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Provide Specialist Wine Service

Provide Specialist Wine Service

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LG - THHFAB0182A

PROVIDE SPECIALIST WINE SERVICE

LEARNER’S GUIDE
PROVIDE SPECIALIST WINE SERVICE

Published by

HEART TRUST/NATIONAL TRAINING AGENCY

Produced by

Learning Management Services Department Gordon Town Road Kingston 7 Jamaica W.I.

This material is protected by copyright. Copying this material or any part of it by any means, including digital or in any form is prohibited unless prior written permission is obtained from the HEART Trust/NTA

*** 2003***

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE Introduction.......................................................................................................................... Welcome ................................................................................................................... This Competency Unit.................................................................................................... Before You Start ............................................................................................................. Planning Your Learning Programme ............................................................................. Self-Assessment Checklist ............................................................................................. How To Use This Learner’s Guide ................................................................................ Using the Computer and Other Resources..................................................................... Method of Assessment.................................................................................................... Element 1: Advise customers on local and imported wines.............................................. Self-Assessment Checklist ........................................................................................... Element 2: Evaluate wines .................................................................................................... Self-Assessment Checklist ........................................................................................... Element 3: Develop wine lists .............................................................................................. Self-Assessment Checklist ........................................................................................... Element 4: Store and handle wines ..................................................................................... Self-Assessment Checklist ........................................................................................... Element 5: Update wine knowledge.................................................................................... Self-Assessment Checklist ........................................................................................... 1 1 1 2 2 2 5 6 6 7 14 15 19 20 25 26 30 31 34

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INTRODUCTION

Welcome Welcome to the Learner’s Guide for Unit of Competency “Provide Specialist Wine Service”. This is just one of a number of Learner’s Guides produced for the Commercial Food Preparation Skills stream of the Tourism and Hospitality Industry, and it is designed to guide you, the learner, through a series of learning processes and activities that will enable you to achieve the specified learning outcomes for the competency unit. The content of this guide was developed from the Competency Standard THHFAB0182A, which is one of the basic building blocks for the National Vocational Qualification of Jamaica (NVQ-J) certification within the industry. Please refer to your Learner’s Handbook for a thorough explanation of standards and competencies, and how these relate to the NVQ-J certification. You are also advised to consult the Competency Standard and Assessment Instrument for a better understanding of what is required to master the competency. This Competency Unit “Provide specialist wine service” addresses the knowledge and skills required for effectively providing specialist wine service. The competency unit is comprised of the following elements: Element 1: Element 2: Element 3: Element 4: Element 5: Advise customers on local and imported wines Evaluate wines Develop wine lists Store and handle wines Update wine knowledge

As you go through each element, you will find critical information relating to each one. You are advised to study them carefully so that you will be able to develop the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes for providing specialist wine service

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Before you start Before you start this Learner’s Guide, you need to: a. Obtain a Learner’s Logbook that will be used to record evidence of your new skills/competence. As you demonstrate your new skills, record your activities and have your learning facilitator sign off on them. This will allow you provide evidence of your competence when you are being assessed against the competency standard. b. Ensure that you have access to the facilities and equipment necessary for learning. c. Ensure that your learning resources are available. d. Know and observe the occupational health and safety standards/practices for the industry. For example, ensure that you are wearing suitable clothing, that tools and equipment are safe, and that the correct safety equipment is used. e. Plan your learning programme (see below) f. Understand how to use this Learner’s Guide (see below) Planning your learning programme The following self-assessment checklist will assist you in planning your learning programme as it will help you to think about the knowledge and skills needed to demonstrate competency in this unit. As you go through the checklist will be able to find out what elements you have already mastered which ones you will need to pay more attention to as you go through the learning process. To complete the checklists simply read the statements and tick the ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ box.

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Self-Assessment Checklist - Provide specialist wine service

Element 1 1. 2. 3. 4.

Advise customers on local and imported wines

Yes ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Yes ( ) ( ) ( ) Yes ( ) ( ) ( )

No ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) No ( ) ( ) ( ) No ( ) ( ) ( )

I can offer to customers assistance with making wine selections courteously I can offer specific advice on the compatibility of different wines for menu items I can provide correct and current information about different wine options I can discuss where appropriate, styles and production methods with customers in clear and simple language Evaluate wines

Element 2 1. 2. 3.

I can evaluate wines using accepted sensory evaluation techniques I can check products and brand preference with customers in a courteous manner I can recognize impaired wine quality promptly and appropriate action is taken Develop wine lists

Element 3 1. 2. 3.

I can hold discussions with appropriate kitchen staff to obtain information on menu items I can select wines and take account of compatibility with menu times I can balance wine lists to ensure an appropriate selection

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Element 32 4. 5.

Cont’d

Yes ( ) ( ) Yes ( ) ( ) ( ) Yes ( ) ( ) ( )

No ( ) ( ) No ( ) ( ) ( ) No ( ) ( ) ( )

I can develop wine lists to ensure required profit margin is obtained for the enterprise I can clear format and design wine list accurate and appropriate to enterprise needs Store and handle wines

Element 4 1. 2. 3.

I can store wines correctly at recommended temperatures and humidity I can control sediments in the storage and transportation of wines I can identify and correctly act upon wine quality issues Update wine knowledge

Element 5 1. 2. 3.

I can use informal and formal research to access current, accurate and relevant information about wines I can identify trends in customer needs base on direct contact and workplace experience I can identify general trends in the wine market and information is applied to the workplace

If you ticked all or most of the ‘Yes’ boxes then you might not need to go through the entire guide. Ask your learning facilitator to assist you in determining the most appropriate action you should take. If you ticked a few of the ‘Yes’ boxes or none at all then you should work through all of the guide, even though some of the material may be familiar to you. Plan your learning based on your answers. Be sure to involve your learning facilitator in the planning process.

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How to use this Learner’s Guide This Learner’s Guide is designed to assist you in working and learning at your own pace. We suggest that you: Go through the sections/elements as they are presented (starting at Section 1) • • Check your progress at each checkpoint to ensure that you have understood the material Observe the icons and special graphics used throughout this guide to remind you of what you have to do to enhance your learning. The icons and their meanings are as follows:

Complete Assessment Exercise

This exercise requires you to think about the knowledge and skills that you have or will develop in this competency unit.

Definition Box Words/phrases are defined or explained in this box. The words/phrases being explained are in bold print.

Checkpoint This denotes a brain teaser and is used to check your understanding of the materials presented. No answers are provided for the questions asked.

Activity This denotes something for you to do either alone or with the assistance of your learning facilitator.

Reference Points you to the reference materials and other support documents or resources used in compiling the unit content.

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• •

Ask your learning facilitator for help if you have any problems with the interpretation of the contents, the procedures, or the availability of resources Stop and complete each activity as you come to it. If the activity requires you to perform an actual task, be sure to tell your learning facilitator when you get to that activity so that he/she can make any arrangements Get your learning facilitator to sign and date the Learner Logbook when you have completed an activity Read the summary and complete the self-assessment checklist at the end of each section or element.

• •

When you have worked through all sections of the guide, complete the assessment exercise at the end of the document. When you can tick every ‘Yes’ box, you are ready for assessment and should ask your learning facilitator to assist you in making the arrangements to have your performance assessed. Using the Computer and Other Resources Where your activities refer you to the library, computer and Internet resources, ask your learning facilitator to assist you with locating these resources. If you are getting your training in an institution, there may be a library and computer laboratory. If this is not the case, visit the local library and find out what resources are available. If you are new to the computer and the Internet, someone should be able to show you how to use these resources. Please note that in many of your activities you have been referred to information on the Internet. This is because the Internet has a vast amount of information that can help you in acquiring the particular competencies. We would like to advise you, however, that we cannot guarantee that all the sites will be available when you need them. If this happens, ask your learning facilitator to assist you with locating other sites that have the information you require. Method of Assessment Competency will be assessed while you are actually performing the tasks related to this competency or a simulated situation that accurately relates to the work situation. You are advised to consult the associated competency standard and assessment instrument for further details relating to the assessment strategies. You may now start your learning. Have fun while you work!

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ELEMENT 1:

ADVISE CUSTOMERS ON LOCAL AND IMPORTED WINES

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to advise customers on local and imported wines. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you through the various activities. Upon completion you should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Courteously offer assistance to customers on making wine selections Offer specific advice on the compatibility of different wines with menu items Provide correct and current information about different wine options Discuss styles and production methods with customers in a clear and simple language

ASSISTING CUSTOMERS IN MAKING WINE SELECTION

Types of Wine

There are different types of wines offered in food service enterprises. These include: Table Wines – Three types of wine account for most wine sales in a restaurant or bar. These are red wine, white wine, and rosé. Collectively these are referred to as table wines, and their alcoholic content does not exceed 14 percent. Sparking Wine – Formed if carbon dioxide is prevented from escaping during production, this wine usually has bubbles. The most popular sparkling wine is champagne. Fortified Wines – These wines have alcohol added, when flavoring is added the wine is said to be aromatized.

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The wine list does not sell a great deal of wine by itself. In fact the wine list irritates a great number of customers. Customers may be worried about choosing the wrong wine, showing their ignorance, mispronouncing the name, or wasting their money on something they might not enjoy; therefore they may ask the server to assist in making a selection. The service staff must understand the needs of the client and suggest a wine fitting the occasion. The guest may be celebrating a special occasion or conducting business during the meal. While an anniversary or birthday dinner may warrant a bottle of champagne, a working lunch may be alcohol free. If the guest asks for a suggestion, the server may ask what style of wine the host enjoys, for example dry wines, semi dry, medium bodied Italian reds etc. Servers should be courteous when giving assistance to customers. Refer to: Katsigris Costas and Porter Mary, (1993). The Bar and Beverage Book, John Wiley and Sons. Kolpan Stephen, Smith Brian, Weiss Micheal, (1996). Exploring Wines, John Wiley and Sons Inc. Pre-requisite THHFAB0101A – Provide food and beverage service

• • •

Remember courtesy is essential

CHECKPOINT: • Explain the main difference between red, rosé, and white wines. • Explain why it is important for wine servers to have a thorough knowledge of wines • Why should wine servers offer assistance in a courteous manner without intimidating the guest?

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ACTIVITY: Assume you are working as a server in a restaurant. A guest asked for your assistance in selecting a wine, as he was celebrating an anniversary. Explain how you would assist this guest.

GIVING ADVICE ON THE COMPATIBILITY WITH MENU ITEMS

The server may give specific advice on the compatibility of different wines with menu items. When food and wine are served together the combination should taste better than either one alone. For e.g. white wine is usually compatible with fish and red wine with meat. The customer’s choice should take precedence. If more than one wine is to be served for the meal period, the general rule is white before red, light before heavy, and dry before sweet.

Refer to: Kolpan Stephen, Smith Brian, Weiss Micheal, (1996). Exploring Wines, John Wiley and Sons Inc. Will prove a wide volume of information on selecting compatible wines for menu items.

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CHECKPOINT: When serving more than one wine for a meal which should be served first? • Dry wines or sweet wines • Lower alcohol wine or higher alcohol wines • Still or sparkling wine • Older wines or younger wines • Light wines or full bodied wines Give reasons for each selection

ACTIVITY: You are a server in a restaurant, you have two guests at a table, one guest ordered steak while the other ordered fish. Both however, are uncertain as to which wines to order. Suggest to each guest a wine which is compatible with his meal. Give reasons for your selection. This assignment should be written and handed to your learning facilitator for assessment.

• •

You should ensure that information relayed is accurate Follow established procedures for serving wines

PROVIDE CORRECT AND CURRENT INFORMATION ON WINE OPTIONS

There is a wide variety of wines available around the world, and even in one geographic area. Wines are available in colours categorized as white, blush, (rosé), and red. Sparking wines have bubbles while still wines do not. Some wines are intended to be aged while others are best used within a few months after being bottled. Sommelier -this is a person who handles the ordering and serving of wines in a restaurant, usually having extensive wine knowledge.

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• • •

There are high alcohol wines and low alcohol wines, sweet wines and wines that are not sweet. Some wines have alcohol added; these are said to be fortified. Others have flavorings added and are said to be aromatized. There are many factors which influence the wine, and all wines have a vintage, that is the year in which the wine was harvested.

The server should therefore be equipped with the necessary information and should be able to give accurate and current information on different wines on the list.

• • •

Refer to: Kolpan Stephen, Smith Brian, Weiss Micheal, (1996). Exploring Wines, John Wiley and Sons Inc. Pre-requisites THHFAB0111A Provide table service of alcoholic beverages THHGCS0222A Promote products and services to customers (You can also source other reference material on your own).

Remember to; • Follow safe work practices • Ensure the information you give is accurate • Work in a hygienic manner

CHECKPOINT: • • Give two reasons why the server should have accurate and current information about different wines on the menu. What is a variety of wine?

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ACTIVITY: Assume you are a sommelier in a restaurant, which has Cabernet Sauvignon, Zinfandel and Chardonnay among the options on the wine list. Provide correct and current information on these options to a guest who knows very little about wines. You will then have a discussion with your learning facilitator and peers.

DISCUSSING STYLE AND PRODUCTION METHODS WITH CUSTOMERS

Must – this is juice from crushed grapes before fermentation. is discarded and must is fermented. • • • •

It might be necessary to discuss the production methods and style with the customer. For e.g., as soon as possible after picking the grapes are put through the steamer to extract their juices. The skin

Special yeast is added to must before fermentation begins Sometimes extra sugar is added (chaptalization) Wines are stored and racking takes place periodically The wine maker decides how long the wine will be aged. Some wines are served as soon as possible after bottling; others are further aged in the bottle.

Refer to: Kolpan Stephen, Smith Brian, Weiss Micheal, (1996). Exploring Wines, John Wiley and Sons Inc. (this reference outlines the procedures and styles of wine making).

CHECKPOINT: • • • What is a must? What is fermentation as it relates to wine making? What is chaptalization

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ACTIVITY: Assume you are a sommelier in a restaurant and a guest asks you about the style and production method of Chardonnay. Outline how you would address this query. Put suggestions in writing, to be assessed by your learning facilitator.

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READY TO TEST YOUR COMPETENCY? Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the components by doing the following Self-Assessment: Checklist 1 1. 2. 3. 4. I understand the importance of assisting customers in making wine selections in a courteous manner I can offer specific advice on the compatibility of different wines for the menu I can provide correct and current information about different wine options I can discuss styles and production methods in clear and Simple language where appropriate Yes ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Yes ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) No ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) No ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 1. 2. 3. 4. Assistance with making wine selections is courteously Offered to customers Specific advice is offered on the compatibility of different wines for menu items Correct and current information about different wine options is provided Styles and production methods are discussed with customers in clear and simple language

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ELEMENT 2:

EVALUATE WINES

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element, you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to evaluate wines. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you through the various activities. Upon completion you should be able to: 1. Evaluate wines using accepted sensory evaluation techniques 2. Use wine evaluation to enhance the quality of information provided to customers and inform wine selectors 3. Promptly recognize impaired wine quality and take appropriate action.

EVALUATING WINES

• • •

When evaluating wines, sensory evaluation techniques are used. Evaluating the wine begins with appraising its appearance. The wine should be clear and bright. The colour of the wine is appraised next; the colour should be inviting and true to its varietal, geographic or stylistic type. Tasting the wine is the final step in the sensory evaluation process. Sip the wine rolling it over your tongue. Hold the wine in your mouth for about ten seconds. Your taste buds are arranged so that you taste sweetness first, then sourness or acidity, then bitterness.

Refer to: Kolpan Stephen, Smith Brian, Weiss Micheal, (1996). Exploring Wines, John Wiley and Sons Inc.

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CHECKPOINT: • • • • • ‘Legs’ or ‘tears’ may be seen running down the side of the glass after the glass is swirled. What is meant by ‘legs’ or ‘tears’? Explain the difference between aroma and bouquet What does “body” mean as it relates to evaluating wines? “Closed” or “dumb” are two terms used by wine evaluators. What do they mean? Briefly explain the steps used in evaluating wines

ACTIVITY: Discuss with your learning facilitator and peers the process of evaluating wines. Following the discussion ask your trainer to demonstrate how sensory evaluation techniques are used when evaluating wines. Each person will be required to use sensory evaluation techniques to evaluate at least three different wines.

• • •

You should follow the learning facilitator’s instructions Work in a hygienic manner Follow safe work practices

USING WINE INFORMATION

After the wine has been evaluated the server is better able to give information to customers on wine selections. The server after evaluation is more informed about the wines and can confidently advise customers.

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CHECKPOINT: Explain how wine evaluations can be used to enhance the quality of information provided to customers and inform wine selectors.

RECOGNISING IMPAIRED WINE QUALITY

All wine servers should be able to recognize when the quality of the wine is less than desirable and take action. Evidence of impaired wine quality can be seen in one of the following factors: • • • • A wine that looks cloudy or hazy A wine having brown or amber colour A wine having off odours such as vinegar, sulfur, or an inappropriate smell of maderia or sherry in an ordinary table wine. Wines having an off taste

• •

Refer to: Katsigris Costas and Porter Mary, (1993). The Bar and Beverage Book, John Wiley and Sons. Kolpan Stephen, Smith Brian, Weiss Micheal, (1996). Exploring Wines, John Wiley and Sons Inc. (These books will give more information on recognizing impaired quality in wines).

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CHECKPOINT: • • What are some of the factors that may indicate that the quality of a wine is less than desirable? What corrective action would you suggest when dealing with wines with impaired quality?

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READY TO TEST YOUR COMPETENCY? Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the components by doing the following Self-Assessment: Checklist 1 1. 2. 3. I understand how to evaluate wines using accepted sensory evaluation techniques I can use wine evaluations to enhance the quality of information given to customers I understand how to recognize impaired wine quality and take appropriate action Yes ___ ___ ___ Yes ___ ___ ___ No ___ ___ ___ No ___ ___ ___

Checklist 2 1. 2. 3. Wines are evaluated using appropriate sensory evaluation techniques Wine evaluation is used to enhance the quality of information provided to customers Impaired wine quality is promptly recognized and appropriate action taken

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ELEMENT 3:

DEVELOP WINE LISTS

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to develop wine list. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you through the various activities. Upon completion you should be able to: 1. Hold discussion with appropriate kitchen staff to obtain information on menu items. 2. Select a wines to take account of compatibility with menu items 3. Balance wine list to ensure appropriate selection 4. Develop wine list to ensure required profit margin is obtained for the enterprise 5. Ensure that format and design of wine list are clear, accurate and appropriate to enterprise needs

HAVING DISCUSSION WITH APPROPIATE KITCHEN STAFF

It is important to have discussion with appropriate kitchen staff to obtain information on all menu items. Knowing what will be on the menu helps the sommelier and his staff to make a more informed decision as to which wines to include or not include on the wine list. While the menu is discussed with the kitchen staff and wines can be tasted with these menu items to see if they are compatible. Thus the wine server can make a more informed suggestion to guests.

Refer to: Pre-requisite THHFAB0082A, Maintain communication between kitchen and service areas

CHECKPOINT In your own words explain why discussions are held with appropriate kitchen staff to obtain information on menu items

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SELECTING WINES COMPATIBLE WITH MENU ITEMS

When selecting wines, compatibility with menu items is essential. The following points need to be considered: • • • • • • • Basic taste and sensation – four basic tastes being sweet, sour, bitter, and salt, and the sensation of hot and cold are important when considering what wine matches what foods. Food and wine matching is a learned response Texture – how the wine and food feel on their own and together in the mouth Cooking Methods- cooking method is of paramount importance when matching wines with foods Sauces and garnishing – wines can be matched with the sauces or garnishes in each dish Complementing and contrasting flavours – depending on the flavours and textures you wish to highlight you can choose complimentary or contrasting flavours of food and wines The dominant flavour – you need to determine what flavour dominates the dish, and this should be an important consideration when matching food and wines.

Refer to: Kolpan Stephen, Smith Brian, Weiss Micheal, (1996) Exploring Wines, John Wiley and Sons Inc. You should work in a hygienic manner

CHECKPOINT List five factors you would consider when matching foods and wines; explain each factor

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ACTIVITY: You were told by the chef in the kitchen he will be serving a London broiled lean cut of beef in its own juices, encrusted in peppercorns and served with soy ginger and creamy whipped potatoes. Working in groups of 4-6 select a wine compatible with this menu item giving reason for your selection. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you.

BALANCING WINE LIST

You should ensure the wine list is balanced. In trying to obtain a balance you should: • Avoid excessively long wine lists • Consider your clientele • Consider your food menu • Ensure price compatibility – meaning your wine prices should suit your menu prices • Ensure the list is consistently organized • Ensure that all items on the list are readily available

Refer to: Katsigris Costas and Porter Mary, (1993) The Bar and Beverage Book, John Wiley and Sons. Kolpan Stephen, Smith Brian, Weiss Micheal, (1996) Exploring Wines, John Wiley and Sons Inc. •

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ACTIVITY: Assume you went to a restaurant. When the wine list was presented you had the following observation:
• • •

There were two many wines to choose from The wine you ordered was not available You are required to advise or give recommendations to the proprietors as to how he can obtain a balanced wine list. Assist the proprietor in developing this wine list

DEVELOPING WINE LIST TO ENSURE A PROFIT MARGIN

When developing a wine list you should ensure that the required profit margin can be obtained. Prices should be set to guarantee this desired profit. It is important however not to set prices too high. The wine list is often an afterthought and wine prices remain unjustifiably high. Wine prices should be set at a point to ensure the required profit margin, while at the same time being within the reach of the customers.
FORMAT AND DESIGN OF WINE LIST

The format and design of the wine list should be clear, accurate and appropriate to the needs of the enterprise. The format selected will depend on the customer base, restaurant style and range of foods. The following information may be included on the wine list: • • • • • • • Headings – for e.g. grape type, regions, colours Bin numbers Wine name – for e.g. Chardonnay Special information and attribute of the wine – for e.g. barrel fermented Producer’s name – for e.g. Joseph Drouhin Vintage date or non vintage notation Region – for e.g. Russian or River Valley

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When organizing a wine list consistency and groupings are two important considerations.

Refer to: Kolpan Stephen, Smith Brian, Weiss Micheal, (1996). Exploring Wines, John Wiley and Sons Inc. (This reference will provide you with additional information on the format and design of a wine list). You should follow safe work practices

CHECKPOINT: • • • • What is a bin number and how is it used on wine lists? What does the term “vintage” mean? List two wines which are named based on the grapes they are made from? Why is consistency and grouping important when designing wine lists?

ACTIVITY: Discuss the format and design of a wine list with your learning facilitator and peers. Following the demonstration you will be required to work in groups of twos to prepare a wine list for a restaurant of your choice. This will be assessed by your learning facilitator.

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READY TO TEST YOUR COMPETENCY? Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the components by doing the following Self-Assessment: Checklist 1 1. I understand the importance of holding discussion with appropriate kitchen staff to obtain information on menu items I understand how to select wines to take account of compatibility with menu items I know the importance of balancing wine lists to ensure an appropriate selection I can develop wine lists to ensure required profit margin is obtained for the enterprise I understand how to design a wine list that is clear, accurate and appropriate to enterprise needs Yes No

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Yes ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) No ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2. 3. 4. 5.

Checklist 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Discussions are held with appropriate kitchen staff to obtain information on menu items Wines are selected taking into account compatibility with menu items Wine lists are balanced to ensure an appropriate selection Wine lists are developed to ensure the required profit margin Format and design of wine lists are clear, accurate and appropriate to enterprise needs

( ) ( )

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ELEMENT 4:

STORE AND HANDLE WINES

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to store and handle wines. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you through the various activities. Upon completion you should be able to: 1. Store wines at recommended temperatures and humidity 2. Control sediments in the storage and transportation of wines 3. Identify and act upon wine quality issues

STORING WINES

Wine is sensitive to change in temperature, humidity, light and vibration. If these conditions are taken to extremes these can ruin the wine. Temperature The best temperature considered for storing wines is 55◦F (13◦C). An area which heats up to about 75◦F (24◦C) in the day, and cools down to about 35◦F (2◦C) at night will not be an ideal temperature. It is preferable to have a constant temperature outside of extremes. Humidity The best humidity for storing bottles of wine is around 75 percent. Moulds are less likely to form under 80 percent. High humidity causes less evaporation. Wine bottles are stored close to 90 percent to avoid loss. Higher humidity however deteriorates labels.

CHECKPOINT: • • • • After storage wines may be described as “cooked” what does that mean? What is a hygrometer used to measure? What is the ideal temperature for storing wines? What is the ideal humidity for wines?

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ACTIVITY: Visit a wine cellar at a local restaurant or winery and observe how wines are stored. Make brief notes and make recommendations as to how wine storage can be improved.

ACTIVITY: Purchase a bottle of wine and after discussing proper storage with your learning facilitator, store wine taking into consideration humidity and temperature. You can monitor and keep this wine until the end of your course.

• •

You should follow correct storage procedures Be alert to spot accidents before they happen

CONTROLLING SEDIMENTS IN STORAGE AND IN TRANSPORTATION

Lees – sediments at the bottom of the cask of a newly fermented wine Racking – This is drawing wine off the lees in a fresh cask.

Wines are stored until residue settles out and wine stabilizes. The wine is periodically drawn off the residue (Lees), and stored in a fresh cask to further settle (racking).

Red wines that are five years old or more and rare old white wines may develop sediments in the bottle and may need to be decanted. Excessive vibration will disturb the sediments in a wine and possibly the wine itself. Wine bottles may be surrounded by plastic bubble wrap or some other protective material to protect them during storage and transportation.

Decant – Pouring wines from one bottle to another or carafe in such a way that sediments remain in the bottle.

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CHECKPOINT: • • What are lees? What is the likely result if wines are subject to excessive vibrations during storage and transportation?

ACTIVITY: Ask your learning facilitator to demonstrate to you the procedure for decanting a red wine. Working in groups you will be required to get a bottle of red wine with sediments and practice decanting this wine.

Remember to: • Keep work area clean and tidy • Follow safe work practices • Follow instructions

WINE QUALITY

Wine has to be assessed for quality; some wines are very good, others moderate, while others are less than desirable. The wine has to be assessed based on appearance, smell, and taste. Based on findings, decisions can be made as to whether or not to sell/serve a wine.

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• •

Refer to: Katsigris Costas and Porter Mary, (1993) The Bar and Beverage Book, John Wiley and Sons. Kolpan Stephen, Smith Brian, Weiss Micheal, (1996) Exploring Wines, John Wiley and Sons Inc. Heart Trust/NTA (1996) M5

CHECKPOINT: Why is it important to identify and correctly act upon wine quality issues?

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READY TO TEST YOUR COMPETENCY? Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the components by doing the following Self-Assessment: Checklist 1 1. 2. 3. I understand how to store wines correctly at correct temperatures and humidity I understand the importance of controlling sediments in the storage and transportation of wines I can identify and act upon wine quality issues Yes ( ) ( ) ( ) Yes ( ) ( ) ( ) No ( ) ( ) ( ) No ( ) ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 1. 2. 3. Wines are correctly stored at recommended temperatures and humidity Sediments are controlled in the storage and transportation of wines Wine quality issues are identified and correctly acted upon

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ELEMENT 5:

UPDATE WINE KNOWLEDGE

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to update wine knowledge. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you through the various activities. Upon completion you should be able to: 1. Use formal and informal research to access current accurate and relevant information about wines 2. Identify trends in customer needs based on direct contact and workplace experience. 3. Identify general trends in the wine market and apply the information to the workplace

DOING FORMAL AND INFORMAL RESEARCH

You may need to do research to access current, relevant and accurate information about wines. Research may be formal or informal. Research may include: • • • • • • Attending trade shows Attending wine- tasting Talking to product suppliers Reading wine reference books The internet Reading general and trade media

There are other ways of doing formal and informal research which you will find in your readings.

CHECKPOINT: • • Why is informal or formal research necessary when serving wines? List three ways in which formal or informal research can be done

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ACTIVITY: If there is a wine supplier in your area, invite this supplier to talk to you and your peers, and demonstrate how you describe wines in terms of colour, degree of sweetness, body, flavour, intensity etc. You should practise tasting wines based on the demonstration of the supplier. You should also have a group discussion.

ACTIVITY: Visit internet sites and find out current, accurate and relevant information about wines. This exercise can be done in groups of four; you can present your findings to your peers and learning facilitator.

IDENTIFY TRENDS IN CUSTOMER NEEDS

As a server you can identify customers’ needs based on direct and indirect contact with guests. Trends can be seen in the kinds of wine the guests order, and in their drinking patterns. To identify trends you can organize special wine tasting, inviting customers and issuing press releases, with food/wine pages or examine direct mail from selected lists. Based on the response of the customers to different wines, you can identify trends.

CHECKPOINT: Why is it necessary to identify trends in customers’ needs?

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ACTIVITY: Visit a local restaurant that serves wine as an important part of the dining experience. Interview the sommelier to find out how trends in customers’ needs are identified. Discuss your findings with your learning facilitator and peers.

IDENTIFY GENERAL TENDS

Each establishment serving wines has the responsibility of identifying general trends in the wine market and applying this information to the workplace environment. This will have the effect of increasing wine sales and enabling the organization to offer better service. CHECKPOINT: • • How can general trends in the wine market be identified? How can the identification and application of these trends to your workplace enhance wine service there?

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READY TO TEST YOUR COMPETENCY? Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the components by doing the following Self-Assessment: Checklist 1 1. I understand how to use informal and formal research to access current, accurate and relevant information about wines I can identify trends in customers’ needs based on direct contact and workplace experience I can identify general trends in the wine market and apply this information to the workplace Yes No

( ) ( ) ( ) Yes ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) No ( ) ( ) ( )

2. 3.

Checklist 2 1. 2. 3. Informal and formal research is used to access current, accurate and relevant information about wines Trends in customers’ needs are identified based on direct contact and workplace experience General trends in the wine market are identified and information is applied to the workplace

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