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Baigiang21_Gioi Han Va Lien Tuc Cua Ham So

Baigiang21_Gioi Han Va Lien Tuc Cua Ham So

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Chuang IV.

GIOI H~N

.

, ? _ A'

A. GIOI H~N CUA DAY SO

- , ,

§1. DAY CO GIOI H~N 0

1. Dlnh nghia day so gilri han 0 Dinh nghia:

Ta n6i rang day so (u.) co'gilri han la 0 (hay c6 giai han 0) neu moi so hang cua day deu c6 gia tri tuyet doi nho han mot s6 dirong nho tuy 9 cho tnroc k~ tit mot so hang nao d6 tra di.

Khi d6 ta viet lim (u.) = 0, viet uit la limtu.) = 0 hoac limu, = 0 hoac un~O

II-+<IJ

Nhdn xet: Day so (u.) c6 gici han 0 khi va chi khi day so (lu.j) c6 giai han 0 2. MQt so day so co gilri han 0 thutmg g*p

Sir dung dinh nghia, ngirci ta chimg minh diroc rang

a. lim_!_ = 0; lim ~ = 0; lim 3~ = 0;

n vn vn

N6i rong han lim J; = 0 (k la so nguyen dirong cho tnroc);

b. Day khong dOi (u.), vai 'un = 0 c6 gici han 0.;

c. Neu Iql < 1 thl limq" = O.

Cac ban duoc sir dung ket qua nay khi lam bai rna khOng phai chimg minh.

Thi d" 1.

a. lim ~_ = lim (_!_)n = 0,

3n 3 1-

2n ( 21n 3n (3)n

b. lim--- = lim -- = 0, c) lim- = lim - = O.

(_5)n 5/ 1[n 1[

{I u I~v

Dini: Ij: Cho hai day so (un) va (vn). Neu . n "thllimun = O.

lim v, =0

Th' d 2 Ch' . h u sin(2n + 3) 0

I u. ung nun im = .

. 5"

LCri ghii

Ta co: sin(2n + 3) 1 ( 1)" '1' ( 1 )n 0 Th d' hi' , d

I----I~-;.: - va rm - =. eo In y tren taco pem.

5" 5" 5 5 '.

153

I

l

, /

/'-'

---~--- -.. ~

.-_.

- , ,

§2. DAY CO GIOI H~N

1. Blnh nghia day s6 giOi han

Xet day s6 (u.) v6i Un::: 9 + }; <:::> Un - 9 = };,

Ta c6: lim(un- 9) = lim }; -= 0

Ta n6i rang day s6da cho c6 gioi han la 9, M¢t each tOng quat, ta c6:

Dinh nghia: Ta n6i rang day s6 (un) co giOi han la s6 thuc L neu limtu, - L) = 0

Khi d6 ta viet lim (u.) = L, viet t~t la limtu.) = L hoac limu, = L hoac Un~ L.

11-+00

Thi du 3. ChUng minh:

I' 3.2" - (Ir' 3 b I' sin 1tn + 4Vn = 4

a. im = ; . im «r:

2" \In

c. limtu.) = c v6i u, = C (c la hang sO).

LOi giai

T 61' (3.2"+(_1)" 3)- u ( 1)" 0 I' 3.211-(1)" --0

a. a c 1m - = 1m -- = <=:> Im--_;.-

2" 2 2"

b T ' I' (sin 1tn + 4Vo 4J I' sin 1tn

. a co 1m ,/ - = 1m ,/ .

\In vn

T 6 sin 1tn 1 'I' 1 0 u sin 1tn 0

a c «r: ~,/ va 1m, / = => irn -r: =

\In \In vn vn

<:::> lim (sin ltII in 4VD - 4J = 0 ¢> lim sin ""in 4VD = 4 (dpcrn)

3 n . _ 3 n

c. Ta co limiu, - c) = tin(c -c) = limO = 0 ¢:> lim (u.) = c (dpcm).

2. MQt s6 dlnh Iy

D;nh Ij 1: Gill sir lim u, = L. Khi do

a. limlu.J = ILl va lim Vu: = VL .

b. Neu u, 2:: 0 vci moi n thl L 2:: 0 va lim ru: =.JL .

D;nh Ij 2: Gill sir lim Un = L, lim Vn = M va c la hang s6. Khi do a. cac day s6 (u, + vn), (un-vn), (ulI'vn)' (c.u.) co giOi han va

• lim( u, + V n) = L + M .Iim(un- vn) = L - M

• lim(un.vn) = L.M

• limtc.u.) = c.L,

b. Neu M =I 0 thl day s6 (u") c6 gioi han va lim(~J = .!:

v" v" M

154

Dinh. Ij 3: (Dinh 19 kep v~ gioi han)

Cho ba day s6 (VII)' (uIJ, (WI) va s6 thirc L. .

{V s u s W

Neu voi moi n ta co .11 n. n thl (u.) co gioi han va limu, = L.

llmvlI=llmwn=L

Dinh' Ij 4: (Vai-o-xto-rat-xo)

a. Day s6 tang va bi chan tren thl co gioi han.

b. Day s6 giam va bi chan duoi thl co gioi han.

3. Ket qua dang nho

( 1 )"

a.lim l+~ = e. (e~2,718281828459 ... )

b. T6ng cua cap s6 nhan lui v6 han (Iql < 1) lu: S = U1 + u.q + u.q ' -i-

u1

=--

I-q

4. Cac tbi du

Thi du 1. V oi k la s6 nguyen dirong va c la hang s6, ta co: lim ck = dim ~ = 0

n n

Thi d 2 I' 19 sin(l + 3n) 3, 9 sin(l + 3n) 0

I U • 1m 11 - + ., = - VI - + 2 >

. y 4 n-' 2 4 n

'1' (9 sin(l + 2n») 9

va 1m -+ =-.

4 n2 4

. 2

b I, 13n - 3n + 2

.lm .,'

n5 +4n- +1

Thi du 3. Tim cac gioi han sau day: 2n3 +n2-7

a. lim 3 ., "

9n' - 3n - + n + I

LOi gial

(Chia cho IllY thua bdc cao nhdt nia II trong mdu thuc clia phdn thuc) a. Chia ti'r thirc va mdu thirc cho n3 ta co:

I 7

3 ., 2+----

. 2n' +n- -7 r 11 n3 2+0-0 2

hm-9-n,-3 --3n-2-+-n-+-l = rrn 3 1 1 = 9-0+0+0 = 9

9--+-+-

n n2 n '

b. Chia ti'r thirc va mau thirc eho n5 ta co :

13 3 2

., ----+ .. _-

I· 13n- -3n+2 I' n3 n" n5 0-0+0 0

1m ., = 1m = = ,

n 5 + 4n" + 1 1 + _~_ + _1 _ 1 + 0 + 1

n3 n5

I ( 1)311+2

Thi du 4. Tom lim n:

155

L()i giai

Taco:

• lim (1 + ~ +~) = 1 + ° + ° = 1.

n n "

(2)

(3)

I Thi du S. Tfnh t6ng ·S = .!. + ~ + _!, + ...

. • 2 2- 2'

LOi giai

~

R-' S I' i!.. • , 6 han li h ,.' 1 1 ,t, d

o rang a tung cua cap s n an UI VO an VOl U I = 2' q = "2 nen dP ung

hii SUI ' S 0,5 1

cong t ire = -- ta co = =

l-q 1-0,5

Ban biet them: M¢t each minh hoa hlnh hoc tOng tren. Xet tam giac ABC co dien tfch bang 1.

Goi A"A~, A3, .. theo thu tl! la trung diem AC, A,C, A2C, ... va B" B2,B3 ••• theo

thu ur la trung diem BC, B,C, ~C, ... ta co:

- Dien tfch tam giac ABB, bang ~

- Dien tfch tam giac AB,AI bang 212

- Dien tfch tam giac A,B,~ bang 2\

- Dien tich tam giac AIB2A2 bang 214

- Dien tfch tam giac A2B2B3 bang 2\

Tiep dien qua trlnh tren mai mai ta co 111

-+-,,+-., + ... =1

2 2- 2"

1 2

Thi du 6. DOi m6i s6 thap phan VO han tudn hoan sau thanh phan s6:

I a.O,33333 ... , b. 7,28282828 ....

156

Lm giii

V· , I . 0 3333 3 3 3 3 .

a. I~t ai, ... = - + -, + -3 + -4 + ...

. 10· 10- 10 10

03333 1', A • It »: ha I" A'h ,. 3 I A

~, . " a tung cua Cap Su n an UI vo an VOl U 1 = - , q = - nen

. 10 10

3

10 )

0,3333 ... = =

1 __ 1_ 3

10

b. Vi€t lai 7,28282828 ... = 7 + 0,28282828 ...

, 28 28 28 28

Ta co: 0,28282828 = - + --2 + --1 + --4 + ...

100 100 100- 100

~ 0,28282828 ... la t6ng cua cap so nhan lui vo han V<11 U1 = I~O q = I~O 28

nen 0,28282828 ... -

28

100

1 1--

100

, , 28 721 . 721

TO'do suy ra 7 + 0,28282828 ... = 7 + - = - hay 7,28282828 ... = -.

99 99 99

---...,

Thi du 7. GQi Cia dU'Ong trim dirong kfnh AB = 2a (a la so thirc dirong cho tnroc)

C I, d ' im hai d ' on dm kf h AB

1 a uong gom ai rura irong tron irong in --,

2

AB

C:! la dirong gom bon nita dirong trim dtrong kinh 22 , ...

C I, d ' '2n" d' 'd' kf h AB

II a irong gorn ntra uong tron U'ong In -, ...

211

GQi PII la d¢ dill cua C, va S, dien tfch hlnh phang gioi han lXri C, va doan thang AB

a. Tfnh Pn va c,

b. Tim gici han cua cac day so (Pn) va (Sn)'

99

LOi giii

M-· d '>.... 'd' kf h AB , b' kf hi' AB 2a a

a. 01 U'ulIg tron U'OIlg In - co an In a rn = - = - = - suy ra

2n 211+1 211+1 211

• ", , 7ta 211.7t3

• NU'a chu VI cua no la 7trn hay - ~ Pn = -- = xa

211 2n

• Di~n tfch cua n6 Iii 7tr:, hay {2a" r ~ . S" = 2" 7t( ;" r = ~~,' b .

• Thay rang (p,J la day so khong d6i va limp, = Iimna = na (bang nita de) dai dU'Ong tron dirong kfnh AB).

157

~

• Thay rang (S,l> la cap s6 nhan lui vo han co SI == X;- ,c6ng boi la q == ~

Bci vay, thee dinh nghia tong cua cap s6 nhan lui vo han ta co:

lim SI) == ~ == _2_ == rra~. (bang dien tfch dirong tron duong kfnh AB).

l-q I_I

')

...

r---'---

I Thi du 8. Cho Iql < 1, IQI < I. Bift fang:

I I 2 II I

a== +q+q + +q + .

b == I + Q + Q2 + + QII-I + .

Tfnh tong S == 1 + qQ + q2Q2 + ... + q"Q" + ...

LOi giai

Thay ding:

• a lu t6ng cua mot cap s6 nhan lui vo han vci U1 == 1 va co cong b<)i la q

• b la tong cua mot cap s6 nhan lui vo han voi UI == 1 va co cong boi la Q

• S la tong ella mot dip so nhan lui vo han v6i u, == 1 va co cong boi l~\ qQ Theo cong thirc tong cua mot cap s6 nhan lui vo han ta co

1 I

+ a = -- => q::: 1--. (I)

l-q a

1 1

+ b== -- =>Q= 1-- (2)

l-Q b

1

+ S= ---

l-qQ

Thay (I), (2) vao (3) co: S =

(3)

1 ab ab

1-(I-n1-L) = ab-(a-l)(b-l) = a+b-l

§3. DAY DAN TOI v6 eve

1. Cac dlnh nghia

Dinh Ilghia 1: Ta noi rling day s6 (u.) co gioi han la + 00 neu rnoi s6 hang cua day 56 deu IOn han mot s6 dirong IOn tu), y cho tnroc kt ttr mot s6 hang nao d6 tra di. Khi do ta viet:

lim(un) = + 00, viet tAt la lim(un) = + <Xi

n-++oo

r I

t

hoac limu.;> + o: hoac Un ~ + CI) •

Dinh nghia 2: Ta noi rang day s6 (un) co gici han la -00 neu moi s6 hang cua th

day s6 deu nho han mot s6 am be tuy y cho tnroc k6 tir m<)t s6 hang nao do tra di.

Khi do ta viet:

lirntu,) ::: -00, viet tilt I~l lirntu.) = -00

158

1

Thi du 1.

,. ,. r: l

• nnn::: + r,,: IIll vn = + '/1: lim,i,,- +1: lirn2/1:: I- 'f

• lil1l( J-- 2n) =-<1:'; lim ~l--I~ =-f: linL~'~' + '_

Chi) y:

+ Cac day so co giai han ia + if.) va =o: diroc goi chung Jil cac day so co gioi h'.111 vo eire hay dan den v6 eire.

+ Day so ~6 gioi han la so thtrc L diroc goi la day so co giai han h[ru han.

2. Viti quy tac tim gi6i han v6 eire

VI + 00 va -00 khong phai la cac so thuc nen khong <IP dung diroc cac dinh 1)1 trong §2.

Ta thira nhan cac quy tfic sau:

Quy tac 1 limu, limv, lim(unvn)
+00 +00 +00
Neu limu, = ±oo Vil limv, = ±Cf.l thl +00 -00 -00
lim(unvll) diroc eho trong bang ben: -00 +00 -00
-00 -00 +00
---. limu, Duu cua L lim(ullvn)
Quy tac 2
+00 + +00
Neu limu, = ±oo va limv, = L t 0 thl +00 - -00
Iim(ullvn) diroc eho trong bang ben: -oc + -00
-00 - +00
Quy tac 3 Duu cua L Dfiu cua v, lim(unvll)
Neu limu, = L t 0, limv, = 0 va + + +00
+ - -00
v, to thl lim un duoc eho trong - + -00
vn - - +00
bang ben: ci« Y:

• Neu lim vn = 0 va vntO thl lirn _l_ = + 00.

IVnl

• Neu limlu,l = + 00 thllim-l_ = o.

I un I

b 1· 2n3 - n + 3 .Im-----

5n2 + 3n + 1

Thi du 2. Tlnh cac gi6i han sau: . 3+ n2

a.Iirn ;

1-2n

LM giai

Chia ea tit thirc va mau thtrc eho Iuy thira bac eao nhat cua n trong mOi ph An thirc ta e6:

3

a. lim-~-:-;-: = lim r n = -«> (Vllim(~ + n ) = + CO,lime -2 ) = -2)

--2 n

159

1 3 2n--+·-

,.., 3 + 3 .,

b I' - n - n = lim n n" = + 00

. rm ., 4 1

5n - + 4n - 1 5 + _ .

n n2

(Vllim(2n - _!_ + 3,) = 0, lim(5 + 4 -~) = 5).

n n- n n

13 2 ---+3

= lim n 3 n = 0 - 0 + 3 = 3

1 0-7

--7

n3

Nhdn xet: BAng each chia tit va mau cho Iiiy thira bac cao nhat cua n trong mau thirc nhir each lam trong thf du tren ta thu dugc ket qua sau:

., ]

. 13 - 2n - + 3n>

c. lirn ]

1-7n>

7

p>

a=O

Thi du 3. Tfnh cac gioi han sau:

a. lim( .;;;-;I -..Jr. );

LOi giai

a. Ta co lim (~ -..Jr.) = lim ~ r = 0 (VI lim (~ + Fn) = + 00) vn+l+vn

( . 1 1 J-_ll>m 2~n2+1

b.lim - -

n - ~ n 2 + 1 n + ~ n 2 + 1 ( n - ~ n 2 + 1 )( n + ~ n 2 + 1 )

I. 2~ n 2 + I (' 2 )

= 1m _ 1 = lim - 2", n + 1 = -00

12 22 32 2

Thl d 4 Tl li . + + + ". + n

I U • trn irn -----;:========

. 2n.~1 + 3 + 5 + ". + (2n -1)

LOi giai

Ta co: lim __ 1-;:.2 =+='2=2=+=3=2 =+=.=,,=+=n=2= =.lim

2n.~1 + 3 + 5 + ... + (2n -I)

= lim n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 12n2

n(n + 1)(2n + I) 6.2n.&

= lim n( ~ + In + I) = + 00,

12

160

I Thi d~ S. TI'm lim .J2.3n - n + 5 .

LOi giai

, n(n -1) .,

Theo Thi du 5§ 1 chirong I : (1 + a)" ~ 1 + na + 2 a - ,

Voi a = 2 co: (I + Z)" ~ I + 2n + 2n(n - I) hay 3" ~ I + 2n2 suy r i

2.3" - n + 5 ;, 2(1 + 2n') - n + 5 = 4n' - n + 7 = ( n - ~ r + 3n' + ~ > I 'Itn E N*

I I

Su y ra 0:::;; s . (I )

.J2.3n -n+5 .J4n2 -n+7

L· , I' I 0 (2)

,:\1 co im / ". =.

~ 4n- - n + 7

Tit (I), (2) suy fa lim I: 1 = 0 => lim .J2.3n - n + 5 = + 00.

v2.311-n+5

Thi du 6. T6ng cua mot cap s6 nhan lui vo han bang 6 va tong cua hai s6 hang dau bang ~ . Tim s6 hang dau va cong boi cua cap s6 nhan ay.

LUi giai

GQi u, CJ thea thu tl;t la s6 hang dau va cong boi cua cap s6 nhan dff cho.

T6ng cua cap s6 nhan bang 6 nghia Ia S = ~ = 6 => u, = 6( 1 - q)

l-q

T' hai . h d' b~ 9 hi I' 9 1) 9 Iong ai s6 ang Au ang 2 ng ia au, + u.q = 4 ~ u,( + q = 4

Thay (1) vao (2) co 6(1 - q)(l + q) = 9 ~ 1 _ q2 = ~

2 4

., 3 1 1

~q-= 1- - = - ~q =±-.

442

* V oi q =..!.. co u I = 6(1 - ..!.. ) = 3

2 2

* V oi q = -..!.. co u I = 6(1 + ..!.. ) = 9

2 2

Vay ta cc hai cap s6 hang dAu va cong boi cua cap s6 nhan thoa man yeu cAu bai

toan la: (u, = 3; q = ..!..), (UI = 9; q = -..!.. ).

2 2

(1)

(2)

Thay vao (1):

-; Thi du 7. Cho day s6 (u.) : {U' = ., ~ _ . > (I)

un+1 - 3, khi n _ 2

2

a. Chung minh day (vU> xac dinh bOi Vn = u, + 6 la mot ca'p s6 nhan.

b. Tim lim u.,

161

LOi giai

a. Ta c6 VII = UII + 6 <=> UII = VII - 6

V -6 Thay (2) vao (l) co VII + 1- 6 = 11 . - 3

2

(2)

V n () I' ' , h

<=> VII + , = - => Vn a cap so n an

2

vai cong bQi q = ~ va v, = .,1 + 6 = 7.

HOi th~ (VII) co so hang tOng quat la Vn = 7. _I_, . 211-

Thay vao (2) ta co u, = 2 ~_I - 6. D6 la so hang tong quat cua day so (u.).

b. lim u, = lim (_7_ -6) = 0 - 6 = -6. Yay lim u, = -6.

2n-1 •

BAITAP

.

Bili 1. Tim cac giai han sau

I· l+n-2n2 b I' 1+4n

a. 1m . ., , . 1m 2 ~ ,

2 - n + n ~ 1 + n - 5n'

Bai 2. Tim cac gioi han sau :

I. 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n

a. trn ~'

1 + n

Bai 3. Tim cac gioi han sau :

( 2)211+1

a.lim ,~ n + 1

Bili 4. Cho d.Iy so (u.): {UI = 3 u Un+1 = _n + 4, khi n ~ 2 3

1. 13n 2 + 8n - 1

c. 1m" .

4n' +n+3

b. lim( )n + sin~(n + I) - vn - cos2(n + 1))

c.1im~3.411 -n+1.

a. GQi (vo) la day xac dinh boi VII = UII + a. Tim a. de (vn) la mot cflp so nhan,

b. Tim lim u;

Bili 5. Bieu th] m6i so thap phan vo han tuan hoan sau diroi dang phan so

a. 2,22222 .... ; b. 5,123123123 ...

Bai 6. Cho hinh vuong ABCD co canh bang a. Hinh vuong A,B,C,D,co dinh la trung diem cac canh cua hlnh vuong ABCD, hlnh vuong A2Bz~D2 co dinh 1(\ trung diem cac canh cua hlnh vuong A,B,C,D" .... hlnh vuong AnBIICnDn co dinh la trung

diem cac canh cua hlnh vuong An-,Bn-'CII-IDII-, ..... GQi PI. P2,'" PIl ... va SIt SZ ·•

SII"" theo thtr ttr la chu vi va dien tich cac hlnh vuong A,B,C,D" A2B2C2D2 .

Ao-' BII-1Cn-1 DII_I,· ...

a. Tim gim han cac day so (p.) va (S,,).

h. Tim cac tOng PI + P2 + ... + p, + ... va S, + Sz + ... + S" + ...

Bai 7. Cho aE(O; 7t ). Tinh tdng 1 - tarr'a + tan'a + ... + (-1)("-')tan2("-')a + ... 4

162

j Bal 8. Cho lql-c 1. Tinh cac t6ng sau:

I 1 2 3'" II-I

1 a. + q + q- + ... + nq + ...

b 1 4 9., ., II-I

. + q + q- + ... + n-q + ...

1 8 27" ] II-I

c. + q + q- + ... + n' q + ...

B. GIOI H~N CVA HAM s6. HAM s6 LIEN ll)C

J, •

§4. KIEN THUC CO BAN

I. Cac dinh nghia

a. GiUi han tai mot diim

Gia sir Xo la mot di~m thuoc khoang (a; b), f(x) la mot ham s6 xac dinh tren khoang (a; b) co th~ khong xac dinh tai xo.

Dinh nghia 1 (gioi han htru han)

Ta noi rang ham s6 f co gi6i han la s6 thuc L khi x dan den Xo (hoac tal di~m xo) neu voi moi day s6 (x.) trong tap hop (a; b)\{ Xo }(tuc la xIIE(a; b) va XII =f. xo) rna limx, = Xo ta ~:Mu co limf(x.) = L.

Khi do ta viet: lim f(x) = L hoac f(x)~L khi X~Xo.

x .... xll

(Theo dinh nghia do:

• Neu f(x) = c (hang s6) thl lim f(x) = lime = c.

x .... x., x .... x"

• Neu f(x) = X thl lim f(x) = lim x = xo.)

Dinh nghia 2 (gioi han v6 eire)

Ta noi rang ham s6 f co gi6i han la v6 eire khi x dan den Xo (boac tal di~m xo) neu voi moi day s6 (XII) trong tap hop (a; b)\{xo}(ttlC la xIIE(a; b) va XII =f. xo) rna lirnx, = Xo ta deu co Iirnf(x.) = 00.

Khi do ta viet lim f(x) = 00 hoac f(x)~oo khi X~Xo.

b. GiUi han tai VD cue Dinh nghi'a'3 (tai v6 cue)

• Gia sir ham s6 f(x) xac dinh tren khoang (a; +(0)

Ta noi rang ham s6 f ~6 gi6i han la s6 thirc L khi X dan den + 00 neu v6i moi day s6 (x.) trong khoang (a; +(0) (nrc la XII> a vci moi n) rna limx, = +00 ta deu co limftx.) = L.

Khi do ta viet: lim f(x) = L hoac f(x)~L khi x~ + 00.

• lim f(x) = L, lim f(x) = + 00, lim f(x) = -~ diroc dinh nghia nrong nr,

x .... -oo x .... +<Xl x .... -ct:>

c. GiUi han mot ben

. Dinl: nghia 4 (gioi han phai)

Gia sir f(x) la rn¢t ham s6 xac dinh tren khoang (xo; b) (XoE IR ).

Ta noi rang ham s6 f co giOi han phai la s6 thuc L khi x d&l den Xo (hoac tai di!m Xo) neu vOi moi day s6 (XII) trong khoang (xo; b) rna limx, = Xo ta deu co limftx.) = L.

163

Khi do ta viet: lim. f(x) = L hoac f(x)~L khi x~x ~ .

X-'XII

Dinh nghia 5 (gioi han trai)

Gia sir f(x) la m¢t ham s6 xac dinh tren khoang ( a; xo) (xoER).

Ta noi rang ham s6 f co gi6i han tral III s6 thirc L khi x d~n den Xo (boac tai diem xo) neu vm moi day s6 (x.) trong khoang (a; xo) rna limx, = Xo ta deu co limf(x.) = L.

Khi do ta viet lim_ f(x) = L hoac f(x)~L khi x~x ~ .

X-Ho

Nhdn xel: Ham s6 f co lim f(x) = L khi va chi khi no co lim f(x) = lim f(x) = L

• + _ ..

X-'Xo X-'XII X-'Xu

Di~u n6i tren dung ca gi6i han v6 eire. .

II. Dinh Iy va quy tac 1. Giai han boo han

lJ;nh Ij 1: Gia sir lim f(x) = L va lim g(x) = M (L, MER). Khi do

x-'x" X-+X(I

a. lim [f(x)+ g(x)] = L + M;

" .... "0

h. lim [f(x)-g(x)] = L - M;

x-+x"

c. lim [f(x)g(x)] = LM. D~c biet, neu c Ul hang s6th' lim [c.f(x)] = c.L.

X-+~ x-+~

d. Neu M 1: 0 thl lim f(x) = ~ "-'''" g(x) M

(Gioi han cua t6ng, hieu, tfch, thirong cua hai ham s6 tai mot di~m bang t6ng, hieu, tfch, thirong cac gi6i han cua chung tai di~m do.Itrong tnrong hop thuong, gioi han cua mAu phai khac khongj).

Nhdn xet: Neu k la s6 nguyen dirong va a la hang s6 thi v6i moi xoER, ta co:

I· k k

im ax = axo

"-'''"

Dinh Ij 2: Gia sir lim f(x) = L. Khi do

X-'''o

a. lim If(x)1 = ILl;

X-+Xo

h. lim}jfW =~;

X-+"o

c. Neu f(x) ~ 0 v6i moi x 1: Xo thl L ~ 0 va lim Jf(x) =.JL

"-'''0

lJjnh Ij 3: (kep) Gia sir f, h va g la ba ham s6 xac dinh tren khoang (a; b) chua diem Xo (co the khong xac dinh tai xo).

Neu f(x) s; h(x) s; g(x) v6i moi xE(a; b)\{ xo} va lim f(x) = lim g(x) = L ( LER)

"-'''(1 X-+"n

thi lim h(x) = L.

"-'Xo

Chuy: .

Ba dinh ly vira neu tren day dung ca khi thay x~Xo bbi x~ + 00 hoac x~ -00. Ba dinh ly vita neu tren day khong ap dung dugc cho gi6i han vO eire.

164

'. "\.~"':'I...,. ..... ._....._... • ." ..... .,. "

m

-------------- ~!~'·i'i,E'II .........

D· hi' 4 I' sm x 1 ~n 'Y : 1m -- = ,

x-+o x

2. GiOi han va cue

Khi gap gioi han vO eire, ban co the ap dung cac quy tAc sau :

Ouy tac 1 limu, lirnv, lim(unvn)
Neu lim f(x) = ±oo va lim g(x) = L =f. 0 +00 +00 +00
+00
X-+Xo X-+Xo -00 -00
thl lim [f(x)g(x)] duqc cho trong bang ben: -00 +00 -00
X-+Xo -00 -00 +00
Ouy tac 2 limu, D~u cua L lim(unvn)
Neu lim f(x) = L :f. 0, lim g(x) = 0 va g(x ):f. 0 +00 + +00
X-+Xo X-+Xo +00 - -00
thl Jim f(x) dcoc cho trong bang ben: -ex) + -00
X-+Xo g(x) . -ex) - +00 Chu y i:

• Neu lim g(x) = 0 va g(x) :f. 0 thl lim ) = + ex)

X-Uo X-Ho I g(x) I

• Neu lim If(x)1 =+00 thl lim 1 = 0

x-u() x-+x() I f(x) I

Chu y 2: Mot s6 ket qua thtrong sir dung

u ] I' 1 0

• 1m - = 1m - =

X-+-<IO X x-++oo X

li 1 Ii 1 0" " d k h '

• im k = im k = ,VOl moi so nguyen irong c 0 tnroc

x-+-oo X x-++oo X

k {+oo, khi k chan

• lim x = + 00; lim(x k ) = '.

x-++oo x-+-<IO -00, khi k Ie

til .. _" "

§5.CAC KY THU~T TIM GIOI H~N

I. Ky thuat tim gicJi han dang X3C dlnh

Ki thutjt 1. rip d~ng tr,!c tiep dinh Ii va qui tac Thi du 1. TIm cac gioi han sau

x2 -3

a.lim (3x2-x + 5), b. lim ,

x-+2 x-+4 X + ]

c. Iim(x - .J5x2 + 4)

x-+I

LOi giai

a. lim(3x2-x+5)=3.22_2+5= 15

x-+2

b. lim x 2 - 3 = 42 - 3 = ~ = 3

x-+-t X + I 4 + I 5

165

c. lim(x-.J5x2+4) = 1- .J5.1+4 = I --3=2.

x-+I

Thi du 2. lim cac gioi han sau:

I. 2X2 - 5x + 2 a. Im-----

x-+.!. 1- 2x

2

b I· X2 + 2x-8

. 1m., .

x-+-4 x : + 4x

LCri giai

a. lim_2_x2_-_5x_+_2 = lim (2x-l)(x-2) = lim(2-x) =~.

x+!. 1 - 2x x-+.!. 1- 2x x-+.!. 2

2 2 2

b. lim x 2 ; 2x - 8 = lim (x - 2)(x + 4) = lim x - 2 = ~.

x-+-4 X + 4x x-+-4 x(x + 4) x-+-4 X 2

LCri blnh 1: Gioi han cua ham s6 tai di~m x = a khong phu thuoc ham s6 tai di~m a:y. Trong thf dl;! vtra neu, ham s6 co gi6i h~n m~c dau t~i do ham s6 kh6n~ t6n t~i.

Thi du 3(P). lim cac gio] han sau:

. 4x-5

a. lim 2 ;

x-+-17x + 5x-2

b 1· x+-I

. 1m

x-+2 3x - 2.JX2 + 5

------------~

LCri giai

{lim(4X-9)=-13<O 4 -5

T ' x-+-I I' x

a. a co ., => 1m -------- = -00.

lim (7x ~ + 5x - 2) = 0 "1.-+-1 7x 2 + 5x - 2

"1.-+-1

{lim(X -I) = I > 0

)(-+2 . X -I

b. Ta co => lim = +00.

lim(3x - 2.J x 2 + 5) = 0 x-+2 3x - 2.J x 2 + 5

x-+2

Thi du 4(P). lim cac gi6i han sau:

x - 3, khi x < 1

a. limf(x) v6i f(x) = x = -13, khi x = 1

x-+I

1- .J7x 2 + 2, khi x > 1

{3X - 2 khi ~ <-2

b. }~~2g(x)v6i g(x) = x + 1 ' .

x+Hl.khi x z=-Z

LCri ghii

r1im f'(x) = lim(x -3) =-2

x-+I- x-+I- .

a. Ta cOl .J

lim f(x) = lim (1- 7x'1 + 2) = -2

x-+I+ x-+I+

V~y lim f(x) = li~ f(x ) = -2 => lim f'(x ) =-2

x-+I' x-+I "1.-+1

166

.... _-_._._--

[

t

r . . 3x -2

1 lim g(x) = lim = 8

b. Ta co "'~-2- ",-:--2- x + 1 => }~~..,g(x) = 8.

lim f(x)= 11m (x+IO)=8 •

x-+-2-+ x-+-2·

LM binh 2: Gioi han cua ham so va gia tri cua ham so tai dic!m I~y gioi han co th~ bang nhau, co th~ khac nhau (do cling la Ie tu nhien), Trong thi du tren:

lim f(x) :F- f( I) = -13; lim g(x) = g( -2) = 8.

",-+1 )(-+-2

Thi du 5(P).

{3X-2

, . ,. ", , khi x < 0 .

a. Tim cac gun han cua ham s6 g(x) = x + I tar x = o.

x+Hl.khi x z O

{X3+1 .

b Ti d' h' ' h ' khl X < -I· ,. ,. h .

. im m e am s6 (x) = x + I co gun an ~I x =-1.

mx 2 - X + m 2, khi x ~ -I

LOi gild

li. ) I· 3x - 2 2

trn g(x = im =-

a. Ta co: )(-+0- x-+O- X + I .

. lim g(x) = lim (x + 10) = 10

)(-+0+ x-+O·

Thay nIne lim g(x):F- lim. g(x) nen ham ·so khong co gioi han tai x = O.

x-+O- x-+o .

I· h() I· x 3 + I I· (.., I) 3

1m x = 1m = 1m x " - x + =

b. Ta co: x-+-I- x-+-I- X + 1 x-+-I-

lim h(x) = lim (rnx ' -x+m2)=m2+m+l

x-+-I+ x-+-I+

,

Ham s6 co gioi han tai x = -I khi va chi khi lim h(x) = lim h(x)

x-+I- x-+I+

<=> 3 = m1 + m + I <=> ml + m-2 = 0 <=> {m = 1; m = -2}

LOi blnh 3. Mac d~u ham so xac dinh tai di~m x = a, nhirng gioi han cua ham s6 tai dic!m ~y chua chac dd ton tai. CAu a) trong thi du tren mu6n n6i vai ban dieu do.

I. 5+x

c. Im-----

x-+-a:> 4 + 5x - 2x 3

Thi du 6(P). Tim cac gi6i han sau:

I· 2X2_X+1 b I· x3-5x+3

a. 1m., ; . 1m.., ;

x-+-oo X - + 2x + 3 x-++oo 3x· + 4x - I

LOi giai a. Chia cr.. tir thirc va mau thrrc cho x', ta co:

2-_!_+-~

x Xl 2-0+0 2

= lim = --- --

X-~-J' 2 3

7 -+ .f.

x

I. 2x 2 - X + 1

1m .,

\-0-:1' 'l s: + 2x + 3

7

167

b. Chia ca tu thirc va mau thirc cho x:!, ta co: 5 3 x--+-

I· X x-2 I· x

= 1m = 1m - = + 00

)(-HIX> 3 + 4 __ 1_ )(-++cr.> 3

X. x2

c. Chia ca tu thirc va mau thirc cho x2, ta co: .

5 I

-+-

lim __ 5_+_x __ = lim x 3 x 2

)(-+-<0 4 + 5x - 2x 3 )(-+-cr.> 4 5

-+--2

x3 x2

Nlulc lai : ~ tfnh gioi han tai vo eire, ban co the chia cho luy thira bac cao nh~t cua x co trong mau thirc.

. 3

I. x - 5x + 3 1m .,

X-++dl 3x - + 4x - 1

o

=- =0

-2

Thi d., 7P). Tim cac gioi han sau:

I. X4 -4x a. im 2

x-+ao X + 1

b I· 1 - 9x + 4x 3

.Im-----

x-+ao 3 - 2x 2

T ' I· X4 - 4x

a. a co: im 2

x-++ao X + 1

LM giai 2 4

x --

= lim x

)(-++00 1

1+x2

= lim x2 = +00.

X4 -4x

Tuong t1! lim 2 = lim x 2 = +00.

x-+-<O X + 1 )(-+-ao

Th. ~ Ii X 4 - 4x I. x 4 - 4x

a:y rang: im 2 = im =

x-++ao X + I )(-+-ao X 2 + I

1 9

3 ---+4x

h. Ta co lim 1- 9x + 4x = lim -""X;._3----'X~2 __ = lim (-2x) =-00

1-++ao 3 - 2x 2 x-++ao 3 x-++ao

--2

x2

Tirong t\1' lim 1- 9x + 4x 3 = lim (-2x) = +00

x-+-ao 3 - 2x 2 )(-+-ao

Th~ , I· 1- 9x + 4x 3 I. 1 - 9x + 4x 3 ..

iJ.y rang rm 2 '* rm 2

x-++ao 3 - 2x )(-+-ao 3 - 2x

•. 1 - 9x + 4x 3 kh ' .

::::::> 1m . ong ton tar.

x-+ao 3-2x2

K 1· 3sin2x+2cos3x

Thi d., S(P). (kep) Tim gioi han = im .

.T-+ao 2X2 + 2x + 1

168

[

LOi ghii

V" , R'O 12sin3x+3cos2xl '3+2

<1J mQI x E cO:$., :$ ----- = ----

2x - + 2x + I 2x 2 + X + 1 2x 2 + X + I

T ' I' 5 0 I' 12sin3x+3cos2xl

a co 1m . = => 1m

x-.oo 2X2 + X + I )(-'00 2X2 + 2x + 1

5

=O~ K=O,

II. Ki thuat tim giOi han dang v6 dinh

.. 0 00 f(x) {lim f'(x) = ±oo

I, Dang -,-: lim--, trong do lim f(x) = lim g(x) = 0, hoac x~6

o 00 x-.6 g(x) x-.6 x-+6 lim g(x) = ±oo

x~6

2, Dang 0,00: lim [f(x)g(x)], trong do lim f(x) = 0, lim g(x) = ±oo,

x-+6 x-.6 x-.6

[lim f(x) = lim g(x) = +00

3, Dang 00-00: lim [f(x)-g(x)], trong do x-+6 , x-+6 ,

x-.6 hoac hm f(x) = lim g(x) = -00

x-+6 x-.6

( lim du<,1c hi~u L\ thay cho mot trong cac ki tl! Xo, x ~ , X ~ ~ +00, -00)

x-.6

D~ tim gici han cac dang tren, ban phai khir dang v6 dinh. Cac ban theo doi m¢t s6 ky thuat thuang dung d~ khir dang vo dinh trong mOi thi du diroi day,

Ki IhutJl2. Khu nhan lu chung

Tbi dl} 9(P). (dang 0). Tim lim 1 + x:

o . x-.-I 1- x

3 Ta c6: lim 1 + x., x-.-II-x-

LM giai

= lim (I + x)(l + x + X 2) = lim 1 + x + X 2

x-.-I (I + x)(1- x) x-+-I 1- x

1

= --.

2

Thl d 10(P) (d 0) TI I' 3x 2 + 5x - 2

I U • ang - rm im 3

' '0 x-.-2 X' - 3x + 2

T ' I' 3x2 + 5x - 2 a co: im

x-+-2 X 3 - 3x + 2

LM giai

I, (x + 2)(3x -1)

= 1m

x-'-2 (x + 2)(x _1)2

7

=--

9

I' 3x -] = 1m

x-.-2 (x _1)2

Thi du 11. (dang 0.00) Tim lim (1- x)" ., x + 5 .

x-.I+ '4 x " + 2x-3

LM giai

x+5 =-(x-l) '~(x-l)(x+3)

V" , 1 ' (I ) x + 5

<11 moi x > ta co - x ',I 2

'4 x + 2x-3

(x - ])2 (x + 5) (x - ])(x + 5)

= - ~ (x -l)(x + 3) = - ~ x + 3

169

N I· (1 x+5 I' (x-1)(x+5) --0.

en 1m - x ) = - 1m

'HI+ x:!+2x-3 ~_'I' x+3

Ki thuat 3. Nium bilu thuc lien hop

Hang d~ng thirc Lien hop voi a-b Lien hop vti a + b
a2-b2=(a-b)(a+b) a+b a-b
aJ - b3 = (a - b)(a2 + ab + b') a2 -ab + b2 a:!- ab + b~
a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a:!- ab + b:!) A lien hop voi B thi B lien hop voi A Thi du 12(P). (dang 0 ) Tim lim xJ~ - ~

o "-4-1 2x + 3x - + 1

Lm glal

Nhan ca tu thirc va mau thli'c vai 2x - .Jr-3X-1-+-) (bieu thirc lien hop cua m~u

tac6 (x2-J)(2x-J3x:?+J) = (X2-1)(2x-~I)

(2x4.-v3x2+1)(2x-J3x2+1) 4x2-(3x2+1) c1

_ (x 2 -1)(2x - Jx 2 + l) _ 2 13 2 I . t .

- ., - x --y. x + ,

x " -I

- lim (2x - J3x 2 + I) = -4.

x-+-I

x2 -I

Suy fa lim .

x->-12x + .Jx2 + I

Th' d 13(P) (d 0 ) n J' 2x - 5~

I 1:1 • ang - rm rm r--:-;

o x ..... 5 3-vx +4

Uri giai

Tac6:

1. ~r-2x-_-I_~ I' (~2x-I-~)(.J2x -I +~)(3+.Jx+4)

1m = Im----~r=~----r=~-,====--r===---

X-45 3-.Jx+4 'H5 (3-.Jx+4)(3+.Jx+4)(.J2x-l +~)

,2x(3+~) . [ .. {lim[2X(3+~)]=50>OJ

= lim = +00 VI X-45

x-+5 ,-x . limeS-x) =0

,,-45

Th'd 14(P) (d 0) 11 u 1-\!12x + I

I U • ang - 1m lm----

, '0' " ..... 0 4x

Uri giai

T ' I' 1-\l12x+l u e-02x+l)

a co: 1m ---- = 1m

X-40 4x " ..... 0 4x[J + \!12x + I + V(12x + 1)2 ]

170

Nen lim(1-x) x+5 =-lim (x-I)(x+5) =0,

x ..... 1+ X 2 + 2x - 3 )HI+ X + 3

Ki thuf!.t 3. Nluin bilu thuc lien hop

Hang d~ng thirc Lien hop v6i a-b Lien hop vC"i a + b
., b" a+b
a-- -=(a-b)(a+b) a-b
a3_ b3 = (a - b)(a:! + ab + h~) a:!-ab + b:! a:!- ab + b:!
a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2- ab + b2) A lien hop v6i B thl B lien hop vci A LCri giai

Nhan ca tit thtrc va mau thue v6i 2x - .J"-3x-2-+-1 (bieu thue lien hop cua mau thirc)

6 (X2 -1)(2x _~3X2 + I) (x2 -1)(2x _~X2 + I)

ta e I = ., .,

(2x 4- v 3x 2 + 1 )(2x -" 3x 2 + I) 4x - - (3x - + I)

= (x 2 - 1)( 2x - ~ X 2 + I) = 2x _ ~ 3 X 2 + 1 , x'1 _I

x2 -I .J

Suy ra lim . = lim (2x - 3x 2 + 1) = -4,

,,-)-1 2x +.Jx 2 + 1 " ..... -1

Th'd 13(P) (d 0) 1i I' 2x -5~

I ~ • ang - rm im ~

o " ..... 5 3-vx +4

Loi giai

Tae6:

I, ~"--2x---I-. ~ I' (.J2x-I-~)(.J2x-1 +~)(3+.Jx+4)

1m = Im----_,==~--_,==~-r==~_,~==~

x ..... 5 3-.Jx+4 " ..... 5 (3-~x+4)(3+.Jx+4)(.J2x-I+~)

,2x(3+~) . (' {lim[2X(3+~)]=50>OJ

= lam = +00 VI " ..... 5

x ..... 5 ,-X . Iim(5-x) =0

" ..... 5

Th'd 14(P) (d 0) 1i I' I-VI2x + 1

I U • ang - 1m 1m -------

, '0' x ..... o 4x

Uri giai

T '1' I-VI2x+1 I' 13-(l2x+l)

a co: 1m ---- = im

x ..... 0 4x " ..... 0 4x[J + Vl2x + I + V(l2x + 1)2]

170

Ki th utj,t 4. ntfi bien

Thi dI:l18(P). (Dang 00 - 00 ) Tim gioi han K = lim (Vx3 + 3x 2 - .Jx 2 - 2x)

x-++oo

LOi giai

Vi€t lai K = lim [X(VI + 3 -~I - 2 J]. D~t _!_ = y.

X--Hoo X X X

Khi x ~ 00 <=> y ~ 0, ta c6:

. VI+3y-.J1-2y . (VI+3Y-I .J1-2Y-I]

K = lim = lim - = I + I = 2

y-+O Y y--+O Y Y

T6m lai: K = 2.

Th'd 19(P) (D 0) Ti I' V2x -J + Vx - 2

I U • ang - 1m 1m .

. . . 0 x--+I x-I

lin giai

D~t x = t + I, x ~ I khi va chi khi t ~ 0, ta c6

I· V2x-l +Vx-2 li Vl+2t +Vt-J I' (VI+2t -1 Vl-t -IJ

1m = 1m = 1m ' ----

x-+I X - I x-+I t 1-+0 t t

I I 7

= -+-=-.

2 5 10

T' lai u V2x-1 +Vx-2 7

om ai rm = -.

• x--+1 x -1 10

Thi du 20.(D~ng 0.(0) Tim lim (5 - x)tan 1tX .

x-+5 10

LOi giai D~t x = 5 - t. Khi x ~ 5 <=> t ~ 0 . Ta c6:

1· IT{5-t) u (1t 1ttJ u

1m t.tan = 1m t.tan - - - = Im--

1-+0 10 1-+0 2 1 0 1-+0 1tt

tan-

10

1tt

= ]_Qlim 10 = 10.1

1t 1-+0 nt 1t

tg-

10

t

T' l' n 5 ) 1tX 10 om ai: rm ( -x tan- = -

. x-+5 10 1t

LOi binh: V oi moi a * 0, bang each d~t x =a- t, ban c6 ket qua: '

. 1tX 2a

lim (a - x)tan - = - .

x-+a 2a 1t

III. Phuong phap gQi so hang yang

Ban ch~t khir dang khong xac dinh % cua bai toan tim gici han la lam xuat hien nhan tii chung d&

* Hoac la khir nhan tir chung dira v~ dang xac dinh.

172

* Hoac la dira v~ dang "co ban", quen thuoc cla biet ra ket qua hoac each giai. Trong cac bai t~p kho, cac hang tti cau thanh nhan tti chung thirong thieu vang, D~ giai quyet bai roan, di~m mau chelt la khoi phuc cac hang tti thieu vang do. Vi¢c khoi phuc, goi lai cac hang tu do nhir the nao, bang each nao, se dUQ'c trlnh bay trong ba phirong phap dtroi day.

Ki thu~t S. G{Ji sf) hang vdng bang hf so' bat dinh

Th'd 21(P) 1i u ~5-X3 -Vx2 + 7

I 1;1 • im rm ..,

x -e l X ~ - I

Lm giai

T ' l' fs-xJ -Vx2 +7 l' (~5-XJ -2 Vx2 +7 -2J (1)

a co: 1m .., = 1m -----

x-+I X ~ - I x-+I X 2 -1 x 2 - 1

. ~5-X3 -2 I' I-x3

lim = 1m ---r===--

x-+I x2 -I x-s l (x2 -1)(~5- x ' + 2)

= lim - (x 2 + X + 1) = _ 3 (2)

x-+I (x + I X ~ 5 - X 3 + 2) 8

31 2 2 1

I, 'V x + 7 - 2 I' x -

1m.., = Im----r=====---r====--

x-+I x~ -1 x-+I (x2 -l)(V(X2 + 7)2 +2Vx2 + 7 +4)

= lim 1 = _1

x-+I V(x2 + 7)2 + 2VX2 + 7 + 4 12

Thay (2), (3) vao (1) co: A = _~ __ 1 = -i.!.,

8 12 24

(3)

LM binh 1: Trong lai giai tren ta da them b6t 2 vao tit tlurc cua f(x). Ba cau hoi

d~t ra:

( 1). T~i sao phai co s6 2? (2). Tai sao lai la s6 2? (3), TIm s62 nhir the nao?

Tra loi ba cau hoi do ta co phtrong phap giiii loai roan nay,

* Tra loi cau hoi I: S6 2 la hang tu da bi xoa. Mu6n giai, ta phai khoi phuc no. * Tra 1m cau hoi 3: each tim s6 2, thirc hien theo cac biroc sau day:

B ' 1 V" . R 1 ' f() (~5-X3 -c VX2+7-CJ

I/O£': 01 mQI c E , uon co : x = 2 - --2 --

x -1 x -I

, Buac 2: Trong cac s6 c do, ta tim s6 c sao cho x2_1 cling c6 nhan tit chung v{ri f,(x) = ~5-x3 - c va fix) = Vx2 +7 - c. Ditu d6 xay ra khi va chi khi c la

nghl~m cua tuyen: . \~

173

{it(1)=O [

f2(1) =0 {CC==2J6 _

{f (-1) = 0 ~ ~ c - 2.

I c=2

f2(-I)=0

D6 cling la diu tra lai tai sao lai la s6 2.

Qua thf du tren, cluing ta neu len thuat toan nhu sau:

Th "t ; 1 G" , F() f(x) ; .,. h d 0

• ua roan : ra sir x = - co gioi an ang-

. g(x)' . 0

B '. 1 PhA .' h I() f1 (x) + e f, (x) - e

uac I : an tic X = + ~ .

g(x) g(x)

Buac 2 (lim c): GQi a, (i = 1; 2; ... ) la nghiern cua g(x) = o.

{fl (u.) + e = 0

Khi d6 e la nghiern cua he _

f2 (n.) - e - 0

V'· lm d hl li ft(x)+e , li f2(x)-e h I'd ' di h

01 e tim UOe t I rm va im se oac a ~ng xae mn,

. x__.aj g(x) x__.aj g(x)

hoac la dang quen thuoc.

Sau khi tim duoc e, viec trinh bay lai giai nhir d§ lam.

(i = 1; 2; ... )

I Thi du 22. TIm lim 2..r;:;J -~ ,

. x__.o X

LOi ghli

~r-;:

2'\Jl-S -e

Buac 1: (Phan tfch) VeER, luon c6: I(x) = 2..r;:;J -c _ 8

x x

Buac 2: (lim c). Nghiem ella mau thirc la x ~ O.

{.J6+l-e =0

Suy ra e la nghiern cua h¢ R ~ e = 1. Y~y l---e=O

8

I. ~~ - 1 I' M-1

1m - Im.....:..._---

x -e l X x__.t x

. 2~-V8-x

lim =2

x__.o x

LM blnh 2: a phirong phap 1, nhan tirchung diroc khir de dira gioi han ve dang xac dinh, hoac dang quen thuoc, hoac dang "co ban".

• 2

Thi du 23(P). lim K = lim -;::===x=--r==

. x__.o.Jl+xsin3x -.Jeos2x

174

Lm giai

GQi A == .Jl + ",sin 3", - .Jcos2x == (.Jl + x sin Sx -1)+ O-.Jcos2xJ

\.J 1 + x sin 3", - 1)(.J 1 + x sin 3x + 1) (1 - ~ cos 2x )(1 +.Jr-co-s-2-x )

==

.J 1 + x sin 3x + I - 1 + ..J cos 2x

xsin3x l-cos2x xsin3x 2sin2 x

-+ - +---;:====

- .Jl+xsin3x +1 .Jcos2x +1 - I+Jl+xsin3x 1+.Jc':)s2x

I, A I' ( xsin3x· 2sin2 x J

~ 1m - == 1m + -:----;===_

)(-+ox2 )(-+0 x2(1+.Jl+xsin3x) x2(1+.Jcos2x)

I, (sin3x 3 ) I' (sin2 x 2 J

== 1m' + 1m ' --;:===

)(-+0 3x 1 + .JI + xcos3x ){-+O x2 1 + .Jcos2x

3 5

=1.-+1.1=-

2 2

x2 . x2 2

~lim ==hm-==-

){-+O .J ~ + x sin 3x - .Jcos2x )(-+O A 5

Thi du 24(P). (Chung ta tro lai bai nay trong phuong phap hai bang thf du 28),

11 I, .[l;2;. -VI +3x

1m 1m 2 '

,,-+0 X

I

LOi giai

Ta co: liT}"}_.J_I_+_2_x _-_V_I_+_3_x == lim [.!. (.Jr-I-+-2-X - 1 _ VI + 3x - 1 J1

x -+0 x 2 x~o X X x J

== lim [.!.( 2 - 3 J]

)(-+0 X .JI+2x +1 V(l+3X)2 +VI+3x +1

== lim [_!_,2(v0;3~)2 +Vl+3x+l)-3(.JI+2x+l)l

,,__.o x. (.JI+2x+l)eJO+3x)2 +Vl+3x+l) J

2 V(l + 3X)2 -I + 2 VI + 3x -1 _ 3.JI + 2x -1

== li~ ~x==~ __ r====x~~~==-=x __ ·_

:<-+0 (.JI + 2x + I)(V(I + 3X)2 +VI + 3x + 1)

. -

2(VI + 3x + l)YI + 3x -I + 2 VI +3x -1 _3.Jl + 2x _1

== li.n x x x

){-+O (.JI + 2x + l)(V(l + 3X)2 + VI + 3x + I)

== 2(1 + 1),1 + 2,1-3.1 == .!.. Tom lai lim .Jl + 2x ~ V"};3x == _!_.

(1+1)(1+1+1) 2 '){-+O x " 2

175

Ki thuat 6. Go! so' hang vdng bling tach bq phdn kep

, , ~f(x) -~g(x)

Ap dung cho dang lim k

X-+3 (x -a)

{n, m, k l?l cac s6 tu nhien, 1 :::;; k :::;;min(n, m) }

1 3 2 31 2

Th'd 2S(P) 'Ii K-I' v8x +x +6x+9-v9x +27x+27

I \I • im - im '\

x-+o x-

LUi ghii

GQi A = ~X3 + x2 + 6x + 9 = 8x3 + (x + 3)2 ~ A-(x + 3)2 = 8x3. GQi B = 9x2 + 27x + 27 = x3-(x + 3)3 ~ (x + 3)2_B = x'

v: , I 'K I' (..fA - (x + 3) (x + 3) - VB J

let ar: = im 3 + 3

x-+o X x

G 'K I' ..fA - (x + 3) I' A - (x + 3)2 I' 8x 3

01 I = 1m = 1m = 1m ---==--

, x-+o X 3 x-+o x \.fA + x + 3) x-s-O X 3 (..fA + x + 3)

= lim 8 = 8 = 4

x-+o (..fA + x + 3) -J9 + 3 3

G 'K I' (x + 3) - VB I' (x + 3)3 - B

01 ., = 1m = 1m ---__:__--------,,=-

, - x-+o x3 x-+ox3[(x+3)2+(x+3)VS+\Iii21

(I)

(2)

3

= lim x ,

x-+o x3[(x +3)2 +(x +3)VB + \lii21

I' 1

= Im---------::=-

x-+o[(X+3)2 +(x+3)VB +W]

1 1 1 (3)

= 32 +3'ifii +V272 = 9+9+9 = 27

Tit (1), (2), (3) suy ra: K = K. + K., = 4 + _1 = 37 , Tom lai K = 37 ,

- 3 27 27 ' 27

Qua thi d1;1 tren ta rut ra thuat toan nhir sau:

A' • , ,~ - V g(x)

• Thuat toan 2: De tim K = hm k

, X-+3' (x-a)

, d 0

co ang- , 0

{ n, rn, k l?l cac s6 tu nhien, 1 s k :::;; min(n, m) } Ta bien dOi:

~f(x)-Vg(x) ~fl(x)+[h(x)r -hex) h(x)-~g,(x)+[h(x)Jn

.____;;_- = ' + - _ __:.._~--=--___;=--

(x= a)" (x=-a)" (x= a)"

176

(Q'(x), Qg(x) thea thu tl! la bi!u thUt lien hep cua riffW - hex), hex) - ~g(x) )

Suy ra K = lim £1 (x) + lim g) ~x) .

x-+a (x-a)kQh(x) x-+a (x-a) Qg(x)

Thl d 26(P) Tl .,. h K li ,Jcos2x - 2x -V~l + 2X2 -4x

I \I • 1m gl<1l ~n = 1m " .

x-+O Xk

LOi giii

GQi A = cos2x - 2x = I - 2x + x2_ x2_ (I - cos2x) = (1 - X)2_ x2_ Zsirr'x

<:::> A - (1 - X)2 = _x2 - 2sin2x .

GQi B=)1+2x2 -4x= 1-4x+6x2-4x3+x4-x4+4x3-6x2-1 + ~1+2x2

= (l +x)4-x4+4x3-6x2-1 + .Jl+2x2" <=> (l + X)4 - B = X4 - 4x3 + 6x2 + I -.J 1 + 2x 2

V"' I" K I" (JA-O-X) (I-X)-VS]

let ~I = im 2 + "

x-+O X x~

G 'K I" JA -(I-x) I' A-O-X)2 __ II"m _x2 -2sin2 x

QI ,= rm = irn ----::=----

X -+0 X 2 )(-+0 X 2 (fA + I - x) )(-+0 X 2 (fA + I - x)

(I)

. - 1 - 2( Si: x r _ 1 _ 2.1 3 (2)

= lim - -

)(-+0 (JA + I - x) -.J1=O + I - 0 - - 2

G"K I" (l-x)-Va I" (l-x)4-B

01 ,,= 1m = 1m ]

" - '(-+0 x2 '-+Ox2[O-X)3+(I-X)2VS+O-X).JB+Vfi3

I, . X4 -4x3 +6x2 + l-~I +2X2

= '~x'[(1- x)' + (1- x)'Vs + (1- x)rs + Vfi3]

2 4 6 ~1+2x2-1

x - x+ - 2

= lim . x

x-+o [(1- X)3 + (1- X)2Vs + (1- x)jB + Vfi3]

= 0-0+6-1 =~(3)

1+1.1+1.1+1.1 4

'3 5 3 1 T' I' K 1

Tir (I), (2), ( ) suy ra K = K, + K2 = 4 - 2 = - 4" om ~I = - 4 '

3

Thi du 27(1'). lim K = lim . x .

" )(-+0 ~(I + 2x)(1 + x 2) - ~(l + 3x)(l + 3x 2)

177

LM giai

Ta c6: _1 _ = lim ~'-O-+-2-x-)-(l-+-X-2-) - Vr-(l-+-3-x-)-O-+-3-x-2-)

K2 x~o x3.

GQiA=(1 +2x)(l +x:!)=2x3+(x+ 1)2 => A-(x+ 1)2= 2x3, limA = I

x~o

GQi B = (I + 3x)( 1 + 3x2) = 8x3 + (x + 1)3 => (x + 1 i-B = - 8 x ', lim B = 1

x~o

V· , I' 1 I' (.fA -(x + 1) (x + I)-VB)

I~t ~I - = 1m '\ + '\

K2 x~o X' X'

G'I I' .fA-(x+l) I' A_(X+l)2 I' 2x3

01 = 1m = 1m = 1m ---;::=---

. x~o x ' x""o x\.fA + x + I) x -s-O x\.fA + x + 1)

(1)

= lim 2 = 1

x~o (.fA + x + 1)

G 'J I' (x + 1) - VB

QI = im 3

x~o X

(2)

I, (x + 1)3 - B

= Im---------~~

x .... o X 3[(X + 1)2 + (x + l)VB + 'ifBi]

8 3

" - X

= .im 1 r:::;

X .... O X 3[(X + 1)2 + (x + I)VB + \t B2 ]

. -8 8

= lirn-- = -- (3)

x~o [(x + 1)2 + (x + l)VB + 'ifBi] 3

, i 8 5 3

TU'(1),(2),(3)suyra: - =1+1= 1-- = -- <=> K.,=--

K2 3 3 - 5

Clus y: .

1. Bi~u thirc hex) duoc n¢i suy trong f(x), g(x). Viec phan tach b¢ phan kep hex) chi lam tren nhap, khong can trlnh bay tren bai lam, (Cac ban theo doi thf du 28)

2. Cac hang ltt cua hex) chua so mil tir 0 den k-I c6 mat vira van rrong cac bieu thirc cua f(x), g(x). D6 la tfn hieu de goi hex). can biet ding mot vai so hang c6 th~ an (b] trung hoa boi cac so hang) trong fl(x), gl(x) [thf du (4), (6)].

Thi du 28. (Tro IC;li Thf du 24),

"T":: ioi h K I' .JI+2x-Vl+3x (I)

11m gtoi an = im .,

x .... o X ~

Lol ghii

V· , I 'K I' [.JI + 2x - (1 + x) (1 + x) - VI + 3x ]

I~t ar = rm 2 + ')

. x .... o X x~

178

(f)

I· ( -1 x + 3 J .

= 1m +----~----~==~--r=====

x-+o .JI + 2x + I + x (l + X)2 -t- (l + x)VI + 3x + V(l + 3X)2

= - _!_ + 3 , _ _!_ Tom Iai K = _!_,

2 1+1+1 2 ' 2

Ki thu(zt 7. C oi sf) hang vdng bling tai hien hf thta: CO' ban

I, r.V I + ax - I a

1m = - (5)

)(-+0 X n

Th'd 29(P) 11 K- I' (x2 +1998)VI-2x -1998

I l:I • 1m - 1m ,

)(-+0 X

LOi giai

Bien d6i:

(x 2 + I 998)V I - 2x - 1998 (x 2 + 1998)\1 I - 2x - (x 2 + 1998) + (x 2 + 1998) - 1998

=

x

x

= (x2 + 1998) V I - 2x - 1 + x x

=> K = lim[(X2 + 1998) \l1-2x -1 +x] = lim (x2 + 1998) \l1-2x -I + limx

)'-+0 X )(-+0 X )(-+0

= 1998(-.3.) + 0 = - 3996 , Tom lai K = _ 3996

7 7 ' 7

LOi binh 3: Trang thf du tren, di~m mau chat Hi bot - them (x2 + 1998) vao tir

h' I' ' hi ha • VI - 2x - 1 dA dA' h' h • I' . ."

t ire am xuat ien n an nr an en su t an cong cua O'I giai.

x

Qua.thf du tren, ta neu len thuat toan nhu sau :

Thud ~. 3 G" • F() P(x)'\fl + ax + Qtx) f):!' I' F() b" d"

• I., U':It toan : ia sir x = , e tim rm x, ta I~n 01:

x )(-+0

F(x) = P(x)r.VI + ax - P(x) + P(x) + Q(x) = P(x) VI + ax -I + F,(x)

x x x

( ,. F ( ) _ P(x) + Q(x ) ) VOl IX -----

X

Suy ra: lim F(x) = ~ lim P(x) + lim F,(x),

)(-+0 n )(-+0 )('-+0

Hang tir vang a day la P(x), dll "xtrng danh"trong bi~u thirc gioi han.

LM bmh 4: Khac vci phtrong phap l , nhan tir chung trong phirong phap "Tai hien h~ thtrc co ban" khong gian uoc. Khi tim gioi han, lim P(x) la met s6 xac dinh,

LOi bmh 5: Thong thtrong an x a mau thtrc trong h~ thirc co ban bi triet tieu khi F(x) co dang thirong cac can thirc. (xem Thi du 30)

r::- J cr; (r) ,r-:- 3 r=r: l

. II~ V5' -'I - \i >I ~::r -A k." V/'T~ - " i-rPl t. ) 179

Jl.., I t"L-_, 'k."?o?l'>

.;T;;:VI + ~ ~I + x -VI-x

Thi du 30(P). Tim gici han A = lim 3 : 3

. x-+o _ .J 4 + x - V 8 - x - V 1- x

2

LM ghii Goi tir thl1c la T, mau thirc la M, ta co:

T= .Jl+iVI+ ;Vl+; -Vl-x

~T= Ji+XVI+ ;~l+ ~ -V1+ ;VI+; +Vl+ ;Vl+;

-Vl+; +VI+; -1-VI-x+1

~ T = VI + ; VI + ; (Ji+X -I) + VI + ; (VI + ; -I)

+(M-I)-(~-l)

A' d b' 5) , u T I I 1 1

P ung co an ( co: Im- = -+-+-+- = 1.

• x-+o x 1.2 2.3 3.4 4

I' T

Im-

A = x-+o x = 24

lim.~ 5

TU<1Ilg ttr: lim M = 2_ , Suy ra:

, x-+o x 24

x-+o x

ChZI y: Chung ta cling sir dung phirong phap nay d~ tai hien cac "gioi han co ban-quen thuoc" con lai diroc tich hop trong cac thf du v~ sau.

Ki thu~t 8. Ap dung cac gioi han C(J ban - quen thutjc

Thi d\i31(P). Tim cac gici han sau:

1 . sin 3x

. urn ,

x-+o 2x

2 I· sin( -x)

. 1m .

x-+o sin 5x

Loi giai

1 T s n sin 3x I' (3 sin 3x ) 3 u sin 3x = _3.1 = _3

. a eo 1m = 1m -. = - Im--

x-+o 2x x-+o 2 3x 2 3x-+O 3x 2 2

sin( -x)

--

2T 61' sin(-x) u -1 -x

, ae 1m = 1m _._....:.:...._

x-+o sin 5x x-+o 5 . sin 5x

5x

-1 -1

= -·1-=-

5 5

180

LM bioh: Chung minh tuong tt! vai moi a '* O,b '* 0 ta c6:

I, sinax a I' sinax a

1m = -,1m =

x-+o bx b x-+O sin bx b

Thi du 32( ). TIm cac gioi han sau:

1 . tan20x

. 11m ,

x-+O llx

2 I· tan9x .1m--

x-+O tan6x

LCri giai

1. lim_ta_n_2_0_x = lim( 20. tan20x. Ilx ) = 20.1.1 = 20 .

x-+O IIx x-+O 11 20x tan l lx 11 II

2. lim tan 9x = lim( 9 . tan 9x. 6x ) = 9 ,1,1 = 3 .

x-+O tan6x x-+O 6 9x tan 6x 6 2

LM blnh: Chirng minh nrong tt! vai moi ab '* 0 ta co:

1· tan ax a I' tan ax

1m = -; 1m -- = -

x-+O bx b x-+O tan bx b

~.

a

I Thi d ... 33(P). lim lim 1- c~s3x .

. x-+O x "

T ' I' l-cos3x

a co: im ')

x-tO' x "

Lol giai

2 . ') 3x sm--

= lim 2

x-+O x2

2

. 3x sm-

2

3x

2

L~ bl h Ch' , h ,.. 0 ' I' 1 - cos ax a 2

VI In: irng min ttrong tt! val mot a '* ta co: im 2 - -2 '

x-+O x

91,

= _ 1m

2 x-+o

Th'd 34(P) TI u 1-.J2x2 + I

I U • 1m 1m .

• x-+o 1- cosx

LCri giai

v·' lai u 1-.J2x2+1 u (I-.J2X2+1 x2 J

let at: 1m = 1m . ---

• x-+O I-cosx x-+o x2 I-cosx

T ' li 1- .J2x 2 + I 2 I r x 2 = lim x 2 _ 1

a co: im 2 = - 2 = - , im 1 x~o 2 sin 2 x - 2 .

x-+O x x-+O - cos x ---,

Th "(1)' I' 1-.J2x2+1 1

ayvao co im =--.

x-+o 1- cosx 2

(1)

,

Thi d 35 1i .,. h K u l-cosx.cos2x.cos3x

1;1 • im gior an = im 2

x-+O X

181

L<ri giai

Viet lai: 1 - cosxcos2xcos3x = (1 - cosx) + (~ - £Qgcos2x) +

+ (cosxcos2x - cosxcos2xcos3x) = (l - cosx) + cosx( 1 - cos2x) + cosxcos2x(l - cos3x)

. ( 1 - cos x 1 - cos 2x 1 - cos 3x )

=> K = 11"11 ., + cos x ., + cos x cos 2x .,

)(-+0 x-x - x '

.,

, . 1 - cos ax a - I' b

Ta co 11m 2 = -, imcos x = 1 (a:;t: 0, b:;t: 0)

x-+O X 2 x-+o

12 22

Suy ra K = - + 1.-

2 2

32 +1.1.-=7. 2

Thi du 36. TIm gioi han K = lim (cos ~ cos a2 co~ a3 .,. cos ~ )

• • n-+oo 2 Q 2 2 n

LOi giai

. a a a a

GOI A = cos-cos-2 cos-3 ••. cos-

. 2 2 2 2"

Truong hap 1: a = k21t, ta co A = 0 => K = 0

(1)

Truan 0 han 2: a :;t: k21t, sin ~ :;t: 0

~ YI' 2"

. a

Sill--

a 2"-1

Ta co: cos - = --=-- nen A diroc viet lai

2"

2. a Slll- 211

, a a a
a
SIll- sm- Slll-- sm--
A= sm a 2 22 2"-2 2"-1 sin a
=
2 . a 2' a 2' a 2' a 2' a 2" sin _!_
sm- sm-., sm-3 SIll--1 sm-
2 2- 2 2n- 2n 2" a .

Chu y r~rlg khi n ~ 00 thl -- ~ 0 nen suy ra: 2n

a

lin. __ sl_n_a_ = _sl_n_a lim ___.;;2;;;_"_ = sma (2)

n-+oo 2n • a a n-+oo. a a

sm- sm-

2n 2"

Tit (1) va (2) ket luan : K = 0, neu a = k2~; K = sma, neu a:;t: k21t . a

,. "

, .• '

... ','.

~ ,',

,

Thi du 37. TIm giro han K = lim(2"~2 -~ + ~2+ ... + J2 +.Jj J

n-+co

n-dtuctn

182

/

Lot giii GQi AI = ..Jj = 2 ..Jj . = 2cos-;-

2 3.2

183

A2= J2+AI 1t 2 1t 1t
= 2(1 + COS-I ) = 2.2cos --2 = 2cos--.,
3.2 3.2 3.2-

A3 = J2 + A2 1t 2 1t It
- 2(1 + COS--2) = 2.2cos --3 = 2cos--3
3.2 3.2- 3.2
1t 2' 1t 1t
A4 = J2 + A3 = 2(1 + COS-3) = 2.2cos --4 = 2cos--4
3.2 3.2 3.2 . . . . . . . . . . ' ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .

2 1t

2.2cos 1

3.2"'

1t

= 2cos 1

3.2"'

1t

2(1 + cos 2) =

3.2"'

AII_1 = J2 + An-2 =

22'" 1t 2' 1t

. SIO~-- = SIO--

3.2" 3.2"

it

2(l-cos I) =

3.2"'

Chii y rang khi n ~ 00 thl 1t 1 ~ 0 nen suy ra:

3.2"'

. 1t SIn--

lim 211A = lim (211 + 'sin ~ ) = 21t lim 3.2" = 21t . Tom lai K = 21t .

n-+oo II 11-+00' 3.2" 3 "-+00 1t 3 . 3

3.2"

BAIT~P

Bili 9. Tim cac giro han sau

. ~_~5-X2

1. hm-----~

)(-+1 x-I

x ' +x2-2

2. lim ----

x-+I sintx -1)

1. 1 - ~r-4x-2-+-1 Im-----

x-+o 1 - cos 4x

I 31 2

3. lim ,,2x + l.-vx + 1

... -+0 smx

2

5(P) I' . x

. 1m r===:=:----;:::===

x-+o ~l + 7x 2 - .Jcos4x

7 1· .Jx+3-V3x2+5

. Im-------

x-+l tg(x - 1)

B,:; 10. Tinh cac giro han sau:

lim 98 (1-cos3xcos5xcos7x)

'-+0 83 sin27x

b(P). lim ..f3.r2~_"!,~2 -2cos2x -V2+4x+X3 -~1+2x2

x-+o x2

. 'l+tgx -.Jl+sinx

6(P). hm ...,::'V _ __:. _

x-+o x 3

2

8(P). lim x

x-+o .Jl + x sin x -:- .J cos 4x

[J

Bal 11. Tim cac gi6i han sau:

. (f¥+2 f¥+3J

a. hm x -- _3 -- ;

x--.+oo X X

B" 12(P) rr.: I' sin 3x + 2cosx al • 11m 1m -~---

x--.rn 3x 2 + X + 13

Bai 13.

h. lim(_l_ - tan x) ; x--.!! COSX

2

C. lim( .2 -cotx) (Dt;li hoc LUI)t sa s«. 88-89).

x--.o sm 2x

B'i 14 1i I' l-cosx.cos2x.cos3x ... cosnx ( l' 6 hien)

a • im rm ., . n a s tl,l n ien

x--.o x-

Bal 15. Cho a * kn, Tim cac gioi han sau:

1 I 1

'l.K= lim( + + ... + )

x--.oo 2 a 2 2 a 2 a

4cos - 4 cos - 4ncos ,-

2 22 2n

2. K = lim[(_!_ tan .!)2 + (~tan ~2)2 + ... + (_1 tan ~)2]

n--.oo 2 2 2- 2 2n 2n

1i I· &;.-~

a. rm irn 2 ;

x--.o sin x

, J_

§6. HAM SO LIEN TVC

D;nh nghia 1 (ham s6 lien tuc tai mot di!m)

Gia si'r hamso f xac dinh tren khoang (a; b) va xoE(a; b). Ham s6 f duqc goi la lien tuc t~i di~m Xo neu

lim f'(x) = f(xo)

X--'Xo

Ham s6 khOng lien tuc tai Xo duqc goi la gian doan tai di!m xo' D;nh nghia 2 (ham so lien tuc tren mot doan)

a, Gia si'r ham s6 f xac dinh tren khoang (a; b). Ta n6i rang ham s6 f duqc goi 13. lien tuc tren khoang (a; b) neu no lien tuc tai moi di!m thuoc khoang d6.

b. Gia si'r ham s6 f xac dinh tren doan [a; b]. Ta n6i rang ham s6 f diroc goi 13. lien tuc tren doan [a; b] neu n6 lien tuc khoang (a; b) va

lim f(x) = f(a) , lim f'(x) = f'(b),

x--.a+ x-+b-

Nhijn xet (*):

• TOng, hieu, tfch, thuong cua cac ham lien tuc tai m¢t diem la ham lien tuc tai diem d6 (trong tnrong hop thuong, gia tIi cua mAu thuc tai diem ~y phii khac 0)

• Ham da thrrc va ham phan thee hitu ti (thuong cua hai ham da thuc) lien tuc ' tren tirng t~p xac djnh eua chang.

184

lJ;nh Ii 1: Cac ham s61lt<;1l1g giac y = sinx, y = cosx, y = tanx, y = cotx lien tuc tren t~p xac dinh cua chang.

lJ;nh Ii 2: (gia tri trung gian cua ham s6 lien tuc), Gill sir ham s6 f xac dinh tren doan fa; b]. Neu f(a) :I; feb) thl voi m6i s6 thl!c M nam giii'a f(a) va feb), tOn" tai it nha:t met diem cECa; b) sao cho f(c) = M.

t nghia

Gill sir ham s6 f xac dinh tren doan [a; b] va M la s6 thuc nam giii'a f(a) va feb), thl dltang thang y = M c!t do thj ham s6 y = f(x) it nha:t tai mot di~m co hoanh de) cECa; b).

• Do thi ham s6lien tuc la mot dltang lien net.

* Hf qua: Gill sir ham s6 f xac dinh tren doan [a; b].

Neu f(a).f(b) < 0 thl t6n tai It nha:t mot di~m CECa; b) sao cho f(c) = o. (H¢ qua la mot dau hieu nhan bi~t ham lien tuc co nghiem)

y

y=/(x)

hx

J

185

a

o

{X2_1 .

, ". "'" , khi X :I; -1 . .•

Thi du 1. Xet tmh lien tuc cua ham SO f(x) = X + 1 . tar diem X = -I

- 2, khi X =-1

Lfri giai

V'·· 1 'fi() x2-1 fi() I

<11 mOl x :I; - ta co x = -- <=> X = X -

. x + 1

{fe-I) =-2

Ta c6· lim f(x) = timex -1) = -2

x-+-I )(-+-1

=> lim f'(x) = f( -1) => f(x) la ham so lien tuc tai x = -1.

x-+-I

I Thi du 2. Xet tlnh lien tuc cua ham so f(x) = Ixl.

LOi giai

Tap xac dinh : R

{-x, khi x < 0 Ta co f(x) =

x, khi x ~ 0

=> Ham so lien tuc voi rnoi di~m x :I; 0 (nhan xet) (1)

{lim f(x) = lim(-x)=O

Lai co f(x) = 0 va )(-+0- x....o- => lim f'(x) = 0 = f(O)

. lim f'(x) = lim x = 0 . x-+o

x-+o+ x-+o·

=> Ham so lien tuc tai x = 0 (2)

Tir (1), (2) k~t luan ham so lien tuc tren R.

Thi du 3(P). Chimg minh ham s6 f(x) = .J 4 - 3x - X 2. lien tuc tren doan 1-4; 1].

Lm giai Ta c6 4 - 3x - x2 ~ 0 <=> -4 $; x $; I

~ Ham s6 da cho xac dinh tren doan [-4; I]. • V6i moi xoE(l; 4) ta c6

lim f(x) = lim .Jr-4-_-3-x-_-x-2 = lim (4 -3x _x2)

= ~4 - 3xo - x~ = f(xo).

• lim f(x) = 0 = f( I).

x__..'

(I) (2)

(3)

• lim f'(x) = 0 = f(4).

x__'4 -

Tir (I), (2), (3) ket luan ham s6 da cho lien tuc tren doan [-4; 1).

Thi du 4(P). TIm cac di~m gian doan cua ham s6:

a. f(x) = 13x b. f(x) = tan x

~ 4x 2 + 4x + I x + I

{ X2 -1

&( ) _ 3 ' khi 0 :;t: x :;t: 1

C.l'X - X -x

2, khi x = 0 hoac x = 1

c

(.

Lm giai

V'A I . tiC ) 13x 13x

a. td at x = = .

. ~(2x + 1)2 12x + 11

Ta c6 Xo la diem gian doan cua ham s6 <=> 2xo + 1 = 0 <=> Xo = - ~

b. Ta c6 Xo la diem gian doan cua ham s6 <=> [xo : ; + kn

Xo --1

c. Theo nhan xet (*) suy fa f(x) chi c6 the gian doan tai x = 0 hoac x = I .

• Iimf(x) = limx2-1 = lim :2_1 = limx+l =2=f(1)

x-., x-'IX3_X x-"x-(x-l) ,,-+, x2

~ X = 1 la diem lien tuc, khOng phai la diem gian doan cua ham s6 .

• lim f(x) = lim x: 1 = + ex):;t: f(l) ~ x = 0 la diem gian doan ella ham s6.

,,-+0 ,,-.0 X

. xx khi 1

sm-, IX ~

2

x2 -1 ---,khix > 1 2(x -1)

Thl du 5(P). Xet tfnh lien tuc ella ham s6 f(x) =

186

.>

/

)

LM giai

Vai moi x e I, ta c6 f(x) IA ham lien tuc (nhan xet (*»

r lim f(x) = lim sin 7[x. = I

L· , fi(l) . 7[ I' 1 )(~I- )(--+1- 2

al co = sm - = va

. 2 x + I

I lim f(x) :::: lim -- = I

t"~I' \-+1' 2

=> lim f(x) = 'I = f( 1) => Ham s6li~n tuc tai x = l ,

x~1

(1)

(2)

Tir (1), (2) ket luan ham solien tuc tren R.

Thi du .6(P). Chimg minh phirong trlnh 3x5 - x + I = 0 co it nhat mot nghiern thuoc khoang (-1; 0).

Lm giai

Xet ham s6 f(x) = 3xs - x + 1. R5 rang f(x) la ham lien tuc tren doan [-I; 0].

Lai c6 f( -1) = -I < 0, f(O) = 1 > O. Theo h~ qua thl t6n tai it nhat mot di~m CE(-l; 0) sao cho f'(c) = 0 hay phuong trlnh co it nhat mot nghiem thuoc khoang (-I; 0). (dpcm).

ax2 + bx + 3, khi x < I Thi du 7. Tim a, b d~ ham s6 f(x) = 5, khi x = I

2x - 3b, khi x > I

lien tuc tai x = 1.

Lcl giai

Ta c6: lim f(x) = limrax ' + bx + 3) = a - b + 3,

x~l- x--+I-

lim f(x) = lim (2x - 3b) = 2 - 3b

x~l+ x~l+

Ham s6 f(x) lien tuc tai x = 1 <=> lim f(x) = lim f(x) = f( 1).

.• x~l- x--+I+

'. . . {a - b + 3 = 5 {a = 1

Dieu d6 xay ra khi va chi khi <=>.

2-3b = 5 b =-1

V~y (a = -b = I) la cap s6 duy nhat thoa man yeu cdu bai toano

2 n

Tb' d s(P) G' ( ) - 1 x x X

I U • 01 g X - + - + -2 + ... + - + ...

., 2 2 2n

{g(X)' khi I x k 1

Xet tinh lien tuc cua ham s6 f(x) = .J .

. 5x-l,khj"lxl~1

LOi gilli

. 2 n

V.J..' "1 ' 1 x x x I" . ' 6' h A I" .

• vl X < ta co +-+-" + ... +-+ ... a tong cua cap s n an UI VO

• 2 2~ 2n .

187

h ,. 1 x ) 1 2

~n vm U1 = ,q = - nen g(x = -- = --.

2 I_X 2-x

2

.

Theo nhan xet (*) => g(x) la ham so lien tuc voi moi X rna Ixl < I

=> f(x) lien tuc voi moi x rna Ixl < I. (I)

• V6i moi x, Xo rna Ixl > 1, IXol > 1 ta co:

lim f(x) = lim .J5x -1 = ~5xo -1 = f(xo)

X-+Xo X-+X(l

=> f(x) lien tuc voi rnoi x, rna lxb- 1. (2)

• Tai x = 1:

* f(1) = g(1) = ~ = 2 (3)

* lim f(x) = lim .J5x -I = ..J4 = 2. (4)

x-+I- x-+I+

* lim f(x) = lim g(x) = lim _2_ = 2 = 2. (5)

x-+I- x-+I- x-+I- 2 - x I

Ttr (3), (4), (5) => lim f(x) = lim f(x) = f(1)

x-+I- x-+I-

=> f(x) lien tuc tai x = 1 (6)

Tu (1), (2), (6) ket luan => f(x) la ham so lien tuc tren R.

BAIT~P

Bal 16. Xet tinh lien tuc cua ham so f(x) = .Jr-4-_-X-2 tren doan [-2; 2].

2 x + 2 , khi - I * x * 2 Bal 17. Xet tfnh lien tuc cua ham so f(x) == x - x - 2

. 1

- , khi x = -1 hoac x = 2

2 .

{.JI+4X-I .

B'· 18 X' , h lie • h' ' f( ) .khi X * O. 0

at . et tin ien tuc cua am so x = X tar X =

2,khi x = 0

B'· d'h" , . fi {ax+2'khiX~1

ar 19. TIm a e am so sau day la hen tuc (x) = . tren R.

x.x < I

Bai 20. Chung minh phirong trlnh x3 - 3x + 1 = 0 co ba nghiern phan biet thuoc

(-2; 2). .

Bal 21. Chtrng minh phirong trlnh 2xs + 3x + 2 = 0 co nghiern. Bal 22. Chirng minh rAng:

Neu 2a + 3b + 6c = 0 thl phirong trlnh atarr'x + btanx + C = 0 co it nha:t mQt

nghiem thuoc khoang ( kn; : + klt ).

188

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