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Baigiang6 Mat Cau

Baigiang6 Mat Cau

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Bai giiing so 6

" ...

HINH I:AU

Bai giang nay d~ c~p d~n nhirng bai toan co ban thirong g~p cua hinh cAu trong hinh h9C khong gian, cling nhir trong hinh h9C giai tich khong gian. M~c du trong cac d~ thi toan vao cac tnrong Dai h9C, Cao d~ng trong nhirng nam 2002- 2009, cac bai toan hinh du eo m~t trong cac bai loan hinh cua d~ thi chiem mot ti I~ r~t khiem t6n khoang 10%; nhung cac nQi dung v~ hinh cAu (trong hinh h9C kha.ng gian va hinh h9C giai tich khong &ian) v~n co m~t trong chuon~ trinh thi tuyen sinh man Toan trong cac ky thi tuyen sinh vao Dai hoc va Cao dang do BQ Giao due va Dao tao quy djnh.

Blii giiillg el) hul plu111 - Hinh du trong hinh h9C khong gian.

- Hinh cAu trong hinh h9C giai tich khong gian.

§1. HiNH CAU TRONG HiNH HQC GIAI 'ricn KHONG GIAN

1. Cac ki~n thirc coo ban a. Phuong trinh l11(il ctiu

- Mat cAu tam tai di~m I(xo; Yo; zo) va ban kinh R la (x-xo)2+(y-Yoi+(z-zo)1 =R1.

- Phuong trinh ll1~t cAu t6ng quat co dang:

X2 + y2 + z~ + 2ax + 2by + 2cz + d = 0, vai a ~ + b2 + c~ - d > 0

Diroi dang nay thi tam m~t cAu la I (-a; -b; -c) va ban kinh cua no lit:

I' , ,

R = "a- + b" + c: - d .

b. Vi tri ttrang (tJi cuu l11(il cdu \'(1 111(11 phimg

Cho hinh du (S): {X_Xo)2 +{y_YO)2 +{z-zo)2 =R2 va mat phang (P):

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0

/Axo + By., + Cz., + D/

Khi do: h = / lit khoang each nr tam I cua (S) tci (P).

\j A2 + B2 + c2

- N~u h>R thi (S) va (P) khang c~t nhau.

- N~u h = R thi (S) va (P) ti~p xuc vai nhau.

- N~u h<R thi (S) va (P) dt nhau theo mot giao tuyen la mot dirong trim.

97

h> Hlob a

h=R

"lob b

Minh e

/6 tam K ella dirong tron giao tuyen chinh Iii hinh chieu vuong g6c cua tren (P), con ban kinh r cua hinh trim giao tuyen do xac dinh nhtr sau:

r=JR2 _h2•

:ac d,ng toan co ban

~i 1: Vi~t phuong trinh m~t du:

vi~t phuong trinh m~t cdu nguoi ta Slr dung hai phirong phap chinh sau:

Xac djnh tam I ella m~t cAu va ban kinh cua n6.

I Slr dung phirong trinh t6ng quat ella m~t duo

.ach II Slr dung khi vi~e xac djnh tam I va ban kinh R lil tuong d6i d~ dang I,l nhir trong cac bai toan: Vi~t plurong trinh m~t e~u ti~p xuc vo'i mQt m~t g nao (6).

Cach 21 Slr dung trong cac tnrong hop khi II kho Slr dung. D~ Slr dung duoc I nay ta dn thi~t I~p mQt h~ phuong trinh rna An s6 la cac tham s6 a, b, e, d tg phirong trlnh t6ng quat cua dirong tron dn tim.

T/Ii d(lJ: (Di thi tuyin s;,,11 D(li IIpc kll!Ji D - 2004)

Cho ba di~m A (2;0;1), B (1;0;0), C(1;1;1) va m~t phAng (D): x + y + z - 2"" 0. i~t phuong trinh m{it du di qua A, B, C va e6 tam thuoc (P).

Ghii

Giii Slr phuong trinh t6ng quat ella mi,it cAu qua A, B, C va c6 tam thuoc (P) la (S): x2+y2+z2+2ax+2by+2cz+d=0,v6i a2+b2+e2>d (I)

Khi do tam ella (S) III di~m I (-a; -b; -c).

Theo bai ra ta eo h~ plurong trinh sau d~ xac dinh a, b, c, d:

98

-a - b - c - 2 = 0 (2)

4 + I + 4a + 2c + d = 0 (3)

3 + 2a + 26 + 2c + d = 0 ( 4)

1+2a+d=0 (5)

Giai h~ (2) (3) (4) (5) va co a = -I; b = 0; c = -I; d =1. Thay vao (I) suy ra m~t cAu (S) co phuong trinh la

x2+y2+z2+1=0

~ (x - 1)2 + y2 + ( Z _ 1)2 = I .

V ~y (S) la mat du tam I( I ;0; 1) va ban kinh R= I. Chu y:

Xet bai toan nrong ttr sau:

L~p phuong trinh m~t cAu (S) co tam thuoc duong th~ng:

{X+Z-I =0 d:

y-2=0

va dt m~t phang (P): y-z=O thea thi~t di~n la duong trim IOn co ban kinh b~ng 4. Vi m~t eAu (S) cAt (P) thea thi~t dien la dirong trim IOn, nen tam I(Xo; Yo; Zo) cua (S) n~m tren (P) va ban kinh R cua (S) cling b~ng 4. Nlur v~y ta co M phtrong trinh:

{;:: ;o=~1 ~ {;: : ~1

Yo - Zo = 0 Zo = 2

V~y (S) co phuong trinh (x + 1)2 + (y - 2i + (z - 2)2 = 16. TIIi d(l2: (Di thi tuyin sinh DfJi II(Jc kllai D-2008)

Trong khong gian voi h~ true toa dQ Oxyz eho bAn di~m A(3;3;0), B(3;0;3), C(O;3;3), D(3;3;3). Vi~t phirong trinh m~t cAu di qua bAn di~m A, B, C, D.

Giiii GQi phirong trinh m~t du phai tim hi:

x 2 + y2 + Z2 + 2ax + 2by + 2ez + d = 0 (1).

Vi m~t du qua A, B, C, D nen ta co M phirong trinh sau:

IS + 6a + 6b + d = 0 (2)

IS + 6a + 6c + d = 0 (3)

IS+6b+6e+d=O (4)

27 + 6a + 6b + 6c + d = 0 (5)

Tit (2) (3) (4) suy ra a = b = c, v~y ta co h~ sau:

{IS+12a+d=0 ~{a=-%

27 + lSa + d = 0 d = 0

Thay vao (1) ta co:

x2 + y2 + z2 + 3x - 3y - 3z = 0 la phirong trinh m~t cAu cAn tim.

99

Thl c/I;I 3: (DJ thi luyJ" sinh D{,i hpc kllai B - 2005)

Trong khong gian cho hinh lang tru dung ABCD.AIBICIDI voi A(O; -3;0), B(4;0;O), C(0;3;O) va BI(4;0;4).

Vi~t phirong trinh m~t du co tam A va tiep xuc voi mat phang (BCC I B I).

Ghii

D~ th~y AI =(0; -3;4) va CI(0;3;4). M~t phang (BCCIBI) nhan Be = (-4;3;0)

va B-B~ = (0; 0; 4) lam cap vecto chi phirong. Do do vecto phap tuyen Ii cua no xac dinh nlur sau:

n = [Efc, 88;] = [I~ ~I ;I~ - oll~4 ~I) =( 12; 16;0)//(3;4;0).

R6 rang (BCCIBI) di qua diem (4;0;0) IH.!n l11~t phang nay co phirong trinh: 3(x-4)+4y=0 <=>3x+4y-12=O.

Vi hinh du tam A ti~p xuc voi (BCCIBI) nen khoang each tir A toi l11~t phang nay chinh la ban kinh R cua hinh du ta co:

_ ( )_13.0+4(-30-121_ 24

R -d A,(BCC1B1) - - .

5 5

V· ~ l (S) l • 'I . I '( 3)~ , 576

ay m~t cau can tim co p urong tnn 1: X- + Y - + z: = 25 .

TIIi c/(I 4: (Di thi (uyi" sinh Cao tld"g Kill" Ii Ki IlllIpl 1 - 2004)

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa doOxyz, cho b6n di~111 S(2;2;6), A(4;0;0), B(4;4;O), C(0;4;0.

1/ Chung minh rang S.ABCO la hinh chop nr giac d~u.

2/ Vi~t plurong trinh m~t cAu ngoai tiep hinh chop S.ABCO.

Giai

Ta co 01\ = (4;0;0);CB = (4;0;0), v~y

OA =CB.

Ta lai co: AoC = 90° ~ OABC la hinh chfr nhat. D~ thay OA = OC = 4 ~ OABC la hinh vuong,

Y Do S(2;2;6) nen hinh chieu cua S tren

(xOy) lit 1(0 ;0 ;6) lit giao cua OB va AC. Theo dinh nghla S. AOCB lit chop nr giac d~u ~ dpcm.

x 21 Tam K cua mat du ngoai tiep hinh chop

nr giac d~u phai nAm tren SI, do do: K = (2; 2; t).

2 J J J JJ 7

Ta co: KS = KO <=> KS = KO- <=> (t - 6t = 2- + 2- + r <=> t = -.

3

V~y m~it du ngoai ti~p hinh chop co phua~g trinh:

2 2 ( 7)~ 49 121

(x-2) +(y-2) + z-- =8+-=-.

3 9 9

z

s

100

D'I' - ~ " 'd'~ K(22 7) 'b' kinh R II

o a mat cau co tam tal rem ,. ;-- va an 'In = -.

. . 2 3

Chu v: C6 1M lam call 2 nhir sou:

Tiim' K phai tim la giao di~m cua SI va m~t phang trung tnrc cua SO.

SI co phuong trinh {~: ~ .

z = t .

SO = (2; 2; 6) . M~t phang trung tnrc cua SO nh~n SO la vecto phap tuy~? va di qua trung diem H = ( I; 1;3) cua SO, nen no co dang:

2(x-I)+2(y-I)+6(z-3)=0 ¢:> x+y+3z-11 =0.(1)

Ta co: K=(2; 2; f), va thay vao (I) ta co: 3t-7 = 0 ¢:> ~ =f.

V~y K = (2;3; }). Tir do thu lai k~t qua tren.

TIIi d(1 5

Trong khong gian vai h~ toa d(1 Oxyz cho m~t phang (P): 2x + y - Z + 5 = 0 va cac diem A(0;0;4) va B(2;0;0).

Vi~t phuong trinh m~t du di qua 0, A, B va tiep xuc voi (P) Giai

GQi M la trung diem cua AB thi M = ( I ;0;2). Hun I

cua m~t cau di qua 0, A. B n~m tren dirong thang vuong goc voi (xOy) tal M, do do I = (I; t; 2).

Vi m~t cAu ti~p xuc voi (P) nen: 10 = d(l. P)

~ 12+t-2+51

¢:>v)+t-= J6

¢:> 6(5 + t2) = (t + 5)2 ¢:> (t - 1)2 = 0 ¢:> t = 1. V~y I (1;1;2).

M~t cau cAn tim co plurong trinh: (x-li+(y-li+(z-2i=6.

TIIi {/(I 6

Vi~t plurong trinh m{lt cAu (S) co tam x

, . {x+y+Z+I=O

nam tren duong thang d :

x-y+z-I=O

va ti~p xuc voi hai m~t phang: (P): x + 2y + 2z + 3 = 0 va (0): x + 2y + 2z + 7 = o.

Giai

, ~

GQi I (x.,; Yo; 41) la tam hinh cau can tim. Khi do I E (d) nen ta co:

. {xu + Yo + zo+ 1= 0

Xo - Yo + Zo -I = 0

4 A

z

Tir do suy ra: Xo + yo = 0 ¢:> Zo = -Xo va Yo = -I. V~y I (xo; -I; -Xo).·

101

Do m~t cAu ti~p xuc voi (P) va (0), nen ta co:

R = dO, (P)) = d (I, (0»

Ixo -2-2xo +31 Ixo -2-2xo +71

~ .Jl + 4 + 4 = -=------:Jr=1 +=4=+=4=---'

[1- Xo = 5 - Xo

~ II-XoI = 15-XoI ~ ~ Xo = 3 .

1- Xo = Xo - 5

V~y I =(3; -I; -3) va luc do R =j.

Do do mat du (S) co plurongtrinh: (x - 3)2+ (y + 1)2 + (z + 3i = i. 9

TII'du 7:

Vi~t phuong trinh m~t cftu co tam tai di~m I (2;3; -I) va c~t dirong thang:

d : {5X - 4y + 3z + 20 = 0

3x-4y+z-8=0

tai hai di~m A, B sao cho AB=16.

Giai

Ke IH j_ AB thi HA=HB=8.

Duong th~ng d co vecto chi phuong la:

~ =(I~ ~I;I~ :I;I~ =;1)= (8;4;-8)11(2;1;-2)

Ngoai ra d di qua di~m M( II ;0; -25). Tir do:

IH = d(1 d) J[u, IM]I

, lui

Do 1M =(9; -3; -24), nen

[u, 1M] = (II - 21;1-2 2 1;12 11) = (-30;30;-15) . - 3 - 24 -24 9 9 - 3

J(-30)2 + 302 + (_15)2

V~yIH= =15.

3

Do do ban kinh R cua hinh du la: R = ~IH2 + HA 2 = J225 + 64 = 17 . V~y m~t du dn tim co phirong trinh la: (x-2i+(y-3i+(z+ 1)2=289. Chuy:

Ta co bai toan tuong tu: Cho di~m I( 1 ;2; -2), duong thang:

d : {2X - y - 5 = 0

y-z+3=0 ,

va m~t phang (P): 2x + 2y + Z + 5 = O.

Vi~t phirong trinh m~t du (S), tam I sao cho (P) c~t (S) theo dirong tron giao tuyen co chu vi b~ng 81t .

102

D~ thAy dirong tron giao tuyen co ban kinh r = S, nen ban kinh m~t cAu R = 5. L,?,i 2: Cac bai toan lien q_uan d~n ti~p dien cua ~~t du. , , De giai bai toan nay chi din hru y rang: M~t phang (P) tiep xuc voi hinh cau

(S) tam I, ban kinh R khi va chi khi:

d(l,(P» = R.

TI,1 d", 1: (Di thi ,a, nghifp THPT - 2005) •

Trong khong gian cho m~t cAli (S): x2 + l + Z2 - 2x + 2y + 4z - 3 = 0 va hai dirong thang:

{X+2Y-2=0, x-I Y z

dl : va d2 : -- = - = - .

x - 2z = 0 I I I

Vi6t phirong trinh ti~p dien voi m~t du (S), bi~t ding no song song voi d) va d2.

Giai

Vi~t lai (S) duoi dang:

(x - 1)2 + (y + Ii + (x + 2)2 = 9.

V~y (S) la hinh cAli tam I( I; --I; -2) va ban kinh R = 3.

d.co vecto chi phuong 1I1 =(1~_021;1~2 \I;I~ ~1)=(-4;2;-2)11(2;-1;1).

d2 co vecto chi phirong 1I2 = (-I; I; 1) .

V~y ti~p dien (P) nh~n ul va u: him c~p vecto chi phuong, nen (P) co vecto phap tuyen la;

- [-----] (1-1 1111 2112 -I I)

n= uI,1I2 = I 1;1 -1;-1 1=(-2;-3;1)1/(2;3;-1).

V~y (P) co dang: 2z+3y-z+O=0.

Vi (P) 1a ti~p dien voi (S), nen d(l,(P»=3

12 - 3 + 2 + 01 1 1 rr: [0 = 3M - I

<:::> tr: = 3 <:::> 0 + I = 3" 14 <:::> rr:

,,14 0 = -3,,14 - I.

. , [2X + 3y - z + 3M -1 = 0

V~y co hai tiep dien can tim: tr:

. 2x+3y-z-3,,14-1=0

Tlrl d", 2:

L~p phirong trinh m~t phang chua duong thang:

d : {Sx - Ily + Sz - 30 = 0 x - y - 2z = 0

va ti~p xuc voi m~t cAu (S): x2 + y2 + Z2 + 2x - 6y + 4z - IS = O.

Giai

Vi~t lai (S) diroi dang: (x + 1)2 + (y - 3i + (z + 2)2 = 29.

V~y (S) co tam tai 1(-1;3;2) va ban kinh R=J29 . Ti~p dien (P) chua d nen no thuoc "Chum m~t phang":

a(Sx-Ily+Sz-30)+(3(x-y-2z)=0 voia2+ 132 >0

103

~(8a+ l3)x+(-lla-l3)y+(8a-213)z-30a=O.(I) 00 (P) ti~p xuc voi (S) nen: d(I,(P)) = J29

~ 1-8a-p-33a-3p-16a+4P-30PI =m

I ., ., .,

'J(8a+pr +(lla-pt +(8a-2pr

~ 871 a 1= 29J249a1 + 6131 + 6a13 ~ 2a1 + 2a13 -13: = 0 <=> 2(; J - (; ) -I = 0 (vi n~u 13= 0 =:> a = 0, vo li)

~ [~ ~~~

+ N~u a = 1 thi chon a= 13 =1 va co (P): 3x-4y + 2z- 10 = o.

13

+ Neu ; = -~ thi chon a = I; 13= -2 va co (P): 2x - 3y + 4z - 10= O.

Lo,i 3: Cac bai toan v~ vi tri nrong d6i giira duong thang voi hinh cAli:

Thi d(1 1 (Bi II'; luyin sill" D{li h(Jc khJi D - 2008)

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa do Oxyz eho bon diem A(3;3;0), B(3;0;0),

C(O;3;3); 0(3;3;3).

II Vi~t phuong trinh m~t cAu di qua b6n dinh A, B, C, O. 21 Tim toa do tam duong tron ngoai ti~p tam giac ABC.

Giai II Xem thi du 2 loai I, § I.

P'h 'I ~ l (S) I' ( 3)2 ( 3)2 ( 3)2 27

iroug tnnn mat cau a: x - 2" + y - 2" + z - 2" = 4 .

D" I' hi I l ," • d'': 1 (3 3 3) . b' k' I R 3J3

ay a 1111 cau co tam tal rem -;-;- va an '1111 =-.

. 2 2 2 2

21 M~t cAli (S) dt m~t phang (ABC) thea giao tuyen la duong tron, Duong tron nay chinh la duong tron ngoai ti~p tam giac ABC. Tam H cua no chinh la hinh chieu cua 1 len (ABC). O~ thAy (ABC) qua A, B, C nen co phuong trinh:

x +y+ z-6 = O.

Duong thang IH nh~n vecto phap n =( I; I; I) cua (ABC) la vecto chi phuong nen co plurong trinh.

3

x = -+ t

2

3

y = -+ t

. 2

3

Z = -+ t.

2

Tir do suy ra H(2;2;2).

104

Nhdn xet

1/ Cach giai tren ehfnh lit each giai "truyen thong" d~ tim tam cua hinh tron giao tuyen do m~t cAli (S) dt boi m~t phang (P).

2/ Tuy nhien, voi thi du tren eo each giai r~t dQe dao sau day:

D~ th~y ABC la tam giac d~u canh bang 3, nen tam duong tron ngoai tiep H cua no ciing ehfnh la trong tam cua tam giac ABC vi th€:

H = (3 + 3 + 0.3 + 0 + 3. 0 + 3 + 3) = (2· 2· 2)

3 ' 3 '3 ".

TIll tlfl 2:

Trong kh6ng gian vo'i h~ true toa dQ Oxyz eho hai m~t cAu:

(S,): x' + i + Z2 - 2z = 0 va (S2) : Xl + y1 + Z1_ 4z = 0 II Chung minh (S,) va (S2) cAt nhau.

2/ GQi (S) la dirong tron giao tuyen cua (SI) va (S2), xac dinh tam va tim ban kinh cua (S).

Vi€t lai (S,) va (S2) diroi dang sau:

(S,): x2 + y2 + (z - Ii = I; (S2): x2 + (y - 2)2 + i = 4.

V~y (S,) la hinh cAli eo tam tai di~m 1,(0;0; I) va ban kinh R,=I,

(S2) la hinh cAu eo tam tai diem 12(0;2;0) va ban kinh R2=2.

Ta eollh = J5. Do do: R,- R2<I,h< R, + R2.

V~y (S,) va (S2) dt nhau theo giao tuyen la duong tron (C). 2/ Cac di~m M (x; y; z) E (C) thoa man h~ plurong trinh.

{x2 + / + z2 - 2z = 0

., 2 .,

x-+y +z--4z=O.

Tir do 2y - z = o.

Vay duong tron giao tuyen (C) n~m trong m~t phang (P): 2y-z=0.

Ta eo 1,12 .l (P) va giao di~m K ella 1,12 vai (P) ehinh la tam cua duong tron giao tuyen (C).

Vi iJ; = (0; 2; -I) nen 1,12 eo plurong trinh: {; : ~t z=I-t.

Do do K (0; 2t; I - t) E (P) nen ta eo plurong trinh sau d~ xac dinh t I

4t-1 + t = 0 <=> t = - .

5

V~y K = (o;~;~) hi tam cua (C). Ban kinh r ella (C) xae dinh nhu sau: r=JR~ -I,K~ .

Do R,=I, eon IJK2 =(~r +(~r = ~

lOS

T' d' 2J5

u 0 suy ra: r = -- .

5

Till d{l3:

Tim di~m A tren m~t eAu (S) x2 + l + Z2 - 2x + 2z - 2 = 0 sao cho khoang each tir A d~n m~t phang (P) : 2x-2y+z+6 la Ian nhAt, nho nhAt.

Giiii

Dua (S) v~ dang sau: (x - 1)2 + y2 + (z + 1)2 = 4.

V~y (S) la m~t cAu tam tai 1(1;0; -1) va ban kfnh R=2.

Duo-ng thAng (d) qua I nh~n vecto phap

tuyen Ii = (2; -2; 1) ella (P) la vecto ehi

{X = 1 +2t

phirong nen no eo dang: d: y = -2t Z= I - t

(d)

A

Tim giao di~m ella d vui m~t cAu (S) thong qua phuong trinh sau: {1+2t-1)2+{-2t)2+{I+t-1)2=4 <::>ge=4 <::>t= ±3.. 3

Kh' 2 " di A A (7 4 -1)

It =- ta eo glao lem = _.--._ .

3' 3' 3' 3

Kh' 2 " di A B ( 1 4 5 )

It =-_ ta eo glao lem = --'_'-- .

3' 3' 3' 3

d(A,(P»=.!2 vad{B,(P»)=.!_.

3 3

V~y A, B nrong irng la di~m tren mat cAu (S) xa va gAn (P) nhat, Lo,i 2: Vai bai toan v~ hlnh cAu eo tham s6.

Till d{lJ :

Cho ho (Sm) xac dinh nhu sau: (Sm): x2 + l + Z2 - 4mx - 2my - 6z + m2 + 4m = 0 II Tim m d~ (Sm) la phuong trinh ella rnct m~t eAu.

21 Chung minh cac tam 1m ella m~t cAu (Sm) luon nAm tren mor duong thang e6 dinh (voi cac gia tr] m tim duQ'C 6 eau 1).

Giiii

II (Sm): (x - 2m)2 + (y - 2)2 + (z _ 3)2 = 4m 2 - 4m + 9

Ta nhan thAy 4m2 - 4m + 9 >0 V m E IR (vi ~'= 4-36<0)

V~y vui moi gia tri ella m, thl (Sm) luon la phirong trinh ella mQt m~t cAu voi tam: Im(2m; m; 3)

. {X-2Y=0

21 GQi I(x; y; z) la tam ella (Sm), tir phAn II ta eo: (1)

z=3

Vb tam ella m~t eAu noi tren voi moi m luon nAm tren duong thAng e6 dinh

106

xac dinh boi (I ) Chu y:

Co bai toan nrong ttr sau:

Xet ho (Sa): x1 + y2 + Z2 - 2xsin a - 2ycosa - 3 = 0

Chung minh r~ng tam I, cua (Sa) (voi u bien thien sao cho (Sa) la m~t cAu)

luon nAm tren met dirong tron c6 dinh. •

Th~t v~y ta co: .(Sa): (x - sin a)1 + (y - cosa)2 + Z1 = 4.

Nhir v~y voi moi n, (Sa) luon la m~t cAu voi tam:

lu = (sino; cosu; 0)

Khi n thay d6i ) a luon n~m tren mtit phang z = o. Ngoai ra do x2 + l =I nen I a n~m tren duoug tron tam tai g6c toa de;, ban kinh l , dirong tron nay n~m tren mat phang z = O.

Till d(l2:

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa d(> Oxyz, cho duong thang:

d: {2X - 2y - z + 1= 0 x + 2y-2z -4 = 0 va m~t du (S)

x2+y2+z2+4x-6y+m=0 (d)

Tim m d~ d cfit (S) tai hai di~m M, N sao cho MN =8.

. 2 2 2

Taco (S): (x+2) +(y-3) +z =13-m (I)

Tir ( ) suy ra (S) la m~t cAu <=:> 13-m>0 <=:> m< 13 (2)

TacoIH=~(13-m)-16=.1-m-3 (3)

Lai co IH=d(I,(d». (4)

Duong thang (d) co vecto chi phirong :

~ = (1;2 - :I;I~ _ ~1;1~2 ~I) = (6;3;6).

V~y u = (6;3;6)// (2; 1 ;2).

_ , l[u,MIJI --

M~tkhaedethayM(O;I;-I) e d.rien d(I,(d»= I~I .vci MI=(-2;2;1).

TacO: [U.M'HI~ 211;1~ -~1;1:2 ~1)+3;-6;6)

Do vay d(I,(d»= .19+36+36 =3 (5) .14+1+4

Tir(3)(4)(5) suy ra: .1-m-3=3<=:>m=-12 (6)

Ro rang (6) thoa man (2) nen m= -12 la gia trj duy nhAt cAn tim cua tham s6 m.

107

... A ... '"

§2. HINH CAU TRONG HINH HOC KHONG GIAN

N~u nhir cac bai toan hinh cAu trong hinh hoc giai tieh khong gian thien v~ tinh toan, thi cac bai toan hinh cAu trong hinh hoc khong gian thuan tuy thien v~ cac tinh eh~t djnh tinh. D~ giai ducc cac bai toan trong rnuc 11<1Y doi hoi hoc sinh phai n~m vung va sir dung thanh thao cac kien tlnrc cua hinh hoc khong gian (d~e biet la cac ki~n thirc v~ quan h~ song song va quan h~ vuong goc).

Cdc dang hlii I{ip ell ban Lo:;ai 1: Cac bai toan v~ hinh cau:

Till t/IJ I: (DB thi luyi" sinh D!li II!)e kluji D - 2003)

Cho hai m~t phang (P) va (0) vuong goc voi nhau co gino tuyen la L\. Tren t1 I~y hai diem A va B eho AB =a. Trong m~t phang (P) lAy diem C, trong (0) I~y diem D sao eho AC BD cung vuong goc voi A. Gia Slr AC=BD=AB. Chung minh r~ng bon di~m A, B, C, D n~1l1 tren mot mat cau va tim ban kinh ella hinh cau ay.

Ghli

Q

P Do (P) ...L (0); (P) 11 (0) = A,

ma AC...LA ~AC ...L(O) ~ AC ...LAD. Tuong ttr ta co DB ...L DC.

Vi th~ goi I la trung diem cua CD, thi trong cac tam giac vuong CAD va CBD ta co:

~L.___.,.J IC = ID = IA;

IC = 10 = lB.

Suy ra: IA = IB = IC = 10, nrc la b6n diem A, B, C, D n~m tren mot m~t du Him I, ban

kinh R = _!_ CD (I)

2

Ta co: CD2 = CA 2 + AD2 = CA 2 + BA 2 + BD2 = 3a2.

Tir (1) va (2) suy ra: R = aJ) . 2

TIt! dlJ 2: (Di thi luyill sinl: 010 i!tillg Kj Ihu{jl Cong nghirp - 2006)

Trong m~t phang (P) eho hinh vuong ABCD. Tren dirong thang Ax vuong goc voi (P) I~y

c mot di~m S b~t ki. Dung m~t phang (0) qua A va vuong goc voi SC. M~t phang (0) cat SB, SC, SD I~n hrot tai B', C, D'. Chung minh r~ng cac di~m A, B, C, D, A', B', C', D' cling n~m tren mot mat cAu e6 dinh.

Giii

Vi (0) ...L SC ~ SC ...L AC' (1) Do SA ...L (P) ~ SA ...L CB.

108

Ta I~i co CB .1 AB (gia thiet) => CB .1 (SAB) => CB .1 AB'. Do(Q)..l SC, ~SC..l AB'.

Tir do AB' .1 (SBC) => AB' .1 SB (2)

Ly luan tuong nr co AD' ..L SD (3)

Tir (I) (2) (3) suy ra n~u ke AB', AC', AD' I~n hrot vuong goc voi SB, SC, SD thi mat phang (Q) chinh la m~t phang (AB'C'D').

Trong (ABCD) ta co:

ABC = Wo = 90° (4)

Theo tren AB' .1 B'C => ~ =900

(S)

Tuong nr lai co 0(: = AOoD = 90° (6)

Tir (4) (S) (6) suy ra: A, B, C. D, A', B', C', D' cung nam tren m~t du duong kinh AC => dpcrn.

TIIi t/(I 3:

Cho hinh du (S) tam 0 ban kinh R = Scm. Tam giac ABC vci ba canh BC= 13cm, CA = 14cm, AB = l Scm, trong do eli ba canh cung tiep xuc voi mat du. Tim khoang each tir tam 0 d~n m~t phang (ABC).

Gilii

Gia slr AB, BC, CA I~n hrot tiep xuc voi m~t du tai N, M, P. Nlur v~y ta co:

ON ..L AB, OM .1 BC,OP .1 CA.

Ke OH .1 (ABC). Theo dinh Ii ba duong

vuong goc ta co:

HM ..L BC, HN .1 AB, HP .1 CA.

Vi ON = OM = OP = R => HM= HN = HP. V ~y H la tam duong tron nQi tiep tam

giac ABC voi ban kinh r = HM.

B

Ap dung cong tlurc r = ~, a day S, p nrong irng la dien tich va rura chu vi cua p

tam giac ABC ta co:

p= 13+14+IS =21. 2

Theo cong tlnrc He-tong ta co: S = ~r-p-:-(p---a-:-)-:-(p-_-b-:-)-:-(p-_-c-:-) = .J21.8.7.6 = 84.

Tir do suy ra r = 4cm. Do v~y thea dinh li Pitago thi khoang each tir 0 toi

(ABC) la: OH = JS2 - 42 = 3cm .

TIIi d(14:

Cho hinh chop S.ABCD co day hi hinh vuong, va SB vuong goc voi (ABCD).

LAy di~m M tren SA (M·t S, M t A). Gia Slr (BCM) n SO = N. Chung minh rAng sau diem A, B, C, D, M, N khong cung nflm tren mQt m~t duo

Giai

Do BCIIAD => BCII (SAD) => (MBC) n (SAD) =MN, trong do N E SD va MNIIBC.

109

s

Do SB j_ (ABCD), AD j_ AB => SA j_ AD (djnh If ba duong vuong goc) => MNDA Iii hinh thang vuong tai A vii M.

Giil Slr 6 di~m !"-' B, C, D, M, N clm~ nAm tren mot m~t cau (S). Nhir v~y m~t cau (S) phai dt m~t phang (SAD) theo mot giao tuy~n Iii duong tron (C).

Vi A, D, M, N vira nAm tren (S), vira nAm tren (SAD) => A, D, M, N phai nAm tren (C). Noi khac di AMND Iii tu giac noi ti~p duong tron (C).

Iii hinh thang vuong thtrc S\1 (MN II AD vii

Do la di€u vo li vi AMND MN<AD).

V~y gia thi~t phan chirng la sai, nrc la 6 di~m A, B, C, D, M, N khong cung nAm tren mot m~t cAu => dpcm.

Thl d(l5:

Cho hinh chop nr giac d8u S.ABCD co canh ben va canh day d8u bang a. Co mot hinh cAu di qua A va ti~p xuc voi SB, SD tai cac trung di~m cua chung. Xac dinh tam 0 cua hinh cAu va tinh

C ban kinh cua hinh cAu §y theo a.

Giiii

Vi hinh du ti~p xuc voi SB tai trung diem cua SB nen tam 0 cua hinh du nAm tren trung di~m cua SB.

GQi M la trung di~m cua SB. Tir gia thiet suy ra SAB va SBC d€u Iii cac tam giac d€u canh a, nen AM .L SB, CM .L SB, v~y (MAC) chinh la m~t phang trung true cua SB. Do do 0 E (MAC). Tuong tu n~u goi N la trung diem cua SD thi 0 E (NAC).

Do do: 0 E (MAC) n (NAC) => 0 E AC.

s

Trong m~t phang (MAC) ve trung tnrc cua MA, dt AC tai 0 => OM = OA. D~ thAy ~MAO = ~NAO => OM = ON.

Tir do ta co 0 chinh Iii tam cua hinh cAu dn tim. GQi R la ban kinh cua hlnh cAu nay thi R = OA (1)

Ta co: OA = A~ = A!_ (2)

cos KAO cos MAH

a day K va H IAn hrot la trung di~m cua AM vii tam cua day ABCD.

1 aJi

. -2-2- aJi 3a.fi

Tu (1), (2) suy ra: R = ~.- = -- .

s-n 2 8

2

110

Lo,i 2: Hinh du nQi va ngoai ti~p hinh chop:

- Hinh du ngoai ti~p mQt hinh chop (hay hinh chop nQi ti~p trong hinh cAu) n~u dinh cua dinh hinh chop va cac dinh cua day nim tren m~t du.

- MQt hinh chop nQi ti~p mQt hinh du khi va chi khi day cua no la mot da giac

n('>i ti~p trong hinh tron. Khi do xac dinh tam hinh du ngoai ti~p ta lam nhir sau:

II Xac dinh tam I cua duong tron nQi ti~p day. 2/ Dung dirong thang ~ vuong goc voi day tai I

3/ Ve m~t phang trung true (P) cua mot canh b~n b~t ki, 4/ Giao diem 0 cua ~ voi (I» la tam hinh cau can tim.

(Chu y: trong 3/ m~t phang trung tnrc thay bAng duong trung tnrc n~u ~ qua dinh cua hinh chop; hoac 1ft co met canh ben song song voi ~. Khi ~y se ve trung true cua canh ben Ay trong m~t phang xac dinh boi no va ~).

- Hinh du nQi ti~p trong hinh chop, n~u no ti~p xuc vci tAt ca cac m~t ben va m~t day cua hinh chop.

TId dfll:

Cho hinh chop luc giac d~u S.ABCDEF canh day bfing a, goc cua m~t ben vft day 1ft u. Tim ban kinh hinh du ngoai ti~p va nQi ti~p hinh chop.

Ghli

GQi H 1ft tam cua day. Do S.ABCDEF 1ft chop d~u, nen rnoi di~m tren duong cao SH d~u each d~u cac dinh cua day; cling nhtr each d~u 6 m~t ben. Do do tam 0 ella hinh du ngoai ti~p va tam I hinh cdu nQi ti~p cua hinh chop d~u nim tren SH.

- Tam 0 se 1ft giao di8m ella dirong trung true cua canh SB voi SH. Ban kinh R cua hinh

cdu ngoai ti~p xac dinh nhir sau: B

SK

R=SO= _,

cosKSO

S 6.

s

B

B

a day K 1ft trung di8m cua SB. Ta co:

R- SB _~_ SB2

- 2cosBSH - 2 SH - 2SH .

SB

GQi M 1ft trung di8m cua AB, thi SMH = a.

s

c

s

E

III

, afj afj

Taco HM =--=>SH =--tana.

2 2

1

=> SB = ~SH2 + HB2 = 3a- tan2 a. + a2 = ~~4 + 3tan2 a. .

4 2

s •

a 2 ( 4 + 3 tan 2 a. ) a fj

V ~y R = a fj = -6- cot a. ( 4 + 3 tan 2 a. ) .

4. - ~-~- tan a.

2

Tam I cua hinh cAu nQi ti~p la giao di~m cua duong

ph an giac trong cua SMH voi SH.

, a. afj a.

Ta co: IH = MH tan - = -- tan- 222

V~y ban kinh r cua hinh du nQi ti~p xac dinh nhir sau:

afj a.

r= IH =--tan-.

2 2

Nhdn xet:

Thi du tren dii di~n ta plurong phap xac djnh tam, cling nhir tinh ban kinh cua cac hinh cAli ngoai ti~p va nQi ti~p mot hlnh chop d~u.

TII'd(l2:

Cho hinh chop S.ABC trong do day la tam giac vuong ABC dinh A. Gia sir SA vuong goc voi day. Bi~t AB = c, AC = b, SA = a.

- II Xac djnh tam I va tinh ban kinh Rella hinh cAu ngoai ti~p hinh chop S.ABC 21 GQi G la trong tam tam giac SBe. Chung minh A, G, I thang hang.

C:. Giai

GQi M la trung di~m cua Be. Do SAC = 90° nen ta co MA = MB = MC. Qua M dung duong thang fl vuong goc vci (ABC) (tire la fl II SA). Trong m~t phang ( 1t ) xac dinh boi SA va fl, ta dung duong trung true cua SA. Duo-ng nay dt fl tai I. Khi do :

I ehinh la Him hinh du ngoai ti~p hinh chop S.ABC.

a

B

Taco:

R=IA=~IM2+AM2 = __!_SA2+__!_BC2 =__!_~a2+b2+e2.

4 4 2

21 M~t phang (1t ): Al n SM =G. Theo dinh Ii Talet ta co SG = SA = 2 .

. SM 1M

Vb G la trong tam tam giac SBC. Noi khac di A, G, I thang hang => dpem.

112

TM tI(t3:

1/ Gi<i srr R la ban kinh hinh cAli noi ti~p hinh chop tam giac S.ABe.

Chung minh r = 3V ,6 day v va SIP tuong ung la th~ tich va dien tich toan SIP

phan cua hinh chop.

21 Ap dung giai bai toan sau: Cho hinh chop S. ABC trong do SA, SB, SC doi 1110t vuong goc voi nhau va SA = SB = SC = a. Tim ban kinh hinh cAu noi tiep.

Ghii

II G9i I la tam hinh cAli nQi tiep va r lit ban kinh cua no. Ta co:

VSAUC = VI.SMl + VI.SBC + VI.SAC + VI.ABC S

\

I ( ) \

=> V =:3r SSAB +SSBC + SSCA + SAue \

\

I 3V \

3" rSlp => r = S . \ ,

tp ~+-,

21 Ap dung: Vi SA, SB, SC doi mot vuong /,: ""'"

I "

-{---------::-::.. l'

I I I I ;

, ,. I . V I 3

goc VOl n tau nen = - a

6

2

T 'S S S ... I 2 3a

aco: SAB = sue = SCA =-"2a =2'

B

Do ABC la tam giac d~lI canh bang aJ2 nen:

..,

(aJ2r J3 F3a2

SABC = " =--.

4 2

D d' S _3a2+J3a2 = J3a2 (J3 + I)

o 0 tp - ')

-

2

Vi th~ ban kinh hinh cAu noi tiep r cua no hi:

3V 3a3 a(3-F3)

r - - - ----,- --,--

- SIp - J3a 2 ( J3 + I) 2

2.- ---------

2

A

Ttd d(t 4:

D

Cho ur dien ABCD co cac cap canh d6i bang nhau: AB = CD; AC = BD va AD = Be. Chung minh riing tam hinh cau ngoai ti~p va noi tiep cua tlr dien trung nhau.

G9i 0 lit tarn hinh cAli ngoai tiep hinh nr

B dien. Khi do ta co: OA = OB = OC = OD.

Tir 0 ke OA" OBI, OC" OD, IAn IU91 vuong goc cac l11~t (BCD), (ACD), (ABD) va (ABC).

Do OB = OC = OD=> A,B = A,C = A,D.

('

113

V~y AI hi tam duong tron ngoai ti~p tam giac BCD. Tuong tu B), CI, 01 IAn hrot la tam duong tron ngoai ti~p cac tam giac ACD, ABO va ABC.

Tir gia thi~t suy ra ~ABC = ~ BCD ~ cac ban kinh duong tron ngoai ti~p cua hai tam giac nay bang nhau ~ ADI = AIC ~ tam giac vuong ADIO = tam giac vuong CAIO ~ ODI=OAI. Tuong tir co OAI=OBI=OCI=OPI ~ 0 la tam hinh cAu nQi ti~p nr di~n ABCD ~ dpcm.

BAJ T Jp TV GJAJ

Biii 1:

Cho ABCD lit nr dien co cac c~p canh d6i vuong goc voi nhau. Chung minh rang trung diem cua cac canh va cac dirong vuong goc chung cua cac c~p cauh d6i dien n~m tren mot m~t cAu.

Btt; 2:

Cho tu dien ABCD co 4 chieu cao ke ttl' 4 dinh la h), h2, h, h.. Goi r la ban kinh hinh cAu n<)i ti~p nr dien. Chung minh:

1 1 1 1 1

-+-+-+-=-.

hI h2 h3 h4 r

Btt; 3:

Cho hinh chop S.ABCD day ABCD lit hinh vuong canh a. Hai m~t ben SAB va (SAD) cung vuong goc voi day, SA=a. Tim ban kinh hinh cAu nQi ti~p hinh chop

a(2-h)

Ddp s6: r = .

2

Btt; 4:

'Cha hinh chop ttl' giac d~u S,ABCD co tAt cit cac canh day va canh ben d~u bang a. Goi A', B', C', 0' IAn IUQ1lit trung diem cua cac canh SA, SB, SC, SO.

II Chung minh r~ng cac di~m A, B, C, 0, A', B', C', 0', cung thuoc m~t cAu (S) 21 Tim ban kinh m~t cAu (S).

rr:

D' : R avlO

apso: =--.

4

Bai 5:

Cho tu dien ABCD co AB = CD = c; AC = BD = b: AD = BC = a. Tim di~n tich m~t cAu ngoai ti~p nr dien.

Dap s6: S = ~(a2 + b2 + c2).

Bai 6:

Cho .hi~h hQP chlr nhat day la hinh vuong canh day b~ng 2r, chieu cao la 3,5r.

Hoi co the xep vao do 13 qua cau ban kinh r hay khong?

Dapsc5: Co.

114

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