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Baigiang17_Ham So Phan Thuc

Baigiang17_Ham So Phan Thuc

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Bal giang s6 17

, J A ,

HAM 50 PHAN THlJI:

cAu true cua bai giang nay tirong tu nhir du true cua bai giilng s6 16 (ham s6 da thirc).

§l. BAI ToAN TIEP TUYEN VOl HAM 56 PHAN THUC

Ki~n thu~ eo ban xin xem trong ti~t 1 - bai giang s6 16. Sau day xet cac dang

toan eo ban

Loai 1: Ti~p tuyen tai mQt di~m eho truce tren dirong eong. Phuong phap giai nhir da trinh bay trong 10~i 1, § 1 bai giang 16. Thi du I: (DJ thi luyin sinh lJ(li hvc kh6i D - 2007)

Cho duong eong y = ~ (C).

x+ l

Tim di~m M E (C) sao eho tiep tuyen tai M cua (C) eitt Ox, Oy tai A, B sao

eho dien tieh tam giac OAB bang 1, a day 0 la g6e toa dQ.

GQi M(xo; 2xo ) E (C) 1a di~m dn tim. Ta co y'(xo) = 2 2'

Xo + I (xo + 1)

Do do plurong trinh tiep tuyen voi (C) tai MIa:

2xo 2 2 2x2o

Y --- = (x-xo) ~ y = X +-----"----:-

xo+1 (xo+l) (xo+l)2 (xo+I)2

(I ).

Tu (I) suy ra A =(_X02; 0) va B [0; 2X6 2) (Xo + I)

, I 1 2 2X6

Ta eo: SOAB = - OA.OB = -I-xo I ( )

2 2 Xo + I

X~

(2) .

, 2

(xo + I)

4

T' (2) . S _ 1 Xo

u suy ra. OAB- 4" ~ (Xo + 1)2 = 4

Giai (3) ta duoc Xo = I hoac Xo = -~.

Nhu v~y M1( I; I) va M2( -~ ;-2) 1a hai di@m cAn tim tren (C).

(3).

Ghli GQi M E (C) 1.1 diem cAn tim.

D~ thAy ti~p tuyen vai(C) tai M eo dang:

x6 + Xo + I x6 - 2xo - 2 ( )

Y - = 2 X - Xo ( I ).

Xo -! (xo -I)

Bang each lfin IUQt eho y =0 (eho x=O) trong (I), ta d~ dang suy ra:

A= (2X~+2Xo-1 ;O];B= [0;2X6+2X02-1]

-xo + 2xo + 2 . (xo - I)

Tam giac OAB vuong can khi va chi khi:

2Xc; +2XO -1 2X; +2Xo -1 >0

OA = OB > 0 <=> = (2)

-X;+2XO+2 (Xo-l)2

G'" (2) , I d 2 ± J6

rar va t 1U iroc Xo = -2- .

V~y tren (C) co hai di~m cAn tim 1.1 M), M2 voi hoanh d('> tuong irng 1.1

2+J6 2-J6

x,= ,X2= --.

2 2

Tid (/(12: (DJ thi luyRn sinh D{li live kll6i B - 2006) 2

Cho duong eong y = x + x-I (C). Vi~t phirong trinh tiep tuyen voi (C) bi~t x+2

rfing ti~p tuyen vuong goc voi tiem e~n xien cua (C).

Giiii

D~ thAy y = x - I 1.1 tiern e~n xien eua (C) (ban doc ttr nghiem lai).

Khi do tiep tuy~n (d) cAn tim do vuong goc voi tiem e~n xien nen co h~ s6 goc bang -I. GQi Xo 1.1 hoanh d('> tiep di~m, ta co:

'( )- I x~ + 4xo + 3 -I (I)

yXo--<=> 2 -- .

(xo + 2)

D;:'d' "'(1)" ,., J2

e ang giai va ta co: Xo = -~ ± -- .

2

Ap dung cong thirc y - Yo = y'(xo)(x - xo) ta suy ra co hai tiep tuyen cAn tim Iii: y = -x + 2J2 - 5 va y = -x - 2J2 - 5.

Tid (/(13:

2

CI d' x + x + I (C).

10 uong eong y =

x-I

Tim diem ME (C) d~ tiep tuyen dt Ox, Oy nrong irng tai A, B sao eho OAB 1.1 tam giac vuong can.

304

305

TIIi d(l 4: Cho duong eong y = 2x + 1 (C).

x+2 .

Vi~t plurong trinh ti~p tuyen voi (C), bi~t tiep tuyen tao voi duong thang d: y = 2x + I I11Qt goc 45°.

Giai

GQi au la h~ s6 goc ella ti~p tuyen, Vi tiep tuyen tao voi d I11Qt goe 45° va do d

eo h~ s6 goc bang 2, nen ta eo: .

att-2 =1 [

tan450= 1 att - 21 ~ 1 + 2att ~ alt= ~3

1+2att all-2 __ I att =....,..

. - 3

I +2all

GQi Xo la hoanh oQ ella tiep diem, ta co au == y'(Xo) = 3 2 >0.

(xo + 2)

, .., 1 3 1 [xo = 1

Ta eo au= -3 b] IO~lI, eon att= - ~ ---~ =- ~

. 3 (xo+2t 3 xo=-5

Tir 00 ap dung cong tlurc y - Yo = y'(xo)(x - xo) suy ra eo hai tiep tuyen dn

'I' I :2, I 14

tim a: y == - x + - va y == - x + - .

3 3 3 3

Chu y: Ta ail slr dung cong thuc quen biet sau: d., d2 la hai duong thang eo h~ s6 goc I~n hrot la k., k2• Khi 00 neu goi a la goc giua d, va d2 thi

tan a = 1 k, - k 21

1+ k,k2

(di nhien khong xet khi d, .L d-).

TIIi d(1 5: Cho duong eong y = _~\.x -+31 (C) va M la IllQt diem bat ki tren (C).

GQi I la giao diem ella hai tiem can, Ti~p tuyen tai M dt hai tiern e~n tai A, B.

II ChlJ'J1g minh M la trung di~1ll ella AB.

21 Chung minh tiep tuyen tai M khong di qua I.

Ghii

---r- , ,

Gia sir M E (e) va co hoanh oQ Xo. Ap dung cong thirc viet plurong trinh tiep

tuyen ta co plurong trinh ti~p tuyen voi (C) tai oi~11l Mia:

-I ( ) 3xo + 1 (I)

Y = 2 X - Xo +

(xo -3) xo-3

1 I R5 rang x = 3 va y = 3 I~n IUQ1la tiem can dung va tiem can ngang cua (C).

GQi A, B nrong irng Ia giao oi~111 ella ti~p tuyen (I) voi tiem e~n dung va ti~111 can

ngang. Khi 00 d~ thay A=(3;3 + _2 __ )· ; B == (2xo - 3;3)

Xo -3

Tlr do: XA + XB = 2xo = 2XM. M~t khac A, M, B thang hang, nen M la trung di~m cua AB.

21 D~ thfty 1(3; 3). Thay x =3 vao vS phai cua (1) ta eo

Vp=-(3-xo) 3xo+l_3xo+2 3 "\-1 -'-3

2 + - :j:. VOl v Xo T .

(xo -3) Xo -3 Xo -3 .

Di~u do clurng to r~ng I khong narn tren tiSp tuyen (l) => dpcm. Loai 2: TiSp tuyen di qua mot di~m eho truce tren dirong eong:

Phuong phap giai nlur phuong phap suo dung d6i voi loai 2, § 1, bai giang 16. TIti til! 1:"

, x2-2x+l

Cho duong eong (C): y = va di~m A(6; 4). ViSt plurong trlnh tiSp

x-2 .

tuyen voi (e) biSt rang tiSp tuyen di qua A.

Giiii

TiSp tuyen voi e di qua A eo dang: y = k(x - 6) + 4 (vi x = 6 khong th~ la tiep 2

~ . (e») T ' , x - 4x + 3

tuyen eua . a eo: y = 2 .

(x-2)

GQi Xo la hoanh d(> tiSp diem, ta eo h~ sau:

x~ -2xo + 1= k(xo -6)+4 (I) Xo -2

X~-4Xo:3=k. (2)

(xo - 2)

Thay (2) vao (I) rbi rut gon (d~ Y rang dn eo di~u kien Xo i- 2), ta di dSn: 2xo2- 6xo= 0 <=> Xo= 0 hoac Xo= 3.

KI' 0 h' k 3 T'~ t: I' 3 I

+ 11 Xo= ,t I • ="4' rep tuyen a y ="4 x -"2

+ Khi Xo = 3 => k = O. TiSp tuySn la y = 4.

TIIi til! 2:

Cho y = x + 3 (e). Tim cac di~m M tren duong th~ng y = 2x+l, sao eho tu M x-I

ve diroc mot tiSp tuyen dSn (e).

Giiii

GQi M(a;2a + I) la diem dn tim. Duong thang di qua M va la tiSp tuyen cua (C) eo dang: y = k(x- a) + 2a + I.

Goix, la hoanh d(> tiSpdi~m, ta eo h~ sau:

Xo +3

-- = k (xo - a) + 2a + 1 (1)

Xo -1

-4

--2 =k. (2)

(xo -1)

V oi di~u kien xoi- 1, thay (2) vao (1) rbi rut gon, ta eo:

306

ax/-2xo(a +2)+3a+2=0(3)

Bai toan tro' thanh tim a d~ (3) co dung mot nghiern khac I.

- N~u a =0, thi (3) co dang -4xo+ 2 = 0 ~ Xo= 1.

- N~u a f. 0, thi (3) co duy nhclt nghiern va nghiern nay khac I khi:

{ill = 0

{-a 2 + a + 2 = 0 [a = -I

a+2 ~ ~

~:;t:1 a+2:;t:a a=2

N~u a f. 0 thi (3) co hai nghiem phan biet trong do co mot nghiern bang I khi

{ill> 0 {_a2 +a+2>0 .

~ . ~a=1

Xo = 1 la mQt nghiern cua 2a - 2 = ° .

Tom lai MI(O;I), M2(-I; -I), M3(l;3), M4(2;5) la b6n di~m eftn tim. TII'd{l3:

2

CI d' 2x +x+I(C) T' " O· d'~ . h~k' 10 irong cong y = . un tren true y cac rem co tee

x-s l

d~n (C) hai ti~p tuyen vuong goc voi nhau.

Giai

Gill Slr M(O;a) la di~m eftn tim. Ti~p tuyen voi (C) ke nr M co dang: y = kx+a (I) GQi Xo la hoanh dO ti~p di~m, co h~ sau:

2x6 + Xo + I ok

= 'xo +a Xo + I

2

2xo +4xo =k

2 .

(Xo + I)

(I)

(2)

Thay (2) vao (I) (voi di~u kien Xo f. -I ) rbi rut gon, ta co

(a+ l)xo2+2(a-l)xo+a-1 =0 (3).

Bai toan tro thanh: Tim a d~ (3) co hai nghiem phan biet t., t2 f. -I thea man di~u kien

2t? + 4tl 2d + 4t2 =-1

2 . 2

(tl+l) (t2+1)

. 4(tlt2)2 +8t1t2(tl +t2)+16tlt2

Taco(4)~ 2 =-1(5).

[tlt2 +(tl +t2)+IJ

h 2(I-a) a-I, (5)~' . .

T ay tl + t2 = ; tl t2 = -- vao rOI rut gon ta co:

a+l a+1

a2 + 6a - 6 = 0 ~ a = -3 ±.JI5 (6)

(Chu y r4ng khi thoa man (6) thi a+1 f. 0, va il'=-2(a-I»0)

V ~y tren doan Oy co hai di~m eftn tim M I ( 0; -3+.JI5) va M2 ( 0; -3 - .JI5) .

(4).

307

x

-2

-1

o

+00

? " A ,

§2. eve TRI eUA HAM PHAN rnuc

p(x) ,

v &i lop ham phan tlurc y = -( -) ta luon sir dung hai ket qua sau:

Q x

II Voi lop ham y = ax2 + bx + c (a i- 0, a' i- 0) co cue dai, cue ti~u khi va chi a'x + b'

khi phirong trinh y' = 0 co hai nghiern phan biet khac _ b: .

a

2/G'" p(x) , .. - khi d' '() p(xo-} p'(xo)

ia sir y=-(-) co cuc tn tar x vxs 11 otaco:y Xo =-(-)=-'(-)'

Q x Q Xo Q Xo

Xet cac thi du sau:

TIli d(I 1: (DJ tlli '"yill sinh D{Ij hoc kllti A -2(07)

,x2+2(m+l)x+m2+4m .,

Cho ham so y = - (Cm). Tim m de ham so co cue

x+2

dai, eire ti~u cling voi g6c toa d(> 0 tao thanh tam giac vuong tai O.

Ghli

Duong cong (ell) co cue trj khi va chi khi pluroug trinh

2 2

y'= X + 4x - ~ + 4 = 0 (1) co hai nghiem phan biet khac -2. Di~u nay xay

(x+2t

{~'>O {m2 >0

ra khi va chi khi: 2 <=:> <=:> m i- 0 (2).

4-8-m +4:;toO m2:;toO

Khi thoa man (2), (Cm) co cue tr] tai hai di~m A(-2-m; -2); B(-2 + m; 4m-2). Vi th~ OAB la tam giac vuong khi:

OA2 + OB~ = AB2 <=:> (2 + mi+ 4 + (m - 2i+ (4m - 2i= (2mi + (4m)2

<=:> m2 + 8m - 8= 0 <=:> m = -4 ± 2.J6 (3).

Ro rang (3) thoa man (2), nen la cac gia trj dn tim cua m. Thl l/(I 2: (Di thi tllyi" sinh D(li hoc kltti B - 2005)

, ,x2+(m+l)x+m+l '

GQi (Cm) la do thi ella ham so y = . 1 . Chung minh rang

x+

v&i m bfit ki, d6 thi (Cm) luon luon co di~m eire dai, eire ti~u va khoang each gifra

hai di~m do bang J20 .

2

T ' , x + 2x , 'b' b'~ h'~

a co y = 2 va co ang len t len sau:

(x + I)

y m - 3 ~ +00 +00

-00 -00 m+1

y' + 0 0 +

308

309

V~y voi moi m, (C,n) luon co CIJC dai A(-2;m - 3) va cue ti~u tai B(O; m + I). Ta co AB = ~22 + 42 = Eo => dpcm.

TIIf d!1 3: (DJ thi luyin sill" D!,i "!)e k,,/ii A - 2005)

G9i (Cm) Ia db thj ham s6 y = mx + _!_. Tim m d~ ham s6 co esc tri va khoang x

each tir di~m CI,J'C tieu cua (Cm) d~n tiern c~n xien cua (Cm) b~ng ~.

Ghli

')

T ' , 0 mx~ -I 0

a co y = <=> ') =.

x~

V~y (Cm) co cue tr] khi va chi khi phuong trinh mx2-1=0 co hai nghiem phan biet khac 0, nrc la khi va chi khi m>O.

Luc do ta co bang bien thien sau:

x 1

y'

o

1

rm

+00

+

o

o

+

-00 »>: ~-oo

+00 _____

_____ +00

Nhir th~ m>O, ham s6 co CIJC ti~u tai di~m A ( l; 2 rm ) .

D~ thc1y ~: y = mx <=> mx-y=O la tiem can xien cua (Cm). Tir do:

Ro rang m = 1 thoa man di~u kien m> 0 nen la gia trj can tim cua m. TIIf d!l4:

2

Cho ham s6 y = x 1 + mx (Cm). Tim m d~ ham s6 co CI,J'C dai, cue ti~u va -x

khoang each giua chung. bang 10.

Giai

23,

T . , -x + x + m LA I A h . hi d A h~ (C)' . a co y = 2' ap uan n ir cac t I \I tren ta t ay m co CI,J'C tr]

(1- x)

khi va chi khi m>-I (1).

Khi thoa man (1) thi (Cm) dat CI,J'C tri tai x., X2, (y day XI va X2 ta hai nghiern

cua phirong trinh: _x2 + 2x + m = 0 (2)

Ap dung cong thirc tinh gia trj CI,J'C dai va CI,J'C ti~u voi ham ph an tlurc, ta co:

Yr = y(xl) = 2xI + m; Y2 = y(X2) = 2X2 + m.

Taco:

AB= 10<=>(X2-Xli+(Y2-YI)2= 100

<=> (X2 - xli = 20 <=> (XI + Xl)2 - 4XIX2 = 20 (3).

Ap dung dinh Ii Viet ta co XI + X2 = 2; XIXl =-m

Thay vao (3) ta duoc 4m + 4 = 20 <=> 111 = 4 • (4).

R6 rang (4) thoa man (I), nen m = 4 la gia trj duy nhAt cAn tim cua m. Tlti (/l,l5:

~ x2+(m+l)x-m+1 .

Cho ham so y = (Cm) • Tim m de (Cm) co cucdai, CI!C

X-Ill

tiSu n~111 v~ cling m(>t phia cua true Ox.

Gia.i

, , x2-2mx-(m2+1)

Ta co: y = 2'

(X-I11)

Lam nhu cac thi du tren, suy ra (CIlJ co eire dai, CI!C tiSu voi moi m. Khi do (Cm) dat Cl)'C tri tai XI, X2, trong do XI, X2 la cac nghiem cua

X2 - 2mx - (m2 + I) = 0 (I)

CI!C dai, Cl)'C tiSu n~m v~ cling mot phia cua true Ox, n~u nlur:

Y(XI)' y(X2) > 0 <=> [Zx, + (m + 1 )][2X2 + (m + 1 )]>0

<=> 4XIX2 + 2(m + 1 )(XI + Xl) + (rn + 1 »0 (2).

Ap dung djnh Ii Viet, ta co XI + Xl = 2m; XIX2 = _m2_1.

[m>-3+2J3

Thay vao (2) va co m2 + 6m - 3 > 0 <=> .

111 < -3 - 2J3.

Nhdn xet:

I 1 N~u doi hoi eire dai, CI!C tiSu n~m v~ hai phia cua true tung thi di~u ki~n la XI < 0 < X2.

21 Trong cac thi du 3, 4, viec tinh gia trj eire dai CI!C tieu y(XI), y(X2) la kho

khan (khong nhu cac thi du I, 2) vi th~ ta ap dung cong tlurc

y(xo)= p(Xo) = p'(xo) "

-~~ da trinh bay a ph an mo dau,

Q(xo) Q'(xo)

TIIi {/l,l6:

, d~ d ' 2x2 - 3x + m (C)' d . . ~ .

Tim m e irong cong y = m co CI!C at, CI!C tieu tar x., X2 sao

X - 111

T ' , 2x2 -4mx+2m

a co y = 2

(x-m)

D~ thAy (Cm) co CI!C trj tai X., X2 khi m<O hoac m>1 (I).

Khi do (Cm) dat eire trj tai XIoX2, a day x., X2 la hai nghiem cua phuong trinh

x2-2mx+m = O. (2)

310

311

Taco: ly(xd-y(x2)1>16 ¢:> 14xl-3-4x2 +31>16 ¢:> Ixl-x21 >4

¢:> (x, - x2i > 16 ¢:> (x, + x2i - 4X)X2> 16 (3)

Ap dung djnh If Viet voi (2), ta co X)+X2 = 2m; X)X2 = m.

- J [m < 1-.J17

Thay vao (3) va co m - m --4>0 ¢:>

m > 1 +.J17.

Ro rang (4) thea man (I), nen la cac gia tr] dn tim cua m.

(4)

, , ..:t ., ~ , • ,. ,

§3. SAl TOAN VE SV TUONG GIAO eUA DO THI HAM PHAN THUe

Plurong phap giai nlur phuong phap da Slr dung trong ti~t §3 - bai giang 16. Xet cac thi du sau:

TIIf (il! 1 (Di thi luyi" sinh D{li lu}c khai A - 2004)

, _x2 +3x-3

Cho duong cong y = ( ) (em). Tim 111 dS duong th~ng y = m c~t (e)

2 x-I

tai hai diSm A, B sao cho AB = 1.

Giiii

Tnroc h~t tim di~u kien dS y = m va (C) c~t nhau tai hai diem phan biet. Di~u nay xay ra khi phirong trinh

_x2 +3x-3

---- = rn (1) co hai nghiem phan bi¢t::f= I. Ta thfiy 2(x-l)

{f( x) = x2 + (2111- 3) x + 3 - 2m = 0 (I)¢:> ,

x:;t:1.

V~y dS y = m va (em) dt nhau tai hai diSm ph an bier ta dn co

{~ = 4m2 - 4m - 3> 0 [111 > %

<=:> 4m2 - 4111 - 3> 0 ¢:>

f(l) = 1 :;t: 0 1

m<--.

, 2

Khi thea man (2), y = m va (em) dt nhau tai A, B co hoanh dQ tuong irng la x., X2, a day x., X2 la hai nghiem cua phirong trinh:

x2 + (2m - 3)x + 3 - 2m = O. (3)

Vi A, B n~m tren duong thang y = m, nen

AS= 1 ¢:> IX2-x,,=1 ¢:>(x2-x)i= 1¢:>(x)+x2i-4x)~2= 1

2 . 1±J5

co m -m-I =0 co rrr= --. (4)

2

(2)

D~ thfiy (4) thea man (2), nen la cac gia trj edn tim cua m.

mx2 + x + m = 0 x-I

co hai nghiem phan biet, Di~u nay xay ra khi va chi khi

~=1-4m2 >0

P=I >0

. I

¢::> -_ < m < O. 2

Chu y: Ta co bai toan hoan toan Wang tl)' (DJ thi D(li II(Je klliJi B-2009) 2

Tim m d~ duong thang y = -x + m va duong cong y = x - I ciit nhau tai hai x

di~m phan biet A, B sao cho AB = 4.

Giai hoan toan tuong ttr. Dap s6 m = ±2J6 .

Till til! 2: (DJ thi luyill sinh Dpi II(Je kllai A -2003)

CI d' mx 2 + X + m (C ) T' d ~ (C ) ~ h 'I . h . 10 irong cong y = 1m• lin me III cat true oan 1 tat ar

x-

di~m phan biet co hoanh dQ duong,

Ghii

(Cm) c~t true hoanh tai hai diem ph an biet co hoauh dQ dirong khi va chi khi phirong trinh:

S=2>0

III

2m+I#0

Chu y: Bai toan ttrong nr (Dd thl 11Iyi" sill" deli "(Ie kllai D - 2003) co dang sau.

T' d'd' I; 2 2 ~ d~ I' x2-2x+4 i hai

IInm e trong thang y.r= mx } - mcat o thj y > tat al

x-2

di~m ph an biet.

V6i loi giai hoan toan tuong ttr, ta co dap s6: m> I. T'" til! 3: (Dd thl 11Iyi" sink DCli "(Ie k"ai D - 2009)

2

T' d" d' I ; 2 ~ d ' x + x -1 (C) . h . rm m e uong t lang y = - x + III cat uong cong y = tai ai

x

diem phan biet A, B sao cho trung di~m cua AB nam tren true tung.

Ghii

Duong cong (Cm) va dirong thang dii cho cAt nhau tai hai di~m ph an bi~t A, B

2

d'~ k" ~ 'd·'I'1 'I '? x +x-I (I)

leu uen can va u a p urong trm 1 : -_x + III = ---

x

phai co hai.nghiem phan biet. Do khi x = 0, thi x2 + x + I :f. 0 nen

(I) ¢::> x(-2x + Ill) = x2+ x- I¢::> 3x2+ (I-m)x-I = 0 (2)

Vi ;- = ~I < 0, nen voi moi III thi (2) luon co hai nghiem phan biet, D~ trung diem I cua A, B n~1ll tren true tung dn co XI = O. Ta co:

xA+xB 0 Xt+x2 0 m-I I

XI = 0 ¢::> = ¢::> = ¢::> -- ¢::> m = .

226

312

313

Thl tI~/4:

Cl d' 2X2 - 3x C) 'd' f' d 2 T'

10 uong eong y = (va uong t lang In: y = mx - m. un m

x-2

d~ (C) va (dm) cat nhau tai hai diem phan biet thuoc hai nhanh khac nhau ella (C).

. Ghii,._

Ta nhdn thay x = 2 la tiem can dung ella (C) va (C) gam hai nhanh, rnoi nhanh

n~m v~ mot phia cua dirong thang x = 2. .

Vi thS (C) va (dm) dt nhau tai hai diem phan bi~t thuoc hai nhanh khac nhau cua (C) khi va chi khi plurong trinh

2x2-3x

---=2mx-m (I),

x-2

eo hai nghiern phan biet XI, X2 sao eho XI < 2 < X2

Vi X = 2 khong phai fa nghiern ella 2X2 - 3x, nen (I) <=> 2x2- 3x = (x - 2)(2mx - m)

<=> 2(m - l)x2 -+- (3 -- 5111)x + 2m = 0

(2)

Bai toan tro thanh: Tim rn d~ (2) eo hai nghiem XI, X2 sao cho xI<2<X2. Di~ll

nay xay ra khi va ehi khi:

{m-I:;tO {Ill:;tl

~ = 17m2 - 22m + 9> 0 <=> 17m2 - 22m + 9 > 0

(X2 -2)(xl-2)<0 x1x2 -2(xl +x2)+4<0

<=> {ml: 1 5m-3 <=> m > I.

-----+4<0

m-I m-I

V~y m > I la cac gin tr] dn tim ella tham s6 m. TIll t/(I J:

Tim m d~ eho duong thang dm: 2x + m dt db thi (C) y = -x + 3 + _l__J tai hai x-

di~m phan biet A, B sao eho AB eo de) dai nho nhk

Ghii

Ta eo: 2x + m = -x + 3 + _3_ (I) x-I

{X:;tl (2)

<=> )

3x-+(m-6)x-m=O. (3)

Do ~ = 1112 + 36 > 0 va VT (3) i- 0 khi X = I V m, nen voi I11Qi m, d., va (C) e~t nhau tai hai diem phan biet:

A(xI; 2xI + m) va B(X2; 2X2+ m).

Ta eo AB2 = (X2 - XI)2 + (2X2 - 2xI/ = 5[(xl + x2i - 4X,X2] = %(36 + m2) .(4) Tir (4) suy ra AB nho nhat khi m = O.

§4. BAI ToAN Tle:M C~N Val HAM PHAN THUC

Tfon~ rnuc nay cfrn luu y hai di~u sau d~y: _

II Neu ham phan tlurc khong co tham so thi viec xac dinh cac duong tiem c~n cua cac ham s6 nay la don gian, vi ta da biet f5 quy t~c each xac dinh cac duong tiem c~n cua no (xem sach giao khoa Giai tich 12),

21 N~u ham phan thirc co tham s6, thi du:

2x - 2 I mx2 + 2x -I

y=-- layy=----

x-m x-2

thi tnroc h~t phai xem cluing co thoa man di~u kien ttl' s6 va m~u s6- co phai la khong co nhan ttl' chung hay khong. R6i sau do moi xem d~n irng voi cac gia tr] do thi phan tlurc co dang gi, ttl' do xac djnh duong tiern c~n cua chung thea cac quy t~c diI hoc,

Thi {I/;II: (DJ thi Illyin sinh DlJi hoc kliai A - 2008)

I11X2 +(31112 -2)x-2

Cho duong cong y = ---'-----'---

x+3m

Tim m d~ goc gitra hai duong tiem c~n bang 45°,

Giiii

V'~ I '(C)d ri d 2 6m-2 let ~I U'O'J ~ng: y = mx - + ---

x i Jm

Tir (I) suy ra cfrn xet cac kha nang sau:

- N~u m = _!. khi do ttl' (I) co Y = _!.x-2

3 3

khong co tiern can.

21 m of _!. khi do ttl' (I) suy ra: 3

(I)

voi x of I, Truong hop nay (C)

+ (C) co tiem can dung x = -3m

+ (C) co ti~111 c~n xien y = mx-2 (khi 111 = 0, thi co tiern c~n ngang y = -2) Doan thang x = -3m vuong goc voi true hoanh, nen y = mx-2 tao voi ti~111

c~n dung mot goc 45° khi va chi khi no tao voi chi~u duong cua true hoanh mot

[ 0

'0 0 l11=tan45

goc bang 45 hoac 135 ,tu'c la khi 0 ~ m = ±I.

, m = tan 135

rut tift 2:

2

CI d' 2x - 3x + 111 (C ) T' , " , , (C) kl .

10 . uong cong y = Ill' lin cac tiem can cua on '11 m

x-m

thay d6i,

Ghli

2

V· ~ I '(C ) d ri d 2 2 3 2 m - 2 m let l.ll III UO'J \lng: y = x + m - + ----

x-m

Ta co 2m2 + 2m - 3 = ° ~ m = ° hoac m = I. Vi th~ tir (I) suy fa:

(I ),

314

315

II Neu m = 0, thi Y = 2x - 3 voi x#-o (Co) kh6ng co tiem can, 21 N~u m = I, thi Y =2x - I, voi x #- I {C I) kh6ng co tiem c~n.

31 N~u m #-0, rn #- I, thi (Cm) co tiern can dung x = m va tiern c~n xien y=2x+2m-3.

TM d{l3:

2

Cho y = 2x + mx - 2 (em). Tim m d~ tiern c~n xien cua (Cm) tao voi h~ true x-I

toa dQ mQt tam giac co dien tich bang 4.

Giiii

Taco:(em):y= 2x+m+2+~ (I). x-I .

V~y til" (I) suy ra (Cm) co tiem c~n xien y = 2x + m + 2 khi m #- 0. Tiem c~n

" ,~ ,. (-m - 2 ) , . , ~

xren nay cat true hoanh tai A 2 ;0 va true tung tai (0; m+2). VI the:

I I I-m - 21 [m = 2

SOAB = 4 <=> -OA.OB = 4 <=> - .1 m + 21= 4 <=>1 m + 21= 4 <=>

2 22m =-6.

Thl d{l4:

Ch d ' x2 +2x-2 (e) T' d'~ M (C) h kl '

o uong cong y = . irn rem E sao co' ioang

x-I

each nr M d~n giao di~m hai duong tiem can la nho nhat.

D~ thfiy x = I va y = x+ 3 tuong irng la tiem c~n dung va tiem c~n xien, do do 1(1 ;4) la giao diem cua hai duong tiem can.

Di~m M(X;X+3+-I-) E(C) nen

, x-I

MI= (X_I)2+(X_I+_I_)2 = x-I

Tir do ta co MI ?_ J2 + 2.Ji .

Vay MI nhan gia trj nho nhfit = ~2 + 2.Ji <=> 2t2 = ~ . t

<=> X-I=±Ji <=> x = I ± Ji.

2 2 I 2 " I

t + - + VOl t = x-

2 '

t

Vi th~ tren (C) eo hai diem dn tim voi hoanh dQ x = I ± ~ .

BAI T~P TVGIAI

Bit; I:

.,

Cho y = X~ + x + 2 (C). Tim M E(C) sao cho ti~p tuyen tai M vuong goc voi x-I

dirong thang qua M va Him d6i xung cua (C).

Dap s6: MI, M~ E (C) voi hoanh dQ tuong ung XI = I + ~ va X2 = I - ~ . BtU 2:

Cho dirong cong y = -4x + 3 (C) va diem A(O; I). Vi~t plurong trinh tiep 2x-1

tuyen voi (C), bi~t r~ng tiep tuyen di qua A.

Dap 056: y = - 2x + I va y = -I 8x + I.

.,

B") CI 2x~ -x+ I (C)

(II : 10 y = .

x-I

1/ Chung minh rang y = 7 la mQt tiep tuyen cua (C).

21 Ch(rn~ minh rang tren duong thang y= 7 co b6n di~111 sao cho tir m6i di~m tren do, co the ke d~n (C) hai ti~p tuyen If\p voi nhau goc 45°.

Bit; 4:

2

Cho X + x + m (em). Tim m d~ ham s6 co hai eire tri n~m v~ hai phia d6i x+ I

voi true Oy.

Dap s6: 111> I . BtU 5:

CI x2 + 2mx + 2 d')" khoa I' I .

10 Y = (CnJ Tim 111 e (C; co cue tr] va lOang cac 1 tu iat

x+ I

diem cue trj d~n duong thling x + y + 2 = 0 la bang nhau, I

Dap 86: 111 = - .

2

BtU 6:

" , , x2 + 4x + I

Tim m de duong thang (dm): y = mx + 2 - m cat do thi (C): y = ----

x+2

tai hai diem phan biet thuoc cling mot nhanh cua (C).

D'; 3, -J- I

ap so: m < - va m r .

2

BtU 7:

.,

CI 111 X ~ + 2mx - I (C ) T' d;: (C) ,'A A • A i khoa

10 Y = X _ 2 m z- 1111 111 e III co nem can xren va ioang

each ttl" A ( -4;~) d€n no la lon nhat.

Dap 86: m = ± I.

316

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