nl mc.lrnn~ 10 rcl;lIt'd ponIl\ as well as olllur:II1).
bLU MTrtMll \('1,> uf nnd>, tro.im~ 10 dcmonsu'alt
the ftLlll'licltlJ.l ..-..ri:lbib,\ of ,Iructures, oftclI ,,;th
jU.foundrd t',-pblwUnn\ ;t.lJei O1lt'CUUom.. :\1 I'O"'ERY l'RODCCTION
Un. l~ prot'C" "'" ret"t:'l'\l'd, and an ;t.ntmpl All thn.-.: houses ,ubjcctw 10 dcl.tilt.-d in\'cstigmioll
"," m;jdt 10 ..h.", dUI quJ.lilau\'t udusi\'CllC"" contain "OIIlC nidellcc on I'otle~' produC!iOl', "hich
.1I1d hnd \~I\ L' nul en"u~h 10 "Ir.msfonn- ;1 ('an be ('onsidercd :t~ romplt:mellltll)' to al leasl a p;,r-
dwdlulI: IK)IL"t' ima ;t. ~O£'lu;t.~ or ;t. communil\ tial TttOIISlnlctioll of the I>oUCL)' ,.."Chllolo!,')'. House 3
hULI"t'. \, h.llo btcn nOlrd alx:r."'t. C'dlt1;Qncs "cre hdd ,he mml sOl'histic;llCd \>oI1CI)'. comr:l,ting Ihe
nn, ndu\l'" olhcr 'wo I>OUCI)' SCIS 10 _uch " dq;n,~c th.ll c-"lcrn:,l
! \~ ICl \Ill" w\Tnil\ of punrro. Ilmduetion Ir.ldiliolls illtlucnccs "cn: cOII~idercd mnong pos.sihlc <:)(1'1:1'
.1nl! \I'rir Irtn\IOI,,1 ..en'LUI;'\. \\1,;t.1 an" Lhc cui· nations (1'1. 13\. Such werc j.;l1ldually di.sc:trded,
l\lral.dlmlml~dlltnl,liC'dli(llls? In rtlalll C3SC!i. thoul-;h, as il :IPPc;u'c(l Ih:.l cxc!US;"I' gl~\phile p;,iLlt
1:'\"llll'O..".... Q:pbnalion\ h:I\T l.M:cn SUI:I;t<ilt'd 10 ()C(lIn'c<! Oil dillc.,.. LI1 l)lleS of Illilimdau pOlltry,
Llllcrp'TI prdu'lOllf d''\TlollmClIlS in Lh., lttlblls. nminlr on hig 'lOl~Lge C(llll"iners,
~"'C\lc MC plT:!ot:lllrd <IS honlO~ellO\lS m:l.ti>CS, '1'1.,. produClion procC.'i5 of gl~lphile llaiuII'd pollCI)'
.ollcrll\l'11 'loc].,hn~'dlll).: or In....'CSlin , 1;, .• .
.... "mol< requires., pWller ~urr:lcc In:,llmelll ami gnlphitc ;'5:'
.",d arrl"llunlo; r:,d, olh.. n. idea> On" ,I,·c SUITQun d _ n;.lur:.lIy fou ..d millcI~LI. C:lI'l:ful SdC('lioLL of Lcmp"I"
Hll\. "odd, ALl)!hl"!;
. c"lcaordhnl'\
" . ,.~ e"I'I· ;\In..''(I illg male';;ll ,,~,s iml'0rt:lIll in onkr co Illillim;1,c 11,,'
"'uIL 11", ~"";Clltr 'If n;ner:un motSltTl; whh all risk of rmcking dudnll. fit;ng. Co,lIose p;trtide5 rUlllcl
"''l'' 1\1 Lr.,,·r ,md" ~,It)(\ geolo;t'aphical k"o"l. ,.1'0 cumpli..,,,c ,urr:.ce Irc:.llll,'1l1. So. 1I0l SIl\,,,;~;llg·
l-dl(",. ].,nnWLUIo\ Ih,\l h;~ " Of h" ,~,l '"I ~ Iq'11 Ile:lp l~·. gr;'l'h;lc P,L;LLIt'd P<)llC')' i~ IImdt: of da)'S ",j[h
p'. Cl ""....1. , ......\ tr:" d-].,,-.:n 11\''\le~
,. , c·"d 10 C.'l:. . Il-. ,uooemle ,unO\"'L~ or line ICIllP<~liug cnllsliLue'IlS.
ILh produuwn relLl"', ' ,1uscl, foil o"'"g ' 1IIt "Mr_
prefcmhlr ol'Croup III (~,llId .md org;mic "',Lucr) ,,,,d
Lign 75

r,~ \'.:.!_c,~"""r,~d.,,,h ... O=I.K Oll'''l.. ~ ....,(,htl.... ~.


gm<lIIoll~'''' C'Il, I. I n ..

OC(,I~iOlmll) Group \" (organic 1Il.lller. Such ConJiSl-


I:UI") is nn doubl sib'l.ific.ml in the liglu oflhe pOSliible
eomhin.lliOll< .llles,cd ,Il llil' <i'e...\ lac:,l orib,;n of Fil{. \~3. ~I"''''' r""OKl in ••"hen.::.! pol ...... d,nl{ ,Il ,h. (hen' r
gr.lphile painu::d potu::.)' \\,;IS :,lso confinued b) lhe 11"".... t,
di~c(J"cl)' Uf:l gmphilc conc in Houw :I. ,,'hieh "as
hrok"1l :H:ro,~ lhc perforaled Iwh' for <u,pensiOll. Thc
ilem h:,d ., c1Hu~ICIClislic poillled lip (Fig. \'.1:2). nishing \\.15 carried Olll "i,h SIOIl~ and po~ibh
Simil:,r COllCS arc kno\\'n from Kar:lI1o\u .md Olher ooncs with ,L 1l.lrro\\ bumi,hin~ ,ip of:! 3 nUll. :t.'i
JilCS (~[iko\' 1966). Gr:lphiw i~ a l'juile common pol). Gm Ix deducl"<1 from Ihe .uzc of till: bumishin~
1Il0'llh mincr:d. :lppearinl; in lhe !>Chisl 1.I)"e,", of Ihe slrok~ .. \n impon::nll find ",.., made in HOllS<.' ;!,
11.llk.111 .md Rhodopi IlI0111!l •• inJ. hUl il is mOSI n;.,dih .·\lont; wilh bit; <10r:l~ Jars pbc<:d 10 lhe: \\t"51 of lhe:
.1\""il.lblc in lhe moulll;.in rc~on< ofNonhcm 1I11ll.,o:tr- on~n ..1 ,,~l of 1\-pe ':r IT:<lrictcd <ph.,.rical 1"0-
i" N. Zid.lI"O\·. perli.romrn. I. In an) C::"''C'. ilS PI"C~ IXlrtile POI "<IS diSCO\-.:ro:d. Th~ conraincd a <nuJ.I
CIITe in L.ig:l :mCSb 10 a comidl:r.,bJe 1Il0":IIICnl of biconic nIp "ilh srn,"lJl Jmobs bul "ithonl handlC'< plus
Ix'ople and/or oojl.-"Cl..> ,molhcr imJlon,1I11 <lOllellll:nl H ,,~ucr rolled <lone!' Fi~_ \:3,. The bucr Oil be:
aoout Coppcr Age sociCI~ .md ib lllooilil\ and/or grouprd .Iccon:liull: 10 size. shape. and ..one: I\pc,me:
',el\\urk. main "rroup is made uI' of qu."lnzilc "ith "hllt<h or
Gr:lphi.c Il."lillll:d poue!) ".IS ,Iocolllrli~hcd reddi.lh lim"oc. 3 pico:<':S fr:Ill:lllcnlC'd arc 01 bffi\\lush
lhroll.t:h j);linrint; "ilh ,!,rr..phile on a \"dS<'I'~ <urf::ICC bl.Ll;k sillSlon,,_ ,\$ 10 ~hape .md illc. then: an:.1 O\;t]
in a le.llhcr Imm Slale. I'.'rh:lp' Ihe 1l100i"c~ "en: Olll- and fLu 'lu.Lrttile ',onC!'" 1.i-3.1 crn lonll:, of bill:
lincd .1.\; il1ciscd lines. for Ihc «lmplc"il) of Ihe mo- l'jllan:.ti,e b;.UJ IJ.o-t.8 C111 long. J oblOll!:" p<lInlC'd
li"c' impli...", lh::u ,hcr "ere ,,-dl pJ.ulIlcd Ixforr :ICUl,L1 SillS10llCS13.1:I 15 un lont: . and! triant;Uloar l'jn.lcUlle
dccor.uioll, GI~lllhilc IMintcd 1II01hc~ lll.,~ cowr Ihe piece:' 1.6 cm 10111.:'. Dc<pu.,. tI'e cnil.'11l.ltic rllUllcnc
ulll)Cr p.trl or lhc whole '·c.,;,d. G ... philc ".l~ kepi in on:lcr. lhc 'IOIlC' (Ju~hl be connCO:lC'd "ilh ~moothinll
pl.,ce h} suh""(IUl'lll hUl11idlin!{ uf,he ,"d:I~C, "hich lmd hurni.hint:. lllcir >nMII siz.,. m,L\ illdic.uc Ih.u
cuh,luced Iht: "C"-'CI'5 "isu,d .lIld tlllu·liull.d p'~)J)Crlk"'. ,lIch 'IOIlC' "en: .b-«k;i.llI.."(1 in p.mien!;'r Wilh pruduc,
Sudhlt:< p:d11lcd wi.h gmphilt: "er,' l)Clll'" blll'lli<l,,·d lion ,lIld ~urtllcc trt:,Llr'H'rll of Ihc popul"r .m,IU b.,
Ih:m 'uditccs, "hich ,,'cn' Idi lI"illllllU il. The bUl"' <:onir cup~,
8"1<'1';11 (r.Il:t11Ctll< of pOl 'l,lllels "i.h fI,'1 lOp ''''I"C
:Ib.. di'll'o\"CI"cd ,11 UII"· Dill' rt.-cOI1.>lruclt'd t'r;'~'11'''111
n", "",1"" " ~"',Olrr,,1 ,n 0, :-;,l"I. I"Lu"" I)" ... ''''' "r ,hr
1",10l"'~ <>fGtfll,'Il"!. s,,(~, ("r .1", ",,<I "Ihr, ,,,r. ,"".""'" 'I'''''''.
CQ""', fT(lnl HOll'C.l 0 21 Clll Fill· \. J:J • '''0
III Ih~ Ir" ...d,crs IJMth llf lhc ... ullt: .md:ICI (rom.1 ""1..........n.1
"Ido "llrlWfO!f'br;(I/
iti

I.P,.np!"!IInI'I'IlI'lI1!i"i! .ml!!Db'd l
\ . \l..-.t.d .....

.l! tlw- non!l<"TTl ",.l1l '" 110... \. 1nt bUtf \,-;t- ofi('"n donl;.l1oo rim ~h.lrtb \\ilh onc or. in >Qnu: cases
_In;uh -nuIkT in di.lItlC1<"'f. bu, In 'trm- of p;1>'t. two. ro~ <;IllOOlhll .lbr:II;k"d Fill. \"..1:2 •. Ilu: !).lltc:m
«>lnur ~I ~ ;md t;:t'oc-n1 appt";l.r.Illl"C' cloY:h of abrasion ~ho"~ ,Il.lt thl'" h.wc been used in vcrtical
n:-<"mbk'l:! ,he- tiN (>Ilt". Tht _u~ ........... cam-ulll dirtt,ion. Tbc ('"Olltact an.:.l of !iuch :1 <hard i!i around
~ITh-.othtd.md tlw- Ihi.L ".ill- \,"ftt TlUlk,o ~I" of ,j cm in Icllgth. lIIuch too ('"'-'ensile fOf <uccnsfull}
q~lll1cam "ri;;:h, .......:h -t.md!> ;l.ft ;Uo,(l known from rompactint!.l ,unaC<.'. ·Illerefore. il i~ 1II0n:: likcll' tha'
<othrf <.:appn .md Rnmu .U:t: <;il~ ).Iiko\ 1%6. the abr.ldcd ~har<b "en.: use<1 for .-crouching and
Fi~ 11\ 11 \ ).liL... tw. _u~t"d du, ~ ID1()(){hinll of \'C'o-cl <1IIf.'1C~. R:"nlting ill a IllOrt even
.,}-"ouki ~ (.~ Iund-tIJllrm1Il:» a !l,mub!t di!itributioll of Ihc c1.1'. Such conclusion i~ also COli'
dc.-I~ , plxffi 00 iut \),Lor< "ilh tht ronlt prollllxr• fimlcd I)', ob!ien~ltions lImck in \'·~ICnJ ..\frica.
....KT to .....1 tlw- -tand on )'Iil\ll. 1%6 \hhou~ rnt "hcn.: shuds ,,;,h sill1il:lr .thr:uioll p:lItem halc been
funrnonalit\ of ,uch a ~n ~ dllbtou. in prac- .a::n in action b~ the .mlhor Fil:. \"..1:1,. Indl-cd.
Un. il j,_ bkh lIu' tht 'land. "n"t indtl-d wed ill anah-..o of 'c«c1 'un;..ccs confinn Ihal Kr:lpillS "~1S
!"'oll["f\ pmduction.lk main pan oftht I~ has US«!;U onc of,hapinll 'loclmiqul-s. '!lle I'cs:,cls of Ug:l
~mpl~ fbl ba.or< 81- .. b.1>td Oil wrd malerial. in 2 ",=n:: built using coilin~ Il'Clmiqucs. Onl~ liny
Lt!. dnn<lIl..tr.lUIlt! dUI !.I~ M;rt fomlm on ft.ll miniamn.: ",..~1s ,,'cre occasionalll ImIde b~ hand
'11T{~ Mml" 1w.c-. ;al,o shQ\O a ~ qllallti~ of moldinl:. i.c.. fonninll ill ,he palm withoul \l5itlS ad·
-.:md ~n ... indln.unll ,h'1I a IJser of ....nd "';I.'; ~ dilional cia). Ihe same wa, as b:tSt.-s 'U'C fonned. 8o,.ls
ilr.llllllllM 1t:""L-I from m., modclhnll ""rl"acl::.. KI Ihal '>ere .II!iO madc using ~oi' Il"(;hniquc,. Ihe liS<: of
a ,,,,,od ,,,mid IlI,)\ adhtft In Ihl' <uMace. Ih con- 1Il01d, could nOI he delnonSlrall-d. Closed comainers
U;Ul. ;( l}.;In of' 1111' d:1\ Iillllrinl"!- hal~ lmpn-ssloll!i of "'ere built smning fl'om Ihe IM:.e, "hill' c:II;lIall:<I I'l""-
Ir;IIll:" of qrM~ on Iheir f('('l, pmmotillll lhe """~ '>Cl, secming.!} ......rc buih ill IWO p.IrI';; and joincd OIL
Unn thal '!)('Cia! .... orl.!iholl "fta. \lere nOl nec(k'd for the 'houlders. ·11,<.' lo\\ ...r p.1l'! of Ih... I)(){!~ \'<lS in :L
thcir Im>dU('Uoll. C"llc.. mll\~ po..-;ible rolalinll de. lealh...r h'lrd Slal... befo!'e bcillgjoined ",idl lhe coil of
lve>. Ihcir I'mplonlll'lIl I,ould ha\"c bt.-cn more im- a rilll. AI Ihis sl.n;e, I,hen Ill<' hasic sh..p... I,~l'
IJOn.\lll fllr hllm;~hinll. "hich ill\oked r":peli';I'e achil...·...d, ftmhe!' rdilll'I\1CIll of Ih... shape :LIlt! Ihin-
'U"Calcin~ 11\ on,' dlll.Tuon..\11 lhe iO"cs,iI!,"Jwd 11::';-
ll;ng oflh... ""lis "c....· can;...d OUI by !>C1~,pillg. Somc-
<c:1, '\1Ih humLlhcd 'UM:ICC!i had \1'1"':'-'5 of loo~ hori.
lillll~. cxcc~;"e "cr:,ping "<IS donc ill less I'i~;blc
I.mll:.1 'Im","-.
"1'Ca~. likc Ihc i11ledor ~"I'r."( ... c of till' shouldel's. B...•
.\ frl'qurnl find amnllll1h~ Ul.,'3 2 lllalcri:i.I art: rt:.
,idC5 :lh,~,dcd llOll...,) slml'd,•.1I10lhcr grOllp of im,
Cldrd llOl1l'l'\ ,h..rd..I1,e\C al'llC.!r ill dirrer~ll1
plcm... nts miglll .•Is\} have ..1.0 I)<;cn eLllplo)cd in
ham. and rclll'l;l dll.llllCI function•. Sc\cr..i.l 5hards
""r~ 11lIcrprell'd .., llOllcr.,- bllM1i~hcl'\. ·nlCSl: arc:
>cmpilll\. '11Ie<;c :,re roulI(b:1 01' 0\.11 ,Ionc di,cs. ·15
5.0X~\.1 1.6 cm .md 0.8 1.0 clIl lhick. lhillllin" 0111
l.iga 7i
1"".lId, Ill\" 1C(llo:l", ~lIrh irnpkrrWI1I' IH"" <h-e olnnl
ill lIuu,," I &:! lilo:. \.:'1,
Y,'t lltlwr 'IIJIl!' tonl, n,.l)' ,11..., IM' rl'l,Ul"<110 IH'ltl")
prndl1rfi(lI1, 1[0"""'1', th,'ir im"rpn'I,lliol1 is !lot al.
",I'~ rlnl1'-lut. FI'I" 1':rc.IIIIJlle, 1).I,,·d (HI frorm,.1 ~itni.
tU;I) "ith Ih,· ,.hr..dl'c1 ~h.ml" n.1I 'tunes. r" hX!'l
cm, wilh .1 n.11 dlll"\,,1 I'd~{' .lIld .l:round \urf..u· on
both ,ide, .llolllt lhe ftu ed~e ,Irr ,II<,() illlcrprctrd ,n
heil1lt u'Cd for pOlll'r)" ~moOlhilll;(. BIll ";thOlll mi\ ro-
-COllic ,tlldi.'$ such illl{·TJ)rel.ltion~ rc'main ~.c \Mlrk.
Br\idl" Ihe b·Taphit,· conI' u5t:d for !XlHcry p,lilllin~.
St."\'el~1111lI11P5 of 11lll'111"tite or red ochre "ere found.
This pigmcnt h.., abo been 11'1'(1 ,., pOllery p;lil11-
Ho\\"('v,·r. compared hi other I~,"' Coppcr '\g<: ,ilt'~.
il is rqJl'Cscmcd r:tlher 'IMrscly. SeI'cr:.1 ~h"rd" ,dth
n:d :ll1d )dlowgoclhite. paint "el'C di5co\-ered in
laycl'l d,'led 10 lhe Li~a I !it:uJcment. In Liga 2. onl.
House .3 held somc C\idcncc of 1I'>C of red pit::menlS,
,
A big ,wrat;:e com:,inef "ilh .1 globular !xxI) ".IS ror: ''i SL,,- ,lion J""U'n.lI'" ~ppWd r... I""'1n'\ .';>JlIfIIf If> ~
p:,inted both ";I.h .b>r.lphiIC and red ochre. mailll. to It~"....- tun! ,u,<'
enhallCC lhe \'cl,icalloop h:ll1dles 1'1. 12: 13). In such
:t case, p:.int ",I< ilpplied ,Iner the I'es'id ,,"s fired, In
another Cl<e, pull·e';l.rd h:",;m,llhc \I~I~ appli"d to the fired during .1 louj,ocr prnod. <il1ce the rorr h.e., the
Sllrf:LCI' or ves..'!:l ill le,llher-hard S!:lte .md then bur- ~Imc colour as lilt' wr(;,ce. ,lIld ,hI' potle~ i, \(l'ner-
nished. This h"ppo:l1cd prior to firin~. All occurrcnn.. .,11\ h:lrdcr. Alon~ Ilid! Ihe Iil.:ht coloun:d pottt'T\
of hilcm'ltite lumps "ere tn;alcd Idth caution. <ince prt'<,Cl1th p;lnll discoloun:d due to "''':Ilhn''iot! ,md
their presence in bumc<l d.mb indicale.-d th", the."\ other post depo-ition:l.l elTcn, """.I -null W{>Up
wen:: IMWrall} occurring in loe:,] d.l) source<. so dut of d.•rkl.'r \ ......·I~ bl"Ol"l IOYR.:'l/3, ~'Uh hnOl,n
their prc<encc at Ihe <ile could be explaiue.-d b~ de- ,2.5Y-5/2 .md ("\'t'n d:lrk ~ I(lYR..1/1 "inc("
cOlllpo<ed daub. Sclcral big lump, Ilere di5t:O\ercd nl:llll ,m::h"eolo"..i'L' I.'~c ('oloul"'l ," .m indit',ltiotl flf
in House 2. Among IllI'<c ""~ " 'l11all hCl11i<pltcric firing condition'. d"rh'r I"olollr< .H'" .nllolll,llic,t111 c\·
piece with ,lbr:.ded cd);,'< ,md .1 dillllleter or l.il cm pl,tilWd Il) firilllt ill ,wluccd ,lIt11mphe!"C'i. !'ruper I't-••
(fig. V.21. TI1C p.lucm or •• brasion bears ,,;II1C'<$ tlt.1l dUlIiol1 <XCIlI"'I 1\ Iit'll iron o~i(l<... P"-,"C1Il in tilt' rI,LI,
the h;u:l1mtite piece "~IS rubbed .I!folill.1 .1 h.Lrd, 11.1\ :,rl' heiull' alTcct,-d o\er leulllll\ pt"riod. .1I1d .It tl.'rn·
sunacc. IlCr:ItUfC'\ in e~r"'" of850 Q C GilNlIl & \\00<1, I 'I'l~
Evidencc on firill~ the mm' dem'Uldinll p;,n of Such firint! C\:)nditiol\~ "ere UtX irnpooo.>ibll.' It. ,lChin'('
the production C)de h,lS onl~ been indinxll\ col· b\ th.. nrinll' imt,dLlliorn ImtJ\\n fmm ut!'".I. bill IJI
ketcd. ~Iall\- \'~15 had ,races offirc cloud. a ...."\uh \usl.•iu Ihl.'tJ1 OWl' .• lont!..r period•., poiler "ouId
of Ihc dCJ~idon of carbon dunrll; opcn firi,,/;. Tltl' 11{'('(I.1 kiln GO!'.....].Lin 1tl9:! ~il;( \1;
light coloun. or UL:lL :! Icsscls: p:tl<' ),.11011, "Iun~dl I~l"idence 011 llOlIl'T\ kiln. i~ ,,·rs
<p:U"":..L' (111 nther
Colour' CIIul'l: 2.5\'.11/3). reddish )1'1101' li.5YR-6/ 1}1"''S "r frl;n~ i'l>I.,II,ltions. Elen puttilll;( :Ill '<:'\ unll
8, 6/61.ligllt rcd {2.5YR.6/1:I1, red (:!.5YR-5/61.li~1I1 nIC,~'"\" ,L\idc.lirill~ OrIXlllC" \\ithiu Ih,' <{'ltI.·nlt'nl
brm,,, 7.5YR_6/-i ..md Ihe like ,11I1)()int to",I((b tir- ,11 UIf.I I\Oldd riOt h.L\<· lJ<en 1IQ,.iIJle. p;,n!\ dul.' '"
ilH: il1 oxidizing condition,. IU\C<li!.:.ltion, oflt's.,d co- <1"'\" limil.lliOIl. hm mililh tll \\indl fUIldil1"'h .11
res 51>011 Ih,l\ o:rcidllion \I.iS nOI .,111:1\' complele. Ihc lhe llJp of till.' pl.lle.'ll. ",.,kin!! CCN,,/.lmti"ll ,,,mm
comhu.tioll or ont-mic tII'llIer 1101 .11",1\- brin!.: «·n- imj!O:Noihlc. So, i, i> I'rnlielrd tlwt hru~ I\oul<f h.ll'('
eluded, Gr:,phile I),IUllCd IIQIll'f\ -er"'. 10 h'lI"C lJt..... n bn-Il ,-•• rric<f OUI ,It .. nl<Jre J,dt..n:d _lie hdl'" the
i8
TEJoftAATtJRES I'Cl RANGES

,,. '" 30CI ~OO SOIl 100 TOO 100


!lOO 1000 1100

,
--
\-..'

\
lllll 1'llII JOO ~ SOCI 600 700 100 900 1000 1100

r... \ li.. Tc'"4C'_' nIIC" lot IM u.6"( ""'" t-d .... d.,,_........ "".... I "llnI fa'U.~. '1 Of"'" fln,,~ ,,"h ~ <",<n,,~ u...
PO'" ~ &nar; ~ 1M hnooi; ..>tb.b..vdo ..... lbr ~ llpIbli bln ~ eo....bln l~!, In Da,'id.It K...o.rn<"' ,!(101
;01,...

pble"u, probahh do<.e IU the: <;tl"l';am and th" cia, Cuoucn; culture Glu:orghiu 2002, "'llh n:f.~.\. 1'~c
'OUrttlo Thi. area h;u apnlt:IKcrl foi~llirlCalll tt\l5ino carli~l remains or;l kitll ill Bulb",ri;, were fOIJlld In
3Ild n;ploi\alion mrou$ it. hi~lo"", h:;lo\ln~ minimal the Ja"''Q(lin~l., Cl'" ;11 ,he Rhodopi 1II0Lllll"il1S :lI1d
c1o.llcn for <furoo.'l:'l". of a finnl:: ~\C. '11C:rtc is. llD".- all! (liucd lO tIll' Tr:Ll\s;,iOllal Period {c\\'r:mIO\~1
t'\'l:t". allOt},,,.. !IOUl'CO: of illfonnaliQlI, llaJlIck rq'In:<;cn_ 1992" Such kilns "Quid have \)cell su;,ablt- rUI' ('!'C-
IlU;"'" in cla,_ often found un Coppt:r Al,'t': ,i,o ;md :Ilill!;;' n'(luc"d firing :'lmosphcfl'.
actin" it, tokens of non·, 1,;1'1),11 rom,llUII;(";IIIOu, .\1\ ill- ~Ion: n;.,dil) "\'o::n, dark colour is :H:hic",'d IlnfJllg~,
ICre"linl\ find in Ihi!> l't"lw:t\ ",I, IlIadc .Il SadO\"t.'C. \nUull,olIlK ., 'cchlli!!",; of depositing C:l1'bull iml11t'(h·
F.7.cro: ;, frnl\l1lcm of ,I n:cmllKular lllblt-like: ill:rn .lId} b<:1o\\ the SlIr["cc (Gihson & Wood~ l!J~1),
with ",,-ernlllCrfornliom Q1\ lhe upper f:,\'e \\a.I inler.
"hi,h :Iba 1rllpro\'c, !he surface rc,isl,LI1rl' IQ ;,bl~\M~n
pITII-d a!> a model of a ,uhlcml1lcan uIHlr.tll\iln I.:iln,
Skibo ct ,Ll. 1997,. Smudboing is ,-",11)' .ll"hkl'l'd In
b:oSI:d on bcl\Cr-llrnel'\c:d hislOri"al ril;. \',7 & \'.11, , ' <n:uena.
""cslIupk
0l~n Inn!,''!, ",o::n 0!"b....mc 01 . ,
but aho Coppt"r .\1.,'" <"Qmp!... frum the ROlluni"n ,
I:R't'1\ COl"'!>, .'re pl.'ecd near hOI \'C~'" 'll'" C..
" • "\'r,·cd
Llgn 79

1IIIIIIIIIIIIIIhl"IIIIIhllllllllllullllllfllll1

\\ith fuel (oS\gcll deficiency is ncedcdl. Smudging is i"nuenCl: of d,~ ,,"5B compl~ll' and Sudic\o Tdh
coluidcred .L I~I improvcmenl due to the 8[00> under influence of Ihe KGK n romplClll in the
sllrf:,ce. luu:n~lin!;I>. (.'\·clI though this procwure is ThrJ.cian P1.,in "li~lll.brown bumi:d,cd pOllen ~ Ml
'cl) simple. sllmdliOO v~1s all' beillg 50Id al 1/3 om,mlented" TCM:Ior'O\-.\ rl .d. :!U03 _ The- Ill'nd :11
times hil;hcr priCI;$: ch:1I\ lheir o:<idiscd t:qui'<llenb li:lish is llO! d~ar. Graphile p..inlW poUr", from Sa-
person.11 obso.:r....:lIions ,11 pollers' \\orkshops in BCnin dcn'eC Golenl.lnO\o Kale h.u dui 'un.lCn. ~uule
and Ghan:" ..\nolhcr "idcsl'rcad slIrf.u::e-d:rrkening 11 and III ha'e lic:lll-colourrd <1I":lC("l.•llId the ...--.~
1(.'Chniquc is qucnchiut.: C:lrhOll 2002. Still hOI POti is lhe ClISC :11 the muhi·la\ercd silr of Pipm_ Hence.
are beillg submerg(.-d in a 50Upl o'1.>:Inic solution c.I;.. it mighl be '1l~I(::d ch."l1 dll'l..:oIourcd l(r.Iphile
flour mixed "ilh w,l\crj illllllcdi:lld> afier firing, :md p..imcd pollel) is earlier HO\,C'I cr. a dilTerem p.ulrm
as a rc~llh. the .wlid componelll of the solution Glr- em~rga al the ~iu:s of SadO\'C'C·F.:zem and Sacloo.t(;.
bollisc. cre;uing a d.lrL; SUn."lCC colour C.'rhon 2002,. Kalelo. "hell' Ihere is 110 dear,,:ul di,i!iion rc1f.I-rdinll
l':'idence 011 firinl{ colldilions is also gained in- b.-.clground colour. In earlier L"lle Coppo:r.\!re U\cn
dirccd)' from gr.lphile IMimed poUel). Conlrary 10 :111 light colours JlI'C\~,il here. "hile 100'arm Ihe bll:'l
O1S'>UnlpliolU about pyl'Ok'Chnolot,';cal :ldl<lnocmeJI\S- phase of the Copper .\1,'1: darlcr colours domin.lle,
induding the ide:1 offirinli laking phlce:u ;50-950" Imerc::stinljl,. "hell comp.Lrillli ponel) of:ill l-hrcc
\"OdOrol,1 19861 it .'ppe:u~ lh:1l gr.lphill: lJ."linl(.-d full~ C-.>tC!'<lled hou .11 UIla.onl, HoLilC '2 h;u <hrl
poUe'" ollly l'cquin-r; rcl.lliveh 10" firing Icmpcr.L- sun."lccd ,~Is . .\ mOSl ,ilrildlll: ClI5C is lhal all dun'
turcs, since gmphile lcud, 10 bum OUI al lcmper-I- houses had;ll IC.151 olle 1OM:1 oflhe 11C.lr-<h.lpcd 'I\pe
lUres .. bove 700"C (~IiI\IauL;cc Arch:,eologiClll Rc· ··S". "hich. idenlic-,1Il>'. is dl"\:Ol':Lk-d ...idl linllcmail
.'IC.lrch LaOOmlOI)' 20(3). Tnll' profcssion.llism thus impressions pinching 011 the main p.,o of lhr Ixxll
rcsts Wilh lhc .Lbilil)' 10 SU~lain lemper-nun'! :,oo,·c belo" lhc II<"CI. :lIld (.'qUil'pl-d wilh 1"0 horiLonul
500"C. needed 10 comhust .-MOOn from con: areas. halldla. Hou.$C< J .md J cUll1aim:(1 .1 li~lll coloured
:uld below 7{)()"C. 11cllce. 'lI1\1(lb';ng IllU~1 Ix· re- rcprt:>cm.ui,·e. \I hile I-lOll\<: 2 h.,d ., doll" cnlllured
garded as Ihe m051 prob.,blc 1'c:~<Ol1 for dark ponery onc.
colours. OIS il l>cnell,Lll'S deeper and Cre:lll" :, Illore So, despite the ullifonnily of ,h.lf><·<..LIl nlll>afl.ulI
e\'Cll Inyer Ih.m qucnching. p:lllel11 of lXll!el") \'lu'i.lliulI '·lIlel"),....... b.LSCd nn 1~'Ch­
Firing condilion~ :dOlL!: wilh f>a'l-firing lrc.,lmenl 1I0logicaf lraditions. illdi,idll.11 ,li[ls. .Ind perh.,p-,
Ill:,)' hold cuhuml illlplie:uions. 11 h:" ueen nOlcd Ih:u c\'en compelition ill '1n:"IIl~ !lCl"<l,".illhoLN:hold
Ihe gr:llphile Ilaintcd ])OIlCI)' llf Ug:1 I has II d"rk p:micul,llilk5 ." e\,prl·-..led lhlUUllh lll.lIcri.d cuI·
u:,ckgfound, while duriu!: Ug'L 1. b'l~'phile painl i, lun,.
onlr foulld Oil lighl colnurctl I·es.<ds. Sirnil.,1' ohscl'. In lel'm5 of cI·idellce on pouer\, pnxlllLliull. HOII'C
"ali()lL~ ,Lre madc .11 ollu'l' I~Ul' Copper .\g,. siles. II f is som""h.ll Lllltlern:prC'l·lIll't!. I'all.lp' Ilw b'1\·.1l
h:l$ f>cell nOled. fill' cx:u"pk. lh.11 :Il YmMl.ilc lunder alllOUlLl ofr18urlne p<1l'1< ,llId mini.llun· I'\'$..<d". "-'Illl'
80 i,·,
hili ,,"1 ,·,.Ilwlt''' "p"1ll111( 1"'11 It< ""I ,il;1 "I J.:.'I .]ll'l·r
h' Ihf ,1.,,11 lif<- ,,1 pn'lli'1\I' i. "lI1111lll1lili""

n 1'01.0G\, ~IL'\ l'\\, I DIl' L\ 1 E~ .\ND


I Ll 11 ,\O1.11(, \
~ h,,' .In h.u""]"I.,"I'I' 'I,ll" illl( ,n "'11 k ill ""~lI11il\ h.I\ ...
lh.. ill";""" hdirll h.ll It<ll' \.111 It·lI ", 111\11.· 11t.1ll jml
"'llO'ill"! lhfir 1l\,llfl;.,1 f",I\llI'"" or ,1"" h... ,i,· \ .I]U"'~, .IS
':"Illl'wlu'nd.'(! "ilh .1 modem .'\t'. nUl Oftt'l1 .\ ~'C,l1
nol of 'ludi." o"l.. mull, ill d.·l.,ike! ;\IId <:0111P",·
h"'lI'''!" '\pIl1ol:i(,\1 li"" "hi... h. de<pilc Iheir
Ihonlll"!h'''...... h.,,," hu]{" 10 oncr in leOIl< of wider
1}(''''I~'i\l'''' "l>O!o!-" h.tS h'.'f:olll... ,1 ill~lifi ... d ~'O.11 ill
ibdf f(ll' nl.lll\ .,n.:h.lcolfllo,';'b "ol'l..i'i1: "'ilh thc rkh
Pll'hl>lorK IIMu'ri,,1 ill U"hr-u;.1 Todoro\';\ & ~1alS­
;UlO\";\ :!OOO; Todoro\ a ,'I .11 :!OO3; K.II".ll"O\ 2003
Just 10 n.m}\' ,I f..." n'f:CIII <Illdi,~i. 'nl{" "rellglh of
l\l)O~c.l1 ordcrilll: ,.... :I 1001 i, Ih... !;CaTCh for r...pcti-
ti\T'~'" I'l"('(>I.!1lition (If prinMI foon' and nOI as
(lltnl nll<l}('rcri\(~d ,1 dcl~'('lion of ccoaill uniquc
eharnCl{"n'li~ IiLc hp \,;\J;'llion. Such arbilm'1 on:r·
.:l1.-\1,iflC.llion is producilll.; ,1 101 of Ixha\;ournl
-noi'(~. ";Ih link cuhuml Si"'''Ilili{",lllCC 1.\olOld 1985.
ht. , 11 R _ ",..0... ""'......
" 'lr 1'-
~,l......-\afon
IT'P'"' d 11.-. , .... B. Ha"lcn offer; ., lI"eful definilion of Iypok'h" lhal
"sllould pl"O\}(',h "'fer I(l s}"'tcms of {"alej.,'Oris;llion.
"hich I...} m .....11 -omclhillj\ aoo,,1 lhe nalure of hu·
man heh;l\;ouf ill rrl,lIioll 10 ;1I1el;,cIS. \, hcthcr lhis
cl "h... h c:>n 11(' reQ.rdtod a> ~rimo:ntll. mal in- infonllalioll is 1)\ l1:tl\lrl" c\oIUlional'). fUllclional.
dn~lh nidll,11t 11\,11 d .., \\"Ol>.l1.O('l,1 famili."\r medium IcrhnoloWc;,l. IcmllOl~ll, saci:,I, or olhcr~ Ha~'d"'1l
r,,,. th.. "",,!km, (>1 du. h"u~. 11,,, od",. IWO hOIlS<:!' 1t'j8~. 811.
hall' Ilnd()ub1~I\ producl.'d IlOlIer. fur lheir own EthnO'll....hacolol,.;{"al n'~e.lrch prcSCnl~ .1 ,ulIl1bcr of
,K'('(k .\\ Ih" '>.Ime tln'c, thcll' i~ al..., \OmC ~;dCI~ <ludio ;UXtlUmillg. for ill<l.llIcc. for \';\,;elic~ in flU'c,
fell t"xr h,11l1:'l' a', the ...·tdnncnl k\~l: 1110: clllonic ap- liOl~,t1 ~i5linrtiol1 .unong 1>0\11;1) ,YPl-OS 10 :1 dq,'l1:C
I'",;\rh 1<\ •,"n.un \~,.,11\1~ Ih" al",aoh mcntiol1t-d "]lIclt 15 hy no m"';\IlS .Icn·,sihk for .1I-r-h,lcolog;;IS
1",,\1"\\.11)("(\ In.... l 1\'P" "S" • for C>;;unlllc mal. eh'a!;ll!; '';lh p,.... hi~lork 1ll.1I... liab. Th,,<, ill prc,;c11l
111"'<:""'. cmnllhr;lIr Ih" dc'ttlion of linl:"rJlrim~ ~f dJI G]h1n", food \"rvim; hem Is with., dj'linr' cb,.,i-
'nd,.,d,~1l Ilmlc", !':>o l..r [crm", ,"d cn~ on ex_
, .H
licalOI) mllllt' C.1I1 be su\)di";(kd ill'O s... ve'~11 sub-
dl.U1J:,C
In",lIr_ '(0 '"'' UIll\lJ1r"..J biconir' rul n "l( 'I lOll! ~rol1l's depending 011 thcir ~;ze, which rellerl' ,he :I~e
\ le \I'Il,,1 u'nl<;t] h,'ml1'.... fouud in 1-luu"H "" • an d'3
') of;, nmlr puson rO"Slll\li"J.: Ill<' 1ll.... t1 {Br... d"~I·~ !ell-
t""Ill 1"d" c".-h:m~c? n,. \'!J
-. l~uril'
",,,nuore a Jug ' $;Ih 20011.
mm I Inu"" 2 .\11 rICK! p,'r:P.lld 1\ round ill &\huiu: Th~l"l·fo,.c. for Ihe plH'IIO,e of rt'\'en!inl; "I]'" role of
111 r,,11Ill1\\ .nk.menl (""rmnl" ~kill,' , .
h ,11 . . III lomnn~ 1lI111t'",,1 "'l\1ilic~ as pOlenli:,1l1' :lc,i\,e cOIlllwnellls of
,~ " • ul"d .",d unh 4 mm Ihie!;. ".dl '. :IIId Ihlb
hUUh11l heh"viuur" (Fleld,e" \992), lypoloh,)' i, bdll~
I"n d'''''I rmm Ihe 'nn.,inin".. I' ··"\)"e\'~lsr
- r 1
\1I,IIO\u.... I,;:lllli~ I>.~d Oil "11...111:11 lempl.ll"'s" or "pnl1 u lYI}C'"
'.....r.1
a Inon' c:Qlnple-; COIII 1() .
W,,·u,
" h.~",d I>n .o"'ll.ln-.oll' .unl SOIn.. 'Ilt.-cul,mon.. lot: KCllIl'l<ll' ltJlll1. ,,"d"I'\I(\O(I.<5 lhe irle;,1 rOrlll of:lIl
.1l1l'f;'I;1. eXbling ;n lh... Cu):uitilln (,f pt:up1c "ho sh,.rc
Liga RI

the .... llIIe culture. Of conrse. lllt' rt',\ul!, pn:>clnced lCr) .t~M:lllhla~,·. Thl'> .L1lO Io;;nd 10 bc (1\ trn-pre-
wilhilllhe fl~1111cwork of III is lheoretic.d C.lll'~OI) cml- ~C:Ill('d in .1n·h.lc:olol{ic.,1 rq>orts. ,incc a li'lnnall"t.'l"on.
1101 he w,lcd .lg:linsl the d:l.«ifk.uioll. wllirh existed <trllc,i,m '.Ill onen b., pl'Ifomltd nu •• ~in~l ... 'h.trd.
:Il\\<lLlg lIll' potlery U'Cl"I lhelllsch'l'~. BUl lhrough For lhi~ r".IS/Ill. olll\, bo"ls rcpn:SCIll~'(1 bl I\HI ur
uHlppiUI: or h:lsic ;Lllribules :md 'llh,e(]IlCllt sed.llioll more: ~h:U'(ls .1l"C 1.lken inl<) prc<cnt con,ic!l-r:ltioll.
il i, ne\'Crlhdc."S po~siblc 10 .1l1'i\t· :tI lOllle h<lslc HOld \ .• ri.uion m.mire.l) ib.:lf throullh ori ... nt.llHll\ or
slmpes. "hich .Il k:lSl "ould h:'lI e bt:en l't:co~lli~ed b} rim and ,h.,l'c or lill. 111\ t:ncd or str:utdll rims doml.
lilt' pOll cr. II ho thought not onl) iu cociatl} con- n:Lle. El crled ri,n• .Ire u'uall) 'harpl\ c.lrin,Lled C.I-
SllllClt'd concepts h) alMl in lcnn~ of It'ChnolOt:icill rinalion mit.:lll h.tl t' .1 chrouoIOl1;iC".t1 \i\:"nirlC:lIlto;;• .l.S il
pos.sihilities :md .1 rlll/int o/1;m!<Jlff. Such .111 •• ppro.lch OCcUN in t::rc,u ntll"I,",,,, dt th" S.., Wn: SlIt'>. and ~
b in lhe pl1."q·nl c~ supponcd b} PUIlC!) anal)scs comp.lr:ui\cllr:t",,:Ll Ug;I. lJp dlidclUnt:: i\ aJ"l ....>n-
from olllt:r KSB siles. confinnim;; lh... lhe pll)('CS' of ~dcn-d.t di.ntnOSIK:- rc:tlllft." ofmc: lat... Cupp.. r .\~. dt
"cultural n'pliC"dtion" durin~ Ihe I.IlC Copp"r .\ge \1 d.S Ut:::'! it is u!-u.llI\ ~ncd for boo"b Oro..l1er qU.J.Im.
well pro,,:I1.~ 'Cr. "'elcher 1992·_ Fllnhenllor... IX/I'b " ..."" onen llHXliflC'd b\ .tddint::
QUI' UWII l}llOI01..<ical Orderilll: is JlI1."'ClUt-d ill a h.mdlC" or other .mribuI... ,,;th the <aml" IUllctioruJ
'SChcme 1'1. ].I &. 15 alld hdoll , Gt'Qmetrit.11 'h:1pc prop.:n\ \'oI"rnClric-.Llh. Ixn'b :uT a hlehl\ \:;an~
b l.Lt..cn as. lilt' <t.ll1illg point for d.IMirlC:lIioll: 111C group.
numb.:r of l-l:l:ollleu;ctl fon11.. med dClennillt'" the B. IJ«p Jl1~lrl-liJnf b«.lJ ,,;Ih dudcncd rim ,uKI
hiel':.lrchical order, unn:>lI;clcd Ixm I '01'.1 cont' beill\:" hd!.!lu .Iround I ; uf the ma.ximum di:unet..r. ,,;ill.
""l:::lIded .'s the .implc.<1 ronn. N:II11~ ~;\en 10 t}"]JO- 1>....... dnt:1e r:UH.'1Il!.! bcmOXll 50° and 60°
IO!-<ic.,l c:"e!:Orie~ cncompaSlo their '''PI>o,<:<1 runction. C. Dttp NmjJ~ul fJwd.J, N10b5 n1a\bc ..applied
'I hich 111.1) 1101 .1I1,.ln correspond 10 the intended 11"': bdo" the mmin,tt pOUle I-lillhl\ placed tunl;"\! pDtnt.
blll .Il IC.ISl i< casing I crbal comlllunit.ltion. diameler of lhe urifitc bcin\! t I ~ Ulllt'" .lIld Il~ bill'
gel' th.1ll the oollonl di.lIll1:lt'r..\ .uOC:ue\!on lll..a'
h.I"'" round...d h.I'".
110\1'1.'" ,\:>.'n rllI.m I>EIU\',\r\"b,'" D. Off!' IrmllJplrmrll/ brnd, IIIIh ffllJ.'W wnl,,1 ""'.
A Sim/,It IimdJ. Tlli. C"Il'~OI)' ill('0'1,I1r:,le, w"d, or The lllrniujr [loiUl i., llIark"d with .1 p"ir uf h.lIldlC".
1I111'1"II;('wd .·om: _h.IJle, ,,-il h heiL(lll.~ I .11"' in~ bell,""'n 1,1l>~ or krrolh. \'olurllelrk.IJtI lhL, ,!lI'OUI'l.' tlllifi.lllll.
I ~ :md I 1 uflh,· 'lIilxinmm diameler .lIld with.1 1,.111· E, IJiJhtJ: .1 'h.llt"" I l...., d runll ";lh unrC"lrillt-d
h.•,,' .1Il~1.· r:tllL";lll: bel''''''1I 15° .1Il£1 1:'°. Siml,l,' oritic.· .md .1 h..i/o:lll b,:im: mon: Ih.on I ,,,f ib 1ll.l.'l.1·
1)01,1, i) lht· lnO~1 mUllerous C:1lt'~011 "fth£' UI(oI 1>01- Ilium di.mleler. Di,ht" ill UIr.\ ha.... "ide "rincC" ,,;th
82
I · '"(I"•,1I1l1~ ,Ill' di,II11l'I,'r of Ill\' h.,~·. rh;,
I ,mllO
llr
lr\."l<i rh.. tr.tl\'1li"ll lK'- .up l' ,I" ....·!- ,,-1.,10-(\ h1 Group ':J"
a o:ham<"lrr " r.' ,-m .lrn'1
"",""0 \,.,...,,,'" ho'<h ,11\(\.1 rrbl" .... t-. ]"mt.: ,lr.\I\:llI nlll ~~ I (;l,J",;"" lV,od' dr.,\, rI ,11I;:hth do" n. \lr.lil\hl or
I' nu.ri.n.l. with a n.m.m.•t."'W;ill"tl ,,"h hn","~,.,iI ;11\1'1"1('\1 ..... 1iml,i, "I rilll',
. '"-R l"n' KIl'''''..r
hnl:'"nip 'nlJ"T'''''''' or .,... mlprt"" _ 11)("
h IancIIr- .u'( .,al"", found .-.n till' l>nIlIl I>!'\l'
~I("n"r \. "ra
-m..........brd \ ,,11I1Il(1';' ,..Ill, ,hI' ltfl>Up allO'1l \ , .............. \\ 1111 {, IJ'DRIC.\1. '1l"'~
I- un,';>rm h h< b :'\ n..-r.""
'1<1;' r..th ',TI1II4nrll!1I«4: n.il ~roup i~ llumcr·
t &1fft JiIIIwl ~ t\\\~p.uulr \,...,0:-1. ",1 I I '
_ ,,--:. .LL uillill~ Ih.. hc-'l::hl (If ,m' a ,1U• ,.01111"> III ,I \ ancl\ of dilfeTCnI appe.mmcts
,unMrT "I Ill" ,mtxT 1'\,U\:ru' ... in 'pile of Ihe f.ICI 111.11 111t'1 <;('C1Il IQ bc fun~lioll.ll1)
-' Th.. orillo."T i; 1\,'10" L,,~r dun ch<" 11011<\111
• L_
u..- \T"-n. . od' akin. III ~ncr.d. Iht''C thm·",tllcd. sYllllllelnc;l1. and
\ ....ul'llC"lrkalh. it ;".1 Ulufonn ~p, \,hKh I 1<"3'(" IhOTOUl;lhl1 mad<- I'l""..el' C.1Il Jxo rq:;arded .lli fine 1101.
" .. ~- __-, .nd "'...{"(\ function \11 IwU' ru_n.-.lll:·d
a " ...........-'11...... ..'1 . - ;u ttrl.Th.... ('(IIllC "ilh t\\O or olle \cnicalloop h:mdle,
_110.1('('0. .md art" equil'lM"d "llh m.b'lIT , .. rue <ollll"tilllC'> "illl ,mall hori7.ontall) perfor:uL'"(1 lnobs
h.lf\<U<", (Or lnol~ cidK"r on "r hd,..., Ih.. 1!IIlUll!: pom,.
or I.lb handlrs. placeo Oil or I.x:lo" lhe tllming poim.
G I ~I I"fl ,,'ill> his::l>l\ pla{'('(\, ,h.1I'pl1 an~
.\'1011lef '\Ihwoup cO'II:,in5 juglels "illlOIII llundlt's, .\
'hnuldr'" and upridll or 11I\l:nro fl.lnnlt nn-b nit
p-1nieU1.'r rellrt"'t'111:ui,'(' of t his ~'l'OUp is ;Ill .1I.nphom.
,hnllld.'r< (".1n I~ mailed "ilh p,,:udo-"11ldIllC ror·
likr jU!; "ilh hi!:hl)' pl;ll:ed shonlders alld vCfncalloop
don" 1',\il'" of knob< or honz<l11l.1Ih l~rfnr:uro I"b
h:l\ldh.s eonllenin!: riUl "ilh shoulder. Nu p:lI~lllds
handle> or.1 combinalion ",fbOlh ,UT alw pl.lcrd on
ha\'(' been di~o\"Cr"d ~o f:u·. Gelwl~ll1r. this grollp is
Ihe ,houlde"'..'" a rult. IIle l""er p.m of Ihc bodl j"
considcred a.\ 1)1>olo~cally robusl. since it i.\ ,II.\()
nl,Il<.lIffl. "hill" lhe lIC'Cl i, ,moOlhcd al1d bumi,hcd.
\\ick:h reJlrc~lI1ed al Olher Ksn sites. prim,uil)' Rc·
If d....·Or.tll'd. panen~ aIT dl'llbHd on lilt nce" and
-houl~, The imerior i> weU·,moothcd or bumi~h· dutile :lIId Sadovt:C. As a nlle. Ihe jugs .Ife dt:Cor:lIcd
ni. "oIullll'uia.lh. Ihnc: j:m' fotll in 1"0 .;ill" COlIC- in Ihe mO-I protmding .trca. i.c.. lhe sliollldeT3.
IlOfi<:-o,: mntium silcd and ITn la~ com.llJ}(Th. The o Close!\ relaled 10 Ihe pn:\ious group arc bifiJnit
inll:rior U ",dl-smoolhed. CliJb. 'nu:51: .1Il: ,hallo" vascls u.lIal1y equipped "ilh
H & _ ....... with rounded ~ "hll:h can 1.... 0 opposinl;l \Tnic;ll loop handles wnm:eting lhe
ht pbcni either hil1.h or in1he middle. ~I;wr.e 1crU- shouldeT3 "ilh the rim. BUI repre;cnl:lI.i\1:5 "ilholll
cal ~ Me pbecd on or lJdo" lhe luminC pain\. such handlcs OCl:<\.Iional1y appear. 'nl;s group i. nu·
Tht ,urLa£'e 1> fU--<ticav:d. mc:rous :Uld prob.1bh onc of thc 1110.1 fJTquent Inenl'
I &dd......""""ilhaconDlbod-. and~lindri­ bers of a 'Iancbrd ponery sel of a 1I0I15<:hold.
~ necL ~Ied b\ a >Illde oM iunh prt:SC\'l-cd I' Bll bitwtK)fJrJ ...illl cylindrical or slightly e\"eo("(1
'P"'~. nttL.. lllis poup comprises voluminous closed I~
J Rnmnei splJtnctli la .J>IIfbJt fW''' "ilh irnmcd rim !i(:b.. The tuminl!; I>oint i.I exactly in the middle oflhe
and me lumine poinl brinC in tilt middle of the le<- s1lalle. Half Ihe '·es..ds is cquipped Wilh ITl1ieal
<d\ bodI Thi§ l:!TOUp il. one of me TI)(N nUlllt"J'QU! handles, pl.lced either on Ihe shouldeT3 Of bclo". ,\1·
\mhin tlit poIl("I'\ ;w.c:mbul:("..\ <ubwoull lllCl~ dlOUl!;h similar in ,h:,pc, Ihe \'olumetrie dilfercll(e and
It:'<""l, "ilh hi$1I pbttd luminl\ poinl. \'CS'C:b of Ihe dilfefCm:e in POIlCI) ITcaunenl (slIIoolh \'crsUI
du. II~ an: found in .. \";lr1et1 of e<)1\lem and come nmicau:d surf:,cel imply .h:u. funelionallr. Ihis I;l"OlIp
ill a l":In,1> of l"OIumeuie si~. bUI mainh in middle miRlll hal'c been heterogencous. The tnlC is ,.Iso
and "nail siZQ..
"id~"pread UII comellll>Ol';IneQlIS si"s.
K ,~"'IlU bimnJr (IU/J "idl m.-.rLl"d ~1r.til\lll rim. R. 5111,,1111 10 "1''', bill highly pl:.ecd 11IrnillS pOilll
dosel)' rclalctl both 10 11Ie "11" ,1IId ':1" 111)l~. U!iUalll
:uld a more glohular apllC:ll':lllce of Ihe bod)"
die tllmlllS:: IlOilll i, in die middle. bill .)(;(:;uiO'l'l1i:
S. Bironu- Jugl lI'ith Jllgllt[J· n'ntfd rim ,md Ifi'll 1I0ri:,0,,11I1
,tlKllucher up. runcti"notll,. dlC'\(" po!.> miclll be simi.
lIondlls pl,'eed 31 Ihe bebolllning of the necl (pear·
br 10 U~ 'r pol.>..
shaped,. llllhi~ ~d.>C, Ihc handles secm 10 be:' slronl.l
L .)pNri<a/ /'OlJ ",ilh m;ukd Ile(;l,. Ull" diameltr of
II1'ulogic:,1 allrib\lle••I.'i exactl) the s;ulle sh"pe "illl
Ugfl 83
lilt' '."m' lyl'" .lIlt! p",h'llu "I Ih,· 11,111(11", t .... 1)(·
1(1lllld ,Il 0' her ,i,,·~. \ 'i' ri,L1 i"n 111.1) "uty .IIJJH',.r in ,I U'
I) 1"-' Ilf (k,or"tit,", '1 h,' IIIl "I fn'q,Il" " tn)(' "f <I,'\"or.
-...
.uion. ,11_0 "PI)('"rillK .n 1l,Iwr _i1t·~, i, ""nlc hy 1(,,-
gcnJ.lil ituJln',~iull' 011 "Imm, Ih,' cn,in' <urf:,(C, I\ll
thrc... hOll\'~ in U/:" ("fltl1"illt'd thi~ 'ype.. of ""'<;e1. A
<"ugflJUp is f,~,hioll('d in :, 'imil.,r "")". llUt ,h,. orificc
i. mud, widcr as (i)mp,ln'd .,ilh ,11(' dO'l"d n·pr'.....·n.
--
t;\ti,,~~ of I!w nl.lin group.
T. l1",m;r Jf(lrJlgt' rllfl/arnnJ (;Ill .Ippe,,,' "ith .1 _hon
ewned rim or" lonl; C}lindrk.1I neck: widc orifloCe.
L'. Gfobula, Jr"rtIIY ronliluln'J wi.h qlindric:al neck:
"idc orifll;e.
'111' \·.10 I~,nplt III ~
--.....
-'-om.- L<,..
I fmm u'~'" .... ~ 1.0/0'
\'. Staragt' rllfl/arnm 11'l1Jr twlrlilaprJ futl'n f"J11 ,'nd p<T \~ Itn ...,............. "noln ~ <i It>- K(.K \ I ~
long. C}1indrir.Ll. ocr-.lSion.LlI) \li~llll. invcned upper <ompr< O"""'''IIIl1"" .. ,LW:......
p.-ln.

VESSEL SH~\I'ES not indudt:d . 'lltiJ marked 1I.ltUtKaI dill"cn:ll(e lllU:it


'\I,hout c;,;dusion, the :t1}()\T Ib, of 11g:1 I)Qlte" halc ruhural c:cp[allatKln<. ro 1Il\ ~. mo..ledll'",
1\1)(';5 - primarily b;~ on \GKI shapes all: tthno-.m::hacolol.,.-ic.11 studlC':S arc ,ikm on uch mal·
Kju:tn:I. includ.c<1 in th,.gclwr:lIt\-poIodca1 n:pe:noin: ters. morpholo!;ical ,mrihu'M lilt: handl..... elllcnnll:
of the KSIl, ,is "ell ,IS in ,he KCK VI wltur:J.I (Om- Ihe formal rcpt:noire (lfpottcn m,tkinl:i: lhroul:h fUll(.
plc.". This deffiOlls,r:IlCli .hal thc source: of ori~n is tion;ol consi<kr:uiom. E,en "I..'n shifted into the Wo\-
the s;mu: for both cOlllplexC!i ''''d must go bad; to a istic domain b, incorpora1inl:i: bandles in.o lhc l.,'n!.
period befon: the \t.-m of the COPIKr AI,'I.:. When: the Cr.lJ doh,'!l of" v<:5>C1 • "functional ;l:"ihc.-tn(c it <till
diffefCnce bc'''ccn .he IWO eultur:tl eomplt:."o be- pn:scn--OO. Quite IIXlic-oll., it h;\) Iln'n 'UtOO lhal onC'
comes ,isiblc is in .-.pplic,'lion of ondal) morpho- of thc nl:t;" 50UrttS of ....d1nol~J eh'1nl:!." i'I ~rccd·
logic.-II anribu,,"S such as h:mdlcs. knobs. :md <up" bad: from th... comex. of u'C"" Schlffcr & Sbho l<t8i,
plclllem,,1 .hickcnillg, .,herinl: the profile curvcs. For 598,. Consequentl). h,mdlo m,1\ rdlcct much dttprr
e:\(;.o"plt:. ch:lr:tCleristic for KCK \'1 ;Ire bro.ld al'"" ~troelUrd .hal> simple '" I,~tic c"pe:nmellu or bor'
plied b.",ds co,erin~ tl,,' 'houlde" of biconic vascls, n)1,iuEl under influence from other n:yion~ "itlo dif-
lhlb c":,,ting Ihe visulII diCe, of ,I l:}linc1ric:a1 b(Kh ferenl (UltUr:IJ al1ili,,,ion~,
element iU'iCned bct"ccn " (one.sh~pt·d lower :md H,l1ldlcs :,re di5.ld',lI1t,Il.,'C1lIl~ 111 tenm of produc,
the upper Il.In~ oflhe \CMCI Fig, \'.101. :\Iore puz· tion, since tltc' "re bril1L~inl: "n e"tr:1 complication
zling is, ho"e\"'r, lhe "bund"'1I "se ofh,lI1dk~ .md 10 into the: pl1)(,...,.;. '!lley ,Ire ,1[>0 unc:eOU0nuc in tenm
sollle extenl ,dw knobs within ,he KSI! cuhure. A of <p,,(e requirentclIu. ulLk~ pl,,,OO bd{l\' ,hc tum·
comp:,r:"i\"c ,I11,Ll),i, ofllle m,Lleri,l1 front mo hOLLSC:S illlj poi11l. lk"rin~ lht·'C ,t~lI1el1l~ in mind. 1l be-
of ,he 1..,,:'11: Copper Age si... of 1-IOlniLS.I. \ 'diko ·I:,r· (Ollle.' ckaT ,h,n h,llIdlc' mmt h.I\"c ,. beha,;uur:ol e~·

nOl"O (coro,idel'cd :,s hdolll...-il1S to Ihe KCI' VI sphere pl,l1Hllion, rheir u!o<; "'1I~1 be (OnlU'clt"(l "illl ch,II1t.:·
of influence) 11,'S _howed Ih:'1 onl)' I"" of ,he "hole ing ide,1S on use: of ~1).Ice .md fumitllft". lilT ex.llllple.
vt:S.'cb w,'l'e ."quilll'cd "'ith h:Il,dk~ 01' pcrfor:ItI"(1 ""hell ...:,,'Cl~ ;orl" lJt:inL: kepi h,u>t,:il1L: r:ltli."r lh,1II
I;,hs. In US" thi~ numbel' is 11101'0' I1mn 7(j'u in Ihe standill~ on fluol" or ,hd,e,. BUI rn,"'l 1II1por',l1llh.
group of dosed biconi(" ve,se!' II i,h q·lindriral necks. handle-s inl"n:al>C the pon.,bilit) of" ,~sd" "l.I~il1L:
What i~ c"en morc 'Iriking b ,lUll hOlds .lfe :,150 it more ,,,imbk for ,r:II1SIKll't,lIion, J-1cnn', II1cn\ucd
c'lllipped with I11l1hi]Jl.. :md ,."i.. d 'll)!;> of handk~. f"'q",:IIc\ in the u"" of h.Uldlc.... "d,OC".llc'" f(lr an in·
thu. 37". of,he U;;;o:! IXl,,·I, ,,,,cl dcrh,u;le<lknoh, creased mobili,} of the poplll."iou; ,I cuhur:ol ph.....
84
h,'II'\\ hillhh ,llIllt'. rh.' n',I\tm;ll~ unh "Ild~ I\illl ,I
noffi("n"n ,.1 1hl" h.. ,I1'1''' \.r ,hr K:-.I\ lr.lI!lli0n. "hi. h _lllll-""Iioll .111d 11.'1 l\)IIlh"i\,' ,',l1nn,'m,. BUl I,h;\l-
r. n..\ ...' \0:1 hlll••It 1..0"" 1.... 1~1 I'n'r illlfll1l'l"I,lli,," i' Ih\"I'Il, it ,d\I,,,, h"s I'lIhllr.tl
imll!iI:,IlHl11- ljd- 1'01 \IIO\..inl.: plll' 1","ld indic,ll,' .1
I\llt' "I clli,me h,I"l'lI ull _ICI",(I 1I1c"k CI,\\ IMm
n\( Tln\ \1. co,...mrR.\r\O\'" \\C'ulcl impl\ h"lin~ "I' Idll',ll bn,'.u!. I.lH;-kih. \lIch
Prrh.lp' Iht" Ill''''' iml'"rt.lnl 1"111' in p,'lt!."" .1l1dil'" j, illICrpn'I,llil'n' Ill.l\ II(' ,,_1("(1 .\I,r-lill-l org:mic r('~iduc
l'ul1<"ti"n..\ \~ .....I" ,-"",\(krn1 I" 1x·.1 unlit.1T1.IlIWO! dU.II\-..("o. rill' ("'l,II11plc. ;t h,I' n-ce1l1h 11('el1 demon-
Ri...:- \(18;. 1118 "hi. h ''I ••• ,\nrull, m.l' .. r 01.1\ nlll ,lr.l\{'(\ Ih,l\ ,1 n'~,d l'llC, l,hil'lI for h.llf ,I ccmUl"\ h,1S
C"n!rr IIx "mh"li. ,j"m.\in I1K \,\n"l\ "f po'llICn bttn lnl111 n in SE [UI\lP" ,LS d "mill jUl( due 10 i15
<Jw.pt.... and -u..... 'un:.'.... If~.tlmrll\ 1....·lmiqut'" .100 fonn ,1I1d C"thll~lphic al1:1I~ .•lppcars to bear no
dro'l"3u,m &-..I~' {.m ht- -(TO .L, rultur.J.i ("Vft"-.l(m> trace- of bein!!, Il",--d .b ;1 milk font:lincr rCr.li/o: ct al.
"llh .1 d('ar tilO('.... n.lI .l'tX"'"\ .l> m,:uID Ule I'lC"C'lb
:XI03 .
and rcq\lirclnnJt' of Ihc'c u~" \10-1 p<'Ilcn rt'- In Icmt'> of lempcnllg nl.lltn:llS used in Ilonc~
~ard1l'1" .l11tT'l" ttut f,>nn. lrmprr .md ,urf;\l,.Y treat-
production. Ihen' is a ~ro"in~ I)()(I) of Clidencc thal
fTlnu rrftn"1 .lnd at'( dt'1l"nmnC'd h\ function Ricr
sdtttion of tempcnm;: nl.llcn.lls is go\'cmed by POl-
lo,l87. ~JfI C..n,oollJ... Qf thlllUcli -II' :md (TIl)r"".
ten function Stcponailh 1984: Rice 198i'. For ex-
ruh .lnd.K1 I' rn.llUlC'd M,'('lrdinll 10 ib !Jnfonn·
ample. cookinl!, pots :In' c:\.lx'Ct...-d 10 "idl<\;md ther-
an<'T maIn,' that ~ hcm ~ prodlKtion procu~
m.ll shocl dunng epi;,odes of rcpc:l\cd healing. 'I hich
mn\! of r;m m:unUl... tr,"pmn!!. rl>Mumption or ma, reach 300 ~oC. l:necli\'c l'l'sisl.lncc 10 thennal
fucl. C"\< u..'C and m.;UnI('nMlCC' I'r'h to a ,-e."cr. per-
forman.:... dUr;)I.1CTbtic-o hilTrr S: S\;jbo 198; R\ ~hocl C:Ul be achil....~ Ihroul:;h thc use of organie
CNllp;ulnl! lllfll!t";l\ of \('o-N r."fIO (>IX mal CSIabl~
lC1llpcnup; mattn:us \1 hieh creme greater poro<ilY of
<oIlY IUrtirubth n..tm" I'~ cuhuraU\ root~ and
a \'e'<cl and IilUS arrests Clelll\lal cracks R)e 19iG:
funeti<.llU1l\ "ab«:, as "cll ~ loOnll' "cakr r.-pes: in- .\nlOld 1985,. Chamolle is ;100:1 suil:lblc Icmpenng
u:nm plll'nOfllC1Uo n:fhtinl! Ihe ilUlO\";lti\"l: p'0u::ntial material a5 it cxpand~ at the S;tllle rale as lht cia)
oh. -ociC'1\ SUI rt\~dlinl! _och \'3.riabl~ as foon. lC1Tl- maui, and "ill not C;II1SC et":tcking .Rye 19i6: ,\mold
ptr and o,urfan- Irt'auncm canl101 a1"";l" be ilIum· 1988. 11lis also mC:ln~ lh;il Ihe <hlinkagc rol\e is Ihe
bil!\luus. a.' a r.rn of Ollll'T f;KIOI" mal bia!; Iheir glllC. makil1l; ch:l1nOIlC ltlllpCred IlOll':I) re-<ist;m.
<clttlinn, nol !c;cl Ihe nalTO\\ analqical bad;~und evcn 10 frcezing ttlllllCramre" Org:lIlic ,cl1lpc,ing
of lhc 111\ Ul:"iI\or. T,lle for cxample Ihe SO<a!k:d malerials c.ln be appn:-ci:l\ed for ,I IlClIer workabilit}
cam ....Ionic da\ pan' cla\ di~L,. 1';lh lUmcd up edg- of .he cl,,~ and b'l'caler <;Ircngth during fonning pro-
C'!o. 111~ 11a'~ lX'Cll Idcmiflcd on silO of Ihc <ixUI· C~ Schiffer & Skibo 1987), In lerms of libel' ll5('.
\C\enlh ct'llIun\D, "hich "l'rt rct,.'ardcd as SI,t,ic_ ,h,lI(h or ~lr:1"5 h:wt a rcinforcin!\ dlcct on non-lired
Cla~ p;m~ ,m: im"fjlftlNl Ob facililio for b;wng bread or low-fin:d (11)' SIOr.I£e cont:liners, Organic tenl-
!cil\'("S.. ba.....-d on wpolngical link "ilh elhn0llr.lphic ~x:red vC5SCls ;11"C appe:ning 10 be fliable. In order 10
dm-a from Ihe U.dLtll,. "hcll' cllt~ l'an~ ha\c been in lllcre:\SC abra~iOI\ rCSi,mllCe - for in-lance, ill lhe c:l~e
u."" umi! l1:ccnl!\ Cuna 2lX12. 2951. Ho" .......·cr. of tOOkillg, sc:rvillg and l'celllTCIIl cleaning aCliollS
anefacu, 01 Ihl' ~,Ilnc foml .'l"\: .Il~ known from a !>oller had to t;on,ider additional t;omlilu<:l1'S ,hal
H,ln~mn a~\l:llIblal\c~ in Slol~lkia and \'olh\11ia
will enh:ll1ce the pCl'fornmllce char.ICleris,ics of "Ic h
"I,,:rt Ihl) I",re ull'ti ,.. lid, for urn~ClIna 2002): \~1s'. III the t;a~e of Uga, pOllcrs 11:l\'c ;It;hie,·<:d
I-knee. h.I>I..'(1 (In Ihl' hmcru1:I1",,,·
. . -"" '" I1:IS reccm Iy llllUg;lllun of fnability Ihrollgh addiliOIl of ch:mlO HC
Ix:cn 'Ul:l:l~l.cd Ih:ll tL.~ p,m~ should be rC.l;',lrdcd as
or sand, or through lhickcnin~ of the walls. It ha'
hd, for eooMnj.\. nou,,-- Cun:.! "lXP- ." N0 .,ul,'llmcm"lloll .
becn n~tccl, lhal or~.lIIit lempering is prdcrrc<l for
h,1S hc:cnyl'()\1drd ,I> 10 "h, Ihe l,l~l and nOl Ihe fi~\
productIOn of hi!; \·...~~ch, as it decrca,es Ihe 10\:11
,mal""" . l\ mu'e 'eh"hk . !)uch uh<;cn ,I\lon~
. m,lle Ihe \'eigh~ of such, A medium sile ve~)I~1 weighs G 7 kg,
probknl)
f Li of funcuon.tl lI11en)Tel"'uoLl f I .
d .., 0 c; .1\ P;UIS so \\elglll lml~1 h.L\'<: becn cOllsiderecl as :1II i""lIc.
Illm ~.m oil,,·!" Jl,dll lorie ~il...'l> in nul~.:na cf.
\\hich tould nOl be trc;llcd ";,1511"lIy.
Liga 85
I.(·~, \\ell lIndl'T\lo"d i, lhl' u<,(· of C.i11 ;,rl'l.lU~ com- may c,'u\(' delll.,l or l1lnrilioll prohlrm In_,rad of
rxl11"I1I~ ill ,hl' ch,)'. AI I.i!-t., it i "'cd ill r.lll1l'r mooer- u<ill~ ()nlplic,lIl'd rxpl;m,ui"m, rWJI'(' ,implc and rf-
,Itl' qml11li,ic<. prob.,bl) p"rtly dUI' to its IloLlUral oc. li'eti,c onc, ,1ft.' dt~n: "l''\('' lh(' h....-d rock I\'P<" and
CUlTellfl' i1l1hc cI;l) ~OUn:'I·~. bill •• ill. ih prc'I("lIce C.Ul- <\<') hc.dlh)/.tliu'"
nOI hi" exp1:,illcd ,m,l) .1< "ccidl·111.d. 111 other TIlc ~Im.. mit;;/n ht.' lht' C.I with ,ht u'«' of ral-
COn1cmporan ,iles, lik!." 1101llits,1 Tl·1I :" \ 'diko Tur, cart·tllls malcri"l•. I'Olll·r-. imph beli"" .. 111.11 thu
110\'0. rale.m,·ou. rompollelll' n1.lkt· up the mO,1 im, 1<:mpt:rinl:: m,ueri,.1 i~ <upcrior. I'ollr-n l(·cllI1iri.lI1_
I)()rlanl ,cmpering cOIIstilU!."l1l of lhe cby malri~ pc"". :Ire lnin~ 10 IIndenl.llld \,h\ tl'ehnol~r.L1h cmnpli.
ob~n,Llioll5l, The lhemhll expansion r:lll~ of cal- cued maleri,us arc ch()\("ll, I\hik l>th('n, "i,11 J
cal'l'OU~ Illaleriab C"CO,I is dose 10 the day thl:) chemical backo/OUlld. pm\ick lhc:- pldU~hl .. c:-xpla_
an: inco'l)()r;'tl'ti ill10 Rp: 19761. At lirin!; lempcr:,- nation; Cal(,;,rt:'Ou~ ntalcri.L1 cn:d'C.m dllwlinc:- nl-
1IIT'C'l of620 '900°C. CaCO, Slam 10 decompose 'into \ironmcm and Ihu inhibi~ thc ~\nh of bartcna.
c;.leium oxide :md carbon dioxide. Ic:,dil1l; to 5p.1.Iling "hich nccd an acidic cmironmcm to imcracl "ith
and dl"5imcgr:llion R\'c 19iG), ~lam recon:red \'a- alimemar-. prodUCb Rdthof Cl ••1 19f'IO. Hc:-ncc:, \00-
sels do have lime blo\\~ blll these .In: belic\'cd to be sels ,cmpcred lIilh c;.lci'e or .torn!:c com.Linen pl.1S-
the resull of 'il'Colld"T) bumin~, "hidt occum:d 1\ hcn ICred "ilh lime or ~'JbUlJl p1asten arc hi~hh suitablc:-
thc SCll.lemelll bumed down. -Ille use of ca.lcarcou~ for kcepint;; s;rain alld othcr dr. foocL.lUlf~. ObM'r-
da)~ in any C:lSC excludes lhe use of firing kilns, poinl- \':I.tiol1 mus, ha\C~ led 10 ~imibr rondU5ion~ in pn.:his-
int; to lhc ["lCI ,h:1l .heir utilis."I,ion mUSl ha\c been IOric times and thc:-n lrall.mined .1.5 a euhuralh cn.
limited. ~Iodcnl pOlleI"'\. prodUc1Ilt; \'cmacular pot- forced idiom.
u:!') in .he Balk.lIu. aoo cOlIsidcr cale;lrcoUS malerials :\.n imponan' i!»uc:- in ,hr case: of UIf.I is to explain
usually e;.1c11e, as ,he superior 'clllpcrin~ malt:rial the exi~'ence of SC'\crnl diffefCm combinatiolls of u:m-
CanlOlI 2002,. Which qualilies cx.:.ctl) makc C"aleilc prring m;ucri.t1s. TIle cxU'rncr of:l hi~h 11 lcmpt.:r-
superior arc 1101 being fOnll\1lall-d, since such m:mcI"'\ ing Groups \I hich can bl:' fllnhc:-r subdi\idcd dC-

do 110' seem 10 occupy the minds of .hese pone.... cording '0 prn~lilin~ COllstilUelll.:i \Iithin a combi-
[Carllon 2(02), nation - .ho\\-s .ha, <uch an: nOl accidental bUl
Thi~ leads 10 anOlher .,rea of ullderst:U1ding of ,hc pr:lcticall~ !lied ,1l1d .Ilxqm:d combin.lliolb, Hc:ncr.
,edmolo"oical dimensions of lcmpering malcrials. il \\ould 1101 be: wronl; 10 t"qIM'e lempcrinl.! I.!TOU~
mlllld, lhal ,hcir ..election la5 ,dso ,hc sck'Clion of "iLlI technological lradiliolls,
clays} ~a}' well be CUllUr:II1) bi,l.'lCd. B} <';Ilillg lhis, 11,c usual p,tllCm lhat CIIICn;l':l from elhnorach••c·
lechnolo~oical rC;'S\)Il< for t:",ouring olle or anOlhcr oIogiml f("5e:.rch is lh.u cer:llnie trndiliorl5 an: ,rnll'-
clcrnem arc nOI rejccled, but lhe l'e,'[ reason lIla}' wcll miucd lhrough lhc:- fem,,].. line of L1le f:lInih Gr:,\e"
bc coalcd in diflt:rcl11 [") CI"!i of folk beliefs or Il'ClmOo 199[: D,l\~d & l'\:r:llller :?OOI. Circum51.1rIIia.ll\, ,his
logical inO:l'lia: "lhis is ho\\ "e do il", Cenaiu dis- is e\'l:ll pro\C1l b} arch:ll"oJo,!,oic;'] e\,idclIce.u fr:lIlCh·
co\'cril:S Ill:')' !l::ld 10 l'csuhs \\ hich rniglu bo: dillicuh lhi, Gl't'1.'Cc \ilclli 1993, '1l1C \~Iri.tbilil\ of combI'
10 rncdialc dirccll). imlcad ,I <Cl of 1110rc undClOland- lIalions of IClllpl:rin~ lll,ueri.l!> mi~h, lh~ be r'"
:,blc corbll~,jm an; being pill on commUnil) mem- plai1l1>t1 in lerlllS of <'"islcncc of dilfcrinl.! l)(Iller. Ira'
hcn;, For cxample, in ~ckc,ing Illilling <IOlles. lhc ditions. rdlecting .1 1~IIIIo:C of lIl,llilll: nCl\\orl. rcJ\'inlt
population of ~olllhcl'n Bcuill b eotlsl1'aincd IQ usc 011 IMuilocal prill<.'ipk'$ of l'esidclICl', .kw.,lh. lIIale
rock 1)1)<'s, which Gm onl}' be exploilcd in Ihe nonh- pOIlCrs would lIUl allcr lhe OUICOIIII: l>flhi~ re,lSOlIinlt,
CI'I1 p:1I'l of lhe COII11I1)'. <pn::lding lhc folk bclief lh:u for ill 1\11\' ";lSC ~lIl;h di\I'I"il\' of It'Chnolo~;(.u lr:,-
I he u,,~ of 0111<'1' lypCS of l'OCks will C'((IS" he,lfl dise:t.<cs diriOlls ,ld;'OC.llC for :1 siltnifir,un mo' CllWIIl of pcople
:\JId lh-:llh. Thii is lIO' .Ill I~co"olllie ,Illcmpl 10 m.l- ,me! :. \\~dl' bread,h of" eClIlIlllUllic.llioll nl"I\ork,. of
nipulme lhc l)opllllltiOIl for Ihe bcncfil ofcerl..ill rock lhe sculcr. of Lig<l :?,
{Iullnics, In f:,e., lhe i"ue is Ic~.< d'~lllmlic, fur lhc Tumilll.! 10 Ihe Uf.::' r rn.lll·ri,d, \l hich n:f1cct.> d
mcs_,'ge is l1Ie.11I1 to II,lI'n ,II-:;litbl soft rock 1~1)C$ r:llhcr hilth "lIifonnil\ ill term' of pouen Ir:ldition,
found in solldtel'll I\fnin. \\ hich 1·.lsil~ p\lll'cri~e and ll'Sll'I"t'i"U) :" 10 _urr.lcc lI'I:.lllllelll , on.. 1Il,1\ ill tlti,
86
Ir'" lil1"l;tln i, 'Inl.IU· m:,llllH'l1l, IlIlll:lm l'''\{,,~ 'Ul·
tlCf 1l\';ll11ltlll •• Iom' i~ l11hll'I1l.lt1W "lI<lu\(h III help
,kdlll';m;: 1l1l' hmcliull of.1 \,·..'e1. nUL,. Ihe aUlon",·
t;'111 "C"hi" Il"'t'! + ,miller nt~tk.t1ion=<lom~\'C".
",I" n:n,.illl\ h"ld, mu' ill 1110111\ ,·aS6.
.\ 1!f'C.ll \.u;rl\ of 'Ini:I\T trc.• tllll·1U t('l'hniques
, h.wl' bern f("Comt,<I 1"1'0111 the U\(•• :.1 <elllcmenl. Sur·
'1"". \ 11 Bo. _ ,..-.. hum \lnbd<" III .0\... Gn1::<" f"IT llI,t;catiol1 ";Ih O;lIhOline and hn!;l=r'I~lilin~
I""'':'' : 1..... lica.H_1 ha\'l' alTl'a,h bttn mr11lioncd ulldrr d,'Co~llioll lech·
n;qul"'. bUI the 1110S1 C01l\1110n t\'I)I: oC I.1h<;\ 2 <urf.'Cl:
lTl'atnll'nt is simple .mOOlhinll; "hi1e Ihe paste is still
pI;utic. I'erhaps ~11lC of thc \l;Uer·woOl quanz
tin<! .. d",ri~l;"-.n (\1 Ihr- lSSIX" nf ttt:hnologio.1
{X'bhlC'" found \\CTl' c11lplo~-ro for that. besides illuaI
chouUlf"... hi<::h ('I<.-ruocd :IlkI' the abandonmnlt of wc
hn~r smoothing. ,\ true slip achil"\-ro through co.,t-
~nl.! 'o('I:t\nn(11l. The quali\.J.ti\'(' diffeTClICC'> be--
iog ,,;th a~her la\'er of (:I.,~ in order 10 ch;lngc the
n.'r'r'Il tM twO ~Illcmrnu sil,!llif\ a <:lwl~ of <CIci:lI
coklur or to reducc thl': pCmlc.lbilil) is \'cl) rure.
f~. from <rif~ntred to ool-l!oinl!. fmm 3dapti<"C
\\1\('tl found, il is clear!) distineth"C as.1 SCI);lrutC 1a)"Cr
to o;pk-rali\"C. from pK<;i\"C 10 a<m"C. 1bc causes of
Tl';lChitl!t up to 1.5 nUll ill Ihidmcss. ~lainl}' il occurs
lhis elwl~ ~'t a ~IC di.~ but lTIOI'T
111= tlat. the- nrcd to br dJ.hor.lttd thl"Olleh a dilfrr- OfIlhe interior of doscd \~b or. sometimes. bo,,!s,
mt ~ 10 1br;iliTad\ ~\~ttd I'lUlrriiI. pm. "hich Ihereforc aTl' illlcrprcted as liquid COlllainers.
nabh frnh C't;C;I\~lIorn.. SUlCC rn:ionaJ lhlil are roll ~lorc oflen. sc:lf.~il' occur<;. a technique "here Ihe
surface is being smoothed \\;th a \lCI hand or cloth,
\'n"\ "l'n on Ih~ MnIIlI"It.
.\lbal pOllCl"' from the nciehbooriTl( silt ofRnlul' lhm concentrating Ihl': fillCSl p.,nkles of thl': cIal m.',
IlC i... not :I\"2ibbk for elol;et- in\"C!ilit:J.uon. whok \~ tri.", a!l an Ollttnuost covering layer Hodgl:S 196:'}.
<c:b ptl':SCrlltd in publiaotions or mlnalm coIkctiOIlS 1ne main surfact'S ofline poucl). the cxlcriOrs ofjugs
sIlO'" :I ~I :lffinit\ \',;w the pOIler'\ of L..iga \'el) and gr.tphilc paimed \'CS5C1s. and the interiors of
~ p;u2lIro ;m- found bolh in Rmuute 11 :md in bo\\"b had bumished surfaces, As lIIemioncd. bUOlish·
lhe t~ more dislalll RnIuule IJl Hg. \ '.11 ~ ing reduces I'enneabilil)' "I'd pro\;dcs drceth-c
This wKkrlino tWO tmpOrUIIl points: thc 101lgt:\iry methods 10 faslen colour pigments, Despite such tech·
of ceruin \ud t\]1'e5 :Illd :I sem<' of 1cr'riIOrialiIY. I nologi~t1 :ldnUlt..'lgcs. bumishing was primarily \':ll·
IJm:, cmplm the tctm -t\"flC'- to illdicate an cnd resulL ucd for i\.'l \;sual qualitit."5. 11111S, the interiors of
o:prn.m wmu~h a combination of shape + sc:cond- closed \"CSSCls ..-cre mrnnh bumishcd in the :lrea of
U\ mo'1lhol~cal :lttnbuto + decoration & l.Qncs of the rim. BUI imeriors wc.:c nOt leli untrc,Ltcd, Quite
~Uon. AccidcnUtl cont;rucntt of the thltt main often. (races of brushing an: ll.'COmcd on Ihe imcrior
\-arUbln is sutiMicalh improbable and can onl\' be of closed ,,~ls. Iksidcs surface smoOlhing this could
explained \\;Ih :I conscious It:mdm.'t:r of "produclon also be used to beller dinriuute lhc c1:ly, csp,;cially
rcopo-. 1n turn, thh mdicucs thm g>:ncalogic:ill)' minimizing the u~msition l><:t\\·t.>t:l1 the toils. Brushing
COlllll':Cled lKOjJlc WCl1: comlllnd) trJf1l1uv: Il'e same \\<ll; done with a tun of line twigs or Olher kinds of
u:mlO... dUring '\C\'Cral hundreds yean. In faCl, Ihe lil)Crs, Sometill1l$ the i11lcriors h:wc tr;Lces of deep
hUltu\ b)cr of 0.2 In betwetn &-duUte II and In need striluions, covering thc el1!ile Sllmlce. "1llcil' prc.',cnce
oons.idcrahle time to be fonned. much longer thall
Ol~ big hieonie jl11'li with Ion/; narrow nccks shows that
su~ttd by the e.xe;l\";n~r. ~-I?O )"e:ll'$ GergO\' tlllS was :1 special surface cOl1lp:,tling tcchnique. e:.r-
199_a cf. aOO\'C. I'unlt"r unphcauon, of this reawn.
ri~-d out ill the statC "hen lhc \'cssd "~IS ICHlhcr-hllrd.
1lI1l \,oulll be ~' retum to:1I\ earlier a.nd not \'ery oril;'
:n,ercfore, slriatiom almost appe:,f :.s d""ll groD1•es .
mal bo~"mdl)\lOn. n:undy Il,at poUe!)' func!illnaUly is
t'1'" un.
llu:, mil1tiolls arc usulIllr 'l I1nll wide, m:.de with a
brush of rdati\'cl)' slill" stems or simil:lr lll:lleri:lls, gen·
"l1,e l;t!;t \"dri:tb1c 10 I,., «Imidcred in.. , cnns 0 f pot.
e<.lll} fol1o\',;ng a hOriZOI1!:11 direction. It should be
Liga 87
~IH' 'I'd Ih.ll I~",d ~h"IJC nt,,~ .1100 ell( I;'t\' lit\' 'HJC ;ntcnd"d ,,,,d .1llLlollu\(' "lkil", I'.I"I:.! n,r 1.. I rn.tl
.md .11"';" of tltocor.ui<m..L' I.m 1)(" "'<'n rmm 1,.......·1. l~ ('on'Il1i,.lI('d w ,lrl,i"lr ...ilh"", uppl('mf'"nt......
IIilh fhnn.,1 .'nd dctomlion.d .lllinil) hlt! loluml'lri~ mkn....·.11I" ,m.ll)",.. _"rh .1< n:<i<lur .111.. 1\, In•
.,nd fmKlion.,J diffcrCllC~s. GCll~r,lll), .'-, 11 c.. n hcc lend,>tl u,,· m,11 lie lOO hr'Md .. cal~ln 10 be in-
<c.·I·n fro", 11ll" Ulccnic" ofm.tin pOllen ,1I.tl)("\ t''(em- funn.llilc .tt .tll.........·nhclnJ•.'n .tIIettlpt IS bnn\("
phfll'{l h) \\hole vt."-<tls. Ih~re i•., dc.tr rorrel.lliOIl n\;l(k lid"" to 1lI1\ dJ .hr functiOl'wl \ ..ri"bdll\ of the
bc:1"ttll I("\(."I <h.,flC and \urf.-.c... rc.,IIIICI1l UI('I 2 u:'\.'ot'k
Illl' 1"1"••Ircngth ofth~ ll'\CaKh ,11 UI(., lS.' fo"nh Ko;",1 is .he 1.,r"ltC I ~mup of all poncn l',ll". 'n..;,\
di"u:n<ion or I·oulablc. Ihc conle'(l. 11,e pUloilion of it are .r..dllion.111I ('..ml«I~d ",ith food tcnin~, .Iwl '"
\'0: <,('1 \\ilhin " hOll5C, '" "ell .1.5 nl a.uc.>ci.llion "ith <ut;h upt'ril'n((' the ~NIC<1 'lre<o' and th.. Imn....1
otlwr 1~'il'I~ or ;mcfa~t5. is .m impon.tnl IC'ilimon\ \l~-Iife: Ri"", 198;, Tabl.. 9.1 Im('<ti~tion (Jf tht'
10 lhc II'\C of ~uch \·c"o;cl. 11,e follo\\inq cousidl'f;Uious rcfusr .nca 1l('1"("{"n Iiou'c:'< ~ and J. intcrprMl'd "',
on fUllctiormlil1 :lIT .hero:fore cxplored lhrouqh ,he ....n immcdi.l\e: disc-ard ....rea of domc:stic ";I.-"~. holl
cornbimllion of Ihc .. bovcmo:mioncd 1,lrhlll": ~h.,pc. -howcd LlMl lhe hil(hC'\1 frequ,.,nn ..mnnlt pol'"n
Il'mp,·r. ilnd ."rfacc Ircatmem. and. Ihe ~OntCll:I. fr.u;mcn .... "'" held 1I00,l~ ..nd small t;\Ip'. ~lul"CO\cr.
Follo\\ing lhc funclional calO:l(oris.uion <;ul;.qcslcd lhc.~ "ere di~O\(,",d in bit: fralllllcn......md (X(;'-'l"n-
by 1'. Rice (Riccc 1987). POUl'l) is 1I'C;Ill't1 in IClTlU :tll) ;0.< h:tke~ of .. hole I~I§. Two ~i~ of bO\.u
of Slom!'e. p,'OC\·ssing. ll';ulsfi·,'. :md other. -n,e I:m up 10 25 t;m in Iti.lOleler. and bt~'oml lhal usualll
calcgol)' is ,I mix"d ouc. encompassing Im'U'l)' ')1X:S "round 10 t;ml ma) indi(':lle person:.1 \cnu§ ~up
wilh spcci,tl or lmccrl"in fnnninn~, c.g.. firc·vcssels. COll~\ImpliOI\. SlightJ) imcncd rims. ;tj Ihe m..joril\
Thc comiclioLl, Ih:ll funclion.,HI)' om Ix: dcduced of Ihe l.Kmls h.lS. "ould prC\"<:m <pill"ltc bill .U\(I be
from the :l\~lil:thlc POILCI)' Sl:LS. is sUllporled b) Ihe \Cl)' U1UUil.lble for pourint:. :'\umCT'()U1 ba"l~ found
fact lh:ll de<pi.e ,edmolo~';t;al mrilllion.•hcre is .l around lht' 0\en1 impl) lhal such may also hall' bttn
cl...ar trend 10"~'rds n::plkation amo!ll;- lhe selS (d. thc llll"oll'l-d ill food proct."-,int:. bUI prob;lbh nOI m n>n·
abo\·c section dc;oling wilh production lccllt\olo~') . nCCtiOll "ilh liquid foodslUffi. §impl\ ba:oIll3C Ihe: Uze:
Funhenllon::, Ihis issue C;III be clUt;ilblcd Ihrough IUSU.IUI ~h.lIJO\ ... illt wide OrifKO :Il\d the .s.bape of
cthno:,rch...:ologie:tl work. pl'O\iding c'(.unpl<:s thal thc bo,,1s recorded at lhe O\l:IlS ha\1: pr:loCtica.llinll'
poncl'5 m:t~ h;l\c ~'TCal nc.'<ibilil~ in Iheir m~lhods of t:ll.ions. nwkint: pOllrint: from onc containcr 10 :10-
production Skibo 1992. Thus. SI:obiJitl It';l\ nOl ot\l~ othe:r a e:omplic.lto:d lask.
Ix: $<."C1l :lS t;ullur..1 incrU;., bUl :l'I a n:f1C'C1io" of Thc USe' of bO\, b for "Qr.l~ of dry food,tul& ........
C\"()I..cd functional pone,: I~-PO rom:ocpondinlt 10 Ihc not be e'tCluded. ("lcn thout:h thi.. .. ouId be: Ulll"Con·
nc:cds of thc pc:opIe. omit; ill lenm of "J':I'c; in faet. \hi" 1Tl31 nplim the:
Rc\'o:alinS pottcl) function is Ihe oplim..1 J;031 for need for h..ndlc:'< or Ihc like:, Rounded car Iundl("O.,
any ecrnmi~ ","d). sirn:e <\\Ch is t;OIUl.:cting a r.U'~ lab haudJo perfor"lcd blNh hom:om:l1h .uKI ICT1I-
of compliolll'(l ;"'ucs. lik... sul)"islcnlX. dil"'. and ~'\~n e:tIIy. or pien:~d mm :tn:: found on aJmo.<l h.tlf th~
architCC:llln: and lhmilun:. h is imeresli,,!.: loobscn·c bo,,1s.. In 1"0 ~, horizom..lh pcrfO....lro ub
th.1I the nOlion of lull:ul) W,U"l:S .I~ objlocb ,isu.tlh handb ....-re f:,shioned a.lo .m ..nduop('morphll fXl'
s.lll\{ling OUl ha" .,l,.o IxOCIl !l:Cognilcd b, Ihc >CIders wiLh pro.rudint: no-c. pl.. ~ed immcdi;ue:h belt.., Ihe
of Ug:,. bill SIIt;h ...:tres ""<:fl: nOI c.~duded from cl,... turnin!.: poim .md liddinlt e'(tr.l t;h;wdC!er 10.1 rn:'>I!'
lIlililllli,,,, 'phcn:. I'.m of tl", gl';ll,hi,c Il.1illlcd ".II'C nized pUl. rhere i~ ., ~cn,lin ret:IlJ:uin in tI..: w;1\
has d~"Cor:Llion rubbed oIl" .IS I' re<uh of U>e·. SO. the diffefCm "lJl"< of halldk< .Il"!' placed. \·l'rtic.llh 1xr.
...ll:c!llsi\<,·IIl'_' W,IS >l:ued Ihrough .,t;li"e u,e .md '''~l)()o rOr.IIL'(1 l.lh h.lmB..._ :Ire I'f'lt;W on lUmim: 1)(I1lII.\,
"ilion "nd nOl :0.< p:Issi\"c exhibition OIL ,h... I\'(". l·kllC"'. shoulder- if lhc~e .m." markcd i.e.. Ihe "id''''l 11.1" "f
,«io. ,In(1 ickarUllclions .ltMU SkilXl (Skihu 1992) can· ., bo.. l). orjll'l belo" lhelip if a bold h;"..l _lr:,it:hl
110' Ix: scp.'l';ued rrom IL"Chllofunnioll_ ($I..ibo 1992l, profilc li.l<'. I'il'r\:int: L_ .11.0 mad,' inuncdi.,It't. belo..
.1\ k.lsl nUl in the ,,;w: or the Lit.:', :! lll.llcri:t1.
,hc lip. Cle.ld\. lhi) indil'.ll<:S lh.u <ueh !XI,,!> "elt'
FUnt;lion.11 deductions I,n: pll:'!oSiblc UIl IWO Ic\"c15. .,dap...d ror hOrilOnl.U 'u.pen;;ion. \ 'cnilaJ halldk\
88
,",,\_111 k •,tUIt". (Jilt' of lh." iul.(' hnmd III
11"- , •, "'.
lh,",,'" ~ ,,>IlI,lIm-..1 .\ '111.111 \\u,knl ,IWql!/o:O,11 .~,-
Ir,u:,llu'
\ .......1, "I hp." "F' h,lIn'] ,h,llJol..d 1.11 .0011" hi-
....'nu 1. •, "nh nl\lll.l...l . . Imuldn.....md "1"' lnu ~rl
,11.11'"1 "p.>I ,Ill' nll"'1)I'l,1t-..1 .\~ ,h.~rt I,'nll ) lit"' ·lur·
.\~. .' \1',....-1. lhn.m:h 111<'11 •• "on,mon \\1Ih \:.\("h I)\htl
.mtl "lIh ,h,""Mill pllh'l' 111 HOllo,(' 2 ..\11 h,t\(' 01>11-
r.Il('l1 _un,l' t', ,md "id!' onlin... bm ;l!'I:' \ .)JUlll,'1 ne,lll,
_m.1lkr III.m lilt' f••lkm illtl ••11('\.'01'\ ofdn _tOr-II,'" \ ......
'0("1, .\11 \""'....l, (lflhr l,Tf"OUp .In- '"quipe<t wilh h.l11dlC'
or n1Ol_";''I:" hilI< lion.11 I..'lOb" dcmonsm'lI11j.: their
\1'l'n••hilil' RlI_U•• UNl 'un:u:c_ proddc limit'.. ~ril)­
pin" and ;I\Cl'('.N' .1br.\~i(11I n"j,i,t:lll("c.
1...0111.': I,'ml '11,r.I~'l;' rom,lim'N ,wc .he mOSt \01·
uminml' \)(llU"'\ '\lW. co,·n.:"ponding runcliolllllh 10
Ih,. p'enlhUlC'1ll1l illll;\lIcd pilhoi. ,.~ ill Ihe Hl)u~t' '1.
TIwir l\l)(lliW;ic'll .llld ,l\li..lical \,;uit:1r i~ <Illi,,' I.n1:c
:tn<l proh.,bl} no, rullr n'pITSelllt'd ,inrc' l\lcnding of
I" \ l~ 1\0.01 ~I,"" "'Ill I"''''' ,I 1"'\"""1\ of 'Il>ll-.. In""
IVtIUI, .. II ,".,hol.IM ~I ~ ... ~uw llo..........I MOl....."'. 1'1r<~"
hil: rom,liners i~ .' ('ompli('~IIl'd la,k. Tht: ft·COIl·
n-c... lll ....... <\OII'led l\llt'S include 'implc cOlll,lim'l"S wilh conc-
~h,lpcd IOI,er pan ,md 101lg. cylinchic,d upper p.m
-1\1X- ..\ ... '. "hich (.m he mSliC;lled and dec,mlll'd
"r homonulh pcnOra,t'd l.,b handl,"I ,U"I: found \,idl cordon< and b;mds or tingt·nip i111pre<,ioll', or
enher ahQ\"t: or bd,". th.. ntmiml !,uinl .md could Il<l\e ImoOlh S\I1{;l(o:\ "ith im;is.:d pallen'.' mronir
atOll bt u-rd 1i,r _u>ptllSlon _ .\br.lSiOll nl.lrL. found or I:lohubr ,h.llx:\ TnlCS "T" .U1d "U"l could :tl..o
un th.- C"1cnc>r of ~"t:r.U pic:-rrtd ho\. l~ or dll'ir fr:t!!:- be c11()'o("'\ for ,"ch 101l1l1liuOII. 1}1Jt.."S .15 <lOntgC con·
tnntl_ bt"'" lilt- h..>lc-, ..!>tWo lhat till"(" "a't' in IT_ lainen. Dceor.llion ,,:.:m5 10 pl:,y :l double .vk for
pr"lni "'1lUC1 "i!h It.lnl .. urfa< ..... He1lt'"e l\ " .... ,u~_ Ihe-(' Il:'>'>('h. \\ilh f"" exceptions. \'olllntiuous slor-
~t'd Ih:n....-.nC' bt:mb ...'t1l' hunll: \fltit;..lh OIl the a~ com,line,"" J.1'e dl"COraIOO. 11lc' call be percei\'ed
• .Ib a.!, \lalic "'.'ulpmrcs. rarell nM)''cd and .1lIr:telill~ :men·
JUl:'. JU~ ;lIld bM-nni< rop- -h"Pt"" M"_ &. MO" lion of 1".....,llllal l;siIO...., si~lIali"ing Ih,' "e;tlth of Ihe
;ltl"ullbmh rcprnmlt'd Ul e,,<lt hnu.,," al UI::l- ..hoold o\\l'cr...\1 lite s...lllC lime. decoralion could h:'le bn:n
J.I..., 111' ~ .." p.m or .. 'o(""i.l1\:.~. 11""," a", oflen u~ for Ill'Olcrti,c pUfllOSCS in .he realm of llI"l,';e.
fnund 111 ~tion ...i!h oo...llo. 'I1t"lIJll:h ....oociatiotl. Spir."-snal.e p;ll!rrm arc nUlllCl'Om. c<pcci:dll on
iul:. or T\'P" -..,- pc;ltr-.Juprd nu, lit" indudcd in
ho,.h. "here IlIa!'e heads an: ad,kd 10 Ihc sJliml ,
tll......nll' ~p_ Thnr t"KJ,rd oriflC.... and IUIIt: neck-. '
m:l],;im: Ihe cqualion betwcen sn.,ko; :md '1'1r.,1 on':"
all" Uil.lbk fl)l' JlOurinll.. \11 \'nIoC!, of tlll' WOUp arc
111Clll::llioll mOh' eOll\inein~ rFi~. \'.121. Thi. 0111:'-
"l-C:tllni Itmnl: t\lJn. rrfketllll: \lJ11I:.... it~ of tradilion.
lllclll.nion i~ found 011 female ti),,'lllincs...teh... iUlcr-
t"Uhllr..J adhercncc and. thmu~h do~ parallel, "ilh
pIl'led :l.'i .llmf>. :md olher nlUOII ohjecl', and is .,l~
,h~ K(,K \'1!)(Il1'·I) .••ffili,llinn "Ilh hm.ld~r r"I.';'OIl.l1
.Ipplkt:! I'l lhc l;'UlIl) of slorage conmint:I'!>. cilll<'r In
.1 ",ri.moll!.. Lil~ Ih" "ell·lnm,,, hr.llcl'\ of ,h" TRll
tl,e Iimu vr incisions I Fig. IV.2) or gl~'philC p:.inl (I'l.
cull,,", :'h~':-'lI 198i .. ~llrh \C"I""I\ e'Il1 he ......,11 ;l~
121. CC't'lainl)" 1'..:,\c1, holding ,It..: vilal rc.O,lI'('1·' Of.1
lule." or "OD:'\ ht'l,....l(,Ur n:ll111e"I"d "ilh runullOll
lllOU'>l:hold lIccd.·d litis eXlra pro\t;elioll 10 ..... i,h,I.l1ld
eaulll( 'll1d dri"lilll: p'~lllin·,. Yc'",l. or lhi. 1:1'01111
pUlIidil)' .1Ilt:! h.lCtclia, .1lld olher llU'lHICCS.
.11~ ad:nQ"\~d~ '" lhc 11\1"1 dl'"11rl IlOnc'I) uf Ih~
1_110' c.'l>PCr .\I(~. 11", cannul hc " ...·d ~ lill1l'-'Cn'ii_ Utll,' t:!ullhl t.1Il an..' in relating \,c';!,c" uf T)'IlC'i
"I'" .1IIt:! "R" "ith liquid,. Bo'h types havc hi,UlI;C
Lign 89
-Imp". ,.,p.mllin).: In .m .•lnu-'1 ).:Iohlll.,r ,'ppl'.lr.lIlrt·. b.• >c "(,\lId '·IMbl.. l<l nonu'ulr,I1I' thr m,lill p.• r! or
In Inn" "I ~h .• p,·. 1111' 1,·",'1\ .In· I,pul",,"h .111) n'I,I1l'd Ih,' food hi!:I"'r up, "lwII' 11I·.l1in!: ,. mo t Inlrlhr
III whl'f hi,Ulli, 'lW' iml'lI'. hUI ,,,hlllwtric,llI) Ih,,)' Th\' n:l.llil,'I\' op4'n oritiq' IH'uld '·I",hl.- h.mdlinf( of
,,n' 'Illl' h l,i).:I.['·1 llnitiJrlll m ,h.,p,'. Ih,",' I)pn ((lll'r food ml1n' ("."il). "hill' th .. ,Iil;htl, illlrrwd nnk.
I'Hl rUlluioll.,1 (,lln:llli\'" 1I,m.f,·r .md '1111 ••).:,·. H'",'I, Ilould pn'n'lll "hollilll: o\l'r .111<1 r["11I1<I' t'\'.lpor.ltion"
I.ilh '111o"t1ll'd ,ud:\( ," "(Iuipp"d "il11 h.Uldtl·' IX'inf( Rise 1987 I h... rt'!.• ti\t, dtplh "uule! prnnit tn mo.
wen .• ~ nU111e("lt'd \\ilh Il.lml(-r. I'urllwnnur(", h., ·d <;('I"\'C Ih(' h'·.1! Ri....· 1'11l7 I-Icl\\('\rr, .udl .1.< ump"
011 ,I 1:(1111111011 ,·thllo).:r,lphi, ."M11J~,,)', '"rh j.u ,rc nOllS ,lr!' nOI 'upl'0rwd I" irlllifl(:'.dh ,'nib l"d ('th,
i11l"lll,'("wd ;1' Ill'in!:" u"'d fur ...If!) iUI-: ".11,'1'. The hig_ ncx:r.lllhic (I.U,I from rOl\1('mpor.,1"\ tr.tCtition.tl <ot:irl-
!W.l onc, "ith wcll '111oOlhcd "'tcrior ,md iUll'rior ic~. "II<'~ food pl'l'p.,,,.IIu.ln i.< m.ldr I'l\('f .111 open
cOlnp.,cIl·d b} deep ~lrbtiOIl" ,111<1 rquipped "ith t"O firc-pIOlcc. po<inl.: diffnrnt l"C(juil'l'mtnt' for cooltint.:
m.I.<iq' h.ll1dl("•. h,ld .. C:lP,IC"ity of 1I litrn. the lOt..1 JXltlC!), 'uth .I~ round«1 1>-1.-1:" \C,'(' Rif(' IQfl7. 2j'l
weighl. whCll filiI. bcill~ 60 1..1;. h w-as found c1osc: 10 E.'l.uuplcs of dcl!lC .Ilfiniu,"l It> thr I/lUUP ill qUC"lion
the cntr.lIlCC of 110""": 3, \\hieh "ould indicale th,11 C:1Il .till 1)(" found in remOte Ru ,i"n \I11.t~. whrl't'
it Il.Id .1 hichee 1Il0bilih Ih,1ll :1 .tor.,!:"e (OIlI,lint:r. h coolcinl.: continucs 10 bl: mOlde imid(' .111 fJ<rn, nQ<\_
is nOI llIut<lt:ll to c.lm' m ..nual lo.l(b of 60 kg in tm- acl;l)S in mctal POb of .imilar oKonic ,h.tpr-<:. I'h('
ditional ~il·ti("•. Jlcrh,lJl'l wilh a helpcr. Other rcp~­ Cn::UIIIS1.tIlCC: th.11 m.tm I '>('U of U~ ::! \\C'Tt"
"cUl:ltiH:S of this l.:roup. without h,mdles and with n,:>+ affwed b\ second.11"\ buminl.: m.l{\r 11 diffICult III 1't'C-
tiC:lled 'Urf:ICCS. "ere u~1 for 'Iom!".... Onc slIch '"('5+ ognise C\l:ntual I>-mds of MlOI ('.11ISI:d bl (ool.tn~,
<;cl "~1S found at the pitha- of l'lou>(' '1 widl a Within IItC present I;rouP. p;trt of the j.lr'l did ha,c
corn"<pondilll.: n.1l lid. Imccs of 5001 on the kl\\t'f IMn of thc bod\. but tll('
'11H: l;Ul m.tjor functional Will: 10 be di~U»c:d in origin could not be cst.lbh~hc:d "ith ct:ruin", Pt:rh.lps
thi~ gcnemliscd pre'tClIt:l.lion concenlS food Ilrot:C'i5ing the di5cowl"\ of a spoon in~idc: .uch a jolT ill J-I0lt>t: :!
1J01Ie...... 111c main di\isioll i~ "ht'lher Ihc prot:~il1g GIll be used :u C\iclcncc: 111.11 t1lC\C \cucls. ~mblint::
is made "ith hell or "idiom hc.1I Ris<- 19811. Cook- modem <oup lIlrt:elb, "e~ connccted "ith food pro-
ing 1)OIlcI'. Im. a ,cl') 10" usc-life. higher Ihan food cosinl;!. both hOI ;md cold,
sc.....inl.: 1)0111'1) but much lo,..:r than for c~IJ"plc POI- On lht' Olhrr h.md. Ihc greal numbt::r of "'pC MJ'
IC!) u<cd for slomge Ri>(' 1987). '1l1e 1I"c+CXpcCt:lIlC) vessels Iclosch rcbtcd 10 1,~ "1\:" and "t" mOll
is Il.uall) around olle p::lr. :"Ilml of Ih,. cookin~ 'cs- indirccth bt:: 1154.:d in <I.nilll;! t1u:ir illlolll'melll in fOod
sc1s are nOI dbc;.rded inllnedi;l1d\ aller bcinl: 1.'\'.L1u- prel~lr.ttion Ill'OCe1.lCS. Onc of Ihe IJO'" of t1ln l.,'I'(Iup
:lIt"<l Ol.. no longer ,"it:lbil· for cookin" !for '.11;011;; re:l- Ihld indeed .1 b:ll1d of 'OQI 0' er Ihc lo"CI' IMn of the
sons, blll ,,~uall\ due to :.pp",'.lrinl; ,urf:lcc cr:leksl. In- bod) Fit:(. \',13 . 'Ille'\(' \'~lCls are found in a numbcr
slc"d. thq <:l1ler :mother f"I1Cliomll dom:lill 'l>Crs. of sizes: from "nail cUIl,·I,!.e 'I>ccilllen~ 10 'l1l"<lium
oh!i<:l"\.uion<, ,.II;OU' Clhl10gl~lphic siUI.uions), In ones of 3 -4 linn, Thc, .I~ brlie\\"<I to be Ihr func_
Lilfol. Ihcn: .Irc t\\'o big 1)I'lI1CI) gnlUp" Ih.1I C:1ll be lionalh mOSI unil'("r,s.:tl \C'lS4:1 I\PC..... ob.<o':r'\"t'd from
associ'lIrd wilh cooking :md f(Nwl proc~<il1g Wilhoul Iheir remc. 'l1u:c<c n:sscb "erc for ex.llnple mnl for
he;!l. SIOr.lgc of lool•.. \ I'~<cl found "e'! of llle 011'11 nf
Ua!i<:d 011 <uff:lrc In::llmcut of inlcrior< \"cll- HOll>t: 2 com,lined .1 .n",1I bicon!C c"I' "id,ouI
worked .md COlllfl:lCll'd Ihrough 'Illoolhing or bur. h.mdles. I,hicli I',b pl,lced un lUll of ",ller'I<Onl
ni~hillg). i, h.t< bc,'n "~limaU'd Ihat Upriglll j:u1I ",i,h pcublt;.j us.:d in IlOlIel"\ produclion ,tf. Ihe ....>t:lion
highly placcd. sh,lIvlr :ltlsled ~houl{lel"l; :",d uprigll1 abo\'e of production 1,,<,lmolol.'}I, .\ut>lha "·.<cl of
or slightlr im','l"ll'd nrck> rrl'llt' "C") \It'll.' ~uil:.hte for Ihe >:Ulw Iypc \\,'5 found c1<"'C I<J lht: Clllr:mcr Oflh.·
hulding liquids, l·.);" nu' 3o.lkinl( pU'lKJ'es. 'l1H'ir S.UllC hOll'c. it cOIll.li"ed .1 .ull Iilllcliol1.11 .ul!.r. Srl'-
shape i, "Iso uplilllullbr tilt' IilllClioll orcuokil1g \'eS' ond,lI)" 11l0difir:ldon~ .lfC .1150 tlb"'f\ed Oil It·..... b or
'icl. \\'hen placed in,id,' .<11 O\"CII, Ihl' 10w"'1 hc.lting Ihis Iype:. 0",· <uHllltt' I'cpl"c'cnl:llll"e h.ld .1 /"·rf,,r.
ICI1lPCr:Ulll"l' would bt' .<1 Ihl' b.",c, "hich "ould he ,.!iou, (':t. I cm ;n d;.une,,·r, nl.l4lr eellllOl!I, in Ihe
~I:mding ,n Ihc '.H"': I""d ••, Ih.· tilt·1. Su..1 " ....1"0" b.c;c l:mOllwr h..,c of.1 '",.dl H'",'I "ilh "mil.lr pcr_
90

'.u: \ 14 I tIll"""'....l ,..-I ""h <'MI,raIh 1I1.....cl I.",."" 1>n1o."·


.~,

('"du,ion, rolllPrl~ tr. n1iMrllnnrollJ \"csscl 1\1>0 or


ceramic 1\1)(" (\l1t ,'.t\ or anolher rd,t,ed to ,.~1s.
I)diberald" ,he'oC items arc 1101 liSlc<l lo!:t:lhcr wilh
r... \ l~ \«...1 "l'" -r .t.",,,rtffl ,n 1l,~, .. ~ \..~~ lomd lh(' POl1t:I,\ '1~1)Cl,. "hich is the USl1 a l praclice in UIlI!:".
col ""~ "'.... lht ~ ... n I'"" ,. tl'" ''''''' rl:t. ~ 10,1 or ,he ilrl1ls I",,,c a ralhcr Qb";Oll' fnnction,
"h\(h cI(>I."; nOl depend 011 lhe shnpe. like n lid.

rur...UOTl I, 'll-(l known; both item' ,Ill:: from Housc I


.md"t't'r prob;lhl, I1IIClldl.'d;u J filllllC!> Fil: \'.H. ~IISCt:LL \1'1F.OUS
\eo;",b of ,hi>. !lTOUp an' "ilhou( h..ndl~ bUI in- \lll'U11..Rl: \.''1) \I:RY S~h\Ll, VESSELS
,u::ad :lImO!ll 31"3'" cquippl'd "l,h IWO or four lnobs 11,i!! I\TQUIl includes n number of \'cry small \CS5C1s
pbt'ro on tM \houllk" llK' _Urf3«' l' rustic:U1:d "hieh rail outside the usual functional aucgories dis·
u_ualI, b\ fincn-uailim:! "lOCh i.' "dl~~ and em....ro abo\"e. ~linialUrc \"t::5Scls an:-\C5Il thall:' cm in
}u.) d«or:l.UOO cff«'L :.uch f;'I.lO:n"rlexlurinc-. "hich hril/lll. but in J. ..-;t\. Iheir shapes \:cho Ihe ,!tapes or
h.:a> al<o bn:n noted oil .. pm100, l,!l'OIlP vox!> or dll: bie \"t:'''Ch. po:ci:ill~ meonie ju~ Pt \6:1-121.
T,lX -C- . doe-<. not 1llC«";UC:l \n..... r~ hntim: dfcc- Olha "':Md "-pe! liLc simplc or footed 00" Is :1('(: aha
ti\~ '1J.lbo et ""- 1~7 f'(lIlIrM\ 10 ~ bclitf. rq>l'OCIllcd. '\ltile !iOme or Ihe tin} \"c<;-els ma)' 1)('
Ikq> ntmor 1t':X1U~ pl"OlCCU fmm <.p3l6 ;md m:I~ consitkn:d mCKkIs or c\'en 10\"'li. as for Co"':lInp1c h:md
crxkinl: produced '" lhtt'tNl \hod. ~l:ibo C\ ;u. moldt:d MIxr.,6- Illade of un;cmpcrcd cla} :md 10'"
l~: In;U1\ Q!oI;. dW' bi~t rqlmvlI;nn't:!> oflh~ flTrd. Od~D appear to ha\"c a lllOn: R.1ooula'cd fu'lC'
I!TUU(l m3' h:l,"!C btm in"*,'nI 1Il cooL:i.ne E,'al liona! okll:nnin:"iOll. This assumption is bascd Oil thl:
thoud'o ~ M:MCh for nlcnal '<XlI "'.,." ill I~ Qr ~ ol»cT\~IUon Ihal ccn.... ill minialUrc \-cssd I}"}>O (!CCtlr
,-ain Cl>L .sintt un~ from ~" bumin!; in ;\!; 0laC1 cupic:s also al Olher site<: ill Ihe lleighbourlllL:

""''''' t"a>I:'- «lUkl nn' 11<" roW OUt CUq'>\ for lhl: onc SadO\~"C 5i10. hut al!iO in a n:-,nou.o silc likc ,"um"Sill:
r;lIhrr <XTUin ea"" ilbo-~ . ...,.,~r;lI \~b Well: in [;act TodQlm" & ~h\lS:t110\-a 2'000) fl'1. 16:13 I"). l1teir
IIOl\)US ~urf:lces do nOI sccm 10 he sniwblc to conll
di""O\Trtd "i,h :mOlher ludic<uioll of l~b1c U'o': ill 1in
food proct::WlIl1. "ilh he31. "Ill co,c c""cmall} lil;h\ col. liqllilb. ;\I\d i1 can onlr fem:,in :, spt."Cul:.lioll "hell
wf
oured ,-.:w:I,. \'Olum"lriGlll) Tl'Wmh\;n~ each other chilnns or herb:'l medicinc was kepI in sneh \'cs>cI~.
3'~ lil= ,,,,,.. found "illl ,u",ll,' hlaekmc"ll ill. 'n'e funelion of SI11:tll ..essch Ihe .i1.e of n colk,'
«'li()!,>. ""\illh~ ~L:C of Ih.. rilll. 'll,i~ m:t) ~1Ili!:~\, cup iJ, no, deal' eilher and G,n in fOCI CO"cr ., rmlg'·
Ih~t, a jJTOCt".' ~nl\ll"r '0 '1,w'Khi"l; ".IS laking place: ordilfe"Cll1111l11>O\oCS (1'1. 16:15-l9). Th" m:~ol';lr h:lS
h\.,hnll of" he"l OT a,,~ mhc,, floll' 'OlI\"\)(mid ge.

n", ~I ..,UI'I.,'O('\ lU b.. dl .... lI:.sn! ;.. a caIC~OT) b,
m'cncd rim. which makes tlu;m "n."it.lblc 10 1)1,' 11.rd \
'IS Clll)!;. '1''''0 ,.=Is allli!JUlcd 10 the gronl' 1\:,( •
.,
1.1ga 91
uu 1'0111.: II 1I1l111il ,11 \1"'lm "ith .• di,lI1H"ll"r "fO.; <:m lo"er rin~.fonl rhl' di,,"'rll'T\ .111' If) 18 rm rh('
,"ft'I,t1illl.: h"ul.·" 1J,,,wl-lilw in .I."IK' "ilh <li);llIl\ \(Irf.l(~ art' dlhl'r pl.lIn or df'(Or,Ilrd ",ilh II1ri... cr
l'll',1<:1I rilll, lhl'Y \In,. 11") 1r.1~11H'1I1"cl 10 h\.' ('om- ."ir:.6. l\onr of lht IltJI ",111(1, 11.1\1' lr.1I 1" "r h~.inte"
plelrll "''{;('"<lnl\.I.'et, hlll IIU' hl'i~IJl ","\."li"l,Ilt'd 10 hcrn in ("(}flI,I{1 wilh ftI"('.
hi: ti (Ill, lI11th '\I'n' fmlllet in I Ill,,<\.' I, N'mf" of Ih l,
rqm:'l'll!,uin" (,f lhi. ~rtJ1lIJ h,l' d,'<:or:llnl .urf.....~.
1'.\..'..,
III layrn ,1I1ribmrd both 10 U'l,t I and U'la 2. ILl ce-
lJl)~
ramic diso "ilh UI"Umtd .. d~" h,,, .. be('n Ii,und. Imt.
Fr:'~l11elll!; of lilh PI, 11>:2024 "I."IT "")' oflell r('_ Jar 10 the earlier cli.'>Cu,\("cI "~l..\ir hrr.ld potn" PI
cmcre'd. bm Iht'ir Ilropl;r idt'11liftcl\ioll i.. nOI alw,\\'1 16:3()--32,_ Such ilcm. ,1ft' dll(l}\crro Jl ('\1''' K.'iB
m-:.il;luIOm.ml. -Il,n' \.·,m h,l\c :111 "PI'C;Lr:Ul~ of fLoI .ill:. -nle IUC r;1Il~ bct"ern I:; ~nd !f) cm III d;;'m-
diJoCl.juII .Iil.:lul} cllf\l'd, Or Ihe) C;tn lT~mhlc r:"hcr Cler. The imcrpn:t.l1ion;u li(b Cu"",!Ofl1. cf_ ;tIXl\T
lkep, 'Ir:.i~hl-'idcd oo"I~. TCll1perin~ Group 1\' pre- i.'I dhpulable, dllc 10 Iheir momi.('ncq Jnd. ~prri:aJJ~.
I,Iil... 11,e lid. r."I1l III 1"0 sizt' e.l\e~ories: lllme .,ilh a 10 Ihc r."\Ct lhat a ....ricl) of mOIT cJ:abo""le lids dlT
diamcler of 10 15 cm .md IhOSt: of 20-25 <:111, Dc- abundanti} rt:plT"Cnled in lhe rcprnoin: of Clipper
c'lSioll,dl}. Ihe}' cm he l.'n;er, up 10 36 CIll in di.un. .-\1,'(: pollcr~ ... FunhcmlOft':. d fr:<qmc-nl or oa ,irniL:tr
cler. shapc ..·ith ;m llpri'llll handk h;1.J bem tfut.:O\«nI.
Onc C_'I;nlJ1ion:.1 e.'Co"lm"k :lllow. rccollSlmction of \\11."11 an be di!puled i.'I ,,1H:lht:r such JK'fl<> \\elT wnt
:. ,·cs:.cllYl)C .1..< )Cl unknmHl :Ullon~ Ihe archatoJogi_ for bread b."Ikinll or sorllt:lhtn~ cbe 1iJ"t: s.tll produc-
calmalerial, Ihick ".tlled .11111 \\ilh a nafTO\' ncek: a tion, It is quue ccn:oin th.u Ihis I'-pr of POllCTl "-.u
boulc·liJ.:t' \"0"'1. c\ ~ill~k diSCOl.'Cn:d rim liJ.ud mighl cn::ued 10 be c:xposcd 10 hlllh It:mpcr.llu~
perlJ.lI" gi\"e ~mc KIea or Ih~ Ih:ope of such ."CSSd
1"1, 16:25). -Il}!: lid in question is circubr. 8 cm in
diametcr, "ilh slighll} rone,l\'c 101' and a plug-like nRt:-\,ES:>as \XI)SIltU:-I:RS
circul:.r "romlxr:mcc Ih:ll Clll be inscncd imo a oon· ThC5C 1"'0 t\"JICS ofanefulS an:: »miL:tr III oaPPCdr.llKt:
lainer "'ilh lhe di:uneler of 4.2 cm 1"1. 16:24. bill oomplt:.d} dilTcft':1I1 in fUllction. 1111:\- hJl'c thr
sh:'pl: of J. 00.. 1and;on:: dotted ...nh hol..,... The dilTcr-
1:.lt:C bcmccn lhcm 15 Ihat fire-.~b Fi~, nU3:1 &.
I'OT S r,\I'ms ,\,'XI) 1'00 IU) \'1~'o;)U.s 14 'olien ralhcr mi5lcadinlll. known ,I,'; 1lJat~
I'ot ~1.tIlriS h:lI"c been.I eon<l.U\I member ofllu: Cop- hal'C lWO orirl(O, a n:trro" ont: ,md a bln.d, Firr-
IJocr A);e home inl'l:n1ol)' fl'1. 16:26-21:11. '1111:) art: n:sscls ha\e bc:t:n a l\'picd i",'Cnton of c\CTI hOUSt:'-
oncll ,~:l1etl Wilh 1)O"ls 10 prolide C.\Ir:I stability hold. In lhc Lil::l ::' lCltlerncnt complelc ITpl'CS<:111;o-
if lhe b.I\(' is nUl'O", bUl il c.lIlnOl bc mlcd OUI lhal u\'t:S I,en: discOl'Crro in both House 2 and J, dose 10
lhdr use "~I) conncc,ed with social .•,pir.llions r:llhcr lht: O''l:n. '111e use of 'ud, <pcri,1I cL"\. dC'l;cr; h:o!i
lhan "r:lctic:olilir" '1111: t'.'I;islcnee of fOOled 00" Is, bco::n compn:he.ui\t:l. di."","ssed h, E, CoJ;ad eo.
.. hich 1)Cl'h:ops dcri\'e from Ih,' s.une aspir:llions, U\;Il' s;.ck 19<)·11. Er.unplcs "ilhuUl "hili", all; ,lbo bIO"11,
be reg:,rded ,IS ,I kindn:d l}l"'. fOOled oo.ds \\cn: !:llll Ihcir PllTPO~C Gm IJc dt'flucnl due 10 .races of
r:ln: in LiI::. :",cI ,Ire onl) n:1ln:<cnlt;d ,I) fr:<~ll1crus .>l:COml"l'}· bUrTlillll, nil' IirC"C1$C6 "·CR' u~llo I'rr-
(1'1, I6:29), I':;,eh hou... eOn1ained 3 -I 1101 .tHllds. servc lin: durin~ period, "hell Ihc OI1:n \\,1) nQC in
Tlu:)' ,m: of I\\'O 1}'llt:J, Th\.' usu"l "lit: ha, tlle sh:ll.K: U>c, l}lJiGdl} :11 ni~lll, /uhe' with ellllJcr could IX'
01'., loll' doubh-.cone ",illt :In idl'l'tie,LI ,it" of llle ori- covered by· ,L 1in:·I"(''>M:l, "hich IIo,dd lhcn rnimmize
fiec.i, i\!:l,,:',,ioll 11l,'l'k~ ;"l'ol1n ahout Ihe ",llIding SUl'- lhe ~uPJlI> 01' :Iir, kccpillg the emlJcr/oo.1ll:IOI,il1~ but
f;u·e. Anolher I}'pc' rc,em!:llc.i :1lI q:l:-l:llP: a sll:lllo..' not bUrTling. Surh I<~l, ,m: knv'Il' 10 h,I<c lJcen
ling-fOOL "'I'I)orts a (let'P brl\\l-lilw uppcr pan. The u.l<'(1 rl'Olll lhe l'koJilhic Ihruu~h lh\.' l\Ii~'T':llion
dill"rt:ncc !:l"I\I"Ct'" the h"l t)pe mid Ihc fOOled l)Owl. l','riod, .'1 1C;"'1 \Cm.Lck H~"I,
is IIL:II 1)01 .IH"d, .L1\' ,upporled I", a bm,lder "lid Quile oflen !h,mb ..ilh llt:rf{,r:llt'll ..aJb lie....
.1 ((11 • hdl/lI'of/lgim

the O\~n and ell»<: 10 the milline, pl.l1fonn. h is con-


l,ltIod ,>ffl<JnI: the t'<:.I\oIt,.d m;ltnUl. l1uou\!;h tl~
.,i&n.-d c:nle,m.Jtic sincc <;(.... el':,1 possible inlcrprcla-
dJ".ro!...-n (,{ lull\ pR"n"ro itCffil.. it ,,3> etablbhcd
tiom of ib function can he SUI:ll;C<lCd. It is equipPed
WI thM'r .ltt t<JnlI:' ~lJ\"(" d1ffM'nKe'o hdpinl: 10
dNlnll\mh l..-t"«I\ 1iJ"t".,,,,'<b ;md _u'3.inrn; I'l "ilh four <In.Jll ,crtit';11 handl,"" .Ipproxim."eh ill the
middle. proh;,hh imcnrled for a ....idt· orifice heighl
li"1 \l,hou\:h d... -;ile of the I'nfuraoom; nu> he
16 C"rn. 01: 18 C"11I. 02: 8 cm Fig. \'.15. 1'\. 11:::',.
the t.afI'l('. their &1I11t\ " I"n a> l!tt'31 01\ ~tr.llOCl'i
l~ pr 3 nn' ;1.._ HlfllJ>.\tt'd "ith d~ fire-\"("SI,cl.s· 16 pr Such oojC'("ts al"(" :,I'C"I lnO"" frolll OIher Copper ,\ge
3 on' 11... h."'" in _tr.UllCr<. tend to l:,e:t lU.tTOIH:r and later silt:<. u<uall\ "ithoUl h:mdks or occ;lSionalll
fl1>t11. UK" n-n11l" to\\J.rd_ tht (lUll;r .Ulf~. "hik fire- "lth ~m:11l bo<'iC~ on' Ihe ed~e of Ihe ,;11l. Tmdilioll-
'T'SCI, Lr<-p the: me..ur of mt hoI~. Hoks on .tllI. Ihe ilem' Imn: h,'t:1l illtt'rpn:lcd l'S dmms. UIlI
~tr.U1lN\ arT di uibu',.d from '"tml"lii.lld~ !>dO\> the other. mOl"(" 11llml!;l1le fUlll;tiollS :\1'(: :11<0 possibk. for
..d~. "hilr thr c:d~ hfhll"-\'\"li...,1> hO\.\ J. band "iUlout cx.lmplt: a <it....,; or:, funnel. "hich could be fixed 10
~rffll '.nn fire-,e.....,I_ llitl"(" f;,r bentr JomOOthtntd hide l);t~ or the like.
uutn na, .... dun 'tr.Unl;1"lo. 'nlt inSIde: 'UMatt!> an:
n!l\ ",,,\.I'd in e:idll't
·11\11.""(" lwar" fompkll: 1I';,in'·.... "t\1:' found. 11,C\ \"1~""1.I..!> \\ 1111 A:-rnIROI'OMt)RI'lHC ,\ND
l~.,'" ;'.l:l"'.;I'....' diam,·ter of 1{\ cm ;llId.l heie,lll of6' I'.OO~10RI'llll' IU.I'R t~"l.:-rr_\ rtO~:'
, CIlI n,\ "llotllhl} .lhndcd celllml pan 0PllOSl.-"(\ Onc bo"\ di~o\c"cd ill HOU'l' '1 ,,~,s equipped wilh
tu :l roue,h nm .md mUlldcd honum indic:lll:i Ihal "ertie:,1 lab h:mdh:s lu;.ril';I.. m,llly perfol~'led in slId~ ,I
_II':UII,·'" nlll_t h,,,·,· I>efn u",d Ill!(clh", "id, I"t....,d~ I\~l)' lhal ., hUlltall lilCC willt pro\llldinl; 1100" lll,d Ill'
""nh .m (>nhn' no, ""eredin!; '1.::' ern. cm:d qcs ".'S Cl"eo"lll,d [V;I;. V.16). 1·lons" I (,0",:';1\1:(\
a \c~l, which ""s equipped with IInllt;nl:d ho>:>''';
,\lid small jll·,mmlilll; Hllllllorpltic he:,d" IllUst pn.)l/·
.,hl) n·\.t·mhliIlK.m ox (1'1. \7:1). An ox rcpresenl:lllOll
I\.~S .,I!lO found in IluuSl' 3. A rr;'~'11H'111 of.' ,phel;c:,l
tlnn·".llled \·c>wl '''uill:llllp''?) Ill,d ,I ll;;,llj"....ll.'rlll":ld
Lign

'qm''''n1,1I101l "r hom_-'-. ,I Ill,,, 1,,.1' "n 11ll" nn k .md lhl' oril.,-in.l1 1o'.lmu1<ol(I ir "" Hm Ir.1I1l t.1 .111 k,no
illriwd ,Ill11ond-<I,."p"d ,."., 1'1. 17:-1 .1ft' imlll...rd 1).'11(\ & Kr~mrr :?filII
lIem/". il, 1I1111.... rd lh.1l Ihr luhnt.I''ll1<,.) v.,n•
.,hlli" "r lilt" 11I)1ll"1"I prr..llI< lllm of l.ilf.' 1 Imm, ;a
\1'()(1'" mi:O;NI H'IlII""'lIi"n "I· ell(" "n Up.olll< 'n'l '.Irvn .IUtltl
, 'llImh.'r Or'IXWln, PI. 1i: I l,. m.lInl\ rr;lll;mCl1lt'(l. i~ n·inrorcnl I" I "rnp.,r:U,I\" <tuc!i...., of rrr.un" In-.m
h,,.\ .. 1)«'11 diJ,Cv\t·n:<1. 111,"" C.lI1 h.. di,;ckd lIun 1"0 1ilf.1 :! .<111'1111>11111,., 1"/1 "I "diko Tdm<}\O. 11... LolIlrr
1\1'•." "1.h ., Il.llldJco or cil\:lIl.Ir. or \\ilh 1l.1lI'·Il,d <hm,ill\!;.1 mUI h Ktl".u,·r unir'mml\.•hu Impi}mll: lhr
tnl<\-'C( lion. Ilu: 1:1$1 ~up i~ <h~hll\ bi1.,,~ ..r in <ill:. c"i'l("n(t· "f dilktl"m p.tlIo:m. "r ~ i.oI hrh.ol\1<lUr h
hll1 ~11C:r.dl\ lhl: Icn1..<th orlh.. <poon\ ,ario bCI\"'O:Il hit-, Ix·...n Ilrupl....·r11h.,( lh..... dilrnnlt'"... h'MdOI.. n-
1:I .md 9 nil..\ 'pOCOll "illl Ibu"Tll"d h.mdh:- ".'" f"ulld plaioo:c1l>\ .1 hit:lwr rnohilil\ and np.lntlinll' nrt" ,rb
iu,ick.1 H· '1 uf'l~vc "C" 1'1. 1i: I . ~urprism~I). ,,11 nfinlcr:.(linn." hidl. 1lI,"'1 imponol11lh. hd'l" Ird l"rll._
<,)()c)IlS cont.lill ~lIlC amonnt or ... md ill 11u- 1.'1,1) rn.l- Ch.Ult;.· of1lorol'lr lhrout:h di.l.LtlI alli.'nrl:' dnd rTldllnl:
ni". u<",I1I) combincd "illl 0'l:.llIit nMlwr. <1r.11I:1o(i.·,S. I unher 'Iudi ,... mit~ confirm lhr ••nun-
Ihllion IJ.l5<:(1 011 1.i/o:',.1Il.111·ri,J. lh.u '1>1'11 diffrrrncr- n"
lice•., ~l·ner.,1 di.,cl1fI1I1ic lrend itnd p"rh.,.p, r.1I1 11..
SU~I~It\RY & PERSPECTIVES consid("l'l'd .u" (1i.,~n'J\lic lo:mporal m;trker.
-nu' bod}' or ccr:unic d.II:I COIlI,,.·I('t! d\lrin~ lh,· Ihn:e '\"OIher illll'llrl.lm obM·n.uion l' lh,u Ihr 1)<!l1en
field c;unp;,igll' "f20002002 ,u Lig., i. 100 l:irgc 10 produclion of Lijo(.' 'l \I.IS Ol'lf.mi~ed on .1 hou.,·hold
hc pl"·"·lw.:d in ils rulJ nW'Ill. Nc;u'lr CI'U)" .h.ll"d has Icvel, .incI· I"" uf lIlt" lhl"Ce fllll1 in\<.',d\f.ll("(1 huu\C<
bcen l'11lcred imo lhe .mer;lcl d.ll.lh.m:. "hich ha'! cOIll.lined cen.,.in direct ;Co "ell ,l' cirrum'l.ulli.d
becomc :l Vil.lI .lI1d a5 reI nOI ,·."h,IU'ICd 1001 for piccC"\ of e' i(II'nec ,,.bouI ponc!) pnxlllcutln, H"u....· 3
runher sllIdies. The <1rellj.,'1h of .he 11oI.c lies nOl onl) i, Ill.· 111011 'Irikirl~ "''<illllple. with nidtncc "11 llUllU-
in .1 vcr. hi"h degree or del.liled infonmlliotl relfotl'tl- folClUR: or tllHir.lri.lIl l..'T:lphilC p;.oinlcd I'OU("I"I. "hid)
in~ m:llcrbl :llnibulCS. blll .Ilso. due 10 coupll1l1:. in ;lpp_1R:11l1, ".Co ft:"\('ncd for dlC hou.\C'hold il....lr 1:.,-
col1lcl1l\J.,1 infonn:u.ion bridl.,';nt: .he p.'~l "ilh Ihe ch:ll\~e 11C1"err1 11ll" Imu,<:holdo. \\.l> limil<"d .LIld pn.ll-
p~nl. ,\n5"erinl; the Cjuc••ioll' ret::,rdillt; 1)Qller. .lbll ........c!L.,i,d\ "mIX>lic ill ll:UUn:. o,.ldilr-d pollen
\'ariitbility posed :11 lhe bn.,';nnint; oflhi. Chitl'l,,·r. lhe .maJ.-<i, h.c> ,,1-.0 rne.lkd dlaIIIX"11lI(>1'-~(:l.l ,upt:"ri"r,
foUm,int; ronclusiom Gm be "hick r~m:lint; Ihc Ii~ il\ GllH1{l1 he .l' 111111..1 011 Ih... bouU (If pon........ d...: "r-
'! nlclnt:l1l. alion .md ~urf.Kr U~.llmenL 'nlCC chirf dilrcn:ufr br-
Fir<d}. ~il1tt cuhur:I1 u--:onsmi-sion l'!x·r.llcs ill ., 1\\1'1"11 pLun ,,"d dclOl""dlcd polll:1"I is lho: lIl'NTm'1ll
hier..rthiCOlI order. The nJO>t in11)Qn:llll fc.unrc is of limr. nm,. uumi>hcd t:r.lphilr p.timnl ",.urn
,h,lpe. or rather il.5 idcali'Ol.'<I ,ersioll. ofiell lem~ ;. lItt'tkd lhl: l(m~1 period or manllf!clurr. bUI " ....' no
mem,,1 lempl.uc. ScrOlld.,I') lIlO'1JholOj.,o1e,11 .mriblllcs lL"Chnol....;c;<1 nn: <il\.
\ll("h ,~< h:mdlcs arc ollell irnel.,·T:ncd irun Ih(" ~ellcrnl Thi~ r:,i""-,,, '1U Ii<!lb .IboUI lht' Cl>1I1", ... iu"n llf lbe-
perception of\l;$SCI, bul lheir plo,.,:c i, nOl .11".,>" de- hOlL'.dluld.....-.:.umi'll: 11,,,1 \\(If,wn "rrr rr-<pon ihk ftit'"
Icnn;'n-d. as lhe\ drill bel"CCll delll.Llld, of the pmc, 1111' poul'n. Ir ,·.,d, h'lll!'Chold n....'l"in:<! d 1Il"rr Clr I....
lic.,1 and cuhllr:1l COIlSlmcl5 "hi("h .11:.Iin (".1Il O'Tr- ,I.,ble numh"r uf ' ...,..:l\ pCI' mcmber. h"" 1.111 II lit"
I"p). Telllper, dccor:uioll.•I"d melhod uf Ill.,nulill·lurc cXI'I.,ined lh.n 'ImlC h"u~hold, could dlrurd 11I111'' '
.d.,.l 1.lke " <ecOIld.,I')· <il:nifir,mee in Ilu- hw"dcr cul- lllrL'" lil11'''' "I" mor.· rrn·n.,"\ in puuen pnxltll"li"n.'
111f;,1 l'el,<pe,·li\'C. I"dkclin~ (Iilli-renl ledlllulu~i ..-;,1 on,,· i""IlI' of hUI11.lll n.."<Om","' ",·t:d., lunhl·r ddriti-
Iradilioll\ 01" "1('c1111oI0~ic:,1 SI}I...", hdl'inl: III d,·wl"- (".Ilioll. "hill, lh,' ,.lIlll· ur ,·i'II.,lI,· Olll_l.lI1dinl! !'I'lll'n
mi"e 'flI'illl '~Ilhcr lh:m ellhw;1I hound...';," (d: .'5l.ul .I~ :1 mediurll of "-K:i.llll !O.Il!t-d nlt·'... ll:.... rt:lll.lill' I,."
"1 .d. 1995. "'id, I"dcn·nc,.-sl. TIlt'I"C i, .1 lllllnbcr of \,ond d'lllhl. \ll;'" ponen dl.pl.1I l"\.·U ill Ih,' m"'1
e,hnul;r.'l'hic cl1"lllpj,o, ofl)OIl('l" dllLul:inl: Ihe rqJcr- e:I>II.II ,il1l.llil'll'. liL.· lhdlinl: \\,lIer. 1.'11 Ill' .....,.·U .l_
l"i1'l· "flhl·ir produclion ... lhq IIU'\'( lH IIC" pl.lcl·' .111 i1l'"'lInt·m.,1 IWI1·,crh.d d.lilll .0 m.ullI.lill tilt· ,,0-
or "hcn nmrkcl delll.,lld, r.h:U1I:'" "lulL- •hn l'I'''·'''',"c d.,1 l>ll'lilion /11" 11l>lN.·h"ld rnernbc,,-
11lllO,ull p,I11 tlf Ih.' IIlI".'I1111Il'1l1 tmll .tlll "" hllkin\:,
!lllT'lItr.ll l<,n, "f ,h.IfO lll.lll"tl,ll, h,I'" ......1111...1 III Ihrl't l' .lP]l.",·tI111 '111 W, h,·It-tlltJl ",):.l11i, 11Ink I'h,·
.,.,,, I),lW "ll1du,i"n' ~llh'lic I,m.llilln 1,1~"n '<1);11'- 1"'1'"""1<1' nt ,("1.tnll' 'Il<ltm' 1111' m'''' t"",III'II<' tlf
1 .111('1,1< I "<""flr,,·tl III h.lm' 01 ".It...-I , t ndl·llil1'·~ I h(' a~·
.llch h.I'.1 l'en ...>.\1"0("' 11I'I>IW1<,..;,.II ...·n,il1I11 • n"""
u>.lN' 1II,In " tk-lrrd III ,ll\"h,ln>l,'t1'" Wh.1I -«lII' 'Ulllpli'\Il IIMf Iltl' h'" l'",dtl" ion h,t, ,n\'t'I\Cd tIl.'1t nf
1" cn,ul'<" l:lT.l1fl '"I>11I1I1"11\t In .1I11>11l,........,..,11 -ell'" Ih., n"NI, in II'm" of r.lllt"im·.... ,'11-.. "'Cl'p' for \'nl.
111;11 I' Ih.. lK'llTII',ll:l" ..I dn"lIlOl,i"n .I,k- "n,lln--h· Ulllil1flU' .111,1 ht.:llt h.I,I..,·I,.
mqu..... "1'lT'o<·m...l QUilt fMl1.lrl.lhll. ('\,'1\ <IlI)lCl"' llu' llt>lu'" .,f 1Jt.:,1 \,en" fillllih.u· "ilh lIlt" m,lin_
fi<i.al "udi.......... 1.11" C0l'prr \~ 1,"'lIrn fl\'llll Ill.. ,tlT'.lnt (If pOtu,,-, produc,ion. hOlh ItK'.llh .me! do;c.
\':11..'0('\'0 Itll in IlK :-'mrn.l 1,:,lIn la> a1lT.,dl pr.xlllN'd "hrlT'. CuhLl",1 n-,plic.llitlll ('",Ill h.' ~''(.'Il Ihnlllf:h lhl"
n'1do-llCT '\lI'I,",rtim:. 11Ii> .I-<",umpllon. ,1hlloullh "ilh- ,h.llll'" .llle! ,OtllPO'llI.ll1 of I '''-\l:I, I\'I"-'~ "''<;01"C1'l''d in
OUI full .xl.n...... kdl,.'<"lll('lll ..... IIK' ("1(".11 .lln, Coch.ld!i· ('.n.h 11t~I1~. BLlI Ihi, did nOI ...,dud... ,hl" m,tnifl'~I,l1ion
n ~1 of :tl\ illdil~du,d hm:.·tplim. Idlin~ ,lhoUl 1.1l);n~
Thr ",.... Ilk of I'0llrn nnl ..11...." 11' 10 qll("ltorl Ill.. ,l~lb. 11)0100(' ;,bI11l1(,'. ,l1Id. not I'·;I~I. \,I"inl; t.~ICS
,,'idm .KH1"rd ""'UnlIJl.l<>I1 ltul mllt"h rlThl>lOO(" ('\;- <llld ;uti,ti, l;,knl~. ~Iu('h ,1I"lh.I,-oIi>WCOlI lint·II'
~ "lll h.l-' b,mr ;lI1d in p.anltul&r"oocku iltlm poIOI!' i~ 'imph hou>o('h"ld I ,n;,llion. The Ul.,'.l inl'l:S-
h~ I ,llll.hffl.md kit ;l 't'O<'lU' .l!1tf.K1u;U \lOIfI- Loobnl.!
'it:"'\lio\l h,l' hrottl:ht lhe indil;du"l Copper '\l.,'<:
.11 Iht numhrt'< .,f \~b rrplT'<'lllM. 111<' di.uibution
hOll~hold. and ib membt'r'<. into hi<lonc;1! focll~ .
..Ilhrit WI"It' ..nd \11", "lrh Iht motn";ll;..o lIu.l :I ,il!-
VI. SMALLER OBJECTS OF CLAY
I \OU, 1 \<)n I.t'in,l! ,. hil!hh Ik-I,nkd iml"'ul(".lli,," I"", llf'oIrlv
\Inonl: ,he 1lI0lt· t"'\crpli0I1;11 fill(l, rr"m Lil(;1 i'i a rI.•), (o)mplrlt· pl"rrs ,ond:m fr,lI{lJl('Ilt) \'orrl' f"und ..dl lotH
cli'\(' .1 'IO-(";\Ikcl c1.I) l.tM"t "ilh illli'l'd Iin~ .lI,d d"l~ uur .mrihuu·d In thr 1.ilf.1 :.! "'ttkm"n1. Ilw- rn.-.. t
in ,I m.lm...r lh.lt i5 he~omllhl' .IICidO:Ill,ll Ahh(lll~h rommuI1 p.lt! .lInunlC Thr fr.ll..'1n..n,m pi.. n'-, "'no 1'1P
,implislie. ,I cUlIlllllmil";uiw 1(1,1(1 i'i .Ill'iw)\(:d. M in ,I ind. ft'rT: 11. ri~ht k~ I. ]rh ~ 3. b",h It-$rl !
klltr Fi,l;. \'1.1 '1111' lablel ".15 found ;n lilt" .11,'.1 or and hl·.lcI, hi"",,, ,\1}II.lnrn all' "Tminl(h I.u bnll'.
Iltlu~ J, in Ol diJ.\urllCd lop la} .-r. 0.2U In helO\, the 5llr. ahhuu~h lhl·r.. i.. ont' \\.,,--: r!;1\ item "'1Ih p"llI\ffi
f;ICI' and tht'reror.- nOl .lIlributl.'(IIO ,Ill) p.tn;( ""Ir rea- 0:1111 "h,( h could h.I'r 1K'n1 11"'11 rti .m .tml 1"1,
lure, Ahhllu~h fr.l\;mented \\'~lh fl'cent brc;lk",l:c 19;12.'1 I SIl1~II' pi..rf"l .1( ("()um f".. hip'i 1'\, 111:9/1lfl
tnlCC \, il prO\idC!) "nOllgh ;nfoml.u;(lll .IS 10 thl' fiJnn kl1l'C'l 1'1. III:'ll'\. IfJ 1010 .lnd mmp 1'1, 1'1:'i(IH
.llld p,lIIern, The I:lhlet lloIS a I'OllllCl.h.lllC. 17 lIllll in T\\() fi""urinl"'i .Irr rl'prn('n1l'(l h~ lhrl" I"""'r I"m "f
dilllneter. 10 12 nUll thick with flat .lIld .moolhcd Illl' hod> onl> 1'1. 19: 1I 9086 & fi~, \11 ilH'i
hOlckside, The I.thlet is !iglu SrI:) hrown in colour, I,dl- I1 ill'm. lom.. frllln "p]I;lrrnd> undi"wrb.'d Unit) ,llId
Imked (no \r;l('I'S of secondary burninJ:l and madr' of onl> two do nOI h,ll .. ,I prt<'i-e prol"n;,'n..,'. Iwinl;:
.:Ill>' IcmperNl wilh fine sand (some anlmmt ,jforg:mir aeddelll,L1 find~ ill 100le <<lil ri, 1');L:i\l)lI.'j/l),\,
mallCl' is lllw pn'sent). It.\ original cSlim.lied wcighl i~ 2001/17). Til" l'em;linin!:" 'ii>; pil-eC'l ",'r(' di"m ,'ro'd
35 S' Int'iM;d lincs "'ere made wilh II "'llOtll-n 1001 wilh durillJ: the wur<;c or t'X(",I\.ltiOIl, hIli ill rt'di'\lrihUlrd
a till! 2 mll' wide nib. The dots :lre sli!:"lul>'deeper Ih:m fills.
the lines. I'ans of the linc.< eont,li'wd tmcc'i of li~hl P:lrJ of ,I fil(urillc. "hich l;ilIl he ,Iurihull:d III lh,·
(\, hitish) pa,te, po.-ibly incn15t,llion, This ohscn.,uion Ug;1 I 'ielllemrlll " ..., di'«:O\'l:n:<! bclQI< thr "'\\ pOlI1
is only h.lscd on visual analpi5 wilh m;lJ:nifier, 1"crc or IIOII'lC' I of UIf.I 2 Fit:. \'1.3 80')') rhl) hou"<"
arc. hOI,,:VI;(', other fin(l~, indudin'ld.lr disk from ,"un· ,,-as COnJlnlClCd on rem.lIllS oLm c.U"lier ono:, lilt ~\\
,Iuilc '-also kno,,," as Plosk.1.ta ~IOb>lI.ll di'lCo\crcd in the pan. ,It lhe dc'Ccndlllt: ~lopc:1. beinl: sL,blliu:d In I,K-
1950s. wilh Ilhite incruilecl inci~ions .md doo Gim- eup.lIjonal debris of Iho: prniom 'lCllkmrnt d
but.ls 1986.251. Fig, 9.55. abo\e. Chapl<:t 11 Ul'net. lho: oril,>ln,lI ptl\luon of Iht
Cb> milieu rcm:lin an eni~latic 1)11C of objfCts, a
fealure shOlrcd with other no doubl rd;l\o:d itcrll'i.
such .llt so-o:;tlkd smmp <c•• ls .md bollOlll$ \\ith <iI:115.
.,hun.d.'III]r found .11 the site orGmdeslmit.s:, \Nilmlo\
19i11. \\'h.1I is conspkuous, is th.1t alre.ldl in tho: Nco-
lil11ic such ol~t"ClS, Io,;lded \,'ith eomnmnic:ltho: ,.llue.
m.trkedl} O1l1weighs Ihe \,,:Slem l),In ofBul~lri.1 com·
p"rcd with Ihe f:lr beuerin\csrih'atcd e.~tCl11 I'"" ofthe
eounl.)" (sce DlhanrezO\,l 2003. 91l, i\bp I: Coch,ld1.i-
e\' 200Jll; Todorova 1986: 1993), /\1 We-elll. 110 COll-
I,jurius il1l"rpn:l;ujoll C,IIl be gi,en. 51111('11Ir;llIr. lh"
LiS" Il,hlcl 1',·,,,utbIcS;l "'''p, "hclher" of <ml'!i or POlll1S
ill ,llamlM:;op".I>cI'II;'ps e\'I'II,' sl)('i:11 e1ml'!.

FIGURINES
,\N"IIIItOI'O~tOItI'l'IIC FlGL'1t11'l1..:>
The WIlll... or .mlhropomOlllhic fil,'1lrines filHlI 1.i~1
is VCI) 1.lrse COml).lr"d 10 Ihe .lre.1 C,,"l'.n,IICel. tht' 1l'.1-
l"",.... pan of n.., teun.... I'> 71H:' d1"""ntd ,n
1-1_ ~ hn<:tu ; nn 1", R l'..-.ln

fra~lIImlcd fil!llrinc rould nUl be' ..,.Iablliht'd. al·


thoodl tho:- ma'r'd :and l'ffi1l(W"i chilraa~ or lhe: b\'U
of WJd> "here me, fr::l.l;mml"~ t.... ll1d 1TllI\ ll1dicalC
Uu.1 me, OUlm...h ,,'Cl'tC <'),U¥'It'd from MI MCa of ~_
u1.lr " .."c.
T1n> ",'OUk! ttrUinh. &ll m line ",th 00!.tn'300n!.
m.x- on tho:- dblribution fi fu:;u1lllCt in the "lib-
Io<'qUl'l1l L..izo ~ ph.- ~"" ~ \'I1th eIUbIbhcd
prtJ'aUo:ntt "'eR' found U\ ......Olr an:~ tIWlIh illonlI:
!he oonbcm and c:L-tcm "'.ill uf H,'lL"C I 6 Cilloe'.
onr f~ "'''' di"""nn1 bct,,~ HotbCS 2 ilIld
] 1'1. 19:11):161
Ir.:uch. hold a mudl darker brown ('010r. 111l~ IOtal
Fi~ "c:n: ilI>G Pll"all ",thin \he hou.cs. :\
hadll ut_t' .1"" fi~nnc
" \. hi Ih; ~ "OI".lll
IS 18 cn., ,\QI:'),
I"ilthcr ~ \lIUiltion ,,~ unc"'nl'd in !he
;ua, of H,lU>C 4, oM Iwth 1:Ua\"illcd. Cio!c 10 11""
. " r'
1.1 lkarh p~n:Ull, To the lelt 0 I,e r,,,,,rille
'." ",:\>

agcm "....n. f..an\; tilt prt"<UlTllIhlc cmrana in lite placed a ~mi"!l ha,,1 0 - 10 cm with ,,1\,11 ,Il,e
~th, ill1 cnnoul<'d cb, fil(\lnnc " ....., tfuroo.'Crcd, pc:ln:d 10 bl' ,I cla\ cRg in;1 Fi!l. VIA. '1'1 'e "00",
"'" oflh~ 'h.l]"Ie of;1
, funnel n;HTO"IIl~
" h l 10 l f' of ",;
cQlTUTOOnh 1<I"",n a> Oil "gum\; ,L;fJdtko;,~ 11,L; VIA,
1'1, j & 19 111c hca.d ill'(lc.I''C(! I In '\onh of tile IIp\lt''T 11,lInclCT. " 1,c \lene",1 OUl,
lIle':,ll(
I ,-t"OS
, .. ofll'"
Ilr.:" , ~r;"
' I, I.ll,'
' ,d"in.,lIl,
body, ....'Cnly rUI lhroul(h Ihe ned•., in .Ill Prol>abilil) , . , .11r Ihe ""rro"cT cnd §lll~.!~C'1 ,,'
". <

1:1\ a 1'lool,;h hl;llIc. 'Il,e 1K1dl '(Mid '0011\"" hal deqloCT, I H, fa} .. <fnnd" "'I' in fact :0 ,':lf1 ,n,I' cl \\'1I1r .'I
(to
, I r "
hrnce Ihe d,rrerrn<;r in r"lo~ lli e head l~ing P~ § ll{J to :1 Mllrn, r. .
"'!lmnc. ..,
'lIlll:lr 10 ,'," ,li.,ro,<,<f\·(.
'le,.vcd in drl(l" tmldlllom and Ihererore hghl hrQ\"1 "hol,· fi,l;U''illC. '11\1", Ihis find abo "'r\"'~ ,'~ .In cs' I'
in color, "hilc me hod" locill,'(\ .11 Oil h~mus rich "Hlpl,' ur 'hining u"'lgc \\,;Ih;.. Ihe "'Ill\(' litu:.
dUlnain.
Ugtl

I, , I, I!I,,!
11l1: \ 13 IlDwiDo: 01 A <Lt, <'lI:II"- p.<I' 01 chr • .........,- liod
............J on chr "'II1:II:;....,.... """" ,.) ........ {J ....... H""
...........,p.. "lit

,he Rom,m period. ,;miIOlr <"1:.'1::' Iupo-d cruObIt.-o Ul'


mo"n fl'Ofll otOcr p;in, of F..urnpc.-. r.IL Ens:bnd.
.. here their wc \\ ..... nude ~'ibk In 1.1... 11.'" of ITk'Ul
lonl:S ,,-kcote ]99:!. fill"_ 13:s: fir....!h. the con-
finned crucihla round .., u~ ,UT or 01 .. hulh dilflT-
enl open wJJe ,.ilh lb.1 bonolm Irt;" br.....
-n,errfOTl' Ihe: .illusi()l'1 of;1II
held in the: ..tin
cml.
of .. fis;:urinc: <ttTTU more ron\ioons:, 1nc: rob<"f"'m'X
of the i'enb i> "renl:lhcncd In the fXI. duI :111 mm'
I'll VI ~ Cl:" (M:Un"", "l>rl",... " A' ··Th ,u'''= I:'d.....~. And h.1'-C Kkntir.al dol' r..bric 'CC brim, \I0fCO\Tr. m....
'" ~ ; U ,10.. """,.... ', ,or ,11... ". ..... 1 ,<:1" ofl"" Iil1unnr ..re rela,ed thmuch 1.11.. -.;un.. 'Olri.lli"n of bnJoI,ll
1B ,,"
rolo~ .\1. GimbUla> h:15 noocrd tl... 1 man' h"ll.....
figurines of the CucUle:ni pt'riod conl.Linrd .. -imin
Ihci.. hollO\, bell;es 0"" or 1\\0 <null Cll\ ~~"'-. 0"
-nu: "cl.,) CRI:" !U1"rd 10 bc .1 hollo\\ COllla;n..,r d;,,- balls Gimbu.as 1986. :!·n, !-is: (qO '1,,: <"-Tll-
wi,h ,list,,], i", r1'o,d li", ,wd l)Oiul,'(1 00110111 I"il:. boli,m or ,Ill ~'l.: is ra,her <1I':uelnli;>m.ord J.lld m"",
\'].51. SlIdl ;1<'"" "''c 1.11"" n fin'" olher co",,'mJlor. like!\ uni\"<:~. FurthcnnOIT_ il nllTC:'pond' ..ilh the
.Il) ~ilt:.\. Tt", mO,. nUlllnOlI. ""lIo~lion ,11 k ...q 18 p"Cl;ln;\I11 ,'.lIe of'h.. \lOIn.m in qul.... ,;Qn,
;~ held b) lhe B.,~"ch;nll ,i,,·
.11 !> IUII,;<n,1 IJ.on,-' &: 11'e fili\lrin~, pt,ICed ou lh~ A'lOr .tIQll~ "ilh 11_ J.('-
Akk,.mdn'J\' 19%. 19. F;I:. 91. ~12. "I"'r<: ,tU' "CI:I:~" Cl"50ri..". "",b 'urrol",dl-d In <'C'<.-eh bn.,>inuillS: Iu ,tp-
an, ;ll(crpn''''d ," n'll'ihk,. Th" .lIuhm" ",rill ion Ihm pear 0.36 III b...Jo\\ d,,, ,"rfOlC~ PI_;; \11 ,,,'IT lound
.CIIIl.., of ,hi' i,cm, h.,d ,111ifi..,d "'I"r.,,-,-,. lcnt.lli,d) ull ,I ~'1ttlli,h d.IH'\ 1.I\er illl"l'JIITI,-d ,I, .1 'l.Jlllped
confinll;ng lit,.;,. fllllC'l;nu rllo"... & . \Irbllldln' Hoo.. llh" ltoo.. 1.:\1·1 bring C.1. {U.i '" bd,,,. ,ul1~ICC
199(;. ,191. H"w'·'1"'. ;1 n-n",i", ll"zzlillll. llt.1l ill'm, •\, Ihe I;me of Ih.· ,-oIlIl,Il:r.P.lion...."n" ..., .... 6 "TIT
\l11h l'u;lI",d h"UUlII' IIl1d n:l.uil'l'l) dtl>!'(1 fill'" \\'cn: pl,lced higher. perh.III' "11 ,hch," i,.." "JI"d .Hlhe "."\-
""'d Ihl" ....udhl<·;,. ,ille,· 1111';1' It.ludlinll ",'uld I", com- er" ".,11. .,. lhrir I',,~ili(>n illlllli..,_ C,l. :: III r".ml ,h..
I'I;c;"ed III ill~I.II!i1iw. Iltll""'O'I', ill la"'I' ';111<", dlllinll nllnh..,l1l ed!,'C .,r,hc In'!lt'h•. llld':'..,IIl rn'", I"" In,'llr-
c<'rt!c<l in hilt' "ith olh," it"11I\ iultl11ll:nioll h,'~cd 011
....11 ,,,:t, 11\ I,ltrl'
LIl" ,111 rn.urn.d Il'l1lolLll' W('I'(' ,\\,' • ' " f ,kclch.·, h\ r l\.,i\I'·'"
tl'('~' h;lI~ 1'>1'1>1".1.\, In ...ll1n.", lIOn "11 h, "'lahl~hlru.: 1\ \ ...Iher hil1;h l1lunlwr or hgl11im' h'<IJ.,'lIl,·nb dis_
U1nll
.I "'lr\.Il1l lit-nIT. Iht" {Irt'"'t"n",1 1l11"ml- L~ . . ",.fI'd III Ih,' \\,1\11' .In',' "lnn~ 111l' 1l01'llwrn ;lud
hmil",ll.. Iht" 'I rnnlO"r "flhr ho".... "hldl" ,ul- e."I.,\t'nl \\ ,dl or Ilnll..' 1 indil .lll:~ Ill;!! CI.I\ li,llurilll3
11< ... ru 11' ,t,Ut" Ih.n Ih.. rilUAl ,lml Ih.. prol,UIl' wel'(' \tt'IT in ,uti\"\' 11'" "nd Ih••• tht: (lom,Lin~ or Iheir L1'C
not tnffil.l,ll, ~,1I('(1 -« ('h.lpl.... 111 m,l\ h.I\'(· l)l'("n ,,,\ era!. E"'r ,illn~ the d,.~ic;.1 \\nrl.:
. ~ PI 18"1
Ilou...: I c"m•• in",1 ;& lr,u,mrlllrd h~" . .- or P l',lo in I C\f,R 011 hl1;\Lrille~ L'.ko 1968" ncarh
c'I,:?7 .nd;l m11t'ti cb, lump furnL..hcd ",Ih .•nthro- {'\'C'I' -<"hobr tl'('.ltim: the i"u," of prchi,tol'\ i;,
pt,m...rpltK k ..lu"" PI IR.· ·Hil.l Thr ~ad. I' Sou~h('m Eump" h.u ldl 'he \I~ 10 cOlluibute '0
. ' f lhe ~<.llUIII!
Lnlrrpf'C"lm.l.-' tkri\iru~, frllll!ol h.:un1X 1\ Ih(' iruell'1Tt"tion of lil.."Iu'<lIi\c ,,1'1, But .05 D. Bail,,,\
coddr-'" f\'P', \l'f\ Il!och ,.h],;r Ihe ;lbo-.T roenti<,ncd h.n riil:hth not.i('~, appro;,chc~ "ere Ii , and 'up-
011<" ef hdo..... \ hnd .If ,I 1~1II "lIh bem blCO poncd mo-th b\ pCr"OlI.,1 o.:oll\"ic'iom :md ephem.
I' IR''l .w.w OU,,,,<k IM ..,,, ('(tI'liCr HotL<c 5 or cr.\lll.. umpnons of p"cho.lnah,is 199-11. ~1. Gim-
m-J,\ '''!'I''''" (tx' a"umpbon Ih;&1. <\(tinl! fil!Uri~
but.J.S' won. 19H; 1986; 1~89, had the b'l'CalCS' im-
"efT;I r.llhn" rommon ,1unbulr r( ID\ hOU'lChoId 10- pa.C't on fonllln~ ..ideh acceplc<! imerprcladons of
\nll<)l'\.,1nd trol onh dur 10 dilfKull..... in fT'C(lI!I'tiz- fi~rine' ;l) ··'l.l(rro ima~ of di\;lle emincs" Gim·
1nl! 1tK-m In ,I frnl!1nrmm ,uu·, lhe: fJ1<c i~ or but~ I~. 226 RqpnUCM ,his llllironnal ap-
thrir CU'!U>l\eOt'" h..> hrnt CrTlIlrd TCtdurO\'" 1986.
pro;w:h. man\ ob-el'\~.Ilions put forward I~ Gimbm-
!u{l Tht...ut'J(' "bo,('l'\...O"n \\";&.) ~ b\ \' GcffO'.
~ al'(' still \"ahd and r'o'Olinl.!. She qrcsscd the oon-
011 mJ.1..n..l' froll! ,he- nrll:hborint:: Rr-duUle site Ger-
'"1:lItionalism <een in the molding of fi!,'1lrines "ith
£"' '!I1l1O
IitUe auemioll l(1''en to details of (he human bod"
Hnu-.c ! ,Il...... ronwned twO r*'ct:'\ or fi~nes.
bul "ilh much effon dc\'Oled '0 "propel' placcment
01X ". t~ .. di' rump <fu,err.TrTd in the ;tt"\\
cortl<"l' m-J,\;ilio rt'\ll'("o('l'll ;& situllt::" fit::urine bul of of fonif\illl.! and appropri;ue symbols" GimbutaS
dilTnrnl I.:ind than tht .. 00\1: mentioned PI. 1986, 2':?6. Soch "'l'lholiG1l1~ charged cO'I''ellliona!·
19'.lHl rim or ...!. th(' ,,001 i, IItX intc\!pfcd. "ith ism can abo be n:co~ni7.cd in the Lig;! m:ut>riaL
thr bBch. ;md. <crondh. 11 beJ.1"I:I rnll~ n:llurnfutk ~ia1l, ,,11(,11 compared ,,·i.1l other find:. of die
reockTinl! or;l, hUmllrl pan ... hit'h uswIh IS not cm- period, lllc mOSI dear Clll manif,""mtioll is thc "sit-
ph;wzt'ti. AMlher Irnl!fllertl disrot.'Cfcd in House 2. tin~ eoddr:ss" ,,;.h rq)C;uc<! minim:.lislic rcnderilli;"
thr ""'rr p;&n of;l fI.., 'tandinl.! fi\.!Urin.. \\ith roIlmrd or a bird-lile r.,ce, ~lighuy r.tisro. emphasized hip~,
Il'\!' ;lOO O\-..Nzcd hips l'il.! \-1,2, intiic<lll:!i that and amls collecled 011 Ihe bell}. To a mode!ll ob-
fil!Urlli('" "''00 had an imO\",hle po:silion ...ithin ule 5Cfver. the reclillin~ 01)C§(: remal~ sc;ued on a ,,001
hO\l§lt, lllL~ fil!Uri1X or aboul IS cm in hcil,!hl mLlSl wiut the face pleas.mu)' din:e.oo 1O"~Il'ds the sk1' firs.
lu\ bn-n f;l.<tclll'd lO Ollt of Ult timbers abo"e lI'e of all emanate a feeling of "good timcs", perh:,ps
(I\'cll 0('(' Cluptu III thmu!!;h a hok of 1.0XO.i 1:711. the b."lSic i11lention, lil.:e .. h:lpp} l~lJddha. [n this
~lapcd pnor ll) finn~ ;lnd hanll~ tl'aCl:!i of wl:'lr. 111(' t;QnlCXI, the obSCI'\'ation Ih:1I Ihe Lig:l fib'llrine is ,is-
J>O'ltion of UI" fr;,~rnem is in roncordanc" "illl the iblr pregnant is impomllll. Al the sallle time, I.hen·
fall dll'c...tiun of Ult" nonh"m ...<111 from Nonh HJo- arc :.\so ce!lain SiJ.,"I1S of indi\-idualil)', which :LSI: for
"drd~ Soulh. 111'" Ir;lCO of breab~e wtr<= fairl~ re- a1tenuliI'e explan:'lions. Itt Lig:', this is seen ill
('CllI. hUl th... ullJKr pan W3.!o 1l0l n:t:O\"l:red.
!lI)\lIe COLdd)' yel precisdl' captured de.:,i1s, like 1\\'0
Home 3, "ith Ihe richcst in'-<;IIlOI')' of poUel"\·. con_ COll.C!i of rcndering of .1 hLlck1cbone :llld loes.
t,\i~lrd tl;e poorCl't \'\-id"nce rc!folrding fiJ.,'Urin~, Just Ethnogr:'phic dmu pro\-id<: a suing of opdons (for
a S1t1J.:lt- lC,ld ...," fOl.lIld in Ihe 'oOuthem pan 1'1. 18:-1 ~lLnun;lries, sce Ucl.:o 1966; '1':11:11;\)' 1993), hUI "hat
1065,1 !Illhe foal1lC area "':IS also a ob,· "001 ,.,
,-.' " '\'HC\ Lhe)' fail 10 delllollslr.l.1e is a multi_dinwnsion:ll use of
coul d, IX U1tcnd\od for" ;il{ill~........
fi""'rin... Unfr"n 1
, . u Ullat<;}' fib'\lrinCll \\ilhiu the s.une !>OCit:t)'. I~x:llnplcs :Ire also
\ IU Ind "'as made alicr the Danul, ,"n' d'
., ,,-~I,"C· belinl; 011 co-exislence of figurincs nJ:ldc of dilli:rcII L
\l'.n..... 111111 Ihr <=XCl\aL10n He, thus , '\ " ' '_" no\ rc·
materials, <;,/01, da)' ;l11d wood. Despite Ihc"" lill1 i-
r;~ Vlb. Ct" IIr"" l'mdurcd I" ~II nmr 'Ut old ~"l (n~" I::...l, Con.... D",nc,.
:-Onn!>rm ~'" ,~(.I Cnurtno J \ OL>m-. :-O,oU
...
,r:u~,,,,, 1 tk-irn "leh ~\ l:"n"'n~ """'" "r~l ,,~'"'" ,,,,h 11<',1<- """'~ ",,11 .... ~lorm ,~,,", " rnnI.olr " .",j ~ mim".._

l."iam. clhnogr.lphic rccorch <lill n:lIl.1i" .1 WUl«' of objn:b. bill Ilti! don nIX impl\ lhal adull ob-cnt'l"I
in'pir.ukltl. ..ould !,'CI Ihe \';"11<' imll~,ion..\ ~ n;amllk ~
,\ \.t1u.,b1c Ic<~n Gin be gotincrl from fl(Jd"ork i.. "cousin on .1 'COOI(r-. "hich !nob lile J.n ;un-u.d
i'onht'l"Tl Rq;on ofChan.t Glrrit'd OUl b\ J-\. Ol.oro 1i1,'1lrinc ,,,,hOUl I~ .1IId holdine: 'iOmelhine: in IU
JIl'''''.comm.' I. FolIO\>inll: Ihe "ork roll\in~ ofloc,tl h..-II1<b rnc:lI1b1int: buo.:rJ.nion..\ rilUM performance?
I>OItl'l') produce""..,]1 a~cr1 "0111>111. he di..<cO\en:d So. [n a 'otlllt: IKlII.·!'! n1md Ihi.. -boo. of!1 '("",u'\-
Ih..l Ihcir!l 10 \ ....;'r old vandd;I1lt:lllcn "erc ".'in!,' i:; holdint: lhc h.lI1dl..... of a I,hed.. ,ho: ~ of Ih(
cia} 10 produce to)". "hich (l('C';tSion.t11\ ("o"ld be' 30Id -comin" be'int: IlI.,cC11 on lhc ridill\! pl.ufunn hcnce
to lheir pl.,pnale,. Incidclll"U}. the d.n1t:ht(11I of lhe 1.hC\ arc nUl import.lnt..is Ih~ ,inu.dh di.""war
I)OUCI'lI "cn: nOI ;lUr.ICl~..:11O the cr.lfi. The ilCIIl$ lh.ll behind Ill.' ~(IOICr !Il:rITn. Sil(lliIiGlnd,. Ih........ il(llU
","id.• wen' producing "rc: hum.ms, furnillltl·. "orindin~ arc Inle im.'t:e-. uf re.1! ollJo:'CU. if ",.,d pllJlll'rh_
'lones. mi("rophOl".:S. mobile Ilh01l1'<. hUrrlbh,..:1 snlolJl Fil(l"ill..... produn:d bl tlillcrem children h.,d \(,-
'e'\lels. '"cou,in dri"jnt; a ><,oowr" .1I1d 0,(> on cn'I"}- 1'1'111 curnrnnn f.·,'lurt:' . .\I.mile 11:1.,.... for ('",.,mple.

lhing Ih.'l i, 'urroulldillg ,he drilcln:n in their d,lil} "ere IIl·C.""'I"\ '0 It'ep ,he hum.IllS upr.,i$c{l. [n ,h.lI
life (F'i~. \'1.6). ,\t rhe SMue lime. Ihe ~irb ttit'd ro \\,'y. lhn "(11)('",,-.([ .~ '"'I,llld.ll1:lilcd'". I\ht·" .'"'l...d
("(lmc ;,s cll))c a< possible in thei1' 1"'llflc,;nl; "r rhe :,1>0111 ,ht· lacl..ill,t: h.,ir. ,,<ir'ls .>lared Ih"l h"ir l.ouJd
burn dnriut.: 1he filillt: proce>s. Ht'" 1','1'1'. J.lrer 0". (lIIe
of ,h,' }O,"'t.: IlOllt·.... rdle.lt..:1 0" ,hi:; limi,.nioll .ll1d
·n... ~",I"o<" ~ml<rlll '" lk Juhn \~" 0.",,,. l·,,,,""i,, ,M
I'rocluCO'd "HI Ii!"uri,,~ .1 le"'.,].. wiU. lont.: h.tir ".1>
Gh.,.... In;,~, A,~r~ rot .>Jlo,,;"~ '0 "'" ''''I",I~"I.....I,b,~ f'um
Ill, "lid,.... n,~ ~lolr. ~~ll"h I'm"""" Jell unfirelL .. hile .' "",.It- fil.:urine '''L\ lirrd lot.:('lhcr
tOO
,,,lll'dru-h.-, "llh.. \ 111.11:'- Iml 1••l..m!o: hll111.111 \'mhlldl'
- l11rlllh.:r- "I .1 "l1l1lllUllll' ,'"uhl oh.'n dr-
111<'11, • ",,
nilit' ,h.' Illl".unm: "f tht" 1I-:111;n,·.. on ,Ih.- h''''l' •• t 1"'1
(In~ 'illl:k .1PI'I'I)l'li.II,- ,']nllclll. \ddlli"n,ll .KIl·'.... 'f_
;r- "f ,1\<" r""il;'ll1 Ill' .1 tit.:1111!ll' CI'uld lurth,'r
'1I't'll~h"n Ill<" lllt",minl.:
In Ikmn. ,blk,,-nl nl"lUlcd f;llllih,", "ou1<l .,1....,
h.\'~ .\ _p." i.11 hu'l. "ht'fT -en-r.11 ,llllhn'ptlmlll'phir
",...><kll hgl,nlU" ''l"n: lq)lI01,'l:lh.·r. 1111:<0(" Hl'!"N'll\
(\c<T.l ;\ 1'I:1.lIi\\"' \hhllU~h tu:"'!n!;! ;ndi,;<lu••l ft',.-
IIlIt"'-. "1Ih "':'11.\1 .'m',. lht' (1!-.'l.uilll... ;I!"C clJuplt-d up
"ilh ,hI" dl"<-'C.l.'t-d Ihrom:h '1X'Ci;,1 (crrllloni," Ind;-
,idu.l.\ 'l"'lCl'\hill "f hl.,'luim·' i, oft"n .....·11 ,mlOlll: ,ht
rhildn"ll ..\' Ihl' ,uh of I,,;n~ i, .en I){\\\t·rful.
childrrn \,ho 10_1 11n-ir I\\in \\ould 1)(" IlHl\'idcd "i,h
~ fil<urinc n'pft",t'min~ lhr rlccc;I!'Cd ,win. fi,SII'n 10
,h"ir ".li_1 10 \It. I,......d .1\ lnck) ch:wm but .lbv ;I~ .'
doll ~lId .IS ,m .11 111:111)(;'",,011. onen \It'illg red.
,,'hell di~r.l\'(kd. or. lLo\'~ld:lYs, \I_wIll) sold 10
tOllli_l.mind•• d lllt'rch:ml'. lIlt" fi~r\l,incs ,'t:Ic.L'c Iheir

....
I,; \.,' \\",~Irn 1'CU"J'l" ~n'",e Ilv \-.""""'" <In" 1\,,1>••
pO"cr.. or _piril' in :, ccrf'lnoni:ll ".Iy. ",hich c.mu.
mon" h\\'olvC' Clll 1II:II"ks on aOll\ or lC1~" ,'l11ual
dt....lruction Ihou~h UOI .1!Tecting the \O\lut: oflh,' i,em
;IS :1 rommodit\ .
Wilhout alle1llplin~ ;m\ din:cl :In:llob'). lhe lKJinh
....,m a t,..,....l.hLe dc\ri "hic:h H>uld hI' pul on :1.._ its
p~mcd h,'re ';CI''-"e 10 underline Ihe :l1uplilU(k or
h",r
Dunnlt on. in Bmin. \\r;t\f"CI. .IIlhoueh un· lC'l""b on \\hich lil1;urine:!l m:l\ cin::ul:nc OOlh mentall)
c\mnn'trd ,m "udic:-- of li\tUril'll". IhrN' "'t'N' >('\'t:r.l! ;md oomo:malh Fir<1 or all. lhe pos<ibilil) oridcmir\·
OC\~ll\> III tJb.<,n'tC the' runction (l( h~\l1illC'" ....im;n in!/: chikin-n as llroducel"\ irlspircd to look Illorc Ihor·
dilfrtl'nl ,·ommunities.. n~nfl("\ prot.t<:un~ !he \i1. otll;!:hl\ al till: \,~\ fi~\Irincs \\Cn: produced. 1'n:J.
b~t:! Ct\u!d hi' found at their limn, "tunnel could Ix t='iin~ of Ihe Oinl malerial from lit;:l has ,icldt--d
....n\ both ir$dr md uull<idc 1>tlU>C\. :lnd Ihc\ could some nidmct:. Ihal local bro\\n~h Oilll. found Oil Ih('
tu\" dilfelTfll lco.'t:b m C'Mltn'hip.\1 Iht- \i\l.1ec of 'iile. "as U..M ;" .\ medium of trainilll~. No lool~ h:\\r
(;rL"li to rhe East or A1J<mrI dM' ""''" of FOil Iilr IJoct:'n made of Ihis \)()()r qualil) nilll. bUI '\t-"'\Tra l
main feu h ...." .. ul>Ul1lrd m die ('(InleT of a Ulchl'll al Imal'llnl corn indic;uc Ihc practice,
iI,,- ,hirf, hoou..o<. A ..'OOCkT1 fi\tUnlM' of a m.-.\.. "idl All discQ\'t:rcd cla\ ftg\lrim:s. c.xccpl onc. ~"rrt'
hem Ul<'n> aud l'ffif'hasi1.n1llha1h" ";u '>aid 10 rl'\lIT- lhrce«\illlcn,ion:\\ PI. 19\, Thc onc lwo-dim... l\>loll.,1
....m ll.,Il.l a Yorouban dril\ \lroll~tin~ die "holl' flgurinr iOU, ".IS disco\'en..-d in House '1. "h...re.."
\ill.llt" all;'lln<l i\l""'<!I Ht:- \l.j h "M du~ \1\\0 a alrcad! m...miom·d. i, muSl luI\'c 1}L"(;1l ,'Il"rhcd 10 0111'
10 cm hidl pbtfonn ;lnd hlC,...II11 '"1T01.mdt.-d In ki" Oflhe lilllbt,!,> .,ho\'c Ih... 0\"1'11. For 1Il:\lluf:Il'lIl1ill~ or
ehI'll ,,-,.re. Outside Ihl' hOIl...." riL;h\ .<1 ih ""\"'I'n~ "all lil.,'urincs. 1\10 u:",k lechniqucs ,,"'re "pplied. Al k.Isl
"t'll" IWO tllher fi""rinL"', a f"UM!e .oml "n :'\l]l:u\'ml\- . s:. C"SI'S
lII0\C _ "l~lIn"C'
, 1 Ic(11'roUl nu, . •'1I1rl du'
\\1.'1'1.' mote
•, ......11••1 bC'~ll:' c<.llllin"...d tll h" .1 ~hild bOlh ""id I~ "'une lump or cl:II' (70-15. 9405. 902·1. ~IOl\(). 'llmll
rqH1."C1l\ )ollluwn .\I"l>ou. m~dr for d,'"d tl<ildrcll \ "1 '1 .,1.0 Ihe C:I'C \) r I1II.' lll,
.', '11'I" ,,s '>Ccmm~, ,1\ li",Il"
.,
~lltl wnll<'Ctiu~ Ihe ""rid \,If Ill<' h\in~ "i,1< lhe world , f III lhre':
Ulc (I lhe UIt-' 1 "'ul"ll\"l\l \80991. l11dclcllI. ).
"r,h" 'p,nts l-l~ \'1.11 'n""" lil;Uriu,,_ "er,,;oIoo ill of Ihe tl11.... hllnp.fi~\lrillC ... WCI'C rn.ld.: of UIIll'llll)\"r.l"d
lhr '.....',r"lup of lh" "I"lir '''ltulluuil\ .... "ell ;0" c\;l\ .9111~, 9llll6. 200111 '17 '. ,\nothcr 1"ch"icI"e Ill'
U"~(J J(JI

,ol-t'd mdi,idu,11 mtldclill~ nl "'1>"1'.,,1;' h'l(I> po,n•


.md Ih.n .",<:",hhn~, 11,i~ \\". ,Ill' pn,\.'ilm~ Wth-
niq,1l' ," Lilf.' 2. I h., mun' inl"rm.lli\t· rr.,~ml'"n,!\ ",_
,lir.,w dllll ,,,lit! limb, ;md I""'d \\,'re .'II.ll'lted I.. 11
h"II<," hu..h-. Th... hod) wo"ld hI'" _impl) "H'xkll'(l
I,ilh hnl:el,\. ~m.,Jl p,olm,ion~ "cn' 111.Id..• 10 ;lH"rh
lhe limh_ 11,;, t,1Il Ix- x'Cn In'm [hI;' IlI.lJonl\ of Ih.·
fil:\InlW k~\. \,hi.h "rre hrol..·1I (>lr.1I JLJlluion-, [11
mor,' dt'm.lIldinl: l."l.<C«. a \\Otxl"n ~tic" of 1 3 mm ill
.".'d.""
di.'II1",,,·r \\.1.' con'. ,Iround \\hi.. h Ihe hj.,'1,r.
in..· l'o"ld b.· ""t·mulcd. Th,,_. hok~ alia ,,,ch .,id;:§
can he 't:en in bOlh ht::,d. ("-llli. AnoO) .mrl k,,"/ft·...,
l!lO(5). In 1\\0 ..."",.~ wid,hl Ihi~ WOllp Ih.' figm;lIe.
\\el'(' llUlIIUfilClllITd of LIl11"mlx-rnl cb, I022{;.
UN"OO9/!l1l .
'-'" \ 18 \\',.dm I'CI'"................. IIm,,,,_ ' - "'J'I"nWftII
Ff:ll~TII ...nlS of fi~unTlC1 nmdc of urucmpen:d cl,,)
I"," \ ...,.b:on 'lnr. u..l....
Im\"t~ allf:lctcd <pl'd;11 :lllemioll. 'incc Ihcr .lppc,lr lU
el'cqnh..HJS in !l1l' 101,11 1)0(1) of IlOHcl) prodllC:l5.
N"'llI1l1 cia)' ",'S l't~:l{li1r :l\~,ilablc ." Ihe LiS', Sill'.
Thb .I\·.,ilabili,)' could cel'll,i"I)' inspire ,','t'n llmkillc·d inll'lllr"ll'd by 1_ '1~lb[;') .IS., kind ofcuntmclll.ll dl'-
membl't'li of,llt' communil)' tu el'press lheir Creal;\;I\. \;el" or idemifyinl( lokens ""l haUl;n~ di$I.lIl1 contra".
NlIllll~.1 el:l) "ould ;100 be uscd for .ld hoc ':l<L. !tu· 101"\. prn"rn.lhl\ holdinl( the o,her h"II nf ,he '\;I1II1:'
llO"anll}, ,he di"co\'cn:d fr:lI,'lllellU of fi\t: figurine< fi{fllnne TaLla\ I99J, -15 16, P1'IlC$ 11 & I:!
made of Im,elflpot:rt:d cL"!.) "l're fired. 50 ,hde hellu 111<: relllaininl: thrtt fr:'{fIllen~. denm't::" from un-
wen: ,re:ued Ihe _:,me \\':1.) as ,he olI1CI"'l. Of cour.se. l<:lIIlx-rcd cb) fiqminc~ mi.l(lu "ell h.l\e bct:n p~
,he .1I110utll of llnfired fi"'lu;nc< willuC\'l'r bc known. duced 11) incl'l",n "",ken. rhl" include ., rolk-d cl.\\
All fil'e pieces :"'1' sOnlcwh:tl 'pedal. Onc l)f Ihem lump with :ll\lhrop.,mOI'J,hie f",lIurc~ .lIld .h.llloII oh.
:. I",.•d (:lOO 1/127. "nknOI'" p['O\<enicncl')llladc of:, lique illd,iollsollthc b,IC\(. found in Ilou'l' I ;9~1l3
lump of cl:l) ".'5 C:'l"\'cd in ,he m..nner of., W(IO(kll .\nother c:l:::ullllle i~ .• r:tth.'r cn.,dd\ n",de I~, Im:>l.<on
objL'C'. 'Illc cu' m:.rks wen: ,Ii~h,h smoo,hen..-d "i1h on' ,11 Ihe jun(l)<..HJ .Ind found in tit<' M,m'("" "re" .11
\\CI fingct'li. Caning of dot) lumps ('an ~ ~II as .1I1 Ihc I>..d. of HOIUC J IO:!2b Illt: Ihu'''' IIcm u" k:t:
3uempl '0 ,ran,fer m;lI\ur:.eluring techniques applied of a ~hon-Ie~ fitrUrinc ,,-i,h O\l:nin.-d hud.leb"l)I:
on 1,0001en objt·el~ ..\t the ..mic ,ime, il "gllalize~ .• UNOO9/f1B. di§,"rlll:d fiJI perl..,,,, .m auemp, 10
gro"p of ilems \\ hich h:ls dis:'ppe,lI'ed. n.IIIlt:I) imi,.lIe Ihe del"'!' ...·en on ""'ll.'rh produn:d til,'ur-
"oo{kn .1l'lifilCI.~. Anolhel' fi~'glllenl ...;,hin ,hi. glo"l) ines (d~ !.l003).
is I],e nl.(hl h.tlf of,hc lo\\el" p.,,' Of.l S1:mding fmml.· Thc'l' ,ugge_liflIlS do nOI .'",e1ude Ih.ll uther ilem~
fil,'11rine. This fi,,'1";u<: ha, .llso lx."Cll prodnct-d of ., m:1(1c of IClllper'C.1 da\ could 11.1\'1:' been Ilroduced
sillglt.' lump ofd,I). Thc _hape .lIld inn,ion uL, puhic In children. l"d."C<1. .,JI fr:.I.(""'''''' of fi....unnl"!o can
ui.mlllc .,re made with ne.•rh m"lhenulic I'n:ci,ion. be di\ided into Ih...... nudC' I" ,J.:illful 1I""'len. .Jp-
'111is \t.lS nOI a product of " 1I0\ice. Th.· CUI ",.•do: in I'lmll: \,dl b.lbm:n1 fabne .Iud ."rl~e U'C'a'nlel\l
lilt' middle of the fil:urinc h:l$ .'pp;uend) oo-n con- It:Ch,,i<lul''' .1lKI thme 1II.muf.1('11In:d in lIInll: nld,-
trolled. lc:lI'ing a '''''y p1.'in ,,,rf.lee of 101lI.(ilud"",1 llIelll.'l'\ 1:I,hion
h,-..:"k.,ge. Th.· i,em ".IS f01l1U1 in 11ll" lower I.• yers l,f Cl'l'lllill un;'l;' <il,. ."lIU{l'S '-.m be n.:....);I..-r,i;.L-d "hen
\\..." •..Icnllnlll.,tl·d ,,[ong lhe C,lSlent " .•11 of llonst' I. ,icwilll,t "ll lhe 'lII.dl hud:, ru"l·llIer. It h." !I.... n me,,-
Wilholll l(oiul: into fun/wr considcr:lliun. ;, c.UI 1)1: t;on.'(1 th.u Ihe ,illllll,: fil,'lll'iuc found in Ilul.l>C IlL"
mcminued. th.u .imilar fr:ll{lncn's of:\liddle NroIilllil I,'t'lher ,,"11 iu .lca"-lUrie. ".l' ",.Ide of idt-tllical r../..
15000 1500 BC) fil:\.rint:> ,ll Fr:mt.'lllhi, CrttCe "n... rie d.I\ ,lh""(I.,,ul\ [I'ml)l:rnl ,.j,h \;Illd '\".JrlZ p.u-'
102
qUtr. 'I"" 1.\1 ,1..i1l. III ,I< hIt", I'lllt' ".mtt,d l'C"uh, lilt"
·.iUllll: l...."kk,,·· "O'llltl ,ull hI' l)('rt"t'iH-d ,.~ "tht· 'it.
nn~ \::."I,k...... lit' nl.llllT il "lit· \W'" llu.: dal)tl',ll,·
rumpit-. t,,,md ,,1\ I.i~" .lIld Rt"t!llIiw Gc,~", !flUll
.If Ihl· I1n"'1Jhi'lI',ucd rn""lh{"lll' Imm 1..\lllmC'(' ;'\il..ll-
1,,\ \,l~i "md 01..01 (ib\.! 1'.·midle\,,1 :.'OO::? Rt,·
li,ln.c· ,'" nlll'l:nti,m.•Ii,m p,,,h.. hh e\pl,tin, "11\
-{"I1lll" ,.llhl" ,IHine ti"'ll,nnl"' \,,"'"e 1I0t l'qtlippl'd "lth
'1'"1,,,1 .l,llribtlll" '('C :':il..ol,)\ I tli 5 1)(,1'h"p' th."
l.!I'l\cr;,1 ,1l.lIJC It"II ,llIu,i,," "Il1111!o:h 10 dl'co(k lh,'
llH":lllill~ of ,u("h tiglllll.... Thi~ rnlll(1 a150 be Inll"
.lbOlll ,'llu:1' IVPCS of tif.,'\uiIlC.<, likc. e.g.. Ihe hdl·
Ih,lprcl til:unlH" (li,co\l"lwl ill I,he lo"er l:l~l'N ur
,,;\.!l' [.l..<l of Hou-e- I 1'1. Ill: I . Prodl1ced of" sill~le

lid.,... hc:1[l~ I ! mm ~:nd on,;.mir m,lUff, lltt- ... lme lllmp of rla\ "11h p.:rf01~llCd .,nll <I,umps ~I,rel(hcd
OIll ;llId ....'('minl;ll~ r.ti>ed ,md with a r.ti!;C<i hcad. it i\
f",bric "ith llx- _.une -<iTt' .md propllni"n "r 1t111pn"
'"I: romp..nrol' ,,;l> ,ll«l idrntilird In .I ,J.jUfull\ l,nne -e<'n ;l) asc,",ual" ahholll:,h ~imilar fil;llrine~ fmm
ITUolk mom ,rphic hl:UnO(' rmdmnl: :I. Ill\: I;c \"I,ll RntUUlr I.C'IT <'quipped Illth brca..ts Cr.tlll;h;lT()\
~m. thi. tnnprr rombilUunn ,,-,-, ('Ollqdrn:d 1999" Fil.':.::?5 XC\"Cnhc1eM. avoiding premature eon-
~ minimum ri l ImlJIC"T. (ruunlll: IIut lhe- ",m. in- cltl'l<llh. lhe IllcntionL-d brll.<h,lpcd fi,b'llrinc ,tlone
\'e'l.C'd In prodoclio<llJf I~ ilnm "ould nnl br jn;>p- "llh .. rolkd lump fi~lIinc from House I an: hefT
.udittd dunm: till' hrtlll!; procc'" Pl"Th.lI'" il Q'\ ..J..,o wnsidrtrd """C,",ual·'.
lX' im~ltd ;u .m indi\idu.-u ~lm;UIlI'l" Hf a pout"r. Ccn,.in -e-,",ual dctcnnill,llioll within the U!.':I ma·
The lowt'r l),ln "f the fil;!Urinc dl",'O\ ('red in Iioll~ ,crial c-.U1 be made in four C;\>tC~. :\IId in all, il is .1
2 111.': \T::! (ould he linked "i'h a tripo:1I1 fwnd in mallrr offelllalcs. 111c onc ,Iod ollly Uga I fihTunnc,
Hom".) 1'1. 19;4:!(l!o. PI. 20:1 both h"w rt'Ccivoo pn'Wf\'cd onl} in half, had iociSl.'d pubic ul:lIlglc :mcl
Ihe .....me l:T'OO\inl: of the <U1fatc :lnd "1'1"(' made of :1 hip belt. ;In emphasized bell)' was mOSl likd)' a fer-
1111:' same f.lbrir: abllndalll prncllC(' of on:;U\ic malleT ~n:~I~C 10 pn:b'llnncy. Also lhe b:u;k ,,~'s cO\"l:red with
a.nd chamOllc 0.5 3 mm .md 11100.,,,11(' amOU1l1 of lllcmOIlS.
SOlnd up to I mm Two 1ThbSi\T 1(1(" !llll~ & 9022 T\lnJin~ to Ihe Uga 2 m:llen:ll. tht full)' pr>::scly,:d
di!;coI.'n't"d in 11... " ....... e ;rre:l '11 Hou..: I "CTl: made sillilll; fit.,'Ilrine has both bn·a..'ts and inci!;C<i pubic 111-
of 1JH, W'M f:abric. lud IIko .,;un(' <brl. ~\ bro....n J.n~lc. Pubic lrianek "~15 :1150 SL'('n on a fr.tgmcm of
ookn- and btolh ....( ·IT bunu,hro in th,' ~"'" faoJtion a siltine fieurinc <fuc;O\'crcd in a "street" :In:a prol,.
On Ihrir ~ M'I"(' Ill1p~ of ~'" k-.a\~ point: abh n:-<kposiloo Ialcr. since il had Ir.lces of second-
me to ~ t:.et Llu,\ llrir production ,,,OL ~ In a
a..... bunlin!:,. conlm..... to the finds from the ....l ute
not fonnoUum ..~ rn'lnxtme:1ll ,l.IId durinll
afTa. \\ ithin the pubic tri,tne1c il "~15 richh (kcOf-
,,~ pan "f th" 'al". 'n" ~ fould cam, Ix
at"li "1th mcision:. fonning a double 5pir.t1 (:x:\ alld
uL,n "" bd"'l~nll 10 u~ ~" ·t;mdinll 1i1,'Urin" if
oM ilin "ffT '}O{ Id'i ~ both {,f Ih"m. Inridcnulk
dou..\ ribbon oflincar illci~ions \'"'' nllltli"g .1(1"05>
a '!Imllar I~ ".1> dl'lfO\TfTd al b c· .• ~ Ihr II.Heh) 1'1. 18:9. 'Illi~ band is perhap" replic"llin~
' . ·"Il)-".u~IO. mdl-
QUIIIl. that un- i, .1 l'llC of flt~\ln1\" Ild'';'' "d c1othlll~. A double spiral mOlif Oil pllbic triangle' i. ,t
" ., d . . • I: .• "l er frequellll) "pplil'(\ clclIlenl or Copper Age ligu,ln,·s.
rL~on.u ,Ill Icmporn.! Wstrihunon . ""' le pmpomon " of
th~ le).... 'U"~l'<t, I,hat 'uch Ih,'11l111\"!o "1)\lld haw been In r~,.I" tlli, fl~th..nent ",'5 lht· only Ill,ly {kcl)l~ltcd
around 30 n1\ III hCll;ln. fi~\lllll" fl'agmelll at U~;I 1. 111e lhird Lig<t 2 c.l"·
"",_L
CQun'nll<",,,di;l1\ . "hich i< >«11 III 'I,rt."'-<inl; cer "her.. ·•• "" .1'·' . . , , .",
·_,",Utu ( IsUnct,ull could he llI:tde IS I, "" 0'"
tam "",mclIlJo in fK'Urilln
., . ..........;
- _,__ut" . '·110.'. ,\Ild <k d- ll:trI of:\ li~\lrine found :'" 110115C I. As :tlrc:ldr nlt'lI-
cnc:" on ruin "f a "'ffiblillll u\(" Ii .:pm - 1101.100. Il' fcltlillinily i. rcw,tl..d through .• "h:"1'1>
1l;I.lnn".,. did nOt fT-
1l1oCl.<'.'d lJUbic Irian~11' 1'1. 18; 11 .
Lign 103
It ~h""ld .11'lI h" IlWllliml<'(llh.ll 01H' of llll' IW,'II, slip !'.III,'rn dl'fOr,llion ll,inl{ inri ifln \t"," ,x-nTd
(.111 I'crh.I]J~ hl' illte'1J1't,!t'd ,,~ n1.ll,' due I" promi-
;I
unl\ in lhn'l' (.'M'< HIm. Win, 'llfll
IIt'lll rhino 'Illudill,l: h,·.lld 1'1 Ill: IT"" perfor."ion' Liltit' c,HT I", "'lid {m ol')l:.lIlil,ttiun of pmduuion (If
011 e;llh ,id,' of Ilw Iw.ld Ill.,rk lIT,· f'.l~. Sudl Iwrfor- tlTc fit,'llrill(,\. 11!l'l't' i., hO"l'\('r. "Imf' c\idl'n(c ,hOlI
.lliom 'H,'re tllIl n'wrv,·d for femak fil;\lrill(~ 0111\, .It le....l p,tr1 oftlll' fll;llrinc...... pmdu('rd in the "Imc
,inCl' there "a' '1(." "'~II c'l.mll'h·~ of nl.lk 1i1,'1lrine, "i;h seltint: ..5 pout·!,)". !lIC 1110'01 'killlull, nl.;,de llf'm
car perfonttiom \Nikolo\ Itlm, 6:.!; FiJ.;. 11; Todoro,.1 ;1111011': the di.)("()\Tn:d pit''''''' orl'l;Ilrin... i< con'idcrcd
1979. Fig, I, "'hill' fem.tle FiJ.,'1lrinc1 aI',' Il~'l.IlI)' 10 h,.'.1 p,lir ofle~/fc,·t 'lOO'! 1'1. Ifl:lfI l"hi'MI
equipp..: d "itIT three or mol',' perfo~tion.... male onl} recci\cd tIll' bor-.l <"",IIC trc,lllllCnt in form of
fi~rinl~ tclld III h.I\.' unl) two. <clf-<Iip. hut it also delllon.S1ral("\ ,m eltCl'ptiorul de-
Needk~~ 10 n'p'.';1I Ih,1I no indh;dual. natur.,listic Cl"« of olI'ti~tic .,IIt'ution p.lid 10 "Kh ",m;T!r' dct.u~
r.... cia.l fC"t\lrC$ can b,' deduced from tlTe pre'iCr\"cd .os toes and huclJebonN. Thc fr.ll~melll \1;1..< ItmJlt"rtd
heads. l'rotnldint: nme i~ Ihuall) considncd ~ufficicnt ,,;th fine orwmic mallcr ,md dl.lmfJUl': on the ,,)In
in reproducill/o; hum.m imagl'$. E)I."; ma, be rendered ',.:n: mall) panidl."; of'i,;md. oI..'i ill thc (.)..'1:' nf \C"'....[
as dOlS. pcrfor.lIions or protnlsions. ~Iouth is repro- bonoms. So. a 1.I\er of SolOd ".b ~p.ir:ninll; tht- r('('1
duced as :l depTC$\'ion or a :l(:rics of dOll>, E.... rs would from ;1 n.1t surface, in orrlcr 10 J.'oid ..dh~ion durin,:
only be marked ,IS perfor.Ilion~, Such :,ninic puritan- Ihe moddinl;.
ism W";Ili :lq,Jabh :, conscious choice or rcstriclioll in Lookinl; 301 thc p.l\lerm "fbn:.l1.lt:~. then:.Irt' Ir....
order 10 .l\uid bhtnint; of lhe m(.'SS.... gt.. \CCCllung lhis fr:lll"lIellts \I hich can be linkd to dc:liIlil:'r:tte bn::akin2_
';L'W, more <t"-""S should be pill on lhe dcro~tion de- ;-;-:uurall\, thi~ group miCht be biwr. The criterion
sigllS of Ihe fil.,'llrines. percch;nt; IhL_ as .\)TIlbolic no- dlOSCII10 dislineuish bcl"tttl (\('liber:tte bn:akinc and
muons ,,;th <p<-'Cific me,minl;, "n.11urnl" relics on t\\O om.:n."iOl\~, Fir<t of J.ll. the
Attempts wcrt' made 10 recomm,ct thc 5C:,le of frnt;ment should nO! be broken al it:> Junclurc poi.IlL
figUrillCS. 111e sm;IUC!i1 full)' p~"ed onc "~IS the .\nd. 5«Ondh. the brcak.or:c <hould n:lkcl a con-
bell-shaped figurine of 4.8 ClIl 1902-1,. 1111: bi~1 an: trolled action. like "'1);Ir.uint: fil,'IlrinC1 1010 equal
represcllled by two 1Il;lSSin: legs ,,9014, 9022', onc of hal\f:5 or cn:atilll; pl,tin Ctl~ 2. 1"'0110\1101:" lhe<c:
" hich is preserved in its full l:.'ltelll, Such figurine is cuiddillt::5 of ~parauon. the l,'TOUp of dcliberalch
estimated 10 be around 30 tm. 'Ille reOlaininl; lIould broken items includes the left bUltock of the Ul;.l I
f.'I1I illlo groups: 7- 12 •."d 1-1-20 cm. rcspcclh-d}". ligurine 8099, the lo"cr left p.-'"
of ,I fieurine ?086,
The full) preser\'ed siuing lit,'llrine ""as 18 CIIl in a leg ofa Illa.s.si'·e fi!:.'1u;ne 9011. alld a pair oflel:"1
heighl. It c:m be IIOled Ihllt simil:lr Iil;urincs:1t Rt:dtll- fcct \90051 aU found in ,I ",l~te MC.1 ,It House I
ile range between H alld 25 cm IGergo\' 2000). plus" head di~ol'cred in Hull.>C 3 1065-1
[n Icnns of color. Ihere ,1I'c Ihree b:lSic color cate- 11'e Uga nMlen,lf. .llthoul<h limit,:d.• pro,idesusa
gories. Those figlllim:s, "hid, "ere m,tde of UIl' SOllle clues Oll ownership of tlTe fil,'llrinC1- 111<' par-
tempcn..d clay SI.md out b} Ihcir light gray to !,'l':I)" licular loc"tioll of ., sittill~ fi~,,"ine on a ITou>c: 0001'
brown colaI'. In thrce C.lSC' the color is g'~'}' black at the rc:lf end of Ihc room ,md pre-ullI.lbh dO!< to
(legs 901-1 & 9022. ITc"d 1065,1), "hiclT is ullttsu:tl for lhe Ol"ell indictlcs lI,.,.
lhis ".lS 'l<:l'\inc croup de-
Uga 2 Illatcrilll~, The rellT,tilling picces range be- ,,"II1(b. As cI·idtncc frolll UI:" .md IU:dmile -ult-
tween light rellow bro\\llto medium bro"'n calor{oc- gcsts. e"el) hou'" could hnn' b.:en <-q"ipl',ed ..ith
easionally, with rcddish p.Ilc1Il'~). ::)urfi,ce trc:tt",,~nt i, such .l ~irtin~ figulinc. I"his .,1,0 mlrro", tlTe (111'''''1''
lIsuall)' limiu'd to Muonlhillg .md ,'vcuiug. SOlllC ship to a ho"'cllold I.., wl. TIll' "uoe e,w be ,-,id
items. likc till' fi~lg",clH .,ttrilnned to Ugu I (B099) .,WIII the Fi!>'1lrin" of "hieh tlTe lo"er p.ut \\,1.> di,-
:md legs from Ih,' W:I<le .,n'.,:It HOll.>c I (9011,9022). CO"I.'red ill I-IOIl<t· :! .",d "hidl ",l' ITulH~ "Ixl\"c th,'
bt:ar II':Iees of btll'llishing, Il.o'SlIlar burni,hillg is ob·
served on lhe surfi.cc or till' hew! I'm'" liOllse 3 :! 'n,~ he.ld ,.r 111~ tl~"I~~lr """'~ ri~·un"r. II~u~1 III ~ tu,r;:1""
(1065-1). The ,lIrf:.ee of Ihe skillfull) milde pair uf I...,"" I III ~1I~' t"NII 'hr b<Nt.. ~I ..., I..... ~II «TU ",Il. bu, ,Ill",
le~"lllcet t9005) ",'~ "noothed ",ith thc Ill'lp of )t·lf- ,·~u>C'tt 1" "'<Illllk~,~h",~
I().I
1_1'lh .•I" .. p\ln~ the 'lk·ri.11 nlk ,.f tIll' <iltill~
h\:unno:, it _hiluM tlIW<' .1I(.:Iin hI' 'tn-"'nl. th.Ll ....·nlc.
lI1rlltl(ll1t1a~.l1il>l1 11.1' 1I0t .1 pl.llllll.'d .111 I[ bte, •
.In.)lit 19~1i, hut •• n.1'11 'll111liw. Idlich f01\"ed llll'
illh.lhil,llll _ 10 !r;1\l' ,'I ,'11 tl1l'il' 1(101, lx'hil1d, :)Udl sit u-
.l1i"1l 1011\ pcrh.lp' hI' illtllnin.III'd thlTlll!:h nlllllMrison
"lth lu,wrir.lll"H'nt<. In IfI!t!. in Gh.lI1.l, tIlt' Brili<h,
umkr lhn.".u ,If t',mml fin.", IOl'u"(i tIll' "Il{lk oom·
lllUlIit\ ,>1 Kroho lIi1l~ 10 Ike .md ab.moon their be·
Innl:in"",llm'. "'oll111lllllil\ idol. can ,till he found
.llmmc: th(' ruin~. hOll>C 1\.111- ;ll1d brok"l\ no<;<els of
thi_ Inl,,'t' "l'ull'ml"nt Fi~. \'1,10,

r \1 0 ( ..... lIl;llnn< .u.-.,,..,...l ... no a


•• ~ I lbr An- It10\tORI'HlC nt;lIU'l:I:':'
...-m _ tmIota. ,.- t.,tol. l.haM- .\n,hropOlllOrphil Jnd 1.oom0'11hic pmlOrne~ hale
lx-en di.'C\1S..'<d in .llllwe '<."('tion~ related to the j)()\'
U'l'\ Ilridh it can be SIJted thal only onc :lIlthropo-
m.t"l1 1-ill \ 1 ~ \cttptinl! dUI potn (If lht tlrol"inc<. morphie protOl1l(" .md IWO 1.oom0'1)hic 0111"" n:scm-
("!.lId ha\'t" br<'n 10'''' prodlKrd I,., childll'lI. 11 i- blinl:, ox \,,:..... found. bOlh attributed to the Uga 2
po" illl... 10 -tall" Ih.:ll ....me: <jX'riIllC~ welT illdi\idu· -ettl"\lle11l Fig, \',16 & 1'1. li:2.3l. Onc proper 1.0-
a!l\ owned. BOIlI' "I:\uino, IlT'alnl b\ P. lid,trI)l. olllorphic fiAll1il1l' I'.IS discovel"ed behind Honse 'I. in
al-o pr\'l\idt imponall1 po()im~ Ch,tlller IX .-\s:t the "'MCe\" area. It 1\-aS made Of;l singlt- da~ lump.
row. da\ fill:\lrin.... ,,'t:1l' «<:mint:" ck5l1!;lll."d Il) 'ol"n'l:: It'lllpcrrd wid, fine organic m:l.llCI' :l.nd ehlllllOHe. Thc
I!fl'llP dmulwh. "hilc bollC fil!;Unnes lx-Ion~ 10 kn~h i~ 6.6 cm.•\I1hollt;h fmb'1TlClllCd p.lrI of the
the ffiI>lT indi\idu.ili...ro ~I~ of use and O\'llCT' head and k~ an: missing, it holds se\"eral dct:lils of
..hip ~ ~n~ .. hKh alT o:a-... 10 am. for in- K1entiflCation..\ hump on Ihe 1);lck is 'Y1Jic;ll for oxen
.1Mltt in dcothill\:. ;uT Ihu._ "I'll. uncommon amon~ PI. li:i . ,\ p3ir of nubs bcl\\Cen the b.lck k~ m3~
t:r.1\C cill., ..n' Chaplfr XI ~l.lnufaclUrint: of bone lIIdic;ue th31 i, was a bull.
fiqurinr- I' al-n le·, ~U~~lllforw..rd and requires 11,c ,;,"(.'ond 1.oorno'Tlhic figurine call tnll)' be con-
'p!.'(iill _kill_ cllmp;u"t'(l "11h productioll of cl:\\ <idercd an :m\\ork, whclI c01llpan'd "'Ilh Other fib'1I1'-
fll:urinC!<. -11,i, nalur:ill\' ~l> ,"me rcstriclion~ on the ine' of the timc, 11 is made in lhe beSt GII111l::llli\a
number of IxMbl.. 0\\11l:T'i .1> ,,~U as pU1unt: ouch 1F..dition, lIilh IM,ur:tlistic. dllbol~lle de':lils llOI le:lV-
Item, mlO a dilfn't1\l Qlreon of \41uc.
in1.\ pace for <pcc\ll:nions Oll \\ h,l\ it \\~IS represcntint;.
Boot- funuillO ;uT ;ilio pll:~l1tinl!: ~idrna: ;l.llOI.l\ Citinc: Gumdni\:t is not Jccidem:tl. for Ihe d~":S1 p;tl"
..rulllll\! O....,lC"I'\}Up ...-(: ChaptrT IX 111C on!> aJllhro-
alkt, an: from the KGK \'1 :trea, nlt: he:ld of the
l)O(OOrphic f"!Uriroo: roooo ;'1\ Un ;uuibuled 10 ilK
fi~rine i" mi;sin.l: .IS il \\~lS m:tde using :t Ics> common
U~ '. 'C\t1~"ln ... ~ dn:-or.nn:lt\\ic... malbr n"Cn "head·hole~ in-enion technique. The bod} kn~'1h
thrn:
_ \l1TlC> _ nl.. Ii~t tint.. it rtt'l:i,--'
<:U ;U-'I ,"~, ~~"nven-
13.5 Clll bears dl:tr:tctcri~tic fCOIturcs of .' pig ()oil:'
lI..nal mar\,jn~ of dll: )lCriod • the n''', ""' I' " ne"
..~
\'1.9 & 1'1. I i:!l), The dal u~cd to Il1lll111lhClnrc this
ul"lcr 1I\;,dc .1 mnr.. fonhrii;ln markini; of lh,' pubic
tn.lIll:l.. hUl.H Mitt heil!;lu .....,min\lll. UIl-.aU~lil-U fil.,'urine contained org:lI;ic mll1tel' and •• buIIC!:llll
"llh th.. allU§lI'cI\n' of Ih.. ori";,--' . L ) amOUllts of rather coarsc ~md, lhe s:mu: c011lbiu;uioll
~' ..,...... marlO.n~ '1
3):6. "'hilr lh.. w, Iil!;'Urineli 'l"Cm I •. --k . . and Ilroponion ;u in Ihe c;t:SC of the full, pn:scl'\'c<\
r_.L 0 lJ'C 'HI!; III Ih..
"'''...... 9,ll<'re "r poIlO'I pmdU<:u"n. iI b Il<JI unlildl ll11n~ hum;1.ll fi~rint:, Hence:. il b likd} thlll Iht·
lhott Ihr flu and puruhlr , , _ _ . ~lC pc:non "as rC'lponsiblc for Ihe: creation of both,
prudll(U. UUI'" 'pccrnlCm "'ere rnaIe. Ilns animal fil.,'Urinc wa~ found ill a lOp 1.l\'cr Soulh
ufl-louSl: I, "hen: die ~illinl; fih'llrinc I,.L~ di"co\"crcd.
l.iga 10.1
~;\I.\LL L\IlI.l:.ti .\,'''0 51;\IIUI{ DL\'ICES
.\11I0111( 1hl' r.llher peculiar find\.11 1;1.:'1 .,n· fmltlllCIlL'
of <1Tl.l1l t.lhlt--hk!." dc\icc<. "hich u<II.III\' .11"(' tknomi-
n;ttt-d .1-< .Ih.I'1'ICCC<. cuh·I.lhk... 01l1allll)\ .lIId till' HI-c
1J.\nll\ 1~J{17.1J 9: Ehter 1986..ID3, ::lulh \.lrieh in
ch.lrnt ll:ril:ltioll m.l} not onl\" rdkcll~NO'l.I1 comic-
tiOIl~ of a dl"'Cribilllt o~ncr. but alYl .1 fun("tional
.1111plimdc of'lIch items. ~Ior~er. ot111'r .mer.lcts.
like snMIJ IJO\\h or plmC$. nl.l\ h.t\!: O\crl.lppiul.; 1l."C
funCtion<. U~ of thc sdf-eol1stnu:ted teml "t.lhle-
likc" i~.m .Il1Clllpt to :I\'()id str.lightfon,.Ird illlerpre-
lation<.
EIc\(~1J fr:IWllcnts of table-1il-c de\'iCt'S ha\c bccn
di5Col'O.~red :11 Li~,"I PI. 19-21). Onc is deri\ cd from
Lis:, I m:lIerials, the remaining from Ug:1 2 d.II:t.
,\l11ong lhc fr:tgrnellls arc four lq,'s. r\\o of" hich I,cre
broken .Lt or belo\\ thcir junclion poinl, so strictly
speilkin!:,' il Gl11no' be c1clcmlincd ",h:1I lhc)' Iml·C tl~. \'1.1 r. 1>INlrl nf nI.n ,h"'''H,,,d amllnl{ <1<01>";•• U1nh"I<11 I"
becn supporring. The m:l1cJial provides:I I'Ct)' rnixnl lhr U/l., r .... 111."'.,,1. 1~101'': It. K,~...
"inure', :111 slwpes and t)1)CS being repre<;Cl1lcd. There
:Irc oolh lripods (·1: ·12026. 2000/15, HOOO, 1(659).
rect.,ngular (3:200 1/250. 9028. ·16251. :l11d hcx:ll,'on Despitc form.:! 1.lriation there a~ 'iC\o:raJ COIll-
pirccs (2:8001. ·16·16..1. 10659). T,,'o ~I)('ciemel\ IIhl) mon characteristic<. Firstl). all bllt onc spccim.. n
be eonsidercd ;IS lle;lrlr completc. since onl), their 1c~"S ShOl' manur.1clllrinl:,' ~I.:ilb I:M:\-ond the' ordin.ln. botl,
arc partl) dam;Iscd (42026. 90281. in tcnns of surr.lCC treatmcnl and dc:cor:Jtion. Con-
A common feature for this group of items is an tr.m to Ill.. li~rinC'S. t.1blc-lik de\iccs 'H'n- pro-
imL-gr:llioll of a basin "ith legs SUPIJOrtillg it. As the duced b~ sl:lUfll1 m;utcrs. Onh onc n,,-ullpk'. rCIll-
only c.'\:Ception. the OIlC fr:tgment auribllled to the I)(:fe(! "ilh org:lI1ic matter. was m;uk ill ... eru<k
Ug:l I 'lCttlemelll was 1I0t equipped \\ith k'l.,~ 20011 manner \\ith 110 .mention \,';\"cn to lh~ 'urfaa IUIil.h
250! PI. 20:3,. 111Uo was rcclanl:Ular in slmpe, \\hile '9028. &condh. t1\1~ range of oril,lin..-u colon u
lh~ outline of a b;l.';in was rounded. lllf item wdl- limited to lit:ht bm,,,, ,lIId liflll Il"ddi.h bnn,n.
bumish~d ,llld brown in color. Onc of the '1ideJ \\,IS lllirdh. :111 Ul.,"Ol fr:t~'lncnt.o. sll.11'tC ;J \en sil.,'llirtc.Uil
dt~cor:l1cd \\ilh graphile decoration. 'nl~ find <pot fl'atul'tC. n:ulld\ th.lt OUl' geolllclriC fonn tt 1IIl'0'lX1r.
\\ ,IS bellc,lIh the western "~IU of l-louse I. \\ hielt \\~IS alcd illlo another. 'nle rollnd b:wlI j" thus im:orl'or-
st;lhili:l.I:d by debris from the U'i'1 I sculcment. :Ilcd il1lo tri,Ill~'lII.lr. n:cl.IIH..'11I.1T or hC'UI,'Un,11
Thl1,;c of the fraglllclHs altribull:d to the Ug:1 2 <h;lpcs. Sueh fonn..! :lIItith~.... i5 had 110 doubt ... ~\ m-
scnlel11enL \\ cre found in Ilppennost b)'ers, hcnce bolic meaning, Ihlh c1e\.uinr: the t:lulc-lil-e dC\i(~
thdr p1"Q\"enience is unc!e:ll" (4625. 9000, 1-10001. .Ioo\e the pro[;lIIe. [11 this lit:1u. it beCUIl1~ rn.llle....
1111"e<; fragmcnts (1I00L 9028. 9000) \\'cre 10llnd in of pClil'her:11 illlere~1l 10 detcnlline Il!lellrt·r tho: de·
lare," or waSle :'ccumulated "1 the NE corncr of vice~ 11,'re oit-I:IlI1P~ or. mon.: .lb.>tr:lCtl~. ,ilr.1I111l·e('\.
House I. Two f'':\1:>'1]1eIIlS C;1I1 he :I.-5oci:llc{! with Certaint)" thc io;sue hill rt'tluire more el.lbor:ul·
l'louse 2 (46'16.-1, 2000/15). Onc fr:lgmclll WIIS IIllri- SlUdie~ rh.m uu.cr'\,lliuIIS undcr microS('upc le[

buted 10 Housc 3 (10659). and OIlC I'~I~ foulld ill thc B.mn} 19!J7: Sdl" •• rl!xl'l: 2003,.
"SlIeet" :11'<':1 :tl the SW corner of HallS'-' 5 (·1343). R.lI/wr more full) pre't'n t't! fr:IlllnCUl!; .110" th.u
'111e bes, I'rcsc"cd table·like ilem ...1$ found up,idc Iq,'!> of the 1:lulc--lil-c de\il·C" c,>;pcnenec<! the 11\0"1
down in House:: 5, ," the :>Qulhcnl ".dl 1'1. 20: I stre". 11'0:' 1~.lr tr:lec" of ir\lcn~ .Ibr.,-..;UII". C,IItll-d
·n02611. by roll!.:" ,mfilen. S«rninlll\. th~' dC'iee cDlltinul'd III
\06
Ilrlll ' .1.1..... h,I\<·
Il."'·'.,t 'C'L'IlIII.II'\ h\ln,in~. Inll lit
,..... ,n.". UI." 11.111"'· Ih~~I. 1.111. MOlll IkIlH·. Ill•••
llIjlnl.lli.1ll ,lf lin° in n·I.,IIl'" .. nh l•• hk·likt· dn;n..,
,.mml' Ill' ,',dUlit'cl In ...·rnl. nf I,.hri,. lilt' d.l\ 11
.lhlln,l.ltllll lClulll'rr,1. lh.. prl'"I.lilllllo: l'omhin,llillll uf
It'llll lt'.;m: 1\1.lu'li•• h I}("ill~ 'lI'K,mi, 1\1,111,"" "dl"or1"ll
•. nul .met t'lI,mhllw.
.\lrhml~h Ill,',,' ,,\n.idc'~llioll' 110lIT .101 "la,ih,'d
,h.. fUrlt'l;on "flhr l"hk-li~c dc\in'., il 1\;1, bccn d"lu-
nl1\u,m'Ci ,h;lI Ihc p"Xhll lion f('qllin.:·d "\I>cri"I1,ell
IltlUC..... Ihll. iml;l;.ll;ul.: lh,lI .h., (,OIll,'Il of (heir u\\,
...l> mo", ",""uilt''1llh,lIl Ih.1\ of the filtUlinc.,

),10111:1. OF on:s
),IOIkh of hou,e~ or ol't.'n. belong 10 a group of r.lr·
;li.,. in Copper .\g., ,ile•. ani) OIlC such ilcm Il'a,
di",olrn;d al Li~a. h i•. m O\'CI1 model Wilh :Irched
tll~l\il\~ found belll',llh Ihe SE P:lt"l of HOlls!: I of
thl" 11~., :.! -elllcmelll Fi~. \'1.11 & PI. I i:91. As h:'5
1)1"("11 mentioned hefore. Ihi, slope .Ire;. was stabiliso.:d
tot u-n:! ,.1\0;1" brr.umu: "I" 00(' (>1" {"\Tll I\W 1ft\. 11.1> \I;th d.-bri. dcri\in~ from lhe Lig;. I stlllcmclll,
indk .ll~ .holl ublt--Iilr dn~ lud ;a I"nl! dur:mOll Ilh;c!l thm \I";\S rcdistribmcd. '111C Ol'en model was
..( u'" I'M- ~ ;unot\l! t1~ di.--e(l\"Ml'd I)~ i" an inlC1!1"".l.lcd p;:m of .1 laTgCr i'elll. nlc 1ll0~1 JlI.I\I~'
Ilw ,ntdr ..ne <l(I.!R. 11' dimn~IMl> al'l' onll ible intcrprt"lalion i" (hat il was a p:ln of a lid. h
b:i X18" 18 cm, rh., dl.lnltlCr of the 1>'1'10 bcinl! 2 rem"ins unclear, howcver. why a holc of ca. 1.5 cm
CllI 01110:-1" pin........ ;m: '''KC ..... bil!. the knl:1h \ ,tning in di,uneler \I~IS m ..dc in Ihe bOIlOIl1 wall of lhe
Ilt\,'t'('lI 9 12 cm. "hill the diameter 01 the ha_in is dome for JlOuring~), TIn: holt was 1l1lldc ~ficr filing.
-4 10h.'<I.:; 4~026, ,md li 8001 ern, 11C<fIl'CliH'h. rhe ridgc of lhe fnnl:lcc "~IS Ol;~<il\all~· furnished
'111' c;rr.,lr,l \";\rl.1U\)t1 j. "l't'n in 11I;i~ll1. fr\11lI 1.:1 to wilh Ihree protlll,ioIlS. of which onl), IWO ,II'C inIac\.
10 1.2 un, iL....oo (lll 'Uth ,.\nC!' of ,h••pr_ and ~1.~. The <unacc of the domc is covered Wilh 10 longi-
"h"n pr.l(ti<.ull Ih..n' .lIT no llircn repcalint; each Illdin:11. p'lr.llId incisions.
"llllT, 1\ un be a,.umo:od Ihat ",her_lilt- <k\m W~
ulljn:t. uOC'd m ndWll!c. In 11Ii. <m< tI.,", an in-
dcTd I.. o ~ .1.. . . lrial «Tamio. :mi 1)01. onh CRL·CIBLES & )'IET.-\LLURGY
dur to thoojr n.. n-utili~n pulpO';t". ;1.., potmro om 'nil' cxc;l\'3tiolls .Il Lil{:' ha ..'C also pro\i(kd C\idc.}(c
I" r n'ltT 1981).3413_ for 1llC1.illurg), It \I.l'l allcstcd in bOlh Copper .\1:('
ll.c 1l1'f'l'T 'un...,,, Ih.. ~\-isibk" po.tl hM re-
'lClllcmenU>, as ',,'11 a, in Cr.,,·c 1 (sce Chapl"r ;":1 .
ITl\n1 the mn<.\ ~1I1C'mitln 'l:lb1r-lil.c dc,iCt.... tUI be
IncidclI\.l.lly, .lll ilems rela.cd 10 lI\l:l:Illur~'')" were
,hl'l><,d ,\lid hunl1<lll'd 1\(~11 . bUnli\hcd 1()G5Cj" COl.
found in lhe ,.nnc c;>;e:l\~l1ed arc;!, ,Il lhc SQlllhcrn
," I'd "'nh ~I ,", 12t1211, Ulci><:u in ;Inlllll~r p:ull.:nlS
slop'''> of thc SilC.
U\ I. I()!);"!. 4u2.~. rJr "qmpponi 1\;lh "xlrn.rnodd"d
Tllo fragmc1\(, of [WO crucibles werc rccon;rcd bc·
Jln.'nl'l"n~ 140no, 2nOO/1 j , Ont" Hr du· I'icrcs do..-
"'1'"\ ,., ""-',.I all"nur.l\ IUbi"! Il!> OUlo;r ~\ln,.<'t' i- li hI
lIe.lllt Ihe S\\' part of HOIl": I. Tlll"r "cre in a dt'U'"
rrddJ.h hrown. "hill- lilt" b.lo;in il. ..... 1 bl. 'd ' bIer of shards .md other finc6 from Lig;l I. .. hi<h
..1.' "'-. Ko. ue 10
....'m ~u lnoouon (or "I('lh. Bnido-I• d le: ......,11
,._. 1> . 10. "as crealed afier 11,,>·c1ing and ".lbili'1.ing lhe ,101'('
1.-"..,\1 b...lIuw\o<'d.md I,n... 'L ~_ •.• - .ITt:a prior 10 conSlruction of House 1 of the U\f.1 '!
....." ''''''·lltrtnr..1UU''. OlileT
'lClllcmCnl. Bolh crucibk-s \len: n:ct,lllI1;u1:lr ill .hJI)('
107
"ilh nJl1udnl h."ill ,lIId 11"1 ht>lInlll I\ulh ,,("n° m.lc!t-
\,1 d,) Inlllwl'\'d I' ilh 11 UlIlt-r.ll!· .11111Il1II1_ "f wdJ-'on_
I,d ,.md .,"d 'H'n' .ltI,,( II'd h) "·Iond.I!' l,urroirll;:..,1-
thOllfll, UN lilrifwd
nu' hi~ltt'r \lilt· ',.I~ hl'uI'r 1'1I"I.·I'\I·d, ,l11d Illort·
("melt' Ih.Ll' the ,m,IUn OIl!' Fi~. \'1.12 & 1'1. 11:10
It~ .. 'tim.u,·d It'lIflth II,I~ 1 nil. Ihl' "idll, I nn, the
101,,1 IU'il;:ln 2.5 rill. Dill' of IIU' <idt·~ ",l.~ \'(Iuipped
,dlh '''0 hok~ pl.Ked Oil Ihl' "'''Ill' 1"\('1 ,Il tht· middle
"fll,,; ",tll. The di,ltIlcln "flhe hok_ i_ 0..) Ctll. rhe
hok_ "en' Jln:~\IIJ\,thJ, u'\Cd 10 fh: " h.'ndk. t\lO
"rx>dt'1l 'licks. for \·",ttllplc. Il) usillif 1"0 ~tic"--'. "
<It·.Id, Itnp IIould hI' provided ,md spoiliul.; of meht-d
copper "ould be ,.Ioided. Copper tlepo<it II.iS dis-
cowred ,lII,.rhrd In tilt' bOllotll of Ihe cnldhle.
The 'm,t1krtn.rible ",I.') more Ihomul.lhh m.mur.--.c-
lUred "ilh,1 ~moOlh <url:--.cc oflhc intenl,d b......in. The
pl'C"ICl"led fraifilleTlt. " eorner oflhe crurihle. m,,) ani}
.,lIoII l<llher CO,\1'<l: c,tim:uions ofc"IenMJ dilllclISions.
11 hich III'n' 110t e"teedin\;: 4.5X5 CIIl. Ihe heil;:lll 2.3 em
1'1. 1;;11·.. \5 Ihe pre\ious itcm, il was "I~ equipped
IIith '''0 hole, in lhl' micktle oflhe ".111. nut Ihe hole!
\\e..... auk half .L< hi\;:, around 0.25 cm. the diametcr
ll.lITOlliJl!; from oUl5id,' IQII.lrW Ihe imide.
Acttt.ll copper itl'I1IS \lere found in 1;lIcr layers.
n.uncly inside Hou<t: I of Ihe Lil;:a '2 -<;ltlemelll. 'nlC
find_ inclu<lc olle .,\11 ,tIId 1\10 pin~. l>il1l; CllCapS1J-
1:lIcd in burned 1:1>0:]'<, of d:ll'\) .11 the floor Ic,'cl bill
in diffe~1lt P:lI'S of the hou~,
1111' :,,\ I (859;, ",ls;.1 em 10111; :md 0.9 cm "ide
al ils wido:sl 1),11"1. II \1.0.. gl~ldu:llI) n.lrrolling lOI'~lrds
OIlC cnd, IIhirh was <;Ii\;:hdy hem (foi~. VI,13). 1-10'"
c\"cr. due 10 corro.. ioll it could nO! be e,mbli,hed ",ilh
ccn"inly. "hieh cnd ",;os Ihe working onc. 'nlC :,,,,1
Imd a quadr:'nl;ular crm.'-'l.'(:lioll along its "hole
lengLll :uld ,t poi,m'd I·lld. II was foulld ju<;t oUlside ~;~. \'r,I:1 o.~'I .. t d'" .lIId ,~""It'd b".... ".~, "'nlllt. ,.! (1I. Cu
the dividing ~lnlClun' of I-Iou<o: I. 3"t '.Inn 11.. ,t,,: j{ !;.,>In
Thc longer pin {9-1251 nW;'Sut"'d ·/.I cm in lenglh
and I''', 2.9 mm wiele (Fig. VI.I·I). It had ., CJuad-
l""nl;lIl:.l' et"O'~·,ectiOIl. 1':lrt of the 'lld:lee was cl"Odcd 1·louse I. This pill .tlst} h,td " (lu.ldr.lIl\tulnr CIU>o.'-<;«-
all';I>" btll il could he dedm'('d Ihm tht· pin w.tS t.lP,·I'. Lioll. It is 1'1'1)' "cll pl...· "'ned .lIld 11wrt'furt' ar.1'e
ing to " pnilll. The pin W;IS I(mlld tOgether ,,'ilh lhe ground, to think th.lt it ".1, 1ll.ldl' of !Jnllllt'. The
h""d of " pl"l',tI malll)' silling 1110:11 dllc (1'1. Ill:2 (~l·1 :15)) item ".tS 'Illollp:ed with :\-r:1\ flOllre<t:entc h, U.
in l'lousl' I. Gonlieb (3), N.•tion.L1 "hl'I"1l1l of Dcnlll.•rk. It 1\.15
The Shlll'tCt' pill (90119). me"slIritll;: just 'l.t cm in
len);th :lJId 2.5 IIlIlI in IIidth. II,l.' found lIe.lr Ihe J nit' .'Utlk"';' Jo:rd,d"ll" IIo"h~ ("M~,t'h, \I.\' fo>r ...,,,'n~ "ut
1l1ajor eom:ellllOltiol1 of,tomgc .ond uthl'r \"t'"cl, of ,hLO ~,wh"""
108
in~ i11lpl""1'1Il~ ,,1 " pn"l1lH,lbh 1"0111)(" pin "ilh
o 1iii ' • qu,ulr,lnc111.u ,-1'1"'"'' '"lll I;ic, \' I. 1.-1
~lrl.,1 n'ultl.II"'l 1,1' ,l.,,-"kl,HI"(1 "nh Ihe ~r;,H" \Cl'
c • Ch,ll'tl'l ~I :;"'Wf,ll rI'PP':" ht',l<k hoth I,ide I... till_
dl;r,ll "I, l..; ,111 in klll,th I i!;, \ 1 10' ,lIld IJ.lrHlh
(\lil1lh;\;!1 It:.! 0,:\ t'111 111 1"IIIo:tl1 "t'IC fi}und ill
Gr:I\t· I. in ,Ill" .\l't'.l III ttif' hl'l';I'l of thl' hlxh. Cr.IH'
I ,,~ (im: uncll'r ,Ill" \"\\' ('onwr of HOll\.l.' I. nil'
n'n1.l111' \lrllw ,1...11-1\111 tO~'lher "ilh ,Idloining \lliJ.
I,rn' ,mlwd In lIlt' 11"'OI;c.,1 ~llI'I"1111 <}f I'lt'\CII fi'r
mo,~ ('(111trollo:-d ill\I'~lil$ltiOIl, ,\< " n"lIlt, lIlorc ('UP'
prr hC,ld, ",'11.' di-«lH'n.."(1. rhe h{,;uh IH'I'l' Ilmdl' (If
roIl.-d 1"\1l'per ,h('('1 I,ith o\Trl.'ppin~ l'dl..OC', 'nle roll-
.-d C\ finder \\;lS thell CUI into .ingle picccs. -nil' di;U!1'
('II'r of the bo:'.uls ".1' "roull(1 0.5 CI'I.
The 1110>1 cxclusi,'e i'CIIl di"co\TI\:d ,1I Li~a ;, a
coldrn pendant "CC Chaptcr XI) I·ig. \'1.1 it The
circuublallCt..... of ib di~o\'el"\ are unclea.r, as il \\,1.';
di~1 I'red in 10ClSe ~il close to Gra\'e I. It was m:,rlc
I ~ \T n 1\._ ~wJk .."h 1l1tJ """ plT'un",I'" ..... ~r pin of a 11I1ITO\\ ~tI;p of golden ~heet. 0,1 cm thick rllt
"<p' • ... ..tar ..,<11<,., {)
I <nI lon';tudinalh until it~ approxim:llc midpoi111. 'l1,e
lI:nninab were then rolkd in opposite din..'Ction~ i11l0
"pir.Jb. llu~ tOllll Icnl.,tth of the pc:ndant i~ ,1.3 cm. ,\1
Ihe other elld, a hole for hanging \\~\S made b) rold
hammering. The s111vlus/extl'ssiw metal \I~IS then n:-
cllned,
Rt:c:arrll il5 unecnain pro\ocnicnce, the goklcn
pendant, lil.eh a phallos \,;th tc~;(iclcs' GIn be alln-
bUtl-d to the l~lIc Copper Age, The best parallel, al-.o
in I';old, is exhihiled at the NaliOl1al i\luSCLl11l ofGree·
« l'il';, Yi.llk Although it i, lIlerdy ll:ll"l of a biggu
rollfbClted ho..1nl of iQ \!Olden items, the ;lS5OCiation
\\;th ~Icd ring-idols 'TOOol"O\"3, \':9SOI' WOI.
1'1.22 plac il securely in Ihe period around the cud
of the fifth millennium BC,
Copper pins w;lh double spiral l1('ad ,tre rcl;lli\'dr
ooln11l011 on Bulgarian Copper Age sitcs 1'000('01,1 &:
r'Ko \llt \";9\0\ 2001, 1~. 9, Sueh a pin was also di<C()\'crt-d ~t
lhe. ncillhlxu;ng Ro:dutitc sill.' (Cergo\' I 98i), in.dl-
cmn!; lh:tl l-:old 1>Clld.. nt~ as lokens \\~IS not foreign
to the s)mbolic rc;um of the COPI>cr Agc ,tt Tdi,h,
dcm.>II'ir.ltnl. lfw, pm ".I.> lTI.lde ~~
tlw _
. ,- '" copper dtn\
1nl!; n,m diffro:m 'it)Urtc.. ;\ _ ..1
lWO --,'
' ,c'wl pcrn;\n<
I

ae Ul"\ed Ihmu~h Telndlin, of dtr., , l'~ \'.-\RIOCS I\IINOI{ ITEI\IS


Il hould bo:.· mc"tiunoo that -n "' eftl1l copper 111'11
"
". SI'I:"OlJ: \\'11011.1)1
' le \\ e-tCnl waU f
H llU>t- l \\'b f""nd a llOnl:'...-x:kt pt 'I. _ ' 0 The number of ~pindle \,horls i" limiled to si:<- ('OIU-
.I.(i ~tilIllQr.
pklt: and 01\l' unfinished <pceimells, all ill cia) :uid
I.,i'gn 109
·.11 t',om lI1K .... l.•in «'lll'·Xh. Ilm"·' ..... dll" 10 tll"if
"em".i1 ,'PW··II ,1Il\ " .11Id C1.1 I Itloll rix !l1(') (.m I)\' ;ulli.
hUlt'd hI Ill!' J.il{ol 2 '1'111"111.-111. d"'pill' ill!' r"n th.u
Sll,ll'l'_ (11 'pimlk \\ IUlrI, ,Illl\> limil"d "'mpnral "'nsi.
til"il'. F(lur dill;'n'll\ ''''1111,'' MC rcpr(''I'rlled in tIlt'
LiI{.1 ll1;ll....i,ll:

,1 lliCQllil,ll: rl'JlrI'~'llll'd h} tl\OOrlhl' "horl,. OntO


or Ihc'e h.I' tfluH.I1l·d \(Ill .md h,l:>(" PI. 17: 12.I:h
b Splwric,ll: 'eprewllll'd hy Ulll' hni,llI'd .lIld (lI1l'
unlini_ht'd "hor! 1'1,17:11
,Cl 1"1,11: lll.lde of 'l'n lied PQlll'l) ,h,II",k "hith ,,(re
,h,'pl.'d into ,. mUl1(bl disc .md pierced. repre.
scnted b~ t\\O itellls 1'1.17:1.'),.
,d ConiC;I!: ";111 ,I n.1I b;IS(', .epre<emed b~ onc ilem
PI. 1;;[6,.

The dimcnsions of Ihe I\horls are illdic.II,'{1 in Fill.


\'1.19. In lenns of tempcr, Ihere is .1Il equal di\"bion
into two groups those produced of n:uural da~ ,,"d
those ICmIXI"C{! \\;111 oll<-lIIic m,mer alld Co;\~-""lin.
ed Sillld.
Onc .. heel·like objl'C! alo;o dcscl'\cs to be mention-
ed in this context Fi~. \'1,20. le has the foml of .1
A.lt pcrfor.ued mndc!. but the hole: i~ scelllin~l~ too
small ror thc «Xl of:. "hod. The rondd ibelf is 5.3 ~.tl: n I;'. Gl>Idm "md.lIlr .pI....... bnm, t -m. I'bolo;
cm in diamcter. \I hih: Ihe diamCler of the pcrfor.nion K ",oIn
is just 3.5 mm. The: cdl.:cs arc \I'ell smoothed. indi·
c;uing Ihat thcse wcre in relx;ncd com:,cl. The func-
tion rcmains ulICCluin; pt:rh.lps il i~ .1 mini.unre •
"hed due 10 the srn.LiI hole,
Despite thoroullh i11lCSlit;;lIiorb, tmees or tt:xlilt:>
I,ere olll~ found ill onc C;I~ .Il UIl:I. All imprcs..iol\
of .1 Z·laid cord O. i7 cm thick W;lS foulld below the
lim or the biS pitho~ in Hou<e 3 (Fig, \'1.211. t\ppar-
eml)', the cord was lI~ed 10 with"t:md the r.e""u't:
o 0
during dl)'inl-: of this hUlle eOlll.Lil1er, F~, \"I 11:1 (;0,>1<1.-" l>rl"l>m t ,~111 ca, h tin t:"'1~hl1nl al thr
Nali,'"al \1"..."", "fG ~. t nlrH",,, 1'",,~mMI<~

LOO~tIl'EICIi"'~
Three loom wl:ights were di~CO\'en'd :1I Lig:l. IWO Iy- Nll.lt)'pc· O. mm If~,~hl, l'c,f""'ti,,n, \\'",i~hl.
illg togelher olllsi(!l- the nurthel'rl ,,~dl of I·louse 4, "ull mm
1l~( • .I/a
close to Ihe SUl'lilee aud IlI'nee with uncerlllin pl'Ovelli- 101I1~lIu '"
~~ \ MJ
11'~

"
4,<

"
""
II \"
ellee. All wcil-:hs .Ire couk:i1 ill shnpe wirh rounch'cl 9407/11 17 \ l~ .1(l
basc ,lIld hori,.\JI1l:t1 pt'rfor~lliol1 ,11 the tOP Fig.
\'1.22). Their ht:i~11l \~llit'S bct"eell 9 10 Clll. thl; di-
of.l9Ml
'I2rlJk
1~'1
.w, of1
'-'" ,""
l!..~
,~.

:lIl1eter of the ba~e I)t"ill~ 7 ij cm. SlIdl ,,"';gllls .lre


21011tAl of2 \ofll
'"
"
interpreted .IS IMl'\S of "."v·weighted 100111<. The
110
..
. . ~~~~;
..';4-.. tfl'·'
... ~ .•. ' .Ill
.~.
.....
. .,...
.' •
... ,.'
~: ~ ,
1>
T
"

' , ' *,,'


.
.!'-'-

",

I, IIIhllll IIl1lullluIIllIIIlIIII IIIIIlullhl1l1


ti~ \ '1.11 ~h~rd or .,,,r:,1t': nml~!!l~r "ith ittlIJ!'r~""" "f tnrd.

\\eu~tll of l":Il"h item j, al'tlund O.J ~l!.. \Xliminl!. co I'do,-


Cl'!!!ll~'~ ,Sl',' Ch,lpll'!' \:\.
The IOlal ab~c'we of fish
uwl\ Ihid. thread,_
rt'm:llm al I110,l Cop!'.... Age ~ilc~ c.mnO! Ix: c,,-
\It loom weight> w("n' madr of umuuIlCn-d cla\
pl:lincd 1ll('1l,'1} b} t'xG,\>;uion pl'ocedurcs. SOliit'
\\llh ,int!" UlC]u>irm, ufL1rt:C"r '-J.nd ~\irl' COl. 3 mm .
UIT,l..;ionAl YTlall pC'llblr. and ochrc. In tt'm\!. of £,1.. melieuloml\ C;lIT1l'<l-oll1 fieldwork. as n:cemly.1l ""'1'-
ne. 111('\ do not differ from o;:ll\ 1I~ for d.lubinlt Ihl" :U10\'O or in Ihe Dr:un,1 \'alle}. have 1101 produced fi'h
ul'llot'T I.l\ t'I' ,£ hou..c wall•. bone m.llerial .11 all lkikonyi & H:lnosiewicz 1997.
TIle' .trilo;inch "man numbtT of l,lOffi weil!,ht> ~ 386 .. \1 S.ldo\·\~-r:.xero. two fish \'cndlrae I\(:rc
pntup' an indir;lUon Uul th(-ot ,J.nefarl.' \\t"tT u~ found. bOlh w;lI\ '«onda!) abrnsion. of lhc cdg~.
unfiKd .lOO thu., disinu."(!,.:llro if not ~ 10 fire Ilhich Ir.lnsfonm Ihe pieces imo a c:llcgol) of toob I
durinc ~I"'cmcfll ronlhl.!r.lli"n .\1 11)(' Qr!\( time. \wrll'd bone. and ccn;linl~ ruling OUl :11I ,\~tlmption
mr b,L of <u~h C\nll«" within lltr« r.nhcr \H~U­ of ullfaHlllrable conditions of prescn,;uion. On the
p"""",Td holL~ <>pen, up for 1"0 l'1Miom: J. lhat other hand. \'en fe" ri'h oones \\ould SUI"\;\'l~ !);\ssillg
"l".llinl!. "a.. r.uritd OUI ourudr- Ihr hou!n. :\C- through ~.
cq>tim,! dUI tht confi:ll~r.lU..n tool. IlloItt durin,e; t11(' To add to the confusion. bOlh ilCIII~ di~co\\:I1..d ,11
\\""" period \lf the ""ar. b Ih;ll \\t·;winc: "'" nO! Uc;a are m:l(k of poorl)' bakcd clay. ahund,Ulli} Icm-
~ (ommon "" 'l.l"llcrall\ ~ umed.•md in (;act nar_ pen.'!! with org:llIic mallcr and therefore '>Ccrningl)
rt)\'ol'd lO a hmit<'d numbo:r of 'pcci,tlish. unlih the unsuilable for lengthy periods in W;1.(t'r.
JI"\lI<'n production.

llLAlh
Three day be:lds were discovcrc(l. all allrihll1cd 10
Ulfol 2 la}'c~ rl'l. 17: 17-19). t\ common fcatu1't· is Ihat
Ihe)' arc made of u11Icmpercd clay. Two of llll' ue:Lds
MC spheriC;LI 10 ,md 20 rmn in diarm:lI'r), or]!' dis-
coidal ,21 nUll in diamelcrl, Tr.,ccs of \\C:II' il1dic:ll C
\h;ll tilt' tIller II~\.!; hung ";Ih the roundcd side OUI,
perh:lllS.lS .\ cloth "eight. Two \J<;;lds lIen: fOIl"c1 in
a "slre".'-· .11'".:1, one in front of I·\ou..... 2.
I.1gn III

r;~. \'1 22. Cl..) ~"'"' "r'~h .. ,..... oqu;o... of It... b.><I.a:rno'nd I'l"c
"1,...1, 1 nn

;\100111.;0 \ l:sst:!. ~IMRI)"


Rccrdjll~ or pOlle.... <hards has bccn a "idc-<prt"ad
pr:,clicc al UIfoI. In mo<l case- lheir S('("on<b.l) runc-
lion could be deduccd ,·ilher through Ihe <h.tpc !c.g.•
spindle "horb\ or tr.ICCS or \\c.lr C.!!;•• polle!) bur.
nishCr<). BUI then: is a group or modified <harm,
1\ hich do not pro\idc am c-'Cplicil clues :15 to their

runction. These arc l"l,-r.unic discs or nearl) regubr


circular ,Imp.:. ca. 2 10·1 cm in diamcter PI. I i; 20
21 \. 'nlcre are 110 explicil 1r.ICl"i or we.. r..\ h..ndrul
or such items "cre rt.'t"On:!L·d in Ug:1 2 la)crs, those
with exaCI pm\'cniellCC c:\me from areas outside Ihe ''j~ \'I.2J. C,t",dnc.J cL" "...1;1". 1r"I{Ii, nf,,,," 11..... '(0 .... I..to
houses. A suggcstion i~ Ih.t! thc) I\en: gaming pil'Ccs. 1. I cr" 1'1"..,,: Il ",-, ""
VII. FLINTS
,.
....'at' \1 Ill .... " . .

CQ~ .md I-r.Il,'llll·ttt' of C(>n... CQnlprl!« c\h,tu,tcd


nu.I'\DL·...TR' ;tnd Il('n~·\h.lU'tl'd con.·<. ,\lid fr.l!,!ll1elll< .\Ild f1.ll.: l', t~­
"'m.aJlrr lllnt h">l-.md dtbl.l~.lrf "hro ,... wi....... W
("(I1'f"',thr I.tIlrr frol1llll.lkin,;: or rcjuVl'llalioll Of"ril.:.
in n>ffiITl<'n "''''''.1ti.-.n-
,\ll.ii:'t. .l.ltrr lhor .Il<ln miti..ll
in!,! pl.ufonll' HI.I(I('< ,lIT oblong f1,lkMi lellwh mort'
p~ ,.1 Ihr CC"-.l,:;ation. 311 nUll_, ,,,,rLrd ,md un'
""ri.ed. ""IT o;nIk.lrd. \\.1.,h...1. ",,,rtkd ,md th.Jn double the \\i(hh m:ade in din.'C1 1~lTu<'lon
_tudird :'-1.\11\ plO...... (ll HT' JX'OI' qu.llil\ l1int tC'l:hniqu(", 110\\I'\e\'. mo'\ tool< "ere m;tcl\' in illdirect
....l..,h.-o oUI .U1d hritu(" wrn' found, Ih.. 111.ljOril\ lll'l':u"ion tl"£ll11ique<, <ince bulb<. rippk~ .md even
un\\orkcd. \m(ln~ Ih.. ,,,)rll'd Hint' ,dm(>-1 .111 of -.c:al'\ :art ll1i,ill~, 111(' qualil) h g<'l1cl"';llIy high..\ 1.1I1~
~XlCI qll.11i1\ m.lwrial Ih. JX'rcrru.ll('t' of 1001, i, Ull- <1>eCimrnl,' :arc bro~t'n,
u_u,llh hir;:h. 111(' find~ an' of a hl,ld.. indu<ll'\. ollly The 1001. ,Ire c1a'iSifiecl according to functional
.1 If'n rc , tnol~ an' made from com or R.,Lt..... '111e ch:ll'aClcli'lirs: p\irn'llily, 'hape (lI1oqJholo/-,')', includ·
lTll''l'U1'l. bdo" :lIT of complrlr ilrm'_ ing dressing and retouche), scconcl:llily. "ork traces
~'mc H.unmrr<lonC!> at UIl::1 ;m: in Ihm PI 2~:1 tr:tcl:"i oflmflill!,!, nlllcroscopic usc-wear lIlarb. gIOl'.
\11 ,UT l>f rl' ~itt or a link muller. "illl clur cnl!ih· crushing.marks" ,\ccordingl}', :l number of n\llno-
Ill!!; marL, .\poIo from a sin~k 0\-.11 '{romm.•111 are morpholQRical 1\1>CS h:a\'c been l~tabli<hcd I·ig.
"Pht-rKaI. Ikhil.l~ maLn up .3 ITn hnl:TOl:enrom \"]1.1 , although <;OI1lC items C:tnllOI be delennilloo
s=roup. ,,-jth itnm r.m~nll; from I 10 on, ~mC' i.am am doo;cr than "Knife or SiclJe·bladc", or "Cn,
an: mm. or ~ Olher!; flak,. b.~ and \lJUI1. ~o­ 1m00,n 1'001-, thc fonner arc oftcn \'CT) sm:,1I or frat.:.
ubk. the <kbila2:l: ~ N1h malinl: up «lI'Tk 311". of memcd <~mells, dilfJCUlt to dctcnnine due 10
thlo "nrlord ftin1.lo item._ Ill!, "Ill ,\nnola woup limitc:d size, 111e laller group comprises items m,u:k'
from bladts or blade-lil.:c flakes. "hich C;UlIlot Ix- Ik·
tcnnincd, either bC'Causc they are reworked or multi·
purpo!IC ill char:tctc:r. The Cros:.-<tttiOIl is lIi:llu,'ular
or tr:I~oid, the: Ie:n~th 3,()-.I.O cm. the width 1.5
"
.'"
" 3.0.
Items here c1assifil'd Scrapcrs an: made frolll
:l$

~,'W uliel.: lbl.:o, drop-shal>cd in outline and \\'ith .' <tecl'


scr:lping (."(I1,'c Fig. \'11.2:1, PI. 22:1.4). The lel1~lh is
'''''''''''''''' '" 3.5-j,O elll, the width 1.5-2.5.

"""' "
l:nd-srnlpm

""""
Knl''!:> .'",'"
17
End·scr:,pcl'\ 1l1olke up a highly ulliform b'fOUP of
1006: all made on long ;Ind well-sh;qJed blade< or
flakl", \~'Pic:,n)' 5.0 7.0 cm long, lhe widlh b"illl-: 2.0,
"K:Uc·blJdci
lnd-lo<T;lIlC'MnI\'tI '" 2.5. :\I:m)' hal'e tr:,ces oflmfting; lhe <;l;\':l.pinl: edgc IS
las <leep l!l;m al the "I)O\'e Seapers, 1I1;tIl)' sper.illl cm
Km,,\:> or <w;:I<k-tlbl.b
Addl\lOllaltooh
lj~'lItoob
,
Y7
al"l: brOken Fig. \'11.2:2 -5, PI. 22: 2-3.5 81.
17 IkJrers m,Ae lip a helcrogelll"Ou< b'TouP.•• 11 lll.t{!r
Towl
J" on m;w;i\'l: hl.tdlos, oftcn trianJ.,'lllar ill c~·;l.~lioll:
thl' len~h is 3,0 6.0 elll, tllC width 1.5 -3.0 (1'1. 2J:6-
8.
LJ'[!,fI
113

Knivcs is a largc group of relouched blldcs used piece of .1 h.llldlc.•\!an> sickle-bLlk< .I.", brook"n.
for CIIUilll;. 'nu; \ .Iriation in length is con idrr:tblc, likeh durinl; use:.
'1.0 8.0 cm. lhc "idlh I"; -3.0 - 110 doubl a reflection nurir~ do 1101 enter chis ~mbl.lee: Ihe abon'
of dirreremial use (PI. 22:9- 12. PI. 23:10 I-I. Thc End·.o;cr:tpco. CIC. "en: proOObh used for \\orl.:inl: in
cross·~ccioll is usuall) lr.lpaoid. rilher l"fjllil.llcral or bolh \\ood. 0011<: .md .LllIlcr.
oblique. lhc long side usc:d for cUllinl;. ~!:In~ ,,>cd. Addilion ••1 Tooh wrnpri-es biracial poin!., am)I.
Ulcns carT) lr:ICes of haftine. "hich lild) \'.\li 101lj,oi. hc:;ld, 1'1. 23: I ti. HI .•1 fr.u~rncm of a bil:lcc hLch a
llldin.ll. con: a.'l:c • :c bif:lcc lmifc "llh fin(: p~un: fLwlllt of
Sicllc·bllldes .Lrc. like the :tl.Jo,c l-:nd.'Cr.,per'S. :1 lhc "uti..ce... l>t. 23: I i ..md a hean poimed oblorll~
vcry hornogcnc,'ous group of lool~ 111l1dc on medium· 1001 "ilh ....'Cond.Lf'\ n·tOll(;he on 1"'0 <idc... d.tel.:er
sizc'(l bl.ldes (pI. 23:2 5). "111e> all IUl\c gin..., 011 lhe bl.,dl· or I.L'1.'e burer?, 1'1. 23: I . Thc' I:IC\ lh.u Ihc
onc cdgc, somclimcs 011 00111. "lu~1 of the ~idle· poillts "cn: ....'t;lrIinllh 1Il.,de from cores lor (fA",.
hl.ldcs IUII'c smOOlh or 0111)" lighll) relouchcd L'(lgc!. !lOI ol.Lde<. i~ I>t:rh.lp> ~urprisilllt. as is cco.linl\ Ihcir
onl)' vcry '~II"l.. I)' :11',' Ihcsc dCllled. The ICllglh is ·1.0 small IllllllUcI·. Olher IIe.'pons Ihan lhe :Ioo"C Ont"
S.D cm. lite width 2.0 2.5. The Cl"Oss'lcrlioll i. u<Il.lll)' ill nim .Irc UUkllOWll. C1<CCJlI perh.Lp, for WIIlC oon,·
obli(!lIe Ir.LIl<'zoid with Ihc 'Iccr 'hon ,irk Il~d fOI' poinl>. "hich IIHt) h.l\l" ....1"\·"d as ,urnll hc.ub ,r
cLlllillg. Tn judge (i'Om "e:u' m:trks .md gln«, 111l;re Ch.tpler IX :md. of toUl"'e. Ihe Slone ...~e~. ,dllch .LL-o
were secmin/oil> t"O 1>1}Cl; of ,ickle. The fir", IYI)(' h.Ld "en.: 1001< d Ch.'plcr \'11I.
onc (ur IIlon:) bl:ldcs .u\:u:hcd .LI thl' unc "nd direct!) foln.tlll ..1 fc'" \lf lhr /linlS lllil:lll be: E.lfh 8nllr~e:
10 lhe .h.• n, Ihc ,ccolld lype had bl.nlc> illwt'tcd .tlone .\I(c' in d.lle:. indudinlt Olle: of lhc .Lrru" hc.ttl> 1'1
Ihe onc >ide of.L eU1"\ l'(l sh.lft ur c'vcn inlu lh,' llLirkUc 23:18.
IH
_ ..•.. _-- ----- -------
Other
T."d-
--- Tm,l/
333
~l't1,"1 ,In,1 ~1,INn,ht \.d", 1'1'1:! n/o:. \·I\..')}. 1"pr.1
i~ '- n \..111 t,1 lh," "'luth. or I :h:,I: Plpt,1 I\;nt i, qnite
'llll'lh :\I"l'h .,Ilh,' ttln'l((lt tlmt ,uppo-edl" t11.I;n!t
l~~I(llhl
I .... al \1I1 (....' )
lk~h1ll11 I ~1I1 ~1I' )
~111~i\':j.\ 2/8 1'l\'tll 1.lr .1",". ,,111'11 't! till' Sou,h or the R,ll au
1711.1< I /lJ1 r.lll\(" I' 'll hi((h '11l·tln,
"'Il:l~n N\II\') 65:!
T,>/.II .~.l
ll\,m tht' 1.lhk hI:, ,·lIJ. it w.Ltl<pir("~ th.u h.llf
------- ------ till' tlmt i~ l'Il.11. mll" third i, rt:l.,ollll1,\1. .md ,h(" Il'\l

..
1 a/4"'I JI&~
r t"n.'il.'11. Imen...tinlll\. tlwn.· i~ .1 hi.((h l)f'rcetll,Il-~ of
allt • l /
.-Id Irbilal:t' 1.blr ,-.r I"""'" dC'hiMI.,...· onl, in hlC.II Ilim. ~ul.!l:e"inl: Ihat non·local
I, \ 11
at I~~·',.. ...... tliot .Irr\n-d ol.linl, 1lI hllt'hetl or n(";",!, Ilnishlod
fl'ml, In 11.'11..'<" 3 .11 11",1 i' .1 ~roup or hoard of 9
b1ad<'- (lnh Iht' pro"im.,1 \'nd j, Jl~r,,--d of on!:
~l~n ~\lt'cimcll ~lelllll1inl: f"'111 the ",une aln: Fig. 111.24-
(.'Il't'
l.xll
-11171 , R..-p.lIUJ
1-11 :!-1'"' I ;1~'11
"11(. '·II.h. i, Olhel"\<i-.(", l\illl is rarc inside the stnK-
Spau. :/'IIN"11
, \lIt~'GI 7(1(\'H
tUIl.". ntl doubt .1 rdlc,<:,ion of noon. being n.·gularh

...
''''"'
" '
".. u.:~
.nl~
~~ l~r. \

-111t~~1
2.~c.1,1"1
1,11~'·'

1~I2.V I
~Hll"i I
19(1:''1)

sIn.. )
''''1't It ,hQuld be ,Idt:k.-d Ihal flint \'"'S conUnOtll)
found in '\),1<:('" ocl,,«n <mlclIlrc,. lil..eh Icmpor.m
\,orl.-,hOfl!'. \lhtle anim.11 bone~ llIainly camc from
I llIJ·....
"'IlIW
-nrm ~t-l,,')
:!J It:!' , 1,(1(46'" \
."t,u'il
-01'1)
1~{:!-1(n
p.1rtKular 1:,1l"b..I~ .11l'3S.
1..ool..inl1; .11 the mO<1 COnllllQn ancr:l("t ly"Jl'C"'. twO
third> of Ihe SidJ("-bl,.oc,\. lIith " 5ho" life 'Il:m. J~
In.Jdc frolll locd S,ldot~ flint. bill onh onc third of
Ih(" lniv("... of 11 hkh C''t'11 .1 founh i, of forci~l flint
.11:. \'IU . !llC [nd•.cr.tpcn arc di,idl--d <"quall\ br,
tw~n local :lIId "'l..olomtl flil1ls. only a tcmh bring for-
R.\\\ ~1.\11:Rl\L'l eign Ill:. \'11.-1. The fot'l:i~'11 :md rc~on:tl flints
Ibr ,,-pt'" ,,\ Ibm ('Olpk... 'C(\ "tTr nuinh dr:t«mint'd in p-'nicul.,r !Ill' I.ni\Tl; prob,lbly rt:fkct C"Ch:lOl;(t
IIlllllf' ba.<L' ofUI""ll ~a1 orcuT1'mcr';md onI\ ""\("nI', perlmps ,tnicul.llcd throul:h slll'ql/go:1l
u." hml1td drI:rtT on d.u.llrom olb.,- ~nkmcnb. Foci Imnshumanenre (cf. C"Cldlere in Ihe publication. ill'
"r lhl' dl"t"rminau"n .uT \ ,olourl. inclusion, iocludin!: dudint; Ch.'pler XII.
r,.....it>. \:rnin wt:, S1rorlor ,urf~ rondiliom bOlh ror-
IM. ;md lrn,turt" 1.(Jl;.,] <,(lU~ "('f(' i!i01:11ed and
-.unpb I.aL~n lmm I"" '''(".llil~ \ ~I§iling IIUI~'llli:1l1 CO~CLt.:SIONS & CO~II'ARISONS
\:f'"l"t:J t.- .l).~ll-d in Ih~ "orL. "1>0 ;m "rch.arolot:i~l. 1111' fol1o\dn~ obscl"\.nions should bc nOtl-d rq,o:lrd im:
R llalC\-A-l"zunCI\'lI, ".ofLa, hi~hl\ kl1owlnl\lcabl~ on the llinl5 of UI::I (er. Fig. VII.I\. TIll'fC arc ,.jl'l~:tll~·
nun III nub"'lJ;a. hd' pn."idcod \.lIuabk ad\icc. indud. no "C,lpOt\> or hunting_rel.lIed tools .ltllon!; lhc /luus.
11l~,1 dt-Ia~..d l.Jhk (If rcfen:n,~ for 'lone "-nd flinu..\
B)' eOmntSI, lhc S.'1111plt- is domitl:ned by .cr.'pcJ'!i.
~~n(·r.tllmrHdllCli'!l1 10 lhc Ilr"blclO~ i, b, Col ;'\aeh.
knivcs, borel" .me! sicklc-blades fOI' er.lfis :md .lgriCU!·
l'\ &1 K 'deh", '\.Ieh,-,\' & :-':.leh<.'\ ICla6. lur:11 work, 1..o<::lllIim i< ,,·idcl.. u~ed and has Ildi\"l't'-
.\ ,h'i,iun 11.1.' lIl...·n nlade hell'l"Cn loe"-!. rcl,>ional.
lod th,' rn;~orilY of ("or,·5. flak~, .md flakes. :\rte~'ClS
.md f"'~l~' Ibm \QUITI-" Fil;. \"11.3, '1l1~ idclllilicod
w;lh .1 ,h'm \Hi· span (sicle~) ;n'c lll;linly of 1(M'a~ IlInl,.
'l/lnn-, u)l'(\ .11 U~.I M~ the foUm'in!;: I.QGII l\i1H~.
Kni,'cs art,' <Jflcllllflnrc'ib'" mlll~. ,uf:J:lcs,ing :ll11tll!'on
Il1d(ldlll~ l'l.ldu\"("( and Pipr:, \l 10 I.rn l~lum the
of IltW blfldn. Numedeall)'. a ~1.\lldal'd 1001-kl1 seetllS
\,Im,· (LI,.' 1<'1•.j'mall\ill\~, 10 30 kl11 Tctum 111<; Il~Xl - -,. sickl,~
d." ; r<)tt·'l.,~1 1111\l\ >~(lI.r1\ • OrIel) ",,,'1, 10 1la"C r01N'led l'f.m t·tld-M·l~lper. :, km ,', .1 .
u~ n".,,1"( '1'.
lUlll alU'r "'/ln~ d.I" , &If;\'l\ 1'<: h C11 km ,; . -I r 1_ iliad., pillS onc 10 I"" hl:l<l,", ur multiplc. llten·of. '10
.,. . . ...." 0 ..llfol
Ihi~ lome' sunlC r:P.w nlaledlll.
11I~ 1'I<."U\ ,ompn 1111( mo llim.he"n"
, II <l(jnnaUUll'i.
"
.'\1 nlO~t llO P;ll~1 ,Id nHll"I,:,b
- h:",e so , ar " ~ [1 ,._~C;t·
Il.l

t-,~ \ ll'j n,m ",,<loo ~c -....w...«. Illf ....- In,f< ,... ~~l <m, Idc
I.. n ..t,,,," I>h<~" fi~ \ Ill, f~, fLIl' l~ ~nd poon <rl ~ hL>do- pm"""""""
~ ..llfll'... '''"~' thr '"m on U..., j

,.Hcd .Hld ]Juhli_lu'd in lIulg'H;,L, 1-1t>"cI,·r. "h,ltlinlc


,!:Ita 111l'1l' ,I n:. '\Ccm la ronfinn fil1rlin h"i of [.ig;L. From
Ncolithir,Co]lpcl' :\g,. K:H':llIO,'O, S'1llthc11I llul,!;.n-i.1
cumc, .1 rich ~,lI11plc of flinlS, hut mainl} from .,.Ifl)
phiIS!" (Gal<O" & KIlIT:ll0V 1997), Ill:,d.·< ,L1ul bbllc,
Ilitll '~Lriflus relouchcs domin.'le; <Oll1l' ,m' .<ickle<.
FI'I"JOll bqond lInls-aria. :, fc" ]).",:,111'1 d,lt:I'SCt<
ImH' 1.\C,·n pLlblish~'d. \\Ich ., f,'" c.wcplions, 110 de-
c,'m 1)l)/,lo!-'} or numcriol t.,blr~ h,l\'c !Jot'cn pr('_
sC.'Il1t'c1. IhouL:h, [n Serbi". Ihe Ncolilhic lIMlni.,1 from
Di",)<,lin sb:th milknniUlll nel IMS hn,n "[I«i,"(II)\
"lltllt'l,h;l1 OIhcr mClhods tlilln .11 LiL:" Trilll:li.lln t'C
.d. 1983. NC\cnhclL"'''.'' domin.lluc ofhl.ldr"/lmiH."<
.md r"d-~r':Il)C:"r.s i. noted. "hilt: sidlc-bl.lck;< ....' C1l!
rdmhch fC\, correcl idcmific:l1i.on', ;" .ll't' .,1,.0
K'r:II~"" Ih.1t "r.: nOI cnd-scr:\I~""; b} conlr:I'I. bon·"
lire quile: plcnliful.
I'-mm Neolilic .·\"Z<l 1.11,' 'C.··.-emh-'i.-:lh Il1ilk'l1limn '-Ill \·u; c;....."'.h ......d llm, hLodn ID H...... J rriintd_
~th<r.
ItCl. fonn"r YII1..W l\ :\bccdoni.l. come-. ,L ...llllpk·
5tudic« U) 1 "I other melhods l::hter 11170 Bon:".in:
rar.:. ;IS M" cnd-«rnpers. " hile bl.lcI<'"I ....cI Ien;, c< .I~
commUll. S;clelt:.hl.,d,~ ;In: onl} ;<kll1ificd ,15 ., <"I... hC;I,b I1 .ll'e 1'c1.llilc" r:".:. In uther "om". U,.. ,ut:.
'>Cl of lIt,<k•. ,.\ morc f,-CCnt slUd~ b 011 N''fllithie I<C-'lcd "UL:,I"" lool·l.:i, '$ pll:'>elll ill .' ,t"f'lion "ilh .1
So.:!n,lC (e;ltl~ fifth t11illcnniltlll BC', in Scrhi., \ ·U}·I,·1e high ntltl1bcr of hl.,d.·,. .\lic1Olilh. I"" ... IlUl bccn
19901. Ilcrc cnd-sc:.[lcrs ,lfC \t.,) ct)tl1t11un, ,lItd idelltili"d .11 UIf,"
Ienil'c' (;nduditlJ.: dcnliculalcd ~p...·iltlct"i.I)\,I''''''. :lll(1 1'1\1", lh,· ..'u[CtUCnl of Hutnil"'· \"udol'.,d,l. X"nh.
,ickl"-hl:1fIt" '''un''11011. cm Bul~"rl.l, d,llcd I" th,' .'t:>-C,lll-d Tr:Ilt~ilion."
r\ wtllcwll:lt :llypir.,1 ;;"npl,', ho",ewt' C"PI'''I' t\L:C I'ctiod 110 lltt' Ilrulllr r\~c" d: clot'" her,· ill thi, publi.
in cia"" ,lilt! B"II::u;all, COIl".i rr'ltl1 Dtll,II1lul,11e ,.,'t11- c.nlun). CO",," ,I "ItIlIJlc Ilultlit"'t'"I:! U) "1I.,l.·,·", pl't'-
"lcc) (Sic,kol' 2002). H,·l'c. "ccmdi"J.: to N. Si",l",. h:lps. ;11«"CII. f1.,l" .. b.C, :'it.,l", & 1'....,,,<,, IlICIC,
is ,I dc"t' dOl11in:lllcC vrbl,lIk, 1117', \l'lIik kl1i,," ,2111, I1wl"c ,Ill' 'o(!lIIC hl""k, 11I •• t< "ell .1> bl.ld...... "ldl
l·lIr1-"'I~II){'r.s (I GI. ,,,,d minolith,/lI,IIl" '''''''' .It'l\>\'· '~ltiO'" ft"lvu"I""" ,'11 indudutL: Iml\~ Ill ..1lId
116
{. Ilo". I 1'.1\ "',~'Ih" (1111,...,1 "I"ne 1'1'1" Inn It, \1""0'"
~ n llwlT.llT ,J... "lri"U' ,,,,.1••,uh fI"l:c.t ..... \ ......
('('t '111 "'r..l ... J.,..... II,..,..." l'''''... nl\\
&d,m indtldin~ "111111,.111\\11' lh' ."'uht '111.11-- 1',I~~ dU"'"
IJbdc:o- \<4 .-mm hr,ld, -" h"I,'I' I, piu' ,'llwr l'I'm I 111"".1 ,m" h 1~,j" ..... "I \".11,,,, "I 11., l1.'PIM'd "1"",
\. ,,,,,I~ In.." 11'~' ",,,d... I "''' d li 11111
..-....' .md dCnu-h... >l, le ,h"...1d h.. nnlC'd th..lI .Il...:> thi,
{;.n' I \ ""n ..'" 1'1'1- " ... ~tlI ... l... Ir...·r>!"'....'lrbll'
,I", iho •• \;on I_ (hlfe-rinl! fmm Ih.. p" l\I ,lnt" n'll'
\ h"'T he l "1«"" h,,"c u"d lu I"".. h'I'Il<>!"IlI" ht
'Tmine l.il!.\ '\n't"nl,.,]f"'. -(1111(' rt mh1.mcr "nh I 'h,u"llrn'lil, Ihllee & ',l"I", 1'1'1;, :! I '1I1
Ut:.l j, !lNn:l ti-rte:'.... \ I (; " S, " ~lr.u.I"d 1'11\.;. "',...",.,d",i "".. L.... I.
11,.. nl.l(.·ri.u lrnln "'ll.u:n';. ""nh..nl GiT'f'l"'t' pr"" ..,........l. , ...·I"t'lr' m lInl"IJlr I'"'· leI,.1t. l'1nrnu..
",tll.thin! millennium BC j, ,\f ,,'\'l'r.ll .\iIklTlIl "lr..~ I" "'Lt!" ",1 ",,,trot" , ..... '-rntl·,I~'cl"" 1l.,J~.tni.' III 11 n
{;l1nh,,"". \1 ..-d, I'liti. ' ....,1,,1'" :\1",-r'~'III.l. \, ,dll~lrd I"
1\1>l."" .>1" r,m-malm.l!. t"\'('1l .\ n'" link ob'nh,m
b,.,-..Ii".. dI \n,... :-"'''lhrd'' y".:.,... I~"". :\1"""""llld \,.
Trinl!lum ~'1IOJ\l............ .illrd hOlll'\-tlUL1. "Inch
1'........ \1:00 .. 1.1." .\nl:l'1M 1"'lllut-r nf \n 1......... >11'. L'''.rni"
m3lt'" up ,l link IU.11T lh.," h.Llf the m.llen.l!. ,,"" <>fC"'~oml<l
hroUl!hl 10 the' ,itc .."('min>:h rnll\\ f.u \\,1\. 1>O."ibl, 11IIIrl', ~ (( \ '\"il.,j". 1'1<11. "'.m,,,,,,". I),r ""'~r:'h,,n~rn lm
l."\'nl oonh<'.l..\rm Bullr,ll"ia ihhou\:h odl('r ;.oUr('C'$ ~od<.-lL"'" I>l8~ lQ<l:!. O.lrm-irh,.... hb"I~.ln .... ltr '\U>I:-rdl,..,,~.
hJ,,'(' <\I~l l'l('nl ,u~lnl RI.,<k-IOl'l.' dominate: Iho: nt und r,..... h,,"l:l'n III ~ ..d'.." " \'.~. 1,1 2 T"" & 'I:d'rl
~,I"'n:: \rr1u,~ugt,,·I .... 1"'1tllll. L·"".",i"'l SdI,hullt,
....lIlIplr. indudllll< I ~2 ,id.!t-..hl.ltb. I ti<l rnrl.<cmpcr.;
tinnl. Ilio" rrrdll~,ncl Ik-o.:rl' .0:: :)"fi" ,\rdl,lrn,,'bchn h"".
and 1H "Il-<;.,l1td Inl1l'.\I00 h1.,(!r-, lni\'CS 'Iller'!' alT
"11-,,,..,
I"L. U"lQri........ \ .... Or, l\i"",,-\OChdhrll
.{ ~ .........a1kd n-t,1UCld h1,l~ oJ-bo J.ni,'C>. I; _null \tePdm..... ,\. & D :>njool<' <'f!... 1<lAA, O",,,u... ,\lIcl ,..... ,~
pom~ 1ild~ drill>. 16 bo~n.. 13 "O-(·.l1IOO dcmicu- b'hir n( ("rll,r:tJ :>o:rbi•• bl"lf'dt>i:o :\1o"O«I"dl'h. IO. 1~1I!bu'JII
1;1Ie- ;"a,,·hbde_. and a ft'" OlhrT anef."lCI_. :\'ol,lbl\. Ix-p.mmrm M .\nlhrnpCll~, l'"'"""i,, or 1~1!>1>1I'll1l
OM Ih~ amll"w-;&d; "('~ found al ->lla~i, .\ ("('T' ' ...m. Cl .\: L'" '\"ad..... 19II'i. Di"rib",i".. and 1:,-oI""on or
lam rncmbbncc' 10 Lica L_ \1Otro thf ~ibttou, Roo:l.> in llullrd,u. Con'I"'" ""Id", d" l',\rddmur
b<~Qr-. do:- oXir,...,.,. 3'1;8. RIIr
Incidt'ntOllh, ,LI L"lrh Bronze .\~ TTO\. "ilh in·
~lTdlm', 'I.' ~'OO~. 11"" "nitre!> '" pl'd.".orir 1:""-r_~",,,1 ;l\l<"Itl·
du,lrie-. duminaled \y. "flalC'-", Ihere i!; a hill,h lIum· bbl:n fron, tlM' l)ur:"'"ulal 11ICr""'O!i' Todo""",, 200211
bn of ~n....lChcd l"'lOb- \uppoocdl\ for <:rnoOlhin,: 2111l
rounded obJ.:n\ Illr antl\' 366. cnd-,ClVcT'!- 22-1. "u:U.no., ~ & TT"" l'l'l,; Ch'l'prtl-Slonr M"""I>l,l:l' of H",·
"U'UlIc;uions" po"ibh ,idJc·black; 1931, and 011'- ItII ..I·\'od<,,,,rt, 1:" ,1,,11;"'/1:",1) Bro"zr '\1=" 1'1''''''''''''' 11\
n:w•• h('ad, I ;1I. "hill' -retouch«l bbdc-," Illeh '''''born UullP";" ."Id 'h" l'roI~r", of lh-r I:'"h"" "Su:"..
1",':UOOn in 1Wl.:u... I',d.""..,,, I:"'''l''"t'n,,-r 1. :!11lf
llli\~ .ltI: rn;lli\"d\ ran: .fO GatsO'l I9!lB .. \be) lhi>
M

TnOonl'I'3. 11 rei 2'00"1 Dll",,,llllol 11 I).. pr.•hl>lori<cb-rn


'Iud\ is follO\\ll1ll, d,"I.~ifil.tlion.\ orit_ own,
(;"brnddrr 1 2. Ilt:,l", Iklll..:h.. "l'"h,"~OI:i,,"hcs I""illl'
Indrcd. oodt Lhe rdali\'cl~ high number of ilem, '1 n">:I....._It ~'OO3, 1'W:rt1 Sln,,-r, EJ"r, & Rrnf"'tl ~'()I)J. 611r
found 6'l2 and lhcir del'likd u~atmem and 'Iud\ lrindwn. R..I< I) Kmr nh. 1'l9O. ')-rln""." Nr<Jluh... \ilbCl'
rn.tln the Li~ !o'Ullpl(' quill' unique: and a highh in Yu~,u.. :\1o"um""t:l.\rrh~roIoI:ir~ IS. I...... ,\u<:o:1r< In·
\".tlu,.ble rcfen'nt:t: ll;\.'oe fOT the fumrc. '"Iut, or .\rrl~lrnl~, L'..""rs;" nfC"hfnrm.,
'l"nll'\lw". It L, ,\ :\Id'arron, J. Gun" & G. Odrll. I'llill. 'nit
Iblni S""... I"dU>ln froml>,,_m :md Ib"j~. ~ld'ldrro<l &
~....,..."t 1<'IBlI, ~"J.lA
L"nlr, S. rd 19'1"!. Dir '1"'''"l1ll"n llt:fc;lI~"nl:rl\ 'vu Sa,""""
1I111tr,<ri..It l:r!t<·h,,"'.... do, lx-ul..ch.n"I~"n ... h..".O'tr,r-.il'h.
""Ion, ,\u"lt":lI .. ",~" 1'l3~ 1931.:\ hlnclll .... Ilrllr~<:o: .lll' "<>t.
W1d .rul~h ...h'r H. To'-
\'.... 1'. I<lCl2, Grnloo.,..\(h.. ulld I(t'Ol;r~pl",d,r Fjl\fi.hn"'~ L.-..,r
1'1<12 !31f
\'OOl<l. H l'oQ(l. nor L·........ l)IUI.... llno.'Iff" T,.;"~I,,,'" & K,,,ji/'
1'lo.n. Hilr.
VIII. STONE TOOLS

INTRODUCtION tick. All rxn'pt onc of tht" (ru,hinlo; mm("\ ''''rl'' found
Gl'llllllcl ~IOIll' lool~, d~'~piIC .hdr ,1bund.Llln' on out.ilk Ihe hOll~(·<.
111:1I1}' prchi'!nric ~ilc_~. ,m; 1I~lIall) (ml)' Ji~lcd by 1'(llll1{kl"l .!lld h.lmml·J'<, on lhe mh"r h.md, 'H.'re
naming their a~'lm1(;d funcliOIl.t1 propertic~. Tht'n" found in Ihe ll(lu5t.·~. Som\..' of lhelot.". I\in~ d(K(' 10
.m: fc" :IHCnlpI.S 10 tre;1l ground 510ne indu\lric'l the O\'C11\. m.l) 1>1' connrcled "il.h food pmc('< ins;
,,;Ih IIlclhodolo"oic;t! con"islcllq Kanc!ll'\' 1970; .Icli,;tie<. "hile odlt'r<, found on die floor<. hold li"el\
KandH:\ & Nikolo\ 1983!. lllcrcforc. lK<itk< ~n­ faJll'n dm'1t from lh\'ir 't/)r.I~ plaeo ....< tht' hilmmcr<