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Donald A. Neamen
IlieiF TAILa 0' eOIll'II"
PAtTI
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICrs AND BASIC ,O\FPUCATIONS
Cllapllr1
Semiconductor Materials and Diodes
Clltf*r2
Diode Ci rcuits 49
CIIIpIer 3
The Bipolar Junction Transistor 97
cupilr ..
Basic BIT Amplifiers 163
CfIII*r$
The FieldEffect Transistor 243
a.,twe
Basic FET Amplifiers 313
C_'7
Frequency Response 383
CIBplIra
Output Stages and Power Amplifiers 469
PART II
ANALOG ELECfRONlCS 519
CMpIIrt
The Ideal Operational Amplifier 521
CNp(trlG
Integrated Circuit Biasing and Active Loads 577
Cllll*r11
DilTerential and Multistage Amplifiers 639
QlpWr12
Feedback and Stability 127
eu,..r13
Operational Amplifier Circuits 817
CiIpM''I(
Nonideal Effects in Operational Amplifier Circuits 811
thaplMU
Applications and Desi8ll of Integrated Circuits 923
Brief Table or Contents
PARlILI
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS 1001
ClNfMrl&
MOSFET Digital Circuits 1003
Cfllpletl1
Bipolar Digital Circuits 11\3
~XfS 1173 Indn. 1211
"ARTl
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AND BASIC APPLICATIONS
CI'I.ptef1
Semicooductor Materials 2;00 Dtodts 3
1.0 Pre'l'iew 3
1.1 Semiconductor Mlllterials aDli Properties 4
1.1. 1 Intrinsic Semiconductors 4
1.1,2 Extrinsic Semiconductors 7
1.1.:\ Drift and Diffusion Currents 9
1,1.4 Excess Carriers 11
1.l The po Jlm:don 12
l.~, I The Equilibrium pn Junction 12 1,2,2 ReverseBiased pn Junction 14 1,2 .. 1 ForwardBiased pn Junction 16
1~.4 Ideal CurrentVoltage Relationship 17 1,:!.5 pn Junction Diode 18
1.3 Diode Circuits: DC Analysis and Models 23
1..1.1 Iteration and Graphical Analysis Techniques 24 1 J.2 Piecewise Linear Model 27
LU C(.mputerSiml.llation and Analysis 30 .UA Summary of Diode Models 3l
1.4 Diode Circuits: AC Equhalent Circuit 31 1.4.1 Sinusoidal Analysis 31
14.2 SmallSignal Equivalent Circuit 35
1.5 Other Diode 1 ypes 35 t,5.1 Solar Cell 35 1.5,2 Phutodiode 36
1.5. _I l.ightEmining Diode 36 LS.4 Schottky Barrier Diode 37 1 'i _'\ Zener Diode 39
1.6 Summary 41 Claeckpoint 41 Review Quesnons 41 Problems 42
Computer Simulation Problems 41 Design Problems 47
l.vj
.. ~~ .'
Contents
et.~'*' ~
Diode Circuits 49
2.QPre"iew 49
2.1 Rectifier Circuits SO
2. L I HalfWave Rectification 50 ProblemSolving Technique: Diode Circuits 51 2, U Full·Wave Rectificauon 53
2.1,3 Filters. Ripple Voltage. and Diode Current 56 2.1.4 Voltage Doubler Circuit 63
2.2 Zener Diode Circuits 64
2.:U Ideal Voltage Reference Circuit 64
2.2.2 Zener Resistance and Percent Regulation 57
2.3 Clipper and Clam per Circuits 68 2.3.1 Clippers 68
2.3,2 Clarnpers T2
2.4 MultipleDiode Cin;uils 75 2.4.1 Example Diode Circuits 75
ProbtemSolving Technique; Multiple Diode Circuits 79 ~A.2 Diode Logic Circuit, IlO
2.5 Photodiode and LED Circuits 82 2,5.1 Photodiode Circuit 82
2.5.2 LFD Cilcuit 83
2.6 Summary 85
C1teckpoint 85 Review Questiens 86 Problems 86
Computer Simulation Problems 94 Design Problems 95
Cflapler3
The Bjpolar Jtlnctioll Transistor 91
3.0 Prevlew 97
3.i Bask Bipolar JUllction TrallSis,or 97 J 1.1 Transistor Structures 9&
3.1.2 npn Transistor: ForwardActive Mode Operation 99 J I J pnp Transistor: ForwardAciive Mode Operation ]04 3. L4 Circuit Symbols and Conventions l{lS
1l.5 CurrentVoltage Characteristics \07
3. Ui Nonideal Transistor Leakage Currents and Breakdown Voltage 110
3.2 DC Analysis of Transistor Circuits 113 3.2.1 Common Emitter Circuit 114
J2.2 Load Line and Modes of Operation 117 ProblemSolving Technique: Bipolar DC Analysis 120
Contents
J .2.3 Common Bipolar Circuits: DC Analysis 12 I
3,3 Basic Tramistor Applications 131 1.3.\ Switch 131
3.3.2 Digital Logic 133 UJ Amplifier 134
3,4 Bipolar Transist~r Biasing 138
3.4.1 Single Base Resistor Biasing 138
3.4.2 Voltage Divider Biasing and Bias Stability 140 l4.3 Integrated Circuit Biasing 145
3.5 Multistage Circuits 147 3.6 Summary ISO
Check point IS I
Review Questions IS l Probl~s 151
Computer Analysis Problems 160 Desigll Problems 161
CtaIpIer4
Basic BJl Amplifiers 163
4,9 Pre\'iew 163
4.1 AnalDg Signals ami Linear Amplifiers 163
4.2 The Bipolar Linear Amplifier 165
4.2.1 Graphical Analysis and AC Equivalent Circuit 1!J6 4.2.2 SmallSignal H)lbrid:JI" Equivalent Circuit of the Bipolar Transistor 170
ProblemSolving Technique: Bipolar AC Analysis 175
4.~.3 Hybridn Equivalent Circuit. Including the Early Effc;.:t !7f> 4.2.4 Expanded Hybrida Equivalent Circuit 180
4.1.5 Other SmallSignal Parameters and Equivalent Circuits 180 4.3 Basic Transaslor Amplifier Conftgurations 185
4.4 CommonEmitter :'\mplifiers 189
44. I Basic CommonEmitter Amplifier Circuit 190 4.4.2 Circuit with Emitter Resistor 1?2
4.4.} Circuit with EmitterBypass Capacitor 196
4AA Advanced CommonEmitter Amplifier Concepts 199
4.5 AC Load Line Analysis 200 4.5. I AC Load Line 200
4.).2 Maximum Symmetrical Swing 203
ProblemSolving Technique: Maximum Symmetrical Swing 204
4.6 CommonCollector (EmitterFoUower) Amp1ifier205 4.6.1 SmallSignal Vonage Gain 205
4.6.2. Input and Output Impedance 207
4.6.3 SmallSignal Current Gain 209
xvur
Contents
4.7 Commo .... Base Amplifier 214
4.7.1 SmallSignal Voltage and Current Gains 21" 4.7.2 Input and Output Impedance 216
4.8 The Three Baste Amplifiers: Summary and Comparison 218
4.9 MlIltistag~ Amplifiers 219
4.9, I Multistage Analysis: Cascade Configuration 219 4.9.2 Cascode Configuration 223
4.10 Power Considerat ioWl 226
4.11 Smnmary 229
Checkpoint 129
Re",lew Questioll5 129
Problems 230
ComplIter Simulation Problems 24. Design Problems 242
CllaplerS
Tbe FieldEffect T l1osistor 243
5.0 Preview W3
5.1 MOS FieldEffect Transistor 243
5.1.1 TwoTerminal MOS Structure 244
5.1.2 nChannei Enhancemen\·Mod~ MOSFET 146
5.1. J Idea! MOS FET Current Voltage Characteristics 248 5.1.4 Circuit Symbols and Conventions 253
5.l.5 Additional MOSFET Structures and Circuit Symbols 253 5. I ,6 Summary of Transistor Operation 25~
S,I.7 Nonideal CurrentVoltage Characteristics 159
MOSFET DC Circuit Analysis 262 5.2, I CommonSource Circuit 263
5.1,2 Load Line and Modes of Operation 267 ProblemSolving Technique: MOSFET DC Analysis 26~ 5,L~ Common MOSFET Configurations: DC Anll.lysis 269 5.1,4 ConstantCurrent Source Biasi nil 181
5.3 Basic: MOSFET Applications: Switdl. Digital Logic Gate, and Amplifier 283
5, U NMOS Inverter 213J 5.3 .. 2 Digital Logic Gate 285
5.1.3 MOSFET SmallSignal Amplifier 287
5.4 Junctioo FieldEffed TraMistor 287
5,4.1 pn JFET and MESFET Operation 288 5.4.2 Current  Voltage Characteristics 192
5.2
5.4.:' Common J fET Configurations: DC Analysis 295
5.5 StlDlRIary 301
Checkpoiot 302 Re,iew Questioas 302
Problems 303
Compater Simulation Problems 311 Design Problems 311
Chip!tf6
8asic FET Amplifiers 313
6.0 Prevlew 313
6.1 The MOSFET Amplifier 313
6.1.1 Graphical Analysis. Load Lines, and SmallSignal Parameters 314 to.I.2 SmallSignal Equivalent Circuit 318
ProblemSolving Technique: MQSfET AC Analysis 320
6. U Modeling the Body Effect 322
6.2 Basic Transistor Amplifier Configurations 323
n.3 The Comnt(lnSource Amplifier 314
h.:t I f\ Basic CommonSource Configuration ]24
fd.2 CommonSource Amplifier with Source Resistor 329
fI.:U CommonSource Circuit with Source Bypass Capacitor ~~1
6.4 The SourceFellower Amplifier 334 (lA.l SmajlSignal Voltage Gain 3J4 hA.~ lnput and Output Impedance .>39
6,5 The CommoJlo'Gale Configuration 341
!l.5.1 SmallSignal Voltage and Current Gains 341 !'l5.2 Inpu! and Output Impedance 343
6.6 The Thr~ Basic Amplifier Configuralions: Summary aM Comparison 345
6. 7 SingleStage Integrated Cirtuil MOSFET Amplifiers 345 r..7. , NMOS Amplifier with Enhancement Load 5145
h.7.2 NMOS Amplifier with Depletion Load 350
h.7.3 NMOS Amplifier with PMOS Load .~5]
6.8 Multistage Amplifiers 355 r._I<.1 DC Analysis 356
h.li.2 SmajiSignal Analysis 360 6.9 Basic J FET Ampli6eis 362
h.I,I.1 Smull Signal Equivalent Circuit 362 6_1.).2 Small·Signal Analysis 364
6.1 0 Summ~ry 368
Checkpoint 368
Re~ew Questions 369
Problems 370
Compuler SimulatiOli Problems 380 Design Proltlems 380
xix
. .'~ _., .
... :,'
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Contents
CNpIH7
FreqlltDCY Respoll!le 383
7.0 PI'e1riew 383
7.1 Amplifier F'rflqueocy Respesse 384 7.1.1 Equivalent Circuits 3M
7.1.2 Frequency Response Analysis 385
7.2 System Transfer Functioos 386 7.2.1 rDomain Analysis 386 7.2,2 FirstOrder Functions 388 i.2,3 Bode Plots 388
7.2.4 ShortCircuit and OpenCircuit Time Constants 394
7.3 Frequency Response: Transistor Amplifiers witll Circuit Capacitors 39B
7,3.1 Coupling Capacitor Effects 398
ProblemSolving Technique: Bode Plot of Gain Magnitude 404 7.3.2 Load Capacitor Err~ts 405
7.3,3 Coupling and Load Capacitors 407 7,3.4 Bypass Capacitor Effects 410
7.3.5 Combined Effects: Coupling and Bypass Capacitors 414
7 A Frequency Response: Bipolar Transistor 416 7.4.1 Expanded Hybrida Equivalent Circuit 416 7.4.2 ShortCircuit Current Gain 418
JAJ Cutoff Frequency 420
".4.4 Miller Eff«t and Miller Capacitance 422
7.5 FrequeDCY Response: The FET 426
7.5.1 HighFrequency Equivalent Circuit 426 7.5,2 UnityGain Bandwidth 428
7.5.3, Miller Effect and Miller Capacitance 431
7 .6 Hi~Frequenty RespclDSe of Transistor Circuits 433 7.6.1 CommonEmitter and CommonSource Circuits 433
7.6.2 CommonBase. CommonGate, and Cascode Circuits 436 7.6.3 Emitter and SourceFollower Circuits 444
7.6.4 HighFrequency Amplifier Design 448
7.7 Summary 450 Checkpoilt 450 Re,iew Questions 451 Problems 45J
Computer Simulano. Problems 463 Design Problems 466
Chlphrll
Output Stages jnd Power Amplifiers 469
8.0 Prmew 469
8.1 Power AnlJllifiers 469
8.2 Power Tra.mstIJrs 470 8.2.1 Power BITs 470
8.2.2 Power MOSFETs 474 8.13 Heat Sinks 477
8.3 Classes of Amplifiers 480 8.3.1 CLassA Operation 481 8.3 .. 2 ClassB Operation 484 S.U ClassAB Operation 489 SJ.4 ClassC Operation 493
8_4 ClassA Power Amprifiers 494
It4.1 lnductively Coupled A..mplifiet 494
8.4.2 TransformerCoupled CommonEmitter Amplifier 495 8.4.3 TransformerCoupled EmitterFollower Amplifier 497
8_S ClassAD PushPun Complementary Output Stages 499 &.5.1 ClassAd Output Stage with Diode Biasing 499
8.5.2 ClassAb Biasing Using the Vee Multiplier 501
1\.5.3 Cla$~AB Output Stage with Input BUITer Transistors 504 8.5,4 ClassAD Output Stage Utilizing the Darlington Configuration 507
8.6 Summary 508 Cheekl"lint 501' Revitw Questions 509 Problems 51C}
Computer Simulatio~ Problems 516 Design Problems 517
PAIIT.
Contents
ANALOG ELECfRON]CS 519
Cl'Iapter 9
The Ueal OperltionaJ Amplifier 521
9.0 Pre,iew 521
9.] The Operational AmpUfier 521 9.1. I Ideal Parameters 522
9.1.2 Development of the Ideal Parameters 523 9 U Analysis Method 525
9.1.4 PSpice Mooeling 526
9.2 Inverting Amplifier S16 9.2.1 Basic Amplifier 527
ProblemSolving Technique: Ideal OpAmp Circuits 529 9.2.2 Amplifier with aTNetwork 530
9.2.1 Effect of Finite Gain 532
9.3 Summing Amplifier 534 9.4 NoDinvertiag Amplifter S36
xxii
Contents
94.1 Basil: Amplifier 536 9.4.2 Volttl!;e Follower 537
9.5 OpAmp Applications 539
9.5. I CurrenrtoVoltage Converter 5)9 9.5.1 VoltagetoCurrent Converter 540 95.) Difference Amplifier 543
9.5.4 Instrumentation Amplifier 548 9.5.5 Integrator and Ditferentiator 550 95.6 Nonlinear Circuit Applications 553
9.6 OpAmp Circuit Design 555
9.6. l Summing OpAmp Circuit Design 555 9.('..2 Reference Voltage Source Design 55R
9.6.) Ditlerence Amplifier and Bridge Circuit Design 560 9.7 Summary 56!
Checkpoint 56]
Problems 563
Cemputer Simulation Problems 575
{;"apter1D
Inlegrated Cir(uit Biasilg .lnd Atli"~ Loa4s 577
10.0 Prcriew 517
10.1 BipoJar Transistor Cunent Sources 577
10.1.1 Two· T runsisror Current Source 578
10,1.2 improved CurrentSource Circuits ~Kl ProblemSolving Technique; BJT Current Source Circuits 5~lj 10. U Widlar Current Source 589
10.1.4 Multitransistor Current Mirro{s 595
10.2 FET Current Sources 51)8
10.2.1 Basic Two Transistor .MOSFET Current Source 598 ProblemSolving Technique; MOSFET CurrentSource Circuit fl02 10.2.2 MutliMOSFET CurrentSource Circuits 603
!ll.23 BiasIndependent Current Source 607
10.2.4 JFET Current Sources 6()<l
10.3 Circuhs with Active Loads 611
IfD. I DC A.TI<\'y~is: BJT Active Load Circuit 612
10.3.2 V01tage Gain: SJT Active Load Circuil614 lOJ.!> IK Analysis; MOSFET Active Load Circuit 616 10.3.4 Voltage Gain; MQSFET Active Load Circuit 618 lU.35 Discussion !'tIS
lOA SmanSignal Analysis: Active Load Circuits 619
10.4.1 SmallSignal Analysis: BJT Active Load Circuit 619 Pr oblemSolving "Technique: Active Loads 621
10.4.2 SmallSignal Analysis: MOSFET Active Load Circuit 622 10.4.3 SmallSignal Analysis: Advanced MOSFET Active Load 623
 ..
10.5 Summary 625 Chedpoiol 625 Reflew Questions 626 Problems 626
ComputE'r Simulatloll Problems 6.:\7 Design Problems 638
Chapter 11
Differential and Multistage Amp~fiers 639
11.0 Preview 639
11.1 'The Differential Amplifier 639 11.2 Bastc BJT DiffeJe.ntial Pair 640
L I ,2, I Terminology and Qualitative Descriprion 640 11_2,] DC Transfer Characteristics 643
II ,2_.~ SmallSignal Equivalent Circuit Analysis 64fI
L 1_2.4 Differential and CommonMode Gains 053 ProblemSolving Technique: DiflAmps w ith Resistive loads 656 L I ,2,5 Common Mode Rejection Ratio 657
11.2.6 Differential and CommonMode Input I mpedances (\59
11.3 Bask FEr Differential Pair 663 II_ll DC Transfer Characteristics 56J
ILL! Differential lind CommonMode Input Impedances M8 J J _U SmallSignal Equivalent Circuit Analysis 669
ILiA JFFT Differential Ampliner (,7:;
11.4 Differential Amplifier with Acti"~ Loa. 674 t I A.I BIT DiffAmp with Active Load 674
II A.2 SmallSignal Analysis of BJT Active Load (,76
I1·U MOSFET Differential Amplifier with Active Load 679 11_4.4 MOSFET DilTAmp with Cascode Active Load 683
11.5 BiCMOS Circuits 686
11.5_ J Basic Amplifier Stages 686 11.5.2 Current Sources 688
1 \ ,5 .. "\ BiCMOS Differential Amplifier 68B
[ 1.6 Gain Stage and Simple Ouiput Stage 690
11,6.1 Darlingron Pair and Simple EmiuerFotlower Output 690
1 U.2 Input Impedance. Voltage Gain, and Output Impedance 691 11.7 Simplified BJT OperaUonal Amplifier Circuit 695 ProblemSolving Technique: Multistage Circuit, 698
11.8 OUrAmp Frettuency Response 694)
I L _K I Due to DifferentialMode Input Signal 699 11.lL2 Due to CommonMode Input Signal 700
I Lit] With EmitterDegeneration Resistors 703 11_8.4 Witn Active Load 704
','" .
· . :. . ... ,
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Contents
11.9 Sununa ry 705 Checkpoint 706 Review Questions 706 Problems 7.7
Cumpurer Simulation Problems 723 Design Problem§; 724
Cblpftc12
Feedbad aDd Stability 127
12.0 Previe1t' 727
12.1 IptrtHIuctw.n to Ftedback 727
11. I . I Advantages and Disadvantages of Negative Feedback 728 11. I .2 Use of Computer Simulation 729
12.2 Basic Feedback Conce,ts 729 12.2.1 Ideal ClosedLoop Gain 7)0 11.2.2 Gain Sensitivity 732
11.23 Bandwidth Extension 7J4 I2.2A Noise Sensitivity 735
12.2.5 Reduction of Nonlinear Distortion 738
12.3 Ideal Fedbadl Topologies 738
I D.I SeriesShunt Configuration 739 ID.2 ShuntSeries Configuration 743 12.13 SeriesSeries Configura tion 746 I2.J4 ShuntShunt Configuration 747 1~,3.5 Summary (If Ro:~ults 749
12.4 Voltage (MrieiiShunt) Amplifiers 749 12.4.1 OpAmp Circuit Representation 749 12.4.2 Discrete Circurt Representation 752
12.5 Currrenf (ShuntSeries) Amplifiers 755 12.5.1 OrAmp Circuit Representation 755
12.5.2 Simple Discrete Circuit Representation 757 12.5.3 Discrete Circuit Representauoa 758
12.6 Traesceadactance (SeriesSeries) Alltplifiers '762 12.6.1 OpAmp Circuit Representation 762
12A2 Discrete Circuit Representation 764
12.7 Transresistaltct (Sha.nt8bunt) Aml'lifiers "1'68 12.7. lOpAmp Circuit Representation 768 12.7.2 Discrete Circuit Representation 710
U.S Loop Gain 718
12.8.! Bask Approach 779 12.8.2 Computer Analysis 781
11.9 Stability of the Fee4back Circuit 784 lB.1 The Stability Problem 785
12.9.2 Bode Plots: One, TwQ, and ThreePole Amplit1ers 785
Contents
12.9.3 Nyquist Stability Criterion 7&9 12.94 Phase and Gain Margins 793
12.10 FreqlleDCy Compensation 795 12.10.1 Basic Theory 795
ProblemSolving Technique: Frequency Compensation 196 12.10.2 ClosedLoop Frequency Response 797
12.HI.3 Miller Compensation 798
12.11 Summary 800 ChecklJQinl 801 Review Questions SOl Pnlblems 802
Computer Simulation Problems 8t5 Design Problems 816
Chafter13
Operattooal AllIplifier Cir(l!its 817
13.0 Preview 817
13.1 General OpAillp Circuit DesiKli 817 111.1 General Design Philosophy 818 I 3.1.2 Ci rcuit Element Matcbing 819
13.2 A Bipolar Openltional AmpRfier Circuit 820 13.2.1 Circuit Description 820
13.2.2 DC Analysis 823
13.2.3 SmallSignal Analysis 810 13.2.4 Frequency Response 838
ProblemSotving Technique; Operational Amplifier Circuits 8J9
13.3 CMOS Operadollal Amplifier Circuits 839
13.3.1 MC14573 CMOS Operational Amplifier Circuit 840
13.3.2 Folded Cascode CMOS Operational Amplifier Circuit 843 13.3.3 CMOS CurrentMirror Operational Amplifier Circuit 846 ID.4 CMOS Cascode CurrentMirror OpAmp Circuit 847
13.4 BieMOS Operational Amplifier Circuits 848 13.4.1 BiCMOS Folded Cascode OpAmp 849 13.4.2 CA3140 BiCMOS Circuit Descnption 850 13.4.3 CA3140 DC Analysis 852
1>.4.4 CA3140 SmallSignal Analysis 854 13.:5 JFET Operational Amplifter Orcuits 856
I.t 5.1 Hybrid FET OpAmp, LHOO22f42/52 Series S57 13.5.2 Hybrid FET OpAmp, LFI5S Series 858
13.6 Summary 859
C~k.p!)int 860
ReTiew Questions 860
Problems 861
I
• <
Comems
Computer Simulation Problems 8(i7 Desiglll Problems 868
CI'I.~r14
Nonidtal Effects in Operational Amplifier (irctlil) 871
14.0 Preview S71
14.1 Prat;tiul Op·Amp Param(:'t(!rs 81 I
14, 1.1 Practical OpAmp Parameter Definitions ):172 14.1.2 Input and Output Voltage Limitations P3
14.2 Finite OpenLoop Gain 875
14,2. ~ lnverting Amplifier ClosedLoop Gain R75 14.2.2 Noninverung Amplifier ClosedLoop Gain lin
14.2.3 Inverting Amplifier ClosedLoop Input Resistance K7~ 14.2.4 Noninver(ing Amplilier ClosedLoop Input Resistance 81(1 14,2.5 Nonzero Output Resistance Sll~
l4.3 Frequenc), Response 885
14.3. I OpenLoop and ClosedLoop Frequency Response 8R5 14.3.2 GainBandwidth Product liR7
14.:1.3 Slew Rail' 8118
14.4 Offset Volt.agf.' 892
14.4. I lnpui Stage Offset Voltage meets 893 14.4.2 Offset Voltage Compensation 901
'4.5 Input Bias Current 906
14.5.1 Bias Curr e rn Effects 90('
14,5.1 Hi;!:> Current Compensation 'Xl7 14.6 Addition.al Nonideal Effects 909
14.6.1 Temperature Effecls 909
14.6,2 CommonMode Rejection Ratio 911 14,7 Summary 91 t
Checkpoint 1)12
Re\'iew Questions 912
Problems 9 t3
Computer Simulation Problems 921
Chapier15
Appli(auDJlS, aoo Design or Integrated CirCllits 923
15.0 Preview 923
lS.1 Active Fillers 924
15.1.1 Active Network Design 924
\ S. \ ,2 General TwoPole ActiveFilter 926
15.1.3 TwoPole LowPass Butterworth Filter 927 15.1.4 TwoPole HighPass Butterworth Filter 929
Contents
! 5.1.5 HigherOrder Butterworth Filters 931 15 J.6 SwitchedCapacitor Filter 933
15.2 Oscillators ~37
15.2.1 Basic Principles of Oscillation 9.37 [5.2.2 PhaseShift Oscillator 938
15.2.3 WienBridge Oscillator 941
15.2.4 Additional Oscillator Configurations 945 15.3 Schmitt nigger Circuits 947
15.:U Comparator 948
15.:1,,2 Basic Inverting Schmitt Trigger 951
IS:U Addiuonal SchmiH Trigger Configuratioas 954
153.4 Schmitt Triggers with Limiters 959
15.4 Nonsinusoidal Oscillators and Timing Orcuits %0
15.4.1 Schmitt Trigger Oscillator 961
[5.4.2 Monostable Multivibrator 963
15.4.3 The 555 Circuit 965
15.5 Integrated Circuit Power Amplifiers 972
15.5. I LM380 Power Amplifier 972 ;', ~ ...
15.5.2 PAI2 Power Amplifier 975
15.5.3 Bridge Power Amplifier 977
15.6 Voltage Regulators 978 ~>
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1 S.h.1 Basic Regulator Description 97& •• ", ',h
15.0.2 Output Resistance and LOad Regulation 97S
15.6.J Simple SeriesPass Regulator 980 "
15.6.4 Positive Voltage Regulator 982
15.7 Summary 986
Checkpoinl 987 :'v
. ~. ' .
Review Questions 988 "
ProbleE 988
Computer Simulalion Problefils 998 ',>'
>
Design Problems 998
..
'ARTIII
DIGIT AL ELECTRONICS 1001
Clupteft6
MOSFETDigital Circuits t003 .. <~.:
".
16.0 Preview '003
l6.l NMOS Inverters 1003
;'.
16.1.1 nChannel MOSFET Revisited 1004
1&.12 NMOS Inverter Transfer Characteristic. 1007
Hd.3 Noise Ma.rgln 1019
Jli.L4 Body Effect 1024
is.r.s Transient Analysis of NMOS Inverters 11)26 Contents
16.2 NMOS Logic Circuits 1018
16.2.1 NMOS NOR and NAND Gates 1028 16.2.2 NMOS Logic Circuits 1032
16.2.3 Fanout Hl33
16.3 CMOS I.ver'er 1034
16.3.1 pChannel MOSfET Revisited 1035 16.3.2 DC Analysis of the CMOS Inverter 1()36 16.3.3 Power Dissipation 1043
16.3,4 Noise Margin 1045
16.4 (MOS Logic Circuits 1048
16.4.1 Basic CMOS NOR and NAND Gates 1048 16.4.2 Complex CMOS Logic Circuits \052
16.4.3 Fanout and Propagation Delay Time 10S4
16.5 Clocked CMOS Logic Circuits fOSS 16.6 TraBSJlIission Gates lOSS
16.6.1 NMOS Transmission Gate W58 16.62 NMOS Pass Networks 1063 16.6.3 CMOS Transmission Gate 1065 16.6.4 CMOS Pass Networks 1067
16.7 SequentiaiLotic Circuits 1067 16.7.1 Dynamic Shift Registers tnss 16.7.2 RS FlipFlop 1070
16.7.3 D FlipFlap 1072
16.7.4 CMOS FullAdder Ciscuit 1074
16.8 Memories: Classifications and Ardritectur:es 1075 16.8.1 Classifications of Memories 1075
t 6.8.2 Memory Architecture t 07l:!
t 6.8.3 Address Decoders to77
U;.9 RAM Memory Cells 1079 16.9.1 NMOS SRAM Cells 1079 16.9.2 CMOS SRAM Cells 1081
16.9.3 SRAM Read/Write Circuitry ross 16.9.4 Dynamic RAM (DRAMi Cell! 1087
16.1 e Read..Qnly Memory 1089
16. HU ROM and PROM Cells 1089 1&.Hl.2 EPROM and EEPROM Celts lO9O Hi.11 Summar), 1093
Checkpoint 1095
Review Questions 1095
Problems 1097
Computer Simulation Pro~lems 1110 Design Problems 1111
Contents
Cllaflerl1
Bipo~ar Digital Circuits 1113
17.0 Preview 1113
17.1 EmilterCoupledLogic (EeL) 1I13
17.1.1 Differential Amplifier Circuit Revisited 1114 17.1.2 Basic Eel Logic Gate 11 t6
17.1 J ECl Logic Circuit Characteristics 1120 17.1.4 Voltage Transfer Characterisrics 1 124
17.2 Modififd ECL Circuit Configurations 1125 17.2.1 LowPower EeL 1125
17.2.2 Alternative EeL Gates 1128 17.2.3 Seties Gating 1131
17.2.4 Propagation Delay Time 1134
17.3 Transistor TrallSistor Logic 1135
1/.3.1 Basic DiodeTransistor Logic Gate 1136 1i.3.2 The Input Transistor of TTL 1138
I'D.) Basic ITL NAND Circuit 1141
1/.3.4 TIL Output Stages and Fanout 1143 17.3.5 Tristate Output 114S
17.4 Schottky TransistorTransistor Logic 1149
1 iA. [ Schottky Clamped Transistor 1149
I ?4,l $l;:hQllky TIL NAND Circuit 1152 IIAJ LowPower Schottky TTL Circuits 11:53 17.4.4 Advanced Schottky TTL Circuits 1155
17.5 BiCMOS Digital Circuits 1157 1'1.5.1 BiCMOS Inverter 1157 17.5.2 BiCMOS Logic Circuit [ 158 17.6 Sununary 1159
Checkpoint 1160
Review Questions 1160
Problems 1161
Computer Simulation Problems 1171 Design Problems 1171
....... DIXIS
~A
Pbysicat Constants."" Cl)IlYeraoa i'adors 1173
· >.. B.2 Drawing ehe Circuit It76 8.3 Type of Analysis 1174S
0.4 Displaying Results of SimufaUoll 1177 D.5 Eumple Analyses 1177
: .: ~,..
Contents
ApPtndlIS
Introduction to PspiCf 1 r75
B.(I Preview 1175
B.] Introduction 1I75
Appendb:C
Selected Manufacturers' Data Sheets 1183
Appendb;D
Standard Resistor and Cilpacitor Values 1195
0.1 Carbon Resistors 1195
D.2 Precision Resislors (One Percent Tolerance) D.3 Capacitors 1196
AppendlKE
Ilellditg List 1199
AppendlKF
4.~wers to Selected Prohlems 1203
Ind. 1211
119t:i
111I~il~ III~I ~!I~III ~m~II" ~l~
E0522324W
Semiconductor Devices and Basic Applications
In the first pari 01 the text. we introduce the physical characteristics and operation of the major sernlconductor devices and the basic circuits in which they are used, to Illus.tratehowttiedevice characteristics are utlHzed in switching, digital, and arnpuncancneppllcations
Chapter 1 briefly·discussessemJconduclor material characteristics and then introduces the semlcooductordlode, C·hapter g looksat various di6de cjrcuitsthat demonstrate how the nonlinear cbarecteristtcs of ihe diode Its~lf are used in switching and waveshaping applications. Chapter 3 lntroduces the btpotartranststor, presents the de analysii!l ofbipotartranslstor circuits, and. discusses basic applications of the transistor. ln Chapter 4. we design and analyze tuneamentat bipolar transistor CircultS,lnCIUdlng arnpnliers.
Chal>ler 5 i.ntroducas the fleld·effect Iraosislor: (FEn, and FET ctroults are analyzed and designed inChapter6. Ch.ap~err t6n$iclers the frequency response of t)Olhbi polar' and field·effect transistor circuits .. Finally. Chapter 8 discusses the design~ and appltcattons of lh~se baSii;:.electronicclrcuits,. j ncl uding power ampl ifiersand various output stages.
C MAP , E R
1
Semiconductor Materials and Diodes
1.0 PREVIEW
This text de .. ls with the analysis and design of circuits containing electronic devices. such as diodes and transistors, These elect rook devices are fabricated using semiconductor materials, so we begin Chapter I with a brief discussion of the properues and characteristics. of semiconductors. The intent of this brief discussion is \0 become familiar with some of the semiconductor material terminology.
A basic electronic device is the pn junction diode, One of the more interesting characteristics of the diode is its nonlinear currentvoltage properties. The resistor, for example, has a linear relation between the current through it and the voltage across the element The diode is also a twoterminal device, but the i'I' relationship is nonlinear. The current is all exponential function of voltage in one direction and is essentially rem in the other direction. As we will sec, this nonlinear characteristic makes possible the generation of a de voltage lrorn nil ac voltage source and the design of digital logic circuits. for example.
Since the diode is a nonlinear element. the analysis of circuits containing diodes is not as straightfoward as is the analysis of simple resistor circuits. A mathematical model of the diode, describing the nonlinear iv properties. is developed. However. the circuit cannot be analyzed. in general. by direct mathematical calculations. In many engineering problems. approximate "backoftheenvelope" solutions replace difficult complex. solutions. We develop one such approximation technique using the piecewise linear model of the diode. In this case, we replace the nonlinear diode properties by linear characteristics that are approximately valid over a limited region of operation. This concept is used throughout tile study of electronics.
Besides the pn junction diode, we consider five other types of diodes that are used in specialized electronic applications. These include the solar celt. photodiode, lightemitting diode, Schottky barrier diode, and the Zener diode.
The general properties of the diode are considered in this chapter. Simple diode circuits are analyzed with the intent of developing a basic understanding of analysis rcchniqucs and diode circuit characteristics. Chapter 2 then conSiders applications of diodes in circuits that perform 'Various electronic functions.
3
Part i Semiconductor Devices and Ba$~ Applications
1.1 SEMICONDUCT OR MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES
Most electronic devices are fabricated by using semiconductor materials along with conductors and insulators, To gain a better understanding of the behavior of the electronic devices in circuits. we must first understand a few of the characteristics of the semiconductor material. Silicon is by far the most common semiconductor material used for semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Other semiconductor materiaJs are used for specialized applications, For example, gallium arsenide and related compounds are used for veryhighspeed devices and optical devices,
1.1.1 Intrinsic Semiconductors
An atom is composed of a nucleus, which contains positively charged protons and neutral neutrons, and negatively charged electrons that, in the classical sense, orbit the nucleus. The electrons are distributed in various "shells" at different distances from the nucleus, and electron energy increases as shell radius increases. Electrons in the outermost shell are called val£nee electrons, and the chemical activity of a material is determined primarily by the number of such electrons.
Elements in the period table can be grouped according to the number of valence electrons. Table 1.1 shows a portion of the periodic table in which the more common semiconductors are found. Silicon (Si) and germanium (Gej are in group IV and are elemental 5emH:onduciol'S, In contrast, gallium arsenide is a groUp IIIV compound semicoad.uetor. We wiU show that the elements in group III and group V are also important in semiconductors,
Table 1.1 A portion of 1ne periodiC
table
III IV V
8 C
AJ Si P
Ga Ge As Figure 1.1 (a) shows fi lie noninteracting silicon atoms, with the four valence electrons or each atom shown as dashed lines emanating from the atom. As silicon atoms come into dose proximity to each other, the valence electrons interact to fonn a crystal. The final crystal structure is 11 tetrahedral configuration in which each silicon atom has four nearest neighbors, as shown in Figure 1.I(b). The valence electrons are shared between atoms, forming what ale called covalent bonds. Germanium, gallium arsenide, and many other semiconductor materials have the same tetrahedral configuration.
figure 1.I(c) is a twodimensional representation or the lattice formed by the :five silicon atoms in Figure I. 1 (a). An important property of such a lattice is that valence electrons are always available 00 the outer edge of the silicon crystal so that additional atoms can be added to form very large singlecrystal structures.
A twodimensional representation of a silicon single crystal is shown in Ftgure 1.2. for T = 0 OK. where T = temperature. Each line between atoms
Cbapier i Semiconductor Materials and Dlodes
I
~Si~
I
I I I I
~Si~ ~Si~ ~Si~ / i\ : Si~
I I ! \ / I II I
\ I ~Si=Sj=Si~
I / ...... I II I
I' ....
~Si~ , <, 5\
I V : I
(8) (b) (c) F1gure 1.1 Silicon atoms in iI ay$lal matrix: (a) five nonil1terading silloon atoms, each wiID tour valell;e electrons, (b) the lelrahedral conligurillioo. (c) II twodimenSional representalion showing the covalent bonding
represents a valence electron. At T = 0 'K. each electron is in its lowest possible energy slate, so each covalent bonding position is filled. IF a small electric field is applied to this material, the electrons will not move, because they will still be bound to their individual atoms. Therefore, at T~. [) "K, silicon is all insulator: that is. no charge flows through it.
rr the temperature increases, the valence electrons will gain thermal energy.
Any such electron may gain enough thermal energy 10 break the C() v alent bond and move away from its original position (Figure I _3). The electron will then be free to move within the crystal,
Since the net charge of thematerial is neutral, ir a negatively charged electron breaks its covalent bond and moves away from Its original position, a positively charged "empty state" is created at that position (Figure 1.3). As the temperature increases, more covalent bonds are broken and more free electrons and positive empty stales are created.
In order 10 break the covalent bond. a valence electron must gain <I minimum energy. Eg. called the bar»dgap energy. Materials that have large bandgap energies. in the range of 3 to 6 electronvolts' (ev), are insulators because, at room temperature, essentially no free electrons exist in these materials. In contrast, materials that contain very large numbers of free electrons at room temperature are ctlnductors.
In a semiconductar, the bandgap energy is on the order of I eV. The net flow or free electrons in a semiconductor causes. a current In addition..a valence electron tha[ has a certain thermal energy and is adjacent to an empty stale may move into that position, as shown in Figure 1.4 making it appear as if a positive charge is moving through the semiconductor. This positively charged "particle" is called a hole. III semiconductors, then, two types or charged particles contribute to the current: the negatively charged free electron. and the positively charged hole. (This description of a hole is
I An elecironvott is the energy of an electron that hoi. been ac<:eletaled [lIro"gh a potential difference or l volt. and leV = l,b ~ 101~ joules,
I I I ~
5i==Si==Si~Si
II II II II
Si==Si==Si==Si
II II II II
.~ 5i == Si = Si == Si 
I I I I
Figure 1.2 T lIYodimensional representation of the silicon crystal at T", oaK
Si == 51= Si =Si
11 .... .lLIl611
 Si ~·t.:Si = Si = Si 
II II II II
 SI == 5t == Si == Si 
I I I I
Figure 1.3 The l:ifeaKlog of a covalent bond tor T > 0' K
 Si == Si = 'ii = Si 
l\~t~;!! 
II II II II
Si==Si==,i==Si
I I I I
Flgl,lf"8 1.4 A twodmell$lonal represemafion 01 the silicon ayslal showing the movement of Itle po9i~vely charged 0019
ti
Part I Semiconductor Devices and Basic Applications
greatly oversimplified. and is meant only to convey the concept of the moving positive charge.)
The concentrations (#!cmJ) of electrons and holes are important parameters in the characteristics of a semiconductor material. because they directly tn~uehce the magnitude of the CUrrent. An bltrinsit semiconductor is a singlecrystal semiconductor materia! with no other types of atoms within the crystal. In an intrinsic semiconductor, the densities of electrons and holes ale equal, since the thermally generated eleerrons and Roles are the only source of such particles. Therefore, we use the notation n, as the intrinsic carrier eoneeatration for the concentration of the free electrons. as wen as that of the holes. The equation for II; is as follows:
1/' ('r,) II, ;: BT' "e m
(1,1)
where B is a constant related to the specific semiconductor material, E'J is (he bandgap energy (ev), Tis rhe temperature CK), and k is Boltzmann's constant (86)( 106 eV j"K), The values for Band Eg for several semiconductor materials are given in Table 1.2, The bandgap energy is nor a strong function of temperature.
Table 1.2 Semi(:Qn(luctQr constants
Silicon (Si)
(';aliluffi arsenide (O"As) Germanium (Ge)
5,2~ )( 1O!~ '.10)( W!· 1.66 x 1O!~
i.t 1.4 O.6ti
Eltample 1.1 Ob)ecll'ie~ Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration ill sihcon a; T"" 300"K.
Solut6ot'1: For silicon at r = 300"K. we can wrile'
Ai ;0 BTm Arf+)
,;:: (5.23 X 1015)(300)Jjll'C ... ~!~")
OJ
Convnent: An inuinsic electron concenirauon of I.S x lOw cm " rna}' appear \0 be large, bul it is relatively srna It compared to the concentration of silicon atoms. which is 5 x I022qn~J.
The intrmsic concentration A, is an important parameter that appears often in the currentvoltage equations for semiconductor devices.
Chapter J Semiconductor Materials and D!odes
1
Test Your Understanding
1. t Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration in ga.lium arsenide and germanium atT,", 300·'K. (Ans. Ga.As, nj = L80 x utem'\; Ge.n,;;;;; 2.4(1 x JOllcm1)
1.2 Determine the intrinsic carrier concentration in silicon. gallium arsenide, and germanium at T ;;;;;;400"K. (Ails. Si, IIi;;:;; 4.76 »: IO'~cm_l; GaAs. ".;;;;;; 2.44 x I09cm'\ Gc, 11, '" 9,06 x 1014cml)
1.1.2 Extrinsic Semiconductors
Beca U$C the electron and hole concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor are relatively small, only very small currents are possible. However, these concentrations can be greatly increased by adding controlled amounts of certain impurities. A desirable impurity is one that enters the crystal lattice and replaces (i.e., substitutes for) one of the semiconductor atoms, even though the impurity atom does not have the same valence electron structure. For silicon. the desirable substitutional impurities are from the group III and V elements (see T'lbk I. n.
The most common group V elements used for this purpose are phosphorus and arsenic. For example, when a phosphorus atom substitutes for a silicon atom. as shown in Figure! .5, four of its valence electrons are used to satisfy the covalent bond requirements, The fifth valence electron is more loosely bound to the phosphorus atom. At room temperature. this electron has enough thermal energy to break the bond, thus being free to move through the crystal and contribute to the electron current in the semiconductor.
The phosphorus atom is called a doaor impurity, since it donates an electron that is free to move. Although the remaining phosphorus atom has a net positive charge, the atom is immobile in the crystal and cannot contribute to thecurrent. Therefore. when a donor impurity is added to a semiconductor. free electrons are created without generating holes. This process is called dopiDg, and it allows us to control me concentration of free electrons in a semiconductor.
A semiconductor that contains donor impurity atoms is called an ntype sc:micoiiduttor (for the negatively charged electrons).
The most common group III element used for silicon doping is boron.
When a boron atom replaces a silicon atom, its three valence electrons are used to satisfy (he covalent bond requirements for three of the four nearest siacon atoms (Figure 1.6). This leaves one bond position open. At room temperature, adjacent silicon valence electrons have sufficient thermal energy to move into this position, thereby creating a hole. The boron atom then has a net negative charge. but cannot move, and a hole is created that can contribute to ~ hole current
Because the boron atom has accepted a valence electron, the boron is therefore called an acceptClr impurity. Acceptor atoms lead to the creation of holes without electrons being generated. This process, also called doping, can be used to control the concentration of holes in a semiconductor.
Si==Si~Si==Si~
II II /~4j 11
 Si =~ Si = Si 
II II II II
Si =Si =Si =Si
I
Figure 1.5 Twodimensiooal rSPfesef'ltS.tioo of a si~ lattice doped with a phosphorus atorn
I I
 Si = Si = Si = Si ~
II _. __ II II II
 Si~=.;;.:®= Si = Si 
II II II II
 5i __ Si = Si = Si 
I I 1
Rgure 1.6 Twodimensional represeflt8.lion of a sitioon lattica doped with a boron atom
H
Part I Semiconductor Devices and Basic Appli ea li o ll~
A semiconductor that contains acceptor impurity atoms is called a ptype semiconductor (for the positively charged holes created].
The materials containing impurity atoms are called fXtrinsiC semiCOD.UCtors, or doped semicOllductors. The doping process, which allows us to control the concentrations of free electrons and holes, determines the conductivity and currents in the material.
A fundamental relationship between the electron and hole concentrations in a semiconductor in thermal equilibrium is given by
fI"PI> = 117
(Ll)
where M<J is the thermal equilibrium concentration of free electrons, P« is the thermal equilibrium concentration of holes. and n, is the intrinsic carrier concentration.
At room temperature (T = 300 OK), each donor atom donates a free electron to the semiconductor. If the donor concentration Nd is much larger than the intrinsic concentration, we can approximate
Theil, from Equation (1.2). the hole concentration IS
(1.4)
Similarly. at room temperature, each acceptor atom accepts a valence electron, creating a hole. If {he acceptor concentration N, is much larger {han tile intrinsic concentration. we can approximate
(1.5)
Then, from Equation (1.2), the electron concentration is
,
11/ fI,,:= ~
. "
(1.6)
Example 1.2 Ob)ectlv.~ Calculate the thermal equilibrium electron and hole conem tra ti ons,
Consider silicon at T "" 300 OK doped with phosphorus at a concentration (If Nd = 1016 em  3. Recall from Example 1.1 that n, ; L5 x Wj() em 3.
SOlution: Since N,I »lIi' the electron concentration is
no !:!i Nd = IOi<,cm>
and the hole concentration is
IIi (1.5 x lOw)C
Po = N. = 101~ "" 2.25 x I04cm;
Cc>mment: In an extrinsic semiconductor, the electron and hole concentrations normally differ by many orders of magnitude.
Chapter I Semiconductor Materials and Diodes
In an ntype semiconductor, electrons are called the majority carrier because they far outnumber the holes, which are termed the minority carrier, The results obtained in Example 1.2 clarify this definition, Ill. contrast, in a ptype semiconductor, the holes are the majority carrier and the electrons are the minority carrier.
Test Your Understanding
1.3 Calculate the majority arid minority carrier concenirauons in silicon at T = 30[)"K_ if (a} No = lO17cm~, and (b) N~ =5 x 101~cmJ. (Arts. (a) Po = lOP em'", 110 = ~,.":'5 x IOlcm\ (b) II., = 5 x 1015 cm ", P» 0=4.5 x I04cm:l)
1.1.3 Drift and Diffusion Currents
The two basic processes which cause electrons and holes to move in a semiconductor are: [a) drift, which is the movement caused by electric fields; and (b) diffDSion, which is the dow caused by variations in the concentration, that is. concentration gradients. Such gradients can be caused by a nonhomogeneous doping distribution, or by the injection of:1 quantity of electrons or holes into a region,using methods to be discussed later in this chapter.
To understand drift, assume an electric field is applied to a semiconductor.
The field prodeces a force that acts on free electrons and holes, which then experience a net drill velocity and net movement. Consider an atype semiconductor with a large number of free electrons (Figure 1.7(a». An electric field E applied in one direction produces a force on (he electrons in the opposite direction, because of the electrons' negative charge. The electrons acquire a drift velocity I'J. (in cm/s) which can be written as:
where /1" is a constant called the electron mobility and. has uni ts of cm2 jVs. For lowdoped silicon, the value of IJ.. is typically I ~50 cm2/V....." The mobility can be thought of as a parameter indicating how well an electron can move in a semiconductor. Tile negative sign in Equation (I. 7) indicates that the electron drift velocity is opposite to that of the applied electric field as shown in Figure l.7(a), The electron drift produces a drift current density J, (A/cm") given by
where n is [he electron concentration (#/cm3) ande is the magnitude of the electronic charge. The conventional drift current is in the opposite direction [rom the flow of negative charge, which means that the drift current in an ntype semiconductor is in (he same direction as the applied electric field.
Next consider a ptype semiconductor with a large number of holes (Figure 1,7(bn. An electric field E applied in one direction produces a force on the holes in the same direction, because of the positive charge on the holes. The holes acquire a drift velocity l'Jp (in cmjs) which can be written as
(t.7)
(1.8)
(I,?)
_E
(8)
f
{b}
Figure 1.7 Appied eleclric field, carrier drift velocity. and drift current density in (aj an n·type sernoondocior and
(t» a p.rype semieorductor
III
Pari I Semiconductor Devices and Raoi, Applicauons
where Ilp is a constant called the hole mobility, and again has units of em" ;Vs. For lowdoped silicon, the value of p.l' is typically 480 cm~ /Vs, which is slightly less {han half the value of the electron mobility. The positive sign in Equation (1.9) indicates that the hole drift velocity is in the same direction as the applied electric field as shown in Figure 1_7(hf· The hole dri fl produces a dritt current density Jp (A/(:m2) given by
(1.10)
where p is the hole concent ration (#it;m;) and l; is again the magnitude of the electronic charge. The conventional drift current IS in the same direction as the flow of positive charge, which means that the drift curreni m a ptype material is also in the same direction as the applied electric field.
Since a semiconductor contains both electrons and holes. the toral drift current density is the sum of the electron and hole components. The total drift current density is then written as
(1.I1(a))
where
and where CJ is the COlldOCfwifY of the semiconductor in (Qcm)"I_ The conductivity is related to the concentration or electrons and holeso If the clecrric field is the result of applyi fig a voltage to the semiconductor, then Equation (!.IHa)) becomes a linear relationship between current lind voltage and is one form of Olun's law.
From Equation (1.11 (b)), we see that the conductivity CJn be changed from strongly ntype, n » p. by donor impurity doping to strongly ptype, f1 » n, by acceptor impurity doping. Being abk to control the wnductivity o( • semicondllCter Dy !it!loclivt doping is what allows us to rabrkalt tile ~arreiY of electronic devices tbat art atallable.
With diffusion. particles flow from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration. This is a statistical phenomenon related 10 kinetic theory. To explain. the electrons and holes in a semiconductor are in continuous motion. with an average speed determined by the temperature. and with the directions randomized by interactions with the lattice atoms. Statistically, we can assume that, at any particular instant. approximately half of the particles in the highconcentration region are moving away from that region toward the lowerconcentration region. We can also assume that, at the same time. approximately half of the particles in the lowerconcentrafion region are moving toward the highconcentration region. However, by definition, there are fewer particles in the lowerconcentration region than there are in the highconcentration region. Therefore, the net result is a flow ofparucles away from the highconcentration region and toward the towerconcentration region. This is the basic: diffusion process.
For example, consider an electron concentration that varies as a function of distance .r, as shown in Figure 1.8(a). The diffusion of electrons from a highconcentration region 10 a Iowcohcenlralion region produces a flov.. (If eiectrons in the negative x direction. Since electrons are negatively charged, the conventional current direction is in the positive x direction.
Chapter I Scm iconducror M .. terials and Diode>
II
p
Hole JillU8i()~
(a)
(b)
Figure 1.3 Current density caused by concentration gradienls; (a) electron difiusil)(1 and tCll'respornling current densllyand (b) hole diffusiooand. corre$poru:ting CIlfl'Eln.t oom,,;ly
In Figure l.~(b). the hole concentration is 3. function of distance. The diITusion of holes from a highconcentration region to a lowccncentrauon region produces a flow of holes in the negative x direction.
The totat current density is the sum of the drift and diffusion components.
Fortunately. in most cases only one component dominates the current at any one time in a given region of a semiconductor"
1.1.4 Excess Carriers
Up to this point we haw assumed that the semiconductor 1; in thermal equilibriurn. In the discussion of drift and diffusion currents. we implicitly assumed thal equilibrium MIS not significantly disturbed. Yet, when a voltage is applied [0. or a current exists in. a semiconductor device. the semiconductor is really nol in cqullibrium, In this section. we will discuss the behavior or nonequilibrium electron and hole concentrations.
Valence electrons may acquire sufficient energy to break the covalent bond and become free elect rous if they interact with highenergy photons incident on the semiconductor. When this occurs, both all electron and a hole are produced, thus generating an electronhole pair. These additional electrons and holes are called excess electrons and excess holes.
When these excess electrons and hob are created. the concentrations of free electrons and holes increase above their thermal equilibrium values. This may be represented by
( 1.12(all
and
I' = ,~ .. + Sp
(1.12(b))
where n" and p .. are the thermal equilibrium concentrations of electrons and holes, and Sn and lJp are the excess electron and hole concentrations.
rr the semiconductor is in a steadystate: condition, the creation or excess electrons and holes will not cause the carrier concentration to increase indefinitely. because a free electron may recombine with a hole, in a process called elecnoebele recombilUltiOlL. Both the free electron and the hole disappear causing the excess concentration to reach a steadystate value. The mean time over which an excess electron and hole exist before recombination is called the excess carrier lifeCime.
12
Pan I Semicondocter Devicesand Basic Applical ions
Test Your Understanding
1.4 Consider silicon at T = JOO'K. Assume (hat Ii. = 1J50cm2/Vs and Ill' '" 4S0cm1/Vs_ Determine the conductivity if (a) NJ= 5 x iOl~em\ and (b] No '" 5 X JOl~ em _l. (Aas. (a) 10,8 ({1cmr', (b) J.8462crnf I.
1.5 A sample of silicon at T = 300 ~K is doped to Nd = 8 X IOI~ cm'. (.al Calculate no and p". (b) If excess hole> and electrons art generated such that their respective concentrations are 8p;= SM = 1014 emI• determine the total concentrations of holes and electrons, (Ans, (a) n. = 8 x lO"cm \ p" = 2,81 x W4o;ml: (b] no = 8.1 x io" rotJ, Po ~IOI4 crn")
1.8 The conducti ... ity of silicon is a == IO(ftcm) I, Determine the drift current density if an electric field of £ = 15 V fern is applied, (Ans, J = 150Ajcm")
1.2 THE pn JUNCTION
In the preceding section s, we looked at characteristics of semiconductor materials. The real power of semiconductor electronics occurs when p and nregions are directly adjacent to each other, forming a pDjunction. One important concept to remember is 'that in most integrated circuit applications, the entire semiconductor material is a single crystal, with one region doped to be ptype and the adjacent region doped to be ntype.
1_2.1 The Equilibrium pnJunctlon
Figure 1.9(a) I!> a simplified block diagram of a pn junction, Figure ! ,9(b) shows the respective ptype and ntype doping concentrations, assuming unifonn doping in each region, i1S well <IS the minority carrier concentrationsin each region, assuming thermal equilibrium.
Doping {Concentration
.'V.!
~ __ N,I
r .. , .. , .... l~c" ~
1 "i
IIPf~ NtJ _
>1 I
 IJm.~ 1/.' 'J
(al
(b)
Figure 1.9 The p!l junction; ~a) Simplified geometry ol a pn juntlion and (b) doping prolile of an ideall.lnifoonly doped pn ItincliOl'l
The interface at x :::: 0 is called the metallurgkaJ junction. A large density gradient in both the hole and electron concentrations occurs across this junction. Initially, then, there is jj diffusion of holes from the pregion inti> the nregion, and a diffusion of electrons. from the nregion into the pregion (Figur~ 1.10). The flow of holes from rhe pregion uncovers negatively charged acceptor ions, and the flow of electrons from the nregion uncovers positively
Charter J Semiconductor Materials and Diodes
p
(I)
pregion
Potemisl
(b)
Electron diffusloo
,,,0
Figure 1.10 Initial diffusion 01 electrons and ooles at the metallurgical juneton, es1ablishng thermal equilibrium
Figurel,11 The pn jlHlclion ill thermal &quilii:lril.m: (a) the spacedlarge region and electric:: field arid It) the polef1lial through the junction
charged donor ions. This action creates a charge separation (Figure 1.1I(a)), which sets up an electric field oriented in the direction from the positive charge to the negative charge.
If no voltage is applied to tbe pn junction. the diffusion of holes and electrons must eventually cease. The direction of tbe induced electric field will cause rbe resulting force to repel the diffusion of holes from the pregion and the diffusion of electrons from the nregion. Thermal equilibrium occurs when the force produced by the electric field and the "force" produced by the density gradient exactly balance.
The positively charged region and the negatively charged region comprise the spacethar~ region, or depletion region, of the pn junction. in which [here are essentially no mobile electrons or holes. Because of the electric field in {he spacecharge region. there is a potential difference across that region (Figure l.l Hb)}. This potential difference is called the b~iltln potential barrier, or builtin voltage. and is given by
(1.13)
where VT == kT [e, k = Boltzmann's constant, T = absolute temperature, e = {he magnitude of the electronic charge. and N. and Nd are the netacceptor and donor concentrations in the p and nregions. respectively. The parameter VT is called the the .... al voltage and is approximatel y V r = 0.026 V at room temperature. T = .300cK.
Example 1.3 ObjKliIl.: Calculate the buillill potennal barrier of a pn junction.
Consider a silicon p!l junction at T = 300"K, doped at N" == IOII'cm1 in the pregion and N.t = 1017 cm" ill the aregion.
Solution: hom the results of Example I L we have 11, == 1.5 x 101(1 em _.1 lor silicon at room temperature. We then find
(N"NtI) [(lOlt>f(lOI')]
V n; = V 1 ln ___.."... = (0.QZ6)ln 10 l :: 0.157 V
'Jj (1.5 x 10 )
14
Par' L Semicoaducror De .... ices and 811sic Applications
Comment: Because of the log function. the magnitude of v ... is nOI a strong function of the doping concentrations. Therefore, the value of V~, for silicon pn junctions is IIsuall~ within O. L to 0.2 V of this calculated value
The potential difference, or builtin potential harrier, across the spacecharge region cannot be measured by a voltmeter because new potential barriers form between the probes or the voltmeter and the semiconductor, canceling the effects of V". In essence, V" maintains equilibrium, so no current is produced by this voltage However, the magnitude of VI>, becomes important when we apply a forwardbias voltage, as discussed later in this chapter.
Test Your Understanding
1.7 Determine V~. for a sificon pn jllnCIIQB at T '" 3()t)"K for (a) N" = Wi! cm) (old = Lol7 crn\ and for (b) No = Nd "" \(lIT cmJ (Ans. (a) V,\j = O.t.97 V, (b) V~i'::: 0_817 V)
1.8 Calculate Viol for II GOlAs pn junction at T = ~OOOK for Na "" jOlt'cm } and Nd = 1011crnl. (Ans, v~. = 123V)
1.2.2 Reverse·Blased pn Junction
Assume a positive voltage IS applied to the nregion of a pn junction, as shown in Figure 1.12. The applied voltage V R induces an applied electric field, EA, in the semiconductor. The direction of this applied field is the same as that of the Efield in the spacecharge region. Since the electric fields in the areas outside the spacecharge region are essentially zero, the magnitude of the electric field in the spacecharge region increases above the thermal equilibrium value. This increased electric field holds back the holes in the pregion and the electrons in the nregion, so there is essentially no current across the pn junction. By definition, this applied voltage polarity is called reverse bias.
When the electric field in the spacecharge region increases, the number of positive and negative charges also increases. If the doping concentrations are not changed, the increases in the charges can only occur if the width W of the
J w l
L.. __ IIII __ _"'
FI!Jure 1.12 A pn junction With an applied revemebiaS voltage, shoWIng the cli..eetion oIlh~ electric: field IndllCEd by VR and CIf Ihe ~ electri(: field
ChapterI Semiconductor Material; and Diodes
15
spacecharge region increases, Therefore. with all increasing reversebias voltage VX• spacecharge width W also increases.
Because of the additional positive and negative charges in rhe spacecharge region, a capacitance is associated with the pn junction when a reversebias voltage ill ,I pplied. This juDctien capacitaace. or depletion layer capacitance. can be written in the form
(l,14)
wher c C~. is the junction capacitance at zero applied voltage.
The capacitancevoltage characteristics make the pn junction useful for electrically tunable resonant circuits. Junctions fa bricated specifically for this purpose are called varaeter diodes. Varactor diodes can be used in electrically tunable oscillators. such as a Hartley oscillator, discussed in Chapter [5, orin tuned amplifiers, considered in Chapter 8,.
Example 1.4 Objective: Calculate tile Junction capacitance of a pn junction.
Consider a silicon pn Junction at T = J{lO K, with doping concentrations of N. =' WI('~Ill_' ,Inil N" = I (}I\:m .• _ Assume tbat '1, '" 1.5 x IOlOcrn··) arid lei Ci,,:::; 0..5 pF. Calculate the junction capacitance at VI";:O 1 V and FR =;; 5V.
Solution: The builtin potential is determined by
( J' .)1," (. 1 )1"
r • ~ C,,, t + :J~. '·=(O,S) t + """ IUI2pF
II" 0,63/
Comment: The magnitude of the junction capacitance is usually at or below the pi cof;lnld r;111g_,', <lnd it decreases as the reversebias voltage increases.
A, implied in the previous section, the magnitude of the electric field in the spacecharge region increases as the reversebias voltage increases. and the maxim lim electric field occurs at the metallurgical junction. However. neither the electric field in the spacecharge region nor the applied reversebias voltage can increase indefinitely because ar some point, breakdown will occur and a large reverse bias current will be generated. This concept will be described in detail later ill this chapter.
Itl
Pan I Semiconductor Devices an d Basic Applications
Test Your Understanding
t.. A silicon pn junction ilt T = 300'K is doped at N,I"" IOlocm' and N,,;= IOl7 cm ". The junction capacitance is to be C, :; 1}.8pF when <l reversebias voltage of V R = 5 V is applied. Find the zerobiased junction capacitance C,,,. (A 115, CI<I = 2.21 pF)
1.2.3 ForwardBiased pn Jundion
To review briefly. the nregion contains many more free electrons than the pregion: similarly. the pregion contains many more hole, than the nregion. With zero applied voltage. the builtin potential barrier prevents these majority carriers from diffusing across the spacecharge region; thus. the barrier maintains equilibrium between the carrier distributions on either side of the pn junction.
If a positive voltage t·o IS applied to the pregion. rhe potential harrier decreases (Figure L 13). The electric fields in the spacecharge region are l'er, large compared to those in the remainder of the p and nregions, so essentially all of the applied voltage exists across the pn junction region. The applied electric field. EA induced by the applied voltage is in the opposite direction from that (If the thermal equilibrium spacecharge Efield. The net result i~ [hal the electric field in the spacecharge region is lower than the equilibrium vulue. This upsets the delicate balance between diffusion and [he Etield force. Majority carrier electrons from the nregion diffuse into the pregion, and majority carrier holes from the pregion diffuse into the nregion, The process continues as long ii,' the voltage .'1) is applied, thus creating a current in the pn junction. This process would be analogous to lowering. a dam wall slightly, A slight drop in (he wall height (an send a large amount of water (current) over the barrier.
p
til)
'__ __ ___;~II.~ ..I
+ VI) 
Figure 1.13 A. pn jlXlction with an applied !oMardbitis \/Otlage, shoWing tne direction ot the electric field E,4 induced by vo and of the net space·char9" electric field E
This applied voltage polarity [i.e., bias) is known as forward bias.
The forwardbias voltage I'll must always be less than the builtin potential barrier V».
As the majority carriers cross into the opposite regions, they become rnrnority carriers in those regions. causing the minority carrier concentrations to increase. Figure 1.14 shows the resulting excess minority carrier concentrations
Chapter I Semicoruiuct(lr Mah.:rillls and Diodes
17
Fig ur~ 1.14 Steady'slate minority carner concet'ltratioo in a pn junction !,Inde!" forward bias
at the spacecharge region edges. These excess minority carriers diffuse into the neutral n and pregions, where they recombine with majority carriers, thus establishing a steadystate condition, as shown in Figure 1.14.
1.2.4 ldeat CurrentVoltage Refationship
As shown in Figure 1.14, all applied voltage results in a gradient in the minority carrier concentrations, which in turn causes diffusion currents. The theoretical relationship between the voltage and the current in the pn junction is given by
(1.I5~
The parameter is is the reversebias saturation cumn(. For silicon pn junctions, typical values of t.~ are in the range of 1015 to 1O1J A. The actual value depends on the doping concentrations and the crosssectional area of the junction. The parameter Vj is the thermal voltage. as defined in Equation (1.13). and is approximately VT = 0.026 Vat room temperature. The parameter It is usually called the emission coefficient or ideality factor, and Its value is in the range I s fI :s 2.
The emission coefficient n takes into account any recombination of electrons and holes in the spacecharge region. At very low current levels, recombinauon may be a significant factor and the value of fI may be close to 2. AI higher current levels, recombination is less a factor, and the value of n will be I. Unless otherwise stated, we will assume the emission coefficient is n = l.
Exampl. 1.5 Ob~.,.: Determine the current in a pn junction.
Consider 11 pa junciionat T = lOO"K in whicb Is = 1014 A. and n = l. Find the diode current for Pf) "" +0.70 V and liD = 0.70 V,
Solution; For ~l) = +O.70V. the pn junction is forwardbiased and we find
For l"/l = 0.71> V. the pn junction is reversebiased and we Dad
18
Pari 1 Semicolldu.:tQr Devices and Basic Appliceiioas
Comment Although 1s is q .... ite small. even a relatively small value of forwardbias voltage can induce a moderate junction current. With a reversebias voltage applied, the junction current is virtually zero.
Test Your Understanding
t.10· A silicon pnjunction diode at T = 300"K has a reversesaiuration current of's = IOI~ A. (a) Determine the forward bills diode current fOT (i) vI) =DJV, (ii) ~1l=O.6V, and (iii) I'll ",O.7V. (b) Find the reversebias diode current for (i) ro = O.5V, and (ii) 1'0 = ~~V. (Ans. (a) (i) 2.25)J.A, (ii) I05)J.A. (iii} 4.93mA; (b) (i) 1014 A. (ii) 101'4 A)
t .11 A silicon pn Junction diode at T "" 300:K bas a reversesaturation current of Is = 1011 A Tile diode is forwardbiased with a resulting current of 1 rnA. Determine 'n' (Ans. "v,= 0.599 V t
1.2.5 pn Junction Diode
Figure 1.15 is a plot of the derived currentvoltage characteristics of a pn junction. For a forwardbias voltage, the current is an exponential function
2
iD(mA)
4
Beversebias regiDn
1.0
o
'1)IA)
10 .. 1
10'
I II" ~
1110
IW]
III ~
1Il··q
toHI ..
wn
wu
11).1.1
11)1.
I.\"'
II I I I
Figure 1.1.6 Ideal fOfWard·biased t~v characteristics of 11. pn junction diO(le, wit~ tbe current pkltted on a log scale lor Js = 101• A and n = 1
of voltage. Figurc 1.16 depicts the forward bius current plotted on a log scale. With. only a small change in the forwardbias voltage, the corresponding forwardbias current increases by orders of magnitude. For a forwardbias voltage ~'I) :> +0. I V, the ( I) term in Equation (1.15) can be neglected. In the reversebias direction, the current is almost zero.
The semiconductor device that displays these [Vcharacteristic~ is called a po janction diode. Figure L 17 shows the diode circui 1 symbol iI nd the conventional current direction and voltage polarity. The diode can be thought of and used as a voltage controlled switch that is "off" for a reversebias voltage and "on" for a forwardbias voltage. In the forwardbias or "on" stale, a relatively large current is produced by a fairly small applied voltage: in the reversebias, or "oIT" state, only a very small current is created,
When a diode is reversebiased by at least 0.1 V, the diode current is t» = Is. The current is in the reverse direction and is a constant. hence the name reversebias saturation current. Real diodes. however, exhibit reversebias currents that are considerably larger than J,,>'. This additional current is called a generation current and is due to electrons and holes being generated within the spacecharge region. Whereas a typical value of is may be 1014 A. a typical value of reversebias current may be 1O~ A or I nA. Even though this current is much larger than Is, it is still small arid negligible in most cases.
Temperature Effects
Since both ls and Vr are functions of temperature, the diode characteristics also vary with temperature, The temperaturerelated variations in forwardbias characteristics are illustrated in Figure 1.18. For a given current, the required
19
(a)
(b)
Flgure1.17 The basic pn ilJnction diode: (af simp'~led geome1ry and (b) clrcuil symbol. and ron'Jen~onal current direclion and votage polarity
Part I SemicoodOClQr Devices and Basic Applications
o
Figure 1.18 Forwardbias cnaractenstcs versus lerrperature
forwardbias voltage decreases as temperature increases. For silicon diodes, the change is approximately 2 m V/,C
The parameter Is is a function of the intrinsic carrier concentration n.: which in turn is strongly dependent on temperature, Consequently, the value of Is approximately doubles for every 5°C increase in temperature. The actual reversebias diode current, as a general rule, doubles for every 10 <C rise in temperature. As an example of the importance of this effect, in germanium, the relative value of n, is large. resulting in a large reversesaturation current in germaniumbased diodes. Increases in this reverse current with increases in the temperature make the germanium diode highly impractical for most circuit applications.
Breakdown Voltage
When a reversebias voltage is applied to a pn junction, the electric field in the: spacecharge region increases. The electric field may become large enough that covalent bonds are broken and electronhole pairs are created. Electrons are swept to the nregion and boles to the pregion by the electric fieldgenerating II reversebias current. This breakdown mechanism is called the Zener effect. Another breakdown mechanism is caged avalanche breakdown. which occurs when minority carriers crossing the spacecharge region gain sufficient kinetic energy to be able to break covalent bonds during a collision process. The generated electronhole pairs can themselves be in v olved in a. collision process generating additional electronhole pairs. thus, the avalanche process. The reversebias current for each breakdown mechanism will be limited by the external circuit.
The voltage at which breakdown occurs depends on fabrication parameters of the pn junction, but is usuallym the range of 50 co 200 V [or discrete devices, although breakdown voltages outside (his range are possiblein e}[CeSS of lOOOV, (or example. A pn junction is usually rated in terms of its
Chapter I Semicond UClOr Materiak ILDd Diod.:~
21
peak inverse voltage or PIV. The PIV of a diode must never be exceeded in circuit operation ir reverse breakdown is to be avoided.
Zener diodes are fabricated with a specifically designed breakdown voltage and are designed (0 operate in the breakdown region. These diodes are discussed later in this chapter.
SWitching Transumt
Since the pn junction diode can be used as an electrical switch, an important parameter is its transient response, that is, its speed and characteristics, as it is switched from one state to the other. Assume. for example. that the diode is switched from the forwardbias "on" state to the reversebias "off" state. Figure 1.19 shows a simple circuit that will switch the applied voltage at time I == 0. For I < 0, the forwardbias current Iv is
(1.16)
Figure 1.19 Simple circuit tor switching a diode from forward to reverse bia~
The minority carrier concentrations for an applied forwardbias voltage and an applied reversebias voltage are shown in Figure 1.20. Here, we neglect (he change in the space charge region width, When a forwardbias voltage is applied. excess minority carrier charge is stored in both the p and nregions, The excess charge is the difference between the minority carrier concentrations for a forwardbias voltage and those for a reversebias voltage as indicated in the figure This charge must be removed when the diode is switched from the forward to the reverse bias.
A~ the forwardbias voltage is removed, relatively large diffusion currents are created in the reversebias direction. This happens because the excess minority carrier electrons !tow backacross the junction into the aregion, and the excess minority carrier holes flow back across the junction inlo the pregion.
The large reversebias current is initially limited by resistor RII to approximately
(1.17)
Part I Semiconduclor Devices and Basic Apphcanons
p
II
Ex(e", mi'oorilY c arrier hole:,,>
FIgure 1.20 Stored excess minority carr~r charge under torward bias compared to reverse bias
The junction capacitances do not allow the junction voltage to change instantaneously The reverse current. IR is approximately constant for 0> < I < t" where I., is the st()rage time, which is t he length of time required for the minority carrier concentrations at the spacecharge region edges to reach the thermal equilibrium values. After this time. the voltage across the junction begins to change. The fall time " is lypically defined as the lime required for the current to fall to 10 percent of its initial value. The total hlrfloff time is the sum of the storage time and the fall time. Figure 1.21 shows the current characteristics as this entire process takes place.
Figure 1.21 Currenl cMracleristics versus lime during diode switching
In order to switch a diode quickly, the diode must have a small excess minority carrier life! irne, a nd we must be able to produce a large reverse current pulse. Therefore. in the design of diode circuits. we must provide a path for the transient reversebias current pulse. These same transient effects impact [he switching of transistors. For example. the switching speed of transisters in digital circuits \'IiU affect the speed of computers.
The tumon transient occurs when the diode is switched from the "off" "late \0 ihe forwardbsas "on" slate, which can be initiated by applying a forwardbias current pulse. The transient tdmt)1l time is the time required to establish the forwardbias minority carrier distributions. During this time, the
Chapter t Semiconductor Materials and Diodes
voltage across the junction gradually increases toward its steadystate value. Although the turnon time for the pn junction diode is not zero. it is usually less than the transient turnoff time.
Test Your Understanding
1.12 R\.'Cu H that the forwardbias diode voltage decreases approximately by 1 mV rC I'm silicon diodes with a given current. If Vp ;;;;; U.650 V at I D = I rnA for a temperature {)r25 T, determine the diode voltage at lo = I mA tor T = 125 OC. (An'>. V D = 0.450 V)
1.3 DIODE CIRCUITS: DC ANALYSIS AND MODELS
I n this section. we begin to study the diode in various circuit configurations. As we have seen, the diode is a twoterminal device with nonlinear iv characteristics. as opposed to a twoterminal resistor. whicb has a linear relationship between current and voltage. The analysis of nonlinear electronic ci rcui ts is not 1:IS straightforward as the analysis of linen electric circuits. However. there are electronic functions that can be implemented only by nonlinear circuits, Examples include the generation of de voltages from sinusoidal voltages and the irnplernentationcf logic functions.
Mathematical relationships, or models, that describe .he currentvoltage characteristics of electrical elements allow us to analyze and design circuits without having to fabricate and test them in the laboratory. An example is Ohm's law. which describes tile properties of a resistor, In this section, we will develop the de analysis and modeling techniques of diode circuits,
To begin to understand diode circuits. consider a simple diode application.
The current voltage characteristics of the pn junction diode were given in Figure Ll5_ An ideal diode (as opposed to a diode with ideal IV characteristics) has the characteristics shown in Figure 1.22(a). When a reversebias voltage is applied, the current through the diode is zero (Figure I. 22(b); when current. through the diode is greater than zero. the voltage across the diode is zero (Figure 1.22(c)). An external circuit connected to the diode must be designed to control the forward current through the diode,
1 Conducling
J S~~
la)
(b)
Ie)
Figure 1.22 The ideat diode: (a) # V dlaracteristic$, (b} equNaterlt circuit undef reverse bias. and (el 6CjuivalEfll circuit in the conducIing S1ale
Pari I semcondueror Devices and Basic A ppscaiions
One diode circuit is the rectifier circuit shown in Figure 1.23(a). Assume that the input voltage "lis a sinusoidal signal. as shown in Figure 1,23{b), and the diode is an ideal diode (see Figure 1 ,22(a). During the positive halfcycle of the sinusoidal input, a forwardbias current exists in the diode and the voltage across the diode is zero. The equivalent circuit fOI this condition is shown in Figure 1.23(c). The output voltage Vo is then equal to the input voltage, During tae negative halfcycle of the sinusoidal input, the diode is reverse biased. The equivalent circuit for this condition is shown in Figure L23(d) , In this part of tile cycle. the diode acts as an open circuit. the current is zero, and the output voltage is zero. The output voltage of the circuit is shown in Figure 1.23(e).
Over the entire cycle, the input signal is sinusoidal and has a zero average value; however, the output signal contains only positive values and therefore has a positive average value Conseqently, this circuit is said to rectify the input signal, which is tne first step in generating a de voltage from a sinusoidal (ac) voltage. A de voltage is required in virtually all electronic circuits.
As mentioned. the analysis of nonlinear circuits is not as straightforward as that of linear circuits, In this section, we will look at four approaches 10 the dc analysis of diode circuits: (a) iteration; (b) graphical techniques; (c) a piecewise linear modeling method; and (d) a computer analysis. Methods (a) and (b) are closely related and are therefore presented together.
+ '"D 
(b)
IT
J)
", 0
+
(01
(e)
ld)
(e)
Flg.r.1.23 The diOde rectifier; (a) c;ircuit. {bl siAUSOidallnpl.l1: Sigflal, (c) equiva~nl circuit 1(If \1'( > 0, (d) equiVslenl dICuit lor v, '"" O. alld Ie} rec;tiUed output slg~1
1_3.1 Iteration and Graphical Analysis Techniques
Iteration means using trial and error to find a solution to a problem. The graphical analysis technique involves plotting two simultaneous equations and locating their point of intersection, which is the solution to the two equations. We will use both techniques to solve the circuit equations. which include the diode equation. These equations are difficult 10 solve by hand because they contain both linear and exponential terms.
Chapter I Semiconductor Materials and Diodes
Consider, for example, the circuit shown in Figure 1.24, with a de voltage VI'S applied across a resistor and a diode. Kirdaboff's voltage 1.1' applies both to nonlinear and linear circuits, so we can write
Vl's:::= loR + VD which can be rewritten as In ;::: VI'S _ VI)
R R
(1.18(a»
(1. 18(b)
(Note: In the remainder of this section in which de analysis is emphasized, the de variables are denoted by uppercase letters and uppercase subscripts.l
The diode voltage Vb and current IlJ are related by the ideal diode equa[ion lis
(1.19)
where Is is assumed to be known for a particular diode.
Combining Equations (1.18(a» and (U9), we obtain
!°f'S == J.,R[e(~}~I]+VD
(UG)
which contains only one unknown, Va. However. Equation (1.20) is a transcendental equation and cannot be solved direcuy. The use of iteration to find a solution to this equation is demonstrated in the following example.
R'2kO
+ •
Vil ~~ ~D
.,..
Fi1;Jure1.24 A simple diode circuit
Example 1.6 Obl.alv.: Determine the diode voltage and current for the circuit shown in Figure 1.24.
Consider a diode with a given reversesaturation current of Is = lOn A.
Solullon: We can write Equation ('.lO) as
5;::: (1Oli)(2 x 103)[ e<~) ~.]+ Vp
(UI}
lfwe first try VJ) = 0.60 V, the right side of Equation (1.21) is 2.7V, so the equation is not balanced and we must try again. If we next try V D == 0.65 V. the right side of Equation (1.21) is IS.tV, Again, the equation is not balanced, but we can see that the solution for V D is between 0.6 and 0.65 V. If we contiulle refining our guesses, we wilille able to show tbal, when J'D = 0.619 V, the right side or Equation (1.21) is 4.99 V, which is. essentially equal to the value of the left side of !he eQ_OOtiOD ..
The current in the circuit can then be determined by dividing the voltage difference across the resistor by the resistance, Of
s ~ 0.6\9 2
2.19mA
Convnent Once tbe diode voltage is known, the eurrent can also be determined from the ideal diode equation, However, dividing the voltage difference across a resistor by the resistance is Ilsually easier, and this approach is used extensively in the analysis of diode and transistor circuits.
~ar1 T Semiconductor Devices and Basic Applicsuons
To use a graphical approach to analyze the circuit, we go back to Kirchhoff's voltage law. as expressed by Equation (1.18(b»), which produces a straightline relationship between current ID and voltage V,,} fora given Vrs and R. This equation is referred to as the circuit load line, which can be plotted on a graph with Tn and VD as the axes. From Equation (I. I 8(b)), we see that if ID =: 0, then V D = Vps. Also from this equation, il' VD = 0, then i[) := II psi R. The load line can be drawn between these two points. Using the values given in Example (1.6), we can plot the straight line shown in Figure 1.25. The seco..,' plot in the figure is that of Equa lion (I, 19). which is the ideal diode equation relating the diode current and voltage. The intersection of the load line and the device characteristics curve provides (ile dc current 'D::::; 2.2mA through the diode and the de voltage V D ~ 0.62 V across the diode. This point is referred to as the qliesce". poi"., or the Qpoint,
ID(mA) 3.0
Diode tv challlCteri&l ics
05
o ..0.1)2 l
2
4
.'\ I'D (volts)
RgQre 1.25 The diode and load line characteris!ics for the cirrujt showJ\ in Figura 1.24
The graphical analysis method can yield accurate results, but it is somewhat cumbersome. However, the concept of the load line and the graphical approach are useful for "visualizing" the response of a circuit, and the load line is used extensively in the evaluation of electronic circuits.
Test Your Understanding
"1.13 Consider the circuit in Figure 1.24. Lei F I'S = 4 V. R = 40 kQ, and Is:o 1012 A. Determine VD and lv, using the ideal diode equation and tbe iteration method. (AM. Vp =O.S35V. In = (),&64mA)
1.14 Consider the diode and circuit in Exercise 1.13. Determine V D and ID' using the graphical techaique, (ADS. V.o""O.54V. iD ",;O.ll7mA)
1.3.2 Piecewise Linear Model
Chapter J Semiconductor MaecriAls and Diodes
ri
Another. simpler way to analyze diode circuits is to approximate the diode's currentvoltage characteristics, using linear relationships or straight lines, Figure 1.26. for example, shows the ideal currentvoltage characteristics and two linear approximations.
S"'= _!_ "'I"" '(
v r
Flgur.t.M The ~I (tiO(ll) IV cl'larant~rlslics and two linear appfllxima.1iDns
For V n 2: VY' we assume a straightline approximation whose slope is 1 (rf. where Vy is the lumon, or cuiiII, voltage of the diode, and rf is the forward dlooe resislall.N'. The equivalent circuit for this linear approximation is a constantvoltage source in series with a resistor (Figure 1.27(a».2 For V D < Vy• We assume a straightline approximatio n parallel to the V 1) axis ill the zero current level. In this case, the equivalent circuit is an open circuit (Figure I. 27(b)).
II!
!
!
!
'f l
i
+  1 •
~
11' + In I
I
v~) J v! VI)  I
r Vr VD
ta) ~) (c) Flgur.1.n The diode equivalent clrQ,lit (a) in tne "(Jfl" condition wben VD ;:: V6' (b) in 1tle "off" oondi1ioo whQfl Vo <: V" and (t) pl8C$wise linear a,pproJClmati(Jfl when r, :::
'II is important ro keep in rreind that lhe voltage source in figllre 1.27(01) only represents a vouage drop for I'D ~ v~. When liD c II" the Vr IMlUIW doesnol prod," l nq:ahvt diode CIItrent. For V C! « Vy• the equivalent circuil in Figure t.27(b) musi be used.
28
Par! ~ Semicondecror Devices and Basic Applications
This method models the diode with segments of straight lines; thus the name pMcewl5e line.r model. If we assume '1 = 0, the piecewise linear diode characteristics are shown iii. Figure ! .27( c).
EXlmpl. 1.7 ~""": Determine the diode voltage and current in the circuit shown in Figure 1.24. using a piecewise linear model.
Assume piecewise linear diode parameters of Vr :::; 0.6 V and rf :0 10 Q.
Solutton: Witl! the given input voltage polarity, the diode is forward biased or "turned 011." so lD > O. The equivalent circuit is shown ill Figure 1.27(a). The diode current is determined by
I __ V.::_:PS=_V_,_f
D R+,'t
5 0.6 .
2 J( 103 + II};;;;} 2.l9mA
and the diode voltage is
Va = Vy + I Urf = 0.6 + (2.19 x 1O'}(IO) = ll.622 y
Commenl: This solution, obtained using the piecewise linear model, is nearly equal to the solution obtained in Example 1.6, in which the ideal diode equation was used However, tbe analysis using the pieeewiselineat model in this example if> by faT easier than using the actual diode / V characteristics as was done in Example 1.6, In general, we. are willing to sccepr some slight analysis inaccuracy for ease of analysis,
Because the forward diode resistance 'j in Example 1.7 is much smaller than the circuit resistance R, the diode current ID is essentially independent of the value of fr. In addition, if the cutin voltage is 0.7 V instead of 0.6 V, the calculated diode current will be 2.15 rnA. Which is not significantly different from the previous results. Therefore, the calculated diode current is not a strong function of the cuiin voltage, Consequently, we will often assume a cutin voltage of 0.7 V [or silicon pn junction diodes,
The concept of the load line and the piecewise linear model can be combined in diode circuit analyses, Using Kirchhoff's voltage law. expressed as Equation 1.14(b). and the circuit in Figure 1.24, assume Vy "'" 0.7 v, 'J = 0, V's =" +5 V, and R == 2 kQ. Figure 1.28(a) shows the resulting load line and the piecewise linear characteristic curves of the diode. The two curves intersect
Ip~mA)
2,'
1.15 0.623
2!1 (b)
(8)
FI!lu .. 1.28 Piecewise tinear appwxination (a~ Ict.:Iline Iof Vps '" SV and R ... 2kO and (b) 6elfef&lloacIlines
Chapter I Sem.iconduclor Materials and Diodes
at the Qpoint, or diode current. IDQ ~ 2.15 mA, which is essentially a function of only V PS and R. Figure 1.2S(b) shows the same piecewise linear characteristics of the diode but with four different load lines. corresponding to: V PS = 5 V, R = 4 kQ; VI'S = 5 V, R = 2kO; VI'S = 2.SV, R = 4 krl:; and V,.s = 2.5 V, R = 2kil. The Qpoint changes for each load line.
The load line concept is also useful when the diode is reverse biased. Figure 1.29(a) shows the same diode circuit as before, but with the direction of the diode reversed. The diode current lD and voltage V D shown are the usual forwardbiased parameters. Applying Kirchhoff's voltage law, we can write
(1.22(a)}
or
(I,ll{b»
where J D = Ips. Equation (1.22(b)) is the load line equation. The two end points are found by setting I D "'" 0, which yields V D =  V PS =  5 V~ and by setting If D = I), which yields ID"",  V rs] R = 5/2 = 2.5 rnA. The diode characteristics and the load line are plotted in Figure 1.29(b). We see that the load IS now in the third quadrant, where it intersects the diode characteristics curve at VI) == S V and I[) == 0, demonstrating that the diode is reverse biased.
Although the piecewise linear model may yield solutions that are less accurate than those obtained with the ideal diode equation, the analysis is much easier.
lo
5
(a)
(b)
Figure 1.29 AIWersebiased diode (a) circuiland (b) pieCewise Hnear appro)(irnation and load lioo
Test YOUI' Und .... tanding
1.t a (a) Consider the circuit in Figure l.24. Let Vrs = 5 V, R = 4 kO, and Vy = 0.1 V, Assume If = O. Determine 10, (b) If V PS is increased to B V. what mllSl be the new value of R sucb that iD is the same value as in part (a)? (c) Draw the diode characteristics and load lines for parts (a) and (b). (AilS. (a) 10 = l.OSmA, (b) R = 6.79kfJ)
30
Put I Semiconductor Devices and Basic Applications
I.IS The power supply (input) voltage in the circuit of Figure 1,24 is V rs = 10 V and (he diode cutIII voltage is Vy '" 0.7 V (assume rf "" 0). The power dissipated ill the diode is to be no more than 1,05 mW. Determine the maximum diode current and the minimum value of R to meet che power specification. (Ans, ID = 1.5 rnA, R :;;;;; (i.2 Hl}
1.3.3 Computer Simulation and Analysis
Today's computer> are capable of using detailed simulation models of various components and performing complex circuit analyses quickly and relatively easily. Such models can factor in many diverse conditions, such as the temperature dependence of various parameters. One of the earliest, and now (he most widely used. circuit analysis programs is the simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE). This program, developed at the University of California at Berkeley, was first released about 1973_ and has been continuously refined since that time. One outgrowth of SPICE is PSpicc,
which is designed for lise on personal computers. .
EIampl. 1.8 QbJectIw.: Determine the diode current and voltage characteristics of the circuit shown in Figure 1.24 using a PSpice analysis.
$o~uUon: Figllrt: lJO(a) is the PSpice circuit schematic. A. standard I N4002 diode From the PSpice fibrary was used in the analysis. The input voltage VI was varied (de sweep) from 0 to :5 V. Figure I ,30(b) and (c) shows the diode voltage and diode current characteristics versus (he input voltage.
(a)
,A) Die>« 2A..du
(AI Diode Z A .dat
UH'r,
4.0mAr,
VVI (e)
"v
Of' .2M' UV
"V(DI:I) YI'I
(b)
Figure 1.3t !a) PSJlice circlJi1 scl:Iemalk:, (b) ciode voIlage. and (c) diod& ctItT8fIt tor E,...1,8
Chapter I Semiconductor Maierials and Diodes
3.
Discus$lion: Several observauons may be made from the results. The diode voltage increases at aunost :1 linear rate lip 10 approximately 40()m\l' without any discernible (rnA) current being measured. For an input voltage greater than approximately 500 mV, Ihe diode milage incresses gradually m a value of about &10 mY m the maximum input voltage The current also increases to a maximum value of approximately 2.2 mA at the manmom inrut voltage. The piecewise linear model predicts quite accurate remits at the maximum mput voltage, However, these results show that there IS definitelya nonlinear rci:Jlillfl between the diode current and diode voltage. We must keep in mind [hal the piecewise linear model IS an approximation technique that works very well in many applications.
1.3.4 Summary of Diode Models
The two de diode models used in the hand analysis of diode circuits are: the Ideal diode equation and (he piecewise linear approximation. For the ideal diode equation. the reversesaturation current Is must be specified. For the piecewise linear model. the cutin voltage '"'"" and forward diode resistance r must he specified. In most cases, however, '1 is assumed to be zero unless otherwise given.
1.4 OIODE CIRCUIT$: AC EQUIVALENT CIRCUaT
Up to this point. we have only looked at the de characteristics of the pn junction diode. When semiconductor devices with pn junctions are used in linear amplifier circuits. [he limevarying. or ac, characteristics (If the pn junction become important. because sinusoidal signals may be superimposed 011 the de currents and voltages. The rollowing sections examine these HC cha racteristics.
1.4.1 Sinusoidal Analysis
In the circuit shown in Figure 1.31(a l. the voltage source 1', is assumed to be a sinusoidal, or timevarying, signal. The total input voltage Vi is composed or a de component V PS and an ac component I'J superimposed 011 the de value. To investigate this circuit. we will look at two types of analyses: a de analysis involving only the de voltages and currents, and an ac analysis involving only the lie voltages and currents, (We should point out that the circuit in the figure is not a practical circuit, since it is not desirable to have a de current flowing through an ae signal source. However. the circuit is useful for a discussion of de and ac analyses.]
CumgntVoltage Relationships
Since the input voltage contains a de component with an ae signal superimposed, the diode current will also contain a de component with an ac signal superimposed, as shown in Figure 1.3I(b). Here. I J)Q is the de quiescent diode current. In addition, the diode voltage will contain a de value with an ac signal superimposed, as shown in Figure 1.31(c~. For this analysis, assume that the ac
32
Pari 1 Semiconductor Devices anil Ilasic Applications
(8)
IOQ '=7 :
Time
lb)
I
 II
II It I III III III
I Slope ~ Sd = r;;
Qpoim
'°1
v .. :=>=/~~:
Time
~ I
(e)
(dJ
Figure 1.31 AC [jrcuit anafysjs: (a) Cirebit Wilt! combined de and sinusoid!!1 input voltages. (b) s'nuSOidaI dlode curre!'lt superimpooed on the Quie~nl current, Ie) sinusoidal diOde vci\age sup6fimp06ed on the Quiescen1 value, ancl (d) fONfUCl·bmed diooo IV characteristics with a sinusoidal curref1t and voltage superimposed 00 the q~iesooJ)t vo.lues
signal is small compared to the de component, so that a linear ac model can be developed from the nonlinear diode.
The relationship between the diode current and voltage can be written as
(1.23)
where V DQ is the de quiescent volsage and Vd is ihe ac component. We are neglecting the I term in the diode equation. Equation (1.23) can be rewritten as
(1.24)
If the ac signal is "small," then Vd « V r and we can expand the exponential function into a linear series, as follows:
(1.25)
Chapter I Semiconductor Matttials and Diodes
3.\
We may also write the quiescent diode current as
(1.26)
The diodeCllrrenl··voha~e relationship from Equation (1.14) tan then be written as
III c ' //1(' (I I ,I:;:) = {/JO + ',I~ .. \'" = fJltl + i"
r r
where i.1 is the ac component of the diode current. The relationship between the ;1\: components of the diode voltage and current is then
(1.271
(1.28(11)
( ",). .
\',1  ,"_ . r,( = /',1 . I,{
11(1
(1.18(b))
The parameters K" and rJ. respectively, are the diode smallwsignll inclemental cl)nductaoce and resistance. also called the diffusion conductallce and tlitlusion resistance. We see from these two equations that
t',
r.t
(1.29)
This equation tells us that the incremental resistance is a function of the de bias current I f){) und is Inversely proportional to the slope of the J v characteristics curve, a~ shown in Figure I J ltd):
Circuit Analysis
To analyze the circuit shown in Figure 1.3I(a), we can use the piecewise linear model for the de calculations and Equation (1.29) for the ac calculation.
Eumple 1.9 Oblacll ... : Analyze tile circuit shown in Figure 1.3I1a).
Assume circuit and diode parameters "I' v"S = 5 \' _ R = 5 kQ, v;_ = 0.6 V, and 1', = u.l sin (JJ((V).
Solution: Dl'iiLk the analysis into two parts: the de al1l1l~sis and the ae analysis.
For IIII' r/r /Uw/\'sis. we sci ri = 0 and tbell determine (he de quiescent (,·I.IHt..'Il1 us
! r:  1'",_ :;  0.6 .
'I") ~  ""  = Q.8&mA.
, K 5
J'" _c: 11,{IR = (O.R!lll,5) ::;;: 4.4 V
Fill' flit' II" (It/(/(I'.~i~. we consider only the ac signals and parameters in the circuit. In other words. we cHc..:tlvely set vI'S = O. The ac Kirchhoff voltage law (K Vl) equation becomes
·\4
Part [ Semiconductor Devices and Basic Apphcaaons
where '0 is again the smallsignal diode diffusion resistance. From Equation (1.29). we ha\l~
Vr O.m6
rJ = .  =  "" O.021l5kr.!
TDQ 0.10:!!
The ac diode current is
. ~ ~I~nwl 9
'<1= f!+R=O.0295+5=> I ,9sin.JI(IlA)
The ac component of the output voltage .s
"0 = iiR = (l.0995sinwl(V)
Comment: Throughout the text. we will divide the circuu analysis into a. de analysis and an ac analysis. To do so, we will use separate equivalent circuit models for each analysis.
Frequency Response
In the previous analysis, we implicitly assumed that the frequency or tile uc signal was small enough thai capacitance effects in the circuit would be negligible. If the frequency of the ac input signal increases, the diffusion taplicitalH .. c associated with a forwardbiased pn junction becomes important, The source of the diffusion capacitance is shown in Figure 1.32, which displays the de values of the minority carrier concentrations and the changes caused by an ac componeru bei rig superimposed, The ~Q charge is alternately being charged and discharged through t he junction as the voltage across the junction changes. The diffusion capacitance IS the change in the stored minority carrier charge thai is caused by a change in the voltage, or
Cd= dQ dV{J
The diffusion capacitance Cd is normally much larger than the junction capacitance Cj. because of the magnitude of the charges involved.
(1.30)
Figure 1 ,32 ChiInge In rninOfity carner stored charge. leading 10 dftusion capacitance
Chapter I Semiconductor Materials and Diodes
1.4.2 Smsll.stgnal Equivalent Circuit
The smallsignal equivalent circuit of the forwardbiased pn junction is shown in Figure 1.33 and is developed partially from the equation for the admit'alee, which is given by
( 1.31)
where gd and C,I are the diffusion conductance and capacitance, respectively. We must also add the junction capacitance, which is in parallel with the diffusion resistance and capacitance, and a series resistance. which is required because of the finite resistances in the neutral n and pregions,
The smallsignal equivalent circuit of the pn junction is used to obtain the ac response of a diode circuit subjected to ac signa Is superimposed On the Qpoint values, Smallsignal equivalent circuits of pn junctions arc also used to develop smallsignal models of transistors, and these models are used in the analysis and design of transistor amplifiers.
35
r, 'AU.
(b)
Figure 1.33 $mall·signal eQuivalenl circuil 01 the diode: (a) simpllied version and
(b) complete clrcuil
Test Your Underatandlng
'.17 Determine rhe diffusion conductance of a pa junction diode at T = JOO"K and biased at a currenl ofO.gmA. (Ans. gd == 30.8mS)
1.' 8 The diffusion resistance of a pn junction diode at T = JOO C K is determined to be ',1"' 50 rI. What is the quiescent diode current? (Ails. (PI) == 0.52 mAl
1.5 OTHER DIODE TYPES
Other types or diodes with specialized characterisucs include the solar cell. photodiode, lightemitting diode, Schottky diode, and Zener diode. The solar cell, photodiode, lightemitting diode, and Zener diode are types of pn junction diodes with specific characteristics that make them useful in particular circuit applica tions.
1.5.1 Solar ceu
A solar cell is a pn junction device with no voltage directly applied across the junction, The pn junction, which converts solar energy into electrical energy, is connected to <I load as indicated in Figure 1.34. When Light hits the spacecharge region, electrons and holes are generated. They are quickly separated and swept out of the spacecharge region by the electric field, thus creating a photocurrent. The generated photocurrent will produce a voltage across the load, which means that the solar cell has supplied power. Solar cells are usually fabricated from silicon. but may be made from GaAs or other HIV compound semiconductors.
Solar cells nave long been used to power (he electronics in satellites and space vehicles, and also as the power supply to some calculators. Solar cells are also used to power race cars in a Sunrayce event. Collegiate teams in the United Stales design, build and drive the race cars. Typically, a Sunrayce car
Part I Semiconductor Devices and Basic Applcauons
Solar energy
~JI?!:/
r .j B.fieId I 1
p n
~
ilL
'IfNo.
v + V 
Figure 1.34 A pn jurctioo sola! cell connecled 10 load has S m1 of solar cell arrays that call produce 800 W or power 011 a sunny day at noon. The power from the solar array can be used either to power an electric motor or to charge a battery pack
1.5.2 Pholodlode
Pbotocieleclors are devices that convert optical signals into electrical signals. An example is the pbotooMJde. which is similar to a solar cell except that the pn junction is operated with a reversebias voltage. Incident photons or light waves create excess electrons and holes in the spacecharge region. These excess carriers are quickly separated and swept out of thespacecharge region by th~ electric field, thus creating a "photocurrent." This generated photocurrent is directly proportional to the incident photon flux
1 .5.3 LightEmitting Diode
The Iillhtt'OIilting diode (LED) converts current to light. As previously explained, when a forwardbias voltage is applied across a pn junction, electrons and holes Row across (he spacecharge region and become excess minority carriers. These excess minority carriers diffuse into the neutral semiconductor regions, where: they recombine with majority carriers, If the semiconductor is a direct b~ndgap malerial, such as GaA:;, the electron and hole can recombine with no change in momentum, and a photon or light wave can be emitted. Conversely, in an indire<:t bandgap material, such as silicon, when an electron and hole recombine, both energy and momentum must be conserved, so the emission of a photon is very unlikely _ Therefore, .LEDs are fabricated from GaAs or other compound semiconductor materials, In an LED, the diode current is directly proportional to the recombination rate, which means that the output light intensity is also proportional to the diode current.
Monolithic arrays of LEDs are fabricated for numeric and alphanumeric displays. such as the readout of a digital voltmeter.
An LED may be integrated into In optical cavity 10 produce a. coherent photon output with a very narrow bandwidth. Such a device is a laser diode. which is used in optical communications applications,
The LED can be used in conjunction witb a photodiode to create an optical s~stem such as that shown in Figure 1.35. The light signal created
Chapter I Semlc(lnduclvr Matrrial, and Diodes
.ltcu:iYCll"
I plIoIodw"re H AmtM1~f 1 · ~I~I
Figure 1.35 Basic elements in an op!icallransmissiQl'1 system
may (ravel over relatively long distances through (he optical tiber. because of the low optical absorption in highqualityoptical fibers,
1.5.4 ~hottky Barrier Diode
A Schottk.y barrier diode. or simply a Schottky diode, is formed when a metal. such as aluminium, is brought into contact with. a moderately doped ntype semiconductor, Figure lJ6(a} shows the metalsemiconductor contact. and Figure 1.36(1:» shows the circuit symbol with the current direction and voltage polarity:
The currentvoltage characteristics of a Schottky diode ase very similar to those of a pn junction diode. The same ideal diode equation can be used for both devices. However. there are two important differences between [he two diodes that directly affect the response of the Schottky diode.
Fir:>!. the current mechanism in the lWO device, is different. The current in a [111 junction diode is controlled by the diffusion of minority carriers, The current in a Schottky diode results from the flow of majority carriers over the potential barrier at the metallurgical junction, This meall, that there is no minority carrier storage in the Schottky diode. so the switching time from a forward bins to a reverse bias is very short compared to that (If a pn junction diode, The storage time. is. lor a Schottky diode is essentially zero.
S c cond, the reversesaturation current Is for a Schottky diode is larger than ,hat or a pn junction diode for comparable device areas. This property means lhllt the current in a Schottky diode is larger than [hat in a pn junction diode lor the S>1I1lC forwardbias voltage.
Figure I..U compares the characrerisucs of t he two diodes. Applying the piecewise linear model. we can determine that the Schottky diode has a smaller turnon voltage than the pn junction diode. In later chapters. we will see how this lower HUrlon .... oltage and the shorter switching time make the Schottky diode useful in integratedcircuit applications ..
37
M~tal
.I[)_~
~
+ l'l}
(a)
(b)
Figure 1.36 Schottky barrier diode: {a} simplified geometry and (b) circuit symbol
38
r
[
I I
SchOUkvj
bamer diode
" 'I II
II ,I ,I
I r
I I / I
pnjunenon diode
I r
)!
:
Figure 1.37 Comparison of !he torwardbias I V characteristiCs oj a pn junction diode and a SchotIky barrier diode
+
Figure 1.le Simple circuit w~h both a pn junction diode and a Schottky bamer diode
Ex;arnp1e 1.10 Ob\6clivil; Calculate the currents in a circuit containing both a ph junction diode and it Schottky diode.
Consider the circuit shown ill Figure J.3lt Assume the cutin voltages for the pn junction diode and the SChottky diode are V~ = 0,7 V and v~ '" 0.3 V. respectively .. Let
~( = 0 for both diodes. .
Solutio",: Tile current II is the voltage difference across RI divided by the resistance RI, or
40.7
II = 4 "" O.82SmA
Similarly, the current 'l is the voltage difference across R1 divided by the resistance R1. or
403
I" = 4' = 0_925 mA
Colllm.nt: The de calculations for a circuit containing a Schottky diode are [he same as those for a circuit containing a pn junction diode.
Another type of metalsemiconductor junction is also possible. A metal applied to a heavily doped semiconductor forms, in most cases, an ohmic contact: (hal is, a contact thaI conducts current equally in both directions, with very little voltage drop across the junction. Ohmic contacts are used to connect one semiconductor device to another OJ] an IC, or to connect an Ie (0 its external terminals,
Chapter I Semiconductor Materials and Diodes
Test Your Understanding
'1.19 The reversesaturation currents of a pn juncrion diode and aSchonky diode are 1,5 ;:; 1012 A and IOt A. respectively. Determine the forwardbias voltages required to produce I rnA in each diode. (Arts.pn diode, V o = D.5j9 V; Schottky diode. II D ::; (1.299 V)
1.20 A pn junction diode and a Schottky diode both have forwardbias currents of 1.2 rnA. The reversesaturation current of the po junction diode is Is = 4 x 101 sA. The difference in forwardbias voltages is 0.265 V. Determine the reversesaturation current of the Schottky diode. (Am. I,,, = 1.07 X l(lI~ A)
1.5.5 Zener Diode
As mentioned earlier in this chapter. the applied reversebias voltage cannot increase without limit. At some point, breakdown occurs and the current in the reversebias direction increases rapidly. The voltage at this point is called the breakdown voltage. The diode IJI characteristics. including breakdown. are shown in Figure 1.39.
flrwkdown voltage
11111 IVbl \ J
 Slope e _!_
'2
Figure 1.39 Diode IV characteristics shov.ir'lg breakdown effBCIs
Diodes, called Zener dio4es, can be designed and fabricated to provide a specified breakdown voltage V Zo. (Allhougll the breakdown voltage is on the negative voltage axis (reversebias), its value is given as a positive quantity.) The large current that may exist at breakdown can cause heating effects and catastrophic failure or the diode due to the large power dissipation in the device. However, diodes can be operated in the breakdown region by limiting the current to a value within the capabilities of the device. Such a diode can be
Figure 1.40 CifClIJt symbol 01 the Zener ~iode
Fi~ure 1.41 Simple CifCUil containing a Zener diode
Part I Semiconductor Devices and Basic Applications
used as a constantvoltage reference in a circuit. The diode breakdown voltage is essentially constant over a wide range of currents and temperatures, The slope of the IV characteristics curve in. breakdown is quite huge, so the incremental resistance r. is small. Typically, r" is in the range of a few ohms or tens of ohms.
The circuit symbol of the Zener diode is shown in Figure 1.40. (Note the difference between this symbol and the Schottky diode symbol.) TIle voltage V z 1S the Zener breakdown voltage, and the current Iz is the reversebias current when the diode is operating in the breakdown region.
Design Example 1.11 Objecllve: Consider a simple constantvoltage reference circuit and design the value of resistance required to limit the current in this circuit.
Consider the circuit shown ill Figure 1.41. Assume that the Zeller diode breakdown voltage is Vz '" 5,6 V and the Zener resistance is t: == 0, The current in the diode is to be limited to 3 rnA.
Soludon: As before, we can determine the current from the voltage difference across R divided by the resistance. That is,
The resistance is then
Comment The resistance external to the Zener diode limits the current when the diode is operating In the breakdown region. In the circuit shown in the figure. the output voltage will remain constant at 5,6 V, even though the power supply voltage and the resistance may change over a limited range. Hence. this circuit provides a constant output voltage. We will see further applications (If the Zener diode in the next chapter.
Test Your Understanding
1.21 Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1.41. Determine the value of resistance R required to limit tile power di$Sipated in the Zener diode to IOmW. (Am. R = 2.46 k~)
1.22 A Zener diode has an equivalent series resistance of 20 n. If the voltage across the Zener diode is 5.20 V al I;:." I rnA. determine the voltage across the diode at /z = lOrnA. (Ans, Vz = S.3SV)
Chapter I Semiconductor Materials and Diodes
41
1.6 SUMMARY
• We initially considered some of the characteristics and properties of semiconductor materia Is, We discussed the concept of electrons (negative charge) and holes (positive charge) a, two distinct charge carriers in a semiconductor, The doping of pure semiconductor crystals with specific types of impurity atom" produces either ntype materials. which ha ... c a preponderance of electrons, or ptype materials, which have a preponderance of holes, The concepts of Hype and ptype materials are used throughout the text.
• A pn junction diode is formed when an ndoped regi on and a pdoped region are directlyadjacent to each other. The currentvoltage characteristics of the diode are nonlinear: The current IS an exponential function of voltage in the forwardbias condition, and is essentially zero in the reversebias condition.
• Since the il' relationship of the diode is nonlinear. the analysis of circuits containing diodes is not as straightfoward as that of linear circuits that contain only linear resistors. A piecewiselinear model of the diode was developed so that approximate hand calcularion results can be easily obtained. The iv characteristics (If the diode arc broken into linear segments, wh.ich are valid over particular regions of operation, The concept of a diode turnon voltage was Introduced ;IS part of the piecewise linear model,
• Timevarying. or ac signals, may be superimposed on a de diode current and voltage.
A srnullssgnal linear equivalent circuit wa, developed and is used Hl determine the rclanonship between the ac current and ac vohage. This Slime equivalent circuit will be applied extensively when the frequency response of rransistots is discussed.
CHECKPOINT
Aller studying this chapter, the reader should have the ability to:
II' Understand the concept of intrinsic carrier concentrauon, the difference between ntype and ptype materials. and the concept or drift and diffusion currents, (Section Ll)
V' A II<I IY/,c a simple diode circuit using the ideal diode currentvoltage characteristic, and using the iteration analysis technique. (Section 1.3)
t/ Analyze a diode circuit using the piecewise linear approximation model for the diode, (Section 1.3)
II' Determine the smallsignal characteristics of a diode using the smallsignal equivaLent circuit: (Section 1.4)
t/ LJ ndersiand the general characteristics of <I solar cell. ljghternitung diode, Schouky barrier diode, and Zener diode, (Section 15)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.
Describe an Intrinsic semiconductor material. What jf( meant by the intrinsic carrier concentration'!
Dcscnbe the concept of an electron and it bole as charge carriers in the semiconductor material.
Describe an extrinsic semiconductor material, What is the value of the electron conccntrauon ill an ntype material. and what is tho value of the hole conccnt ralinn in a ptype material?
Describe the concepts of drift current and diffusion current in a semiconductor material.
3.
4
42
Part [ Semiconductor Devices and Basic Applica lions
5_ HQw is a pn junction formed? What is meant by a builrin potential barrier. and how is it fo rmed?
6. How is a junction capacitance created in a reversebiased pn junction diode?
7  Write the ideal diode currentvoltage relationship. Describe the meaning of Is and VT,
8. Describe the iterauon method of analysis and when it must be used (0 analyze II
diode circui t , 
9_ Describe the piecewise linear model of" diode and why itis usetul, What is the diode turnon Voltage?
10, Define a load line in a simple diode circuit
II. Under what conditions is the smallsignal model of a diode used in the analysis of a diode circuit"
12. Describe the operauon of a simple solar cell circuit.
13, How do the iv characteristics or a Schottky barrier diode differ from t~ a pn junction di ode?
14, What characieristic of a Zener <liode is used in the design of a Zener diode circuit?
•······························· .. ················PRoaL·EMS· .. ·_····_···· .. ··· .. ··· _ , _ _ '  _ _ .
[Note: Unless otherwise specified, assume that T = 300 ''K in the following problems Also, assume the emission coefficient is n '" I unless otherwise stated.]
Section 1.1
Semiconductor Materials and Properties
1.1 (a) Calculate [he lntrinsic carrier concentration ill silicon at [i} T = 275 "K and (ii) T", J25°K. (b) Repeat part (a) for gallium arsenide.
1.2 (a] Tbe intrinsic carrier coneenrrauon ia silicon is to be no larger than n, '" ]l}1~cm3_ Determiae the maximum allowable temperature. (h) Repeat part (a) for n, '" 109 crn'.
1.3 (a) Find the concentrations of electrons and holes in a sample of silicon rhar has a concentration of donor atoms equal to S x 101 S em J. Is the semiconductor ntype or p" type? (b) Repeat part (a) for gallium arsenide.
'.4 (a) Calculate the concentration of electrons and holes in a silicon semiconductor sarnpfe that has II concentration ofacceptor atoms equal to 101~cm·. Is the serniconductor n or ptype? (b) Repeat part (a) for germanium.
1.5 The electron concentration in silicon at T =300"K is no = 5 x 1015cmJ. (a) Determine the hole concentration. (b) I!> the material nrype or ptype? (c) What is the impurity doping concentration?
D1.6 (a) A silicon semiconductor material is to be designed such that the majority carrier electronconcentration is no = 7 x 1015 em J. Should donor or acceptor impurity atoms he added to intrinsic s.iliron to achieve this electron cnncemrationvWhat concentration or dopant impurity atom. is required? (b) In this silicon material, the rninority carder hole concentrat ion is to be no larger than Po = 10" em _1. Determine the maximum allowable temperature.
1.7 The applied electric field in ptype silicon is E;;;;;; 15 V/cm. The semiconductor conductivity is o "" 2.2 (Q;;mr1 and the crosssectional area is A '" IO~cm~. Determine the drift current in the semiconductor.
Chapter I Semiconductor Materials and Diodes
43
1.3 A dri rt current density of 85 Ajcroz is established i~ ntype silicon with all applied electnc field vf E = 12 VjUll. Determine the conductivity of the semiconductor.
1.9 In GaM •. the mobilities are I~. "" 8500cm~/Vs and iI" = 4OOcm2!Vs. (a) Determine the range in conductivity for a range in donor concentration of 101~ ::::
NrJ :::: WI" ern', (b] Using the results of part {a}. determine tile range in drift current density if the applied electric field is E = 0.10 v.crn.
1.10 GaAs is doped to N. = 10" cm). (a) Calculate n, and p,O' (b) Excess electrons and holes are generated such (hat .m = /jp = 1015 cm~), Determine the total concentration of electrons and holes,
Section 1.2
The pn Junction
1.11 Calculate V., in a silicon pn Junction for: fa) N,/ = No = IOI~ em":': (11) N,I "" W"cm'. N" = lOI8cml; and (c) N,I = No = ro" cmJ
1.12 Repeat Problem LLI for gallium arsenide.
1.13 The donor conceruration ill the nregion of a silicon pit junction is tv,! "" 101~cm) Plot V~, versus N.over the range IOI~ _:::: Nu:5 L01ijcm1 where N" is the acceptor concentration in the pregion,
1.14 Consider a uniformly doped GaAs pn Junction with doping concentrations of N. = 5 xlOl~cm"_\ and N" = 5 x LOI6 em l. Plot the builtin potential barrier V~; versus temperature for 200"K :::: T ~ 500"K,
1 .. 15 A silicon pn junction has zerobias junction capacitance of C;o = I pF and doping concentrations of Na = 2 X IOI~ cm~ and Nd = 2)( io'' cm] Calculate rhe junction capucuance at: (a) V II = 1 V and (b) vJI = 5 Y.
'1.16 The zerobias capacitance of a silicon pn junction diode is (>0 :.= om pF and the builtin potential is VM = 0.80 V. The diode is reverse biased through a 47~kQ resistor and a voltage source. (a) For r c 0, the applied voltage II 5 V and, at 1 '" O. the applied volt .. ge drops to zero vol IS, Estimate the time it takes for the diode voltage to change from 5 V to 15 V. (As an approximation. usc the average diode capacitance between (he IWO voltage levels.) (b) Repeat part (a) for an input voltage change from 0 V to 5 V and a diode voltage change from OV to 3.5V_ (Use the average diode capacitance between these two voltage levets.)
1.11 A silicon pn junction is doped at N" ::: ro" crn\ and NJ = LOn cmJ TIle zerobias junction capacitance is CJO ::: 0.25pF. An inductance or2.2 mH is placed in parallel with the pn junction. Calculate the resonant frequencyI, or the circuit for reversebias voltages of: <a) "R::: I V, and (b) VR::: IOV.
1.18 ([I) At what reverse bias voltage does the reversebias current in a silicon pn junction diode reach 90 percent of its saturation value (b) What is the ratio (If the current for a forwardbias voltage of 0.1 V to «he current for a reversebias voltage of 0.2 y.!
1.19 (a) Determine the current in a silicon pn junction diode for lorwardbias voltages of 05. 0.6. and 0_7 V ifthe reversesaturation current i,'s ::: to" A, Ib) Repeat part Ia) for 1,\' = 101) A.
1.20 For a pn junction diode, what must be. the forwardbias VOltage 10 produce a current of L 50 itA if (a) Is = 1011 Aal1<J (b) 1.1 '" IOIJ A_
1.21 A silicon pn junction diode has an emission coefficient of n = 2. The diode current is I 01.\ when V D = 0.7 V. (a) Find the reversesaturation current. (b) Deter
Pari [ Semiconductor Devices and Basic Applicauons
mine the diode current when the voltage is increased to 0.11 V. (c) Repeat parts (<I) and (b) when the emission coefficient is n = I.
1.22 The reversesaturation current of a silicon pn junction diode at T ;;;;; 300"K i~ 1.> :0::: 10 tz A, Determine the temperature range oyer which Is varies from 0.5 x 1012 A to 50 X H)12 A.
1.23 A silicon pn juncrion diode has an applied forwardbias voltage ofO.6V. Determine the ratio or current at 100 T to thai at 55 C
1.24 (a) Consider a silicon pfl junction diode operating in the forwardbias region. Determine the increase in forwardbias voltage thai will cause a factor of 10 increase in current. (b) Repeat part [a) for 11 lactor of 100 increase in current.
$don 1.3
DC Diode. Analysis
1.25 A pn junction diode I> in series with 8 10 MQ resistor and a LS V power supply. The reversesaturation current of the diode is Is = 30nA_ (a) Determine ihe diode current and voltage if the diode is forward biased. (b) Repeat part (al if the diode is reverse biased.
·1.26 (a) The diode in the •. .ircuit shown in Figure P1.26 has a reversesaturation current of Is =.5 X 1011 A. Determine the diode voltage lind current. (b) Repeal pari (a) with a computer simulation analysis.
+ VI',I_
12V
Figure P1.26
1.21 The reversesaturation current ofeach diode in the circuit shown in Figure PL27 IS Js = 2 X IOP A_ Determine the input voltage ~)J req uired 10 produce an output vohage of Va "" O.flOV.
Figure P1.27
'Igure P1.28
1.28 (a)ln the circuit shown in Figure PI.2~. find the diode voltage fn and the supply milage V such that the curren I is 1= O.50mA_ Assume the reversesaturation current is 1s = 5 X 10.12 A, (b) From ,111;" results of pari (a). determine the power dissipated In tile diode.
1.29 (a) Consider the circuit shown in Fit:ule P\.;6. The value of RI is reduced to RI = 10 kQ and the cutin voltage of the diode is Vy = 0.7 V. Determine 10 and VD· [b) Repeat part (a, if Rl ;;;;; 50 kQ, (e) Repeal parts (a, and (b) with a computer simulation analysis.
<a)
Chapter I Semiconductor Materials and [)iode.
1.30 The cutin voltage for each diode in the circuits shown in Figure ?UO is Vy =O.6V, For each circuit, determine the diode current In and the voltage Vo (measured with ,CSJ)eC1 10 ground potential),
(c~ FIgure p, .30
·D1.31 The cutin voltage of the diode shown in the circuit in Figure PU I is V~ = 0.7 y, The diode is 10 remain biased "on" [or a power supply voltage in the range S.::: Vps =::; 10 V. The minimum diode current is to be iD(min) ;;;;;; 2 rnA. The maximum power dissipated in the diode is 10 be no more limn IOmW. Determine appropriate values of Rr and Rl'
FlgweP1.31
1,32 Assume each diode in the circuit shown in Figure PU2 has a cutin voltage of I/y '" O.()5 V, The input voltage is Vf = 5 V. Determine the value of RI required such thai 1m is onehalf the value of lm What are the values of 'm and 101·)
: ~ .:
Flp .... Pl.32
Figure P1.36
v+
Part I Semiconductor De v ices and Bask Appllc:atlon~
1.33 The voltage V ill Figure P 1.28 is V "" 1.7 V. If the cutin voltage of the diode is Vy = 0.65V, determine the new value of R required to limit the power dissipation in the diode to no more than 0.20 m W.
1.34 Repeat Problem 1.25 if the diode cutin voltage is Vy = 0.7 V. Compare these results to those obtained in Problem 125_ Discuss any discrepancies,
Section 1.4
SmallSlg nal Diode Analysis
1.3S (a) Consider a pn juncuon diode biased at iDQ = I rnA. A sinusoidal voltage is superimposed Oli V DQ such that the peaktopeak sinusoidal current is 0.051DO' Find the value of the applied peaktopeak sinusoidal voltage. (bj Repeat part (a) if lDQ = 0.1 rnA.
~.36 The diode in the circuit shown in Figure PI. J6 is biased with a constant current source I. A sinusoidal signal v. is coupled through R!; and C. Assumethat C is large .0 that it acts as a short circuit 10 the signal. (a) Show that the sinusoidal component of the diode voltage is given by
+
(b) If Rs = 2600, find v.lv_. for I = I rnA. I '" 0.1 rnA, and 1= ll.Ul rnA.
Section 1.5
Other Types of Diodes
1,37 The reverses .. aturauon currents of a pn junction diode and a So;;houky diode are Is .. IOu A and 109 A, respectively. Determine the forwardbias voltages required to produce a current of 100 f1A ill each diode.
1.38 A pn junction diode and a Schottky diode have equal crosssectional areas and have forwardbias currents of 0.5 rnA. The reversesaturation current of the Schottky diode is '5 = 5 x 10/ A. The difference in forwardbias voltages between the Iwo diodes is O.30V_ Determine the reversesaturation current of the pn junction diode.
1.39 Consider the circuit shown in Figure PI J9. The reversesaturation currents of the Schottky diode and pn junction diode are 1O~ A and W12 A. respectively. Determine the value of R such that the currents in the diodes are equal. What is the voltage across ~ach diode?
R
Figure P1.39
1.40 The reversesaturation currents of a Schottky diode and a pn junction diode are Is = 5 x IOs A and lQ ~l A, respectively. (a) The diodes are connected in parallel and Ihe parallel combination is driven by a constant current of 0.5 rnA. (i) Detennine the eurrem ill each diode. (ii) Determine the vol,. across each diode. (b) Repeat part (a)
Chapter 1 Semiconductor Materials and Diodes
for the diodes connected in series, with a voltage of (l.91l v connected across the series combination.
'1.41 Consider the Zener diode circuit shown in Figure PIAL The Zener breakdown voltage is V/.= 5.6 Vat 1,.: '" 0.1 rnA, and tbeincremental Zener resistance is '; '" lOll. (a) Determine j! 0 wi th no load (RL = 00). (h) Find the change in the output voltage if Vrs changes hy ± I V_ (c) Find V(I if VI'S'" 10 V and RL '" 2 kg.
Figure P1 .41
1,42 A voltage regulator consists of a 6.8 V Zener diode in series with ,I 200 n resistor and a 9 V rower supply. (a) Neglecting '" calculate the diode current and power dissipauon: (h) If the rower supply is increased to 12 V, calculate the percentage increase in diode current and power dissipation,
'1.43 Consider the Zener diode circuit shown .11 Figure Pl.41. The Zener diode voltage is F/. = 6.)) V at lz = 0.1 mA and the incremental Zener resistance is 'c = 2() g(a) Calculate VI) with no load (RL = 00)_ (b) Find the change in tbe output voltage when 11 loud resistance of Rl = I kS1 is connected.
•••••••••••••• ,,_ •••••••••••••••••••••••• _ •••• H • • _ * " .,,, , _ , .........•. ,  ..••.••••• * •••••••.•....•. , .........•
COMPUTER SIMULATION PROBLEMS . .
1.44 lise a computer simulation 10 generate the ideal currentvoltage characteristics of II diode from a r e versebias voltage of 5 V to a forwardbias current of 10 rnA. ror an Is parameter value of: (:1) 1014 i\ and (b) 1011 A, Use the default values for all other parameters.
1.45 Use a computer simulation to generate the /1' characteristics or adiode with I:; ::0 LO ~! A at temperatures or: (a) T ~ O'C (b) T == 25 'c. (c) T", 75 "C and ~J) T = 125 C. Plot the characteristics from a reverse bias voltage of S V to a. forwardbias current of lOrnA
1.46 Consider the ci rcuit shown ill Figure IJ lta) with V P5 = 5 V, Let is "" 1014 A and assume that Vi is a sinusoidal source with a peak value of 0.25 V. Choose values of R to generate quiescent diode currents of approximately 01. U), and IOmA. From a computer simulation analysis. determine rhe peak values of the sinusoidal diode current lind sinusoidal diode voltage for each de diode current. Compare the relationship between the ;IC diode current and voltage to Equation (I ,28Ib)). where YJ IS given by Equation (1,29). Do the computer simulation results compare favorably with the theoretical predictions?
1.41 Repeat Problem J_ 16 using the actual ( versus V,II characteristics
47
....• ···· .. ···,···· ·· ·· .. ·· · .. _···· ··DE·SIGN .. PROBLEMS ~  , , .. , ~ ..
[Note: Each design should be verified by a computer simulation]
'01.48 Design a circuit to produce the characteristics shown in Figure P1.48. where ii' is the diode current and VI is the input voltage. Assume the diode has piecewise linear par~rrreters of Vy '" 0.7 V and rf =' 0.
, .
i[JlmA)
II)
. :.:.
2
o . 2
FigureP' .. ,
'01.4' Desiga a circuit to p reduce the charactenstics shown in Figure PI.49 where 1'/ is the input voltage and i/ is the current supplied by j'f' Assume any diodes in the circuit have piecewise linear parameters of Vy = 0.7 V and rf "'" O .
. ~ :
Figure P1.49
·D1.5O Design a circuit to produce tbe characteristics shown in Figure P1.50. where ~[) is an output voltage and ~'i is the input voltage.
1'0 {V)
I't2 .~
8.2
FIQluri;l P1.SO
C HAP T I A
2
Diode Circuits
2.0 PREVIEW
In the last chapter, we discussed some of the properties of semiconductor materials. and introduced the diode. We presented the ideal currentvoltage retut ionship, and considered the piecewise linear model, which simplifies the de analysis of diode circuits. In this chapter, the techniques and concepts developed in Chapter I are used to analyze and design electronic circuits containing diodes A general goal of this chapter is to develop the ability to use the piecewise linear model and approximation techniques in the hand analysis and design of various diode circuits.
E~Kh circui t 10 be considered accepts an in put signal at a set of input leonina Is and produces an output signal at a set of output terminals. This pr{\CC"~ is called signal processing_ The circuit "processes" the input signal and produces an output signal that is a different shape or a different function compared to the input signal We will see in this chapter how diodes are used to perform these various signal processing functions.
Circuits 10 be considered perform functions such as rectification, clipping. and clamping, These functions are possible only because of the nonlinear properties of the pn junction diode. The conversion of an ac voltage to a de voltage, such as for a de power supply. is called rectification. Clipper diode circuits clip portions 01 a signal that are above or below some reference level. Clam per circuits shirt the entire signal by some de value.
Zener diodes, which operate in the reversebias breakdown region, have the advantage that the voltage across the diode in this region is nearly constant over a wide range or currents. Such diodes are used in voltage reference or voltage regulator circuits, Finally, we look. at the circuits of two special diodes: the lightemitting diode (LED) and the photodiode. An LED circuit is used in visual displays, such as the sevensegment numerical display, The photodiode circuit is used to detect the presence or absence or light and convert this information into an electrical signal,
Although diodes are useful electronic devices, we will begin to see the limi!alions of these devices and {he desirability of having some type of "amp lifying" device,
Part I Semiconductor Devices and Basic Applicatjous
2.1 RECTIFIER CIRCUITS
One important application of diodes is in the design of rectifier circuits. A diode rectifier forms the first stage of a dc power supply as shown in Figure 2.1. As we will see throughout the text, a de power supply is required to bias all electronic circuits. The de output voltage Vo will usually be in the range of 3 h) 24 V depending on the particular electronics application. Throughout [he firs; part of this chapter, we will analyze and design [he various stages in the power supply circuit,
Voltage reg.,IaIOJt
Figure 2.1 Block diagram of an electroo=ic power supply
+
WAO "0
Rectification is the process of converting an alternating (ac) voltage into one that is limited to one polarity. The diode is useful for this function because of its nonlinear characteristics. that is. current exists for one voltage polarity, but is essentially zero for the opposite polarity. Rectification ill classified as balfwa"e or fullwave. with halfwave being (~e simplest.
2.1.1 HaUWave Rectification
Figure 2.2(a) shows a power transformer with a diode and resistor connected (0 the secondary of the transformer. We will use the piecewise linear approach in analyzing Ihis circuit. assuming the diode forward resistance is 'r = 0 when the diode is "on."
The input signal. VI, is, in general, a 120V(rms), 60Hz ac signal. Recall that the secondary voltage, "s. and primary voltage. Vr. of an ideal transformer are related by
~=NI
N] N2 ~
J • .. +
,+ .~
"I Vol' R~ "0
0 vr "s
<al (b) (2.1 )
Figure 2.2 Dbde in series with at power $OUrte: ~a) cifClJit and lb) vo~age transfel chu8cteriatics
Chapter:!: Diode Circuits
51
where N! and N~ are the number of primary and secondary turns, respectively. The ratio Nd N2 is called the transrormer tums ratio. Tile transformer turns ratio will be designed to provide a particular secondary voltage, rs. which in turn will produce a particular output voltage 1'0.
In using the piecewise linear model of the diode. the first objective is to determine the linear region (conducting or not conducting) in which the diode is operating. To do this. we can:
I. Determine the input voltage condition such that a diode is conducting (on).
Then lind the output signal for this condition.
2. Determine the input VOltage condition such that a diode is not conducting (off ). Then find the output signal for this condition.
[Note: Item 2 can be performed before item I if desired]
Figure 2.2(b) shows the voltage transfer characteristics, \'0 versus \'s, for the circuil. For ~\' < O. the diode is reverse biased. which means that the current is zero and the output voltage is zero. A s long as l'S <: V)" the diode will be nonconducting. so the output voltage will remain zero. When I'.' > Fr. the diode becomes forward biased and a current is i nduced in the circuit. In this case, w>; can write
_ )'s ~ V}' In::;;;;R~·
(1.2(a))
(2.2(b})
For I's > Vt" the slope or the transfer curve is I.
lf ~s is a sinusoidal signal. as shown in Figure 2.3(a). the output voltage can he round using the voltage transfer curve in Figure 2.2(b). For ~'s .:5 Vy the output voltage is zero: ror I'S > Vt" [he output is given by Equation (2.2(b)). or
\'0"" l'S  ~'y
and is shown in Figure 2,3(b). We can see that while Ihe input signal l's alternate, polarity and has a timeaverage value of zero. the output voltage Vo is unidirectional and has an average value that is not zero. The input signal is therefore rectified, Also. since the output voltage appears only during the positive cycle of the input signal. the circuit is called a halfwave reetiner.
When the diode is cut off and nonconducting • no voltage drop occurs across the resistor R; therefore, the entire input. signal voltage appears across lhe diode (Figure 2.3( cj]. Consequently, the diode must be capable of handling the peak. current in the forward direction and sustaining the largest peak inverse voltage (PIV) without breakdown. For the circuit shown in Figure 2.2(a), the value of P1V is equal to the peak value of I's·
The load line concept can help in visualizing the: operation of the halfwave rectifier circuit. Figure 2.4(a) shows the sine wave input. Figure 2.4(b) shows the piecewise linear characteristics of tbe diode, along with me load lines at
Part I Semiconductor Devices and Basic Appnceuoss
(a)
(b)
(c)
fig I". 2.3 HaHwave rectifier drc..m: (CI) sinusoidal input voltage, (b) Oulput voltage, and (e) diode voltage
]l\.St;lDIaDOOW / .~I"" of '"s
!oslMltanooU\ Q·poinl
./ Cca!:Y.n! bud Ii ne ~Iope
la)
(b)
Figure 2.4 Operation of halfwave rectifier circuit: (a) Sinusoidal inl)tjt V<lUage and (b) diGde pieeewiM linear characteristics and circllit loact Une at various times
various times. Because the resistance R is It constant, the: slope of the load lines remains constant. However. since the magnitude of the power supply voltage: varies with time. the magnitude of the load line also changes wuh time. As the load line sweeps across the diode IV characteristics. the output voltage, diode voltage, and diode current can be determined as a function of lime.
We can use a halfwa ve rectifier circuit to charge a battery as shown in Figure 2.5(a). Charging current exists whenever the mstantaneous ac source voltage is greater than the battery voltageplus the diode cutin voltage as
Chapter 2 Diodt Circllils
wr
(8)
(b)
FIGure 2.5 (a} Half'wave rectjfier used as a bal1ery charger: (b) ir1put wltage and diode currenl waveforms
sh()WI1 in figure 2.:s(b). The resistance Jl in the circuit is to limit the Current. When the ac source voltage is less than V 8. the current is zero. Th us current flows only in the direction to charge the battery. One disadvantage of the halfwave rectifier is that we "waste" the negative halfcycles. The current is rem during the negative halfcycles, so there is no energy dissipated, but at the same time. we arc r\(li making use of any possible available energy.
:l.1 Figure 1.5(<\) shows a simple circuit fM ..:barging a battery, Assume VI'" I 2 V and R = HXl n Also assume that I'S is a sinusoidal signal with a peak amplitude or24 V and that the diode has piecewise linear parameters of lir .'" 0.6 V and y, "" O. Determine; (ai Ihc peak diode current; (b) tbe maximum reversebias diode voltage; and (c) the fraction (percent) of the cycle over which tile diode conducts. (Ails. (a) 114 rnA, [b) 36 v. (c] ~2.4%)
'~~~""""''''\
; 1 1
.. .l
2.1.2 Full~Wave RectlllcatJon
The fullwave rectifier inverts the negative portions of the sine wave so that a unipolar output signal is generated during both halves of the input sinusoid. One example of a fullwave rectifier circuit appears in Figure 2.6(a). The input to the rectifier consists of a power transformer, in which the input is normally a 120 V (rms), 60 Hi ac signal, and the two outputs are from a centertapped secondary winding, that provides equal voltages v,." with. the polarities shown. When the input line voltage is positive. bosh output signal voltages Vs are also positive.
The primary winding connected to the 120 V ac source has NI windings. and each half of the secondary winding has N2 windings. The value of the )Is ()tUP"1 voltage is 120 (N2/N1) volts [rrns). The turns raCio of the transformer, usually designated (Nd NJ.) can be designed t{) "step down" the input line voltage to a value that will produce a particular de output voltage from the rectifier.
l'()
J ... +
~',; "0 ,,~~ /0'
"J
.+
l"s
V, 0 V \'.~
r
(a) (b) (¢)
Figure 2.6 Full·wav@ redilier: (a) circuit wiUrC8nler·tapped transformer, (b) vcltage transJer characteristics, and (c) input and output waveforms
The input power lram;forrner also provides electrical isolation between the powcrline circuit and the electronic circuits to be biased b)' the rectifier circuit. This isolation reduces the risk of electrical shock.
During the pMit;"e hair of the illput v oltage cycle, bot!'. outputvoltages \Is lire positive: therefore, diode Dlis forward biased and conducting and ~ is reverse biased and cut. off. The current through DI and the output resistance produce a positive output voltage. During the nega tive half cycle, D I is cut off and Di is forward biased, or "on," and the current through the output resisranee again produces a positive output voltage, If we assume that the forward diode resistance " or each diode is small and negligible, we obtain the voltage transfercharacteristics, 1'0 versus )'s, shown in Figure 2.6(tJ).
for a sinusoidal input voltage, we can determine the output voltage versus time by using the voltage transfer curve shown in Figure 2.6(b). When )'s > Vy, DI is on and the output voltage is 1'0 = liS  VI" When ~·s is negative, then for 1'11' <  Vy or ~'s > Vv, D1 is on and the output voltage is Vo = 1'.,>  Vy. The corresponding input and output voltage signals are shown in Figure 2.6{c). Since a rectified output voltage occurs during both the positive and negative cycles of the input signal. this circuit is called a fullwavt> rec:tifier.
Another example of a fullwave rectifier circuit appears in Figure 2,7(a).
This circuit is a bridge reedier. which still provides electrical isolation between the input ac powerline and the rectifier output, but does not require a centertapped secondary winding, However. it does use four diodes, compared to only two in the previous circuit,
During the positive half of the input voltage cycle, l'S is positive. DI and D: are forward biased, D" and D( are reverse biased, and the direction of the current is as shown in Figure 2.7(a), During the negative halfcycle or the input voltage, Vs is negative. and DJ and D4 are forward biased, Tile direction of the current. shown in Figure 2.7{b), produces the same output voltage polarity as before.
Chapter 2 Diode Circuits
+
CI,
(b)
IT I
(c)
Figure 2.7 A full·wave bridge rectifier: (a) circuil showing the current clirecticn for a positive input cycle. (b) current direction for a negative q.ut cycle. and (c) input and outpul vottage waveforms
Figure 2.7(c) shows the sinusoidal voltage l'S and the rectified output voltage Va. Because !WQ diodes arc in series in the conduction path, the magnitude of Vu is two diode drops less than the magnitude of I's.
One difference to be noted in the bridge rectifier circuit in Figure 2.7(a) and the rectifier in figure 2.6(a) is the ground connection. Whereas the center tap of tile secondary winding of the circuit in figure 2.6(a) is at ground potential, the secondary winding of the bridge circuit (Figure 2.7(a) is not directly grounded One side of the load R is grounded, but the secondary of the transformer is not.
Ex;ample 2.1 OIIJ.ctllte: Compare voltages and the transformer t urns ratio in two
fullwave rectifier circuits.
Consider the reenter circuits shown in figures 2IXa) and 2.7(a). Assume the input voltage is from a 120 V (rms), 60 Hz ;I\;: source. The desired peak output voltage Vo is 9V. and the diode cutin voltage is assumed to be Vy = O.7V_
Solutio .. : For the centertapped transformer circuit shown in Figure 2.ti(a}, a peak voltage of vo(max) ;; 9V means that she peak value of Js is
~·s(max) ;;;:; vp(max) + V" =: 9 + 0.7 == 9.7 V
For a sinusoidal signal, this produces an rms value of 9.7
l'S nos == M == 6.8,6 V
. ..,,2
The turns rano of the prlmaJY to each secondary winding must tben be N. =~S!: 17.5
N2 6.86
For tile bridge circuit shown in figure 2,7(a), a peak voltage or l'o(mJ)(j '" Y V means that the peak value of ",l is
vs(max) = vo(max) + 2 V" = () + 2(0,7) ,= 10,4 V for a sinusoidal signal. tliis produces an rms value of lOA
I'Srm,"" F;=7J5V
. .,,2
The turns ratio should then be !:!J.:::: 120 'i!' 16J
N2 7.35
For tile centertapped rectifier, the peal inverse voltage (PIV) of iI diode i, PIV ,.. "~max) ~ 2vs(ma)()  V r = 2.(9.7)  O. '"I "'" 18.7 V
For the bridge rectifier. the peak inverse voltage of a diode is PIV = ~~(rnax.1 '" l's(m;tx)  Vy:::: 10.4 ,_ 0.7 = fj,7 V
Co ....... nt: These calculations demonstrate the advantages of the bridge rectifier over the centertapped transformer circuit. First, only half as many turns are required for the secondary winding in the bridge rectifier. This is true because only half (If tbe secondary windin, or the centerrapped transformer is utilized at anyone rime. Second, fur the bridge d«:Utl, the peak inverse: 'foliage that !in)' diode must sustain without breakdown is only hair that or the centertapped transformer circuit.
Because of [he advantages demonstrated in Example 2.1, the bridge rectifier circuit is usee more often than the centertapped transformer circuit.
2.1.3 Filters. Ripple Voltage, and Diode Current
lf a capacitor is added in parallel with Ihe load resistor of a halfwave rectifier to form a simple filter circuit (Figure 2.8(a)), we can begin to transform [he halfwave sinusoidal output into a de voltage. Figure 2.&(b) shows the positive half of the output sine wave, and the beginning portion or the voltage across the capacitorassuming (he capacitor is initially uncharged. If we assume that the diode forward resistance is 'f ::::: I), which means that the 'fC time constant is zero, the voltage across the capacitor follows this initial portion of the signal voltage. When the signal voltage reaches its peak and begins to decrease, the voltage across the capacitor also starts to decrease, which means the capacitor starts to discharge. The only discharge current path is through the resistor. If the RC time constant is large, the voltage across the capacitor discharges exponentially with time (Figure 2.8(c)). During this lime period, the diode is cut off.
A more detailed analysis of the circuit response when the input voltage is near its peak value indicates a subtle difference between actual circuit operation and the qualitative description. If we assume that the diode turns off immediately when the input voltage starts to decrease from its peak value. then the output voltage will decrease exponentially with time. as previously indicated. An exaggerated sketch of these two voltages is shown in Figure 2.8(d), The output voltage decreases at a faster rate than the input voltage.
Chapter 2 Diode Circuits
i7
"5
v~ I~ ...... , I "
/ ~IO. '\
T '2
(b)
Time
~c)
(d)
t 'f. ~o
T·\
J/~ "
/ \
(
~ )
T 3T
"2
Tillie
{e)
Figure 2,8 Simple ~lter clla;"uil; (ii) halrwave r«:titler whII an FlC fiitef. (b) positive input wllage and initial portion of output voltage, (c) outpLJt veNtage resulting from capacitof disctlarge, (d) expanded vieW of input and oulpul VQItages assuming capaOtor discharge begins at (ot = J! 12, ancI (e) 51eady·stale input at'ld Qutput \'oItl'lge5
which means that at time il. the difference between VI and "0, that is, the voltage across the diode, is greater than Vy. However, this condition cannot exist. Therefore. the diode does not tum off immediately. IF {he RC time constant is large, there is only a small difference between the lime of the peak input voltage and the lime the diode turns olT. In this situation, a computer analysis may provide more accurate results. than an approximate hand analysis.
During Ihe next positive cycle of the input voltage, there is a point at which the input voltage is greater than the capacitor voltage, and the diode (urns back on. The diode remains on until the input reaches its peak value and the capacitor voltage is completely recharged,
Since the capacitor filters out a large portion of the sinusoidal signal, it is called a filter capacitor. The steadystate output voltage or the RC filter is shown in Figure 2.8(e).
The ripple effect in the output from a fullwave filtered rectifier circuit can be seen in the output waveform in Figure 2.9. The capacitor charges to its peak voltage value when the input signal is at its peak .... alue, As the input decreases. the diode becomes reverse biased and the capacitor discharges through the output resistance R. Determining the ripple voltage is necessary for the design of a circuit with an acceptable amount of ripple.
Pa rt I Semicond uctor Devices and Basic Applications
VM r" Po 
v. \t " rr ,
,. ( \ \
I I \ I \
I \ I \ I \
f " t
I T ____,.
fTp~ Flgufe 2.9 Output vollage or a fullwave rectil'ieor with an RC fiU8I'
To a good approximation, the output voltage, that is, the voltage across the capacitor or the RC circuit, can be written as
l'O(I) = VW'er'jl = VM.f'~j'IIlC (1.3)
where I' is the time after the output has reached its peak value, and RC is the time constant of the circuit,
The smallest output voltage is
VL = JlMt'T'lI!(' (2.4)
where T' is the discharge time, as indicated in the figure.
The ripple voltate V, is; defined as the difference between V M and V L, and is determined by
(2.S)
Normally, we will want the discharge time T' to be small compared to the time constant, or T' « Re, Expanding the exponential in a series and keeping only the linear terms of that expansion, we have the approximation
eT'/R< ~ II.:_ RC
The ripple voltage can nOW be written as
(2.6)
v ~ v .. (!:_)
, .. " RC
(2.7)
Since the discharge time T' depends on the RC time constant; Equation (2,7) is difficult to solve. However, if the ripple effect is small, then as all approximation, we can let T! = Tp' so that
V, ~ VM(;t) (2.8)
where T, is the time between peak values of the output voltage. For a fullwave rectifier. Tp is onehalt the signal period. Therefore, we can relate TI' to the signal frequency,
1 1=2T
p
The ripple voltage is then
VM Vt = 2fRe
(2.9)
Chapter 2 Diode Circuits
For it halfwave rectifier, the time Tp corresponds to a full period (not a hair period) of the signal. so the factor 1 does not appear in Equation (2.9), Equation 129) can he used to determine the capacitor value required for a particular ripple voltage.
Examp\e 2,2 ~v.: Determine the capacitance required to yield a particular ripple voltage,
Consider a fullwave rectifier circuit with it 60 Hz input signal and a peak output voltage ()f 1'\, ::..:: IOV. Assume the output load resistance is R; IOk.1ll and tho: ripple voltage is In he limited 10 V, =: 0.2 V_
Solution: From Equation (2.9}, we can write
. ' __ ~I! ::= _ 10 ~ 41_7 F
( 2(fW, 2(60)(10 x 1(11)(0.2) . . !.l
Comment: If the ripple voltage is 10 he limited 10 a smaller value, a larger filler capacitor must be used.
The diode in a filtered rectifier circuit conduct. for a brief interval AI near the peak or the sinusoidal input signal (Figure 2_IO(a)). The diode current supplies the charge lost by the capacitor during the discharge time. figure 1.11 shows the equivalent circuit of the fullwave rectifier during the charging lime. We see that
(2.10~
"
'. (I)
\
.~_ I I
~""~
I I
T
(b)
Figure 2.10 Output of a full·wave rec1ifler will1 an RC litter: (8) dioda conduction time end Ib) diode current
lf the ripple voltage is small, then the resistor or load current is iR;:'" VMIR. If we neglect the diode clJtin voltage, then
r\1 c\.)~((()a.(j = V\.1  V,
(2.1 J)
'" "0
.. !ic
iD ~ j~
Os c~ ~ FI!lu re 2.11 Equivalent circuit of afultwave rectifier cIoring capacitof charging cy<:le
Part 1 Sem icon<! ucr or I)ey ices and Basic Avplica nons
If the ri~ple voltage is small, then wlll is small. ~ 1  ~ (tUttI) . Using Equation (2. I J), we find thai
wlH=
M
Therefore, cos(wM)
(2.1l}
The charge supplied to the capacitor through the diode is QS"P == ic.~.gtJ.J
(2.13(11))
The charge lost by the capacitor during the discharge time is QI(l${ == CV,
(2. 13(b))
To find the average diode current iD.~,.g. during conduction, we equate these two equations, which yields
(2.14)
where IcaII is the average current through the capacitor during the charging cycle.
The average currents in the diode and capacitor during the charging cycle are related by
• . V,w lD.avll = lens + R
(2.J5)
The average diode current during the diode conduction time in a fullwave rectifier circuit is then
(2.16 )
where we have used the frequency from Equation (2,9). The average capacitor current iC.1.¥g is zero if the ripple voltage is zero. From Equauon (2.1 5}, the average diode current In lhis ideal case is then VJdR, and does [lot become Infinite as Eq ua tion (2.16) might suggest.
The peak diode current is found to be
~Z.17)
During the diode conduction time, for small ripple voltage s, the current through the capacitor is much larger [han the load current. Comparing Equations (2.16) and (2.17), we see that
The resulting diode current approximates a triangular wave. as shown in Figure 2.lO(b). The average diode current over the entire input signal period
h~ ..
(2.18)
Chapter 2 Diode Circuits
Design Example 2.3 00 •• 1$".: Design a fullwave rectifier til meet particular specifications.
A fullwave rectifier is to be designed to produce a peak output voltage or 12 V, deliver 120mA to the load, and produce an output with a. ripple of not more than 5 percent. All input line voltage of 12(lV (rms), 60 Hzis available.
Solution: A fullwave bridge rectifier will be used, because of the advantages previously discussed. The effe<:th'e load resistance is
R "" ~~ == ~ = 100 Q
II 0.12
Assuming ;1 diode cutin voltage (If 0.7 V, the peak value of l'S is l,lm:.n) ::: l'a(n1a)() + 2 VI' == 12 + 2(O.'I} =: \3.4 V
For il sinusoidal signal, this produces an rrns voltage value of D_4
r . == .... ,,_. = 9 48 V
.... ,rm:o ./2: .
The transformer turns ratio is then
,~'t 120
/\'? ::.:: <tAR = 12.7
For <I 5 percent ripple. the ripple voltage is I, "" IO05)I'u '" ((U)5)(12) = 0.6 V
The !~(jtliftd fill« capacstor is found to he
C ,."" 2;t~ = 2f6())(I'~)(O.6) =? 166711"The peak erode current is
and rhc u vcruge diode current over the entire signal period is
L (2(0.6)[( 12)( fl2)]
In(avg) = 2rrY~12 100 I +Jfy2iJ6i ~ &6mA
Finally. tho: peak inverse voltage that each diode must sustain is PlY = l'ima1t) = v.~(mal)  Vy == '3.4  0_7:::: 12_7V
Comment: The minimum specification> for the diodes in this fullwave rectifier circuit .... are: a peak current of 2.51)A, an average current of66mA. and a peak inverse voltage of
1:1..7 V _ In order 1\.) meet the desired ripple specification, the required filter capacitance
must be large. since the effective load resistance is small.
Dttslgn PoIoll1!r: (I) A particular turns ratio was deterrained for the transformer. However, this particular transformer design is probably not commercially available. This mean> an expensive custom transformer design would be required, or if a standard lrjlmformer I~ used, then additional circuit design is required to meet [he output voltage speciflcation. (2) A constant nov (nns) inptu voltage is assumed, to be available. However, this voltage can f1l1ctJ,l<l.t~, so tile output voltage will also 8uctuate.
!'an 1 Semiconductor Devices and Basic Applicauons
We will see tater how more sophistkated designs will solve these two problems.
CompuWr V&rlftcatiQn: Since we simply used an assumed cuiill voltage for tbe diode and used approximations in the development of the ripple voltage equations, we can use PSJli~e to give us a more accurate evaluation of the circuit. The PSpice circuit schematic and the steadystate output voltage are shown in Figure 2,12. We see that the peak output voltage is 11.6 V. which is close to the desired 12 V, One reason for the slight discrepancy is that tile diode voltage drop for the maximum input voltage is slightly greater than O.8V rather than the assumed O.7V, The ripple voltage is approximately 0.5 V, which is witllin the 0.6 V specification.
I',
(,
roo, (V) tz
ll~~~~~=~~
o W ~ M ~~
(b)
Figure 2.12. (al PSpice Cifcuit schematic of diode briC1!Je circuit; (b) Steady,slate outPUt lIollage of PSpice analysis 01 diode bridge tircuit foJ a 60 Hz input sine wave with a peak vallie of 13.4V
Diacuillon: III the ?Spice simul!ttion, a standard diode, I N4002. was used. In older for the computer simulation to) be valid, the diode used ~n the simulation and in the actual circuit must match, in this example, to reduce the diode voltage and irerease the peak output voltage. a diode with a larger crosssectional area should be used.
Test Vour Understanding
2.2 The input voltage to the halfwave rectifier in Figure 2.8(a) is I'S = 75 sill [21f(6())rj V. Assume a diode >cuiin voltage or Vr '" 0, The ripple voltage is to be IH' more than V, = 4 V. If the III ter capacitor is 50 JIF. determine the minimum load resistance that can be connected to the output. (Ans. R = 6.25 kQ)
2.3 The circuit in Figure 2_6(a) is used torectify a sinusoidal input si&nal with a peal voltage of 120 Y and a frequency of 60 Hz. A filter capacitor is connected in parallel with
Chapter 2 !)lOde Circuits
R, If the output voltage cannot drop below 100 V. determine the required, value of the C"P;!~i"IIlCt; C, Tile transformer has a turns rauo of NI : N~ "" I : I> where Nz is the number of turns on each of the secondary windings. Assume the diode cutin voltage is ((7 V and the output resistance is 2,5 kn. (Ans, C '" 2O,(i",f)
2.4 The secondary transformer voltage of the rectifier circuit shown ill Figure 2.7(a) IS "8 = 5Qsin(2JT(nO)lj V. Each diode has a cutin voltage of Vy ~ 0.7 V, and the load resistance is R x: 10 kQ, Determine the value of the filter capacitor that must be CO[}nected in parallel with R such lhat the ripple voltage is no greater than V, = :2 V. (Ans, C = 2OJIIF)
2.5 Determine the fraction (percent) of the cycle that each diode is conducting in (<I) Exercise 2.2. (b) Exercise 2.3, and (c) Exercise 2.4. (Am. (a) 5,2'%, (b) L8.I%, (c~ 9.14%)
2.1.4 Voltage Doubler Circuit
A voltage doubler circuit is very similar to the fullwave rectifier, except that two diodes are replaced by capacitors. and it can produce a voltage equal to approximately twice the peak output of a transformer (Figure 2.13).
Figure 2.14(a) shows the equivalent circuit when the voltage polarity at the "top" of the transformer is negative; Figure 2.14(b) show'S the equivalent circuit for the opposite polarity. In the circuit in Figure 2.14(a), the forward diode resistance of D, is small; therefore, the capacitor C1 will charge to almost the peak value of )·s. Terminal 2 on CI is positive with respect to terminal I. As the magnitude of Vs decreases from its peak value, C1 discharges through RL
Figure 2.13 A IIOna~ doubler circuit
DI
+ J + ~ I . +
C!) <D ).
·'s C v () Vs C2 R[ ~ '0
I @
@
+l._ _) 1  @,,(i)
1\
':' CI ~
(a) (b) flgufe 2.14 Equivalent Circuit oIlhe voltage ckMtIler circuit; (a) negative jnput ~ and ~b) positive inpul cycle
Pan I Semkonduclol Devices and Bask APl1ti<;.alions
and C2. We assume that the time constant RL C2 is very long compared 10 the period of the input signal.
As the polarity of Vs changes to that shown In Figure 2.l4(b), the voltage across C1 is essentially constant at VAl. with tenninal2 remaining positive. As I'S reaches its maximum va lue, the voltage across C2 essentially becomes VM· By Kirchhoff's voltage law. the peak voltage across RL is now essentially equal 10 2 V.Ii. or twice tbe peak output of the transformer. The same ri pple effect occurs as in [he output voltage of the rectifier circuits. but if eland C2 are relatively large. then the ripple voltage V,. is quite small.
There are also voltage tripler and voltage quadruplet circuits. These circuits provide a means by which multiple de voltages can be generated from a single ac source and power transformer.
2.2 ZENER DIODE CIRCUITS
In Chapter I, we saw that the breakdown voltage or a Zener diode was nearly constant over a wide range of reversebias currents. This makes the Zener diode useful in a voltage regulator, Or' a constantvoltage reference circuit. In this chapter, we will look at an ideal voltage reference circuit. and the effects of including a nonideal Zener resistance,
The results of this section will then complete the design of the electronic power supply in Figure 2.1. We should note that in actual power 8UPPly designs, the voltage regulator will be a more sophisticated integrated circuit rather than {he simpler Zener diode design that will be developed here. One reason is that a standard Zener diode with a particular desired breakdown voltage may not be available. However, this section will provide the basic concept of a voltage regulator.
2.2.1 Ideal Voltage Reference Circuit
Figure 2.15 shows a Zener voltage regulator circuit. For this ci rcuit, the output voltage should remain constant. even when the output load resistance vanes over " fairly wide range. and when the input voltage varies over ;1 specific range.
Auur& 2.15 A lEi net diode 'I(Illage regulator cifCll~
We determine, initially, the proper input resistance Ri. The resistance R, limits the current through the Zener diode and drops the "excess" vohage between Vps and Vz. We can write
Chapter 2 Diode Circuits
65
R = Vps  Vl = VI'S Vz
, 1/ lz+h
(2.19)
which assumes that the Zener resistance is zero for the ideal diode. Solving this equation lor the diode current, Iz, we get
(2.20)
where h = V z I RLo and the variables are the input voltage source V PS and the load current J L'
For proper operation of this circuit, the diode must remain in the breakdown region and the power dissipation in the diode must not exceed its rated value. ln other words:
I. The current in the diode is a minimum, Iz(min). when the load current is a maximum, Idmax), and the source voltage is a minimum, Vps(min),
2, The current in the diode IS a maximum, Iz(max), when the load current is a minimum, h(min), and the source voltage is a maximum, Vps(malt),
Inserting these two specifications into Equacion (2.19), we obtain
R = Vps(min)  V z
f I;,~(min) + I,,(max)
(2.21(a»
and
R _ Vps(max)  Vz
,  J ;:(max) + 'L(min)
(2.11(&»
Equating these two expressions, we then obtain
[Vl's~min)  Vzl· [l.z(max) + fdmin)]
= [Vl's(max) vzl' (/z(min) + h(max)!
(2.22)
Reasonably, we can assume that we know the range of input voltage, the range of output load current, and the Zener voltage. Equation (2.22) then contains two unknowns, 'z(min} and Iz(milX). Further, as a minimum requirement, we can set the minimum Zener current 10 be onetenth the maximum Zener current, or /z(rnin) = O.11z(max). (More stringent design requirements may require the minimum Zener current to be 20 to 30 percent of the maximum value.) We can then solve for /z(max}, using Equation (2.22), as follows:
lL(max)'{Vl's(ma;o;) Vzlh(min)'{Vl's(min) VLJ .
'z{max) = ·V ( in) 09 If 0 1 V (., ) (2.13)
PS mm  . r Z . P.~ max
Using the maximum current thus obtained from Equation (2.23), we can determine the maximum required power rating of the Zener diode. Then, combining Equation (2.23) with either Equation (2.21(a» or (2.21(b», we can determine the required value of the input resistance Ri.
Part I Semicondector Devices arid Basic Applications
Design Example 2.4 Objef;lI= De~ign a voltage regulator using the circuit in
Figure 2.1 S.
The voltage regulator is to power a car radio at VI = 9 V from an automobile bantry whose voltage may vary between II and 1.1.6 Y. The current in the radio win vary between 0 (off) to lOOmA (full volume).
The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. 1&.
R,
Fig.ure 2.16 Circuit lor Design E~ample 2.4
Solution: The maximum Zener diode current Call he determined from Equa.(iQn (2.23} as
(IOO~D()91Q
1,(max)   ;;. 300 rnA
.  I I  (M})(9}  (0.1 )(IJ.(l.) 
The maxim 11m power dissipated in the Zener diode is then
fz(ma:l.) '" h(rn3);1 . V I = (300)(9) ~ 2.7 W
The value of the currentlimning resislor R" from Equanon (1.1I(b). is
R, '" 1J.6  'l = 15.3 n OJ
The maximum power dissipated in this resistor is
~ Comment From litis design, we see that the minimum power ratings or the Zener diode and input resistor art: 2.7 Wand 1.4 W, respectively. Tile minimum Zener diode current occurs for V,. s (min) and ft_(max). We find (,,(min) ::;; 3l).7mA. which is approxnnately [0 percent of fz(11lal) as specified by Inc design equations.
Deslg" !'olntat: (I) The variable input in this example was due to a variable battery voltage. However. referring. bad. to Example 2.3, the variable input could also be a function of using a standard trsnsiorme] with a given turns ratio as opposed to a custom design with a particular turns ratio and/or having a 120 V (rms) Input voltage tha t is not exactl y co nstant.
(2) The 9 V output is 11 result of using a 9 V Zener diode. However. il Zener diode with exactly a 9 V breakdown voltage may also not be aV<1jJable. We will again see later how more sophisticated designs can solve this problem.
Charier 2 Diode Circuits
67
Test Your Understanding
2.6 The Zener diode regulator circuit shown in Figure 2.15 has an input voltage mat varies between 10 and 14 V, and a load resistance that varies between RL "" 10 and 1000;. Assume a 5.6 Zener diode is used. and assume JzCmin) = O.I1;::!mal;)_ Find the value of R; required and the minimum power rating of the diode. (Ans, Pz :::: 131 W. s,» IH'.!t
2.7 Suppose the currentlimiting resistor in Example 2_4 is replaced b~' one whose value is fl., '" 2un. Determine (he minimum and maximum Zener diode current. Does the circuit operate "properly"?
2.8 Suppose (he power supply voltage in the circuit shown in Figure 2.16 drop, to V'_S :=: 10 V, Lei R, "" IS_} Q. What is the maximum load Current in the radio if the minimllm Zener diode current is to be maiatamed al f71min) = ~OmA)
2.2.2 Zener Resistance and Percent Regulation
In the ideal Zener diode, the Zener resistance is zero, In actual Zener diodes. however. this is nor the case. The result is that the output voltage is a function of the Zener diode current or the load current.
Figure 2.17 shows the equivalent circuit of the voltage regulator in Figure 2.15. Beca use of the Zener resistance. the output voltage will not remain constant. We can determine the minimum and maximum values of output voltage. A.t1gure of merit for a voltage regulator is called the percent regulation. and is defined ,i~
. VI (m,u)  Vdmin)
",;' Regularicn > "" )  x 100
• ,_ (nom
(2.24)
where Vdllom) is the nominal value of the output voltage. As the percent regulation approaches zero percent. the circuit approaches that of an ideal voltage regulator.
s,
I rd +
t
Vz fit VI
" ~ FIgure 2.17 A l&nef diode voltage regulator circui!. with ill nonzero ZefleJ resistanc;;
Exampte 2.S ~'": Determine the percent regulation of a voltage regulator.
Consider (he circuit described in Example 2.4 and assume a Zeller resistance of r, = 4 U. The nominal output voltage is VL(nom) = 9 V.
Pan I Semiconductor Devices and Basil: Applications
S<llutlon: As a first approximation, we can assume that the output voltage does not change significantly. ThUe:fOH\ the minimum and maximum Zener diode currents will be the same, as in Example 2.4. Then,
VL(mal):O Vdnom)+ [z(ma;.;)r, = 9+ (0.30)(4) = 10.20 V
and
Vdmin) "" Vdnom) + 'z(min)r, = 9 + (0.030)(4) == 9.12V Tile percent regulation is then
oil: R I· VI.(max) Vdmin). 10.19.12 0
;. eguiauon e "(. x 100= 9 x100=12Vo r L nom)
Comll1.11t Because of the relatively high current levels in this example, the percent regulation is fairly high. The percent regulation can be improved significantly by using amplifiers in conjunction with the voltage reference circuit, We will see examples of these circuits ill Iater chapters,
Test Your Understanding
2.0 If the diode in Exercise 2.6 bas a Zener resistance of '0 = 1.5 n, determine the percent regulation. (Am. 14,3'%)
2.3 CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS
In this section, we continue our discussion of nonlinear circuit applications of diodes. Diodes can be used iii wave shaping circuits that either limit or "clip" portions of a signal, or shift the de voltage level. The circuits are: called dippers and dampers, respectively.
2.3.1 Clippers
Clipper circuits, also called limiter cinuits, are used to eliminate portions of a signal that are above or below a specified level. For example, the halfwave rectifier is a clipper circuit, since all voltages below zero are eliminated. A simple application of a clipper is to limit the voltage at the input to an electronic circuit so as to prevent breakdown of (he transistors in the circuit. Tile circuit may be used to measure the frequency of the signal, so the amplitude is not an important part of the signal.
Figure 2.18 shows the general voltage transfer characteristics of a limiter circuit. The limiter is a linear circuit if the input signal is In the range Vo/A,::::: VI::::: Vb(A" where A, is the slope of the transfer curve. If A.::: I, as in diode circuits, the circuit is a passive limiler, If ... { > vZ / A., the output is limited to a maximum value of vZ. Similarly, if VI < VolA" the output is limited to a minimum value of Vo. Figure 2.18 shows tAe general transfer curve of a double limiter, in which both the positive and negative peak values of the input signal are clipped,
Chapter 2 Drode Circuits
Figure 2.18 General voltage Iramler CharacleriStiCS of i3 hmiter circuit
Various combinations or v(\" and Vo are possible. Both parameters may be positive. both negative. or one may be positive while the other negative, as indicated in the figure. If either Va approaches minus infinity or V6 approaches plus infinity, then the circuit reverts to a single limiter.
Figure 2.19(::1) is a singlediode clipper circuit. Tile diode DI is off as long as VI < VB + Vy' With D. off, the current is zero. the voltage drop across R is zero, and the output voltage follows the input voltage. When )'1 > VB + V!," the diode turns 00, the output voltage is dipped. and Vo equals Va + Vr· The output signal is shown in Figure 2.19(b). In this circuit. the output is clipped above Vfl + Fr'
\'/
(a)
Figul"e2.19 Slngledioda dipper: {a) circuit ar.ct Ib) output response
Other clipping circuits can be constructed by reversing the diode. the polarity of the voltage source, or both. Figures 2.20(a), (b), and (c) show these circuits. along with ~he corresponding input and output signals.
Positive and negative clipping Can be performed simultaneously by using a double limiter or a puallelbased clipper, such as the circuit shown in Figure 2.21. The input and output signals are also shown in the figure. The parallelbased clipper is designed with. two diodes and two voltage sources oriented in opposite directions.
E:xample 2.& ObJecth'e: Find the output of the parallelbased clipper in Figure 2.22(1\).
For simplicity. assume that VI' = 0 and 'r '" 0 for both diodes,
Solution: For I = G. we see that ~'j =0 and both V1 and D! are reverse biased. For o <:: ~I ~2V. D[ and D, remain off; therefore, ~o = ~/. For 11/ :;. 2V. D. turns on and
.1'/ 2
h=W+l0
Pari I Semiconductor Devices and Bask Applications
\ J
L'J , _ I
, ' ! , r
(a)
Ib)
Figu I. 2.20 Additional diode clip~er ci ,wits and their cooesponding oulptll responses
(c)
FIQure 2.21 1\ parailel~d diode dipper c,rOl.li\ and its oulput response
Also,
Va = 11 Rl + 2 '" ! (vi  2) + 2 '" h + I If '1') = 6 V, then '1'0 = 4 V.
For 4 < ('/ < 0 V. both DI and Dl are off and )'0 "" "/' For v, ~ 4 V. Dz turns on and the output is constant at va = 4V_ The input and output waveforms are ploned in Figure 2Z2(b)
Comment: If we assume that V~.,. I), the output will be very similar to the results calculated here. The only difference will he the points at which the diodes turn 00.
Diode clippercircuits can also be designed such that the de power supply ir; in series with the input signals. Figure 2.23 shows various circuits based on (his design, The battery in series wifh the input signal causes the input signal to be
Chapter 2 Diode Circuits
v(V) 6
_ ..... J
..
4
Ftgur.2.23 SeriNbased ~ Clippe!' G'lrcuil$ and ltIeir oonespordng output responses
72
Part I Semiccnductor Devices lind Basic Applications
superimposed 0(1 the V 8 de voltage. The resulting conditioned input signals and corresponding output signals are also shown in Figure 2.23.
Test Your Understanding
2.10 Plot the voltage transfer characteristics (vo versus y,) for the circuit in Figure 2.22(a). Assume: each diode cutin voltage is Vy = 0.7 V. {Am. For 4.7 '~ VI ::: 2.7 V. ~o = vI; for "I> 2.7V, ~o = (~)"I + l.J~; for v, <4.7V, Va = 4,7V)
D2.11 Design a parallelbased clipper that will yield the voltage transfer function shown in Figure 2.24. Assume diode cutin voltages of Vy = 0.7 V. (Ans. For Figure 2.22(a), V2 = 4.3, VI = 1.8 V, and RI '= 2Rz)
5
v,
~
FIgure 2,24 Figure for Exorcise 2.11
2.3.2 C'ampers
Clamping shifts the entire signal voltage by a dc level. In steady state, the output waveform is an exact replica of the input waveform, but the output signal is shifted by a de value that depends. on the circuit. The distinguishing feature of a damper Is that it adjusts the de level without needing to know the exact waveform,
An example of clamping is shown in Figure 2.25(a). The sinusoidal input voltage signal is shown in Figure 2.25(b). Assume that the capacitor is initially uncharged. During the first 90 degrees of the input waveform, the voltage across the capacitor follows the input, and Vc = l'l (assuming that 'f = 0 and Vr = O). After ~I and v( reach their peak values, VI begins to decrease and the diode becomes reverse biased. Ideally, tile capacitor cannot discharge, so the voltage across the capacitor remains constant at )Ie = V M. By Kirchhoff's voltage law
v() = t'e + 1'/ = Vu + VI1 sin wi
(2.25(a))
or
1'0 = V ",(8ioM  I)
(l.l5(b»
Chapter 2 Diode Grcuits
13
+ "c 
+
(al
(b)
~:f
O~_~I~~_.
I
~
(c)
(II)
Figure 2.25 Aclior'\ of a diooe darnpe!' circuit: {a) a typica. diode damper circuit, (b) the slnusoidClI inpul ~nal, (c) the ~or voltage. ar'ItI (cl} ll1e output voltage
The capacitor and output voltages arc shown in Figures 2.25(c) and (d).
The output voltage is "damped" at zero volts, that is, Vo .:::: O. In steady state, the waveshapes of the input and output signals are the same, and the output signal is shifted by a certain de level compared to the input signal.
A clamping circuit that includes an independent voltage source VB is :.h{)wn in Figure 1. 26(a). In this circuit. the RL C time constant is assumed to be large, where RL is the load resistance connected to the output. If we assume, fOT simplicity, that rj = 0 and Vy = 0, then the output is clamped at VB' Figure 226(b) shows an example ora sinusoidal input signal and the resulting output voltage signal. Wlten the polarity of VB is as shown, the output is shifted in a negative voltage direction. Similarly, Figure 2.26(c) shows a squarewave input signal and the resulting output voltage signal. For the squarewave signal, we neglect the diode capacitance effects and assume the voltage can change instantaneously.
(.
:1.:
.=.. VB
1 __ " <0
Va oHL~h~~++~~
", Yo 1
'I
I I
(a~
(b)
(c,
Figure 2.26 Action of a diodE! clElimper cirwit wilt1 a. voltage source: (a) lt1e circuil,
(b) steady· state sinusoidCll input a.nd output signals, and (e) steady·stille Squarewaw ~nput and output signals
Electronic signals tend to lose their de levels during signal transmission.
For example, the de level of a TV signal may be lost during transmission. so that the de level must be restored at the TV receiver. The following example illustrates this effect.
74
Pan I Semiconductor Devices arid Basic Applications
Example 2.7 Objective: Find the steadystate output of the diodedamper circuit shown in Figure 2.':''!7(a).
The input \', is assumed to be a sinusoidal signal whose de level has been shitted with respect 10 a receiver ground by a value VB during Iransmis,ion. Assume fir::: 0 and rf = 0 for the diode.
I'S .
" I
_ ....
(Il)
Figure 2_27 (a) Cil'ClIIil for E~ample 2_7; (b) input and output wavefOm1s
Solution: Figure 2_27(b) shows the sinusoidal input signal. If the capacitor is initially uncharged. then rhe output voltage is "0 ;; J'/J at' = 0 (diode reversebiased). For 0 ~. I _:;; ',. the effective RC lime constant is infinite. the voltage across tile capacitor does not change, and Yo ::: ~': + VB'
At I'" ft. the diode becomes forward biased: me OUipUI cannot go negative, so rhe voltage across the capacitor changes (the rfC time constant is zero).
At , == OJ T. the input signal begins increasing and the diode become> reverse biased. so the voltage across [hi!' capacitor no,",' remains constant at l'_~,  VB with ihe polarity shown, The output voltage is now given by
or
Commeot For' > m T. steady stale is reached. The output signal waveform is an exact replica of the input signal waveform and is now measured with respect 10 she reference ground at terminal A_
Test Your Understandlllg
2. '12 Sketch the steadystate output voltage for tile input signal given for the circuit in Figure 2.28, (Ans, Square wave between 2 and lOV.)
2.13 Determine the steadystate output voltage 1'0 for the circuit in Figure 2.29(3). If the input is as shown in Figure 2.29(b). Assume the diode cutin voltage is J! y = O. (Ans, Output is a square wave between +5 V and +35 V)
+ .. V
(
..
4 V
D
Figure 2.28 Figure for Exarose 2_ 1 2:
(= I ~F ~~~~~
+
Jll
(a)
(b)
2.4 MULTIPLEDIODE CIRCUITS
Since: a diode is a nonlinear device. part of the analysis of a diode circuit involves determining whether tile diode is "on" or "off." If a circuit contains more than one diode, the analysis is complicated by the various possible combmutions of "on" and "off."
In this section, we will look at several multiplediode circuits, We will see, for example, how diode circuits can be used to perform logic functions, This section serve, as an introduction to digital logic circuits that will be considered in detail in Chapters 16 and 17,
2.4.1 Example Diode Circuits
To review briefly, consider two singjediode circuits, Figure 1_30(a) shows a diode in series with a resistor. A plot (}f voltage transfer characteristics, ~o versus 1'/_ shows the piecewise linear nature of this circuit (Figure 2.30(0)). The diode does not begin to conduct until VI = Vy' Consequently. for l'[ :5 Vy• the output voltage is zero; for \', > V. the output voltage is 1'0 = 1'/  II Y'
Figure 2,J J(a} shows a similar diode circuit, but with the input voltage source explicitly included to show [hat [here is a path. forthe diode current. The voltage transfer characteristic is shown in Figure 2.31(b). In this circuit, the diode remains conducting for PI <: Vs  Vy, and the output voltage is 1'0 =
71.
Pari] SemiconductOI Devices and Basic Applicauons
D
.'~~
(a)
/ I /
/ / / / /
Figure 2.30 Diode alld resistor ill series: (a) circuit and (b) voltage lrar.sfer characteri$'i~
(b)
(a)
"ot .I
Y~r   ~
I
(b)
FigLlnJ2.U Diode wifh input v ollage souree: (a} eireui\ anti (Il) Wlltage lransfe! characleristics
v, + Vy' When '1'/ > Vs  V" the diode turn. off and {he current through the resistor is zero; therefore, the output remains constant at VS,
These two examples demonstrate {he piecewise linear nature of the diode and the diode circuit. They also demonstrate that there are regions where she diode is "on," or conducting, and regions where the diode is "orr." or nonconducting.
In multidiode circuits, each diode may be either "on" or "off'." Consider the twodiode circuit in Figure 2.32. Since each diode may be either on or off, the circuit has four possible states. However, some of these stales may not be feasible because of diode directions and voltage polarities.
If we assume thai JI+ > v and thai V+  v > Vl" (here is at least a possibility thai D2 can be turned on. First, v' cannot be less than V. Then, for VI = V, diode D1 must be off, In this case, D~ is on, 'RI ::: im = iR2, and
1"0 = ~.''''  ;'~I RI where
v+  V  V
, y
rill = RI + R2
(2.26)
CU7)
Cilapier 2 Diode Cin::liits
17
v
Figure 2.3:1: .A two<liode circ;:(Jit
Voltage II' is one diode drop below Vo, and Dl remains off as long as vt is less than the output voltage. As 1'1 increases and becomes equal to 110, both Dl and Dl turn Oil, This condition or state is valid as long as 111 c V+. When vt = V+, (It I = iP2 = 0, at which point lJ,. turns off and 110 cannot increase any further.
Figure 2.33 shows the resulting plot of liD versus VI' Three distinct regions, 1'0(1\ vOl2I, and vom, correspond to the various conducting states of DI and D2. The fourth possible state, corresponding to. both DI and D2 being off, is not feasible in this circuit.
v
~Igure 2.33 Voltage lransfer characteris~s tor the twodiode cirelli! in Fi\llJr& 2.32
EX8Mllle 2.8 Obltc4l.,.: Determine the: output voltage and diodecurrents for the circuit shown in Figure 2.32, for two values of input voltage.
Assume the circuit parameters are R1 = 5 Ul, R2 = 10 kl>l, V r = 0.7 V, Vl = +5 V, and V = 5V. Determine '0. iDl, and iD2 for VI = 0 and vI;; 4 V.
501 .. llon: for vt = O. assume initially that D1 is orr. Tile currents are then
, __ Y+VrV 50.1(5)
lRI =' 'm = IRl = RI + R2 = 5 + 10 = 062 rnA
The output voltage is
Yo = y+  iln RI = 5  [0.62)(5) =1.9 V
ill
Part I Semiconductor Devices and Bask Applications
and v'is
1" = Va  Vy :::: 1.9 ~ 0.7 =0;; 1.2 V
From these reSUIIs, we see that diode DI is indeed cut oft: iDI =: D. and our analysis i, valid.
For ~, = 4 V, we see from Figure 2 . .13 thai "0 '" 1"/; therefore, l'O "" PI '" 4 V. In this region, both D~ and D~ are on, and
. , !'+  Vo 5  4
1111 = 1m =R=~""(),2mA
I 
Note that ).' = )'0  Vy '" 4  [1.7 = 3.3 V. Thus.
. v' _' v 3.3  (5)
1111 '"  = = 0,B3 mA
R) lO
The current through DI is found from il)l + iD2 ~ ill" or iDl =: iii."  to: = 0.%3  1j,2 =' 0.6) mA
Comment: For ~J '" O. we see that Va = 1.9 V and l,' = L2V. This means that DI k reverse biased. or off. as we inilially assumed. For 1'/ = a v, we have iot > 0 and io: > U" indicating that both DI and D2 are forward biased, as we assumed.
Computer A"atysla: for III ultidiode circuits, a PSpice analysis may be useful ill determining the conditions under which the various diode. are conducting or not conducting This avoids guessing the cond ucting state or each diode in a hand analysis. Figure 234 is the PSpice circuit schematic of the diode circuit in Figure 2.32, Figure :!.)4 also show, the outpllt voltage and the two diode currents as the input is varied between I Vaml + 7 V, From these curves, we can determine when the diodes I urn on and off.
+ y.
+5V ~
iii SkO I v"" (v)
D1 1:,." ""0 5.0 o~~~~
4,()
4.0
(b)
2,0
~4~.O~~~~R~OJ'I~~~·) ~L4,O~O4~"~~~8~,orl(Yl
Cd)
Figure 2.34 (a~ PSpice circuillKhematic: (b) output vol.; (c) current in ciode 1. and ~dl current in dIOde 2 lor the diodEi circuit In ExampMj 2.8
Chapter 2 Diode Circuit>
79
Comment: The hand analysis results, based on the piecewise linear model for the diode. agree very well with the computer simulation results. This gives us confidence in the piecewise Ii ncar model when quick hand calculat ions are made.
Analyzing muitidiode circuits requires determini ng if the individual devices are "on" or "off." In many cases. the choice is not obvious, so we must initially guess the state of each device, then analyze the circuit 10 determine if we have a solution consistent with our initial guess, To do this, we can:
I. Assume the state of a diode. If a diode is assumed "on," the voltage across the diode is assumed to be Vy• [f a diode is assumed to be "off,' the current through the diode LS assumed to be zero.
2. Analyze the "linear" circuit with the assumed diode states.
3. Evaluate the resulting slate of each diode, If (he initial assumption were that u diode is "off" and the a nalysis shows th at ID "" 0 and V D :s VI" then the assumptionis correct, If, however. the analysis actually shows that I/» 0 and.or II" > V Y' then the initial assumption is incorrect. Similarly .. if the initial assumption were thai a diode is "on" and the analysis shows that Ii. ::: 0 and VI! = Vr, then the initial assumption is correct. If, however, the analysis shows that In < 0 and/or V() < Vr. then the initial assumption is i ncorreci.
4. If any initial assumption is proven incorrect. then a new assumption must be made and the new "linear" circuit must be analyzed. Step 3 must then he repeated
Examl)le 2.9 Obje<:tive: Demonstrate how inconsistencies develop ill a solution wi 1 h i nco rrcct il"S IJ m ptions,
i'Of lile circuit shown in Figure 2.32, assume that parameters are the same <I, those given ill [.,1 mple 2.H. Determine llrh iol. iDe' and iR1 for '" = o.
SOluUon; Assume initially that both V, and Do <Ire conducting (i.e., 011). Then, ~.' ;= (l.7 V and j'() ::. O. The two currents are
r'+  I'D 5  0
illl = i,," =  =  "" 1.rlmA
R, 5
alld
. ~·'r IU(SJ
1/(:. "" itJ c=o 1Q "" O.43mA
Summing the currents at the ~,' node, we find that
illl '" '«:  iii? = 0_4J  1_0 = O.57mA
Since this analysis ShIJW5 the D, current to be negative, which is an impossible or inconsistent solution, our initial assumption must be incorrect. If we go back to Example :til, we will see that the correct solution is D, off and lh on when ~l = O.
Part I Semicolldu,tor Devices aed Basic ApplicaliOl1s
Comment We can perform Linear analyses on diode circuits, using the piecewise linear model. However; We must first determine if each diode in the circuit is operating in the "on" linear region or the "orr" linear region.
lest Your Understanding
2.14 Consider the circuit shown in Figure 2.35, in which 1be diode cutin voltages are Vr = (I,6V. Plot Vo versus VI for 0::::: V, ~ HlV. (Am. For 0::0 Vr .:: 3,5V. Vo = 4.4 V; for 11/ > 3.5 Y, D. turns off; and for VI ;:: 9.4 V, Vo'" 10 V)
2.15 Determine Vo. loi.loz. and I in the circuit shown in Figure 2.36. Assume Vy == 0.6 V for tach diode. (Am. Vo ~ ~0.6 V, 1m = O. lt» :;;;;; 1;:; 4_27mA)
+tOV DI
lOY

101
R2",9.5]Jl lJ.j
[)V Vo
VJ Va 
1m d
D, 2.2Ul +5 v
Figure 2.35 Figure 101' EK$fC\se 2_14
to V
2.4.2 Diode Logic Circuits
Diodes in conjunction with other circuit elements can perform certain logk functiollS, such as AND and OR. The circuit in Figure 2.37 is an example of a diode logic circuit. The four conditions of operation of this circuit depend on various combinations of input voltages, as follows:
VI "'" Vz =: 0: There is no excitation to the circuit; therefore, Va := 0 and both diodes are ()ff
V\ :::: 5V, V~ = 0: Diode DI becomes forward biased and D2 is reverse biased. Assuming a diode cutin voltage of Vy == 0.7 V, the output voltage is Vo := 4.3 V. The currents are lo: = 0 and 1D1 :::: I = VoIR.·
V, ~ O. V1 :::: 5 V; Dlode D2 turns on, diode VI is cut off. and the output voltage is Vo = 4.3V. The currents are IDI = 0 and ltn = I = VoiR.
VI = V2 =' :s V: Both diodes are forward biased, 50 the output is again Vo = 4.3 V. The current in the resistor is , == VoiR. Since both diodes are on, we assume that the current 1 splits evenly between the two diodes; therefore, lt» = 1D1 :::: i (2.
These: results are shown in Table 2.1. By definition, in a positive logic system, a voltage near zero corresponds (0 a logic 0 and a voltage close to
Chaplet 2 Diode Circuits
81
Table 2.1 rGsponaa
o 5 o :5
o iJ
o 4,3
s U
5 4.3
the supply voltage of .5 V corresponds to a logic I. The results shown in Table 2, I indicate that this circuit performs (he OR logic [uaction. The circuit of Figure 2.37, then, is a twoinput diode OR logic circuit.
+5 y
\
DI DI rH ~J!
VI VI
.. <i
IDI. Ip\
Vo Vo
~ ~I Cj.
Vl R V1 1

fDJ 'D!
";"
Figure 2.37 A twoinpLII diOde OR lOgic Figure 2.38 A twoi!1pUl diode AND logic
circuit circuit Next, consider the circuit in Figure 2.38. Assume a diode cutin voltage of Vy = O.7V, Again, there are four possible states, depending on the cornbination of input voltages, as follows:
VI = VI::: 0; Both diodes are forward biased, and the output voltage is Vo = 0.7 V. The current in the resistor is I = (5  0.7)/ R, which we assume splits evenly between the two diodes, so that 1m '= 1M. = 1/2.
V] = 5 V. V2 = 0; In this case, diode D[ is off, D] is on, and the output voltage is Vo == O.7V. The currents are: 1m "" 0, and Ira = 1= (5  0.7)/ R.
VI = 0, V2= 5 V: In this situation, DI is on, D2 is off. and the output voltage is 110 "" 0.7 V. The currents are: Inl = J := (5  0.7)/ R, and I D2 == O.
VI = V1 = 5 V: Since there is no potential difference between the supply voltage and the input voltages, all currents are zero arid both diodes are off. Also, since there is no potential drop across tile resistor R, the output voltage is Vo = 5V.
These results are shown in Table 2.2. This circuit performs the AND logic function. Tile circuit of Figure 2.38 is a twoinput diode AND logic circun.
Ifwe examine 'Tables 2.1 and 2.2, we see that the input "low" and "high'; voltages may not be the same as the output "tow" and "high" voltages. As an example, for the AND circuit (Table 2.2), the input "low" is OV, but the output "low" is O.7V. This can create a problem because the output of One logic gale is often the input to another logic gate. Another problem occurs when diode logic circuits are coanected in cascade; that is. the output of one
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