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การออกแบบและเทคโนโลยี

การออกแบบและเทคโนโลยี

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Published by: kruood on Jul 11, 2010
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lva·+J·.·na
»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
3
Australia , Canada Singapore , Newzealand
u·a·»·· »··+·v»·rv
,.na ,aaa, ...
«a.·v»a.·»·Jv¹na
u·a·»·· .na,aaa,
aaJ., ...
Craft and Design
»··»»»«uu«a.
·naìvìaa
Technology
(·naìvìaa)
Designand Technology
(»··»»»«uu«a.
·naìvìaa)
Thailand USA UK
International Technology
4
UNESCO
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 1 of 25
5
lvJ·.·na¹na
»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
6
»·uva»a»a··.»····av· 8 »a»a»
ua»aa·»··a»v·vvvv¡·v vnra»··r 2544
1. s·v·¹na
2. aaaa·aa·
3. .na·a·aa·
5. ava»v· «a.vaa»v·
6. aaJ.
8. s·v·a·+J·.·na
4. a+a» a·av·
«a..avr··»
7. »··+·v»·rv
«a.·naìvìaa
7
»a»a··.»····av· »··+·v»·rv«a.·naìvìaa
a··.n 1»··a··+r.a «a.a·»ua·.
a··.n 2»··»·rv
a··.n 3»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
a··.n 4·naìvìaaa··av·na
a··.n 5·naìvìaa·v»»··n·+·v«a.»·rv
a··.»····av· 5 a··. ¹a«»
8
»a»a··.»····av·.na·a·aa·«a.·naìvìaa
»»v».»··Jvua»aa·»··a»v·vvvv¡·v vnra»··r 2544 (1)
1. a+»r.a»u»·.u.v»··a··+r.a
2. r.a»ua+«.aa»»
3. a··«a.a»uav»+a··
4. «·+«a.»···aa»vn
5. va++·v
6. »·.u.v»···Ja av«Ja+v»+ìa»
7. a···a·aa·«a.».»·a
8. r··»r·av»+.na·a·aa·«a.·naìvìaa
9. ·naìvìaaa··av·na
»a»a··.»····av·»··+·vvv¡·v»·rv
1. »··+·v
- +·vu·v
- +·v·»va·
- +·vJ·.av¡
- +·vr·»»
- +·vr·+
2. »··»·rv
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 2 of 25
9
»a»a··.»····av·.na·a·aa·«a.·naìvìaa
»»v».»··Jvua»aa·»··a»v·vvvv¡·v vnra»··r 2544 (2)
1. a+»r.a»u»·.u.v»··a··+r.a
2. r.a»ua+«.aa»»
3. a··«a.a»uav»+a··
4. «·+«a.»···aa»vn
5. va++·v
6. »·.u.v»···Ja av«Ja+v»+ìa»
7. a···a·aa·«a.».»·a
8. r··»r·av»+.na·a·aa·«a.·naìvìaa
9. ·naìvìaaa··av·na
»a»a··.»····av·»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
1. »··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa·v»»··a··+r.a
2. »··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa·v»»··a »a··
3. »··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa·v»»··n·+·v«a.»·rv
10
»a»a··.»····av·.na·a·aa·
»»v».»··Jvua»aa·»··a»v·vvvv¡·v vnra»··r 2544 (3)
1. a+»r.a»u»·.u.v»··a··+r.a
2. r.a»ua+«.aa»»
3. a··«a.a»uav»+a··
4. «·+«a.»···aa»vn
5. va++·v
6. »·.u.v»···Ja av«Ja+v»+ìa»
7. a···a·aa·«a.».»·a
8. r··»r·av»+.na·a·aa·«a.·naìvìaa
»a»a··.»····av·»··+·v»·rv«a.·naìvìaa
1. »··a··+r.a«a.a·»ua·.
2. »··»·rv
3. ·naìvìaa
4. ·naìvìaaa··av·na
5. ·naìvìaa·v»»··n·+·v«a.»·rv
11
»a»a··.»····av·»··+·v»·rv«a.·naìvìaa
ua»aa·»··a»v·vvvv¡·v vnra»··r 2544
1. »··a··+r.a«a.a·»ua·.
2. »··»·rv
3. »··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
4. ·naìvìaaa··av·na
5. ·naìvìaa·v»»··n·+·v«a.»·rv
12
»a»a··.»····av· »··+·v»·rv«a.·naìvìaa
«u+·Jv 5 a··. 6 »·a·¡·v
a··.n 1»··a··+r.a «a.a·»ua·.
a··.n 2»··»·rv
a··.n 3»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
a··.n 4·naìvìaaa··av·na
a··.n 5·naìvìaa·v»»··n·+·v«a.»·rv
a··.»····av· 5 a··. ¹a«»
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 3 of 25
13
r.+rvn 1(J1-3) r.+rvn 2(J4-6) r.+rvn 4(»4-6) r.+rvn 3(»1-3)
ua»aa·»··a»v·vvvv¡·v 2544
»·a·¡·v»····av·
14
r.+rvn 1(J1-3) r.+rvn 2(J4-6) r.+rvn 4(»4-6) r.+rvn 3(»1-3)
ua»aa·»··a»v·vvvv¡·v 2544
»·a·¡·v»····av·
a.·»·v·l»··»+·naìvìaa + »»»··»a·»»·.u.v»···naìvìaa
»··«»J¸u·v»+ aa.n. ·.a.n 1
15
lvua»aa·»··a»v·vvvv¡·v
J·.·na¹na
·naìvìaa (Technology)
vnra»··r 2544
16
a··.n 3»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
«u+·Jva··.a»a 3 a.va»
1. r··»r·av»+·naìvìaa
2. »·.u.v»···naìvìaa
3. »··lr·naìvìaa
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 4 of 25
17
·Jva.·»··»a.»u·naìvìaa
lv··»+v»+ a.·»u»·a »··»»»«uu
a.·»a·a¸ ·.au a·v· ·a·
18
·Jvvva»v»··«»J¸u· u·»
av»+a.·»a»+»··v»+»vva J·.»»ua.a
·.u J¸u·u·»a.·»a»+»·· ·.u·.»v»»a
·a»».r»·· »»»«uu«a.J¸ua»·· naa»u
J·uJ·+«»¹v «a.J·.·»voa
19
·Jv»··v··naìvìaa»·lrìaaa·v+a+
J·.ìarv«a.oa»·.nu »··»·»aaana
ìaan».a»+·»»·a»»«a.lr J·.·»v¹a.·
a»a.·lru·»¹»
20
·Jva.·»··»a.»u·naìvìaa
lv··»+v»+ a.·»u»·a »··»»»«uu
a.·»a·a¸ ·.au a·v· ·a·
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 5 of 25
21
· J v»··v ·a.·»· n»v. «a.
n·va·»·»·a··+a +v»+·a· »+lru· »
. r »··ì aao ·v»·.u.v»·· · v »
«»J¸u· av»+a.·»a»+»·· u·»·v»
a.·»a·»··alv»··n·+·vv»+»vva
22
u»·aa+ »··a·aua.·»aau·»
»vav·»·· ·Jvvva»v·v»v·¹Ja
»··.·+«ov»··«»J¸u·u·»av»+
a.·»a»+»··
23
»··a·an»aa.·»aau·»»vav·»··
·v»»··a»a·· ìaalr»+aJ·.»»uvv¡·v
lu·Jv·Jr··»o·vn»v.»··.·as·v
«a.·Jn·+ 3 »a oa»oa·v»u
v»+»··»»»«uu·rv·av ·J··+ 2 »a
a.·»aaa··+a··a·v»lrlv»··»»»«uu
24
1. ·v»a.·»»a·»av»+»vva
2. a»·.au»·a·¡·va.·»·Jv»a
3. «»J¸u·»·»sar··»r·a
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 6 of 25
25
1. ·naìvìaa·.auvvu·v
u·»·.auvv¡·v (Low Technology)
2. ·naìvìaa·.au»a·+
(Intermediate Technology)
3. ·naìvìaa·.aua+
(High Technology)
26
1. ·naìvìaa·.auvvu·v
u·»·.auvv¡·v (Low Technology)
27
2. ·naìvìaa·.au»a·+
(Intermediate Technology)
28
3. ·naìvìaa·.aua+
(High Technology)
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 7 of 25
29 30
31 32
·Jvvva»v»··«»J¸u· u·»
av»+a.·»a»+»··v»+»vva J·.»»ua.a
»·uvaJ¸u·u·»a.·»a»+»·· ·.u·.»v»»a
·a»».r»·· »»»«uu«a.J¸ua»·· naa»u
J·uJ·+«»¹v «a.J·.·»voa
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 8 of 25
33
2. ·.u·.»v»»a·v»«a.+u·.r»··
5. naa»u
6. J·uJ·+«»¹v
3. ·a»».r»··«»J¸u·u·»av»+a.·»a»+»··
4. »»»«uu«a.J¸ua»··
7. J·.·»voa
1. »·uvaJ¸u·u·»a.·»a»+»··
«»J¸u·u·»av»+a.·»a»+»··
34
3. ·a»».r»··«»J¸u·u·»av»+a.·»a»+»··
1. »·uvaJ¸u·u·»a.·»a»+»··
2. ·.u·.»v»»a
4. »»»«uu«a.J¸ua»··
5. naa»u
6. J·uJ·+«»¹v
7. J·.·»voa
35
3. Selection of the best possible solution
1. Identification the problem , need or preference
2. Information gathering -to develop possible solutions
4. Design and Making
5. Testing to see if it works
6. Modification and improvement
7. Assessment
I I
D D
T T
A A
I I
S S
M M
36
I I D D T T A A I I S S M M
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 9 of 25
37
n«aa+lu·uv
»·.u.v»···naìvìaa
a.»a·+»»»··»
38
ava»
a+v»+l»aa.v»··av
r.+rv«·»,
39
1. »·uvaJ¸u·u·»a.·»a»+»··
40
2. ·.u·.»v»»a
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 10 of 25
41
3. ·a»».r»··«»J¸u·
42
4. »»»«uu«a.J¸ua»··
43
5. naa»u
44
6. J·uJ·+«»¹v
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 11 of 25
45
7. J·.·»voa
46
»··av»»oa¹» (a»)
a+nvu·uvlvr.a
J·.»·.vv»+v»··av
r.+rva+vv
47
1. »·uvaJ¸u·u·»a.·»a»+»··
48
2. ·.u·.»v»»a
·ua. : »·»»··a¸·aav·
·v· : »·»·r»··
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 12 of 25
49
3. ·a»».r»··«»J¸u·
aa»··a¸·aav·
50
4. »»»«uu«a.J¸ua»··
51
5. naa»u
52
6. J·uJ·+«»¹v
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 13 of 25
53
7. J·.·»voa
54
»·.u.v»···naìvìaa
(Technological Process)
·.uu·naìvìaa
(Technological System)
·Jva.vuv+v»+
55
Basic Technological System
Input Process Output
·.uu·naìvìaa
(Technological System)
a.J»v »·.u.v»·· oaavr
56
a.»a·+ Basic Technological System
Input
Output Process
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 14 of 25
57
·.uu·naìvìaa (Technological System)
1. a.J»v
(Input)
• J¸u·
• a.·»a»+»··
v»+»vva
3. oaavr
(Output)
• a+v»+
• ·a·»+lr
• .r»··
2. »·.u.v»···naìvìaa
(Technological Process)
5. J»»an·»»u·»vav.·+a»·naìvìaa (Consideration)
4. n·va·»·n·+·naìvìaa (Resource)
1. av 2. a··av·na 3. .aa 5. va++·v 6. nv 7. ·.a·
4. ·a·»+»»
/·a·»+»»·
58
4. n·va·»·n·+·naìvìaa (Resource)
7. ·.a· 6. nv 5. va++·v
4. ·a·»+»»
·a·»+»»·
3. .aa 2.a··av·na 1. av
59
4. n·va·»·n·+·naìvìaa (Resource)
1. av 2. a··av·na 3. .aa 5. va++·v 6. nv 7. ·.a·
4. ·a·»+»»
/·a·»+»»·
2. »·.u.v»···naìvìaa (Technological Process)
1. »·uvaJ¸u·
u·»a.·»a»+»··
2. ·.u·.»v»»a·v»«a.+u·
.r»··«»J¸u· u· »
av»+a.·»a»+»··
3. ·a»».r»··
«»J¸u· u·»
av»+a.·»a»+»··
5. naa»u 6. J·uJ·+«»¹v 7. J·.·»voa
4. »»»«uu
«a.
J¸ua»··
v·»·.u.v»···naìvìaa «a. n·va·»·
n·+·naìvìaa »·n··Jv»»»··»»····av·
60
»»»··»nlrlv»··»u·»a·
ì·+··av«»vv·
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 15 of 25
61
»a·vvv»+»··n·»»»··»lv»··»u·»a·
1. »··»»»«uu«a.a··+rv+·vs·alan·va·»·n»·»a
2. »··n·+·va·»»·.u.v»···naìvìaa
3. »··J·.·»vn Process »·»».· Product
4. »··»a»··n·va·»·n»·»a lu¹aoaavra+naa
62
.aa»J»·a :
»»»··» “u»a»a»·.a·v”
·.a·J¸ua+·v :
·+»v¹v :
«u+»a» »»»«uuìa·+a··+»·»»·.a·v
lua+naa«a.«v+«·+ a·»··aa +»a¹a
ìaa¹»a»«a.nva»«·+a»»·»·a·»+·J·o»
.aaJ·.a+a :
o·u»··»u·»«aa.»a»».»»a·.lv»··aa»»»«uu
«a.J·.av¡ìa·+a··+»·»a.·»aav»+a»·r»
lv»a» ìaa»»·.a·v 2 «ov ·nJ«a.»··¹»·
»·.a·v 2 «ov,·nJ 20 cm, »··¹»·
30 v·n
63
»»»··» “a+¹»a»”
1.ua»a»·«n 1 u»
2.a.a·aau»·.a·v 1 »a»+
3.»··¹»·
4.a»
5.a·+.+ 2 ·av
6.uv+a»nlrnaa»uìa·+a··+
50v·n
«aa.»a»»»»«uu«a.a··+ìa·+a··+na+naa»·».aa n»·uvalu
ìa·+a··+n ·a·»a»u·avv».a»+» a.·»«v+«·+ «a.a·»··a·»+·u
v·uv»uv+a»¹aìaa¹»u»+»
o·u»··»u·»«aa.»a»».·.a»a.·»aa «a.a··+rv+·v
a·»»·.u.v»···naìvìaa v·»»»uv··av»oa+·v
.aa»J»·a :
·.a·J¸ua+·v :
·+»v¹v :
.aaJ·.a+a :
64
»»»··»»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
..»:..+.+«»·«....»».a::a+..«+¹·¹+a ¹....a·a.·· ««.«.
»»»··» “u»a»a»·.a·v”
(.»·« 2)
n·va·»·»·»a»vn 1
………………………………………………………………………...........................................
n·va·»·»·»a»vn 2
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
.aa» J»·a
....a·A4 2 a+·
.«.»..«v!« a. 20 .+·. ....
....¹..
·.a·J¸ua+·v 30 ·«
·+»v¹v
a:..+.| +. 3-4+· »».a::a+.«..¹+..«..·....a·««.««a !·. +..
a·.a.. ..a+.¹.+. ¹aa·.!- «.»..«v.a-·.·.·.:¹..
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 16 of 25
65
«uuuvn»»·.u.v»···naìvìaa
1. »·uvaJ¸u·u·»a.·»a»+»··
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. ·.u·.»v»»a «a.+u·.r»··«»J¸u·
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....................................................................…
3. ·a »».r «»J¸u·
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. »»»«uu«a.J¸ua»··
5. naa»u
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. J·uJ·+«»¹v
7. J·.·»voa
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
66
·.»
6. »··n·+·v·Jvn»
5. a.·»aaa··+a··alv»··»»»«uu
4. »··v··av»oa+·v
3. »··lr»·.u.v»···naìvìaa
2. a.·»«v+«·+v»+ìa·+a··+
1. a.·»a+..........·+va·»a·
¹a ·a» (·»a+J·.·»v)
a.«vv
··a»··J·.·»v
«uuuvn»oa»··J·.·»v»»»··» “o+Irar”(a·u·ua· )
67
»»»··» “·a«v+«avav»”
1.ìa·+·a (¹»aa»aa·)
2.a»·aua·avv·a (10 uv.a)
3.a·+aa·va· (5 uv.a)
4.a·+.+ua·avv·a (10 uv.a)
5.·va· (10 uv.a)
6.uv.ava·aaa (10 uv.a)
7.a.uvu (10 uv.a)
8.aȓJ+ (10 uv.a)
9.«»vaaa»ìJ+ (10 uv.a)
10..aa»v , ·r v »··¹»·
11.naua»a»ìJ+ J·»»· »·.a·v
30v·n
«u+»a» »»»«uu«a.a··+·a«v+lu·aa»vn
¹J¹a¹»anaa »·».aa»J»·an»lu»a ·+»·»a
¹»lu·»v 180 uv.a
o·u»··»u·»«aa.»a» ».a··+rv+·va·»»·.u.v»··
·naìvìaa ìaau·a·»··a.·»·»v, «a.v·¹Ja »···vav
«ov»··»a»····av·
.aa»J»·a :
·.a·J¸ua+·v :
·+»v¹v :
.aaJ·.a+a :
68
·+.«..+ «a+·..·a....a·.
:+osg+v- aa:a+s:- Ivvaoaos-
a+s:- s.+sv :+osg+v- s.+sv
:ao+s.savs
na+øv.+s+au
a+eeu+as+a.s+
vv.ao+s.savs
a:vo+s+øo+s.savs
a+s:o+s.savs
s+au
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 17 of 25
69
«ov»··»a»····av·
»a»a··.· »··+·v»·rv· rv……………...
uv.a»····av·n ……….. r»uv.a…………..
«ov»··»a»····av·n ……..
·.a·………r.ì»+
1. »aJ·.a+a»····av·
2. a··.»····av·
3. »·.u.v»··»a»····av·
3.1 »·uvaJ¸u·u·»a.·»a»+»··
3.2 ·.u·.»v»»a·v»«a.+u·.r«»J¸u·
u·»av»+a.·»a»+»··
3.3 ·a»».r»··
70
«ov»··»a»····av· (a»)
3.4 »»»«uu«a.J¸ua»··
3.5 naa»u
3.6 J·uJ·+«»¹v
3.7 J·.·»voa
4. »··.a«a.J·.·»voa
4.1 J·.·avn».J·.·»v
4.2 ·a·»+»».a
4.3 a.»a·+·a·»+»».a
5. «ua+»····av·
6. uvn»oaua+a»v
(oa»··»a»····av· / J¸u· / v»·av»«v.)
71
a.»a·+«ov»··»a»····av·
»a»a··.»····av· ...·»-ua+..«+¹·¹+a
a··.n 3 ..»».a::a+..«+¹·¹+a
··a.r· ...·»-ua+..«+¹·¹+a
·.a· 2 r.ì»+
r.+rvn 3-4
72
1. »aJ·.a+a»····av·
1.2 a··+·a«v+»u·av»
ìaao·v»·.u.v»···naìvìaa¹a
1.1 »ru·a»··»a»··»un·va·»·n»·»a¹a
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 18 of 25
73
2. a··.»····av·
2.1 »··»a»··»un·va·»·n·+·naìvìaan»·»a
2.2 .r»··a··+·a«v+»u·av»
ìaao·v»·.u.v»···naìvìaa
74
3. »·.u.v»··»a»····av·
3.1 »·uvaJ¸u·u·»a.·»a»+»··
“ a»+»···a«v+n·aa»vn¹J¹a¹»anaa”
75
1) n·va·»·n¹a»»·»aa»+»a»··»a·+·Jv·.uu
3.2 ·.u·.»v»»a·v»«a.+u·.r»··
«»J¸u·u·»av»+a.·»a»+»··
2) va++·vnlr» 2 »a·+a» va++·va»»·»a»ìJ+ «a.
va++·vaauav»·»a·+.+
3) ìa·+a··+·aa»+»a» 4 a» ìaaa»a.·aaa·+.+
a·u·uvvnav·v»·v»«·+·aaan·v
76
10uv.a
10uv.a
10uv.a
10uv.a
10uv.a
10uv.a
5uv.a
¹»aauv.a
«»va»ìJ+
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·a»»lrva++·vaauav»·»a·+.+ ìaa
lra·+·av·aa.a»»v aa»u«»vv»+
·va·a»uv·
3.3 ·a»».r»··
78
3.4 »»»«uu«a.J¸ua»··
79
vva·+a.vnJa·aJa»a¹.»u·va·a»ua+«a.u»v·v»
a.a»va++·v J··»¸.··a¹J¹a¹»¹»a
3.5 naa»u
80
·Jaavnaaa·+¹Jnìa·+·a
«nvaan·va·a»uv·
3.6 J·uJ·+«»¹v
·a¹J¹a¹»a».··a»
3.7 J·.·»voa
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4. o+s.øaa:us:.:v:a
4.1 J·.·avn».J·.·»v
1. «uuJ·.·»v»··»a»··n·va·»·
4.2 ·a·»+»».a
2. vva»vv»+»·.u.v»···naìvìaanlr
lv»»»··»
1. »··»a»··»un·va·»·n»·»a
2. «uuJ·.·»v»·.u.v»···naìvìaa
82
a.»a·+«uuJ·.·»v·a»u·av»ìaa·v»v
a·r«»+ J·.·»v·a«v+»u·av»ìaava·a·»+u»·aPa+lvr»+lua·+»u·.auaas·v
s+ao+sus:.:v
·.auaas·v
a v»lr a.·J·uJ·+
1. a.·»aa··· »a··+a··a
2. »··lr.aan·u»·.a»
3. ·.a.n·+n. +¹a
4. »··lrva++·v
5. ·a·»nv·.a·
P
P
P
P
P
83
a.»a·+«uuJ·.·»v·a»u·av»ìaaa·
a·r«»+ J·.·»v·a»u·av»ìaava·a·»+u»·aPa+lvr»+lua·+»u·.auaas·v
r»-a»a
»··.·+«ov
«a.»»»«uu
»···a»»lr
.aa·u»·.a»
vva»v»··n·
·a»u·av»
a.·»aa
a··+a··a
a.·»a »a»+
v»+«uuuvn»
1 2 3
·.»
15
a.«vv
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
1............
2............
3.............
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
........
.......
.......
...........
............
............
·»a+ 1. u»·aa+ a.·J·uJ·+
2. u»·aa+ v»lr
3. u»·aa+ a
oJ·.·»v
.vn.......·a»v......v.a......
84
5. «ua+»····av·
5.1 a»/»J»·ana»+·a·a»
a·»··a»··lvlu+·v
5.2 «ua+··av·
1. »·»»»»··»ìa·+»·· SMaRT School
2. »·»»»»··»»··naa»+n·+.na·a·aa···»+
va++·v »···aa»vn «·+·aaan·v
3. »·»··a»··ìn·nav n.«r»J·Jav
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85
a.»a·+lu+·v (1)
o+oss:o+seeoauuaa:.naìvìaa o +oss: “sea·+aavavo”
·.··..-.·:··:.:·.···.··..:.·-.·..· ..·..··.··· ::.·.
.aøeuos:
1. .-.·.. (..--..-)
2. .·..·.·+·- (10 ·· .·)
3. ···-.·. (5 ·· .·)
4. ··.· ·.·+·- (10 ·· .·)
5. .·. (10 ·· .·)
6. ·.·-·.:.· (10 ·· .·)
7. ..··· (10 ·· .·)
8. .·.·· (10 ·· .·)
9. .···-.·.·· (10 ·· .·)
10..:-··¡ ..· ·...·. ·:·...·.·· ··· ·.:-~
..a+u¿uo 30 ··
.+evl·
.···..¡ .: 3-4 -· ···.··..::.·...+·\·.-.···.·.- loanaø.-·..\. .··.·
-·.:-···..· .\······.··· -·-.. \·.··180 ·· .·
86
a.»a·+lu+·v (2)
«uuuvn»»·.u.v»···naìvìaa
1. ..:v¡··.»+...»...
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
2. ..:...·».+ .u»a«..·.r..a.v¡··.»«·».+...»....
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
3. .+»..r..a.v¡· ·.»«·».+...»....
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
87
a.»a·+lu+·v (3)
4. »».a::a+.v¸:...
88
a.»a·+lu+·v (4)
5. «a«»:
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
6. v.:v..a.¹·
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
7. v....·++
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………
Technology Project (IPST)
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89
a.»a·+«uuuvn»
euos:n.aeoIs euos:n.aeoIs
...« .«·
10 9..···-.·.··
10 8..·.
10 7..·.··
10 6.·.·-·.:.·
10 5. ..···
10 4.··.·
5 3.··-
10 2. .·.·..
- 1 - 1. .-.·.. (..--..-)
s.:: aa+(vv.a) ++v.vsv :aa+(vv.a)
s+ao+s
.vn .....................øev..................u .................
a:+soIvoa:
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
·.a.n·+»··«v+a·+n 1....................
·.a.n·+»··«v+a·+n 2....................
90
a.»a·+«ov»··»a»····av· n·luv»··avavvu
.· lv»··a··+a+v»+·a·»+lr u·»v»+·av a·»»··aa
»a ·+·J vv va»v»·.u.v»·· «a.¹ao ·v»··»»»«uu
.·+«ov v»·· ava·»··a»au»·«»¹v» au»v· »+u· »
J·uJ·+rv+·vlua vv¹a»a·+·.a··. »»n+a+a·»··a
avvu.r»··«»J¸u·«a.vav·¹alvnaa
v»a+·»a
91 92
r.+rvn 1(J1-3)
r.+rvn 2(J4-6)
r.+rvn 4(»4-6)
r.+rvn 3(»1-3)
vva»v»····av·.r·»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
·v»u·a··. 2
·v»u·a··. 3
·v»u·a··. 4
·v»u·a··. 1
»··«»J¸u·v»+ aa.n. ·.a.n 2
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93
·v»u·a··.»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
n·va·»· (Resource)
av , a··av·na , .aa , ·a·»+»»·a·»+»»· , va++·v,n v ,·.a·
a.·»·»v,
»··»»»«uu (Design) , »·a»n·»v»a (Electronic)
ìa·+a··+ (Structure) , »a¹» (Mechanism)
·.uua.ua» (Control) ·a·
94
·v»u·a··.»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
95
·v»u·a··.»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
96
·v»u·a··.»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
Technology Project (IPST)
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97
·v»u·a··.»··»»»«uu«a.·naìvìaa
Technology Project (IPST)
Page 25 of 25

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